WorldWideScience

Sample records for range display units

  1. Tonopah Test Range EGS graphics tracking display system: HP370

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, R.H.; Bauhs, K.C.

    1994-08-01

    This report describes the HP370 component of the Enhanced Graphics System (EGS) used at Tonopah Test Range (TTR). Selected Radar data is fed into the computer systems and the resulting tracking symbols are displayed on high-resolution video monitors in real time. These tracking symbols overlay background maps and are used for monitoring/controlling various flight vehicles. This report discusses both the operational aspects and the internal configuration of the HP370 Workstation portion of the EGS system.

  2. Pilot-Configurable Information on a Display Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafaat, Syed Tahir (Inventor); Che, Tan Nhat (Inventor); Ametsitsi, Julian (Inventor); Bell, Charles Frederick (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    A small thin display unit that can be installed in the flight deck for displaying only flight crew-selected tactical information needed for the task at hand. The flight crew can select the tactical information to be displayed by means of any conventional user interface. Whenever the flight crew selects tactical information for processes the request, including periodically retrieving measured current values or computing current values for the requested tactical parameters and returning those current tactical parameter values to the display unit for display.

  3. Monocular display unit for 3D display with correct depth perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Kunio; Hosomi, Takashi

    2009-11-01

    A study of virtual-reality system has been popular and its technology has been applied to medical engineering, educational engineering, a CAD/CAM system and so on. The 3D imaging display system has two types in the presentation method; one is a 3-D display system using a special glasses and the other is the monitor system requiring no special glasses. A liquid crystal display (LCD) recently comes into common use. It is possible for this display unit to provide the same size of displaying area as the image screen on the panel. A display system requiring no special glasses is useful for a 3D TV monitor, but this system has demerit such that the size of a monitor restricts the visual field for displaying images. Thus the conventional display can show only one screen, but it is impossible to enlarge the size of a screen, for example twice. To enlarge the display area, the authors have developed an enlarging method of display area using a mirror. Our extension method enables the observers to show the virtual image plane and to enlarge a screen area twice. In the developed display unit, we made use of an image separating technique using polarized glasses, a parallax barrier or a lenticular lens screen for 3D imaging. The mirror can generate the virtual image plane and it enlarges a screen area twice. Meanwhile the 3D display system using special glasses can also display virtual images over a wide area. In this paper, we present a monocular 3D vision system with accommodation mechanism, which is useful function for perceiving depth.

  4. Eilat virus displays a narrow mosquito vector range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasar, Farooq; Haddow, Andrew D; Tesh, Robert B; Weaver, Scott C

    2014-12-17

    mosquito host. As a consequence, EILV displays a narrow vector range in mosquito species responsible for the maintenance of other alphaviruses in nature.

  5. Advanced Colorimetry of Display Systems: Tetra-Chroma3 Display Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kaiser

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available High-fidelity color image reproduction is one of the key issues invisual telecommunication systems, for electronic commerce,telemedicine, digital museum and so on. All colorimetric standards ofdisplay systems are up to the present day trichromatic. But, from theshape of a horseshoe-area of all existing colors in the CIE xychromaticity diagram it follows that with three real reproductivelights, the stated area in the CIE xy chromaticity diagram cannot beoverlaid. The expansion of the color gamut of a display device ispossible in a few ways. In this paper, the way of increasing the numberof primaries is studied. The fourth cyan primary is added to threeconventional ones to enlarge the color gamut of reproduction towardscyans and yellow-oranges. The original method of color management forthis new display unit is introduced. In addition, the color gamut ofthe designed additive-based display is successfully compared with thecolor gamut of a modern subtractive-based system. A display with morethan three primary colors is called a multiprimary color display. Thevery advantageous property of such display is the possibility todisplay metameric colors.

  6. Advanced Transport Operating System (ATOPS) control display unit software description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slominski, Christopher J.; Parks, Mark A.; Debure, Kelly R.; Heaphy, William J.

    1992-01-01

    The software created for the Control Display Units (CDUs), used for the Advanced Transport Operating Systems (ATOPS) project, on the Transport Systems Research Vehicle (TSRV) is described. Module descriptions are presented in a standardized format which contains module purpose, calling sequence, a detailed description, and global references. The global reference section includes subroutines, functions, and common variables referenced by a particular module. The CDUs, one for the pilot and one for the copilot, are used for flight management purposes. Operations performed with the CDU affects the aircraft's guidance, navigation, and display software.

  7. Light-weight monocular display unit for 3D display using polypyrrole film actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Kunio; Ohmori, Koji

    2010-10-01

    The human vision system has visual functions for viewing 3D images with a correct depth. These functions are called accommodation, vergence and binocular stereopsis. Most 3D display system utilizes binocular stereopsis. The authors have developed a monocular 3D vision system with accommodation mechanism, which is useful function for perceiving depth. This vision unit needs an image shift optics for generating monocular parallax images. But conventional image shift mechanism is heavy because of its linear actuator system. To improve this problem, we developed a light-weight 3D vision unit for presenting monocular stereoscopic images using a polypyrrole linear actuator.

  8. Displays

    OpenAIRE

    Schauer, A.

    1983-01-01

    A short review is given on new display technologies such as plasma, liquid crystals, light emitting diodes, electroluminescence and electrochromism. It is stated that thin or thick film or hybrid techniques are essential for all the different types of display. Comparing the performance data of displays the advantages, disadvantages, appropriate applications and future developments are described. Finally the display market and its growth are discussed briefly.

  9. Development of a helmet/helmet-display-unit alignment tool (HAT) for the Apache helmet and display unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, William; Statz, Jonathan; Estes, Victor; Booms, Shawn; Martin, John S.; Harding, Thomas

    2015-05-01

    Project Manager (PM) Apache Block III contacted the U.S. Army Aeromedical Research Laboratory (USAARL), Fort Rucker, Alabama, requesting assistance to evaluate and find solutions to a government-developed Helmet Display Unit (HDU) device called the Mock HDU for helmet alignment of the Apache Advanced Integrated Helmet (AAIH). The AAIH is a modified Head Gear Unit No. 56 for Personnel (HGU-56/P) to replace the current Integrated Helmet and Sighting System (IHADSS). The current flashlight-based HDU simulator for helmet/HDU alignment was no longer in production or available. Proper helmet/HDU alignment is critical to position the right eye in the small HDU eye box to obtain image alignment and full field of view (FOV). The initial approach of the PM to developing a helmet/HDU fitting device (Mock HDU) was to duplicate the optical characteristics of the current tactical HDU using less complex optics. However, the results produced questionable alignment, FOV, and distortion issues, with cost and development time overruns. After evaluating the Mock HDU, USAARL proposed a cost effective, less complex optical design called the Helmet/HDU Alignment Tool (HAT). This paper will show the development, components, and evaluations of the HAT compared to the current flashlight HDU simulator device. The laboratory evaluations included FOV measurements and alignment accuracies compared to tactical HDUs. The Apache helmet fitter technicians and Apache pilots compared the HAT to the current flashlight based HDU and ranked the HAT superior.

  10. Reef fish display station-keeping and ranging behaviour in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Findings for four important species (Polysteganus praeorbitalis, Chrysoblephus puniceus, Epinephelus andersoni and Epinephelus marginatus) are presented. Recapture rates ranged from 8% to 60% and time-at-liberty from 0 to 1 390 d. Individuals of all four species displayed highly localised station-keeping behaviour.

  11. Shapes displayed with durations in the microsecond range do not obey Bloch's law of temporal summation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Ernest; Ogden, R Todd

    2013-01-01

    Shape patterns were displayed with simultaneous brief flashes from a light-emitting diode array. Flash durations in the microsecond range and luminous intensities were adjusted to vary the degree of successful shape recognition. Four experiments were conducted to test whether Bloch's law would apply in this task. Bloch's law holds that for very brief flashes the perceptual threshold is determined by the total number of photons being delivered, i.e., there is reciprocity of intensity and duration. The present results did not find that effectiveness of flashes was based on the total quantity of photons, as predicted by Bloch's law. Additionally, the evidence points to a visual mechanism that has ultra-high temporal precision that either registers the rate of photon flux or the duration of flashes.

  12. Shapes Displayed with Durations in the Microsecond Range Do Not Obey Bloch's Law of Temporal Summation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernest Greene

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Shape patterns were displayed with simultaneous brief flashes from a light-emitting diode array. Flash durations in the microsecond range and luminous intensities were adjusted to vary the degree of successful shape recognition. Four experiments were conducted to test whether Bloch's law would apply in this task. Bloch's law holds that for very brief flashes the perceptual threshold is determined by the total number of photons being delivered, i.e., there is reciprocity of intensity and duration. The present results did not find that effectiveness of flashes was based on the total quantity of photons, as predicted by Bloch's law. Additionally, the evidence points to a visual mechanism that has ultra-high temporal precision that either registers the rate of photon flux or the duration of flashes.

  13. A manned maneuvering unit proximity operations planning and flight guidance display and control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershzohn, Gary R.; Sirko, Robert J.; Zimmerman, K.; Jones, A. D.

    1990-01-01

    This task concerns the design, development, testing, and evaluation of a new proximity operations planning and flight guidance display and control system for manned space operations. A forecast, derivative manned maneuvering unit (MMU) was identified as a candidate for the application of a color, highway-in-the-sky display format for the presentation of flight guidance information. A silicon graphics 4D/20-based simulation is being developed to design and test display formats and operations concepts. The simulation includes the following: (1) real-time color graphics generation to provide realistic, dynamic flight guidance displays and control characteristics; (2) real-time graphics generation of spacecraft trajectories; (3) MMU flight dynamics and control characteristics; (4) control algorithms for rotational and translational hand controllers; (5) orbital mechanics effects for rendezvous and chase spacecraft; (6) inclusion of appropriate navigation aids; and (7) measurement of subject performance. The flight planning system under development provides for: (1) selection of appropriate operational modes, including minimum cost, optimum cost, minimum time, and specified ETA; (2) automatic calculation of rendezvous trajectories, en route times, and fuel requirements; (3) and provisions for manual override. Man/machine function allocations in planning and en route flight segments are being evaluated. Planning and en route data are presented on one screen composed of two windows: (1) a map display presenting a view perpendicular to the orbital plane, depicting flight planning trajectory and time data attitude display presenting attitude and course data for use en route; and (2) an attitude display presenting local vertical-local horizontal attitude data superimposed on a highway-in-the-sky or flight channel representation of the flight planned course. Both display formats are presented while the MMU is en route. In addition to these displays, several original display

  14. Coherent backlight unit using holographic optical elements for full-color flat-panel holographic display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun Il; Choi, Chil-Sung; An, Jungkwuen; Song, Hoon; Kim, Yunhee; Kim, Young; Sung, Geeyoung; Seo, Wontaek; Seo, Juwon; Kim, Yun-Tae; Kim, Hojung; Kim, Yongkyu; Lee, Hong-Seok; Hwang, Sungwoo

    2017-03-01

    We propose the coherent backlight unit (BLU) using Holographic Optical Element (HOE) for full-color flat-panel holographic display. The HOE BLU consists of two reflective type HOEs that change the optical beam path and shape by diffraction. The diverging incident beam is transformed to the collimated beam which has a very small diffraction angle (7.5°) by HOE 1 (H1) in order to illuminate the whole display. This collimated beam is converged to a point at a distance from the glass substrate by HOE 2 (H2). As a result, the diverging incident beam is converted to a point light by H1 and H2. When the high resolution Spatial Light Modulator (SLM) displaying Computer Generated Hologram (CGH) is illuminated by HOE BLU, the hologram image is displayed at a view point near focal point. Practically, we fabricated the full color HOE BLU for 5.5" flat panel holographic display by using the proposed design. At least 5.5" size of HOE is required to illuminate the whole panel. For this reason, we recorded 150 mm x 90 mm size HOE on the 10 mm thickness glass substrate. This HOE BLU exhibits a total efficiency of 8.0% at Red (660 nm), 7.7% at Green (532 nm), 3.2% at Blue (460 nm) using optimized recording conditions for each wavelength. Finally, a bright full color hologram image was achieved.

  15. Hand-Held Units for Short-Range Wireless Biotelemetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Felix A.; Simons, Rainee N.

    2008-01-01

    Special-purpose hand-held radiotransceiver units have been proposed as means of short-range radio powering and interrogation of surgically implanted microelectromechanical sensors and actuators. These units are based partly on the same principles as those of the units described in "Printed Multi- Turn Loop Antennas for RF Biotelemetry" (LEW-17879-1), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 31, No. 6 (June 2007), page 48. Like the previously reported units, these units would make it unnecessary to have wire connections between the implanted devices and the external equipment used to activate and interrogate them. Like a unit of the previously reported type, a unit of the type now proposed would include a printed-circuit antenna on a dielectric substrate. The antenna circuitry would include integrated surface-mount inductors for impedance tuning. Circuits for processing the signals transmitted and received by the antenna would be included on the substrate. During operation, the unit would be positioned near (but not in electrical contact with) a human subject, in proximity to a microelectromechanical sensor or actuator that has been surgically implanted in the subject. It has been demonstrated that significant electromagnetic coupling with an implanted device could be established at a distance of as much as 4 in. (.10 cm). During operation in the interrogation mode, the antenna of the unit would receive a radio telemetry signal transmitted by the surgically implanted device. The antenna substrate would have dimensions of approximately 3.25 by 3.75 inches (approximately 8.3 by 9.5 cm). The substrate would have a thickness of the order of 30 mils (of the order of a somewhat less than a millimeter). The substrate would be made of low-radiofrequency- loss dielectric material that could be, for example, fused quartz, alumina, or any of a number of commercially available radio-frequency dielectric composite materials. The antenna conductors would typically be made of copper or a

  16. Monocular 3D display unit using soft actuator for parallax image shift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Kunio; Kodama, Yuuki

    2010-11-01

    The human vision system has visual functions for viewing 3D images with a correct depth. These functions are called accommodation, vergence and binocular stereopsis. Most 3D display system utilizes binocular stereopsis. The authors have developed a monocular 3D vision system with accommodation mechanism, which is useful function for perceiving depth. This vision unit needs an image shift optics for generating monocular parallax images. But conventional image shift mechanism is heavy because of its linear actuator system. To improve this problem, we developed a light-weight 3D vision unit for presenting monocular stereoscopic images using a soft linear actuator made of a polypyrrole film.

  17. Model Identification for Control of Display Units in Supermarket Refrigeration Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    O'Connell, Niamh; Madsen, Henrik; Andersen, Philip Hvidthøft Delff

    In this paper we propose a method for identifying and validating a model of the heat dynamics of a supermarket refrigeration display case for the purpose of advanced control. The model is established to facilitate the development of novel model-based control techniques for individual display units...... in a supermarket refrigeration system. The grey-box modelling approach is adopted, using stochastic differential equations to define the dynamics of the model, combining prior knowledge of the physical system with data-driven modelling. Model identification is performed using the forward selection method......, and the performance of candidate models is evaluated through cross-validation.The model developed in this work uses operational data from a small Danish supermarket. A three-state model is determined to be most appropriate for describing the dynamics of this system. Advanced local control employing the identified...

  18. A Helmet Mounted Display Application For The Space Station Freedom Extravehicular Mobility Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tritsch, Constance L.

    1989-09-01

    The routine extravehicular activity (EVA) performed from the U.S. Space Station Freedom will require the astronaut to access large amounts of information during the EVA, especially for intensive EVA scenarios such as satellite servicing and emergency or contingent operations. As a result, NASA is presently designing a helmet mounted display (HMD) into the Freedom Station extravehicular mobility unit (EMU) to aid the EVA astronaut. The HMD allows the astronaut to view a virtual image behind a transparent combiner located conveniently above his or her primary field of view (FOV). This HMD system can be voice-driven for "hands-free" operation. NASA is currently exploring four HMD approaches. Two designs utilize cathode ray tubes (CRT's), while the other two use backlit liquid crystal displays (LCD's). Furthermore, two of these designs use purely conventional optics, while the other two employ conventional and holographic optics. A discussion of these designs and some key design issues, such as image source, FOV, exit pupil versus non-pupil-forming systems, monocular versus binocular and biocular viewing, degree of image overlap, and the use of holographic optical elements (HOE's), will be provided in this paper.

  19. Wide Output Range Power Processing Unit for Electric Propulsion Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Hall thrusters can be operated over a wide range of specific impulse while maintaining high efficiency. However S/C power system constraints on electric propulsion...

  20. Wide Output Range Power Processing Unit for Electric Propulsion Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A power supply concept capable of operation over 25:1 and 64:1 impedance ranges at full power has been successfully demonstrated in our Phase I effort at...

  1. A range-rate extraction unit for determining Doppler effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    1970-01-01

    Active ranging technique devised for VHF or S-band radar systems divides target Doppler frequency by counter-generated number that is proportional to transmitting frequency, thus producing target velocity data in terms of speed and distance relative to target transponder.

  2. Hydrothermal heat discharge in the Cascade Range, northwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingebritsen, S.E.; Mariner, R.H.

    2010-01-01

    Hydrothermal heat discharge in the Cascade Range includes the heat discharged by thermal springs, by "slightly thermal" springs that are only a few degrees warmer than ambient temperature, and by fumaroles. Thermal-spring heat discharge is calculated on the basis of chloride-flux measurements and geothermometer temperatures and totals ~ 240 MW in the U.S. part of the Cascade Range, excluding the transient post-1980 discharge at Mount St. Helens (~80 MW as of 2004-5). Heat discharge from "slightly thermal" springs is based on the degree of geothermal warming (after correction for gravitational potential energy effects) and totals ~. 660. MW. Fumarolic heat discharge is calculated by a variety of indirect and direct methods and totals ~160 MW, excluding the transient mid-1970s discharge at Mount Baker (~80 MW) and transient post-1980 discharge at Mount St. Helens (>. 230. MW as of 2005). Other than the pronounced transients at Mount St. Helens and Mount Baker, hydrothermal heat discharge in the Cascade Range appears to be fairly steady over a ~25-year period of measurement. Of the total of ~. 1050. MW of "steady" hydrothermal heat discharge identified in the U.S. part of the Cascade Range, less than 50. MW occurs north of latitude 45??15' N (~0.1 MW per km arc length from 45??15' to 49??N). Much greater rates of hydrothermal heat discharge south of 45??15'N (~1.7 MW per km arc length from 40?? to 45??15'N) may reflect the influence of Basin and Range-style extensional tectonics (faulting) that impinges on the Cascades as far north as Mount Jefferson but is not evident farther north. ?? 2010.

  3. Cross-Modal Brain Plasticity in Congenital Blindness: Lessons from the Tongue Display Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ron Kupers

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The tongue display unit (TDU is a sensory substitution device that translates visual information into electrotactile stimulation that is applied to the tongue. Blind subjects can learn to use the TDU in various visual tasks, including orientation, motion and shape identification, and spatial navigation. We used the TDU in conjunction with brain imaging techniques in order to study the cerebral correlates of cross-modal brain plasticity. The results show that when blind subjects use the TDU to perform visual tasks that are known to activate the dorsal and ventral visual streams in the sighted, they activate the same brain areas. This suggests that motion and shape processing are organized in a supramodal manner in the human brain and that vision is not necessary for the development of the functional architecture in motion and shape processing areas. We also used the TDU in spatial navigation tasks. The results showed that blind but not blindfolded sighted subjects activated their visual cortex and right parahippocampus during navigation, suggesting that in the absence of vision, cross-modal plasticity permits the recruitment of the same cortical network used for spatial navigation tasks in sighted subjects.

  4. Abstract of Dynamic Range: When Game Design and Narratives Unite

    OpenAIRE

    Arsenault, Dominic

    2005-01-01

    This paper proposes a tool and methodology for measuring the degree of freedom given to a player in any resource-driven game (that is, any game in which managing resources is an integral part of the gameplay). This concept, which I call the Dynamic Range, can be used namely to evaluate a given game system’s potential for developing emergent narratives, as defined by Henry Jenkins in his publication Game Design as Narrative Architecture. While Jenkins places at the heart of the creation of nar...

  5. Visual displays that directly interface and provide read-outs of molecular states via molecular graphics processing units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poje, Julia E; Kastratovic, Tamara; Macdonald, Andrew R; Guillermo, Ana C; Troetti, Steven E; Jabado, Omar J; Fanning, M Leigh; Stefanovic, Darko; Macdonald, Joanne

    2014-08-25

    The monitoring of molecular systems usually requires sophisticated technologies to interpret nanoscale events into electronic-decipherable signals. We demonstrate a new method for obtaining read-outs of molecular states that uses graphics processing units made from molecular circuits. Because they are made from molecules, the units are able to directly interact with molecular systems. We developed deoxyribozyme-based graphics processing units able to monitor nucleic acids and output alphanumerical read-outs via a fluorescent display. Using this design we created a molecular 7-segment display, a molecular calculator able to add and multiply small numbers, and a molecular automaton able to diagnose Ebola and Marburg virus sequences. These molecular graphics processing units provide insight for the construction of autonomous biosensing devices, and are essential components for the development of molecular computing platforms devoid of electronics. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Work with visual display units and musculoskeletal disorders: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Riccò

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Epidemiological studies have shown that employees working with visual display units (VDU are more likely to complain about musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs. The aim of this study has been to evaluate associations among MSDs and individuals and work-related factors. Material and Methods: A total of 1032 VDU workers were assessed about their personal (i.e., age, working history, smoking history, physical activity and work-related factors (i.e., predominant job tasks performed, work posture. Work environment was evaluated regarding fulfillment of the standard ISO 9241-5:1998. The investigation required a direct observation of participants (in order to accurately assess the prevalence of MSDs and workstations. Adjusted odds ratios (ORa were calculated by means of the logistic regression model. Results: Prevalence of MSDs was relatively high (53%. In general, MSDs were significantly associated with female sex (OR = 2.832, 95% confidence interval (CI: 2.178–3.683, age ≥ 50 years old (OR = 2.231, 95% CI: 1.236–4.026, longer exposure to VDU, both as working history (10–14 years: OR = 1.934, 95% CI: 1.301–2.875; ≥ 15 years: OR = 2.223, 95% CI: 1.510–3.271 and working time (30–39 h/week: OR = 1.537, 95% CI: 1.087–2.273. Inappropriate workstation design was confirmed by the multivariate analysis as a risk factor for MSDs (ORa = 2.375, 95% CI: 1.124–5.018. Conclusions: Musculoskeletal disorders were significantly associated with individual factors as well as characteristics of work environment. An appropriate design of workstations may significantly reduce their prevalence amongst VDU workers. Med Pr 2016;67(6:707–719

  7. Personal risk factors for carpal tunnel syndrome in female visual display unit workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Riccò

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS is the most common nerve entrapment syndrome, which since the beginning of the seventies has been linked to the keyboard and visual display unit (VDU. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence and personal factors associated with CTS in female VDU workers in Italy. Material and Methods: Participants in this study were female adult subjects, working ≥ 20 h/week (N = 631, mean age 38.14±7.81 years, mean working age 12.9±7.24 years. Signs and symptoms were collected during compulsory occupational medical surveillance. The binary logistic regression was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios for the factors of interest. Results: Diagnosis of CTS was reported in 48 cases (7.6%, 11 of them or 1.7% after a surgical correction for the incidence of 5.94/1000 person-years. In general, signs and symptoms of CTS were associated with the following demographic factors: previous trauma of upper limb (adjusted odds ratio (ORa = 8.093, 95% confidence interval (CI: 2.347–27.904, history (> 5 years of oral contraceptives therapy/hormone replacement therapy (ORa = 3.77, 95% CI: 1.701–8.354 and cervical spine signs/symptoms (ORa = 4.565, 95% CI: 2.281–9.136. Conclusions: The prevalence of CTS was similar to the estimates for the general population of Italy. Among personal risk factors, hormone therapy, previous trauma of the upper limb and signs/symptoms of the cervical spine appeared to be associated with a higher risk of CTS syndrome. Eventually, the results reinforce interpretation of CTS in VDU workers as a work-related musculoskeletal disorder rather than a classical occupational disease. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2016;29(6:927–936

  8. Personal risk factors for carpal tunnel syndrome in female visual display unit workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riccò, Matteo; Cattani, Silvia; Signorelli, Carlo

    2016-11-18

    Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is the most common nerve entrapment syndrome, which since the beginning of the seventies has been linked to the keyboard and visual display unit (VDU). The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence and personal factors associated with CTS in female VDU workers in Italy. Participants in this study were female adult subjects, working ≥ 20 h/week (N = 631, mean age 38.14±7.81 years, mean working age 12.9±7.24 years). Signs and symptoms were collected during compulsory occupational medical surveillance. The binary logistic regression was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios for the factors of interest. Diagnosis of CTS was reported in 48 cases (7.6%, 11 of them or 1.7% after a surgical correction) for the incidence of 5.94/1000 person-years. In general, signs and symptoms of CTS were associated with the following demographic factors: previous trauma of upper limb (adjusted odds ratio (ORa) = 8.093, 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.347-27.904), history (> 5 years) of oral contraceptives therapy/hormone replacement therapy (ORa = 3.77, 95% CI: 1.701-8.354) and cervical spine signs/symptoms (ORa = 4.565, 95% CI: 2.281-9.136). The prevalence of CTS was similar to the estimates for the general population of Italy. Among personal risk factors, hormone therapy, previous trauma of the upper limb and signs/symptoms of the cervical spine appeared to be associated with a higher risk of CTS syndrome. Eventually, the results reinforce interpretation of CTS in VDU workers as a work-related musculoskeletal disorder rather than a classical occupational disease. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2016;29(6):927-936.

  9. Free-Ranging Farm Cats: Home Range Size and Predation on a Livestock Unit In Northwest Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitts-Morgan, Susanna E.; Caires, Kyle C.; Bohannon, Lisa A.; Parsons, Elizabeth I.; Hilburn, Katharine A.

    2015-01-01

    This study’s objective was to determine seasonal and diurnal vs. nocturnal home range size, as well as predation for free-ranging farm cats at a livestock unit in Northwest Georgia. Seven adult cats were tracked with attached GPS units for up to two weeks for one spring and two summer seasons from May 2010 through August 2011. Three and five cats were tracked for up to two weeks during the fall and winter seasons, respectively. Feline scat was collected during this entire period. Cats were fed a commercial cat food daily. There was no seasonal effect (P > 0.05) on overall (95% KDE and 90% KDE) or core home range size (50% KDE). Male cats tended (P = 0.08) to have larger diurnal and nocturnal core home ranges (1.09 ha) compared to female cats (0.64 ha). Reproductively intact cats (n = 2) had larger (P cats. Feline scat processing separated scat into prey parts, and of the 210 feline scats collected during the study, 75.24% contained hair. Of these 158 scat samples, 86 contained non-cat hair and 72 contained only cat hair. Other prey components included fragments of bone in 21.43% of scat and teeth in 12.86% of scat. Teeth were used to identify mammalian prey hunted by these cats, of which the Hispid cotton rat (Sigmodon hispidus) was the primary rodent. Other targeted mammals were Peromyscus sp., Sylvilagus sp. and Microtus sp. Invertebrates and birds were less important as prey, but all mammalian prey identified in this study consisted of native animals. While the free-ranging farm cats in this study did not adjust their home range seasonally, sex and reproductive status did increase diurnal and nocturnal home range size. Ultimately, larger home ranges of free-ranging cats could negatively impact native wildlife. PMID:25894078

  10. Human factors review of CFMS displays for Ulchin Nuclear Power Unit 3 and 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yong Hee; Baek, Seung Min; Kim, Jung Taek; Park, Jae Chang; Lee, Jung Woon; Oh, In Suk; Lee, Joon Whan; Jung, Kwang Tae; Cha, Hye Young [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-11-01

    This report describes the human factors review of CFMS displays for Ulchin 3 and 4 by the following four subjects; At first, by reviewing issues regarding the design process of present CFMS, human factors engineering program plan (HFEPP) and human factors verification and validation plan Were proposed to accomplish the completeness of design word; Secondly, researches and developments were integrated into the review results at the point of suitability of CFMS design concept and basic function; For the third, availability and suitability were assessed according to human factors evaluation criteria on the CFMS display design, and overall effectiveness was also evaluated in parts; For the fourth, recommendations were made to human factors problems in accordance with their importance and an implementation plan was suggested for the resolution of problems. 54 refs., 34 tabs., 42 figs. (author)

  11. Power display unit of solar cell. Taiyo denchi shutsuryoku hyoji sochi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuroiwa, Mitsutoshi; Niiya, Toru; Michihira, Osamu; Kajimoto, sinji.

    1989-08-02

    There is an idea of mounting a soalr cell on the external surface of the car body, and driving a ventilation fan by the output power thereof. Even while parking in summer, it is possible to withhold the temperature rise within the car by replacing the hot air with the outside air. Recently, there is a tendency of mounting such equipments as the refrigerator or heat-retainer; this sometimes causes the shortage of the mounted battery capacity. In addition, the output of the solar cell changes by the weather often causing unstable action of the eauipments. In this invention, a means of display is equipped wherein the operable equipments are selected among the plural number of the equipments according to he detected value measured by a detector of the solar cell output. The crew of a car can accurately select the operable equipment guided by this display, thus avoiding an imperfect action of the car-borne equipments. 10 figs.

  12. Design of a large dynamic range readout unit for the PSD detector of DAMPE

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, Yong; Sun, Zhiyu; Zhang, Yongjie; Fang, Fang; Chen, Junling; Hu, Bitao

    2016-01-01

    A large dynamic range is required by the Plastic Scintillator Detector (PSD) of DArk Matter Paricle Explorer (DAMPE), and a double-dynode readout has been developed. To verify this design, a prototype detector module has been constructed and tested with cosmic rays and heavy ion beams. The results match with the estimation and the readout unit could easily cover the required dynamic range.

  13. Hounsfield Units ranges in CT-scans of bog bodies and mummies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villa, Chiara; Lynnerup, Niels

    2012-01-01

    Mummification processes, either artificial or natural, preserve the tissues from postmortem decay, but change them from their original state. In this study we provided the first comprehensive set of Hounsfield Unit (HU) ranges specific for tissues mummified under different environmental condition...... of using our re-defined HU ranges by showing the improved results of 3D visualization from automatic segmentation in an Inca mummy from Mount Llullaillaco....

  14. Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 424: Area 3 Landfill Complex, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bechtel Nevada

    1998-08-31

    This corrective action plan provides the closure implementation methods for the Area 3 Landfill Complex, Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 424, located at the Tonopah Test Range. The Area 3 Landfill Complex consists of 8 landfill sites, each designated as a separate corrective action site.

  15. Characterization of motor units in behaving adult mice shows a wide primary range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Laura K.; Tresch, Matthew C.; Heckman, C. J.; Manuel, Marin

    2014-01-01

    The mouse is essential for genetic studies of motor function in both normal and pathological states. Thus it is important to consider whether the structure of motor output from the mouse is in fact analogous to that recorded in other animals. There is a striking difference in the basic electrical properties of mouse motoneurons compared with those in rats, cats, and humans. The firing evoked by injected currents produces a unique frequency-current (F-I) function that emphasizes recruitment of motor units at their maximum force. These F-I functions, however, were measured in anesthetized preparations that lacked two key components of normal synaptic input: high levels of synaptic noise and neuromodulatory inputs. Recent studies suggest that the alterations in the F-I function due to these two components are essential for recreating firing behavior of motor units in human subjects. In this study we provide the first data on firing patterns of motor units in the awake mouse, focusing on steady output in quiet stance. The resulting firing patterns did not match the predictions from the mouse F-I behaviors but instead revealed rate modulation across a remarkably wide range (10–60 Hz). The low end of the firing range may be due to changes in the F-I relation induced by synaptic noise and neuromodulatory inputs. The high end of the range may indicate that, unlike other species, quiet standing in the mouse involves recruitment of relatively fast-twitch motor units. PMID:24805075

  16. Work related and individual predictors for incident neck pain among office employees working with video display units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korhonen, T; Ketola, R; Toivonen, R; Luukkonen, R; Häkkänen, M; Viikari-Juntura, E

    2003-07-01

    To investigate work related and individual factors as predictors for incident neck pain among office employees working with video display units (VDUs). Employees in three administrative units of a medium sized city in Finland (n = 515) received mailed questionnaires in the baseline survey in 1998 and in the follow up survey in 1999. Response rate for the baseline was 81% (n = 416); respondents who reported neck pain for less than eight days during the preceding 12 months were included into the study cohort as healthy subjects (n = 232). The follow up questionnaire 12 months later was completed by 78% (n = 180). Incident neck cases were those reporting neck pain for at least eight days during the preceding 12 months. The annual incidence of neck pain was 34.4% (95% CI 25.5 to 41.3). Poor physical work environment and poor placement of the keyboard increased the risk of neck pain. Among the individual factors, female sex was a strong predictor. Smoking showed a tendency for an increased risk of neck pain. There was an interaction between mental stress and physical exercise, those with higher mental stress and less physical exercise having especially high risk. In the prevention of neck disorders in office work with a high frequency of VDU tasks, attention should be given to the work environment in general and to the more specific aspects of VDU workstation layout. Physical exercise may prevent neck disorders among sedentary employees.

  17. Analysis of diurnal air temperature range change in the continental United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Qu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Diurnal temperature range (DTR is an important indicator for climate change. In this paper, diurnal air temperature range variations of the continental United States over the past one hundred years were investigated to discover the temporal trend and spatial patterns. While the annual mean DTR of the United States has steadily decreased during the past decades, it is found that the decreased amplitude has spatial and seasonal patterns. Seasonal and spatial variations of DTR were analyzed for the four regions, northeastern, northwestern, southeastern, and southwestern. Fall and summer witnessed a significant decrease in DTR in all regions. Spring and winter, on the other hand, have experienced much smaller decreases. Temporal trend and spatial patterns of daily maximum and minimum temperatures were also investigated to gain insight of DTR change.

  18. An Investigation for Arranging the Video Display Unit Information in a Main Control Room of Advanced Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, Chong Cheng; Yang, Chih Wei [Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Atomic Energy Council, Taoyuan (China)

    2014-08-15

    Current digital instrumentation and control and main control room (MCR) technology has extended the capability of integrating information from numerous plant systems and transmitting needed information to operations personnel in a timely manner that could not be envisioned when previous generation plants were designed and built. A MCR operator can complete all necessary operating actions on the video display unit (VDU). It is extremely flexible and convenient for operators to select and to control the system display on the screen. However, a high degree of digitalization has some risks. For example, in nuclear power plants, failures in the instrumentation and control devices could stop the operation of the plant. Human factors engineering (HFE) approaches would be a manner to solve this problem. Under HFE considerations, there exists 'population stereotype' for operation. That is, the operator is used to operating a specific display on the specific VDU for operation. Under emergency conditions, there is possibility that the operator will response with this habit population stereotype, and not be aware that the current situation has already changed. Accordingly, the advanced nuclear power plant should establish the MCR VDU configuration plan to meet the consistent teamwork goal under normal operation, transient and accident conditions. On the other hand, the advanced nuclear power plant should establish the human factors verification and validation plan of the MCR VDU configuration to verify and validate the configuration of the MCR VDUs, and to ensure that the MCR VDU configuration allows the operator shift to meet the HFE consideration and the consistent teamwork goal under normal operation, transient and accident conditions. This paper is one of the HF V V plans of the MCR VDU configuration of the advanced nuclear power plant. The purpose of this study is to confirm whether the VDU configuration meets the human factors principles and the consistent

  19. Effects of wink glass on blink rate, nibut and ocular surface symptoms during visual display unit use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ang, Cheah Kiok; Mohidin, Norhani; Chung, Kah Meng

    2014-09-01

    Wink glass (WG), an invention to stimulate blinking at interval of 5 s was designed to reduce dry eye symptoms during visual display unit (VDU) use. The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of WG on visual functions that include blink rate, ocular surface symptoms (OSS) and tear stability during VDU use. A total of 26 young and asymptomatic subjects were instructed to read articles in Malay language with a computer for 20 min with WG whereby their blink rate, pre- and post-task tear break-up time, and OSS were recorded. The results were compared to another reading session of the subjects wearing a transparent plastic sheet as a control. Non-invasive tear break-up time was reduced after reading session with transparent plastic sheet (pre-task = 5.97 s, post-task = 5.14 s, z = -2.426, p = 0.015, Wilcoxon), but remained stable (pre-task = 5.62 s, post-task = 5.35 s, z = -0.67, p = 0.501) during the reading session with WG. The blink rate recorded during reading session with plastic sheet was 9 blinks/min (median) and this increased to 15 blinks/min (z = -3.315, p = 0.001) with WG. The reading task caused OSS (maximum scores = 20) with median score of 1 (0-8) reduced to median score of 0 (0-3) after wearing WG (z = -2.417, p = 0.016). WG was found to increase post-task tear stability, increased blinking rate and reduced OSS during video display unit use among young and healthy adults. Although it may be considered as an option to improve dry eye symptoms among VDU users, further studies are warranted to establish its stability and its effect on subjects with dry eyes.

  20. A Novel Unit Cell for Active Switches in the Millimeter-Wave Frequency Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Daniel; Scherer, Gunnar; Lewark, Ulrich J.; Massler, Hermann; Wagner, Sandrine; Tessmann, Axel; Leuther, Arnulf; Zwick, Thomas; Kallfass, Ingmar

    2018-02-01

    This paper presents a novel transistor unit cell which is intended to realize compact active switches in the high millimeter-wave frequency range. The unit cell consists of the combination of shunt and common gate transistor within a four-finger transistor cell, achieving gain in the amplifying state as well as good isolation in the isolating state. Gate width-dependent characteristics of the unit cell as well as the design of actual switch implementations are discussed in detail. To verify the concept, two switches, a single pole double throw (SPDT) switch and single pole quadruple throw (SP4T) switch, intended for the WR3 frequency range (220-325 GHz) were manufactured and characterized. The measured gain at 250 GHz is 4.6 and 2.2 dB for the SPDT and SP4T switch, respectively. An isolation of more than 24 dB for the SPDT switch and 12.8 dB for the SP4T switch was achieved.

  1. Non-expert use of quantitative EEG displays for seizure identification in the adult neuro-intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dericioglu, Nese; Yetim, Ezgi; Bas, Demet Funda; Bilgen, Nuray; Caglar, Gulsen; Arsava, Ethem Murat; Topcuoglu, Mehmet Akif

    2015-01-01

    Video-EEG monitoring is the ultimate way to diagnose non-convulsive status epilepticus (NCSE) in intensive care units (ICU). Usually EEG recordings are evaluated once a day by an electrophysiologist, which may lead to delay in diagnosis. Digital EEG trend analysis methods like amplitude integrated EEG (aEEG) and density spectral array (DSA) have been developed to facilitate recognition of seizures. In this study, we aimed to investigate the diagnostic utility of these methods by non-expert physicians and ICU nurses for NCSE identification in an adult neurological ICU. Ten patients with NCSE and ten control patients without seizures were included in the study. The raw EEG recordings of all subjects were converted to both aEEG and DSA and displayed simultaneously without conventional EEG. After training for seizure recognition with both methods, two physicians and two nurses analyzed the visual displays individually, and marked seizure timings. Their results were compared with those of a study epileptologist. Participants analyzed 615h of EEG data with 700 seizures. Overall, 63% of the seizures were recognized by all, 15.6% by three, 11.6% by two, 8.3% by one rater and only 1.5% were missed by all of them (sensitivity was 88-99%, and specificity was 89-95% when the ratings were assessed as 1-h epochs). False positive rates were 1 per 2h in the study and 1 per 6h in the control groups. Interrater agreement was high (κ=0.79-0.81). Bilateral independent seizures and ictal recordings with lower amplitude and shorter duration were more likely to be missed. There was no difference in performance between the rating of physicians and nurses. Our study demonstrates that bedside nurses, ICU fellows and residents can achieve acceptable level of accuracy for seizure identification using the digital EEG trend analysis methods following brief training. This may help earlier notification of the electrophysiologist who is not always available in ICUs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B

  2. Coverage Range and Cost Comparison of Remote Antenna Unit Designs for Inbuilding Radio over Fiber Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razali Ngah

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Future communication needs to be ubiquitous, broadband, convergent, and seamless. Radio over fiber (RoF technology is one of the most important enabler in access network for the technologies. Adoption of RoF faces bottleneck in optoelectronics, that they are still expensive, high power consumption, and limited in bandwidth. To solve the problem, transceiver in remote antenna unit (RAU is developed, i.e. electroabsorption transceiver (EAT and asymmetric FabryPerot modulator (AFPM. This paper compares their coverage range and cost in providing WCDMA and WLAN services. Needed gain of RF amplifier for supporting picocell is also discussed.

  3. Long-range transport of sulfur in the western United States. [Projections for 1985 and 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandusky, W. F.; Eadie, W. J.; Drewes, D. R.

    1979-01-01

    Pollutants, such as SO/sub 2/ and sulfate, emitted from both utility and industrial coal burning processes have long residence time in the atmosphere. Therefore, the long-range atmospheric transport and diffusion of these pollutants must be considered in any environmental assessment of proposed plant operation. The most useful tool in predicting the long-range transport of pollutants is a computer simulation technique for the Gaussian diffusion equation. Information produced by the model includes: SO/sub 2/ and sulfate ground-level air concentrations, the amount of SO/sub 2/ and sulfate deposited on the ground surface, the minimum pH value in the rainfall, and the budget of SO/sub 2/ and sulfate material over the diffusion grid. Information on siting and emissions is also required. For this study, siting was based on projected coal use in 1985 and 1990 based on a two-thirds increase in coal production. Results of the modeling for the western United States indicate that the maximum incremental ground-level air concentrations for SO/sub 2/ are 8.4 and 14 ..mu..g/m/sup 3/ for utility and industrial sources, respectively. Maximum predicted incremental ground-level sulfate concentrations for utility and industrial sources are 0.8 and 1.2 ..mu..g/m/sup 3/, respectively. The minimum calculated pH values for both utility and industrial sulfur emission were 5.3. Maximum SO/sub 2/ deposition amounts range from 0.5 to 0.8 gm/m/sup 2/ for both the utility and industrial coal use scenarios. The largest sulfate deposition amounts range from a factor of 55 to 24 smaller than SO/sub 2/ deposition amounts. (ERB)

  4. Derived and displayed power consumption, flow, and pulsatility over a range of HeartMate II left ventricular assist device settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Lars H; Gabrielsen, Anders; Tirén, Linnea; Hallberg, Ann; El Karlsson, Kerstin; Eriksson, Maria J

    2012-01-01

    Continuous-flow left ventricular assist devices/systems (LVADs/LVASs) reduce symptoms and mortality in severe heart failure. The impeller or centrifugal designs provide challenges in assessing and titrating pump speed (revolutions per minute [RPM]), flow, and native heart pulsatility, and contribution to cardiac output. The Thoratec HeartMate II (HM II) LVAS is the most commonly used LVAD worldwide. The user sets the RPM and the monitor provides online data on RPM, power consumption, flow, and pulsatility. These parameters are routinely used by clinicians to assess native heart function and to optimize pump settings. However, little is known about their reliability, reproducibility, and variability. Therefore, we assessed HM II controller parameters and concurrent echocardiography during titrations of RPM to low and high values. We found that data displayed on the monitor and logged in the controller are consistent for power consumption and for flow at settings above 8,000 RPM but inconsistent and unreliable for flow at or below 8,000 RPM and for pulsatility throughout a range of common settings and specifically at 9,000 RPM. These findings have implications for clinicians attempting to optimize settings and assess pump and native heart function.

  5. Recommended methods for range-wide monitoring of prairie dogs in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Lyman L.; Stanley, Thomas R.; Otis, David L.; Biggins, Dean E.; Stevens, Patricia D.; Koprowski, John L.; Ballard, Warren

    2011-01-01

    One of the greatest challenges for conserving grassland, prairie scrub, and shrub-steppe ecosystems is maintaining prairie dog populations across the landscape. Of the four species of prairie dogs found in the United States, the Utah prairie dog (Cynomys parvidens) is listed under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) as threatened, the Gunnison's prairie dog (C. gunnisoni) is a candidate for listing in a portion of its range, and the black-tailed prairie dog (C. ludovicianus) and white-tailed prairie dog (C. leucurus) have each been petitioned for listing at least once in recent history. Although the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) determined listing is not warranted for either the black-tailed prairie dog or white-tailed prairie dog, the petitions and associated reviews demonstrated the need for the States to monitor and manage for self-sustaining populations. In response to these findings, a multi-State conservation effort was initiated for the nonlisted species which included the following proposed actions: (1) completing an assessment of each prairie dog species in each State, (2) developing a range-wide monitoring protocol for each species using a statistically valid sampling procedure that would allow comparable analyses across States, and (3) monitoring prairie dog status every 3-5 years depending upon the species. To date, each State has completed an assessment and currently is monitoring prairie dog status; however, for some species, the inconsistency in survey methodology has made it difficult to compare data year-to-year or State-to-State. At the Prairie Dog Conservation Team meeting held in November 2008, there was discussion regarding the use of different methods to survey prairie dogs. A recommendation from this meeting was to convene a panel in a workshop-type forum and have the panel review the different methods being used and provide recommendations for range-wide monitoring protocols for each species of prairie dog. Consequently, the Western

  6. Mean tidal range in salt marsh units of Edwin B. Forsythe National Wildlife Refuge, New Jersey (polygon shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Biomass production is positively correlated with mean tidal range in salt marshes along the Atlantic coast of the United States of America. Recent studies support...

  7. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan for Corrective Action Unit 496: Buried Rocket Site, Antelope Lake, Tonopah Test Range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office; Bechtel Nevada

    2004-05-01

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) plan details the activities necessary to close Corrective Action Unit 496: Buried Rocket Site, Antelope Lake. CAU 496 consists of one site located at the Tonopah Test Range, Nevada.

  8. Branding Asklepios and the Traditional and Variant Serpent Symbol Display Among Health Professional Schools in the United States, Puerto Rico, and Canada: A Cross-Sectional Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamann, Claus; Martelon, MaryKate

    2016-05-25

    History supports the staff and single serpent, the asklepian, as the symbol of healing and medicine, yet its confusion with the caduceus (a winged staff with two snakes wrapped around it) persists. No population-based information on serpent symbol use exists. To determine the prevalence of asklepian and caduceus display among Internet images of medical and health professional schools' emblems, and to compare asklepian and caduceus display between medical and health professional schools, examining the effects of school longevity and geographic location on symbol display. This cross-sectional survey examined Internet websites and Google Images associated with medical and other health professional schools in the United States, Puerto Rico, and Canada from 2013 to 2015. The primary outcome was display of a traditional or variant asklepian or caduceus among current and past emblems in Google Images. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals for the comparison of medical versus other health professional schools were calculated by logistic regression. Differences among schools' longevity were assessed with Student's t-tests and linear regression. Among images of current and past emblems of 482 schools-159 medical schools and 323 health professional schools-107 (22.2%) emblems displayed only the traditional, and 205 (42.5%) any, asklepian. Adjusting for geographic region and longevity, medical schools were 59% less likely than health professional schools to display the traditional asklepian (OR 0.41, 95% CI 0.24-0.71, P=.001), and were 7.7 times more likely than health professional schools to display the traditional caduceus. Medical schools were 8% less likely than health professional schools to display any asklepian (OR 0.92, 95% CI 0.62-1.38, P=.70), and were 3.3 times more likely than health professional schools to display any caduceus. Schools' preference of the asklepian over the caduceus confirmed historical origins. Less asklepian and more caduceus display by

  9. Branding Asklepios and the Traditional and Variant Serpent Symbol Display Among Health Professional Schools in the United States, Puerto Rico, and Canada: A Cross-Sectional Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Background History supports the staff and single serpent, the asklepian, as the symbol of healing and medicine, yet its confusion with the caduceus (a winged staff with two snakes wrapped around it) persists. No population-based information on serpent symbol use exists. Objective To determine the prevalence of asklepian and caduceus display among Internet images of medical and health professional schools’ emblems, and to compare asklepian and caduceus display between medical and health professional schools, examining the effects of school longevity and geographic location on symbol display. Methods This cross-sectional survey examined Internet websites and Google Images associated with medical and other health professional schools in the United States, Puerto Rico, and Canada from 2013 to 2015. The primary outcome was display of a traditional or variant asklepian or caduceus among current and past emblems in Google Images. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals for the comparison of medical versus other health professional schools were calculated by logistic regression. Differences among schools' longevity were assessed with Student's t-tests and linear regression. Results Among images of current and past emblems of 482 schools—159 medical schools and 323 health professional schools—107 (22.2%) emblems displayed only the traditional, and 205 (42.5%) any, asklepian. Adjusting for geographic region and longevity, medical schools were 59% less likely than health professional schools to display the traditional asklepian (OR 0.41, 95% CI 0.24-0.71, P=.001), and were 7.7 times more likely than health professional schools to display the traditional caduceus. Medical schools were 8% less likely than health professional schools to display any asklepian (OR 0.92, 95% CI 0.62-1.38, P=.70), and were 3.3 times more likely than health professional schools to display any caduceus. Conclusions Schools’ preference of the asklepian over the caduceus confirmed

  10. Corrective action decision document, Second Gas Station, Tonopah test range, Nevada (Corrective Action Unit No. 403)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) for Second Gas Station (Corrective Action Unit [CAU] No. 403) has been developed for the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) Nevada Environmental Restoration Project to meet the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) of 1996 as stated in Appendix VI, {open_quotes}Corrective Action Strategy{close_quotes} (FFACO, 1996). The Second Gas Station Corrective Action Site (CAS) No. 03-02-004-0360 is the only CAS in CAU No. 403. The Second Gas Station CAS is located within Area 3 of the Tonopah Test Range (TTR), west of the Main Road at the location of former Underground Storage Tanks (USTs) and their associated fuel dispensary stations. The TTR is approximately 225 kilometers (km) (140 miles [mi]) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada, by air and approximately 56 km (35 mi) southeast of Tonopah, Nevada, by road. The TTR is bordered on the south, east, and west by the Nellis Air Force Range and on the north by sparsely populated public land administered by the Bureau of Land Management and the U.S. Forest Service. The Second Gas Station CAS was formerly known as the Underground Diesel Tank Site, Sandia Environmental Restoration Site Number 118. The gas station was in use from approximately 1965 to 1980. The USTs were originally thought to be located 11 meters (m) (36 feet [ft]) east of the Old Light Duty Shop, Building 0360, and consisted of one gasoline UST (southern tank) and one diesel UST (northern tank) (DOE/NV, 1996a). The two associated fuel dispensary stations were located northeast (diesel) and southeast (gasoline) of Building 0360 (CAU 423). Presently the site is used as a parking lot, Building 0360 is used for mechanical repairs of vehicles.

  11. Wildfire impacts on soil-water retention in the Colorado Front Range, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebel, Brian A.

    2012-01-01

    This work examined the plot-scale differences in soil-water retention caused by wildfire in the area of the 2010 Fourmile Canyon Fire in the Colorado Front Range, United States. We measured soil-water retention curves on intact cores and repacked samples, soil particle-size distributions, and organic matter content. Estimates were also made of plant-available water based on the soil-water retention curves. Parameters for use in soil-hydraulic property models were estimated; these parameters can be used in unsaturated flow modeling for comparing burned and unburned watersheds. The primary driver for measured differences in soil-water retention in burned and unburned soils was organic matter content and not soil-particle size distribution. The tendency for unburned south-facing soils to have greater organic matter content than unburned north-facing soils in this field area may explain why unburned south-facing soils had greater soil-water retention than unburned north-facing soils. Our results suggest that high-severity wildfire can “homogenize” soil-water retention across the landscape by erasing soil-water retention differences resulting from organic matter content, which for this site may be affected by slope aspect. This homogenization could have important implications for ecohydrology and plant succession/recovery in burned areas, which could be a factor in dictating the window of vulnerability of the landscape to flash floods and erosion that are a common consequence of wildfire.

  12. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 426: Cactus Spring Waste Trenches, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dave Madsen

    1998-08-01

    This Closure Report provides the documentation for closure of the Cactus Spring Waste Trenches Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 426. The site is located on the Tonopah Test Range, approximately 225 kilometers northwest of Las Vegas, NV. CAU 426 consists of one corrective action site (CAS) which is comprised of four waste trenches. The trenches were excavated to receive solid waste generated in support of Operation Roller Coaster, primary the Double Tracks Test in 1963, and were subsequently backfilled. The Double Tracks Test involved use of live animals to assess the biological hazards associated with the nonnuclear detonation of plutonium-bearing devices. The Nevada Division of Environmental Protection approved Corrective Action Plan (CAP)which proposed ''capping'' methodology. The closure activities were completed in accordance with the approved CAP and consisted of constructing an engineered cover in the area of the trenches, constructing/planting a vegetative cover, installing a perimeter fence and signs, implementing restrictions on future use, and preparing a Post-Closure Monitoring Plan.

  13. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 499: Hydrocarbon Spill Site, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. B. Campbell

    2002-07-01

    This Closure Report (CR) has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 499: Hydrocarbon Spill Site, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO, 1996) and the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP)-approved Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan for CAU 499: Hydrocarbon Spill Site, Tonopah Test Range (TTR), Nevada (US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office [DOE/NV], 2001). CAU 499 consists of one Corrective Action Site (CAS): RG-25-001-RD24: Radar 24 Diesel Spill Site which is approximately 4.0 kilometers (2.5 miles) southwest of the Area 3 Compound at the end of Avenue 24. The Hydrocarbon Spill Site is a diesel fuel release site that is assumed to have been caused by numerous small historical over-fillings, spills, and leaks from an above-ground storage tank (AST) over a period of approximately 36 years. The tank was located on the east side of Building 24-50 on the TTR.

  14. Auditory Display

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    volume. The conference's topics include auditory exploration of data via sonification and audification; real time monitoring of multivariate date; sound in immersive interfaces and teleoperation; perceptual issues in auditory display; sound in generalized computer interfaces; technologies supporting...... auditory display creation; data handling for auditory display systems; applications of auditory display....

  15. Biomass burning contribution to black carbon in the Western United States Mountain Ranges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. H. Mao

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Forest fires are an important source to carbonaceous aerosols in the Western United States (WUS. We quantify the relative contribution of biomass burning to black carbon (BC in the WUS mountain ranges by analyzing surface BC observations for 2006 from the Interagency Monitoring of PROtected Visual Environment (IMPROVE network using the GEOS-Chem global chemical transport model. Observed surface BC concentrations show broad maxima during late June to early November. Enhanced potassium concentrations and potassium/sulfur ratios observed during the high-BC events indicate a dominant biomass burning influence during the peak fire season. Model surface BC reproduces the observed day-to day and synoptic variabilities in regions downwind of but near urban centers. Major discrepancies are found at elevated mountainous sites during the July-October fire season when simulated BC concentrations are biased low by a factor of two. We attribute these low biases largely to the underestimated (by more than a factor of two and temporally misplaced biomass burning emissions of BC in the model. Additionally, we find that the biomass burning contribution to surface BC concentrations in the USA likely was underestimated in a previous study using GEOS-Chem (Park et al., 2003, because of the unusually low planetary boundary layer (PBL heights in the GEOS-3 meteorological reanalysis data used to drive the model. PBL heights from GEOS-4 and GEOS-5 reanalysis data are comparable to those from the North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR. Model simulations show slightly improved agreements with the observations when driven by GEOS-5 reanalysis data, but model results are still biased low. The use of biomass burning emissions with diurnal cycle, synoptic variability, and plume injection has relatively small impact on the simulated surface BC concentrations in the WUS.

  16. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 486: Double Tracks RADSAFE Area Nellis Air Force Range, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. H. Cox

    2000-12-01

    The Double Tracks Radiological Safety Area (DTRSA), Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 486, was clean-closed following the approved Corrective Action Decision Document closure alternative and in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. The CAU consists of a single Corrective Action Site, 71-23-001-71DT. The DTRSA was used during May 1963 to decontaminate vehicles, equipment, personnel and animals from the Double Tracks Test. Double Tracks was one of four storage-transportation tests. The Double Tracks test was conducted in Stonewall Flat, approximately 32 kilometers (20 miles) east of Goldfield, Nevada, on the Nellis Air Force Range. The Double Tracks Test used a single device containing plutonium and depleted uranium and was designed to investigate the characteristics of plutonium-bearing particulate material formed by the non-nuclear detonation of a nuclear weapon. All facilities associated with the DTRSA operation were removed. Based on available information, the areas of concern at the DTRSA consisted of a decon facility (vehicle decon pad and decon sump) in the southern half of the DTRSA, and a burial pit and former loading/unloading area located in the northern half of the DTRSA. Based on the results of the Corrective Action Investigation, radiological field screening detected elevated gamma and alpha readings on excavated plastic debris. Swipe surveys taken on the plastic debris detected removable alpha. No contaminants were detected above preliminary action levels in soil samples. The debris excavated during the corrective action investigation was not characterized. The clean-closure corrective action consisted of excavation, disposal, verification sampling, backfilling, and regrading. Field activities began on May 1, 2000, and ended on May 10, 2000. Soil that was associated with the radiologically contaminated man-made debris was placed into B-25 bins, moved to the designated waste management area where it was scanned, and hauled off

  17. Accuracy Estimates of Gravity Potential Differences between Western Europe and United States through Lageos Satellite Laser Ranging Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-02-01

    conterminous United States, 4 in Eurooe, 2 each in Australia nd So ;ti America, 2 each in the Carribean and Pacific Islands, and I in Hawaii. -10- 𔄀...GRAVITY POTENTIAL DIFFERENCES BETWEEN WESTERN EUROPE AND UNITED STATES THROUGH LAGEOS SATELLITE LASER RANGING NETWORK D.P. Hajela The Ohio State University...104 C=~ 10 CONTRACTOR REPORTS This report has been reviewed by the ESD Public Affairs Office (PA) and is releasable to the National Technical

  18. S1 satellite DNA repetitive units display identical structure and overall variability in all Anatolian brown frog taxa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picariello, Orfeo; Feliciello, Isidoro; Chinali, Gianni

    2016-02-01

    S1 satellite DNA from Palearctic brown frogs has a species-specific structure in all European species. We characterized S1 satellite DNA from the Anatolian brown frogs Rana macrocnemis, R. camerani, and R. holtzi in order to define their taxonomic rank and the structure of this satellite in this frog lineage. Southern blots of genomic DNA digested with KpnI, EcoRV, NdeI, NheI, or StuI produced the same pattern of satellite DNA bands. Moreover, quantitative dot blots showed that this satellite DNA accounts for 0.1 % of the genome in all taxa. Analysis of the overall genomic variability of the S1a repeat sequence in specimens from various populations demonstrated that this repetitive unit also has the same size (476 bp), the same most common sequence (MCS) and the same overall variability in all three taxa, and also in R. macrocnemis tavasensis. The S1a repetitive unit presents three deletions of 9, 8 and 1 bp compared to the 494-bp S1a repeat from European frogs. The S1a MCS has three variable positions (sequence WWTK in positions 183-186), due to the presence of two repeat subpopulations with motifs AATG and WWTT in all taxa. Unlike previously analyzed mitochondrial and nuclear sequences that show considerable variations among these taxa, no difference could be detected in the structure and variability of the S1 satellite repetitive units. This suggests that these taxa should belong to a single species. Our results indicate that this satellite DNA variety probably formed when the Anatolian lineage radiated from common ancestor about 4 mya, and since then has maintained its structure in all four taxa examined.

  19. Power laws in cone production of longleaf pine across its native range in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiongwen Chen; Qinfeng Guo; Dale G. Brockway

    2017-01-01

    Longleaf pine (Pinus palustris Mill.) forests in the southeastern United States are considered endangered ecosystems, because of their dramatic decrease in area since European colonization and poor rates of recovery related to episodic natural regeneration. Sporadic seed production constrains restoration efforts and complicates sustainable management of this species....

  20. Comparative Susceptibility of Plants Native to the Appalachian Range of the United States to Inoculation With Phytophthora ramorum

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.G. Linderman; Patricia B. de Sá; E.A. Davis

    2008-01-01

    Phytophthora ramorum, cause of sudden oak death of trees or ramorum blight of other plant species, has many hosts. Some geographic regions, such as the Appalachian range of the eastern United States, are considered high risk of becoming infested with the pathogen because known susceptible plants occur there and climatic characteristics appear...

  1. The mouse genome displays highly dynamic populations of KRAB-zinc finger protein genes and related genetic units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauzlaric, Annamaria; Ecco, Gabriela; Cassano, Marco; Duc, Julien; Imbeault, Michael; Trono, Didier

    2017-01-01

    KRAB-containing poly-zinc finger proteins (KZFPs) constitute the largest family of transcription factors encoded by mammalian genomes, and growing evidence indicates that they fulfill functions critical to both embryonic development and maintenance of adult homeostasis. KZFP genes underwent broad and independent waves of expansion in many higher vertebrates lineages, yet comprehensive studies of members harbored by a given species are scarce. Here we present a thorough analysis of KZFP genes and related units in the murine genome. We first identified about twice as many elements than previously annotated as either KZFP genes or pseudogenes, notably by assigning to this family an entity formerly considered as a large group of Satellite repeats. We then could delineate an organization in clusters distributed throughout the genome, with signs of recombination, translocation, duplication and seeding of new sites by retrotransposition of KZFP genes and related genetic units (KZFP/rGUs). Moreover, we harvested evidence indicating that closely related paralogs had evolved through both drifting and shifting of sequences encoding for zinc finger arrays. Finally, we could demonstrate that the KAP1-SETDB1 repressor complex tames the expression of KZFP/rGUs within clusters, yet that the primary targets of this regulation are not the KZFP/rGUs themselves but enhancers contained in neighboring endogenous retroelements and that, underneath, KZFPs conserve highly individualized patterns of expression.

  2. Status and understanding of groundwater quality in the Northern Coast Ranges study unit, 2009: California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathany, Timothy M.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the 633-square-mile (1,639-square-kilometer) Northern Coast Ranges (NOCO) study unit was investigated as part of the Priority Basin Project (PBP) of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment Program. The study unit is composed of two study areas (Interior Basins and Coastal Basins) and is located in northern California in Napa, Sonoma, Lake, Colusa, Mendocino, Glenn, Humboldt, and Del Norte Counties. The GAMA-PBP is being conducted by the California State Water Resources Control Board in collaboration with the USGS and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.

  3. Shortening start-up and an extension of the power unit load range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taler Jan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A power plant with additional water pressure tanks was proposed. The maximum rise in the block electric power resulting from the shut-off of low-pressure regenerative heaters was determined. At that time, the boiler is fed with hot water from water pressure tanks acting as heat accumulators. Accumulation of hot water in water tanks is also proposed in the periods of the power unit small load. In order to lower the plant electric power in the off-peak night hours, water heated to the nominal temperature in low-pressure regenerative heaters is directed from the feed water tank to pressure tanks. The water accumulated during the night is used to feed the boiler during the period of peak demand for electricity. Pressure accumulators are proposed to be used for the rapid start-up of the boiler from a cold state. The evaporator of the boiler is filled at the beginning of start-up with hot water from the accumulators. Drops in the power block electric power were determined for different capacities of the tanks and periods when they are charged. The tanks may also be used to ensure a sudden increase in the electric power of the unit that is operating in the automatic system of frequency and power control (in Polish: ARCM.

  4. Effects of regional temperature on electric vehicle efficiency, range, and emissions in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuksel, Tugce; Michalek, Jeremy J

    2015-03-17

    We characterize the effect of regional temperature differences on battery electric vehicle (BEV) efficiency, range, and use-phase power plant CO2 emissions in the U.S. The efficiency of a BEV varies with ambient temperature due to battery efficiency and cabin climate control. We find that annual energy consumption of BEVs can increase by an average of 15% in the Upper Midwest or in the Southwest compared to the Pacific Coast due to temperature differences. Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from BEVs vary primarily with marginal regional grid mix, which has three times the GHG intensity in the Upper Midwest as on the Pacific Coast. However, even within a grid region, BEV emissions vary by up to 22% due to spatial and temporal ambient temperature variation and its implications for vehicle efficiency and charging duration and timing. Cold climate regions also encounter days with substantial reduction in EV range: the average range of a Nissan Leaf on the coldest day of the year drops from 70 miles on the Pacific Coast to less than 45 miles in the Upper Midwest. These regional differences are large enough to affect adoption patterns and energy and environmental implications of BEVs relative to alternatives.

  5. A new high dynamic range ROIC with smart light intensity control unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazici, Melik; Ceylan, Omer; Shafique, Atia; Abbasi, Shahbaz; Galioglu, Arman; Gurbuz, Yasar

    2017-05-01

    This journal presents a new high dynamic range ROIC with smart pixel which consists of two pre-amplifiers that are controlled by a circuit inside the pixel. Each pixel automatically decides which pre-amplifier is used according to the incoming illumination level. Instead of using single pre-amplifier, two input pre-amplifiers, which are optimized for different signal levels, are placed inside each pixel. The smart circuit mechanism, which decides the best input circuit according to the incoming light level, is also designed for each pixel. In short, an individual pixel has the ability to select the best input amplifier circuit that performs the best/highest SNR for the incoming signal level. A 32 × 32 ROIC prototype chip is designed to demonstrate the concept in 0.18 μ m CMOS technology. The prototype is optimized for NIR and SWIR bands. Instead of a detector, process variation optimized current sources are placed inside the ROIC. The chip achieves minimum 8.6 e- input referred noise and 98.9 dB dynamic range. It has the highest dynamic range in the literature in terms of analog ROICs for SWIR band. It is operating in room temperature and power consumption is 2.8 μ W per pixel.

  6. Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 407: Roller Coaster RADSAFE Area, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. M. Fitzmaurice

    2000-05-01

    This Corrective Action Plan (CAP) has been prepared for the Roller Coaster RADSAFE Area Corrective Action Unit 407 in accordance with the Federal Facility and Consent Order (Nevada Division of Environmental Protection [NDEP] et al., 1996). This CAP provides the methodology for implementing the approved Corrective Action Alternative as listed in the Corrective Action Decision Document (U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office, 1999). The RCRSA was used during May and June of 1963 to decontaminate vehicles, equipment, and personnel from the Clean Slate tests. The Constituents of Concern (COCs) identified during the site characterization include plutonium, uranium, and americium. No other COCS were identified. The following closure actions will be implemented under this plan: (1) Remove and dispose of surface soils which are over three times background for the area. Soils identified for removal will be disposed of at an approved disposal facility. Excavated areas will be backfilled with clean borrow soil fi-om a nearby location. (2) An engineered cover will be constructed over the waste disposal pit area where subsurface COCS will remain. (3) Upon completion of the closure and approval of the Closure Report by NDEP, administrative controls, use restrictions, and site postings will be used to prevent intrusive activities at the site. Barbed wire fencing will be installed along the perimeter of this unit. Post closure monitoring will consist of site inspections to determine the condition of the engineered cover. Any identified maintenance and repair requirements will be remedied within 90 working days of discovery and documented in writing at the time of repair. Results of all inspections/repairs for a given year will be addressed in a single report submitted annually to the NDEP.

  7. Groundwater-quality data in the northern Coast Ranges study unit, 2009: Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathany, Timothy M.; Dawson, Barbara J.; Shelton, Jennifer L.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the 633-square-mile Northern Coast Ranges (NOCO) study unit was investigated by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) from June to November 2009, as part of the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program's Priority Basin Project (PBP) and the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment Program (NAWQA). The GAMA-PBP was developed in response to the California Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted in collaboration with the SWRCB and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The NOCO study unit was the thirtieth study unit to be sampled as part of the GAMA-PBP.

  8. Hydrothermal monitoring in a quiescent volcanic arc: Cascade Range, northwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingebritsen, S.E.; Randolph-Flagg, N. G.; Gelwick, K.D.; Lundstrom, E.A.; Crankshaw, I.M.; Murveit, A.M.; Schmidt, M.E.; Bergfeld, D.; Spicer, K.R.; Tucker, D.S.; Mariner, R.H.; Evans, William C.

    2014-01-01

    Ongoing (1996–present) volcanic unrest near South Sister, Oregon, is accompanied by a striking set of hydrothermal anomalies, including elevated temperatures, elevated major ion concentrations, and 3He/4He ratios as large as 8.6 RA in slightly thermal springs. These observations prompted the US Geological Survey to begin a systematic hydrothermal-monitoring effort encompassing 25 sites and 10 of the highest-risk volcanoes in the Cascade volcanic arc, from Mount Baker near the Canadian border to Lassen Peak in northern California. A concerted effort was made to develop hourly, multiyear records of temperature and/or hydrothermal solute flux, suitable for retrospective comparison with other continuous geophysical monitoring data. Targets included summit fumarole groups and springs/streams that show clear evidence of magmatic influence in the form of high 3He/4He ratios and/or anomalous fluxes of magmatic CO2 or heat. As of 2009–2012, summit fumarole temperatures in the Cascade Range were generally near or below the local pure water boiling point; the maximum observed superheat was 3 during periods of hourly record. Hydrothermal responses to these small seismic stimuli were generally undetectable or ambiguous. Evaluation of multiyear to multidecadal trends indicates that whereas the hydrothermal system at Mount St. Helens is still fast-evolving in response to the 1980–present eruptive cycle, there is no clear evidence of ongoing long-term trends in hydrothermal activity at other Cascade Range volcanoes that have been active or restless during the past century (Baker, South Sister, and Lassen). Experience gained during the Cascade Range hydrothermal-monitoring experiment informs ongoing efforts to capture entire unrest cycles at more active but generally less accessible volcanoes such as those in the Aleutian arc.

  9. Flexible displays, rigid designs?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hornbæk, Kasper

    2015-01-01

    Rapid technological progress has enabled a wide range of flexible displays for computing devices, but the user experience--which we're only beginning to understand--will be the key driver for successful designs....

  10. Split-And-Delay Unit for FEL Interferometry in the XUV Spectral Range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Usenko

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work we present a reflective split-and-delay unit (SDU developed for interferometric time-resolved experiments utilizing an (extreme ultraviolet XUV pump–XUV probe scheme with focused free-electron laser beams. The developed SDU overcomes limitations for phase-resolved measurements inherent to conventional two-element split mirrors by a special design using two reflective lamellar gratings. The gratings produce a high-contrast interference signal controlled by the grating displacement in every diffraction order. The orders are separated in the focal plane of the focusing optics, which enables one to avoid phase averaging by spatially selective detection of a single interference state of the two light fields. Interferometry requires a precise relative phase control of the light fields, which presents a challenge at short wavelengths. In our setup the phase delay is determined by an in-vacuum white light interferometer (WLI that monitors the surface profile of the SDU in real time and thus measures the delay for each laser shot. The precision of the WLI is 1 nm as determined by optical laser interferometry. In the presented experimental geometry it corresponds to a time delay accuracy of 3 as, which enables phase-resolved XUV pump–XUV probe experiments at free-electron laser (FEL repetition rates up to 60 Hz.

  11. Groundwater quality in the Basin and Range Basin-Fill Aquifers, southwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musgrove, MaryLynn; Belitz, Kenneth

    2017-01-19

    Groundwater provides nearly 50 percent of the Nation’s drinking water. To help protect this vital resource, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Project assesses groundwater quality in aquifers that are important sources of drinking water. The Basin and Range basin-fill aquifers constitute one of the important areas being evaluated. One or more inorganic constituents with human-health benchmarks were detected at high concentrations in about 20 percent of the study area and at moderate concentrations in about 49 percent. Organic constituents were not detected at high concentrations in the study area. One or more organic constituents with human-health benchmarks were detected at moderate concentrations in about 3 percent of the study area.

  12. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 486: Double Tracks RADSAFE Area, Nellis Air Force Range, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ITLV

    1999-07-12

    This Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 486, Double Tracks Radiological Safety (RADSAFE) Area (DTRSA) in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) of 1996 that was agreed to by the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV); the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP); and the U.S Department of Defense (FFACO, 1996). The CADD provides or references the specific information necessary to recommend a preferred corrective action for the single Corrective Action Site (CAS), 71-23-001-71DT, within CAU 486. Corrective Action Unit 486 is located on the Nellis Air Force Range 71 North, west of the Tonopah Test Range (TTR), Nevada. The TTR, located in the Nellis Air Force Range, is approximately 140 miles (mi) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada (Figure 1-1). The DTRSA is located on the west side of the Cactus Range approximately 5 mi southwest of the Cactus Spring gate at the intersection of the Cactus Spring Road and the Double Tracks Control Point Road (Figure 1-2).

  13. Handbook of Visual Display Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Cranton, Wayne; Fihn, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The Handbook of Visual Display Technology is a unique work offering a comprehensive description of the science, technology, economic and human interface factors associated with the displays industry. An invaluable compilation of information, the Handbook will serve as a single reference source with expert contributions from over 150 international display professionals and academic researchers. All classes of display device are covered including LCDs, reflective displays, flexible solutions and emissive devices such as OLEDs and plasma displays, with discussion of established principles, emergent technologies, and particular areas of application. The wide-ranging content also encompasses the fundamental science of light and vision, image manipulation, core materials and processing techniques, display driving and metrology.

  14. Increasing the Cruise Range and Reducing the Capital Cost of Electric Vehicles by Integrating Auxiliary Unit with the Traction Drive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Satheesh Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Poor cruise performance of Electric Vehicles (EVs continues to be the primary reason that impends their market penetration. Adding more battery to extend the cruise range is not a viable solution as it increases the structural weight and capital cost of the EV. Simulations identified that a vehicle spends on average 15% of its total time in braking, signifying an immense potential of the utilization of regenerative braking mechanism. Based on the analysis, a 3 kW auxiliary electrical unit coupled with the traction drive during braking events increases the recoverable energy by 8.4%. In addition, the simulation revealed that, on average, the energy drawn from the battery is reduced by 3.2% when traction drive is integrated with the air-conditioning compressor (an auxiliary electrical load. A practical design solution of the integrated unit is also included in the paper. Based on the findings, it is evident that the integration of an auxiliary unit with the traction drive results in enhancing the energy capturing capacity of the regenerative braking mechanism and decreases the power consumed from the battery. Further, the integrated unit boosts other advantages such as reduced material cost, improved reliability, and a compact and lightweight design.

  15. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 486: Double Tracks RADSAFE Area Nellis Air Force Range, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    IT Las Vegas

    1998-10-15

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) has been developed in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) that was agreed to by the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV); the State of Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP); and the US Department of Defense (FFACO, 1996). The CAIP is a document that provides or references all of the specific information for investigation activities associated with Corrective Action Units (CAUs) or Corrective Action Sites (CASs). According to the FFACO, CASs are sites potentially requiring corrective action(s) and may include solid waste management units or individual disposal or release sites (FFACO, 1996). Corrective Action Units consist of one or more CASs grouped together based on geography, technical similarity, or agency responsibility for the purpose of determining corrective actions. This CAIP contains the environmental sample collection objectives and the criteria for conducting site investigation activities at CAU 486, the Double Tracks Radiological Safety (RADSAFE) Area (DTRSA) which is located on the Nellis Air Force Range 71North (N), west of the Tonopah Test Range (TTR). The TTR, included in the Nellis Air Force Range Complex, is approximately 255 kilometers (km) (140 miles [mi]) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada (Figure 1-1). Corrective Action Unit 486 is comprised of CAS 71-23-001-71DT consisting of two areas of concern referred to as the vehicle decontamination area and the animal burial pit. The DTRSA is located on the west side of the Cactus Range approximately 8 km (5 mi) southwest of the Cactus Spring gate at the intersection of the Cactus Spring Road and the Double Tracks Control Point Road (Figure 1-2). The DTRSA was used during May 1963 to decontaminate vehicles, equipment, personnel, and animals from the Double Tracks test. The DTRSA is one of three areas identified as a potential location for the disposal of radioactively contaminated

  16. Current Practices of Measuring and Reference Range Reporting of Free and Total Testosterone in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Margaret; Flores, David; May, Danica; Gourley, Eric; Nangia, Ajay K

    2016-05-01

    The evaluation and management of male hypogonadism should be based on symptoms and on serum testosterone levels. Diagnostically this relies on accurate testing and reference values. Our objective was to define the distribution of reference values and assays for free and total testosterone by clinical laboratories in the United States. Upper and lower reference values, assay methodology and source of published reference ranges were obtained from laboratories across the country. A standardized survey was reviewed with laboratory staff via telephone. Descriptive statistics were used to tabulate results. We surveyed a total of 120 laboratories in 47 states. Total testosterone was measured in house at 73% of laboratories. At the remaining laboratories studies were sent to larger centralized reference facilities. The mean ± SD lower reference value of total testosterone was 231 ± 46 ng/dl (range 160 to 300) and the mean upper limit was 850 ± 141 ng/dl (range 726 to 1,130). Only 9% of laboratories where in-house total testosterone testing was performed created a reference range unique to their region. Others validated the instrument recommended reference values in a small number of internal test samples. For free testosterone 82% of laboratories sent testing to larger centralized reference laboratories where equilibrium dialysis and/or liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry was done. The remaining laboratories used published algorithms to calculate serum free testosterone. Reference ranges for testosterone assays vary significantly among laboratories. The ranges are predominantly defined by limited population studies of men with unknown medical and reproductive histories. These poorly defined and variable reference values, especially the lower limit, affect how clinicians determine treatment. Copyright © 2016 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Military display performance parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desjardins, Daniel D.; Meyer, Frederick

    2012-06-01

    The military display market is analyzed in terms of four of its segments: avionics, vetronics, dismounted soldier, and command and control. Requirements are summarized for a number of technology-driving parameters, to include luminance, night vision imaging system compatibility, gray levels, resolution, dimming range, viewing angle, video capability, altitude, temperature, shock and vibration, etc., for direct-view and virtual-view displays in cockpits and crew stations. Technical specifications are discussed for selected programs.

  18. HEALTH AND NUTRITIONAL ASSESSMENT OF FREE-RANGING EASTERN INDIGO SNAKES (DRYMARCHON COUPERI) IN GEORGIA, UNITED STATES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knafo, S Emmanuelle; Norton, Terry M; Mitchell, Mark; Stevenson, Dirk J; Hyslop, Natalie; Poppenga, Robert; Oliva, Marcie; Chen, Tai; Cray, Carolyn; Gibbs, Samantha E J; Durden, Lance; Stedman, Nancy; Divers, Stephen; Dierenfeld, Ellen

    2016-12-01

    Clinical pathology and nutritional parameters are useful in evaluating and monitoring threatened and endangered wildlife populations, but reference ranges for most snake species are lacking. From 2001 to 2005, health assessments were performed on 58 eastern indigo snakes (EIS) (Drymarchon couperi) captured in the wild in southeastern Georgia, United States. Health and nutritional assessments performed included hematology, serum biochemistry, fat-soluble vitamins, heavy metals, pesticide contaminants, parasitology, and surveys of other pathogens. Significant differences in total solids, packed cell volume, glucose, blood urea nitrogen, albumin : globulin ratio, amylase, triglycerides, and bile acids between males and females were observed. Additionally, there was a significant difference between liver and kidney concentrations for vitamins A and E. As previously noted in captive EIS, total Ca was elevated in comparison to concentrations reported in other snake species. Parasitism was a common finding in sampled EIS, but the overall health status of this free-ranging population appeared good. A winter-time dermatitis was found in most snakes, which resolved in the summer months. This study represents the first health and nutritional assessment of free-ranging EIS, and provides needed data to guide monitoring and conservation efforts.

  19. Effect of a static calf muscle-tendon unit stretching program on ankle dorsiflexion range of motion of older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Eric; Bradley, Bruce; Witkowski, Kimberly; McKee, Rose; Telesmanic, Christopher; Chavez, Andre; Kennedy, Karen; Zimmerman, Grenith

    2007-01-01

    While there has been considerable research on stretching, a paucity of research has focused on stretching of the calf muscle-tendon unit (MTU) in older women. Because limited ankle dorsiflexion range of motion (ROM) is associated with gait abnormalities and increases the risk of falls in the elderly, we investigated the effect of static stretching on flexibility of the calf MTU of healthy elderly adults. Twenty healthy female volunteers, 76 to 91 years of age, were recruited from Linda Valley Villa, an independent living center. Subjects performed a static stretching program 5 days a week for 6 weeks. Passive ankle dorsiflexion ROM was taken prior to beginning the stretching program and 3 days after the last stretching day. Mean increase in passive ankle dorsiflexion ROM was 12.3 degrees (SD= 4.4 degrees ) (p dorsiflexion ROM for elderly women.

  20. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan for Corrective Action Unit 499: Hydrocarbon Spill Site, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. M. Fitzmaurice

    2001-09-01

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) plan addresses the action necessary for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 499, Hydrocarbon Spill Site, Tonopah Test Range (TTR). This CAU is currently listed in Appendix III of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) (FFACO, 1996). CAU 499 is located on the TTR and consists of the following single Corrective Action Site (CAS) (Figure 1): CAS RG-25-001-RD24 - Radar 24 Diesel Spill Site is a diesel fuel release site that is assumed to have been cased by numerous small historical over fillings, spills and leaks from an above-ground storage tank (AST) over a period of 36 years. The tank was located on the north side of Building 24-50 on the TTR approximately 4.0 kilometers (2.5 miles) southwest of the Area 3 Compound at the end of the Avenue 24.

  1. Microlaser-based displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergstedt, Robert; Fink, Charles G.; Flint, Graham W.; Hargis, David E.; Peppler, Philipp W.

    1997-07-01

    Laser Power Corporation has developed a new type of projection display, based upon microlaser technology and a novel scan architecture, which provides the foundation for bright, extremely high resolution images. A review of projection technologies is presented along with the limitations of each and the difficulties they experience in trying to generate high resolution imagery. The design of the microlaser based projector is discussed along with the advantage of this technology. High power red, green, and blue microlasers have been designed and developed specifically for use in projection displays. These sources, in combination with high resolution, high contrast modulator, produce a 24 bit color gamut, capable of supporting the full range of real world colors. The new scan architecture, which reduces the modulation rate and scan speeds required, is described. This scan architecture, along with the inherent brightness of the laser provides the fundamentals necessary to produce a 5120 by 4096 resolution display. The brightness and color uniformity of the display is excellent, allowing for tiling of the displays with far fewer artifacts than those in a traditionally tiled display. Applications for the display include simulators, command and control centers, and electronic cinema.

  2. Building a QC Database of Meteorological Data from NASA KSC and the United States Air Force's Eastern Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenton, J. C.; Barbre, R. E.; Decker, R. K.; Orcutt, J. M.

    2018-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Natural Environments Branch (EV44) provides atmospheric databases and analysis in support of space vehicle design and day-of-launch operations for NASA and commercial launch vehicle programs launching from the NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC), co-located on the United States Air Force's Eastern Range (ER) at the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. The ER complex is one of the most heavily instrumented sites in the United States with over 31 towers measuring various atmospheric parameters on a continuous basis. An inherent challenge with large datasets consists of ensuring erroneous data are removed from databases, and thus excluded from launch vehicle design analyses. EV44 has put forth great effort in developing quality control (QC) procedures for individual meteorological instruments, however no standard QC procedures for all databases currently exists resulting in QC databases that have inconsistencies in variables, development methodologies, and periods of record. The goal of this activity is to use the previous efforts to develop a standardized set of QC procedures from which to build meteorological databases from KSC and the ER, while maintaining open communication with end users from the launch community to develop ways to improve, adapt and grow the QC database. Details of the QC procedures will be described. As the rate of launches increases with additional launch vehicle programs, It is becoming more important that weather databases are continually updated and checked for data quality before use in launch vehicle design and certification analyses.

  3. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 412: Clean Slate I Plutonium Dispersion (TTR) Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthews, Patrick [Navarro, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2016-08-22

    This Closure Report (CR) presents information supporting the clean closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 412: Clean Slate I Plutonium Dispersion (TTR), located on the Tonopah Test Range, Nevada. CAU 412 consists of a release of radionuclides to the surrounding soil from a storage–transportation test conducted on May 25, 1963. Corrective action investigation (CAI) activities were performed in April and May 2015, as set forth in the Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan for Corrective Action Unit 412: Clean Slate I Plutonium Dispersion (TTR), Tonopah Test Range, Nevada; and in accordance with the Soils Activity Quality Assurance Plan. The purpose of the CAI was to fulfill data needs as defined during the data quality objectives process. The CAU 412 dataset of investigation results was evaluated based on a data quality assessment. This assessment demonstrated the dataset is complete and acceptable for use in fulfilling the data needs identified by the data quality objectives process. This CR provides documentation and justification for the clean closure of CAU 412 under the FFACO without further corrective action. This justification is based on historical knowledge of the site, previous site investigations, implementation of the 1997 interim corrective action, and the results of the CAI. The corrective action of clean closure was confirmed as appropriate for closure of CAU 412 based on achievement of the following closure objectives: Radiological contamination at the site is less than the final action level using the ground troops exposure scenario (i.e., the radiological dose is less than the final action level): Removable alpha contamination is less than the high contamination area criterion: No potential source material is present at the site, and any impacted soil associated with potential source material has been removed so that remaining soil contains contaminants at concentrations less than the final action levels: and There is

  4. The effect of static stretching of the calf muscle-tendon unit on active ankle dorsiflexion range of motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youdas, James W; Krause, David A; Egan, Kathleen S; Therneau, Terry M; Laskowski, Edward R

    2003-07-01

    Masked randomized trial. To examine the effects of a 6-week program of static stretching of the calf muscle-tendon unit (MTU) on active ankle dorsiflexion range of motion (ADFROM) in healthy subjects. Static stretching of the calf MTU is often prescribed to increase flexibility in patients with shortened connective tissues or to maintain ADFROM in healthy individuals. Presently, physical therapists lack specific information on the optimal dosage of calf MTU stretching necessary to produce improvement in ADFROM. One hundred one adults (63 women, 38 men; mean age +/- SD, 40.0 +/- 10.9 years; range, 21-59) with no visual evidence of gait impairment due to lower-extremity dysfunction participated in the study. Active ADFROM was measured with a universal goniometer. Participants were randomly assigned to group 1, no stretch controls (n = 24), or to 1 of 3 experimental groups carrying out a 6-week program of standing wall stretches once per day: individuals in group 2 stretched for 30 seconds (n = 26); individuals in group 3 stretched for 1 minute (n = 24); individuals in group 4 stretched for 2 minutes (n = 27). After 6 weeks, the results of an analysis of variance found no effect of treatment on active ADFROM. The results of this study show that a 6-week program of once-per-day static stretching for up to 2 minutes is not sufficient to increase active ADFROM in healthy subjects.

  5. Groundwater-quality data in the Cascade Range and Modoc Plateau study unit, 2010-Results from the California GAMA Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Jennifer L.; Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the 39,000-square-kilometer Cascade Range and Modoc Plateau (CAMP) study unit was investigated by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) from July through October 2010, as part of the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program’s Priority Basin Project (PBP). The GAMA PBP was developed in response to the California Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted in collaboration with the SWRCB and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The CAMP study unit is the thirty-second study unit to be sampled as part of the GAMA PBP. The GAMA CAMP study was designed to provide a spatially unbiased assessment of untreated-groundwater quality in the primary aquifer system and to facilitate statistically consistent comparisons of untreated-groundwater quality throughout California. The primary aquifer system is defined as that part of the aquifer corresponding to the open or screened intervals of wells listed in the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) database for the CAMP study unit. The quality of groundwater in shallow or deep water-bearing zones may differ from the quality of groundwater in the primary aquifer system; shallow groundwater may be more vulnerable to surficial contamination. In the CAMP study unit, groundwater samples were collected from 90 wells and springs in 6 study areas (Sacramento Valley Eastside, Honey Lake Valley, Cascade Range and Modoc Plateau Low Use Basins, Shasta Valley and Mount Shasta Volcanic Area, Quaternary Volcanic Areas, and Tertiary Volcanic Areas) in Butte, Lassen, Modoc, Plumas, Shasta, Siskiyou, and Tehama Counties. Wells and springs were selected by using a spatially distributed, randomized grid-based method to provide statistical representation of the study unit (grid wells). Groundwater samples were analyzed for field water-quality indicators, organic constituents, perchlorate, inorganic constituents

  6. Host Ranges of Listeria-Specific Bacteriophages from the Turkey Processing Plant Environment in the United States ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae-Won; Siletzky, Robin M.; Kathariou, Sophia

    2008-01-01

    Even though at least 400 Listeria phages have been isolated from various sources, limited information is available on phages from the food processing plant environment. Phages in the processing plant environment may play critical roles in determining the Listeria population that becomes established in the plant. In this study, we pursued the isolation of Listeria-specific phages from environmental samples from four turkey processing plants in the United States. These environmental samples were also utilized to isolate Listeria spp. Twelve phages were isolated and classified into three groups in terms of their host range. Of these, nine (group 1) showed a wide host range, including multiple serotypes of Listeria monocytogenes, as well as other Listeria spp. (L. innocua, L. welshimeri, L. seeligeri, and L. ivanovii). The remaining phages mostly infected L. monocytogenes serotype 4b as well as L. innocua, L. ivanovii, and/or L. welshimeri. All but one of the strains of the serotype 4b complex (4b, 4d, 4e) from the processing plant environment could be readily infected by the wide-host-range phages isolated from the environment of the processing plants. However, many strains of other serotypes (1/2a [or 3a] and 1/2b [or 3b]), which represented the majority of L. monocytogenes strains isolated from the environmental samples, were resistant to infection by these phages. Experiments with two phage-resistant strains showed reduced phage adsorption onto the host cells. These findings suggest that phage resistance may be an important component of the ecology of L. monocytogenes in the turkey processing plants. PMID:18791016

  7. Host ranges of Listeria-specific bacteriophages from the turkey processing plant environment in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae-Won; Siletzky, Robin M; Kathariou, Sophia

    2008-11-01

    Even though at least 400 Listeria phages have been isolated from various sources, limited information is available on phages from the food processing plant environment. Phages in the processing plant environment may play critical roles in determining the Listeria population that becomes established in the plant. In this study, we pursued the isolation of Listeria-specific phages from environmental samples from four turkey processing plants in the United States. These environmental samples were also utilized to isolate Listeria spp. Twelve phages were isolated and classified into three groups in terms of their host range. Of these, nine (group 1) showed a wide host range, including multiple serotypes of Listeria monocytogenes, as well as other Listeria spp. (L. innocua, L. welshimeri, L. seeligeri, and L. ivanovii). The remaining phages mostly infected L. monocytogenes serotype 4b as well as L. innocua, L. ivanovii, and/or L. welshimeri. All but one of the strains of the serotype 4b complex (4b, 4d, 4e) from the processing plant environment could be readily infected by the wide-host-range phages isolated from the environment of the processing plants. However, many strains of other serotypes (1/2a [or 3a] and 1/2b [or 3b]), which represented the majority of L. monocytogenes strains isolated from the environmental samples, were resistant to infection by these phages. Experiments with two phage-resistant strains showed reduced phage adsorption onto the host cells. These findings suggest that phage resistance may be an important component of the ecology of L. monocytogenes in the turkey processing plants.

  8. Adult mouse motor units develop almost all of their force in the subprimary range: a new all-or-none strategy for force recruitment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuel, Marin; Heckman, C J

    2011-10-19

    Classical studies of the mammalian neuromuscular system have shown an impressive adaptation match between the intrinsic properties of motoneurons and the contractile properties of their motor units. In these studies, the rate at which motoneurons start to fire repetitively corresponds to the rate at which individual twitches start to sum, and the firing rate increases linearly with the amount of excitation ("primary range") up to the point where the motor unit develops its maximal force. This allows for the gradation of the force produced by a motor unit by rate modulation. In adult mouse motoneurons, however, we recently described a regime of firing ("subprimary range") that appears at lower excitation than what is required for the primary range, a finding that might challenge the classical conception. To investigate the force production of mouse motor units, we simultaneously recorded, for the first time, the motoneuron discharge elicited by intracellular ramps of current and the force developed by its motor unit. We showed that the motor unit developed nearly its maximal force during the subprimary range. This was found to be the case regardless of the input resistance of the motoneuron, the contraction speed, or the tetanic force of the motor unit. Our work suggests that force modulation in small mammals mainly relies on the number of motor units that are recruited rather than on rate modulation of individual motor units.

  9. Military display market: update to fourth comprehensive edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desjardins, Daniel D.; Byrd, James C.; Hopper, Darrel G.

    2009-05-01

    The military display market is analyzed in terms of all fully electronic and many electro-mechanical displays used on combat platforms across all DOD Services. The military market for displays is defined by parameters such as active area, bezel-to-bezel measurement and technology. Other characteristics such as luminance, contrast ratio, gray levels, resolution, viewing angle, color, video capability, and night vision imaging system compatibility are noted. This study takes into account all displays that are either installed or funded for installation. In some cases, planned displays are also included. Display sizes having aggregate defense applications of 5,000 units or greater and having DOD applications across 10 or more platform fleets, are tabulated. The issue of size commonality is addressed where distribution of active area across platform fleets, individually, in groups of two through nine, and ten or more, is illustrated. Military displays are also analyzed by technology, where total quantities of such displays are broken out into CRT, LCD, AMLCD, EM, LED, Incandescent, Plasma and TFEL percentages. Custom, versus rugged commercial, versus commercial off-the-shelf designs are contrasted. High and low information content designs are identified. Displays for several high-profile military programs are discussed, to include both technical specifications and program history. This defense-wide study, an up-date to our paper delivered April 2006, documents 642 weapons system platforms comprising 1,194,199 displays in 1,217 sizes, of which 1,197 are direct-view and 20 are virtual-view. Defense display sizes range from 0.082 in..2 to 10,625 in.2 in 18 technologies, mostly flat panel display (FPD) technologies based on thin-film transistor active matrix liquid crystal displays (TFT AM LCD), with cathode ray tube (CRT) second and dropping rapidly. This paper provides an overview of the DOD display market, allowing government, academia and industry highlights of

  10. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 408: Bomblet Target Area Tonopah Test Range (TTR), Nevada, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark Krauss

    2010-09-01

    This Closure Report (CR) presents information supporting the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 408: Bomblet Target Area (TTR), Tonopah Test Range, Nevada. This CR complies with the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order that was agreed to by the State of Nevada; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Environmental Management; U.S. Department of Defense; and DOE, Legacy Management. Corrective Action Unit 408 is located at the Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, and consists of Corrective Action Site (CAS) TA-55-002-TAB2, Bomblet Target Areas. This CAS includes the following seven target areas: • Mid Target • Flightline Bomblet Location • Strategic Air Command (SAC) Target Location 1 • SAC Target Location 2 • South Antelope Lake • Tomahawk Location 1 • Tomahawk Location 2 The purpose of this CR is to provide documentation supporting the completed corrective actions and data confirming that the closure objectives for the CAS within CAU 408 were met. To achieve this, the following actions were performed: • Review the current site conditions, including the concentration and extent of contamination. • Implement any corrective actions necessary to protect human health and the environment. • Properly dispose of corrective action and investigation wastes. • Document Notice of Completion and closure of CAU 408 issued by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection. From July 2009 through August 2010, closure activities were performed as set forth in the Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan for CAU 408: Bomblet Target Area, Tonopah Test Range (TTR), Nevada. The purposes of the activities as defined during the data quality objectives process were as follows: • Identify and remove munitions of explosive concern (MEC) associated with DOE activities. • Investigate potential disposal pit locations. • Remove depleted uranium-contaminated fragments and soil. • Determine whether contaminants of concern (COCs) are

  11. Tree demography suggests multiple directions and drivers for species range shifts in mountains of Northeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wason, Jay W; Dovciak, Martin

    2017-08-01

    Climate change is expected to lead to upslope shifts in tree species distributions, but the evidence is mixed partly due to land-use effects and individualistic species responses to climate. We examined how individual tree species demography varies along elevational climatic gradients across four states in the northeastern United States to determine whether species elevational distributions and their potential upslope (or downslope) shifts were controlled by climate, land-use legacies (past logging), or soils. We characterized tree demography, microclimate, land-use legacies, and soils at 83 sites stratified by elevation (~500 to ~1200 m above sea level) across 12 mountains containing the transition from northern hardwood to spruce-fir forests. We modeled elevational distributions of tree species saplings and adults using logistic regression to test whether sapling distributions suggest ongoing species range expansion upslope (or contraction downslope) relative to adults, and we used linear mixed models to determine the extent to which climate, land use, and soil variables explain these distributions. Tree demography varied with elevation by species, suggesting a potential upslope shift only for American beech, downslope shifts for red spruce (more so in cool regions) and sugar maple, and no change with elevation for balsam fir. While soils had relatively minor effects, climate was the dominant predictor for most species and more so for saplings than adults of red spruce, sugar maple, yellow birch, cordate birch, and striped maple. On the other hand, logging legacies were positively associated with American beech, sugar maple, and yellow birch, and negatively with red spruce and balsam fir - generally more so for adults than saplings. All species exhibited individualistic rather than synchronous demographic responses to climate and land use, and the return of red spruce to lower elevations where past logging originally benefited northern hardwood species indicates

  12. Demonstration of airborne transmission of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 2 between simulated pig units located at close range

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, C.S.; Angen, Øystein; Andreasen, M.

    2004-01-01

    Airborne transmission of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae was studied as the percentage of air needed to establish airborne transmission from an infected pig unit into a neighbouring non-infected pig unit. The experiment was carried out in two containers constructed as pig units, placed 1 m apart...

  13. Universal Numeric Segmented Display

    OpenAIRE

    Azad, Md. Abul Kalam; Sharmeen, Rezwana; S. M. Kamruzzaman

    2010-01-01

    Segmentation display plays a vital role to display numerals. But in today's world matrix display is also used in displaying numerals. Because numerals has lots of curve edges which is better supported by matrix display. But as matrix display is costly and complex to implement and also needs more memory, segment display is generally used to display numerals. But as there is yet no proposed compact display architecture to display multiple language numerals at a time, this paper proposes uniform...

  14. Information rich display design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welch, Robin; Braseth, Alf Ove; Veland, Oeystein

    2004-07-01

    This paper presents the concept Information Rich Displays. The purpose of Information Rich Displays (IRDs) is to condensate prevailing information in process displays in such a way that each display format (picture) contains more relevant information for the user. Compared to traditional process control displays, this new concept allows the operator to attain key information at a glance and at the same time allows for improved monitoring of larger portions of the process. This again allows for reduced navigation between both process and trend displays and ease the cognitive demand on the operator. This concept has been created while working on designing display prototypes for the offshore petroleum production facilities of tomorrow. Offshore installations basically consist of wells, separation trains (where oil, gas and water are separated from each other), an oil tax measurement system (where oil quality is measured and the pressure increased to allow for export), gas compression (compression of gas for export) and utility systems (water treatment, chemical systems etc.). This means that an offshore control room operator has to deal with a complex process that comprises several functionally different systems. The need for a new approach to offshore display format design is in particular based on shortcomings in today's designs related to the keyhole effect, where the display format only reveals a fraction of the whole process. Furthermore, the upcoming introduction of larger off- and on-shore operation centres will increase the size and complexity of the operators' work domain. In the light of the increased demands on the operator, the proposed IRDs aim to counter the negative effects this may have on the workload. In this work we have attempted to classify the wide range of different roles an operator can have in different situations. The information content and amount being presented to the operator in a display should be viewed in context of the roles

  15. Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 428: Area 3 Septic Waste Systems 1 and 5 Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. S. Tobiason

    2000-08-01

    Area 3 Septic Waste Systems 1 and 5 are located in Area 3 of the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) (Figure 1). The site is listed in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO, 1996) as Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 428 and includes Corrective Action Sites 03-05-002-SW01 (Septic Waste System 1 [SWS 1]), and 03-05-002-SW05 (Septic Waste System 5 [SWS 5]). The site history for the CAU is provided in the Corrective Action Investigation Plan (U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office [DOE/NV], 1999). SWS 1 consists of two leachfields and associated septic tanks. SWS 1 received effluent from both sanitary and industrial sources from various buildings in Area 3 of the TTR (Figure 2). SWS 5 is comprised of one leachfield and outfall with an associated septic tank. SWS 5 received effluent from sources in Building 03-50 in Area 3 of the TTR (Figure 2). Both systems were active until 1990 when a consolidated sewer system was installed. The purpose of this Corrective Action Plan (CAP) is to provide the strategy and methodology to close the Area 3 SWS 1 and 5. The CAU will be closed following state and federal regulations and the FFACO (1996). Site characterization was done during May and June 1999. Samples of the tank contents, leachfield soil, and soil under the tanks and pipes were collected. The results of the characterization were reported in the Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) (DOE/NV, 2000). Additional sampling was done in May 2000, the results of which are presented in this plan. Soil sample results indicated that two constituents of concern were detected above Preliminary Action Levels (PALs). Total arsenic was detected at a concentration of 68.7 milligrams per kilogram (mg/kg). The arsenic was found under the center distribution line at the proximal end of the SWS 5 Leachfield (Figure 3). Total benzo(a)pyrene was detected at a concentration of 480 micrograms per kilogram ({micro}g/kg). The benzo(a)pyrene was found in the soil under the

  16. Extension of the Kendrick Mass Defect Analysis of Homopolymers to Low Resolution and High Mass Range Mass Spectra Using Fractional Base Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouquet, Thierry; Sato, Hiroaki

    2017-03-07

    Beyond the high resolution/low mass range data traditionally used, a Kendrick mass defect analysis (KMD) using the new concept of fractional base units has been successfully conducted on low resolution/low mass range and high resolution/high mass range data for the first time. Relying on a mathematical framework to rationalize the effect of the fractional base units, the electrospray ionization single stage and multistage mass spectra of a poly(vinylpyrrolidone) recorded from a low resolution ion trap analyzer were turned into information-rich KMD plots using vinylpyrrolidone/112 and pyrrolidone/86 as base units. The distributions detected in the matrix assisted laser desorption ionization spiralTOF mass spectra of high molecular weight poly(ethylene oxide) and poly(caprolactone) were conveniently discriminated in KMD plots using (ethylene oxide)/45 and caprolactone/113 as base units with an unprecedented resolution at such a mass range. The high resolution KMD analysis using fractional base units opens new perspectives for the acquisition, visualization, and presentation of mass spectra of polymers with less restrictions in terms of required resolution and molecular weights.

  17. Tone compatibility between HDR displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bist, Cambodge; Cozot, Rémi; Madec, Gérard; Ducloux, Xavier

    2016-09-01

    High Dynamic Range (HDR) is the latest trend in television technology and we expect an in ux of HDR capable consumer TVs in the market. Initial HDR consumer displays will operate on a peak brightness of about 500-1000 nits while in the coming years display peak brightness is expected to go beyond 1000 nits. However, professionally graded HDR content can range from 1000 to 4000 nits. As with Standard Dynamic Range (SDR) content, we can expect HDR content to be available in variety of lighting styles such as low key, medium key and high key video. This raises concerns over tone-compatibility between HDR displays especially when adapting to various lighting styles. It is expected that dynamic range adaptation between HDR displays uses similar techniques as found with tone mapping and tone expansion operators. In this paper, we survey simple tone mapping methods of 4000 nits color-graded HDR content for 1000 nits HDR displays. We also investigate tone expansion strategies when HDR content graded in 1000 nits is displayed on 4000 nits HDR monitors. We conclude that the best tone reproduction technique between HDR displays strongly depends on the lighting style of the content.

  18. Regional atmospheric deposition patterns of Ag, As, Bi, Cd, Hg, Mo, Sb and Tl in a 188,000 km 2 area in the European arctic as displayed by terrestrial moss samples-long-range atmospheric transport vs local impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimann, Clemens; De Caritat, Patrice; Halleraker, Jo H.; Finne, Tor Erik; Boyd, Rognvald; Jæger, Øystein; Volden, Tore; Kashulina, Galina; Bogatyrev, Igor; Chekushin, Viktor; Pavlov, Vladimir; Äyräs, Matti; Räisänen, Marja Liisa; Niskavaara, Heikki

    The regional atmospheric deposition patterns of Ag, As, Bi, Cd, Hg, Mo, Sb and Tl have been mapped in a 188,000 km2 area of the European Arctic (N Finland, N Norway, NW Russia) using the moss technique. The Russian nickel mining and smelting industry (Nikel and Zapoljarnij (Pechenganikel) and Monchegorsk (Severonikel)) in the eastern part of the survey area represents two of the largest point sources for S0 2 and metal emissions on a world wide basis. In contrast, parts of northern Finland and northern Norway represent still some of the most pristine areas in Europe. The terrestrial mosses Hylocomium splendens and Pleurozium schreberi were used as monitors of airborne deposition. Samples in all three countries were collected during the summer of 1995 and analysed in one laboratory using ICP-MS. Maps for most elements clearly show elevated element concentrations near the industrial sites and delineate the extent of contamination. Pollution follows the main wind and topographical directions in the area (N-S). The gradients of deposition are rather steep. Background levels for all the elements are reached within 150-200 km from the industrial plants. The relative importance of long-range atmospheric transport of air pollutants from industrial point sources on the world wide increase of heavy metals observed in the atmosphere is thus debatable for many elements. Increasing population and traffic density, accompanied by increasing local dust levels, may play a much more important role than industrial emissions. The regional distribution patterns as displayed in the maps show some striking differences between the elements. The regional distribution of Hg and TI in the survey area is completely dominated by sources other than industry.

  19. The origin of recently established red fox populations in the United States: translocations or natural range expansions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark J. Statham; Benjamin N. Sacks; Keith B. Aubry; John D. Perrine; Samantha M. Wisely

    2012-01-01

    Red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) are native to boreal and western montane portions of North America but their origins are unknown in many lowland areas of the United States. Red foxes were historically absent from much of the East Coast at the time of European settlement and did not become common until the mid-1800s. Some early naturalists described an...

  20. Augmenting digital displays with computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing

    As we inevitably step deeper and deeper into a world connected via the Internet, more and more information will be exchanged digitally. Displays are the interface between digital information and each individual. Naturally, one fundamental goal of displays is to reproduce information as realistically as possible since humans still care a lot about what happens in the real world. Human eyes are the receiving end of such information exchange; therefore it is impossible to study displays without studying the human visual system. In fact, the design of displays is rather closely coupled with what human eyes are capable of perceiving. For example, we are less interested in building displays that emit light in the invisible spectrum. This dissertation explores how we can augment displays with computation, which takes both display hardware and the human visual system into consideration. Four novel projects on display technologies are included in this dissertation: First, we propose a software-based approach to driving multiview autostereoscopic displays. Our display algorithm can dynamically assign views to hardware display zones based on multiple observers' current head positions, substantially reducing crosstalk and stereo inversion. Second, we present a dense projector array that creates a seamless 3D viewing experience for multiple viewers. We smoothly interpolate the set of viewer heights and distances on a per-vertex basis across the arrays field of view, reducing image distortion, crosstalk, and artifacts from tracking errors. Third, we propose a method for high dynamic range display calibration that takes into account the variation of the chrominance error over luminance. We propose a data structure for enabling efficient representation and querying of the calibration function, which also allows user-guided balancing between memory consumption and the amount of computation. Fourth, we present user studies that demonstrate that the ˜ 60 Hz critical flicker fusion

  1. Towards direct realisation of the SI unit of sound pressure in the audible hearing range based on optical free-field acoustic particle measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koukoulas, Triantafillos, E-mail: triantafillos.koukoulas@npl.co.uk; Piper, Ben [Acoustics Group, National Physical Laboratory, Hampton Road, Teddington, Middlesex TW11 0LW (United Kingdom)

    2015-04-20

    Since the introduction of the International System of Units (the SI system) in 1960, weights, measures, standardised approaches, procedures, and protocols have been introduced, adapted, and extensively used. A major international effort and activity concentrate on the definition and traceability of the seven base SI units in terms of fundamental constants, and consequently those units that are derived from the base units. In airborne acoustical metrology and for the audible range of frequencies up to 20 kHz, the SI unit of sound pressure, the pascal, is realised indirectly and without any knowledge or measurement of the sound field. Though the principle of reciprocity was originally formulated by Lord Rayleigh nearly two centuries ago, it was devised in the 1940s and eventually became a calibration standard in the 1960s; however, it can only accommodate a limited number of acoustic sensors of specific types and dimensions. International standards determine the device sensitivity either through coupler or through free-field reciprocity but rely on the continuous availability of specific acoustical artefacts. Here, we show an optical method based on gated photon correlation spectroscopy that can measure sound pressures directly and absolutely in fully anechoic conditions, remotely, and without disturbing the propagating sound field. It neither relies on the availability or performance of any measurement artefact nor makes any assumptions of the device geometry and sound field characteristics. Most importantly, the required units of sound pressure and microphone sensitivity may now be experimentally realised, thus providing direct traceability to SI base units.

  2. Host Ranges of Listeria-Specific Bacteriophages from the Turkey Processing Plant Environment in the United States ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jae-Won; Siletzky, Robin M.; Kathariou, Sophia

    2008-01-01

    Even though at least 400 Listeria phages have been isolated from various sources, limited information is available on phages from the food processing plant environment. Phages in the processing plant environment may play critical roles in determining the Listeria population that becomes established in the plant. In this study, we pursued the isolation of Listeria-specific phages from environmental samples from four turkey processing plants in the United States. These environmental samples wer...

  3. A generalized watershed disturbance-invertebrate relation applicable in a range of environmental settings across the continental United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steuer, Jeffrey J.

    2010-01-01

    It is widely recognized that urbanization can affect ecological conditions in aquatic systems; numerous studies have identified impervious surface cover as an indicator of urban intensity and as an index of development at the watershed, regional, and national scale. Watershed percent imperviousness, a commonly understood urban metric was used as the basis for a generalized watershed disturbance metric that, when applied in conjunction with weighted percent agriculture and percent grassland, predicted stream biotic conditions based on Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera (EPT) richness across a wide range of environmental settings. Data were collected in streams that encompassed a wide range of watershed area (4.4-1,714 km), precipitation (38-204 cm/yr), and elevation (31-2,024 m) conditions. Nevertheless the simple 3-landcover disturbance metric accounted for 58% of the variability in EPT richness based on the 261 nationwide sites. On the metropolitan area scale, relationship r ranged from 0.04 to 0.74. At disturbance values 15. Future work may incorporate watershed management practices within the disturbance metric, further increasing the management applicability of the relation. Such relations developed on a regional or metropolitan area scale are likely to be stronger than geographically generalized models; as found in these EPT richness relations. However, broad spatial models are able to provide much needed understanding in unmonitored areas and provide initial guidance for stream potential.

  4. Groundwater-quality data in the Santa Cruz, San Gabriel, and Peninsular Ranges Hard Rock Aquifers study unit, 2011-2012: results from the California GAMA program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Tracy A.; Shelton, Jennifer L.

    2014-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the 2,400-square-mile Santa Cruz, San Gabriel, and Peninsular Ranges Hard Rock Aquifers (Hard Rock) study unit was investigated by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) from March 2011 through March 2012, as part of the California State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB) Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program’s Priority Basin Project (PBP). The GAMA-PBP was developed in response to the California Groundwater Quality Monitoring Act of 2001 and is being conducted in collaboration with the SWRCB and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). The Hard Rock study unit was the 35th study unit to be sampled as part of the GAMA-PBP.

  5. Corrective action decision document second gas station, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada (Corrective Action Unit No. 403). Revision No. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) for Second Gas Station has been developed for the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) Nevada Environmental Restoration Project to meet the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) of 1996 as stated in Appendix VI, {open_quotes}Corrective Action Strategy{close_quotes}. The Second Gas Station Corrective Action Site (CAS) No. 03-02-004-03 is the only CAS in CAU No. 403. The Second Gas Station CAS is located within Area 3 of the Tonopah Test Range (TTR), west of the Main Road at the location of former Underground Storage Tanks (USTs) and their associated fuel dispensary stations. The TTR is approximately 225 kilometers (km) (140 miles [mi]) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada, by air and approximately 56 km (3 5 mi) southeast of Tonopah, Nevada, by road. The TTR is bordered on the south, east, and west by the Nellis Air Force Range and on the north by sparsely populated public land administered by the Bureau of Land Management and the U.S. Forest Service.

  6. Short-range lidar measurement of top fruit tree canopies for pesticide applications research in the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walklate, Peter J.; Richardson, G. M.; Baker, D. E.; Richards, P. A.; Cross, J. V.

    1997-07-01

    This paper presents the measurements of dwarf and semi-dwarf Cox apple trees with a tractor-mounted LIDAR (light detecting and ranging). An analysis is presented which derives structural parameters of the canopy for use in pesticide spraying research by considering the number flux of LIDAR scans intercepted by the crop in a known spatial segment. LIDAR measurements of the crop area normalized by the horizontal projected area of the crop are compared with measurements derived from a destructive sampling method. The distributions of local crop area density and crop interception probability are also presented. Crop area density distribution can be used to estimate the deposition distribution of spray by utilizing a suitable transport and deposition model. Alternatively, crop interception probability distribution can be used as a first order estimate of the spray deposition distribution by making an analogy between light and spray transmission.

  7. Isolation of culturable microorganisms from free-ranging bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) from the southeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Pamela J; Johnson, Wesley R; Pisani, John; Bossart, Gregory D; Adams, Jeff; Reif, John S; Fair, Patricia A

    2011-03-24

    Reports of diseases in marine mammals are increasing worldwide, however our understanding of the microorganisms associated with marine mammals is still limited. In this study, we cultured bacteria and fungi isolated from the upper respiratory tract (blowhole), gastric fluid and anus of 180 wild bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) from two estuarine locations along the southeastern Atlantic Coast of the United States. A total of 339 and 491 isolates from Charleston, SC (CHS) and Indian River Lagoon, FL (IRL) dolphins, respectively, were cultured from gastric (70 CHS/82 IRL), fecal (141 CHS/184 IRL), and blowhole (128 CHS/225 IRL) swabs on selective media used for routine clinical microorganisms of human concern. The most frequently cultured Gram-negative bacteria from all sample and study types were Plesiomonas shigelloides, Aeromonas hydrophila, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas fluorescens. Among the Gram-positive bacteria, Clostridium perfringens, Bacillus sp., and Staphylococcus Coag. Neg were the predominant organisms. For fungi, the most abundant species were Candida glabrata, budding yeasts, and Candida tropicalis. Of concern, the MRSA strain of Staphylococcus aureus was detected in the blowhole and gastric swabs from CHS dolphins. In general, a greater prevalence of bacteria and fungi (four-fold increase) were cultured from IRL than CHS animals. Together, these culture-dependent studies, coupled to on-going culture-independent approaches, should help establish a baseline of microorganisms associated with bottlenose dolphins and aid in the identification of organisms responsible for infectious diseases(s) in these animals. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Invisible Display in Aluminum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prichystal, Jan Phuklin; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Bladt, Henrik Henriksen

    2005-01-01

    for an integrated display in a metal surface is often ruled by design and functionality of a product. The integration of displays in metal surfaces requires metal removal in order to clear the area of the display to some extent. The idea behind an invisible display in Aluminum concerns the processing of a metal...

  9. Pilot stereotypes for navigation symbols on electronic displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-09-20

    There is currently no common symbology standard for the : electronic display of navigation information. The wide : range of display technologies and the different functions : these displays support make it difficult to design symbols : that are easil...

  10. Post-Closure Inspection Report for Corrective Action Unit 426: Cactus Spring Waste Trenches Tonopah Test Range, Nevada Calendar Year 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. B. Campbell

    2001-06-01

    Post-closure monitoring requirements for the Cactus Spring Waste Trenches (Corrective Action Unit [CAW 426]) (Figure 1) are described in Closure Report for corrective Action Unit 426, Cactus Spring Waste Trenches. Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, report number DOE/NV--226. The Closure Report (CR) was submitted to the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) on August 14, 1998. Permeability results of soils adjacent to the engineered cover and a request for closure of CAU 404 were transmitted to the NDEP on April 29, 1999. The CR (containing the Post-Closure Monitoring Plan) was approved by the NDEP on May 13, 1999. Post-closure monitoring at CAU 426 consists of the following: (1) Site inspections done twice a year to evaluate the condition of the unit; (2) Verification that the site is secure; (3) Notice of any subsidence or deficiencies that may compromise the integrity of the unit; (4) Remedy of any deficiencies within 90 days of discovery; and (5) Preparation and submittal of an annual report. Site inspections were conducted on June 19, 2000, and November 21, 2000. All inspections were made after NDEP approval of the CR, and were conducted in accordance with the Post-Closure Monitoring Plan in the NDEP-approved CR. This report includes copies of the inspection checklists, photographs, recommendations, and conclusions. The Post-Closure Inspection Checklists are found in Attachment A, a copy of the field notes is found in Attachment B, and copies of the inspection photographs are found in Attachment C.

  11. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 410: Waste Disposal Trenches, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada: Revision No. 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office

    2003-12-22

    This Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report (CADD/CR) has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 410: Waste Disposal Trenches, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 410 consists of five Corrective Action Sites (CASs): TA-21-003-TANL; 09-21-001-TA09; TA-19-002-TAB2; TA-21-002-TAAL; and 03-19-001. The CADD and CR have been combined into one report because no further action is recommended for this CAU. The corrective action alternative recommended for CAU 410 is Clean Closure; therefore, no corrective action or corrective action plan is required. No use restrictions are required to be placed on this CAU because the investigation showed no evidence of remaining soil contamination or remaining debris/waste upon completion of all investigation activities.

  12. Hydrothermal alteration maps of the central and southern Basin and Range province of the United States compiled from Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mars, John L.

    2013-01-01

    Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data and Interactive Data Language (IDL) logical operator algorithms were used to map hydrothermally altered rocks in the central and southern parts of the Basin and Range province of the United States. The hydrothermally altered rocks mapped in this study include (1) hydrothermal silica-rich rocks (hydrous quartz, chalcedony, opal, and amorphous silica), (2) propylitic rocks (calcite-dolomite and epidote-chlorite mapped as separate mineral groups), (3) argillic rocks (alunite-pyrophyllite-kaolinite), and (4) phyllic rocks (sericite-muscovite). A series of hydrothermal alteration maps, which identify the potential locations of hydrothermal silica-rich, propylitic, argillic, and phyllic rocks on Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) band 7 orthorectified images, and geographic information systems shape files of hydrothermal alteration units are provided in this study.

  13. Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) implementation of image processing algorithms to improve system performance of the Control, Acquisition, Processing, and Image Display System (CAPIDS) of the Micro-Angiographic Fluoroscope (MAF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasan, S N Swetadri; Ionita, Ciprian N; Titus, A H; Cartwright, A N; Bednarek, D R; Rudin, S

    2012-02-23

    We present the image processing upgrades implemented on a Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) in the Control, Acquisition, Processing, and Image Display System (CAPIDS) for the custom Micro-Angiographic Fluoroscope (MAF) detector. Most of the image processing currently implemented in the CAPIDS system is pixel independent; that is, the operation on each pixel is the same and the operation on one does not depend upon the result from the operation on the other, allowing the entire image to be processed in parallel. GPU hardware was developed for this kind of massive parallel processing implementation. Thus for an algorithm which has a high amount of parallelism, a GPU implementation is much faster than a CPU implementation. The image processing algorithm upgrades implemented on the CAPIDS system include flat field correction, temporal filtering, image subtraction, roadmap mask generation and display window and leveling. A comparison between the previous and the upgraded version of CAPIDS has been presented, to demonstrate how the improvement is achieved. By performing the image processing on a GPU, significant improvements (with respect to timing or frame rate) have been achieved, including stable operation of the system at 30 fps during a fluoroscopy run, a DSA run, a roadmap procedure and automatic image windowing and leveling during each frame.

  14. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit No. 423: Building 03-60 Underground Discharge Point, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DOE/NV

    1997-10-01

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) has been developed in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) that was agreed to by the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV), the State of Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP), and the US Department of Defense. The CAIP is a document that provides or references all of the specific information for investigation activities associated with Corrective Action Units (CAUS) or Corrective Action Sites (CASs) (FFACO, 1996). As per the FFACO (1996), CASs are sites potentially requiring corrective action(s) and may include solid waste management units or individual disposal or release sites. Corrective Action Units consist of one or more CASs grouped together based on geography, technical similarity, or agency responsibility for the purpose of determining corrective actions. This CAIP contains the environmental sample collection objectives and the criteria for conducting site investigation activities at CAU No. 423, the Building 03-60 Underground Discharge Point (UDP), which is located in Area 3 at the Tonopah Test Range (TTR). The TTR, part of the Nellis Air Force Range, is approximately 225 kilometers (km) (140 miles [mi]) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada (Figures 1-1 and 1-2). Corrective Action Unit No. 423 is comprised of only one CAS (No. 03-02-002-0308), which includes the Building 03-60 UDP and an associated discharge line extending from Building 03-60 to a point approximately 73 meters (m) (240 feet [ft]) northwest as shown on Figure 1-3.

  15. Handbook of display technology

    CERN Document Server

    Castellano, Joseph A

    1992-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive review of technical and commercial aspects of display technology. It provides design engineers with the information needed to select proper technology for new products. The book focuses on flat, thin displays such as light-emitting diodes, plasma display panels, and liquid crystal displays, but it also includes material on cathode ray tubes. Displays include a large number of products from televisions, auto dashboards, radios, and household appliances, to gasoline pumps, heart monitors, microwave ovens, and more.For more information on display tech

  16. Lunar Sample Display Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA provides a number of lunar samples for display at museums, planetariums, and scientific expositions around the world. Lunar displays are open to the public....

  17. A Compressive Superresolution Display

    KAUST Repository

    Heide, Felix

    2014-06-22

    In this paper, we introduce a new compressive display architecture for superresolution image presentation that exploits co-design of the optical device configuration and compressive computation. Our display allows for superresolution, HDR, or glasses-free 3D presentation.

  18. Systematic comparisons of various spectrophotometric and colorimetric methods to measure concentrations of protein, peptide and amino acid: detectable limits, linear dynamic ranges, interferences, practicality and unit costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chutipongtanate, Somchai; Watcharatanyatip, Kamolwan; Homvises, Teerada; Jaturongkakul, Kewalee; Thongboonkerd, Visith

    2012-08-30

    There is limited and inconclusive information regarding detectable limits and linear dynamic ranges of various quantitative protein assays. We thus performed systematic comparisons of seven commonly used methods, including direct spectrophotometric quantitation at λ205 and λ280 nm (A205 and A280, respectively), bicinchoninic acid (BCA), Biuret, Bradford, Lowry and Ninhydrin methods. Purified BSA, porcine kidney extract, tryptic digested peptides derived from purified BSA, and glycine, were used as representative purified protein, complex protein mixture, peptide and amino acid, respectively. Bradford method was the most sensitive assay (LOD=0.006 mg/ml) and had the widest range of detectability (LOD-UOD=0.006-100mg/ml) for purified protein and complex protein mixture. For peptide, A205, A280, Lowry and Ninhydrin methods had a comparable LOD (0.006 mg/ml), but Ninhydrin method had the widest detectability range (LOD-UOD=0.006-100mg/ml). For amino acid, A205 and Ninhydrin methods had a comparable LOD (0.006 mg/ml), but A205 had a wider detectability range (LOD-UOD=0.006-6.250 mg/ml). Biuret method offered the widest linear dynamic range for purified protein and complex protein mixture (0.391-100mg/ml), A280 offered the widest linear dynamic range for peptide (0.024-6.250 mg/ml), and Ninhydrin method offered the widest linear dynamic range for amino acid (0.024-0.195 mg/ml). Both Laemmli's and 2-D lysis buffers had dramatic interfering effects on all assays. Concerning the practicality and unit costs, A205 and A280 were the most favorable. Among the colorimetric methods, Bradford method consumed the least amount of samples and shortest analytical time with the lowest unit cost. These are the most extensive comparative data of commonly used quantitative protein assays that will be useful for selecting the most suitable method for each study. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan for Corrective Action Unit 408: Bomblet Target Area Tonopah Test Range (TTR), Nevada, Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark Krauss

    2010-03-01

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan addresses the actions needed to achieve closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 408, Bomblet Target Area (TTR). Corrective Action Unit 408 is located at the Tonopah Test Range and is currently listed in Appendix III of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 408 comprises Corrective Action Site TA-55-002-TAB2, Bomblet Target Areas. Clean closure of CAU 408 will be accomplished by removal of munitions and explosives of concern within seven target areas and potential disposal pits. The target areas were used to perform submunitions related tests for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The scope of CAU 408 is limited to submunitions released from DOE activities. However, it is recognized that the presence of other types of unexploded ordnance and munitions may be present within the target areas due to the activities of other government organizations. The CAU 408 closure activities consist of: • Clearing bomblet target areas within the study area. • Identifying and remediating disposal pits. • Collecting verification samples. • Performing radiological screening of soil. • Removing soil containing contaminants at concentrations above the action levels. Based on existing information, contaminants of potential concern at CAU 408 include unexploded submunitions, explosives, Resource Conservation Recovery Act metals, and depleted uranium. Contaminants are not expected to be present in the soil at concentrations above the action levels; however, this will be determined by radiological surveys and verification sample results.

  20. Status and understanding of groundwater quality in the Cascade Range and Modoc Plateau study unit, 2010: California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fram, Miranda S.; Shelton, Jennifer L.

    2015-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the Cascade Range and Modoc Plateau study unit was investigated as part of the California State Water Resources Control Board’s Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program Priority Basin Project. The study was designed to provide a statistically unbiased assessment of untreated groundwater quality in the primary aquifer system. The depth of the primary aquifer system for the Cascade Range and Modoc Plateau study unit was delineated by the depths of the screened or open intervals of wells in the State of California’s database of public-supply wells. Two types of assessments were made: a status assessment that described the current quality of the groundwater resource, and an understanding assessment that made evaluations of relations between groundwater quality and potential explanatory factors representing characteristics of the primary aquifer system. The assessments characterize the quality of untreated groundwater, not the quality of treated drinking water delivered to consumers by water distributors.

  1. Post-Closure Inspection Report for Corrective Action Unit 404: Roller Coaster Sewage Lagoons and North Disposal Trench Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, Calendar Year 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. B. Campbell

    2001-06-01

    Post-closure monitoring requirements for the Roller Coaster Sewage Lagoons and North Disposal Trench (Corrective Action Unit [CAW 404]) (Figure 1) are described in Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 404, Roller Coaster Sewage Lagoons and North Disposal Trench, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, report number DOE/NV--187. The Closure Report (CR) was submitted to the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) on September 11, 1998. Permeability results of soils adjacent to the engineered cover and a request for closure of CAU 404 were transmitted to the NDEP on April 29, 1999. The CR (containing the Post-Closure Monitoring Plan) was approved by the NDEP on May 18, 1999. Post-closure monitoring at CAU 404 consists of the following: (1) Site inspections done twice a year to evaluate the condition of the unit; (2) Verification that the site is secure; (3) Notice of any subsidence or deficiencies that may compromise the integrity of the unit; (4) Remedy of any deficiencies within 90 days of discovery; and (5) Preparation and submittal of an annual report. Site inspections were conducted on June 19, 2000, and November 21, 2000. The site inspections were conducted after completion of the revegetation activities (October 30, 1997) and NDEP approval of the CR (May 18, 1999). All site inspections were conducted in accordance with the Post-Closure Monitoring Plan in the NDEP-approved CR. This report includes copies of inspection checklists, photographs, recommendations, and conclusions. The Post-Closure Inspection Checklists are found in Attachment A, a copy of the field notes is found in Attachment B, and copies of the inspection photographs are found in Attachment C.

  2. TO CONDUCT A MULTI CENTRE SURVEY ON THE AWARENESS OF VENTILATORS AND PULSE OXI METER DISPLAYERS AMONG PHYSIOTHERAPIST AND OTHER INTENSIVE CARE STAFF POSTED IN INTENSIVE CARE UNITS OF VARIOUS HOSPITALS IN NORTH EASTERN STATES OF INDIA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urvashi Bhattacharya

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: ICU is a specially staffed and fully equipped unit of the hospital where patient requiring intensive care is kept. In order to meet the demand of seriously ill patients a numbers of sophisticated equipments and gadgets are used. Studies have shown that there is a need for knowledge about the operating system of these machines used in ICU to execute the treatment protocols by the ICU staff. Various therapeutic procedures are done depending on the readings of the machines and monitoring of the values is required before and after the treatment sessions. So it becomes mandatory for the ICU staff to have good command over the parameters of the equipment. The objective of the study is therefore to find out the awareness of two important machines namely the Mechanical ventilator and Pulse oximeter among the ICU staff including the physiotherapist in north eastern states of India. Methods: An observational cross section study has been done with 200 subjects who is working in ICU for more than 6 months. Result: The data of 200 subjects were analyzed and the scores of the questionnaire was estimated using Karl Pearson Correlation Coefficient which has shown that there is a significant (p value =0.00 awareness of pulse oximeter displayers and ventilators among physiotherapist and other ICU staff in the north eastern states of India. Conclusion: Based on the results, it is concluded that 72.5% of the subjects were well aware and 27.5% of the subjects were least aware about the ventilators and pulse oximeter, hence it can be considered that there is an acceptable knowledge among the ICU staff including physiotherapist in north eastern states of India about the ventilator and pulse oximeter displayers.

  3. 'No power' (green) electrowetting display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jentsch, Michael; Rawert, Juergen; Jerosch, Dieter; Blankenbach, Karlheinz

    2011-05-01

    Electrowetting displays were first reported in 1981, several approaches were examined. However, ADT's "Droplet- Driven-Displays" technology is the only bistable one which makes them very attractive for energy-saving systems. That means that the power supply can completely shut off after changing the content and it will keep its information for years. More features that make the ADT approach very unique are paper like white appearance (even in the powerless OFFstate) and the capability for backlighting (most of the other e-paper technologies like electrophoretics can not be backlighted). Further achievements are a white state reflectance of about 70% resulting in sunlight readability and a pixel size in the range from 0.3mm to 10mm. Summarizing, ADT's electrowetting technology is highly suitable for lowest power (means eco-friendly or "green") displays.

  4. Displaying gray shades in liquid crystal displays

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    These transistors act as a switch to charge and hold the desired voltage across a pixel. Passive matrix LCDs are easy to fabricate and cost less as compared to the active matrix LCDs. Current trend demands gray scale and colour capa- bilities even for the displays in mobile phones. Passive matrix LCDs will be preferred as.

  5. Streamlined approach for environmental restoration plan for corrective action unit 430, buried depleted uranium artillery round No. 1, Tonopah test range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-09-01

    This plan addresses actions necessary for the restoration and closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) No. 430, Buried Depleted Uranium (DU) Artillery Round No. 1 (Corrective Action Site No. TA-55-003-0960), a buried and unexploded W-79 Joint Test Assembly (JTA) artillery test projectile with high explosives (HE), at the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) Tonopah Test Range (TTR) in south-central Nevada. It describes activities that will occur at the site as well as the steps that will be taken to gather adequate data to obtain a notice of completion from Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP). This plan was prepared under the Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) concept, and it will be implemented in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Industrial Sites Quality Assurance Project Plan.

  6. The Importance of Interspecific Interactions on the Present Range of the Invasive Mosquito Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) and Persistence of Resident Container Species in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fader, Joseph E

    2016-09-01

    Aedes albopictus (Skuse) established in the United States over 30 yr ago and quickly spread throughout the entire eastern half of the country. It has recently spread into western regions and projected climate change scenarios suggest continued expansion to the west and north. Aedes albopictus has had major impacts on, and been impacted by, a diverse array of resident mosquito species. Laying eggs at the edges of small, water-holding containers, hatched larvae develop within these containers feeding on detritus-based resources. Under limited resource conditions, Ae. albopictus has been shown to be a superior competitor to essentially all native and resident species in the United States. Adult males also mate interspecifically with at least one resident species with significant negative impacts on reproductive output for susceptible females. Despite these strong interference effects on sympatric species, competitor outcomes have been highly variable, ranging from outright local exclusion by Ae. albopictus, to apparent exclusion of Ae. albopictus in the presence of the same species. Context-dependent mechanisms that alter the relative strengths of inter- and intraspecific competition, as well as rapid evolution of satyrization-resistant females, may help explain these patterns of variable coexistence. Although there is a large body of research on interspecific interactions of Ae. albopictus in the United States, there remain substantial gaps in our understanding of the most important species interactions. Addressing these gaps is important in predicting the future distribution of this species and understanding consequences for resident species, including humans, that interact with this highly invasive mosquito. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Scalable Resolution Display Walls

    KAUST Repository

    Leigh, Jason

    2013-01-01

    This article will describe the progress since 2000 on research and development in 2-D and 3-D scalable resolution display walls that are built from tiling individual lower resolution flat panel displays. The article will describe approaches and trends in display hardware construction, middleware architecture, and user-interaction design. The article will also highlight examples of use cases and the benefits the technology has brought to their respective disciplines. © 1963-2012 IEEE.

  8. OLED displays and lighting

    CERN Document Server

    Koden, Mitsuhiro

    2017-01-01

    Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) have emerged as the leading technology for the new display and lighting market. OLEDs are solid-state devices composed of thin films of organic molecules that create light with the application of electricity. OLEDs can provide brighter, crisper displays on electronic devices and use less power than conventional light-emitting diodes (LEDs) or liquid crystal displays (LCDs) used today. This book covers both the fundamentals and practical applications of flat and flexible OLEDs.

  9. Displaying Data As Movies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Judith G.

    1992-01-01

    NMSB Movie computer program displays large sets of data (more than million individual values). Presentation dynamic, rapidly displaying sequential image "frames" in main "movie" window. Any sequence of two-dimensional sets of data scaled between 0 and 255 (1-byte resolution) displayed as movie. Time- or slice-wise progression of data illustrated. Originally written to present data from three-dimensional ultrasonic scans of damaged aerospace composite materials, illustrates data acquired by thermal-analysis systems measuring rates of heating and cooling of various materials. Developed on Macintosh IIx computer with 8-bit color display adapter and 8 megabytes of memory using Symantec Corporation's Think C, version 4.0.

  10. JAVA Stereo Display Toolkit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmonds, Karina

    2008-01-01

    This toolkit provides a common interface for displaying graphical user interface (GUI) components in stereo using either specialized stereo display hardware (e.g., liquid crystal shutter or polarized glasses) or anaglyph display (red/blue glasses) on standard workstation displays. An application using this toolkit will work without modification in either environment, allowing stereo software to reach a wider audience without sacrificing high-quality display on dedicated hardware. The toolkit is written in Java for use with the Swing GUI Toolkit and has cross-platform compatibility. It hooks into the graphics system, allowing any standard Swing component to be displayed in stereo. It uses the OpenGL graphics library to control the stereo hardware and to perform the rendering. It also supports anaglyph and special stereo hardware using the same API (application-program interface), and has the ability to simulate color stereo in anaglyph mode by combining the red band of the left image with the green/blue bands of the right image. This is a low-level toolkit that accomplishes simply the display of components (including the JadeDisplay image display component). It does not include higher-level functions such as disparity adjustment, 3D cursor, or overlays all of which can be built using this toolkit.

  11. Miniaturized LEDs for flat-panel displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radauscher, Erich J.; Meitl, Matthew; Prevatte, Carl; Bonafede, Salvatore; Rotzoll, Robert; Gomez, David; Moore, Tanya; Raymond, Brook; Cok, Ronald; Fecioru, Alin; Trindade, António Jose; Fisher, Brent; Goodwin, Scott; Hines, Paul; Melnik, George; Barnhill, Sam; Bower, Christopher A.

    2017-02-01

    Inorganic light emitting diodes (LEDs) serve as bright pixel-level emitters in displays, from indoor/outdoor video walls with pixel sizes ranging from one to thirty millimeters to micro displays with more than one thousand pixels per inch. Pixel sizes that fall between those ranges, roughly 50 to 500 microns, are some of the most commercially significant ones, including flat panel displays used in smart phones, tablets, and televisions. Flat panel displays that use inorganic LEDs as pixel level emitters (μILED displays) can offer levels of brightness, transparency, and functionality that are difficult to achieve with other flat panel technologies. Cost-effective production of μILED displays requires techniques for precisely arranging sparse arrays of extremely miniaturized devices on a panel substrate, such as transfer printing with an elastomer stamp. Here we present lab-scale demonstrations of transfer printed μILED displays and the processes used to make them. Demonstrations include passive matrix μILED displays that use conventional off-the shelf drive ASICs and active matrix μILED displays that use miniaturized pixel-level control circuits from CMOS wafers. We present a discussion of key considerations in the design and fabrication of highly miniaturized emitters for μILED displays.

  12. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 410: Waste Disposal Trenches, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, Revision 0 (includes ROTCs 1, 2, and 3)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NNSA/NV

    2002-07-16

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan contains the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office's approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 410 under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 410 is located on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR), which is included in the Nevada Test and Training Range (formerly the Nellis Air Force Range) approximately 140 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. This CAU is comprised of five Corrective Action Sites (CASs): TA-19-002-TAB2, Debris Mound; TA-21-003-TANL, Disposal Trench; TA-21-002-TAAL, Disposal Trench; 09-21-001-TA09, Disposal Trenches; 03-19-001, Waste Disposal Site. This CAU is being investigated because contaminants may be present in concentrations that could potentially pose a threat to human health and/or the environment, and waste may have been disposed of with out appropriate controls. Four out of five of these CASs are the result of weapons testing and disposal activities at the TTR, and they are grouped together for site closure based on the similarity of the sites (waste disposal sites and trenches). The fifth CAS, CAS 03-19-001, is a hydrocarbon spill related to activities in the area. This site is grouped with this CAU because of the location (TTR). Based on historical documentation and process know-ledge, vertical and lateral migration routes are possible for all CASs. Migration of contaminants may have occurred through transport by infiltration of precipitation through surface soil which serves as a driving force for downward migration of contaminants. Land-use scenarios limit future use of these CASs to industrial activities. The suspected contaminants of potential concern which have been identified are volatile organic compounds; semivolatile organic compounds; high explosives; radiological constituents including depleted

  13. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 490: Station 44 Burn Area, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada (Rev. No.: 0, February 2001)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DOE/NV

    2001-02-23

    This Corrective Action Decision Document identifies and rationalizes the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's selection of a recommended Corrective Action Alternative (CAA) appropriate to facilitate the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 490, Station 44 Burn Area, Tonopah Test Range (TTR), Nevada, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 490 is located on the Nellis Air Force Range and the Tonopah Test Range and is approximately 140 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. This CAU is comprised of four Corrective Action Sites (CASs): 03-56-001-03BA, Fire Training Area (located southwest of Area 3); RG-56-001-RGBA, Station 44 Burn Area (located west of Main Lake); 03-58-001-03FN, Sandia Service Yard (located north of the northwest corner of Area 3); and 09-54-001-09L2, Gun Propellant Burn Area (located south of the Area 9 Compound on the TTR). A Corrective Action Investigation was performed in July and August 2000, and analytes detected during the corrective action investigation were evaluated against preliminary action levels to determine contaminants of concern (COCs). There were no COCs identified in soil at the Gun Propellant Burn Area or the Station 44 Burn Area; therefore, there is no need for corrective actions at these two sites. Five soil samples at the Fire Training Area and seven at the Sandia Service Yard exceeded PALs for total petroleum hydrocarbons-diesel. Upon the identification of COCs specific to CAU 490, Corrective Action Objectives were developed based on a review of existing data, future use, and current operations at the TTR, with the following three CAAs under consideration: Alternative 1 - No Further Action, Alternative 2 - Closure In Place - No Further Action With Administrative Controls, and Alternative 3 - Clean Closure by Excavation and Disposal. These alternatives were evaluated based on four general corrective action standards and five remedy selection decision factors. Based

  14. Helmet-Mounted Displays (HMD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Helmet-Mounted Display labis responsible for monocular HMD day display evaluations; monocular HMD night vision performance processes; binocular HMD day display...

  15. Effective Monitor Display Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrell, William

    1999-01-01

    Describes some of the factors that affect computer monitor display design and provides suggestions and insights into how screen displays can be designed more effectively. Topics include color, font choices, organizational structure of text, space outline, and general principles. (Author/LRW)

  16. Jet printing flexible displays

    OpenAIRE

    Street, R. A.; Wong, W S; Ready, S. E.; Chabinyc, M.L; Arias, A.C.; Limb, S.; Salleo, A; Lujan, R.

    2006-01-01

    Jet printing is an interesting patterning technique for electronic devices because it requires no physical mask, has digital control of ejection, and provides good layer-to-layer registration. It also has the potential to reduce display manufacturing costs and enable roll-to-roll processing. The technique is illustrated with examples of prototype printed displays using amorphous silicon and polymer semiconductors.

  17. Standardizing visual display quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besuijen, J.; Spenkelink, G.P.J.

    1998-01-01

    The current ISO 9241–3 standard for visual display quality and the proposed user performance tests are reviewed. The standard is found to be more engineering than ergonomic and problems with system configuration, software applications, display settings, user behaviour, wear and physical environment

  18. Visual merchandising window display

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Opris (Cas. Stanila M.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Window display plays a major part in the selling strategies; it does not only include the simple display of goods, nowadays it is a form of art, also having the purpose of sustaining the brand image. This article wants to reveal the tools that are essential in creating a fabulous window display. Being a window designer is not an easy job, you have to always think ahead trends, to have a sense of colour, to know how to use light to attract customers in the store after only one glance at the window. The big store window displays are theatre scenes: with expensive backgrounds, special effects and high fashion mannequins. The final role of the displays is to convince customers to enter the store and trigger the purchasing act which is the final goal of the retail activity.

  19. A multiprimary display model combined with a spatio-temporal behavioral display model for display characterization by simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolar, Carsten; Lebowsky, Fritz

    2009-01-01

    With the development of fast liquid crystal cells and with advent of backlight units with separate red, green and blue light emitting diodes also first commercial color sequential display emerge. Another technique in commercial application proposes implementing more than three subpixels and thus enhanced color gamut by using multiple color primaries. Also the combination of both color mixture techniques is possible. It is thus desirable to have a simulation workbench at hand that is flexible enough to adapt to the various possibilities of subpixel design and color sequences in display design to evaluate the displayed image in advance. The combination of a multiprimary display model, which can emulate a multiprimary display on a standard RGB LC display, and a spatio-temporal model, that describes LC pixel behavior to arbitrary input signals over time, provides means for simulating the perceived image of a color-sequential display behavior. This article describes the combined model and gives also simulation results that compare advanced displays to conventional vertical stripe RGB LC display.

  20. Range Scheduling Aid (RSA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, J. R.; Pulvermacher, M. K.

    1991-01-01

    Range Scheduling Aid (RSA) is presented in the form of the viewgraphs. The following subject areas are covered: satellite control network; current and new approaches to range scheduling; MITRE tasking; RSA features; RSA display; constraint based analytic capability; RSA architecture; and RSA benefits.

  1. Color Display Design Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-10-01

    and G. M. Corso , "Color flcsearch for Visuz’l Displays, Technical Report No. ONH-CR2l3-102-3, July 1975, 108 pp. 45 1 Results of two code comparison...respective- ly. Since the display elements constitute routine or non-priority informatica , all display information would be coded green if the three-color...1963, with Amendment 1, 30 September 1971. U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC. 27. Christ, R.E. and G.M. Corso . "Color Research for Visual

  2. Small - Display Cartography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Flemming; Hvas, Anders; Münster-Swendsen, Jørgen

    This report comprises the work carried out in the work-package of small display cartography. The work-package has aimed at creating a general framework for the small-display cartography. A solid framework facilitates an increased use of spatial data in mobile devices - thus enabling, together...... Service Communication and finally, Part IV: Concluding remarks and topics for further research on small-display cartography. Part II includes a separate Appendix D consisting of a cartographic design specification. Part III includes a separate Appendix C consisting of a schema specification, a separate...

  3. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan for Corrective Action Unit 425: Area 9 Main Lake Construction Debris Disposal Area, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. B. Campbell

    2002-04-01

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan addresses the action necessary for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 425, Area 9 Main Lake Construction Debris Disposal Area. This CAU is currently listed in Appendix III of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO, 1996). This site will be cleaned up under the SAFER process since the volume of waste exceeds the 23 cubic meters (m{sup 3}) (30 cubic yards [yd{sup 3}]) limit established for housekeeping sites. CAU 425 is located on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) and consists of one Corrective Action Site (CAS) 09-08-001-TA09, Construction Debris Disposal Area (Figure 1). CAS 09-08-001-TA09 is an area that was used to collect debris from various projects in and around Area 9. The site is located approximately 81 meters (m) (265 feet [ft]) north of Edwards Freeway northeast of Main Lake on the TTR. The site is composed of concrete slabs with metal infrastructure, metal rebar, wooden telephone poles, and concrete rubble from the Hard Target and early Tornado Rocket sled tests. Other items such as wood scraps, plastic pipes, soil, and miscellaneous nonhazardous items have also been identified in the debris pile. It is estimated that this site contains approximately 2280 m{sup 3} (3000 yd{sup 3}) of construction-related debris.

  4. Industrial Sites Work Plan for Leachfield Corrective Action Units: Nevada Test Site and Tonopah Test Range, Nevada (including Record of Technical Change Nos. 1, 2, 3, and 4)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DOE/NV

    1998-12-18

    This Leachfield Corrective Action Units (CAUs) Work Plan has been developed in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) that was agreed to by the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV); the State of Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP); and the U.S. Department of Defense (FFACO, 1996). Under the FFACO, a work plan is an optional planning document that provides information for a CAU or group of CAUs where significant commonality exists. A work plan may be developed that can be referenced by leachfield Corrective Action Investigation Plans (CAIPs) to eliminate redundant CAU documentation. This Work Plan includes FFACO-required management, technical, quality assurance (QA), health and safety, public involvement, field sampling, and waste management documentation common to several CAUs with similar site histories and characteristics, namely the leachfield systems at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and the Tonopah Test Range (TT R). For each CAU, a CAIP will be prepared to present detailed, site-specific information regarding contaminants of potential concern (COPCs), sampling locations, and investigation methods.

  5. Serologic surveillance for selected viral agents in captive and free-ranging populations of Arabian oryx (Oryx leucoryx) from Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frölich, Kai; Hamblin, Christopher; Jung, Sandra; Ostrowski, Stéphane; Mwanzia, Jacob; Streich, Wolf Jürgen; Anderson, John; Armstrong, Robert M; Anajariyah, Saud

    2005-01-01

    A total of 294 sera collected between 1999 and 2001 from eight captive and one free-ranging herds of Arabian oryx (Oryx leucoryx) distributed in Saudi Arabia (SA) and the United Arab Emirates (UAE) were assayed for antibodies against 13 selected viral agents. Arabian oryx have been exposed to bluetongue virus (BTV), epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV), rinderpest virus (RPV), bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), bovine adenovirus 3 (BAV-3), cervid herpesvirus-1, foot-and-mouth disease virus, equine herpesvirus 9, and bovine viral diarrhea virus. The high seroprevalence to BTV and EHDV in the UAE and SA indicates that Arabian oryx are likely to be susceptible to infection by these viruses and therefore could act as a source of virus to vectors during the infective stage of infection. Moreover, antibodies were detected against RPV and BRSV in sera from SA and against BAV-3 in sera from the UAE. No antibodies were found against bovine herpesvirus-1, caprine herpesvirus-1, enzootic bovine leucosis virus, and peste des petits ruminants virus. On the basis of these results, caution should be applied when considering translocation of Arabian oryx, and only those proven to be free of infectious agents that might present a risk to other species should be moved.

  6. Streamlined approach for environmental restoration (SAFER) plan for corrective action unit 412: clean slate I plutonium dispersion (TTR) tonopah test range, Nevada, revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthews, Patrick K.

    2015-04-01

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan addresses the actions needed to achieve closure for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 412. CAU 412 is located on the Tonopah Test Range and consists of a single corrective action site (CAS), TA-23-01CS, Pu Contaminated Soil. There is sufficient information and historical documentation from previous investigations and the 1997 interim corrective action to recommend closure of CAU 412 using the SAFER process. Based on existing data, the presumed corrective action for CAU 412 is clean closure. However, additional data will be obtained during a field investigation to document and verify the adequacy of existing information and determine whether the CAU 412 closure objectives have been achieved. This SAFER Plan provides the methodology to gather the necessary information for closing the CAU.The following summarizes the SAFER activities that will support the closure of CAU 412:• Collect environmental samples from designated target populations to confirm or disprove the presence of contaminants of concern (COCs) as necessary to supplement existing information.• If no COCs are present, establish clean closure as the corrective action. • If COCs are present, the extent of contamination will be defined and further corrective actions will be evaluated with the stakeholders (NDEP, USAF).• Confirm the preferred closure option is sufficient to protect human health and the environment.

  7. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 414: Clean Slate III Plutonium Dispersion (TTR) Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthews, Patrick [Navarro, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 414 is located on the Tonopah Test Range, which is approximately 130 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada, and approximately 40 miles southeast of Tonopah, Nevada. The CAU 414 site consists of the release of radionuclides to the surface and shallow subsurface from the conduct of the Clean Slate III (CSIII) storage–transportation test conducted on June 9, 1963. CAU 414 includes one corrective action site (CAS), TA-23-03CS (Pu Contaminated Soil). The known releases at CAU 414 are the result of the atmospheric dispersal of contamination from the 1963 CSIII test. The CSIII test was a nonnuclear detonation of a nuclear device located inside a reinforced concrete bunker covered with 8 feet of soil. This test dispersed radionuclides, primarily uranium and plutonium, on the ground surface. The presence and nature of contamination at CAU 414 will be evaluated based on information collected from a corrective action investigation (CAI). The investigation is based on the data quality objectives (DQOs) developed on June 7, 2016, by representatives of the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection; the U.S. Air Force; and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office. The DQO process was used to identify and define the type, amount, and quality of data needed to develop and evaluate appropriate corrective action alternatives for CAU 414.

  8. Map display design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aretz, Anthony J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents a cognitive model of a pilot's navigation task and describes an experiment comparing a visual momentum map display to the traditional track-up and north-up approaches. The data show the advantage to a track-up map is its congruence with the ego-centered forward view; however, the development of survey knowledge is hindered by the inconsistency of the rotating display. The stable alignment of a north-up map aids the acquisition of survey knowledge, but there is a cost associated with the mental rotation of the display to a track-up alignment for ego-centered tasks. The results also show that visual momentum can be used to reduce the mental rotation costs of a north-up display.

  9. Compressive light field displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetzstein, Gordon; Lanman, Douglas; Hirsch, Matthew; Heidrich, Wolfgang; Raskar, Ramesh

    2012-01-01

    Light fields are the multiview extension of stereo image pairs: a collection of images showing a 3D scene from slightly different perspectives. Depicting high-resolution light fields usually requires an excessively large display bandwidth; compressive light field displays are enabled by the codesign of optical elements and computational-processing algorithms. Rather than pursuing a direct "optical" solution (for example, adding one more pixel to support the emission of one additional light ray), compressive displays aim to create flexible optical systems that can synthesize a compressed target light field. In effect, each pixel emits a superposition of light rays. Through compression and tailored optical designs, fewer display pixels are necessary to emit a given light field than a direct optical solution would require.

  10. ENERGY STAR Certified Displays

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 7.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Displays that are effective as of July 1, 2016....

  11. Advanced aerosense display interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopper, Darrel G.; Meyer, Frederick M.

    1998-09-01

    High-resolution display technologies are being developed to meet the ever-increasing demand for realistic detail. The requirement for evermore visual information exceeds the capacity of fielded aerospace display interfaces. In this paper we begin an exploration of display interfaces and evolving aerospace requirements. Current and evolving standards for avionics, commercial, and flat panel displays are summarized and compared to near term goals for military and aerospace applications. Aerospace and military applications prior to 2005 up to UXGA and digital HDTV resolution can be met by using commercial interface standard developments. Advanced aerospace requirements require yet higher resolutions (2560 X 2048 color pixels, 5120 X 4096 color pixels at 85 Hz, etc.) and necessitate the initiation of discussion herein of an 'ultra digital interface standard (UDIS)' which includes 'smart interface' features such as large memory and blazingly fast resizing microcomputer. Interface capacity, IT, increased about 105 from 1973 to 1998; 102 more is needed for UDIS.

  12. Minnesota Pheasant Range

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This dataset delineates the spatial range of wild pheasant populations in Minnesota as of 2002 by dividing the MN state boundary into 2 units: pheasant range and...

  13. Liquid Crystal Airborne Display

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-08-01

    with the drive capability of the present state-of-the- art microm.ziiaturized integi ated circuits. The impact of microminiaturizing the drive circuits...7 Advantages /Disadvantages of Prior Art .........- 8 Performance of the Liquid Crystal Matrix Display . . .. 8 Liquid Crystal...Holographic HUD Light Source ...................... .... 99 Design of a Special Purpose Mercury Art - Plo.?hcr La np . 104 V LARGE SCALE INTEGRATION FOR DISPLAY

  14. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 404: Roller Coaster Sewage Lagoons and North Disposal Trench, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada with ROTC 1, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynn Kidman

    1998-09-01

    This Closure Report provides the documentation for closure of the Roller Coaster Sewage Lagoons and North Disposal Trench Comective Action Unit (CAU) 404. CAU 404 consists of the Roller Coaster Sewage Lagoons (Corrective Action Site [CAS] TA-03-O01-TA-RC) and the North Disposal Trench (CAS TA-21-001-TA-RC). The site is located on the Tonopah Test Range, approximately 225 kilometers (km) (140 miles [mi]) northwest ofLas Vegas, Nevada. . The sewage lagoons received ~quid sanitary waste horn the Operation Roller Coaster Man Camp in 1963 and debris from subsequent range and construction cleanup activities. The debris and ordnance was subsequently removed and properly dispos~, however, pesticides were detected in soil samples born the bottom of the lagoons above the U,S. Environmental Protection Agency Region IX Prelimimuy Remediation Goals (EPA 1996). . The North Disposal Trench was excavated in 1963. Debris from the man camp and subsequent range and construction cleanup activities was placed in the trench. Investigation results indicated that no constituents of concern were detected in soil samples collected from the trench. Remedial alternative proposed in the Comctive Action Decision Document (CADD) fm the site was “Covering” (DOE, 1997a). The Nevada Division of”Enviromnental Protection (NDEP)-approved Correction Action Plan (CAP) proposed the “Covering” niethodology (1997b). The closure activities were completed in accorhce with the approwil CAP and consisted of baclctllling the sewage lagoons and disposal trench, constructing/planting an engineered/vegetative cover in the area of the sewage lagoons and dikposal trencQ installing a perimeter fence and signs, implementing restrictions on fi~e use, and preparing a Post-Closure Monitoring Plan. “ Since closure activities. for CAU 404 have been completed in accordance with the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection-approved CAP (DOE, 1997b) as documented in this Closure Report, the U.S. Department of

  15. Status and understanding of groundwater quality in the South Coast Range-Coastal study unit, 2008: California GAMA Priority Basin Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Carmen A.; Land, Michael; Belitz, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    Groundwater quality in the South Coast Range–Coastal (SCRC) study unit was investigated from May through November 2008 as part of the Priority Basin Project of the Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Program. The study unit is located in the Southern Coast Range hydrologic province and includes parts of Santa Barbara and San Luis Obispo Counties. The GAMA Priority Basin Project is conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in collaboration with the California State Water Resources Control Board and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The GAMA Priority Basin Project was designed to provide a statistically unbiased, spatially distributed assessment of untreated groundwater quality within the primary aquifer system. The primary aquifer system is defined as that part of the aquifer corresponding to the perforation interval of wells listed in the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) database for the SCRC study unit. The assessments for the SCRC study unit were based on water-quality and ancillary data collected in 2008 by the USGS from 55 wells on a spatially distributed grid, and water-quality data from the CDPH database. Two types of assessments were made: (1) status, assessment of the current quality of the groundwater resource, and (2) understanding, identification of the natural and human factors affecting groundwater quality. Water-quality and ancillary data were collected from an additional 15 wells for the understanding assessment. The assessments characterize untreated groundwater quality, not the quality of treated drinking water delivered to consumers by water purveyors. The first component of this study, the status assessment of groundwater quality, used data from samples analyzed for anthropogenic constituents such as volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and pesticides, as well as naturally occurring inorganic constituents such as major ions and trace elements. Although the status assessment applies to untreated

  16. ORFeome Phage Display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zantow, Jonas; Moreira, Gustavo Marçal Schmidt Garcia; Dübel, Stefan; Hust, Michael

    2018-01-01

    ORFeome phage display allows the efficient functional screening of entire proteomes or even metaproteomes to identify immunogenic proteins. For this purpose, randomly fragmented, whole genomes or metagenomes are cloned into a phage-display vector allowing positive selection for open reading frames (ORF) to improve the library quality. These libraries display all possible proteins encoded by a pathogen or a microbiome on the phage surface. Consequently, immunogenic proteins can be selected from these libraries using disease-related immunoglobulins from patient serum. ORFeome phage display in particular allows the identification of immunogenic proteins that are only expressed in the host-pathogen interaction but not in cultivation, as well as the detection of very low expressed and very small immunogens and immunogenic proteins of non-cultivable organisms. The identified immunogenic proteins are potential biomarkers for the development of diagnostic assays or vaccines. These articles will give an introduction to ORFeome phage-display technology and give detailed protocols to identify immunogenic proteins by phage display.

  17. 78 FR 30934 - Certain Consumer Electronics With Display and Processing Capabilities; Notice of Receipt of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-23

    ... COMMISSION Certain Consumer Electronics With Display and Processing Capabilities; Notice of Receipt of... received a complaint entitled Certain Consumer Electronics with Display and Processing Capabilities, DN... within the United States after importation of certain consumer electronics with display and processing...

  18. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 490: Station 44 Burn Area, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada (with Record of Technical Change No.1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office

    2000-06-09

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) contains the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 490 under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Active Unit 490 consists of four Corrective Action Sites (CASs): 03-56-001-03BA, Fire Training Area (FTA); RG-56-001-RGBA, Station 44 Burn Area; 03-58-001-03FN, Sandia Service Yard; and 09-54-001-09L2, Gun Propellant Burn Area. These CASs are located at the Tonopah Test Range near Areas 3 and 9. Historically, the FTA was used for training exercises where tires and wood were ignited with diesel fuel. Records indicate that water and carbon dioxide were the only extinguishing agents used during these training exercises. The Station 44 Burn Area was used for fire training exercises and consisted of two wooden structures. The two burn areas (ignition of tires, wood, and wooden structures with diesel fuel and water) were limited to the building footprints (10 ft by 10 ft each). The Sandia Service Yard was used for storage (i.e., wood, tires, metal, electronic and office equipment, construction debris, and drums of oil/grease) from approximately 1979 to 1993. The Gun Propellant Burn Area was used from the 1960s to 1980s to burn excess artillery gun propellant, solid-fuel rocket motors, black powder, and deteriorated explosives; additionally, the area was used for the disposal of experimental explosive items. Based on site history, the focus of the field investigation activities will be to: (1) determine the presence of contaminants of potential concern (COPCs) at each CAS, (2) determine if any COPCs exceed field-screening levels and/or preliminary action levels, and (3) determine the nature and extent of contamination with enough certainty to support selection of corrective action alternatives for each CAS. The scope of this CAIP is to resolve

  19. Solar active region display system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golightly, M.; Raben, V.; Weyland, M.

    2003-04-01

    The Solar Active Region Display System (SARDS) is a client-server application that automatically collects a wide range of solar data and displays it in a format easy for users to assimilate and interpret. Users can rapidly identify active regions of interest or concern from color-coded indicators that visually summarize each region's size, magnetic configuration, recent growth history, and recent flare and CME production. The active region information can be overlaid onto solar maps, multiple solar images, and solar difference images in orthographic, Mercator or cylindrical equidistant projections. Near real-time graphs display the GOES soft and hard x-ray flux, flare events, and daily F10.7 value as a function of time; color-coded indicators show current trends in soft x-ray flux, flare temperature, daily F10.7 flux, and x-ray flare occurrence. Through a separate window up to 4 real-time or static graphs can simultaneously display values of KP, AP, daily F10.7 flux, GOES soft and hard x-ray flux, GOES >10 and >100 MeV proton flux, and Thule neutron monitor count rate. Climatologic displays use color-valued cells to show F10.7 and AP values as a function of Carrington/Bartel's rotation sequences - this format allows users to detect recurrent patterns in solar and geomagnetic activity as well as variations in activity levels over multiple solar cycles. Users can customize many of the display and graph features; all displays can be printed or copied to the system's clipboard for "pasting" into other applications. The system obtains and stores space weather data and images from sources such as the NOAA Space Environment Center, NOAA National Geophysical Data Center, the joint ESA/NASA SOHO spacecraft, and the Kitt Peak National Solar Observatory, and can be extended to include other data series and image sources. Data and images retrieved from the system's database are converted to XML and transported from a central server using HTTP and SOAP protocols, allowing

  20. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 541: Small Boy Nevada National Security Site and Nevada Test and Training Range, Nevada with ROTC 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthews, Patrick [Navarro-Intera, LLC (N-I), Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 541 is co-located on the boundary of Area 5 of the Nevada National Security Site and Range 65C of the Nevada Test and Training Range, approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. CAU 541 is a grouping of sites where there has been a suspected release of contamination associated with nuclear testing. This document describes the planned investigation of CAU 541, which comprises the following corrective action sites (CASs): 05-23-04, Atmospheric Tests (6) - BFa Site; 05-45-03, Atmospheric Test Site - Small Boy. These sites are being investigated because existing information on the nature and extent of potential contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives (CAAs). Additional information will be obtained by conducting a corrective action investigation before evaluating CAAs and selecting the appropriate corrective action for each CAS. The results of the field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of viable CAAs that will be presented in the investigation report. The sites will be investigated based on the data quality objectives (DQOs) developed on April 1, 2014, by representatives of the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection; U.S. Air Force; and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office. The DQO process was used to identify and define the type, amount, and quality of data needed to develop and evaluate appropriate corrective actions for CAU 541. The site investigation process also will be conducted in accordance with the Soils Activity Quality Assurance Plan, which establishes requirements, technical planning, and general quality practices to be applied to this activity. The potential contamination sources associated with CASs 05-23-04 and 05-45-03 are from nuclear testing activities conducted at the Atmospheric Tests (6) - BFa Site and Atmospheric Test Site - Small Boy sites. The presence and nature of

  1. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 428: Area 3 Septic Waste Systems 1 and 5, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office

    2000-02-08

    This Corrective Action Decision Document identifies and rationalizes the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's selection of a recommended corrective action alternative (CAA) appropriate to facilitate the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 428, Septic Waste Systems 1 and 5, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Located in Area 3 at the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) in Nevada, CAU 428 is comprised of two Corrective Action Sites (CASs): (1) CAS 03-05-002-SW01, Septic Waste System 1 and (2) CAS 03-05-002- SW05, Septic Waste System 5. A corrective action investigation performed in 1999 detected analyte concentrations that exceeded preliminary action levels; specifically, contaminants of concern (COCs) included benzo(a) pyrene in a septic tank integrity sample associated with Septic Tank 33-1A of Septic Waste System 1, and arsenic in a soil sample associated with Septic Waste System 5. During this investigation, three Corrective Action Objectives (CAOs) were identified to prevent or mitigate exposure to contents of the septic tanks and distribution box, to subsurface soil containing COCs, and the spread of COCs beyond the CAU. Based on these CAOs, a review of existing data, future use, and current operations in Area 3 of the TTR, three CAAs were developed for consideration: Alternative 1 - No Further Action; Alternative 2 - Closure in Place with Administrative Controls; and Alternative 3 - Clean Closure by Excavation and Disposal. These alternatives were evaluated based on four general corrective action standards and five remedy selection decision factors. Based on the results of the evaluation, the preferred CAA was Alternative 3. This alternative meets all applicable state and federal regulations for closure of the site and will eliminate potential future exposure pathways to the contaminated soils at the Area 3 Septic Waste Systems 1 and 5.

  2. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan for Corrective Action Unit 411. Double Tracks Plutonium Dispersion (Nellis), Nevada Test and Training Range, Nevada, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthews, Patrick K. [Navarro-Intera, LLC (N-I), Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2015-03-01

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan addresses the actions needed to achieve closure for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 411, Double Tracks Plutonium Dispersion (Nellis). CAU 411 is located on the Nevada Test and Training Range and consists of a single corrective action site (CAS), NAFR-23-01, Pu Contaminated Soil. There is sufficient information and historical documentation from previous investigations and the 1996 interim corrective action to recommend closure of CAU 411 using the SAFER process. Based on existing data, the presumed corrective action for CAU 411 is clean closure. However, additional data will be obtained during a field investigation to document and verify the adequacy of existing information, and to determine whether the CAU 411 closure objectives have been achieved. This SAFER Plan provides the methodology to gather the necessary information for closing the CAU. The results of the field investigation will be presented in a closure report that will be prepared and submitted to the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) for review and approval. The site will be investigated based on the data quality objectives (DQOs) developed on November 20, 2014, by representatives of NDEP, the U.S. Air Force (USAF), and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office. The DQO process was used to identify and define the type, amount, and quality of data needed to determine whether CAU 411 closure objectives have been achieved. The following text summarizes the SAFER activities that will support the closure of CAU 411; Collect environmental samples from designated target populations to confirm or disprove the presence of contaminants of concern (COCs) as necessary to supplement existing information; If COCs are no longer present, establish clean closure as the corrective action; If COCs are present, the extent of contamination will be defined and further corrective actions

  3. Determination of vertebral range of motion using inertial measurement units in 27 Franches-Montagnes stallions and comparison between conditions and with a mixed population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heim, C; Pfau, T; Gerber, V; Schweizer, C; Doherr, M; Schüpbach-Regula, G; Witte, S

    2016-07-01

    The diagnosis of equine back disorders is challenging. Objectively determining movement of the vertebral column may therefore be of value in a clinical setting. To establish whether surface-mounted inertial measurement units (IMUs) can be used to establish normal values for range of motion (ROM) of the vertebral column in a uniform population of horses trotting under different conditions. Vertebral ROM was established in Franches-Montagnes stallions and a general population of horses and the variability in measurements compared between the two groups. Repeatability and the influence of specific exercise condition (on ROM) were assessed. Finally, attempts were made to explain the findings of the study through the evaluation of factors that might influence ROM. Dorsoventral (DV) and mediolateral (ML) vertebral ROM was measured at a trot under different exercise conditions in 27 Franches-Montagnes stallions and six general population horses using IMUs distributed over the vertebral column. Variability in the ROM measurements was significantly higher for general population horses than for Franches-Montagnes stallions (both DV and ML ROM). Repeatability was strong to very strong for DV measurements and moderate for ML measurements. Trotting under saddle significantly reduced the ROM, with sitting trot resulting in a significantly lower ROM than rising trot. Age is unlikely to explain the low variability in vertebral ROM recorded in the Franches-Montagnes horses, while this may be associated with conformational factors. It was possible to establish a normal vertebral ROM for a group of Franches-Montagnes stallions. While within-breed variation was low in this population, further studies are necessary to determine variation in vertebral ROM for other breeds and to assess their utility for diagnosis of equine back disorders. © 2015 EVJ Ltd.

  4. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 413: Clean Slate II Plutonium Dispersion (TTR) Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthews, Patrick; Burmeister, Mark; Gallo, Patricia

    2016-04-21

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 413 is located on the Tonopah Test Range, which is approximately 130 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada, and approximately 40 miles southeast of Tonopah, Nevada. The CAU 413 site consists of the release of radionuclides to the surface and shallow subsurface from the conduct of the Clean Slate II (CSII) storage–transportation test conducted on May 31, 1963. CAU 413 includes one corrective action site (CAS), TA-23-02CS (Pu Contaminated Soil). The known releases at CAU 413 are the result of the atmospheric deposition of contamination from the 1963 CSII test. The CSII test was a non-nuclear detonation of a nuclear device located inside a reinforced concrete bunker covered with 2 feet of soil. This test dispersed radionuclides, primarily plutonium, on the ground surface. The presence and nature of contamination at CAU 413 will be evaluated based on information collected from a corrective action investigation (CAI). The investigation is based on the data quality objectives (DQOs) developed on June 17, 2015, by representatives of the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection; the U.S. Air Force; and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office. The DQO process was used to identify and define the type, amount, and quality of data needed to develop and evaluate appropriate corrective actions for CAU 413. The CAI will include radiological surveys, geophysical surveys, collection and analyses of soil samples, and assessment of investigation results. The collection of soil samples will be accomplished using both probabilistic and judgmental sampling approaches. To facilitate site investigation and the evaluation of DQO decisions, the releases at CAU 413 have been divided into seven study groups.

  5. Douglas-fir displays a range of growth responses to ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) growth in the Pacific Northwest is affected by climatic, edaphic factors and Swiss needle cast (SNC) disease. We examine Douglas-fir growth responses to temperature, dewpoint deficit (DPD), soil moisture, and SNC using time series intervention analysis of intra-annual tree-ring width data collected at nine forest stands in western Oregon, USA. The effects of temperature and SNC were similar in importance on tree growth at all sites. Previous-year DPD during the annual drought period was a key factor limiting growth regionally. Winter temperature was more important at high elevation cool sites, whereas summer temperature was more important at warm and dry sites. Growth rate increased with summer temperature to an optimum (Topt) then decreased at higher temperatures. At drier sites, temperature and water affected growth interactively such that Topt decreased with decreasing summer soil moisture. With climate change, growth rates increased at high elevation sites and declined at mid-elevation inland sites since ~1990. Growth response to climate is masked by SNC regionally. We conclude that as temperature rises and precipitation patterns shift towards wetter winters and drier summers, Douglas-fir will experience greater temperature and water stress and an increase in severity of SNC. By the end of the 21st century, climate models predict hotter, drier summers and warmer, wetter winters in the Pac

  6. Distribution of muscle fibre conduction velocity for representative samples of motor units in the full recruitment range of the tibialis anterior muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Vecchio, A; Negro, F; Felici, F; Farina, D

    2018-02-01

    Motor units are recruited in an orderly manner according to the size of motor neurones. Moreover, because larger motor neurones innervate fibres with larger diameters than smaller motor neurones, motor units should be recruited orderly according to their conduction velocity (MUCV). Because of technical limitations, these relations have been previously tested either indirectly or in small motor unit samples that revealed weak associations between motor unit recruitment threshold (RT) and MUCV. Here, we analyse the relation between MUCV and RT for large samples of motor units. Ten healthy volunteers completed a series of isometric ankle dorsiflexions at forces up to 70% of the maximum. Multi-channel surface electromyographic signals recorded from the tibialis anterior muscle were decomposed into single motor unit action potentials, from which the corresponding motor unit RT, MUCV and action potential amplitude were estimated. Established relations between muscle fibre diameter and CV were used to estimate the fibre size. Within individual subjects, the distributions of MUCV and fibre diameters were unimodal and did not show distinct populations. MUCV was strongly correlated with RT (mean (SD) R 2  = 0.7 (0.09), P muscle fibre properties for large samples of motor units. The proposed methodology for motor unit analysis has also the potential to open new perspectives in the study of chronic and acute neuromuscular adaptations to ageing, training and pathology. © 2017 Scandinavian Physiological Society. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Dynamic plasmonic colour display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Xiaoyang; Kamin, Simon; Liu, Na

    2017-01-01

    Plasmonic colour printing based on engineered metasurfaces has revolutionized colour display science due to its unprecedented subwavelength resolution and high-density optical data storage. However, advanced plasmonic displays with novel functionalities including dynamic multicolour printing, animations, and highly secure encryption have remained in their infancy. Here we demonstrate a dynamic plasmonic colour display technique that enables all the aforementioned functionalities using catalytic magnesium metasurfaces. Controlled hydrogenation and dehydrogenation of the constituent magnesium nanoparticles, which serve as dynamic pixels, allow for plasmonic colour printing, tuning, erasing and restoration of colour. Different dynamic pixels feature distinct colour transformation kinetics, enabling plasmonic animations. Through smart material processing, information encoded on selected pixels, which are indiscernible to both optical and scanning electron microscopies, can only be read out using hydrogen as a decoding key, suggesting a new generation of information encryption and anti-counterfeiting applications. PMID:28232722

  8. Stereo Painting Display Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafer, David

    1982-06-01

    The Spanish Surrealist artist Salvador Dali has recently perfected the art of producing two paintings which are stereo pairs. Each painting is separately quite remarkable, presenting a subject with the vivid realism and clarity for which Dali is famous. Due to the surrealistic themes of Dali's art, however, the subjects preser.ted with such naturalism only exist in his imagination. Despite this considerable obstacle to producing stereo art, Dali has managed to paint stereo pairs that display subtle differences of coloring and lighting, in addition to the essential perspective differences. These stereo paintings require a display method that will allow the viewer to experience stereo fusion, but which will not degrade the high quality of the art work. This paper gives a review of several display methods that seem promising in terms of economy, size, adjustability, and image quality.

  9. Kamu Kesiminde Ekran Önü Çalışması Koşulları(The Working Conditions of Visual Display Units in Public Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tunç DEMİRBİLEK

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study is evaluated the ergonomic conditions of video display terminal users in office environment in the public sector. The authors carried out a survey of employees in two Local Authority Departments responsible for the collection of local taxes in İzmir. The respodents were chosen on the assumption that this work would be extensively computerized. The results indicated statistically the necessity of ensuring a better level of safety at workstations with display screens

  10. Refreshing Refreshable Braille Displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russomanno, Alexander; O'Modhrain, Sile; Gillespie, R Brent; Rodger, Matthew W M

    2015-01-01

    The increased access to books afforded to blind people via e-publishing has given them long-sought independence for both recreational and educational reading. In most cases, blind readers access materials using speech output. For some content such as highly technical texts, music, and graphics, speech is not an appropriate access modality as it does not promote deep understanding. Therefore blind braille readers often prefer electronic braille displays. But, these are prohibitively expensive. The search is on, therefore, for a low-cost refreshable display that would go beyond current technologies and deliver graphical content as well as text. And many solutions have been proposed, some of which reduce costs by restricting the number of characters that can be displayed, even down to a single braille cell. In this paper, we demonstrate that restricting tactile cues during braille reading leads to poorer performance in a letter recognition task. In particular, we show that lack of sliding contact between the fingertip and the braille reading surface results in more errors and that the number of errors increases as a function of presentation speed. These findings suggest that single cell displays which do not incorporate sliding contact are likely to be less effective for braille reading.

  11. Corrective Action Decision Document/Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 413: Clean Slate II Plutonium Dispersion (TTR) Tonopah Test Range, Nevada. Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthews, Patrick [Navarro, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2017-05-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document/Corrective Action Plan provides the rationale and supporting information for the selection and implementation of corrective actions at Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 413, Clean Slate II Plutonium Dispersion (TTR). CAU 413 is located on the Tonopah Test Range and includes one corrective action site, TA-23-02CS. CAU 413 consists of the release of radionuclides to the surface and shallow subsurface from the Clean Slate II (CSII) storage–transportation test conducted on May 31, 1963. The CSII test was a non-nuclear detonation of a nuclear device located inside a concrete bunker covered with 2 feet of soil. To facilitate site investigation and the evaluation of data quality objectives decisions, the releases at CAU 413 were divided into seven study groups: 1 Undisturbed Areas 2 Disturbed Areas 3 Sedimentation Areas 4 Former Staging Area 5 Buried Debris 6 Potential Source Material 7 Soil Mounds Corrective action investigation (CAI) activities, as set forth in the CAU 413 Corrective Action Investigation Plan, were performed from June 2015 through May 2016. Radionuclides detected in samples collected during the CAI were used to estimate total effective dose using the Construction Worker exposure scenario. Corrective action was required for areas where total effective dose exceeded, or was assumed to exceed, the radiological final action level (FAL) of 25 millirem per year. The results of the CAI and the assumptions made in the data quality objectives resulted in the following conclusions: The FAL is exceeded in surface soil in SG1, Undisturbed Areas; The FAL is assumed to be exceeded in SG5, Buried Debris, where contaminated debris and soil were buried after the CSII test; The FAL is not exceeded at SG2, SG3, SG4, SG6, or SG7. Because the FAL is exceeded at CAU 413, corrective action is required and corrective action alternatives (CAAs) must be evaluated. For CAU 413, three CAAs were evaluated: no further action, clean closure, and

  12. Compressive multi-mode superresolution display

    KAUST Repository

    Heide, Felix

    2014-01-01

    Compressive displays are an emerging technology exploring the co-design of new optical device configurations and compressive computation. Previously, research has shown how to improve the dynamic range of displays and facilitate high-quality light field or glasses-free 3D image synthesis. In this paper, we introduce a new multi-mode compressive display architecture that supports switching between 3D and high dynamic range (HDR) modes as well as a new super-resolution mode. The proposed hardware consists of readily-available components and is driven by a novel splitting algorithm that computes the pixel states from a target high-resolution image. In effect, the display pixels present a compressed representation of the target image that is perceived as a single, high resolution image. © 2014 Optical Society of America.

  13. Refrigerated display cabinets; Butikskyla

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fahlen, Per

    2000-07-01

    This report summarizes experience from SP research and assignments regarding refrigerated transport and storage of food, mainly in the retail sector. It presents the fundamentals of heat and mass transfer in display cabinets with special focus on indirect systems and secondary refrigerants. Moreover, the report includes a brief account of basic food hygiene and the related regulations. The material has been compiled for educational purposes in the Masters program at Chalmers Technical University.

  14. Tactical Video Display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-02-01

    designed to extend the state-of-the-art in the area of thin film electroluminescent display systems. The program entails two major areas of efforts...the inclusion of the residual gases in thin film is very likely and dependent upon the concentrations of the gases and the reactive nature of the...reproducible films . Some exploratory work was also performed on the feasitility of applying a ZnTe /Te system black layer with TFEL structure. Pre

  15. Attention-Seeking Displays.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szabolcs Számadó

    Full Text Available Animal communication abounds with extravagant displays. These signals are usually interpreted as costly signals of quality. However, there is another important function for these signals: to call the attention of the receiver to the signaller. While there is abundant empirical evidence to show the importance of this stage, it is not yet incorporated into standard signalling theory. Here I investigate a general model of signalling - based on a basic action-response game - that incorporates this searching stage. I show that giving attention-seeking displays and searching for them can be an ESS. This is a very general result and holds regardless whether only the high quality signallers or both high and low types give them. These signals need not be costly at the equilibrium and they need not be honest signals of any quality, as their function is not to signal quality but simply to call the attention of the potential receivers. These kind of displays are probably more common than their current weight in the literature would suggest.

  16. A dynamic display keyboard and a key for use in a dynamic display keyboard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    The invention relates to a dynamic display keyboard comprising a plurality of key elements (101), each key element (101) comprises a transmitting part (102) capable of transmitting at least a part of light incident on the transmitting part; a mat (105) comprising a plurality of elevated elements...... (106, 107, 109, 201, 202) capable of providing a tactile feedback and comprising an opening (113); wherein each key element (101) is fixedly connected to at least one respective elevated element (106, 107, 109, 201, 202) via at least one spacer (1201); at least one display unit (111, 911) comprising......). In this way, the dynamic display keyboard is able to provide a tactile feedback in response to a user action directed towards a key of the keyboard. Further, the only power requiring element in the keyboard is the display unit....

  17. Stage Cylindrical Immersive Display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramyan, Lucy; Norris, Jeffrey S.; Powell, Mark W.; Mittman, David S.; Shams, Khawaja S.

    2011-01-01

    Panoramic images with a wide field of view intend to provide a better understanding of an environment by placing objects of the environment on one seamless image. However, understanding the sizes and relative positions of the objects in a panorama is not intuitive and prone to errors because the field of view is unnatural to human perception. Scientists are often faced with the difficult task of interpreting the sizes and relative positions of objects in an environment when viewing an image of the environment on computer monitors or prints. A panorama can display an object that appears to be to the right of the viewer when it is, in fact, behind the viewer. This misinterpretation can be very costly, especially when the environment is remote and/or only accessible by unmanned vehicles. A 270 cylindrical display has been developed that surrounds the viewer with carefully calibrated panoramic imagery that correctly engages their natural kinesthetic senses and provides a more accurate awareness of the environment. The cylindrical immersive display offers a more natural window to the environment than a standard cubic CAVE (Cave Automatic Virtual Environment), and the geometry allows multiple collocated users to simultaneously view data and share important decision-making tasks. A CAVE is an immersive virtual reality environment that allows one or more users to absorb themselves in a virtual environment. A common CAVE setup is a room-sized cube where the cube sides act as projection planes. By nature, all cubic CAVEs face a problem with edge matching at edges and corners of the display. Modern immersive displays have found ways to minimize seams by creating very tight edges, and rely on the user to ignore the seam. One significant deficiency of flat-walled CAVEs is that the sense of orientation and perspective within the scene is broken across adjacent walls. On any single wall, parallel lines properly converge at their vanishing point as they should, and the sense of

  18. Review of Display Technologies Focusing on Power Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Rodríguez Fernández

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an overview of the main manufacturing technologies of displays, focusing on those with low and ultra-low levels of power consumption, which make them suitable for current societal needs. Considering the typified value obtained from the manufacturer’s specifications, four technologies—Liquid Crystal Displays, electronic paper, Organic Light-Emitting Display and Electroluminescent Displays—were selected in a first iteration. For each of them, several features, including size and brightness, were assessed in order to ascertain possible proportional relationships with the rate of consumption. To normalize the comparison between different display types, relative units such as the surface power density and the display frontal intensity efficiency were proposed. Organic light-emitting display had the best results in terms of power density for small display sizes. For larger sizes, it performs less satisfactorily than Liquid Crystal Displays in terms of energy efficiency.

  19. Image Descriptors for Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-02-01

    the entire display could be changed as often as every 1/60 s (TV field rate). Scan interlace was not used on the monitor. The 1/60-s resolution of...of photons arriving at the retina. These contributions can be separated by examining the experimental mT(v) as a function of luminance. From... photon shot noise, was found to be negligible for luminance .al.•- above 4 iabout 10 mL. Thus, the function A(v) represents the m4(v) employed in the

  20. Evapotranspiration units in the Basin and Range carbonate-rock aquifer system, White Pine County, Nevada, and adjacent parts of Nevada and Utah

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Accurate estimates of ground-water discharge are crucial in the development of a water budget for the Basin and Range Carbonate-rock Aquifer System (BARCAS) study...

  1. Methodologies for the evaluation of CRT displays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blackman, H.S.

    1986-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a series of experiments that have been conducted by the Human Factors Research Branch for the purpose of developing objective methods that will be used to evaluate the effectiveness of cathode ray tube (CRT) generated displays in improving reactor operator performance. The results of this work can provide a basis for the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) to objectively evaluate specific licensee-developed display designs. The following methods have been developed: (1) Psychophysics - short exposure of static display types were presented to subjects who were tasked to report status of a given parameter; (2) Multidimensional Rating Scale - paper and pencil instrument employed by subjects to rate the features of a display type across a variety of psychological dimensions; (3) Checklist Evaluation - a paper and pencil instrument employed by subjects to assess particular display types according to a set of human engineering criteria; (4) Noninteractive Evaluation - a formal experiment where the subjects were requested to identify dynamic simulated transients using various display types; and (5) Interactive Evaluation - similar to the noninteractive, but the subjects interacted with the simulator using a touch screen to mitigate transient events.

  2. Painting Reproductions on Display

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Iranowska

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Paintings in museums might occasionally be replaced by a photoprint mimicking the original. This article is an investigation of what constitutes a good reproduction of an artwork (oil painting that is meant to be displayed. The article discusses what the usefulness of reproductions depends on, applying the Valuation Studies approach, which means the primary concern is with the practice of valuing itself. In other words, the study focuses on how museum experts evaluate reproduc-tions of oil paintings. The article analyses three cases of displaying digitally prin-ted copies of Edvard Munch's oil paintings between 2013 and 2015 in the Munch Museum and in the National Gallery in Oslo. The study is based on a series of semi-structured interviews with the experts, working at and for the museums, that were involved in producing and exhibiting of the photoprints: curators, con-servators, museum educators, and external manufacturers. The interviews were grouped into five clusters, which I have chosen to call registers of valuing following Frank Heuts and Annemarie Mol (2013. The described valuation practices have to do with delivering experiences to the public, obtaining mimetic resemblance, solving ethical aspects, exhibitions' budget, and last but not least, with the time perspective.

  3. Addendum to the Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 411: Double Tracks Plutonium Dispersion (Nellis), Nevada Test and Training Range, Nevada, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burmeister, Mark [Navarro, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2016-11-01

    The Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 411 Closure Report (CR) was published in June 2016 (NNSA/NFO, 2016). The purpose of this addendum is to clarify language in the CR relating to the field instrument for the detection of low-energy radiation (FIDLER), provide the waste disposal documentation for waste generated during the corrective action investigation (CAI), and reference a letter from the U.S. Air Force (USAF) regarding the closure of CAU 411.

  4. Industrial Personal Computer based Display for Nuclear Safety System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ji Hyeon; Kim, Aram; Jo, Jung Hee; Kim, Ki Beom; Cheon, Sung Hyun; Cho, Joo Hyun; Sohn, Se Do; Baek, Seung Min [KEPCO, Youngin (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-15

    The safety display of nuclear system has been classified as important to safety (SIL:Safety Integrity Level 3). These days the regulatory agencies are imposing more strict safety requirements for digital safety display system. To satisfy these requirements, it is necessary to develop a safety-critical (SIL 4) grade safety display system. This paper proposes industrial personal computer based safety display system with safety grade operating system and safety grade display methods. The description consists of three parts, the background, the safety requirements and the proposed safety display system design. The hardware platform is designed using commercially available off-the-shelf processor board with back plane bus. The operating system is customized for nuclear safety display application. The display unit is designed adopting two improvement features, i.e., one is to provide two separate processors for main computer and display device using serial communication, and the other is to use Digital Visual Interface between main computer and display device. In this case the main computer uses minimized graphic functions for safety display. The display design is at the conceptual phase, and there are several open areas to be concreted for a solid system. The main purpose of this paper is to describe and suggest a methodology to develop a safety-critical display system and the descriptions are focused on the safety requirement point of view.

  5. Determining minimal display element requirements for surface map displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-04-14

    There is a great deal of interest in developing electronic surface map displays to enhance safety and reduce incidents and incursions on or near the airport surface. There is a lack of research, however, detailing the minimal display elements require...

  6. Distribution models for Panicum virgatum (Poaceae) reveal an expanded range in present and future climate regimes in the northeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrens, Collin W; Meyer, Thomas H; Auer, Carol A

    2014-11-01

    Expanded area cultivated with the bioenergy crop Panicum virgatum (switchgrass) could alter the genetics of native populations through gene flow, so understanding current and future species distribution is a first step toward estimating ecological impacts. We surveyed switchgrass distribution in the northeastern United States and generated statistical models to address hypotheses about current distribution relative to historical records and responses to climate change. Surveys were conducted on 1600 km of road verges along environmental gradients. Switchgrass abundance became the training data for two multivariate generalized linear models that generated maps representing the probability of switchgrass in road verges. Models were evaluated and the superior model was used with variables from three climate change scenarios for 2050 and 2099. Switchgrass populations were found in 41% of roadside plots and up to 188 km from the coast. The environmental variables temperature, urban areas, and sandy soils were positively correlated with switchgrass presence, while elevation, soil pH, and distance to the coast were negatively correlated. The model without spatial autocorrelation performed better. Models and maps incorporating climate change predictions showed a sharp northward shift in suitable habitat. Switchgrass populations in the northeastern United States occur on inland road verges, supporting the idea that species distribution has expanded relative to historical descriptions of a restricted coastal habitat. The optimal model showed that mean temperature, elevation, and urban development were important in switchgrass distribution today, and climate change will increase suitable habitat for future bioenergy production and wild populations. © 2014 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  7. A Well Tempered Mammographic Display

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kundel, Harold L

    1997-01-01

    This proposal addresses the development of a softcopy display for digital mammography that seeks to couple optimally the visual system to the displayed image without excessive human-machine interaction...

  8. Methods and apparatus for transparent display using scattering nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chia Wei; Qiu, Wenjun; Zhen, Bo; Shapira, Ofer; Soljacic, Marin

    2016-05-10

    Transparent displays enable many useful applications, including heads-up displays for cars and aircraft as well as displays on eyeglasses and glass windows. Unfortunately, transparent displays made of organic light-emitting diodes are typically expensive and opaque. Heads-up displays often require fixed light sources and have limited viewing angles. And transparent displays that use frequency conversion are typically energy inefficient. Conversely, the present transparent displays operate by scattering visible light from resonant nanoparticles with narrowband scattering cross sections and small absorption cross sections. More specifically, projecting an image onto a transparent screen doped with nanoparticles that selectively scatter light at the image wavelength(s) yields an image on the screen visible to an observer. Because the nanoparticles scatter light at only certain wavelengths, the screen is practically transparent under ambient light. Exemplary transparent scattering displays can be simple, inexpensive, scalable to large sizes, viewable over wide angular ranges, energy efficient, and transparent simultaneously.

  9. Methods and apparatus for transparent display using scattering nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, Chia Wei; Qiu, Wenjun; Zhen, Bo; Shapira, Ofer; Soljacic, Marin

    2017-06-14

    Transparent displays enable many useful applications, including heads-up displays for cars and aircraft as well as displays on eyeglasses and glass windows. Unfortunately, transparent displays made of organic light-emitting diodes are typically expensive and opaque. Heads-up displays often require fixed light sources and have limited viewing angles. And transparent displays that use frequency conversion are typically energy inefficient. Conversely, the present transparent displays operate by scattering visible light from resonant nanoparticles with narrowband scattering cross sections and small absorption cross sections. More specifically, projecting an image onto a transparent screen doped with nanoparticles that selectively scatter light at the image wavelength(s) yields an image on the screen visible to an observer. Because the nanoparticles scatter light at only certain wavelengths, the screen is practically transparent under ambient light. Exemplary transparent scattering displays can be simple, inexpensive, scalable to large sizes, viewable over wide angular ranges, energy efficient, and transparent simultaneously.

  10. Optimal delivery in display advertising

    OpenAIRE

    Mostagir, Mohamed

    2010-01-01

    In display advertising, a publisher targets a specific audience by displaying ads on content web pages. Because the publisher has little control over the supply of display opportunities, the actual supply of ads that it can sell is stochastic. We consider the problem of optimal ad delivery, where an advertiser requests a certain number of impressions to be displayed by the publisher over a certain time horizon. Time is divided into periods, and in the beginning of each period the publisher ch...

  11. Imaging display method for airborne oceanographic LIDAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jon P.; Keck, Timothy; Umehara, Michael J.

    1990-09-01

    Typical airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) used for oceanographic measurements collect data at rates in the range of 1 Megabyte per second. This paper presents a method for organizing and displaying this great bulk of data to allow screening for areas of interest. In addition, this method can be transferred to dedicated hardware, to provide a 100% real time data display system at a reasonable cost. A typical airborne LIDAR system contains a scanning transceiver, and digitizes returned waveforms as the aircraft ffies some search pattern. Thus the data is inherently four dimensional (intensity and three spatial dimensions). This method reliesupon collapsing the four dimensional data into three dimensions; color and X,Y screen coordinates. This is doneby translating depth into an RGB color mix, and return intensity into RGB intensity. Thus color represents depth, and brightness represents signal strength. This data is then displayed on a high resolution color display. In order for this to be successful, some preprocessing is necessary to normalize the waveforms, so that changes in the displayreflect changes in the water column. In addition, some digital filtering is beneficial to increase the signal to noise ratio. This system is currentlyimplemented in Greenhills 'C' under CLIX (UnixVport toClipper) running on a Zaiaz 933 compute engine, with RASIL graphics software package on a Zaiaz FB 640 Graphics frame buffer. This hardware provides 5 MIPS average execution rate and 16.7 million colors on a 768 x 576 pixel display.

  12. Seasonal photoperiods alter developmental time and mass of an invasive mosquito, Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae), across its north-south range in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, D A; Juliano, S A; Vamosi, S M

    2012-07-01

    The Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus (Skuse), is perhaps the most successful invasive mosquito species in contemporary history. In the United States, Ae. albopictus has spread from its introduction point in southern Texas to as far north as New Jersey (i.e., a span of approximately 14 degrees latitude). This species experiences seasonal constraints in activity because of cold temperatures in winter in the northern United States, but is active year-round in the south. We performed a laboratory experiment to examine how life-history traits of Ae. albopictus from four populations (New Jersey [39.4 degrees N], Virginia [38.6 degrees N], North Carolina [35.8 degrees N], Florida [27.6 degrees N]) responded to photoperiod conditions that mimic approaching winter in the north (short static daylength, short diminishing daylength) or relatively benign summer conditions in the south (long daylength), at low and high larval densities. Individuals from northern locations were predicted to exhibit reduced development times and to emerge smaller as adults under short daylength, but be larger and take longer to develop under long daylength. Life-history traits of southern populations were predicted to show less plasticity in response to daylength because of low probability of seasonal mortality in those areas. Males and females responded strongly to photoperiod regardless of geographic location, being generally larger but taking longer to develop under the long daylength compared with short day lengths; adults of both sexes were smaller when reared at low larval densities. Adults also differed in mass and development time among locations, although this effect was independent of density and photoperiod in females but interacted with density in males. Differences between male and female mass and development times was greater in the long photoperiod suggesting differences between the sexes in their reaction to different photoperiods. This work suggests that Ae. albopictus

  13. Tactile display with dielectric multilayer elastomer actuatorsq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matysek, Marc; Lotz, Peter; Schlaak, Helmut F.

    2009-03-01

    Tactile perception is the human sensation of surface textures through the vibrations generated by stroking a finger over the surface. The skin responds to several distributed physical quantities. Perhaps the most important are high-frequency vibrations, pressure distributions (static shape) and thermal properties. The integration of tactile displays in man-machine interfaces promises a more intuitive handling. For this reason many tactile displays are developed using different technologies. We present several state-of-the-art tactile displays based on different types of dielectric elastomer actuators to clarify the advantages of our matrix display based on multilayer technology. Using this technology perpendicular and hexagonal arrays of actuator elements (tactile stimulators) can be integrated into a PDMS substrate. Element diameters down to 1 mm allow stimuli at the range of the human two-point-discrimination threshold. Driving the elements by column and row addressing enables various stimulation patterns with a reduced number of feeding lines. The transient analysis determines charging times of the capacitive actuators depending on actuator geometry and material parameters. This is very important to ensure an adequate dynamic characteristic of the actuators to stimulate the human skin by vibrations. The suitability of multilayer dielectric elastomer actuators for actuation in tactile displays has been determined. Beside the realization of a static tactile display - where multilayer DEA are integrated as drives for movable contact pins - we focus on the direct use of DEA as a vibrotactile display. Finally, we present the scenario and achieved results of a recognition threshold test. Even relative low voltages in the range of 800 V generate vibrations with 100% recognition ratio within the group of participants. Furthermore, the frequency dependent characteristic of the determined recognition threshold confirms with established literature.

  14. Liquid-crystal-display-based touchable light field three-dimensional display using display-capture mapping calibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yifan; Li, Haifeng; Zhong, Qing; Liu, Xu

    2012-09-01

    An approach to achieving a light field three-dimensional (3D) display with a large viewing angular range based on spliced multi-LCDs is investigated. The light field reconstruction principle, LCD-based hardware configuration, and diffuser characteristics are analyzed. A point-to-point mapping calibration method is proposed to improve imaging performance, by using an image sensor to capture the coordinate distributions of the images on the LCD panel, projected onto the display space. By measuring the coordinate distributions, calibration is implemented considering both imaging aberration and geometrical inaccuracy of the whole system. The LCD-based experiment demonstrates that this method can achieve not only fast and precise calibration but also easy scalability, flexible depth, and angular range. A touchable floating 3D scene with correct occlusion, high image resolution, and a large continuous viewing angular range can be observed.

  15. LHCb Event display

    CERN Document Server

    Trisovic, Ana

    2014-01-01

    The LHCb Event Display was made for educational purposes at the European Organization for Nuclear Research, CERN in Geneva, Switzerland. The project was implemented as a stand-alone application using C++ and ROOT, a framework developed by CERN for data analysis. This paper outlines the development and architecture of the application in detail, as well as the motivation for the development and the goals of the exercise. The application focuses on the visualization of events recorded by the LHCb detector, where an event represents a set of charged particle tracks in one proton-proton collision. Every particle track is coloured by its type and can be selected to see its essential information such as mass and momentum. The application allows students to save this information and calculate the invariant mass for any pair of particles. Furthermore, the students can use additional calculating tools in the application and build up a histogram of these invariant masses. The goal for the students is to find a $D^0$ par...

  16. Colorimetry for CRT displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golz, Jürgen; MacLeod, Donald I A

    2003-05-01

    We analyze the sources of error in specifying color in CRT displays. These include errors inherent in the use of the color matching functions of the CIE 1931 standard observer when only colorimetric, not radiometric, calibrations are available. We provide transformation coefficients that prove to correct the deficiencies of this observer very well. We consider four different candidate sets of cone sensitivities. Some of these differ substantially; variation among candidate cone sensitivities exceeds the variation among phosphors. Finally, the effects of the recognized forms of observer variation on the visual responses (cone excitations or cone contrasts) generated by CRT stimuli are investigated and quantitatively specified. Cone pigment polymorphism gives rise to variation of a few per cent in relative excitation by the different phosphors--a variation larger than the errors ensuing from the adoption of the CIE standard observer, though smaller than the differences between some candidate cone sensitivities. Macular pigmentation has a larger influence, affecting mainly responses to the blue phosphor. The estimated combined effect of all sources of observer variation is comparable in magnitude with the largest differences between competing cone sensitivity estimates but is not enough to disrupt very seriously the relation between the L and M cone weights and the isoluminance settings of individual observers. It is also comparable with typical instrumental colorimetric errors, but we discuss these only briefly.

  17. Alpine lakes preserve mineral dust signatures: Implications for long-range mineral dust transport and Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) tornado frequency in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, A.; Lora, J. M.; Pollen, A.; Vollmer, T.; Thomas, M.; Leithold, E. L.; Mitchell, J.; Tripati, A.

    2016-12-01

    The net amount of mineral dust accumulation in arid and semi-arid regions might not be entirely sourced locally or even regionally; in fact, new evidence suggests that there could be significant contributions from distal sources. The contribution from the distal sources needs to be identified, and accounted for, in order to accurately understand the meteorological and climatologic factors, both regional and global, that control mineral dust accumulation in arid and semi-arid regions. Most importantly, if identified, the two components of mineral dust accumulation- fine fraction (typically 25 microns)- could provide critical information about regional as well as global climate. There are large-scale climatological controls on the finer fraction of mineral dust, while the coarser fraction is related to intense invents (i.e., the occurrence of cyclones). However, studies attempting to separate these two size fractions in terrestrial archives have been limited. Here we separate the two size fractions using grain size analysis, and use trace element analysis in each size fraction to identify contributing source regions. We apply this technique to well-dated cores collected from three lakes that are distributed across the western, southwestern and Great Plains in the United States: Pear Lake in the Sierra Nevada Mountains (CA), Senator Beck Lake in the San Juan Mountains (CO), and North Lake (WY). These lakes are uniquely situated to monitor dust fluxes; previous studies have demonstrated that sedimentation in these lakes are dominated by mineral dust accumulation; there is also evidence of remotely and locally sourced dust in these lakes, and of textural differences between the two types of dust fractions. We compare our results with previously published data on dust from loess deposits in the United States, and isotopic modeling (LMDZ). We find evidence that the finer-grain size fraction in alpine lake cores could be of remote origin; work is underway to quantify this

  18. Optimization of the level and range of working temperature of the PCM in the gypsum-microencapsulated PCM thermal energy storage unit for summer conditions in Central Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łapka, P.; Jaworski, M.

    2017-10-01

    In this paper thermal energy storage (TES) unit in a form of a ceiling panel made of gypsum-microencapsulated PCM composite with internal U-shaped channels was considered and optimal characteristics of the microencapsulated PCM were determined. This panel may be easily incorporated into, e.g., an office or residential ventilation system in order to reduce daily variations of air temperature during the summer without additional costs related to the consumption of energy for preparing air parameters to the desired level. For the purpose of the analysis of heat transfer in the panel, a novel numerical simulator was developed. The numerical model consists of two coupled parts, i.e., the 1D which deals with the air flowing through the U-shaped channel and the 3D which deals with heat transfer in the body of the panel. The computational tool was validated based on the experimental study performed on the special set-up. Using this tool an optimization of parameters of the gypsum-microencapsulated PCM composite was performed in order to determine its most appropriate properties for the application under study. The analyses were performed for averaged local summer conditions in Warsaw, Poland.

  19. Studies of geology and hydrology in the Basin and Range Province, Southwestern United States, for isolation of high-level radioactive waste - Basis of characterization and evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedinger, M.S.; Sargent, K.A.; Langer, William H.; Sherman, Frank B.; Reed, J.E.; Brady, B.T.

    1989-01-01

    The geologic and hydrologic factors in selected regions of the Basin and Range province were examined to identify prospective areas for further study that may provide isolation of high-level radioactive waste from the accessible environment. The six regions selected for study were characterized with respect to the following guidelines: (1) Potential repository media; (2) Quaternary tectonic conditions; (3) climatic change and geomorphic processes; (4) ground-water conditions; (5) ground-water quality; and (6) mineral and energy resources.The repository medium will function as the first natural barrier to radionuclide travel by virtue of associated slow ground-water velocity. The principal rock types considered as host media include granitic, intermediate, and mafic intrusive rocks; argillaceous rocks; salt and anhydrite; volcanic mudflow (laharic) breccias; some intrusive rhyolitic plugs and stocks; partially zeolitized tuff; and metamorphic rocks. In the unsaturated zone, the permeability and hydrologic properties of the rocks and the hydrologic setting are more important than the rock type. Media ideally should be permeable to provide drainage and should have a minimal water fluxThe ground-water flow path from a repository to the accessible environment needs to present major barriers to the transport of radionuclides. Factors considered in evaluating the ground-water conditions include ground-water traveltimes and quality, confining beds, and earth materials favorable for retardation of radionuclides. Ground-water velocities in the regions were calculated from estimated hydraulic properties of the rocks and gradients. Because site-specific data on hydraulic properties are not available, data from the literature were assembled and synthesized to obtain values for use in estimating ground-water velocities. Hydraulic conductivities for many rock types having granular and fracture permeability follow a log-normal distribution. Porosity for granular and very weathered

  20. Modelling the Contribution of Long-range Transport of Ammonium Nitrates to Urban Air Pollution and Human Exposure in the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, S.; Vieno, M.; Beck, R.; Ots, R.; Moring, A.; Steinle, S.; Heal, M. R.; Doherty, R. M.

    2014-12-01

    Urban air pollution and its effects on human health remain to be a challenge in spite of substantial reductions in the emissions of air pollutants (e.g. sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides) over the past decades in Europe. While primary pollutants play a vital role in urban air pollution, recent model studies highlight and quantify the relevance of long-range transport of secondary pollution (e.g. secondary inorganic aerosols such as ammonium sulphates and nitrates, or ground level ozone) for the exceedance of local air quality limit values in urban areas across Europe. This contribution can be seen in recurring episodes, for instance in spring 2014, with very high levels of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in Paris, London and other European cities, as well as in elevated background levels throughout the year. While we will focus on the contribution to exceedances of PM2.5 limit values here, this transboundary transport has wider implications for the deposition of reactive nitrogen far from the source as well. As local authorities are tasked with ensuring the attainment of air quality limit values, exceedances caused by long-range transport, with emissions originating from sources outside of their jurisdiction present substantial challenges. Furthermore, while policy measures have successfully addressed emissions from large point sources in the past, and made progress towards reducing pollution from road vehicles, emissions of ammonia from agricultural sources - a key component for the long-range transport of secondary inorganic aerosols - have remained relatively stable in Europe. Using the example of Europe and the UK, we demonstrate in our presentation how atmospheric chemistry transport modelling across different scales (from regional to local) can provide vital insight in the mechanisms of and relative contributions to the formation of secondary inorganic aerosols. In addition, we illustrate how this modelling capability can inform the design of efficient control

  1. Demodectic mange, dermatophilosis, and other parasitic and bacterial dermatologic diseases in free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) in the United States from 1975 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemeth, N M; Ruder, M G; Gerhold, R W; Brown, J D; Munk, B A; Oesterle, P T; Kubiski, S V; Keel, M K

    2014-05-01

    The white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) is a common and widespread North American game species. To evaluate the incidence, clinical manifestations, demography, and pathology of bacterial and parasitic dermatologic diseases in white-tailed deer in the southeastern United States, we retrospectively evaluated white-tailed deer cases submitted to the Southeastern Cooperative Wildlife Disease Study from 1975 to 2012. Among 2569 deer examined, bacterial or parasitic dermatologic disease was diagnosed in 88 (3.4%) individuals, with Demodex spp (n = 37; 42.0%) and Dermatophilus congolensis (n = 19; 21.6%) as the most common causes. Demodicosis was significantly more common in deer older than 2 years and was most often detected in the fall; no statistically significant sex predilection was identified. Affected animals had patchy to generalized alopecia, often distributed over the head, neck, limbs, and trunk; microscopic lesions included epidermal crusts and cutaneous nodules with mild perifollicular, lymphoplasmacytic inflammation. Dermatophilosis was most common in males younger than 1 year that were often found dead. Crusting, erythema, and alopecia occurred on the face, ears, and distal extremities. Less commonly, infectious dermatologic diseases were associated with other bacteria (n = 13; 14.8%), fungi (n = 5; 5.7%), ectoparasites (chiggers, lice, mites, and ticks; n = 11; 12.5%), and larval nematodes (n = 7; 8.0%). Population-level effects of these diseases in white-tailed deer are likely minimal; however, due to their dramatic presentation, demodicosis, dermatophilosis, and other infectious skin diseases can be of concern to hunters and, in some cases, may have zoonotic potential.

  2. Addendum to the Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 484: Surface Debris, Waste Sites, and Burn Area, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada (Revision 0)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark Burmeister

    2011-03-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 484 Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) activities called for the identification and remediation of surface hot spot depleted uranium (DU) with some excavation to determine the vertical extent of contamination (NNSA/NSO, 2004). During the CAU 484 SAFER investigation (conducted November 2003 through August 2007), approximately 50 locations containing DU were identified on Antelope Lake. All but four locations (CA-1, SA-5-9, SA-12-15, and SA-4) were remediated. Figure 1-1 shows locations of the four use restriction (UR) sites. The four locations were determined to have failed the SAFER conceptual site model assumption of a small volume hot spot. Two of the locations (CA-1 and SA-5-9) were excavated to depths of 3.5 to 7 feet (ft) below ground surface (bgs), and a third location (SA-12-15) with a footprint of 30 by 60 ft was excavated to a depth of 0.5 ft. At the fourth site (SA-4), the discovery of unexploded ordnance (UXO) halted the excavation due to potential safety concerns. Remediation activities on Antelope Lake resulted in the removal of approximately 246 cubic yards (yd3) of DU-impacted soil from the four UR sites; however, Kiwi surveys confirmed that residual DU contamination remained at each of the four sites. (The Kiwi was a Remote Sensing Laboratory [RSL] vehicle equipped with a data-acquisition system and four sodium iodide gamma detectors. Surveys were conducted with the vehicle moving at a rate of approximately 10 miles per hour with the gamma detectors positioned 14 to 28 inches [in.] above the ground surface [NNSA/NSO, 2004]).

  3. PACS displays: how to select the right display technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschorn, David S; Krupinski, Elizabeth A; Flynn, Michael J

    2014-12-01

    The medical imaging display is a precision instrument with many features not found in commercial-grade displays. The more one understands what these features are and their corresponding clinical value, the better one can make a purchase decision. None of these displays maintain themselves for 5 years or more without some degree of automatic or manual performance testing. Routine calibration conformance checks are beginning to be mandated by the departments of health of many states. Most manufacturers provide mechanisms to perform these checks and keep track of their results, some more easily than others. A consistent display brightness of about 400 cd/m(2) and close conformance to the DICOM curve are the key components of a successful check. Displays are typically characterized by the number of pixels they contain, usually 2, 3, or 5 megapixels, but this is the least useful determinant of image quality. What matters most is the size of the pixels and the size of the whole display, which should be selected on the basis of the typical viewing distance. The farther one's eyes are from the display, the larger the pixels and the overall display size can be while still feeding the eye as much information as it can see. Care should be taken to use the appropriate display in a given setting for the clinical purpose at hand. Copyright © 2014 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Designing low cost LED display for the billboard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Yi-Jian; Uang, Chii-Maw; Wang, Ping-Chieh; Ho, Zu-Sheng

    2011-10-01

    With quickly advance of the computer, microelectronics and photonics technologies, LED display panel becomes a new electronic advertising media. It can be used to show any information whatever characters or graphics. Most LED display panels are built of many Light-Emitting Diodes arranged in a matrix form. The display has many advantages such as low power, low cost, long life and high definition. Because the display panel is asked to show rich color, the LED display panel's driving system becomes very complex. The design methodology of LED display panel's driver becomes more and more important to meet the market requirements. Cost is always the most important issue in public market domain. In this paper, we report a design methodology of LED display panel's driver based on the microprocessor control unit (MCU) system and LED display controller IC, HT1632C, to control three colors, RGB, color LED display panel and the modular panel size is 24*16 in matrix form. The HT1632C is a memory mapping LED display controller, it can be used on many applications, such as digital clock, thermometer, counter, voltmeter or other instrumentation readouts. Three pieces of HT1632C are used to drive a 24*16 RGB LED display panel, in our design case. Each HT163C chip is used to control one of the R, G and B color. As the drive mode is driven in DC mode, the RGB display panel can create and totally of seven colors under the control of MCU. The MCU generates the control signal to drive HT1632C. In this study, the software design methodology is adopted with dynamic display principle. When the scan frequency is 60Hz, LED display panel will get the clear picture and be able to display seven colors.

  5. Keratinocyte specific markers isolated using phage display

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, K.B.; Jensen, Ole Nørregaard; Ravn, P.

    2003-01-01

    Specific molecular markers for various normal and pathogenic cell states and cell types provide knowledge of basic biological systems and have a direct application in targeted therapy. We describe a proteomic method based on the combination of new and improved phage display antibody technologies...... display method was applied to analysis of human skin keratinocytes resulting in the isolation of a panel of antibodies. Fourteen of these antibodies were further characterized, half of which predominantly recognized keratinocytes in a screen of a range of different cell types. Three cognate keratinocyte...... antigens were subsequently identified by mass spectrometry as laminin-5, plectin, and fibronectin. The combination of phage display technology with mass spectrometry methods for protein identification is a general and promising approach for proteomic analysis of cell surface complexity....

  6. Climate and pH predict the potential range of the invasive apple snail (Pomacea insularum in the southeastern United States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James E Byers

    Full Text Available Predicting the potential range of invasive species is essential for risk assessment, monitoring, and management, and it can also inform us about a species' overall potential invasiveness. However, modeling the distribution of invasive species that have not reached their equilibrium distribution can be problematic for many predictive approaches. We apply the modeling approach of maximum entropy (MaxEnt that is effective with incomplete, presence-only datasets to predict the distribution of the invasive island apple snail, Pomacea insularum. This freshwater snail is native to South America and has been spreading in the USA over the last decade from its initial introductions in Texas and Florida. It has now been documented throughout eight southeastern states. The snail's extensive consumption of aquatic vegetation and ability to accumulate and transmit algal toxins through the food web heighten concerns about its spread. Our model shows that under current climate conditions the snail should remain mostly confined to the coastal plain of the southeastern USA where it is limited by minimum temperature in the coldest month and precipitation in the warmest quarter. Furthermore, low pH waters (pH <5.5 are detrimental to the snail's survival and persistence. Of particular note are low-pH blackwater swamps, especially Okefenokee Swamp in southern Georgia (with a pH below 4 in many areas, which are predicted to preclude the snail's establishment even though many of these areas are well matched climatically. Our results elucidate the factors that affect the regional distribution of P. insularum, while simultaneously presenting a spatial basis for the prediction of its future spread. Furthermore, the model for this species exemplifies that combining climatic and habitat variables is a powerful way to model distributions of invasive species.

  7. Fundamental host range of Pseudophilothrips ichini s.l. (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae): a candidate biological control agent of Schinus terebinthifolius (Sapindales: Anacardiaceae) in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuda, J P; Medal, J C; Gillmore, J L; Habeck, D H; Pedrosa-Macedo, J H

    2009-12-01

    Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Sapindales: Anacardiaceae) is a non-native perennial woody plant that is one of the most invasive weeds in Florida, Hawaii, and more recently California and Texas. This plant was introduced into Florida from South America as a landscape ornamental in the late 19th century, eventually escaped cultivation, and now dominates entire ecosystems in south-central Florida. Recent DNA studies have confirmed two separate introductions of S. terebinthifolius in Florida, and there is evidence of hybridization. A thrips, Pseudophilothrips ichini s.l. (Hood) (Thysanoptera: Phlaeothripidae), is commonly found attacking shoots and flowers of S. terebinthifolius in Brazil. Immatures and occasionally adults form large aggregations on young terminal growth (stems and leaves) of the plant. Feeding damage by P. ichini s.l. frequently kills new shoots, which reduces vigor and restricts growth of S. terebinthifolius. Greenhouse and laboratory host range tests with 46 plant species in 18 families and 10 orders were conducted in Paraná, Brazil, and Florida. Results of no-choice, paired-choice, and multiple-choice tests indicated that P. ichini s.l. is capable of reproducing only on S. terebinthifolius and possibly Schinus molle L., an ornamental introduced into California from Peru that has escaped cultivation and is considered invasive. Our results showed that P. ichini s.l. posed minimal risk to mature S. molle plants or the Florida native Metopium toxiferum L. Krug and Urb. In May 2007, the federal interagency Technical Advisory Group for Biological Control Agents of Weeds (TAG) concluded P. ichini s.l. was sufficiently host specific to recommend its release from quarantine.

  8. Prototyping user displays using CLIPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosta, Charles P.; Miller, Ross; Krolak, Patrick; Vesty, Matt

    1990-01-01

    CLIPS is being used as an integral module of a rapid prototyping system. The prototyping system consists of a display manager for object browsing, a graph program for displaying line and bar charts, and a communications server for routing messages between modules. A CLIPS simulation of a physical model provides dynamic control of the user's display. Currently, a project is well underway to prototype the Advanced Automation System (AAS) for the Federal Aviation Administration.

  9. Texture-based correspondence display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerald-Yamasaki, Michael

    2005-03-01

    Texture-based correspondence display is a methodology to display corresponding data elements in visual representations of complex multidimensional, multivariate data. Texture is utilized as a persistent medium to contain a visual representation model and as a means to create multiple renditions of data where color is used to identify correspondence. Corresponding data elements are displayed over a variety of visual metaphors in a normal rendering process without adding extraneous linking metadata creation and maintenance. Texture-based correspondence display extends the effectiveness of visual representation for understanding data to the understanding and creation of visual representation models.

  10. Integrated micromachined scanning display systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagelin, Paul M.; Krishnamoorthy, Uma; Conant, Robert A.; Muller, Richard S.; Lau, Kam Y.; Solgaard, Olav

    1999-07-01

    We describe a raster-scanning display system comprised of two tilt-up micromachined polysilicon mirrors that rotate about orthogonal axes. We have demonstrated a resolution of 102 X 119 pixels. The optical efficiency of our two- mirror micro-optical raster-scanning system is comparable to that of micromachined display systems developed by Texas Instruments and Silicon Light Machines. Ease of integration with on-chip light sources and lenses has the potential to reduce packaging size, complexity and cost of the display system and makes it well suited for head-mounted display applications.

  11. A dynamic display keyboard and a key for use in a dynamic display keyboard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    The invention relates to a dynamic display keyboard comprising a plurality of key elements, each key element comprises a transmitting part capable of transmitting at least a part of light incident on the transmitting part; a mat comprising a plurality of elevated elements capable of providing...... part; at least one display unit capable of providing light to the plurality of transmitting parts via the optical element; and wherein the light provided to a transmitting part defines a visual value of the corresponding key element.; In this way, the keyboard is dynamic and further is able to provide...

  12. CERN students display their work

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2011-01-01

    The first poster session by students working on the LHC experiments, organised by the LPCC, was a great success. Showcasing the talents of over a hundred young physicists from all over the world, it was an opportunity for everyone at CERN to check out the wide range of research work being done by the new generation of physicists at CERN.   At 5.30 p.m. on Wednesday 23 March, the first poster session by CERN students took place in Restaurant No.1, where no fewer than 87 posters went on public display. The students were split into 8 groups according to their research field* and all were on hand to answer the questions of an inquisitive audience. TH Department's Michelangelo Mangano, who is head of the LHC Physics Centre at CERN (LPCC) and is responsible for the initiative, confirms that nothing was left to chance, even the choice of date: "We wanted to make the most of the general enthusiasm around the winter conferences and the meeting of the LHC Experiments Committee to present the stud...

  13. Display of native proteins on Bacillus subtilis spores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Jae-Gu; Choi, Soo-Keun; Jung, Heung-Chae; Kim, Eui-Joong

    2014-09-01

    In principle, protein display is enabled by fusing target proteins to naturally secreted, surface-anchored protein motifs. In this work, we developed a method of native protein display on the Bacillus spore surface that obviates the need to construct fusion proteins to display a motif. Spore coat proteins are expressed in the mother cell compartment and are subsequently assembled and deposited on the surface of spores. Therefore, target proteins overexpressed in the mother cell compartment during the late sporulation phase were expected to be targeted and displayed on the spore surface. As a proof of principle, we demonstrated the display of carboxymethylcellulase (CMCase) in its native form on the spore surface. The target protein, CMCase, was expressed under the control of the cry1Aa promoter, which is controlled by σ(E) and σ(K) and is expressed in the mother cell compartment. The correct display was confirmed using enzyme activity assays, flow cytometry, and immunogold electron microscopy. In addition, we demonstrated the display of a β-galactosidase tetramer and confirmed its correct display using enzyme activity assays and protein characterization. This native protein display system, combined with the robust nature of Bacillus spores, will broaden the range of displayable target proteins. Consequently, the applications of display technology will be expanded, including high-throughput screening, vaccines, biosensors, biocatalysis, bioremediation, and other innovative bioprocesses. © 2014 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Display Technology: An Annotated Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-12-01

    cockpit displays in future aircraft may be radically different from the present arrays of separate, single-purpose instruments. Many display ca - pabilities...Interna- tional Air Transport Association 15th Technical Conference, Lucerne , Switzer- land, April 1963. Engineering Paper No. 1583, Douglas Aircraft

  15. Cognitive Considerations in Display Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simcox, William

    This investigation of the encoding features of graphs begins with a description of a cognitive framework which allows designers to factor into the process of designing displays how people interpret the information found and what display properties are responsible for this interpretation. The framework also provides a performance measure for use in…

  16. Flexible Bistable Cholesteric Reflective Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Deng-Ke

    2006-03-01

    Cholesteric liquid crystals (ChLCs) exhibit two stable states at zero field condition-the reflecting planar state and the nonreflecting focal conic state. ChLCs are an excellent candidate for inexpensive and rugged electronic books and papers. This paper will review the display cell structure,materials and drive schemes for flexible bistable cholesteric (Ch) reflective displays.

  17. Real Image Visual Display System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-12-01

    Vol. 1457 Stereoscopic Displays and Applications 11, 274-282 (February 1991). 15. Lucente, Marc . "Optimization of Hologram Computaion for Real-Time Dis...play," SPIE Vol. 1667 Practical Holography VI, 32-43 (February 1992). 16. Marraud, A. and M. Bonnet . "Restitution of Stereoscopic Picture by Means

  18. Stereo acuity and visual acuity in head-mounted displays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooi, F.L.; Mosch, M.

    2006-01-01

    We have determined how the stereo acuity and visual acuity with Helmet Mounted Displays (HMD’s) depend on the HMD’s spatial resolution. We measured stereo acuity and visual acuity on 6 subjects for three types of HMD, with display resolutions ranging from 0.18 to 0.50 pixel/arcmin. The HMD’s provide

  19. Additions to generating capacity 1978--1987 for the contiguous United States: as projected by the Regional Electric Reliability Councils in their April 1, 1978 long-range coordinated planning reports to the Department of Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-09-15

    Comparison of the 1978 projections of the Reliability Councils with those made the previous year indicates three major changes in electric utility planning: (1) a reduction in total capacity additions for the 10-year planning period, (2) a significant decrease in nuclear additions, and (3) a shift from oil and gas to coal as a source of primary energy. Nuclear capacity continues to far overshadow fossil-fuel capacity in the unit-size range 1000 MW and up, with the reverse true for unit sizes less than 1000 MW. Although the total 10-year new-unit capacity drops from 326,624 MW (1977 to 1986) to 308,017 (1978 to 1987), new capacity planned that would use coal as a primary energy source increases from 136,763 MW to 146,206 MW. Nuclear capacity, in terms of total new units projected for the two 10-year periods, decreases from 130,532 MW to 116,177 MW, and capacity with oil as the primary source drops from 32,837 MW to 21,072 MW. For 1977 to 1986, no capacity was planned with oil as a primary source and coal as an alternate fuel but for 1978 to 1987, 1220 MW of such capacity is projected. Therefore, the total new capacity projected that could use coal as a fuel (primary or alternate) is 147,426 MW. In addition, one 700-MW unit is planned for which the primary fuel will be a blend of coal and refuse. There is a decrease in the capacity planned that would use natural gas a a primary source, from 2,089 MW in 1977 to 1986 to 502 MW in 1978 to 1987.

  20. INFORMATION DISPLAY: CONSIDERATIONS FOR DESIGNING COMPUTER-BASED DISPLAY SYSTEMS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' HARA,J.M.; PIRUS,D.; BELTRATCCHI,L.

    2004-09-19

    This paper discussed the presentation of information in computer-based control rooms. Issues associated with the typical displays currently in use are discussed. It is concluded that these displays should be augmented with new displays designed to better meet the information needs of plant personnel and to minimize the need for interface management tasks (the activities personnel have to do to access and organize the information they need). Several approaches to information design are discussed, specifically addressing: (1) monitoring, detection, and situation assessment; (2) routine task performance; and (3) teamwork, crew coordination, collaborative work.

  1. Flat panel display - Impurity doping technology for flat panel displays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Toshiharu [Advanced Technology Planning, Sumitomo Eaton Nova Corporation, SBS Tower 9F, 10-1, Yoga 4-chome, Setagaya-ku, 158-0097 Tokyo (Japan)]. E-mail: suzuki_tsh@senova.co.jp

    2005-08-01

    Features of the flat panel displays (FPDs) such as liquid crystal display (LCD) and organic light emitting diode (OLED) display, etc. using low temperature poly-Si (LTPS) thin film transistors (TFTs) are briefly reviewed comparing with other FPDs. The requirements for fabricating TFTs used for high performance FPDs and system on glass (SoG) are addressed. This paper focuses on the impurity doping technology, which is one of the key technologies together with crystallization by laser annealing, formation of high quality gate insulator and gate-insulator/poly-Si interface. The issues to be solved in impurity doping technology for state of the art and future TFTs are clarified.

  2. Automated Analysis, Classification, and Display of Waveforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Chiman; Xu, Roger; Mayhew, David; Zhang, Frank; Zide, Alan; Bonggren, Jeff

    2004-01-01

    A computer program partly automates the analysis, classification, and display of waveforms represented by digital samples. In the original application for which the program was developed, the raw waveform data to be analyzed by the program are acquired from space-shuttle auxiliary power units (APUs) at a sampling rate of 100 Hz. The program could also be modified for application to other waveforms -- for example, electrocardiograms. The program begins by performing principal-component analysis (PCA) of 50 normal-mode APU waveforms. Each waveform is segmented. A covariance matrix is formed by use of the segmented waveforms. Three eigenvectors corresponding to three principal components are calculated. To generate features, each waveform is then projected onto the eigenvectors. These features are displayed on a three-dimensional diagram, facilitating the visualization of the trend of APU operations.

  3. Designing and evaluating symbols for electronic displays of navigation information : symbol stereotypes and symbol-feature rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-09-30

    There is currently no common symbology standard for the electronic display of navigation information. The wide range of display technology and the different functions these displays support makes it difficult to design symbols that are easily recogni...

  4. OTFT backplanes for integration into flexible displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Michael D.; McCall, Keri L.; Bird, David P.; Lee, Yong Uk; Pease, Tim; Chan, Sam Y. F.; Palumbo, Marco; McGloin, Steve; Ogier, Simon D.

    2010-08-01

    Recent developments in high performance organic semiconductor (OSC) materials have shown charge mobilities in the range of 2 to 5 cm2/Vs. We present our progress in fabricating organic thin film transistor (OTFT) backplanes using a low temperature process (100°C maximum) and the prospects for integration into flexible displays. Discussion is made of the fabrication process using typical flat panel display equipment as well as the possibility of further device enhancement using ink jet printing technologies. We show the feasibility of achieving an average panel mobility of >1 cm2/Vs on a range of transistor array sizes. Electrical data is presented to show how the parameters of interest, (mobility, on/off ratio, Vth), vary across an array as well as some of the scaling factors that will be important for the final device architecture. Finally, we discuss how these devices have the potential for integration into a range of displays (for example, e-paper and OLEDs) for commercial exploitation.

  5. Remote Software Application and Display Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Brandon T.

    2014-01-01

    The era of the shuttle program has come to an end, but only to give rise to newer and more exciting projects. Now is the time of the Orion spacecraft, a work of art designed to exceed all previous endeavors of man. NASA is exiting the time of exploration and is entering a new period, a period of pioneering. With this new mission, many of NASAs organizations must undergo a great deal of change and development to support the Orion missions. The Spaceport Command and Control System (SCCS) is the new system that will provide NASA the ability to launch rockets into orbit and thus control Orion and other spacecraft as the goal of populating Mars becomes ever increasingly tangible. Since the previous control system, Launch Processing System (LPS), was primarily designed to launch the shuttles, SCCS was needed as Kennedy Space Center (KSC) reorganized to a multiuser spaceport for commercial flights, providing a more versatile control over rockets. Within SCCS, is the Launch Control System (LCS), which is the remote software behind the command and monitoring of flight and ground system hardware. This internship at KSC has involved two main components in LCS, including Remote Software Application and Display development. The display environment provides a graphical user interface for an operator to view and see if any cautions are raised, while the remote applications are the backbone that communicate with hardware, and then relay the data back to the displays. These elements go hand in hand as they provide monitoring and control over hardware and software alike from the safety of the Launch Control Center. The remote software applications are written in Application Control Language (ACL), which must undergo unit testing to ensure data integrity. This paper describes both the implementation and writing of unit tests in ACL code for remote software applications, as well as the building of remote displays to be used in the Launch Control Center (LCC).

  6. Emittance display on the new Linac controls computer

    CERN Document Server

    CERN PhotoLab

    1975-01-01

    Top left : horizontal emittance plot. Top right : above-angular beam profile; below-horizontal beam profile. Bottom : "mountain range" display combining beam intensity distribution as the third dimension with the horizontal.

  7. Texture-Based Correspondence Display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerald-Yamasaki, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Texture-based correspondence display is a methodology to display corresponding data elements in visual representations of complex multidimensional, multivariate data. Texture is utilized as a persistent medium to contain a visual representation model and as a means to create multiple renditions of data where color is used to identify correspondence. Corresponding data elements are displayed over a variety of visual metaphors in a normal rendering process without adding extraneous linking metadata creation and maintenance. The effectiveness of visual representation for understanding data is extended to the expression of the visual representation model in texture.

  8. Circular displays: control/display arrangements and stereotype strength with eight different display locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Alan H S; Hoffmann, Errol R

    2015-01-01

    Two experiments are reported that were designed to investigate control/display arrangements having high stereotype strengths when using circular displays. Eight display locations relative to the operator and control were tested with rotational and translational controls situated on different planes according to the Frame of Reference Transformation Tool (FORT) model of Wickens et al. (2010). (Left. No, Right! Development of the Frame of Reference Transformation Tool (FORT), Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 54th Annual Meeting, 54: 1022-1026). In many cases, there was little effect of display locations, indicating the importance of the Worringham and Beringer (1998. Directional stimulus-response compatibility: a test of three alternative principles. Ergonomics, 41(6), 864-880) Visual Field principle and an extension of this principle for rotary controls (Hoffmann and Chan (2013). The Worringham and Beringer 'visual field' principle for rotary controls. Ergonomics, 56(10), 1620-1624). The initial indicator position (12, 3, 6 and 9 o'clock) had a major effect on control/display stereotype strength for many of the six controls tested. Best display/control arrangements are listed for each of the different control types (rotational and translational) and for the planes on which they are mounted. Data have application where a circular display is used due to limited display panel space and applies to space-craft, robotics operators, hospital equipment and home appliances. Practitioner Summary: Circular displays are often used when there is limited space available on a control panel. Display/control arrangements having high stereotype strength are listed for four initial indicator positions. These arrangements are best for design purposes.

  9. Recognition of epoxy with phage displayed peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaminathan, Swathi; Cui, Yue

    2013-07-01

    The development of a general approach for non-destructive chemical and biological functionalization of epoxy could expand opportunities for both fundamental studies and creating various device platforms. Epoxy shows unique electrical, mechanical, chemical and biological compatibility and has been widely used for fabricating a variety of devices. Phage display has emerged as a powerful method for selecting peptides that possess enhanced selectivity and binding affinity toward a variety of targets. In this letter, we demonstrate for the first time a powerful yet benign approach for identifying binding motifs to epoxy via comprehensively screened phage displayed peptides. Our results show that the epoxy can be selectively recognized with peptide-displaying phages. Further, along with the development of epoxy-based microstructures; recognition of the epoxy with phage displayed peptides can be specifically localized in these microstructures. We anticipate that these results could open up exciting opportunities in the use of peptide-recognized epoxy in fundamental biochemical recognition studies, as well as in applications ranging from analytical devices, hybrid materials, surface and interface, to cell biology. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. SureTrak Probability of Impact Display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, John

    2012-01-01

    The SureTrak Probability of Impact Display software was developed for use during rocket launch operations. The software displays probability of impact information for each ship near the hazardous area during the time immediately preceding the launch of an unguided vehicle. Wallops range safety officers need to be sure that the risk to humans is below a certain threshold during each use of the Wallops Flight Facility Launch Range. Under the variable conditions that can exist at launch time, the decision to launch must be made in a timely manner to ensure a successful mission while not exceeding those risk criteria. Range safety officers need a tool that can give them the needed probability of impact information quickly, and in a format that is clearly understandable. This application is meant to fill that need. The software is a reuse of part of software developed for an earlier project: Ship Surveillance Software System (S4). The S4 project was written in C++ using Microsoft Visual Studio 6. The data structures and dialog templates from it were copied into a new application that calls the implementation of the algorithms from S4 and displays the results as needed. In the S4 software, the list of ships in the area was received from one local radar interface and from operators who entered the ship information manually. The SureTrak Probability of Impact Display application receives ship data from two local radars as well as the SureTrak system, eliminating the need for manual data entry.

  11. Integral photography capture and electronic holography display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichihashi, Yasuyuki; Yamamoto, Kenji

    2014-06-01

    This paper describes electronic holography output of three-dimensional (3D) video with integral photography as input. A real-time 3D image reconstruction system was implemented by using a 4K (3840×2160) resolution IP camera to capture 3D images and converting them to 8K (7680×4320) resolution holograms. Multiple graphics processing units (GPUs) were used to create 8K holograms from 4K IP images. In addition, higher resolution holograms were created to successfully reconstruct live-scene video having a diagonal size of 6 cm using a large electronic holography display.

  12. Ultraminiature, Micropower Multipurpose Display Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — High information content electronic displays remain the most difficult element of the human-machine interface to effectively miniaturize. Mobile applications need a...

  13. Color speckle in laser displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Kazuo

    2015-07-01

    At the beginning of this century, lighting technology has been shifted from discharge lamps, fluorescent lamps and electric bulbs to solid-state lighting. Current solid-state lighting is based on the light emitting diodes (LED) technology, but the laser lighting technology is developing rapidly, such as, laser cinema projectors, laser TVs, laser head-up displays, laser head mounted displays, and laser headlamps for motor vehicles. One of the main issues of laser displays is the reduction of speckle noise1). For the monochromatic laser light, speckle is random interference pattern on the image plane (retina for human observer). For laser displays, RGB (red-green-blue) lasers form speckle patterns independently, which results in random distribution of chromaticity, called color speckle2).

  14. 48 CFR 52.203-14 - Display of Hotline Poster(s).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Display of Hotline Poster... Clauses 52.203-14 Display of Hotline Poster(s). As prescribed in 3.1004(b), insert the following clause: Display of Hotline Poster(s) (DEC 2007) (a) Definition. United States, as used in this clause, means the...

  15. 27 CFR 26.317 - Bottles to be used for display purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... display purposes. 26.317 Section 26.317 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... ISLANDS Requirements for Liquor Bottles § 26.317 Bottles to be used for display purposes. Empty liquor bottles may be brought into the United States and may be furnished to liquor dealers for display purposes...

  16. 50 CFR 18.31 - Scientific research permits and public display permits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... display permits. 18.31 Section 18.31 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE... Scientific research permits and public display permits. The Director may, upon receipt of an application and... importation of marine mammals for scientific research purposes or for public display. (a) Application...

  17. LED-driven backlights for automotive displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauch, Frank

    2007-09-01

    As a light source the LED has some advantage over the traditionally used fluorescence tube such as longer life or lower space consumption. Consequently customers are asking for the LED lighting design in their products. We introduced in a company owned backlight the white LED technology. This step opens the possibility to have access to the components in the display market. Instead of having a finalized display product which needs to be integrated in the head unit of a car we assemble the backlight, the glass, own electronics and the housing. A major advantage of this concept is the better control of the heat flow generated by the LEDs to the outer side because only a common housing is used for all the components. Also the requirement for slim products can be fulfilled. As always a new technology doesn't come with advantages only. An LED represents a point source compared to the well-known tube thus requiring a mixing zone for the multiple point sources when they enter a light guide. This zone can't be used in displays because of the lack of homogeneity. It's a design goal to minimize this zone which can be helped by the right choice of the LED in terms of slimness. A step ahead is the implementation of RGB LEDs because of their higher color rendering abilities. This allows for the control of the chromaticity point under temperature change but as a drawback needs a larger mixing zone.

  18. Uniform LED illuminator for miniature displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medvedev, Vladimir; Pelka, David G.; Parkyn, William A.

    1998-10-01

    The Total Internally Reflecting (TIR) lens is a faceted structure composed of prismatic elements that collect a source's light over a much larger angular range than a conventional Fresnel lens. It has been successfully applied to the efficient collimation of light from incandescent and fluorescent lamps, and from light-emitting diodes (LEDs). A novel LED-powered collimating backlight is presented here, for uniformly illuminating 0.25'-diagonal miniature liquid- crystal displays, which are a burgeoning market for pagers, cellular phones, digital cameras, camcorders, and virtual- reality displays. The backlight lens consists of a central dual-asphere refracting section and an outer TIR section, properly curved with a curved exit face.

  19. Implementation of PIC Based LED Displays

    OpenAIRE

    Htet Htet Thit San; Chaw Myat Nwe; Hla Myo Tun

    2014-01-01

    This paper explains the project which is a special kind of LED Display Board for performing dance movement according to the rhythm of music. Nowadays, LED display boards are widely used in advertising and other applications. LED display boards can also be used indoors or outdoors. The objective of this system is to design a display panel by using several dozens of LED matrix display. The display pattern can desire to be changed easily and modified by the user. This LED display...

  20. Depth enhancement of multi-layer light field display using polarization dependent internal reflection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Na-Young; Lim, Hong-Gi; Lee, Sung-Keun; Kim, Yong-Soo; Park, Jae-Hyeung

    2013-12-02

    A technique to enhance the depth range of the multi-layer light field three-dimensional display is proposed. A set of the optical plates are stacked in front of the conventional multi-layer light field display, creating additional internal reflection for one polarization state. By switching between two orthogonal polarization states in synchronization with the displayed three-dimensional images, the depth range of the display can be doubled. The proposed method is verified experimentally, confirming its feasibility.

  1. On-line data display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Sherman Y. T.; Brooks, Martin; Gauthier, Marc; Wein, Marceli

    1993-05-01

    A data display system for embedded realtime systems has been developed for use as an operator's user interface and debugging tool. The motivation for development of the On-Line Data Display (ODD) have come from several sources. In particular the design reflects the needs of researchers developing an experimental mobile robot within our laboratory. A proliferation of specialized user interfaces revealed a need for a flexible communications and graphical data display system. At the same time the system had to be readily extensible for arbitrary graphical display formats which would be required for data visualization needs of the researchers. The system defines a communication protocol transmitting 'datagrams' between tasks executing on the realtime system and virtual devices displaying the data in a meaningful way on a graphical workstation. The communication protocol multiplexes logical channels on a single data stream. The current implementation consists of a server for the Harmony realtime operating system and an application written for the Macintosh computer. Flexibility requirements resulted in a highly modular server design, and a layered modular object- oriented design for the Macintosh part of the system. Users assign data types to specific channels at run time. Then devices are instantiated by the user and connected to channels to receive datagrams. The current suite of device types do not provide enough functionality for most users' specialized needs. Instead the system design allows the creation of new device types with modest programming effort. The protocol, design and use of the system are discussed.

  2. Three-dimensional display technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Jason

    2014-01-01

    The physical world around us is three-dimensional (3D), yet traditional display devices can show only two-dimensional (2D) flat images that lack depth (i.e., the third dimension) information. This fundamental restriction greatly limits our ability to perceive and to understand the complexity of real-world objects. Nearly 50% of the capability of the human brain is devoted to processing visual information [Human Anatomy & Physiology (Pearson, 2012)]. Flat images and 2D displays do not harness the brain’s power effectively. With rapid advances in the electronics, optics, laser, and photonics fields, true 3D display technologies are making their way into the marketplace. 3D movies, 3D TV, 3D mobile devices, and 3D games have increasingly demanded true 3D display with no eyeglasses (autostereoscopic). Therefore, it would be very beneficial to readers of this journal to have a systematic review of state-of-the-art 3D display technologies. PMID:25530827

  3. Modeling LCD displays with local backlight dimming for image quality assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korhonen, Jari; Burini, Nino; Forchhammer, Søren; Pedersen, Jesper M.

    2011-01-01

    Traditionally, algorithm-based (objective) image and video quality assessment methods operate with the numerical presentation of the signal, and they do not take the characteristics of the actual output device into account. This is a reasonable approach, when quality assessment is needed for evaluating the signal quality distortion related directly to digital signal processing, such as compression. However, the physical characteristics of the display device also pose a significant impact on the overall perception. In order to facilitate image quality assessment on modern liquid crystaldisplays (LCD) using light emitting diode (LED) backlight with local dimming, we present the essential considerations and guidelines for modeling the characteristics of displays with high dynamic range (HDR) and locally adjustable backlight segments. The representation of the image generated by the model can be assessed using the traditional objective metrics, and therefore the proposed approach is useful for assessing the performance of different backlight dimming algorithms in terms of resulting quality and power consumption in a simulated environment. We have implemented the proposed model in C++ and compared the visual results produced by the model against respective images displayed on a real display with locally controlled backlight units.

  4. To 'display' or not to 'display'- that is the peptide

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Crampton, Michael C

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Microbial cell surface display is the anchoring of a heterologous protein or peptide (passenger) to the outside of the cell wall as a fusion to a cell surface associated protein (carrier). This technology has been used extensively for both...

  5. Drag and drop display & builder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolshakov, Timofei B.; Petrov, Andrey D.; /Fermilab

    2007-12-01

    The Drag and Drop (DnD) Display & Builder is a component-oriented system that allows users to create visual representations of data received from data acquisition systems. It is an upgrade of a Synoptic Display mechanism used at Fermilab since 2002. Components can be graphically arranged and logically interconnected in the web-startable Project Builder. Projects can be either lightweight AJAX- and SVG-based web pages, or they can be started as Java applications. The new version was initiated as a response to discussions between the LHC Controls Group and Fermilab.

  6. NIST display colorimeter calibration facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Steven W.; Ohno, Yoshihiro

    2003-07-01

    A facility has been developed at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) to provide calibration services for color-measuring instruments to address the need for improving and certifying the measurement uncertainties of this type of instrument. While NIST has active programs in photometry, flat panel display metrology, and color and appearance measurements, these are the first services offered by NIST tailored to color-measuring instruments for displays. An overview of the facility, the calibration approach, and associated uncertainties are presented. Details of a new tunable colorimetric source and the development of new transfer standard instruments are discussed.

  7. 40 CFR 91.1007 - Display exemption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Display exemption. 91.1007 Section 91....1007 Display exemption. An uncertified marine SI engine is a display engine when it is to be used solely for display purposes, will only be operated incident and necessary to the display purpose, and...

  8. 40 CFR 89.907 - Display exemption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Display exemption. 89.907 Section 89....907 Display exemption. Where an uncertified nonroad engine is a display engine to be used solely for display purposes, will only be operated incident and necessary to the display purpose, and will not be...

  9. Spatial 3D infrastructure: display-independent software framework, high-speed rendering electronics, and several new displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Won-Suk; Napoli, Joshua; Cossairt, Oliver S.; Dorval, Rick K.; Hall, Deirdre M.; Purtell, Thomas J., II; Schooler, James F.; Banker, Yigal; Favalora, Gregg E.

    2005-03-01

    We present a software and hardware foundation to enable the rapid adoption of 3-D displays. Different 3-D displays - such as multiplanar, multiview, and electroholographic displays - naturally require different rendering methods. The adoption of these displays in the marketplace will be accelerated by a common software framework. The authors designed the SpatialGL API, a new rendering framework that unifies these display methods under one interface. SpatialGL enables complementary visualization assets to coexist through a uniform infrastructure. Also, SpatialGL supports legacy interfaces such as the OpenGL API. The authors" first implementation of SpatialGL uses multiview and multislice rendering algorithms to exploit the performance of modern graphics processing units (GPUs) to enable real-time visualization of 3-D graphics from medical imaging, oil & gas exploration, and homeland security. At the time of writing, SpatialGL runs on COTS workstations (both Windows and Linux) and on Actuality"s high-performance embedded computational engine that couples an NVIDIA GeForce 6800 Ultra GPU, an AMD Athlon 64 processor, and a proprietary, high-speed, programmable volumetric frame buffer that interfaces to a 1024 x 768 x 3 digital projector. Progress is illustrated using an off-the-shelf multiview display, Actuality"s multiplanar Perspecta Spatial 3D System, and an experimental multiview display. The experimental display is a quasi-holographic view-sequential system that generates aerial imagery measuring 30 mm x 25 mm x 25 mm, providing 198 horizontal views.

  10. The many facets of auditory display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blattner, Meera M.

    1995-01-01

    In this presentation we will examine some of the ways sound can be used in a virtual world. We make the case that many different types of audio experience are available to us. A full range of audio experiences include: music, speech, real-world sounds, auditory displays, and auditory cues or messages. The technology of recreating real-world sounds through physical modeling has advanced in the past few years allowing better simulation of virtual worlds. Three-dimensional audio has further enriched our sensory experiences.

  11. Lightning detection and ranging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennon, C. L.; Poehler, H. A.

    1982-01-01

    A lightning detector and ranging (LDAR) system developed at the Kennedy Space Center and recently transferred to Wallops Island is described. The system detects pulsed VHF signals due to electrical discharges occurring in a thunderstorm by means of 56-75 MHz receivers located at the hub and at the tips of 8 km radial lines. Incoming signals are transmitted by wideband links to a central computing facility which processes the times of arrival, using two independent calculations to determine position in order to guard against false data. The results are plotted on a CRT display, and an example of a thunderstorm lightning strike detection near Kennedy Space Center is outlined. The LDAR correctly identified potential ground strike zones and additionally provided a high correlation between updrafts and ground strikes.

  12. Display Apple M7649Zm

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    It was Designed for the Power Mac G4. This Apple studio display gives you edge-to-edge distortion-free images. With more than 16.7 million colors and 1,280 x 1,024 dpi resolution, you view brilliant and bright images on this Apple 17-inch monitor.

  13. Real Time Sonic Boom Display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haering, Ed

    2014-01-01

    This presentation will provide general information about sonic boom mitigation technology to the public in order to supply information to potential partners and licensees. The technology is a combination of flight data, atmospheric data and terrain information implemented into a control room real time display for flight planning. This research is currently being performed and as such, any results and conclusions are ongoing.

  14. JTEC panel on display technologies in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannas, Lawrence E., Jr.; Glenn, William E.; Credelle, Thomas; Doane, J. William; Firester, Arthur H.; Thompson, Malcolm

    1992-01-01

    This report is one in a series of reports that describes research and development efforts in Japan in the area of display technologies. The following are included in this report: flat panel displays (technical findings, liquid crystal display development and production, large flat panel displays (FPD's), electroluminescent displays and plasma panels, infrastructure in Japan's FPD industry, market and projected sales, and new a-Si active matrix liquid crystal display (AMLCD) factory); materials for flat panel displays (liquid crystal materials, and light-emissive display materials); manufacturing and infrastructure of active matrix liquid crystal displays (manufacturing logistics and equipment); passive matrix liquid crystal displays (LCD basics, twisted nematics LCD's, supertwisted nematic LCD's, ferroelectric LCD's, and a comparison of passive matrix LCD technology); active matrix technology (basic active matrix technology, investment environment, amorphous silicon, polysilicon, and commercial products and prototypes); and projection displays (comparison of Japanese and U.S. display research, and technical evaluation of work).

  15. Display Sharing: An Alternative Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    The current Johnson Space Center (JSC) Mission Control Center (MCC) Video Transport System (VTS) provides flight controllers and management the ability to meld raw video from various sources with telemetry to improve situational awareness. However, maintaining a separate infrastructure for video delivery and integration of video content with data adds significant complexity and cost to the system. When considering alternative architectures for a VTS, the current system's ability to share specific computer displays in their entirety to other locations, such as large projector systems, flight control rooms, and back supporting rooms throughout the facilities and centers must be incorporated into any new architecture. Internet Protocol (IP)-based systems also support video delivery and integration. IP-based systems generally have an advantage in terms of cost and maintainability. Although IP-based systems are versatile, the task of sharing a computer display from one workstation to another can be time consuming for an end-user and inconvenient to administer at a system level. The objective of this paper is to present a prototype display sharing enterprise solution. Display sharing is a system which delivers image sharing across the LAN while simultaneously managing bandwidth, supporting encryption, enabling recovery and resynchronization following a loss of signal, and, minimizing latency. Additional critical elements will include image scaling support, multi -sharing, ease of initial integration and configuration, integration with desktop window managers, collaboration tools, host and recipient controls. This goal of this paper is to summarize the various elements of an IP-based display sharing system that can be used in today's control center environment.

  16. Display measuring system СМ-100 for LCD characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Sorokin

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Creation of new liquid crystal displays and their adaptation for different external environments are impossible without correct diagnosing of wide range of electro-optical effects inherent to nematic, smectic and cholesteric liquid crystal materials. The modern universal display measuring complexes allow to solve this problem. Among different display measuring complexes those are wide used in the world for scientific centers and enterprises in Russia, Belorussia and Ukraine the complex CM-100, which has been developed in Institute of Semiconductor Phisics of NAS of Ukraine, is the most suitable.

  17. Interactive display of molecular models using a microcomputer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egan, J. T.; Macelroy, R. D.

    1980-01-01

    A simple, microcomputer-based, interactive graphics display system has been developed for the presentation of perspective views of wire frame molecular models. The display system is based on a TERAK 8510a graphics computer system with a display unit consisting of microprocessor, television display and keyboard subsystems. The operating system includes a screen editor, file manager, PASCAL and BASIC compilers and command options for linking and executing programs. The graphics program, written in USCD PASCAL, involves the centering of the coordinate system, the transformation of centered model coordinates into homogeneous coordinates, the construction of a viewing transformation matrix to operate on the coordinates, clipping invisible points, perspective transformation and scaling to screen coordinates; commands available include ZOOM, ROTATE, RESET, and CHANGEVIEW. Data file structure was chosen to minimize the amount of disk storage space. Despite the inherent slowness of the system, its low cost and flexibility suggests general applicability.

  18. The effect of rubber flooring on displaying stereotypies in gilts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostović, Mario; Menčik, Sven; Kabalin, Anamaria Ekert; Gračner, Gordana Gregurić; Vučemilo, Marija; Matković, Kristina; Vukičević, Tajana Trbojević; Grahovac, Jurica; Pavičić, Zeljko

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the effect of rubber mats in service unit on displaying stereotypies in gilts. Four 28-day production cycles in all seasons were observed. Each cycle included 28 gilts housed in gestation stalls with slatted concrete floor, which was covered with adjusted mats for 14 gilts (experimental group), while the remaining 14 gilts served as controls. Display of stereotypies and other behaviours observed, mat manipulation and postural behaviours were estimated by direct 1-hour observation of gilts at 2-minute intervals after morning feed supply on days 1, 8, 15 and 28 of each cycle. During the study period, displaying stereotypies was significantly less frequent (P gilts in the conditions of lower air temperature. During the cold period, experimental gilts took a lying position significantly more frequently (P gilts there was no significant correlation (P > 0.05 all) between the frequency of displaying stereotypies and the frequency of lying and other postures observed, as well as between the stereotypy display and the air temperature. There was no significant correlation (P > 0.05 all) between the frequency of mat manipulation and displaying stereotypies in total or its particular forms, suggesting that the less pronounced stereotypy display in experimental gilts may have been influenced by factors other than those observed in the present study.

  19. Transparent stereoscopic display and application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranieri, Nicola; Seifert, Hagen; Gross, Markus

    2014-03-01

    Augmented reality has become important to our society as it can enrich the actual world with virtual information. Transparent screens offer one possibility to overlay rendered scenes with the environment, acting both as display and window. In this work, we review existing transparent back-projection screens for the use with active and passive stereo. Advantages and limitations are described and, based on these insights, a passive stereoscopic system using an anisotropic back-projection foil is proposed. To increase realism, we adapt rendered content to the viewer's position using a Kinect tracking system, which adds motion parallax to the binocular cues. A technique well known in control engineering is used to decrease latency and increase frequency of the tracker. Our transparent stereoscopic display prototype provides immersive viewing experience and is suitable for many augmented reality applications.

  20. Game engines and immersive displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Benjamin; Destefano, Marc

    2014-02-01

    While virtual reality and digital games share many core technologies, the programming environments, toolkits, and workflows for developing games and VR environments are often distinct. VR toolkits designed for applications in visualization and simulation often have a different feature set or design philosophy than game engines, while popular game engines often lack support for VR hardware. Extending a game engine to support systems such as the CAVE gives developers a unified development environment and the ability to easily port projects, but involves challenges beyond just adding stereo 3D visuals. In this paper we outline the issues involved in adapting a game engine for use with an immersive display system including stereoscopy, tracking, and clustering, and present example implementation details using Unity3D. We discuss application development and workflow approaches including camera management, rendering synchronization, GUI design, and issues specific to Unity3D, and present examples of projects created for a multi-wall, clustered, stereoscopic display.

  1. Human Vocabulary Use as Display

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy Rosenberg

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The average human vocabulary consists of approximately 20,000 word families, yet only 6000-7000 word families are required to understand most communication. One possible explanation for this level of redundancy is that vocabulary size is selected as a fitness indicator and is used for display. Human vocabulary size correlates highly with measurable intelligence and when choosing potential mates individuals actively prefer other correlates of intelligence, such as education. Here we show that males used more low frequency words after an imaginary romantic encounter with a young female shown in a photograph relative to when they viewed photographs of older females. Females used fewer low frequency words when they imagined a romantic encounter with a young male shown in a photograph relative to when they viewed photographs of older males. These differences in male and female vocabulary displays may be related to sex differences in investment costs in offspring.

  2. Home Energy Displays: Consumer Adoption and Response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaMarche, J.; Cheney, K.; Akers, C.; Roth, K.; Sachs, O.

    2012-12-01

    The focus of this project was to investigate the factors influencing consumer adoption of Home Energy Displays (HEDs) and to evaluate electricity consumption in households with basic HEDs versus enhanced feedback methods - web portals or alerts. We hypothesized that providing flexible and relatable information to users, in addition to a basic HED, would make feedback more effective and achieve persistent energy savings. In Phase I, we conducted three user research studies and found preferences for aesthetically pleasing, easy to understand feedback that is accessible through multiple media and offered free of charge. The deployment of HEDs in 150 households planned for Phase II encountered major recruitment and HED field deployment problems. First, after extensive outreach campaigns to apartment complexes with 760 units, only 8% of building's tenants elected to receive a free HED in their homes as part of the field study. Second, the HED used, a leading market model, had a spectrum of problems, including gateway miscommunications, failure to post to a data-hosting third party, and display malfunctions. In light of these challenges, we are pursuing a modified study investigating the energy savings of a web portal versus alert-based energy feedback instead of a physical HED.

  3. Techniques for optimizing human-machine information transfer related to real-time interactive display systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granaas, Michael M.; Rhea, Donald C.

    1989-01-01

    The requirements for the development of real-time displays are reviewed. Of particular interest are the psychological aspects of design such as the layout, color selection, real-time response rate, and the interactivity of displays. Some existing Western Aeronautical Test Range displays are analyzed.

  4. Preliminary display comparison for dental diagnostic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odlum, Nicholas; Spalla, Guillaume; van Assche, Nele; Vandenberghe, Bart; Jacobs, Reinhilde; Quirynen, Marc; Marchessoux, Cédric

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this study is to predict the clinical performance and image quality of a display system for viewing dental images. At present, the use of dedicated medical displays is not uniform among dentists - many still view images on ordinary consumer displays. This work investigated whether the use of a medical display improved the perception of dental images by a clinician, compared to a consumer display. Display systems were simulated using the MEdical Virtual Imaging Chain (MEVIC). Images derived from two carefully performed studies on periodontal bone lesion detection and endodontic file length determination, were used. Three displays were selected: a medical grade one and two consumer displays (Barco MDRC-2120, Dell 1907FP and Dell 2007FPb). Some typical characteristics of the displays are evaluated by measurements and simulations like the Modulation Function (MTF), the Noise Power Spectrum (NPS), backlight stability or calibration. For the MTF, the display with the largest pixel pitch has logically the worst MTF. Moreover, the medical grade display has a slightly better MTF and the displays have similar NPS. The study shows the instability effect for the emitted intensity of the consumer displays compared to the medical grade one. Finally the study on the calibration methodology of the display shows that the signal in the dental images will be always more perceivable on the DICOM GSDF display than a gamma 2,2 display.

  5. The case for transparent depth display

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooi, F.L.

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: The continuing developments in display technology have resulted in the ability to present increasing amounts of data on computer displays. One of the coming break-throughs is generally believed to be the introduction of '3-D displays': displays with a true sense of depth. Though these types

  6. Density Gradient Columns for Chemical Displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guenther, William B.

    1986-01-01

    Procedures for preparing density gradient columns for chemical displays are presented. They include displays illustrating acid-base reactions, metal ion equilibria, and liquid density. The lifetime of these metastable displays is surprising, some lasting for months in display cabinets. (JN)

  7. 40 CFR 90.907 - Display exemption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Display exemption. 90.907 Section 90... of Nonroad Engines from Regulations § 90.907 Display exemption. Where an uncertified nonroad engine is a display engine to be used solely for display purposes, will only be operated incident and...

  8. 40 CFR 85.1707 - Display exemption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Display exemption. 85.1707 Section 85... Engines § 85.1707 Display exemption. Where an uncertified vehicle or engine is a display vehicle or engine to be used solely for display purposes, will not be operated on the public streets or highways except...

  9. E-2D Advanced Hawkeye: primary flight display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paolillo, Paul W.; Saxena, Ragini; Garruba, Jonathan; Tripathi, Sanjay; Blanchard, Randy

    2006-05-01

    This paper is a response to the challenge of providing a large area avionics display for the E-2D AHE aircraft. The resulting display design provides a pilot with high-resolution visual information content covering an image area of almost three square feet (Active Area of Samsung display = 33.792cm x 27.0336 cm = 13.304" x 10.643" = 141.596 square inches = 0.983 sq. ft x 3 = 2.95 sq. ft). The avionics display application, design and performance being described is the Primary Flight Display for the E-2D Advanced Hawkeye aircraft. This cockpit display has a screen diagonal size of 17 inches. Three displays, with minimum bezel width, just fit within the available instrument panel area. The significant design constraints of supporting an upgrade installation have been addressed. These constraints include a display image size that is larger than the mounting opening in the instrument panel. This, therefore, requires that the Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) window, LCD panel and backlight all fit within the limited available bezel depth. High brightness and a wide dimming range are supported with a dual mode Cold Cathode Fluorescent Tube (CCFT) and LED backlight. Packaging constraints dictated the use of multiple U shaped fluorescent lamps in a direct view backlight design for a maximum display brightness of 300 foot-Lamberts. The low intensity backlight levels are provided by remote LEDs coupled through a fiber optic mesh. This architecture generates luminous uniformity within a minimum backlight depth. Cross-cockpit viewing is supported with ultra-wide field-of-view performance including contrast and the color stability of an advanced LCD cell design supports. Display system design tradeoffs directed a priority to high optical efficiency for minimum power and weight.

  10. Multimodality monitoring: informatics, integration data display and analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, J Michael; De Georgia, Michael

    2014-12-01

    The goal of multimodality neuromonitoring is to provide continuous, real-time assessment of brain physiology to prevent, detect, and attenuate secondary brain injury. Clinical informatics deals with biomedical data, information, and knowledge including their acquisition, storage, retrieval, and optimal use for clinical decision-making. An electronic literature search was conducted for English language articles describing the use of informatics in the intensive care unit setting from January 1990 to August 2013. A total of 64 studies were included in this review. Clinical informatics infrastructure should be adopted that enables a wide range of linear and nonlinear analytical methods be applied to patient data. Specific time epochs of clinical interest should be reviewable. Analysis strategies of monitor alarms may help address alarm fatigue. Ergonomic data display that present results from analyses with clinical information in a sensible uncomplicated manner improve clinical decision-making. Collecting and archiving the highest resolution physiologic and phenotypic data in a comprehensive open format data warehouse is a crucial first step toward information management and two-way translational research for multimodality monitoring. The infrastructure required is largely the same as that needed for telemedicine intensive care applications, which under the right circumstances improves care quality while reducing cost.

  11. Full color waveguide liquid crystal display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaochen; Qin, Guangkui; Wang, Long; Chen, Zhuo; Xu, Xiaoguang; Dong, Youmei; Moheghi, Alireza; Yang, Deng-Ke

    2017-09-15

    We developed a waveguide liquid crystal display from a liquid crystal (LC)/polymer composite. It does not need polarizers or color filters. It is illuminated by color LEDs installed on its edge. The light produced by the edge LEDs is coupled into the display and then waveguided through the display. When the LC is in the transparent state, the incident light is waveguided through and no light comes out of the viewing side of the display. When the LC is in the scattering state, the incident light is scattered and comes out of the display. It can be used either for transparent display or for direct view display. The composite has a submillisecond response time, and a field sequential scheme can be used to display full color images. Because the display does not need polarizers or color filters, its energy efficiency is much higher than current liquid crystal displays.

  12. Geologic maps of the eastern Alaska Range, Alaska (1:63,360 scale)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nokleberg, Warren J.; Aleinikoff, John N.; Bond, Gerard C.; Ferrians, Oscar J.; Herzon, Paige L.; Lange, Ian M.; Miyaoka, Ronny T.; Richter, Donald H.; Schwab, Carl E.; Silva, Steven R.; Smith, Thomas E.; Zehner, Richard E.

    2015-01-01

    This report provides a description of map units for a suite of 44 inch-to-mile (1:63,360-scale) geologic quadrangle maps of the eastern Alaska Range. This report also contains a geologic and tectonic summary and a comprehensive list of references pertaining to geologic mapping and specialized studies of the region. In addition to the geologic maps of the eastern Alaska Range, this package includes a list of map units and an explanation of map symbols and abbreviations. The geologic maps display detailed surficial and bedrock geology, structural and stratigraphic data, portrayal of the active Denali fault that bisects the core of the east–west-trending range, and portrayal of other young faults along the north and south flanks of the range.

  13. Color Helmet-Mounted Display System for In-Flight Simulation on the RASCAL Research Helicopter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Tim; Barnhart, Warren; Sawyer, Kevin; Aiken, Edwin W. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    A high performance color helmet mounted display (HMD) system for in-flight simulation and research has been developed for the Rotorcraft Aircrew Systems Concepts Laboratory (RASCAL). The display system consists of a programmable display generator, a display electronics unit, a head tracker, and the helmet with display optics. The system provides a maximum of 1024 x 1280 resolution, a 4:1 contrast ratio, and a brightness of 1100fL utilizing currently available technologies. This paper describes the major features and components of the system. Also discussed are the measured performance of the system and the design techniques that allowed the development of a full color HMD.

  14. Design and Implementation of a Wireless Message Display System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. U. M. Bakura

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The technology of displaying message is an important part of communication and advertisement. In recent times, Wireless communication has announced its arrival on big stage and the world is going with Smartphone technology. This work describes the design and implementation of a microcontroller based messaging display system. The messaging display system will be interfaced with an android application which will then be used to display information from the comfort of one‘s phone to an LCD screen using the Bluetooth application interface. The work employs the use of an ATMEGA328p Microcontroller mounted on an Arduino board, a Bluetooth Module (HC-06 and an LCD screen. Most of these electronic display systems were using wired cable connections, the Bluetooth technology used in this work is aimed at solving the problem of wired cable connections.The microcontroller provides all the functionality of the display notices and wireless control. A desired text message from a mobile phone is sent via android mobile application to the Bluetooth module located at the receiving end. The Mobile Application was created using online software called App Inventor. When the entire system was connected and tested, it functioned as designed without any noticeable problems. The Bluetooth module responded to commands being sent from the android application appropriately and in a timely manner. The system was able to display 80 characters on the 4 x 20 LCD within the range of 10m as designated by the Bluetooth datasheet.

  15. Plastic Substrates for Flexible Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Hisashi; Oka, Wataru; Goto, Hideki; Umeda, Hideo

    2006-05-01

    New flexible fibrous glass-reinforced plastic (FRP) substrates for flat panel displays were developed. Optimizing the composition of the FRP by adjusting the difference in refractive index between a matrix resin and a glass fiber enabled the coexistence of a high transparency and a low coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE). An excellent smooth surface morphology was confirmed by the formulation of a coating resin. The stability of moisture impermeability depended on the surface smoothness and adhesion between a barrier layer and the coating layer. The moisture permeation rates of barrier substrates were below detection limits (<0.01 g m-2 day-1) on standard measurement equipment.

  16. Future of photorefractive based holographic 3D display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanche, P.-A.; Bablumian, A.; Voorakaranam, R.; Christenson, C.; Lemieux, D.; Thomas, J.; Norwood, R. A.; Yamamoto, M.; Peyghambarian, N.

    2010-02-01

    The very first demonstration of our refreshable holographic display based on photorefractive polymer was published in Nature early 20081. Based on the unique properties of a new organic photorefractive material and the holographic stereography technique, this display addressed a gap between large static holograms printed in permanent media (photopolymers) and small real time holographic systems like the MIT holovideo. Applications range from medical imaging to refreshable maps and advertisement. Here we are presenting several technical solutions for improving the performance parameters of the initial display from an optical point of view. Full color holograms can be generated thanks to angular multiplexing, the recording time can be reduced from minutes to seconds with a pulsed laser, and full parallax hologram can be recorded in a reasonable time thanks to parallel writing. We also discuss the future of such a display and the possibility of video rate.

  17. Third-Generation Display Technology: Nominally Transparent Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Willow

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Display technology is reshaping the consumer, business, government, and even not-for-profit markets in the midst of the digital convergence, coupled with recent smart phones led by Apple, Inc. First-Generation (1G display technology was dominated by the Cathode Ray Tubes, followed by Liquid Crystal Display and Plasma in 2G. A radically innovative shift as a disruptive technology is expected to follow in 3G to utilize virtually any transparent material, which wirelessly connects to portable access points. This paper studies the feasibility of the 3G Display Technology (DT with Technology S-Curves, and presents possible business models and technology strategies which may be generated from it. Additional subsets of business models may be derived for a wide range of industry applications.

  18. MEMS scanned laser head-up display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Mark O.

    2011-03-01

    Head-up displays (HUD) in automobiles and other vehicles have been shown to significantly reduce accident rates by keeping the driver's eyes on the road. The requirements for automotive HUDs are quite demanding especially in terms of brightness, dimming range, supplied power, and size. Scanned laser display technology is particularly well-suited to this application since the lasers can be very efficiently relayed to the driver's eyes. Additionally, the lasers are only turned on where the light is needed in the image. This helps to provide the required brightness while minimizing power and avoiding a background glow that disturbs the see-through experience. Microvision has developed a couple of HUD architectures that are presented herein. One design uses an exit pupil expander and relay optics to produce a high quality virtual image for built-in systems where the image appears to float above the hood of the auto. A second design uses a patented see-through screen technology and pico projector to make automotive HUDs available to anyone with a projector. The presentation will go over the basic designs for the two types of HUD and discuss design tradeoffs.

  19. A simulator for a light field display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Beom-Ryeol; Son, Jung-Young; Lee, Hyoung; Yano, Sumio; Son, Hyung Ki; Jeong, Ilkwon

    2017-05-01

    A simulator which can test the visual perception response of light field displays is introduced. The simulator can provide up to 8 view images to each eye simultaneously to test the differences between different numbers of different view images in supermultiview condition. The images are going through a window with 4 mm width, which is located at the pupil plane of each eye. Since each view image has its own slot in the window, the image is separately entring the eye without overlapping with other images. The simulator shows that the vergence response of viewers' eyes for an image at a certain distance is closer to the real object of the same distance for 4 views than 2 views. This informs that the focusable depth range will increase more as the the number of different view images increases.

  20. Interruption and Pausing of Public Display Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feuchtner, Tiare; Walter, Robert; Müller, Jörg

    2016-01-01

    We present a quantitative and qualitative analysis of interruptions of interaction with a public display game, and explore the use of a manual pause mode in this scenario. In previous public display installations we observed users frequently interrupting their interaction. To explore ways...... that interactions with public displays are considerably intermissive, and that users mostly interrupt interaction to socialize and mainly approach public displays in groups. We conclude that, as a typical characteristic of public display interaction, interruptions deserve consideration. However, manual pause modes...... are not well suited for games on public displays. Instead, interruptions should be implicitly supported by the application design....

  1. Display elements and gaps: a comparison of flat panel display characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spenkelink, G.P.J.; Besuijen, J.

    1992-01-01

    The relation between typical flat panel display characteristics and display quality was studied. Subjective preferences were obtained with respect to simulated black-on-white flat panel displays. The displays differed in the sort of separation between the display elements and the shape of these

  2. Minimalism context-aware displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yang

    2004-12-01

    Despite the rapid development of cyber technologies, today we still have very limited attention and communication bandwidth to process the increasing information flow. The goal of the study is to develop a context-aware filter to match the information load with particular needs and capacities. The functions include bandwidth-resolution trade-off and user context modeling. From the empirical lab studies, it is found that the resolution of images can be reduced in order of magnitude if the viewer knows that he/she is looking for particular features. The adaptive display queue is optimized with real-time operational conditions and user's inquiry history. Instead of measuring operator's behavior directly, ubiquitous computing models are developed to anticipate user's behavior from the operational environment data. A case study of the video stream monitoring for transit security is discussed in the paper. In addition, the author addresses the future direction of coherent human-machine vision systems.

  3. Simplified Night Sky Display System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellano, Timothy P.

    2010-01-01

    A document describes a simple night sky display system that is portable, lightweight, and includes, at most, four components in its simplest configuration. The total volume of this system is no more than 10(sup 6) cm(sup 3) in a disassembled state, and weighs no more than 20 kilograms. The four basic components are a computer, a projector, a spherical light-reflecting first surface and mount, and a spherical second surface for display. The computer has temporary or permanent memory that contains at least one signal representing one or more images of a portion of the sky when viewed from an arbitrary position, and at a selected time. The first surface reflector is spherical and receives and reflects the image from the projector onto the second surface, which is shaped like a hemisphere. This system may be used to simulate selected portions of the night sky, preserving the appearance and kinesthetic sense of the celestial sphere surrounding the Earth or any other point in space. These points will then show motions of planets, stars, galaxies, nebulae, and comets that are visible from that position. The images may be motionless, or move with the passage of time. The array of images presented, and vantage points in space, are limited only by the computer software that is available, or can be developed. An optional approach is to have the screen (second surface) self-inflate by means of gas within the enclosed volume, and then self-regulate that gas in order to support itself without any other mechanical support.

  4. Cascade Mountain Range in Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrod, David R.

    2016-01-01

    The Cascade mountain system extends from northern California to central British Columbia. In Oregon, it comprises the Cascade Range, which is 260 miles long and, at greatest breadth, 90 miles wide (fig. 1). Oregon’s Cascade Range covers roughly 17,000 square miles, or about 17 percent of the state, an area larger than each of the smallest nine of the fifty United States. The range is bounded on the east by U.S. Highways 97 and 197. On the west it reaches nearly to Interstate 5, forming the eastern margin of the Willamette Valley and, farther south, abutting the Coast Ranges

  5. The Effects of a Point-of-Purchase Display on Relative Sales: An In-Store Experimental Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigurdsson, Valdimar; Engilbertsson, Halldor; Foxall, Gordon

    2010-01-01

    An in-store experiment was performed to investigate the effects of a point-of-purchase display on unit sales of dishwashing liquid. The experimental conditions consisted of periodically placing two copies of the same display in convenience stores and supermarkets. The results were unanticipated; point-of-purchase displays did not change relative…

  6. Tobacco companies' use of retailer incentives after a ban on point-of-sale tobacco displays in Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stead, Martine; Eadie, Douglas; Purves, Richard I; Moodie, Crawford; Haw, Sally

    2017-07-31

    Incentives have been used by tobacco companies for many years to encourage retailers to sell and promote their products. However, few studies have examined the use of retailer incentives in countries with a ban on the open display of tobacco products in stores. As part of the DISPLAY(Determining the Impact of Smoking Point of Sale Legislation Among Youth) study, annual qualitative interviews were conducted with 24 small retailers in four Scottish communities. This article focuses on data collected in June to July 2015 and June to July 2016 after a ban on the open display of tobacco was fully implemented in Scotland. Retailers described being offered and benefiting from a range of financial and other incentives, typically offered via tobacco company representatives ('reps'). Most of the retailers received tobacco manufacturer support for converting their storage unit to be compliant with the new regulations, and several participated in manufacturer 'loyalty' or 'reward' schemes. Incentives were additionally offered for maintaining stock levels and availability, positioning brands in specified spaces in the public-facing storage units (even though products were covered up), increasing sales, trialling new products and participating in specific promotions, such as verbally recommending specific brands to customers. Even in a market where the open display of tobacco is prohibited, tobacco companies continue to incentivise retailers to sell and promote their brands and have developed new promotional strategies. For countries that have implemented tobacco display bans, or are considering doing so, one option to combat these practices would be to ban promotional communications between manufacturers and retailers. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  7. Human factors of intelligent computer aided display design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, R. M.

    1985-01-01

    Design concepts for a decision support system being studied at NASA Langley as an aid to visual display unit (VDU) designers are described. Ideally, human factors should be taken into account by VDU designers. In reality, although the human factors database on VDUs is small, such systems must be constantly developed. Human factors are therefore a secondary consideration. An expert system will thus serve mainly in an advisory capacity. Functions can include facilitating the design process by shortening the time to generate and alter drawings, enhancing the capability of breaking design requirements down into simpler functions, and providing visual displays equivalent to the final product. The VDU system could also discriminate, and display the difference, between designer decisions and machine inferences. The system could also aid in analyzing the effects of designer choices on future options and in ennunciating when there are data available on a design selections.

  8. Holographic Waveguided See-Through Display Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To address the NASA need for lightweight, space suit-mounted displays, Luminit proposes a novel Holographic Waveguided See-Through Display. Our proposed Holographic...

  9. Projection/Reflection Heads-up Display

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To address the NASA need for an EVA information display device, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a new Projection/Reflection Heads-up Display...

  10. OZ: An Innovative Primary Flight Display Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed SBIR project will develop OZ, an innovative primary flight display for aircraft. The OZ display, designed from "first principles" of vision science,...

  11. X-Windows Widget for Image Display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deen, Robert G.

    2011-01-01

    XvicImage is a high-performance XWindows (Motif-compliant) user interface widget for displaying images. It handles all aspects of low-level image display. The fully Motif-compliant image display widget handles the following tasks: (1) Image display, including dithering as needed (2) Zoom (3) Pan (4) Stretch (contrast enhancement, via lookup table) (5) Display of single-band or color data (6) Display of non-byte data (ints, floats) (7) Pseudocolor display (8) Full overlay support (drawing graphics on image) (9) Mouse-based panning (10) Cursor handling, shaping, and planting (disconnecting cursor from mouse) (11) Support for all user interaction events (passed to application) (12) Background loading and display of images (doesn't freeze the GUI) (13) Tiling of images.

  12. National Weather Service: Watch, Warning, Advisory Display

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Contact Us SPC Feedback NWS Watch, Warning, Advisory Display NWS Warnings and Advisories on this map become ... below): A new browser window will open to display these text products. Convective/Tropical Weather Flooding Winter ...

  13. Organic transistors in optical displays and microelectronic applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gelinck, G.H.; Heremans, P.; Nomoto, K.; Anthopoulos, T.D.

    2010-01-01

    Organic thin-film transistors (OTFTs) offer unprecedented opportunities for implementation in a broad range of technological applications spanning from large-volume microelectronics and optical displays to chemical and biological sensors. In this Progress Report, we review the application of organic

  14. Design of the control system for full-color LED display based on MSP430 MCU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xue; Xu, Hui-juan; Qin, Ling-ling; Zheng, Long-jiang

    2013-08-01

    The LED display incorporate the micro electronic technique, computer technology and information processing as a whole, it becomes the most preponderant of a new generation of display media with the advantages of bright in color, high dynamic range, high brightness and long operating life, etc. The LED display has been widely used in the bank, securities trading, highway signs, airport and advertising, etc. According to the display color, the LED display screen is divided into monochrome screen, double color display and full color display. With the diversification of the LED display's color and the ceaseless rise of the display demands, the LED display's drive circuit and control technology also get the corresponding progress and development. The earliest monochrome screen just displaying Chinese characters, simple character or digital, so the requirements of the controller are relatively low. With the widely used of the double color LED display, the performance of its controller will also increase. In recent years, the full color LED display with three primary colors of red, green, blue and grayscale display effect has been highly attention with its rich and colorful display effect. Every true color pixel includes three son pixels of red, green, blue, using the space colour mixture to realize the multicolor. The dynamic scanning control system of LED full-color display is designed based on MSP430 microcontroller technology of the low power consumption. The gray control technology of this system used the new method of pulse width modulation (PWM) and 19 games show principle are combining. This method in meet 256 level grayscale display conditions, improves the efficiency of the LED light device, and enhances the administrative levels feels of the image. Drive circuit used 1/8 scanning constant current drive mode, and make full use of the single chip microcomputer I/O mouth resources to complete the control. The system supports text, pictures display of 256 grayscale

  15. Psychological Implications for Submarine Display Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-08-01

    This paper addresses a number of psychological issues pertaining to display design . We review the literature comparing 3-D and 2-D displays and...perceptual, cognitive and ecological factors that are relevant to display design for submarine environments. The Generative Transformational approach...to visual perception is outlined and the relevance of transformational theory to display design is discussed. The paper also discusses a number of

  16. Frequency encoded auditory display of the critical tracking task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, J.

    1984-01-01

    The use of auditory displays for selected cockpit instruments was examined. In auditory, visual, and combined auditory-visual compensatory displays of a vertical axis, critical tracking task were studied. The visual display encoded vertical error as the position of a dot on a 17.78 cm, center marked CRT. The auditory display encoded vertical error as log frequency with a six octave range; the center point at 1 kHz was marked by a 20-dB amplitude notch, one-third octave wide. Asymptotic performance on the critical tracking task was significantly better when using combined displays rather than the visual only mode. At asymptote, the combined display was slightly, but significantly, better than the visual only mode. The maximum controllable bandwidth using the auditory mode was only 60% of the maximum controllable bandwidth using the visual mode. Redundant cueing increased the rate of improvement of tracking performance, and the asymptotic performance level. This enhancement increases with the amount of redundant cueing used. This effect appears most prominent when the bandwidth of the forcing function is substantially less than the upper limit of controllability frequency.

  17. 76 FR 6826 - Certain Display Devices Including Digital Televisions and Monitors; Notice of Commission...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-08

    ... COMMISSION Certain Display Devices Including Digital Televisions and Monitors; Notice of Commission... within the United States after importation of certain digital display devices including digital televisions and monitors by reason of infringement of certain claims of U.S. Patent Nos. 5,434,626; 5,751,373...

  18. 77 FR 14422 - Certain Consumer Electronics and Display Devices and Products Containing Same; Notice of Receipt...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-09

    ... COMMISSION Certain Consumer Electronics and Display Devices and Products Containing Same; Notice of Receipt... Commission has received a complaint entitled Certain Consumer Electronics and Display Devices and Products... importation, and the sale within the United States after importation of certain consumer electronics and...

  19. 78 FR 52211 - Certain Electronic Devices Having Placeshifting or Display Replication and Products Containing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-22

    ... COMMISSION Certain Electronic Devices Having Placeshifting or Display Replication and Products Containing... the United States after importation of certain electronic devices having placeshifting or display... this investigation may be viewed on the Commission's electronic docket (EDIS) at http://edis.usitc.gov...

  20. A Comprehensive Process for Display Systems Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simcox, William A.

    A comprehensive development process for display design, focusing on computer-generated cathode ray tube (CRT) displays is presented. A framework is created for breaking the display into its component parts, used to guide the design process. The objective is to design or select the most cost effective graphics solution (hardware and software) to…

  1. How Visual Displays Affect Cognitive Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrudden, Matthew T.; Rapp, David N.

    2017-01-01

    We regularly consult and construct visual displays that are intended to communicate important information. The power of these displays and the instructional messages we attempt to comprehend when using them emerge from the information included in the display and by their spatial arrangement. In this article, we identify common types of visual…

  2. Directional light scanning 3-D display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Yoji; Horimai, Hideyoshi; Lim, Pang Boey; Watanabe, Kenjiro; Inoue, Mitsuteru

    2009-11-01

    This paper presents a new Three-Dimensional display method, so called Directional Light Scanning 3D display. By using holographic screen as a beam scanner and high frame rate Spatial Light Modulator (SLM), this method requires only one SLM but can display high resolution 3D images, solving the usual problem of lack of resolution.

  3. Visual Merchandising through Display: Advertising Services Occupations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, Nelson S.

    The increasing use of displays by businessmen is creating a demand for display workers. This demand may be met by preparing high school students to enter the field of display. Additional workers might be recruited by offering adult training programs for individuals working within the stores. For this purpose a curriculum guide has been developed…

  4. 27 CFR 6.55 - Display service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Display service. 6.55... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Unlawful Inducements Paying for Advertising, Display Or Distribution Service § 6.55 Display service. Industry member reimbursements to retailers for setting up product...

  5. 9 CFR 392.6 - Public display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Public display. 392.6 Section 392.6... INSPECTION SERVICE ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS PETITIONS FOR RULEMAKING § 392.6 Public display. (a) All... information that should not be put on public display. If the petitioner fails to submit the certification...

  6. 14 CFR 21.161 - Display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Display. 21.161 Section 21.161 Aeronautics... PROCEDURES FOR PRODUCTS AND PARTS Production Certificates § 21.161 Display. The holder of a production certificate shall display it prominently in the main office of the factory in which the product concerned is...

  7. Google Glass Glare: disability glare produced by a head-mounted visual display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longley, Chris; Whitaker, David

    2016-03-01

    Head mounted displays are a type of wearable technology - a market that is projected to expand rapidly over the coming years. Probably the most well known example is the device Google Glass (or 'Glass'). Here we investigate the extent to which the device display can interfere with normal visual function by producing monocular disability glare. Contrast sensitivity was measured in two normally sighted participants, 32 and 52 years of age. Data were recorded for the right eye, the left eye and then again in a binocular condition. Measurements were taken both with and without the Glass in place, across a range of stimulus luminance levels using a two-alternative forced-choice methodology. The device produced a significant reduction in contrast sensitivity in the right eye (>0.5 log units). The level of disability glare increased as stimulus luminance was reduced in a manner consistent with intraocular light scatter, resulting in a veiling retinal illuminance. Sensitivity in the left eye was unaffected. A significant reduction in binocular contrast sensitivity occurred at lower luminance levels due to a loss of binocular summation, although binocular sensitivity was not found to fall below the sensitivity of the better monocular level (binocular inhibition). Head mounted displays such as Google Glass have the potential to cause significant disability glare in the eye exposed to the visual display, particularly under conditions of low luminance. They can also cause a more modest binocular reduction in sensitivity by eliminating the benefits of binocular summation. © 2015 The Authors Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics © 2015 The College of Optometrists.

  8. Visual and ocular effects from the use of flat-panel displays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteban Porcar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate the prevalence of eye symptoms in a non-presbyopic population of video display unit (VDU users with flat-panel displays. METHODS: One hundred and sixteen VDU users with flat-panel display from an urban population participated in the study; their ages ranging from 20 to 34y. There were 60 females and 56 males. An eye examination to rule out the presence of significant uncorrected refractive errors, general binocular dysfunctions and eye conditions was carried out. In order to determine and quantify the type and nature of eye symptoms, participants were asked to answer written questionnaire and the results were grouped by gender, age and number of hours a day spent using a VDU. RESULTS: Seventy-two percent of participants reported eye symptoms related to VDU use. Eye symptoms from moderate-to-severe were found in 23% of participants. The main symptom was moderate-to-severe tired eyes (14%; followed by sensitivity to bright lights (12%, blurred vision at far distances (10%, eyestrain or dry eye or irritated or burning eyes (9%, difficulty in refocusing from one distance to another or headache (8% and blurred vision at near or intermediate distances (<4%. Eye symptoms were greater among females (P=0.005 and increased with VDU use, markedly above 6h spent using a VDU in a typical day (P=0.01. CONCLUSION: Significant eye symptoms relate to VDU use often occur and should not be underestimated. The increasing use of electronic devices with flat-panel display should prompt users to take appropriate measures to prevent or to relieve the eye symptoms arising from their use.

  9. Versatile microbial surface-display for environmental remediation and biofuels production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Cindy H.; Mulchandani, Ashok; Chen, wilfred

    2008-02-14

    Surface display is a powerful technique that utilizes natural microbial functional components to express proteins or peptides on the cell exterior. Since the reporting of the first surface-display system in the mid-1980s, a variety of new systems have been reported for yeast, Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Non-conventional display methods are emerging, eliminating the generation of genetically modified microorganisms. Cells with surface display are used as biocatalysts, biosorbents and biostimulants. Microbial cell-surface display has proven to be extremely important for numerous applications ranging from combinatorial library screening and protein engineering to bioremediation and biofuels production.

  10. Versatile microbial surface-display for environmental remediation and biofuels production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Cindy H; Mulchandani, Ashok; Chen, Wilfred

    2008-04-01

    Surface display is a powerful technique that uses natural microbial functional components to express proteins or peptides on the cell exterior. Since the reporting of the first surface-display system in the mid-1980s, a variety of new systems have been reported for yeast, Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Non-conventional display methods are emerging, eliminating the generation of genetically modified microorganisms. Cells with surface display are used as biocatalysts, biosorbents and biostimulants. Microbial cell-surface display has proven to be extremely important for numerous applications, ranging from combinatorial library screening and protein engineering to bioremediation and biofuels production.

  11. Augmented reality 3D display based on integral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Huan; Zhang, Han-Le; He, Min-Yang; Wang, Qiong-Hua

    2017-02-01

    Integral imaging (II) is a good candidate for augmented reality (AR) display, since it provides various physiological depth cues so that viewers can freely change the accommodation and convergence between the virtual three-dimensional (3D) images and the real-world scene without feeling any visual discomfort. We propose two AR 3D display systems based on the theory of II. In the first AR system, a micro II display unit reconstructs a micro 3D image, and the mciro-3D image is magnified by a convex lens. The lateral and depth distortions of the magnified 3D image are analyzed and resolved by the pitch scaling and depth scaling. The magnified 3D image and real 3D scene are overlapped by using a half-mirror to realize AR 3D display. The second AR system uses a micro-lens array holographic optical element (HOE) as an image combiner. The HOE is a volume holographic grating which functions as a micro-lens array for the Bragg-matched light, and as a transparent glass for Bragg mismatched light. A reference beam can reproduce a virtual 3D image from one side and a reference beam with conjugated phase can reproduce the second 3D image from other side of the micro-lens array HOE, which presents double-sided 3D display feature.

  12. CSpace high-resolution volumetric 3D display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Refai, Hakki H.; Melnik, George; Willner, Mark

    2013-05-01

    We are currently in the process of developing a static-volume 3D display, CSpace® display, that has the capability to produce images of much larger size than any other static-volume display currently under development, with up to nearly 800 million voxel resolution. A key component in achieving the size and resolution of the display is the optical system that transfers the pixel data from a standard DMD projection unit to the voxel size required by the display with high contrast and minimal distortion. The current optical system is capable of such performance for only small image sizes, and thus new designs of the optical system must be developed. We report here on the design and testing of a new optical projection system with the intent of achieving performance close to that of a telecentric lens. Theoretical analysis with Zemax allowed selection of appropriate lens size, spacing, and focal length, and identified the need for tilting the assembly to produce the desired beam properties. Experimental analysis using the CSpace® prototype showed that the improved beam parameters allowed for higher resolution and brighter images than those previously achieved, though their remains room for further improvement of the design. Heating of the DMD and its housing components were also addressed to minimize heating effects on the optical system. A combination of a thermo-electric cooler and a small fan produced sufficient cooling to stabilize the temperature of the system to acceptable levels.

  13. Citizenship displayed by disabled people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Prado Carlino

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available By investigating the processes by which successful teachers become activate citizens and by listening to the diversity and richness of their life and formation stories, this work became possible. Its aim is to display some of the utterances of two Down Syndrome individuals and their active-citizenship activities. Their stories were told in the reports of two teachers when describing their personal and professional history, and were considered to be an integral part of it. Thus, some of the utterances and perceptions with which these two individuals elaborate their references, their worldview and their active-citizenship activity are evidenced in this paper. This article is based on the language conceptions of Vygotsky and Bakhtin who defend the idea that the group and the social mentality are ingrain in the individual. Hence, the history of one person reveals that of many others, since there is a deep link between the individual and the social in the formation of a subjective worldview. As a result, it can be easily seen that the utterances expressed by the participants in this research cannot be considered strictly individual because enunciation is social in nature. Despite the fact that the utterances are those of individuals, they manifest a collective reality. This demonstrates the real advantages and possibilities that deficient people get from their participation and intervention in society.

  14. The effect of display movement angle, indicator type and display location on control/display stereotype strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Errol R; Chan, Alan H S

    2017-08-01

    Much research on stereotype strength relating display and control movements for displays moving in the vertical or horizontal directions has been reported. Here we report effects of display movement angle, where the display moves at angles (relative to the vertical) of between 0° and 180°. The experiment used six different controls, four display locations relative to the operator and three types of indicator. Indicator types were included because of the strong effects of the 'scale-side principle' that are variable with display angle. A directional indicator had higher stereotype strength than a neutral indicator, and showed an apparent reversal in control/display stereotype direction beyond an angle of 90°. However, with a neutral indicator this control reversal was not present. Practitioner Summary: The effects of display moving at angles other than the four cardinal directions, types of control, location of display and types of indicator are investigated. Indicator types (directional and neutral) have an effect on stereotype strength and may cause an apparent control reversal with change of display movement angle.

  15. Optical advantages in retinal scanning displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urey, Hakan

    2000-06-01

    Virtual Retinal DisplayTM technology is a retinal scanning display (RSD) technology being developed at Microvision, Inc., for a variety of applications including microdisplays. An RSD scans a modulated light beam onto a viewer's retina to produce a perceived image. Red, green and blue light sources, such as lasers, laser diodes or LEDs combine with Microvision's proprietary miniaturized scanner designs to make the RSD very well suited for head-worn and helmet-mounted displays (HMD). This paper compares the features of RSD technology to other display technologies such as the cathode ray tubes or matrix-based displays for HMD and other wearable display applications, and notes important performance advantages due to the number of pixel- generating elements. Also discussed are some fundamental optical limitations for virtual displays used in the HMD applications.

  16. Conceptual Design of Industrial Process Displays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, C.R.; Lind, Morten

    1999-01-01

    Today, process displays used in industry are often designed on the basis of piping and instrumentation diagrams without any method of ensuring that the needs of the operators are fulfilled. Therefore, a method for a systematic approach to the design of process displays is needed. This paper...... design method that matches the industrial practice of modular plant design and satisfies the needs of reusability of display design solutions. The main considerations in display design in the industry are to specify the operator's activities in detail, to extract the information the operators need from...... the plant design specification and documentation, and finally to present this information. The form of the display is selected from existing standardized display elements such as trend curves, mimic diagrams, ecological interfaces, etc. Further knowledge is required to invent new display elements. That is...

  17. Event displays with heavy flavour jets from 2016 CMS data

    CERN Document Server

    CMS Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    A broad range of physics analyses at CMS rely on the efficient identification of heavy flavour jets. Identification of these objects is a challenging task, especially in the presence of a large number of multiple interactions per bunch crossing. The presented summary contains a set of graphical displays of reconstructed events in data collected by CMS in proton-proton collisions at 13 TeV in 2016. The displays highlight the main properties of heavy flavour jets in several event topologies, including QCD multijet, top quark pair, W+c and boosted H to bb.

  18. [Development of platform technology using molecular display].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibasaki, Seiji

    2009-11-01

    Techniques for immobilizing proteins on surface of virus or microorganisms, namely molecular display technologies, have played important roles in helping the elucidation of protein-protein interactions in cells and to develop research on drug discovery. Phage display system is well-established and sophisticated; consequently, bioactive low-molecular-weight ligands and proteins significant in pharmaceutical industry have been found. In addition to the development of novel functional proteins by phage display using results from experiments in genomics and proteomics, ribosome display or yeast display systems have been developed as complementary methods. We can select the appropriate method on the basis of the objective. Molecular display using yeast has advantages in production of desired proteins from combinatorial library by flow cytometry. Firstly, principle, development procedure, and latest research in this field are introduced. Thereafter, results of molecular display using yeast for antibodies and their related proteins are presented. Furthermore, display of receptor coupled with intracellular signal transduction -a novel type of molecular display on yeast cell surface- has been created in recent years. The role and potential of molecular display technologies employing yeast cells in drug discovery are discussed.

  19. Color display and encryption with a plasmonic polarizing metamirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Maowen; Li, Xiong; Pu, Mingbo; Guo, Yinghui; Liu, Kaipeng; Yu, Honglin; Ma, Xiaoliang; Luo, Xiangang

    2018-01-01

    Structural colors emerge when a particular wavelength range is filtered out from a broadband light source. It is regarded as a valuable platform for color display and digital imaging due to the benefits of environmental friendliness, higher visibility, and durability. However, current devices capable of generating colors are all based on direct transmission or reflection. Material loss, thick configuration, and the lack of tunability hinder their transition to practical applications. In this paper, a novel mechanism that generates high-purity colors by photon spin restoration on ultrashallow plasmonic grating is proposed. We fabricated the sample by interference lithography and experimentally observed full color display, tunable color logo imaging, and chromatic sensing. The unique combination of high efficiency, high-purity colors, tunable chromatic display, ultrathin structure, and friendliness for fabrication makes this design an easy way to bridge the gap between theoretical investigations and daily-life applications.

  20. Color display and encryption with a plasmonic polarizing metamirror

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Maowen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Structural colors emerge when a particular wavelength range is filtered out from a broadband light source. It is regarded as a valuable platform for color display and digital imaging due to the benefits of environmental friendliness, higher visibility, and durability. However, current devices capable of generating colors are all based on direct transmission or reflection. Material loss, thick configuration, and the lack of tunability hinder their transition to practical applications. In this paper, a novel mechanism that generates high-purity colors by photon spin restoration on ultrashallow plasmonic grating is proposed. We fabricated the sample by interference lithography and experimentally observed full color display, tunable color logo imaging, and chromatic sensing. The unique combination of high efficiency, high-purity colors, tunable chromatic display, ultrathin structure, and friendliness for fabrication makes this design an easy way to bridge the gap between theoretical investigations and daily-life applications.

  1. Engineering Novel and Improved Biocatalysts by Cell Surface Display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Mason R.; Khera, Eshita; Wen, Fei

    2017-01-01

    Biocatalysts, especially enzymes, have the ability to catalyze reactions with high product selectivity, utilize a broad range of substrates, and maintain activity at low temperature and pressure. Therefore, they represent a renewable, environmentally friendly alternative to conventional catalysts. Most current industrial-scale chemical production processes using biocatalysts employ soluble enzymes or whole cells expressing intracellular enzymes. Cell surface display systems differ by presenting heterologous enzymes extracellularly, overcoming some of the limitations associated with enzyme purification and substrate transport. Additionally, coupled with directed evolution, cell surface display is a powerful platform for engineering enzymes with enhanced properties. In this review, we will introduce the molecular and cellular principles of cell surface display and discuss how it has been applied to engineer enzymes with improved properties as well as to develop surface-engineered microbes as whole-cell biocatalysts. PMID:29056821

  2. Effects of historical climate change, habitat connectivity, and vicariance on genetic structure and diversity across the range of the red tree vole (Phenacomys longicaudus) in the Pacific Northwestern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark P. Miller; M. Renee Bellinger; Eric D. Forsman; Susan M. Haig

    2006-01-01

    Phylogeographical analyses conducted in the Pacific Northwestern United States have often revealed concordant patterns of genetic diversity among taxa. These studies demonstrate distinct North/South genetic discontinuities that have been attributed to Pleistocene glaciation. We examined phylogeographical patterns of red tree voles (Phenacomys longicaudus...

  3. Microfluidics for electronic paper-like displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shui, Lingling; Hayes, Robert A; Jin, Mingliang; Zhang, Xiao; Bai, Pengfei; van den Berg, Albert; Zhou, Guofu

    2014-07-21

    Displays are ubiquitous in modern life, and there is a growing need to develop active, full color, video-rate reflective displays that perform well in high-light conditions. The core of display technology is to generate or manipulate light in the visible wavelength. Colored fluids or fluids with particles can be used to tune the light intensity (greyscale) or wavelength (colors) of reflective displays by different actuation methods. Microfluidic technology plays an increasing role in fluidic manipulation in microscale devices used in display areas. In this article, we will review microfluidic technologies based on different actuation methods used for display applications: pressure-driven flow, electrophoresis, electroosmosis, electrowetting, magnetic-driven flow, and cell-actuation principles.

  4. Three-dimensional Imaging, Visualization, and Display

    CERN Document Server

    Javidi, Bahram; Son, Jung-Young

    2009-01-01

    Three-Dimensional Imaging, Visualization, and Display describes recent developments, as well as the prospects and challenges facing 3D imaging, visualization, and display systems and devices. With the rapid advances in electronics, hardware, and software, 3D imaging techniques can now be implemented with commercially available components and can be used for many applications. This volume discusses the state-of-the-art in 3D display and visualization technologies, including binocular, multi-view, holographic, and image reproduction and capture techniques. It also covers 3D optical systems, 3D display instruments, 3D imaging applications, and details several attractive methods for producing 3D moving pictures. This book integrates the background material with new advances and applications in the field, and the available online supplement will include full color videos of 3D display systems. Three-Dimensional Imaging, Visualization, and Display is suitable for electrical engineers, computer scientists, optical e...

  5. Evaluating Ambient Displays in the Wild

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Messeter, Jörn; Molenaar, Daryn

    A prominent issue for evaluating ambient displays has been the conflict between the relative intrusiveness of evaluation methods and the intention to keep the display at the periphery of the user’s attention. There is a general lack of research discussing the difficulties of evaluating ambient...... displays in the wild, and in particular social aspects of use has received little attention. This paper presents a case study of an ambient light display designed for a public setting. Based on results from a non-intrusive in situ evaluation, we argue that viewing ambient displays as features of a broader...... social setting may aid our understanding of issues regarding the evaluation of ambient displays in the wild....

  6. Legibility Implications of Embellished Display Typefaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beier, Sofie; Sand, Katrine; Starrfelt, Randi

    2017-01-01

    By subjecting participants to brief exposure of single letters in the peripheral visual field, we investigated 1) hemispheric differences in reading of embellished display typefaces, and 2) the legibility difference between different kinds of embellished display typefaces. The test typefaces are ...... affected by swashed features than by a reversed letter stroke, or by a drop shadow. When choosing between different styles of embellished display typefaces, it is therefore recommended to choose typefaces where the letter skeleton is not too complicated to decode....

  7. Optimizing direct response in Internet display advertising

    OpenAIRE

    Aksakallı, Vural

    2013-01-01

    Internet display advertising has grown into a multi-billion dollar a year global industry and direct response campaigns account for about three-quarters of all Internet display advertising. In such campaigns, advertisers reach out to a target audience via some form of a visual advertisement (hereinafter also called “ad”) to maximize short-term sales revenue. In this study, we formulate an advertiser’s revenue maximization problem in direct response Internet display advertisement campaigns as ...

  8. Online Display Advertising Causal Attribution and Evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    BARAJAS ZAMORA, JOEL

    2015-01-01

    The allocation of a given budget to online display advertising as a marketing channel has motivated the development of statistical methods to measure its effectiveness. Recent studies show that display advertising often triggers online users to search for more information on products. Eventually, many of these users convert at the advertiser’s website. A key challenge is to measure the effectiveness of display advertising when users are exposed to multiple unknown advertising channels.We deve...

  9. Legibility implictations of embellished display typefaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beier, Sofie; Sand, Katrine; Starrfelt, Randi

    2017-01-01

    By subjecting participants to brief exposure of single letters in the peripheral visual field, we investigated 1) hemispheric differences in reading of embellished display typefaces, and 2) the legibility difference between different kinds of embellished display typefaces. The test typefaces...... affected by swashed features than by a reversed letter stroke, or by a drop shadow. When choosing between different styles of embellished display typefaces, it is therefore recommended to choose typefaces where the letter skeleton is not too complicated to decode....

  10. Attentional Capture in Driving Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arexis, Mahé; Maquestiaux, François; Gaspelin, Nicholas; Ruthruff, Eric; Didierjean, André

    2016-01-01

    Drivers face frequent distraction on the roadways but little is known about situations placing them at risk of misallocating visual attention. To investigate this issue, we asked participants to search for a red target embedded within simulated driving scenes (photographs taken from inside a car) in three experiments. Distraction was induced by presenting, via a GPS unit, red or green distractors positioned in an irrelevant location at which the target never appeared. If the salient distractor captures attention, visual search should be slower on distractor-present trials than distractor-absent trials. In Experiment 1, salient distractors yielded no such capture effect. In Experiment 2, we decreased the frequency of the salient distractor from 50% of trials to only 10% or 20% of trials. Capture effects were almost five times larger for the 10% occurrence group than for the 20% occurrence group. In Experiment 3, the amount of available central resources was manipulated by asking participants to either simultaneously monitor or ignore a stream of spoken digits. Capture effects were much larger for the dual-task group than for the single-task group. In summary, these findings identify risk factors for attentional capture in real-world driving scenes: distractor rarity and diversion of attention. PMID:28369841

  11. Display of nuclear medicine imaging studies

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, B; Samuel, A M

    2002-01-01

    Nuclear medicine imaging studies involve evaluation of a large amount of image data. Digital signal processing techniques have introduced processing algorithms that increase the information content of the display. Nuclear medicine imaging studies require interactive selection of suitable form of display and pre-display processing. Static imaging study requires pre-display processing to detect focal defects. Point operations (histogram modification) along with zoom and capability to display more than one image in one screen is essential. This album mode of display is also applicable to dynamic, MUGA and SPECT data. Isometric display or 3-D graph of the image data is helpful in some cases e.g. point spread function, flood field data. Cine display is used on a sequence of images e.g. dynamic, MUGA and SPECT imaging studies -to assess the spatial movement of tracer with time. Following methods are used at the investigator's discretion for inspection of the 3-D object. 1) Display of orthogonal projections, 2) Disp...

  12. Microencapsulated Electrophoretic Films for Electronic Paper Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amundson, Karl

    2003-03-01

    Despite the dominance of liquid crystal displays, they do not perform some functions very well. While backlit liquid crystal displays can offer excellent color performance, they wash out in bright lighting and suffer from high power consumption. Reflective liquid crystal displays have limited brightness, making these devices challenging to read for long periods of time. Flexible liquid crystal displays are difficult to manufacture and keep stable. All of these attributes (long battery lifetime, bright reflective appearance, compatibility with flexible substrates) are traits that would be found in an ideal electronic paper display - an updateable substitute for paper that could be employed in electronic books, newspapers, and other applications. I will discuss technologies that are being developed for electronic-paper-like displays, and especially on particle-based technologies. A microencapsulated electrophoretic display technology is being developed at the E Ink corporation. This display film offers offer high brightness and an ink-on-paper appearance, compatibility with flexible substrates, and image stability that can lead to very low power consumption. I will present some of the physical and chemical challenges associated with making display films with high performance.

  13. History Of Holographic Display In Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, Fujio

    1987-06-01

    The first exhibition of holographic display was held at Seibu Museum of Art in Tokyo in 1975 and played a role of opening of the holographic era in Japan. This exhibition and the next big exhibition of holography held at Isetan department store 3 years later in 1978 were really epoch-making facts on holographic display in Japan. Since these two exhibitions, holographic display in Japan has come to attract attention of a lot of people to the new display media, holography. At that time, mass production technology of holograms had not been fully developed yet, and the hologram was so expensive that they were found only at the big event. Some companies and universities still continued research and development to have holograms get into practical applications of display media. Few years later, people became interested in 3-D displays and sometimes many peoples took an interest in holographic display, mainly mass produced embossed type holograms applied to the field of publications, book and magazine, etc. 3-D display booms occurred in the year of Tsukuba Science Expo'85 in 1985 and embossed type hologram became much popular. History of holographic display of Japan in terms of technical development and practical use on laser reconstruction hologram, rainbow hologram, multiplex hologram and lippmann hologram will be introduced.

  14. Refreshable Braille displays using EAP actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    2010-04-01

    Refreshable Braille can help visually impaired persons benefit from the growing advances in computer technology. The development of such displays in a full screen form is a great challenge due to the need to pack many actuators in small area without interferences. In recent years, various displays using actuators such as piezoelectric stacks have become available in commercial form but most of them are limited to one line Braille code. Researchers in the field of electroactive polymers (EAP) investigated methods of using these materials to form full screen displays. This manuscript reviews the state of the art of producing refreshable Braille displays using EAP-based actuators.

  15. Human Factors Military Lexicon: Auditory Displays

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Letowski, Tomasz

    2001-01-01

    .... In addition to definitions specific to auditory displays, speech communication, and audio technology, the lexicon includes several terms unique to military operational environments and human factors...

  16. PENGARUH DISPLAY PRODUK PADA KEPUTUSAN PEMBELIAN KONSUMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ina Melati

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Most of ritel outlet recently using product display as a one of their best marketing strategy, the reason is quiet easy to be understood, since consumers are too easy to be teased by those kind of beautiful product display that is being displayed by the retail outlet. The good retail outlets are trying their best to design and make the very good product display, so they can attract more consumers and make them not thinking twice to visit their store and purchase lots of thing. Clearly seeing that an attractive product design is able to influence a consumer to make a buying decision. 

  17. Effect of display location on control-display stereotype strength for translational and rotational controls with linear displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Alan H S; Hoffmann, Errol R

    2015-01-01

    Experiments were designed to investigate the effects of control type and display location, relative to the operator, on the strength of control/display stereotypes. The Worringham and Beringer Visual Field principle and an extension of this principle for rotary controls (Hoffmann E.R., and Chan A.H.S. 2013). "The Worringham and Beringer 'Visual Field' Principle for Rotary Controls. Ergonomics." 56 (10): 1620-1624) indicated that, for a number of different control types (rotary and lever) on different planes, there should be no significant effect of the display location relative to the seated operator. Past data were surveyed and stereotype strengths listed. Experiments filled gaps where data are not available. Six different control types and seven display locations were used, as in the Frame of Reference Transformation Tool (FORT) model of Wickens et al. (Wickens, C.D., Keller, J.W., and Small, R.L. (2010). "Left. No, Right! Development of the Frame of Reference Transformation Tool (FORT)." Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 54th Annual Meeting September 2010, 54: 1022-1026). Control/display arrangements with high stereotype strengths were evaluated yielding data for designers of complex control/display arrangements where the control and display are in different planes and for where the operator is moving. It was found possible to predict display/control arrangements with high stereotype strength, based on past data. Practitioner Summary: Controls and displays in complex arrangements need to have high compatibility. These experiments provide arrangements for six different controls (rotary and translational) and seven different display locations relative to the operator.

  18. Does size matter? Animal units and animal unit months

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamar Smith; Joe Hicks; Scott Lusk; Mike Hemmovich; Shane Green; Sarah McCord; Mike Pellant; John Mitchell; Judith Dyess; Jim Sprinkle; Amanda Gearhart; Sherm Karl; Mike Hannemann; Ken Spaeth; Jason Karl; Matt Reeves; Dave Pyke; Jordan Spaak; Andrew Brischke; Del Despain; Matt Phillippi; Dave Weixelmann; Alan Bass; Jessie Page; Lori Metz; David Toledo; Emily Kachergis

    2017-01-01

    The concepts of animal units, animal unit months, and animal unit equivalents have long been used as standards for range management planning, estimating stocking rates, reporting actual use, assessing grazing fees, ranch appraisal, and other purposes. Increasing size of cattle on rangelands has led some to suggest that the definition of animal units and animal unit...

  19. Optimization of light field display-camera configuration based on display properties in spectral domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bregović, Robert; Kovács, Péter Tamás; Gotchev, Atanas

    2016-02-08

    The visualization capability of a light field display is uniquely determined by its angular and spatial resolution referred to as display passband. In this paper we use a multidimensional sampling model for describing the display-camera channel. Based on the model, for a given display passband, we propose a methodology for determining the optimal distribution of ray generators in a projection-based light field display. We also discuss the required camera setup that can provide data with the necessary amount of details for such display that maximizes the visual quality and minimizes the amount of data.

  20. Characterising laser beams with liquid crystal displays

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dudley, Angela L

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available decomposition of light has been known for a long time, applied mostly to pattern recognition, we illustrate how this technique can be implemented with the use of liquid-crystal displays. We show experimentally how liquid crystal displays can be used to infer...

  1. Ribosome display for improved biotherapeutic molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothe, Achim; Hosse, Ralf J; Power, Barbara E

    2006-02-01

    Ribosome display presents an innovative in vitro technology for the rapid isolation and evolution of high-affinity peptides or proteins. Displayed proteins are bound to and recovered from target molecules in multiple rounds of selection in order to enrich for specific binding proteins. No transformation step is necessary, which could lead to a loss of library diversity. A cycle of display and selection can be performed in one day, enabling the existing gene repertoire to be rapidly scanned. Proteins isolated from the panning rounds can be further modified through random or directed molecular evolution for affinity maturation, as well as selected for characteristics such as protein stability, folding and functional activity. Recently, the field of display technologies has become more prominent due to the generation of new scaffolds for ribosome display, isolation of high-affinity human antibodies by phage display, and their implementation in the discovery of novel protein-protein interactions. Applications for this technology extend into the broad field of antibody engineering, proteomics, and synthetic enzymes for diagnostics and therapeutics in cancer, autoimmune and infectious diseases, neurodegenerative diseases and inflammatory disorders. This review highlights the role of ribosome display in drug discovery, discusses advantages and disadvantages of the system, and attempts to predict the future impact of ribosome display technology on the development of novel engineered biopharmaceutical products for biological therapies.

  2. (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) roots by differential display

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aghomotsegin

    2014-12-31

    Dec 31, 2014 ... display reverse transcriptase PCR (DDRT-PCR) was used to compare the overall differences in gene ... Abbreviations: DDRT-PCR, Differential display reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, ESTs, expressed sequence tags; ... Agricultural Research Corporation's Obeid Research Substation in.

  3. A visual-display and storage device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosomworth, D. R.; Moles, W. H.

    1972-01-01

    Memory and display device uses cathodochromic material to store visual information and fast phosphor to recall information for display and electronic processing. Cathodochromic material changes color when bombarded with electrons, and is restored to its original color when exposed to light of appropiate wavelength.

  4. Factors affecting dwell times on digital displaying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, A. J.; Harris, R. L., Sr.

    1985-01-01

    A series of exploratory tests were conducted to investigate the effects of advanced display formats and display media on pilot scanning behavior using Langley's oculometer, a desktop flight simulator, a conventional electro-mechanical meter, and various digital displays. The primary task was for the test subject to maintain level flight, on a specific course heading, during moderate turbulence. A secondary task of manually controlling the readout of a display was used to examine the effects of the display format on a subject's scan behavior. Secondary task scan parameters that were evaluated were average dwell time, dwell time histograms, and number of dwells per meter change. The round dial meter demonstrated shorter dwell times and fewer dwells per meter change than the digital displays. The following factors affected digital display scanning behavior: (1) the number of digits; (2) the update rate of the digits; (3) the display media; and (4) the character font. The size of the digits used in these tests (0.28 to 0.50 inches) did not affect scan behavior measures.

  5. Coordinated Displays to Assist Cyber Defenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-23

    checks: Detecting satisficing to increase statistical power. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology , 45, 867-872. Scarfone, K., & Mell, P. (2007...regardless of display condition (coordinated or uncoordinated). METHOD Participants & Experimental Design In this experiment, 46 people (19...previous experience in cyber defense. Experimental Design This study featured a single experimental factor, display condition, and a control

  6. Monitor displays in radiology: Part 2

    OpenAIRE

    INDRAJIT, IK; Verma, BS

    2009-01-01

    Monitor displays play an important role in modern radiology practice. Practicing radiologists need to be familiar with the various performance parameters of medical-grade displays. A certain amount of technical knowledge is useful when making purchasing decisions since the right choice of equipment can have a great impact on the accuracy, efficiency, and speed in the radiology department.

  7. 33 CFR 4.02 - Display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Display. 4.02 Section 4.02 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL OMB CONTROL NUMBERS ASSIGNED PURSUANT TO THE PAPERWORK REDUCTION ACT § 4.02 Display. 33 CFR part or section where identified...

  8. 49 CFR 509.2 - Display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Display. 509.2 Section 509.2 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION OMB CONTROL NUMBERS FOR INFORMATION COLLECTION REQUIREMENTS § 509.2 Display. 49 CFR...

  9. 41 CFR 60-999.2 - Display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Display. 60-999.2 Section 60-999.2 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to Public Contracts... CONTROL NUMBERS FOR OFCCP INFORMATION COLLECTION REQUIREMENTS § 60-999.2 Display. 41 CFR Part where the...

  10. Display Developer for Firing Room Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Elizabeth A.

    2013-01-01

    The firing room at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) is responsible for all NASA human spaceflight launch operations, therefore it is vital that all displays within the firing room be properly tested, up-to-date, and user-friendly during a launch. The Ground Main Propulsion System (GMPS) requires a number of remote displays for Vehicle Integration and Launch (VIL) Operations at KSC. My project is to develop remote displays for the GMPS using the Display Services and Framework (DSF) editor. These remote displays will be based on model images provided by GMPS through PowerPoint. Using the DSF editor, the PowerPoint images can be recreated with active buttons associated with the correct Compact Unique Identifiers (CUIs). These displays will be documented in the Software Requirements and Design Specifications (SRDS) at the 90% GMPS Design Review. In the future, these remote displays will be available for other developers to improve, edit, or add on to so that the display may be incorporated into the firing room to be used for launches.

  11. Plasma Display at the Liberty Science Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruder, Dan; Gilligan, Nick; Tarman, Lisa; Ferris, Pamella; Morgan, James; Delooper, John; Zwicker, Andrew

    2009-11-01

    The Liberty Science Center (LSC) is the largest (300,000 sq. ft.) education resource in the New Jersey -- New York City region. PPPL in collaboration with the LSC has had a display at the center since 2007 More than 1.5 million visitors have come to the museum since the plasma display has been introduced. The plasma display has had significant use during that time frame. During the summer of 2009 a redesigned plasma exhibit was created by a student teacher-team using the lessons learned from the existing exhibit. The display includes a DC glow discharge tube with a permanent external magnet allowing visitors to manipulate the plasma and see how plasma can be used for fusion research. The goal of the display is to allow an individual to see a plasma and understand the potential benefits of fusion energy.

  12. Holistic peripheral processing of a polygon display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, T; MacRae, A W

    1994-12-01

    Polygon displays compress information that would otherwise be conveyed by separate indicators into a single display in which each reading is represented by the distance of a polygon vertex from its center. The effect on detection of fault states of varying the number of polygon vertices from 4 to 20 in a display presented peripherally around a dynamic, simulated flight display was studied. Presence of the dynamic task reduced both speed and accuracy of response to the polygon display but did not significantly affect the pattern of response to differing numbers of vertices. All measures of performance were better with larger numbers of vertices. If the vertices are processed serially, more vertices require more processing time. Therefore, the result argues for holistic processing and implies that such information integration is beneficial to human performance in fault detection.

  13. Three-dimensional hologram display system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mintz, Frederick (Inventor); Chao, Tien-Hsin (Inventor); Bryant, Nevin (Inventor); Tsou, Peter (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    The present invention relates to a three-dimensional (3D) hologram display system. The 3D hologram display system includes a projector device for projecting an image upon a display medium to form a 3D hologram. The 3D hologram is formed such that a viewer can view the holographic image from multiple angles up to 360 degrees. Multiple display media are described, namely a spinning diffusive screen, a circular diffuser screen, and an aerogel. The spinning diffusive screen utilizes spatial light modulators to control the image such that the 3D image is displayed on the rotating screen in a time-multiplexing manner. The circular diffuser screen includes multiple, simultaneously-operated projectors to project the image onto the circular diffuser screen from a plurality of locations, thereby forming the 3D image. The aerogel can use the projection device described as applicable to either the spinning diffusive screen or the circular diffuser screen.

  14. A new emissive projection display technology and a high contrast DLP projection display on black screen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ted X.; Cheng, Botao

    2011-03-01

    In this paper, Sun Innovations demonstrates an innovative emissive projection display (EPD) system. It is comprised of a fully transparent fluorescent screen with a UV image projector. The screen can be applied to glass windows or windshield, without affecting visible light transmission. The UV projector can be based on either a DLP (digital light processor) or a laser scanner display engine. For a DLP based projector, a discharge lamp coupled to a set of UV filters can be applied to generate a full color video image on the transparent screen. UV or blue-ray laser diodes of different wavelengths can be combined with scanning mirrors to generate a vector display for full windshield display applications. This display combines the best of both worlds of conventional projection and emissive display technologies. Like a projection display, the screen has no pixel structure and can be manufactured roll to roll; the display is scalable. Like an emissive display (e.g. plasma or CRT), the quality of the image is superior, with very large viewing angles. It also offers some unique features. For example, in addition to a fully transparent display on windows or windshields, it can be applied to a black substrate to create the first front projection display on true "black" screen that has superior image contrast at low projection power. This fundamentally new display platform can enable multiple major commercial applications that can not be addressed by any of the existing display technologies.

  15. Rats Display a Robust Bimodal Preference Profile for Sucralose

    OpenAIRE

    Loney, Gregory C.; Torregrossa, Ann-Marie; Smith, James C.; Sclafani, Anthony; Eckel, Lisa A.

    2011-01-01

    Female Sprague–Dawley rats display considerable variability in their preference for the artificial sweetener sucralose over water. While some rats can be classified as sucralose preferrers (SP), as they prefer sucralose across a broad range of concentrations, others can be classified as sucralose avoiders (SA), as they avoid sucralose at concentrations above 0.1 g/L. Here, we expand on a previous report of this phenomenon by demonstrating, in a series of 2-bottle 24-h preference tests involvi...

  16. United States Air Force 611th air support group, 611th Civil Engineer Squadron, Tin City Long Range Radar Station, Alaska final remedial investigation/feasibility study. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-30

    This Final Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study describes the work performed; explains project objectives; and presents data collected during project activities, results, and conclusions for the Installation Restoration Program at Tin City Longe Range Radar Station, Alaska. The report describes the risks posed by the site and gives the basis for selecting remedies to mitigate the risks.

  17. Displays of emotion and citizen support for Merkel and Gysi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, Oscar W; Masch, Lena

    2017-01-01

    Emotional appeals have always been an important instrument in the mobilization of political support in modern societies. As found in several experimental studies from the United States, the emotions displayed by leading politicians in their televised public appearances have an impact on the political attitudes and behaviors of the public. Positive emotions such as joy or happiness, pride, and amusement elicit a more positive assessment of politicians, whereas showing negative emotions such as anger or outrage often diminishes the public's support. This transfer of emotions from sender to recipient has been described as "emotional contagion." However, under specific circumstances, emotions expressed by politicians can result in counter-empathic reactions among recipients. To examine the role of emotions between political leaders and the public in an institutional and cultural setting outside the United States, this article presents experimental findings on the impact of emotions expressed by two leading German politicians on the German public. The study used emotional displays by Chancellor Angela Merkel and former parliamentary leader of the Left Party, Gregor Gysi, observing how their assessments by the German public changed in response to these displays. Consistent with existing research, we discovered positive effects on the evaluation of both politicians when they displayed positive emotions. However, the impact of negative emotions is different for Merkel and Gysi and can be described as contagion in the former and counter-contagion in the latter case. Furthermore, we found that individual recognition of the expressed emotions modified the effect they had on the evaluation of some leadership characteristics.

  18. Modified point spread function for efficient high dynamic range LED backlight capable of high uniformity, high contrast, and smooth gradients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmel, Jakob; Whitehead, Lorne A

    2013-12-01

    We investigate the effect of new point spread functions (PSFs) on the uniformity and contrast of high dynamic range displays that use local dimming of LEDs to yield a large dynamic range. A PSF shaped like a quadratic B-spline was hypothesized to create a uniform brightness backlight, as well as producing linear and quadratic gradients, while maintaining a very high contrast. We have found a practical optical structure to produce such a PSF, yielding a nonuniformity of only ±0.8%, while enabling a contrast ratio of 5∶1 and 33∶1 over distances of one and two unit cell spacings, respectively.

  19. Next-generation phage display: integrating and comparing available molecular tools to enable cost-effective high-throughput analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Dias-Neto

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Combinatorial phage display has been used in the last 20 years in the identification of protein-ligands and protein-protein interactions, uncovering relevant molecular recognition events. Rate-limiting steps of combinatorial phage display library selection are (i the counting of transducing units and (ii the sequencing of the encoded displayed ligands. Here, we adapted emerging genomic technologies to minimize such challenges. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We gained efficiency by applying in tandem real-time PCR for rapid quantification to enable bacteria-free phage display library screening, and added phage DNA next-generation sequencing for large-scale ligand analysis, reporting a fully integrated set of high-throughput quantitative and analytical tools. The approach is far less labor-intensive and allows rigorous quantification; for medical applications, including selections in patients, it also represents an advance for quantitative distribution analysis and ligand identification of hundreds of thousands of targeted particles from patient-derived biopsy or autopsy in a longer timeframe post library administration. Additional advantages over current methods include increased sensitivity, less variability, enhanced linearity, scalability, and accuracy at much lower cost. Sequences obtained by qPhage plus pyrosequencing were similar to a dataset produced from conventional Sanger-sequenced transducing-units (TU, with no biases due to GC content, codon usage, and amino acid or peptide frequency. These tools allow phage display selection and ligand analysis at >1,000-fold faster rate, and reduce costs approximately 250-fold for generating 10(6 ligand sequences. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our analyses demonstrates that whereas this approach correlates with the traditional colony-counting, it is also capable of a much larger sampling, allowing a faster, less expensive, more accurate and consistent analysis of phage enrichment. Overall

  20. [Odor sensing system and olfactory display].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamoto, Takamichi

    2014-01-01

    In this review, an odor sensing system and an olfactory display are introduced into people in pharmacy. An odor sensing system consists of an array of sensors with partially overlapping specificities and pattern recognition technique. One of examples of odor sensing systems is a halitosis sensor which quantifies the mixture composition of three volatile sulfide compounds. A halitosis sensor was realized using a preconcentrator to raise sensitivity and an electrochemical sensor array to suppress the influence of humidity. Partial least squares (PLS) method was used to quantify the mixture composition. The experiment reveals that the sufficient accuracy was obtained. Moreover, the olfactory display, which present scents to human noses, is explained. A multi-component olfactory display enables the presentation of a variety of smells. The two types of multi-component olfactory display are described. The first one uses many solenoid valves with high speed switching. The valve ON frequency determines the concentration of the corresponding odor component. The latter one consists of miniaturized liquid pumps and a surface acoustic wave (SAW) atomizer. It enables the wearable olfactory display without smell persistence. Finally, the application of the olfactory display is demonstrated. Virtual ice cream shop with scents was made as a content of interactive art. People can enjoy harmony among vision, audition and olfaction. In conclusion, both odor sensing system and olfactory display can contribute to the field of human health care.

  1. Advance in phage display technology for bioanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Yuyu; Tian, Tian; Liu, Wenli; Zhu, Zhi; J Yang, Chaoyong

    2016-06-01

    Phage display technology has emerged as a powerful tool for target gene expression and target-specific ligand selection. It is widely used to screen peptides, proteins and antibodies with the advantages of simplicity, high efficiency and low cost. A variety of targets, including ions, small molecules, inorganic materials, natural and biological polymers, nanostructures, cells, bacteria, and even tissues, have been demonstrated to generate specific binding ligands by phage display. Phages and target-specific ligands screened by phage display have been widely used as affinity reagents in therapeutics, diagnostics and biosensors. In this review, comparisons of different types of phage display systems are first presented. Particularly, microfluidic-based phage display, which enables screening with high throughput, high efficiency and integration, is highlighted. More importantly, we emphasize the advances in biosensors based on phages or phage-derived probes, including nonlytic phages, lytic phages, peptides or proteins screened by phage display, phage assemblies and phage-nanomaterial complexes. However, more efficient and higher throughput phage display methods are still needed to meet an explosion in demand for bioanalysis. Furthermore, screening of cyclic peptides and functional peptides will be the hotspot in bioanalysis. Copyright © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. The display of portable infrared measuring temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Yitao; Gu, Guohua; Sui, Xiubao

    2014-11-01

    In recent years based on security, quality supervision, inspection and medical for the urgent need of infrared temperature measurement and infrared display technology, coupled with embedded system to achieve rapid development, which is widely used in the electronic products and the field of intelligent instruments and industrial control, this paper has designed a kind of more comprehensive, more efficient and more intuitive infrared thermometer. Unlike previous handheld infrared thermometer, we regard an embedded Linux system as the system, with its open source code, support most mainstream hardware platforms, unified peripheral interface and can be customized, to build an embedded infrared system that has provided strong system support; the pseudocolor techniques and Qt interface display technology make the image more colorful and the picture function more diverse; With ARM microprocessor as the display and temperature measuring platform, it costs reduction and reduce volume and power consumption; the FrameBuffer interface technology and multithreading technology realize the smooth real-time display. And ultimately the display size of real-time infrared image is 640 * 480 at a speed of 25 frames / sec. What is more, display is equipped with the menu option so that thermometer can be required to complete the operation through the button. The temperature display system aims at small volume, easy to use and flexible. I believe this thermometer will have a good application prospect.

  3. Transparent 3D display for augmented reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byoungho; Hong, Jisoo

    2012-11-01

    Two types of transparent three-dimensional display systems applicable for the augmented reality are demonstrated. One of them is a head-mounted-display-type implementation which utilizes the principle of the system adopting the concave floating lens to the virtual mode integral imaging. Such configuration has an advantage in that the threedimensional image can be displayed at sufficiently far distance resolving the accommodation conflict with the real world scene. Incorporating the convex half mirror, which shows a partial transparency, instead of the concave floating lens, makes it possible to implement the transparent three-dimensional display system. The other type is the projection-type implementation, which is more appropriate for the general use than the head-mounted-display-type implementation. Its imaging principle is based on the well-known reflection-type integral imaging. We realize the feature of transparent display by imposing the partial transparency to the array of concave mirror which is used for the screen of reflection-type integral imaging. Two types of configurations, relying on incoherent and coherent light sources, are both possible. For the incoherent configuration, we introduce the concave half mirror array, whereas the coherent one adopts the holographic optical element which replicates the functionality of the lenslet array. Though the projection-type implementation is beneficial than the head-mounted-display in principle, the present status of the technical advance of the spatial light modulator still does not provide the satisfactory visual quality of the displayed three-dimensional image. Hence we expect that the head-mounted-display-type and projection-type implementations will come up in the market in sequence.

  4. Real-Time, Interactive Sonic Boom Display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haering, Jr., Edward A. (Inventor); Plotkin, Kenneth J. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    The present invention is an improved real-time, interactive sonic boom display for aircraft. By using physical properties obtained via various sensors and databases, the invention determines, in real-time, sonic boom impacts locations and intensities for aircraft traveling at supersonic speeds. The information is provided to a pilot via a display that lists a selectable set of maneuvers available to the pilot to mitigate sonic boom issues. Upon selection of a maneuver, the information as to the result of the maneuver is displayed and the pilot may proceed with making the maneuver, or provide new data to the system in order to calculate a different maneuver.

  5. Predictive displays for a process-control schematic interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Shanqing; Wickens, Christopher D; Helander, Martin; Laberge, Jason C

    2015-02-01

    Our objective was to examine the extent to which increasing precision of predictive (rate of change) information in process control will improve performance on a simulated process-control task. Predictive displays have been found to be useful in process control (as well as aviation and maritime industries). However, authors of prior research have not examined the extent to which predictive value is increased by increasing predictor resolution, nor has such research tied potential improvements to changes in process control strategy. Fifty nonprofessional participants each controlled a simulated chemical mixture process (honey mixer simulation) that simulated the operations found in process control. Participants in each of five groups controlled with either no predictor or a predictor ranging in the resolution of prediction of the process. Increasing detail resolution generally increased the benefit of prediction over the control condition although not monotonically so. The best overall performance, combining quality and predictive ability, was obtained by the display of intermediate resolution. The two displays with the lowest resolution were clearly inferior. Predictors with higher resolution are of value but may trade off enhanced sensitivity to variable change (lower-resolution discrete state predictor) with smoother control action (higher-resolution continuous predictors). The research provides guidelines to the process-control industry regarding displays that can most improve operator performance.

  6. Fiber optic high-definition large-screen display system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Lawrence L.; Reidinger, Michael J.; Feigles, Edward M.

    1990-08-01

    TRU-LYTE Systems, Inc. is developing an HDTV display that will exceed displays in the large screen display (LSD) market. Due to the present design and manufacturing techniques of LCDs, ELs, and CRTs there are limitations with LSD applications. One of the possible solutions is a hybrid of fiber optic technology and transmissive active matrix LCDs. In this design, multiple LCD modules are coupled with an equal number of fiber optic modules. These modules are designed so that strands of fiber optics are placed in a coherent manner from a rear panel to a predetermined spaced front panel. An image projected onto the rear panel will result in an enlarged image being displayed on the front panel. Imageboard modules would then be manufactured using this design of the building block method. The determining factors would include the desired output intensity, size restrictions, and cost factors. Research has also developed a technology that allows for consistent wide-angle viewing of the image displa'ed by the optical fibers. Applications for this product range from HDTV to stadium scoreboards.

  7. Range management visual impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce R. Brown; David Kissel

    1979-01-01

    Historical overgrazing of western public rangelands has resulted in the passage of the Public Rangeland Improvement Act of 1978. The main purpose of this Act is to improve unsatisfactory range conditions. A contributing factor to unfavorable range conditions is adverse visual impacts. These visual impacts can be identified in three categories of range management: range...

  8. Free software helps map and display data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessel, Paul; Smith, Walter H. F.

    When creating camera-ready figures, most scientists are familiar with the sequence of raw data → processing → final illustration and with the spending of large sums of money to finalize papers for submission to scientific journals, prepare proposals, and create overheads and slides for various presentations. This process can be tedious and is often done manually, since available commercial or in-house software usually can do only part of the job.To expedite this process, we introduce the Generic Mapping Tools (GMT), which is a free, public domain software package that can be used to manipulate columns of tabular data, time series, and gridded data sets and to display these data in a variety of forms ranging from simple x-y plots to maps and color, perspective, and shaded-relief illustrations. GMT uses the PostScript page description language, which can create arbitrarily complex images in gray tones or 24-bit true color by superimposing multiple plot files. Line drawings, bitmapped images, and text can be easily combined in one illustration. PostScript plot files are device-independent, meaning the same file can be printed at 300 dots per inch (dpi) on an ordinary laserwriter or at 2470 dpi on a phototypesetter when ultimate quality is needed. GMT software is written as a set of UNIX tools and is totally self contained and fully documented. The system is offered free of charge to federal agencies and nonprofit educational organizations worldwide and is distributed over the computer network Internet.

  9. Efficient display of active lipase LipB52 with a Pichia pastoris cell surface display system and comparison with the LipB52 displayed on Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Yushu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For industrial bioconversion processes, the utilization of surface-displayed lipase in the form of whole-cell biocatalysts is more advantageous, because the enzymes are displayed on the cell surface spontaneously, regarded as immobilized enzymes. Results Two Pichia pastoris cell surface display vectors based on the flocculation functional domain of FLO with its own secretion signal sequence or the α-factor secretion signal sequence were constructed respectively. The lipase gene lipB52 fused with the FLO gene was successfully transformed into Pichia pastoris KM71. The lipase LipB52 was expressed under the control of the AOX1 promoter and displayed on Pichia pastoris KM71 cell surface with the two Pichia pastoris cell surface display vectors. Localization of the displayed LipB52 on the cell surface was confirmed by the confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM. The LipB52 displayed on the Pichia pastoris cell surface exhibited activity toward p-nitrophenol ester with carbon chain length ranging from C10 to C18, and the optimum substrate was p-nitrophenol-caprate (C10, which was consistent with it displayed on the Saccharomyces cerevisiae EBY100 cell surface. The hydrolysis activity of lipase LipB52 displayed on Pichia pastoris KM71-pLHJ047 and KM71-pLHJ048 cell surface reached 94 and 91 U/g dry cell, respectively. The optimum temperature of the displayed lipases was 40°C at pH8.0, they retained over 90% activity after incubation at 60°C for 2 hours at pH 7.0, and still retained 85% activity after incubation for 3 hours. Conclusion The LipB52 displayed on the Pichia pastoris cell surface exhibited better stability than the lipase LipB52 displayed on Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell surface. The displayed lipases exhibited similar transesterification activity. But the Pichia pastoris dry cell weight per liter (DCW/L ferment culture was about 5 times than Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the lipase displayed on Pichia pastoris are more

  10. In vitro affinity screening of protein and peptide binders by megavalent bead surface display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamante, Letizia; Gatti-Lafranconi, Pietro; Schaerli, Yolanda; Hollfelder, Florian

    2013-10-01

    The advent of protein display systems has provided access to tailor-made protein binders by directed evolution. We introduce a new in vitro display system, bead surface display (BeSD), in which a gene is mounted on a bead via strong non-covalent (streptavidin/biotin) interactions and the corresponding protein is displayed via a covalent thioether bond on the DNA. In contrast to previous monovalent or low-copy bead display systems, multiple copies of the DNA and the protein or peptide of interest are displayed in defined quantities (up to 10(6) of each), so that flow cytometry can be used to obtain a measure of binding affinity. The utility of the BeSD in directed evolution is validated by library selections of randomized peptide sequences for binding to the anti-hemagglutinin (HA) antibody that proceed with enrichments in excess of 10(3) and lead to the isolation of high-affinity HA-tags within one round of flow cytometric screening. On-bead K(d) measurements suggest that the selected tags have affinities in the low nanomolar range. In contrast to other display systems (such as ribosome, mRNA and phage display) that are limited to affinity panning selections, BeSD possesses the ability to screen and rank binders by their affinity in vitro, a feature that hitherto has been exclusive to in vivo multivalent cell display systems (such as yeast display).

  11. Signal processing and display for electrochemical data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, R. N.; Wilkins, J. R.

    1977-01-01

    Two electrochemical electrodes provide signals; apparatus automatically determines reaction end point and displays lag period in time or cell concentration. Apparatus can be used with standard pH reference anode and platinum anode or with redox electrodes.

  12. High Resolution Autostereoscopic Cockpit Display Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — During this Phase II program Dimension Technologies Inc. (DTI) proposes to design and build an autostereoscopic (glasses-free 3D) LCD based aircraft cockpit display...

  13. Projection/Reflection Heads-up Display

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To address the NASA need for an extravehicular activity (EVA) information display device, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to advance development of a new...

  14. Three D displays in military applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trakalo, M.

    2009-05-01

    The evolution to 3D content is considered to be the next quantum leap in the movie industry, and is currently taking place. The prospect of the home entertainment industry adopting 3D is causing display manufacturers to develop 3D compatible products. In the past, 3D displays have often been limited by poor image quality. The current generation of 3D displays can have image quality that approaches that of their 2D counterparts. 3D content has found its way to the cinema and is seeking a way into the home, but will it have a place in the military environment? This paper discusses the current status of 3D display technology and its suitability to the military ground mobile environment. It includes an introduction to 3D visualization and examines issues such as implementation, image quality, and human factors.

  15. Diagnosis of fault location using polygon displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greaney, J; MacRae, A N

    1996-03-01

    When polygon displays are used to represent multiple sources of information, sometimes they can be processed in parallel so that the significant information can be taken in 'at a glance'. Previous studies found that reaction times (RTs) remained constant as the number of vertices was increased (Greaney and MacRae 1993). However, these studies did not call for the explicit identification of critical vertices and used polygons that were relatively regular. The present study required abnormal vertices to be identified, and it was found that RTs increased as a function of the total number of vertices. In addition, RTs were longer when the variability of the displayed information was greater, that is, when the polygon was more irregular. It was concluded that the polygon display may have more potential as a global warning indicator than as a means of displaying individual parameter values, which must be assessed separately.

  16. Advanced Plasmonic Materials for Dynamic Color Display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Lei; Zhuo, Xiaolu; Wang, Jianfang

    2017-11-10

    Plasmonic structures exhibit promising applications in high-resolution and durable color generation. Research on advanced hybrid plasmonic materials that allow dynamically reconfigurable color control has developed rapidly in recent years. Some of these results may give rise to practically applicable reflective displays in living colors with high performance and low power consumption. They will attract broad interest from display markets, compared with static plasmonic color printing, for example, in applications such as digital signage, full-color electronic paper, and electronic device screens. In this progress report, the most promising recent examples of utilizing advanced plasmonic materials for the realization of dynamic color display are highlighted and put into perspective. The performances, advantages, and disadvantages of different technologies are discussed, with emphasis placed on both the potential and possible limitations of various hybrid materials for dynamic plasmonic color display. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Bioadsorption strategies with yeast molecular display technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibasaki, Seiji; Ueda, Mitsuyoshi

    2014-01-01

    Molecular display techniques using microbial cell surfaces have been widely developed in the past twenty years, and are useful tools as whole cell catalysts for various applications such as bioconversion, bioremediation, biosensing, and the screening system of protein libraries. Furthermore, different types of microbial cells among eukaryotic and prokaryotic strains have been investigated for their use in surface display technologies. Recently, several kinds of protein-displaying yeasts have been utilized as bioadsorbents in this platform technology. In particular, these trials have successfully expanded the possibility of applications to metal binding, affinity purification, and receptor-ligand interaction by using the yeast cell surface. In this mini review, we describe the general principles of molecular display technology using yeast cells and its applications, with a particular focus on bioadsorption.

  18. Space Station Displays and Controls Technology Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, Greg C.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on space station displays and controls technology evolution are presented. Topics covered include: a historical perspective; major development objectives; current development activities; key technology areas; and technology evolution issues.

  19. Stratigraphy of Lower Cambrian and unconformable Lower Carboniferous beds from the Valls unit (Catalonian Coastal Ranges)Stratigraphie des couches du Cambrien inférieur et des calcaires discordants du Carbonifère inférieur de l'unité de Valls (chaînes côtières Catalanes)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz-López, Javier; Melgarejo, Joan-Carles; Crimes, Thomas Peter

    2000-01-01

    The Palaeozoic rocks outcropping around Valls are divided into two stratigraphic units. The boundary between both is an unconformity. The lower unit is composed by nearshore platform sediments and a Lower Cambrian age is indicated according to ichnotaxa content. The upper unit consists of pink nodular limestones and dark limestones, and it is followed by siliciclastic Culm Facies rocks. These limestones contain conodonts of the Uppermost Tournaisian at its base ( anchoralis- latus Zone) and Lower Bashkirian (Namurian B) in the upper part. This condensed carbonate sequence was coeval with the thick siliciclastic Culm sedimentation in the surrounding areas.

  20. Screen Codes: Visual Hyperlinks for Displays

    OpenAIRE

    Collomosse, J.; Kindberg, T.

    2008-01-01

    We present 'Screen codes' - a space- and time-efficient, aesthetically compelling method for transferring data from a display to a camera-equipped mobile device. Screen codes encode data as a grid of luminosity fluctuations within an arbitrary image, displayed on the video screen and decoded on a mobile device. These 'twinkling' images are a form of 'visual hyperlink', by which users can move dynamically generated content to and from their mobile devices. They help bridge the 'content divide'...

  1. Modern Display Technologies for Airborne Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-04-01

    cover can be controlled as function * of the background luminance level ( photochromic , electrochromic materials). But at very low light levels, where...UUAUITY DISPLAY (DLA Umask (Aperture pitch *GRAPHIC DISPLAY ROUNDOAPERTURE (Sn 0 03ia02(m MASK AND 00 Biack matrix (S11) pigmented IRS Electron beam gun... soluble in the liquid crystal host to give adequate absorption and contrast without risk of the segregation of dye particles at low temperatures

  2. Bidding for Representative Allocations for Display Advertising

    OpenAIRE

    Ghosh, Arpita; McAfee, Preston; Papineni, Kishore; Vassilvitskii, Sergei

    2009-01-01

    Display advertising has traditionally been sold via guaranteed contracts -- a guaranteed contract is a deal between a publisher and an advertiser to allocate a certain number of impressions over a certain period, for a pre-specified price per impression. However, as spot markets for display ads, such as the RightMedia Exchange, have grown in prominence, the selection of advertisements to show on a given page is increasingly being chosen based on price, using an auction. As the number of parti...

  3. Online Allocation Rules in Display Advertising

    OpenAIRE

    Shamsi, Davood; Holtan, Marius; Luenberger, Robert; Ye, Yinyu

    2014-01-01

    Efficient allocation of impressions to advertisers in display advertising has a significant impact on advertisers' utility and the browsing experience of users. The problem becomes particularly challenging in the presence of advertisers with limited budgets as this creates a complex interaction among advertisers in the optimal impression assignment. In this paper, we study online impression allocation in display advertising with budgeted advertisers. That is, upon arrival of each impression, ...

  4. Managing Risk of Bidding in Display Advertising

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, HaiFeng; Zhang, Weinan; Rong, Yifei; Ren, Kan; Li, Wenxin; Wang, Jun

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we deal with the uncertainty of bidding for display advertising. Similar to the financial market trading, real-time bidding (RTB) based display advertising employs an auction mechanism to automate the impression level media buying; and running a campaign is no different than an investment of acquiring new customers in return for obtaining additional converted sales. Thus, how to optimally bid on an ad impression to drive the profit and return-on-investment becomes essential. Ho...

  5. Studies of geology and hydrology in the Basin and Range Province, Southwestern United States, for isolation of high-level radioactive waste - Characterization of the Bonneville region, Utah and Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedinger, M.S.; Sargent, K.A.; Langer, William H.

    1990-01-01

    The Bonneville region of the Basin and Range province in westcentral Utah and adjacent Nevada includes several basins lying south of the Great Salt Lake Desert. Physiographically, the region consists of linear, north-trending mountain ranges separated by valleys, many of which are closed basins underlain by thick sequences of fill. Surface drainage of open basins and ground-water flow is to the Great Salt Lake Desert. In structure and composition the ranges are faulted Paleozoic rocks, locally intruded by Mesozoic and Tertiary plugs and stocks. In the southern and northeastern parts of the region, volcanic rocks are widespread and form large parts of some mountain ranges. The Paleozoic sedimentary rocks include great thicknesses of carbonate rocks which compose a significant aquifer in the regionMedia considered to have potential for isolation of high-level radioactive waste in the region include intrusive rocks, such as granite; ash-flow tuff; and basalt and basaltic andesite lava flows. These rock types, basin fill, and possibly other rock types, may have potential as host media in the unsaturated zone. Quaternary tectonism in the region is evidenced by seismic activity, local areas of above-normal geothermal heat flow, Quaternary faulting, late Cenozoic volcanic activity, and active vertical crustal movement. The Bonneville region is part of a large ground-water flow system that is integrated partly through basin-fill deposits, but largely through an underlying carbonate-rock sequence. The region includes: (1) several topographically closed basins with virtually no local surface discharge that are drained by the underlying carbonate-rock aquifer; (2) closed basins with local surface discharge by evapotranspiration; and (3) basins open to the Great Salt Lake Desert that discharge by groundwater underflow and evapotranspiration. The carbonate-rock aquifer discharges to large springs in the Desert and in basins tributary to the Desert. The climate is arid to

  6. Oil defect detection of electrowetting display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Hou-Chi; Tsai, Yu-Hsiang; Yan, Yung-Jhe; Huang, Ting-Wei; Mang, Ou-Yang

    2015-08-01

    In recent years, transparent display is an emerging topic in display technologies. Apply in many fields just like mobile device, shopping or advertising window, and etc. Electrowetting Display (EWD) is one kind of potential transparent display technology advantages of high transmittance, fast response time, high contrast and rich color with pigment based oil system. In mass production process of Electrowetting Display, oil defects should be found by Automated Optical Inspection (AOI) detection system. It is useful in determination of panel defects for quality control. According to the research of our group, we proposed a mechanism of AOI detection system detecting the different kinds of oil defects. This mechanism can detect different kinds of oil defect caused by oil overflow or material deteriorated after oil coating or driving. We had experiment our mechanism with a 6-inch Electrowetting Display panel from ITRI, using an Epson V750 scanner with 1200 dpi resolution. Two AOI algorithms were developed, which were high speed method and high precision method. In high precision method, oil jumping or non-recovered can be detected successfully. This mechanism of AOI detection system can be used to evaluate the oil uniformity in EWD panel process. In the future, our AOI detection system can be used in quality control of panel manufacturing for mass production.

  7. A new type of multiview display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurk, Silvio; Kuhlmey, Mathias; de la Barré, René

    2015-03-01

    The common architecture of multi-view autostereoscopic displays assigns a nominal viewing distance. The design affects the convergence of the visible rays at a nominal viewing distance where diamond shaped viewing zones are created. In contrast to this approach, the authors present a new design strategy departing from the geometric relations of common 3D display designs. They show that a beam emitted from a sub-pixel should be rendered with an individual camera direction determined by an algorithm. This algorithm also uses, besides the parameters of the display design, the desired viewing distance and the allowed increments of the camera angle. This enables very flexible designs of autostereoscopic displays. The main difference from the common multiview display is that its design approach enables a continued viewing zone without the usually diamond shaped sweet spots. The algorithm for controlling the rendering and the multiplexing is generic, as well as for integral and multiview design approaches using an image splitter raster. The paper introduces it for autostereoscopic displays with horizontal parallax.

  8. SES cupola interactive display design environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Bang Q.; Kirkhoff, Kevin R.

    1989-01-01

    The Systems Engineering Simulator, located at the Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas, is tasked with providing a real-time simulator for developing displays and controls targeted for the Space Station Freedom. These displays and controls will exist inside an enclosed workstation located on the space station. The simulation is currently providing the engineering analysis environment for NASA and contractor personnel to design, prototype, and test alternatives for graphical presentation of data to an astronaut while he performs specified tasks. A highly desirable aspect of this environment is to have the capability to rapidly develop and bring on-line a number of different displays for use in determining the best utilization of graphics techniques in achieving maximum efficiency of the test subject fulfilling his task. The Systems Engineering Simulator now has available a tool which assists in the rapid development of displays for these graphic workstations. The Display Builder was developed in-house to provide an environment which allows easy construction and modification of displays within minutes of receiving requirements for specific tests.

  9. Display of information in the operating room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiefer, Nicholas; Hoeft, Andreas

    2010-12-01

    The ongoing development of new sensors and parameters for intraoperative monitoring has outpaced the development of display design, leading to a gap between the load of information and the quality of its delivery. This is not a circumstantial problem, as a large portion of critical incidents is attributable to inadequate situation awareness and the failure to recognize readily monitored data. This review also addresses improvements of current threshold alarms. Research has focused on advanced integrated displays, drawing on the findings of human factor science and on the exploitation of alternative sensory pathways. Integrated displays, as well as auditory, vibrotactile and head-mounted displays have been shown to promote situation awareness and reduce cognitive workload. Intelligent alarm design can successfully reduce the number of false alarms. Improvement of the display of information in the operating room is warranted, and recent developments are promising. However, their introduction into mass market is not yet on the horizon, although the shortcomings of the traditional single-sensor-single-indicator principle are known for a long time. If manufacturers are reluctant to implement new techniques into their devices, they should at least facilitate access to monitoring raw data in order to allow independent development of displays.

  10. HDTV and large-screen display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsuhashi, Tetsuo

    1990-08-01

    HDTV (known as Hi-Vision in Japan), with its ability to provide through high- definition pictures on a large screen display advanced psychological effects such as sensations of reality and a visual impact unobtainable in conventional television, is the television system of the next generation. In Japan, daily one-hour experimental broadcasting was initiated in June 1989 using the BS-2 broadcast satellite, and regular service is scheduled to begin via the BS-3 satellite to be launched in 1990. To this end, a home-use receiver using VLSIs has already been developed. Moreover, HDTV is currently being applied in such diverse areas as film production, printing and publishing, medicine, and art museums. The HDTV system handles approximately five times the information of conventional television. As a result, a large screen display capable of maintaining stable resolution greater than twice that of conventional displays is essential to the full realization of HDTV's vast potential. This paper will first discuss HDTV's basic parameters, concentrating on the psychovisual effects, and explain some preferable display characteristics from this psychovisual point of view. It will then discuss the technical problems in developing such a display, and final ly describe the current state of HDTV display development.

  11. Organic Thin Film Devices for Displays and Lighting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Oliver J.; Krause, Ralf; Paetzold, Ralph

    Organic materials can be used for fabrication of, e.g., electronic circuits, solar cells, light sensors, memory cells and light emitting diodes. Especially organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) are increasingly attractive because of their huge market potential. The feasibility of efficient OLEDs was first shown in 1987 [3]. Only about ten years later the first product, a display for car radios, entered the market. Today monochrome and full colour OLED-displays can be found in many applications replacing established flat panel display technologies like TFT-LCDs. This substitution is a consequence of the outstanding attributes of OLED technology: Organic light emitting displays are self-emissive, thin, video capable and in addition they show a wide temperature operation range and allow a viewing angle of nearly 180 degree in conjunction with a low power consumption. As performance has steadily increased over the last years, today OLEDs are also under investigation as next generation light source. In contrast to inorganic LEDs, they can be built as flat 2-dimensional light sources that are lightweight, colour tunable, and potentially cheap. This will open up new degrees of freedom in design leading also to completely new applications. In this contribution we will have a brief view on the history of organic electroluminescent materials before we introduce the basic principles of OLEDs with a focus on the physical processes leading to light generation in thin organic films. Along with an overview of different concepts and technologies used to build OLEDs, the current status of OLED development will be illustrated. The last part focuses on the challenges that have to be overcome to enable a sustainable success in the display and lighting markets.

  12. Direct Integration of Dynamic Emissive Displays into Knitted Fabric Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellingham, Alyssa

    electroluminescence that occur where the conductive fibers contact the EL fibers. A passive matrix addressing scheme was used to apply a voltage to each pixel individually, creating a display capable of dynamically communicating information. Optical measurements of the intensity and color of emitted light were used to quantify the performance of the display and compare it to state-of-the-art display technologies. The charge-voltage (Q-V) electrical characterization technique is used to gain information about the ACPEL fiber device operation, and mechanical tests were performed to determine the effect everyday wear and tear would have on the performance of the display. The presented textile display structure and method of producing fibers with individual sections of electroluminescence addresses the shortcomings in existing textile display technology and provides a route to directly integrated communicative textiles for applications ranging from biomedical research and monitoring to fashion. An extensive discussion of the materials and methods of production needed to scale this textile display technology and incorporate it into wearable applications is presented.

  13. Evolution Of Map Display Optical Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boot, Alan

    1983-06-01

    It is now over 20 years since Ferranti plc introduced optically projected map displays into operational aircraft navigation systems. Then, as now, it was the function of the display to present an image of a topographical map to a pilot or navigator with his present position clearly identified. Then, as now, the map image was projected from a reduced image stored on colour micro film. Then, as now, the fundamental design problems are the same.In the exposed environment of an aircraft cockpit where brightness levels may vary from those associated with direct sunlight on the one hand, to starlight on the other, how does one design an optical system with sufficient luminance, contrast and resolution where in the daytime sunlight may fall on the display or in the pilot's eyes, and at night time the display luminance must not detract from the pilot's ability to pick up external clues? This paper traces the development of Ferranti plc optically projected map displays from the early V Bomber and the ill-fated TSR2 displays to the Harrier and Concorde displays. It then goes on to the development of combined map and electronic displays (COMED), showing how an earlier design, as fitted to Tornado, has been developed into the current COMED design which is fitted to the F-18 and Jaguar aircraft. In each of the above display systems particular features of optical design interest are identified and their impact on the design as a whole are discussed. The use of prisms both for optical rotation and translation, techniques for the maximisation of luminance, the problems associated with contrast enhancement, particularly with polarising filters in the presence of optically active materials, the use of aerial image combining systems and the impact of the pilot interface on the system parameter are all included.Perhaps the most interesting result in considering the evolution of map displays has not been so much the designer's solutions in overcoming the various design problems but

  14. Characterizing the reflectivity of handheld display devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Peter; Badano, Aldo

    2014-08-01

    With increased use of handheld and tablet display devices for viewing medical images, methods for consistently measuring reflectivity of the devices are needed. In this note, the authors report on the characterization of diffuse reflections for handheld display devices including mobile phones and tablets using methods recommended by the American Association of Physicists in Medicine Task Group 18 (TG18). The authors modified the diffuse reflectance coefficient measurement method outlined in the TG18 report. The authors measured seven handheld display devices (two phones and five tablets) and three workstation displays. The device was attached to a black panel with Velcro. To study the effect of the back surface on the diffuse reflectance coefficient, the authors created Styrofoam masks with different size square openings and placed it in front of the device. Overall, for each display device, measurements of illuminance and reflected luminance on the display screen were taken. The authors measured with no mask, with masks of varying size, and with display-size masks, and calculated the corresponding diffuse reflectance coefficient. For all handhelds, the diffuse reflectance coefficient measured with no back panel were lower than measurements performed with a mask. The authors found an overall increase in reflectivity as the size of the mask decreases. For workstations displays, diffuse reflectance coefficients were higher when no back panel was used, and higher than with masks. In all cases, as luminance increased, illuminance increased, but not at the same rate. Since the size of handheld displays is smaller than that of workstation devices, the TG18 method suffers from a dependency on illumination condition. The authors show that the diffuse reflection coefficients can vary depending on the nature of the back surface of the illuminating box. The variability in the diffuse coefficient can be as large as 20% depending on the size of the mask. For all measurements

  15. Substring Range Reporting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li

    2014-01-01

    We revisit various string indexing problems with range reporting features, namely, position-restricted substring searching, indexing substrings with gaps, and indexing substrings with intervals. We obtain the following main results. We give efficient reductions for each of the above problems...... to a new problem, which we call substring range reporting. Hence, we unify the previous work by showing that we may restrict our attention to a single problem rather than studying each of the above problems individually. We show how to solve substring range reporting with optimal query time and little...... for substring range reporting generalize to substring range counting and substring range emptiness variants. We also obtain non-trivial time-space trade-offs for these problems. Our bounds for substring range reporting are based on a novel combination of suffix trees and range reporting data structures...

  16. Three-color electrowetting display device for electronic paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, H.; Steckl, A. J.

    2010-07-01

    Three-color electrowetting (EW) reflective display devices have been achieved using a vertical stack structure with colored oils. Fundamental properties (interface tension and geometry) of the EW process were investigated. Arrays of ˜1000-2000 pixels were constructed with pixel sizes of 200×600 and 300×900 μm2. Each color layer can be switched independently. Open (oil-free) area fraction of ˜80% in each cell is achieved at ˜10-12 V. Switch-on times range from 5 to 15 ms, suitable for video content display. These characteristics demonstrate that the EW vertical structure has the potential to produce attractive video-speed color reflective electronic paper devices.

  17. Fabrication and properties of gallium phosphide variable colour displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effer, D.; Macdonald, R. A.; Macgregor, G. M.; Webb, W. A.; Kennedy, D. I.

    1973-01-01

    The unique properties of single-junction gallium phosphide devices incorporating both red and green radiative recombination centers were investigated in application to the fabrication of monolithic 5 x 7 displays capable of displaying symbolic and alphanumeric information in a multicolor format. A number of potentially suitable material preparation techniques were evaluated in terms of both material properties and device performance. Optimum results were obtained for double liquid-phase-epitaxial process in which an open-tube dipping technique was used for n-layer growth and a sealed tipping procedure for subsequent p-layer growth. It was demonstrated that to prepare devices exhibiting a satisfactory range of dominant wavelengths which can be perceived as distinct emission colors extending from the red through green region of the visible spectrum involves a compromise between the material properties necessary for efficient red emission and those considered optimum for efficient green emission.

  18. 76 FR 13432 - In the Matter of Certain Display Devices, Including Digital Televisions and Monitors II; Notice...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-11

    ... COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Display Devices, Including Digital Televisions and Monitors II; Notice of... United States after importation of certain display devices, including digital televisions and monitors by... digital televisions and monitors that infringe one or more of claims 41-44 of the `468 patent; claims 1-4...

  19. Reading from a Head-Fixed Display during Walking: Adverse Effects of Gaze Stabilization Mechanisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Borg

    Full Text Available Reading performance during standing and walking was assessed for information presented on earth-fixed and head-fixed displays by determining the minimal duration during which a numerical time stimulus needed to be presented for 50% correct naming answers. Reading from the earth-fixed display was comparable during standing and walking, with optimal performance being attained for visual character sizes in the range of 0.2° to 1°. Reading from the head-fixed display was impaired for small (0.2-0.3° and large (5° visual character sizes, especially during walking. Analysis of head and eye movements demonstrated that retinal slip was larger during walking than during standing, but remained within the functional acuity range when reading from the earth-fixed display. The detrimental effects on performance of reading from the head-fixed display during walking could be attributed to loss of acuity resulting from large retinal slip. Because walking activated the angular vestibulo-ocular reflex, the resulting compensatory eye movements acted to stabilize gaze on the information presented on the earth-fixed display but destabilized gaze from the information presented on the head-fixed display. We conclude that the gaze stabilization mechanisms that normally allow visual performance to be maintained during physical activity adversely affect reading performance when the information is presented on a display attached to the head.

  20. MEMS tactile display: from fabrication to characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miki, Norihisa; Kosemura, Yumi; Watanabe, Junpei; Ishikawa, Hiroaki

    2014-03-01

    We report fabrication and characterization of MEMS-based tactile display that can display users various tactile information, such as Braille codes and surface textures. The display consists of 9 micro-actuators that are equipped with hydraulic displacement amplification mechanism (HDAM) to achieve large enough displacement to stimulate the human tactile receptors. HDAM encapsulates incompressible liquids. We developed a liquid encapsulation process, which we termed as Bonding-in-Liquid Technique, where bonding with a UV-curable resin in glycerin is conducted in the liquid, which prevented interfusion of air bubbles and deformation of the membrane during the bonding. HDAM successfully amplified the displacement generated by piezoelectric actuators by a factor of 6. The display could virtually produce "rough" and "smooth" surfaces, by controlling the vibration frequency, displacement, and the actuation periods of an actuator until the adjacent actuator was driven. We introduced a sample comparison method to characterize the surfaces, which involves human tactile sensation. First, we prepared samples whose mechanical properties are known. We displayed a surface texture to the user by controlling the parameters and then, the user selects a sample that has the most similar surface texture. By doing so, we can correlate the parameters with the mechanical properties of the sample as well as find the sets of the parameters that can provide similar tactile information to many users. The preliminary results with respect to roughness and hardness is presented.

  1. Voltage verification unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Edward J [Virginia Beach, VA

    2008-01-15

    A voltage verification unit and method for determining the absence of potentially dangerous potentials within a power supply enclosure without Mode 2 work is disclosed. With this device and method, a qualified worker, following a relatively simple protocol that involves a function test (hot, cold, hot) of the voltage verification unit before Lock Out/Tag Out and, and once the Lock Out/Tag Out is completed, testing or "trying" by simply reading a display on the voltage verification unit can be accomplished without exposure of the operator to the interior of the voltage supply enclosure. According to a preferred embodiment, the voltage verification unit includes test leads to allow diagnostics with other meters, without the necessity of accessing potentially dangerous bus bars or the like.

  2. PI fussy multimodal controller of programmed gains for the operation in the wide range of a turbo gas unit; Controlador PI difuso multimodo de ganancias programadas para la operacion en rango amplio de una unidad turbogas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez Martinez, Arnulfo A.

    2004-11-15

    In this thesis work it was developed a new control algorithm which merges the characteristics of multimode control, gain scheduling control and fuzzy logic techniques, in order to obtain a control system which gives a better gas turbine speed and load control performance, as compared to the current control systems, which are based on conventional PI control algorithms. This new algorithm is intended to provide a better quality control system, which provides both better disturbance rejection response, as well as better reference tracking response. Switching logic (multimode control) and interpolation strategy (gain scheduling) implementation problems are solved applying fuzzy controllers, which retain the advantages of both strategies for non lineal processes in wide operation regions. Since the controllers implemented by the fuzzy system rules are of the same type (PI, Proportional Integral), the multimode gain scheduling fuzzy controller design was reduced to the design of a gain scheduling fuzzy PI controller (PI-GSF). In order to define the gain scheduling scheme, three well-known gain scheduling fuzzy controller design approaches were analyzed and the interpolation mechanism of each of them were compared. The incorporation of a generalized PI controller structure in the local controllers that conform the PI-GSF (see chapter 4), allowed to generate a better control action for both disturbance rejection and reference tracking. As a final product a PI-GSF controller was obtained, which constitutes a more effective control strategy and showed to be a viable solution to the outlined technological problem. With the PI-GSF controller the speed control performance of the generating unit during startup stage, as well as the load control during the generation stage were considerably improved, as compared to the performance obtained with the conventional PI. [Spanish] En este trabajo de tesis se desarrollo un nuevo algoritmo de control que conjunta las caracteristicas de

  3. Application of the Decomposition Method to the Design Complexity of Computer-based Display

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyoung Ju; Lee, Seung Woo; Seong, Poong Hyun [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jin Kyun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    The importance of the design of human machine interfaces (HMIs) for human performance and safety has long been recognized in process industries. In case of nuclear power plants (NPPs), HMIs have significant implications for the safety of the NPPs since poor implementation of HMIs can impair the operators' information searching ability which is considered as one of the important aspects of human behavior. To support and increase the efficiency of the operators' information searching behavior, advanced HMIs based on computer technology are provided. Operators in advanced main control room (MCR) acquire information through video display units (VDUs), and large display panel (LDP) required for the operation of NPPs. These computer-based displays contain a very large quantity of information and present them in a variety of formats than conventional MCR. For example, these displays contain more elements such as abbreviations, labels, icons, symbols, coding, and highlighting than conventional ones. As computer-based displays contain more information, complexity of the elements becomes greater due to less distinctiveness of each element. A greater understanding is emerging about the effectiveness of designs of computer-based displays, including how distinctively display elements should be designed. And according to Gestalt theory, people tend to group similar elements based on attributes such as shape, color or pattern based on the principle of similarity. Therefore, it is necessary to consider not only human operator's perception but the number of element consisting of computer-based display

  4. Yeast cell surface display for lipase whole cell catalyst and its applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yun; Zhang, Rui; Lian, Zhongshuai; Wang, Shihui; Wright, Aaron T.

    2014-08-01

    The cell surface display technique allows for the expression of target proteins or peptides on the microbial cell surface by fusing an appropriate protein as an anchoring motif. Yeast display systems, such as Pichia pastoris, Yarowia lipolytica and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, are ideal, alternative and extensive display systems with the advantage of simple genetic manipulation and post-translational modification of expressed heterologous proteins. Engineered yeasts show high performance characteristics and variant utilizations. Herein, we comprehensively summarize the variant factors affecting lipase whole cell catalyst activity and display efficiency, including the structure and size of target proteins, screening anchor proteins, type and chain length of linkers, and the appropriate matching rules among the above-mentioned display units. Furthermore, we also address novel approaches to enhance stability and activity of recombinant lipases, such as VHb gene co-expression, multi-enzyme co-display technique, and the micro-environmental interference and self-assembly techniques. Finally, we represent the variety of applications of whole cell surface displayed lipases on yeast cells in non-aqueous phases, including synthesis of esters, PUFA enrichment, resolution of chiral drugs, organic synthesis and biofuels. We demonstrate that the lipase surface display technique is a powerful tool for functionalizing yeasts to serve as whole cell catalysts, and increasing interest is providing an impetus for broad application of this technique.

  5. High Dynamic Range Video

    CERN Document Server

    Myszkowski, Karol

    2008-01-01

    This book presents a complete pipeline forHDR image and video processing fromacquisition, through compression and quality evaluation, to display. At the HDR image and video acquisition stage specialized HDR sensors or multi-exposure techniques suitable for traditional cameras are discussed. Then, we present a practical solution for pixel values calibration in terms of photometric or radiometric quantities, which are required in some technically oriented applications. Also, we cover the problem of efficient image and video compression and encoding either for storage or transmission purposes, in

  6. Investigation of Energy-Efficient Supermarket Display Cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, D.H.

    2005-01-21

    Supermarkets represent one of the largest energy-intensive building groups in the commercial sector, consuming 2 to 3 million kWh/yr per store (ES-1). Over half of this energy use is for the refrigeration of food display cases and storage coolers. Display cases are used throughout a supermarket for the merchandising of perishable food products. The cases are maintained at air temperatures ranging from -10 to 35 F, depending upon the type of product stored. The operating characteristics and energy requirements of the refrigeration system are directly related to the refrigeration load. The sources of the display case refrigeration load consist of: (1) Moist and warm air infiltration through the open front of the case--air curtains are employed to inhibit this infiltration, but some ambient air is entrained, which adds a substantial portion to the refrigeration load. (2) Heat conduction through case panels and walls. (3) Thermal radiation from the ambient to the product and display case interior. (4) Internal thermal loads--the use of lights, evaporator fans, periodic defrosts, and antisweat heaters adds to the refrigeration load of the display case as well as directly consuming electric energy. The impact of each of these elements on the refrigeration load is very dependent upon case type (Figure ES-1). For example, air infiltration is the most significant portion of the refrigeration load for open, multi-deck cases, while radiation is the largest part of the load for tub-type cases. The door anti-sweat heaters represent a major share of the refrigeration load for frozen food door reach-in cases. Figure ES-2 shows the distribution of display cases in a typical supermarket (ES-2). Open, multi-deck, medium temperature display cases typically comprise about half of the refrigerated fixtures in a store (ES-3). In addition, medium temperature fixtures and storage coolers account for roughly 70 to 75 percent of the total store refrigeration load with open, multi-deck cases

  7. Display interface concepts for automated fault diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Michael T.

    1989-01-01

    An effort which investigated concepts for displaying dynamic system status and fault history (propagation) information to the flight crew is described. This investigation was performed by developing several candidate display formats and then conducting comprehension tests to determine those characteristics that made one format preferable to another for presenting this type of information. Twelve subjects participated. Flash tests, or limited time exposure tests, were used to determine the subjects' comprehension of the information presented in the display formats. It was concluded from the results of the comprehension tests that pictographs were more comprehensible than both block diagrams and text for presenting dynamic system status and fault history information, and that pictographs were preferred over both block diagrams and text. It was also concluded that the addition of this type of information in the cockpit would help the crew remain aware of the status of their aircraft.

  8. Interacting on and around Large Displays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Anders

    Over the past two decades, interactions on and around large high-resolution displays have gained increasing levels of attention in research and in practice. This thesis explores and compares interaction techniques for large displays that operate up-close and at a distance. More specifically......, the focus of this thesis is on three aspects of large display interactions: (1) Improved Mid-Air Text Entry; (2) Improved Understanding of Input Modalities; and (3) Extended Boundaries of Interaction. To improve support for mid-air text entry, Paper 1 conducted a design space analysis, and three mid...... for text entry. However, future work could potentially increase text entry rates of the mid-air keyboard by studying and identifying the specific properties that resulted in the performance benefits of the touch-based keyboard. Paper 3 also proposed the Back Of the Hand (BOH) as a novel interaction...

  9. Display design strategy for condition monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulsen, Jette Lundtang

    2002-08-15

    This report describes the development of a strategy for interface design for process plants. The strategy is based on methods from risk analysis to elicit the problems in the plant. In the present work the strategy has been used on a condenser and a high pressure preheater. The test of the strategy in this work focuses on the condition of systems, but could as well focus on functions of the plant. The report further describes from which sources knowledge about the plant can be extracted. A display for supervision of the condenser condition has been tested on a nuclear power plant, a gas fired power plant and the HAMBO simulator(HAMlab BOiling water reactor). A pre-heater display is still under development, but has been tested on a PC display, replaying data collected at the HAMBO simulator. (Author)

  10. Druid, event display for the linear collider

    CERN Document Server

    Ruan, M; Musat, G; Jeans, D; Pande, J

    2013-01-01

    Druid is a dedicated event display designed for the future e +e − linear colliders. Druid takes standard linear collider data files and detector geometry description files as input, it can visualize both physics event and detector geometry. Many displaying options are provided by Druid, giving easy access to different information. As a versatile event display, Druid supports all the latest linear collider detector models, Silicon Detector and International Large Detector, as well as the calorimeter prototypes operated in the CALICE test beam experiments. It has been utilized in many studies such as the verification of detector geometry, analysis of the simulated full events and test beam data as well as reconstruction algorithm development and code debugging.

  11. Characterising laser beams with liquid crystal displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, Angela; Naidoo, Darryl; Forbes, Andrew

    2016-02-01

    We show how one can determine the various properties of light, from the modal content of laser beams to decoding the information stored in optical fields carrying orbital angular momentum, by performing a modal decomposition. Although the modal decomposition of light has been known for a long time, applied mostly to pattern recognition, we illustrate how this technique can be implemented with the use of liquid-crystal displays. We show experimentally how liquid crystal displays can be used to infer the intensity, phase, wavefront, Poynting vector, and orbital angular momentum density of unknown optical fields. This measurement technique makes use of a single spatial light modulator (liquid crystal display), a Fourier transforming lens and detector (CCD or photo-diode). Such a diagnostic tool is extremely relevant to the real-time analysis of solid-state and fibre laser systems as well as mode division multiplexing as an emerging technology in optical communication.

  12. Speckle suppression in scanning laser display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurlov, Victor; Lapchuk, Anatoly; Yun, Sangkyeong; Song, Jonghyeong; Yang, Haengseok

    2008-01-10

    The theory of speckle noise in a scanning beam is presented. The general formulas for the calculation of speckle contrast, which apply to any scanning display, are obtained. It is shown that the main requirement for successful speckle suppression in a scanning display is a narrow autocorrelation peak and low sidelobe level in the autocorrelation function of the complex amplitude distribution across a scanning light beam. The simple formulas for speckle contrast for a beam with a narrow autocorrelation function peak were obtained. It was shown that application of a diffractive optical element (DOE) with a Barker code phase shape could use only natural display scanning motion for speckle suppression. DOE with a Barker code phase shape has a small size and may be deposited on the light modulator inside the depth of the focus of the reflected beam area, and therefore, it does not need an additional image plane and complicated relay optics.

  13. High performance visual display for HENP detectors

    CERN Document Server

    McGuigan, M; Spiletic, J; Fine, V; Nevski, P

    2001-01-01

    A high end visual display for High Energy Nuclear Physics (HENP) detectors is necessary because of the sheer size and complexity of the detector. For BNL this display will be of special interest because of STAR and ATLAS. To load, rotate, query, and debug simulation code with a modern detector simply takes too long even on a powerful work station. To visualize the HENP detectors with maximal performance we have developed software with the following characteristics. We develop a visual display of HENP detectors on BNL multiprocessor visualization server at multiple level of detail. We work with general and generic detector framework consistent with ROOT, GAUDI etc, to avoid conflicting with the many graphic development groups associated with specific detectors like STAR and ATLAS. We develop advanced OpenGL features such as transparency and polarized stereoscopy. We enable collaborative viewing of detector and events by directly running the analysis in BNL stereoscopic theatre. We construct enhanced interactiv...

  14. WISP information display system user's manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alley, P. L.; Smith, G. R.

    1978-01-01

    The wind shears program (WISP) supports the collection of data on magnetic tape for permanent storage or analysis. The document structure provides: (1) the hardware and software configuration required to execute the WISP system and start up procedure from a power down condition; (2) data collection task, calculations performed on the incoming data, and a description of the magnetic tape format; (3) the data display task and examples of displays obtained from execution of the real time simulation program; and (4) the raw data dump task and examples of operator actions required to obtained the desired format. The procedures outlines herein will allow continuous data collection at the expense of real time visual displays.

  15. Software Verification of Orion Cockpit Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, M. A. Rafe; Garcia, Samuel; Prado, Matthew; Hossain, Sadad; Souris, Matthew; Morin, Lee

    2017-01-01

    NASA's latest spacecraft Orion is in the development process of taking humans deeper into space. Orion is equipped with three main displays to monitor and control the spacecraft. To ensure the software behind the glass displays operates without faults, rigorous testing is needed. To conduct such testing, the Rapid Prototyping Lab at NASA's Johnson Space Center along with the University of Texas at Tyler employed a software verification tool, EggPlant Functional by TestPlant. It is an image based test automation tool that allows users to create scripts to verify the functionality within a program. A set of edge key framework and Common EggPlant Functions were developed to enable creation of scripts in an efficient fashion. This framework standardized the way to code and to simulate user inputs in the verification process. Moreover, the Common EggPlant Functions can be used repeatedly in verification of different displays.

  16. Pilot Preferences on Displayed Aircraft Control Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo, Anna C.; Gregory, Irene M.

    2013-01-01

    The experiments described here explored how pilots want available maneuver authority information transmitted and how this information affects pilots before and after an aircraft failure. The aircraft dynamic variables relative to flight performance were narrowed to energy management variables. A survey was conducted to determine what these variables should be. Survey results indicated that bank angle, vertical velocity, and airspeed were the preferred variables. Based on this, two displays were designed to inform the pilot of available maneuver envelope expressed as bank angle, vertical velocity, and airspeed. These displays were used in an experiment involving control surface failures. Results indicate the displayed limitations in bank angle, vertical velocity, and airspeed were helpful to the pilots during aircraft surface failures. However, the additional information did lead to a slight increase in workload, a small decrease in perceived aircraft flying qualities, and no effect on aircraft situation awareness.

  17. Approach of organic light-emitting displays (OLED) to technology status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Gurdial S.; Hopper, Darrel G.

    1998-09-01

    A display is an electronic component or subsystem used to convert electrical signals into visual imagery in real time suitable for direct interpretation by a human observer. Until recently, the cathode ray tube (CRT) has been the main source of displays. During the last twenty years, it has been determined that alternatives to CRT displays need to found. One of the alternatives was the introduction of flat-panel displays. The term 'flat-panel display' is more of a concept than a specific entity. It is a display which is flat and light and may not require a great deal of power. A flat-panel display is often defined in terms of the ideal display, that being: thin form, low volume, even surface, having high resolution, high contrast, sunlight readable, color, low power, and being solid-state, light weight, and low cost. This is easy to conceive but difficult to deliver. The objective is to develop displays with as many desirable characteristics as possible. Flat-panel displays are basically of two types: the light valve type (that needs an external source of light such as a backlight or arc-lamp) and the emissive type (that generate light at the display surface). The light emitting diode (LED) display is of the emissive type. Inorganic LED and electroluminescent (EL) displays have been in use for more than 25 years in one form or the other because of their 'inherent' ruggedness and operation over extremely wide temperature ranges. Because of certain limitations of inorganic materials (such as cost, power, and color), LED displays do not dominate the high information content flat- panel display market. A recent discovery of polymer and other organic materials has changed LED prospects. It may now be possible to make organic LED displays that are inexpensive, low-power, and at the same time provide high resolution and full color. If present research objectives are met, organic LEDs may revolutionize the flat-panel display market. This paper addresses the various aspects

  18. Associations between social media displays and event-specific alcohol consumption by college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Megan A; Kacvinsky, Lauren; Pumper, Megan; Wachowski, Leah; Whitehill, Jennifer M

    2013-12-01

    The Mifflin Street Block Party is a yearly Wisconsin event known for high levels of alcohol consumption and previous negative outcomes. This study investigated displayed Mifflin references on Facebook and their association with alcohol consumption at the block party. Participants included first-year college students who were enrolled in a longitudinal study involving Facebook profile assessments and interviews. We identified a subset of participants who were interviewed within 28 days following the Mifflin St Block Party. Participants were categorized as "Mifflin Displayers" or "Non-displayers" based on Facebook profile content. Interviews included the timeline follow-back method to assess alcohol use in the past 28 days. Analysis included logistic and linear regression. Among the 66 participants included in this study, 45 (68.2%) were female and 38 (50%) were Mifflin Displayers on Facebook. Among the Mifflin Displayer participants, 18 (27.2%) displayed prior to Mifflin, 11 displayed the day of Mifflin (16.7%) and 19 (28.8%) displayed after. Some participants displayed in more than 1 time frame. A total of 40 (60.6%) reported alcohol use on the day of the Mifflin Street Block Party. The mean number of drinks reported on the day of Mifflin was 8.8 (SD = 6.1), with a range of 1 to 35. Displayed references to Mifflin on Facebook were positively associated with reporting alcohol use at Mifflin (OR = 20.9, 95% CI 5.6-78.8). Displaying Facebook references to Mifflin was associated with alcohol consumption on the day of the event. Future prevention efforts could consider creating Facebook advertisements with safety messages triggered by Mifflin displays.

  19. Substring Range Reporting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li

    2011-01-01

    We revisit various string indexing problems with range reporting features, namely, position-restricted substring searching, indexing substrings with gaps, and indexing substrings with intervals. We obtain the following main results. – We give efficient reductions for each of the above problems...... to a new problem, which we call substring range reporting. Hence, we unify the previous work by showing that we may restrict our attention to a single problem rather than studying each of the above problems individually. – We show how to solve substring range reporting with optimal query time and little...... range reporting are based on a novel combination of suffix trees and range reporting data structures. The reductions are simple and general and may apply to other combinations of string indexing with range reporting....

  20. Predicted Weather Display and Decision Support Interface for Flight Deck

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Walter W. (Inventor); Wong, Dominic G. (Inventor); Wu, Shu-Chieh (Inventor); Koteskey, Robert W. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    A system and method for providing visual depictions of a predictive weather forecast for in-route vehicle trajectory planning. The method includes displaying weather information on a graphical display, displaying vehicle position information on the graphical display, selecting a predictive interval, displaying predictive weather information for the predictive interval on the graphical display, and displaying predictive vehicle position information for the predictive interval on the graphical display, such that the predictive vehicle position information is displayed relative to the predictive weather information, for in-route trajectory planning.

  1. Interpretation and display of research results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilip Kumar Kulkarni

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It important to properly collect, code, clean and edit the data before interpreting and displaying the research results. Computers play a major role in different phases of research starting from conceptual, design and planning, data collection, data analysis and research publication phases. The main objective of data display is to summarize the characteristics of a data and to make the data more comprehensible and meaningful. Usually data is presented depending upon the type of data in different tables and graphs. This will enable not only to understand the data behaviour, but also useful in choosing the different statistical tests to be applied.

  2. A Laboratory-Based Course in Display Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarik, J.; Akinwande, A. I.; Kymissis, I.

    2011-01-01

    A laboratory-based class in flat-panel display technology is presented. The course introduces fundamental concepts of display systems and reinforces these concepts through the fabrication of three display devices--an inorganic electroluminescent seven-segment display, a dot-matrix organic light-emitting diode (OLED) display, and a dot-matrix…

  3. 21 CFR 701.10 - Principal display panel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Principal display panel. 701.10 Section 701.10...) COSMETICS COSMETIC LABELING Package Form § 701.10 Principal display panel. The term principal display panel... is most likely to be displayed, presented, shown, or examined under customary conditions of display...

  4. Compact Antenna Range

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Facility consists of a folded compact antenna range including a computer controlled three axis position table, parabolic reflector and RF sources for the measurement...

  5. Dryden Aeronautical Test Range

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Recently redesignated to honor Dr. Hugh L. Dryden, NASA's Dryden Aeronautical Test Range (DATR) supports aerospace flight research and technology integration, space...

  6. Quality Model of Foodstuff in a Refrigerated Display Cabinet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cai, Junping; Risum, Jørgen; Thybo, Claus

    2006-01-01

    Commercial refrigerating systems need to be defrosted regularly to maintain a satisfactory performance. When defrosting the evaporator coil, the air temperature inside the display cabinet will increase, and float outside the normal temperature range for a period of time, the question is what...... happens to the food inside during this period, when we look at the quality factor? This paper discusses quality model of foodstuff, different scenarios of defrost scheme are simulated, questions such as how the defrost temperature and duration influence the food temperature, thus the food quality, as well...

  7. United States Interagency Elevation Inventory (USIEI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. Interagency Elevation Inventory displays high-accuracy topographic and bathymetric data for the United States and its territories. The project is a...

  8. On Range of Skill

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas Dueholm; Miltersen, Peter Bro; Sørensen, Troels Bjerre

    2008-01-01

    size (and doubly exponential in its depth). We also provide techniques that yield concrete bounds for unbalanced game trees and apply these to estimate the Range of Skill of Tic-Tac-Toe and Heads-Up Limit Texas Hold'em Poker. In particular, we show that the Range of Skill of Tic-Tac-Toe is more than...

  9. Positive display polarity is particularly advantageous for small character sizes: implications for display design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piepenbrock, Cosima; Mayr, Susanne; Buchner, Axel

    2014-08-01

    To test the display luminance hypothesis of the positive polarity advantage and gain insights for display design, the joint effects of display polarity and character size were assessed with a proofreading task Studies have shown that dark characters on light background (positive polarity) lead to better legibility than do light characters on dark background (negative polarity), presumably due to the typically higher display luminance of positive polarity presentations. Participants performed a proofreading task with black text on white background or white text on black background. Texts were presented in four character sizes (8, 10, 12, and 14 pt; corresponding to 0.22 degrees, 0.25 degrees, 0.31 degrees, and 0.34 degrees of vertical visual angle). A positive polarity advantage was observed in proofreading performance. Importantly, the positive polarity advantage linearly increased with decreasing character size. The findings are in line with the assumption that the typically higher luminance of positive polarity displays leads to an improved perception of detail. Application: The implications seem important for the design of text on such displays as those of computers, automotive control and entertainment systems, and smartphones that are increasingly used for the consumption of text-based media and communication. The sizes of these displays are limited, and it is tempting to use small font sizes to convey as much information as possible. Especially with small font sizes, negative polarity displays should be avoided.

  10. Home range and travels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickel, L.F.; King, John A.

    1968-01-01

    The concept of home range was expressed by Seton (1909) in the term 'home region,' which Burr (1940, 1943) clarified with a definition of home range and exemplified in a definitive study of Peromyscus in the field. Burt pointed out the ever-changing characteristics of home-range area and the consequent absence of boundaries in the usual sense--a finding verified by investigators thereafter. In the studies summarized in this paper, sizes of home ranges of Peromyscus varied within two magnitudes, approximately from 0.1 acre to ten acres, in 34 studies conducted in a variety of habitats from the seaside dunes of Florida to the Alaskan forests. Variation in sizes of home ranges was correlated with both environmental and physiological factors; with habitat it was conspicuous, both in the same and different regions. Food supply also was related to size of home range, both seasonally and in relation to habitat. Home ranges generally were smallest in winter and largest in spring, at the onset of the breeding season. Activity and size also were affected by changes in weather. Activity was least when temperatures were low and nights were bright. Effects of rainfall were variable. Sizes varied according to sex and age; young mice remained in the parents' range until they approached maturity, when they began to travel more widely. Adult males commonly had larger home ranges than females, although there were a number of exceptions. An inverse relationship between population density and size of home range was shown in several studies and probably is the usual relationship. A basic need for activity and exploration also appeared to influence size of home range. Behavior within the home range was discussed in terms of travel patterns, travels in relation to home sites and refuges, territory, and stability of size of home range. Travels within the home range consisted of repeated use of well-worn trails to sites of food, shelter, and refuge, plus more random exploratory travels

  11. Submissive display in young helmeted guineafowl

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1984-06-04

    Jun 4, 1984 ... guardian lightly on the breast and to crawl under the guar- dian (Figure Ib). The reaction of the guardian is often ag- gressive e.g. pecking, trampling and dart chases; but these do not deter the chick. Submissive display may also be given after the guardian or a senior member has threatened the.

  12. Supramolecular liquid crystal displays : construction and applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogboom, Joannes Theodorus Valentinus

    2004-01-01

    This thesis describes chemical methodologies, which can be ued to construct alignment layers for liquid crystal display purposes in a non-clean room environment, by making use of supramolecular chemistry. These techniques are subsequently used to attain control over LCD-properties, both pre- and

  13. Image display device in digital TV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Seung Jong

    2006-07-18

    Disclosed is an image display device in a digital TV that is capable of carrying out the conversion into various kinds of resolution by using single bit map data in the digital TV. The image display device includes: a data processing part for executing bit map conversion, compression, restoration and format-conversion for text data; a memory for storing the bit map data obtained according to the bit map conversion and compression in the data processing part and image data inputted from an arbitrary receiving part, the receiving part receiving one of digital image data and analog image data; an image outputting part for reading the image data from the memory; and a display processing part for mixing the image data read from the image outputting part and the bit map data converted in format from the a data processing part. Therefore, the image display device according to the present invention can convert text data in such a manner as to correspond with various resolution, carry out the compression for bit map data, thereby reducing the memory space, and support text data of an HTML format, thereby providing the image with the text data of various shapes.

  14. A Conceptual Framework for Ambient Learning Displays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Börner, Dirk; Kalz, Marco; Specht, Marcus

    2010-01-01

    Börner, D., Kalz, M., & Specht, M. (2010). A Conceptual Framework for Ambient Learning Displays. In B. Chang, T. Hirashima, & H. Ogata (Eds.), Joint Proceedings of the Work-in-Progress Poster and Invited Young Researcher Symposium for the 18th International Conference on Computers in Education (pp.

  15. Appliance Displays: Accessibility Challenges and Proposed Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusco, Giovanni; Tekin, Ender; Giudice, Nicholas A; Coughlan, James M

    2015-10-01

    People who are blind or visually impaired face difficulties using a growing array of everyday appliances because they are equipped with inaccessible electronic displays. We report developments on our "Display Reader" smartphone app, which uses computer vision to help a user acquire a usable image of a display and have the contents read aloud, to address this problem. Drawing on feedback from past and new studies with visually impaired volunteer participants, as well as from blind accessibility experts, we have improved and simplified our user interface and have also added the ability to read seven-segment digit displays. Our system works fully automatically and in real time, and we compare it with general-purpose assistive apps such as Be My Eyes, which recruit remote sighted assistants (RSAs) to answer questions about video captured by the user. Our discussions and preliminary experiment highlight the advantages and disadvantages of fully automatic approaches compared with RSAs, and suggest possible hybrid approaches to investigate in the future.

  16. Effects Of Frame Rates In Video Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellogg, Gary V.; Wagner, Charles A.

    1991-01-01

    Report describes experiment on subjective effects of rates at which display on cathode-ray tube in flight simulator updated and refreshed. Conducted to learn more about jumping, blurring, flickering, and multiple lines that observer perceives when line moves at high speed across screen of a calligraphic CRT.

  17. A Conceptual Framework for Ambient Learning Displays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Börner, Dirk; Kalz, Marco; Specht, Marcus

    2011-01-01

    Börner, D., Kalz, M., & Specht, M. (2010, 29 November-3 December). A Conceptual Framework for Ambient Learning Displays. Poster presented at the Work-in-Progress Poster and Invited Young Researcher Symposium of the 18th International Conference on Computers in Education, Putrajaya, Malaysia:

  18. Computer based human-centered display system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Still, David L. (Inventor); Temme, Leonard A. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A human centered informational display is disclosed that can be used with vehicles (e.g. aircraft) and in other operational environments where rapid human centered comprehension of an operational environment is required. The informational display integrates all cockpit information into a single display in such a way that the pilot can clearly understand with a glance, his or her spatial orientation, flight performance, engine status and power management issues, radio aids, and the location of other air traffic, runways, weather, and terrain features. With OZ the information is presented as an integrated whole, the pilot instantaneously recognizes flight path deviations, and is instinctively drawn to the corrective maneuvers. Our laboratory studies indicate that OZ transfers to the pilot all of the integrated display information in less than 200 milliseconds. The reacquisition of scan can be accomplished just as quickly. Thus, the time constants for forming a mental model are near instantaneous. The pilot's ability to keep up with rapidly changing and threatening environments is tremendously enhanced. OZ is most easily compatible with aircraft that has flight path information coded electronically. With the correct sensors (which are currently available) OZ can be installed in essentially all current aircraft.

  19. Market trends in the projection display industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, Sweta

    2000-04-01

    The projection display industry represents a multibillion- dollar market that includes four distinct technologies. High-volume consumer products and high-value business products drive the market, with different technologies being used in different application markets. The consumer market is dominated by rear CRT technology, especially in the projection television segment. But rear LCD (liquid crystal display) and rear reflective (DLP, or Digital Light ProcessingTM) televisions are slowly emerging as future competitors to rear CRT projectors. Front CRT projectors are still popular in the high-end home theater market. Front LCD technology and front DLP technology dominate the business market. Traditional light valve technology was the only solution for applications requiring high light outputs, but new three-chip DLP projectors meet the higher light output requirements at a lower price. In the last few years the strongest growth has been in the business market for multimedia presentation applications. This growth was due to the continued increase in display pixel formats, the continued reduction in projector weight, and the improved price/performance ratio. The projection display market will grow at a significant rate during the next five years, driven by the growth in ultraportable (market to digital and HDTV products.

  20. Display-And-Alarm Circuit For Accelerometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozeman, Richard J., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Compact accelerometer assembly consists of commercial accelerometer retrofit with display-and-alarm circuit. Provides simple means for technician attending machine to monitor vibrations. Also simpifies automatic safety shutdown by providing local alarm or shutdown signal when vibration exceeds preset level.

  1. Count on It: Congruent Manipulative Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Joe; Samelson, Vicki M.

    2015-01-01

    Representations that create informative visual displays are powerful tools for communicating mathematical concepts. The National Council of Teachers of Mathematics encourages the use of manipulatives (NCTM 2000). Manipulative materials are often used to present initial representations of basic numerical principles to young children, and it is…

  2. 2K radiological image display station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Shyhliang A.; Huang, H. K.; Taira, Ricky K.; Breant, Claudine M.

    1993-09-01

    We intend to design a 2K display station which can be used in most of the radiology sections. This paper describes how we collected the basic viewing requirements and defined the criteria for designing the 2K display station. Based on the design criteria, hardware components are selected and software modules are implemented. The hardware components in the display station consist of a SUN 470 computer, two 21' diagonal 2K MegaScan monitors, and a 2.6- Gbyte formatted storage concepts parallel transfer disk. The software modules include a communication software module, a local database module, a local storage management module, and an image display module. The station provides features such as dual-cine, region- of-interest, caliper measurement, image retrieval, and diagnostic report. Four stations have been used in genitourinary radiology, pediatric radiology in-patient and out-patient, and neuroradiology since January 1992. The stations are used for morning and afternoon radiology rounds and frequently for consultations between radiologists and clinicians.

  3. Presenting directions with a vibrotactile torso display

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erp, J.B.F. van

    2005-01-01

    Vibrotactile displays covering the torso present spatial information in an intuitive way since the stimuli are directly mapped to the body coordinates; left is left, front is front, etc. The present study investigated the direction in the horizontal plane to which a specific torso location is mapped

  4. 27 CFR 6.83 - Product displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... industry member of giving or selling product displays to a retailer does not constitute a means to induce... (c) of this section are met. (b) Definition. “Product display” means any wine racks, bins, barrels... industry member under paragraph (a) of this section may not exceed $300 per brand at any one time in any...

  5. Advanced manufacturing technologies on color plasma displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betsui, Keiichi

    2000-06-01

    The mass production of the color plasma display started from 1996. However, since the price of the panel is still expensive, PDPs are not in widespread use at home. It is necessary to develop the new and low-cost manufacturing technologies to reduce the price of the panel. This paper describes some of the features of new fabrication technologies of PDPs.

  6. Advanced Three-Dimensional Display System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Jason

    2005-01-01

    A desktop-scale, computer-controlled display system, initially developed for NASA and now known as the VolumeViewer(TradeMark), generates three-dimensional (3D) images of 3D objects in a display volume. This system differs fundamentally from stereoscopic and holographic display systems: The images generated by this system are truly 3D in that they can be viewed from almost any angle, without the aid of special eyeglasses. It is possible to walk around the system while gazing at its display volume to see a displayed object from a changing perspective, and multiple observers standing at different positions around the display can view the object simultaneously from their individual perspectives, as though the displayed object were a real 3D object. At the time of writing this article, only partial information on the design and principle of operation of the system was available. It is known that the system includes a high-speed, silicon-backplane, ferroelectric-liquid-crystal spatial light modulator (SLM), multiple high-power lasers for projecting images in multiple colors, a rotating helix that serves as a moving screen for displaying voxels [volume cells or volume elements, in analogy to pixels (picture cells or picture elements) in two-dimensional (2D) images], and a host computer. The rotating helix and its motor drive are the only moving parts. Under control by the host computer, a stream of 2D image patterns is generated on the SLM and projected through optics onto the surface of the rotating helix. The system utilizes a parallel pixel/voxel-addressing scheme: All the pixels of the 2D pattern on the SLM are addressed simultaneously by laser beams. This parallel addressing scheme overcomes the difficulty of achieving both high resolution and a high frame rate in a raster scanning or serial addressing scheme. It has been reported that the structure of the system is simple and easy to build, that the optical design and alignment are not difficult, and that the

  7. Spatial constraints of stereopsis in video displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schor, Clifton

    1989-01-01

    Recent development in video technology, such as the liquid crystal displays and shutters, have made it feasible to incorporate stereoscopic depth into the 3-D representations on 2-D displays. However, depth has already been vividly portrayed in video displays without stereopsis using the classical artists' depth cues described by Helmholtz (1866) and the dynamic depth cues described in detail by Ittleson (1952). Successful static depth cues include overlap, size, linear perspective, texture gradients, and shading. Effective dynamic cues include looming (Regan and Beverly, 1979) and motion parallax (Rogers and Graham, 1982). Stereoscopic depth is superior to the monocular distance cues under certain circumstances. It is most useful at portraying depth intervals as small as 5 to 10 arc secs. For this reason it is extremely useful in user-video interactions such as telepresence. Objects can be manipulated in 3-D space, for example, while a person who controls the operations views a virtual image of the manipulated object on a remote 2-D video display. Stereopsis also provides structure and form information in camouflaged surfaces such as tree foliage. Motion parallax also reveals form; however, without other monocular cues such as overlap, motion parallax can yield an ambiguous perception. For example, a turning sphere, portrayed as solid by parallax can appear to rotate either leftward or rightward. However, only one direction of rotation is perceived when stereo-depth is included. If the scene is static, then stereopsis is the principal cue for revealing the camouflaged surface structure. Finally, dynamic stereopsis provides information about the direction of motion in depth (Regan and Beverly, 1979). Clearly there are many spatial constraints, including spatial frequency content, retinal eccentricity, exposure duration, target spacing, and disparity gradient, which - when properly adjusted - can greatly enhance stereodepth in video displays.

  8. High efficiency organic light-emitting display using selective spectral photo-recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eunjung; Song, Jang-Kun

    2012-11-01

    Here, we introduce a selective photo-recycling scheme for organic light-emitting diode (OLED) displays. The conventional photo-recycling method, which uses a recycling film named DBEF, diminishes the ambient contrast ratio of the OLED display, so it is not suitable for display applications. The selective recycling scheme, which uses a cholesteric liquid crystal (CLC) layer that recycles light only in a specific spectral range, can minimize the deterioration of the ambient contrast ratio while improving the photo-efficiency. We found that the aperture ratio of the OLED display influences the recycling efficiency significantly, and that a thin CLC layer diminishes the ambient contrast ratio less than a thick CLC layer while it still recycles the emitted light. By recycling the blue spectral range, one can improve the lifetime of blue OLE material, which has the shortest lifetime, or reduce the size of the blue pixel, which has the largest size among red, green, and blue pixels.

  9. Deep sequencing of phage-displayed peptide libraries reveals sequence motif that detects norovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurwitz, Amy M; Huang, Wanzhi; Estes, Mary K; Atmar, Robert L; Palzkill, Timothy

    2017-02-01

    Norovirus infections are the leading cause of non-bacterial gastroenteritis and result in about 21 million new cases and $2 billion in costs per year in the United States. Existing diagnostics have limited feasibility for point-of-care applications, so there is a clear need for more reliable, rapid, and simple-to-use diagnostic tools in order to contain outbreaks and prevent inappropriate treatments. In this study, a combination of phage display technology, deep sequencing and computational analysis was used to identify 12-mer peptides with specific binding to norovirus genotype GI.1 virus-like particles (VLPs). After biopanning, phage populations were sequenced and analyzed to identify a consensus peptide motif-YRSWXP. Two 12-mer peptides containing this sequence, NV-O-R5-3 and NV-O-R5-6, were further characterized to evaluate the motif's functional ability to detect VLPs and virus. Results indicated that these peptides effectively detect GI.1 VLPs in solid-phase peptide arrays, ELISAs and dot blots. Further, their specificity for the S-domain of the major capsid protein enables them to detect a wide range of GI and GII norovirus genotypes. Both peptides were able to detect virus in norovirus-positive clinical stool samples. Overall, the work reported here demonstrates the application of phage display coupled with next generation sequencing and computational analysis to uncover peptides with specific binding ability to a target protein for diagnostic applications. Further, the reagents characterized here can be integrated into existing diagnostic formats to detect clinically relevant genotypes of norovirus in stool. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Deep sequencing of phage-displayed peptide libraries reveals sequence motif that detects norovirus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurwitz, Amy M.; Huang, Wanzhi; Estes, Mary K.; Atmar, Robert L.; Palzkill, Timothy

    2017-01-01

    Norovirus infections are the leading cause of non-bacterial gastroenteritis and result in about 21 million new cases and $2 billion in costs per year in the United States. Existing diagnostics have limited feasibility for point-of-care applications, so there is a clear need for more reliable, rapid, and simple-to-use diagnostic tools in order to contain outbreaks and prevent inappropriate treatments. In this study, a combination of phage display technology, deep sequencing and computational analysis was used to identify 12-mer peptides with specific binding to norovirus genotype GI.1 virus-like particles (VLPs). After biopanning, phage populations were sequenced and analyzed to identify a consensus peptide motif—YRSWXP. Two 12-mer peptides containing this sequence, NV-O-R5-3 and NV-O-R5-6, were further characterized to evaluate the motif's functional ability to detect VLPs and virus. Results indicated that these peptides effectively detect GI.1 VLPs in solid-phase peptide arrays, ELISAs and dot blots. Further, their specificity for the S-domain of the major capsid protein enables them to detect a wide range of GI and GII norovirus genotypes. Both peptides were able to detect virus in norovirus-positive clinical stool samples. Overall, the work reported here demonstrates the application of phage display coupled with next generation sequencing and computational analysis to uncover peptides with specific binding ability to a target protein for diagnostic applications. Further, the reagents characterized here can be integrated into existing diagnostic formats to detect clinically relevant genotypes of norovirus in stool. PMID:28035012

  11. 360  deg full-parallax light-field display using panoramic camera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Chen; Zhou, Xinxin; Li, Haifeng; Yang, Qing; Wang, Zhechao; Liu, Xu

    2016-06-10

    One of the common approaches to achieving vertical parallax for the horizontal-parallax-only light-field display is to introduce the viewer-tracking method. A panoramic camera is assembled in a 360 deg scanning light-field display system for the full-parallax demand in this study, wherein the image generation algorithm is improved to be sensitive to multiple viewer positions, and the tracking and rendering are processed in real time. The horizontal-parallax-only light-field display using a panoramic camera is determined to be able to achieve smooth and consecutive full-parallax performance for multiple viewers in a 360 deg range.

  12. Tonopah Test Range Post-Closure Inspection Annual Report, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, Calendar Year 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office; Bechtel Nevada

    2004-04-01

    This post-closure inspection report provides documentation of the semiannual inspection activities, maintenance and repair activities, and conclusions and recommendations for calendar year 2003 for eight corrective action units located on the Tonopah Test Range, Nevada.

  13. The psychology of computer displays in the modern mission control center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granaas, Michael M.; Rhea, Donald C.

    1988-01-01

    Work at NASA's Western Aeronautical Test Range (WATR) has demonstrated the need for increased consideration of psychological factors in the design of computer displays for the WATR mission control center. These factors include color perception, memory load, and cognitive processing abilities. A review of relevant work in the human factors psychology area is provided to demonstrate the need for this awareness. The information provided should be relevant in control room settings where computerized displays are being used.

  14. Biogeography predicts macro-evolutionary patterning of gestural display complexity in a passerine family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Meredith C; Cheng, Samantha; Fuxjager, Matthew J

    2017-05-01

    Gestural displays are incorporated into the signaling repertoire of numerous animal species. These displays range from complex signals that involve impressive and challenging maneuvers, to simpler displays or no gesture at all. The factors that drive this evolution remain largely unclear, and we therefore investigate this issue in New World blackbirds by testing how factors related to a species' geographical distribution and social mating system predict macro-evolutionary patterns of display elaboration. We report that species inhabiting temperate regions produce more complex displays than species living in tropical regions, and we attribute this to (i) ecological factors that increase the competitiveness of the social environment in temperate regions, and (ii) different evolutionary and geological contexts under which species in temperate and tropical regions evolved. Meanwhile, we find no evidence that social mating system predicts species differences in display complexity, which is consistent with the idea that gestural displays evolve independently of social mating system. Together, these results offer some of the first insight into the role played by geographic factors and evolutionary context in the evolution of the remarkable physical displays of birds and other vertebrates. © 2017 The Author(s). Evolution published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  15. Development and Demonstration of a Prototype Free Flight Cockpit Display of Traffic Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Walter W.; Battiste, Vernol; Delzell, Susanne; Holland, Sheila; Belcher, Sean; Jordan, Kevin

    2003-01-01

    Two versions of a prototype Free Flight cockpit situational display (Basic and Enhanced) were examined in a simulation at the NASA Ames Research Center. Both displays presented a display of traffic out to a range of 120 NM, and an alert when the automation detected a substantial danger of losing separation with another aircraft. The task for the crews was to detect and resolve threats to separation posed by intruder aircraft. An Enhanced version of the display was also examined. It incorporated two additional conflict alerting levels and tools to aid in trajectory prediction and path planning. Ten crews from a major airline participated in the study. Performance analyses and pilot debriefings showed that the Enhanced display was preferred, and that minimal separation between the intruder and the ownship was larger with the Enhanced display. In addition, the additional information on the Enhanced display did not lead crews to engage in more maneuvering. Instead an opposite trend was indicated. Finally, crews using the Enhanced display responded more proactively, tending to resolve alerts earlier.

  16. The display of molecular models with the Ames Interactive Modeling System (AIMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egan, J. T.; Hart, J.; Burt, S. K.; Macelroy, R. D.

    1982-01-01

    A visualization of molecular models can lead to a clearer understanding of the models. Sophisticated graphics devices supported by minicomputers make it possible for the chemist to interact with the display of a very large model, altering its structure. In addition to user interaction, the need arises also for other ways of displaying information. These include the production of viewgraphs, film presentation, as well as publication quality prints of various models. To satisfy these needs, the display capability of the Ames Interactive Modeling System (AIMS) has been enhanced to provide a wide range of graphics and plotting capabilities. Attention is given to an overview of the AIMS system, graphics hardware used by the AIMS display subsystem, a comparison of graphics hardware, the representation of molecular models, graphics software used by the AIMS display subsystem, the display of a model obtained from data stored in molecule data base, a graphics feature for obtaining single frame permanent copy displays, and a feature for producing multiple frame displays.

  17. Biogeography predicts macro‐evolutionary patterning of gestural display complexity in a passerine family

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Meredith C.; Cheng, Samantha; Fuxjager, Matthew J.

    2017-01-01

    Gestural displays are incorporated into the signaling repertoire of numerous animal species. These displays range from complex signals that involve impressive and challenging maneuvers, to simpler displays or no gesture at all. The factors that drive this evolution remain largely unclear, and we therefore investigate this issue in New World blackbirds by testing how factors related to a species’ geographical distribution and social mating system predict macro‐evolutionary patterns of display elaboration. We report that species inhabiting temperate regions produce more complex displays than species living in tropical regions, and we attribute this to (i) ecological factors that increase the competitiveness of the social environment in temperate regions, and (ii) different evolutionary and geological contexts under which species in temperate and tropical regions evolved. Meanwhile, we find no evidence that social mating system predicts species differences in display complexity, which is consistent with the idea that gestural displays evolve independently of social mating system. Together, these results offer some of the first insight into the role played by geographic factors and evolutionary context in the evolution of the remarkable physical displays of birds and other vertebrates. PMID:28240772

  18. Long range image enhancement

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Duvenhage, B

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available and Vision Computing, Auckland, New Zealand, 23-24 November 2015 Long Range Image Enhancement Bernardt Duvenhage Council for Scientific and Industrial Research South Africa Email: bduvenhage@csir.co.za Abstract Turbulent pockets of air...

  19. SNOWY RANGE WILDERNESS, WYOMING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, Robert S.; Bigsby, Philip R.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral survey of the Snowy Range Wilderness in Wyoming was undertaken and was followed up with more detailed geologic and geochemical surveys, culminating in diamond drilling of one hole in the Snowy Range Wilderness. No mineral deposits were identified in the Snowy Range Wilderness, but inasmuch as low-grade uranium and associated gold resources were identified in rocks similar to those of the northern Snowy Range Wilderness in an area about 5 mi northeast of the wilderness boundary, the authors conclude that the northern half of the wilderness has a probable-resource potential for uranium and gold. Closely spaced drilling would be required to completely evaluate this mineral potential. The geologic terrane precludes the occurrence of fossil fuels.

  20. Atlantic Test Range (ATR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — ATR controls fully-instrumented and integrated test ranges that provide full-service support for cradle-to-grave testing. Airspace and surface target areas are used...

  1. Light Detection And Ranging

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) discrete-return point cloud data are available in the American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (ASPRS) LAS format....

  2. When Heterosexuality is Questioned: Stifling Suspicion Through Public Displays of Heterosexual Identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis-Delano, Laurel R; Morgan, Elizabeth M; Gillard, Ann; Davis, Coralynn V

    2017-10-02

    This study examined public heterosexual identity management practices of heterosexual-identified young adults in the United States. Analysis of 415 participants' written narratives indicated that 41% (n = 169) described consciously engaging in public displays of their heterosexual status in relation to suspicion about their sexual orientation. This article describes our findings regarding five aspects of these narratives of suspicion: types of suspicion, causes of suspicion, reasons for concern about suspicion, the types of public displays of heterosexual status employed to quell suspicion, and intended audiences for these displays. Overall, the results indicated that heterosexual identity suspicion is multifaceted, this suspicion serves as a catalyst for public displays of heterosexual status, and the climate of suspicion described by our participants reflects and reinforces contemporary heterosexism.

  3. Optimal front light design for reflective displays under different ambient illumination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sheng-Po; Chang, Ting-Ting; Li, Chien-Ju; Bai, Yi-Ho; Hu, Kuo-Jui

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this study is to find out the optimal luminance and color temperature of front light for reflective displays in different ambient illumination by conducting series of psychophysical experiments. A color and brightness tunable front light device with ten LED units was built and been calibrated to present 256 luminance levels and 13 different color temperature at fixed luminance of 200 cd/m2. The experiment results revealed the best luminance and color temperature settings for human observers under different ambient illuminant, which could also assist the e-paper manufacturers to design front light device, and present the best image quality on reflective displays. Furthermore, a similar experiment procedure was conducted by utilizing new flexible e-signage display developed by ITRI and an optimal front light device for the new display panel has been designed and utilized.

  4. The application of autostereoscopic display in smart home system based on mobile devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yongjun; Ling, Zhi

    2015-03-01

    Smart home is a system to control home devices which are more and more popular in our daily life. Mobile intelligent terminals based on smart homes have been developed, make remote controlling and monitoring possible with smartphones or tablets. On the other hand, 3D stereo display technology developed rapidly in recent years. Therefore, a iPad-based smart home system adopts autostereoscopic display as the control interface is proposed to improve the userfriendliness of using experiences. In consideration of iPad's limited hardware capabilities, we introduced a 3D image synthesizing method based on parallel processing with Graphic Processing Unit (GPU) implemented it with OpenGL ES Application Programming Interface (API) library on IOS platforms for real-time autostereoscopic displaying. Compared to the traditional smart home system, the proposed system applied autostereoscopic display into smart home system's control interface enhanced the reality, user-friendliness and visual comfort of interface.

  5. On Range of Skill

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas Dueholm; Miltersen, Peter Bro; Sørensen, Troels Bjerre

    2008-01-01

    is a small number, but only gave heuristic arguments for this. In this paper, we provide the first methods for rigorously estimating the Range of Skill of a given game. We provide some general, asymptotic bounds that imply that the Range of Skill of a perfectly balanced game tree is almost exponential in its......At AAAI'07, Zinkevich, Bowling and Burch introduced the Range of Skill measure of a two-player game and used it as a parameter in the analysis of the running time of an algorithm for finding approximate solutions to such games. They suggested that the Range of Skill of a typical natural game...... size (and doubly exponential in its depth). We also provide techniques that yield concrete bounds for unbalanced game trees and apply these to estimate the Range of Skill of Tic-Tac-Toe and Heads-Up Limit Texas Hold'em Poker. In particular, we show that the Range of Skill of Tic-Tac-Toe is more than...

  6. The effect of configural displays on pilot situation awareness in helmet-mounted displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Joseph Christopher

    The current research utilized configural displays within the domain of aviation to assess what design features of configural displays contribute to the formation of operator situation awareness (SA). Configural displays map system information relevant to operator goals onto geometric shapes called emergent features. An emergent feature is formed from the combination of individual line segments to produce a global feature more perceptually salient and recognized sooner than the individual parts themselves. Configural displays have been shown in previous research to provide better operator performance for integration tasks where multiple pieces of information must be considered at once, yet the design aspects of configural displays that impact the formation of operator SA have yet to be determined. The current research compared the design features of three aviation configural displays over four experiments to quantify what aspects of configural displays would impact operator SA. The research sought to determine whether the simple act of representing system information in configural displays using emergent features is sufficient for facilitating operator SA or do other design factors need to be considered? Operator SA was assessed using explicit and implicit measures of SA from operator task performance in addition to a subjective SA rating scale. The recognition of aircraft attitude (climb/dive flight angles) when briefly presented to pilots in Experiment 1 revealed significant performance differences for the Arc Segment Attitude Reference (ASAR) configural display which mapped aircraft attitude information onto a circular shape versus the traditional aircraft head-up display (HUD) ladder found in the Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) HUD and Dual-Articulated (DA) HUD. The current research in Experiment 1 provides evidence that configural displays such as the ASAR that utilize emergent features well mapped to fully relate the information needed for a task will facilitate

  7. Super high precision 200 ppi liquid crystal display series; Chokoseido 200 ppi ekisho display series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    In mobile equipment, in demand is a high precision liquid crystal display (LCD) having the power of expression equivalent to printed materials like magazines because of the necessity of displaying a large amount of information on a easily potable small screen. In addition, with the spread and high-quality image of digital still cameras, it is strongly desired to display photographed digital image data in high quality. Toshiba Corp., by low temperature polysilicone (p-Si) technology, commercialized the liquid crystal display series of 200 ppi (pixels per inch) precision dealing with the rise of the high-precision high-image quality LCD market. The super high precision of 200 ppi enables the display of smooth beautiful animation comparable to printed sheets of magazines and photographs. The display series are suitable for the display of various information services such as electronic books and electronic photo-viewers including internet. The screen sizes lined up are No. 4 type VGA (640x480 pixels) of a small pocket notebook size and No. 6.3 type XGA (1,024x768 pixels) of a paperback size, with a larger screen to be furthered. (translated by NEDO)

  8. 75 FR 1080 - Certain Automotive Multimedia Display and Navigation Systems, Components Thereof, and Products...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-08

    ... [Federal Register Volume 75, Number 5 (Friday, January 8, 2010)] [Notices] [Pages 1080-1081] [FR Doc No: 2010-89] INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 337-TA-657] Certain Automotive..., and sale within the United States after importation of certain automotive multimedia display and...

  9. Proposed Continental Operations Range. United States Air Force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-06-01

    data on the sources and amounts of persona ! Income. la addition, the even numbered tables In Appendix H indicate the doninant "Industries" throu41h the...specialist suggested any potential impact on ATC. He felt that ATC controller workload, and communications frequency con- gestion , would be increased

  10. Rats display a robust bimodal preference profile for sucralose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loney, Gregory C; Torregrossa, Ann-Marie; Smith, James C; Sclafani, Anthony; Eckel, Lisa A

    2011-10-01

    Female Sprague-Dawley rats display considerable variability in their preference for the artificial sweetener sucralose over water. While some rats can be classified as sucralose preferrers (SP), as they prefer sucralose across a broad range of concentrations, others can be classified as sucralose avoiders (SA), as they avoid sucralose at concentrations above 0.1 g/L. Here, we expand on a previous report of this phenomenon by demonstrating, in a series of 2-bottle 24-h preference tests involving water and an ascending series of sucralose concentrations, that this variability in sucralose preference is robust across sex, stage of the estrous cycle, and 2 rat strains (Long-Evans and Sprague-Dawley). In a second experiment involving a large sample of rats (n = 50), we established that the ratio of SP to SA is approximately 35-65%. This bimodal behavioral response to sucralose appears to be driven by taste because rats display a similar bimodal licking response to a range of sucralose solutions presented during brief-access tests. Finally, we have shown that sucralose avoidance is extremely robust as 23-h water-deprived SA continue to avoid sucralose in 1-h single-bottle intake tests. Based on their reduced licking responses to sucralose during brief-access (taste driven) tests, and the fact that their distaste for sucralose cannot be overcome by the motivation to rehydrate, we conclude that SA detect a negative taste quality of sucralose that SP are relatively insensitive to.

  11. Reactions of Air Transport Flight Crews to Displays of Weather During Simulated Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliss, James P.; Fallon, Corey; Bustamante, Ernesto; Bailey, William R., III; Anderson, Brittany

    2005-01-01

    Display of information in the cockpit has long been a challenge for aircraft designers. Given the limited space in which to present information, designers have had to be extremely selective about the types and amount of flight related information to present to pilots. The general goal of cockpit display design and implementation is to ensure that displays present information that is timely, useful, and helpful. This suggests that displays should facilitate the management of perceived workload, and should allow maximal situation awareness. The formatting of current and projected weather displays represents a unique challenge. As technologies have been developed to increase the variety and capabilities of weather information available to flight crews, factors such as conflicting weather representations and increased decision importance have increased the likelihood for errors. However, if formatted optimally, it is possible that next generation weather displays could allow for clearer indications of weather trends such as developing or decaying weather patterns. Important issues to address include the integration of weather information sources, flight crew trust of displayed weather information, and the teamed reactivity of flight crews to displays of weather. Past studies of weather display reactivity and formatting have not adequately addressed these issues; in part because experimental stimuli have not approximated the complexity of modern weather displays, and in part because they have not used realistic experimental tasks or participants. The goal of the research reported here was to investigate the influence of onboard and NEXRAD agreement, range to the simulated potential weather event, and the pilot flying on flight crew deviation decisions, perceived workload, and perceived situation awareness. Fifteen pilot-copilot teams were required to fly a simulated route while reacting to weather events presented in two graphical formats on a separate visual display

  12. The Geologic Story of Colorado's Sangre de Cristo Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, David A.

    2010-01-01

    There is no record of the beginning of time in the Sangre de Cristo Range. Almost 3 billion years of Earth history are missing, but the rest is on spectacular display in this rugged mountain landscape. This is the geologic story of the Sangre de Cristo Range.

  13. Virtual displays for 360-degree video

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Stephen; Boonsuk, Wutthigrai; Kelly, Jonathan W.

    2012-03-01

    In this paper we describe a novel approach for comparing users' spatial cognition when using different depictions of 360- degree video on a traditional 2D display. By using virtual cameras within a game engine and texture mapping of these camera feeds to an arbitrary shape, we were able to offer users a 360-degree interface composed of four 90-degree views, two 180-degree views, or one 360-degree view of the same interactive environment. An example experiment is described using these interfaces. This technique for creating alternative displays of wide-angle video facilitates the exploration of how compressed or fish-eye distortions affect spatial perception of the environment and can benefit the creation of interfaces for surveillance and remote system teleoperation.

  14. Interactive displays natural human-interface technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Bhowmik, Achintya K

    2014-01-01

    One of the first books to provide an in-depth discussion of the technologies, applications and trends in the rapidly emerging field of interactive displays (touch, gesture & voice) The book will cover the technologies, applications and trends in the field of interactive displays, namely interfaces based on touch, gesture and voice and those using a combination of these technologies. The book will be split into 4 main parts with each being dedicated to a specific user interface. Part 1 ''Touch Interfaces'' will provide a review of the currently deployed touch-screen technologies and applications. It will also cover the recent developments towards achieving thinner, lightweight and cost-reduced touch screen panels in the future via integration of touch functionalities. Part 2 ''Gesture Interfaces'' will examine techniques and applications in stereoscopic 3D computer vision, structured-light 3D computer vision and time-of-flight 3D computer vision in gesture interfaces. Part 3 ''Voice Interfaces'' will revie...

  15. Micro-valve pump light valve display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yee-Chun

    1993-01-01

    A flat panel display incorporates a plurality of micro-pump light valves (MLV's) to form pixels for recreating an image. Each MLV consists of a dielectric drop sandwiched between substrates, at least one of which is transparent, a holding electrode for maintaining the drop outside a viewing area, and a switching electrode from accelerating the drop from a location within the holding electrode to a location within the viewing area. The sustrates may further define non-wetting surface areas to create potential energy barriers to assist in controlling movement of the drop. The forces acting on the drop are quadratic in nature to provide a nonlinear response for increased image contrast. A crossed electrode structure can be used to activate the pixels whereby a large flat panel display is formed without active driver components at each pixel.

  16. Integral display for non-static observers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorado, Adrian; Hong, Seokmin; Saavedra, Genaro; Martinez-Corral, Manuel; Javidi, B.

    2017-05-01

    We propose to combine the Kinect and the Integral-Imaging technologies for the implementation of Integral Display. The Kinect device permits the determination, in real time, of (x,y,z) position of the observer relative to the monitor. Due to the active condition of its IR technology, the Kinect provides the observer position even in dark environments. On the other hand, SPOC 2.0 algorithm permits to calculate microimages adapted to the observer 3D position. The smart combination of these two concepts permits the implementation, for the first time we believe, of an Integral Display that provides the observer with color 3D images of real scenes that are viewed with full parallax and which are adapted dynamically to its 3D position.

  17. Visual displays and Neuro-Linguistic Programming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown-VanHoozer, S.A. [Argonne National Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); VanHoozer, W.R. [Tranceformations Unlimited, Rigby, ID (United States)

    1994-10-01

    Advancement of computer technology is forthcoming at such a rapid pace that the research concerning the interplay of humans and computer technology is lagging far behind. One area of particular concern is the design of visual displays that are pragmatic, ``user friendly,`` and ``user assisting.`` When engineers design visual displays, they generally do so methodically and logically, but only from within their own individual perspective or ``model of the world.`` They select the human aspects which make sense to them and not necessarily to non-engineers, operators, and others. The model design is what the engineer chooses to relate, based on his or her perspective of reality. These choices limit the model design thereby excluding the users` perspective. A set of techniques which can be used to assist the designers in expanding their choices and include the users` model is Neuro-Linguistic Programming (NLP).

  18. Cognitive Cost of Using Augmented Reality Displays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumeister, James; Ssin, Seung Youb; ElSayed, Neven A M; Dorrian, Jillian; Webb, David P; Walsh, James A; Simon, Timothy M; Irlitti, Andrew; Smith, Ross T; Kohler, Mark; Thomas, Bruce H

    2017-11-01

    This paper presents the results of two cognitive load studies comparing three augmented reality display technologies: spatial augmented reality, the optical see-through Microsoft HoloLens, and the video see-through Samsung Gear VR. In particular, the two experiments focused on isolating the cognitive load cost of receiving instructions for a button-pressing procedural task. The studies employed a self-assessment cognitive load methodology, as well as an additional dual-task cognitive load methodology. The results showed that spatial augmented reality led to increased performance and reduced cognitive load. Additionally, it was discovered that a limited field of view can introduce increased cognitive load requirements. The findings suggest that some of the inherent restrictions of head-mounted displays materialize as increased user cognitive load.

  19. Next Generation Flight Displays Using HTML5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, Brian

    2016-01-01

    The Human Integrated Vehicles and Environments (HIVE) lab at Johnson Space Center (JSC) is focused on bringing together inter-disciplinary talent to design and integrate innovative human interface technologies for next generation manned spacecraft. As part of this objective, my summer internship project centered on an ongoing investigation in to building flight displays using the HTML5 standard. Specifically, the goals of my project were to build and demo "flight-like" crew and wearable displays as well as create a webserver for live systems being developed by the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) program. In parallel to my project, a LabVIEW application, called a display server, was created by the HIVE that uses an XTCE (XML (Extensible Markup Language) Telemetry and Command Exchange) parser and CCSDS (Consultative Committee for Space Data System) space packet decoder to translate telemetry items sent by the CFS (Core Flight Software) over User Datagram Protocol (UDP). It was the webserver's job to receive these UDP messages and send them to the displays. To accomplish this functionality, I utilized Node.js and the accompanying Express framework. On the display side, I was responsible for creating the power system (AMPS) displays. I did this by using HTML5, CSS and JavaScript to create web pages that could update and change dynamically based on the data they received from the webserver. At this point, I have not started on the commanding, being able to send back to the CFS, portion of the displays but hope to have this functionality working by the completion of my internship. I also created a way to test the webserver's functionality without the display server by making a JavaScript application that read in a comma-separate values (CSV) file and converted it to XML which was then sent over UDP. One of the major requirements of my project was to build everything using as little preexisting code as possible, which I accomplished by only using a handful of Java

  20. Design Issues in Video Disc Map Display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-10-01

    design, several variations in overlay were either observed, mentioned in conversation, or came to mind, and these include: (a) pointing to a menu of...Schmandt, C. (1980), "Soft Typography ", Information Processing 󈨔, S.H. Lavington (ed.), North-Holland Publishing Co., pp. 1027-1031. Describes a method...first .. i symbol in the menu along the bottom of the screen and has then touched the displayed map where that symbol is to apppear. The lower photo

  1. Vision Algorithms Catch Defects in Screen Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Andrew Watson, a senior scientist at Ames Research Center, developed a tool called the Spatial Standard Observer (SSO), which models human vision for use in robotic applications. Redmond, Washington-based Radiant Zemax LLC licensed the technology from NASA and combined it with its imaging colorimeter system, creating a powerful tool that high-volume manufacturers of flat-panel displays use to catch defects in screens.

  2. Predictive Displays for High Latency Teleoperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-04

    presented to operator Original Image Predicted Image Motion Perspective transform Perspective transform Ground plane Far plane Illustration purposes...5 • Longitudinal model incorporates propulsion , brake, drag, grade. • Lateral/yaw model incorporates steer. • Prediction...System Layout 0 1 2 2’ x0 z0 y0 y1 x1 z1 y2 -x2 z2 Ground plane Far plane BRUDNAK, “PREDICTIVE DISPLAYS FOR HIGH LATENCY TELEOPERATION” Projection Back to

  3. Three-dimensional image display in medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mankovich, N J; Robertson, D R; Cheeseman, A M

    1990-05-01

    This article is a tutorial on the methods used to create three-dimensional (3-D) images for use in displaying patient anatomy. This new view into anatomy has developed over the last 10 years from the need of surgeons, radiation therapists, and radiologists to integrate the many images resulting from the recent growth in tomographic imaging including computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). CT and MRI studies result in 30 to 100 images. 3-D imaging processes and integrates this image data volume and extracts more meaningful, derivative images via multiplanar reconstruction (MPR), shaded surface processing, or volumetric processing. MPR reslices the image volume to produce novel views of patient anatomy while retaining the image voxel intensities. Realistic shaded surface display of 3-D objects can involve extensive processing of the images to create computer representations of objects rendered into a displayable 3-D scene. Volumetric imaging combines the voxel processing of MPR with the techniques of tissue classification and surface shading to produce novel projections of the image data volume that allow automated creation of 3-D scenes without recourse to the complexities of object delineation. As the ultimate 3-D display, recent advances in computer-aided design (CAD) and computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) allow the fabrication of physical models of anatomy using computer-controlled milling machines. New technology that actually builds the model layer by layer from a liquid plastic offers the possibility of complete models with intact internal anatomy. The growth in 3-D is certain as hardware and software costs decrease and medical professionals find further applications for this technology.

  4. A Conceptual Framework for Ambient Learning Displays

    OpenAIRE

    Börner, Dirk; Kalz, Marco; Specht, Marcus

    2010-01-01

    Börner, D., Kalz, M., & Specht, M. (2010). A Conceptual Framework for Ambient Learning Displays. In B. Chang, T. Hirashima, & H. Ogata (Eds.), Joint Proceedings of the Work-in-Progress Poster and Invited Young Researcher Symposium for the 18th International Conference on Computers in Education (pp. 34-36). November, 29 - December, 3, 2010, Putrajaya, Malaysia: Asia-Pacific Society for Computers in Education.

  5. Electronic control/display interface technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrish, R. V.; Busquets, A. M.; Murray, R. F.; Hatfield, J. J.

    1985-01-01

    An effort to produce a representative workstation for the Space Station Data Management Test Bed that provides man/machine interface design options for consolidating, automating, and integrating the space station work station, and hardware/software technology demonstrations of space station applications is discussed. The workstation will emphasize the technologies of advanced graphics engines, advanced display/control medias, image management techniques, multifunction controls, and video disk utilizations.

  6. Dominant, open nonverbal displays are attractive at zero-acquaintance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacharkulksemsuk, Tanya; Reit, Emily; Khambatta, Poruz; Eastwick, Paul W.; Finkel, Eli J.; Carney, Dana R.

    2016-01-01

    Across two field studies of romantic attraction, we demonstrate that postural expansiveness makes humans more romantically appealing. In a field study (n = 144 speed-dates), we coded nonverbal behaviors associated with liking, love, and dominance. Postural expansiveness—expanding the body in physical space—was most predictive of attraction, with each one-unit increase in coded behavior from the video recordings nearly doubling a person’s odds of getting a “yes” response from one’s speed-dating partner. In a subsequent field experiment (n = 3,000), we tested the causality of postural expansion (vs. contraction) on attraction using a popular Global Positioning System-based online-dating application. Mate-seekers rapidly flipped through photographs of potential sexual/date partners, selecting those they desired to meet for a date. Mate-seekers were significantly more likely to select partners displaying an expansive (vs. contractive) nonverbal posture. Mediation analyses demonstrate one plausible mechanism through which expansiveness is appealing: Expansiveness makes the dating candidate appear more dominant. In a dating world in which success sometimes is determined by a split-second decision rendered after a brief interaction or exposure to a static photograph, single persons have very little time to make a good impression. Our research suggests that a nonverbal dominance display increases a person’s chances of being selected as a potential mate. PMID:27035937

  7. Filmless multimedia display following cardiac catheterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathewson, J W

    1997-08-01

    In traditional cardiac catheterization laboratories, anatomic images are acquired onto 35-mm cine film and presented in series with related information days, weeks, or months later to an audience of decision-makers. These data are projected onto a convenient light-colored wall or silver screen, while echocardiograms and electrophysiologic data are displayed using small single-user computer monitors. This presentation format is not ideal, because full audience participation is not fostered, image quality may be degraded, and small computer screens can be adequataly visualized only by those individuals immediately in front of them. Modern video multimedia systems now make an ideal data presentation format practical, in which all types of media including digitally acquired angiograms can be displayed in parallel with full annotation, using large diagonal multisync color monitors. This communication discusses how to design a multimedia conference center in which remotely acquired filmless digital images can be displayed and processed together with all other pertinent cardiac multimedia to a large audience.

  8. Display applications for holographic optical elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambogi, William J., Jr.; Armstrong, Mark L.; Hamzavy, Babak; Levin, Michael L.; Mackara, Steven R.; Molteni, William J., Jr.; Steijn, Kirk W.; Stevenson, Sylvia H.; Felder, Thomas C.; Heidt, Gerald L.; Miller, Douglas R.

    2001-06-01

    In the last several years, holographic elements have been introduced into a wide array of display applications. Holographic Reflectors are incorporated with liquid crystal displays to shift optimum viewing angle away form specular glare and raise brightness by concentrating light at a convenient viewing angle. Reflectors can be produced in blue, green, gold, red, or white colors. Denso GlassVision projection screens incorporate transmission holograms to efficiently direct projected light to the viewer in a screen that reverts to clear glass When the projection image is turned off. JVC has introduce da large-screen HDTV that uses a holographic color filter to separate blue, green, and red light from the illumination beam, and direct the sorted colors to the appropriate color pixel, raising brightness with a passive component. Most recently, HOE prototypes have been produced to improve the efficiency of portable liquid crystal color display. Front diffuser are affixed to the face of reflective color LCDs and direct output light from the LCD to the viewer at a convenient viewing angle in a concentrated view cone. Reflective Colors Filters are pixelated diffuse reflectors internal to the LCD structure and aligned to the LCD matrix. These reflective filters provide higher brightness, larger color gamut, and better color saturation including a holographic grating are under development to provide wider view angle in direct-view LCDs.

  9. Helmet-Mounted Display Design Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Richard L.; Greeley, Kevin W.

    1997-01-01

    Helmet Mounted Displays (HMDs) present flight, navigation, and weapon information in the pilot's line of sight. The HMD was developed to allow the pilot to retain aircraft and weapon information while looking off boresight. This document reviews current state of the art in HMDs and presents a design guide for the HMD engineer in identifying several critical HMD issues: symbol stabilization, inadequate definitions, undefined symbol drive laws, helmet considerations, and Field Of View (FOV) vs. resolution tradeoff requirements. In particular, display latency is a key issue for HMDs. In addition to requiring further experimental studies, it impacts the definition and control law issues. Symbol stabilization is also critical. In the case of the Apache helicopter, the lack of compensation for pilot head motion creates excessive workload during hovering and Nap Of the Earth (NOE) flight. This translates into excessive training requirements. There is no agreed upon set of definitions or descriptions for how HMD symbols are driven to compensate for pilot head motion. A set of definitions is proposed to address this. There are several specific areas where simulation and flight experiments are needed: development of hover and NOE symbologies which compensate for pilot head movement; display latency and sampling, and the tradeoff between FOV, sensor resolution and symbology.

  10. Intraoperative determination and display of cortical function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bass, W. Andrew; Galloway, Robert L., Jr.; Dawant, Benoit M.; Maciunas, Robert J.

    1997-05-01

    One of the most important issues in neurosurgical lesion resection is margin definition. And while there is still some effort required to exactly determine lesion boundaries from tomographic images, the lesions are at least perceptible on the scans. What is not visible is the location of function. Functional imaging such as PET and fMRI hold some promise for cortical function localization; however, intraoperative cortical mapping can provide exact localization of function without ambiguity. Since tomographic images can provide lesion margin definition and cortical mapping can provide functional information we have developed a system for combining the two in our Interactive, Image-Guided system. For cortical surface mapping we need a surface description. Brain contours are extracted from a MRI volume using a deformable model approach and rendered from multiple angular positions. As the surgeon moves a probe, its position is displayed on the view closes to the angular position of the probe. During functional mapping, positive response to stimulation result in a color overlay 'dot' added to the cortical surface display. Different colored dots are used to distinguish between motor function and language function. And a third color is used to display overlapping functionality. This information is used to guide the resection around functionally eloquent areas of the cortex.

  11. Telerobotics - Display, control, and communication problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Lawrence; Kim, Won-Soo; Tendick, Frank; Hannaford, Blake; Ellis, Stephen

    1987-01-01

    An experimental telerobotics simulation is described suitable for studying human operator (HO) performance. Simple manipulator pick-and-place and tracking tasks allowed quantitative comparison of a number of calligraphic display viewing conditions. An enhanced perspective display was effective with a reference line from target to base, with or without a complex three-dimensional grid framing the view. This was true especially if geometrical display parameters such as azimuth and elevation were arranged to be near optimal. Quantitative comparisons were made possible, utilizing control performance measures such as root mean square error. There was a distinct preference for controlling the manipulator in end-effector Cartesian space for the primitive pick-and-place task, rather than controlling joint angles and then, via direct kinematis, the end-effector position. An introduced communication delay was found to produce decrease in performance. In considerable part, this difficulty could be compensated for by preview control information. The fact that neurological control of normal human movement contains a sampled data period of 0.2 s may relate to this robustness of HO control to delay.

  12. Interaction Analysis through Proteomic Phage Display

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustav N. Sundell

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Phage display is a powerful technique for profiling specificities of peptide binding domains. The method is suited for the identification of high-affinity ligands with inhibitor potential when using highly diverse combinatorial peptide phage libraries. Such experiments further provide consensus motifs for genome-wide scanning of ligands of potential biological relevance. A complementary but considerably less explored approach is to display expression products of genomic DNA, cDNA, open reading frames (ORFs, or oligonucleotide libraries designed to encode defined regions of a target proteome on phage particles. One of the main applications of such proteomic libraries has been the elucidation of antibody epitopes. This review is focused on the use of proteomic phage display to uncover protein-protein interactions of potential relevance for cellular function. The method is particularly suited for the discovery of interactions between peptide binding domains and their targets. We discuss the largely unexplored potential of this method in the discovery of domain-motif interactions of potential biological relevance.

  13. Interaction Analysis through Proteomic Phage Display

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Phage display is a powerful technique for profiling specificities of peptide binding domains. The method is suited for the identification of high-affinity ligands with inhibitor potential when using highly diverse combinatorial peptide phage libraries. Such experiments further provide consensus motifs for genome-wide scanning of ligands of potential biological relevance. A complementary but considerably less explored approach is to display expression products of genomic DNA, cDNA, open reading frames (ORFs), or oligonucleotide libraries designed to encode defined regions of a target proteome on phage particles. One of the main applications of such proteomic libraries has been the elucidation of antibody epitopes. This review is focused on the use of proteomic phage display to uncover protein-protein interactions of potential relevance for cellular function. The method is particularly suited for the discovery of interactions between peptide binding domains and their targets. We discuss the largely unexplored potential of this method in the discovery of domain-motif interactions of potential biological relevance. PMID:25295249

  14. Head-Worn Displays: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakmakci, Ozan; Rolland, Jannick

    2006-09-01

    Head-worn display design is inherently an interdisciplinary subject fusing optical engineering, optical materials, optical coatings, electronics, manufacturing techniques, user interface design, computer science, human perception, and physiology for assessing these displays. This paper summarizes the state-of-the-art in head-worn display design (HWD) and development. This review is focused on the optical engineering aspects, divided into different sections to explore principles and applications. Building on the guiding fundamentals of optical design and engineering, the principles section includes a summary of microdisplay or laser sources, the Lagrange invariant for understanding the trade-offs in optical design of HWDs, modes of image presentation (i.e., monocular, biocular, and stereo) and operational modes such as optical and video see-through. A brief summary of the human visual system pertinent to the design of HWDs is provided. Two optical design forms, namely, pupil forming and non-pupil forming are discussed. We summarize the results from previous design work using aspheric, diffractive, or holographic elements to achieve compact and lightweight systems. The applications section is organized in terms of field of view requirements and presents a reasonable collection of past designs.

  15. 50-in. time-multiplexed autostereoscopic display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodgson, Neil A.; Moore, John R.; Lang, Stewart R.; Martin, Graham J.; Canepa, Peter M.

    2000-05-01

    We describe the development and construction of a large screen version of the Cambridge time-multiplexed autostereo display. The new device uses a 50 inch diagonal spherical mirror in place of the 10 inch Fresnel lens of the original Cambridge color display. A fivefold increase in image luminance has been achieved by the replacement of sequential color on a single CRT with separate red, green, and blue CRTs. Fifteen views are displayed at 640 X 480 (VGA) resolution with about 250 cd/m2 luminance and 30 Hz interlaced refresh rate. A 22 mm interview separation provides three views between a typical viewer's eyes, giving a smooth stereoscopic effect over a 330 mm wide eye box. Two identical optical systems have been built, allowing simultaneous use of the device by two viewers. The two system are off-axis with respect to the main mirror, requiring geometric compensation on the CRTs in addition to the normal color convergence. The prototype produces two independent full color, large 3D images which can be viewed under normal lighting conditions.

  16. Orbit IMU alinement interpretation of onboard display data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corson, R.

    1978-01-01

    The space shuttle inertial measurement unit (IMU) alinement algorith was examined to determine the most important alinement starpair selection criterion. Three crew displayed parameters were considered: (1) the results of the separation angle difference (SAD) check for each starpair; (2) the separation angle of each starpair; and (3) the age of each star measurement. It was determined that the SAD for each pair cannot be used to predict the IMu alinement accuracy. If the age of each star measurement is less than approximately 30 minutes, time is a relatively unimportant factor and the most important alinement pair selection criterion is the starpair separation angle. Therefore, when there are three available alinement starpairs and all measurements were taken within the last 30 minutes, the pair with the separation angle closest to 90 degrees should be selected for IMU alinement.

  17. Enhancing the stability of xylanase from Cellulomonas fimi by cell-surface display on Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y-P; Hwang, I-E; Lin, C-J; Wang, H-J; Tseng, C-P

    2012-03-01

    The cell-surface display of Cex, which encodes xylanase and exoglucanase from Cellulomonas fimi, was constructed on Escherichia coli using PgsA as the anchor protein. Characterization of the cell-surface display of Cex was performed. PgsA was fused to the N-terminus of Cex and six histidines were utilized as spacers between the targeting and anchor proteins. Successful cell-surface display of Cex was demonstrated by Western blot and immunofluorescence analyses on E. coli C41 (DE3). According to the time-course analysis, the xylanase activity of Cex was achieved at 49Ug(-1) dry cell weight after 12 h culture at 37°C. The optimal temperature and pH ranges of the cell-surface displayed protein with whole-cell were broader than the corresponding ranges of the purified form. Further determination of thermostability indicated that the half-life of cell-surface displayed Cex was 1·6 times longer than that of purified Cex at 60°C. We have successfully developed the cell-surface display of xylanase on E. coli. The cell-surface display can enhance the stability of xylanase against changes in temperature and has the potential of becoming a whole-cell biocatalyst for industrial applications, such as biobleaching of paper and production of renewable energy. The results demonstrated that the cell-surface display of xylanase embedded in the cell membrane is more stable than that of the purified enzyme. Thus, to improve the stability of heterologous proteins production, cell-surface display using the PgsA anchor protein as a tool can be considered in E. coli. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2012 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  18. The effect of time in use on the display performance of the iPad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caffery, Liam J; Manthey, Kenneth L; Sim, Lawrence H

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate changes to the luminance, luminance uniformity and conformance to the digital imaging and communication in medicine greyscale standard display function (GSDF) as a function of time in use for the iPad. Luminance measurements of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) Group 18 task group (TG18) luminance uniformity and luminance test patterns (TG18-UNL and TG18-LN8) were performed using a calibrated near-range luminance meter. Nine sets of measurements were taken, where the time in use of the iPad ranged from 0 to 2500 h. The maximum luminance (Lmax) of the display decreased (367-338 cdm(-2)) as a function of time. The minimum luminance remained constant. The maximum non-uniformity coefficient was 11%. Luminance uniformity decreased slightly as a function of time in use. The conformance of the iPad deviated from the GSDF curve at commencement of use. Deviation did not increase as a function of time in use. This study has demonstrated that the iPad display exhibits luminance degradation typical of liquid crystal displays. The Lmax of the iPad fell below the American College of Radiology-AAPM-Society of Imaging Informatics in Medicine recommendations for primary displays (>350 cdm(-2)) at approximately 1000 h in use. The Lmax recommendation for secondary displays (>250 cdm(-2)) was exceeded during the entire study. The maximum non-uniformity coefficient did not exceed the recommendations for either primary or secondary displays. The deviation from the GSDF exceeded the recommendations of the TG18 for use as either a primary or secondary display. The brightness, uniformity and contrast response are reasonably stable over the useful lifetime of the device; however, the device fails to meet the contrast response standard for either a primary or secondary display.

  19. DESIGN PROBLEMS IN VISUAL DISPLAYS. PART II. FACTORS IN THE LEGIBILITY OF TELEVISED DISPLAYS

    Science.gov (United States)

    evaluated. Selected studies of such factors as vertical resolution, video bandwidth, and direction of scanning are reviewed in detail. Conclusions are drawn, and recommendations are made for display design and applications.

  20. Large High Resolution Displays for Co-Located Collaborative Sensemaking: Display Usage and Territoriality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradel, Lauren; Endert, Alexander; Koch, Kristen; Andrews, Christopher; North, Chris

    2013-08-01

    Large, high-resolution vertical displays carry the potential to increase the accuracy of collaborative sensemaking, given correctly designed visual analytics tools. From an exploratory user study using a fictional textual intelligence analysis task, we investigated how users interact with the display to construct spatial schemas and externalize information, as well as how they establish shared and private territories. We investigated the space management strategies of users partitioned by type of tool philosophy followed (visualization- or text-centric). We classified the types of territorial behavior exhibited in terms of how the users interacted with information on the display (integrated or independent workspaces). Next, we examined how territorial behavior impacted the common ground between the pairs of users. Finally, we offer design suggestions for building future co-located collaborative visual analytics tools specifically for use on large, high-resolution vertical displays.