Sample records for range cows developed

  1. Cow and calf weight trends on mountain summer range. (United States)

    Jon M. Skovlin


    Mountain range furnishes the bulk of summer forage for commercial cow-calf operations in northeastern Oregon. Herds maintained on valley range and pasture during winter and spring months are annually trailed to mountain ranges and remain there until calves are ready for fall markets (fig. 1).

  2. The effect of increasing amount of glucogenic precursors on reproductive performance in young postpartum range cows. (United States)

    Mulliniks, J T; Kemp, M E; Cox, S H; Hawkins, D E; Cibils, A F; Vanleeuwen, D M; Petersen, M K


    Supplementing CP and propionate salts (PS) may improve economic returns in young range beef cows by increasing the dietary supply of glucogenic precursors. A 3-yr study conducted at Corona Range and Livestock Research Center (Corona, NM) from February to mid-July in 2005 (n = 80), 2006 (n = 81), and 2007 (n = 80) evaluated days to first estrus, calf weaning weight, BW change, and metabolic responses in 2- and 3-yr-old postpartum cows grazing native range. Cows were individually fed one of three 36% CP supplement treatments after parturition, with increasing glucogenic potential (GP) supplied by RUP and PS. Supplements were isoenergetic and fed at a rate of 908 g/cow per day twice weekly. Supplementation was initiated 7 d after calving and continued for an average of 95 d. Supplement treatments provided 1) 328 g of CP, 110 g of RUP and 0 g of PS (PS0); 2) 328 g of CP, 157 g of RUP, and 40 g of PS (PS40); or 3) 329 g of CP, 158 g of RUP, and 80 g of PS (PS80). Ultimately, PS0, PS40, and PS80 provided 44, 93, and 124 g of GP, respectively. Body weight was recorded weekly and serum was collected twice weekly for progesterone analysis to estimate days to first estrus. Cows were exposed to bulls for 60 d or less beginning in mid-May. Days to first estrus exhibited a quadratic (P = 0.06) response to GP resulting from the fewest days to first estrus with the consumption of PS40. Pregnancy rates were 88, 96, and 94% for cows fed PS0, PS40, and PS80, respectively (P = 0.11). Total kilograms of calf weaned per cow exposed to bulls for the supplementation and following year increased quadratically (P = 0.09). However, supplement did not affect milk composition or yield (P ≥ 0.53). Serum acetate half-life decreased linearly (P = 0.08) with increasing GP in 2007. Predicted margins were the greatest (quadratic; P = 0.03) for cows fed PS40. Even though supplement costs were greater for PS40 and PS80, cows fed PS40 had increased profits ($33.47/cow) compared with cows fed PS0 and

  3. Effects of a long-acting, trace mineral, reticulorumen bolus on range cow productivity and trace mineral profiles. (United States)

    Sprinkle, J E; Cuneo, S P; Frederick, H M; Enns, R M; Schafer, D W; Carstens, G E; Daugherty, S B; Noon, T H; Rickert, B M; Reggiardo, C


    The objectives were to determine if strategic supplementation of range cows with a long-acting (6 mo), trace mineral, reticulorumen bolus containing Cu, Se, and Co would: (1) increase cow BCS and BW, and calf birth, weaning, and postweaning weights, or weight per day of age (WDA); (2) increase liver concentrations of Cu or Zn in cows, or blood Se, Cu, or Zn concentrations in cows and calves; and (3) vary by cow breed for any of these response variables. There were 192 control and 144 bolused Composite cows (C; 25% Hereford, Angus, Gelbevieh, and Senepol or Barzona); 236 control and 158 bolused Hereford (H) cows; and 208 control and 149 bolused Brahman cross (B) cows used in a 3-yr experiment. Cows were weighed and scored for body condition in January, May, and September, and all bolused cows received boluses in January. Each year, from among the 3 breed groups a subset of 15 control and 15 bolused cows (n = 90) had samples obtained in January and May for liver Cu and Zn, blood Se, and serum Cu and Zn. As for cows, blood and serum from the calves of these cows were sampled each year in May and September for Cu, Se, and Zn. There was a significant breed x year x treatment interaction (P = 0.001) for cow weight loss from January to May. Calf WDA, weaning, and postweaning weights did not differ (P > 0.40) between bolused and control cows, but there was a significant (P = 0.022) breed x year x treatment interaction for birth weight. Liver Cu was deficient ( 0.50) in blood Se between treatment groups in January, but bolused cows had greater (P < 0.01) blood Se in May. Breed differences for blood Se concentrations existed for bolused cows, with B having greater (P < 0.05) blood Se than either C or H cows. Breed differences also existed for control cows, with H having less blood Se (P < 0.04) than B or C cows. Calves from bolused cows had greater blood Se than calves from control cows (P = 0.01). Supplementation via a long-acting trace mineral bolus was successful in

  4. Development of automobile brake lining using pulverized cow hooves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsina C. BALA


    Full Text Available Asbestos has been used for so long as automobile brake lining material because of its good physical and chemical properties. However, due to the health hazard associated with its handling, it has lost favour and several alternative materials are being increasingly used. Asbestos-free brake lining was developed in this work using pulverized cow hooves along with epoxy resin, barium sulphate, graphite and aluminium oxide. This was with a view to exploiting the characteristics of cow hooves, which are largely discarded as waste materials to replace asbestos which has been found to be carcinogenic. Samples of brake linings were produced using compressive moulding in which the physical and mechanical properties of the samples were studied. The results obtained showed that proper bonding was achieved as the percentage by weight of epoxy resin increased and percentage by weight of pulverized cow hooves decreased. The hardness, compressive strength, coefficient of friction, water and oil absorption, relative density and wear rate of the brake linings were determined and compared with existing brake lining properties. The result indicates that pulverized cow hooves can be used as brake lining material for automobiles.

  5. First Parity Evaluation of Body Condition, Weight, and Blood Beta-Hydroxybutyrate During Lactation of Range Cows Developed in the Same Ecophysiological System but Receiving Different Harvested Feed Inputs (United States)

    Reduction of harvested feed inputs during heifer development could optimize range livestock production and improve economic feasibility for producers. The objective of this study was to measure body condition and weight as well as blood beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) concentrations for primiparous beef ...

  6. Cow's milk and linear growth in industrialized and developing countries. (United States)

    Hoppe, Camilla; Mølgaard, Christian; Michaelsen, Kim F


    The strongest evidence that cow's milk stimulates linear growth comes from observational and intervention studies in developing countries that show considerable effects. Additionally, many observational studies from well-nourished populations also show an association between milk intake and growth. These results suggest that milk has a growth-stimulating effect even in situations where the nutrient intake is adequate. This effect is supported by studies that show milk intake stimulates circulating insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I, which suggests that at least part of the growth-stimulating effects of milk occur through the stimulation of IGFs. Given that the biological purpose of milk is to support the newborn during a period of high growth velocity, such an effect seems plausible. Adding cow's milk to the diet of stunted children is likely to improve linear growth and thereby reduce morbidity. In well-nourished children, the long-term consequences of an increased consumption of cow's milk, which may lead to higher levels of IGF-I in circulation or an increase in the velocity of linear growth, are likely to be both positive and negative. Based on emerging data that suggest both growth and diet during early life program the IGF axis, the association between milk intake and later health is likely to be complex.

  7. Characterizing the spatial and temporal activities of free-ranging cows from GPS data (United States)

    Electronic tracking provides a unique way to document animal behavior on a continuous basis. This manuscript describes how uncorrected 1 s GPS fixes can be used to characterize the rate of cow travel (m·s-1) into stationary, foraging and walking activities. Cows instrumented with GPS devices were ...

  8. Pre-breeding ß-hydroxybutyrate concentration influences conception date in young postpartum range beef cows (United States)

    Cows in a negative energy balance after calving often have reduced reproductive performance, which is suggested to be mediated by metabolic signals. The objective of this 3-yr study was to determine the association of serum metabolites, resumption of estrus, milk production, cow BW change, BCS, and...

  9. Does ß-hydroxybutyrate concentration influence conception date in young postpartum range beef cows? (United States)

    Cows in negative energy balance after calving often have reduced reproductive performance, which is mediated by metabolic signals. The objective of these studies was to determine the association of serum metabolites, days to first postpartum ovulation, milk production, cow BW change, BCS, and calf ...

  10. Importance of the first meal on the development of cow's milk allergy and intolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høst, A


    A cohort of 1749 newborns from the municipality of Odense born during 1985 in the University Hospital of Odense were followed prospectively for the development of cow's milk allergy (CMA)/cow's milk protein intolerance (CMI) during their first year. The diagnosis of CMA/CMI was based on elimination...

  11. Follicle development and FSH secretion pattern of Ongole crossbred cow with natural twin birth history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available A research was done to obtain basic data about influence of natural twin birth history on reproduction of Ongole crossbred (PO cow, as a basic consideration in utilizing twin genetic potency to increase beef production. The research was done for three estrus cycles respectively, and consists of two activities. The first activity was done in Beef Cattle Research Station (BCReS at Grati sub-district, Pasuruan district – East Java, to observe number and development of follicle of ten cows with natural twin birth history (TP and ten cows with single birth history (SP. In this activit ultra sonography (USG equipment was used. The second activity was done in BCReS and in the Faculty of Veterinary Airlangga University at Surabaya, to observe concentration and profile of FSH using Bovine Blood Serum kit and IRMA method of five cows with TP and five PO cows with SP. Data obtained were analyzed using Chi-square test, t-test and descriptive presentation. Result shows that 23.33% of cows with TP produced two dominant (de Graf follicles in an estrus cycle and significantly (P < 0.01 higher FSH secretion concentration (1.26 – 3.13 times than that of cows with SP. It is concluded that PO cows with TP can produces more than one de Graf follicles in an estrus cycle and it has very high secretion concentration level of FSH.

  12. Depressed polymorphonuclear cell functions in periparturient cows that develop postpartum reproductive diseases. (United States)

    Islam, Rafiqul; Kumar, Harendra; Singh, Gyanendra; Krishnan, Binsila B; Dey, Sahadeb


    The study was planned to see if there is any important and significant changes in the PMN function in cows suffering from postpartum reproductive diseases (PRD). Blood sampling was done from 41 pregnant cows on 15 days prepartum (-15d), calving day (0d), 15 days (15d) and 30 days (30d) postpartum and thorough gynaecological examination was performed on 0d, 15d, 30d and 45d for diagnosis of PRD like retained placenta (RP), clinical metritis (CM), clinical endometritis (CE) and delayed involution of uterus (DIU). The heparinised blood was used for isolation of PMN leukocytes for estimation of superoxide (SO), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and enzyme myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity in each group of cows. The SO production (ΔOD) was greater for normal (0.19 ± 0.05) than cows suffering from RP (-0.12 ± 0.09), CM (-0.15 ± 0.13) and CE (-0.07 ± 0.05) at -15d. The mean value was greater for normal cows (0.12) than the cows with PRD (0.05 to 0.9) at 30d. The H2O2 production was greater for normal than cows with PRD at all sampling days and significantly greater than cows with RP and CE at 15d (p cows on 0d. The depressed capability of the PMN from the cows with PRD to produce SO, H2O2 and MPO during the periparturient period indicated their association with the development of RP, CM and CE.

  13. Recent developments in oestrous synchronization of postpartum dairy cows with and without ovarian disorders. (United States)

    Yániz, J L; Murugavel, K; López-Gatius, F


    This report reviews the most recent developments in prostaglandin-based oestrous synchronization programmes for postpartum dairy cows and addresses the efficiency of controlled breeding protocols based on such developments for cows with abnormal ovarian conditions. A double prostaglandin protocol applied 11-14 days apart seems to be capable of bringing most cows to oestrus. Because of varying oestrus onset times, improved conception rates are obtained following artificial insemination (AI) at detected oestrus rather than fixed-time AI in prostaglandin-treated cows. The administration of oestradiol or human chorionic gonadotrophin, or both these hormones, after prostaglandin treatment, improves the synchrony of oestrus yet does not enhance the conception rate. Progesterone-based treatments for oestrous synchronization are considered the most appropriate for non-cyclic or anoestrous postpartum dairy cows; prostaglandin alone being ineffective because of the absence of a mature corpus luteum in these cows. Improved oestrus synchrony and fertility rate have been reported using short-term progesterone treatment regimes (7-9 days) with or without oestradiol benzoate combined with the use of a luteolytic agent given 1 day before, or at the time of, progesterone withdrawal. The ovulation synchronization (Ovsynch) protocol, based on the use of gonadotrophin releasing hormone and prostaglandin, was developed to coordinate follicular recruitment, CL regression and the time of ovulation. This protocol allows fixed time insemination and has proved effective in improving reproductive management in postpartum dairy cows. However, timed AI following Ovsynch seems to have no beneficial effects in heifers, because of an inconsistent follicle wave pattern, and in anoestrous cows, given their lack of prostaglandin responsive CL. To date, there are several prostaglandin based, fixed-time insemination oestrous synchronization protocols for use in early postpartum dairy cows with ovarian

  14. Low doses of bovine somatotropin enhance conceptus development and fertility in lactating dairy cows. (United States)

    Ribeiro, Eduardo S; Bruno, Ralph G S; Farias, Alexandre M; Hernández-Rivera, Juan A; Gomes, Gabriel C; Surjus, Ricardo; Becker, Luis F V; Birt, Alyssa; Ott, Troy L; Branen, Josh R; Sasser, R Garth; Keisler, Duane H; Thatcher, William W; Bilby, Todd R; Santos, José E P


    Objectives were to evaluate the effects of administering either one or two low doses of slow-release recombinant bovine somatotropin (bST) on hormone concentrations, conceptus development, and fertility in dairy cows. Cows from two farms were detected in estrus on or after 50 days postpartum (n = 1483), inseminated, and enrolled in the study (Day 0). Within farm, cows were blocked by parity and assigned randomly to receive a single placebo injection at insemination (control), a single injection with 325 mg of bST at insemination (S-bST), or two injections with 325 mg of bST administered on Days 0 and 14 (T-bST). From a subset of cows, blood was collected twice weekly from Day 0 to 42 for determination of hormone concentrations and on Day 19 for isolation of leucocytes and analysis of transcript abundance of selected interferon-stimulated genes. Pregnancy was diagnosed on Days 31 and 66, and ultrasonographic morphometry of the conceptus was performed on Days 34 and 48 in a subset of cows. Cows that received T-bST had increased plasma concentrations of GH and IGF1 for 4 wk, increased mRNA expression of ISG15 and RTP4 in leukocytes, earlier rise in the pregnancy-specific protein B in plasma of pregnant cows, increased conceptus size, and enhanced fertility. Cows that received S-bST had increased concentrations of GH and IGF1 for only 2 wk and it was insufficient to alter conceptus development and fertility. In conclusion, supplementation with low doses of bST during the pre- and peri-implantation periods enhanced conceptus development, reduced embryonic losses, and improved fertility in dairy cows.

  15. Metal exposure and accumulation patterns in free-range cows (Bos taurus) in a contaminated natural area: Influence of spatial and social behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roggeman, S.; Brink, van den N.W.; Praet, van N.; Blust, R.; Bervoets, L.


    Possible effects of spatial metal distribution, seasonal-, ecological- and ethological parameters, on the metal exposure of cows were investigated. Therefore the habitat use, vegetation selection and foraging behavior of two free ranging Galloway herds in a metal polluted nature reserve were

  16. Fertility of lactating Holstein cows submitted to a Double-Ovsynch protocol and timed artificial insemination versus artificial insemination after synchronization of estrus at a similar day in milk range. (United States)

    Santos, V G; Carvalho, P D; Maia, C; Carneiro, B; Valenza, A; Fricke, P M


    Our objective was to compare the AI submission rate and pregnancies per artificial insemination (P/AI) at first service of lactating Holstein cows submitted to a Double-Ovsynch protocol and timed artificial insemination (TAI) versus artificial insemination (AI) to a detected estrus after synchronization of estrus at a similar day in milk range. Lactating Holstein cows were randomly assigned to receive their first TAI after a Double-Ovsynch protocol (DO; n = 294) or to receive their first AI after a synchronized estrus (EST; n = 284). Pregnancy status was determined 33 ± 3 d after insemination and was reconfirmed 63 ± 3 d after insemination. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and logistic regression using the MIXED and GLIMMIX procedures of SAS (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC). By design, days in milk at first insemination did not differ between treatments (76.9 ± 0.2 vs. 76.7 ± 0.3 for DO vs. EST cows, respectively), but more DO cows were inseminated within 7 d after the end of the voluntary waiting period than EST cows (100.0 vs. 77.5%). Overall, DO cows had more P/AI than EST cows at both 33 d (49.0 vs. 38.6%) and 63 d (44.6 vs. 36.4%) after insemination, but pregnancy loss from 33 to 63 d after insemination did not differ between treatments. Primiparous cows had more P/AI than multiparous cows 33 and 63 d after insemination, but the treatment by parity interaction was not significant. Synchronization rate to the hormonal protocols was 85.3%, which did not differ between treatments; however, synchronized DO cows had more P/AI 33 d after insemination than synchronized EST cows (54.7 vs. 44.5%). In summary, submission of lactating Holstein cows to a Double-Ovsynch protocol and TAI for first insemination increased the percentage of cows inseminated within 7 d after the end of the voluntary waiting period and increased P/AI at 33 and 63 d after first insemination resulting in 64 and 58% more pregnant cows, respectively, than submission of cows for first AI after detection

  17. Cow's milk and goat's milk. (United States)

    Turck, Dominique


    Cow's milk is increasingly suggested to play a role in the development of chronic degenerative, non-communicable disorders whereas goat's milk is advocated as having several health benefits. Cow's milk is a rich and cheap source of protein and calcium, and a valuable food for bone health. Despite their high content in saturated fats, consumption of full-fat dairy products does not seem to cause significant changes in cardiovascular disease risk variables. Early introduction of cow's milk is a strong negative determinant of iron status. Unmodified cow's milk does not meet nutritional requirements of infants although it is acceptable to add small volumes of cow's milk to complementary foods. Cow's milk protein allergy has a prevalence ranging from 2 to 7%, and the age of recovery is usually around 2-3 years. The evidence linking cow's milk intake to a later risk of type 1 diabetes or chronic degenerative, non-communicable disorders (obesity, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, hypertension) is not convincing. Milk probably protects against colorectal cancer, diets high in calcium are a probable cause of prostate cancer, and there is limited evidence suggesting that high consumption of milk and dairy products increases the risk for prostate cancer. There is no evidence to support the use of a cow's milk-free diet as a primary treatment for individuals with autistic spectrum disorders. Unmodified goat's milk is not suitable for infants because of the high protein and minerals content and of a low folate content. Goat's milk has no clear nutritional advantage over cow's milk and is not less allergenic. The European Food Safety Authority recently stated that proteins from goat's milk can be suitable as a protein source for infant and follow-on formula, provided the final product complies with the compositional criteria laid down in Directive 2006/141/EC. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Perinatal factors associated with the development of cow's milk protein allergy


    Toro Monjaraz, E.M.; J.A. Ramírez Mayans; R. Cervantes Bustamante; Gómez Morales, E.; Molina Rosales, A.; E. Montijo Barrios; F. Zárate Mondragón; Cadena León, J.; Cazares Méndez, M.; López-Ugalde, M.


    The prevalence of cow's milk protein allergy (CMPA) has increased in recent years, and is associated with antimicrobial use during the perinatal period, prematurity, the type of childbirth, and the decrease in breastfeeding. The aim of this study was to analyze whether there is any association between these factors and the development of CMPA. Material and methods: A retrospective, comparative, cross-sectional, observational study was conducted by reviewing the case records of 101 children...

  19. Nitrogen partitioning and isotopic fractionation in dairy cows consuming diets based on a range of contrasting forages. (United States)

    Cheng, L; Kim, E J; Merry, R J; Dewhurst, R J


    Nine multiparous Holstein-Friesian cows (initially 97 d in milk), were used in a 3×3 lattice square design experiment with 4-wk periods. All cows received 4 kg/d concentrates and dietary treatments were based on silages offered ad libitum: perennial ryegrass (PRG); timothy (TIM); tall fescue (TF); red clover (RC); red clover/corn silage mixture [40/60 on a dry matter (DM) basis; RCC]; red clover/whole-crop oat silage mixture (40/60 on a DM basis; RCO); or red clover/whole-crop oat silage mixture (25/75 on a DM basis; ORC). The remaining treatments were based on RCO with feed intake restricted to the level of PRG (RCOr) or with a low protein concentrate (50/50 mixture of barley and molassed sugar beet pulp; RCOlp). Experiment objectives were to evaluate diet effects on N partitioning and N isotopic fractionation. Yields of milk and milk protein were consistently high for diets RC, RCC, and RCO and low for the diets based on poorly ensiled grass silages. Restriction of intake (RCOr) and inclusion of a higher proportion of whole-crop oat silage (ORC) and the low-protein concentrate (RCOlp) led to some loss of production. Diet had little effect on milk fat, protein, and lactose concentrations: low concentrations of milk protein and lactose reflect the restricted energy intakes for all treatments. The highest diet digestibilities were measured for RC and PRG, whereas increasing inclusion of the whole-crop oat silage (0, 60, and 75% of forage DM) led to a marked decrease in diet digestibility (0.717, 0.624, and 0.574 g/g, respectively). Urinary excretion of purine derivatives, an indicator for rumen microbial protein synthesis, was significantly higher for RCC than for TIM and TF. Nitrogen intake ranged between 359 and 626 g/d (treatment means). Partitioning of N intake to feces and urine was closely related to N intake, although urinary N losses were less than predicted from N intake for the 60/40 mixtures of cereal silage and red clover silage. The 15N content of milk

  20. Insulin response of the glucose and fatty acid metabolism in dry dairy cows across a range of body condition scores. (United States)

    De Koster, J; Hostens, M; Van Eetvelde, M; Hermans, K; Moerman, S; Bogaert, H; Depreester, E; Van den Broeck, W; Opsomer, G


    The objective of the present research was to determine the insulin response of the glucose and fatty acid metabolism in dry dairy cows with a variable body condition score (BCS). Ten pregnant Holstein Friesian dairy cows (upcoming parity 2 to 5) were selected based on BCS at the beginning of the study (2mo before expected parturition date). During the study, animals were monitored weekly for BCS and backfat thickness and in the last 2wk, blood samples were taken for determination of serum nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentration. Animals underwent a hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp test in the third week before the expected parturition date. The hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp test consisted of 4 consecutive insulin infusions with increasing insulin doses: 0.1, 0.5, 2, and 5mIU/kg per minute. For each insulin infusion period, a steady state was defined as a period of 30min where no or minor changes of the glucose infusion were necessary to keep the blood glucose concentration constant and near basal levels. During the steady state, the glucose infusion rate [steady state glucose infusion rate (SSGIR) in µmol/kg per minute] and NEFA concentration [steady state NEFA concentration (SSNEFA) in mmol/L] were determined and reflect the insulin response of the glucose and fatty acid metabolism. Dose response curves were created based on the insulin concentrations during the steady state and the SSGIR or SSNEFA. The shape of the dose response curves is determined by the concentration of insulin needed to elicit the half maximal effect (EC50) and the maximal SSGIR or the minimal SSNEFA for the glucose or fatty acid metabolism, respectively. The maximal SSGIR was negatively associated with variables reflecting adiposity of the cows (BCS, backfat thickness, NEFA concentration during the dry period, and absolute weight of the different adipose depots determined after euthanasia and dissection of the different depots), whereas the EC50 of the glucose metabolism was

  1. Development of the seafloor acoustic ranging system (United States)

    Osada, Y.; Kido, M.; Fujimoto, H.


    We have developed a seafloor acoustic ranging system, which simulates an operation with the DONET (Development of Dense Ocean-floor Network System for Earthquake and Tsunami) cable, to monitor seafloor crustal movement. The seafloor acoustic ranging system was based on the precise acoustic transponder (PXP). We have a few problems for the improvement of the resolution. One thing is the variation of sound speed. Another is the bending of ray path. A PXP measures horizontal distances on the seafloor from the round trip travel times of acoustic pulses between pairs of PXP. The PXP was equipped with the pressure, temperature gauge and tilt-meter. The variation of sound speed in seawater has a direct effect on the measurement. Therefore we collect the data of temperature and pressure. But we don't collect the data of salinity because of less influence than temperature and pressure. Accordingly a ray path of acoustic wave tends to be bent upward in the deep sea due to the Snell's law. As the acoustic transducer of each PXPs held about 3.0m above the seafloor, the baseline is too long for altitude from the seafloor. In this year we carried out the experiment for the seafloor acoustic ranging system. We deployed two PXPs at about 750m spacing on Kumano-nada. The water depth is about 2050m. We collected the 660 data in this experiment during one day. The round trip travel time show the variation with peak-to-peak amplitude of about 0.03msec. It was confirmed to explain the majority in this change by the change in sound speed according to the temperature and pressure. This results shows the resolution of acoustic measurements is +/-2mm. Acknowledgement This study is supported by 'DONET' of Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology.

  2. Development of a method to determine essential oil residues in cow milk. (United States)

    Hallier, A; Noirot, V; Medina, B; Leboeuf, L; Cavret, S


    Over the past few years, the use of essential oils in breeding has been gaining ground because of their wide range of application, especially in terms of antimicrobial activity, and the current emphasis on the use of natural compounds, particularly to replace antibiotics. Among the essential oils and their active components, 4 molecules are of great interest and are studied in this paper: carvacrol, thymol, cinnamaldehyde, and diallyl disulfide. In particular, we examined the transfer of essential oil components from animal feed to milk. Because these components could confer an undesirable odor or taste to milk and derived products or interfere with milk processing, it is necessary to quantify their residues in milk. Milk is a complex biological matrix containing large amounts of water, fat, and protein. As a consequence, the extraction of volatile compounds, which are mainly lipophilic, is often critical. In this work, a method based on solid-phase microextraction coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was developed and optimized. We evaluated the effect of several parameters on the sensitivity of the method: fiber type, fiber to sample contact, extraction temperature, extraction time, agitation, and salt addition. The best results were obtained using a divinylbenzene-carboxen-polydimethylsiloxane (50/30 µm) fiber in headspace mode at 34.6°C for 32.6 min without agitation or salt addition. Standard calibration curves were constructed, and the limits of detection and quantification and ranges of linear response and repeatability were evaluated. Detection limits ranged from 25 to 50 µg/L, quantification limits from 50 to 75 µg/L, and variation coefficients from 23.5 to 36.6%. Therefore, the optimized methodology was able to evaluate whether significant transfer of essential oil components from feed to milk occurred, and the method is simple and solvent-free. We applied the method to milk samples from cows whose feed included thymol, carvacrol

  3. Wide Range Multiscale Entropy Changes through Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola R. Polizzotto


    Full Text Available How variability in the brain’s neurophysiologic signals evolves during development is important for a global, system-level understanding of brain maturation and its disturbance in neurodevelopmental disorders. In the current study, we use multiscale entropy (MSE, a measure that has been related to signal complexity, to investigate how this variability evolves during development across a broad range of temporal scales. We computed MSE, standard deviation (STD and standard spectral analyses on resting EEG from 188 healthy individuals aged 8–22 years old. We found age-related increases in entropy at lower scales (<~20 ms and decreases in entropy at higher scales (~60–80 ms. Decreases in the overall signal STD were anticorrelated with entropy, especially in the lower scales, where regression analyses showed substantial covariation of observed changes. Our findings document for the first time the scale dependency of developmental changes from childhood to early adulthood, challenging a parsimonious MSE-based account of brain maturation along a unidimensional, complexity measure. At the level of analysis permitted by electroencephalography (EEG, MSE could capture critical spatiotemporal variations in the role of noise in the brain. However, interpretations critically rely on defining how signal STD affects MSE properties.

  4. Does low IgA in human milk predispose the infant to development of cow's milk allergy? (United States)

    Järvinen, K M; Laine, S T; Järvenpää, A L; Suomalainen, H K


    We sought a relationship between total and cow's milk-specific IgA levels in colostrum and human milk and subsequent development of cow's milk allergy (CMA) in the breast-fed infant. The study included 87 nursing mothers and their infants (age, 2 d to 7 mo), followed prospectively up to 1 y. At 1 y, 48 mothers (69% with an atopic constitution) had an infant with CMA, verified by clinical cow's milk challenge, eight (38% with an atopic constitution) had a baby who had had protracted infantile colic but no CMA (disease control group), and 31 (23% with an atopic constitution) had a healthy infant. Total breast-milk IgA was measured by radial immunodiffusion, and IgA antibodies to cow's milk were measured by ELISA during the breast-feeding period. The levels of total and cow's milk-specific IgA antibodies in colostrum and human milk were significantly lower in the mothers whose baby later developed CMA [estimated third day value, 0.38 g/L (95% confidence interval, 0. 24-0.82)] than in the ones whose infant remained healthy or had had infantile colic but not CMA [0.82 g/L (95% confidence interval, 0. 99-1.51); p milk was cow's milk-specific IgA positively correlated with the levels of total IgA but not with the development of CMA in the infant. The levels of total or cow's milk-specific IgA did not correlate with maternal atopy. IgA antibodies in colostrum and human milk may prevent antigen entry at the intestinal surface of the breast-fed infant. A low IgA content in human milk may lead to defective exclusion of food antigens and thus predispose an offspring to develop food allergies.

  5. Follicle growth, corpus luteum function and their effects on embryo development in postpartum dairy cows. (United States)

    Wathes, D C; Taylor, V J; Cheng, Z; Mann, G E


    Absent or irregular ovarian cycles in lactating dairy cows are caused by failure to ovulate the dominant follicle at the appropriate time. The follicle then either regresses or develops into a cyst. This process can be triggered by a variety of metabolic and disease factors that act at the hypothalamus and pituitary gland to inhibit pulsatile LH secretion and the LH surge, and at the ovary to reduce follicular growth and oestradiol production. Cows of poor energy status have low circulating concentrations of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I). Predisposing factors include calving difficulties, inappropriate diet, reduced intake of dry matter and a high rate of body condition score loss. Various stressors predispose the follicle to cyst development by inhibiting the LH surge and ovulation; these include common infections, such as mastitis. Even when ovulation does occur, poor follicular development may result in production of an inadequate corpus luteum. The timing of the increase in progesterone in the early luteal phase (days 4-5) appears to be a key determinant of fertility, probably because it alters the secretory activity of the reproductive tract, thus influencing embryonic growth and interferon-tau production. A period of negative energy balance after calving can reduce fertility even though metabolic parameters have apparently improved at the time of service.

  6. Up-regulation of integrin α6β4 expression by mitogens involved in dairy cow mammary development. (United States)

    Zhao, Feng; Liu, Chang; Hao, Yu-Meng; Qu, Bo; Cui, Ying-Jun; Zhang, Na; Gao, Xue-Jun; Li, Qing-Zhang


    In dairy cows, the extracellular microenvironment varies significantly from the virgin state to lactation. The function of integrin α6β4 is dependent on cell type and extracellular microenvironment, and the precise expression profile of α6β4 and its effects on mammary development remain to be determined. In the present study, real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry were used to analyze the expression and localization of integrin α6β4 in Holstein dairy cow mammary glands. The effects of integrin α6β4 on the proliferation induced by mammogenic mitogens were identified by blocking integrin function in purified dairy cow mammary epithelial cells (DCMECs). The results showed that the localization of β4 subunit and its exclusive partner the α6 subunit were not consistent but were co-localized in basal luminal cells and myoepithelial cells, appearing to prefer the basal surface of the plasma membrane. Moreover, α6 and β4 subunit messenger RNA (mRNA) levels changed throughout the stages of dairy cow mammary development, reflected well by protein levels, and remained higher in the virgin and pregnancy states, with duct/alveolus morphogenesis and active cell proliferation, than during lactation, when growth arrest is essential for mammary epithelial cell differentiation. Finally, the upregulation of integrin expression by both mammogenic growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-1 and the inhibited growth of DCMECs by function-blocking integrin antibodies confirmed that integrin α6β4 was indeed involved in dairy cow mammary development.

  7. Variation in enteric methane emissions among cows on commercial dairy farms. (United States)

    Bell, M J; Potterton, S L; Craigon, J; Saunders, N; Wilcox, R H; Hunter, M; Goodman, J R; Garnsworthy, P C


    Methane (CH4) emissions by dairy cows vary with feed intake and diet composition. Even when fed on the same diet at the same intake, however, variation between cows in CH4 emissions can be substantial. The extent of variation in CH4 emissions among dairy cows on commercial farms is unknown, but developments in methodology now permit quantification of CH4 emissions by individual cows under commercial conditions. The aim of this research was to assess variation among cows in emissions of eructed CH4 during milking on commercial dairy farms. Enteric CH4 emissions from 1964 individual cows across 21 farms were measured for at least 7 days/cow using CH4 analysers at robotic milking stations. Cows were predominantly of Holstein Friesian breed and remained on the same feeding systems during sampling. Effects of explanatory variables on average CH4 emissions per individual cow were assessed by fitting a linear mixed model. Significant effects were found for week of lactation, daily milk yield and farm. The effect of milk yield on CH4 emissions varied among farms. Considerable variation in CH4 emissions was observed among cows after adjusting for fixed and random effects, with the CV ranging from 22% to 67% within farms. This study confirms that enteric CH4 emissions vary among cows on commercial farms, suggesting that there is considerable scope for selecting individual cows and management systems with reduced emissions.

  8. Studies of some correlations of ovaries with corpora lutea and fetal development in female Nelore cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Barbieri Trevisan


    Full Text Available This study evaluated the right and left ovaries of 30 pregnant Nelore cows. The reproductive tracts were collected at slaughterhouses in the western region of the state of São Paulo, and the study was conducted at the Laboratório de Anatomia Animal at UNESP (in Araçatuba. The size (occipitosacral length, height and weight of the fetuses were analyzed. The length, width and thickness (using calipers of the ovaries and corpora lutea, and weight and volume of the gonads were also measured. The data related to the ovaries and corpora lutea were correlated with fetal development, using a SAS program to analyze the Pearson correlation coefficient, and adjusted using a simple linear regression model. There was a significant correlation between the right ovary variables and fetal development; positive for width and negative for thickness. For the corpora lutea and fetal development, there was a significant negative correlation with the volume.

  9. The milk quality and feasebility analysis of loose housing dairy cows - a case study

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    Marjan Janžekovič


    Full Text Available The aim of the study was technological and economical analysis of free range cow breeding. The case study analyzed two different systems of holstein-friesian dairy cows breeding. The model total costs enterprise budget was developed for evaluation of economic feasibility of loose housing dairy cows in comparison with tied cow breeding system. Computer supported calculation enabled estimation of the most important economical parameters (net return, total cost, and coefficient of economics. Results obtained show that (at observed input parameters loose housing system is economically feasible, if there is a minimum of 41 dairy cows with an average milk production of 8610 kg per cow. It was also established that cows need approximately 6 months to fully adapt to the loose housing system.

  10. Draft Genome Sequences of Escherichia coli Strains Isolated at Calving from the Uterus, Vagina, Vulva, and Rectoanal Junction of a Dairy Cow That Later Developed Metritis


    Jeon, Soo Jin; Cunha, Federico; Ginn, Amber; Jeong, KwangCheol Casey; Galv?o, Klibs N.


    ABSTRACT Escherichia coli is involved in the pathogenicity of metritis in cows. We report here the genome sequences of E.?coli strains isolated at calving from the uterus, vagina, vulva, and rectoanal junction of a dairy cow that later developed metritis. The genomic similarities will give an insight into phylogenetic relationships among strains.

  11. Evaluation of peripartal calcium status, energetic profile, and neutrophil function in dairy cows at low or high risk of developing uterine disease. (United States)

    Martinez, N; Risco, C A; Lima, F S; Bisinotto, R S; Greco, L F; Ribeiro, E S; Maunsell, F; Galvão, K; Santos, J E P


    In this prospective cohort study, Holstein cows considered to be at high risk of developing metritis (dystocia, twins, stillbirth, retained placenta, or their combination) were matched with herdmates at low risk of developing metritis (normal calving) and monitored daily for rectal temperature and uterine discharge during the first 12 d in milk (DIM). Blood was sampled on d 0, 1, and 3 postpartum for assessment of neutrophil phagocytic and oxidative burst activities. Blood was also sampled at 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 7, and 12 DIM for determination of serum concentrations of Ca, K, Mg, nonesterified fatty acids, β-hydroxybutyrate, and glucose. On the basis of receiver operator characteristic curves, subclinical hypocalcemia (SCH) was defined as a serum Ca concentration ≤8.59 mg/dL in at least 1 sample in the first 3 DIM. The overall incidences of metritis and puerperal metritis were 47.3 and 30%, respectively. Concentration in blood and percentages of neutrophils undergoing phagocytosis and oxidative burst were all reduced in cows with SCH compared with normocalcemic cows. Cows with SCH were at a greater risk of developing fever, metritis, and puerperal metritis compared with normocalcemic cows. Among cows at low risk of developing metritis, those with SCH had a greater incidence of metritis (40.7%) compared with normocalcemic cows (14.3%). Similarly, among cows at high risk of developing metritis, cows with SCH had a greater incidence of metritis (77.8%) compared with normocalcemic cows (20.0%). Cows with SCH had elevated concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids and β-hydroxybutyrate compared with normocalcemic cows. The relative risk of developing metritis decreased by 22% for every 1mg/dL increase in serum Ca. Neither metritis nor SCH influenced the resumption of estrous cyclicity by 38 DIM, but cows with SCH had a reduced pregnancy rate and a longer interval to pregnancy compared with normocalcemic cows. Finally, the population risk to develop uterine diseases

  12. An electrochemical immunosensor for detecting progesterone in milk from dairy cows


    Wu, Ling; Yang, Wei; Xia, Cheng; Xu, Chuang; Zhang, Hongyou


    In this study, an electrochemical immunosensor for milk progesterone produced by dairy cows was developed. Using the immunosensor, milk progesterone levels in healthy estrus dairy cows was found to range from 1 to 6 ng/mL 20 days after estrus. There were high levels of progesterone in the milk from cows with prolonged luteal phase and luteal cysts, which ranged from 15 to 28 and 19 to 29 ng/mL, respectively. Cows with inactive ovaries also showed low milk progesterone levels of 1-8 ng/mL, but...

  13. (PHF) cows

    African Journals Online (AJOL)



    Sep 20, 2012 ... The analyzed population comprised 970 Polish holstein-friesian cows (PHF) and 372 Jersey cows. The database provided pedigree information on dams and their productivity. Differences between breeds in terms of longevity and culling reasons were investigated. For the group of PHF cows, the average ...

  14. Intrafollicular steroids and anti-Müllerian hormone during normal and cystic ovarian follicular development in the cow


    di Clemente, Nathalie; Touzé, Jean-Luc; Belville, Corinne; Rico, Charlène; Bontoux, Martine; Picard, Jean-Yves; Fabre, Stéphane


    Development of follicular cysts is a frequent ovarian dysfunction in cattle. Functional changes that precede cyst formation are unknown, but a role for anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) in the development of follicular cysts has been suggested in humans. This study aimed to characterize intrafollicular steroids and AMH during follicular growth in a strain of beef cows exhibiting a high incidence of occurrence of follicular cysts. Normal follicular growth and cyst development were assessed by ovari...

  15. Development and validation of a sensitive enzyme immunoassay for surveillance of Cry1Ab toxin in bovine blood plasma of cows fed Bt-maize (MON810). (United States)

    Paul, Vijay; Steinke, Kerstin; Meyer, Heinrich H D


    The increasing global adoption of genetically modified (GM) plant derivatives in animal feed has provoked a strong demand for an appropriate detection method to evaluate the existence of transgenic protein in animal tissues and animal by-products derived from GM plant fed animals. A highly specific and sensitive sandwich enzyme immunoassay for the surveillance of transgenic Cry1Ab protein from Bt-maize in the blood plasma of cows fed on Bt-maize was developed and validated according to the criteria of EU-Decision 2002/657/EC. The sandwich assay is based on immuno-affinity purified polyclonal antibody raised against Cry1Ab protein in rabbits. Native and biotinylated forms of this antibody served as capture antibody and detection antibody for the ELISA, respectively. Streptavidin-horseradish peroxidase conjugate and TMB substrate provided the means for enzymatic colour development. The immunoassay allowed Cry1Ab protein determination in bovine blood plasma in an analytical range of 0.4-100 ng mL(-1) with a decision limit (CCalpha) of 1.5 ng mL(-1) and detection capability (CCbeta) of 2.3 ng mL(-1). Recoveries ranged from 89 to 106% (mean value of 98%) in spiked plasma. In total, 20 plasma samples from cows (n=7) fed non-transgenic maize and 24 samples from cows (n=8) fed transgenic maize (collected before and, after 1 and 2 months of feeding) were investigated for the presence of the Cry1Ab protein. There was no difference amongst both groups (all the samples were below 1.5 ng mL(-1); CCalpha). No plasma sample was positive for the presence of the Cry1Ab protein at CCalpha and CCbeta of the assay.

  16. Breast-feeding and the development of cows' milk protein allergy. (United States)

    Saarinen, K M; Juntunen-Backman, K; Järvenpää, A L; Klemetti, P; Kuitunen, P; Lope, L; Renlund, M; Siivola, M; Vaarala, O; Savilahti, E


    Early feeding with cows' milk (CM) may cause cows' milk allergy (CMA). Breast milk contains many immune factors which compensate for the undeveloped defence mechanisms of the gut of the newborn infant. We studied the effect of supplementary CM feeding at the maternity hospital on the subsequent incidence of CMA, the effects of formula and breast feeding on the subsequent immunologic types of CMA, and the importance of immune factors present in colostrum in the immune responses of infants with CMA. In a cohort of 6209 infants, 824 were exclusively breast-fed and 87% required supplementary milk while in the maternity hospital: 1789 received CM formula, 1859 pasteurized human milk, and 1737 whey hydrolysate formula. The cumulative incidence of CMA, verified by a CM elimination-challenge test, was 2.4% in the CM, 1.7% in the pasteurized human milk and 1.5% in the whey hydrolysate group. Among these infants, exposure to CM at hospital and a positive atopic heredity increased the risk of CMA. Of the exclusively breast-fed infants, 2.1% had CMA. Risk factors for the development of IgE-mediated CMA were: exposure to CM at hospital, breast-feeding during the first 8 weeks at home either exclusively or combined with infrequent exposure to small amounts of CM and long breast-feeding. The content of transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1) in colostrum from mothers of infants with IgE-mediated CMA was lower than from mothers of infants with non-IgE-mediated CMA. In infants with CMA, TGF-beta1 in colostrum negatively correlated with the result of skin prick test and the stimulation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells to CM, but positively with infants' IgA and IgG antibodies to CM proteins. Feeding of CM formula at maternity hospital increases the risk of CMA, but exclusive breast-feeding does not eliminate the risk. Prolonged breast-feeding exclusively or combined with infrequent exposure to small amounts of CM during the first 8 weeks induces the development of Ig

  17. Intrafollicular steroids and anti-mullerian hormone during normal and cystic ovarian follicular development in the cow. (United States)

    Monniaux, Danielle; Clemente, Nathalie di; Touzé, Jean-Luc; Belville, Corinne; Rico, Charlène; Bontoux, Martine; Picard, Jean-Yves; Fabre, Stéphane


    Development of follicular cysts is a frequent ovarian dysfunction in cattle. Functional changes that precede cyst formation are unknown, but a role for anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) in the development of follicular cysts has been suggested in humans. This study aimed to characterize intrafollicular steroids and AMH during follicular growth in a strain of beef cows exhibiting a high incidence of occurrence of follicular cysts. Normal follicular growth and cyst development were assessed by ovarian ultrasonography scanning during the 8 days before slaughtering. Experimental regression of cysts was followed by rapid growth of follicles that reached the size of cysts within 3-5 days. These young cysts exhibited higher intrafollicular concentrations of testosterone, estradiol-17beta, and progesterone than large early dominant follicles did in normal ovaries, but they exhibited similar concentrations of AMH. Later-stage cysts were characterized by hypertrophy of theca interna cells, high intrafollicular progesterone concentration, and high steroidogenic acute regulatory protein mRNA expression in granulosa cells. Progesterone and AMH concentrations in the largest follicles (> or =10 mm) and cysts were negatively correlated (r = -0.45, P cysts compared to normal ovaries. During follicular growth, AMH concentration dropped in follicles larger than 5 mm in diameter and in a similar way in ovaries with and without cysts. In conclusion, enhanced growth and steroidogenesis in antral follicles cyst formation in cow ovaries. Intrafollicular AMH was not a marker of cystic development in the cow, but low AMH concentrations in cysts were associated with luteinization.

  18. Perinatal factors associated with the development of cow's milk protein allergy. (United States)

    Toro Monjaraz, E M; Ramírez Mayans, J A; Cervantes Bustamante, R; Gómez Morales, E; Molina Rosales, A; Montijo Barrios, E; Zárate Mondragón, F; Cadena León, J; Cazares Méndez, M; López-Ugalde, M


    The prevalence of cow's milk protein allergy (CMPA) has increased in recent years, and is associated with antimicrobial use during the perinatal period, prematurity, the type of childbirth, and the decrease in breastfeeding. The aim of this study was to analyze whether there is any association between these factors and the development of CMPA. A retrospective, comparative, cross-sectional, observational study was conducted by reviewing the case records of 101 children diagnosed with CMPA and seen at the Department of Gastroenterology and Nutrition of the Instituto Nacional de Pediatría within the time frame of January 2012 and August 2013. The following variables were included: age, sex, weeks of gestation, history of maternal infection and antimicrobial use during the pregnancy, type of delivery, and feeding with human milk, and its duration. Likewise, the case records of 90 children were reviewed as a control group on not having CMPA or any other allergy. The chi-square test was used for proportions, and the Mann-Whitney U test was used for comparing means in the statistical analysis. The factors associated with CMPA were the use of antimicrobials during gestation and breastfeeding duration in months. Both factors were statistically significant (Pstudies. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Mexicana de Gastroenterología. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  19. The Use of Bali Cattle on Local Feed Resources for Beef Cows Development in Indonesia

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    Kusuma Diwyanto


    Full Text Available Bali cattle as an animal genetic resource of Indonesia is one of the appropriate cattle breed to be developed in Indonesia. Intensification of breeding program using Bali cattle may solve one of the heifer supply shortage in the beef cattle industry. Technology innovation base on the local feed resources and the use of agricultural by products is needed to meet the demand of sustainable feed supply for beef cattle. This will be the main basic components on the complete feed formulation that is cheap and easily accessible for the farmers. The crop livestock systems innovation through the zero waste approach need to be implemented to yield the zero cost cattle raising system. The cow calf operation system will only be run sustainable if the feed cost and the use of external inputs can be minimized. The program need to be integrated by the grower and fattening (finisher activities. The grower cattle activities, such as run by the Center Village Cooperation in East Nusa Tenggara could afford the farmers participation and had a significant contribution to the farmers’ household. The success of an introduction program is largely determined by the involvement of the farmers in the very beginning based on the local indigenous technology. There is a need to empower the farmers group based on the cooperative principles to increase bargaining power, information accessibility and communication effectiveness. This effort will also simultaneously conducted with the policy support on accessibility of micro finance through the agriculture credit scheme.

  20. Mastitis vaccines in dairy cows: Recent developments and recommendations of application

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    Zuhair Bani Ismail


    Full Text Available The objective of this review article was to summarize the most recent clinical field trials that have been published evaluating the use of different types of vaccines against mastitis pathogens in dairy cows. Mastitis is one of the most common and economically important diseases in dairy cows in the world. The disease is considered an important welfare issue facing the dairy industry in addition to the loss of production and premature removal or death of affected cows. Losses are also related to high cost of veterinary medicines and the cost of unsalable milk of treated cows. Mastitis can be caused by either contagious or environmental pathogens both of which are best prevented rather than treated. In addition to the application of best management practices in the parlor during milking, vaccination against common udder pathogens is widely practiced in many dairy farms to prevent or reduce the severity of clinical mastitis. In this review, the most recent clinical field studies that evaluated the use of different types of vaccines in dairy cows are summarized.

  1. The contribution of some environmental factors to the development of cow's milk and gluten intolerance in children. (United States)

    Kaczmarski, M; Kurzatkowska, B

    The analysis performed by the authors includes correlation between certain environmental factors i.e. the kind of food (natural, mixed, artificial), the role of infection and therapy applied (including antibiotic therapy), living conditions (residence place, the age of parents, number of siblings) and the body birth weight and the established food intolerance in children. The patients were hospitalized at the Clinic of Infectious Diseases of Children during 1978-1982. There were 45 children aged from 5 months to 5 years with gluten intolerance and 50 children aged from 2 months to 5 years with cow's milk intolerance. A close correlation between feeding and the development of food intolerance was stated. There had been found that 92% of children were given mixed cow milk already at the 2nd month of life and 46.6% were fed with this protein between the 2nd to the 3rd month of life. The former had cow milk allergy while the latter gluten intolerance. Due to longlasting diarrhea multiple antibiotic therapy was applied in the total group studied. Stool samples taken from the both groups revealed salmonella in 15.5% to 18.0%. Apart from this type of infection agent chemotherapy due to viral, parasitic and parenteral infections was used, too. The above presented findings confirmed significant role of the factors mentioned in the development and further progress of milk or gluten intolerance in the patients.

  2. Raw Cow's Milk Prevents the Development of Airway Inflammation in a Murine House Dust Mite-Induced Asthma Model. (United States)

    Abbring, Suzanne; Verheijden, Kim A T; Diks, Mara A P; Leusink-Muis, Athea; Hols, Gert; Baars, Ton; Garssen, Johan; van Esch, Betty C A M


    Epidemiological studies show an inverse relation between raw cow's milk consumption and the development of asthma. This protective effect seems to be abolished by milk processing. However, evidence for a causal relationship is lacking, and direct comparisons between raw and processed milk are hardly studied. Therefore, this study investigated the preventive capacity of raw and heated raw milk on the development of house dust mite (HDM)-induced allergic asthma in mice. Six- to seven-week-old male BALB/c mice were intranasally (i.n.) sensitized with 1 µg HDM or PBS on day 0, followed by an i.n. challenge with 10 µg HDM or PBS on days 7-11. In addition, mice were fed 0.5 mL raw cow's milk, heated raw cow's milk, or PBS three times a week throughout the study, starting 1 day before sensitization. On day 14, airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) in response to increasing doses of methacholine was measured to assess lung function. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and lungs were furthermore collected to study the extent of airway inflammation. Raw milk prevented both HDM-induced AHR and pulmonary eosinophilic inflammation, whereas heated raw milk did not. Both milk types suppressed the Th2-polarizing chemokine CCL17 in lung homogenates and reduced lung Th2 and Th17 cell frequency. IL-4 and IL-13 production after ex vivo restimulation of lung T cells with HDM was also reduced by both milk types. However, local IL-5 and IL-13 concentrations were only suppressed by raw milk. These findings support the asthma-protective capacity of raw cow's milk and show the importance of reduced local type 2 cytokine levels. Heated raw milk did not show an asthma-protective effect, which indicates the involvement of heat-sensitive components. Besides causal evidence, this study provides the basis for further mechanistic studies.

  3. Effect of selenium on the development of selected indicators of fertility in dairy cows

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    A. Balicka-Ramisz


    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to determine selenium (Se concentration in the blood serum of dairy cows and to establish its influence on the level of production and reproduction traits. Materials and Methods: The study was performed on the farm located in Western Pomerania - Poland and involved 120 cows, which were selected using the analog method on the basis of their physiological state, lactation number, milk yield, age, and genotype. The following indices were analyzed in individual groups: Calving interval, gestation interval, insemination index, standstill of placenta. Se concentration in the blood serum was determined with the spectrofluorometric method. Results: The mean serum Se concentration was in cows 0.038 μg/ml. The use of Se preparations has raised fertility, which was documented statistically. Conclusion: The study revealed that the problem of Se deficiency is still present in some dairy cattle herds in Western Pomerania - Poland.

  4. Effects of cow milk versus extensive protein hydrolysate formulas on infant cognitive development. (United States)

    Mennella, Julie A; Trabulsi, Jillian C; Papas, Mia A


    Little research has focused on infant developmental effects, other than growth, of formulas that differ substantially in the form of protein. To examine development of infants fed formulas differing in free amino acid content, we randomized 0.5-month-old infants (n = 79) to either a control group who fed only cow milk formula (CMF) during the first 8 months (CMF8), or to one of two experimental groups: one experimental group fed extensively protein hydrolyzed formula (EHF) for 1-3 months during first 4.5 months (EHF1-3) of life, and the other fed EHF for 8 months (EHF8). The Mullen Scales of Early Learning were administered monthly from 1.5 to 8.5 months to assess fine (FM) and gross (GM) motor control, receptive (RL) and expressive (EL) language, visual reception (VR), and an early learning composite (ELC). Across the 5.5-8.5-month time period, when compared to CMF8 infants, GM scores in EHF1-3 infants averaged 1.5 points higher (95 % CI 0.1, 3.0) and in EHF8 infants 2.2 points higher (95 % CI 0.3, 4.0). Similarly, VR scores averaged 1.9 points higher (95 % CI 0.1, 3.8) in EHF1-3 infants and 2.2 points higher (95 % CI -0.2, 4.5) in EHF8 infants. EHF8 infants' RL scores averaged 1.8 points lower (95 % CI 0.1, 3.6) than CMF8 infants. These data suggest that the form of protein in infant formula may impact cognitive development and that the higher free amino acid content in breast milk may be a contributing factor to the differential cognitive development between breastfed and CMF-fed infants. NCT00994747.

  5. Development of equations to predict dry matter intake of lactating cows using animal factors (United States)

    Our objective was to model dry matter intake (DMI, kg) in Holstein dairy cows based on milk energy (MilkE, Mcal/d), energy required for maintenance, change in body weight (DeltaBW, kg/d), body condition score (BCS, scale 1 to 5), height (Htcm, cm), and parity. The database contained weekly DMI of 4,...

  6. Fresh-cow handling practices and methods for identification of health disorders on 45 dairy farms in California. (United States)

    Espadamala, A; Pallarés, P; Lago, A; Silva-Del-Río, N


    The aim of the present study was to describe fresh-cow handling practices and techniques used during fresh cow evaluations to identify postpartum health disorders on 45 dairy farms in California ranging from 450 to 9,500 cows. Fresh cow practices were surveyed regarding (a) grouping and housing, (b) scheduling and work organization, (c) screening for health disorders, and (d) physical examination methods. Information was collected based on cow-side observations and responses from fresh cow evaluators. Cows were housed in the fresh cow pen for 3 to 14 (20%), 15 to 30 (49%), or >31 (31%) d in milk. Fresh cow evaluations were performed daily (78%), 6 times a week (11%), 2 to 5 times a week (9%), or were not routinely performed (2%). There was significant correlation between the duration of fresh cow evaluations and the number of cows housed in the fresh pen. Across all farms, the duration of evaluations ranged from 5 to 240 min, with an average of 16 s spent per cow. During fresh cow checks, evaluators always looked for abnormal vaginal discharge, retained fetal membranes, and down cows. Dairies evaluated appetite based on rumen fill (11%), reduction of feed in the feed bunk (20%), rumination sensors (2%), or a combination of these (29%). Milk yield was evaluated based on udder fill at fresh cow checks (40%), milk flow during milking (11%), milk yield records collected by milk meters (2%), or a combination of udder fill and milk meters (5%). Depressed attitude was evaluated on 64% of the dairies. Health-monitoring exams for early detection of metritis were implemented on 42% of the dairies based on rectal examination (13%), rectal temperature (22%), or both (7%). Dairies implementing health-monitoring exams took longer to perform fresh cow evaluations. Physical examination methods such as rectal examination, auscultation, rectal temperature evaluation, and cow-side ketosis tests were used on 76, 67, 38, and 9% of dairies, respectively. Across dairies, we found large

  7. Middle Range Theory: A Perspective on Development and Use. (United States)

    Liehr, Patricia; Smith, Mary Jane

    This replication and critique addresses ongoing development and use of middle range theory since considering this body of nursing knowledge 18 years ago. Middle range theory is appreciated as essential to the structure of nursing knowledge. Nine middle range theories that demonstrate ongoing use by the theory authors are analyzed using the criteria of theory name, theory generation, disciplinary perspective, theory model, practice use and research use. Critique conclusions indicate the importance of staying with the theory over time, naming and development consistent with the disciplinary perspective, movement to an empirical level, and bringing middle range theory to the interdisciplinary table.

  8. Development and Validation of a UPLC-MS/MS Method to Monitor Cephapirin Excretion in Dairy Cows following Intramammary Infusion (United States)

    Ray, Partha; Knowlton, Katharine F.; Shang, Chao; Xia, Kang


    Cephapirin, a cephalosporin antibiotic, is used by the majority of dairy farms in the US. Fecal and urinary excretion of cephapirin could introduce this compound into the environment when manure is land applied as fertilizer, and may cause development of bacterial resistance to antibiotics critical for human health. The environmental loading of cephapirin by the livestock industry remains un-assessed, largely due to a lack of appropriate analytical methods. Therefore, this study aimed to develop and validate a cephapirin quantification method to capture the temporal pattern of cephapirin excretion in dairy cows following intramammary infusion. The method includes an extraction with phosphate buffer and methanol, solid-phase extraction (SPE) clean-up, and quantification using ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). The LOQ values of the developed method were 4.02 µg kg−1 and 0.96 µg L−1 for feces and urine, respectively. This robust method recovered >60% and >80% cephapirin from spiked blank fecal and urine samples, respectively, with acceptable intra- and inter-day variation (dairy cow feces, and cephapirin in urine was detected at very high concentrations (133 to 480 µg L−1). Cephapirin was primarily excreted via urine and its urinary excretion was influenced by day (P = 0.03). Peak excretion (2.69 mg) was on day 1 following intramammary infusion and decreased sharply thereafter (0.19, 0.19, 0.08, and 0.17 mg on day 2, 3, 4, and 5, respectively) reflecting a quadratic pattern of excretion (Quadratic: P = 0.03). The described method for quantification of cephapirin in bovine feces and urine is sensitive, accurate, and robust and allowed to monitor the pattern of cephapirin excretion in dairy cows. This data will help develop manure segregation and treatment methods to minimize the risk of antibiotic loading to the environment from dairy farms. PMID:25375097

  9. Development and validation of a novel pedometer algorithm to quantify extended characteristics of the locomotor behavior of dairy cows. (United States)

    Alsaaod, M; Niederhauser, J J; Beer, G; Zehner, N; Schuepbach-Regula, G; Steiner, A


    Behavior is one of the most important indicators for assessing cattle health and well-being. The objective of this study was to develop and validate a novel algorithm to monitor locomotor behavior of loose-housed dairy cows based on the output of the RumiWatch pedometer (ITIN+HOCH GmbH, Fütterungstechnik, Liestal, Switzerland). Data of locomotion were acquired by simultaneous pedometer measurements at a sampling rate of 10 Hz and video recordings for manual observation later. The study consisted of 3 independent experiments. Experiment 1 was carried out to develop and validate the algorithm for lying behavior, experiment 2 for walking and standing behavior, and experiment 3 for stride duration and stride length. The final version was validated, using the raw data, collected from cows not included in the development of the algorithm. Spearman correlation coefficients were calculated between accelerometer variables and respective data derived from the video recordings (gold standard). Dichotomous data were expressed as the proportion of correctly detected events, and the overall difference for continuous data was expressed as the relative measurement error. The proportions for correctly detected events or bouts were 1 for stand ups, lie downs, standing bouts, and lying bouts and 0.99 for walking bouts. The relative measurement error and Spearman correlation coefficient for lying time were 0.09% and 1; for standing time, 4.7% and 0.96; for walking time, 17.12% and 0.96; for number of strides, 6.23% and 0.98; for stride duration, 6.65% and 0.75; and for stride length, 11.92% and 0.81, respectively. The strong to very high correlations of the variables between visual observation and converted pedometer data indicate that the novel RumiWatch algorithm may markedly improve automated livestock management systems for efficient health monitoring of dairy cows. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Development and validation of a novel pedometer algorithm to quantify extended characteristics of the locomotor behavior of dairy cows


    Alsaaod, Maher; Niederhauser, J J; Beer, Gian; Zehner, N; Schüpbach, Gertraud; Steiner, Adrian


    Behavior is one of the most important indicators for assessing cattle health and well-being. The objective of this study was to develop and validate a novel algorithm to monitor locomotor behavior of loose-housed dairy cows based on the output of the RumiWatch pedometer (ITIN+HOCH GmbH, Fütterungstechnik, Liestal, Switzerland). Data of locomotion were acquired by simultaneous pedometer measurements at a sampling rate of 10 Hz and video recordings for manual observation later. The study consis...

  11. Development (design and systematization) of HMS Group pump ranges (United States)

    Tverdokhleb, I.; Yamburenko, V.


    The article reveals the need for pump range charts development for different applications and describes main principles used by HMS Group. Some modern approaches to pump selection are reviewed and highlighted the need for pump compliance with international standards and modern customer requirements. Even though pump design types are similar for different applications they need adjustment to specific requirements, which gets manufacturers develop their particular design for each pump range. Having wide pump ranges for different applications enables to create pump selection software, facilitating manufacturers to prepare high quality quotations in shortest time.

  12. Assessment of serum IGF-I and ß-hydroxybutyrate concentrations on reproductive performance prior to calving and breeding in young beef cows grazing native range (United States)

    Metabolites involved in the metabolic adaptation to negative energy balance may have the potential to regulate timing of reproductive success. Therefore, the objective of this 4-yr study was to determine the association of serum metabolites, cow BW, BCS, and calf performance on conception date in 2...

  13. Assessment of serum IGF-1 and ¿-hydroxybutyrate concentrations on reproductive performance prior to calving and breeding in young beef cows grazing native range (United States)

    Metabolites involved in the metabolic adaptation to negative energy balance may potentially contribute to regulation of reproductive success. Therefore, the objective of this 4-yr study was to determine the association of serum metabolites, cow BW, BCS, and calf performance on conception date in sp...

  14. Development of the full range vange vacuum gauge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, B. H.; In, S. R.; Jung, K. S.; Jeong, S. H


    The pirani, enning end full range gauges developed during this study had made good characteristics compared with the measured results of customized other gauges, and this results show the possibility of developing the gauges by ourselves in Korea. In order to make a competition with the customized gauges of other countries, it is necessary to upgrade several points to have good characteristics over the large range of the pressure. The new effort will be made in developing the full scale gauge in the next year.

  15. The contribution of some constitutional factors to the development of cow's milk and gluten intolerance in children. (United States)

    Kaczmarski, M; Kurzatkowska, B

    The role of some constitutional factors in the development of cow's milk and gluten intolerance among hospitalized children was the subject of analysis made by the authors. The patients were hospitalized at the Clinic of Infectious Diseases of Children during 1973-1982. The age of 45 children varied from 5 months to 5 years (gluten intolerance group) and of 50 children it amounted to from 2 months to 5 years (cow's milk intolerance group). In 34% of the family members of the children with milk intolerance and in 4.4% of the family members of the children with gluten intolerance the symptoms of this trait were found. Coeliac disease was observed in 13.3% of the family members of the gluten intolerance group of children and 10.8% psychic and/or diabetes disease among the members. It has been suggested that above illnesses of the family members occur more frequently compared to control group and this finding can speak for the participation of s constitutional (genetic?) factor in the development of this type of intolerance among the members of the family of affected children.

  16. Cow's Milk Allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høst, Arne; Halken, Susanne


    with CMP. Milk from other mammals such as mare and donkey may be tolerated by some children with CMPA. Soy protein is as allergenic as CMP and soy formula is not recommended for young children with CMPA because of a great risk of development of allergy to soy, whereas soymilk is normally tolerated in older......Since the 1930's the scientific literature on cow's milk protein allergy (CMPA) has accumulated. Over the last decade new diagnostic tools and treatment approaches have been developed. The diagnosis of reproducible adverse reactions to cow's milk proteins (CMP), i.e. CMPA, still has to be confirmed...... by controlled elimination and challenge procedures. Advanced diagnostic testing using epitope and microarray technology may in the future improve the diagnostic accuracy of CMPA by determination of specific IgE against specific allergen components of cow's milk protein. The incidence of CMPA in early childhood...

  17. Whole cow's milk in infancy. (United States)

    Leung, Alexander Kc; Sauve, Reginald S


    Early introduction of whole cow's milk may lead to iron deficiency anemia. From a nutritional point of view, it is best to delay the introduction of whole cow's milk until the infant is one year old. While there is no evidence to suggest adverse clinical sequelae associated with the increased renal solute load in healthy infants, feeding with whole cow's milk would narrow the margin of safety in situations that may lead to dehydration. Early exposure to cow's milk proteins increases the risk of developing allergy to milk proteins. Because of the possible association between early exposure to cow's milk proteins and risk for type 1 diabetes mellitus, breast-feeding and avoidance of commercially available cow's milk and products containing intact cow's milk protein during the first year of life are strongly encouraged in families with a strong history of insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. The authors suggest that the optimal food in infancy is human breast milk. If human milk is not available, it is preferred that iron-fortified formulas rather than whole cow's milk be used during the first year of life.

  18. Recovery from Mastitis in Dairy CowsDevelopment of Behaviour, Milk Production and Inflammatory Markers in the Weeks during and after Naturally Occurring Clinical Mastitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fogsgaard, Katrine Kop


    that even within relatively mild cases of clinical mastitis, the cows were not recovered within this time frame. The description of the inflammatory aspect of mastitis focussed on changes in milk yield and inflammatory markers. Based on Study 1, the local clinical symptoms faded after antibiotic treatment...... for naturally occurring mastitis and to compare with behaviour of healthy cows; 2) describe the development within milk production and inflammatory markers before, during and after antibiotic treatment of naturally occurring mastitis, and to compare with healthy cows, with special focus on the expected post....... Study 1 was a cohort study using matched pair design where clinical registrations, production data and automatically recorded behavioural and inflammatory measures were collected prior to, during and after antibiotic treatment of naturally occurring mastitis. Based on 30 mild cases without systemic...

  19. Development and validation of a UPLC-MS/MS method to monitor cephapirin excretion in dairy cows following intramammary infusion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Partha Ray

    Full Text Available Cephapirin, a cephalosporin antibiotic, is used by the majority of dairy farms in the US. Fecal and urinary excretion of cephapirin could introduce this compound into the environment when manure is land applied as fertilizer, and may cause development of bacterial resistance to antibiotics critical for human health. The environmental loading of cephapirin by the livestock industry remains un-assessed, largely due to a lack of appropriate analytical methods. Therefore, this study aimed to develop and validate a cephapirin quantification method to capture the temporal pattern of cephapirin excretion in dairy cows following intramammary infusion. The method includes an extraction with phosphate buffer and methanol, solid-phase extraction (SPE clean-up, and quantification using ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS. The LOQ values of the developed method were 4.02 µg kg(-1 and 0.96 µg L(-1 for feces and urine, respectively. This robust method recovered >60% and >80% cephapirin from spiked blank fecal and urine samples, respectively, with acceptable intra- and inter-day variation (<10%. Using this method, we detected trace amounts (µg kg(-1 of cephapirin in dairy cow feces, and cephapirin in urine was detected at very high concentrations (133 to 480 µg L(-1. Cephapirin was primarily excreted via urine and its urinary excretion was influenced by day (P = 0.03. Peak excretion (2.69 mg was on day 1 following intramammary infusion and decreased sharply thereafter (0.19, 0.19, 0.08, and 0.17 mg on day 2, 3, 4, and 5, respectively reflecting a quadratic pattern of excretion (Quadratic: P = 0.03. The described method for quantification of cephapirin in bovine feces and urine is sensitive, accurate, and robust and allowed to monitor the pattern of cephapirin excretion in dairy cows. This data will help develop manure segregation and treatment methods to minimize the risk of antibiotic loading to the environment from

  20. Political Mechanisms for Long-Range Survival and Development (United States)

    Marshall, W.

    As the first species aware of extinction and capable of proactively ensuring our long-term survival and development, it is striking that we do not do so with the rigor, formality, and foresight it requires. Only from a reactive posture have we responded to the challenges of global warfare, human rights, environmental concerns, and sustainable development. Despite our awareness of the possibility for extinction and apocalyptic set-backs to our evolution, and despite the existence of long-range studies-which must still be dramatically increased-proactive global policy implementation regarding our long-term survival and development is arguably non-existent. This lack of long-term policy making can be attributed in part to the lack of formal political mechanisms to facilitate longer-range policy making that extends 30 years or more into the future. Political mechanisms for infusing long-range thinking, research, and strategic planning into the policy-making process can help correct this shortcoming and provide the motivation needed to adequately address long-term challenges with the political rigor required to effectively establish and implement long-term policies. There are some efforts that attempt to address longer-range issues, but those efforts often do not connect to the political process, do not extend 30 or more years into the future, are not well-funded, and are not sufficiently systemic. Political mechanisms for long-range survival and prosperity could correct these inadequacies by raising awareness, providing funding, and most importantly, leveraging political rigor to establish and enforce long-range strategic planning and policies. The feasibility of such mechanisms should first be rigorously studied and assessed in a feasibility study, which could then inform implementation. This paper will present the case for such a study and suggest some possible political mechanisms that should be investigated further in the proposed study. This work is being further

  1. Development of a Bilingual Training Tool to Train Dairy Workers on the Prevention and Management of Non-Ambulatory Cows (United States)

    Roman-Muniz, Ivette N.; Van Metre, David C.


    Dairy cows at risk of becoming non-ambulatory or downers represent economic losses and animal well-being issues for the dairy industry. Colorado State University researchers and Extension faculty collaborated with Colorado's dairy industry to create a training tool for the early identification and management of cows at risk of becoming downers on…

  2. Broadband laser ranging development at the DOE Labs (United States)

    Bennett, Corey V.; La Lone, Brandon M.; Younk, Patrick W.; Daykin, Ed P.; Rhodes, Michelle A.


    Broadband Laser Ranging (BLR) is a new diagnostic being developed in collaboration across multiple USA Dept. of Energy (DOE) facilities. Its purpose is to measure the precise position of surfaces and particle clouds moving at speeds of a few kilometers per second. The diagnostic uses spectral interferometry to encode distance into a modulation in the spectrum of pulses from a mode-locked fiber laser and uses a dispersive Fourier transformation to map the spectral modulation into time. This combination enables recording of range information in the time domain on a fast oscilloscope every 25-80 ns. Discussed here are some of the hardware design issues, system tradeoffs, calibration issues, and experimental results. BLR is being developed as an add-on to conventional Photonic Doppler Velocimetry (PDV) systems because PDV often yields incomplete information when lateral velocity components are present, or when there are drop-outs in the signal amplitude. In these cases, integration of the velocity from PDV can give incorrect displacement results. Experiments are now regularly fielded with over 100 channels of PDV, and BLR is being developed in a modular way to enable high channel counts of BLR and PDV recorded from the same probes pointed at the same target location. In this way instruments, will independently record surface velocity and distance information along the exact same path.

  3. Breeding and management of dairy cows to increase profit and reduce greenhouse gas emissions


    Bell, M. J.


    The aim of this study was to compare the effect of changing a range of biological traits on farm profit and greenhouse gas emissions (GHG; expressed as carbon dioxide equivalent, CO2-eq.) for dairy cows in Northern Ireland, and also in the whole of the UK. An average cow was modelled for each population of animals, using average values from milk recording records. Previous work developed a dynamic model, to include nutrient partitioning to allow investigation of GHG abatement options over an ...

  4. Effect of estrous cow serum during bovine embryo culture on blastocyst development and cryotolerance after slow freezing or vitrification. (United States)

    Mucci, N; Aller, J; Kaiser, G G; Hozbor, F; Cabodevila, J; Alberio, R H


    The present study investigated the effect of estrous cow serum (ECS) during culture of bovine embryos on blastocyst development and survival after cryopreservation by slow freezing or vitrification. Embryos were derived from in vitro maturation (IVM) and in vitro fertilization (IVF) of abbatoir-derived oocytes. At Day 3, embryos were cultured in three different media: Charles Ronsenkrans medium + amino acids (CR1aa; without bovine serum albumin (BSA)) + 5% estrous cow serum (CR1-ECS), CR1aa + 3 mg/mL BSA (CR1-BSA) or CR1aa + 5% ECS + 3 mg/mL BSA (CR1-ECS-BSA). At 7.5 d post-insemination (PI), blastocyst yield and quality were evaluated; blastocysts and expanded blastocysts from each media were cryopreserved by Open Pulled Straw (OPS) vitrification method or slow freezing (1.5 M ethylene glycol, EM). Total blastocyst yield did not differ among CR1-ECS, CR1-BSA and CR1-ECS-BSA (30.9, 33.1 and 32.9%, respectively, P Embryo survival (hatching rate) was higher in vitrified versus slow-frozen embryos (43% versus 12%, respectively, P embryos cultured in CR1-BSA (40.3%) compared with those cultured in serum-containing media (CR1-ECS, 21.5% and CR1-ECS-BSA, 19.8%; P produce in vitro bovine embryos in serum-free culture medium without affecting blastocyst yield and quality; (b) serum-free medium produced the best quality embryos (in terms of post-cryopreservation survival); and (c) vitrification yielded the highest post-cryopreservation survival rates, regardless of the presence of serum in the culture medium.

  5. A stochastic estimate of the economic impact of oral calcium supplementation in postparturient dairy cows. (United States)

    McArt, J A A; Oetzel, G R


    The objective was to develop stochastic models to estimate the economic impact in the first 30 d in milk of oral calcium supplementation to multiparous postparturient dairy cows using 4 different strategies: (1) supplementation of cows with a high previous lactation mature-equivalent milk yield, (2) supplementation of lame cows, (3) supplementation of both cows that have a high previous lactation mature-equivalent milk yield and cows that are lame, and (4) supplementation of all cows. Data from current literature were used to model input variables associated with the costs and risks related to milk production, postparturient disease, and culling. The mean net herd impact per 1,000 calvings for each of the 4 supplementation strategies was $4,425, $5,812, $8,313, and $3,065, respectively. Postpartum supplementation of multiparous lame cows had the highest return on investment at 6.5 to 1, followed by supplementation of multiparous high milk yield and lame cows, multiparous high milk yield cows only, and supplementation of all multiparous postpartum cows with returns of 1.8 to 1, 1.1 to 1, and 0.3 to 1, respectively. A herd's average milk yield at first test had the highest influence on the net impact of oral calcium supplementation to all multiparous cows and accounted for 30% of the variation, followed by the decrease in risk of health events in lame cows given oral calcium at 22%, a herd's prevalence of lameness at calving at 13%, and the price of milk at 10%. Each of the remaining stochastic variables contributed to less than 5% of the variation in net herd financial impact of oral calcium administration. Whereas supplementation of all postpartum multiparous cows returned a positive net herd impact approximately 80% of the time, if a herd was willing to devote time to mature-equivalent milk yield calculations and locomotion scoring, supplementation of this subpopulation of postpartum cows with oral calcium was estimated to have a positive economic impact in all

  6. Development of a colloidal gold immunochromatographic strip assay for simple and fast detection of human α-lactalbumin in genetically modified cow milk. (United States)

    Tao, Chenyu; Zhang, Qingde; Feng, Na; Shi, Deshi; Liu, Bang


    The qualitative and quantitative declaration of food ingredients is important to consumers, especially for genetically modified food as it experiences a rapid increase in sales. In this study, we designed an accurate and rapid detection system using colloidal gold immunochromatographic strip assay (GICA) methods to detect genetically modified cow milk. First, we prepared 2 monoclonal antibodies for human α-lactalbumin (α-LA) and measured their antibody titers; the one with the higher titer was used for further experiments. Then, we found the optimal pH value and protein amount of GICA for detection of pure milk samples. The developed strips successfully detected genetically modified cow milk and non-modified cow milk. To determine the sensitivity of GICA, a quantitative ELISA system was used to determine the exact amount of α-LA, and then genetically modified milk was diluted at different rates to test the sensitivity of GICA; the sensitivity was 10 μg/mL. Our results demonstrated that the applied method was effective to detect human α-LA in cow milk. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis to determine the diagnostic performance of serum haptoglobin concentration for the diagnosis of acute puerperal metritis in dairy cows. (United States)

    Burfeind, O; Sannmann, I; Voigtsberger, R; Heuwieser, W


    Acute puerperal metritis (APM) in dairy cows is characterized by fever and fetid vaginal discharge within 21 days in milk (DIM). Increased serum haptoglobin concentration (Hp) can support the diagnosis of APM. However, there is a dearth of information of the test performance of Hp as a measure for APM with a consistent definition and considering parity. The objective of this trial was to study the test performance of Hp to distinguish healthy cows from cows with APM. A total of 33 of 60 (55.0%) primiparous cows and 43 of 133 (32.3%) multiparous cows developed APM. Primiparous cows with APM had the greatest Hp. However, in primiparous cows Hp did not significantly differ between healthy cows (DIM 2: 1.49 ± 0.64 mg/mL; DIM 5: 2.13 ± 0.66 mg/mL; DIM 10: 1.46 ± 0.85 mg/mL) and cows with APM (DIM 2: 1.78 ± 0.62 mg/mL; DIM 5: 2.48 ± 0.64 mg/mL; DIM 10: 1.60 ± 0.81 mg/mL). In multiparous cows, Hp was greater in cows with APM (DIM 2: 1.27 ± 0.68 mg/mL; DIM 5: 1.89 ± 0.94 mg/mL; DIM 10: 1.23 ± 0.78 mg/mL) than in healthy cows (DIM 2: 0.99 ± 0.68 mg/mL; DIM 5: 1.10 ± 0.80 mg/mL; DIM 10: 0.83 ± 0.68 mg/mL). Sensitivity and specificity of Hp to diagnose APM in multiparous cows ranged from 72% to 79% and 54% to 71% on DIM 2, 5 and 10, respectively. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Dairy cow disability weights. (United States)

    McConnel, Craig S; McNeil, Ashleigh A; Hadrich, Joleen C; Lombard, Jason E; Garry, Franklyn B; Heller, Jane


    Over the past 175 years, data related to human disease and death have progressed to a summary measure of population health, the Disability-Adjusted Life Year (DALY). As dairies have intensified there has been no equivalent measure of the impact of disease on the productive life and well-being of animals. The development of a disease-adjusted metric requires a consistent set of disability weights that reflect the relative severity of important diseases. The objective of this study was to use an international survey of dairy authorities to derive disability weights for primary disease categories recorded on dairies. National and international dairy health and management authorities were contacted through professional organizations, dairy industry publications and conferences, and industry contacts. Estimates of minimum, most likely, and maximum disability weights were derived for 12 common dairy cow diseases. Survey participants were asked to estimate the impact of each disease on overall health and milk production. Diseases were classified from 1 (minimal adverse effects) to 10 (death). The data was modelled using BetaPERT distributions to demonstrate the variation in these dynamic disease processes, and to identify the most likely aggregated disability weights for each disease classification. A single disability weight was assigned to each disease using the average of the combined medians for the minimum, most likely, and maximum severity scores. A total of 96 respondents provided estimates of disability weights. The final disability weight values resulted in the following order from least to most severe: retained placenta, diarrhea, ketosis, metritis, mastitis, milk fever, lame (hoof only), calving trauma, left displaced abomasum, pneumonia, musculoskeletal injury (leg, hip, back), and right displaced abomasum. The peaks of the probability density functions indicated that for certain disease states such as retained placenta there was a relatively narrow range of

  9. Avoidance of Cow's Milk-Based Formula for At-Risk Infants Does Not Reduce Development of Celiac Disease: A Randomized Controlled Trial. (United States)

    Hyytinen, Mila; Savilahti, Erkki; Virtanen, Suvi M; Härkönen, Taina; Ilonen, Jorma; Luopajärvi, Kristiina; Uibo, Raivo; Vaarala, Outi; Åkerblom, Hans K; Knip, Mikael


    Feeding during the first months of life might affect risk for celiac disease. Individuals with celiac disease or type 1 diabetes have been reported to have high titers of antibodies against cow's milk proteins. Avoidance of cow's milk-based formula for infants with genetic susceptibility for type 1 diabetes reduced the cumulative incidence of diabetes-associated autoantibodies. We performed a randomized controlled trial in the same population to study whether weaning to an extensively hydrolyzed formula reduced the risk of celiac disease autoimmunity or celiac disease. We performed a double-blind controlled trial of 230 infants with HLA-defined predisposition to type 1 diabetes and at least 1 family member with type 1 diabetes. The infants were randomly assigned to groups fed a casein hydrolysate formula (n = 113) or a conventional formula (control, n = 117) whenever breast milk was not available during the first 6-8 months of life. Serum samples were collected over a median time period of 10 years and analyzed for antibodies to tissue transglutaminase (anti-TG2A) using a radiobinding assay, to endomysium using an immunofluorescence assay, and antibodies to a deamidated gliadine peptide using an immunofluorometry assay. Duodenal biopsies were collected if levels of anti-TG2A exceeded 20 relative units. Cow's milk antibodies were measured during the first 2 years of life. Of the 189 participants analyzed for anti-TG2A, 25 (13.2%) tested positive. Of the 230 study participants observed, 10 (4.3%) were diagnosed with celiac disease. We did not find any significant differences at the cumulative incidence of anti-TG2A positivity (hazard ratio, 1.14; 95% confidence interval, 0.51-2.54) or celiac disease (hazard ratio, 4.13; 95% confidence interval, 0.81-21.02) between the casein hydrolysate and cow's milk groups. Children who developed celiac disease had increased titers of cow's milk antibodies before the appearance of anti-TG2A or celiac disease. In a randomized

  10. Lameness Detection in Dairy Cows: Part 2. Use of Sensors to Automatically Register Changes in Locomotion or Behavior. (United States)

    Van Nuffel, Annelies; Zwertvaegher, Ingrid; Van Weyenberg, Stephanie; Pastell, Matti; Thorup, Vivi M; Bahr, Claudia; Sonck, Bart; Saeys, Wouter


    Despite the research on opportunities to automatically measure lameness in cattle, lameness detection systems are not widely available commercially and are only used on a few dairy farms. However, farmers need to be aware of the lame cows in their herds in order treat them properly and in a timely fashion. Many papers have focused on the automated measurement of gait or behavioral cow characteristics related to lameness. In order for such automated measurements to be used in a detection system, algorithms to distinguish between non-lame and mildly or severely lame cows need to be developed and validated. Few studies have reached this latter stage of the development process. Also, comparison between the different approaches is impeded by the wide range of practical settings used to measure the gait or behavioral characteristic (e.g., measurements during normal farming routine or during experiments; cows guided or walking at their own speed) and by the different definitions of lame cows. In the majority of the publications, mildly lame cows are included in the non-lame cow group, which limits the possibility of also detecting early lameness cases. In this review, studies that used sensor technology to measure changes in gait or behavior of cows related to lameness are discussed together with practical considerations when conducting lameness research. In addition, other prerequisites for any lameness detection system on farms (e.g., need for early detection, real-time measurements) are discussed.

  11. Lameness Detection in Dairy Cows: Part 2. Use of Sensors to Automatically Register Changes in Locomotion or Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annelies Van Nuffel


    Full Text Available Despite the research on opportunities to automatically measure lameness in cattle, lameness detection systems are not widely available commercially and are only used on a few dairy farms. However, farmers need to be aware of the lame cows in their herds in order treat them properly and in a timely fashion. Many papers have focused on the automated measurement of gait or behavioral cow characteristics related to lameness. In order for such automated measurements to be used in a detection system, algorithms to distinguish between non-lame and mildly or severely lame cows need to be developed and validated. Few studies have reached this latter stage of the development process. Also, comparison between the different approaches is impeded by the wide range of practical settings used to measure the gait or behavioral characteristic (e.g., measurements during normal farming routine or during experiments; cows guided or walking at their own speed and by the different definitions of lame cows. In the majority of the publications, mildly lame cows are included in the non-lame cow group, which limits the possibility of also detecting early lameness cases. In this review, studies that used sensor technology to measure changes in gait or behavior of cows related to lameness are discussed together with practical considerations when conducting lameness research. In addition, other prerequisites for any lameness detection system on farms (e.g., need for early detection, real-time measurements are discussed.

  12. Ovarian follicular cysts in dairy cows: an abnormality in folliculogenesis. (United States)

    Silvia, W J; Hatler, T B; Nugent, A M; Laranja da Fonseca, L F


    Ovarian follicular cysts are a major reproductive problem in lactating dairy cows. The primary physiological defect leading to the formation of ovarian follicular cysts is a failure of the hypothalamus to trigger the preovulatory surge of luteinizing hormone (LH) in response to estradiol. The factor responsible for this hypothalamic defect may be progesterone. Intermediate levels of progesterone have been shown to prevent ovulation and promote persistence of dominant follicles in normal cycling cows. Recently, we found that 66% of cows with ovarian follicular cysts had progesterone concentrations in an unusual, intermediate range (0.1-1.0 ng/mL) at the time of their detection. A majority of new follicles (76%) that develop in the presence of these intermediate progesterone concentrations became cysts. Only 10% ovulated. Based on these observations, a novel model for the formation and turnover of ovarian follicular cysts is proposed.

  13. Estimation of Body Weight from Body Size Measurements and Body Condition Scores in Dairy Cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enevoldsen, Carsten; Kristensen, T.


    The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of hip height and width, body condition score, and relevant demographic information to predict body weight (BW) of dairy cows. Seven regression models were developed from data from 972 observations of 554 cows. Parity, hip height, hip width......, and body condition score were consistently associated with BW. The coefficients of multiple determination varied from 80 to 89%. The number of significant terms and the parameter estimates of the models differed markedly among groups of cows. Apparently, these differences were due to breed and feeding...... regimen. Results from this study indicate that a reliable model for estimating BW of very different dairy cows maintained in a wide range of environments can be developed using body condition score, demographic information, and measurements of hip height and hip width. However, for management purposes...

  14. Physically adjusted neutral detergent fiber system for lactating dairy cow rations. II: Development of feeding recommendations. (United States)

    White, Robin R; Hall, Mary Beth; Firkins, Jeffrey L; Kononoff, Paul J


    decreasing forage NDF or dietary NDF. Additionally, the minimum proportion of dry matter material on the 8-mm sieve should increase with increasing dietary starch. Results of this study agreed with described interrelationships between the chemical and physical form of diets fed to dairy cows and quantified the links between NDF intake, diet particle size, and ruminal pH. Feeding recommendations can be interpolated from tables and figures included in this work. The Authors. Published by the Federation of Animal Science Societies and Elsevier Inc. on behalf of the American Dairy Science Association®. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (

  15. 2006 Long Range Development Plan Final Environmental ImpactReport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philliber, Jeff


    This environmental impact report (EIR) has been prepared pursuant to the applicable provisions of the California Environmental Quality Act (CEQA) and its implementing guidelines (CEQA Guidelines), and the Amended University of California Procedures for Implementation of the California Environmental Quality Act (UC CEQA Procedures). The University of California (UC or the University) is the lead agency for this EIR, which examines the overall effects of implementation of the proposed 2006 Long Range Development Plan (LRDP; also referred to herein as the 'project' for purposes of CEQA) for Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL; also referred to as 'Berkeley Lab,' 'the Laboratory,' or 'the Lab' in this document). An LRDP is a land use plan that guides overall development of a site. The Lab serves as a special research campus operated by the University employees, but it is owned and financed by the federal government and as such it is distinct from the UC-owned Berkeley Campus. As a campus operated by the University of California, the Laboratory is required to prepare an EIR for an LRDP when one is prepared or updated pursuant to Public Resources Code Section 21080.09. The adoption of an LRDP does not constitute a commitment to, or final decision to implement, any specific project, construction schedule, or funding priority. Rather, the proposed 2006 LRDP describes an entire development program of approximately 980,000 gross square feet of new research and support space construction and 320,000 gross square feet of demolition of existing facilities, for a total of approximately 660,000 gross square feet of net new occupiable space for the site through 2025. Specific projects will undergo CEQA review at the time proposed to determine what, if any, additional review is necessary prior to approval. As described in Section 1.4.2, below, and in Chapter 3 of this EIR (the Project Description), the size of the project has been

  16. A workshop report on the development of the Cow's Milk-related Symptom Score awareness tool for young children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vandenplas, Yvan; Dupont, Christophe; Eigenmann, Philippe


    the evolution of symptoms during therapeutic interventions, but does not diagnose cow's milk protein allergy and does not replace a food challenge. Its usefulness needs to be evaluated by a prospective randomised study. ConclusionThe CoMiSS provides primary healthcare clinicians with a simple, fast and easy......Clinicians with expertise in managing children with gastrointestinal problems and, or, atopic diseases attended a workshop in Brussels in September 2014 to review the literature and determine whether a clinical score derived from symptoms associated with the ingestion of cow's milk proteins could...

  17. Automated detection of oestrus and mastitis in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mol, de R.M.


    Detection models for oestrus and mastitis in dairy cows were developed, based on sensors for milk yield, milk temperature, electrical conductivity of milk, cow's activity and concentrate intake, and on combined processing of the sensor data. The detection model generated alerts for cows,

  18. Long-range control of T-cell development. (United States)

    van Essen, Dominic


    In this issue of Blood, Li et al reveal the genetic elements that control the activity of Bcl11b, a critical regulator of T-cell development. Lineage-defining transcription factors (TFs), such as Bcl11b, control key steps in cellular differentiation throughout development, and understanding how these TFs are themselves regulated represents a major challenge.

  19. Identification of potential markers in blood for the development of subclinical and clinical mastitis in dairy cattle at parturition and during early lactation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moyes, Kasey; Larsen, Torben; Friggens, Nic


    and used to determine incidence and severity of mastitis in early lactation. Cows were separated into 2 groups: 1) WK0, consisting of cows that developed clinical mastitis (CM), cows that developed subclinical mastitis (SM), or cows that were healthy (H) during the first 7 DIM; and 2) EL, consisting of CM......Our objective was to identify specific blood markers as risk factors for the development of mastitis during early lactation. We used a subset of cows from a larger experiment that consisted of a total of 634 lactations from 317 cows. Cows were of 3 breeds and ranged from parity 1 to 4. Blood......, SM, or H cows during wk 2 through 13 of lactation. Data were adjusted for numerous fixed effects (e.g., parity, breed, season, and DIM) before statistical analysis. The time of mastitis (TOM) was recorded as the DIM in which the first rise in somatic cell count was observed and was recorded as TOM...

  20. Development of magnetic nanoparticle based calorimetric assay for the detection of bovine mastitis in cow milk. (United States)

    Chinnappan, Raja; Al Attas, Sana; Kaman, Wendy E; Bikker, Floris J; Zourob, Mohammed


    Mastitis in dairy cattle is an inflammatory reaction of the udder tissue. Mastitis increases plasmin levels, leading to an increased proteolysis of milk proteins such as casein, resulting in a significant decrease in milk quality and related dairy products. Due to its key-role in mastitis, we used plasmin proteolytic activity as a biomarker for the detection of mastitis in bovine mastitic milk. Inspired by earlier studies on protease activity using mastitic milk samples, we developed a simple colorimetric assay to distinguish mastitic milk from milk derived from healthy animals. The plasmin substrate coupled to magnetic nanoparticles form a black self-assembled monolayer on a gold sensor surface. In the presence of increased levels of plasmin, the substrate is cleaved and the peptide fragment attached to the magnetic beads, will be attracted by the magnet which is present under the sensor strips revealing the golden surface. We found the area of the golden color surface proportional to plasmin activity. The sensitivity of this method was determined to be 1 ng/ml of plasmin in vitro. Next, we tested the biosensor using mastitis positive milk of which infection is confirmed by bacterial cultures. This newly developed colorimetric biosensor has high potential in applications for the diagnosis of mastitis with potential spin offs to health, food and environmental sectors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Selective dry cow treatment in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scherpenzeel, C.G.M.


    In the dairy industry, udder health is associated with mastitis management, of which blanket dry cow treatment has been an important part for decades. To prevent the udder from new intramammary infections during the dry period, the use of blanket dry cow treatment has been advocated for more than 50

  2. Tolerance to a rice hydrolysate formula in children allergic to cow's milk and soy. (United States)

    Fiocchi, A; Travaini, M; D'Auria, E; Banderali, G; Bernardo, L; Riva, E


    Even hydrolysed cow's milk formulae may retain residual allergens and there are few nutritional options for children with cow's milk allergy (CMA) who also react to soy. To assess clinical tolerance to a rice-based hydrolysate in children with such a clinical presentation. Eighteen children (six girls and 12 boys; median age 5 years; range 1-9 years) with CMA, who developed clinical reactions to a soy-based formula after 2-18 months' treatment, were recruited between January 1998 and June 1999. Clinical evaluation was by skin prick test (SPT) with cow's milk, casein, lactalbumin, soy and rice allergen extracts, fresh cow's milk, soy and hydrolysated rice formula (HRF). Serology was investigated by CAP system technology and immunoblotting. Assessment of the rice formula was carried out by double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge with rice hydrolysate. Thirteen children had positive SPT to casein, 10 to lactalbumin, eight to rice and two to rice hydrolysate. Positive serology was found in all patients' sera tested with cow's milk, with soy in 13 sera and with rice in seven. Double-blinded, placebo-controlled challenge with an HRF was negative in all cases. Children allergic to cow's milk and soy tolerate an HRF clinically. This suggests that rice hydrolysate may be used as a protein source for children with multiple food-induced reactions.

  3. New approaches, development, and improvement of methodologies for the assessment of B-vitamin requirements in dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane L. Girard

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Studies on B-vitamin requirements of cattle, conducted more than 60 years ago, concluded that mature ruminants do not require B-vitamin supplements because the amounts of vitamins provided by the diet and synthesized by the ruminal microflora were sufficient to prevent emergence of deficiency symptoms. As a result, the impact of subclinical deficiency on maintenance of normal and efficient metabolism has been disregarded and very little research effort has been devoted at defining dairy cow requirements for B vitamins. However, emergence of deficiency symptoms is the last stage of the deficiency; deficiency appears as soon as the supply is inferior to the needs, leading to a loss of metabolic efficiency. As B vitamins play critical roles in carbohydrate, protein, and lipid metabolism, it is likely that the demand for these cofactors increases with milk yield. Reports over the last two decades of beneficial effects of B-vitamin supplementation, such as thiamin, niacin, biotin, folic acid, and vitamin B12, suggested that, under some conditions, the need for B vitamins exceeds the supply from the diet and the synthesis by rumen microbes, leading to sub-optimal milk production and metabolic efficiency. However, responses to B-vitamin supplementation are highly variable. The major challenge faced by studies on B-vitamin requirements of dairy cows is the very limited knowledge on dietary factors driving the fate of B vitamins in rumen. This knowledge is essential to identify the conditions under which the dairy cow could benefit from B-vitamin supplements. The present review aims to describe the present state of knowledge on B-vitamin requirements of dairy cows as well as some of the major problems that need to be overcome to progress in this research field.

  4. Lameness Detection in Dairy Cows: Part 2. Use of Sensors to Automatically Register Changes in Locomotion or Behavior (United States)

    Van Nuffel, Annelies; Zwertvaegher, Ingrid; Van Weyenberg, Stephanie; Pastell, Matti; Thorup, Vivi M.; Bahr, Claudia; Sonck, Bart; Saeys, Wouter


    Simple Summary As lame cows produce less milk and tendto have other health problems, finding and treating lame cows is very importantfor farmers. Sensors that measure behaviors associated with lameness in cowscan help by alerting the farmer of those cows in need of treatment. This reviewgives an overview of sensors for automated lameness detection and discussessome practical considerations for investigating and applying such systems inpractice. Abstract Despite the research on opportunities toautomatically measure lameness in cattle, lameness detection systems are notwidely available commercially and are only used on a few dairy farms. However, farmers need to be aware of the lame cows in their herds in order treat themproperly and in a timely fashion. Many papers have focused on the automatedmeasurement of gait or behavioral cow characteristics related to lameness. Inorder for such automated measurements to be used in a detection system, algorithms to distinguish between non-lame and mildly or severely lame cowsneed to be developed and validated. Few studies have reached this latter stageof the development process. Also, comparison between the different approachesis impeded by the wide range of practical settings used to measure the gait or behavioralcharacteristic (e.g., measurements during normal farming routine or duringexperiments; cows guided or walking at their own speed) and by the differentdefinitions of lame cows. In the majority of the publications, mildly lame cowsare included in the non-lame cow group, which limits the possibility of alsodetecting early lameness cases. In this review, studies that used sensortechnology to measure changes in gait or behavior of cows related to lamenessare discussed together with practical considerations when conducting lamenessresearch. In addition, other prerequisites for any lameness detection system onfarms (e.g., need for early detection, real-time measurements) are discussed. PMID:26479390

  5. Association between uterine disease and indicators of neutrophil and systemic energy status in lactating Holstein cows. (United States)

    Galvão, K N; Flaminio, M J B F; Brittin, S B; Sper, R; Fraga, M; Caixeta, L; Ricci, A; Guard, C L; Butler, W R; Gilbert, R O


    The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between uterine disease and indicators of neutrophil (PMN) and systemic energy status in dairy cows. Peripheral blood (120 mL) was collected weekly from 84 Holstein cows for PMN isolation and plasma collection from calving until 42 d in milk (DIM). The final analysis included 80 cows. Of those, 20 cows were classified as having metritis (fetid uterine discharge and fever), 15 as having subclinical endometritis (SCE; >or=10% PMN on uterine cytology), and 45 as healthy controls. Plasma haptoglobin concentration was increased only in cows that developed metritis. Neutrophil glycogen content was reduced in cows developing metritis compared with healthy cows on the day of calving and at 7 and 42 DIM. Cows with SCE had lower PMN glycogen content than healthy cows at 7, 28, and 42 DIM. Blood glucose was affected by disease status within parity. Primiparous metritis cows had greater blood glucose concentrations than healthy primiparous cows. Multiparous metritis cows tended to have lower blood glucose concentration than multiparous SCE cows. Cows that developed metritis and SCE had or tended to have greater NEFA and BHBA than healthy cows, mainly around calving. At calving, cows that developed metritis had higher plasma estradiol concentration than healthy cows and greater plasma cortisol than cows that had SCE. Plasma insulin was not affected. Plasma glucagon was increased for SCE cows. Cows that developed uterine disease experienced a greater degree of negative energy balance and had decreased lower intracellular PMN glycogen levels, which could be a major predisposing factor for disease because of decreased availability of oxidative fuels. Copyright (c) 2010 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Management of heat stress to improve fertility in dairy cows in Israel. (United States)

    Flamenbaum, Israel; Galon, Nadav


    Israel has about 100,000 dairy cows mostly all of Israeli-Holstein-breed, kept in close to 1000 dairy farms. Most farms are distributed along the Mediterranean Sea coast and in the hot internal valleys. According to the Israeli Herd book the average annual milk production, per cow in 2008 was 11,460 kg, with 3.7% fat and 3.2% protein. Israel's climate is considered "subtropical dry" or Mediterranean, characterized by warm and dry summer with day temperatures above 30 C and relative humidity ranging from 50 to 90%. Climatic limitations brought dairy farmers to develop and implement new technologies and management practices that would enable high milk production and reproduction in summers. In the last three decades the Ministry of Agriculture research units, the extension service and dairy farmers conducted a series of trials and surveys in order to develop an efficient cooling system that will obtain and maintain high milk yield and good reproduction during the hot and humid summer. The cooling system commonly used in Israel is based on a combination of frequent direct watering of the cows, followed by forced ventilation air blowing onto the cows. The system was developed in Israel nearly 30 years ago. A typical cycle is five minutes long and consists of 30 sec of watering followed by 4.5 min of forced ventilation. Providing the cows with 5-7 cooling sessions per day, 30-45 min each, allowed cows, producing 25-30 kg of milk per day to maintain their body temperature below 39.0 C, throughout the day time, on a typical Israeli summer day. At the same time, non-cooled cows had high body temperatures (above 39.5 C), during some part of the daytime and returned to normal body temperatures (below 39.0 C), only for a few hours late at night. In an experiment conducted in 1985-86, conception rate (CR) of cows, cooled as described above, was significantly higher than of non-cooled cows (59 vs. 17% and 57 vs. 17%), for first insemination and for all inseminations

  7. Diagnosing possible infantile cow?s milk protein allergy in rural Africa, when history and physical examination are the only tools: a case report


    Kr?ger, Carsten; Malleyeck, Isaack


    Introduction Cow?s milk protein allergy is common in infants from industrialised countries, but is rarely considered in developing countries due to its variable clinical presentation. Case presentation We report on a Tanzanian male infant, who developed blood-stained stool when feeding fresh cow?s milk at the age of three months. After an initial diagnosis of amoebiasis, possible cow?s milk protein allergy was suspected. Further diagnostic work-up was not possible due to lack of resources. Af...

  8. Ovarian activity and estrus behavior in early postpartum cows grazing Leucaena leucocephala in the tropics. (United States)

    Bottini-Luzardo, Maria; Aguilar-Perez, Carlos; Centurion-Castro, Fernando; Solorio-Sanchez, Francisco; Ayala-Burgos, Armin; Montes-Perez, Ruben; Muñoz-Rodriguez, David; Ku-Vera, Juan


    The legume Leucaena leucocephala (Leucaena) is widely used to supplement forage in silvopastoral livestock systems in Latin America. Little is known about its possible effects on the cow reproductive dynamic. The aim was to evaluate the effect of Leucaena foliage intake on re-establishment of ovarian activity and estrus behavior in early postpartum (7-90 days) cows. Twenty-four multiparous Bos taurus × Bos indicus cows were divided into two homogenous groups and assigned to one of two treatments: a silvopastoral system (SS, n = 12), consisting of an association of Cynodon nlemfuensis grass and L. leucocephala; and a control system (CS, n = 12), consisting of C. nlemfuensis alone. Intake of Leucaena in the SS ranged from 3.80 to 6.43 kg DM/cow/day. Plasma mimosine concentrations ranged from 1270 to 1530 μg/mL, and those for 2,3-dihydroxypyridine (DHP) from 147 to 729 μg/mL. No 3,4-DHP was detected in plasma. No difference (P > 0.05) between treatments was observed for the number of cows exhibiting small, medium, or dominant follicles, or estrus behavior. The number of cows which re-established ovarian cyclicity (n = 6) was lower (P < 0.05) in the SS than in the CS (n = 9). Corpus luteum lifespan was longer (P < 0.05) in the SS than in the CS. Intake of Leucaena affected the number of cows exhibiting ovarian cyclicity and extended corpus luteum life, but did not affect follicular development and estrus behavior.

  9. Consider a Cylindrical Cow (United States)

    Harte, John

    Cylindrical Cow will help students achieve a whole new level of environmental modeling and problem solving. Featuring a new core set of 25 fully worked-out problems, this book uses real problems in environmental science rather than relying on the more traditional cookbook problems found in textbooks. It is organized according to five thematic sections on probability, optimization, scaling, differential equations, and stability & feedback. Each section begins with a general treatment of the relevant mathematical concepts, and concludes with a range of homework exercises to help students sharpen their modeling skills. Like its predecessor, this book will empower students with the mathematical skills needed to cut through the complexity of real-world problems.

  10. Whole cow's milk in early life. (United States)

    Thorsdottir, Inga; Thorisdottir, Asa V


    Cow's milk is a major food for young children. Whole cow's milk is known to be detrimental to infants, mainly due to its low iron content. The negative association with iron status led to recommending the introduction of formula feeding in infancy during the weaning period or when breastfeeding ceased. More recently, the literature suggests that consuming whole cow's milk in infancy has unfortunate effects on growth, especially weight acceleration and development of overweight in childhood. These issues are discussed in the following chapter. Other suggested reasons for the avoidance of whole cow's milk in infancy are touched upon, such as milk protein allergy and high renal solute load. The hypothesis about early cow's milk introduction in the pathology of certain diseases, mainly through the peptide β-casomorphin-7, is briefly reviewed, showing that there is no clear evidence for the suggested associations. The chapter gives a recent example of introducing formula at 6 months of age instead of whole cow's milk in infants' diet in Iceland. Several aspects of consuming whole cow's milk in infancy can be found in recent reviews. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Short communication: Markers of oxidant status and inflammation relative to the development of claw lesions associated with lameness in early lactation cows. (United States)

    Abuelo, A; Gandy, J C; Neuder, L; Brester, J; Sordillo, L M


    Lameness is a major health disorder of dairy cattle and evidence suggests that it may be associated with oxidative stress (OS) during the transition period. Some debate exists, however, as to whether OS precedes the development of lameness or if OS occurs as a consequence of lameness. The purpose of this study was to test whether cows showing claw lesions during early lactation had a greater pro-oxidant and inflammatory status throughout the dry period or at the start of the lactation. Blood samples were taken from 30 cows from the same herd at dry off, movement to the close-up pen, and between 3 and 7 d in milk. Sera were analyzed for concentrations of haptoglobin, serum amyloid A, reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, and antioxidant potential. Blood samples also were subjected to total and differential white blood cell counts. Animals were monitored through 120 d in milk and grouped ex post into the following health categories: (1) exclusively hoof lesions; (2) other production diseases; or (3) nondiseased. Changes in oxidant status and inflammatory markers were significantly different with respect to metabolic and physiologic adaptations to calving and lactation. No differences in oxidant status, acute phase protein concentrations, or leukocyte populations were observed between the hoof lesions and the nondiseased categories. Thus, any associations between OS and lameness likely occurs closer to the onset of clinical signs or as a consequence of inflammatory responses due to localized tissue injury. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The use of hormonal treatments to improve the reproductive performance of lactating dairy cows in feedlot or pasture-based management systems. (United States)

    Lucy, M C; McDougall, S; Nation, D P


    Hormonal interventions have been used to increase the probability of estrous detection and insemination, and to increase pregnancy rates of dairy cattle under a variety of management systems. The present review addresses the basic principles of hormonal intervention and presents typical examples that illustrate the methodology. The hormones used to control the estrous cycle mimic the reproductive hormones found within the normal cow. Most estrous synchronization systems employ a method for controlling follicular wave development, promoting ovulation in anestrous cows, regressing the corpus luteum in cyclic cows, and synchronizing estrus and (or) ovulation at the end of treatment. A wide range of reproductive systems are in place on dairy farms. In most herds, a non-intervention period is practiced where postpartum cows are observed estrus estrus. Cows not observed in estrus are then treated. A number of studies in pasture-based and confinement systems have demonstrated net benefits of whole-herd synchronization. Despite the advantages of whole-herd reproductive programs, their uptake has been inconsistent globally. The benefits of a timed artificial insemination (AI) system increase under conditions of poor estrous detection rate and poor conception rate. The unpopular nature of timed AI programs in pasture-fed cows relates to high rates of estrous detection and conception for pasture-based dairying. Regardless of production system, some cows must be re-inseminated because they are not pregnant after first insemination. The presence of "phantom cows" (non-pregnant cows that do not return to estrus) creates a serious reproductive challenge for both pasture-based and confinement-style operations. Early pregnancy diagnosis and second insemination timed AI may reduce the effects of phantom cows on dairy herds. Fundamental research into anestrous, the hormonal control of the estrous cycle, and early pregnancy detection should elucidate new methods that can be used to

  13. Cow-level and herd-level risk factors for subclinical endometritis in lactating Holstein cows. (United States)

    Cheong, S H; Nydam, D V; Galvão, K N; Crosier, B M; Gilbert, R O


    The objectives of this study were to obtain prevalence estimates for subclinical endometritis (SCE), determine cow- and herd-level risk factors, and evaluate the reproductive consequences of SCE. A cross-sectional study was used to determine prevalence and risk factors with cows followed in a prospective study to determine reproductive outcomes. Lactating Holstein cows were sampled between 40 and 60 d in milk using low-volume uterine lavage, and cytology was evaluated to determine SCE status. In total, 779 cows from 38 herds were used in the analysis. The cow-level prevalence of SCE was 25.9%. Within-herd level prevalence ranged from 4.8 to 52.6% (median 26.3%, interquartile range 15.6 to 33.3%). Cow-level risk factors identified were ketosis [odds ratio (OR) 3.83; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.82-8.07], acute metritis (OR 1.86; 95% CI 1.05-3.30], and the interaction between milk production and parity. Primiparous cows that produced more milk had increased odds of having SCE, whereas multiparous cows that produced more milk had decreased odds of having SCE. Herd-level risk factors identified were housing early postpartum cows on bedded packs (herd-level SCE=36.1%), which increased herd prevalence of SCE by 16.7% (SE 5.58) compared with early postpartum cows housed in freestalls (herd-level SCE=19.4%), and straw bedding in the calving pen, which decreased herd prevalence of SCE by 10.7% (SE 3.59) compared with herds that used other bedding material. In this study, primiparous cows with and without SCE had similar reproductive performance; however, multiparous cows with SCE had median days open 44 d longer (159 d; 95% CI 126-186 d) compared with unaffected multiparous cows (115 d; 95% CI 106-132 d). Copyright © 2011 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Continuous vs intermittent supple- mentation of urea to beef cows on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two groups of cows had either free and continuous access to a urea supplement or access to the same supplement for only four days per week. Cows from both projects overwintered on rested summer range while all the cows received equal quan- tities of a daily supplement of Eragrostis curvula hay during the latter part of ...

  15. The Psychology of Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lori Marino


    Full Text Available Domestic cows (Bos taurus are consumed worldwide as beef and veal, kept as dairy product producers, employed as draft animals in labor, and are used for a long list of other products, including leather and manure. But despite global reliance on cows for thousands of years, most people’s perception of them is as plodding herd animals with little individual personality and very simple social relationships or preferences. Yet, a review of the scientific literature on cow behavior points to more complex cognitive, emotional and social characteristics. Moreover, when cow behavior is addressed, it is almost entirely done within the framework of and applied to their use as food commodities. Therefore, there is relatively little attention to the study of cow intelligence, personality and sociality at a basic comparative level. In this review, we examine the current state of scientific knowledge about cows within an objective comparative framework, describing their cognitive, emotional, and social characteristics. Our aim is to provide a more veridical and objective current summary of cow psychology on its own terms and in ways which will facilitate better-informed comparisons with other animals. Moreover, an understanding of the capabilities and characteristics of domestic cows will, it is hoped, advance our understanding of who they are as individuals.

  16. the occurrence of post partum anoestrus in bonsmara cows on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Post pactum anoestrus, as a cause of reproductive failure in ranch cows has been extensively studied, but little information is available for range cows in the Transvaal. Highveld. lactation has been found to delay reconception. (Symington & Hall, 1967) and both plane of nutrition. (Wiltbank, Rowden, Ingalls, Gregory & Koch, ...

  17. Ovarian follicular cysts in dairy cows. (United States)

    Garverick, H A


    Ovarian follicular cysts are anovulatory follicular structures that occur in 10 to 13% of dairy cows. This review focuses upon the dynamics of cyst growth, development, and persistence as well as on associated endocrine and cellular mechanisms. During the estrous cycle of cows, two to four waves of follicular growth occur. From a cohort of recruited follicles, one is selected for continued growth and dominance while the other undergo atresia and regress. In contrast, cysts have long been thought to be static structures that persist for extended periods. Although cysts can persist for extended periods, most regress over time and are replaced during subsequent follicular waves. The next dominant follicle either ovulates or develops into a new cyst. The recruitment of a cohort of follicles from which a cyst develops and the growth rate of cysts to ovulatory size are similar to ovulatory follicular waves, but the cyst continues to grow for a longer period. The interval between waves of follicular growth is longer for cows with cysts than for cows with normal estrous cycles. Each wave is preceded by a transient increase in circulating FSH. Near the time of cyst development and persistence, the concentration of FSH is not different from that during normal estrous cycles. Serum concentrations of LH and estradiol-17 beta are higher in cows that develop cysts than in cows that do not. Conversely, hypothalamic content of GnRH is lower in cows with cysts. Thus, cysts are dynamic structures, and their development and lifespan are likely associated with altered hypothalamic-hypophysial-ovarian function.

  18. Simultaneous detection and comparative pharmacokinetics of amoxicillin, clavulanic acid and prednisolone in cows' milk by UPLC-MS/MS. (United States)

    Liu, Yuan; Zhu, Kui; Wang, Jianfen; Huang, Xiaoyong; Wang, Guanlin; Li, Congying; Cao, Jie; Ding, Shuangyang


    Amoxicillin (AMOX), clavulanic acid (CLAV) and prednisolone (PSL) are widely used in combination for the treatment of mastitis in lactating dairy cows. However, no method has been reported to detect these three chemicals in milk in a single assay. In the present work, a reliable and sensitive UPLC-MS/MS method was developed and validated for simultaneous determination of AMOX, CLAV and PSL in cow's milk. The analytes were determined by a positive and negative ionization electrospray mass spectrometer via multiple reaction monitoring. The linear ranges of AMOX, CLAV and PSL were from 2 to 1000ng/mL, 20-1000ng/mL and 1-1000ng/mL, respectively, with the correlation coefficients greater than 0.999. The limits of quantification (LOQs) were 2ng/mL (AMOX), 20ng/mL (CLAV) and 1ng/mL (PSL). Recoveries of the analytes of interest in milk samples were in the ranges of 84.2-101.4%. The intra-day and inter-day precisions ranged from 1.8% to 11.9%. This method was successfully applied to investigate the pharmacokinetics of AMOX, CLAV and PSL in milk from healthy and mastitic cows. The elimination times of AMOX and PSL in mastitic cows were longer than that in healthy cows, but the elimination times of CLAV did not show significant difference. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Whole cow's milk: why, what and when? (United States)

    Michaelsen, Kim Fleischer; Hoppe, Camilla; Lauritzen, Lotte; Molgaard, Christian


    There are differences between at what age industrialized countries recommend that cow's milk can be introduced to infants. Most countries recommend waiting until 12 months of age, but according to recommendations from some countries (e.g. Canada, Sweden and Denmark) cow's milk can be introduced from 9 or 10 months. The main reason for delaying introduction is to prevent iron deficiency as cow's milk is a poor iron source. In one study mainly milk intake above 500 ml/day caused iron deficiency. Cow's milk has a very low content of linoleic acid (LA), but a more favorable LA/alpha-linolenic ratio, which is likely to be the reason why red blood cell docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) levels seem to be more favorable in infants drinking cow's milk compared to infants drinking infant formula that is not supplemented with DHA. It has been suggested that cow's milk intake can affect the later risk of obesity, blood pressure and linear growth, but the evidence is not convincing. There are also considerable differences in recommendations on at what age cow's milk with reduced fat intake can be introduced. The main consideration is that low-fat milk might limit energy intake and thereby growth, but the potential effects on development of early obesity should also be considered. Recommendations about the age for introduction of cow's milk should take into consideration traditions and feeding patterns in the population, especially the intake of iron and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids and should also give recommendations on the volume of milk.

  20. Technical note: development and testing of a radio transmission pH measurement system for continuous monitoring of ruminal pH in cows. (United States)

    Sato, Shigeru; Mizuguchi, Hitoshi; Ito, Kazunori; Ikuta, Kentaro; Kimura, Atushi; Okada, Keiji


    An indwelling ruminal pH system has been used for the continuous recording of ruminal pH to evaluate subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) in dairy cows. However this system does not allow the field application. The objective of this study was to develop a new radio transmission pH measurement system, and to assess its performance and usefulness in a continuous evaluation of ruminal pH for use on commercial dairy farms. The radio transmission pH measurement system consists of a wireless pH sensor, a data measurement receiver, a relay unit, and a personal computer installed special software. The pH sensor is housed in a bullet shaped bolus, which also encloses a pH amplifier circuit, a central processing unit (CPU) circuit, a radio frequency (RF) circuit, and a battery. The mean variations of the measurements by the glass pH electrode were +0.20 (n=10) after 2 months of continuous recording, compared to the values confirmed by standard pH solutions for pH 4 and pH 7 at the start of the recording. The mean lifetime of the internal battery was 2.5 months (n=10) when measurements were continuously transmitted every 10 min. Ruminal pH recorded by our new system was compared to that of the spot sampling of ruminal fluid. The mean pH for spot sampling was 6.36 ± 0.55 (n=96), and the mean pH of continuous recording was 6.22 ± 0.54 (n=96). There was a good correlation between continuous recording and spot sampling (r=0.986, Pradio transmission pH measurement system for the assessment and monitoring of the ruminal pH of cows. Our new system might contribute to accurate assessment and prevention of SARA. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Necrotizing meningoencephalitis in a cow. (United States)

    Rissi, D R; Barros, C S L


    An 18-month-old Charolais cow developed depression and drooling and was submitted for necropsy after euthanasia. The cow was 1 of 50 moved between 2 farms approximately 5 days before the onset of clinical disease. Gross findings included swollen and hemorrhagic areas of malacia in the frontal, temporal, and parietal lobes of the cerebral cortex. Microscopically there was a necrotizing meningoencephalitis with intranuclear astrocytic and neuronal eosinophilic viral inclusions in the frontal, temporal, and parietal cerebral cortex as well as in the basal nuclei and thalamus. The gross and microscopic findings were consistent with necrotizing meningoencephalitis caused by bovine herpesvirus (BHV-1 or BHV-5), and the diagnosis was confirmed by detection of bovine herpesviral antigen on fresh samples of brain via fluorescent antibody test using a monoclonal antibody against BHV-1 glycoprotein C.

  2. Effects of supplemental protein provided to postpartum beef cows in liquid or cube form on metabolic, endocrine and reproductive functions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kane, K.K; Schafer, T.P; Harris, J.M; Hallford, D.M; Remmenga, M.D; Hawkins, D.E


    Metabolic, endocrine and reproductive functions in postpartum beef cows, supplemented with protein supplied as range cubes or liquid, were evaluated. Angus cows (n = 60; 2 to 8 yr; mean BCS 4.6 [+ or -] 0.1...

  3. Design and test of an artificial reference cow to simulate methane release through exhalation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, Liansun; Groot Koerkamp, P.W.G.; Ogink, N.W.M.


    To mitigate methane emission from dairy cows, a technique is needed to evaluate individual methane emission from a large number of cows under practical conditions in barns. For developing such a measurement technique, a known reference source that can simulate cow exhalation of methane would be a


    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pythium damping-off was less severe in the seedlings raised under rice husk and cow dung amendments. Increase in days of decomposition before planting also influenced significantly the effect of rice husk and cow compost on the incidence and severity of the the disease. The number of developed leaves of melon ...

  5. Modelling of ammonia emissions from dairy cow houses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monteny, G.J.


    Dairy cow husbandry contributes to environmental acidification through the emission of ammonia. In-depth knowledge on the processes and variable factors that play a role in the emission of ammonia from dairy cow houses benefits the production of emission data, the development of low

  6. Cow's milk challenge through human milk evokes immune responses in infants with cow's milk allergy. (United States)

    Järvinen, K M; Mäkinen-Kiljunen, S; Suomalainen, H


    In order to measure the immune response evoked in breast-fed infants with cow's milk allergy (CMA) by cow's milk challenge through human milk, mothers were given increasing doses of cow's milk after they had been on a cow's milk elimination diet. Another objective was to study the secretion of beta-lactoglobulin (BLG) into human milk before and during milk challenge in relation to the appearance of symptoms in infants. Seventeen asymptomatic mothers who had infants with challenge-proven CMA and 10 asymptomatic mothers who had healthy infants were recruited. Infants ranged in age from 1.8 to 9.4 months. A solid-phase enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISPOT) was used to assess the total number of immunoglobulin-secreting and specific antibody-secreting cells. Flow cytometry was used to enumerate different lymphocyte subpopulations among peripheral blood lymphocytes primed during provocation by cow's milk antigens. BLG levels were assessed in human milk before the challenge and 1, 2, 3, and 4 hours after the commencement of the challenge. All but one of the infants with CMA showed symptoms of CMA during cow's milk challenge through human milk. There was a significant rise in the total number of immunoglobulin-secreting cells in the IgA and IgG classes associated with a positive cow's milk challenge response, but the proportions of peripheral blood B cells bearing CD19, CD23, CD19 and 23, CD5, or CD19 and CD5 were comparable. BLG levels were comparable in both study groups. Most of the infants with CMA reacted to cow's milk challenge through human milk. Hypersensitivity reactions to food antigens through human milk may be more common than previously thought.

  7. Potential Areas of Future Oil and Gas Development, Greater Wattenberg Area, Front Range of Colorado (friogdevu) (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The potential for oil and gas development in the greater Wattenberg area (GWA), which lies near the Front Range between Denver and Greeley, Colo., in the Denver...

  8. Role of maternal elimination diets and human milk IgA in the development of cow's milk allergy in the infants. (United States)

    Järvinen, K M; Westfall, J E; Seppo, M S; James, A K; Tsuang, A J; Feustel, P J; Sampson, H A; Berin, C


    The role of maternal avoidance diets in the prevention of food allergies is currently under debate. Little is known regarding the effects of such diets on human milk (HM) composition or induction of infant humoral responses. To assess the association of maternal cow's milk (CM) avoidance during breastfeeding with specific IgA levels in HM and development of cow's milk allergy (CMA) in infants. We utilized HM and infant serum samples from a prospective birth cohort of 145 dyads. Maternal serum and HM samples were assessed for casein and beta-lactoglobulin (BLG)-specific IgA and IgG by ELISA; 21 mothers prophylactically initiated a strict maternal CM avoidance diet due to a sibling's history of food allergy and 16 due to atopic eczema or regurgitation/vomiting seen in their infants within the first 3 months of life. Infants' sera were assessed for casein and BLG-specific IgG, IgA and IgE; CMA was confirmed by an oral food challenge. The impact of HM on BLG uptake was assessed in transcytosis assays utilizing Caco-2 intestinal epithelial cell line. Mothers avoiding CM had lower casein- and BLG-specific IgA in HM than mothers with no CM restriction (P = 0.019 and P = 0.047). Their infants had lower serum casein- and BLG-specific IgG(1) (P = 0.025 and P < 0.001) and BLG-specific IgG(4) levels (P = 0.037), and their casein- and BLG-specific IgA levels were less often detectable than those with no CM elimination diet (P = 0.003 and P = 0.007). Lower CM-specific IgG4 and IgA levels in turn were associated with infant CMA. Transcytosis of BLG was impaired by HM with high, but not low levels of specific IgA. Maternal CM avoidance was associated with lower levels of mucosal-specific IgA levels and the development of CMA in infants. HM IgA may play a role in preventing excessive, uncontrolled food antigen uptake in the gut lumen and thereby in the prevention of CMA. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Feeding behavior improves prediction of dairy cow voluntary feed intake but cannot serve as the sole indicator. (United States)

    Halachmi, I; Ben Meir, Y; Miron, J; Maltz, E


    Low-cost feeding-behavior sensors will soon be available for commercial use in dairy farms. The aim of this study was to develop a feed intake model for the individual dairy cow that includes feeding behavior. In a research farm, the individual cows' voluntary feed intake and feeding behavior were monitored at every meal. A feed intake model was developed based on data that exist in commercial modern farms: 'BW,' 'milk yield' and 'days in milking' parameters were applied in this study. At the individual cow level, eating velocity seemed to be correlated with feed intake (R 2=0.93 to 0.94). The eating velocity coefficient varied among individuals, ranging from 150 to 230 g/min per cow. The contribution of feeding behavior (0.28) to the dry matter intake (DMI) model was higher than the contribution of BW (0.20), similar to the contribution of fat-corrected milk (FCM)/BW (0.29) and not as large as the contribution of FCM (0.49). Incorporating feeding behavior into the DMI model improved its accuracy by 1.3 (38%) kg/cow per day. The model is ready to be implemented in commercial farms as soon as companies introduce low-cost feeding-behavior sensors on commercial level.

  10. Relationships between urine pH and electrolyte status in cows fed forages. (United States)

    Kume, Shinichi; Sato, Tomoe; Murai, Iori; Kitagawa, Masayuki; Nonaka, Kazuhisa; Oshita, Tomoko


    Data of 20 balance measurements from Holstein dairy cows and urine samples from 24 Japanese Black beef cows were collected to evaluate the relationships between urine pH and electrolyte status in cows fed forages. The ratio of forages in the diet was 70-100% in dairy cows and beef cows were fed Italian ryegrass silage and wheat bran. Mean urine pH in dairy cows was 8.10, ranging from 7.27 to 8.71, and that in beef cows was 7.73, ranging from 7.42 to 8.12. There were positive correlations between urine pH and urinary K contents (P = 0.0012) or K intake (P = 0.019) in dairy cows, although plasma Na, Cl and K had no effect on urine pH. There was a weak negative correlation (P = 0.039) between urine pH and urinary Na content in dairy cows. However, there were no significant correlations between urine pH and urinary Na, Cl and K contents in beef cows. These results indicate that the concentrated urinary K due to the increased K intake may directly enhance urine pH in dairy cows fed mainly forages. © 2011 The Authors. Animal Science Journal © 2011 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  11. Annual and monthly range fidelity of female boreal woodland caribou in respons to petroleum development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boyan V. Tracz


    Full Text Available Petroleum-sector development in northern Alberta, Canada has been implicated as one factor influencing the decline of boreal woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou. Previous research showed that caribou are farther from petroleum-sector disturbances within their home range than expected. As petroleum development increases, the distance caribou can selectively place themselves relative to industrial disturbance must decrease, because distances between disturbances decrease. Conceptually, the number of local disturbances becomes so large that caribou either abandon their local avoidance behaviour or leave their traditional home range. We evaluated whether an intense petroleum- development event in northern Alberta was sufficient to result in home range abandonment by female woodland caribou. Using well locations as an index of petroleum development, we found that caribou studied from 1992 to 2000 did not change their annual or monthly range fidelity as a function of development intensity. Caribou remained in peatland complexes containing a large number of petroleum-sector disturbances rather than move to new areas, presumably because the risks of dispersing across upland habitat to reach other suitable habitat are high. Such range fidelity may have fitness consequences for woodland caribou if they suffer greater predation in areas where petroleum development is occurring.

  12. Between-cow variation in dermal fibroblast response to lipopolysaccharide reflected in resolution of inflammation during Escherichia coli mastitis. (United States)

    Kandasamy, S; Green, B B; Benjamin, A L; Kerr, D E


    Effective response to mammary gland infection depends on efficient early innate immune response. The desired response would be one that is sufficient to clear the infection with a rapid return to the production of high-quality milk and limited tissue damage. In this study, 43 early lactation cows were ranked based on the ability of their fibroblasts to produce IL-8 in response to Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide. Subsequently, the effect of a low or high response phenotype on the response to E. coli mastitis was determined. Untreated fibroblasts produced no detectable IL-8, whereas the range of IL-8 production in response to LPS (100 ng/mL) was approximately 7-fold between the lowest and highest responding cultures. Similar patterns of between-cow variation were observed in fibroblast production of IL-8 and IL-6 in response to IL-1β and Pam2CSK4 (a synthetic diacylated lipopeptide ligand). Four low and 4 high responder cows were challenged in late lactation with intramammary infusion of E. coli. All cows developed clinical mastitis in the challenged quarters and all cows cleared the infection within 8 d. However, somatic cell count began to decline earlier in the low responder group, and milk BSA concentration (an indicator of tissue damage) was also lower in low responders compared with high responders. Milk production from the challenged quarter was markedly depressed in both groups, but returned toward prechallenge values earlier in low responder cows. Dermal fibroblast cells appear predictive of a cow's response to mastitis. In this study, the low responder phenotype was sufficient to contain an E. coli infection with a more rapid return to the production of high quality milk. Copyright © 2011 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Strapák


    Full Text Available The aim of this work was evaluation of milkability in Holstein cows. We collected a total 63 milk flow curves, using electronic mobile milk flow meter – lactocorder. The measuring was carried out in cows from 5 to 305 days in milk. The average milk yield per milking was 15.63 kg, with average milk flow rate 2.84 kg.min-1 and average maximum milk flow rate of 4.49 kg.min-1. The average duration of incline phase was 1.09 min., duration of plateau phase was 1.82. min, and duration of decline phase was 2.26 min. Percentage of bimodal milk flow curves was 52 %, on average. The highest average milk flow rate (3.01 kg.min-1 and the highest average peak milk flow rate (4.96 kg.min-1 were found in cows in second lactation, in comparison with primiparous cows (2.87 kg.min-1, and 4.37 kg.min-1 and cows in another lactation (2.7 kg.min-1, and 4.3 kg.min-1.

  14. Mass spectrometry detection of fraudulent use of cow whey in water buffalo, sheep, or goat Italian ricotta cheese. (United States)

    Camerini, Serena; Montepeloso, Emanuela; Casella, Marialuisa; Crescenzi, Marco; Marianella, Rosa Maria; Fuselli, Fabio


    Ricotta cheese is a typical Italian product, made with whey from various species, including cow, buffalo, sheep, and goat. Ricotta cheese nominally manufactured from the last three species may be fraudulently produced using the comparatively cheaper cow whey. Exposing such food frauds requires a reliable analytical method. Despite the extensive similarities shared by whey proteins of the four species, a mass spectrometry-based analytical method was developed that exploits three species-specific peptides derived from β-lactoglobulin and α-lactalbumin. This method can detect as little as 0.5% bovine whey in ricotta cheese from the other three species. Furthermore, a tight correlation was found (R(2)>0.99) between cow whey percentages and mass spectrometry measurements throughout the 1-50% range. Thus, this method can be used for forensic detection of ricotta cheese adulteration and, if properly validated, to provide quantitative evaluations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Influence of clinical mastitis during early lactation on reproductive performance of Jersey cows. (United States)

    Barker, A R; Schrick, F N; Lewis, M J; Dowlen, H H; Oliver, S P


    The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of clinical mastitis on reproductive performance of high producing Jersey cows. Cows (n = 102) with clinical mastitis during the first 150 d of lactation were evaluated. Groups were balanced according to lactation number and days of lactation and sub-divided as follows: group 1, clinical mastitis before first artificial insemination (AI) (n = 48); group 2, clinical mastitis between first AI and pregnancy (n = 14); group 3, clinical mastitis after confirmed pregnancy (n = 40); and group 4, control cows (n = 103) with no clinical mastitis. No differences in reproductive performance were detected because of milk production or mastitis caused by Gram-positive or Gram-negative pathogens. The number of days to first AI was significantly greater for cows with clinical mastitis before first AI (93.6 d) than for all other groups (71.0 d). Artificial inseminations per conception were significantly greater for cows with clinical mastitis after first AI (2.9) than for cows with clinical mastitis before first AI (1.6), cows with no clinical mastitis, or cows with clinical mastitis after confirmed pregnancy (1.7). The number of days to conception for cows with clinical mastitis after first AI (136.6 d) was significantly greater than that for control cows and that for cows that developed clinical mastitis after confirmed pregnancy (92.1 d). Clinical mastitis during early lactation markedly influenced reproductive performance of Jersey cows.

  16. Effect of concentrate feed level on methane emissions from grazing dairy cows. (United States)

    Jiao, H P; Dale, A J; Carson, A F; Murray, S; Gordon, A W; Ferris, C P


    Although the effect of nutrition on enteric methane (CH4) emissions from confined dairy cattle has been extensively examined, less information is available on factors influencing CH4 emissions from grazing dairy cattle. In the present experiment, 40 Holstein-Friesian dairy cows (12 primiparous and 28 multiparous) were used to examine the effect of concentrate feed level (2.0, 4.0, 6.0, and 8.0 kg/cow per day; fresh basis) on enteric CH4 emissions from cows grazing perennial ryegrass-based swards (10 cows per treatment). Methane emissions were measured on 4 occasions during the grazing period (one 4-d measurement period and three 5-d measurement periods) using the sulfur hexafluoride technique. Milk yield, liveweight, and milk composition for each cow was recorded daily during each CH4 measurement period, whereas daily herbage dry matter intake (DMI) was estimated for each cow from performance data, using the back-calculation approach. Total DMI, milk yield, and energy-corrected milk (ECM) yield increased with increasing concentrate feed level. Within each of the 4 measurement periods, daily CH4 production (g/d) was unaffected by concentrate level, whereas CH4/DMI decreased with increasing concentrate feed level in period 4, and CH4/ECM yield decreased with increasing concentrate feed level in periods 2 and 4. When emissions data were combined across all 4 measurement periods, concentrate feed level (2.0, 4.0, 6.0, and 8.0 kg/d; fresh basis) had no effect on daily CH4 emissions (287, 273, 272, and 277 g/d, respectively), whereas CH4/DMI (20.0, 19.3, 17.7, and 18.1g/kg, respectively) and CH4-E/gross energy intake (0.059, 0.057, 0.053, and 0.054, respectively) decreased with increasing concentrate feed levels. A range of prediction equations for CH4 emissions were developed using liveweight, DMI, ECM yield, and energy intake, with the strongest relationship found between ECM yield and CH4/ECM yield (coefficient of determination = 0.50). These results demonstrate that

  17. Sickness behavior in dairy cows during Escherichia coli mastitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fogsgaard, Katrine Kop; Røntved, Christine Maria; Sørensen, Peter


    The consequences of mastitis in terms of dairy cow behavior are relatively unknown. Future assessment of dairy cow welfare during mastitis will be facilitated by knowledge about the potential of mastitis to induce sickness behavior. Our aim was to examine behavior of dairy cows in the period from 2...... d before (d −2 and −1) to 3 d (d 0, 1, and 2) after experimental intramammary challenge with Escherichia coli. Effects of experimentally induced mastitis on behavior were examined in 20 primiparous Danish Holstein-Friesian cows, all 3 to 6 wk after calving and kept in tie stalls. After evening....... This knowledge can be useful for the development of welfare assessment protocols, early disease detection, and for future work aimed at understanding the behavioral needs of dairy cows suffering from mastitis....

  18. Mapping plant species ranges in the Hawaiian Islands: developing a methodology and associated GIS layers (United States)

    Price, Jonathan P.; Jacobi, James D.; Gon, Samuel M.; Matsuwaki, Dwight; Mehrhoff, Loyal; Wagner, Warren; Lucas, Matthew; Rowe, Barbara


    This report documents a methodology for projecting the geographic ranges of plant species in the Hawaiian Islands. The methodology consists primarily of the creation of several geographic information system (GIS) data layers depicting attributes related to the geographic ranges of plant species. The most important spatial-data layer generated here is an objectively defined classification of climate as it pertains to the distribution of plant species. By examining previous zonal-vegetation classifications in light of spatially detailed climate data, broad zones of climate relevant to contemporary concepts of vegetation in the Hawaiian Islands can be explicitly defined. Other spatial-data layers presented here include the following: substrate age, as large areas of the island of Hawai'i, in particular, are covered by very young lava flows inimical to the growth of many plant species; biogeographic regions of the larger islands that are composites of multiple volcanoes, as many of their species are restricted to a given topographically isolated mountain or a specified group of them; and human impact, which can reduce the range of many species relative to where they formerly were found. Other factors influencing the geographic ranges of species that are discussed here but not developed further, owing to limitations in rendering them spatially, include topography, soils, and disturbance. A method is described for analyzing these layers in a GIS, in conjunction with a database of species distributions, to project the ranges of plant species, which include both the potential range prior to human disturbance and the projected present range. Examples of range maps for several species are given as case studies that demonstrate different spatial characteristics of range. Several potential applications of species-range maps are discussed, including facilitating field surveys, informing restoration efforts, studying range size and rarity, studying biodiversity, managing

  19. Environmental and cow-related factors affect cow locomotion and can cause misclassification in lameness detection systems. (United States)

    Van Nuffel, A; Van De Gucht, T; Saeys, W; Sonck, B; Opsomer, G; Vangeyte, J; Mertens, K C; De Ketelaere, B; Van Weyenberg, S


    To tackle the high prevalence of lameness, techniques to monitor cow locomotion are being developed in order to detect changes in cows' locomotion due to lameness. Obviously, in such lameness detection systems, alerts should only respond to locomotion changes that are related to lameness. However, other environmental or cow factors can contribute to locomotion changes not related to lameness and hence, might cause false alerts. In this study the effects of wet surfaces, dark environment, age, production level, lactation and gestation stage on cow locomotion were investigated. Data was collected at Institute for Agricultural and Fisheries Research research farm (Melle, Belgium) during a 5-month period. The gait variables of 30 non-lame and healthy Holstein cows were automatically measured every day. In dark environments and on wet walking surfaces cows took shorter, more asymmetrical strides with less step overlap. In general, older cows had a more asymmetrical gait and they walked slower with more abduction. Lactation stage or gestation stage also showed significant association with asymmetrical and shorter gait and less step overlap probably due to the heavy calf in the uterus. Next, two lameness detection algorithms were developed to investigate the added value of environmental and cow data into detection models. One algorithm solely used locomotion variables and a second algorithm used the same locomotion variables and additional environmental and cow data. In the latter algorithm only age and lactation stage together with the locomotion variables were withheld during model building. When comparing the sensitivity for the detection of non-lame cows, sensitivity increased by 10% when the cow data was added in the algorithm (sensitivity was 70% and 80% for the first and second algorithm, respectively). Hence, the number of false alerts for lame cows that were actually non-lame, decreased. This pilot study shows that using knowledge on influencing factors on cow

  20. Development of expanded host range phage active on biofilms of multi-drug resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (United States)

    Mapes, Abigail C.; Trautner, Barbara W.; Liao, Kershena S.; Ramig, Robert F.


    ABSTRACT Phage therapy is a promising treatment of multi-drug resistant (MDR) bacterial infections but is limited by the narrow host range of phage. To overcome this limitation, we developed a host range expansion (HRE) protocol that expands the host range of Pseudomonas aeruginosa-specific phage by cycles of co-incubation of phage with multiple P. aeruginosa strains. Application of the HRE protocol to a mixture of 4 phages, using 16 P. aeruginosa strains for development, resulted in undefined phage mixtures with greatly expanded host range. Individual phage clones derived from the undefined mixture had expanded host ranges but no individual clone could lyse all of the strains covered by the undefined mixture from which it was isolated. Reconstituting host range-characterized clones into cocktails produced defined cocktails with predictable and broad host ranges. The undefined mixture from the 30th cycle of the mixed-phage HRE (4ϕC30) showed a dose-dependent ability to prevent biofilm formation by, and to reduce a pre-existing biofilm of, 3 P. aeruginosa clinical isolates that produced high amounts of biofilm. A defined cocktail reconstituted from 3 host range-characterized clones had activity on high biofilm-formers susceptible to the phage. Phage therapy was superior to antibiotic therapy (levofloxacin) in a strain of P. aeruginosa that was resistant to levofloxacin. The HRE protocol establishes a rapid approach to create libraries of phage clones and phage cocktails with broad host range, defined composition and anti-biofilm activity. PMID:27144083



    Peter Strapák; Zuzana Súkeníková; Peter Antalík


    The aim of this work was evaluation of milkability in Holstein cows. We collected a total 63 milk flow curves, using electronic mobile milk flow meter – lactocorder. The measuring was carried out in cows from 5 to 305 days in milk. The average milk yield per milking was 15.63 kg, with average milk flow rate 2.84 kg.min-1 and average maximum milk flow rate of 4.49 kg.min-1. The average duration of incline phase was 1.09 min., duration of plateau phase was 1.82. min, and duration of decline pha...

  2. Physicochemical and Microbiological Properties of Yogurt-cheese Manufactured with Ultrafiltrated Cow's Milk and Soy Milk Blends


    Lee, Na-Kyoung; Mok, Bo Ram; Jeewanthi, Renda Kankanamge Chaturika; Yoon, Yoh Chang; Paik, Hyun-Dong


    The objective of this study was to develop yogurt-cheese using cow?s milk, ultrafiltrated cow?s milk, and soy milk. The addition of soy milk and ultrafiltrated milk increased the amount of protein in the yogurt-cheese. Yogurt-cheeses were made using cheese base using 10% and 20% soy milk with raw and ultrafiltrated cow?s milk, and stored at 4? during 2 wk. The yield of yogurt-cheeses made with added soy milk was decreased and the cutting point was delayed compared to yogurt-cheese made withou...

  3. Prevalence of subclinical ketosis and relationships with postpartum diseases in European dairy cows. (United States)

    Suthar, V S; Canelas-Raposo, J; Deniz, A; Heuwieser, W


    Subclinical ketosis (SCK) is defined as concentrations of β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) ≥ 1.2 to 1.4 mmol/L and it is considered a gateway condition for other metabolic and infectious disorders such as metritis, mastitis, clinical ketosis, and displaced abomasum. Reported prevalence rates range from 6.9 to 43% in the first 2 mo of lactation. However, there is a dearth of information on prevalence rates considering the diversity of European dairy farms. The objectives of this study were to (1) determine prevalence of SCK, (2) identify thresholds of BHBA, and (3) study their relationships with postpartum metritis, clinical ketosis, displaced abomasum, lameness, and mastitis in European dairy farms. From May to October 2011, a convenience sample of 528 dairy herds from Croatia, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Poland, Portugal, Serbia, Slovenia, Spain, and Turkey was studied. β-Hydroxybutyrate levels were measured in 5,884 cows with a handheld meter within 2 to 15 d in milk (DIM). On average, 11 cows were enrolled per farm and relevant information (e.g., DIM, postpartum diseases, herd size) was recorded. Using receiver operator characteristic curve analyses, blood BHBA thresholds were determined for the occurrence of metritis, mastitis, clinical ketosis, displaced abomasum, and lameness. Multivariate binary logistic regression models were built for each disease, considering cow as the experimental unit and herd as a random effect. Overall prevalence of SCK (i.e., blood BHBA ≥ 1.2 mmol/L) within 10 countries was 21.8%, ranging from 11.2 to 36.6%. Cows with SCK had 1.5, 9.5, and 5.0 times greater odds of developing metritis, clinical ketosis, and displaced abomasum, respectively. Multivariate binary logistic regression models demonstrated that cows with blood BHBA levels of ≥ 1.4, ≥ 1.1 and ≥ 1.7 mmol/L during 2 to 15 DIM had 1.7, 10.5, and 6.9 times greater odds of developing metritis, clinical ketosis, and displaced abomasum, respectively, compared with cows with lower

  4. Feeding a soy formula to children with cow's milk allergy: the development of immunoglobulin E-mediated allergy to soy and peanuts. (United States)

    Klemola, Timo; Kalimo, Kirsti; Poussa, Tuija; Juntunen-Backman, Kaisu; Korpela, Riitta; Valovirta, Erkka; Vanto, Timo


    Peanut allergy has been associated with the intake of soy milk or a soy formula. We studied the development of immunoglobulin E antibodies specific to soy and peanuts and of allergic reactions caused by peanuts, in children with confirmed cow's milk (CM) allergy fed either a soy formula or an extensively hydrolyzed formula (EHF). One hundred and seventy infants with documented CM allergy (CMA) were randomly assigned to receive either a soy formula or an EHF. The children were followed to the age of 4 yr. Peanut-specific immunoglobulin E was measured at the age of 4. A detailed history of the occurrence of allergic reactions caused by peanuts was recorded by the parents. Soy-specific immunoglobulin E antibodies were measured at the time of diagnosis and at the ages of 1, 2 and 4 yr. Immunoglobulin E antibodies to soy (> or =0.35 kU/l) were found in 22 of 70 children fed the soy formula, and in 14 of 70 of the children fed the EHF (p = 0.082). In an open challenge with soy at the age of 4, no immediate reactions were observed. One of 72 children from the soy group had a delayed reaction. immunoglobulin E antibodies to peanuts (> or =0.35 kU/l) were found in 21 of 70 children fed the soy formula and 17 of 69 infants fed the EHF (p = 0.717). The incidence of reported peanut allergy in the soy group was two of 72 (3%) and four of 76 (5%) in the EHF group (p = 0.68). Development of immunoglobulin E-associated allergy to soy and peanuts was rare in our study group of milk allergic children. The use of a soy formula during the first 2 yr of life did not increase the risk of development of peanut-specific immunoglobulin E antibodies or of clinical peanut allergy.

  5. The Relationship of Cow Comfort and Flooring to Lameness Disorders in Dairy Cattle. (United States)

    Endres, Marcia I


    Cow comfort and flooring contribute to lameness incidence in dairy herds. The trigger factors for lameness can all be exacerbated by poor cow comfort. Reduced cow comfort influences lameness incidence by increasing the risk for development of new cases and the time it takes for a cow to recover. Reduction in resting time will increase the cow's exposure to hard flooring surfaces. Many factors are associated with lameness prevalence. Housing and management factors should be optimized to reduce lameness incidence on dairy farms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. A comparison of individual cow versus group concentrate allocation strategies on dry matter intake, milk production, tissue changes, and fertility of Holstein-Friesian cows offered a grass silage diet. (United States)

    Little, M W; O'Connell, N E; Ferris, C P


    A diverse range of concentrate allocation strategies are adopted on dairy farms. The objectives of this study were to examine the effects on cow performance [dry matter (DM) intake (DMI), milk yield and composition, body tissue changes, and fertility] of adopting 2 contrasting concentrate allocation strategies over the first 140 d of lactation. Seventy-seven Holstein-Friesian dairy cows were allocated to 1 of 2 concentrate allocation strategies at calving, namely group or individual cow. Cows on the group strategy were offered a mixed ration comprising grass silage and concentrates in a 50:50 ratio on a DM basis. Cows on the individual cow strategy were offered a basal mixed ration comprising grass silage and concentrates (the latter included in the mix to achieve a mean intake of 6kg/cow per day), which was formulated to meet the cow's energy requirements for maintenance plus 24kg of milk/cow per day. Additional concentrates were offered via an out-of-parlor feeding system, with the amount offered adjusted weekly based on each individual cow's milk yield during the previous week. In addition, all cows received a small quantity of straw in the mixed ration part of the diet (approximately 0.3kg/cow per day), plus 0.5kg of concentrate twice daily in the milking parlor. Mean concentrate intakes over the study period were similar with each of the 2 allocation strategies (11.5 and 11.7kg of DM/cow per day for group and individual cow, respectively), although the pattern of intake with each treatment differed over time. Concentrate allocation strategy had no effect on either milk yield (39.3 and 38.0kg/d for group and individual cow, respectively), milk composition, or milk constituent yield. The milk yield response curves with each treatment were largely aligned with the concentrate DMI curves. Cows on the individual cow treatment had a greater range of concentrate DMI and milk yields than those on the group treatment. With the exception of a tendency for cows on the

  7. Quantification of lactose content in human and cow's milk using UPLC-tandem mass spectrometry. (United States)

    Fusch, Gerhard; Choi, Arum; Rochow, Niels; Fusch, Christoph


    A sensitive, accurate, and specific quantitative UPLC-MS/MS method was developed for lactose measurement of cow's and human milk and validated with cow's milk samples certified by an external laboratory. The new method employs only a dilution of raw cow's and human milk for simple preparation with no need to remove protein and fat prior to analysis with UPLC-MS/MS. It was operated in negative mode to detect lactose molecules and labeled (13)C(12)-lactose with the highest sensitivity. The principle advantages of the new LC-MS/MS method were: completed lactose determination in 5 min, absolute recovery of 97-107%, lower limit of detection cow's and human milk. The mean lactose concentration of 51 human milk samples was measured as 56.8 ± 5.5 g/L ranging from 43 to 65 g/L. The described method represents validated lactose analysis with high accuracy and precision for a routine lactose determination in raw human milk. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Optimal insemination and replacement decisions to minimize the cost of pathogen-specific clinical mastitis in dairy cows. (United States)

    Cha, E; Kristensen, A R; Hertl, J A; Schukken, Y H; Tauer, L W; Welcome, F L; Gröhn, Y T


    Mastitis is a serious production-limiting disease, with effects on milk yield, milk quality, and conception rate, and an increase in the risk of mortality and culling. The objective of this study was 2-fold: (1) to develop an economic optimization model that incorporates all the different types of pathogens that cause clinical mastitis (CM) categorized into 8 classes of culture results, and account for whether the CM was a first, second, or third case in the current lactation and whether the cow had a previous case or cases of CM in the preceding lactation; and (2) to develop this decision model to be versatile enough to add additional pathogens, diseases, or other cow characteristics as more information becomes available without significant alterations to the basic structure of the model. The model provides economically optimal decisions depending on the individual characteristics of the cow and the specific pathogen causing CM. The net returns for the basic herd scenario (with all CM included) were $507/cow per year, where the incidence of CM (cases per 100 cow-years) was 35.6, of which 91.8% of cases were recommended for treatment under an optimal replacement policy. The cost per case of CM was $216.11. The CM cases comprised (incidences, %) Staphylococcus spp. (1.6), Staphylococcus aureus (1.8), Streptococcus spp. (6.9), Escherichia coli (8.1), Klebsiella spp. (2.2), other treated cases (e.g., Pseudomonas; 1.1), other not treated cases (e.g., Trueperella pyogenes; 1.2), and negative culture cases (12.7). The average cost per case, even under optimal decisions, was greatest for Klebsiella spp. ($477), followed by E. coli ($361), other treated cases ($297), and other not treated cases ($280). This was followed by the gram-positive pathogens; among these, the greatest cost per case was due to Staph. aureus ($266), followed by Streptococcus spp. ($174) and Staphylococcus spp. ($135); negative culture had the lowest cost ($115). The model recommended treatment for

  9. Effects of equine chorionic gonadotrophin on follicular, luteal and conceptus development of non-lactating Bos indicus beef cows subjected to a progesterone plus estradiol-based timed artificial insemination protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Pitaluga Costa e Silva Filho


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG on ovarian follicular responses, corpus luteum (CL development and conceptus length on day 16 after timed artificial insemination (TAI. A total of 124 cows at day 0 (D0 received 2 mg of estradiol benzoate (EB and the insertion of a progesterone (P4 intravaginal device. Eight days later, the device was removed, and cows received 0.15 mg of prostaglandin and 0.5 mg of estradiol cypionate (EC, and were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatments: eCG (n=60, in which cows received 300 U of eCG; and control (n=64. Cows were TAI 48 h after P4 device removal. The diameter of the largest follicle (LF present on D8 and D10 and of CL on D15 and D26 were measured. Conceptus recovered rate, conceptus length, CL diameter and weight were determined at slaughter on D26. Plasma P4 concentration was determined on D15 and D26. Follicular growth from D8 to D10 (P=0.03, the diameter of CL at D15 (P=0.03 and D26 (P=0.003 and the CL weight at day 26 (P=0.04 were greater in the eCG group than the control. However, there was no effect of eCG treatment on oestrus occurrence, conceptus recovery rate and length, or P4 concentrations on either D15 or D26. In conclusion, although eCG increases follicular responses and the diameter of the CL, this gonadotropin treatment does not influence the length of the conceptus or the P4 concentration on the subsequent oestrus cycle.

  10. [Cow's milk protein allergy through human milk]. (United States)

    Denis, M; Loras-Duclaux, I; Lachaux, A


    Cow's milk protein allergy (CMPA) is the first allergy that affects infants. In this population, the incidence rate reaches 7.5%. The multiplicity and aspecificity of the symptoms makes its diagnosis sometimes complicated, especially in the delayed type (gastrointestinal, dermatological, and cutaneous). CMPA symptoms can develop in exclusively breastfed infants with an incidence rate of 0.5%. It, therefore, raises questions about sensitization to cow's milk proteins through breast milk. Transfer of native bovine proteins such as β-lactoglobulin into the breast milk is controversial: some authors have found bovine proteins in human milk but others point to cross-reactivity between human milk proteins and cow's milk proteins. However, it seems that a small percentage of dietary proteins can resist digestion and become potentially allergenic. Moreover, some authors suspect the transfer of some of these dietary proteins from the maternal bloodstream to breast milk, but the mechanisms governing sensitization are still being studied. Theoretically, CMPA diagnosis is based on clinical observations, prick-test or patch-test results, and cow's milk-specific IgE antibody concentration. A positive food challenge test usually confirms the diagnosis. No laboratory test is available to make a certain diagnosis, but the detection of eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) in the mother's milk, for example, seems to be advantageous since it is linked to CMA. Excluding cow's milk from the mother's diet is the only cure when she still wants to breastfeed. Usually, cow's milk proteins are reintroduced after 6 months of exclusion. Indeed, the prognosis for infants is very good: 80% acquire a tolerance before the age of 3 or 4 years. Mothers should not avoid dairy products during pregnancy and breastfeeding as preventive measures against allergy. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. [Dietetic treatment of cow's milk protein allergy]. (United States)

    Dupont, C; Chouraqui, J-P; de Boissieu, D; Bocquet, A; Bresson, J-L; Briend, A; Darmaun, D; Frelut, M-L; Ghisolfi, J; Girardet, J-P; Goulet, O; Hankard, R; Rieu, D; Rigo, J; Vidailhet, M; Turck, D


    New data on food allergy has recently changed the management of children with cow's milk protein allergy (CMPA). The diagnosis of CMPA first requires the elimination of cow's milk proteins and then an oral provocation test following a standard diagnostic procedure for food allergy, without which the elimination diet is unjustified and sometimes harmful. Once the diagnosis is made, the elimination diet is strict, at least until the age of 9-12 months. If the child is not breastfed or the mother cannot or no longer wishes to breastfeed, the first choice is a formula based on extensive hydrolyzate of cow's milk (eHF), provided that its effectiveness has been demonstrated. When eHF fails, a formula based on amino acids is warranted. eHF based on rice protein hydrolysates is an alternative to cow's milk eHF. Infant formulas based on soy protein can be used after the age of 6 months, after verification of good clinical tolerance to soy. Most commonly, CMPA disappears within 2 or 3 years of life. However, the age of recovery varies depending on the child and the type of CMPA, and whether or not it is IgE-mediated, the first being more sustainable. When the child grows, a hospital oral provocation test evaluates the development of tolerance and, if possible, authorizes continuing the reintroduction of milk proteins at home. Some children with CMPA will tolerate only a limited daily amount of cow's milk proteins. The current therapeutic options are designed to accelerate the acquisition of tolerance, which seems facilitated by regular exposure to cow's milk proteins. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  12. Evaluation of between-cow variation in milk urea and rumen ammonia nitrogen concentrations and the association with nitrogen utilization and diet digestibility in lactating cows. (United States)

    Huhtanen, P; Cabezas-Garcia, E H; Krizsan, S J; Shingfield, K J


    Concentrations of milk urea N (MUN) are influenced by dietary crude protein concentration and intake and could therefore be used as a biomarker of the efficiency of N utilization for milk production (milk N/N intake; MNE) in lactating cows. In the present investigation, data from milk-production trials (production data set; n=1,804 cow/period observations from 21 change-over studies) and metabolic studies involving measurements of nutrient flow at the omasum in lactating cows (flow data set; n=450 cow/period observations from 29 studies) were used to evaluate the influence of between-cow variation on the relationship of MUN with MNE, urinary N (UN) output, and diet digestibility. All measurements were made on cows fed diets based on grass silage supplemented with a range of protein supplements. Data were analyzed by mixed-model regression analysis with diet within experiment and period within experiment as random effects, allowing the effect of diet and period to be excluded. Between-cow coefficient of variation in MUN concentration and MNE was 0.13 and 0.07 in the production data set and 0.11 and 0.08 in the flow data set, respectively. Based on residual variance, the best model for predicting MNE developed from the production data set was MNE (g/kg)=238 + 7.0 × milk yield (MY; kg/d) - 0.064 × MY(2) - 2.7 × MUN (mg/dL) - 0.10 body weight (kg). For the flow data set, including both MUN and rumen ammonia N concentration with MY in the model accounted for more variation in MNE than when either term was used with MY alone. The best model for predicting UN excretion developed from the production data set (n=443) was UN (g/d)=-29 + 4.3 × dry matter intake (kg/d) + 4.3 × MUN + 0.14 × body weight. Between-cow variation had a smaller influence on the association of MUN with MNE and UN output than published estimates of these relationships based on treatment means, in which differences in MUN generally arise from variation in dietary crude protein concentration. For

  13. Short communication: Calving site selection of multiparous, group-housed dairy cows is influenced by site of a previous calving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rørvang, Maria Vilain; Nielsen, B.L.; Herskin, Mette S.


    A calving cow and her newborn calf appear to have an attracting effect on periparturient cows, which may potentially influence the functionality of future motivation-based calving pen designs. In this pilot study we examined whether calving site selection of group-housed Holstein dairy cows...... was affected by the site of a previous calving. Ten multiparous cows moved to 1 of 2 group pens 11 (range = 4–27) d before calving were included. Each pen consisted of an open area (9 × 9 m) connected to 6 secluded areas (4.5 × 3 m each), where cows could move freely between all areas. Time of calving......, location of the breaking of the amniotic sac, as well as the place of birth were recorded. In all but 1 case cows calved within a distance of 1 cow length from where the previous calving took place, suggesting that the cows did not select calving site at random. These preliminary observations indicate...

  14. Drinking and Cleaning Water Use in a Dairy Cow Barn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Krauß


    Full Text Available Water is used in dairy farming for producing feed, watering the animals, and cleaning and disinfecting barns and equipment. The objective of this study was to investigate the drinking and cleaning water use in a dairy cow barn. The water use was measured on a well-managed commercial dairy farm in North-East Germany. Thirty-eight water meters were installed in a barn with 176 cows and two milking systems (an automatic milking system and a herringbone parlour. Their counts were logged hourly over 806 days. On average, the cows in the automatic milking system used 91.1 (SD 14.3 L drinking water per cow per day, while those in the herringbone parlour used 54.4 (SD 5.3 L per cow per day. The cows drink most of the water during the hours of (natural and artificial light in the barn. Previously published regression functions of drinking water intake of the cows were reviewed and a new regression function based on the ambient temperature and the milk yield was developed (drinking water intake (L per cow per day = −27.937 + 0.49 × mean temperature + 3.15 × milk yield (R2 = 0.67. The cleaning water demand had a mean of 28.6 (SD 14.8 L per cow per day in the automatic milking system, and a mean of 33.8 (SD 14.1 L per cow per day in the herringbone parlour. These findings show that the total technical water use in the barn makes only a minor contribution to water use in dairy farming compared with the water use for feed production.

  15. Cow's milk - infants (United States)

    ... cow's milk. To provide the best diet and nutrition for your infant, the AAP recommends: If possible, you should feed ... and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team. Infant and Newborn Nutrition Read more NIH MedlinePlus Magazine Read more Health ...

  16. A Newly Developed X-Y Planar Nano-Motion Table System with Large Travel Ranges (United States)

    Kurisaki, Yugo; Sawano, Hiroshi; Yoshioka, Hayato; Shinno, Hidenori

    Precision motion control technology has been widely used in high accuracy applications such as advanced scientific instruments and semiconductor fabrication equipment. In particular, the nano-motion control system with multiple degrees of freedom positioning in large travel ranges has been required in the field of precision engineering. In order to realize such a system, it is necessary and indispensable to develop a planar motion table system based on a new design concept. This paper presents a newly developed X-Y planar nano-motion table system with large travel ranges. This system is composed of a fine motion table and a coarse motion mechanism. The fine motion table is supported by porous aerostatic bearings and driven by voice coil motors with a laser interferometer feedback in a perfect non-contact condition. In addition, the table is driven at the center of gravity during the X-Y planar motion. The coarse motion mechanism has the frame structure with the coils of voice coil motors for the fine motion table. In order to enlarge the table travel ranges, the coarse motion mechanism follows the fine table motion. Performance evaluation results confirm that the developed table system has a remarkable performance which includes nanometer positioning capability over large travel ranges.

  17. Follicular dynamics and concentrations of steroids and gonadotropins in lactating cows and nulliparous heifers. (United States)

    Wolfenson, David; Inbar, Gil; Roth, Zvi; Kaim, Moshe; Bloch, Amir; Braw-Tal, Ruth


    Differences in follicular development and circulating hormone concentrations, between lactating cows and nulliparous heifers, that may relate to differences in fertility between the groups, were examined. Multiparous, cyclic, lactating Holstein cows (n=19) and cyclic heifers (n=20) were examined in the winter, during one estrous cycle. The examinations included ultrasound monitoring and daily blood sampling. Distributions of two-wave and three-wave cycles were similar in the two groups: 79 and 21% in cows, 70 and 30% in heifers, respectively. Cycle lengths were shorter by 2.6 days in heifers than in cows, and in two-wave than in three-wave cycles. The ovulatory follicle was smaller in heifers than in cows (13.0+/-0.3 mm versus 16.5+/-0.05 mm). The greater numbers of large follicles in cows than in heifers corresponded well to the higher concentrations of FSH in cows. The duration of dominance of the ovulatory follicle tended to be longer in cows than in heifers. Estradiol concentrations around estrus and the preovulatory LH surge were higher in heifers than in cows (20 versus 9 ng/ml). Progesterone concentrations were higher in heifers than in cows from Day 3 to Day 16 of the cycle. Circulating progesterone did not differ between two-wave and three-wave cycles. The results revealed differences in ovarian follicular dynamics, and in plasma concentrations of steroids and gonadotropins; these may account for the differences in fertility between nulliparous heifers and multiparous lactating cows.

  18. Grazing dairy cows in North-West Europe : Economic farm performance and future developments with emphasis on the Dutch situation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijs, J.W.; Daatselaar, C.H.G.; Helming, J.F.M.; Jager, J.H.; Beldman, A.C.G.


    The dairy sector is an important contributor to food production, economic activity and land use in the European Union. Grazing has long been a traditional element of dairy farming in the EU. Current developments in the dairy sector appear to result in a decline in grazing. The World Society for the

  19. Cows Milk-Dependent Exercise- Induced Anaphylaxis under the Condition of a Premenstrual or Ovulatory Phase Following Skin Sensitization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshinori Bito


    Discussion: The symptoms against cows milk began when she took baths with bath salts containing cows milk as its main ingredient for one year at the age 15 years. Sensitization to cows milk through eczematous skin is indicated from this history. Hormonal change during a premenstrual or ovulatory phase is also an important factor for the development of FDEIA in this case.

  20. Effect of different scenarios for selective dry-cow therapy on udder health, antimicrobial usage, and economics. (United States)

    Scherpenzeel, C G M; den Uijl, I E M; van Schaik, G; Riekerink, R G M Olde; Hogeveen, H; Lam, T J G M


    The goal of dry-cow therapy (DCT) is to reduce the prevalence of intramammary infections (IMI) by eliminating existing IMI at drying off and preventing new IMI from occurring during the dry period. Due to public health concerns, however, preventive use of antimicrobials has become questionable. In this study, we evaluated the effects of 8 scenarios for selecting animals for DCT, taking into account variation in parity and cow-level somatic cell count (SCC) at drying off. The aim of this study was to evaluate udder health, antimicrobial usage, and economics at the herd level when using different scenarios for selecting cows for DCT. To enable calculation and comparison of the effects of different scenarios to select cows for DCT in an "average" herd, we created an example herd, with a virtual herd size of 100 dairy cows to be calving during a year. Udder health, antimicrobial usage, and economics were evaluated during the dry period and the first 100 d in lactation, the period during which the greatest effect of DCT is expected. This leads to an estimated 13,551 cow-days at risk during a year in a 100-cow dairy herd. In addition to a blanket DCT (BDCT) scenario, we developed 7 scenarios to select cows for DCT based on SCC. The scenarios covered a range of possible approaches to select low-SCC cows for DCT, all based on cow-level SCC thresholds on the last milk recording before drying off. The incidence rate of clinical mastitis in the example herd varied from 11.6 to 14.5 cases of clinical mastitis per 10,000 cow-days at risk in the different scenarios, and the prevalence of subclinical mastitis varied from 38.8% in scenario 1 (BDCT) to 48.3% in scenario 8. Total antimicrobial usage for DCT and clinical mastitis treatment varied over the scenarios from 1.27 (scenario 8) to 3.15 animal daily dosages (BDCT), leading to a maximum reduction in antimicrobial usage of 60% for scenario 8 compared with BDCT. The total costs for each of the scenarios showed little variation

  1. 3D range-modulator for scanned particle therapy: development, Monte Carlo simulations and experimental evaluation (United States)

    Simeonov, Yuri; Weber, Uli; Penchev, Petar; Printz Ringbæk, Toke; Schuy, Christoph; Brons, Stephan; Engenhart-Cabillic, Rita; Bliedtner, Jens; Zink, Klemens


    The purpose of this work was to design and manufacture a 3D range-modulator for scanned particle therapy. The modulator is intended to create a highly conformal dose distribution with only one fixed energy, simultaneously reducing considerably the treatment time. As a proof of concept, a 3D range-modulator was developed for a spherical target volume with a diameter of 5 cm, placed at a depth of 25 cm in a water phantom. It consists of a large number of thin pins with a well-defined shape and different lengths to modulate the necessary shift of the Bragg peak. The 3D range-modulator was manufactured with a rapid prototyping technique. The FLUKA Monte Carlo package was used to simulate the modulating effect of the 3D range-modulator and the resulting dose distribution. For that purpose, a special user routine was implemented to handle its complex geometrical contour. Additionally, FLUKA was extended with the capability of intensity modulated scanning. To validate the simulation results, dose measurements were carried out at the Heidelberg Ion Beam Therapy Center with a 400.41 MeV/u 12C beam. The high resolution dosimetric measurements show a good agreement between simulated and measured dose distributions. Irradiation of the monoenergetic raster plan took 3 s, which is approximately 20 times shorter than a comparable plan with 16 different energies. The combination of only one energy and a 3D range-modulator leads to a tremendous decrease in irradiation time. ‘Interplay effects’, typical for moving targets and pencil beam scanning, can be immensely reduced or disappear completely, making the delivery of a homogeneous dose to moving targets more reliable. Combining high dose conformity, very good homogeneity and extremely short irradiation times, the 3D range-modulator is considered to become a clinically applicable method for very fast treatment of lung tumours.

  2. Development of nitrogen and methane losses in the first eight weeks of lactation in Holstein cows subjected to deficiency of utilisable crude protein under restrictive feeding conditions. (United States)

    Sutter, Franz; Schwarm, Angela; Kreuzer, Michael


    Low-protein diets are increasingly being used in dairy cow nutrition to minimise noxious nitrogen (N) emissions. However, at parturition, the lower milk yield at that time may mask deficiency in dietary utilisable crude protein (uCP; equivalent to metabolisable protein). Under restrictive feeding conditions, farmers would limit the feed allowance to match the lower measured milk yield, thereby exacerbating the deficiency. The consequences for N emission intensity per kg milk yield and methane emissions are unknown. In this study, two diets were fed to nine Holstein cows each from parturition onwards. One diet was complete and the other was calculated as 20% deficient in uCP. Feed allowance was always oriented towards the measured milk yield. In each of the first eight lactation weeks, intake and excretion were measured for 5 d. On the last 2 d of this period, methane emission was measured in respiration chambers. The statistical model included treatment, week and interaction as effects. The real levels of uCP and energy supply across the 8 weeks were 33% and 15% below requirements, respectively, in the Deficient cows. In addition, the Deficient cows consumed 18% less dry matter (caused by substantial refusals in week 1, where energy supply was according to requirements) and produced 25% less milk (26 vs. 34 kg/d). Cows in both groups used dietary N with similar efficiency for milk protein synthesis and excreted similar proportions of the N ingested via urine and faeces. This resulted in both treatments having similar N emission intensities per kg milk N and similar urinary N as a proportion of total excreta N, suggesting a similar potential for gaseous N emissions from the manure per kg of milk. The Deficient cows emitted 22% less methane overall but had similar methane yield and emission intensity to the Controls. In conclusion, a reduction in crude protein intake immediately after parturition does not reduce N emission per unit of milk when associated with u

  3. Malignant melanoma in a cow


    Mesarić M.; Zadnik T.; Cerne Manca


    A malignant melanoma located in the area of the ocular orbit and maxillary sinus of a 2,5 year old, female Brown Swiss cow is described. Complete clinical examination of the cow was performed and blood samples were taken for haematological analyses. According to the unfavorable prognosis, the cow was submitted for necropsy. After necropsy representative sections of tissue were sampled for gross and micro histopathology. Selected sections of tissue were stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Clin...

  4. Development of a low power miniature linear ion trap mass spectrometer with extended mass range (United States)

    Li, Gang; Li, Detian; Cheng, Yongjun; Pei, Xiaoqiang; Zhang, Huzhong; Wang, Yongjun; Sun, Jian; Dong, Meng


    A miniaturized ion trap mass spectrometer with continuous atmospheric pressure interface was built, which could be used in conjunction with internal ionization (in-vacuum plasma ionization) and external ionization (electrospray ionization). To improve its mass range, a supplemental AC signal frequency scan mode was performed for this miniature mass spectrometer, in which the fundamental RF signal was remained constant with an amplitude as low as several hundreds volts. Experiments showed that the upper limit of the mass range can be extended to 2500 Da for the miniature mass spectrometer developed in this work, and the power consumption can be reduced by 2/5, while maintaining good balance with performance parameters such as stability, sensitivity, and resolution. Due to the improvement in mass range and significant reduction in energy consumption compared with the instrument using the traditional resonant ejection mode, the scan method developed in this work is helpful to promote the miniature design of mass spectrometers for field analysis and space exploration.

  5. Mid-infrared spectrometry of milk as a predictor of energy intake and efficiency in lactating dairy cows. (United States)

    McParland, S; Lewis, E; Kennedy, E; Moore, S G; McCarthy, B; O'Donovan, M; Butler, S T; Pryce, J E; Berry, D P


    Interest is increasing in the feed intake complex of individual dairy cows, both for management and animal breeding. However, energy intake data on an individual-cow basis are not routinely available. The objective of the present study was to quantify the ability of routinely undertaken mid-infrared (MIR) spectroscopy analysis of individual cow milk samples to predict individual cow energy intake and efficiency. Feed efficiency in the present study was described by residual feed intake (RFI), which is the difference between actual energy intake and energy used (e.g., milk production, maintenance, and body tissue anabolism) or supplied from body tissue mobilization. A total of 1,535 records for energy intake, RFI, and milk MIR spectral data were available from an Irish research herd across 36 different test days from 535 lactations on 378 cows. Partial least squares regression analyses were used to relate the milk MIR spectral data to either energy intake or efficiency. The coefficient of correlation (REX) of models to predict RFI across lactation ranged from 0.48 to 0.60 in an external validation data set; the predictive ability was, however, strongest (REX=0.65) in early lactation (energy intake across lactation (REX=0.70). The correlation between measured RFI and measured energy balance across lactation was 0.85, whereas the correlation between RFI and energy balance, both predicted from the MIR spectrum, was 0.65. Milk MIR spectral data are routinely generated for individual cows throughout lactation and, therefore, the prediction equations developed in the present study can be immediately (and retrospectively where MIR spectral data have been stored) applied to predict energy intake and efficiency to aid in management and breeding decisions. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of grazing on the cow welfare of dairy herds evaluated by a multidimensional welfare index. (United States)

    Burow, E; Rousing, T; Thomsen, P T; Otten, N D; Sørensen, J T


    Structural development in the prime sector has led to increasing herd sizes and new barn systems, followed by less summer grazing for dairy cows in Denmark. Effects of grazing on single welfare measures in dairy cows - for example, the presence of integument alterations or mortality - have been studied under different conditions. However, the effect of grazing on welfare, conceptualised as the multidimensional physical and mental state of the animal, has not yet been studied in contemporary cubicle loose-housing systems. The aim of our study was to investigate, based on a Welfare Quality® inspired multidimensional dairy cow welfare assessment protocol, the within-herd effect of summer grazing compared with winter barn housing in Danish dairy herds with cubicle free-stall systems for the lactating cows. Our hypothesis was that cow welfare in dairy herds was better during summer grazing than during full-time winter housing. Furthermore, we expected improved welfare with an increase in daily summer grazing hours. In total, 41 herds have been visited once in the winter and once in the summer of 2010 to assess their welfare status with 17 different animal- and resource-based welfare measures. A panel of 20 experts on cattle welfare and husbandry evaluated the relative weight of the 17 welfare measures in a multidimensional assessment scheme. They estimated exact weights for a priori constituted severe compared with moderate scores of welfare impairment concerning each measure, as well as relevance of the measures in relation to each other. A welfare index (WI; possible range 0 to 5400) was calculated for each herd and season with a higher index indicating poorer welfare. The within-herd comparison of summer grazing v. winter housing considered all the 17 measures. The mean WI in summer was significantly lower (better) than in winter (mean 2926 v. 3330; paired t-test P = 0.0001) based on a better state of the integument, claw conformation and better access to water and

  7. Evaluation of intrauterine antibiotic treatment of clinical metritis and retained fetal membranes in dairy cows. (United States)

    Goshen, Tamir; Shpigel, Nahum Y


    Retained fetal membranes (RFM) and clinical metritis (CM) are frequently diagnosed disease conditions in dairy cows and considered of major economic impact due to negative effect on reproduction and milk production. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of i.u. tetracycline for the treatment of RFM and CM in dairy cows. Affected cows were randomly assigned to two groups; treatment group animals received i.u. 5g chlortetracycline twice weekly for 2 wks, and no treatment group. A total of 1416 cows and 804 heifers in 5 herds calved during the study period. CM was diagnosed in 18.6% (inter farm range; 15.2-23.5%) and 30% (19.4-42.3%) of cows and heifers, respectively. RFM was diagnosed in 13.1% (9.4-18.1%) and 9.2% (3.6-13.8%) of cows and heifers, respectively. Conception rates after first insemination were 38.3%, 42.5% and 18% in normal, treated and non-treated CM cows, respectively. Numbers of days open were 140.5, 136.2 and 165.5 in normal, treated and non-treated CM cows, respectively. Based on 305-d corrected milk yield, cows and heifers affected by RFM and CM produced 300-500kg less milk compared with their normal herd mates. Cows treated for CM produced 654kg more milk per 305-d corrected lactation compared to non-treated control cows. Treatment of RFM had no effect on reproductive performance or milk production. In conclusion, i.u. chlortetracycline treatment was proven to prevent the detrimental effect of CM on reproductive performance in heifers and cows and on milk production in cows only.

  8. Development of wide-range constitutive equations for calculations of high-rate deformation of metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preston D.


    Full Text Available For development of models of strength and compressibility of metals in wide range of pressures (up to several megabar and strain rates ~ 1÷108 s−1, the method of dynamic tests is used. Since direct measurement of strength is impossible under complicated intensive high-rate loading, a formal model is created at first, and then it is updated basing on comparison with many experiments, which are sensitive to shear strength. Elastic-plastic, viscous-elastic-plastic and relaxation integral models became nowadays most commonly used. The basic unsolved problems in simulation of high-rate deformation of metals are mentioned in the paper.

  9. Identification of potential biomarkers in donor cows for in vitro embryo production by granulosa cell transcriptomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mazzoni, Gianluca; Salleh, Suraya M; Freude, Kristine


    The Ovum Pick Up-In vitro Production (OPU-IVP) of embryos is an advanced reproductive technology used in cattle production but the complex biological mechanisms behind IVP outcomes are not fully understood. In this study we sequenced RNA of granulosa cells collected from Holstein cows at oocyte...... aspiration prior to IVP, to identify candidate genes and biological mechanisms for favourable IVP-related traits in donor cows where IVP was performed separately for each animal. We identified 56 genes significantly associated with IVP scores (BL rate, kinetic and morphology). Among these, BEX2, HEY2, RGN......, TNFAIP6 and TXNDC11 were negatively associated while Mx1 and STC1 were positively associated with all IVP scores. Functional analysis highlighted a wide range of biological mechanisms including apoptosis, cell development and proliferation and four key upstream regulators (COX2, IL1, PRL, TRIM24...

  10. Ulcerative fungal keratitis in a Brown Swiss cow


    Voelter-Ratson, K; Monod, M; Braun, Ueli; Spiess, Bernhard M


    An 11-year-old Swiss Brown cow was referred to the Food Animal Department of the Veterinary Teaching Hospital in Zurich, Switzerland due to lateral recumbency of unknown origin. The animal had developed enophthalmos due to dehydration at the time of presentation. Two days after hospitalization, the cow showed blepharospasm and epiphora of the right eye and the Ophthalmology Service was consulted. Ophthalmic examination of the right eye revealed a fluorescein positive, paraxial, corneal superf...

  11. Penetrating anterior skull base fracture inflicted by a cow's horn


    Adomas Bunevicius; Karolis Bareikis; Laimutis Kalasauskas; Arimantas Tamasauskas


    Farm workers are at increased risk for animal-inflicted head injuries that are associated with significant morbidity and occasionally may be fatal. These injuries may cause permanent eye damage with or without concomitant skull base fracture. Here, we present a male farmer who suffered a cow attack that resulted in perforating orbital injury with comminuted frontobasal cranial fracture caused by a cow's horn. The next day, the patient developed nasal and orbital cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak...

  12. Development of a Piezoelectric Vacuum Sensing Component for a Wide Pressure Range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing-Yu Wang


    Full Text Available In this study, we develop a clamped–clamped beam-type piezoelectric vacuum pressure sensing element. The clamped–clamped piezoelectric beam is composed of a PZT layer and a copper substrate. A pair of electrodes is set near each end. An input voltage is applied to a pair of electrodes to vibrate the piezoelectric beam, and the output voltage is measured at the other pair. Because the viscous forces on the piezoelectric beam vary at different air pressures, the vibration of the beam depends on the vacuum pressure. The developed pressure sensor can sense a wide range of pressure, from 6.5 × 10−6 to 760 Torr. The experimental results showed that the output voltage is inversely proportional to the gas damping ratio, and thus, the vacuum pressure was estimated from the output voltage.

  13. Tectonic activity revealed by morphostructural analysis: Development of the Sierra de la Candelaria range, northwestern Argentina (United States)

    Barcelona, H.; Peri, G.; Tobal, J.; Sagripanti, L.; Favetto, A.


    The tectonically active broken foreland of NW Argentina is a recent analog of the eastern margin of the Puna plateau during Mio-Pliocene times and likely of other broken forelands worldwide. In order to evaluate active tectonism in the broken foreland of the NW Argentine Andes, we examined the complex geomorphology in the vicinity of the basement-cored Sierra de la Candelaria range at ˜26°S and deciphered multiple episodes of crustal deformation spanning the Pliocene to the Quaternary. Digital elevation models, satellite images and geological data within a GIS environment allowed us to analyze the terrain, drainage networks, river dynamics and structure, as well as to obtain detailed geomorphological mapping, active tectonic indices, longitudinal river profiles and structural sections. Three morphostructural segments were defined based on the structural features, the differential vertical dissection pattern over the basement, the faulted Pliocene to recent deposits, the stepwise propagation of anticlines and the distortion over the fluvial system. By combining the several lines of evidence, we concluded that the Sierra de la Candelaria range was subjected to a multi-stage development. The first stage uplifted the central segment concomitant with the formation of the surrounding ranges and with the main partition phase of the foreland. After a significant time lapse, the mountain range was subjected to southward thick-skinned growth and northward growth via stepwise thin-skinned deformation and exerted control over the dynamics of the Río Rosario. Taking into account the surrounding basins and ranges of the Sierra de la Candelaria, the southern Santa Bárbara System is characterized by partially isolated intramontane basins (Choromoro and Rosario) limited by shielded ranges that caused moisture block and shows continuous deformation. These features were related to early stages of a broken foreland evolution model and modern analogs were found at the northern

  14. Rain shadow development during the growth of mountain ranges: An atmospheric dynamics perspective (United States)

    Galewsky, Joseph


    An idealized atmospheric model is used to explore the links between climate and topography in the development of orographic rain shadows during orogenesis. The atmospheric dynamics theory of density stratified fluid flow over topography is used to interpret the results. The controlling nondimensional parameter is Nh/U, where N is the Brunt-Vaisala frequency, a measure of atmospheric stability, h is the terrain relief, and U is the initial horizontal wind speed. Rain shadow development is found to be a nonlinear and nonunique function of both topography and atmospheric state, indicating that geological records of orographic aridity cannot be interpreted in terms of relief alone. When upstream topography exceeds Nh/U ≈ 1 during surface uplift, downstream orographic precipitation vanishes, and downstream orographic cloud mass decreases by as much as 90%. Upstream blocking of air flow can generate a forward projecting rain shadow in which a relatively low ridge (Nh/U 1) may be decoupled from the atmospheric flow by a zone of flow stagnation extending upstream of the high terrain. Such an effect may occur if the valley separating the two ranges is narrower than the length scale of flow stagnation. In the model configuration used here, lateral widening of a relatively low (Nh/U 1) range increases downstream cloud mass by up to a factor of 3. These results help to refine interpretations of climate-tectonic interactions in shaping the geological record of the Sierra Nevada and Andes.

  15. Development of detector for neutron monitor of wide energy range. Joint research

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, E; Nakamura, T; Rasolonjatovo, D R D; Shiomi, T; Tanaka, S; Yamaguchi, Y; Yoshizawa, M


    Radiation monitoring of neutrons in high-power proton accelerator facilities is very important for radiation safety management for workers and members of the public. In the present study, a neutron detector that can evaluate dose of neutrons in the energy range from thermal energy to 100MeV was developed using an organic liquid scintillator, a boron-loaded scintillator and a sup 6 Li glass scintillator. First, a method was developed to evaluate neutron doses above several MeV by a spectrum weight function (G-function) which is applied to the organic liquid scintillator, and the validity of the methods was confirmed by dose evaluation in some neutron fields. Second, the G-function was applied to the boron-loaded scintillator which detects thermal neutrons by sup 1 sup 0 B(n, alpha) sup 7 Li reaction, in order to expand the covering neutron energy range. The response function and the G-function of the scintillator were evaluated by experiment and calculation, and the characteristics of dose measurement were ana...

  16. Development of a gene silencing DNA vector derived from a broad host range geminivirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hancock Leandria C


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene silencing is proving to be a powerful tool for genetic, developmental, and physiological analyses. The use of viral induced gene silencing (VIGS offers advantages to transgenic approaches as it can be potentially applied to non-model systems for which transgenic techniques are not readily available. However, many VIGS vectors are derived from Gemini viruses that have limited host ranges. We present a new, unipartite vector that is derived from a curtovirus that has a broad host range and will be amenable to use in many non-model systems. Results The construction of a gene silencing vector derived from the geminivirus Beet curly top virus (BCTV, named pWSRi, is reported. Two versions of the vector have been developed to allow application by biolistic techniques or by agro-infiltration. We demonstrate its ability to silence nuclear genes including ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase small subunit (rbcS, transketolase, the sulfur allele of magnesium chelatase (ChlI, and two homeotic transcription factors in spinach or tomato by generating gene-specific knock-down phenotypes. Onset of phenotypes occurred 3 to 12 weeks post-inoculation, depending on the target gene, in organs that developed after the application. The vector lacks movement genes and we found no evidence for significant spread from the site of inoculation. However, viral amplification in inoculated tissue was detected and is necessary for systemic silencing, suggesting that signals generated from active viral replicons are efficiently transported within the plant. Conclusion The unique properties of the pWSRi vector, the ability to silence genes in meristem tissue, the separation of virus and silencing phenotypes, and the broad natural host range of BCTV, suggest that it will have wide utility.

  17. Molecular characterisation of the uterine microbiome of dairy cows suffering from endometritis, metritis, and pyometra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Lif Rødtness Vesterby

    Postpartum uterine disease is a problem in dairy herds. Approximately 90% of dairy cows experience postpartum bacterial contamination of the uterus. Most of the cows are able to clear the infection within 8 weeks in the process of involution, but up to 20% of the cows develop metritis, which...... most up-regulated transcripts of the microbiota from the uterus of cows with metritis and endometritis were primarily involved in DNA replication, transcription, translation, and metabolic processes. This indicates an active multiplication phase in the infection, and an adaption to the host environment...... is infection throughout the uterine wall; and in some herds, 30-50% of cows develop endometritis, which is infection in the inner lining of the uterus. Pyometra is a related postpartum uterine disease, which is thought to occur when a cow with endometritis ovulates, and the cervix closes. The diseases...

  18. Disseminated hemangiosarcoma in a cow


    Stock, Matthew L.; Smith, Billy I.; Engiles, Julie B.


    An antemortem diagnosis of disseminated hemangiosarcoma with extensive hepatic and splenic involvement was made in a 9-year-old cow evaluated for lethargy, weight loss, regenerative anemia, thrombocytopenia, and elevated liver enzymes. This is the first report of hemangiosarcoma in a cow with a suspected primary location of the liver and/or spleen.

  19. Disseminated hemangiosarcoma in a cow (United States)

    Stock, Matthew L.; Smith, Billy I.; Engiles, Julie B.


    An antemortem diagnosis of disseminated hemangiosarcoma with extensive hepatic and splenic involvement was made in a 9-year-old cow evaluated for lethargy, weight loss, regenerative anemia, thrombocytopenia, and elevated liver enzymes. This is the first report of hemangiosarcoma in a cow with a suspected primary location of the liver and/or spleen. PMID:21731096

  20. Isolating the cow-specific part of residual energy intake in lactating dairy cows using random regressions. (United States)

    Fischer, A; Friggens, N C; Berry, D P; Faverdin, P


    The ability to properly assess and accurately phenotype true differences in feed efficiency among dairy cows is key to the development of breeding programs for improving feed efficiency. The variability among individuals in feed efficiency is commonly characterised by the residual intake approach. Residual feed intake is represented by the residuals of a linear regression of intake on the corresponding quantities of the biological functions that consume (or release) energy. However, the residuals include both, model fitting and measurement errors as well as any variability in cow efficiency. The objective of this study was to isolate the individual animal variability in feed efficiency from the residual component. Two separate models were fitted, in one the standard residual energy intake (REI) was calculated as the residual of a multiple linear regression of lactation average net energy intake (NEI) on lactation average milk energy output, average metabolic BW, as well as lactation loss and gain of body condition score. In the other, a linear mixed model was used to simultaneously fit fixed linear regressions and random cow levels on the biological traits and intercept using fortnight repeated measures for the variables. This method split the predicted NEI in two parts: one quantifying the population mean intercept and coefficients, and one quantifying cow-specific deviations in the intercept and coefficients. The cow-specific part of predicted NEI was assumed to isolate true differences in feed efficiency among cows. NEI and associated energy expenditure phenotypes were available for the first 17 fortnights of lactation from 119 Holstein cows; all fed a constant energy-rich diet. Mixed models fitting cow-specific intercept and coefficients to different combinations of the aforementioned energy expenditure traits, calculated on a fortnightly basis, were compared. The variance of REI estimated with the lactation average model represented only 8% of the variance of

  1. Selenium (Se) supplementation on the Se status of dairy cows in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Incidences of retained placenta, metritis, cystic ovaries, mastitis and calf mortality were recorded. Whole blood Se concentrations of the unsupplemented cows ranged from 17 to 90 ng/mL. Accepting that a concentration of >200 ng/mL blood indicates an adequate Se intake, the recorded concentrations suggest that the cows ...

  2. Effect of shade on various parameters of Friesian cows in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lactating cows are particularly sensitive to thermal stress owing to their specialized productive function and to their ... The comfort range for dairy cows varies between -5 and 2I'C. If an animal is subjected ..... Building a shade structure involves a capital investment. During l9M the material cost of the shade structures in the.

  3. Development of Algorithms and Error Analyses for the Short Baseline Lightning Detection and Ranging System (United States)

    Starr, Stanley O.


    NASA, at the John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC), developed and operates a unique high-precision lightning location system to provide lightning-related weather warnings. These warnings are used to stop lightning- sensitive operations such as space vehicle launches and ground operations where equipment and personnel are at risk. The data is provided to the Range Weather Operations (45th Weather Squadron, U.S. Air Force) where it is used with other meteorological data to issue weather advisories and warnings for Cape Canaveral Air Station and KSC operations. This system, called Lightning Detection and Ranging (LDAR), provides users with a graphical display in three dimensions of 66 megahertz radio frequency events generated by lightning processes. The locations of these events provide a sound basis for the prediction of lightning hazards. This document provides the basis for the design approach and data analysis for a system of radio frequency receivers to provide azimuth and elevation data for lightning pulses detected simultaneously by the LDAR system. The intent is for this direction-finding system to correct and augment the data provided by LDAR and, thereby, increase the rate of valid data and to correct or discard any invalid data. This document develops the necessary equations and algorithms, identifies sources of systematic errors and means to correct them, and analyzes the algorithms for random error. This data analysis approach is not found in the existing literature and was developed to facilitate the operation of this Short Baseline LDAR (SBLDAR). These algorithms may also be useful for other direction-finding systems using radio pulses or ultrasonic pulse data.

  4. Development of Soil Bacterial Communities in Volcanic Ash Microcosms in a Range of Climates. (United States)

    Kerfahi, Dorsaf; Tateno, Ryunosuke; Takahashi, Koichi; Cho, HyunJun; Kim, Hyoki; Adams, Jonathan M


    There is considerable interest in understanding the processes of microbial development in volcanic ash. We tested the predictions that there would be (1) a distinctive bacterial community associated with soil development on volcanic ash, including groups previously implicated in weathering studies; (2) a slower increase in bacterial abundance and soil C and N accumulation in cooler climates; and (3) a distinct communities developing on the same substrate in different climates. We set up an experiment, taking freshly fallen, sterilized volcanic ash from Sakurajima volcano, Japan. Pots of ash were positioned in multiple locations, with mean annual temperature (MAT) ranging from 18.6 to -3 °C. Within 12 months, bacteria were detectable by qPCR in all pots. By 24 months, bacterial copy numbers had increased by 10-100 times relative to a year before. C and N content approximately doubled between 12 and 24 months. HiSeq and MiSeq sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene revealed a distinctive bacterial community, different from developed vegetated soils in the same areas, for example in containing an abundance of unclassified bacterial groups. Community composition also differed between the ash pots at different sites, while showing no pattern in relation to MAT. Contrary to our predictions, the bacterial abundance did not show any relation to MAT. It also did not correlate to pH or N, and only C was statistically significant. It appears that bacterial community development on volcanic ash can be a rapid process not closely sensitive to temperature, involving distinct communities from developed soils.

  5. Use of Donkey Milk in Children with Cow's Milk Protein Allergy. (United States)

    Polidori, Paolo; Vincenzetti, Silvia


    Human breast milk is the best nutritional support that insures the right development and influences the immune status of the newborn infant. However, when it is not possible to breast feed, it may be necessary to use commercial infant formulas that mimic, where possible, the levels and types of nutrients present in human milk. Despite this, some formula-fed infant develops allergy and/or atopic disease compared to breast-fed infants. Cow's milk allergy can be divided into immunoglobulin IgE mediated food allergy and non-IgE-mediated food allergy. Most infants with cow's milk protein allergy (CMPA) develop symptoms before 1 month of age, often within 1 week after introduction of cow's milk-based formula. Donkey milk may be considered a good substitute for cow's milk in feeding children with CMPA since its composition is very similar to human milk. Donkey milk total protein content is low (1.5-1.8 g/100 g), very close to human milk. A thorough analysis of the donkey milk protein profile has been performed in this study; the interest was focused on the milk proteins considered safe for the prevention and treatment of various disorders in humans. The content of lactoferrin, lactoperoxidase and lysozyme, peptides with antimicrobial activity, able to stimulate the development of the neonatal intestine, was determined. Donkey milk is characterized by a low casein content, with values very close to human milk; the total whey protein content in donkey milk ranges between 0.49 and 0.80 g/100 g, very close to human milk (0.68-0.83 g/100 g). Among whey proteins, α-lactalbumin average concentration in donkey milk is 1.8 mg/mL. The results of this study confirmed the possibility of using donkey milk in feeding children with CMPA.

  6. Associations among serum pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, metabolic mediators, body condition, and uterine disease in postpartum dairy cows (United States)


    Background Adipose tissue is an active endocrine organ which secretes a wide range of hormones and protein factors, collectively termed adipokines. Adipokines affect appetite and satiety, glucose and lipid metabolism, inflammation and immune functions. The objectives were to evaluate serum concentrations of adipokines (adiponectin, leptin, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, interleukin (IL)-1beta and IL-6) in lactating dairy cows with postpartum uterine inflammatory conditions (metritis, clinical endometritis or subclinical endometritis) and in cows experiencing loss of body condition, and to assess the relationship of adipokines and body condition loss in the establishment of persistent uterine inflammatory conditions. Methods Lactating multiparous Holstein cows (N = 40), with body condition scores (BCS) from 2 to 4 (eight cows for each 0.5 score increment) were enrolled. Body condition was monitored for all cows weekly for 7 weeks post calving; cows with uterine inflammatory conditions were also re-evaluated 2 weeks later. Blood samples were collected from 1 week prior to calving to 7 weeks after calving for determination of serum concentrations of adipokines, insulin and insulin like growth factor (IGF)-1. Results Cows with metritis or clinical endometritis had higher serum concentrations of adiponectin, leptin, TNF-alpha, IL-1beta and IL-6 compared to normal cows (P cows with subclinical endometritis compared to normal cows (P cows with metritis or clinical endometritis. Cows with low BCS (2 and 2.5) had significantly higher adiponectin, TNF-alpha, IL-1beta and IL-6 than those with high BCS (3 to 4). Cows with persistent uterine inflammatory conditions had higher adiponectin, leptin TNF-alpha, IL-1beta and IL-6 and insulin compared to normal and spontaneously recovered cows, except for IGF-1 (P cows. PMID:24209779

  7. Genetic parameters for cow weight at calving and cow weight at calf ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Brad Crook

    included in the analysis were 14458 records for cow weight at calving (CWT-C) representing 6534 cows and. 18871 records for cow ..... by Urioste et al. (1998) in pasture-fed Uruguayan beef cattle as well as those of Nephawe ... Weighing cows at calving also has the added problem of greater stress to the postpartum cows.

  8. Comparative efficacy of three dry-cow antibiotic formulations in spring-calving New Zealand dairy cows. (United States)

    Parkinson, T J; Vermunt, J J; Merrall, M


    To evaluate the efficacy of a dry-cow antibiotic preparation containing cloxacillin plus ampicillin in a formulation that gives a 10-week duration of action, in comparison to products containing cephalonium (10-week action) or cloxacillin alone (7-week action). A total of 493 cows were selected from 6 spring-calving dairy herds in the Manawatu region of New Zealand, according to the criteria of the SAMM plan, to receive intramammary antibiotic therapy at the end of lactation (drying off). Cows were randomly allocated to receive 1 of the 3 dry-cow antibiotic products under investigation. Cows were examined twice during the dry period and twice daily during the first 10 days of their subsequent lactation for the presence of mastitis. Milk samples were collected from individual quarters at the time of drying off and at 7 and 28-35 days after calving, for determination of milk somatic cell counts (SCC). Bacteriology was carried out on milk samples taken from cows that developed mastitis during the first 10 days after calving. No cows developed mastitis during the dry period. Sixteen cows developed clinical mastitis within 10 days of calving; there was no difference in incidence between treatments. Streptococcus uberis was the most commonly isolated organism. Mean SCC on Day 7 were lower (p = 0.019) in cephalonium-treated quarters (189.9+/-28.4 x 10(3) cells/ml) than in cloxacillin-treated quarters (388.7+/-71.2 x 10(3) cells/ml); values in quarters receiving cloxacillin plus ampicillin were intermediate (252.0+/-47.0 x 10(3) cells/ml). SCC were similar between treatment groups on Day 28-35. The use of a combination of cloxacillin plus ampicillin was effective for the prevention of mastitis during the dry and peri-calving-periods in pastured dairy cattle.

  9. On-farm methane measurements during milking correlate with total methane production by individual dairy cows


    Garnsworthy, P. C.; Craigon, J.; Hernandez-Medrano, J.H.; Saunders, N.


    The objective of this study was to investigate whether measurement of methane emissions by individual dairy cows during milking could provide a useful technique for monitoring on-farm methane emissions. To quantify methane emissions from individual cows on farm, we developed a novel technique based on sampling air released by eructation during milking. Eructation frequency and methane released per eructation were used to estimate methane emission rate. For 82 cows, methane emission rate durin...

  10. One Cow, One Vote

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albæk, Svend; Schultz, Christian


    We study investment decisions in a farmers' cooperative. Farmers sell their products through the cooperative. Before production takes place the cooperative has to decide on an investment. We study whether voting on investment leads to efficient investment decisions. The answer depends on how...... the number of votes and the cost of the investment are distributed among the farmers. It is shown that in a variety of settings, there is no reason to suppose that voting rules favoring large farmers - "one cow, one vote" rules - are more efficient than simple majority rule...

  11. Development of a broad-host-range sacB-based vector for unmarked allelic exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marx Christopher J


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although genome sequences are available for an ever-increasing number of bacterial species, the availability of facile genetic tools for physiological analysis have generally lagged substantially behind traditional genetic models. Results Here I describe the development of an improved, broad-host-range "in-out" allelic exchange vector, pCM433, which permits the generation of clean, marker-free genetic manipulations. Wild-type and mutant alleles were reciprocally exchanged at three loci in Methylobacterium extorquens AM1 in order to demonstrate the utility of pCM433. Conclusion The broad-host-range vector for marker-free allelic exchange described here, pCM433, has the advantages of a high copy, general Escherichia coli replicon for easy cloning, an IncP oriT enabling conjugal transfer, an extensive set of restriction sites in its polylinker, three antibiotic markers, and sacB (encoding levansucrase for negative selection upon sucrose plates. These traits should permit pCM433 to be broadly applied across many bacterial taxa for marker-free allelic exchange, which is particularly important if multiple manipulations or more subtle genetic manipulations such as point mutations are desired.

  12. Development of a Radio Frequency Space Environment Path Emulator for Evaluating Spacecraft Ranging Hardware (United States)

    Mitchell, Jason W.; Baldwin, Philip J.; Kurichh, Rishi; Naasz, Bo J.; Luquette, Richard J.


    The Formation Flying Testbed (FFTB) at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) provides a hardware-in-the-loop test environment for formation navigation and control. The facility is evolving as a modular, hybrid, dynamic simulation facility for end-to-end guidance, navigation and. control (GN&C) design and analysis of formation flying spacecraft. The core capabilities of the FFTB, as a platform for testing critical hardware and software algorithms in-the-loop, have expanded to include S-band Radio Frequency (RF) modems for inter-spacecraft communication and ranging. To enable realistic simulations that require RF ranging sensors for relative navigation, a mechanism is needed to buffer the RF signals exchanged between spacecraft that accurately emulates the dynamic environment through which the RF signals travel, including the effects of medium, moving platforms, and radiated power. The Path Emulator for RF Signals (PERFS), currently under development at NASA GSFC, provides this capability. The function and performance of a prototype device are presented.

  13. The effect of changing cow production and fitness traits on net income and greenhouse gas emissions from Australian dairy systems. (United States)

    Bell, M J; Eckard, R J; Haile-Mariam, M; Pryce, J E


    The aim of this study was to compare the effect of changing a range of biological traits on farm net income and greenhouse gas emissions (expressed in carbon dioxide equivalents, CO2-eq.) in the Australian dairy cow population. An average cow was modeled, using breed-average information for Holsteins and Jerseys from the Australian Dairy Herd Improvement Scheme. A Markov chain approach was used to describe the steady-state herd structure, as well as estimate the CO2-eq. emissions per cow and per kilogram of milk solids. The effects of a single unit change in herd milk volume, fat and protein yields, live weight, survival, dry matter intake, somatic cell count, and calving interval were assessed. With the traits studied, the only single-unit change that would bring about a desirable increase in both net income and reduced emissions intensity per cow and per kilogram of milk solids in Australian dairy herds would be an increase in survival and reductions in milk volume, live weight, DMI, SCC, and calving interval. The models developed can be used to assess lifetime dairy system abatement options by breeding, feeding, and management. Selective breeding and appropriate management can both improve health, fertility, and feed utilization of Australian dairy systems and reduce its environmental impact. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Fate of cystic ovarian follicles and the subsequent fertility of early postpartum dairy cows. (United States)

    Sakaguchi, M; Sasamoto, Y; Suzuki, T; Takahashi, Y; Yamada, Y


    The fate of cystic ovarian follicles that developed spontaneously during the early postpartum period of 50 lactating dairy cows was traced by ultrasonography to characterise the follicular dynamics in relation to the fertility of the cows. The absence of postpartum ovulations caused by repeated waves of anovulatory large follicles was also characterised and evaluated. Fifteen of the 50 cows developed cystic follicles, and these follicles became follicular cysts in five of the 15 cows. Most of the cystic follicles emerged before the first postpartum ovulation of the cows. The transition from cystic follicles to follicular cysts delayed the cows' first ovulation, oestrus and insemination, but had less influence on their fertility after they had recovered spontaneously. In addition to the 15 cows that developed cystic follicles or follicular cysts, six of the cows had five to 13 waves of follicles before their first ovulation. These repeated waves of follicles caused a more severe delay in the early postpartum reproductive events but did not affect the cows' fertility.

  15. Optimal loading range for the development of peak power output in the hexagonal barbell jump squat. (United States)

    Turner, Thomas S; Tobin, Daniel P; Delahunt, Eamonn


    Recent studies indicate that the utilization of the hexagonal barbell jump squat (HBJS) compared with the traditional barbell jump squat may offer a superior method of developing peak power. The notion that a single optimal load may be prescribed in training programs aiming to develop peak power is subject to debate. The purpose of this study was to identify the optimal load corresponding with peak power output during the HBJS in professional rugby union players. Seventeen professional rugby union players participated in this study. Participants performed 3 unloaded countermovement jumps on a force plate and 3 HBJS at each of the following randomized loads: 10, 20, 30, and 40% of box squat 1 repetition maximum (1RM). Peak power output was the dependent variable of interest. A one-way repeated measures analysis of variance was conducted to compare peak power output across each load. Peak power output was the dependent variable of interest. A significant main effect for load was observed (Wilk's Lambda = 0.11, F(4,13) = 18.07, p power output in the HBJS is optimized at a load range between 10 and 20% of box squat 1RM. The results of this study indicate that the use of the HBJS with a training load between 10 and 20% of box squat 1RM optimizes peak power output in professional rugby union players.

  16. 25 CFR 170.413 - What is the public role in developing the long-range transportation plan? (United States)


    ... Roads Program Facilities Long-Range Transportation Planning § 170.413 What is the public role in developing the long-range transportation plan? BIA or the tribe must solicit public involvement. If there are... newspapers when the draft long-range transportation plan is complete. In the absence of local public...

  17. Qualitative evaluation of general practices developing training for a range of health disciplines. (United States)

    Hughes, Lesley A


    This study adopted an interpretative approach, using focus groups and face-to-face interviews to evaluate the development of a five-year pilot project within general practice. The aim of the project is for these practices to offer training to a range of health disciplines from varying academic levels, develop capacity and provide interprofessional education as part of the learning ethos. Eight consortia are involved in the project, which is funded by the workforce and education directorate and the Deanery of the Yorkshire and Humber Strategic Health Authority. The evaluation was undertaken 18 months into the project, to understand the views and experiences of primary care practitioners and university educationalists, in order to identify achievements and barriers to the project's development. The study revealed positive attitudes towards the project, and that steps are being taken to engage in dialogue with universities to increase student numbers, but progress is slow. Early experiences of student nurses taking up placements in the practices reveal incompatible learning outcomes between what is expected for curriculum and learning opportunities within primary care. A common concern is the impact increased students may pose on existing support structures, and that this may compromise student learning. Concern is evident over self-belief and competencies to teach across professions, and the ambiguity over the learning outcomes for IPE and the training required to support this. It is recommended that a systems theory be adopted to provide strategic planning across clinical and education organisations to ensure that structures of communication, leadership and training adequately meet the aims of the project. The paper will be of interest to practitioners in primary care who may be considering expanding services and training, and to educationalists seeking to allocate students to placements in primary care.

  18. Evaluation of a Lameness Scoring System for Dairy Cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, P T; Munksgaard, L; Tøgersen, F A


    Lameness is a major problem in dairy production both in terms of reduced production and compromised animal welfare. A 5-point lameness scoring system was developed based on previously published systems, but optimized for use under field conditions. The scoring system included the words "in most...... cases" in the descriptions of the clinical signs evaluated. This was done to avoid a situation in which cows might not fit into any of the categories. Additionally, a number of clinical signs used in other lameness scoring systems, considered of less importance in relation to lameness, were not included....... Only clinical signs were included that could easily be assessed within a few seconds from a distance. The scoring system was evaluated with intra-and interobserver agreement using kappa statistics. The evaluation was done before and after training 5 observers. Weighted kappa values ranged from 0...

  19. Development of a Coherent Differential Absorption Lidar for Range Resolved Atmospheric CO2 Measurements (United States)

    Yu, Jirong; Petros, Mulgueta; Chen, Songsheng; Bai, Yingxin; Petzar, Paul J.; Trieu, Bo. C.; Koch, Grady J.; Beyon, Jeffery J.; Singh, Upendra N.


    A pulsed, 2-m coherent Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) / Integrated Path Differential Absorption (IPDA) transceiver, developed under the Laser Risk Reduction Program (LRRP) at NASA, is integrated into a fully functional lidar instrument. This instrument will measure atmospheric CO2 profiles (by DIAL) initially from a ground platform, and then be prepared for aircraft installation to measure the atmospheric CO2 column densities in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) and lower troposphere. The airborne prototype CO2 lidar can measure atmospheric CO2 column density in a range bin of 1km with better than 1.5% precision at horizontal resolution of less than 50km. It can provide the image of the pooling of CO2 in lowlying areas and performs nighttime mass balance measurements at landscape scale. This sensor is unique in its capability to study the vertical ABL-free troposphere exchange of CO2 directly. It will allow the investigators to pursue subsequent in science-driven deployments, and provides a unique tool for Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Night, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) validation that was strongly advocated in the recent ASCENDS Workshop.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. D. Ananicheva


    Full Text Available SummaryPaper presents the results of interpretation of space images (from Landsat and World View-2, which made possible to estimate the areal extent of glaciers ofMeynypilgynskyRange, North-East of Koryak Upland, in the early 2000's. Assessments of glaciers were analyzed in comparison with the Glacier Inventory of the region, compiled by R.V. Sedov (2001, as a whole and for groups of glaciers belonging to the selected six glacial systems. After dozens of years since the compilation of the Inventory (1985 and from some glacier data referred to 1967, the glaciers ofMeynypilgynskyRangelost about 30% of the area, mainly due to drying that accompanies climate warming. The analysis of glaciers, which had retreated, was conducted for the groups by the same morphological type, and the same aspect. The largest retreat and area reduction is relevant to valley-corrie and hanging glaciers of eastern aspect. Glaciers facing north less suffered. As a result of application of the developed methodology for assessing the evolution of glacier systems under given climate scenario, the parameters for the state of the glacier systems ofMeynypilgynskyRangeup to the time span 2049–2060 were obtained. The AOGCM–ECHAM 5 (B1 was used as a scenario; it is the optimal for theNorthern Eurasia. It turned out that the glaciers reduction would be catastrophic (about 90%, but nevertheless they would not completely disappeared.

  1. On-farm methane measurements during milking correlate with total methane production by individual dairy cows. (United States)

    Garnsworthy, P C; Craigon, J; Hernandez-Medrano, J H; Saunders, N


    The objective of this study was to investigate whether measurement of methane emissions by individual dairy cows during milking could provide a useful technique for monitoring on-farm methane emissions. To quantify methane emissions from individual cows on farm, we developed a novel technique based on sampling air released by eructation during milking. Eructation frequency and methane released per eructation were used to estimate methane emission rate. For 82 cows, methane emission rate during milking increased with daily milk yield (r = 0.71), but varied between individuals with the same milk yield and fed the same diet. For 12 cows, methane emission rate recorded during milking on farm showed a linear relationship (R² = 0.79) with daily methane output by the same cows when housed subsequently in respiration chambers. For 42 cows, the methane emission rate during milking was greater on a feeding regimen designed to produce high methane emissions, and the increase compared with a control regimen was similar to that observed for cows in respiration chambers. It was concluded that, with further validation, on-farm monitoring of methane emission rate during milking could provide a low-cost reliable method to estimate daily methane output by individual dairy cows, which could be used to study variation in methane, to identify cows with low emissions, and to test outcomes of mitigation strategies. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Indication of intracellular magnesium deficiency in lactating dairy cows revealed by magnesium loading and renal fractional excretion. (United States)

    Schweigel, M; Voigt, J; Mohr, E


    Nine non-pregnant, lactating dairy cows were used to study plasma and urinary magnesium concentrations ([Mg]pl; [Mg]u), and the urinary fractional excretion of magnesium (FE(Mg)) before, during and after an 120 min intravenous magnesium (Mg) administration (2.5 mg/kg body weight). Animals received a total mixed ration, and Mg content of the diet was within recommended range. Basal mean [Mg]pl, [Mg]u and FE(Mg) were 0.89 +/- 0.09 mm, 5.92 +/- 2.99 mm and 8.3 +/- 9.7% respectively. For all parameters, a substantial inter-individual variation was observed. Three cows showed suboptimal [Mg]pl and/or [Mg]u as well as low FE(Mg) values of approximately 2% indicating an insufficient Mg supply to these animals (depressed feed intake, reduced absorption of Mg). The applied Mg challenge induced no significant change of mean [Mg]pl in the cows because part of the excess Mg was excreted in the urine. But in five out of nine cows, a decrease of the FE(Mg), during and after an intravenous Mg load was observed showing that part of the infused Mg is used to replenish intracellular Mg pools. Thus, the existence of an intracellular Mg deficiency in these cows was unmasked by performing the Mg loading test only. Because a reduced free intracellular [Mg] impairs cell and tissue functions, the results highlight the importance of an accurate definition of the intracellular Mg status. The Mg loading test is a suitable procedure, however, for practical purposes less expensive and time consuming methods must be developed.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José C. Segura


    Full Text Available The effect of body condition score (BCS on estrus characteristics and ovarian function was evaluated in 44 synchronized Beef-Master cows. Weaned adult cows in anestrous were grouped according to their BCS as BCS1-2 (n = 13, BCS3-4 (n = 17 and BCS5-6 (n = 14. All cows were synchronized using norgestomet implants plus estradiol valerate for 9 days. The estrus detection began 24 hours after implant removal and it was detected every 6 hours for 72 hours. The time from implant removal to the onset of estrus (TIR and the duration of estrus were registered. All animals were examined 4 times with a transrectal ultrasound kit to determine the size of the follicles (6 to 9 mm or > 9 mm, the diameter of the largest follicle (DLF, ovulation rate, ovulation rate relative to estrus detection (ORE and ovulation rate relative to the follicle size (ORF. The effect of BCS on TIR, the duration of the estrus, the number of follicles of size 6 to 9 mm or > 9 mm, and DLF was determined using analysis of variance. The effect of BCS on ovulation rate, ORE and ORF, were analyzed using Chi-square tests. There were no differences (P> 0.05 between TIR, duration of estrus and follicle sizes between BCS groups. The DLF increased from 9.8 to 12.9 mm, the OR increased from 7.7 to 85.7%, the ORE from 0 to 100% and the ORF from 16.7 to 92.9%. In conclusion, under the range of BCS of the synchronized cows evaluated in this study, the BCS of Beef Master cows did not affect the estrus traits; which agree with results observed in other breeds of cattle in the tropics. However, body condition affects follicle development and ovulation rate.

  4. Prepartum behavior and dry matter intake identify dairy cows at risk for metritis. (United States)

    Huzzey, J M; Veira, D M; Weary, D M; von Keyserlingk, M A G


    Metritis is a disease of particular concern after calving because of its profound negative effects on the reproductive performance of dairy cows. Cows at risk for metritis have shorter feeding times in the days before calving but prepartum dry matter intake (DMI) and water intake may also be useful in identifying cows at risk for this disease. Feeding, drinking, and intake measures may also be affected by social interactions among group-housed cows. The objective of this study, therefore, was to measure intake, feeding, drinking, and social behavior to determine which measures could identify cows at risk for metritis after calving. Feeding and drinking behavior and intake measures were collected from 101 Holstein dairy cows from 2 wk before until 3 wk after calving using an electronic monitoring system. Social behavior at the feed bunk was assessed from video recordings. Metritis severity was diagnosed based on daily rectal body temperature as well as condition of vaginal discharge that was assessed every 3 d after calving until d +21. In this study, 12% of cows were classified as severely metritic and 27% as mildly metritic. Prepartum feeding time and DMI were best able to identify cows at risk for metritis. Cows that developed severe metritis spent less time feeding and consumed less feed compared with healthy cows beginning 2 wk before the observation of clinical signs of infection. For every 10-min decrease in average daily feeding time during the week before calving, the odds of severe metritis increased by 1.72, and for every 1-kg decrease in DMI during this period, cows were nearly 3 times more likely to be diagnosed with this disorder. During the week before calving, cows that were later diagnosed with severe metritis had lower DMI and feeding times during the hours following fresh feed delivery. During this period these cows also engaged in fewer aggressive interactions at the feed bins compared with cows that remained healthy. This research is the first

  5. The influence of cow and management factors on reproductive performance of Irish seasonal calving dairy cows. (United States)

    Lane, Elizabeth A; Crowe, Mark A; Beltman, Marijke E; More, Simon J


    Herd management record analysis facilitates accurate assessment of the current herd reproductive status; a crucial decision making tool to implement effective change. To determine the relative importance of cow and management factors on reproductive indices in moderate-yielding Irish seasonal-calving dairy herds, breeding records of 1173 cows were collected from 10 seasonal calving herds between 2007 and 2009. Backward-stepwise multivariable logistic regression analysis was utilised to determine the effect of cow factors including parity, calving timing, days post partum, heat detection accuracy and herd factors including herd size and heat detection efficiency on key reproductive indices. Mean farm six-week pregnancy and end of season not-in-calf rate were 46% (range 14-72%) and 22% (range 3-40%), respectively. Oestrous detection efficiency (Pcow parity were not associated (P>0.05) with either outcome when factors including existing calving pattern and heat detection accuracy and efficiency were accounted for. The existing spread in calving pattern, heat detection quality and length of voluntary waiting period were the most influential factors that reduced fertility performance in seasonal-calving herds. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Method for the quantification of current use and persistent pesticides in cow milk, human milk and baby formula using gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. (United States)

    Chen, Xianyu; Panuwet, Parinya; Hunter, Ronald E; Riederer, Anne M; Bernoudy, Geneva C; Barr, Dana Boyd; Ryan, P Barry


    The aim of this study was to develop an analytical method for the quantification of organochlorine (OC), organophosphate (OP), carbamate, and pyrethroid insecticide residues in cow milk, human milk, and baby formula. A total of 25 compounds were included in this method. Sample extraction procedures combined liquid-liquid extraction, freezing-lipid filtration, dispersive primary-secondary amine cleanup, and solid-phase extraction together for effective extraction and elimination of matrix interferences. Target compounds were analyzed using gas chromatography with electron impact ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-EI-MS/MS) in the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. Average extraction recoveries obtained from cow milk samples fortified at two different concentrations (10 ng/mL and 25 ng/mL), ranged from 34% to 102%, with recoveries for the majority of target compounds falling between 60% and 80%. Similar ranges were found for formula fortified at 25 ng/mL. The estimated limits of detection for most target analytes were in the low pg/mL level (range 3-1600 pg/mL). The accuracies and precisions were within the range of 80-120% and less than 15%, respectively. This method was tested for its viability by analyzing 10 human milk samples collected from anonymous donors, 10 cow milk samples and 10 baby formula samples purchased from local grocery stores in the United States. Hexachlorobenzene, p,p-dicofol, o,p-DDE, p,p-DDE, and chlorpyrifos were found in all samples analyzed. We found detectable levels of permethrin, cyfluthrin, and fenvalerate in some of the cow milk samples but not in human milk or baby formula samples. Some of the pesticides, such as azinphos-methyl, heptachlor epoxide, and the pesticide synergist piperonyl butoxide, were detected in some of the cow milk and human milk samples but not in baby formula samples. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Usefulness of LANDSAT data for monitoring plant development and range conditions in California's annual grassland (United States)

    Carneggie, D. M.; Degloria, S. D.; Colwell, R. N.


    A network of sampling sites throughout the annual grassland region was established to correlate plant growth in stages and forage production to climatic and other environmental factors. Plant growth and range conditions were further related to geographic location and seasonal variations. A sequence of LANDSAT data was obtained covering critical periods in the growth cycle. Data were analyzed by both photointerpretation and computer aided techniques. Image characteristics and spectral reflectance data were then related to forage production, range condition, range site, and changing growth conditions.

  8. Magnetic properties of electrodeposited Co-W thin films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Admon, U.; Dariel, M.P.; Grunbaum, E.; Lodder, J.C.


    Thin films of Co-W, 300-500 Å thick, were electrodeposited at various compositions under a wide range of plating conditions. The saturation magnetization, coercivity, and squareness ratio of the films were derived from the parallel (in-plane) and perpendicular hysteresis loops, measured by using a

  9. Development of HEROICs: High-Sensitivity, High-Dynamic Range Detector Systems for Ultraviolet Astronomy Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — "We propose a four-year program for the fabrication and characterization of high dynamic range, low background photon counting detectors that will support the next...

  10. Example Procedures for Developing Acceptance-Range Criteria for BESTEST-EX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Judkoff, Ron [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Polly, Ben [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bianchi, Marcus [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Neymark, Joel [J. Neymark & Associates, Golden, CO (United States)


    This document provides an example procedure for establishing acceptance-range criteria to assess results from software undergoing BESTEST-EX. This example method for BESTEST-EX is a modified version of the method described in HERS BESTEST.

  11. Toward development of a middle-range theory of psychological adaptation in death and dying. (United States)

    Dobratz, Marjorie C


    This paper presents a middle-range theory of psychological adaptation in death and dying that was abstracted from a series of quantitative and qualitative studies. The findings from these studies are described, a conceptual definition for end-of-life psychological adaptation is given, evidence is synthesized into a limited number of assumptions, testable hypotheses are derived, and the constructed middle-range theory is linked to the conceptual-theoretical framework of the Roy adaptation model.

  12. 5P/4P/3P/2P Battery Modules Range Generic Development & Qualification (United States)

    Remy, S.; Tricot, H.; Du Peyrat, D.


    As an answer to a larger energy range need for Geostationary battery, at the same time of shorter lead time combined with low recurring activities budgets, Saft set-up a range of generic battery modules from 2P VES180SA Li-ion cells to 5P VES180SA Li-ion cells. This battery range is based on a generic and modular battery approach, including innovating concepts such as parallel multi layers bus bars. The full qualification of the battery range has been successfully achieved at the end of 2010 year. The aim of this paper is to present the main principles of the battery design, to highlight the modular concepts of the battery parts so as to minimize technical differences between each size of module. It will also reflect the interfaces commonalties on the mechanical and electrical point of view, to provide interchangeable battery blocks even at a later stage of the project. The paper will also present the overall qualification plan and key results based on an envelope approach to cover generic geostationary requirements for different platforms. A specific paragraph will emphasize the design and proven performances of the largest module of the current range (5P10S VES180SA battery). A last chapter will present the already contracted projects based on this battery range design & qualification status.

  13. Economics of delayed replacement when cow performance is seasonal. (United States)

    De Vries, A


    An optimal dairy cow culling and replacement model was developed; it included the option to delay entering heifers into the herd after cows were culled. The objective was to investigate whether leaving a slot temporarily vacant, to enter a heifer at a more favorable time of the year, could be economically advantageous when cow performance is seasonal. The goal of the optimization was therefore to maximize net return per slot per year. The model consisted of 3 modules: 1) a bioeconomic module to enter and calculate cow performance data and prices, 2) a replacement policy module based on dynamic programming to calculate optimal culling decisions for individual cows and when to enter heifers, and 3) a herd performance module based on Markov chains to calculate summary results for the herd. Results for the optimal culling policy under typical conditions in Florida showed that immediate replacement was economically advantageous throughout the year. However, for a nonoptimal culling policy, cows culled in May, June, and July would not be replaced by heifers until August. Realistic increases in seasonality or heifer prices, or lower milk prices, showed economic advantages of delayed over immediate replacement for both culling policies. The maximum advantage of delayed replacement of 486 price scenarios was 88 US dollars per slot per year; cows that left the herd in the early summer and spring were not replaced by heifers until the late summer. Delayed replacement was economically advantageous when fixed costs and net returns per slot were low and seasonality was high, which is the case for a portion of Florida dairy producers.

  14. Symptoms, Diagnosis, and Treatment of Cow's Milk Allergy. (United States)

    Vandenplas, Yvan; Marchand, Johan; Meyns, Lien


    The diagnosis and management of cow's milk allergy (CMA) is a topic of debate because there are no specific symptoms and reliable diagnostic tests. Literature was searched using databases to find original papers and reviews on this topic. A "challenge test" is still recommended as the most specific and sensitive diagnostic test, although a positive challenge test does not proof the involvement of the immune system. Only in the rare case of anaphylaxis, the challenge tests is not recommended. The Cow's Milk Symptom Score (CoMiSS) is an awareness tool for health care professionals to better recognize symptoms caused by the ingestion of cow's milk, but still needs validation. Today, the recommended diagnostic approach consists of an elimination diet with an extensive cow's milk based hydrolysate, followed by a challenge test. Amino acid based formula is reserved for the severe cases. Rice hydrolysates are gaining popularity, because they have been shown to be effective, have a better acceptability, and to be cheaper than the extensive cow's milk based hydrolysates. Soy infant formula may offer an additional alternative option as reviews concluded that about 10-15% of infants allergic to cow's milk will also react to soy. Gastro-intestinal microbiota manipulation may be of additional benefit in the treatment of CMA. The development of rice hydrolysates challenge the use of Today, extensive cow's milk based extensive hydrolysates remain the first option for the majority of patients and amino acid formula for the most severe cases. Rice hydrolysates and soy infant formula are considered as second choice options.

  15. Measurement of heat stress conditions at cow level and comparison to climate conditions at stationary locations inside a dairy barn. (United States)

    Schüller, Laura K; Heuwieser, Wolfgang


    The objectives of this study were to examine heat stress conditions at cow level and to investigate the relationship to the climate conditions at 5 different stationary locations inside a dairy barn. In addition, we compared the climate conditions at cow level between primiparous and multiparous cows for a period of 1 week after regrouping. The temperature-humidity index (THI) differed significantly between all stationary loggers. The lowest THI was measured at the window logger in the experimental stall and the highest THI was measured at the central logger in the experimental stall. The THI at the mobile cow loggers was 2·33 THI points higher than at the stationary loggers. Furthermore, the mean daily THI was higher at the mobile cow loggers than at the stationary loggers on all experimental days. The THI in the experimental pen was 0·44 THI points lower when the experimental cow group was located inside the milking parlour. The THI measured at the mobile cow loggers was 1·63 THI points higher when the experimental cow group was located inside the milking parlour. However, there was no significant difference for all climate variables between primiparous and multiparous cows. These results indicate, there is a wide range of climate conditions inside a dairy barn and especially areas with a great distance to a fresh air supply have an increased risk for the occurrence of heat stress conditions. Furthermore, the heat stress conditions are even higher at cow level and cows not only influence their climatic environment, but also generate microclimates within different locations inside the barn. Therefore climate conditions should be obtained at cow level to evaluate the heat stress conditions that dairy cows are actually exposed to.

  16. Assessing variability of literature based methane indicator traits in a large dairy cow population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kandel, PB.


    Full Text Available Description of the subject. Dairy production is identified as a major source of methane (CH4 emissions. Selective breeding represents one method for mitigating CH4 emissions but practical and cheap ways to measure this trait are not currently available. In the present study, four CH4 indicator traits based on milk fatty acid (FA contents were referenced from the literature. Objectives. The aim of the study was to use these literature CH4 indicators for assessing the variability of methane emissions emitted by dairy cows. Method. Literature CH4 indicator traits were originally defined based on the measurements of FA content by gas chromatography. However, these measurements were not available for all the available cows in our studied population. A sample of 602 gas chromatographic analyses was therefore used to develop a calibration equation for predicting the literature CH4 indicators based on milk mid-infrared (MIR spectra. This spectral information was available for all the studied cows. Then, in a second step, in order to predict the literature CH4 indicator traits, the developed MIR prediction equations were applied to the 604,028 recorded spectral data collected between 2007 and 2011 for 70,872 cows in their first three lactations. Genetic parameters for these traits were then estimated using single trait test-day random regression animal models. Results. The predicted MIR literature CH4 estimates were in the expected range from 350 ± 40 to 449 ± 65 g per day. The averaged predicted MIR CH4 emission (g per day increased from the beginning of lactation, reached the highest level at the peak of lactation and then decreased towards the end of lactation. The average daily heritability values were 0.29-.35, 0.26-.40, and 0.22-.37 for the different studied CH4 indicators for the first three lactations, respectively. The largest differences between the estimated breeding values of sires that had daughters in production eructing the highest and

  17. Combination of activity and lying/standing data for detection of oestrus in cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jónsson, Ragnar Ingi; Blanke, Mogens; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad


    The objective of this study is to develop an algorithm for detecting oestrus in dairy cows from measurements of activity and duration of lying/standing periods. Each cows activity is measured by a sensor attached to the neck that returns an activity index for each hour. Duration of lying is measu......The objective of this study is to develop an algorithm for detecting oestrus in dairy cows from measurements of activity and duration of lying/standing periods. Each cows activity is measured by a sensor attached to the neck that returns an activity index for each hour. Duration of lying...... is measured by a sensor attached to the hind leg of the cow. Activity and lying/standing behaviour are modelled as a discrete event system, constructed using automata theory. In an attempt to estimate a biologically relevant lying balance, a lying balance indicator is constructed and is influencing transition...

  18. Plasma ceramides are elevated in overweight Holstein dairy cows experiencing greater lipolysis and insulin resistance during the transition from late pregnancy to early lactation. (United States)

    Rico, J E; Bandaru, V V R; Dorskind, J M; Haughey, N J; McFadden, J W


    Insulin resistance is a homeorhetic adaptation to parturition in dairy cows transitioning from late pregnancy to early lactation. An increase in prepartum adiposity can predispose periparturient cows to greater lipolysis and insulin resistance, thus increasing the risk for metabolic disease. Mechanisms mediating the development of insulin resistance in overweight peripartal dairy cows may depend on ceramide metabolism. The sphingolipid ceramide accumulates in plasma and tissues of overweight monogastric animals, and facilitates saturated fatty acid-induced insulin resistance. Considering this evidence, we hypothesized that plasma ceramides would be elevated in periparturient dairy cattle and that these sphingolipids would correlate with the magnitude of lipolysis and insulin resistance. To test our central hypothesis, multiparous Holstein cows were allocated into 2 groups according to their body condition score (BCS) at d -30 prepartum: lean (BCS 4.0; n=11). Blood samples were collected at d -45, -30, -15, and -7, relative to expected parturition, and at d 4 postpartum. Plasma glucose, insulin, nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) concentrations were measured, and insulin sensitivity was estimated. The concentrations of individual plasma ceramide and glycosylated ceramide were determined using liquid chromatography-based mass spectrometry. Results demonstrated that greater adiposity was associated with a greater loss in body condition during late pregnancy. Overweight cows had greater circulating concentrations of glucose, insulin, and NEFA, and lower insulin sensitivity relative to lean cows. We detected 30 different sphingolipids across 6 lipid classes with acyl chains ranging from 16 to 26 carbons. The most abundant plasma sphingolipids detected were C24:0-ceramide, C24:0-monohexosylceramide, and C16:0-lactosylceramide. Plasma concentrations of total ceramide and monohexosylceramide increased as lactation approached, and saturated

  19. Predictive value of the cow?s milk skin prick test in infantile colic


    Moravej, Hossein; Imanieh, Mohammad H.; Kashef, Sara; Handjani, Farhad; Eghterdari, Fardin


    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Infantile colic is a common problem among young infants. Cow?s milk allergy has been suggested as one of the causes. We aimed to investigate the value of the cow?s milk skin test for the diagnosis of cow?s milk allergy in exclusively breast-fed infants with infantile colic. METHODS: Exclusively breast-fed infants with infantile colic were enrolled in this study. On the first visit, the average hours of crying of the infant in a 24-h period were recorded and the cow?...

  20. Effect of ovarian activity and endogenous reproductive hormones on GnRH-induced ovarian cycles in postpartum dairy cows. (United States)

    Zaied, A A; Garverick, H A; Bierschwal, C J; Elmore, R G; Youngquist, R S; Sharp, A J


    The objective was to determine the relationship of prior follicular development to GnRH-induced cyclic ovarian activity in dairy cows postpartum. Sixty lactating Holstein and Guernsey cows from the University of Missouri dairy herds were assigned at random to one of two groups. Group I consisted of 20 cows (control) given a single intramuscular (IM) injection of saline. Group II consisted of 40 cows given a single injection of 100 micrograms gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) IM. Treatments were administered 12 to 14 days postpartum. All cows were palpated per rectum to monitor ovarian activity prior to treatment (time 0) and 2 to 3 and 7 to 9 days post-treatment. Blood was collected via tail vessel puncture at time 0 and 7 to 9 days post-treatment. The percentage of cows exhibiting a follicle 10 mm or greater in diameter prior to treatment was not different between Group I (50%) and Group II (43%). However, twenty (50%) of the GnRH-treated cows initiated cyclic ovarian activity following treatment as evidenced by palpable CL and plasma progesterone greater than or equal to 1.0 ng/ml on day 9 post-treatment in contrast to only four (20%) saline-treated cows (P less than 0.05). Seventeen of 20 cows ovulating in Group II exhibited a palpable follicle greater than or equal to 10 mm in diameter prior to treatment compared to 3 of 4 cows in Group I. Prior to treatment, plasma concentrations of LH, estradiol-17 beta and progesterone were not different (P less than .05) between cows in Groups I and II. In Group II, preinjection levels of estradiol-17 beta and LH for cows ovulating in response to GnRH were higher (P less than .01) than in cows not ovulating. Postinjection concentrations of progesterone in plasma on days 7 to 9 were higher (P less than .01) in cows ovulating than in cows not ovulating. Six (30%) cows in Group I developed ovarian cysts prior to conception as compared to 12.5% (5) of the cows in Group II (P less than .05). The present study suggests: (1

  1. Dairy cow monitoring by RFID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevan Stankovski


    Full Text Available Dairy cows identification and monitoring on small cattle farms are usually based on the utilization of barcode technology. This kind of identification technology is unsuitable for dairy cows milking and feeding process automation. Radio Frequency Identification (RFID technology is a better solution in this case. This paper describes the research and implementation of the milking cycle´s automated monitoring with the use of RFID tags conducted on a small cattle farm in the Republic of Serbia. This solution is based on RFID system which consists of two parts. First part includes control box, two Ultra High Frequency (UHF RFID readers operating at frequency of 915 MHz and RFID tags glued onto the dairy cow ear labels. Second part includes software modules for acquisition and collecting data from RFID tags to build up an archive due to supervision and analysis of the milking cycle. Reading accuracy of RFID system in the observed period was 99.8 % in average. A group of dairy cows having a settled milking cycle within an interval of 12h ± 5 % had a 1.5 % better yield and a 0.08 better quality in comparison with a group of dairy cows having a milking cycle variance higher than 20 %. RFID system implemented in described way can be easily integrated into a new or existing farm management system in order to have better production results which depend on several factors including settled milking cycles.

  2. Specific fatty acids as metabolic modulators in the dairy cow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.A.A. Pires


    Full Text Available This review summarizes recent developments on the utilization of specific fatty acids to modulate bovine energy metabolism, with emphasis on the periparturient dairy cow. A number of experiments have assessed the effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids on bovine hepatic energy metabolism using in vitro and in vivo models. Treatment of hepatocytes with specific fatty acids altered energy metabolism in vitro. For example, linolenic acid seemed to decrease hepatocyte triacylglycerol accumulation. This effect was confirmed in vivo, using parenteral infusions of emulsions derived from different fat sources to feed-restricted non-lactating cows. Additionally, polyunsaturated fatty acids can increase whole body response to insulin, potentially enhancing antilipolytic effects of insulin and muscle protein anabolism in the bovine. There is limited literature on the effects of feeding fat sources rich in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, such as fish oil and linseed oil, on metabolism of periparturient dairy cows. Available research has yielded conflicting results which need further clarification. On the other hand, specific isomers of conjugated linoleic acid consistently induce milk fat depression and are able to decrease energy export in milk by periparturient dairy cows. Nonetheless, research is still needed to assess whether these effects will ultimately benefit productivity and health status of periparturient dairy cows. Limitations of available methods to protect fatty acids from ruminal biohydrogenation are also addressed.

  3. Detection of tallow adulteration in cow ghee by derivative spectrophotometry. (United States)

    Jirankalgikar, Nikhil M; De, Subrata


    Ghee is a widely consumed dairy product in India and that prepared from cow milk is mentioned in ayurvedic texts as an ingredient of many formulations/additive as well. Detection of cow ghee adulteration with vegetable oils/fats and animal body fats is a key concern. Indicated values for commonly used parameters to differentiate pure and adulterated ghee materials are many a times overlapping. Among reported techniques, ultraviolet fluorescence and paper chromatography technique are not that much sensitive while other methods require sophisticated instrumental facilities (such as gas chromatography, mass spectrometry) and costly analytical processes. The present paper deals with a promising spectroscopic method to determine the tallow adulteration in cow ghee. Ghee and tallow (taken in chloroform) as such and mixed in different proportions were scanned by spectrophotometer and their second order spectra were analyzed. The value of the ratio of the absorbance of peaks at about 238 nm and 297 nm steadily decreases with the increasing proportion of tallow. This decrease shows consistent linearity suggesting its applicability for quantitative estimation of tallow in cow ghee. The developed derivative spectroscopic method is a rapid, sensitive, cost-effective method for detection of tallow adulteration in cow ghee.

  4. Influence of diseases and metabolic disorders on cow weight changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šárka Podlahová


    Full Text Available Requirements on increasing economic efficiency of cattle breeding force farmers to use the latest up-to-datetechnology for monitoring and management of farming quality. Regular weighing and data processing can forinstance discover mistakes that can indicate defects, e.g. nutrition deficiencies, incorrect embryonic development,health problems, demanding nursing intervention. The aim of the research was to monitor manifestations of diseasesand metabolic disorders in the course of weight curve based on data from an automated system for weighing the liveweight of dairy cows. There was used in the weighing unit for milking robots Astronaut A3 (Lely company to obtainweight data of individual cows. There were selected dairy cows with the longest period of lactation or already dryingoff, and especially dairy cows with various health problems for study. Limiting values of weight changes wereestablished after assembling a general equation of mass curve. In the sphere of the diseases there was manifestedonly ketosis in the weight curves with a loss of 10.2 kg / day (38% weight loss. The results of the study will beapplied for compiling algorithm that will be implemented in the complete management system of cattle breeding,monitoring the dairy cows every day and highlight possible deviations exceeding of physiological changes in weight.

  5. Rumination time around calving: an early signal to detect cows at greater risk of disease. (United States)

    Calamari, L; Soriani, N; Panella, G; Petrera, F; Minuti, A; Trevisi, E


    The main objective of this experiment was to evaluate the use of rumination time (RT) during the peripartum period as a tool for early disease detection. The study was carried out in an experimental freestall barn and involved 23 Italian Friesian cows (9 primiparous and 14 multiparous). The RT was continuously recorded by using an automatic system (Hr-Tag, SCR Engineers Ltd., Netanya, Israel), and data were summarized in 2-h intervals. Blood samples were collected from 30 d before calving to 42 d in milk (DIM) to assess biochemical indicators related to energy, protein, and mineral metabolism, as well as markers of inflammation and some enzyme activities. The liver functionality index, which includes some negative acute-phase proteins and related parameters (albumin, cholesterol, and bilirubin), was used to evaluate the severity of inflammatory conditions occurring around calving. The cows were retrospectively categorized according to RT observed between 3 and 6 DIM into those with the lowest (L) and highest (H) RT. The average RT before calving (-20 to -2d) was 479 min/d (range 264 to 599), reached a minimum value at calving (30% of RT before calving), and was nearly stable after 15 DIM (on average 452 min/d). Milk yield in early lactation (on average 26.8 kg/d) was positively correlated with RT (r = 0.33). After calving, compared with H cows, the L cows had higher values of haptoglobin (0.61 and 0.34 g/L at 10 DIM in L and H, respectively) for a longer time, had a greater increase in total bilirubin (9.5 and 5.7 μmol/L at 5 DIM in L and H), had greater reductions of albumin (31.2 and 33.5 g/L at 10 DIM in L and H) and paraoxonase (54 and 76 U/ml at 10 DIM in L and H), and had a slower increase of total cholesterol (2.7 and 3.2 mmol/L at 20 DIM in L and H). Furthermore, a lower average value of liver functionality index was observed in L (-6.97) compared with H (-1.91) cows. These results suggest that severe inflammation around parturition is associated with a

  6. Development of a Long-Range Gliding Underwater Vehicle Utilizing Java Sun SPOT Technology (United States)


    37 Figure 31. Keller- Druck Piezoresistive Depth Transmitter...............................................38 Figure 32...transmitters is shown in Figure 31. It is manufactured by Keller- Druck , a European manufacturer of precision depth sensors and transmitters. Specifications...are as follows: Type: PA-23S/80565.55 Range: 0-30 bar Output: 0-5 Volts linear Vcc: 8-28 Volts DC 38 Figure 31. Keller- Druck

  7. Development of a long-range naval gun :a system engineering appproach


    Hagan, James D.


    The U. S. Navy needs a medium-caliber (5-inch) ship-mounted gun that can deliver a payload to a range five times farther than the present capability. Such an increase in performance requires major design changes to both the gun and its ammunition. A gun which can shoot beyond the visible horizon needs additional support from subsystems which provide targeting information and assessment of battle damage to the intended target. A system engineering approach to the fulfillment of ...

  8. Monitoring cow activity and rumination time for an early detection of heat stress in dairy cow (United States)

    Abeni, Fabio; Galli, Andrea


    The aim of this study was to explore the use of cow activity and rumination time by precision livestock farming tools as early alert for heat stress (HS) detection. A total of 58 Italian Friesian cows were involved in this study during summer 2015. Based on the temperature humidity index (THI), two different conditions were compared on 16 primiparous and 11 multiparous, to be representative of three lactation phases: early (15-84 DIM), around peak (85-154 DIM), and plateau (155-224 DIM). A separate dataset for the assessment of the variance partition included all the cows in the herd from June 7 to July 16. The rumination time (RT2h, min/2 h) and activity index (AI2h, bouts/2 h) were summarized every 2-h interval. The raw data were used to calculate the following variables: total daily RT (RTt), daytime RT (RTd), nighttime RT (RTn), total daily AI (AIt), daytime AI (AId), and nighttime AI (AIn). Either AIt and AId increased, whereas RTt, RTd, and RTn decreased with higher THI in all the three phases. The highest decrease was recorded for RTd and ranged from 49 % (early) to 45 % (plateau). The contribution of the cow within lactation phase was above 60 % of the total variance for AI traits and a share from 33.9 % (for RTt) to 54.8 % (RTn) for RT traits. These observations must be extended to different feeding managements and different animal genetics to assess if different thresholds could be identified to set an early alert system for the farmer.

  9. Use of sinuosity indexes to describe freeranging cow paths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanuy, D.


    Full Text Available An analysis of circular data was used to obtain vertical and horizontal sinuosity indexes of free-ranging cow paths. Focal sampling of cow displacements from 20 cows was translated from Cartesian co-ordinates (X,Y,Z to rotation angles and the first order correlated random walk model developed by BOVET & BENHAMOU (1988 was used to calculate sinuosity indexes. Some of the statistical hypotheses were hard to accomplish in some samples. Nevertheless, the obtained indexes summarized well the complete path of grazing animals and so it could be used in order to detect differences in animal behavior pattern.

    [fr] Une analyse de données circulaires a été utilisée pour obtenir les index de sinuosité verticales et horizontales de parcours des vaches en libre pacage. Les observations visuelles des déplacements de 20 vaches ont été traduites de coordonnées cartésiennes (X,Y,Z en angles rationnels et on a utilisé le modèle de premier ordre de parcours aléatoires correlés (correlated random walk, développé par BOVET & BENHAMOU (1988 pour calculer les index de sinuosité. Certaines des hypothèses statistiques du modèle étaient difficiles â accomplir pour quelques échantillons. Néanmoins, les index obtenus ont bien résumé le parcours complet des animaux et par conséquent peuvent être utilisés pour détecter des différences dans le modèle de comportement animal. [es] Se ha utilizado un análisis de datos circulares para obtener los índices de sinuosidad vertical y horizontal de vacas en pastoreo libre. Las observaciones visuales de los desplazamientos de 20 vacas se han traducido de coordenadas cartesianas (X,Y,Z a ángulos rotacionales y se ha utilizado el modelo de primer orden de recorridos aleatorios correlacionados (correlated random walk, desarrollado por BOVET & BENHAMOU (1988, para calcular los índices de sinuosidad. Algunas de las hipótesis estadísticas del modelo son difíciles de cumplir para ciertas muestras

  10. Born to be a Loser Cow?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Hanne Birgitte Hede; Pedersen, Louise Dybdahl; Sørensen, Morten Kargo


    Over the last few years, an increasing awareness has arisen in Denmark of the existence of cows with a generally lowered health and production status, referred to as "loser cows." A previous study has estimated that the overall prevalence of loser cows in Danish Holstein herds is 3.2%. The aim of...

  11. Long Range Development Plan for Leeward Oahu Community College, Oahu, State of Hawaii. (United States)

    Daniel, Mann, Johnson and Mendenhall, Honolulu, HI.

    Numerous graphics are used to illustrate the areas and stages of development of Hawaii's first completely new community college. The unique features of topology and climate are emphasized and integrated into the development of the plan. Specific topics discussed or illustrated include--(1) population distribution, (2) land use, (3) parking and…

  12. Uncertainty assessment of the breath methane concentration method to determine methane production of dairy cows. (United States)

    Wu, Liansun; Koerkamp, Peter W G Groot; Ogink, Nico


    The breath methane concentration method uses the methane concentrations in the cow's breath during feed bin visits as a proxy for the methane production rate. The objective of this study was to assess the uncertainty of a breath methane concentration method in a feeder and its capability to measure and rank cows' methane production. A range of controlled methane fluxes from a so-called artificial reference cow were dosed in a feed bin, and its exhaled air was sampled by a tube inside the feeder and analyzed. The artificial reference cow simulates the lungs, respiratory tract, and rumen of a cow and releases a variable methane flux to generate a concentration pattern in the exhaled breath that closely resembles a real cow's pattern. The strength of the relation between the controlled methane release rates of the artificial reference cow and the measured methane concentrations was analyzed by linear regression, using the coefficient of determination (R2) and the residual standard error as performance indicators. The effect of error sources (source-sampling distance, air turbulence, and cow's head movement) on this relation was experimentally investigated, both under laboratory and barn conditions. From the laboratory to the dairy barn at the 30-cm sampling distance, the R2-value decreased from 0.97 to 0.37 and the residual standard error increased from 75 to 86 ppm as a result of barn air turbulence, the latter increasing to a theoretical 94 ppm if modeled variability due to cow's head movement was accounted for as well. In practice, the effect of these random errors can be compensated by sampling strategies including repeated measurements on each cow over time, thus increasing the distinctive power between cows. However, systematic errors that may disturb the relation between concentration and production rate, such as cow variation in air exhalation rate and air flow patterns around sampling locations that differ between barns, cannot be compensated by repeated

  13. Development of 22 new microsatellite loci for fishers (Martes pennanti) with variability results from across their range

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jordan, Mark J.; Higley, Mark; Matthews, Sean M.; Rhodes, Olin E.; Schwartz, Michael K.; Barrett, Reginald H.; Palsboll, Per J.

    We developed 22 new microsatellite loci for the fisher (Martes pennanti), a North American mesocarnivore. The loci were developed with samples from the southern Sierra Nevada Mountains in California, and were screened with samples from this population and four other populations. We observed a range

  14. Influence of peripartum dietary energy supplementation on some blood biochemical parametars in dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojković-Kovačević Slavica


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the influence of an energy supplement on the basis of propylene glycol on the values of metabolic profile parameters in periparturient cows. Fifteen days before calving, 40 cows were selected and divided into two groups: control (n=20 and experimental (n=20. From day 15 before to day 30 after calving, the experimental group of cows received an energy supplement based on propyleneglycol added in food ("OSIMOL“, Veyx-Pharma GmbH, Germany. Blood samples were taken 15 days before and 10 days after calving. Concentrations of glucose and betahydroxybutyric acid (BHBA were determined immediately after blood was taken. Concentrations of total protein, albumin, urea and total bilirubin were determined in the blood serum. There was no significant difference in the average values of the measured parameters between the control and the experimental group of cows. After parturition glycemia in cows of the control group was lower than physiologically acceptable (x=1.93±0.43 mmol/L, and glucose in cows of the experimental group was at the upper physiological limit (x=3.13±0.33 mmol/L and signicantly higher (p<0.001 than in the control group. The concentration of BHBA in cows that received the energy supplement („OSIMOL“ was 0.40±0.12 mmol/L, while in the control group of cows it was significantly higher (p<0.001 and stood at 0.88 ±0.39 mmol/L. Furthermore, the concentration of total bilirubin in the cows of the experimental group was within the physiological range (x = 4.09± 1.42 μmol/L, while in the cows of the control group it was significantly higher (p<0.05 and stood at 10.19±5.16 μmol/l.

  15. Development of a Low cost Ultra tiny Line Laser Range Sensor (United States)


    voltage reading of the inner capacitors. Through the amplifier buffers, the output signals are collected by the ADCs and transferred to the memory by the...32-bits MCU integrated with powerful peripheral circuits, including 12-bit Analog-Digital Converters ( ADCs ) with 5 Mega Samples per Second (MSPS...outputs, linear with respect to Q1, Q2, the measurements of the range sensor. For all the 256 pixels, there is: V = [ V (1) 2 V (1) 1 +V (1) 2 V (2) 2

  16. Cows, clicks, ciphers, and satire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Tyler


    Full Text Available The social network game Farmville, which allows players to grow crops, raise animals, and produce a variety of goods, proved enormously successful within a year of its launch in 2009, attracting 110 million Facebook users. However, the game has been criticised for its mindless mechanics, which require little more than repeated clicking on its colourful icons. By way of parody, Ian Bogost’s Cow Clicker permits its players to simply click on a picture of a cow once every six hours. In this essay I extend Bogost’s critique and suggest that Cow Clicker highlights not just the soulless inanity of Farmville gameplay but also the paucity of that game’s portrayal of the painful reality of a dairy cow’s punishing daily existence and untimely end.

  17. Eddy covariance methane flux measurements over a grazed pasture: effect of cows as moving point sources (United States)

    Felber, R.; Münger, A.; Neftel, A.; Ammann, C.


    Methane (CH4) from ruminants contributes one-third of global agricultural greenhouse gas emissions. Eddy covariance (EC) technique has been extensively used at various flux sites to investigate carbon dioxide exchange of ecosystems. Since the development of fast CH4 analyzers, the instrumentation at many flux sites has been amended for these gases. However, the application of EC over pastures is challenging due to the spatially and temporally uneven distribution of CH4 point sources induced by the grazing animals. We applied EC measurements during one grazing season over a pasture with 20 dairy cows (mean milk yield: 22.7 kg d-1) managed in a rotational grazing system. Individual cow positions were recorded by GPS trackers to attribute fluxes to animal emissions using a footprint model. Methane fluxes with cows in the footprint were up to 2 orders of magnitude higher than ecosystem fluxes without cows. Mean cow emissions of 423 ± 24 g CH4 head-1 d-1 (best estimate from this study) correspond well to animal respiration chamber measurements reported in the literature. However, a systematic effect of the distance between source and EC tower on cow emissions was found, which is attributed to the analytical footprint model used. We show that the EC method allows one to determine CH4 emissions of cows on a pasture if the data evaluation is adjusted for this purpose and if some cow distribution information is available.

  18. Efficacy of cefquinome for treatment of cows with mastitis experimentally induced using Escherichia coli. (United States)

    Shpigel, N Y; Levin, D; Winkler, M; Saran, A; Ziv, G; Böttner, A


    The efficacy of intramuscularly and intramammarily administered cefquinome was evaluated in experimental Escherichia coli mastitis in dairy cows. Forty-seven multiparous, Israeli Holstein cows in early lactation that produced at least 25 L/d of milk were used, and 400 to 750 cfu of E. coli were infused into two healthy quarters of each cow. Cows were randomly assigned to one of the following treatment groups: 1) 75 mg of cefquinome administered intramammarily three times at 12-h intervals, 2) 75 mg of cefquinome administered intramammarily three times at 12-h intervals and 1 mg/kg of cefquinome administered intramuscularly two times at a 24-h interval, 3) 1 mg/kg of cefquinome administered intramuscularly two times at a 24-h interval, and 4) 75 mg of ampicillin and 200 mg of cloxacillin administered intramammarily three times at 12-h intervals. All cows developed typical signs of acute clinical mastitis by 12 to 16 h postinoculation. Parenteral cefquinome therapy, with or without intramammary cefquinome (groups 2 and 3), significantly improved clinical recovery and return to milk production. The bacteriological cure rates were considerably and significantly higher for cows in the groups treated with cefquinome than for cows in the group treated with ampicillin and cloxacillin. This study supported the efficacy of cefquinome in the treatment of clinical coliform mastitis in dairy cows.

  19. Evaluation of Cow Milk Electrical Conductivity Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin Gavan


    Full Text Available The efficiency of subclinical mastitis diagnosis using an electrical conductivity (EC meter was evaluated in the dairy farm of Agricultural Research and Development Station ( ARDS Simnic Craiova. The results were compared with those obtained by using the California Mastitis Test (CMT and the Somatic Cell Count (SCC.The milk quarter samples ( 1176 from Holstein Friesian cows were analyzed between September and December 2015. The EC evaluation with  the EC meter  ,showed a high proportion of results differing from SCC and CMT results. The CMT still shows to be the most accessible and efficient test in comparison to the EC meter tested.

  20. Evaluation of cytokine expression by blood monocytes of lactating Holstein cows with or without postpartum uterine disease. (United States)

    Galvão, K N; Felippe, M J B; Brittin, S B; Sper, R; Fraga, M; Galvão, J S; Caixeta, L; Guard, C L; Ricci, A; Gilbert, R O


    Whereas neutrophils are the main phagocytic leukocytes, monocytes and macrophages are actively involved in immunomodulation after infection. Recent studies have demonstrated that neutrophil function is impaired by the state of negative energy balance around parturition, and that cows that develop uterine disease have a greater degree of negative energy balance than healthy cows. The objectives of this study were to compare monocyte gene expression and protein secretion of selected cytokines from calving to 42 d after calving in Holstein cows that did or did not develop uterine disease. Real time quantitative RT-PCR (Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα), Interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8 and IL-10) and ELISA (TNFα, IL-1β and IL-8) were used to evaluate cytokine response following in vitro stimulation of blood-derived monocytes with irradiated E. coli. Relative to unstimulated cells, E. coli-stimulated monocytes from cows with metritis had lower gene expression of key pro-inflammatory cytokines than healthy cows from calving to 14 d after calving (TNFα at 0, 7, and 14 d after calving, IL-1β and IL-6 at 7 and 14 d after calving; P cows with metritis. Expression of mRNA in stimulated cells (relative to housekeeping genes) was lower for TNFα (7 and 14 d postpartum) and for IL-10 (7 and 14 d postpartum) in cows with metritis. Concentration of TNFα was lower in the culture medium of E. coli-stimulated monocytes from cows with metritis than healthy cows at calving and 7 and 21 d after calving (P cows and cows that developed endometritis, diagnosed cytologically at 42 d after calving. We concluded that altered levels of expression and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines postpartum could contribute to impaired inflammatory response and predispose cows to development of metritis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of oral calcium supplementation on productive and reproductive performance in Holstein cows. (United States)

    Martinez, N; Sinedino, L D P; Bisinotto, R S; Daetz, R; Risco, C A; Galvão, K N; Thatcher, W W; Santos, J E P


    The objectives of this experiment were to determine the effects of oral Ca supplementation on milk yield, body condition, pregnancy per artificial insemination (P/AI), and days to pregnancy in Holstein cows considered to be of low (LRM; no calving assistance, live singleton without retained placenta) or high (HRM; at least one of the following: dystocia, twins, stillbirth, retained placenta, or vulvo-vaginal laceration) risk of developing metritis. The hypotheses were that oral Ca supplementation during the early postpartum period would reduce the loss of body condition and improve lactation performance and reproduction. Four hundred fifty Holstein cows were blocked by parity as primiparous cows (n=174) or multiparous cows (n=276). Within parity, a cow considered at HRM was matched with a cow of LRM and the pair was randomly assigned to control (no Ca supplementation), 86g of Ca on d 0 and 1 postpartum (CaS1), or 86g of Ca on d 0 and 1 postpartum followed by 43g/d on d 2 to 4 postpartum (CaS4). Body condition was scored at calving and 32 d postpartum and estrous cyclicity was evaluated at 38 and 52 d postpartum. Milk yield was recorded daily. Multiparous cows were classified as above or below the mean 305-d mature equivalent milk yield based on production in the previous lactation. Reproductive performance was evaluated for the first 210 d postpartum. Body condition did not differ among treatments, and cows lost on average 0.44 units of body condition in the first month of lactation. Calcium supplementation did not affect milk yield in the first 5 mo postpartum. For multiparous cows, Ca supplementation was beneficial to milk yield in the first 30 DIM in cows of greater production potential, but detrimental to multiparous cows with below average production potential. Calcium supplementation to primiparous cows reduced P/AI at first (control=55.8, CaS1=31.5, CaS4=37.0%) and all artificial inseminations (control=48.5, CaS1=34.6, CaS4=38.5%); however, Ca

  2. Within day variation in fatty acid composition of milk from cows in an automatic milking system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mette Krogh; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis; Kristensen, Camilla Bjerg


    Milk fatty acid composition is influenced by a range of conditions such as breed, feeding, and stage of lactation. Knowledge of milk fatty acid composition of individual cows would make it possible to sort milk at farm level according to certain fatty acid specifications. In the present study, 225...... milk samples were taken from 84 cows in a herd equipped with an automatic milking system. Milk fat content varied depending on yield and time since last milking, whereas the milk fatty acid composition did not vary significantly within cow. It was concluded that random milk samples may be used...... for analysis of fatty acid composition....

  3. [Treatment of mastitis in dry cows: treatment of all cows vs treatment of infected cows only (author's transl)]. (United States)

    Roguinsky, M; Serieys, F


    Within a herd, three groups have been randomly constituted. -- No dry cow therapy. -- Total Treatment group: all cows were submitted to dry cow therapy, in their four quarters. -- Limited Treatment group: cows were submitted to dry cow therapy in their four quarters, only if at least one quarter had given a CMT larger than or equal to +++, in the month before drying-off. --The cows were treated either with cloxacillin or with penicillin-streptomycin in 3% monostearate. The number of cows and quarters examinated and treated are given in table 1; the results of treatments are indicated in table 2. No significant differences can be found between Total and Limited Treatment groups; a slight improvement was observed when compared to CONTROL GROUP. Cloxacillin and penicillin-steptomycin gave similar results. The pathogenic and practical signification of these results is discussed.

  4. Rectal temperatures in postpartum cows


    Silvia Helena Venturolli Perri; Leslie Cristina Scarpelli; Thais Mioto Martinelli; César Esper; Katia Denise Bresciani; Marion Burkhardt de Koivisto


    The purpose of this study was to evaluate parturition data with the rectal temperature in the early postpartum period of dairy cows. One hundred and eighty cows were randomly selected between September 1999 and July 2000, in seven dairy farms located in the Northwest region of São Paulo, Brazil. For the first ten days postpartum, rectal temperature (RT) was taken between 5:00 and 8:00 a.m. using an electronic thermometer (M525 - GLA Agricultural Electronics, San Luis Obispo, CA 93401-7500). C...

  5. Range Scheduling Automation for the Air Force Satellite Control Network: A Case Study in Computer System Development (United States)


    ECP Engineering Change Proposal FQT Functional Qualification Test GPS Globil Positioning System GTS Guam Tracking Station HTS Hawaii Tracking Station...operational environment for which the two range scheduling automation projects were developed, it is important to understand the AFSCN range scheduling...of the two efforts? The literature review in Chapter II discusses the software acquisition problem in the Department of Defense (DOD) environment and

  6. Monitoring feeding behaviour of dairy cows using accelerometers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Mattachini


    Full Text Available Monitoring cow behaviour has become increasingly important in understanding the nutrition, production, management of the well being, and overall health of dairy cows. Methods of assessing behavioural activity have changed in recent years, favouring automatic recording techniques. Traditional methods to measure behaviour, such as direct observation or time-lapse video, are labour-intensive and time-consuming. Automated recording devices have become increasingly common to measure behaviour accurately. Thus, the development of automated monitoring systems that can continuously and accurately quantify feeding behaviour are required for efficient monitoring and control of modern and automated dairy farms. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible use of a 3D accelerometer to record feeding behaviour of dairy cows. Feeding behaviour (feeding time and number of visits to the manger of 12 lactating dairy cows was recorded for approximately 3 h with 3D-accelerometer data loggers (HOBO Pendant G logger. The sensors were positioned in the high part of the neck to monitor head movements. Behaviour was simultaneously recorded using visual observation as a reference. Linear regression analysis between the measurement methods showed that the recorded feeding time (R2=0.90, n=12, P<0.001 was closely related to visual observations. In contrast, the number of visits was inadequately recorded by the 3D-accelerometer, showing a poor relationship with visual observations (R2=0.31, n=12, P<0.06. Results suggest that the use of accelerometer sensors can be a reliable and suitable technology for monitoring feeding behaviour of individual dairy cows in free stall housing. However, further research is necessary to develop an appropriate device able to detect and recognise the movements connected with the head movement during feeding. Such a device could be part of an automatic livestock management tool for the efficient monitoring and control of comfort and

  7. Home in the heat: Dramatic seasonal variation in home range of desert golden eagles informs management for renewable energy development (United States)

    Braham, Melissa; Miller, Tricia A.; Duerr, Adam E.; Lanzone, Michael; Fesnock, Amy; LaPre, Larry; Driscoll, Daniel; Katzner, Todd E.


    Renewable energy is expanding quickly with sometimes dramatic impacts to species and ecosystems. To understand the degree to which sensitive species may be impacted by renewable energy projects, it is informative to know how much space individuals use and how that space may overlap with planned development. We used global positioning system–global system for mobile communications (GPS-GSM) telemetry to measure year-round movements of golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) from the Mojave Desert of California, USA. We estimated monthly space use with adaptive local convex hulls to identify the temporal and spatial scales at which eagles may encounter renewable energy projects in the Desert Renewable Energy Conservation Plan area. Mean size of home ranges was lowest and least variable from November through January and greatest in February–March and May–August. These monthly home range patterns coincided with seasonal variation in breeding ecology, habitat associations, and temperature. The expanded home ranges in hot summer months included movements to cooler, prey-dense, mountainous areas characterized by forest, grasslands, and scrublands. Breeding-season home ranges (October–May) included more lowland semi-desert and rock vegetation. Overlap of eagle home ranges and focus areas for renewable energy development was greatest when eagle home ranges were smallest, during the breeding season. Golden eagles in the Mojave Desert used more space and a wider range of habitat types than expected and renewable energy projects could affect a larger section of the regional population than was previously thought.

  8. 23 CFR 450.214 - Development and content of the long-range statewide transportation plan. (United States)


    ...., transportation, safety, economic development, social and environmental effects, or energy) that were relevant to... providers of transportation, representatives of users of public transportation, representatives of users of... freight transportation services, and other interested parties with a reasonable opportunity to comment on...

  9. Relationship between profitability and type traits and derivation of economic values for reproduction and survival traits in Chianina beef cows. (United States)

    Forabosco, F; Bozzi, R; Boettcher, P; Filippini, F; Bijma, P; Van Arendonk, J A M


    The objectives of this study were 1) to propose a profit function for Italian Chianina beef cattle; 2) to derive economic values for some biological variables in beef cows, specifically, production expressed as the number of calves born alive per year (NACY), age at the insemination that resulted in the birth of the first calf (FI), and length of productive life (LPL); and 3) to investigate the relationship between the phenotypic profit function and type traits as early predictors of profitability in the Chianina beef cattle population. The average profit was 196 Euros/(cow.yr) for the length of productive life (LPL) and was obtained as the difference between the average income of 1,375 Euros/(cow.yr) for LPL and costs of 1,178 Euros/(cow.yr) of LPL. The mean LPL was equal to 5.97 yr, so the average total phenotypic profit per cow on a lifetime basis was 1,175 Euros. A normative approach was used to derive the economic weights for the biological variables. The most important trait was the number of calves born alive (+4.03.cow(-1).yr(-1) and +24.06 Euros/cow). An increase of 1 d in LPL was associated with an increase of +0.19 Euros/(cow.yr) and +1.65 Euros/cow on a lifetime basis. Increasing FI by 1 d decreased profit by 0.42 Euros/(cow.yr) and 2.51 Euros/cow. Phenotypic profit per cow had a heritability of 0.29. Heritabilities for eight muscularity traits ranged from 0.16 to 0.23, and for the seven body size traits between 0.21 and 0.30. The conformation trait final score can be used as an early predictor of profitability. The sale price of the animal and differences in the revenue and costs of offspring due to muscularity should be included in a future profit function.

  10. Verification of fresh grass feeding, pasture grazing and organic farming by cows farm milk fatty acid profile. (United States)

    Capuano, Edoardo; van der Veer, Grishja; Boerrigter-Eenling, Rita; Elgersma, Anjo; Rademaker, Jan; Sterian, Adriana; van Ruth, Saskia M


    The present study investigated the use of fatty acid (FA) profiling in combination with chemometric modelling to verify claims for cow milk in terms of fresh grass feeding, pasture grazing and organic/biodynamic farming. The FA profile was determined for 113 tank milk samples collected in the Netherlands from 30 farms over four different months, and used to develop classification models based on the PLS-DA algorithm. Milk from cows with daily rations of fresh grass could be successfully distinguished from milk from cows with no fresh grass in their diet. Milk from cows at pasture could easily be distinguished from milk from stabled cows without fresh grass in the diet, but the correct prediction of milk from stabled cows fed fresh grass indoors proved difficult. The FA profile of organic/biodynamic milk was different compared to conventional milk but an unequivocal discrimination was not possible either in summer or in winter. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Quarter and cow risk factors associated with the occurrence of clinical mastitis in dairy cows in the United Kingdom. (United States)

    Breen, J E; Green, M J; Bradley, A J


    Quarter and cow risk factors associated with the development of clinical mastitis (CM) during lactation were investigated during a 12-mo longitudinal study on 8 commercial Holstein-Friesian dairy farms in the southwest of England. The individual risk factors studied on 1,677 cows included assessments of udder and leg hygiene, teat-end callosity, and hyperkeratosis; body condition score; and measurements of monthly milk quality and yield. Several outcome variables for CM were used for statistical analysis, which included use of generalized linear mixed models. Significant covariates associated with an increased risk of CM were increasing parity, decreasing month of lactation, cows with very dirty udders, and quarters with only very severe hyperkeratosis of the teat-end. Thin and moderate smooth teat-end callosity scores were not associated with an increased risk for CM. Cows that recorded a somatic cell count >199,000 cells/mL and a milk protein percentage cow body condition score and incidence of CM. Of the cases of CM available for culture, 171 (26.7%) were confirmed as being caused by Escherichia coli and 121 (18.9%) confirmed as being caused by Streptococcus uberis. Quarters with moderate and very severe hyperkeratosis of the teat-end were at significantly increased risk of clinical E. coli mastitis before the next visit. Quarters with very severe hyperkeratosis of the teat-end were significantly more likely to develop clinical Strep. uberis mastitis before the next visit. There were strong trends within the data to suggest an association between very dirty udders (an increased risk of clinical E. coli mastitis) and teat-ends with no callosity ring present (an increased risk of clinical Strep. uberis mastitis). These results highlight the importance of individual quarter- and cow-level risk factors in determining the risk of CM associated with environmental pathogens during lactation.

  12. Identification of potential biomarkers in donor cows for in vitro embryo production by granulosa cell transcriptomics (United States)

    Mazzoni, Gianluca; Salleh, Suraya M.; Freude, Kristine; Pedersen, Hanne S.; Stroebech, Lotte; Callesen, Henrik; Hyttel, Poul; Kadarmideen, Haja N.


    The Ovum Pick Up-In vitro Production (OPU-IVP) of embryos is an advanced reproductive technology used in cattle production but the complex biological mechanisms behind IVP outcomes are not fully understood. In this study we sequenced RNA of granulosa cells collected from Holstein cows at oocyte aspiration prior to IVP, to identify candidate genes and biological mechanisms for favourable IVP-related traits in donor cows where IVP was performed separately for each animal. We identified 56 genes significantly associated with IVP scores (BL rate, kinetic and morphology). Among these, BEX2, HEY2, RGN, TNFAIP6 and TXNDC11 were negatively associated while Mx1 and STC1 were positively associated with all IVP scores. Functional analysis highlighted a wide range of biological mechanisms including apoptosis, cell development and proliferation and four key upstream regulators (COX2, IL1, PRL, TRIM24) involved in these mechanisms. We found a range of evidence that good IVP outcome is positively correlated with early follicular atresia. Furthermore we showed that high genetic index bulls can be used in breeding without reducing the IVP performances. These findings can contribute to the development of biomarkers from follicular fluid content and to improving Genomic Selection (GS) methods that utilize functional information in cattle breeding, allowing a widespread large scale application of GS-IVP. PMID:28403200

  13. Performance of Crossbred Dairy Cows Suitable for Smallholder ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    a new activity at Holetta Agricultural Research Centre (HARC). Purchased Boran heifers .... Table 1 Least square means ± se of body weight and daily growth rate to yearling F1 FB crossbred heifers. Age. N. Ls mean ± se body weight ... In developed countries dairy farmers often try to get the cow back in calf within 2 months ...

  14. Performance of crossbred dairy cows suitable for smallholder ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was undertaken to investigate productive and reproductive performances of F1 crossbred cows to produce and develop improved dairy cattle breed at on station and back up the on farm crossbreeding program at Holetta Research Center (HRC). One hundred fifty three F1 crossbred heifers were used to ...

  15. Cows May Offer Clues to an AIDS Vaccine (United States)

    ... vaccine initiative. Cows can't be infected with HIV, and research on animals doesn't always produce the same ... But the findings point to avenues for future research, one expert ... not only to HIV prevention and treatment, but to the rapid development ...

  16. A State Space Model Exhibiting a Cyclic Structure with an Application to Progesterone Concentration in Cow Milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jørgen Vinsløv; Jensen, Jens Ledet; Højsgaard, Søren

    Progesterone is a hormone linked to the reproductive status of dairy cows. Hence, with the increasing availability of on-line records of the concentration of progesterone in cow milk, there is a need for new tools to analyse such data. The aim is to find techniques for better determination...... of the time when cows are in oestrus to increase the rate of succesful inseminations. In this paper we propose a state space model for data with a continuous and cyclic trend in the mean. Furthermore a matching Kalman filter is developed. The model is tested on progesterone data from 112 cow...

  17. Winter environmental effects on dry-matter intake of stabled and unsheltered holstein cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Cesar Alves Fagundes


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to verify the association of environment and feed intake and also to measure the variation on dry-matter intake of stabled and unsheltered holstein cows, as a function of temperature decrease, during the winter in humid subtropical climate. The experiment was developed in Santa Maria, State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, during July and August, 1986. There were used 12 Holstein cows with ration based on corn silage fed for "ad libitum" consumption, distributed in two sets: stabled cows and cows maintened in padlots. The experimental design was completely randomized. The daily dry-matter intake of unsheltered cows (0.095 ± 0.006 kg/kg0.75, was significantly different (P< 0.01 from the stabled ones (0.077 ± 0.005 kg/kg0.75. There was significant correlation (P < 0.05 among dry-matter intake of unsheltered cows and environmental temperature, air humidity, wind velocity and precipitation, with coefficients varying from -0.58 to 0.51 while the feed intake of stabled cows was only correlated significantly (P < 0.05 with the environmental temperature at 7 a.m. with coefficient of -0.27. These results show that feed intake of Holstein cows kept in padlots was higher than in stabled cows, due to lower environmental temperatures, as high as 0.36 kgDM/cow for each unit of air temperature decrease and for each unit of increase of relative humidity and wind velocity at 7 a.m. and 9 p.m., simultaneously.

  18. Effect of lactation on energy metabolism in dairy cows from different categories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitrov Dine


    Full Text Available The aim of this article was determination of the energy status of Holstein-Friesian cows in three dairy farms in our country. For that purpose, blood samples were taken from three different farms with similar diet for dairy cows. Blood samples were taken from clinically healthy cows, from 2nd to 7th lactation. Several biochemical parameters were measured for determination of the energy status: glucose, non-esterified fatty acids, β-hydroxybutirate (BHB, triacylglycerols and total cholesterol. Total of N=378 samples were taken from multiparous Holstein-Friesian dairy cows from all categories. Cows were divided into three main groups. The group 1 was formed of dry cows, and it was divided into two subgroups: “far from calving” (n=64 and “close up to calving” (n=62. The animals in the group 2 - early lactation cows, were divided into three subgroups as follows: up to 14 days after calving (n=66, up to 60 days after calving (n=63 and up to 100 days after calving (n=62. The group 3 was with cows that were in middle lactation, more than 100 days after calving (n=61. Biochemical parameters were analyzed with standard colorimetric methods, using Sentinel and Randox reagents, on photometer Stat Fax 3300 (Awareness Technology Inc.. These results have shown that dairy cows developed hypoglycemia and early lipolysis (high level of serum NEFA and BHB, during the dry period. The obtained results confirm the ability of the dairy cows for adaptation in various hysiological stages of lactation, but the actual system of feeding does not allow them to achieve their genetic potential. Finally, the evident health problems, occurring as a result of managerial and nutritional errors on the dairy farms, defined as “production diseases” are the most serious cause for decreased production effects.

  19. Endocrine profiles of dairy cows following experimentally induced clinical mastitis during early lactation. (United States)

    Hockett, M E; Hopkins, F M; Lewis, M J; Saxton, A M; Dowlen, H H; Oliver, S P; Schrick, F N


    Concentrations of LH, cortisol, estradiol-17beta (E(2)), prolactin and 13,14-dihydro-15-keto-prostaglandin F(2alpha) (PGFM) were determined in cows with experimentally induced clinical mastitis during early lactation. Cows free of intramammary infection (IMI) and in the luteal phase of the estrous cycle were balanced by lactation number and days in milk and assigned to either control (n=5) or treatment (n=5) groups. Treated cows were infected experimentally (day 0), in two mammary quarters, with Streptococcus uberis and developed clinical mastitis within 60 h after inoculation as evidenced by increased mastitis scores, elevated rectal temperatures, mammary swelling and isolation of S. uberis pathogen. Four days following bacterial challenge, blood samples were collected every 20 min for 8 h for determination of PGFM and LH following administration of oxytocin and GnRH, respectively. Blood samples were also collected on days 0, 4 and 7 of the experiment to determine concentrations of E(2), prolactin and cortisol. Four days after bacterial challenge, concentrations of cortisol were higher (P=0.04) in experimentally infected cows than controls. Experimentally challenged cows had increased (P=0.02) concentrations of cortisol on days 4 and 7 compared with day 0. Control cows had no significant increase in blood cortisol during the experimental period. Baseline concentrations of PGFM did not differ between groups; however, peak concentrations of PGFM following oxytocin challenge were elevated (P=0.006) in cows with clinical mastitis compared with control animals. Prolactin, E(2) and LH did not differ between cows with clinical mastitis or controls. Experimentally induced mastitis during early lactation elevated concentrations of cortisol during the luteal phase of the estrous cycle. Furthermore, mastitic cows demonstrated an increased PGFM response following oxytocin administration. Altered reproductive efficiency in cows with clinical mastitis caused by Gram

  20. Cow's milk allergy in children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diagnostic tests. IgE-mediated CMA. Skin-prick testing (with fresh milk or commercial reagents) and ImmunoCAP-. RAST (for determining specific IgE against cow's milk protein) are the currently available tests. In children older than 2 years a skin-prick test (SPT) reaction with a wheal diameter ≥8 mm (Table II)5 or milk- ...

  1. Mad Cows and Cooked Geese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available Science leads with the results of a recent gloomy assessment of the cause of global climate change. Nature leads off this week with a story about U.S. attempts to prevent the spread of mad cow disease.

  2. Cow's milk allergy in children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    in Table I. FPI disorders are typically cow's milk and soya protein induced3 but may also occur with ingestion of solid foods including fish, chicken, turkey, corn and vegetables. FPI enteropathy usually presents with diarrhoea, mild to moderate steatorrhoea (80% of cases) and poor weight gain. Rectal bleeding is the usual ...

  3. Coping strategies in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hopster, H.


    The central aim of this thesis is to investigate whether individual dairy cows display different and coherent patterns of physiological and behavioural stress responses. Such responses enable them to successful adapt in a changing environment.

    In Chapter 1, current

  4. Teat condition in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neijenhuis, Francesca


    The dairy cow's teat is the first line of defence against mastitis pathogens. The milking process may affect the teat's condition, increasing the risk of mastitis. It is well-proven that teat-ends with severe erosions or broken skin will have an increased risk of mastitis. However, more common

  5. Cow's milk allergy in children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    His academic work focuses principally on allergy diagnosis, food allergy, skin allergy, drug allergy and asthma. Correspondence to: Cassim Motala ... related to lower levels of CMP in breast milk compared with cow's milk, immunomodulators in .... following organ systems: gastrointestinal. (50 - 60%), skin (50 - 50%) and ...

  6. Influence of carbohydrate source on ruminal fermentation characteristics, performance, and microbial protein synthesis in dairy cows. (United States)

    Gozho, G N; Mutsvangwa, T


    Eight multiparous Holstein cows (676 +/- 57 kg of body weight; 121 +/- 17 d-in-milk) were used in a replicated 4 x 4 Latin square design to determine the effects of 4 sources of carbohydrate on milk yield and composition, ruminal fermentation, and microbial N flow to the duodenum. Four cows in one of the Latin squares were fitted with permanent ruminal cannulae. Diets contained (DM basis) 50% forage in combinations of alfalfa hay and barley silage, and 50% concentrate. The concentrate portion of the diets contained barley, corn, wheat, or oats grain as the primary source of carbohydrate. Intake of DM ranged from 24.0 to 26.2 kg/d, and it tended to be lower in cows fed the wheat-based diet compared with those fed the barley-based diet; consequently, milk yield tended to be lower in cows fed the wheat-based diet compared with those fed the barley-based diet. Cows fed the barley- or wheat-based diets had a lower milk fat content compared with those fed the corn-based diet. Ruminal fermentation characteristics were largely unaffected by the source of dietary carbohydrate, with similar ruminal pH and volatile fatty acid and ammonia concentrations for the first 6 h after the morning feeding. Dietary treatment did not affect total tract apparent digestibility of DM, organic matter, and neutral detergent fiber; however, total tract apparent digestibility of starch in cows fed the oats-based diet was higher compared with those fed the corn-and wheat-based diets. Nitrogen that was used for productive purposes (i.e., N secreted in milk + N apparently retained by the cow) tended to be lower in cows fed the wheat-based diet compared with cows fed the barley-, corn-, or oats-based diets. Urinary purine derivative (PD) excretion was similar in cows fed the barley-, corn-, and wheat-based diets; however, purine derivative excretion was higher in cows fed the barley-based diet compared with those fed the oats-based diet. Consequently, estimated microbial N flow to the duodenum was

  7. Joanne Rutkowski, "The Effect of Restricted Song Range on Kindergarten Children's Use of Singing Voice and Development Attitude." A Review. (United States)

    Atterbury, Betty


    Evaluates a doctoral dissertation that studied the relationship between song ranges and kindergarten children's singing ability. Rutkowski individually tested the singing ability of 162 kindergarten children. Concluded that the music curricula for kindergarten should be modified to enhance singing voice development. (LS)

  8. Report on the Development of a Close Range Photogrammetry (CRP) Educational Technician Program (Museum and Archive Use). (United States)

    Kobelin, Joel

    A close range photogrammetry (CRP) technician training program was developed at Miami-Dade Community College and used to teach the technology to 16 students. Although the results of the study show that it is possible to teach CRP in a two-year program, the technology is too new in the United States to support a sustaining educational program. The…

  9. Cow cooling on commercial drylot dairies: A description of 10 farms in California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grazyne Tresoldi


    Full Text Available California summers are hot, compromising the welfare and productivity of dairy cows. To minimize negative effects, producers use shade, fans and sprayed water. However, little is known about how those heat abatement strategies are provided in commercial conditions, nor their effectiveness. Ten dairies with drylots, a common housing system in California, were assessed for strategies provided, and the cows' responses to heat load were observed for 3 days in the afternoon. Dairies were diverse in all aspects. Shade varied in terms of placement (at corral and feed bunk or at corral only and amount (28 to 74 square feet, or 2.6 to 6.9 square meters, per cow. The quantity of water used to spray cows ranged from 0 to 6.8 gallons (0 to 25.6 liters per hour per cow. Across dairies, there was a range in the cows' shade use (47% to 98% of herd and feeding activity (7% to 33% of herd. Respiration rates ranged from 65 (normal to 95 breaths per minute (very hot and were positively related to inactivity. Our results indicate that there are opportunities to improve cooling, and consequently dairy cattle welfare, in drylots.

  10. Broad-range potential of Asphodelus microcarpus leaves extract for drug development. (United States)

    Di Petrillo, Amalia; Fais, Antonella; Pintus, Francesca; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; González-Paramás, Ana M; Piras, Vincenzo; Orrù, Germano; Mameli, Antonello; Tramontano, Enzo; Frau, Aldo


    Many plants have been used in traditional medicine for their antibacterial, antifungal, antiprotozoal, antiviral, antidiarrhoeal, analgesic, antimalarial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities. In order to find novel antimicrobial and antiviral agents, the aim of the present study was the evaluation of the antibacterial and antibiofilm susceptibility of Asphodelus microcarpus leaves extract. Moreover, the antiviral activity and the phytochemical composition of the active extract were also determined. Antimicrobial and antibiofilm activities of leaves ethanol extract of A. microcarpus were evaluated on 13 different microbial strains. We selected three different sets of microorganisms: (i) Gram-positive bacteria, (ii) Gram-negative bacteria and (iii) yeasts. The potential antiviral activity of A. microcarpus leaves ethanol extract was evaluated with a luciferase reporter gene assay in which the dsRNA-dependent RIG-I-mediated IFN-β activation was inducted or inhibited by the Ebola virus VP35 protein. HPLC-DAD-MS was used to identify phenolic profile of the active extract. A. microcarpus leaves extract showed a potent inhibitory activity on Gram-positive bacteria while only a reduced inhibition was observed on Gram-negative bacteria. No activity was detected against Yeasts. The extract also showed an interesting antibiofilm motif on various bacterial strains (E. coli, S. aureus, S. haemolyticus and B. clausii). Moreover, this extract significantly affected the Ebola virus VP35 inhibition of the viral RNA (vRNA) induced IFN response. The overall results provide supportive data on the use of A. microcarpus as antimicrobial agent and a potential source of anti-viral natural products. Data collected set the bases for further studies for the identification of single active components and the development of new pharmaceuticals.

  11. Cow-specific treatment of clinical mastitis: an economic approach. (United States)

    Steeneveld, W; van Werven, T; Barkema, H W; Hogeveen, H


    of bacteriological cure for the 5 treatments were 0.53, 0.65, 0.65, 0.68, and 0.75, respectively. For all different simulated CM cases, the standard 3-d intramammary antimicrobial treatment had the lowest total costs. The benefits of lower costs for milk production losses and culling for cases treated with the intensive treatments did not outweigh the higher treatment costs. The stochastic model was developed using information from the literature and assumptions made by the authors. Using these information sources resulted in a difference in effectiveness of different antimicrobial treatments for CM. Based on our assumptions, cow-specific treatment of CM was not economically beneficial. Copyright © 2011 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of health disorders on milk yield and calving interval in Italian Holstein cows

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    L. Gallo; G. Bittante; B. Contiero; E. Sturaro; F. Cesarini


    ...) increased the interest towards health traits. Recording diseases of economic significance helps in containing veterinary costs, milk losses and early replacement of cows, and is needed for developing management strategies able to promote health...

  13. Ultrasonic identification of follicular populations and return to estrus in early postpartum dairy cows given intravaginal progesterone for 15 days. (United States)

    Lucy, M C; Thatcher, W W; MacMillan, K L


    In an attempt to program ovarian function in the early post partum period, 52 lactating Holstein cows were injected with 25 mg prostaglandin F(2 alpha) (PGF) and given a CIDR device containing 1.9 g progesterone for 15 d starting on Day 25 post partum. Ovarian follicles were measured by ultrasound on 0, 5, 10 and 15 d after insertion and on alternate days after CIDR removal until estrus. Not all cows were devoid of corpora lutea (CL) during the CIDR (11, 9 and 8 cows had a CL on Days 5, 10 and 15, respectively). There was a CL by day interaction (Pcow; the average number of large follicles (>15 mm) was twice greater (0.75 vs 0.37) for those cows not having a CL during the period of CIDR exposure. The average size of the largest follicle increased to a maximum of 19.3 +/- 0.7 mm by 15 d after insertion in cows not having a CL. Plasma estradiol increased for 10 d after insertion, then decreased to the end of the CIDR period. After removal of the CIDR, 34 cows ovulated, eight cows developed ovarian follicular cysts, and eight cows did not ovulated by 14 d. Cows becoming cystic or not ovulating had a declining number of follicles during the CIDR compared with those cows ovulating (Pcows was equivalent to noncystic cows until removal of the CIDR, but then it increased markedly. Interval to estrus was longer in cows having more 6- to 9-mm follicles on Day 15 (day of CIDR removal). These results demonstrate the existence and maintenance of a large dominant follicle after CIDR insertion and PGF injection which was influenced apparently by the presence of a CL. Furthermore, subsequent reproductive responses after the CIDR treatment was a function of follicular populations prior to withdrawal of the CIDR device. This system may be appropriate for the study of factors regulating follicular growth and fertility in domestic cattle.

  14. Milk yield and somatic cell count during the following lactation after selective treatment of cows at dry-off. (United States)

    Rajala-Schultz, Päivi J; Torres, Audrey H; Degraves, Fred J


    Selective dry cow therapy (SDCT) has received increasing attention in recent years owing to global concerns over agricultural use of antimicrobial drugs and development of antimicrobial resistance. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of SDCT on milk yield and somatic cell count (SCC) in dairy herds in the USA. Cows in four Ohio dairy herds were categorized into two groups (low-SCC and high-SCC) at dry-off based on their SCC and clinical mastitis (CM) history during the lactation preceding the dry-off. Low-SCC cows were randomly assigned to receive or not to receive intramammary antibiotics at dry-off. Milk yield and SCC of these cows during the following lactation were compared using linear mixed effects models, adjusting for parity, calving season, stage of lactation, previous lactation milk yield and herd. Milk yield of untreated and treated low-SCC cows at dry-off did not differ significantly during the following lactation. Overall, treated low-SCC cows had 16% lower SCC (approximately 35 000 cells/ml, P = 0·0267) than the untreated cows during the following lactation; however, the effect was variable in different herds. Moreover the impact of treatment, or the lack thereof, on milk yield varied considerably between herds. The results suggested that in some herds treating all cows at dry-off may be beneficial while in other herds leaving healthy cows without antibiotic dry cow treatment has no negative impact on milk yield or milk quality (SCC), and in fact, may be beneficial. Further studies are needed to identify characteristics of herds where treating all cows routinely at dry-off may be needed for maintaining good udder health and where switching to selective treatment of cows at dry-off would be the optimal approach to achieve best results.

  15. Prevalence of mastitis pathogens and their resistance against antimicrobial agents in dairy cows in Brandenburg, Germany. (United States)

    Tenhagen, B-A; Köster, G; Wallmann, J; Heuwieser, W


    The primary objective of this study was to determine management practices concerning mastitis in Brandenburg, Germany, the prevalence of mastitis pathogens in dairy cows, and their resistance to selected antimicrobial agents. A further objective was to study the potential effect of parity and stage of lactation on the resistance of Staphylococcus aureus isolates against ampicillin. Milk samples for microbiological culture were collected from 4 groups of clinically healthy cows (first lactation, >1 lactation, >50 d in milk, and >250 d in milk; 8 cows/group) in 80 dairy herds. Resistance of gram-positive pathogens against 6 antimicrobial agents was tested using the broth microdilution method. Mastitis pathogens were isolated from 26.4% of the milk samples. Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS, 9.1% of quarters) and Corynebacterium bovis (7.3%) were the pathogens most frequently isolated. Among the major pathogens, Staph. aureus (5.7%) and Streptococcus uberis (1.0%) had the highest prevalence. Streptococcus agalactiae was isolated in samples from 29% of the herds. Although the prevalence of most pathogens was higher in older cows, the prevalence of CNS was higher in primiparous cows. Results of the mastitis control questionnaire showed that cows with clinical mastitis were transferred to a sick cow pen in 70% of the herds. Cephalosporins were the drug of first choice for treatment of clinical mastitis cases followed by fixed combinations of antimicrobial agents, beta-lactamase-resistant penicillins, and penicillin. Most farmers treated cows 3 to 4 times per case. Cloxacillin, alone or in combination, and penicillin were most often used for dry-cow therapy. Antimicrobial resistance of the pathogens was within the range of other reports. Resistance of Staph. aureus to ampicillin increased significantly during the first lactation. Further research is required to determine the factors that lead to the selection of Staph. aureus strains that are resistant to ampicillin

  16. A deterministic, dynamic systems model of cow-calf production: The effects of the duration of postpartum anestrus on production parameters over a 10-year horizon. (United States)

    Shane, D D; Larson, R L; Sanderson, M W; Miesner, M; White, B J


    The duration of postpartum anestrus (dPPA) is important to consider for reproductive performance and efficiency in cow-calf operations. We developed a deterministic, dynamic systems model of cow-calf production over a 10-yr horizon to model the effects that dPPA had on measures of herd productivity, including the percentage of cows cycling before the end of the first 21 d of the breeding season (%C21), the percentage of cows pregnant at pregnancy diagnosis (%PPD), the distribution of pregnancy by 21-d breeding intervals, the kilograms of calf weaned (KW), the kilograms of calf weaned per cow exposed (KPC), and the replacement percentage. A 1,000-animal herd was modeled, with the beginning and ending dates for a 63-d natural service breeding season being the same for eligible replacement heifers (nulliparous cows) and cows (primiparous and multiparous cows). Herds were simulated to have a multiparous cow dPPA of 50, 60, 70, or 80 d, with the dPPA for primiparous cows being set to 50, 60, 70, 80, 90, 100, or 110 d. Only combinations where the primiparous dPPA was greater than or equal to the multiparous dPPA were included, resulting in 22 model herds being simulated in the analysis. All other model parameters were held constant between simulations. In model season 10, the %C21 was 96.2% when the multiparous cow and primiparous cow dPPA was 50 d and was 48.3% when the multiparous cow and primiparous cow dPPA was 80 d. The %PPD in model season 10 for these same herds was 95.1% and 86.0%, respectively. The percentage of the herd becoming pregnant in the first 21 d of the breeding season also differed between these herds (61.8% and 31.3%, respectively). The 10-yr total KW was more than 275,000 kg greater for the herd with a 50-d multiparous cow and primiparous cow dPPA when compared with the herd with the 80-d multiparous and primiparous cow dPPA and had a model season 10 KPC of 180.8 kg compared with 151.4 kg for the longer dPPA. The model results show that both the

  17. Development of a standardized susceptibility test for Campylobacter with quality control ranges for ciprofloxacin, doxycycline, erythromycin, gentamicin, and meropenem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McDermott, P. F.; Bodeis, S. M.; Aarestrup, Frank Møller


    A standardized agar dilution susceptibility testing method was developed for Campylobacter that consisted of testing on Mueller-Hinton medium supplemented with 5% defibrinated sheep blood in an atmosphere of 10% CO2, 5% O-2, and 85% N-2- Campylobacter jejuni ATCC 33560 was identified as a quality-control...... (QC) strain. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) QC ranges were determined for two incubation time/temperature combinations: 36degreesC for 48 hr and 42degreesC for 24 hr. Quality-control ranges were determined for ciprofloxacin, doxycycline, erythromycin, gentamicin, and meropenem. For all...

  18. Two-phase 1D+1D model of a DMFC: development and validation on extensive operating conditions range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casalegno, A.; Marchesi, R.; Parenti, D. [Dipartimento di Energetica, Politecnico di Milano (Italy)


    A two-phase 1D+1D model of a direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) is developed, considering overall mass balance, methanol transport in gas phase through anode diffusion layer, methanol and water crossover. The model is quantitatively validated on an extensive range of operating conditions, 24 polarisation curves. The model accurately reproduces DMFC performance in the validation range and, outside this, it is able to predict values under feasible operating conditions. Finally, the estimations of methanol crossover flux are qualitatively and quantitatively similar to experimental measures and the main local quantities' trends are coherent with results obtained with more complex models. (Abstract Copyright [2008], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  19. Forecasting range expansion into ecological traps: climate-mediated shifts in sea turtle nesting beaches and human development. (United States)

    Pike, David A


    Some species are adapting to changing environments by expanding their geographic ranges. Understanding whether range shifts will be accompanied by increased exposure to other threats is crucial to predicting when and where new populations could successfully establish. If species overlap to a greater extent with human development under climate change, this could form ecological traps which are attractive to dispersing individuals, but the use of which substantially reduces fitness. Until recently, the core nesting range for the Critically Endangered Kemp's ridley sea turtle (Lepidochelys kempii) was ca. 1000 km of sparsely populated coastline in Tamaulipas, Mexico. Over the past twenty-five years, this species has expanded its range into populated areas of coastal Florida (>1500 km outside the historical range), where nesting now occurs annually. Suitable Kemp's ridley nesting habitat has persisted for at least 140 000 years in the western Gulf of Mexico, and climate change models predict further nesting range expansion into the eastern Gulf of Mexico and northern Atlantic Ocean. Range expansion is 6-12% more likely to occur along uninhabited stretches of coastline than are current nesting beaches, suggesting that novel nesting areas will not be associated with high levels of anthropogenic disturbance. Although the high breeding-site fidelity of some migratory species could limit adaptation to climate change, rapid population recovery following effective conservation measures may enhance opportunities for range expansion. Anticipating the interactive effects of past or contemporary conservation measures, climate change, and future human activities will help focus long-term conservation strategies. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Development of a Compact Range-gated Vision System to Monitor Structures in Low-visibility Environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Yong-Jin; Park, Seung-Kyu; Baik, Sung-Hoon; Kim, Dong-Lyul; Choi, Young-Soo; Jeong, Kyung-Min [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    Image acquisition in disaster area or radiation area of nuclear industry is an important function for safety inspection and preparing appropriate damage control plans. So, automatic vision system to monitor structures and facilities in blurred smoking environments such as the places of a fire and detonation is essential. Vision systems can't acquire an image when the illumination light is blocked by disturbance materials, such as smoke, fog and dust. To overcome the imaging distortion caused by obstacle materials, robust vision systems should have extra-functions, such as active illumination through disturbance materials. One of active vision system is a range-gated imaging system. The vision system based on the range-gated imaging system can acquire image data from the blurred and darken light environments. Range-gated imaging (RGI) is a direct active visualization technique using a highly sensitive image sensor and a high intensity illuminant. Currently, the range-gated imaging technique providing 2D and range image data is one of emerging active vision technologies. The range-gated imaging system gets vision information by summing time sliced vision images. In the RGI system, a high intensity illuminant illuminates for ultra-short time and a highly sensitive image sensor is gated by ultra-short exposure time to only get the illumination light. Here, the illuminant illuminates objects by flashing strong light through disturbance materials, such as smoke particles and dust particles. In contrast to passive conventional vision systems, the RGI active vision technology enables operation even in harsh environments like low-visibility smoky environment. In this paper, a compact range-gated vision system is developed to monitor structures in low-visibility environment. The system consists of illumination light, a range-gating camera and a control computer. Visualization experiments are carried out in low-visibility foggy environment to see imaging capability.

  1. Plasma oxidative stress biomarkers and progesterone profiles in a dairy cow diagnosed with an ovarian follicular cyst. (United States)

    Talukder, S; Ingenhoff, L; Kerrisk, K L; Celi, P


    This study was conducted to examine the oxidative stress biomarkers in a cow diagnosed with a follicular cyst in her left ovary. Progesterone (P4) and plasma oxidative stress status was measured in 13 Holstein cows after synchronization of oestrus with controlled internal drug release (CIDR) and prostaglandinF2α (PGF2α) protocol. The presence and size of ovarian structures were monitored by transrectal ultrasound at 4 hourly intervals. Of the 13 cows, 12 were monitored until ovulation was detected and recorded, whereas one cow failed to ovulate and developed a follicular cyst. Oxidative stress biomarkers; reactive oxygen metabolites (ROMs), biological antioxidant potential (BAP), oxidative stress index (OSI), glutathione (GSH), ceruloplasmin and advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP) were measured in the cystic cow and compared to those of the 12 ovulated cows and are referred to as higher or lower if they are outside the mean ± standard error of mean of those of ovulated cows. The cystic cow had lower ROMs and OSI between 36 and 84 h after PGF2α injection and at 9 h, from 36 to 60 h after PGF2α injection respectively. On the other hand, antioxidant (BAP and GSH) was higher in the cystic cow compared to her ovulated herd mates. The observed imbalance between oxidant and antioxidant might have disrupted the physiological events for ovulation to occur, leading to cystic ovarian disease.

  2. Persistent cow's milk anaphylaxis from early childhood monitored by IgE and BAT to cow's and human milk under therapy. (United States)

    Schocker, F; Recke, A; Kull, S; Worm, M; Jappe, U


    Cow's milk allergy affects approximately 2 to 3% of children under 3 years. Allergic reactions often occur at an early onset within the first months of age [1]. In 80 to 85% of the described cases a natural tolerance develops until the age of 5 years. However, a proportion of 1% of adults remain cow's milk allergic, often associated with severe reactions [2]. Some breast-fed babies with cow's milk allergy still show symptoms despite a strict cow's milk-free diet of the nursing mother, and they react until the mother discontinues breast feeding. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  3. Epidemiology of Bovine Mastitis in Cows of Dharwad District (United States)

    Kurjogi, Mahantesh M.; Kaliwal, Basappa B.


    Bovine mastitis is very common in cows of both developed and developing countries. The prevalence of clinical and subclinical mastitis (SCM) varies from region to region. Hence, the present study was carried out to determine the prevalence of mastitis using three diagnostic tests by considering different risk factors like age, lactation, breed, season, quarters, and herd. The results showed that surf field mastitis test (SFMT) is the most sensitive test for diagnosis of bovine mastitis, the older age and cows with later part of lactation period were more prone to bovine mastitis, and exotic breeds like Holstein freshen (HF) were more susceptible to bovine mastitis. The highest incidence of mastitis was recorded in monsoon season. The prevalence of subclinical and clinical mastitis was more in single and two quarters, respectively, and the rate of bovine mastitis was more in unorganized herds. The study concluded that SCM is directly associated with age, lactation period, and environmental factors of the cow and clinical mastitis is more associated with breed of the cow and environmental conditions. PMID:27382623

  4. Genetic parameters for type traits in Holstein cows in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Viegas Campos


    Full Text Available Data from 26,558 Holstein cows in 802 herds were used to estimate genetic, residual and phenotypic parameters for 22 type traits. The model included the fixed effects of herd-year, period of classification, classifier, stage of lactation and age of cows at calving (covariate and random genetic and residual effects. Heritability for type traits ranged from 0.10 to 0.39. The genetic variability in these traits suggested the possibility for moderate genetic gains through selection. The phenotypic correlations were moderated, mainly in the section conformation. Genetic correlations between type traits ranged from -0.44 to 0.85. High genetic correlations indicated that breeding programs could be successful without including all type traits. The selection for the final score at the expense of other traits must be performed with restraint, because in the long term, this may promote undesirable changes in some type traits.

  5. Metastatic mammary carcinoma in a cow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoela Marchezan Piva

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Mammary gland neoplasms in cattle are rarely observed in the field veterinary diagnostics routine. Therefore, the objective of this study is to report a metastatic mammary carcinoma in a fourteen-year-old Holstein cow in the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil. The animal was diagnosed by the field veterinarian with clinical mastitis that was unresponsive to treatment, and was euthanized due to the poor prognosis. At the necropsy, multiple yellow, firm, and sometimes friable nodules, ranging from 0.1 to 20cm were observed in all mammary glands, lymph nodes, kidneys, spleen, liver, pancreas, mediastinal lymph nodes, heart, and lungs. The final diagnosis of mammary carcinoma was established through the association of clinical, necropsy, histopathological, and immunohistochemical findings. Differential diagnoses included diseases such as bovine tuberculosis and chronic fungal or bacterial mastitis.

  6. Effect of feeding ensiled mixture of pomegranate pulp and drier feeds on digestibility and milk performance in dairy cows. (United States)

    Shaani, Yoav; Eliyahu, Dana; Mizrahi, Itzhak; Yosef, Edith; Ben-Meir, Yehoshav; Nikbachat, Moshe; Solomon, Ran; Mabjeesh, Sameer Jermaya; Miron, Joshua


    Based on a previous ensiling study in glass silos of various pomegranate pulp (PP) mixtures, fresh pomegranate pulp (PP) was mixed with drier feeds including soy hulls and corn silage (40:35:25 on DM basis) and ensiled in 32 pressed bales (700 kg each) wrapped with stretch polyethylene film. This ensiled pomegranate pulp mixture (PPM) was included in lactating cow total mixed ration (TMR) at a level of 20% of DM (PPM-TMR). Performance and digestion experiment was conducted with two groups of 21 milking cows each, fed individually one of the two TMR: 1. Control TMR without ensiled PPM; 2. Experimental TMR which contained 20% ensiled PPM, including 8% PP as corn grain replacer. Voluntary DM intake of cows fed the control TMR was 5.04% higher than that of the PPM cows. In vivo digestibility of DM, OM, NDF, CP and fat were significantly higher in the control cows compared with the PPM group, but methane production in the rumen fluid was 25% lower in the PPM cows. A slightly higher milk yield (by 2.2%) observed in the control cows; however, milk fat content was 5.9% higher in the PPM cows. This was reflected in similar yield of energy corrected milk (ECM) and 3.97% increase in production efficiency (ECM/DM intake) of the PPM cows compared with the control ones. Welfare of the cows, as assessed by length of daily recumbence time, was in the normal range for both groups. Body weight gain was also similar in both groups. Data suggest that the level of 8% PP in the PPM-TMR used in this study was probably too high for lactating cows and should be lowered to 4% in order to achieve better performance.

  7. LAMP assay for rapid diagnosis of cow DNA in goat milk and meat samples. (United States)

    Deb, R; Sengar, G S; Singh, U; Kumar, S; Raja, T V; Alex, R; Alyethodi, R R; Prakash, B


    Animal species detection is one of the crucial steps for consumer's food analysis. In the present study we developed an in-house built loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for rapid detection of adulterated cow DNA in goat milk/meat samples. The cow milk/tissue DNA in goat milk/meat samples were identified in the developed LAMP assay by either naked eye visualizing with SYBR Green I dyes or by detecting the typical ladder pattern on gel electrophoresis. This test can detect up to minimum 5% level of cow components admixed in goat milk/meat samples and can be completed within 1 h 40 min starting from DNA extraction from milk/meat samples and can be performed in a water bath. Developed LAMP methodology is simple; rapid and sensitive techniques that can detect adulterant like cow components in goat milk/meat are more accurate than other existing DNA based technologies.

  8. Efficacy of ampicillin trihydrate or ceftiofur hydrochloride for treatment of metritis and subsequent fertility in dairy cows. (United States)

    Lima, F S; Vieira-Neto, A; Vasconcellos, G S F M; Mingoti, R D; Karakaya, E; Solé, E; Bisinotto, R S; Martinez, N; Risco, C A; Galvão, K N; Santos, J E P


    Our objectives were to evaluate the efficacy of ampicillin trihydrate for the treatment of metritis in dairy cows compared with ceftiofur hydrochloride and the subsequent effects on pregnancy at first insemination (P/AI). Cows in the first 12 d in milk (DIM) with a uterine discharge score of 5 (watery, reddish or brownish discharge of foul smell) and rectal temperature metritis based on the fetid discharge, and cows with metritis and rectal temperature ≥39.5°C were diagnosed as having puerperal metritis. Cows with metritis (n=528) were blocked by parity and type of metritis as fetid discharge or puerperal metritis and, within each block, assigned randomly to receive 11mg/kg of ampicillin (n=259) or 2.2mg/kg of ceftiofur (n=269) once daily for 5 d. Day of diagnosis of metritis was considered study d 1. A cohort of 268 cows without metritis was selected randomly at 12 DIM. Rectal temperature was measured in cows with metritis on study d 1 to 7, and 12, and vaginal discharge was scored on study d 5, 7, and 12. Metritis cure was characterized by vaginal discharge score of metritis based on vaginal discharge metritis based on vaginal discharge Cows with puerperal metritis had reduced cure compared with cows with fetid discharge on d 5 (30.5 vs. 12.8%), 7 (55.2 vs. 33.6%), and 12 (72.0 vs. 61.1%). The proportion of cows with fever on any day after therapy started did not differ between treatments. Fifty-three percent of cows with metritis based on fetid discharge developed fever after initiating antimicrobial therapy. Cows receiving ampicillin had less prevalence of purulent vaginal discharge than those treated with ceftiofur (57.7 vs. 67.8%), but they were both greater than cows without metritis (21.9%). Prevalence of cytological endometritis did not differ between ampicillin and ceftiofur (30.0 vs. 25.4%), but they were both greater than cows without metritis (14.5%). The proportion of estrous cyclic cows (75.0%) and P/AI did not differ among treatments (ampicillin

  9. Economic feasibility of converting cow manure to electricity: a case study of the CVPS Cow Power program in Vermont. (United States)

    Wang, Q; Thompson, E; Parsons, R; Rogers, G; Dunn, D


    A case study of the Central Vermont Public Service Corporation (CVPS) Cow Power program examines the economic feasibility for dairy farms to convert cow manure into electricity via anaerobic methane digestion. The study reviews the mechanism for CVPS, dairy farms, electricity customers, and government agencies to develop and operate the program since 2004, examines the costs and returns for the participating dairy farms, and assesses their cash flow over a period of 7 yr under different scenarios. With 6 dairy farms generating about 12 million kilowatt-hours of electricity per year and more than 4,600 CVPS electricity customers voluntarily paying premiums of $0.04 per kilowatt-hour, or a total of about $470,000 per year, the CVPS Cow Power program represents a successful and locally sourced renewable energy project with many environmental and economic benefits. Factors for the successful development and operation of the program include significant grants from government agencies and other organizations, strong consumer support, timely adjustments to the basic electricity price paid to the farms, and close collaboration among the participating parties. This study confirms that it is technically feasible to convert cow manure to electricity on farms, but the economic returns depend highly on the base electricity price, premium rate, financial supports from government agencies and other organizations, and sales of the byproducts of methane generation. Copyright © 2011 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Measurement method for urine puddle depth in dairy cow houses as input variable for ammonia emission modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snoek, J.W.; Stigter, J.D.; Ogink, Nico; Groot Koerkamp, P.W.G.


    Dairy cow houses are a major contributor to ammonia (NH3) emission in many European countries. To understand and predict NH3 emissions from cubicle dairy cow houses a mechanistic model was developed and a sensitivity analysis was performed to assess the contribution to NH3 emission of each input

  11. An automatic system for the detection of dairy cows lying behaviour in free-stall barns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona M.C. Porto


    Full Text Available In this paper, a method for the automatic detection of dairy cow lying behaviour in free-stall barns is proposed. A computer visionbased system (CVBS composed of a video-recording system and a cow lying behaviour detector based on the Viola Jones algorithm was developed. The CVBS performance was tested in a head-to-head free stall barn. Two classifiers were implemented in the software component of the CVBS to obtain the cow lying behaviour detector. The CVBS was validated by comparing its detection results with those generated from visual recognition. This comparison allowed the following accuracy indices to be calculated: the branching factor (BF, the miss factor (MF, the sensitivity, and the quality percentage (QP. The MF value of approximately 0.09 showed that the CVBS missed one cow every 11 well detected cows. Conversely, the BF value of approximately 0.08 indicated that one false positive was detected every 13 well detected cows. The high value of approximately 0.92 obtained for the sensitivity index and that obtained for QP of about 0.85 revealed the ability of the proposed system to detect cows lying in the stalls.

  12. Transplacental transfer of schistosomal circulating anodic antigens in cows


    Gabriël, Sarah; De Bont, J; Phiri, IK; Masuku, M; Riveau, G; Schacht, AM; DEELDER, AM; Van Dam, GJ; Vercruysse, Jozef


    The present work investigated the transplacental passage of circulating anodic schistosome antigens (CAA) and the production of foetal antibodies in response to antigenic stimulation in Schistosoma mattheei infected cows. Three groups were available: six calves born to non-infected cows received colostrum from a pool from non-infected cows (group 1), six calves born to non-infected cows (group 2) and six calves born to infected cows (group 3) received colostrum from a pool from infected cows....

  13. Time resolved fluorescence of cow and goat milk powder (United States)

    Brandao, Mariana P.; de Carvalho dos Anjos, Virgílio; Bell., Maria José V.


    Milk powder is an international dairy commodity. Goat and cow milk powders are significant sources of nutrients and the investigation of the authenticity and classification of milk powder is particularly important. The use of time-resolved fluorescence techniques to distinguish chemical composition and structure modifications could assist develop a portable and non-destructive methodology to perform milk powder classification and determine composition. This study goal is to differentiate milk powder samples from cows and goats using fluorescence lifetimes. The samples were excited at 315 nm and the fluorescence intensity decay registered at 468 nm. We observed fluorescence lifetimes of 1.5 ± 0.3, 6.4 ± 0.4 and 18.7 ± 2.5 ns for goat milk powder; and 1.7 ± 0.3, 6.9 ± 0.2 and 29.9 ± 1.6 ns for cow's milk powder. We discriminate goat and cow powder milk by analysis of variance using Fisher's method. In addition, we employed quadratic discriminant analysis to differentiate the milk samples with accuracy of 100%. Our results suggest that time-resolved fluorescence can provide a new method to the analysis of powder milk and its composition.

  14. Normal bacterial flora from vaginas of Criollo Limonero cows. (United States)

    Zambrano-Nava, Sunny; Boscán-Ocando, Julio; Nava, Jexenia


    In order to describe the normal bacterial flora in vaginas of Criollo Limonero cows, 51 healthy multiparous cows, at least 90-day postpartum, were selected. Duplicated swabs (N = 102) were taken from the vaginal fornix of cows to perform aerobic and anaerobic cultures as well as conventional biochemical tests. Out of 102 swabs, bacterial growth was obtained in 55 (53.9%) while the remaining 47 (46.1%) did not exhibited any bacterial growth. Of the 55 bacterial growths, 23 (41.8%) were aerobic whereas 32 (58.1%) were anaerobic. Likewise, 29 (52.72%) of bacterial growths were pure and 26 (47.27%) were mixed. Under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions, Gram positive bacteria were predominant (81.82% and 73.08%, respectively) over Gram negative bacteria (18.18% and 26.92%, respectively). Isolated bacteria were Arcanobacterium pyogenes (22.92%), Staphylococcus aureus (15.63%), Staphylococcus coagulase negative (17.71%), Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae (6.25%), Bacteroides spp. (13.54%), and Peptostreptococcus spp. (7.29%). In conclusion, normal vaginal bacterial flora of Criollo Limonero cows was predominantly Gram positive and included A. pyogenes, S. aureus, coagulase negative Staphylococcus, E. rhusiopathiae, Bacteroides spp., and Peptostreptococcus spp. In Criollo Limonero cattle, adaptive aspects such as development of humoral and physical mechanisms for defense, and bacterial adaptation to host deserve research attention.

  15. Polimorfisme Protein Serum Darah Induk Sapi Beranak Kembar dan Tunggal pada Sapi Peranakan Ongole dan Keturunan Simental (BLOOD SERUM PROTEIN POLYMORPHISM OF THE COW DELIVERED TWIN OR SINGLE CALVES IN ONGOLE GRADE AND SIMENTAL CROSSBRED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Yuwono


    Full Text Available The twinning cow is presumable have difference in blood protein typology with the single cow. Thestudy investigated blood protein polymorphism in twinning and single of ongole grade and Simmentalcrossbred cows. The study used four twinning versus eight single ongole grade and seven twinning versussix single Simmental crossbred cows. Blood samples were analyzed by using marker ExactPro BroadRange (10-245kDa and Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate-polyacrilamide Gel Electrophoresis method, to estimatethe loci of albumin (Alb, post-albumin (Pa, ceruloplasmin (Cp, transpherrin (Tf, and amylase-I (Amy-I.The genetic variation was analyzed based on the value of gene frequency, individual heterozigosity andaverage heterozigosity. In this study the twinning ongole grade cows had lower average heterozigosity(0.46 than the single ongole grade cows (0.49. The twinning Simmental crossbred cows had lower averageheterozigosity (0.35 than the single Simmental crossbred cows (0.40. The average heterozigosity ofongole grade cows had higher value than Simmental crossbred cows. The average heterozigosity rangedfrom 0.35-0.49, which was indicated high genetic variation in all cows. Higher gene frequency of allelealbumin A than albumin B influences the twinning trait in ongole grade and Simmental crossbred cows.

  16. Concentrations of danofloxacin 18% solution in plasma, milk and tissues after subcutaneous injection in dairy cows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mestorino, N. [Pharmacology Department, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, CC 296, 1900 La Plata, Buenos Aires (Argentina)], E-mail:; Marchetti, M.L.; Turic, E.; Pesoa, J.; Errecalde, J. [Pharmacology Department, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, CC 296, 1900 La Plata, Buenos Aires (Argentina)


    Danofloxacin is a fluoroquinolone developed for use in veterinary medicine. Its concentrations and pharmacokinetic profile in plasma, milk and tissues of lactating dairy cows were determined, and its milk withdrawal time (WT) calculated. Twenty-one dairy cows received a single subcutaneous administration of 18% mesylate danofloxacin salt (6 mg kg{sup -1}). Plasma and milk samples were obtained at different times until 48 h. Groups of three animals were sacrificed at different post-administration times and tissue samples (mammary gland, uterus, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, colon and mesenteric lymph nodes) obtained. Danofloxacin concentrations were determined by liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. The milk WT was calculated by the Time to Safe Concentration method (Software WTM 1.4, EMEA). Danofloxacin was rapidly absorbed and its distribution from plasma to all sampled tissues and milk was extensive. Milk and tissues concentrations were several times above those found in plasma. Plasma area under the curve (AUCp) was 9.69 {mu}g h mL{sup -1} and its elimination half life (T{sub {beta}}{sup 1/2}) was 12.53 h. AUC values for the various tissues and milk greatly exceeded AUCp. T{sub {beta}}{sup 1/2} from milk and tissues ranged between 4.57 and 21.91 h and the milk withdrawal time was 73.48 h. The reported results support the potential use of danofloxacin in the treatment of mastitis and other infections in milk cows with 3 days of withdrawal.

  17. Modelling Cow Behaviour Using Stochastic Automata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jónsson, Ragnar Ingi

    This report covers an initial study on the modelling of cow behaviour using stochastic automata with the aim of detecting lameness. Lameness in cows is a serious problem that needs to be dealt with because it results in less profitable production units and in reduced quality of life for the affec......This report covers an initial study on the modelling of cow behaviour using stochastic automata with the aim of detecting lameness. Lameness in cows is a serious problem that needs to be dealt with because it results in less profitable production units and in reduced quality of life...

  18. Effects of supplementation with docosahexaenoic acid on reproduction of dairy cows. (United States)

    Sinedino, Letícia D P; Honda, Paula M; Souza, Letícia R L; Lock, Adam L; Boland, Maurice P; Staples, Charles R; Thatcher, William W; Santos, José E P


    The objectives were to determine the effects of supplementing docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-rich algae on reproduction of dairy cows. Holstein cows were assigned randomly to either a control (n = 373) or the same diet supplemented daily with 100 g/cow of an algae product containing 10% DHA (algae, n = 366) from 27 to 147 days postpartum. Measurements included yields of milk and milk components, fatty acids (FA) profiles in milk fat and plasma phospholipids, resumption of ovulation by 57 days postpartum, pregnancy per artificial insemination (AI) and expression of interferon-stimulated genes in leukocytes. Feeding algae increased resumption of estrous cyclicity (77.6 vs 65.9%) and pregnancy at first AI (47.6 vs 32.8%) in primiparous cows. Algae increased pregnancy per AI in all AI in both primiparous and multiparous cows (41.6 vs 30.7%), which reduced days to pregnancy by 22 days (102 vs 124 days) compared with control cows. Pregnant cows fed algae had greater expression of RTP4 in blood leukocytes compared with those in pregnant control cows. Feeding algae increased the incorporation of DHA, eicosapentaenoic acid, conjugated linoleic acid isomers cis-9 trans-11, trans-10 cis-12 and total n-3 FA in phospholipids in plasma and milk fat. Yields of milk and true protein increased by 1.1 kg/day and 30 g/day respectively, whereas fat yield decreased 40 g/day in algae compared with that in control. Supplementing DHA-rich algae altered the FA composition of lipid fractions and improved reproduction in dairy cows. The benefits on reproduction might be mediated by enhanced embryo development based on changes in interferon-stimulated gene expression. © 2017 Society for Reproduction and Fertility.

  19. Frequency of cow's milk allergy in childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høst, Arne


    to select the relevant data for this review. RESULTS: The diagnosis of reproducible adverse reactions to cow's milk protein (CMP), ie, CMPA, has to be confirmed by controlled elimination and challenge procedures. The incidence of CMPA in infancy seems to be approximately 2 to 3% in developed countries...... symptoms. Symptoms may occur within 1 hour after milk intake (immediate reactions) or after 1 hour (late reactions). The prognosis of CMPA is good with a remission rate of approximately 45 to 50% at 1 year, 60 to 75% at 2 years, and 85 to 90% at 3 years. Associated adverse reactions to other foods develop...... in up to 50% and allergy against inhalants in 50 to 80% before puberty. CONCLUSIONS: CMPA is the most common food allergy in early childhood with an incidence of 2 to 3% in the first year of life. The overall prognosis of CMPA in infancy is good with a remission rate of approximately 85 to 90...

  20. Effective lactation yield: A measure to compare milk yield between cows with different dry period lengths. (United States)

    Kok, A; van Middelaar, C E; Engel, B; van Knegsel, A T M; Hogeveen, H; Kemp, B; de Boer, I J M


    To compare milk yields between cows or management strategies, lactations are traditionally standardized to 305-d yields. The 305-d yield, however, gives no insight into the combined effect of additional milk yield before calving, decreased milk yield after calving, and a possible shorter calving interval in the case of a shortened dry period. We aimed to develop a measure that would enable the comparison of milk yield between cows with different dry period (DP) lengths. We assessed the importance of accounting for additional milk yield before calving and for differences in calving interval. The 305-d yield was compared with a 365-d yield, which included additional milk yield in the 60 d before calving. Next, an effective lactation yield was computed, defined as the daily yield from 60d before calving to 60 d before the next calving, to account for additional milk yield before calving and for differences in calving interval. Test-day records and drying-off dates of 15 commercial farms were used to compute the 305-d, 365-d, and effective lactation yields for individual cows. We analyzed 817 second-parity lactations preceded by no DP, a short DP (20 to 40 d), or a conventional DP (49 to 90 d). Compared with cows with a conventional DP, the 305-d yield of cows with no DP was 7.0 kg of fat- and protein-corrected milk (FPCM) per day lower, and the 305-d yield of cows with a short DP was 2.3 kg of FPCM per day lower. Including additional milk yield before calving in the 365-d yield reduced this difference to 3.4 kg of FPCM per cow per day for cows with no DP and to 0.9 kg of FPCM per cow per day for cows with a short DP. Compared with cows with a conventional DP, median days open were reduced by 25d for cows with no DP and by 18d for cows with a short DP. Accounting for these differences in calving interval in the effective lactation yield further decreased yield reductions for cows with no DP or a short DP by 0.3 kg of FPCM per cow per day. At the herd level, estimated

  1. Parity Differences in Heat Expression of Dairy Cows Synchronized with GnRH, CIDR and PGF2α during Dry Season in Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. S. Mwaanga*, K. Choongo, H. Simukoko and C. Chama1


    Full Text Available A study was conducted to investigate parity differences in heat expression of dairy cows heat-synchronized during the dry season when feed scarcity is common. Cyclic cows (n=65 aged 2 to 10 years with parity range of 0 to 7 were selected from small-holder dairy farms around Lusaka. Cows were divided into 3 groups of nulliparous, primiparous and pluriparous. Heat-was synchronized using gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH and controlled intra-vaginal drug releasing device (CIDR. Heat detection was observed after CIDR withdraw. The study showed a significantly (P<0.05 lower number of primiparous cows (68% coming into heat compared to nulliparous (81.8% and pluriparous cows (83.3%. It was concluded that parity influences estrus expression rate in dairy cows following synchronization with GnRH, CIDR and PGF2α during the dry season in the sub-tropics.

  2. SU-F-T-184: 3D Range-Modulator for Scanned Particle Therapy: Development, Monte Carlo Simulations and Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simeonov, Y; Penchev, P; Ringbaek, T Printz [University of Applied Sciences, Institute of Medical Physics and Radiation Protection, Giessen (Germany); Brons, S [Heidelberg Ion-Beam Therapy Center (HIT), Heidelberg (Germany); Weber, U [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Zink, K [University of Applied Sciences, Institute of Medical Physics and Radiation Protection, Giessen (Germany); University Hospital Giessen-Marburg, Marburg (Germany)


    Purpose: Active raster scanning in particle therapy results in highly conformal dose distributions. Treatment time, however, is relatively high due to the large number of different iso-energy layers used. By using only one energy and the so called 3D range-modulator irradiation times of a few seconds only can be achieved, thus making delivery of homogeneous dose to moving targets (e.g. lung cancer) more reliable. Methods: A 3D range-modulator consisting of many pins with base area of 2.25 mm2 and different lengths was developed and manufactured with rapid prototyping technique. The form of the 3D range-modulator was optimised for a spherical target volume with 5 cm diameter placed at 25 cm in a water phantom. Monte Carlo simulations using the FLUKA package were carried out to evaluate the modulating effect of the 3D range-modulator and simulate the resulting dose distribution. The fine and complicated contour form of the 3D range-modulator was taken into account by a specially programmed user routine. Additionally FLUKA was extended with the capability of intensity modulated scanning. To verify the simulation results dose measurements were carried out at the Heidelberg Ion Therapy Center (HIT) with a 400.41 MeV 12C beam. Results: The high resolution measurements show that the 3D range-modulator is capable of producing homogeneous 3D conformal dose distributions, simultaneously reducing significantly irradiation time. Measured dose is in very good agreement with the previously conducted FLUKA simulations, where slight differences were traced back to minor manufacturing deviations from the perfect optimised form. Conclusion: Combined with the advantages of very short treatment time the 3D range-modulator could be an alternative to treat small to medium sized tumours (e.g. lung metastasis) with the same conformity as full raster-scanning treatment. Further simulations and measurements of more complex cases will be conducted to investigate the full potential of the 3D

  3. Generation of an index for physiological imbalance and its use as a predictor of primary disease in dairy cows during early lactation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moyes, Kasey; Larsen, Torben; Ingvartsen, Klaus Lønne


    blood samples were analyzed for selected metabolites; that is, urea nitrogen, albumin, cholesterol, nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), glucose, and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA). Energy intake and EBAL were calculated; veterinary treatment records and daily composite milk somatic cell counts were used......Physiological imbalance (PI) is a situation in which physiological parameters deviate from the normal and cows consequently have an increased risk of developing production diseases and reduced production or reproduction. The objectives of this work were (1) to generate an index for PI based...... on several plasma metabolites and (2) to compare the use of this index with calculated energy balance (EBAL) and individual plasma metabolites in relation to risk of disease during early lactation. We used a total of 634 lactations from 317 cows consisting of 3 breeds ranging from a parity of 1 to 4. Weekly...

  4. Development of a Compton Camera for Online Range Monitoring of Laser-Accelerated Proton Beams via Prompt-Gamma Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thirolf P.G.


    Full Text Available Presently large efforts are conducted in Munich towards the development of proton beams for bio-medical applications, generated via the technique of particle acceleration from high-power, short-pulse lasers. While so far mostly offline diagnostics tools are used in this context, we aim at developing a reliable and accurate online range monitoring technique, based on the position-sensitive detection of prompt γ rays emitted from nuclear reactions between the proton beam and the biological sample. For this purpose, we develop a Compton camera, designed to be able to track not only the Compton scattering of the primary photon, but also to detect the secondary Compton electron, thus reducing the Compton cone to an arc segment and by this increasing the source reconstruction efficiency. Design specifications and the status of the protype system are discussed.

  5. Influence of estrus on rumination, activity, feed and water intake of dairy cows


    Reith, Stefanie Rosemarie


    The detection of estrus is one of the major factors affecting the reproductive performance of dairy cows, especially in farms using AI. Failure to detect estrous behaviors and false positive results leads to missed inseminations and, thus, economic losses. Technical methods providing detailed information and continuous monitoring of the individual cow have been developed to support herd managers in determining the onset of estrus. Whereas increased activity behavior is regarded as indicative ...

  6. Eating and rumination activity in 10 cows over 10 days. (United States)

    Braun, U; Zürcher, S; Hässig, M


    Eating and rumination activities were evaluated in 10 Brown Swiss cows over 10 days, and the coefficients of variation (CV) were calculated for the investigated variables. A pressure sensor integrated into the noseband of a halter recorded jaw movements during chewing, which allowed the recording of eating and rumination times and the number of regurgitated boluses. The mean CVs ranged from 5.9 to 12.7% and were smaller for rumination (chewing cycles per bolus, 5.9%; daily number of cuds, 8.4%; rumination time, 9.1%) than for eating (eating time, 12.0%; chewing cycles related to eating, 12.7%). We concluded that of eating and rumination variables examined, the number of chewing cycles per regurgitated bolus is the most robust with little variation in individual cows. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Prevalence of subclinical mastitis in Finnish dairy cows: changes during recent decades and impact of cow and herd factors. (United States)

    Hiitiö, Heidi; Vakkamäki, Johanna; Simojoki, Heli; Autio, Tiina; Junnila, Jouni; Pelkonen, Sinikka; Pyörälä, Satu


    The dairy industry has undergone substantial structural changes as intensive farming has developed during recent decades. Mastitis continues to be the most common production disease of dairy cows. Nationwide surveys of mastitis prevalence are useful in monitoring udder health of dairy herds and to study the impact of structural changes on the dairy industry. This survey on bovine subclinical mastitis was the first based on cow composite milk somatic cell count (SCC) data from the Finnish national health monitoring and milk recording database. A cow with composite milk SCC ≥200,000 cells/ml in at least one of the four test milkings during the year was considered to have subclinical mastitis and a cow with composite milk SCC ≥200,000 cells/ml in three or in all four test milkings during the year to have chronic subclinical mastitis. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of subclinical mastitis and chronic subclinical mastitis in Finland in 1991, 2001 and 2010 and to investigate cow and herd factors associated with elevated SCC. Prevalence of subclinical mastitis in Finland decreased over recent decades from 22.3% (1991) and 20.1% (2001) to 19.0% (2010). Prevalence of chronic subclinical mastitis was 20.4% in 1991, 15.5% in 2001 and 16.1% in 2010. The most significant cow and herd factors associated with subclinical mastitis or high milk SCC were increasing parity, Holstein breed, free-stalls with an automatic milking system and organic production. Milk SCC were highest from July to September. Main factors associated with chronic mastitis were increasing parity and Holstein breed. Prevalence of subclinical mastitis in Finland decreased over recent decades, the greatest change taking place during the first decade of the study. Prevalence of chronic subclinical mastitis significantly decreased from 1991. The most significant factors associated with both types of mastitis were increasing parity and Holstein breed, and for subclinical mastitis also

  8. Associations of insulin resistance later in lactation on fertility of dairy cows. (United States)

    Baruselli, P S; Vieira, L M; Sá Filho, M F; Mingoti, R D; Ferreira, R M; Chiaratti, M R; Oliveira, L H; Sales, J N; Sartori, R


    The challenge of getting dairy cows pregnant during early lactation is a well-described, worldwide problem. However, specifically in farms with poor reproductive, nutritional, and environmental conditions/management, a low pregnancy rate during early lactation is followed inevitably by an increased number of nonpregnant cows after 150 days in milk, with even more difficulties to achieve pregnancy. Therefore, several studies were designed to understand and develop strategies to mitigate reduced fertility of cows during late lactation. Experiments were performed under tropical regions to determine metabolic status during lactation and association of stage of lactation on oocyte quality and fertility. Lactating cows with extended days not pregnant (e.g.,>150 days in milk) often had systemic metabolic alterations, including development of peripheral insulin resistance and various oocyte alterations, including reduced expression of genes encoding glucose transport proteins, reduced amounts of mtDNA, increased expression of mitochondria-related genes, and increased expression of apoptosis-related genes. Additionally, in vitro embryo production and pregnancy per AI were lower in late- versus early-lactation cows in some but not all studies. Notwithstanding, when a normal embryo was transferred to a cow in late lactation, the pregnancy per transfer was reasonable, reinforcing the assertion that fertility problems in late-lactation cows may be associated with oocyte quality, fertilization, and/or failure of early embryo development. In conclusion, insulin resistance may reduce oocyte competence and consequently fertility in late-lactation dairy cows. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Brief of requirements of the dairy cow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornelissen, J.M.R.; Ursinus, W.W.; Schepers, F.; Groot Koerkamp, P.W.G.; Dixhoorn, van I.D.E.


    This report lists the brief of requirements of the dairy cow, based on her needs (also listed). The BoR indicates the actor’s needs with regards to the animal husbandry system. BoR of the main actors are incorporated in the redesign of a dairy husbandry system in the project Cow Power

  10. Biological implications of longevity in dairy cows: 2. Changes in methane emissions and efficiency with age. (United States)

    Grandl, F; Amelchanka, S L; Furger, M; Clauss, M; Zeitz, J O; Kreuzer, M; Schwarm, A


    Previous studies indicated that absolute CH4 emissions and CH4 yield might increase and that milk production efficiency might decrease with age in cattle. Both would make strategies to increase longevity in dairy cattle less attractive. These aspects were experimentally determined in Brown Swiss cattle distributed continuously across a large age range. Thirty lactating dairy cows (876-3,648 d of age) received diets consisting of hay, corn silage, and grass pellets supplemented with 0 or 5kg of concentrate per day. Twelve heifers (199-778 d of age) received hay only. Cows and heifers were members of herds subjected to the 2 different feeding regimens (with or without concentrate) for the past 10 yr. Methane emissions were measured individually for 2 d in open-circuit respiration chambers, followed by quantifying individual feed intake and milk yield over 8 d. Additional data on digestibility, rumination time, and passage time of feed of all experimental animals were available. Regression analyses were applied to evaluate effects of age and feeding regimen. Body weight, milk yield, and the hay proportion of forage dry matter intake were considered as covariates. Methane emissions per unit of intake, body weight, and milk yield were significantly related to age. Their development in the cows with age was characterized by an increase to maximum at around 2,000 d of age, followed by a decline. This response was not accompanied by corresponding age-related changes in intake, chewing activity, digesta passage time, and digestibility of organic matter, which would have explained shifts in CH4. However, fiber digestibility showed a similar change with age as methane emissions, resulting in quite stable methane emissions per unit of digestible fiber. As expected, methane emissions intensity per unit of milk produced was greater by 8% without concentrate than with concentrate, but no difference was noted in the response to age when the animals were subjected to different

  11. Relationships between circulating plasma concentrations and duodenal flows of essential amino acids in lactating dairy cows. (United States)

    Patton, R A; Hristov, A N; Parys, C; Lapierre, H


    The objective of this study was to better define essential AA (EAA) requirements in lactating dairy cows through examination of the relationship between plasma essential AA concentration (p[EAA]) and predicted duodenal flow of essential AA (EAAduo). Our hypothesis was that at a given level of milk protein output, p[EAA] would remain steady in response to increasing EAAduo until the EAA requirement was met, at which point p[EAA] would increase rapidly in response to greater duodenal flow of EAA until p[EAA] reached a plateau as other body processes degraded excess EAA to avoid toxicity. Thus, the requirement of each EAA would be fulfilled when p[EAA] increased rapidly. To investigate this hypothesis, we compiled a literature database that included 102 studies with 420 treatment means that reported p[EAA], dietary nutrient content, body weight, and milk production. A second database was produced to validate relationships developed in the first database and included 32 studies with 98 treatment means. All relationships were evaluated as regression equations with study as a random factor. Breed, days in milk, body weight, and milk protein production had no effect on the plasma concentration of any EAA. Other than metabolizable protein supply, nutritional content of the rations did not affect p[EAA]. Only p[Arg] was affected by parity, with primiparous cows having higher concentrations of Arg than older cows. No break points in the relationship between p[EAA] versus EAAduo were detected as either steep increases or plateaus. Plasma Arg, Ile, Lys, Thr, and Val concentrations were best associated with their respective EAAduo as quadratic equations, whereas His, Leu, Met, and Phe were associated only linearly. Adding a quadratic term improved the adjusted R(2) or decreased the root mean square error marginally (affecting others. We conclude that over a wide range of protein intakes in lactating cows, plasma levels of EAA increase linearly with duodenal flow. No evidence

  12. Validation of a mathematical model of the bovine estrous cycle for cows with different estrous cycle characteristics. (United States)

    Boer, H M T; Butler, S T; Stötzel, C; Te Pas, M F W; Veerkamp, R F; Woelders, H


    A recently developed mechanistic mathematical model of the bovine estrous cycle was parameterized to fit empirical data sets collected during one estrous cycle of 31 individual cows, with the main objective to further validate the model. The a priori criteria for validation were (1) the resulting model can simulate the measured data correctly (i.e. goodness of fit), and (2) this is achieved without needing extreme, probably non-physiological parameter values. We used a least squares optimization procedure to identify parameter configurations for the mathematical model to fit the empirical in vivo measurements of follicle and corpus luteum sizes, and the plasma concentrations of progesterone, estradiol, FSH and LH for each cow. The model was capable of accommodating normal variation in estrous cycle characteristics of individual cows. With the parameter sets estimated for the individual cows, the model behavior changed for 21 cows, with improved fit of the simulated output curves for 18 of these 21 cows. Moreover, the number of follicular waves was predicted correctly for 18 of the 25 two-wave and three-wave cows, without extreme parameter value changes. Estimation of specific parameters confirmed results of previous model simulations indicating that parameters involved in luteolytic signaling are very important for regulation of general estrous cycle characteristics, and are likely responsible for differences in estrous cycle characteristics between cows.

  13. Development of lower limb range of motion from early childhood to adolescence in cerebral palsy: a population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauge-Pedersen Henrik


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The decreasing range of joint motion caused by insufficient muscle length is a common problem in children with cerebral palsy (CP, often worsening with age. In 1994 a CP register and health care programme for children with CP was initiated in southern Sweden. The aim of this study was to analyse the development of the passive range of motion (ROM in the lower limbs during all the growth periods in relation to gross motor function and CP subtype in the total population of children with CP. Methods In total, 359 children with CP born during 1990-1999, living in the southernmost part of Sweden in the year during which they reached their third birthday and still living in the area in the year of their seventh birthday were analysed. The programme includes a continuous standardized follow-up with goniometric measurements of ROM in the lower limbs. The assessments are made by each child's local physiotherapist twice a year until 6 years of age, then once a year. In total, 5075 assessments from the CPUP database from 1994 to 1 January 2007 were analysed. Results The study showed a decreasing mean range of motion over the period 2-14 years of age in all joints or muscles measured. The development of ROM varied according to GMFCS level and CP subtype. Conclusion We found a decreasing ROM in children with CP from 2-14 years of age. This information is important for both the treatment and follow-up planning of the individual child as well as for the planning of health care programmes for all children with CP.

  14. Comparison of ceftiofur hydrochloride and estradiol cypionate for metritis prevention and reproductive performance in dairy cows affected with retained fetal membranes. (United States)

    Risco, C A; Hernandez, J


    The objective of this study was to compare the effect of ceftiofur hydrochloride and estradiol cypionate (ECP) administration for metritis prevention and reproductive performance in dairy cows affected with retained fetal membranes (RFMs). After parturition, 97 dairy cows affected with RFM from a single dairy herd were randomly allocated to 1 of 3 treatment groups. Cows in-group 1 (n=31) were treated daily for 5 days with ceftiofur hydrochloride (2.2mg/kg, i.m.); cows in group 2 (n=33) were treated once with ECP (4 mg, i.m.); and cows in group 3 (n=33) were not treated. The proportion of cows with metritis, uterine involution patterns and the calving-to-conception interval were compared between groups. The proportion of cows that developed metritis was significantly different (Pcows treated with ceftiofur hydrochloride (13%), compared with cows treated with ECP (42%) or cows that received no treatment (42%). Uterine involution patterns (i.e. median time to complete retraction of the uterus and mean diameter measure of cervix and uterine horns) were not significantly different between groups. Cows treated with ECP were 0.40 times as likely to conceive as control cows (P=0.05); median time to conception in cows treated with ECP (192 days) was longer, compared to control cows (124 days). We conclude that systemic administration of ceftioufur hydrochloride is beneficial for prevention of metritis, but its effect on reproductive performance was not significantly different to that of ECP or no treatment. In addition, administration of ECP did not have beneficial effects on metritis prevention and reproductive performance.

  15. Milk urea concentration in Holstein and Simmental cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darija Bendelja


    Full Text Available Determining the urea concentration in milk is a useful indicator of the nutritional protein status of the organism as well as of the ratio between the energy and the protein in ruminant rations, with increasing practical usage. In addition to nutrition, milk urea concentration is influenced by a whole range of factors, for example: breed, stage and number of lactations, body weight, daily production and chemical composition of milk, somatic cell count, season and milking. The objective of this research was to determine the impact of the cow breed (Holstein and Simmental, the number of lactation (1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th, milking time (morning-evening and season (spring-summer and autumn-winter on milk urea concentration. The following was determined for each breed: daily milk yield, milk fat, protein and lactose content, urea concentration and somatic cell count in milk. Statistical data processing was carried out by applying General Linear Model procedure, SAS system (1999. The cow breed had a significant influence on daily milk yield and log somatic cell count (P<0.001, lactose content in milk (P<0.01, milk fat content and milk urea concentration (P<0.05. The number of lactations significantly influenced daily milk yield (P<0.001, protein content (P<0.001 and P<0.01 and milk urea concentration, but only for Holstein breed (P<0.05. Milking time significantly influenced the fat and protein content (P<0.001 in the milk of Holstein cows, that is, lactose content (P<0.05 and urea concentration (P<0.05 in the milk of Simmental cows. The season significantly influenced the fat and protein content of milk (P<0.001, that is, urea concentration and log somatic cell count (P<0.01. Determining of urea concentration in cow milk should also be systematically conducted in the Republic of Croatia, in order to determine standard physiological values characteristical for a particular cow breed, aiming to determine the balance of energy and protein in rations.

  16. Prevalence of lameness and associated risk factors in Canadian Holstein-Friesian cows housed in freestall barns. (United States)

    Solano, L; Barkema, H W; Pajor, E A; Mason, S; LeBlanc, S J; Zaffino Heyerhoff, J C; Nash, C G R; Haley, D B; Vasseur, E; Pellerin, D; Rushen, J; de Passillé, A M; Orsel, K


    Lameness is a severe welfare problem and a production-limiting disease in dairy farming. The objectives of this study were to determine prevalence of lameness and investigate cow- and herd-level factors associated with lameness in dairy cows housed in freestall barns in 3 Canadian provinces. A purposive sample of 40 Holstein-Friesian cows was selected from each of 141 dairy farms in Québec, Ontario, and Alberta. In total, 5,637 cows were scored once for lameness (presence of limping when walking). Data collected included information on individual cows (hock lesions, claw length, body condition score, parity, days in milk, and milk production), management practices (floor and stall cleaning routine, bedding routine, and footbath practices), and facility design (stall dimensions, stall base and bedding type, width of feed alley, flooring type, and slipperiness) hypothesized to be risk factors for lameness. Multilevel mixed logistic regression models were constructed (including farm as a random effect and province as a fixed effect). Herd-level lameness prevalence ranged from 0 to 69% (mean = 21%). Lameness prevalence increased with increasing parity; compared with first parity, cows in parity 2, 3, and ≥ 4 had 1.6, 3.3, and 4 times, respectively, higher odds of being lame. Furthermore, the odds of lameness were 1.6 times greater in cows with low body condition score (≤ 2.5) than in cows with a higher body condition score. In addition, injured hocks and overgrown claws were associated with 1.4- and 1.7-fold increased odds of being lame, respectively, whereas every 1 kg increase in daily milk production was associated with a 3% decrease in the odds of being lame. Lameness prevalence was higher in herds with ≤ 100 cows, but lower in barns with a sand or dirt stall base, or with bedding ≥ 2 cm deep. Cows exposed to very slippery floors had 2 times the odds of being lame compared with cows exposed to nonslippery floors. We attributed the wide range of lameness

  17. Associations of udder-health indicators with cow factors and with intramammary infection in dairy cows. (United States)

    Nyman, A-K; Persson Waller, K; Bennedsgaard, T W; Larsen, T; Emanuelson, U


    The objective of this study was to investigate if and how cow factors and intramammary infection (IMI) are associated with 4 different udder-health indicators in dairy cows as a first step in investigating whether the diagnostic performance of these indicators can be improved. The investigated indicators were somatic cell count (SCC), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase (NAGase), and alkaline phosphatase (AP) measured in milk. In this cross-sectional study, approximately 1,000 cows from 25 dairy herds were sampled for bacteriology (quarter milk samples) during 3 consecutive days: the day before test milking, at the day of test milking, and at the day after test milking. The whole-udder test milking sample was analyzed for milk composition, SCC, LDH, NAGase, and AP. Cow data (parity, breed, milk yield, percentage of milk fat and protein, milk urea concentration, and days in milk from the sampled test milking) were collected from the Swedish milk-recording scheme. Of the sampled cows 485 were considered IMI negative and were used in multivariable mixed-effect linear regression models to investigate associations between cow factors and the udder-health indicators. A second modeling including all cows, both IMI negative and IMI positive (256 cows), was also performed. The results showed that all udder-health indicators were affected by cow factors but that different cow factors were associated with different indicators. Intramammary-infection status was significantly associated with all udder-health indicators except AP. Parity and milk urea concentration were the only cow factors associated with all indicators in all models. The significant cow factors explained 23% of the variation in SCC and >30% of the variation in LDH, NAGase, and AP in IMI-negative cows, showing that LDH, NAGase, and AP are more affected than SCC by cow factors. The IMI status explained 23% of the variation in SCC in the model with all cows but only 7% of the variation in

  18. 33 CFR 157.124 - COW tank washing machines. (United States)


    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false COW tank washing machines. 157....124 COW tank washing machines. (a) COW machines must be permanently mounted in each cargo tank. (b... allowed in paragraph (f) of this section, each cargo tank must have COW machines located to wash all...

  19. Biological and economical effects beef cows on of different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Afrikaner cows ended the lick phase in a better (P < 0.01) condition than. Simmentaler cows, irrespective of lick. Veld on the MS appeared to be superior to veld on the ES in this area as cows on the former had higher (P < 0.05) condition scores than cows on the latter, again irrespective of lick. Reproductive performance ...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. E. Borovik


    Full Text Available Analysis of usage of specific hypoallergenic formula in atopic dermatitis prophylaxis in children of the 1st year of life with high risk of allergy development is reviewed in this article. Sixty-six children of the 1st year of life with compromised anamnesis were included into the study. In multicenter researches it was shown that this formula meets modern requirements, which are raised to composition of children adapted hypoallergenic formulas, that it fits physiological needs of nutrients and energy and is well-tolerated by infants, including newborns, with high risk of allergy development

  1. A Robust Statistical Model to Predict the Future Value of the Milk Production of Dairy Cows Using Herd Recording Data. (United States)

    Græsbøll, Kaare; Kirkeby, Carsten; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose; Halasa, Tariq; Toft, Nils; Christiansen, Lasse Engbo


    The future value of an individual dairy cow depends greatly on its projected milk yield. In developed countries with developed dairy industry infrastructures, facilities exist to record individual cow production and reproduction outcomes consistently and accurately. Accurate prediction of the future value of a dairy cow requires further detailed knowledge of the costs associated with feed, management practices, production systems, and disease. Here, we present a method to predict the future value of the milk production of a dairy cow based on herd recording data only. The method consists of several steps to evaluate lifetime milk production and individual cow somatic cell counts and to finally predict the average production for each day that the cow is alive. Herd recording data from 610 Danish Holstein herds were used to train and test a model predicting milk production (including factors associated with milk yield, somatic cell count, and the survival of individual cows). All estimated parameters were either herd- or cow-specific. The model prediction deviated, on average, less than 0.5 kg from the future average milk production of dairy cows in multiple herds after adjusting for the effect of somatic cell count. We conclude that estimates of future average production can be used on a day-to-day basis to rank cows for culling, or can be implemented in simulation models of within-herd disease spread to make operational decisions, such as culling versus treatment. An advantage of the approach presented in this paper is that it requires no specific knowledge of disease status or any other information beyond herd recorded milk yields, somatic cell counts, and reproductive status.

  2. Rearing conditions, health and welfare of dairy cows


    Hristov Slavča; Stanković B.; Zlatanović Z.; Joksimović-Todorović M.; Davidović V.


    This paper provides an overview of recent developments in rearing conditions, health and welfare issues of dairy cows. The last approximately 30 years has witnessed worldwide increasing scientific research, consumer activity, and political response towards housing condition, health and welfare issues of dairy cattle. All buildings and housing systems for dairy cattle should be designed, constructed, maintained and managed to assist in the achievement of the Five Freedoms: freedom from hunger ...

  3. A genetic study of loser cows in Danish dairy herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Louise Dybdahl; Jørgensen, Hanne Birgitte Hede; Kargo, Morten


    Following the recent years' increase in herd size, the awareness of a group of cows with a generally lowered health and production level, the “loser cows,” has arisen in Denmark. The aim of this study was to estimate genetic correlations between the loser cow score, 305d protein yield and realized...... productive life (RPL) and inbreeding depression for the loser cow score. Estimation of genetic correlations and inbreeding depression was performed on 2644 first-lactation cows and 4914 multiple-lactation cows, respectively. We found no significant genetic correlation between the loser cow score...... and the inbreeding level or between the loser cow score and protein yield. However, the loser cow score was favorably correlated with RPL (−0.53). This implies that the prevalence of loser cows is neither a result of inbreeding depression nor an undesirable side effect of selecting for increased production....

  4. Post-artificial insemination supplementation with calcium salts of soybean oil influences pregnancy establishment factors in beef cows. (United States)

    Cipriano, R S; Cooke, R F; Rodrigues, A D; Silva, L G T; Bohnert, D W; Marques, R S; Vasconcelos, J L M; Pires, A V; Cerri, R L A


    ( ≥ 0.30) for endometrial mRNA expression of and . In summary, post-AI CSSO supplementation to B. indicus beef cows increased plasma concentration of linoleic acid and enhanced pregnancy establishment factors, which included CL development and plasma P4 concentration, conceptus growth, and mRNA expression of as well as blood mRNA expression of interferon-stimulated genes.

  5. Tunneling Nanotubes and Gap Junctions–Their Role in Long-Range Intercellular Communication during Development, Health, and Disease Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Ariazi


    Full Text Available Cell-to-cell communication is essential for the organization, coordination, and development of cellular networks and multi-cellular systems. Intercellular communication is mediated by soluble factors (including growth factors, neurotransmitters, and cytokines/chemokines, gap junctions, exosomes and recently described tunneling nanotubes (TNTs. It is unknown whether a combination of these communication mechanisms such as TNTs and gap junctions may be important, but further research is required. TNTs are long cytoplasmic bridges that enable long-range, directed communication between connected cells. The proposed functions of TNTs are diverse and not well understood but have been shown to include the cell-to-cell transfer of vesicles, organelles, electrical stimuli and small molecules. However, the exact role of TNTs and gap junctions for intercellular communication and their impact on disease is still uncertain and thus, the subject of much debate. The combined data from numerous laboratories indicate that some TNT mediate a long-range gap junctional communication to coordinate metabolism and signaling, in relation to infectious, genetic, metabolic, cancer, and age-related diseases. This review aims to describe the current knowledge, challenges and future perspectives to characterize and explore this new intercellular communication system and to design TNT-based therapeutic strategies.

  6. Development of new hCaM-Alexa Fluor®biosensors for a wide range of ligands. (United States)

    Velázquez-López, I; León-Cruz, E; Pardo, J P; Sosa-Peinado, A; González-Andrade, M


    Eight new fluorescent biosensors of human calmodulin (hCaM) using Alexa Fluor ® 350, 488, 532, and 555 dyes were constructed. These biosensors are thermodynamically stable, functional, and highly sensitive to ligands of the CaM. They resolve the problem of CaM ligands with similar spectroscopic properties to the intrinsic and extrinsic fluorophores of other biosensors previously reported. Additionally, they can be used in studies of protein-protein interaction through Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET). The variation in T m (range 78.07-81.47 °C; 79.05 to WT) is no larger than two degrees in all cases in regards to CaM WT. The K ds calculated with all biosensors for CPZ and BIMI (a new inhibitor of CaM) are in the range of 0.45-1.86 and 0.69-1.54 μm respectively. All biosensors retain their ability to activate Calcineurin about 70%. Structural models built "in silico" show their possible conformation taking the fluorophores in protein thus we can predict system stability. Finally, these new biosensors represent a biotechnological development applied to an analytical problem, which aims to determine accurately the affinity of inhibitors of CaM without possible interference, to be put forward as possible drugs related to CaM. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Development of Superior Sorbents for Separation of CO2 from Flue Gas at a Wide Temperature range during Coal Combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panagiotis Smirniotis


    A number basic sorbents based on CaO were synthesized, characterized with novel techniques and tested for sorption of CO{sub 2} and selected gas mixtures simulating flue gas from coal fired boilers. Our studies resulted in highly promising sorbents which demonstrated zero affinity for N{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, SO{sub 2}, and NO very low affinity for water, ultrahigh CO{sub 2} sorption capacities, and rapid sorption characteristics, CO{sub 2} sorption at a very wide temperature range, durability, and low synthesis cost. One of the 'key' characteristics of the proposed materials is the fact that we can control very accurately their basicity (optimum number of basic sites of the appropriate strength) which allows for the selective chemisorption of CO{sub 2} at a wide range of temperatures. These unique characteristics of this family of sorbents offer high promise for development of advanced industrial sorbents for the effective CO{sub 2} removal.

  8. Short communication: Detection and monitoring of metritis in dairy cows using an automated grooming device. (United States)

    Mandel, R; Nicol, C J; Whay, H R; Klement, E


    Metritis, a prevalent disease on dairy farms, is negatively associated with reproduction, milk production, and the welfare of cows. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of monitoring low-resilience activities (i.e., behaviors that typically decrease when energy resources are limited or when the cost involved in the activity increases; e.g., brush usage) in the early detection of metritis. Data on daily brush usage (i.e., proportion of cows using the brush and the duration of usage) were collected from 28 metritic and 60 control cows 28 d postpartum using an automated monitoring system developed for the purpose of this study. During the first week following partum (before clinical diagnosis), we found no differences in brush usage between sick and control cows. However, 8 to 21 d postpartum (the week of clinical diagnosis and the first week of medical treatment), a lower proportion of metritic cows used the brush compared with control cows (0.49 compared with 0.64, respectively, at brushes installed away from the feed bunk). In addition, the daily duration of brush usage was 50% lower among cows diagnosed with metritis compared with control cows 8 to 28 d postpartum (44 s/d compared with 88 s/d, respectively). The results of this study suggest that on-farm monitoring of low-resilience behaviors, combined with existing systems that monitor core behaviors (e.g., activity and rumination), may serve as an improved method for detecting events that compromise the welfare of animals. The slow recovery of low-resilience behaviors following medical treatment (wk 4) might serve as a particularly useful indicator of progress of recovery from disease. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Trends in cow numbers and culling rate in the Irish cattle population, 2003 to 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maher P


    Full Text Available Abstract Cows are the main economic production units of Ireland's cattle industry. Therefore, demographic information, including overall numbers and survival rates, are relevant to the Irish agricultural industry. However, few data are available on the demographics of cows within a national population, either in Ireland or elsewhere, despite the recent development of comprehensive national cattle databases in many EU Member States. This study has sought: to determine the rate of cow culling from the national herd; to determine the rate of culling by type (dairy, beef, age, method of exit, date of exit and interval between last calving and exit; to calculate the national cow on-farm mortality rate; and to compare the Irish rates with published data from other countries. This work was conducted using data recorded in the national Cattle Movement Monitoring System (CMMS. Culling refers to the exit of cows from the national herd, as a result of death but regardless of reason, and cow-culling rate was calculated as the number of cow exits (as defined above each year divided by the number of calf births in the same year. Culling rate was determined by type (dairy or beef, date of birth, method of exit (slaughter or on-farm death, month of exit and interval between last calving and exit. The average cow-culling rate during 2003 to 2006 was 19.6% (21.3% for dairy, 18% for beef. While comparisons must be treated with caution, it concluded that the overall rates of culling in Ireland fell within published internationally accepted norms. The on-farm mortality rate of 3.2-4.1% was similar to that reported in comparable studies.

  10. Squamous metaplasia of the rete ovarii in a Zebu cow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos Renato


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stratified keratinizing squamous epithelium in the ovary has been associated with the diagnosis of ovarian teratoma in cows. Recently, the diagnosis of “epidermoid cyst” has been proposed. A case of squamous metaplasia of the rete ovarii in a Zebu cow is described in this report. Case presentation A crossbreed Zebu cow had both ovaries enlarged with multiple cysts. Most cysts were lined by well differentiated keratinizing stratified squamous epithelium and filled with keratinized lamellar material. Some cysts were lined by an epithelial layer that ranged from single cuboidal, double cuboidal epithelium, stratified non keratinized epithelium, and areas of keratinizing stratified squamous epithelium. Single or double layered cuboidal epithelia of the cysts expressed low molecular weight cytokeratin 7, whose expression was absent in the keratinizing stratified squamous epithelia of same cysts. Conversely, high molecular weight cytokeratins 1, 5, 10, and 14 were strongly expressed by the keratinizing stratified epithelium. Conclusion Squamous metaplasia of the rete ovarii was diagnosed. Squamous metaplasia of the rete ovarii, may account for some of the previously described squamous lesions in the ovary, which may have been misinterpreted as teratoma or epidermoid cysts.

  11. Development of photonic-crystal-fiber-based optical coupler with a broad operating wavelength range of 800 nm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Min-Seok; Kwon, Oh-Jang; Kim, Hyun-Joo; Chu, Su-Ho; Kim, Gil-Hwan; Lee, Sang-Bae; Han, Young-Geun [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    We developed a broadband optical coupler based on a photonic crystal fiber (PCF), which is very useful for applications to optical coherence tomography (OCT). The PCF-based coupler is fabricated by using a fused biconical tapering (FBT) method. The PCF has six hexagonally-stacked layers of air holes. The PCF-based coupler has a nearly-flat 50/50 coupling ratio in a broad bandwidth range of 800 nm, which is much wider than that previously reported for a PCF-based coupler and a singlemode-fiber-based coupler. The bandwidth and the bandedge wavelength of the broadband coupler are controlled by changing the elongation length. The fabricated broadband optical coupler has great potential for realizing a broadband interferogram with a high resolution in an OCT system.

  12. The Design and Experiment of the Track-Type Equipment for Feeding Dairy Cows

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    Yaping LI


    Full Text Available As one of the effective ways of reducing the cost and increase the revenue, feeding dairy cows with individual precision in quantity could further develop the production potential of high- yield dairy cows and improve the milk yield of every dairy cow. Therefore, based on three kinds of technologies of radio frequency identification technology, wireless transmission technology and infrared technology and grounded on the foundation of previous studies, this thesis has completed the track- type equipment for feeding dairy cows with individual precision in quantity. The equipment takes the computer as the information management platform, adopts the singly chip microcomputer as the control platform, uses the wireless module and U disk to conduct the transmission of individual feeding data of dairy cows and guides the whole process with the track. This kind of equipment could advance automatically, identify and feed dairy cows precisely during the feeding process. This thesis also designs the matching feeding technology of the equipment, and accomplishes the test of feeding outside the cowshed, which takes “TMR + precise feeding with concentrated feed” as the feeding model, so that the feeding process could be more effective and further steady.

  13. Characterization of ovarian follicular cysts and associated endocrine profiles in dairy cows. (United States)

    Hamilton, S A; Garverick, H A; Keisler, D H; Xu, Z Z; Loos, K; Youngquist, R S; Salfen, B E


    It is generally accepted that ovarian follicular cysts (cysts) are nonovulatory follicular structures that contribute to extended calving intervals. Follicle/cyst dynamics and the etiology of cysts are unclear. The present study was conducted to characterize follicle/cyst dynamics and to define endocrine changes (etiology) associated with cyst development. Thirty-two dairy cows were studied: controls (n = 6), cows with spontaneously occurring cysts (n = 14), and cows in which cysts were induced by exogenous steroid treatment (n = 12). Ovaries of cows were scanned daily by ultrasonography to record follicle/cyst dynamics. Blood was collected to determine endocrine changes associated with follicle/cyst life span. Three ovarian responses in cows with cysts were observed: persistence of cysts, turnover of cysts, or spontaneous recovery (self-recovered; turnover of cysts and replacement with a follicle that ovulated). Mean maximum size of cysts was larger (p cyst wave to detection of a new follicle/cyst wave in cows with cysts was longer (13.0 +/- 1.1 days; p Cysts grew at the same rate as follicles but continued to grow for an additional period of time. A transient increase in FSH preceded detection of all follicle/cyst waves.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. High-Yield Production of Levulinic Acid from Pretreated Cow Dung in Dilute Acid Aqueous Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jialei Su


    Full Text Available Agricultural waste cow dung was used as feedstock for the production of a high value–added chemical levulinic acid (LA in dilute acid aqueous solutions. A high LA yield of 338.9 g/kg was obtained from the pretreated cow dung, which was much higher than that obtained from the crude cow dung (135 g/kg, mainly attributed to the breakage of the lignin fraction in the lignocellulose structure of the cow dung by potassium hydroxide (KOH pretreatment, and thus enhanced the accessibility of cow dung to the acid sites in the catalytic reaction. Meanwhile, another value-added chemical formic acid could be obtained with a yield of ca. 160 g/kg in the process, implying a total production of ca. 500 g/kg yield for LA and formic acid from the pretreated cow dung with the proposed process. The developed process was shown to be tolerant to high initial substrate loading with a satisfied LA yield. This work provides a promising strategy for the value-increment utilization of liglocellulosic agricultural residues.

  15. Role of nutrition in ethiopathogenesis of health disturbances of dairy cows in periparturient period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinovec Zlatan J.


    Full Text Available The goals of high producing dairy cow nutrition are to provide good health and condition of animals, normal 300-day long lactation, more lactation cycle during exploitation, maximal amount of milk yield with optimal chemical contents, as well as bringing healthy and vital veal once a year. Nutrients metabolism disturbances in dairy cows mostly expressed in periparturient period due to higher demands needed for fetus growth and development, as well as for requirements for lactation. Energy metabolism disorder in dairy cows mostly appeared as kethosis complicated with liver fatty acid accumulation that firstly caused fatty infiltration and later fatty degeneration of hepatocytes. Besides energy, in this period changes of mineral status are very common as consequences of higher mineral deposition in skeleton of fetus, and secretion via milk by beginning of the lactation. Mineral metabolism disorder in dairy cows, firstly calcium, mostly appeared as paresis and paralysis. Dairy cows peripartal metabolic disturbances are very dependent and caused among themselves commonly leading to mutual appearance. That’s why the meal for high producing dairy cow in periparturient period have to be optimal balanced not only according to amount of some nutrients, but their relationship, as well as their influences on metabolic pathways and homeostasis.

  16. Relationship among insulin-like growth factor-I, blood metabolites and postpartum ovarian function in dairy cows. (United States)

    Zulu, Victor Chisha; Sawamukai, Yutaka; Nakada, Ken; Kida, Katsuya; Moriyoshi, Masaharu


    The relationship among nutritional status, systemic insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and ovarian function early postpartum were investigated. A total of 27 Holstein-Friesian cows, 10 that cycled normally within 20 days postpartum, 5 diagnosed with follicular cysts, 8 with persistent corpus luteum (CL) after the first ovulation postpartum and 4 with inactive ovaries were used for the study. Blood samples were collected 1-3 times per week, for 60 days pre- and postpartum, for IGF-I, progesterone, estradiol, free fatty acids (FFA), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) determination. Inactive ovary and cystic cows had a higher body condition score before calving and lost more condition than normal or persistent CL cows. Immediately postpartum, IGF-I levels were higher and rose sharply in cows that cycled normally than in cystic, inactive ovary or persistent CL cows. At calving and early postpartum, FFA was higher in inactive ovary and cystic than in normal and persistent CL cows. There was a significant strong positive relationship between IGF-I and BUN, and strong negative relationships between IGF-I and FFA and AST in all groups. There was a positive relationship between serum IGF-I and estradiol in normal cystic and inactive ovary cows. This study found that overconditioned cows during the dry period or at calving, lost more body condition postpartum. These cows also had a deeper and longer period of negative energy balance (NEB), poor liver function and low circulating IGF-I concentrations early postpartum. Such cows were likely to have poor reproductive function as seen in development of cystic ovaries, persistent CL and inactive ovary. Changes in serum IGF-I early postpartum may help predict both nutritional and reproductive status in dairy cattle.

  17. Synchronization of ovulation with human chorionic gonadotropin in lactating dairy cows with ovarian cysts during heat stress. (United States)

    Navanukraw, Chainarong; Khanthusaeng, Vilaivan; Kraisoon, Aree; Suwannarit, Duangkamon; Jarassaeng, Chaiwat; Aiumlamai, Suneerat


    A study was conducted during hot season to determine the effect of synchronization of ovulation with human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) on fertility of lactating dairy cows with ovarian cysts. Non cyclic Holstein dairy cows (n = 80) were stratified by parity and diagnosed as having an ovarian cyst. The cows were further identified as follicular or luteal cysts according to the plasma progesterone (P4) concentration and the cystic image of ultrasonography. Cystic cows were randomly assigned to receive treatments (Ovsynch as the control or Ovsynch plus 3000 IU hCG). All cows were artificially inseminated at 16-18 h after the second gonadotropin releasing hormone injection. Cows supplemented with hCG had a greater number of corpus luteum (1.8 ± 0.2 and 0.8 ± 0.3; P cows (6.3 ± 0.3 and 3.9 ± 0.4 ng/ml; P cows. No significant differences were found in overall conception rates between the treatments; however, significantly greater conception rate (P = 0.03) was observed in cows with luteal cysts receiving Ovsynch plus hCG. This study highlights that administration of hCG following the Ovsynch-based timed artificial insemination (AI) is more effective than the control Ovsynch by which the hCG affects corpus luteum (CL) development, P4 concentration, and thus improves conception rate in dairy cows with luteal cysts.

  18. A new model for conservative food challenge in children with immunoglobulin E-mediated cow's milk allergy. (United States)

    Calvani, Mauro; Iacono, Iride Dello; Giorgio, Valentina; Sopo, Stefano Miceli; Panetta, Valentina; Tripodi, Salvatore


    The diagnostic gold standard for food allergy is an oral food challenge (OFC) with the suspected food. Usually, an OFC is stopped at the onset of mild objective symptoms for fear of severe reactions, but there is no consensus on this issue. To investigate the effectiveness and side effects of a new model of oral milk challenge in order to increase the diagnostic accuracy of cow's milk protein allergy and reduce the number of useless elimination diets. This model is characterized by a conservative diagnostic protocol and "step-up cow's milk dosing." The secondary aim was to investigate possible factors influencing severe reactions. Sixty-six children (median age 1 year, range 1-18) with suspected immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated cow's milk allergy performed a conservative OFC, i.e., the OFC was continued even in the presence of subjective, even repeated, or mild local or multiple organ objective symptoms. If the first objective reaction occurred when the quantity of milk was > 10 ml, the investigator would decide whether to continue the OFC or prescribe a gradual increase in milk feeding at home. Symptoms developed during the OFC in 42.4% of the children. Local, generalized and severe generalized reactions developed in 11 (16.7%), 11 (16.7%) and 6 (9.1%) children, respectively. Only 14/28 (50%) who developed objective symptoms during the OFC were considered to be affected by cow's milk allergy. In the remaining 14 both subjective and objective symptoms developed and the OFC was continued without further symptoms. Epinephrine was administered to 6 of the 28 children (21.4%) who developed objective symptoms. All but one had subjective symptoms following the early doses of milk, whereas all children who later tolerated milk had their first subjective or mild symptoms following doses > or = 10 ml. This new model of OFC criteria led to frequent severe allergic reactions; hence its use in daily practice seems inadvisable. However, our study provides evidence that a severe

  19. Efficacy of controlled-release capsules containing monensin for the prevention of subclinical ketosis in pasture-fed dairy cows. (United States)

    Compton, C W R; Young, L; McDougall, S


    To determine the effectiveness of intra-rumenal controlled release capsules (CRC) containing 32 g of monensin administered pre-calving to reduce the cumulative incidence of subclinical ketosis (SCK) in mainly pasture-fed dairy cows. Cows (n=837) due to calve in the first 6 weeks of the spring calving period were enrolled from four commercial herds in the Waikato region of New Zealand in a blinded, randomised, negative-controlled field trial. Three weeks before the start of the calving period cows were randomly allocated to receive either no treatment (control) or a single CRC containing monensin and then blood sampled on two occasions, 7 days apart within 12 days following calving for measurement of concentrations of beta hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) in blood. Cows were diagnosed with SCK if the concentration of BHBA in blood in either of these samples was ≥1.2 mmol/L. Fewer treated cows were diagnosed with SCK within 12 days post-calving than control cows (144/340 (42.4%) vs. 192/336 (57.1%); p10 days prior to calving reduced the cumulative incidence of SCK of pasture-based dairy cows in commercial dairy herds within 12 days post-calving. Administration pre-calving of an intra-rumenal bolus containing monensin can be considered as one of a range of management options for the control of SCK in early lactation.

  20. Staphylococcus aureus strains in primiparous and multiparous cows in six herds with a high prevalence of Staph. aureus intramammary infections. (United States)

    Tenhagen, Bernd-Alois; Scheibe, Nicole; Zucker, Bert-Andree; Köster, Gudrun; Heuwieser, Wolfgang


    The proportion of different strains of Staphylococcus aureus was tested in four groups of lactating dairy cows in six herds with a high overall prevalence of Staph. aureus using random amplified polymorphic DNA PCR. Group 1 included primiparous cows in early lactation (250 days in milk). Groups 3 and 4 were multiparous cows in the respective stages of lactation. Eight cows from each group on each farm were tested. Overall quarter prevalence of Staph. aureus ranged from 23.4 to 32.0% in the herds. Of the 130 isolates included in the analysis 86.9% were high prevalence strains (more than three isolates per herd), while 13.1% were strains that were only identified in one or two samples. Low prevalence strains were found in all six herds. The proportion of low prevalence strains was higher in multiparous than in primiparous cows (odds ratio, OR 4.4, 1.2-16.6). It is concluded that low prevalence Staph. aureus strains are common even in herds with a high prevalence of Staph. aureus and that their frequency is lower in primiparous cows than in older cows.

  1. Impact of spontaneous Neospora caninum infection on pregnancy loss and subsequent pregnancy in grazing lactating dairy cows. (United States)

    Pessoa, Gilson Antonio; Martini, Ana Paula; Trentin, Janislene Mach; Dalcin, Vanessa Calderaro; Leonardi, Carlos Eduardo Porciuncula; Vogel, Fernanda Silveira Flôres; de Sá Filho, Manoel Francisco; Rubin, Mara Iolanda Batistella; Silva, Carlos Antonio Mondino


    The impact of spontaneous Neospora caninum infection on pregnancy loss and subsequent pregnancy in grazing lactating dairy cows was evaluated. Data from 1273 females (878 multiparous and 395 first-calving cows) from six preselected dairy herds were analyzed. Cows were classified as seropositive (SP) (prevalence, 24%; range, 11%-33%) or seronegative (SN) by indirect immunofluorescence detection of antibodies against N caninum. Seropositive cows (prevalence, 40.0%) presented higher (P milk production adjusted to 305 days was lower (P milk (94.7% vs. 98.5%; P = 0.005) were greater in SN cows. A reduced (P = 0.0001) Cox proportional hazard of pregnancy rate at 300 days in milk and a longer interval from parturition or abortion to conception (median, 111 vs. 101 days) were observed in SP compared with SN cows. Spontaneous N caninum infection is a significant contributing factor of pregnancy loss and occurrence of uterine disease (i.e., retained placenta and metritis), negatively affecting subsequent pregnancy in grazing lactating dairy cows. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Partitioning of polar and non-polar neutral organic chemicals into human and cow milk. (United States)

    Geisler, Anett; Endo, Satoshi; Goss, Kai-Uwe


    The aim of this work was to develop a predictive model for milk/water partition coefficients of neutral organic compounds. Batch experiments were performed for 119 diverse organic chemicals in human milk and raw and processed cow milk at 37°C. No differences (milk were observed. The polyparameter linear free energy relationship model fit the calibration data well (SD=0.22 log units). An experimental validation data set including hormones and hormone active compounds was predicted satisfactorily by the model. An alternative modelling approach based on log K(ow) revealed a poorer performance. The model presented here provides a significant improvement in predicting enrichment of potentially hazardous chemicals in milk. In combination with physiologically based pharmacokinetic modelling this improvement in the estimation of milk/water partitioning coefficients may allow a better risk assessment for a wide range of neutral organic chemicals. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suprio Guntoro


    Full Text Available The development of free-range chicken farm is constrained by expensive food prices. On the other hand,feses of cattle had potential use as a source of feed. This study was conducted to determine the response ofcow feses and probiotics administration in the diet of laying range chicken. The study was conducted over 6months using 240 free-range chickens aged 8 months. Research was arranged in a completely randomized designwith 8 treatments and 5 replications. The treatment given were ration in accordance with the farmers formulacomprising: concentrate: 25%, corn 40% and rice bran 35% (P0 and ration as P0, with the substitution of ricebran with fermented cow feses each treatment with level 10 % (P1, 15% (P2 and 20% (P3 and ration as atP0, P1, P2 and P3 that received additional probiotic (Bio L 1 cc / L of drinking water (P4, P5, P6 and P7. Theparameters were observed are: egg production (hen day, egg weight, feed intake, FCR (Feed Conversion Ratiomortality and physical composition of eggs. The results showed that the diet which containing fermented cowfeses 20% did not decreased egg production and feed efficiency. The combination of fermented cow feses at thelevel of 20% with a probiotic (Bio L 1 cc / L of drinking water showed that egg production  increased althoughit is not significant and reduce the number of FCR (Feed Conversion Ratio. In conclusion the use of fermentedcow feses up to the level of 20% in the diet both with and without the administration of probiotics, has no effecton physical composition of eggs.

  4. Development of a novel monoclonal antibody with reactivity to a wide range of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phelps Amanda L


    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is currently a requirement for antiviral therapies capable of protecting against infection with Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV, as a licensed vaccine is not available for general human use. Monoclonal antibodies are increasingly being developed as therapeutics and are potential treatments for VEEV as they have been shown to be protective in the mouse model of disease. However, to be truly effective, the antibody should recognise multiple strains of VEEV and broadly reactive monoclonal antibodies are rarely and only coincidentally isolated using classical hybridoma technology. Results In this work, methods were developed to reliably derive broadly reactive murine antibodies. A phage library was created that expressed single chain variable fragments (scFv isolated from mice immunised with multiple strains of VEEV. A broadly reactive scFv was identified and incorporated into a murine IgG2a framework. This novel antibody retained the broad reactivity exhibited by the scFv but did not possess virus neutralising activity. However, the antibody was still able to protect mice against VEEV disease induced by strain TrD when administered 24 h prior to challenge. Conclusion A monoclonal antibody possessing reactivity to a wide range of VEEV strains may be of benefit as a generic antiviral therapy. However, humanisation of the murine antibody will be required before it can be tested in humans. Crown Copyright © 2009

  5. Residual feed intake is repeatable for lactating Holstein dairy cows fed high and low starch diets. (United States)

    Potts, S B; Boerman, J P; Lock, A L; Allen, M S; VandeHaar, M J


    Residual feed intake (RFI) is a tool to quantify feed efficiency in livestock and is commonly used to assess feed efficiency independent of production level, body weight (BW), or BW change. Lactating Holstein cows (n=109; 44 primiparous and 65 multiparous), averaging (mean ± standard deviation, SD) 665±77kg of BW, 42±9kg of milk/d, and 120±30 d postpartum, were fed diets of high (HI) or low (LO) starch content in 4 crossover experiments with two 28-d treatment periods. The LO diets were ~40% neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and ~14% starch and the HI diets were ~26% NDF and ~30% starch. Individual dry matter intake (DMI) of a cow was modeled as a function of milk energy output, metabolic BW, body energy change, and fixed effects of parity, experiment, cohort nested within experiment, and diet nested within cohort and experiment; RFI for each cow was the residual error term. Cows were classified as high (>0.5 SD of the mean), medium (±0.5 SD of the mean), or low (energy output, metabolic BW, or body energy gain was associated with 0.35, 0.09, or 0.05kg increase in DMI, respectively. When compared with LO diets, HI diets increased energy partitioning to body energy gain and tended to increase DMI. The correlation between RFI when cows were fed HI diets and RFI when cows were fed LO diets was 0.73 and was similar across each parity and experiment. Fifty-six percent of cows maintained the same RFI classification (high, medium, or low RFI) and only 4 of 109 cows changed from high RFI to low RFI or vice versa when diets were changed. Milk:feed, income over feed cost, and DMI were also highly repeatable (r=0.72, 0.84, and 0.92, respectively). We achieved significant changes in milk yield and component concentration as well as energy partitioning between HI and LO diets and still determined RFI to be repeatable across diets. We conclude that RFI is reasonably repeatable for a wide range of dietary starch levels fed to mid-lactation cows, so that cows that have low RFI

  6. Enteric methane from lactating beef cows managed with high- and low-input grazing systems. (United States)

    Chiavegato, M B; Rowntree, J E; Carmichael, D; Powers, W J


    The objective of this study was to compare methane (CH) emissions from lactating beef cows grazed with different combinations of stocking rate and density. We hypothesized that a low stocking rate coupled with high-stocking-density grazing management would result in poorer forage quality, thereby increasing enteric CH emissions. System A (SysA) consisted of 120 cow-calf pairs rotating on a total of 120 ha divided into 2-ha pastures (stocking rate 1 cow/ha, stocking density 112,000 kg BW/ha, rest period of 60 to 90 d). System B (SysB) consisted of 16 groups of 4 cow-calf pairs each rotating on a 1.6-ha pasture (stocking rate 2.5 cows/ha, stocking density 32,000 kg BW/ha, rest period of 18 to 30 d). Enteric CH measurements were collected using a sulfur hexafluoride (SF) tracer gas method. Sampling occurred during 2012 and 2013 in 2 periods: the beginning (P1) and end of the grazing season (P2). Cannulated Angus cows were stratified by weight, age, and parity and were assigned to each treatment ( = 6) in a crossover design with a doubly repeated measures design, with period and day as repeated measures (α = 0.05). Dry matter intake was determined using chromic oxide (CrO) as a marker. Forage samples were collected ( = 3) for nutrient composition analyses and total forage mass determination. Forage botanical composition was determined using the dry-weight-rank method. Postgrazing herbage mass was greater for SysA during P2 in 2012 ( cows increased from P1 to P2 (4 and 1.1 kg DMI/d increase, respectively). Cows ingested, on average, 2.6% (SysA) and 2.8% (SysB) of their BW. There was no year effect on CH emissions ( = 0.16). Daily enteric CH emissions did not vary with treatment and ranged from 195 to 249 g CH/d across treatment. Enteric CH emissions per unit GE intake varied with treatment during P1 (6.4% and 3.8% for SysA and SysB, respectively; cows. It is likely that cows in the present study were selecting high-quality forage and produced comparatively lower CH

  7. The criteria for establishing an acceptable range of chemical, physical and biological indicators for the purpose of ecological standards developing (United States)

    Evdokimova, Maria; Glazunov, Gennady; Yakovlev, Aleksandr


    The basis for development of standards for soil quality is based on the assessment of their resistance to external influences. The main criterion for assessing the environmental sustainability of soils and lands is the ability to perform their ecological functions (Nkonya et al, 2011, 2013; Costanza et al, 2014, Dobrovolsky and Nikitin, 1990; Yakovlev, Evdokimova, 2011). The limiting value of indicators of the state of the environment (physical, chemical, biological and other) corresponds to the value at which stability of environmental components is preserved (the ability to heal itself). Tht threshold for effect of stressor should be identified by the methods of bioindication and biotesting. The analysis obtained by these methods aimed to identify the highest indicator values of physical or chemical (concentration or dose of the stressor) effects, which have not yet fairly established negative changes in the organism, population of organisms or community. Using a theoretical model (Yakovlev et al, 2009, Gendugov., 2013) the problem of finding the threshold concentration is reduced to the finding of the singular points characterizing macroscopic "kinetics" of response in the phase space of dependence of the response rate upon the impact indicator. Singular points are determined by the analysis of derivatives. The theoretical model allows to calculate the singular points of the model (six of them), one of which, the maximum point corresponds to the highest concentration of the stressor at which it had no adverse effects on the test organisms. This point corresponds to the lowest concentration of the stressor at which it has no longer a stimulatory (hormesis) effect. Six singular points divide the whole range of stressors values (concentration) on seven bands with a unique range for each set of values of "macrokinetic" indicators of the living cells response to the impact of the stressor (concentration). Thus, the use of theoretical equations allowed us 1) to

  8. Cow-level associations of lameness, behavior, and milk yield of cows milked in automated systems. (United States)

    King, M T M; LeBlanc, S J; Pajor, E A; DeVries, T J


    This study evaluated differences in behavior and productivity between lame and nonlame cows in herds with automated milking systems (AMS). We monitored 30 cows per herd on 41 farms with AMS in Canada (26 herds in Ontario and 15 herds in Alberta). During a 6-d period, milking data (n = 1,184) and lying behavior data (n = 1,209) were collected from cows on 41 farms. Rumination behavior (n = 569) and activity (n = 615) data were available for cows at 22 farms. Locomotion was scored using a numerical rating system (NRS; 1 = sound; 5 = extremely lame). Cows were defined as clinically lame with NRS ≥ 3 (n = 353, 29%) and nonlame with NRS < 3 (n = 865, 71%). Greater parity, lower body condition, and lower environmental temperature were factors associated with lameness. When accounting for other factors, lame cows produced 1.6 kg/d less milk in 0.3 fewer milkings/d. Lame cows were 2.2 times more likely to be fetched more than 1 time during the 6-d period and spent 38 min/d more time lying down in bouts that were 3.5 min longer in comparison with nonlame cows. As the number of cows per AMS unit increased, the frequency of milkings and refusals per cow per day decreased and cow activity increased. For each 13.3-percentage-point increase in freestall stocking density (cows per stall), daily lying time decreased by 13 min/d and cows were 1.6 times more likely to be fetched more than 1 time during the 6-d period. There was no difference in daily rumination or activity between lame and nonlame cows or in night:day rumination time, but lame cows had greater night:day activity ratios. This study supports the growing knowledge that lameness has negative effects on milk production, voluntary milking behavior, and lying behavior of cows in herds with AMS. These results may help dairy producers gain a better appreciation of the negative effects of even moderate cases of lameness and may help motivate them to improve their lameness monitoring and treatment protocols. Copyright

  9. Short communication: Plasma progesterone concentration and ovarian dynamics of lactating Jersey cows treated with 1 or 2 intravaginal progesterone inserts. (United States)

    Moraes, João G N; Silva, Paula R B; Bortoletto, Nathália; Scanavez, Alexandre L A; Chebel, Ricardo C


    The objectives of the current experiment were to determine circulating progesterone concentrations and ovarian follicle development of lactating Jersey cows treated with 1 or 2 controlled internal drug release (CIDR) insert containing 1.38 g of progesterone during proestrus. Cows were enrolled in the experiment at 34 ± 3 d in milk and were paired by parity, body condition score, body weight, and milk yield. Estrous cycles were presynchronized with an injection of GnRH concurrent with a new CIDR insert (study d -7) and 2 injections of PGF2α given 5 and 6 d after the GnRH injection (study d -2 and -1, respectively). Cows assigned to the 1CIDR treatment (n=30) or 2CIDR treatment (n=30) received 1 and 2 CIDR inserts, respectively, from study d 0 through 7. Control cows (n=10) did not receive further treatment. On study d -2 and daily from study d 0 through 7, ovaries were examined by transrectal ultrasound and blood samples were collected for determination of progesterone. On study d 7, CIDR inserts were removed after ultrasound exam and blood sample collection. Progesterone concentration from study d 0 through 7 was greatest for 2CIDR cows (2.17 ± 0.09 ng/mL), followed by 1CIDR cows (1.37 ± 0.10 ng/mL) and control cows (0.62 ± 0.21 ng/mL). The interaction between treatment and study day affected progesterone concentration from study d 0 through 7. The average increase in progesterone concentration from study d 1 through 7 was 0.80 ng/mL for 1CIDR and 1.72 ng/mL for 2CIDR cows compared with control cows. The percentage of cows that ovulated between study d 0 and 7 was greatest for control cows (80%), but it did not differ between 1CIDR (12%) and 2CIDR (3.7%) cows. Growth of class III follicles (10-17 mm) identified on study d 0 was affected by treatment because 1CIDR cows had larger class III follicles than 2CIDR cows on study d 5, 6 and 7. A larger proportion of control cows developed a new follicular wave between study d 0 and 7 (control=60.0%, 1CIDR=12.0%, 2

  10. Intake, milk production, ruminal, and feed efficiency responses to dietary cation-anion difference by lactating dairy cows

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Iwaniuk, M E; Erdman, R A


    Previous meta-analyses of the effects of dietary cation anion difference (DCAD; mEq/kg; Na + K - Cl - S) in lactating dairy cow diets used studies conducted after the development of the DCAD concept...

  11. Effects of calcium propionate by different numbers of applications in first week postpartum of dairy cows on hypocalcemia, milk production and reproductive disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arda Kovanlıkaya


    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate effects of calcium propionate on hypocalcemia, dry matter intake, body condition score, milk production and reproductive disorders in dairy cows. Twenty four multiparous Holstein cows were sorted by parity, body condition score (BCS in close-up period and season of calving and assigned to one of the three treatments. The cows in treatment 1 (T1 received two drenches at calving and 24h after calving. The cows in treatment 2 (T2 received three drenches at calving, 24h after calving and 7 days after calving. The cows in treatment 3 (T3 were the control. Each drench contained 143g of calcium as calcium propionate (0.68kg. Parameters studied were serum calcium, glucose and nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA concentrations, dry matter intake (DMI, BCS, milk production (MP, incidence of retained placenta (RP and metritis. Milk fever developed in 5 of 8 cows, in 3 of 8 cows and in 3 of 8 cows in T1, T2 and T3, respectively, at calving. There was no cow with milk fever in T1 and T2 at 4h after second drench (about 28h after calving but 3 of 8 cows in T3 had still milk fever at this time. The cows receiving two drenches recovered from milk fever in a shorter term as compared to the cows in T3. There were no differences among treatments for DMI, BCS, MP, RP, serum glucose and NEFA concentrations during the experimental period. There was no difference for metritis between T1 and T3 but incidence of metritis in T2 was significantly lower as compared to T3 (P<0.05. Two drenches of calcium propionate were beneficial in treating milk fever and three drenches of calcium propionate were considered to have had a preventive effect for metritis.

  12. A clinical trial to evaluate the effectiveness of antibiotic treatment of lactating cows with high somatic cell counts in their milk. (United States)

    Shephard, R W; Malmo, J; Pfeiffer, D U


    To determine the effectiveness of treatment of lactating cows with high somatic cell counts in milk. Randomised clinical trial. Single pooled quarter samples of milk were obtained from cows with somatic cell counts above 500,000 cells/mL on fifty farms. Milk samples were cultured for known mastitis bacterial pathogens. Cows were randomly allocated to treated and untreated groups. Treated cows received both intramammary cloxacillin and parenteral erythromycin. Single pooled quarter milk samples were obtained at 6 weeks after treatment and were cultured for the presence of pathogenic bacteria. The percentage of samples with no growth at the post-treatment culture was used as an estimate of the bacteriological cures for each pathogen type and for each treatment group. Somatic cell counts of cows were compared between treatment groups and within pathogen group. The number of cows that completed a full lactation were compared between each treatment group and within each pathogen group. Treatment had no effect upon bacteriological cures, irrespective of pathogen present or the presence of bacteria during the previous lactation. There was no effect of treatment upon somatic cell count except for cows infected with Streptococcus dysgalactiae in which treatment caused a significant lowering of cell counts. This effect was not present in the subsequent lactation. Treatment of chronically infected cows did not alter the probability of a cow completing a full lactation but did improve the probability of newly infected cows being retained for the next lactation. Twenty-eight of 214 treated cows developed clinical mastitis in more than one quarter after treatment, thus indicating a poor technique by farmers for the insertion of intramammary antibiotics. Treatment during lactation of cows with high somatic cell counts in milk is ineffective in reducing bacterial infections and in reducing somatic cell counts to acceptable numbers.

  13. Progesterone levels and follicular dynamic during holstein cows postpartum under low tropic conditions in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Pinzón S.


    Full Text Available Thirteen Holstein cows were selected at random and followed, every three days, from the 7th day postpartum until they got pregnant again or day 120 postpartum. Ovarian activity was determined through use of dynamic follicular ultrasounds and the measurement of progesterone levels (RIA. The intervals: delivery first estrus observed, first insemination, first ovulation, first rise in progesterone (>1ng/ml and first dominant follicle were 67.3, 70.3, 27, 36 and 26 days respectively. The conception rate at first insemination was 54.4%. The patterns of follicular growth were inconsistent during the first 15 days postpartum. Some cows showed inactive ovaries and others showed follicles with diameters over 10mm. 72.6% of the cows had “silent” estrous cycles with a luteal phase shorter than those with estrus behavior (12 vs. 15 days and lower progesterone concentration at day 15 ( 1.994 vs. 3.3873 ng/ml. Earlier luteal activity (day 3 was observed in pregnant cows than in open cows (day 6. Pregnant cows had higher progesterone levels at day 15 (over 3 ng/ml while open cows levels went down gradually revealing early luteolysis. Results show that the beginning of postpartum ovarian activity (follicular and hormonal dynamic is not determined by the first estrous behavior. Use of RIA is a tool to detect where in the cycle is the subject animal when there are no external signs of estrus. The delay in reproductive activity, as evaluated based the wide range of open days and the number of services per pregnancy, is not due to a lack of early ovarian activity. It is necessary to analyze together other factors, such as productive pressure and nutritional problems that could be affecting reproductive efficiency in future investigations.

  14. Cow- and farm-level risk factors for lameness on dairy farms with automated milking systems. (United States)

    Westin, R; Vaughan, A; de Passillé, A M; DeVries, T J; Pajor, E A; Pellerin, D; Siegford, J M; Witaifi, A; Vasseur, E; Rushen, J


    Lameness is a major concern to animal health and welfare within the dairy industry. Our objectives were to describe the prevalence of lameness in high-producing cows on farms with automated milking systems (AMS) and to identify the main risk factors for lameness at the animal and farm level. We visited 36 AMS farms across Canada and Michigan. Farm-level factors related to stall design, bedding use, flooring, and stocking rates were recorded by trained observers. Cows were scored for lameness, leg injuries, body condition (BCS), and body size (hip width and rump height; n=1,378; 25-40 cows/farm). Mean herd prevalence of clinical lameness was 15% (range=2.5-46%). Stall width relative to cow size and parity was found to be the most important factor associated with lameness. Not fitting the average stall width increased the odds of being lame 3.7 times in primiparous cows. A narrow feed alley [<430cm; odds ratio (OR)=1.9], obstructed lunge space (OR=1.7), a low BCS (OR=2.1 for BCS ≤2.25 compared with BCS 2.75-3.0), and presence of hock lesions (OR=1.6) were also identified as important risk factors for lameness. Only 1 of 36 farms had stalls of adequate width and length for the cows on their farm. For lameness prevention, it can be concluded that more emphasis needs be placed on either building stalls of appropriate width or selecting for smaller-framed cows that fit the existing stalls. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Biochemical and Haematological Blood Parameters at Different Stages of Lactation in Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Ovidiu COROIAN


    Full Text Available The health status of cows is evaluated and depending on haematological and biochemical profile of blood. Nutrition is the main technological factor that can produce profound changes in the metabolic profile in animals (Dhiman et al., 1991; Khaled et al., 1999; Ingvartsen, 2006. Blood parameters analyze can lead to identify if there are errors in nutrition of lactating cows (Payne et al., 1970. The aim of this study was the evaluation of metabolic and biochemical changes that occur during colostrum period and in terms of number of lactations in cows. The biological material was represented by a total of 60 heads of dairy cows from a family farm from Sălaj County, Romania. The cows are all from Holstein breed and presented no clinical signs of any specific pathology. Blood samples were collected from the jugular vein of each cow and analyzed. 10 individuals from each of the six lactations have been randomly selected. Haematological and biochemical parameters showed variations depending on factors analyzed here. In lactation 1 Hb was 7.55±3.05 (g/dl, while in lactation 6 the value was 12.5±2.10 (g/dl. RBC ranged as follows: in lactation 1 - 28.50±2.05 and in lactation 6 - 30.02±2.05. Lymphocytes varied within very wide limits under the influence of lactation: in lactation 1 - 2.8±1.56 and in lactation 6 - 7.55±1.80. The number of lactations and lactation rank have influenced blood biochemical and hematological parameters in dairy cows. Biochemical parameters are influenced by post-partum day, showing the lowest values in the early days of colostral period and the highest in the last few days of the same period.

  16. Transition diseases in grazing dairy cows are related to serum cholesterol and other analytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar Sepúlveda-Varas

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to describe the incidence of postpartum disease and to evaluate the association with serum cholesterol concentrations during the first 3 weeks after calving in grazing dairy cows. The association between non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA, β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA, calcium and postpartum diseases was also evaluated. A total of 307 Holstein dairy cows from 6 commercial grazing herds in Osorno, Chile, were monitored from calving until 21 days in milk. Cases of retained placenta, clinical hypocalcemia and clinical mastitis were recorded by the farmer using established definitions. Twice weekly, cows were evaluated for metritis by the same veterinarian based on vaginal discharge and body temperature. Postpartum blood samples were collected weekly and analyzed for serum concentrations of cholesterol, NEFA, BHBA and calcium. Cows were considered as having subclinical ketosis if BHBA >1.2 mmol/L, and subclinical hypocalcemia if calcium <2.0 mmol/L in any of the 3 weekly samples. Overall, 56% of the cows studied developed at least one clinical or subclinical disease after calving. Incidence of individual diseases was 8.8% for retained placenta, 4.2% for clinical hypocalcemia, 11.7% for clinical mastitis, 41.1% for metritis, 19.9% for subclinical hypocalcemia and 16.6% for subclinical ketosis. Lower postpartum cholesterol in cows was associated with developing severe metritis or having more than one clinical disease after calving. For every 0.4 mmol/L decrease in serum cholesterol cows were nearly twice as likely to be diagnosed with multiple clinical diseases after calving. Higher BHBA concentrations and lower calcium concentrations during week 1 were associated with severe cases of metritis. Low serum calcium concentration during week 1 was also associated with developing more than one clinical disorder after calving. In conclusion, the incidence of postpartum diseases can be high even in grazing herds and lower serum

  17. Transition diseases in grazing dairy cows are related to serum cholesterol and other analytes. (United States)

    Sepúlveda-Varas, Pilar; Weary, Daniel M; Noro, Mirela; von Keyserlingk, Marina A G


    The objectives of this study were to describe the incidence of postpartum disease and to evaluate the association with serum cholesterol concentrations during the first 3 weeks after calving in grazing dairy cows. The association between non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA), calcium and postpartum diseases was also evaluated. A total of 307 Holstein dairy cows from 6 commercial grazing herds in Osorno, Chile, were monitored from calving until 21 days in milk. Cases of retained placenta, clinical hypocalcemia and clinical mastitis were recorded by the farmer using established definitions. Twice weekly, cows were evaluated for metritis by the same veterinarian based on vaginal discharge and body temperature. Postpartum blood samples were collected weekly and analyzed for serum concentrations of cholesterol, NEFA, BHBA and calcium. Cows were considered as having subclinical ketosis if BHBA >1.2 mmol/L, and subclinical hypocalcemia if calcium cows studied developed at least one clinical or subclinical disease after calving. Incidence of individual diseases was 8.8% for retained placenta, 4.2% for clinical hypocalcemia, 11.7% for clinical mastitis, 41.1% for metritis, 19.9% for subclinical hypocalcemia and 16.6% for subclinical ketosis. Lower postpartum cholesterol in cows was associated with developing severe metritis or having more than one clinical disease after calving. For every 0.4 mmol/L decrease in serum cholesterol cows were nearly twice as likely to be diagnosed with multiple clinical diseases after calving. Higher BHBA concentrations and lower calcium concentrations during week 1 were associated with severe cases of metritis. Low serum calcium concentration during week 1 was also associated with developing more than one clinical disorder after calving. In conclusion, the incidence of postpartum diseases can be high even in grazing herds and lower serum cholesterol concentrations were associated with occurrence of clinical postpatum

  18. Development of automatic body condition scoring using a low-cost 3-dimensional Kinect camera. (United States)

    Spoliansky, Roii; Edan, Yael; Parmet, Yisrael; Halachmi, Ilan


    Body condition scoring (BCS) is a farm-management tool for estimating dairy cows' energy reserves. Today, BCS is performed manually by experts. This paper presents a 3-dimensional algorithm that provides a topographical understanding of the cow's body to estimate BCS. An automatic BCS system consisting of a Kinect camera (Microsoft Corp., Redmond, WA) triggered by a passive infrared motion detector was designed and implemented. Image processing and regression algorithms were developed and included the following steps: (1) image restoration, the removal of noise; (2) object recognition and separation, identification and separation of the cows; (3) movie and image selection, selection of movies and frames that include the relevant data; (4) image rotation, alignment of the cow parallel to the x-axis; and (5) image cropping and normalization, removal of irrelevant data, setting the image size to 150×200 pixels, and normalizing image values. All steps were performed automatically, including image selection and classification. Fourteen individual features per cow, derived from the cows' topography, were automatically extracted from the movies and from the farm's herd-management records. These features appear to be measurable in a commercial farm. Manual BCS was performed by a trained expert and compared with the output of the training set. A regression model was developed, correlating the features with the manual BCS references. Data were acquired for 4 d, resulting in a database of 422 movies of 101 cows. Movies containing cows' back ends were automatically selected (389 movies). The data were divided into a training set of 81 cows and a test set of 20 cows; both sets included the identical full range of BCS classes. Accuracy tests gave a mean absolute error of 0.26, median absolute error of 0.19, and coefficient of determination of 0.75, with 100% correct classification within 1 step and 91% correct classification within a half step for BCS classes. Results indicated

  19. [Cell concentration of individual cow's milk: effect of the status of mammary infection, parity, lactation stage and milk production]. (United States)

    Serieys, F


    The relative effect of the intramammary infections and of different factors related to the cow (parity, stage of lactation, milk yield) on the individual cell counts, were studied for 30 months on the 62 black-and-white Holstein cows of an experimental herd. During this period, the cows were regularly submitted to bacteriological tests for intramammary infections, individual cell counts and controls of the milk yield. The infection status of the cows at the time of counting was the main factor affecting the cell concentrations in the milk: the values ranged from around 5 X 10(4) cells/ml in the absence of infection in the four quarters, to values that were on average twice as high in the case of infection by a minor pathogen and ten times as high in the case of infection by a major pathogen. The mean cell concentrations in the milk of uninfected cows were significantly lower during the first lactation; they varied during the lactation according to a curve which had the form of an inverted lactation curve. The mean cell count during a lactation was independent of the mean milk yield per day of lactation. In cows infected by a major pathogen, the effect of the number and stage of lactation was different. Only the variation apparently associated with the stage of lactation had a sufficient amplitude to bring the mean cell concentrations of uninfected cows close to the values recorded in cows infected by a minor pathogen. The average results from cows infected by a major pathogen were, however, much higher at all stages of lactation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. Methane emissions among individual dairy cows during milking quantified by eructation peaks or ratio with carbon dioxide. (United States)

    Bell, M J; Saunders, N; Wilcox, R H; Homer, E M; Goodman, J R; Craigon, J; Garnsworthy, P C


    The aims of this study were to compare methods for examining measurements of CH₄ and CO₂ emissions of dairy cows during milking and to assess repeatability and variation of CH₄ emissions among individual dairy cows. Measurements of CH₄ and CO₂ emissions from 36 cows were collected in 3 consecutive feeding periods. In the first period, cows were fed a commercial partial mixed ration (PMR) containing 69% forage. In the second and third periods, the same 36 cows were fed a high-forage PMR ration containing 75% forage, with either a high grass silage or high maize silage content. Emissions of CH₄ during each milking were examined using 2 methods. First, peaks in CH₄ concentration due to eructations during milking were quantified. Second, ratios of CH₄ and CO₂ average concentrations during milking were calculated. A linear mixed model was used to assess differences between PMR. Variation in CH₄ emissions was observed among cows after adjusting for effects of lactation number, week of lactation, diet, individual cow, and feeding period, with coefficients of variation estimated from variance components ranging from 11 to 14% across diets and methods of quantifying emissions. No significant difference was detected between the 3 PMR in CH₄ emissions estimated by either method. Emissions of CH₄ calculated from eructation peaks or as CH₄ to CO₂ ratio were positively associated with forage dry matter intake. Ranking of cows according to CH₄ emissions on different diets was correlated for both methods, although rank correlations and repeatability were greater for CH₄ concentration from eructation peaks than for CH₄-to-CO₂ ratio. We conclude that quantifying enteric CH₄ emissions either using eructation peaks in concentration or as CH₄-to-CO₂ ratio can provide highly repeatable phenotypes for ranking cows on CH₄ output. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Predictions of methane emission levels and categories based on milk fatty acid profiles from dairy cows. (United States)

    Castro-Montoya, J M; Peiren, N; Veneman, J; De Baets, B; De Campeneere, S; Fievez, V


    Milk fatty acid (MFA) have already been used to model methane (CH4) emissions from dairy cows. However, the data sets used to develop these models covered limited variation in dietary conditions, reducing the robustness of the predictions. In this study, a data set containing 140 observations from nine experiments (41 Holstein cows) was used to develop models predicting CH4 expressed as g/day, g/kg dry matter intake (DMI) and g/kg milk. The data set was divided into a training (n=112) and a test data set (n=28) for model development and validation, respectively. A generalized linear mixed model was fitted to the data using the marginal R 2 (m) and the Akaike information criterion to evaluate the models. The coefficient of determination of validation (R 2 (v)) for different models developed ranged between 0.18 and 0.41. Form the intake-related parameters, only inclusion of total DMI improved the prediction (R 2 (v)=0.58). In addition, in an attempt to further explore the relationships between MFA and CH4 emissions, the data set was split into three categories according to CH4 emissions: LOW (lowest 25% CH4 emissions); HIGH (highest 25% CH4 emissions); and MEDIUM (50% remaining observations). An ANOVA revealed that concentrations of several MFA differed for observations in HIGH compared with observations in LOW. Furthermore, the Gini coefficient was used to describe the MFA distribution for groups of MFA in each CH4 emission category. The relative distribution of the MFA, particularly of the odd- and branched-chain fatty acids and mono-unsaturated fatty acids of observations in category HIGH differed from those in the other categories. Finally, in an attempt to validate the potential of MFA to identify cases of high or low emissions, the observations were re-classified into HIGH, MEDIUM and LOW according to the proportion of each individual MFA. The proportion of observations correctly classified were recorded. This was done for each individual MFA and for the

  2. Cow cleanliness and digital dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Bodil Højlund


    Digital dermatitis (DD) is an infectious cattle disease presumably caused by Treponema spp. It results in painful, ulcerative lesions in the skin of the distal extremities and can be associated with lameness in affected animals. Today, DD is a very prevalent disease in the dairy industry and ther......Digital dermatitis (DD) is an infectious cattle disease presumably caused by Treponema spp. It results in painful, ulcerative lesions in the skin of the distal extremities and can be associated with lameness in affected animals. Today, DD is a very prevalent disease in the dairy industry...... cleanliness. More knowledge on these aspects will increase our understanding of the disease epidemiology and is essential to improve the success of controlling DD at the herd level. Therefore, the objectives of the present PhD thesis were 1) To investigate the relationship between cow leg cleanliness and DD...

  3. Cows aboveground, protons down below

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer


    On display at Fort l'Écluse from 19 June to 18 September, the works of Augenblick combine photography, sound and video to create a striking instant parallel between the "real world" and the world of particle physics.   The cows are grazing quietly, blissfully unaware of the mini-Big Bang occurring silently 100 metres beneath them. Curious to compare these two worlds - the visible and the invisible, day-to-day life and particle physics - Laurent Mulot, a multi-disciplinary artist whose work delves into some of the planet's more unusual places, has come up with a unique artistic concept. Called Augenblick (German for "instant"), to emphasise that the images relate to the same point in time, his project uses photography, video and sound to superimpose scenes from everyday life and scenes from science. "The idea came to me in June 2008," says Laurent Mulot, "when Jean-Paul Martin, a research scientist at the Institute of Nuclear...

  4. The influence of upper-crust lithology on topographic development in the central Coast Ranges of California (United States)

    Garcia, A.F.; Mahan, S.A.


    A fundamental geological tenet is that as landscapes evolve over graded to geologic time, geologic structures control patterns of topographic distribution in mountainous areas such that terrain underlain by competent rock will be higher than terrain underlain by incompetent rock. This paper shows that in active orogens where markedly weak and markedly strong rocks are juxtaposed along contacts that parallel regional structures, relatively high topography can form where strain is localized in the weak rock. Such a relationship is illustrated by the topography of the central Coast Ranges between the Pacific coastline and the San Andreas fault zone (SAFZ), and along the length of the Gabilan Mesa (the "Gabilan Mesa segment" of the central Coast Ranges). Within the Gabilan Mesa segment, the granitic upper crust of the Salinian terrane is in contact with the accretionary-prism m??lange upper crust of the Nacimiento terrane along the inactive Nacimiento fault zone. A prominent topographic lineament is present along most of this lithologic boundary, approximately 50 to 65. km southwest of the SAFZ, with the higher topography formed in the m??lange on the southwest side of the Nacimiento fault. This paper investigates factors influencing the pattern of topographic development in the Gabilan Mesa segment of the central Coast Ranges by correlating shortening magnitude with the upper-crust compositions of the Salinian and Nacimiento terranes. The fluvial geomorphology of two valleys in the Gabilan Mesa, which is within the Salinian terrane, and alluvial geochronology based on optically-stimulated luminescence (OSL) age estimates, reveal that the magnitude of shortening accommodated by down-to-the-southwest tilting of the mesa since 400ka is less than 1 to 2m. Our results, combined with those of previous studies, indicate that at least 63% to 78% of late-Cenozoic, northeast-southwest directed, upper-crustal shortening across the Gabilan Mesa segment has been accommodated

  5. Lunar Cycle Influences Spontaneous Delivery in Cows. (United States)

    Yonezawa, Tomohiro; Uchida, Mona; Tomioka, Michiko; Matsuki, Naoaki


    There is a popular belief that the lunar cycle influences spontaneous delivery in both humans and cattle. To assess this relationship, we investigated the synodic distribution of spontaneous deliveries in domestic Holstein cows. We used retrospective data from 428 spontaneous, full-term deliveries within a three-year period derived from the calving records of a private farm in Hokkaido, Japan. Spontaneous birth frequency increased uniformly from the new moon to the full moon phase and decreased until the waning crescent phase. There was a statistically significant peak between the waxing gibbous and full moon phases compared with those between the last quarter and the waning crescent. These changes were clearly observed in deliveries among multiparous cows, whereas they were not evident in deliveries among nulliparous cows. These data suggest the utility of dairy cows as models for bio-meteorological studies, and indicate that monitoring lunar phases may facilitate comprehensive understanding of parturition.

  6. Role of mast cells in cow metritis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wang Guo-Qing; Hou Jin-Long; Huang Huan-Yu; Yuan Chao-Wen


    Introduction: Bovine postpartum metritis causes great losses. Mast cell (MC)-released mediators participate in uterine inflammation and immune response, but their role in postpartum metritis in cows has not been...

  7. Mustard bran in lactating dairy cow diets. (United States)

    Maiga, H A; Bauer, M L; Dahlen, C R; Badaruddin, M; Scholljegerdes, E J


    Two trials using lactating Holstein cows were conducted to evaluate effects of a diet containing oriental mustard bran on dry matter intake (DMI), milk production, milk components, and organoleptic properties. In experiment 1, 34 lactating cows (24 multiparous and 10 primiparous; days in milk ≥ 50 d) were used in a switchback design to determine the lactational response and organoleptic quality of milk when the diet contained 8% oriental mustard bran (MB) versus a control diet (CON). Mustard bran replaced a portion of soybean meal and all the beet pulp in the CON diet. Milk yields were greater for cows fed the MB diet; however, no differences were found in DMI, 3.5% fat- (FCM) or solids-corrected milk. Milk components and components production were not affected by treatment. Milk organoleptic qualities were not affected by diet. In experiment 2, 22 lactating cows (16 multiparous and 6 primiparous; days in milk ≥ 21 d) were assigned randomly within parity to receive MB or CON from wk 4 to 19 postpartum in a randomized complete block design. Cows were fed CON wk 1 to 3 postpartum. The MB diet contained the same ingredients as the CON, except sunflower seed and a portion of soybean meal were replaced with mustard bran. Milk and components data were collected during wk 3 postpartum and used as covariates to adjust treatment means. Intake was greater for cows fed the MB diet; however, daily milk, 3.5% FCM, and solids-corrected milk yields were not different between diets. Milk components and component yields were not affected by treatment. Milk urea concentration was less for cows fed the MB diet. Although cows fed the MB diet had greater DMI, this was not translated into a higher milk 3.5% FCM/DMI production efficiency ratio. During experiment 2, many cows fed MB experienced minor to severe hemolysis with bloody urine. This hemolysis believed to be caused by the S-methyl-cysteine sulfoxide contained in mustard bran could have affected milk production efficiency

  8. Association of tricuspid regurgitation within normal range on the development of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction in patients with uncomplicated hypertension. (United States)

    Iida, Masato; Yamamoto, Mitsuru; Ishiguro, Yuko; Honjo, Haruo; Kamiya, Kaichirou


    Tricuspid regurgitation (TR) with the maximum velocity >2.8m/s has been newly integrated into the diagnostic criteria for left ventricular (LV) diastolic dysfunction. Although the maximum velocity of TR within the normal range (TR 34ml/mm2, e'15). Pulmonary artery systolic pressure (PASP) was estimated by the formula; PASP =4 (maximum velocity of TR)2 + 5 mmHg. The maximum velocity of TR or PASP saw a positive correlation, and LA total or passive emptying fractions saw an inverse correlation with LV diastolic dysfunction in hypertensive patients with TR < 2.8. In contrast, pulse pressure and LV mass saw positive correlation in hypertensive patients without TR. A stepwise ordinal logistic regression analysis indicated that PASP and LA passive emptying fractions were associated with LV diastolic dysfunction in hypertensive patient with TR < 2.8m/s. The presence of TR may be related to the development of LV diastolic dysfunction in hypertensive patients with TR <2.8m/s.

  9. Concurrent validity of the wide range assessment of visual motor abilities in typically developing children ages 4 to 11 years. (United States)

    Obler, Doris R; Avi-Itzhak, Tamara


    Pediatric clinicians working with school-age children use the Wide Range Assessment of Visual Motor Abilities (WRAVMA) as a method for evaluating visual perception and motor skills in children despite limited information on concurrent validity. Whether it may be substituted for the Beery-Buktenica Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration (VMI) and has suitable estimates of concurrent validity were examined with a convenience sample of 91 typically developing children ages 4 to 11 years. No systematic concurrent validity between the WRAVMA and the VMI emerged. Only two subtests of the WRAVMA (Matching with Visual Perception, and Pegboard with Motor Coordination) gave scores statistically significantly correlated with those on the VMI, and these correlations were weak, accounting for very small amounts of the shared variance. As such, they have low clinical relevance. These findings do not provide evidence of concurrent validity to support the use of WRAVMA as an alternative method for the VMI for assessing children's visual perception and motor skills.

  10. Postnatal neurogenesis in the cow pineal gland: an immunohistochemical study. (United States)

    Gómez Esteban, M B; Muñoz Mosqueira, M I; Arroyo, A A; Muñoz Barragán, L


    In the pineal gland of cows and rats structures designated rosettes have been described both during embryonic development and in adult animals. In order to investigate the possible nature of the cells comprising such structures, in the present work we studied the pineal glands from 10 cows of one- or four-years-old using conventional immunocytochemical and confocal microscopy techniques. As markers of glial cells, we used anti-vimentin (Vim) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and anti-S-100 sera, and the pinealocytes were labelled with β-III tubulin. As a marker of stem cells, we used an antinestin serum, while an anti-PCNA serum was employed to label proliferating cells. To explore the neuronal nature of some cells of the rosettes, we used an anti-SRIF serum. The rosettes were seen to be present throughout the glandular parenchyma and displayed a central cavity surrounded by cells, most of which expressed all or just some of the above glial labels and nestin, although there were also some rosettes with cells that expressed β-III tubulin and other cells that expressed SRIF. Likewise, in the cells of the rosettes the cell nucleus showed strong expression of PCNA. Confocal microscopy revealed that the walls of the rosettes contained cells that coexpressed Vim/S-100, Vim/GFAP and Vim/nestin. The number of rosettes was significantly greater in the animals of one year of age with respect to the four-year-old cows. The present findings allow us to suggest that rosettes are evolving structures and that most of the cells present in their walls should be considered stem cells, and hence responsible for the postnatal neurogenesis occurring in the pineal gland of cows.

  11. Penetrating anterior skull base fracture inflicted by a cow's horn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adomas Bunevicius


    Full Text Available Farm workers are at increased risk for animal-inflicted head injuries that are associated with significant morbidity and occasionally may be fatal. These injuries may cause permanent eye damage with or without concomitant skull base fracture. Here, we present a male farmer who suffered a cow attack that resulted in perforating orbital injury with comminuted frontobasal cranial fracture caused by a cow's horn. The next day, the patient developed nasal and orbital cerebrospinal fluid (CSF leak. Computed Tomography cisternography revealed CSF leakage to frontal and maxillary sinuses. The patient was treated using prophylactic antibiotic therapy, lumbar drainage, and underwent craniotomy for debridement and dural tear plastic. Post operative course was uneventful and there were no signs of CSF leak 1 year after the surgery. The case illustrates unusual injury inflicted by a cow's horn and underscores the importance of careful investigation for underlying skull base fracture and CSF leakage in patients sustaining perforating orbital injuries. Adequate and timely management of dural tears is associated with favorable outcomes.

  12. Modeling heat loss from the udder of a dairy cow. (United States)

    Gebremedhin, Kifle G; Wu, Binxin


    A mechanistic model that predicts sensible and latent heat fluxes from the udder of a dairy cow was developed. The prediction of the model was spot validated against measured data from the literature, and the result agreed within 7% of the measured value for the same ambient temperature. A dairy cow can lose a significant amount of heat (388W/m(2)) from the udder. This suggests that the udder could be considered as a heat sink. The temperature profile through the udder tissue (core to skin) approached the core temperature for an air temperature ≥37°C whereas the profile decreased linearly from the core to skin surface for an air temperature less than 37°C. Sensible heat loss was dominant when ambient air temperature was less than 37.5°C but latent heat loss was greater than sensible heat loss when air temperature was ≥37.5°C. The udder could lose a total (sensible + latent) heat flux of 338W/m(2) at an ambient temperature of 35°C and blood-flow rate of 3.2×10(-3)m(3)/(sm(3) tissue). The results of this study suggests that, in time of heat stress, a dairy cow could be cooled by cooling the udder only (e.g., using an evaporative cooling jacket). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of continuous milking during a field trial on productivity, milk protein yield and health in dairy cows. (United States)

    Köpf, M; Gellrich, K; Küchenhoff, H; Meyer, H H D; Kliem, H


    The objective of this field study with an automatic milking system was to evaluate the effects of omitting the dry period on health and productivity during the subsequent lactation in dairy cows. A total of 98 German Simmental cows of six Southern German farms were assigned randomly to two experimental groups: The first group was dried-off 56 days before calving (D for dried-off, n=49), and the second group was milked continuously during this period until calving (CM for continuous milking, n=49). From the latter a third group emerged, including cows that dried-off themselves spontaneously (DS for dried-off spontaneously, n=14). Blood serum values of glucose, β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA), non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and IGF-1 showed most pronounced fluctuations in D cows. Over the entire study period, the concentrations of BHBA and NEFA were markedly lower in the CM and DS groups. Furthermore, IGF-1 concentration was lowest for D cows and also decrease in back fat thickness was more pronounced. Mean concentration of milk protein was markedly higher in CM and DS cows (3.70% and 3.71%) compared with D cows (3.38%). Owing to the lower 305-day milk yield (-15.6%) and the lower total milk yield (-3.1%), the total amount of produced protein in the subsequent lactation was 2.5% (6.8 kg) lower, although the additional protein amount in CM cows from week -8 to calving was 35.7 kg. The greatest benefit resulted from positive effects on fertility and the lower incidence of diseases: CM cows had their first oestrus 1 week earlier compared with D cows, they also conceived earlier and showed a significantly lower risk of developing hypocalcaemia, ketosis and puerperal disorders. The present study showed that the costs of medical treatment and milk losses were twice as high in D cows, compared with CM and DS cows, and thus the reduced costs because of the more stable health outweighed the financial losses of milk yield by +18.49 € per cow and lactation.

  14. Effect of ambient temperature and sodium bicarbonate supplementation on water and electrolyte balances in dry and lactating Holstein cows. (United States)

    Khelil-Arfa, H; Faverdin, P; Boudon, A


    The aim of this study was to quantify the effect of the interaction between 2 constant ambient temperatures [thermoneutrality (TN; 15°C) and high temperature (HT; 28°C)] and 2 levels of Na bicarbonate supplementation [calculated to provide diet Na contents of 0.20%DM (Na-) and 0.50%DM (Na+)] on water partitioning in dairy cows. Treatments were compared on 4 dry and 4mid-lactation Holstein cows according to 2 Latin squares (1 for each physiological stage) over the course of 4 periods of 15d. Diets consisted of a total mixed ration based on maize silage. Dry cows were restricted to their protein and energy requirements, whereas lactating cows were fed ad libitum. The daily average temperature-humidity index was 59.4 for TN and 73.2 for HT. Lactating and dry cows had higher vaginal temperatures at HT than at TN, but the increase was more pronounced in lactating cows (+1.05 vs. +0.12°C for vaginal temperature, respectively). Dry matter intake (DMI) of lactating cows decreased by 2.3kg/d at HT. Free water intake (FWI) and estimated volume of water lost to evaporation increased at HT in both lactating and dry cows; no interactions were observed between temperature and physiological stage. When expressed as a proportion of DMI, the increase in evaporation that occurred with increasing temperature was completely compensated for by an increase in FWI for both physiological stages. The urinary water excretion increased slightly at HT in lactating cows but not in dry cows, which may be related to the low chloride content of the offered diet. High Na supplementation increased DMI slightly in lactating cows, but milk yield was not affected. Sodium supplementation did not limit the decrease in DMI observed in lactating cows at HT; this observation is likely due to the high diet electrolyte balance of the offered diets. Sodium supplementation increased FWI in lactating cows and urinary flow in both physiological states. The interaction between ambient temperature and Na

  15. Macromolecular absorption and cows' milk allergy.


    Juvonen, P; Jakobsson, I; Lindberg, T.


    The absorption of macromolecules was analysed by measuring serum concentrations of human alpha-lactalbumin after feeding human milk, using a competitive radioimmunoassay. The control group consisted of 78 children fed by cows' milk formula; concentrations of alpha-lactalbumin in their serum were low. The median concentrations in the different age groups varied between 7-13 micrograms alpha-lactalbumin/1 serum/1 human milk/kg body weight. Twenty-eight children with cows' milk allergy were stud...

  16. Eliminative behaviour of dairy cows at pasture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whistance, Lindsay Kay; Sinclair, Liam A.; Arney, David Richard


    Despite a strong avoidance of grazing near dung patches, cattle have traditionally been considered not to avoid bodily contact with faeces, regardless of any risk of disease. Little is understood of the behaviour of pasture-kept dairy cows at the time of defaecation and therefore, the eliminative...... was the predominant behaviour pattern of dairy cows at pasture, regardless of activity. Avoidance of bodily contamination with fresh faeces was shown at all observed eliminative events....

  17. Acute phase protein concentrations in serum and milk from healthy cows, cows with clinical mastitis and cows with extramammary inflammatory conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nielsen, B.H.; Jacobsen, S.; Andersen, P.H.; Niewold, T.A.; Heegaard, P.M.H.


    The concentrations of the two acute phase proteins, serum amyloid A and haptoglobin, in serum and milk were compared in 10 cows with clinical mastitis, 11 cows with extramammary inflammatory conditions and 10 clinically healthy control cows. The concentrations of both acute phase proteins were

  18. Factors Affecting SSR in Holstein Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Heravi Mosavi


    Full Text Available Introduction Secondary sex ratio (SSR is the proportion of males to females at birth. It has been shown in many different mammalian species, many factors are associated with SSR. Changes in secondary sex ratio in dairy cows is considered economically important and the ability to change it could affect the revenues and profitability of a dairy farm. Thus, sperm or embryo sexing techniques in recent years has attracted more attention. Most breed of dairy cattle are more likely to have female calf is born to use them as replacement heifers and in order to maintain their productive herd number. On the contrary, when the goal is the production of meat, bull calves due to higher growth rates and production efficiency, are more convenient and more economically efficient. The aim of present study was to investigate some key factors affecting SSR in Iranian Holstein cows. According to Fisher, the sex ratio in the population under the control of natural selection is not always the same. There is overwhelming evidence to support the theory that shows Fisher Primary and secondary sex ratio sex ratio can deviate from this balance and natural selection caused a change in this ratio can be in certain circumstances. For example, the secondary sex ratio of 52:48 has been reported in dairy cows. Studies on mammalian species suggest that several factors, including latitude of the location, the dominant regional climate model, time and frequency of mating to ovulation, diet, age of parents, physical score, breed and produced eggs from ovarian left or right can have a significant effect on the secondary sex ratio. Weather conditions may modify the internal environment and the effect on physiological mechanisms or through the impact on the frequency and type of foods available to parents, the secondary sex ratio is impressive. The impact on the quantity and quality of parent's access to food sources in many species of mammals, the sex ratio has been fixed. Previous

  19. Achieving body weight adjustments for feeding status and pregnant or non-pregnant condition in beef cows.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateus P Gionbelli

    Full Text Available Beef cows herd accounts for 70% of the total energy used in the beef production system. However, there are still limited studies regarding improvement of production efficiency in this category, mainly in developing countries and in tropical areas. One of the limiting factors is the difficulty to obtain reliable estimates of weight variation in mature cows. This occurs due to the interaction of weight of maternal tissues with specific physiological stages such as pregnancy. Moreover, variation in gastrointestinal contents due to feeding status in ruminant animals is a major source of error in body weight measurements.Develop approaches to estimate the individual proportion of weight from maternal tissues and from gestation in pregnant cows, adjusting for feeding status and stage of gestation.Dataset of 49 multiparous non-lactating Nellore cows (32 pregnant and 17 non-pregnant were used. To establish the relationships between the body weight, depending on the feeding status of pregnant and non-pregnant cows as a function of days of pregnancy, a set of general equations was tested, based on theoretical suppositions. We proposed the concept of pregnant compound (PREG, which represents the weight that is genuinely related to pregnancy. The PREG includes the gravid uterus minus the non-pregnant uterus plus the accretion in udder related to pregnancy. There was no accretion in udder weight up to 238 days of pregnancy. By subtracting the PREG from live weight of a pregnant cow, we obtained estimates of the weight of only maternal tissues in pregnant cows. Non-linear functions were adjusted to estimate the relationship between fasted, non-fasted and empty body weight, for pregnant and non-pregnant cows.Our results allow for estimating the actual live weight of pregnant cows and their body constituents, and subsequent comparison as a function of days of gestation and feeding status.

  20. Modeling the habitat range of phototrophs in yellowstone national park: toward the development of a comprehensive fitness landscape. (United States)

    Boyd, Eric S; Fecteau, Kristopher M; Havig, Jeff R; Shock, Everett L; Peters, John W


    The extent to which geochemical variation shapes the distribution of phototrophic metabolisms was modeled based on 439 observations in geothermal springs in Yellowstone National Park (YNP), Wyoming. Generalized additive models (GAMs) were developed to predict the distribution of phototrophic metabolism as a function of spring temperature, pH, and total sulfide. GAMs comprised of temperature explained 38.8% of the variation in the distribution of phototrophic metabolism, whereas GAMs comprised of sulfide and pH explained 19.6 and 11.2% of the variation, respectively. These results suggest that of the measured variables, temperature is the primary constraint on the distribution of phototrophs in YNP. GAMs comprised of multiple variables explained a larger percentage of the variation in the distribution of phototrophic metabolism, indicating additive interactions among variables. A GAM that combined temperature and sulfide explained the greatest variation in the dataset (53.4%) while minimizing the introduction of degrees of freedom. In an effort to verify the extent to which phototroph distribution reflects constraints on activity, we examined the influence of sulfide and temperature on dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) uptake rates under both light and dark conditions. Light-driven DIC uptake decreased systematically with increasing concentrations of sulfide in acidic, algal-dominated systems, but was unaffected in alkaline, cyanobacterial-dominated systems. In both alkaline and acidic systems, light-driven DIC uptake was suppressed in cultures incubated at temperatures 10°C greater than their in situ temperature. Collectively, these quantitative results indicate that apart from light availability, the habitat range of phototrophs in YNP springs is defined largely by constraints imposed firstly by temperature and secondly by sulfide on the activity of these populations that inhabit the edges of the habitat range. These findings are consistent with the predictions


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Afzaal, M. Nisa, M. A. Khan and M. Sarwar


    Full Text Available The acid base status of a dairy cow is maintained within a narrow range. The key mechanisms involving blood, cells and lungs, perform this function. Although other minerals have an impact on acid base metabolism, the minerals used in dietary cation-anion balance (DCAB namely sodium (Na, potassium (K and chloride (Cl have the greatest effect. Hence, acid base status implicates other biological functions of dairy cows. Low DCAB prepartum reduces the incidence of milk fever and increases the productivity by simmering down the severity of hypocalcaemia. High DCAB diets have proved to increase dry mater and water intake and production and to mitigate the effects of heat stress.

  2. Cellular composition and expression of potential stem cell markers in mammary tissue of cows consuming endophyte-infected fescue seed during the dry period and early lactation (United States)

    We evaluated the impact of consuming endophyte-infected fescue during late pregnancy on parameters of mammary development in Holstein cows. Cows (N = 16) were fed 10% of their ration as tall fescue seed that was free from (CON) or infected with endophyte (INF) from 90d before expected calving until ...

  3. Digestive utilization of goat and cow milk fat in malabsorption syndrome. (United States)

    Alférez, M J; Barrionuevo, M; López Aliaga, I; Sanz-Sampelayo, M R; Lisbona, F; Robles, J C; Campos, M S


    We studied the effects of goat and cow milk fat on the digestive utilization of this nutrient and on some of the biochemical parameters that are related to the metabolisim of lipids, using rats with a resection of 50% of the distal small intestine and control animals (transected). The fat content in all the diets was 10% but the lipid quality was varied: the standard diet was based on olive oil, while the other two diets included fat obtained from lyophilized goat milk and cow milk, respectively. The digestive utilization of the fat was lower in the resected animals than in the transected ones for all three diets studied. In both resected and transected animals. the apparent digestibility coefficient (ADC) of the fat was greater with the standard diet (olive oil) than with diets whose fat content was provided by goat or cow milk. The digestive utilization of the fat was greater in the transected and resected rats receiving a diet of goat's milk (rich in medium-chain triglycerides) than those given a cow-milk-based diet and more closely approached the values obtained for olive oil. The consumption of goat milk reduced levels of cholesterol while levels of triglycerides, HDL, GOT and GPT remained with in the normal ranges, for both transected and resected animals. The advantageous effect of goat milk on the metabolisim of lipids with respect to cow milk suggests that the former should be included in the diet in eases of malabsorption snydrome.

  4. Infrared thermography as a method for evaluating the heat tolerance in dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darlene dos Santos Daltro

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to determine whether infrared thermography is a useful tool for the recognition of dairy cows in a state of thermal heat stress, as well as to identify the best region of the animal to be evaluated for this recognition. Physiological variables, including rectal temperature, respiratory frequency, cardiac frequency, and panting score were recorded in 38 lactating cows. For the assessment of environmental parameters, a digital black globe thermometer (TGD-200 model was used. Thermographic photographs of different regions of the body of cows were taken using an infrared camera (FLIR® System T300 and indicated respective superficial temperature. Physiological variables and superficial body temperature in different regions varied between genetic groups (Girolando: ½ Holstein × ½ Gir and ¾ Holstein × ¼ Gir; purebred Holstein. The environmental temperature ranged from 20.7 to 37.9 °C with a relative humidity reaching 95%. The mean rectal temperature (40.84 °C, respiratory frequency (111.36 breaths/min, and cardiac frequency (99.22 beats/min were higher for pure Holstein than for Girolando cows. Positive correlations were found between the physiological parameters and thermographic measures. The highest positive correlation (0.74 was found between the temperature in the lateral region of the udder and rectal temperature. Thermography is a good indicator of thermal comfort. The best region to identify heat stress in cows using thermography is the lateral region of the udder.

  5. Variation among individual dairy cows in methane measurements made on farm during milking. (United States)

    Garnsworthy, P C; Craigon, J; Hernandez-Medrano, J H; Saunders, N


    The objective of this study was to quantify on-farm variation between and within cows in methane emissions measured during milking, and to determine which factors are related to this variation. Methane emission rate during milking (MERm) was recorded at milking using methane analyzers installed in automatic (robotic) milking stations for 215 cows over a period of 5 mo. Between-cow variation in MERm (mean 2.07, SD 0.629 g/min), was greater than within-cow variation and was related to variation in body weight, milk yield, parity, and week of lactation. Estimation of daily methane emissions from MERm data, using an equation derived from comparisons with respiration chamber data, produced estimates that ranged from 278 to 456 g of CH₄/d and were commensurate with values predicted from metabolizable energy requirements for observed body weight and milk yield. It is concluded that methane emissions vary considerably between dairy cows housed under commercial conditions. This variation needs to be taken into account when performing inventories or testing mitigation strategies, but it might offer opportunities for genetic selection. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Cytometric analysis of surface molecules of leucocytes and phagocytic activity of granulocytes and monocytes/macrophages in cows with pyometra. (United States)

    Brodzki, P; Kostro, K; Brodzki, A; Niemczuk, K; Lisiecka, U


    Pyometra is a serious problem in dairy cow herds, causing large economic losses due to infertility. The development of pyometra depends mainly on the immunological status of the cow. The aim of the study was a comparative evaluation of selected indicators involving non-specific and specific immunity in cows with pyometra and in cows without inflammation of the uterus. The study was performed in 20 cows, which were divided into two groups: pyometra group and healthy group, each comprising 10 cows, based on the results of cytological and ultrasonographic tests. A flow cytometric analysis was performed for the surface molecules CD4, CD8, CD14, CD21, CD25 and CD4(+) CD25(+) on leucocytes, and the phagocytic activity was determined from granulocytes and monocytes/macrophages in the peripheral blood and uterine washings, respectively. It was demonstrated that the percentage of phagocytic granulocytes and monocytes/macrophages in both the peripheral blood and uterine washings was significantly lower in cows with pyometra compared with the healthy group (p pyometra group, along with a significantly higher (p pyometra may be caused by a bacterial infection and the presence of blocking agents (IL-10), released by the increasing number of CD8(+) lymphocytes what leads to the advanced inflammation of uterus. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  7. Long-term selection experiment with Afrikaner cattle 4. Cow fertility ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A selection and line x environment interaction study with grade Afrikaner cattle was established in 1956 at the Matopos Research Station, Zimbabwe. Two selection lines of 100 cows each were reared in different management environments. The non-supplemented (NS) line relied on the range throughout the year and was ...

  8. Analysis of factors affecting milk yield of Ankole cows grazed on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of seasonal rainfall (RF) and maximum temperature (Tm) variations on milk yield of Ankole cows grazed solely on range pastures were investigated. The resulting changes in herbage growth (HG), herbage yields (HY), herbage crude protein CPh) and neutral detergent fibre (NDF), as well as body condition score ...

  9. Results of a mechanistic model estimating methane in relation to methane emissions measured in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hindrichsen, I.K.; Mills, J.A.N.; Madsen, J.; Kreuzer, M.; Dijkstra, J.


    This investigation determines the accuracy of estimation of methanogenesis by a dynamic mechanistic model with real data determined in a respiration trial, where cows were fed a wide range of different carbohydrates included in the concentrates. The model was able to predict ECM (Energy corrected

  10. Euthanasia of Danish dairy cows evaluated in two questionnaire surveys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Peter; Sørensen, Jan Tind


    a random sample of 196 Danish dairy farmers that had reported a dead cow to the Danish Cattle Database in 2002 and 196 dairy farmers that had reported a dead cow in 2006. Our objectives were to evaluate the proportion of euthanized cows, changes in the behaviour of farmers regarding euthanasia of cows over...... the years and possible reasons for these changes. Results It seems that the threshold for euthanasia of cows among farmers has changed. Farmers generally reported a lower threshold for euthanasia compared to 5-10 years ago. Conclusions The threshold for euthanasia of cows has, according to the dairy farmers...

  11. [Asymmetry in digit length in cows with sole ulcer. A post-mortem study of slaughter cows]. (United States)

    Rüegsegger, F; Muggli, E; Nuss, K


    In this study, the disparity between the lengths of the lateral and medial digit in cows with a Rusterholz sole ulcer compared to non-affected cows was investigated. In total, 100 hind feet were collected from slaughtered cows. Twenty-five feet had a pre-ulcerative lesion at the typical site, 26 had an ulcer ulcer > 1.5 cm². Twenty-five normal feet were used as controls. The lengths of the metatarsal condyles and phalanges (Ph) were measured on plantarodorsal radiographs and three different overall lengths of the digits were generated. The software program SPSS was used for analysis. The mean lengths of Ph1 and Ph2 and the three mean overall lengths of the lateral digit were greater than those of the medial digit while the length of Ph3 was longer on the medial digit. With one exception, the comparison of overall length 2 of the pre-ulcerative lesion with the control group, the within-feet differences of the ulcer groups were not significantly different from the difference of the controls. These results corroborate the length asymmetry of the bovine digits but further studies are needed to evaluate the effect of the asymmetry of the digits on the development of sole ulcers.

  12. Dietary cation-anion difference and the health and production of pasture-fed dairy cows. 1. Dairy cows in early lactation. (United States)

    Roche, J R; Dalley, D; Moate, P; Grainger, C; Rath, M; O'Mara, F


    Diets offered to lactating dairy cows in the pasture-based dairy systems in southeastern Australia can vary in their dietary cation-anion difference (DCAD) from 0 to +76 mEq/100 g. The effects of such a range of DCAD on the health and production of cows, on a predominantly pasture-based diet, were examined in an indoor feeding experiment. Four groups of five cows were offered a diet of 5 kg of barley and ad libitum pasture, which is a diet representative of what is offered to cows in early lactation in the region. The cows were supplemented twice daily, with varying levels of salt combinations to alter the DCAD, which ranged from +21 to +127 mEq/100 g. Although a reduction in DCAD to +21 mEq/100 g caused a nonrespiratory systemic acidosis, there was a threshold value, above which blood and urine pH did not appear affected, although the strong ion difference of blood and urine and the blood bicarbonate concentration increased linearly (P < 0.05, 0.001, and 0.01, respectively). A DCAD above +21 mEq/100 g linearly reduced dry matter intake (P < 0.1), average daily bodyweight gain (P < 0.05), and milk protein yield (P < 0.05) but did not have a significant effect on the concentration of fat, protein, or lactose in milk. Although data were consistent with a tendency for milk yield to decrease as dietary cation-anion differences increased, this trend was not statistically significant. Urine hydroxyproline to creatinine ratio increased (P < 0.001) as dietary cation-anion difference increased, possibly suggesting an increased rate of uterine involution. It is concluded that a range in the dietary cation-anion difference, above +52 mEq/100 g, may have deleterious effects on dry matter intake and milk production.

  13. Cow Effects and Estimation of Success of First and Following Inseminations in Dutch Dairy Cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Inchaisri, C.; Jorritsma, R.; Vernooij, J.C.M.; Vos, P.L.A.M.; Weijden, van der G.C.; Hogeveen, H.


    The objective of this research was to determine the contribution of cow factors to the probability of successful insemination accounting for the serial number of inseminations in analysis. The investigation was performed with 101 297 insemination records in 51 525 lactations of different cows from

  14. Modeling the Habitat Range of Phototrophic Microorganisms in Yellowstone National Park: Toward the Development of a Comprehensive Fitness Landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric eBoyd


    Full Text Available The extent to which geochemical variation constrains the distribution of phototrophic metabolisms was modeled based on 439 observations in geothermal springs in Yellowstone National Park (YNP, Wyoming. Generalized additive models (GAMs were developed to predict the distribution of photosynthesis as a function of spring temperature, pH, and total sulfide. GAMs comprised of temperature explained 42.7% of the variation in the distribution of phototrophic metabolisms whereas GAMs comprised of sulfide and pH explained 20.7% and 11.7% of the variation, respectively. These results suggest that of the measured variables, temperature is the primary constraint on the distribution of phototrophic metabolism in YNP. GAMs comprised of multiple variables explained a larger percentage of the variation in the distribution of phototrophic metabolism, indicating additive interactions among variables. A GAM that combined temperature and sulfide explained the greatest variation in the dataset (54.8% while minimizing the introduction of degrees of freedom. In an effort to verify the extent to which phototroph distribution reflects constraints on activity, we examined the influence of sulfide and temperature on dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC uptake rates under both light and dark conditions. Light-driven DIC uptake decreased systematically with increasing concentrations of sulfide in acidic, algal-dominated systems, but was unaffected in alkaline, bacterial-dominated systems. In both alkaline and acidic systems, light-driven DIC uptake was suppressed in cultures incubated at temperatures 10°C greater than their in situ temperature. Collectively, these results suggest that the habitat range of phototrophs in YNP springs, specifically that of cyanobacteria and algae, largely results from constraints imposed by temperature and sulfide on the activity and fitness of these populations, a finding that is consistent with the predictions from GAMs.

  15. Design and development of an injection-molded demultiplexer for optical communication systems in the visible range. (United States)

    Höll, S; Haupt, M; Fischer, U H P


    Optical simulation software based on the ray-tracing method offers easy and fast results in imaging optics. This method can also be applied in other fields of light propagation. For short distance communications, polymer optical fibers (POFs) are gradually gaining importance. This kind of fiber offers a larger core diameter, e.g., the step index POF features a core diameter of 980 μm. Consequently, POFs have a large number of modes (>3 million modes) in the visible range, and ray tracing could be used to simulate the propagation of light. This simulation method is applicable not only for the fiber itself but also for the key components of a complete POF network, e.g., couplers or other key elements of the transmission line. In this paper a demultiplexer designed and developed by means of ray tracing is presented. Compared to the classical optical design, requirements for optimal design differ particularly with regard to minimizing the insertion loss (IL). The basis of the presented key element is a WDM device using a Rowland spectrometer setup. In this approach the input fiber carries multiple wavelengths, which will be divided into multiple output fibers that transmit only one wavelength. To adapt the basic setup to POF, the guidance of light in this element has to be changed fundamentally. Here, a monolithic approach is presented with a blazed grating using an aspheric mirror to minimize most of the aberrations. In the simulations the POF is represented by an area light source, while the grating is analyzed for different orders and the highest possible efficiency. In general, the element should be designed in a way that it can be produced with a mass production technology like injection molding in order to offer a reasonable price. However, designing the elements with regard to injection molding leads to some inherent challenges. The microstructure of an optical grating and the thick-walled 3D molded parts both result in high demands on the injection molding

  16. Associations of dairy cow behavior, barn hygiene, cow hygiene, and risk of elevated somatic cell count. (United States)

    Devries, T J; Aarnoudse, M G; Barkema, H W; Leslie, K E; von Keyserlingk, M A G


    Poor dairy cow hygiene has been consistently associated with elevated somatic cell count (SCC) and the risk of subclinical mastitis. The objective of this study was to determine the associations between dairy cow standing and lying behavior, barn hygiene, cow hygiene, and the risk of experiencing elevated SCC. Lactating Holstein dairy cows (n=69; 86 ± 51 DIM; parity: 2.0 ± 1.2; means ± SD), kept in 1 of 2 groups, were monitored over a 4-mo period. Each group contained 61 ± 1 (mean ± SD) cows over the study period; complete data were obtained from 37 and 32 animals within each respective group. Cows were housed in a sand-bedded, freestall barn with 2 symmetrical pens, each with a free cow traffic automatic milking system. To vary barn hygiene, in 4 consecutive 28-d periods, alley manure scrapers in each of the 2 pens were randomly assigned to frequencies of operation of 3, 6, 12, and 24 times per day. During the last 7 d of each period, cow hygiene (upper leg/flank, lower legs, and udder; scale of 1 = very clean to 4 = very dirty) and stall hygiene (number of 0.15×0.15-m squares contaminated with manure in a 1.20×1.65-m grid) were recorded. Standing and lying behavior of the cows were collected during those days using data loggers. Individual-cow SCC was recorded at the beginning and end of each 28-d period. Elevated SCC was used as an indicator of subclinical mastitis; incidence of elevated SCC was defined as having a SCC >200,000 cells/mL at the end of each 28-d period, when SCC was cows having poorer hygiene. Poor udder hygiene was associated with poor stall hygiene. Longer lying duration was associated with poor hygiene of the upper legs/flank and udder. Greater premilking standing duration was associated with poor udder hygiene and decreased frequency of lying bouts was associated with poor hygiene of the lower legs. Higher milk yield was associated with poor hygiene of the udder and lower legs; multiparous cows had poorer hygiene of the upper legs

  17. [Drying off cows: a comparative study with two dry cow products]. (United States)

    Sampimon, O C; Vernooij, J C; Sol, J


    From September 1998 to September 1999, at drying off 397 cows on 73 Dutch farms were treated, with two antibiotic containing dry cow products (cloxacillin; penicillin-neomycin). Farms and cows were selected on an increased bulk milk somatic cell count (BMSCC) and individual cow somatic cell count. The objective of the trial was to compare the efficacy of both products under field conditions. Both products proved to be highly effective against streptococci and penicillin sensitive staphylococci. Because of the low incidence of infections caused by Escherichia coli and penicillin resistant staphylococci no conclusions could be drawn on differences in activity for these two pathogens. No significant differences were found between the two products in cure rate of existing infections at drying off, incidence of new infections during the dry period, incidence of clinical mastitis during the dry period and the course of the individual cow cell counts during the trial.

  18. Invited review: heat stress effects during late gestation on dry cows and their calves. (United States)

    Tao, S; Dahl, G E


    In dairy cattle, late gestation is a critical period for fetal growth and physiological transition into the next lactation. Environmental factors, such as temperature and light, exert dramatic effects on the production, health, and well-being of animals during this period and after parturition. The aim of this review was to introduce effects of heat stress during late gestation on dairy cattle, and discuss the biological mechanisms that underlie the observed production and health responses in the dam and her fetus. Relative to cooled cows, cows that are heat stressed during late gestation have impaired mammary growth before parturition and decreased milk production in the subsequent lactation. In response to higher milk yield, cows cooled prepartum undergo a series of homeorhetic adaptations in early lactation to meet higher demand for milk synthesis compared with heat-stressed cows, but no direct effect of environmental heat stress on metabolism exists during the dry period. Prepartum cooling improves immune status of transition cows and evidence suggests that altered prolactin signaling in immune cells mediates the effects of heat stress on immune function. Late-gestation heat stress compromises placental development, which results in fetal hypoxia, malnutrition, and eventually fetal growth retardation. Maternal heat stress may also have carryover effects on the postnatal growth of offspring, but direct evidence is still lacking. Emerging evidence suggests that offspring from prepartum heat-stressed cows have compromised passive immunity and impaired cell-mediated immune function compared with those from cooled cows. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Protein Profile in Corpus Luteum during Pregnancy in Korean Native Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. J. Chung


    Full Text Available Steroidogenesis requires coordination of the anabolic and catabolic pathways of lipid metabolism, but the profile of proteins associated with progesterone synthesis in cyclic and pregnant corpus luteum (CL is not well-known in cattle. In Experiment 1, plasma progesterone level was monitored in cyclic cows (n = 5 and pregnant cows (n = 6; until d-90. A significant decline in the plasma progesterone level occurred at d-19 of cyclic cows. Progesterone level in abbatoir-derived luteal tissues was also determined at d 1 to 5, 6 to 13 and 14 to 20 of cyclic cows, and d-60 and -90 of pregnant cows (n = 5 each. Progesterone level in d-60 CL was not different from those in d 6 to 13 CL and d-90 CL, although the difference between d 6 to 13 and d-90 was significant. In Experiment 2, protein expression pattern in CL at d-90 (n = 4 was compared with that in CL of cyclic cows at d 6 to 13 (n = 5. Significant changes in the level of protein expression were detected in 32 protein spots by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2-DE, and 23 of them were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS. Six proteins were found only in pregnant CL, while the other 17 proteins were found only in cyclic CL. Among the above 6 proteins, vimentin which is involved in the regulation of post-implantation development was included. Thus, the protein expression pattern in CL was disorientated from cyclic luteal phase to mid pregnancy, and alterations in specific CL protein expression may contribute to the maintenance of pregnancy in Korean native cows.

  20. Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence detection of heavy metals in Bangladesh cows' milk. (United States)

    Jolly, Y N; Iqbal, Shahriar; Rahman, M S; Kabir, J; Akter, S; Ahmad, Iftekhar


    It is considered that cow's milk is almost complete food for human as it provides most of the micronutrients and macronutrients. The cow's milks are essential for the growth and development especially for children. The main compositions of cow's milk are protein, fat, carbohydrates, vitamins and minerals which are well defined. Presently, the study of micronutrients and toxic elements in cow's milk has been widely carried out particularly in the industrialized and polluted regions because of its possibility of contamination, and thereby health risk of the consumers. The elemental composition in local cow's milk samples in Bangladesh is not well studied yet. The present study was therefore aimed to determine the level of heavy metals (Cr, Ni, As, Cd, Hg, Pb, Mn, Cu, Zn and Fe) in cow's milk using EDXRF technique. Subsequently, the experimental data was used to calculate the human health risk through the intake of both powder and liquid cows' milk available in Bangladesh. The results showed that powder milk contains significantly higher concentration of heavy metals than liquid milk samples. The HRI (health risk index) and HI (hazard index) values for most of the elements in all milk samples were within the safe limit (milk samples for both children and adult showed a value higher than one (>1). MPI (metal pollution index) value for powder milk samples are very high compared to other type of milk samples analyzed in this study. Therefore, it has been suggested that heavy metal contamination through local powder milk samples might have significant negative impact (threat) on human health.

  1. Associations of herd- and cow-level factors, cow lying behavior, and risk of elevated somatic cell count in free-stall housed lactating dairy cows. (United States)

    Watters, M E Alexandrea; Meijer, Karin M A; Barkema, Herman W; Leslie, Kenneth E; von Keyserlingk, Marina A G; Devries, Trevor J


    Recent evidence suggests that the risk of intramammary infection in dairy cows is related to lying patterns. The objectives of this study were to quantify the standing and lying behavior of dairy cows milked 3×/d, determine the cow- and herd-level factors associated with these behaviors, and relate these findings to the risk of an elevated somatic cell count (SCC). Five commercial free-stall dairy herds in Eastern Ontario, milking 3×/d, were enrolled in a longitudinal study. Forty Holstein-Friesian cows/herd were randomly selected as focal animals based on days in milk (cow SCC was recorded at the beginning of each period and end of the final period. Elevated SCC (eSCC) was used as an indicator of subclinical mastitis. A new incident eSCC was defined as an individual cow that started the period with a SCC cows for hygiene and lameness. Throughout the course of the study, cows averaged 11.2h/d of lying time, split into 8.6 lying bouts/d that were on average 84.6 min in length. Later lactation cows had longer daily lying times that were split into fewer lying bouts of longer duration than cows earlier in lactation. Lame cows had longer daily lying times and lying bout durations than non-lame cows. Cows with greater milk yield had lower lying times than lower producing cows. Average post-milking standing time across the study herds was 103 min. Manipulation of feed (feed delivery or push-up) by the stockperson, in the hour before milking or shortly thereafter, resulted in the longest post-milking standing times. Over the study period, 48 new eSCC were detected, resulting in a mean herd incidence rate of 0.91 eSCC/cow-year at risk for all study herds. A non-linear relationship between post-milking standing time and eSCC incidence was found; compared to those cows that lie down cows that lie down for the first time >90 min after milking had a lower risk of acquiring a new eSCC. The risk of experiencing an eSCC was also increased in multiparous cows, and in those cows

  2. Determination of NABE in urine of high-yield dairy cows in early lactation in conditions of moderate heat stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fratrić Natalija


    Full Text Available The work presents the results of investigations of the effect of moderate heat stress on the acidobasal status in high-yield dairy cows in early lactation. Improving performance in high-yield dairy cows increases their inclination toward metabolic disorders. The most likely to be affected is the acid-base balance, in particular when cows are exposed to heat stress. Investigations so far have shown that the taking of urine samples and their analysis is the best and fastest way to diagnose disorders in the acid-base balance. Investigations were carried out on 7 clinically healthy cows of the Holstein- Friesian breed in the phase of early lactation, 30 to 40 days (on days 30, 33 and 40 following calving during the summer period, during the month of July, when there were significant variations in daily and nightly temperatures. The cows were in the second and fourth lactation, the annual milk yield was 8000 L milk per cow. The average daily milk production in the early phase of lactation ranged from 35 to 40 L. The cows were fed mixed rations (TMR twice daily. Lucerne hay in limited quantities was given to the cows prior to the mixed feed ration. The ration for this animal category was optimized on the grounds of the daily milk production. The balance of cations and anions in the feed ration stood at 95 mEq/kg DM. The results clearly demonstrate the cows' response to moderate heat stress through the defense parameters in urine (urine pH, NABE (net-acid-base-excretion, acids, bases, ammonium ion (NH4. The determination of the kidney NABE yields more correct data than the urine pH on acidotic conditions. The results of examinations of the urine pH do not show any digressions from physiological values and are approximately the same in all cows during the investigated periods. Normal NABE values are from 100-200 mmol/L. Burdening with acid products results in a NABE range from 0-100mmol/L, and metabolic acidosis results in NAB<0 mmol/L. NABE in the cows

  3. 75 FR 27997 - Record of Decision (ROD) for the Development and Implementation of Range-Wide Mission and Major... (United States)


    ... . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Monte Marlin, Public Affairs Office, Building 1782, Headquarters Avenue, White Sands Missile Range, NM 88002; (575) 678-1134; or e-mail

  4. The effect of a partially hydrolysed formula based on rice protein in the treatment of infants with cow's milk protein allergy. (United States)

    Reche, M; Pascual, C; Fiandor, A; Polanco, I; Rivero-Urgell, M; Chifre, R; Johnston, S; Martín-Esteban, M


    Infants diagnosed with allergy to cow's milk protein (CMP) are fed extensively hydrolysed cow's milk formulas, modified soy formulas or even amino acid-based formulas. Hydrolysed rice protein infant formulas have become available and have been shown to be well tolerated by these infants. A prospective open, randomized clinical study to compare the clinical tolerance of a new hydrolysed rice protein formula (HRPF) with an extensively hydrolysed CMP formula (EHF) in the feeding of infants with IgE-mediated cow's milk allergy. Ninety-two infants (46 boys and 46 girls, mean age 4.3 months, range 1.1-10.1 months) diagnosed with IgE-mediated cow's milk allergy were enrolled in the study. Clinical tolerance to the formula products was tested. Clinical evaluation included skin prick tests with whole cow's milk, soya and rice as well as antigens of CMP (beta-lactoglobulin, alpha-lactalbumin, casein and bovine seroalbumin), HRPF and EHF and specific IgE determinations to CMP using CAP technology. Patients were randomized to receive either an EHF based on CMP or a new HRPF. Follow-up was at 3, 6, 12, 18 and 24 months. Growth parameters were measured at each visit. One infant showed immediate allergic reaction to EHF, but no reaction was shown by any infant in the HRPF group. The number of infants who did not become tolerant to CMP during the study was not statistically different between the two groups. Measurement of IgE levels of infants allergic to CMP during the study showed no significant differences between the two formula groups. Growth parameters were in the normal range and similar between groups. In this study, the HRPF was well tolerated by infants with moderate to severe symptoms of IgE-mediated CMP allergy. Children receiving this formula showed similar growth and development of clinical tolerance to those receiving an EHF. In accordance with current guidelines, this HRPF was tolerated by more than 90% of children with CMP allergy and therefore could provide an

  5. LAMP assay for rapid diagnosis of cow DNA in goat milk and meat samples


    Deb, R.; Sengar, G. S.; Singh, U.; Kumar, S.; Raja, T. V.; Alex, R.; Alyethodi, R. R.; Prakash, B.


    Animal species detection is one of the crucial steps for consumer’s food analysis. In the present study we developed an in-house built loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for rapid detection of adulterated cow DNA in goat milk/meat samples. The cow milk/tissue DNA in goat milk/meat samples were identified in the developed LAMP assay by either naked eye visualizing with SYBR Green I dyes or by detecting the typical ladder pattern on gel electrophoresis. This test can detect up ...

  6. Detection of aflatoxin M1 in human breast milk and raw cow's milk in Istanbul, Turkey. (United States)

    Keskin, Yaşar; Başkaya, Ruhtan; Karsli, Seher; Yurdun, Türkan; Ozyaral, Oğuz


    This survey was undertaken to determine the extent of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) contamination in human breast milk and raw cow's milk in Istanbul, Turkey. Samples of human and raw cow's milk were collected randomly and analyzed for AFM1 using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection in which the samples were cleaned up with immunoaffinity columns. In this study, AFM, was detected in 8 (13.1%) of 61 human breast milk samples examined (mean +/- SD level, 5.68 +/- 0.62 ng/liter; range, 5.10 to 6.90 ng/liter) and 20 (33.3%) of 60 raw cow's milk samples examined (range, 5.40 to 300.20 ng/liter). Five (8.3%) of the positive raw cow's milk samples had AFM1 levels (153.52 +/- 100.60 ng/liter; range, 61.20 to 300.20 ng/liter) that were higher than the maximum tolerance limit (0.05 ppb) stipulated by regulations in Turkey and some other countries.

  7. Dietary cation-anion difference and the health and production of pasture-fed dairy cows 2. Nonlactating periparturient cows. (United States)

    Roche, J R; Dalley, D; Moate, P; Grainger, C; Rath, M; O'Mara, F


    Anecdotal observations of reduced hypocalcemia due to small reductions in the precalving dietary cation-anion difference (DCAD) are widely reported in Australia and New Zealand. Diets offered to nonlactating, periparturient dairy cows in pasture-based dairy systems in southeastern Australia can vary in their cation-anion difference from 0 to +76 mEq/100 g. The effects of such a range in the DCAD on the health and production of cows, on a pasture-based diet, were examined in an indoor feeding experiment. Four groups of four cows were offered pasture-hay and freshly cut pasture, a periparturient diet typical of that associated with the grazing system in Australia and New Zealand. Varying levels of salt supplementation were used to alter the dietary cation-anion difference, which ranged from -12 to +69 mEq/100 g. Blood and urine pH and mineral concentrations and urine hydroxyproline were measured. The addition of anions to the diet, to produce a negative DCAD, resulted in a nonrespiratory systemic acidosis. With decreasing DCAD, the pH of blood and urine and the strong ion difference of urine decreased curvilinearly, blood bicarbonate decreased linearly and the urinary ratio of Ca to creatinine increased curvilinearly. Although systemic pH was not reduced at a DCAD of +16 mEq/100 g, urine Ca-to-creatinine ratio had begun to rise, probably indicating increased calcium absorption. The absorption and renal excretion of Mg increased with decreasing DCAD. No differences were observed in urine hydroxyproline concentrations and no significant differences in milk production were measured.

  8. Assessment of dairy cow energy status using milk fat, protein and urea concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirovski Danijela


    , the urea concentration increases to over the range of physiological values. In the event that the feed ration is deficient in both proteins and energy the urea content in milk drops. This work also presents a model for assessing the energy status in cows by analyzing the mutual ratios between the individual milk components (proteins and fat, or urea and proteins in the individual milk samples. It is possible to determine the energy status of the animal on the basis of the ratio between proteins and fat, and the supply of the cow with proteins and energy on the basis of the ratio between urea and proteins. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 46002: Molekularno-genetička i ekofiziološka istraživanja u zaštiti autohtonih animalnih genetičkih resursa,očuvanju dobrobiti, zdravlja i reprodukcije gajenih životinja i proizvodnji bezbedne hrane

  9. Influence of lipolysis and ketogenesis to metabolic and hematological parameters in dairy cows during periparturient period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cincović R.M.


    with hypoglycemia, hypocalcemia, hypoalbuminemia, hyperbilirubinemia, decreased hemoglobin concentration and/or red blood cell count and neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio >1 showed significantly higher concentrations of NEFA and BHB compared to cows with parameters within normal ranges. Complete ROC (receiver operating characteristics analysis showed that NEFA and BHB are important diagnostic indicators that allow the separation of cows with parameters out of the reference values from cows with normal values of parameters in the metabolic profile and blood count (0.5cows with parameters that are out of the reference value increases with increasing concentrations of NEFA and BHB, which confirms that intense lipolysis and ketogenesis start a series of compensatory processes in the metabolism in cows. The results confirm that NEFA and BHB significantly affect the value of numerous metabolic and hematological parameters in the periparturient period. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR31062

  10. Efficiency of tick biotherapic on the control of infestation by Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus in Dutch dairy cows.


    Cesar Alberto Coutinho; Renan Almeida de Jesus; Valdeci Messa; Ewerton Merlin; Aristeu Vieira da Silva; Kelly Cristina Bolognese; Fabiana Borges Padilha Ferreira; Zilda Cristiani Gazim; Luiz Cláudio Monteiro da Silva


    Background: cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus poses serious problems for farmers in Brazil, especially because the parasite easily develops resistance to pesticide agents. For this reason, together with other factors including environmental, human and animal contamination and costs, alternative approaches have been sought for. Aims: this study sough to evaluate the efficiency of a tick biotherapic on tick-infested cows. Methods: 34 dairy Dutch cows were divided in 2 groups: one ...

  11. Cow-specific treatment of clinical mastitis: an economic approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steeneveld, W.; Werven, van T.; Barkema, H.W.; Hogeveen, H.


    Under Dutch circumstances, most clinical mastitis (CM) cases of cows on dairy farms are treated with a standard intramammary antimicrobial treatment. Several antimicrobial treatments are available for CM, differing in antimicrobial compound, route of application, duration, and cost. Because cow

  12. Cow Dung Ingestion and Inhalation Dependence: A Case Report (United States)

    Khairkar, Praveen; Tiple, Prashant; Bang, Govind


    Although abuse of several unusual inhalants had been documented, addiction to cow dung fumes or their ashes has not been reported in medical literature as yet. We are reporting a case of cow dung dependence in ingestion and inhalational form.

  13. Maternal aging affects life performance of progeny in a Holstein dairy cow model. (United States)

    Astiz, S; Gonzalez-Bulnes, A; Sebastian, F; Fargas, O; Cano, I; Cuesta, P


    The development and life performance of 404 high-producing Holstein dairy cows was studied from birth onwards and during two lactations. The management, environment and parental genetics of the cows were known in detail. Cluster analysis identified four performance 'types': high-yielding (HY) cows and persistently high-yielding (PHY) cows, which accounted for 33% of the animals; medium-yielding (MY) cows, 41%; and low-yielding (LY) cows, 26%. Prenatal determinants of the life performance of the progeny were analyzed. Developmental and environmental factors were excluded as determinants of performance (including birth weight, level of passive immunity transfer, growth rate, age at first parturition and reproductive efficiency). Life performance did show minor seasonal effects, with more HY cows but less PHY being born during the cold season (90.1% in HY; 58.3% in PHY v. 81.5%). Instead, the single most important factor influencing life performance of daughters was maternal age. HY cows were born from the youngest mothers (1.89±1.14 parturitions, 3.12±1.42-year old), whereas LY cows were born from the oldest (2.72±1.80 parturitions, 3.97±2.01-year old; P<0.001). Life performance of the dams did not differ among clusters. In addition, metabolic parameters (fat and protein yield) were found to correlate significantly with yields between the first and second lactations (milk yield: r=0.357; fat yield: r=0.211; protein yield: r=0.277; P<0.0001), suggesting the influence of the individual. These results suggest that under optimal health, nutritional and environmental conditions, maternal aging is an important determinant of the life performance of progeny and argue for the need to identify conditions that contribute to health and disease in progeny according to the Developmental Origin of Health and Disease or DOHaD concept. Our findings may help the development of novel management guidelines for dairy farms.

  14. The development of an information system master plan for the Pacific Missile Range Facility, Barking Sands, Hawaii (United States)

    Apollo, Rolando A.; Bennett, Paul D.


    This thesis provides a general description of the communication facilities and systems currently used by the Pacific Missile Range Facility (PMRF). The system interface requirements to support current range operations are identified and a description of current communications system shortfalls is provided along with recommendations for short-term improvements. A vision of the future is also provided. It suggests that PMRF adopt a coordinated, integrated, and centralized approach to range communications. Current and future communications system technologies such as digital communications, applicability of different transmission media, and application of the Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) are mentioned as avenues for implementing a fully integrated data, voice, and video real-time information network that will support future PMRF users' requirements.

  15. Cow cleanliness and digital dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Bodil Højlund


    Digital dermatitis (DD) is an infectious cattle disease presumably caused by Treponema spp. It results in painful, ulcerative lesions in the skin of the distal extremities and can be associated with lameness in affected animals. Today, DD is a very prevalent disease in the dairy industry and ther......Digital dermatitis (DD) is an infectious cattle disease presumably caused by Treponema spp. It results in painful, ulcerative lesions in the skin of the distal extremities and can be associated with lameness in affected animals. Today, DD is a very prevalent disease in the dairy industry...... and therefore has a major impact on economics and cow welfare. Moist and unhygienic conditions in the cows’ surroundings are considered as important risk factors for DD partly because this can disturb the skin barrier and make the animals more susceptible to infection and partly because the environment might...... leg cleanliness was related to the risk of having DD in four commercial dairy herds and a positive association was found thereby verifying the hypothesis of a higher risk of DD in animals with dirty hind legs. Also, the effect of increasing the frequency of floor scraping on the risk of poor hind leg...

  16. Quality Evaluation of Yoghurt from Cowmilk, Soymilk amd Cow ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Proximate analyses carried out on samples of cow milk, soymilk and cow/soymilk Yoghurts showed significant difference (P<0.05) in the % crude protein, crude fat and carbohydrate contents. For crude protein they were 3.49 ± 0.04, 2.78 ± 0.13 and 2.02 ± 0.4 for cow yoghurt, cow/soy yoghurt and soy yoghurt respectively.

  17. Residues of inhibitors in cow´s milk


    STŘELEČKOVÁ, Veronika


    Milk, in our territory frequently used cow?s milk, is very important nutrient. Its importance consists in the contents of valuable proteins, easily digestible milk fat, lactose, vitamins and minerals. The quality of raw cow?s milk is characterised by many indicators, for example total number of microorganisms, number of somatic cells, content of basic constituents (fat, protein, lactose, non-fat solids), freezing point or occurrence of undesirable foreign and inhibitory substances. Residuals ...

  18. Characterization of peripartum rumination and activity of cows diagnosed with metabolic and uterine diseases. (United States)

    Liboreiro, Daniela N; Machado, Karine S; Silva, Paula R B; Maturana, Milton M; Nishimura, Thiago K; Brandão, Alice P; Endres, Márcia I; Chebel, Ricardo C


    delivering live calves (499.3 ± 16.2 vs. 461.3 ± 4.1 arbitrary unit). Occurrence of retained fetal membrane tended to and was associated with reduced prepartum (444.3 ± 11.0 vs. 466.5 ± 4.3 arbitrary unit) and postpartum (488.2 ± 14.5 vs. 538.8 ± 5.7 arbitrary unit) activity, respectively. Cows diagnosed with metritis had reduced postpartum DRT (415.9 ± 10.1 vs. 441.0 ± 5.2 min/d) and activity (512.5 ± 11.5 vs. 539.2 ± 6.0 arbitrary unit). Postpartum activity was reduced among cows that were diagnosed with subclinical ketosis (502.20 ± 16.5 vs. 536.6 ± 6.2 arbitrary unit). Although differences in DRT and activity between populations of cows that developed periparturient diseases and healthy cows were observed, further experiments are necessary to determine how DRT and activity data may be used to precociously diagnose individuals that will develop such periparturient diseases. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Cow's milk proteins in human milk. (United States)

    Coscia, A; Orrù, S; Di Nicola, P; Giuliani, F; Rovelli, I; Peila, C; Martano, C; Chiale, F; Bertino, E


    Cow's milk proteins (CMPs) are among the best characterized food allergens. Cow's milk contains more than twenty five different proteins, but only whey proteins alpha-lactalbumin, beta-lactoglobulin, bovine serum albumin (BSA), and lactoferrin, as well as the four caseins, have been identified as allergens. Aim of this study was to investigate by proteomics techniques cow's milk allergens in human colostrum of term and preterm newborns' mothers, not previously detected, in order to understand if such allergens could be cause of sensitization during lactation. Term colostrum samples from 62 healthy mothers and preterm colostrum samples from 11 healthy mothers were collected for this purpose. The most relevant finding was the detection of the intact bovine alpha-S1-casein in both term and preterm colostrum. Using this method, which allows direct proteins identification, beta-lactoglobulin was not detected in any of colostrum samples. According to our results bovine alpha 1 casein that is considered a major cow's milk allergen is readily secreted in human milk: further investigations are needed in order to clarify if alpha-1-casein has a major role in sensitization or tolerance to cow's milk of exclusively breastfed predisposed infants.

  20. Variability of ovarian structures and plasma progesterone profiles in dairy cows with ovarian cysts. (United States)

    Carroll, D J; Pierson, R A; Hauser, E R; Grummer, R R; Combs, D K


    Weekly reproductive health examinations were performed on 46 multiparous Holstein cows from 14 to 100 d post partum. Sixteen cows developed 19 nonsimultaneous ovarian cysts, with a mean day of first detection at 34.3 +/- 4.5 d post partum and a mean duration of 31.0 +/- 4.3 d after first detection. Coccygeal blood was collected three times weekly, and plasma progesterone concentrations were determined by radioimmunoassay. Cysts were diagnosed by palpation per rectum or by ultrasonography and classified as follicular or luteal cysts; the cows were not treated. Cows with a mean plasma progesterone concentration of cyst until Day 10 were classified as having a follicular cyst, and those with a mean plasma progesterone concentration of >or= 1 ng/ml from Day 1 to Day 10 were classified as having a luteal cyst. According to this classification, 58% of the cysts were follicular and 42% were luteal. There was an overall 47% agreement between classification by palpation and by ultrasonography on Day 1 with progesterone concentration during Days 1 to 10 after detection of the cyst. Detailed graphs of progesterone concentrations and area of largest follicles or cysts and corpora lutea demonstrate the variability of ovarian structures and progesterone profiles in cystic cows. Detection of a cyst at any one time accompanied by simultaneous measurement of progesterone can lead to different diagnoses of cyst type depending on the method of classification, the presence and age of luteinized tissue in the cyst and undetected corpora lutea.

  1. The effect of non-nutritional factors on milk urea nitrogen levels in dairy cows in Prince Edward Island, Canada. (United States)

    Arunvipas, P; Dohoo, I R; VanLeeuwen, J A; Keefe, G P


    We determined the effects of non-nutritional factors such as breed, parity, days in milk (DIM), milk production, milk quality and milk components on milk urea nitrogen (MUN) concentration. A total of 177 dairy farms in Prince Edward Island containing 10,688 lactating dairy cows participated in the project. Individual-cow milk samples (n=68,158) were collected monthly from July 1999 to June 2000 from each farm. MUN was measured using a Fossomatic 4000 Milkoscan Analyzer at the PEI Milk Quality Laboratory. Descriptive statistics for MUN, parity, DIM, and test-day milk yield, fat and protein were calculated. Mixed linear-regression models were used; "cow" and "herd" were included as random effects to control for the effect of clustering of MUN test dates within cow, and clustering of cows within herd, respectively. The MUN was lower during the first month of lactation, peaked at 4 months of lactation, and decreased later in lactation. A positive relationship existed between MUN concentration and milk yield, while negative relationships with milk protein% and linear score were observed. A quadratic relationship existed between milk fat% and MUN concentration, with higher MUN occurring at mid-range fat percentages. The variation at the herd and cow levels in the model were 19.7 and 19.0%, respectively; while the variation at the test date level was 61.3%. The non-nutritional factors studied explained 13.3% of the variation in MUN.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Provolo


    Full Text Available Dairy farm buildings can have, as it is well known, a big influence on the microclimatic conditions in the cowshed. In order to examine the influence of environmental parameters on the conditions affecting animal welfare, an experimental programme was set up at a farm where anomalous behaviour of cows had been previously noted. The research was carried out in a freestall barn from June 2004 till June 2005. Part of the research involved a detailed monitoring of animal movements and a simultaneous measurement of temperature and humidity within the cowshed. The behaviour of cows has been obtained by the analysis of a recorded video and expressed through indices. A strict relationship between environmental parameters and animal movement has been confirmed by the results obtained. The proportion of animals resting in stalls during the daytime, not affected by milking or feeding, rised from 30% in hot periods to 75% in winter time. The highly significant (P<0.01 correlation obtained between environmental parameters and cow behaviour confirmed the strong influence of THI on total proportion of lying cows. However, the variation in cow behaviour when temperature values were inside the range considered optimal for cows, suggests the influence of other parameters, like direct radiation.

  3. Evaluation of Pre and Post Artificial Insemination effect of GnRH Hormone on conception of repeat breeder Deoni Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.D. Awati


    Full Text Available Twenty four Deoni repeat breeder cows were randomly allocated into 4 groups of six each. The animals of groups I, II and III were injected with 250 µg of buserelin acetate (Receptal® on two occasions i.e. once on day of estrus and second dose on days 10 or 12 or14 respectively in I, II and III groups following breeding, while the animals of group IV served as control. Among the physical characters of estrual cervico-vaginal mucous, typical arborization pattern (80.95 % in pregnant vs. 55.56 % in non-pregnant cows and marginally high spinnbarkeit readings (24.67+2.7cms in pregnant and 22.21+1.32 cms in non-pregnant cows favored better fertility, although the differences between the groups were statistically insignificant. However, the pH of estrual cervico-vaginal mucous did not indicate any effect on fertility and it ranged between 8.00 to 9.00. The cows of treatment groups I, II and III registered a considerably higher conception rate of 83.33 percent each, while in control group cows had only 33.33 percent. To conclude GnRH therapy irrespective of days of administration resulted in an overall enhancement in conception rate of 83.33 as against 33.33 percent in control groups of cows. [Vet. World 2010; 3(5.000: 209-211

  4. Temporal, spatial, inter-, and intra-cow repeatability of thermal imaging. (United States)

    Byrne, D T; Berry, D P; Esmonde, H; McHugh, N


    The objective of the present study was to quantify the within- and between-cow, operator, and day variances of various descriptive temperature parameters from different anatomical areas captured using thermal images on Holstein-Friesian cows. Three experiments were undertaken. In Exp. 1, 30 images were captured by a single operator of each of the eye, hoof, and udder from each of 45 cows; in Exp. 2, three different operators captured eye and hoof images from 12 cows; and in Exp. 3, eye and hoof images were captured by a single operator from 8 cows over a 5-d period. Maximum, minimum, and average descriptive temperature parameters were manually extracted from all thermal images within the study. The repeatability of thermal imaging and the number of replicates required to obtain a certain level of precision was evaluated. Precision was defined as the 95% CI range within which the (average of the) measured temperature(s) was expected to lie relative to the gold standard; the gold standard temperature of an entity in this study was the average of 30 temperature measurements. The partitioning of the variance into error, cow, operator, and day variances was undertaken using mixed models. Results show that the most repeatable anatomical area was the hoof, with the total proportion of variation attributed to the cow ranging from 91.37 to 99.28%. The descriptive temperature parameter with the lowest error variance was the maximum temperature for the eye (0.11°C) and udder (0.03°C) images, whereas the average temperature was the most precise descriptive temperature parameter for hoof (0.08°C) images. Additionally, no significant between-day variance was detected for maximum hoof temperatures. Results from the present study indicate that when the most precise descriptive temperature parameter is used, measurements made using infrared thermography can achieve a high level of precision in an agricultural environment if at least 3 replicate images of the eye, udder, or

  5. The effects of supplementation with a blend of cinnamaldehyde and eugenol on feed intake and milk production of dairy cows. (United States)

    Wall, Emma H; Doane, Perry H; Donkin, Shawn S; Bravo, David


    Plant extracts (PE) are naturally occurring chemicals in plants, and many of these molecules have been reported to influence production efficiency of dairy and beef animals. Two experiments were conducted to determine the effect of a PE additive (CE; an encapsulated blend of cinnamaldehyde and eugenol) on the milk production performance of lactating dairy cows across a range of doses. In experiment 1, 32 Holstein multi- and primiparous dairy cows in mid-lactation were assigned to no additive or supplementation with CE (350mg/d; n=16 cows/treatment) for 6 wk. In experiment 2, 48 Holstein multi- and primiparous dairy cows were assigned to no additive or supplementation with CE (200, 400, or 600mg/d; n=12 animals/treatment) for 8 wk. A 1-wk covariate period was included in both experiments. In both experiments, individual dry matter intake (DMI), milk production, milk composition, and somatic cell count were recorded daily. In experiment 1, CE was associated with an increase in DMI in both parity groups but an increase in milk production of multiparous cows only. In experiment 2, milk yield of multiparous cows was decreased at the 2 highest doses, whereas milk yield of primiparous cows was increased at the low and high doses of CE. These responses were accompanied by similar changes in DMI; therefore, CE did not affect feed efficiency. We observed no effect of CE on SCC or milk composition; however, treatment by parity interactions were detected for each of these variables that have not been described previously. Based on the results of these experiments, we conclude that a blend of cinnamaldehyde and eugenol can increase DMI and milk production in lactating dairy cows. In addition, environmental factors appear to influence the response to CE, including dose and parity, and these should be explored further. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Validity of physiological biomarkers for maternal behavior in cows--a comparison of beef and dairy cattle. (United States)

    Geburt, Katrin; Friedrich, Morten; Piechotta, Marion; Gauly, Matthias; König von Borstel, Uta


    The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the suitability of potential biomarkers for maternal ability in cattle, and in addition to test the hypothesis that dairy cows have a less pronounced motherliness than beef cows. Therefore, maternal behavior of 20 Simmental beef-type (S) and 20 German Black Pied (dairy-type) Cattle (BP) was assessed on the 2nd and again on the 3rd day of the calf's life. Measurements included the frequency of interactions between cow and calf, the cow's willingness to defend her calf, the overall maternal behavior, saliva cortisol, saliva oxytocin, heart rate, and thermal images of the eye (ET). Mixed model analysis revealed that BP had significantly (Pcows. Simmental (beef) cows showed more defensive behavior (3.5±0.2 vs. 2.7±0.2 scores), but fewer total interactions between cow and calf (8.1±1.4 vs. 13.8±1.4), compared to BP (dairy). However, with the exception of heart rate and overall maternal behavior, breed differences tended to diminish from the 2nd to the 3rd day of the calf's life. Repeatabilities ranged from 9±23% (ET) to 77±7% (maternal behavior measured on a visual analogue scale), and correlations between physiological parameters and behavior differed between breeds and were generally at a low level. In conclusion, beef cows do not seem to be per se more maternal compared to dairy cows, and the assessed parameters are of limited use as biomarkers for maternal behavior. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The role of experimental forests and ranges in the development of ecosystem science and biogeochemical cycling research [Chapter 17 (United States)

    James M. Vose; Wayne T. Swank; Mary Beth Adams; Devendra Amatya; John Campbell; Sherri Johnson; Frederick J. Swanson; Randy Kolka; Ariel E. Lugo; Robert Musselman; Charles Rhoades


    Forest Service watershed-based Experimental Forests and Ranges (EFRs) have significantly advanced scientific knowledge on ecosystem structure and function through long-term monitoring and experimental research on hydrologic and biogeochemical cycling processes. Research conducted in the 1940s and 1950s began as “classic” paired watershed studies. The emergence of the...

  8. The role of experimental forests and ranges in the development of ecosystem science and biogeochemical cycling research (United States)

    James M. Vose; Wayne T. Swank; Mary Beth Adams; Devendra Amatya; John Campbell; Sherri Johnson; Frederick J. Swanson; Randy Kolka; Ariel E. Lugo; Robert Musselman; Charles. Rhoades


    Forest Service watershed-based Experimental Forests and Ranges (EFRs) have significantly advanced scientific knowledge on ecosystem structure and function through long-term monitoring and experimental research on hydrologic and biogeochemical cycling processes. Research conducted in the 1940s and 1950s began as “classic” paired watershed studies. The emergence of the...

  9. Home range size and habitat-use pattern of nesting prairie falcons near oil developments in northeastern Wyoming (United States)

    John R. Squires; Stanley H. Anderson; Robert Oakleaf


    Movements and habitat-use patterns were evaluated for a small population (n = 6 pairs) of Prairie Falcons (Falco mexicanus) nesting near Gillette, Wyoming. A total of 2462 falcon relocations was documented through telemetry. The average (n = 6) harmonic-mean 95%-contour home-range was 69 km2, whereas the average 75% contour was 26.6 km2. The convex polygon...

  10. Comparison of pharmacokinetics and milk elimination of flunixin in healthy cows and cows with mastitis. (United States)

    Kissell, Lindsey W; Leavens, Teresa L; Baynes, Ronald E; Riviere, Jim E; Smith, Geof W


    To determine whether pharmacokinetics and milk elimination of flunixin and 5-hydroxy flunixin differed between healthy and mastitic cows. Prospective controlled clinical trial. 20 lactating Holstein cows. Cows with mastitis and matched control cows received flunixin IV, ceftiofur IM, and cephapirin or ceftiofur, intramammary. Blood samples were collected before (time 0) and 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, 24, and 36 hours after flunixin administration. Composite milk samples were collected at 0, 2, 12, 24, 36, 48, 60, 72, 84, and 96 hours. Plasma and milk samples were analyzed by use of ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography with mass spectrometric detection. For flunixin in plasma samples, differences in area under the concentration-time curve and clearance were detected between groups. Differences in flunixin and 5-hydroxy flunixin concentrations in milk were detected at various time points. At 36 hours after flunixin administration (milk withdrawal time), 8 cows with mastitis had 5-hydroxy flunixin concentrations higher than the tolerance limit (ie, residues). Flunixin residues persisted in milk up to 60 hours after administration in 3 of 10 mastitic cows. Pharmacokinetics and elimination of flunixin and 5-hydroxy flunixin in milk differed between mastitic and healthy cows, resulting in violative residues. This may partially explain the high number of flunixin residues reported in beef and dairy cattle. This study also raised questions as to whether healthy animals should be used when determining withdrawal times for meat and milk.

  11. Winter grazing system and supplementation of beef cows during late gestation influence heifer progeny. (United States)

    Funston, R N; Martin, J L; Adams, D C; Larson, D M


    A 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments was used to evaluate effects of dam winter grazing system and supplementation in the last third of gestation on subsequent BW gain, feed efficiency, and reproduction in heifer progeny. Crossbred cows (yr 1, n = 109; yr 2, n = 114; yr 3, n = 116) grazed range (WR) or corn residue (CR) during winter and within grazing treatment received 0.40 kg/d of 31% CP (DM basis) cubes (PS) or no supplement (NS). Heifer calves (yr 1, n = 56; yr 2, n = 56; yr 3, n = 54) grazed dormant pasture for 114 d postweaning and were individually fed for 87 d before a 45-d natural service breeding. Dam PS reduced (P = 0.04) heifer birth date and CR tended to increase (P = 0.07) heifer birth BW. Both PS and CR increased (P ≤ 0.05) heifer weaning BW; however, adjusted 205-d weaning BW was only lighter (P = 0.03) if the dam grazed WR with NS. Heifers from PS dams tended to be younger (P = 0.09) at puberty than NS, and there was a trend (P = 0.11) for more heifers to be pubertal by breeding if the dam grazed WR with PS compared with other treatment groups. Heifers from WR-NS dams tended to weigh less (P ≤ 0.09) at breeding and at pregnancy diagnosis than WR PS. There was a trend (P = 0.13) for pregnancy rate to be greater for heifers born to PS dams. Individually fed heifer DMI was not affected (P = 0.25) by treatment; however, heifers from dams that grazed CR with PS gained the least BW (P = 0.04) during individual feeding and had the smallest (P = 0.03) G:F. In contrast, there were no differences (P > 0.15) in feed efficiency when expressed as residual feed intake. The first calf birth and weaning BW of the heifer was unaffected (P > 0.15) by dam treatment. Heifers from dams that grazed WR with NS tended to have lighter (P = 0.09) BW before the second breeding season but similar (P = 0.97) pregnancy rates. Cows grazing CR with NS produced the most valuable heifer calf at weaning; however, heifers from cows that grazed WR with NS cost the least

  12. Clinical practice. Diagnosis and treatment of cow's milk allergy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kneepkens, C. M. Frank; Meijer, Yolanda

    Introduction Cow's milk allergy (CMA) is thought to affect 2-3% of infants. The signs and symptoms are nonspecific and may be difficult to objectify, and as the diagnosis requires cow's milk elimination followed by challenge, often, children are considered cow's milk allergic without proven

  13. Economics of Local Cow Milk Products Marketing in Kwara State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined the local cow milk products marketing in Nigeria, using Kwara as a case study. Specifically, the study appraised socio-economic characteristics of local cow milk products marketers, the marketing profile and identified problems limiting marketing activities for local cow milk products. For the study 75 ...

  14. Effect of abdominal waste on biogas production from cow dung ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies have been carried out on the production of biogas from mixture of cow abdominal waste and its dung. The rate of biogas production and cumulative volume of the gas produced was compared with that of pure cow dung under the same experimental conditions. The result shows that the mixture of the cow abdominal ...

  15. Effect of rubber flooring on cow locomotion and gene expression (United States)

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of 2 dairy cow housing systems on cow locomotion and expression of genes associated with lameness, during the dry and peri-parturient period. Cows were assigned to free-stall housing with either rubber (RUB; n=13) or concrete (CON; n=14) at the feed-f...

  16. Reproductive status of cows slaughtered at the Ngaoundere ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The reproductive status (RS) of 2,103 cows slaughtered at the Ngaoundere Municipal Slaughter House (NMSH) in view of highlighting potential losses resulting from the slaughtering of pregnant cows (PC) were assessed. Concurrently, 390 of the cows evaluated for RS were randomly selected for a detailed identification of ...

  17. On the Art Career Track: Behold... the Cow as Art (United States)

    Osterer, Irv


    Cows have been a favorite subject for many artists, including Canadian artist Joe Fafard. In this article, grade 11 graphic-design students do a series of exercises in their sketchbooks using the cow motif. Each exercise was designed to have students move from traditional pictures of the dairy cow to more eclectic visual solutions. Eight…

  18. Behaviour of dairy cows under modern housing and management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wierenga, H.K.


    The results of behavioural studies of dairy cows' behaviour under some modern housing and management conditions are presented. Social dominance in dairy cows is studied and methods to describe social dominance are discussed. The lying behaviour of dairy cows is studied under various

  19. Use of lycopene as a natural antioxidant in extending the shelf-life of anhydrous cow milk fat. (United States)

    Siwach, Ruby; Tokas, Jayanti; Seth, Raman


    Oxidative rancidity in anhydrous cow milk fat leads to reduction in its shelf life. Use of synthetic antioxidants is prevalent in dairy industry to prevent the development of rancidity. Keeping in view the increasing demand for natural additives, the present study was carried out to explore the potential of lycopene as a natural antioxidant in anhydrous cow milk fat. Lycopene at five different levels (30, 60, 90, 120 and 150 ppm) and butylated hydroxyl anisole (200 ppm), were incorporated in anhydrous cow milk fat. Potential of lycopene extract to enhance the shelf life of anhydrous cow milk fat was evaluated by measuring Free Fatty Acids, peroxide value, Thiobarbituric Acid value and color value during 12 months of storage at ambient conditions (30°C). Lycopene significantly (pLycopene containing samples scored significantly higher in terms of sensory attributes as compared to control. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A meta-analysis of milk production responses to increased net energy intake in Scandinavian dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Charlotte; Østergaard, Søren; Schei, Ingunn


    The objectives of this analysis were to develop empirical prediction models for milk yield based on cow characteristics and dry matter intake (DMI) or net energy intake (NEL) and to evaluate the effect of breed, parity, stage of lactation and the additional prediction value of using NEL estimates...... versus DMI estimates for incorporation in future economical optimization models of the energy level in dairy cow rations. Previous Danish response models are outdated due to higher yield capacity of cows and the use of the new Nordic feed evaluation system NorFor since 2011. A data set with 195 treatment...... weighted by number of cows in each treatment mean. Best fit model was by use of linear and natural log transformation of NEL intake rather than DMI in the regression, especially when also including the ration concentration of the individual nutrients (g/MJ NEL), neutral detergent fibre, amino acids...

  1. Effects of a 6-wk intraduodenal supplementation with quercetin on energy metabolism and indicators of liver damage in periparturient dairy cows. (United States)

    Stoldt, Ann-Kathrin; Derno, Michael; Nürnberg, Gerd; Weitzel, Joachim M; Otten, Winfried; Starke, Alexander; Wolffram, Siegfried; Metges, Cornelia C


    Periparturient dairy cows experience metabolic challenges that result in a negative energy balance (EB) and a range of postpartum health problems. To compensate for the negative EB, cows mobilize fatty acids from adipose tissues, which can lead to fatty liver disease, a periparturient metabolic disorder. Flavonoids, such as quercetin (Q), are polyphenolic substances found in all higher plants and have hepatoprotective potential and the ability to prevent or reduce lipid accumulation in the liver. In ruminants, few studies on the metabolic effects of Q are available, and thus this study was conducted to determine whether Q has beneficial effects on EB, lipid metabolism, and hepatoprotective effects in periparturient dairy cows. Quercetin was supplemented intraduodenally to circumvent Q degradation in the rumen. Cows (n=10) with duodenal fistulas were monitored for 7wk. Beginning 3wk before expected calving, 5 cows were treated with 100mg of quercetin dihydrate per kilogram of body weight daily in a 0.9% sodium chloride solution for a total period of 6wk, whereas the control cows received only the sodium chloride solution. The plasma flavonoid levels were higher in the Q-treated cows than in the control cows. A tendency for higher postpartum (pp) than antepartum (ap) plasma flavonoid levels was observed in the Q-treated cows than in the controls, which was potentially caused by a reduced capacity to metabolize Q. However, the metabolic status of the Q-treated cows did not differ from that of the control cows. The pp increases in plasma aspartate aminotransferase and glutamate dehydrogenase activities were less in the Q-treated cows than in the control cows. The Q had no effect on energy expenditures, but from ap to pp the cows had a slight decline in respiratory quotients. Irrespective of the treatment group, the oxidation of fat peaked after calving, suggesting that the increase occurred because of an increased supply of fatty acids from lipomobilization. In

  2. The Effect of Childhood Cow's Milk Intake and HLA-DR Genotype on Risk of Islet Autoimmunity and Type 1 Diabetes: The Diabetes Autoimmunity Study in the Young (DAISY) (United States)

    Lamb, Molly M.; Miller, Melissa; Seifert, Jennifer A.; Frederiksen, Brittni; Kroehl, Miranda; Rewers, Marian; Norris, Jill M.


    Background Cow's milk intake has been inconsistently associated with islet autoimmunity (IA) and type 1 diabetes (T1D) development. Genetic and environmental factors may modify the effect of cow's milk on IA and T1D risk. Methods The Diabetes Autoimmunity Study in the Young (DAISY) follows children at increased T1D risk for IA (presence of autoantibodies to insulin, GAD65 or IA-2 twice in succession) and T1D development. We examined 1,835 DAISY children with data on cow's milk intake: 143 developed IA, 40 subsequently developed T1D. Cow's milk protein and lactose intake were calculated from prospectively collected parent- and self-reported food frequency questionnaires (FFQ). High risk HLA-DR genotype: HLA-DR3/4,DQB1*0302; low/moderate risk: all other genotypes. We examined interactions between cow's milk intake, age at cow's milk introduction, and HLA-DR genotype in IA and T1D development. Interaction models contained the base terms (e.g., cow's milk protein and HLA-DR genotype) and an interaction term (cow's milk protein*HLA-DR genotype). Results In survival models adjusted for total calories, FFQ type, T1D family history, and ethnicity, greater cow's milk protein intake was associated with increased IA risk in children with low/moderate risk HLA-DR genotypes (Hazard Ratio (HR): 1.41, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.08–1.84), but not in children with high risk HLA-DR genotypes. Cow's milk protein intake was associated with progression to T1D (HR: 1.59, CI: 1.13–2.25) in children with IA. Conclusions Greater cow's milk intake may increase risk of IA and progression to T1D. Early in the T1D disease process, cow's milk intake may be more influential in children with low/moderate genetic T1D risk. PMID:24444005

  3. Genetic and functional analysis of the bovine uterine microbiota. Part I: Metritis versus healthy cows. (United States)

    Bicalho, M L S; Machado, V S; Higgins, C H; Lima, F S; Bicalho, R C


    Metritis is a uterine disease that affects 10 to 30% of all lactating dairy cows and has detrimental effects on reproductive performance, milk production, and survival. Data regarding the identity and abundance of bacterial genes governing traits such as virulence, antibiotic resistance, and stress responses could enable identification of previously unknown agents that play a role in metritis pathogenesis. Moreover, such knowledge could lead to the development of improved treatments or preventive methods. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to characterize the uterine microbial population and to differentiate, for the first time, the microbial functional diversity in cows with metritis versus healthy cows. In addition, we aimed to identify relationships between microbial genes and postpartum uterine health. Uterine swabs were collected from 24 cows within 3 to 12 d in milk; 12 cows were diagnosed with metritis and the other 12 were healthy. Metritis was defined as a watery, reddish or brownish uterine discharge having a fetid smell, and rectal temperature greater than 39.5°C. Cows with a clear and viscous uterine discharge, not fetid or mucopurulent, were classified as healthy. Microbial metagenomic DNA from uterine swab samples was subjected to whole-genome shotgun sequencing on the Illumina MiSeq platform (Illumina Inc., San Diego, CA). The MG-RAST server (metagenomic rapid annotations using subsystems technology; and STAMP software ( were used to detect statistically significant differences in the abundance of taxonomic and functional features between the uterine microbial metagenomes of metritic and healthy cows. Our results showed an increased abundance of Fusobacteria and Bacteroidetes in metritic cows, confirming the potential role of those 2 taxa in the pathogenesis of metritis. The MG-RAST analysis revealed a significantly higher abundance of genes for protein transport across the

  4. The relationship between milk metabolome and methane emission of Holstein Friesian dairy cows: Metabolic interpretation and prediction potential. (United States)

    van Gastelen, S; Antunes-Fernandes, E C; Hettinga, K A; Dijkstra, J


    This study aimed to quantify the relationship between CH4 emission and fatty acids, volatile metabolites, and nonvolatile metabolites in milk of dairy cows fed forage-based diets. Data from 6 studies were used, including 27 dietary treatments and 123 individual observations from lactating Holstein-Friesian cows. These dietary treatments covered a large range of forage-based diets, with different qualities and proportions of grass silage and corn silage. Methane emission was measured in climate respiration chambers and expressed as production (g per day), yield (g per kg of dry matter intake; DMI), and intensity (g per kg of fat- and protein-corrected milk; FPCM). Milk samples were analyzed for fatty acids by gas chromatography, for volatile metabolites by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and for nonvolatile metabolites by nuclear magnetic resonance. Dry matter intake was 15.9 ± 1.90 kg/d (mean ± SD), FPCM yield was 25.2 ± 4.57 kg/d, CH4 production was 359 ± 51.1 g/d, CH4 yield was 22.6 ± 2.31 g/kg of DMI, and CH4 intensity was 14.5 ± 2.59 g/kg of FPCM. The results show that changes in individual milk metabolite concentrations can be related to the ruminal CH4 production pathways. Several of these relationships were diet driven, whereas some were partly dependent on FPCM yield. Next, prediction models were developed and subsequently evaluated based on root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP), concordance correlation coefficient (CCC) analysis, and random 10-fold cross-validation. The best models with milk fatty acids (in g/100 g of fatty acids; MFA) alone predicted CH4 production, yield, and intensity with a RMSEP of 34 g/d, 2.0 g/kg of DMI, and 1.7 g/kg of FPCM, and with a CCC of 0.67, 0.44, and 0.75, respectively. The CH4 prediction potential of both volatile metabolites alone and nonvolatile metabolites alone was low, regardless of the unit of CH4 emission, as evidenced by the low CCC values (emission of dairy cows. We conclude that MFA have

  5. Short communication: Noninvasive indicators to identify lactating dairy cows with a greater risk of subacute rumen acidosis. (United States)

    Gao, X; Oba, M


    The objective of the current study was to evaluate if milk urea nitrogen (MUN) and milk fat content could be used as the noninvasive indicator to identify cows with greater or lower risk of subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA). Our hypothesis was that cows with lower MUN and milk fat content would have greater risk of SARA, whereas cows with higher MUN and milk fat content would have lower risk of SARA. In the screening study, 35 late-lactating Holstein cows (DIM=250±71.1; BW=601±45.4kg) were fed a high-grain diet containing 35% forage and 65% concentrate mix ad libitum for 21 d. Concentration of MUN ranged from 5.7 to 13.9Mg/dL among the 35 cows, and the average milk fat content was 3.5%. Then, 5 cows with highest MUN concentrations with milk fat higher than 3.5% were selected as animals that presumably have low risk of SARA, and 5 cows with lowest MUN concentrations with milk fat less than 3.5% were selected as animals that presumably have high risk of SARA. These 10 animals were ruminally cannulated during the subsequent dry period. As 1 low-risk cow was culled due to fatty liver, 9 animals (DIM=122±33.2; BW=615±49.1kg) were used in the subsequent study in the following lactation. All cows were fed a high-grain diet consisting of 35% forage and 65% concentrate mix ad libitum for 21 d. Ruminal pH was measured every 30 s for 72 h. Minimum (5.75 vs. 5.30) and mean ruminal pH (6.35 vs. 6.04) was higher for low- compared with high-risk animals. In addition, duration of rumen pH below 5.8 was shorter in low-risk animals (52.5 vs. 395min/d). These results suggested that MUN and milk fat content in late-lactating cows fed a high-grain diet may be used to identify cows that have higher or lower risk of SARA. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Prognostic value of plasma L-lactate concentration measured cow-side with a portable clinical analyzer in Holstein dairy cattle with abomasal disorders. (United States)

    Figueiredo, Monica D; Nydam, Daryl V; Perkins, Gillian A; Mitchell, Hilda M; Divers, Thomas J


    L-Lactate has been used as a prognostic indicator for ill humans and animals. A portable analyzer that measures L-lactate could help veterinarians decide to proceed with correction of a displaced abomasum. The likelihood of a dairy cow with a displaced abomasum remaining in the herd can be predicted by lactate concentration and other variables. Thirty-four healthy early-lactation dairy cows, and 131 cows with abomasal displacements (DA) presented to Cornell University, Ithaca, NY. Plasma L-lactate was measured using a commercial analyzer (i-STAT). A cow had a positive outcome (PO) if she remained in the herd 30 days after surgical correction of the displaced abomasum and a negative outcome (NO) if she was culled or died in that time. A multivariable model with physical examination and clinicopathologic variables for predicting NO for cows with right-sided abomasal displacements was constructed. The median plasma L-lactate was 0.54 mM/L (interquartile range, 0.42-0.74) in healthy lactating Holstein cows. In cows with right-sided displaced abomasa, median plasma L-lactate concentrations were higher in cows with NO (5.88 mM/L) versus PO (3.23 mM/L) (P = .002). In a multivariable model, which identified chloride, heart rate, and L-lactate as the best fitting variables for cows with right-sided displacements, the probability of NO increased as L-lactate increased. Plasma L-lactate concentration might be a useful predictor of productive outcomes in cows with right-sided abomasal disorders.

  7. Update on human health concerns of recombinant bovine somatotropin use in dairy cows. (United States)

    Collier, R J; Bauman, D E


    The 20 yr of commercial use of recombinant bovine somatotropin (rbST) in the United States provide the backdrop for reviewing the outcome of use on human health issues by the upcoming 78th meeting of the Joint Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO)/World Health Organization (WHO) Expert Committee on Food Additives. These results and further advancements in scientific knowledge indicate there are no new human health issues related to the use of rbST by the dairy industry. Use of rbST has no effect on the micro- and macrocomposition of milk. Also, no evidence exists that rbST use has increased human exposure to antibiotic residues in milk. Concerns that IGF-I present in milk could have biological effects on humans have been allayed by studies showing that oral consumption of IGF-I by humans has little or no biological activity. Additionally, concentrations of IGF-I in digestive tract fluids of humans far exceed any IGF-I consumed when drinking milk. Furthermore, chronic supplementation of cows with rbST does not increase concentrations of milk IGF-I outside the range typically observed for effects of farm, parity, or stage of lactation. Use of rbST has not affected expression of retroviruses in cattle or posed an increased risk to human health from retroviruses in cattle. Furthermore, risk for development of type 1 or type 2 diabetes has not increased in children or adults consuming milk and dairy products from rbST-supplemented cows. Overall, milk and dairy products provide essential nutrients and related benefits in health maintenance and the prevention of chronic diseases.

  8. Comparison of two treatment strategies for cows with metritis in high-risk lactating dairy cows. (United States)

    Armengol, Ramon; Fraile, Lorenzo


    Acute puerperal metritis (APM) and clinical metritis (CM) are uterine diseases frequently diagnosed in dairy cows. These diseases are responsible for important economic loss because of their effect not only on reproductive performance but also on milk production. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of two different treatments for metritis on dairy cows by measuring their reproductive performance in the next gestation. The end points to measure the reproductive performance included the conception rate at the first artificial insemination, the number of days at conception, and the proportion of nonpregnant cows at over 150 days after beginning milk production. The study was carried out in a high production dairy cow farm located in Lleida (northeast Spain). Recordings of 1044 parturitions of 747 Holstein cows were controlled in this farm from 2009 to 2014. Cows were diagnosed as suffering from metritis (APM or CM) if the following parameters were observed: an abnormally enlarged uterus; a fetid, watery, reddish brown uterine discharge with (APM) or without (CM) fever (>39.5 °C); and presence (APM) or absence (CM) of signs of systemic illness (decreased milk production, dullness, or other signs of toxemia) within 21 days postpartum. Afterwards, cows suffering from metritis (APM or CM) were randomly assigned and balanced to two groups: (1) animals receiving parenteral amoxicillin intramuscularly plus intrauterine infusion with oxytetracycline (P + I group) and (2) animals receiving only parenteral amoxicillin intramuscularly (P group). Furthermore, reproductive performance of cows without metritis was used as reference (control group). Metritis was diagnosed in 27.5% of the total parturitions included in the study (288 of 1044). In particular, metritis was diagnosed in 30.5% (118 of 387) and 25.9% (170 of 657) of parturitions from heifers and multiparous cows, respectively. Reproductive performance was not significantly affected by the parity, the

  9. Short communication: Cow- and herd-level prevalence of hypoglycemia in hyperketonemic postpartum dairy cows. (United States)

    Dubuc, J; Buczinski, S


    The objective of this study was to quantify the prevalence of hypoglycemia in hyperketonemic dairy cows during the early postpartum period. A prospective observational study was conducted in 100 dairy herds selected by convenience. Within all participating herds, 40 cows (or the entire herd if smaller than 40 cows) were enrolled in the study (total of 3,776 enrolled cows). Herds were visited every 2 wk by an animal health technician. Cows were bled from their coccygeal vessels once between 1 and 14 d in milk, and cow-side testing was performed for ketonemia and glycemia using a device validated in cattle (Precision Xtra, Abbott, Mississauga, ON, Canada). Hyperketonemia was defined as β-hydroxybutyrate ≥1.4 mmol/L, and hypoglycemia was defined as glucose ≤2.2 mmol/L. Descriptive statistics were computed at the cow and herd levels. The cow-level prevalence of hyperketonemia, hypoglycemia, and simultaneous hypoglycemia and hyperketonemia was 20.0% (757/3,776), 13.8% (642/3,776), and 6.2% (235/3,776), respectively. Within the subset of hyperketonemic cows only, the prevalence of hypoglycemia was 31.0% (235/757). At the herd level, the median prevalence was 17.5% (minimum: 5.0%, first quartile: 10.0%, third quartile: 22.5%, maximum: 77.5%) for hyperketonemia, 15.0% (minimum: 5.0%, first quartile: 12.5%, third quartile: 20.0%, maximum: 47.5%) for hypoglycemia, and 7.5% (minimum: 2.5%, first quartile: 5.0%, third quartile: 12.5%, maximum: 17.5%) for simultaneous hypoglycemia and hyperketonemia. The herd-level median prevalence of hypoglycemia within the subset of hyperketonemic cows only was 30.6% (minimum: 2.5%, first quartile: 20.0%, third quartile: 39.1%, maximum: 63.0%). The results from this study show that the prevalence of simultaneous hyperketonemia and hypoglycemia is relatively low in the overall early postpartum cow population but also that approximately one third of hyperketonemic cows are hypoglycemic, which might represent an opportunity to improve

  10. Preventive effect of mildly altering dietary cation-anion difference on milk fever in dairy cows. (United States)

    Kurosaki, Naotoshi; Yamato, Osamu; Mori, Fuminobu; Imoto, Seiichi; Maede, Yoshimitsu


    In the present study, we examined whether mildly altering dietary cation-anion difference (DCAD) contributes to the prevention of milk fever in dairy cows. Thirty multiparous cows and ten primiparous cows (heifer group) were used in this study and the multiparous cows were randomly divided into three groups of ten animals each (anion, non-anion and control groups). The cows in the anion group were given supplemental salts that slightly lowered DCAD. These salts consisted of 115 g of CaCO3, 42 g of CaHPO4, 65 g of MgSO4 x 7 H2O and 80 g of CaCl2 x 2 H2O as a daily dose for each cow, using a catheter from 21 days before the expected date of parturition until parturition. The cows in the non-anion group were given only the same Ca, Mg and ip supplement but no sulfate and chloride salts as that in the anion group. The cows in the control and heifer groups were not given any additional supplement. The incidence of hypocalcemia in the anion group decreased to approximately half of those in the non-anion and control groups, while the heifer group did not develop hypocalcemia at all. In addition, the number of days spent for the treatment of hypocalcemia and the number of drug bottles (calcium borogluconate solution) used for the treatment decreased to less than half in the anion group compared with those in the non-anion and control groups. At parturition, the serum Ca concentration in the control (6.2 +/- 1.9 mg/dl, mean +/- standard deviation) and non-anion groups (6.4 +/- 1.7 mg/dl) were significantly lower than that in the heifer group (8.3 +/- 0.4 mg/dl), and the level in the anion group was intermediate (7.3 +/- 1.3 mg/dl). The change in ionized Ca concentration was almost the same as that in serum Ca concentration, but only the concentration in the anion group tended to increase slightly from a week before parturition and was significantly higher than that in all other groups three days before parturition. Urinary pH in the anion group was maintained at a mildly

  11. Eye injuries caused by cow horns. (United States)

    Goldblum, D; Frueh, B E; Koerner, F


    To assess ocular injuries caused by cow horns; to investigate clinical findings, treatment, and visual outcome in a population of dairy farmers; and to propose possible preventive measures. A retrospective review was conducted to identify patients seen over a 45-month period with cow horn-inflicted eye injuries. Eleven patients were identified and their charts reviewed for demographics, mechanism of injury, initial and final visual acuity, surgeries performed, and anatomic outcome. The mean age of the patients was 64 years. Seven patients had open-globe injuries with vitreous hemorrhage. In five cases, pars plana vitrectomy was performed. Final best-corrected visual acuity was cow horn injuries studied caused severe permanent impairment of vision. Owing to the blunt nature of the horns, a significant amount of energy is imparted into the eye. To prevent these injuries, coagulation of the horns should be performed 2 weeks after a calf's birth or farmers should be advised to wear safety glasses.

  12. Dietary cation-anion difference effects on performance and acid-base status of lactating dairy cows: a meta-analysis. (United States)

    Hu, W; Murphy, M R


    A meta-analysis was conducted to examine potential empirical relationships between dietary cation-anion difference (DCAD) (Na + K - Cl) and the response of lactating dairy cows. The database was developed from 12 studies published between 1984 and 1997 that included a total of 17 trials, 69 dietary treatments, and 230 cows. Results indicated that DCAD affected performance of lactating dairy cows. Maximum milk yield and feed intake were reached when DCAD was 34 and 40 meq/100 g of feed dry matter, respectively. Blood pH and HCO3 concentrations increased with DCAD, indicating an improved acid-base balance of lactating dairy cows. Changes in urinary pH and urinary excretion of Na, K, and Cl were consistent with varying DCAD, thus dietary acidity or alkalinity. The effects of DCAD were likely mediated via modification of acid-base status in the cows.

  13. Rapid capillary electrophoresis approach for the quantification of ewe milk adulteration with cow milk. (United States)

    Trimboli, Francesca; Morittu, Valeria Maria; Cicino, Caterina; Palmieri, Camillo; Britti, Domenico


    The substitution of ewe milk with more economic cow milk is a common fraud. Here we present a capillary electrophoresis method for the quantification of ewe milk in ovine/bovine milk mixtures, which allows for the rapid and inexpensive recognition of ewe milk adulteration with cow milk. We utilized a routine CE method for human blood and urine proteins analysis, which fulfilled the separation of skimmed milk proteins in alkaline buffer. Under this condition, ovine and bovine milk exhibited a recognizable and distinct CE protein profiles, with a specific ewe peak showing a reproducible migration zone in ovine/bovine mixtures. Based on ewe specific CE peak, we developed a method for ewe milk quantification in ovine/bovine skimmed milk mixtures, which showed good linearity, precision and accuracy, and a minimum amount of detectable fraudulent cow milk equal to 5%. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. CowLog – Cross-Platform Application for Coding Behaviours from Video

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matti Pastell


    Full Text Available CowLog is a cross-platform application to code behaviours from video recordings for use in behavioural research. The software has been used in several studies e.g. to study sleep in dairy calves, emotions in goats and the mind wandering related to computer use during lectures. CowLog 3 is implemented using JavaScript and HTML using the Electron framework. The framework allows the development of packaged cross-platform applications using features from web browser (Chromium as well as server side JavaScript from Node.js. The program supports using multiple videos simultaneously and HTML5 and VLC video players. CowLog can be used for any project that requires coding the time of events from digital video. It is released under GNU GPL v2 making it possible for users to modify the application for their own needs. The software is available through its website

  15. FORAGES AND PASTURES SYMPOSIUM: Improving efficiency of production in pasture- and range-based beef and dairy systems. (United States)

    Mulliniks, J T; Rius, A G; Edwards, M A; Edwards, S R; Hobbs, J D; Nave, R L G


    Despite overall increased production in the last century, it is critical that grazing production systems focus on improving beef and dairy efficiency to meet current and future global food demands. For livestock producers, production efficiency is essential to maintain long-term profitability and sustainability. This continued viability of production systems using pasture- and range-based grazing systems requires more rapid adoption of innovative management practices and selection tools that increase profitability by optimizing grazing management and increasing reproductive performance. Understanding the genetic variation in cow herds will provide the ability to select cows that require less energy for maintenance, which can potentially reduce total energy utilization or energy required for production, consequently improving production efficiency and profitability. In the United States, pasture- and range-based grazing systems vary tremendously across various unique environments that differ in climate, topography, and forage production. This variation in environmental conditions contributes to the challenges of developing or targeting specific genetic components and grazing systems that lead to increased production efficiency. However, across these various environments and grazing management systems, grazable forage remains the least expensive nutrient source to maintain productivity of the cow herd. Beef and dairy cattle can capitalize on their ability to utilize these feed resources that are not usable for other production industries. Therefore, lower-cost alternatives to feeding harvested and stored feedstuffs have the opportunity to provide to livestock producers a sustainable and efficient forage production system. However, increasing production efficiency within a given production environment would vary according to genetic potential (i.e., growth and milk potential), how that genetic potential fits the respective production environment, and how the grazing

  16. Behaviour of dairy cows under free or forced cow traffic in a simulated automatic milking system environment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lauwere, de C.C.K.; Hendriks, M.M.B.; Metz, J.H.M.; Schouten, W.G.P.


    The introduction of fully automatic milking systems (AMS) on dairy farms can only succeed if cows visit the system more or less voluntarily, at regular intervals. This can be arranged by either forced or free cow traffic. In the case of forced cow traffic, the AMS is the only route from the lying

  17. /sup 125/I-progesterone radioimmunoassay for fertility control in cows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herzmann, H.; Herzmann, A.; Flentje, H.; Schmidt, H.E. (Akademie der Wissenschaften der DDR, Berlin-Buch. Zentralinstitut fuer Isotopen- und Strahlenforschung); Barth, T.; Hempel, G.; Graeser, K. (Bezirksinstitut fuer Veterinaerwesen Dresden (German Democratic Republic))


    A /sup 125/I RIA has been developed for progesterone determination in full-cream milk, skimmed milk and blood plasma. Because of its specificity, accuracy and practicability it is particularly suitable for routine work. First experience has been gained in field studies on fertility control of cows. As early as one estrous cycle after insemination, non-pregnant cows can be distinguished from presumably pregnant ones with a high degree of certainty, so that a timely re-insemination of those animals is rendered possible. Insemination outside the estrous cycle was found to be one reason for supposed fertility disorders.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.K. Gevorkyan


    Full Text Available The reason for atopic dermatitis in the majority of children under one year is known to be cow milk allergy. The only possibility to eliminate the dermatitis development among infants with the pathology and to assure healthy growth is to provide nutritional management with amino acid mix. The authors present a clinical case of the efficient application of such mix (Neocate, which is an adopted infant milk formula, enriched with a necessary complex of all nutrients, microelements and vitamins.Key words: cow milk allergy, nutritional management, children.

  19. CowLog – Cross-Platform Application for Coding Behaviours from Video


    Pastell, Matti


    CowLog is a cross-platform application to code behaviours from video recordings for use in behavioural research. The software has been used in several studies e.g. to study sleep in dairy calves, emotions in goats and the mind wandering related to computer use during lectures. CowLog 3 is implemented using JavaScript and HTML using the Electron framework. The framework allows the development of packaged cross-platform applications using features from web browser (Chromium) as well as server s...

  20. Detection of Subclinical Ketosis in Dairy Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhigang Zhang, Guowen Liu1, Hongbin Wang, Xiaobing Li1 and Zhe Wang1*


    Full Text Available Ketosis is a common metabolic disorder frequently observed in dairy cows during the early lactation period. It is characterized by increased levels of ketone bodies in the blood, urine, and milk. Subclinical ketosis (SCK in dairy cattle is an excess level of circulating ketone bodies in the absence of clinical signs of ketosis. Usually, detection of SCK is carried out by testing the ketone concentrations in blood, urine, and milk. Here, This review overview the detection methods for SCK in dairy cows, including cowside and laboratory tests.

  1. Development of Superior Sorbents for Separation of CO2 from Flue Gas at a Wide Temperature Range During Coal Combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panagiotis G. Smirniotis


    In chapter 1, the studies focused on the development of novel sorbents for reducing the carbon dioxide emissions at high temperatures. Our studies focused on cesium doped CaO sorbents with respect to other major flue gas compounds in a wide temperature range. The thermo-gravimetric analysis of sorbents with loadings of CaO doped on 20 wt% cesium demonstrated high CO{sub 2} sorption uptakes (up to 66 wt% CO{sub 2}/sorbent). It is remarkable to note that zero adsorption affinity for N{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O and NO at temperatures as high as 600 C was observed. For water vapor and nitrogen oxide we observed a positive effect for CO{sub 2} adsorption. In the presence of steam, the CO{sub 2} adsorption increased to the highest adsorption capacity of 77 wt% CO{sub 2}/sorbent. In the presence of nitrogen oxide, the final CO{sub 2} uptake remained same, but the rate of adsorption was higher at the initial stages (10%) than the case where no nitrogen oxide was fed. In chapter 2, Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} {center_dot} 4H{sub 2}O, CaO, Ca(OH){sub 2}, CaCO{sub 3}, and Ca(CH{sub 3}COO){sub 2} {center_dot} H{sub 2}O were used as precursors for synthesis of CaO sorbents on this work. The sorbents prepared from calcium acetate (CaAc{sub 2}-CaO) resulted in the best uptake characteristics for CO{sub 2}. It possessed higher BET surface area and higher pore volume than the other sorbents. According to SEM images, this sorbent shows 'fluffy' structure, which probably contributes to its high surface area and pore volume. When temperatures were between 550 and 800 C, this sorbent could be carbonated almost completely. Moreover, the carbonation progressed dominantly at the initial short period. Under numerous adsorption-desorption cycles, the CaAc{sub 2}-CaO demonstrated the best reversibility, even under the existence of 10 vol % water vapor. In a 27 cyclic running, the sorbent sustained fairly high carbonation conversion of 62%. Pore size distributions indicate that their

  2. Development of a Ranging System for the Forward Scattering Meteor Radio Echo Observation Using a GPS-Synchronized Multiple Receiving Stations (United States)

    Usui, T.; Yoshida, H.; Miyamoto, H.; Yaguchi, N.; Terasawa, T.; Yoshikawa, I.


    We are developing an instrument for teaching purpose to determine the trajectory of a meteor with the Ham-band Radio Observations(HRO) . In this work, we describe newly developed ranging system with using Frequency Modulated signals and show some results.

  3. Potential Utilization of Automatic Cows Weighing for Evaluation of Health and Nutritional Condition of Herd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šárka Podlahová


    Full Text Available Weight of cows affects a large number of factors. Regular weighing and data processing can detect differences that may indicate disorders requiring nursing interventions, e.g. nutritional deficiencies, incorrect fetal development and health problems. The current weighing systems operate as stationary - the animal is fixed, identified and weighed. However, the procedure is time consuming and operation, and that is way this system is used minimally. That implies the need of complete automation of all activities associated with the weighing, which enables introduction of pass – through weight. The aim of this thesis was to develop a methodology for evaluating health and nutritional status of the herd based on data from an automated system for weighing a live weight of dairy cows. There was used in the weighing unit for milking robots Astronaut A3 (Lely company to obtain weight data of individual cows. There were selected dairy cows with the longest period of lactation or already drying off, and especially dairy cows with various health problems for study. Limiting values of weight changes were established after assembling a general equation of mass curve. In the sphere of the diseases there was manifested only ketosis in the weight curve with a loss of 10.2 kg / day (38% weight loss. Additionally, the completion of growth during the first 2 periodes of lactations and weight gain due to advanced pregnancy were confirmed. The maximum daily weight difference recorded in healthy animals was 7 %, equivalent to 40 - 45 kg. The results of the study will be applied for compiling algorithm that will be implemented in the complete management system of cattle breeding, monitoring the dairy cows every day and highlight possible deviations exceeding of physiological changes in weight.

  4. Effects of an energy-dense diet and nicotinic acid supplementation on production and metabolic variables of primiparous or multiparous cows in periparturient period. (United States)

    Tienken, Reka; Kersten, Susanne; Frahm, Jana; Meyer, Ulrich; Locher, Lena; Rehage, Jürgen; Huber, Korinna; Kenéz, Ákos; Sauerwein, Helga; Mielenz, Manfred; Dänicke, Sven


    It is well observed that feeding energy-dense diets in dairy cows during the dry period can cause metabolic imbalances after parturition. Especially dairy cows with high body condition score (BCS) and fed an energy-dense diet were prone to develop production diseases due to metabolic disturbances postpartum. An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of an energy-dense diet and nicotinic acid (NA) on production and metabolic variables of primiparous and multiparous cows in late pregnancy and early lactation which were not pre-selected for high BCS. Thirty-six multiparous and 20 primiparous German Holstein cows with equal body conditions were fed with energy-dense (60% concentrate/40% roughage mixture; HC group) or adequate (30% concentrate/70% roughage mixture; LC group) diets prepartum. After parturition, concentrate proportion was dropped to 30% for all HC and LC groups and was increased to 50% within 16 days for LC and within 24 days for HC cows. In addition, half of the cows per group received 24 g NA supplement per day and cow aimed to attenuate the lipid mobilisation postpartum. Feeding energy-dense diets to late-pregnant dairy cows elevated the dry matter (p energy intake (p energy balance (p energy-dense feeding prepartum compared with primiparous cows, and parity-related differences in the transition from late pregnancy to lactation were obvious pre- and postpartum. The supplementation with 24 g NA did not reveal any effect on energy metabolism. This study clearly showed that energy-dense feeding prepartum did not result in metabolic imbalances postpartum in multiparous and primiparous cows not selected for high BCS. A genetic predisposition for an anabolic metabolic status as indicated by high BCS may be crucial for developing production diseases at the onset of lactation.

  5. Development of the archean crust in the medina mountain area, wind river range, wyoming (U.S.A.) (United States)

    Koesterer, M.E.; Frost, C.D.; Frost, B.R.; Hulsebosch, T.P.; Bridgwater, D.; Worl, R.G.


    Evidence for an extensive Archean crustal history in the Wind River Range is preserved in the Medina Mountain area in the west-central part of the range. The oldest rocks in the area are metasedimentary, mafic, and ultramafic blocks in a migmatite host. The supracrustal rocks of the Medina Mountain area (MMS) are folded into the migmatites, and include semi-pelitic and pelitic gneisses, and mafic rocks of probable volcanic origin. Mafic dikes intrude the older migmatites but not the MMS, suggesting that the MMS are distinctly younger than the supracrustal rocks in the migmatites. The migmatites and the MMS were engulfed by the late Archean granite of the Bridger, Louis Lake, and Bears Ears batholiths, which constitutes the dominant rock of the Wind River Range. Isotopic data available for the area include Nd crustal residence ages from the MMS which indicate that continental crust existed in the area at or before 3.4 Ga, but the age of the older supracrustal sequence is not yet known. The upper age of the MMS is limited by a 2.7 Ga RbSr age of the Bridger batholith, which was emplaced during the waning stages of the last regional metamorphism. The post-tectonic Louis Lake and Bears Ears batholiths have ages of 2.6 and 2.5 Ga, respectively (Stuckless et al., 1985). At least three metamorphic events are recorded in the area: (1) an early regional granulite event (M1) that affected only the older inclusions within the migmatites, (2) a second regional amphibolite event (M2) that locally reached granulite facies conditions, and (3) a restricted, contact granulite facies event (M3) caused by the intrusion of charnockitic melts associated with the late Archean plutons. Results from cation exchange geobarometers and geothermometers yield unreasonablu low pressures and temperatures, suggesting resetting during the long late Archean thermal evenn. ?? 1987.

  6. Comparison of Chamcham manufactured from cow milk and buffalo milk


    Haque, M A; M. H. Rashid; Kajal, M.F.I.; Istiak, M.S.


    This experiment was conducted to study quality of Chamcham manufactured from cow milk and to compare it with Chamcham manufactured from buffalo milk and mixture of cow and buffalo milk. Three types of Chamcham were prepared from cow milk(A), buffalo milk(B) and 50% cow +50% buffalo milk(C).In this experiment the quality of prepared Chamcham were evaluated with the help of chemical test. The moisture, total solids, protein, fat, ash and carbohydrate contents of cow milk and buffalo milk Chamch...

  7. Tunneling nanotubes and gap junctions–their role in long-range intercellular communication during development, health, and disease conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ariazi, J. (Jennifer); Benowitz, A. (Andrew); De Biasi, V. (Vern); M.L. den Boer (Monique); Cherqui, S. (Stephanie); Cui, H. (Haifeng); Douillet, N. (Nathalie); Eugenin, E.A. (Eliseo A.); Favre, D. (David); Goodman, S. (Spencer); Gousset, K. (Karine); Hanein, D. (Dorit); Israel, D.I. (David I.); Kimura, S. (Shunsuke); Kirkpatrick, R.B. (Robert B.); Kuhn, N. (Nastaran); Jeong, C. (Claire); Lou, E. (Emil); Mailliard, R. (Robbie); Maio, S. (Stephen); Okafo, G. (George); Osswald, M. (Matthias); Pasquier, J. (Jennifer); R. Polak (Roel); Pradel, G. (Gabriele); B. de Rooij (Bob); Schaeffer, P. (Peter); Skeberdis, V.A. (Vytenis A.); Smith, I.F. (Ian F.); Tanveer, A. (Ahmad); Volkmann, N. (Niels); Wu, Z. (Zhenhua); Zurzolo, C. (Chiara)


    textabstractCell-to-cell communication is essential for the organization, coordination, and development of cellular networks and multi-cellular systems. Intercellular communication is mediated by soluble factors (including growth factors, neurotransmitters, and cytokines/chemokines), gap junctions,

  8. Volatile Organic Compound (VOC) Emissions from Dairy Cows and Their Waste (United States)

    Shaw, S.; Holzinger, R.; Mitloehner, F.; Goldstein, A.


    Biogenic VOCs are typically defined as those directly emitted from plants, but approximately 6% of global net primary production is consumed by cattle that carry out enteric fermentation and then emit VOCs that could also be considered biogenic. Current regulatory estimates suggest that dairy cattle in central California emit VOCs at rates comparable to those from passenger vehicles in the region, and thus contribute significantly to the extreme non-attainment of ozone standards there. We report PTR-MS measurements of ammonia and VOCs, and cavity-enhanced-absorption gas analyzer (Los Gatos Research, Inc.) measurements of CH4, emitted from dairy cattle in various stages of pregnancy/lactation and their waste. Experiments were conducted in chambers at UC Davis that simulate freestall cow housing conditions. CH4 fluxes ranged from 125-374 lb/cow/year. The compounds with the highest fluxes from '3 cows+waste' treatments were: ammonia (1-18), methanol (0-2.3), acetone+propanal (0.2-0.7), dimethylsulfide (0-0.4), and mass 109 (likely ID = p-cresol; 0-0.3) in lb/cow/year. Mass 60 (likely ID = trimethylamine) and acetic acid were also abundant. There were 10s of additional compounds with detectable, but small, emissions. A few compounds that were likely emitted (i.e. ethanol, formaldehyde, and dimethylamine) were not quantified by the PTR-MS. The total flux for all measured organic gases (TOG = CH4 + PTR-MS VOCs(including acetone+propanal)) averaged 246±45 lb/cow/year for '3 cows+waste' treatments, and was dominated by methane (>98%). TOG flux for 'waste only' treatments averaged 1.1±0.1 lb/cow/year, and was instead dominated by VOC (>84%). The PTR-MS VOCs as a percent of TOG (0.6±0.2%) emitted from '3 cows+waste' treatments in chamber conditions was a factor of 10 smaller than that currently estimated by the California Air Resources Board. In addition, the ozone forming potentials of the most abundant VOCs are only about 10% those of typical combustion or plant

  9. Design and development of Stirling engines for stationary power generation applications in the 500 to 3000 horsepower range (United States)


    Initial work on the design and development of Stirling engines for stationary integrated energy systems is reported. Information is included on a market assessment, design methodology, evaluation of engine thermodynamic performance, and preliminary system design. It is concluded that Stirling engines employing clean fossil fuels cannot compete with diesel engines. However, combustion technology exists for the successful burning of coal derived fuels in a large stationary Stirling engine. High efficiency is predicted for such an engine and further development work is recommended.

  10. Development of a Lidar System Based on an Infrared RangeFinder Sensor and SlipRing Mechanism


    Bayar, Gokhan; Uludag, Alparslan


    Abstract-Lidar systems are one of the most important sensor infrastructures in autonomous vehicles and mobile robots. They are used for achieving indoor and outdoor mapping purposes. In the scope of this study, a new perspective to develop a lidar system is proposed. The system developed is constructed based on a low-cost infrared rangefinder sensor, low-cost slipring mechanism designed and manufactured, dc motor and microprocessor. The rangefinder sensor is mounted to a head-structure actuat...

  11. Effects of Climate Change, Urban Development, and Threatened and Endangered Species Management on Army Training Capabilities: Firing Ranges (United States)


    ER D C/ CE RL T R- 16 -2 9 Integrated Climate Assessment for Army Enterprise Planning Effects of Climate Change, Urban Development, and... Climate Assessment for Army Enterprise Planning ERDC/CERL TR-16-29 January 2016 Effects of Climate Change, Urban Development, and Threatened and...consequences of changes to climate and to urban growth. This study focused on a limited set of installations distributed across several geo- graphical

  12. Range of soil and climate characteristics appropriate for Pistacia atlantica forest development and rehabilitation (case study: Fars province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nejabat Masoud


    Full Text Available Investigation of ranges of soil and climate characteristics appropriate for the tolerant species: Pistacia atlantica subsp. mutica according to field study was the main objective of this research. This study was carried out based on random sampling across 20×20 km wild pistachio forests of Fars province (Iran. Results showed that mountainous and hilly lands are the main land types that pistachio species have evolved on. Statistical analysis of physical and chemical soil characteristics based on principal component analysis (PCA method showed that wide ranges in soil characteristics, even up to about 40% differentiation in some measured properties, did not restricts this subspecies natural growth. The main growth limiting factors were shallow soil depth and light soil texture that decreased storage capacity of soil moisture, necessary for wild pistachios survival during drought and long dry periods. Climatic elements were analysed through the same approach and showed that temperature, precipitation and wind with overall variability of 85.9% were the most effectual factors. Pistacia atlantica subsp. mutica is one of the species refractory to various soil conditions and adapted to weak soils for the establishment and rehabilitation of forests in semi-arid regions.

  13. Relationships between conception rate in Holstein heifers and cows and milk yield at various stages of lactation. (United States)

    Hagiya, K; Terawaki, Y; Yamazaki, T; Nagamine, Y; Itoh, F; Yamaguchi, S; Abe, H; Gotoh, Y; Kawahara, T; Masuda, Y; Suzuki, M


    We investigated the relationships between conception rates (CRs) at first service in Japanese Holstein heifers (i.e. animals that had not yet had their first calf) and cows and their test-day (TD) milk yields. Data included records of artificial insemination (AI) for heifers and cows that had calved for the first time between 2000 and 2008 and their TD milk yields at 6 through 305 days in milk (DIM) from first through third lactations. CR was defined as a binary trait for which first AI was a failure or success. A threshold-linear animal model was applied to estimate genetic correlations between CRs of heifers or cows and TD milk yield at various lactation stages. Two-trait genetic analyses were performed for every combination of CR and TD milk yield by using the Bayesian method with Gibbs sampling. The posterior means of the heritabilities of CR were 0.031 for heifers, 0.034 for first-lactation cows and 0.028 for second-lactation cows. Heritabilities for TD milk yield increased from 0.324 to 0.433 with increasing DIM but decreased slightly after 210 DIM during first lactation. These heritabilities from the second and third lactations were higher during late stages of lactation than during early stages. Posterior means of the genetic correlations between heifer CR and all TD yields were positive (range, 0.082 to 0.287), but those between CR of cows and milk yields during first or second lactation were negative (range, -0.121 to -0.250). Therefore, during every stage of lactation, selection in the direction of increasing milk yield may reduce CR in cows. The genetic relationships between CR and lactation curve shape were quite weak, because the genetic correlations between CR and TD milk yield were constant during the lactation period.

  14. Reproductive hormone and ovarian changes in cows with ovarian cysts. (United States)

    Kesler, D J; Garverick, H A; Caudle, A B; Elmore, R G; Youngquist, R S; Bierschwal, C J


    Changes in ovaries and concentrations of reproductive hormones were monitored for 30 days in eight dairy cows with ovarian cysts. Diagnosis of ovarian cysts was based upon detection of single or multiple follicular structures on one or both ovaries of at least 2.5 cm in diameter twice at 10 days apart. Eleven days following the initial diagnosis (day 0) cows were bled at .5-h intervals for 4 h. Beginning the next day eight blood samples were collected from each cow at 4-day intervals. Ovarian examinations were subsequent to blood collection on days 1 to 29. Although concentrations of luteinizing hormone in plasma were variable within cows, only four cows had maximum concentrations greater than 3.0 ng/ml at any time. During the 29 day interval concentrations of progesterone and estradiol-17 beta were not only different among cows but also variable within cows. Over the 29 days, only one cow had mean concentrations of progesterone in plasma greater than 1.0 ng/ml, but concentrations were 1.0 ng/ml or greater in seven of the cows in at least one of the eight plasma samples. Ovarian cycles were not reestablished in any of the cows. However, cystic structures regressed in six cows but only in conjunction with the formation of new ovarian cysts.

  15. Effects of diet forage proportion on maintenance energy requirement and the efficiency of metabolizable energy use for lactation by lactating dairy cows. (United States)

    Dong, L F; Ferris, C P; McDowell, D A; Yan, T


    The objective of the present study was to examine the effect of dietary forage proportion (FP) on metabolizable energy (ME) requirement for maintenance (MEm) and the efficiency of ME use for lactation (kl) in lactating dairy cows. Data used were derived from 32 calorimetric chamber experiments undertaken at our institute between 1992 and 2010, including data from 818 Holstein-Friesian cows (HF), 50 Norwegian Red cows, and 62 crossbred cows (Jersey × HF or Norwegian Red × HF). Animals were offered forage-only rations (n=66) or forage and concentrate rations (n=864) with FP ranging from 18 to 100% (dry matter basis). The effect of FP was evaluated by dividing the whole data set into 4 groups according to the FP ranges, categorized as FP forage input systems. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Uterine bacterial flora in postpartum Danish Holstein dairy cows determined using DNA-based fingerprinting: Correlation to uterine condition and calving management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elkjær, K.; Ancker, M.-L.; Gustafsson, H.


    The overall aim of this study was to describe uterine bacterial flora during the postpartum period in Danish Holstein cows using the Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (T-RFLP) method. This method produces a pattern of nucleic acid fragments from the microorganisms present, reflect......The overall aim of this study was to describe uterine bacterial flora during the postpartum period in Danish Holstein cows using the Terminal Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (T-RFLP) method. This method produces a pattern of nucleic acid fragments from the microorganisms present...... included, and for each cow calving management was recorded. Cows were clinically examined on average 8 (range 0–19) and 28 (range 22–38) days after calving, and a uterine sample was taken for bacterial identification using T-RFLP. Milk samples were taken weekly for progesterone analysis. Bacteria were...

  17. Impact of cow size on dry matter intake, residual feed intake, metabolic response, and cow performance. (United States)

    Walker, R S; Martin, R M; Gentry, G T; Gentry, L R


    Thirty-eight Angus-cross beef cows were used to evaluate differences in DMI, residual feed intake (RFI), and endocrine markers on the basis of cow size and RFI ranking during 2 stages of production. Cows housed in individual pens (2.2 × 9.1 m) were fed, over a 70-d feeding period, 30% Bermuda grass hay and 70% ryegrass baleage diet during lactation (LACT) and a 100% ryegrass hay diet during postweaning (NOLACT). Individual daily feed intake, BW, and BCS were recorded, and hip height was used to determine frame score (FS). Feed intake was used to calculate RFI for each cow, and cow was the experimental unit. Blood samples were obtained on d 0 and 70 and were analyzed for glucose, insulin, leptin, triiodothyronine (T3), and thyroxine (T4). Cows were assigned to a light (LIT) or heavy (HEV) BW groups on the basis of mean BW at the beginning of the LACT period. On the basis of RFI values for each feeding period, cows were placed into a negative (NEG; RFI 0.00) RFI group and into a low (LOW; ≤0.2 SD mean RFI), medium (MED; within ±0.19 SD), or high (HI; ≥0.2 SD mean RFI) RFI group. During LACT, DMI was 4.8% greater (P = 0.03) and FS was greater (P 0.05) among BW groups; however, DMI was 6.5% and 8.9% greater (P Change in BCS was greater (P ≤ 0.03) in higher RFI cows in both RFI groups only in the NOLACT period. Differences in T3 and T4 on d 0 and 70 were 25% and 15% greater (P ≤ 0.04) for the LIT BW group compared with the HEV BW group. A negative correlation existed (P ≤ 0.04) between BW group and T3 and T4, as well as leptin and RFI (P = 0.03). Although cow BW was independent of RFI and T3 and T4 levels tended to be greater in lighter BW cows, DMI was consistently greater for cows with heavier BW and higher RFIvalues.

  18. Acute phase protein concentrations in serum and milk from healthy cows, cows with clinical mastitis and cows with extramammary inflammatory conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, B.H.; Jacobsen, S.; Andersen, P.H.


    The concentrations of the two acute phase proteins, serum amyloid A and haptoglobin, in serum and milk were compared in 10 cows with clinical mastitis, 11 cows with extramammary inflammatory conditions and 10 clinically healthy control cows. The concentrations of both acute phase proteins were...... higher in the serum and milk of the cows with mastitis than in the cows in the other two groups. Four of the cows with extramammary inflammatory conditions had serum amyloid A concentrations in serum above 100 mug/ml, but negligible concentrations in milk, indicating that a pathogen must be present...... in the mammary gland for serum amyloid A to accumulate in milk. The acute phase protein concentrations in milk increased significantly with increasing somatic cell count, suggesting that they may be indicators of the severity of an infection....

  19. Oestrus Detection in Dairy Cows Using Likelihood Ratio Tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jónsson, Ragnar Ingi; Björgvinssin, Trausti; Blanke, Mogens


    This paper addresses detection of oestrus in dairy cows using methods from statistical change detection. The activity of the cows was measured by a necklace attached sensor. Statistical properties of the activity measure were investigated. Using data sets from 17 cows, diurnal activity variations...... were identified for the ensemble and for the individual cows. A diurnal filter was adapted to remove the daily variation of the individual. Change detection algorithms were designed for the actual probability densities, which were Rayleigh distributed with individual parameters for each cow....... A generalized likelihood ratio algorithm was derived for the compensated activity signal and detection algorithm was tested on 2323 days of activity, which contained 42 oestruses on 12 cows in total. The application of statistical change detection methods is a new approach for detecting oestrus in dairy cows...

  20. Diversity and Succession of Bacterial Communities in the Uterine Fluid of Postpartum Metritic, Endometritic and Healthy Dairy Cows (United States)

    Santos, Thiago M. A.; Bicalho, Rodrigo C.


    The diversity of the uterine bacterial composition in dairy cows is still poorly understood, although the emerging picture has shown to be increasingly complex. Understanding the complexity and ecology of microorganisms in the uterus of postpartum dairy cows is critical for developing strategies to block their action in reproductive disorders, such as metritis/endometritis. Here, we used PCR-Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) and DNA pyrosequencing to provide a comprehensive description of the uterine bacterial diversity and compare its succession in healthy, metritic and endometritic Holstein dairy cows at three intervals following calving. Samples were collected from 16 dairy cows housed in a dairy farm located in upstate New York. PCR-DGGE revealed a complex profile with extensive differences in the community structure. With few exceptions, clustering analysis grouped samples from cows presenting the same health status. Analysis of >65,000 high-quality 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the uterine bacterial consortia, regardless of the health status, is mainly composed of members of the phyla Bacteroidetes, Fusobacteria, Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, and Tenericutes. In addition to these co-dominant phyla, sequences from Spirochaetes, Synergistetes, and Actinobacteria appear less frequently. It is possible that some sequences detected in the uterine fluid resulted from the presence of fecal or vaginal contaminants. Overall, the bacterial core community was different in uterine fluid of healthy cows, when compared to cows suffering from postpartum diseases, and the phylogenetic diversity in all the combined samples changed gradually over time. Particularly at the 34–36 days postpartum (DPP), the core community seemed to be specific for each health status. Our finding reveals that the uterine microbiota in dairy cows varies according with health status and DPP. Also, it adds further support to the hypothesis that there is uterine contamination with

  1. Diversity and succession of bacterial communities in the uterine fluid of postpartum metritic, endometritic and healthy dairy cows.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago M A Santos

    Full Text Available The diversity of the uterine bacterial composition in dairy cows is still poorly understood, although the emerging picture has shown to be increasingly complex. Understanding the complexity and ecology of microorganisms in the uterus of postpartum dairy cows is critical for developing strategies to block their action in reproductive disorders, such as metritis/endometritis. Here, we used PCR-Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE and DNA pyrosequencing to provide a comprehensive description of the uterine bacterial diversity and compare its succession in healthy, metritic and endometritic Holstein dairy cows at three intervals following calving. Samples were collected from 16 dairy cows housed in a dairy farm located in upstate New York. PCR-DGGE revealed a complex profile with extensive differences in the community structure. With few exceptions, clustering analysis grouped samples from cows presenting the same health status. Analysis of >65,000 high-quality 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the uterine bacterial consortia, regardless of the health status, is mainly composed of members of the phyla Bacteroidetes, Fusobacteria, Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, and Tenericutes. In addition to these co-dominant phyla, sequences from Spirochaetes, Synergistetes, and Actinobacteria appear less frequently. It is possible that some sequences detected in the uterine fluid resulted from the presence of fecal or vaginal contaminants. Overall, the bacterial core community was different in uterine fluid of healthy cows, when compared to cows suffering from postpartum diseases, and the phylogenetic diversity in all the combined samples changed gradually over time. Particularly at the 34-36 days postpartum (DPP, the core community seemed to be specific for each health status. Our finding reveals that the uterine microbiota in dairy cows varies according with health status and DPP. Also, it adds further support to the hypothesis that there is uterine

  2. Predicting manure volatile solid output of lactating dairy cows. (United States)

    Appuhamy, J A D R N; Moraes, L E; Wagner-Riddle, C; Casper, D P; Kebreab, E


    Organic matter (OM) in livestock manure consisting of biodegradable and nonbiodegradable fractions is known as volatile solids (VS). According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Tier 2 guidelines, methane produced by stored manure is determined based on VS. However, only biodegradable OM generates methane production. Therefore, estimates of biodegradable VS (dVS; dVS = VS - lignin) would yield better estimates of methane emissions from manure. The objective of the study was to develop mathematical models for estimating VS and dVS outputs of lactating dairy cows. Dry matter intake, dietary nutrient contents, milk yield and composition, body weight, and days in milk were used as potential predictor variables. Multicollinearity, model simplicity, and random study effects were taken into account during model development that used 857 VS and dVS measurements made on individual cows (kg/cow per day) from 43 metabolic trials conducted at the USDA Energy and Metabolism laboratory in Beltsville, Maryland. The new models and the IPCC Tier 2 model were evaluated with an independent data set including 209 VS and dVS measurements (kg/cow per day) from 2 metabolic trials conducted at the University of California, Davis. Organic matter intake (kg/d) and dietary crude protein and neutral detergent fiber contents (% of dry matter) were significantly associated with VS. A new model including these variables fitted best to data. When evaluated with independent data, the new model had a root mean squared prediction error as a percentage of average observed value (RMSPE) of 12.5%. Mean and slope biases were negligible at IPCC Tier 2 model had a RMSPE of 13.7% and a notable mean bias for VS to be overpredicted by 0.4 kg/cow per day. A separate model including OM intake as well as dietary crude protein and neutral detergent fiber contents as predictor variables fitted best to dVS data and performed well on independent data (RMSPE = 12.7%). The Cornell Net

  3. Effects of different dosages of propylene glycol in dry cows and cows in early lactation. (United States)

    Maurer, Michaela; Peinhopf, Walter; Gottschalk, Jutta; Einspanier, Almut; Koeller, Gabor; Wittek, Thomas


    In this Research Paper we hypothesised that the temporary insulin resistance seen during the transition period in dairy cows may cause significant differences in the efficacy of PG at different sampling periods and that in some cases this effect will be dose dependent. Eighty four sampling sets were generated by studying 7 multiparous Holstein cows repeatedly at 4 sampling periods of 3 d length (dry cows: days 40, 39 and 38 antepartum; close up cows: days 10, 9 and 8 antepartum; fresh cows: days 3, 4 and 5 post-partum; lactating cows: days 38, 39 and 40 post-partum). On each of these days 3 h after morning feeding propylene glycol was drenched in different dosages of 100, 300 or 500 ml once per day (cross over study). The different doses were applied in an alternating order (Latin square). Blood samples were taken before, every 30 min up to 4 h, after 6 and 12 h after PG application. Following parameters have been measured: insulin, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), betahydroxybutyrate (BHB), bilirubin, cholesterol, potassium, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and glutamate dehydrogenase (GLDH). Revised Quantitative Insulin Sensitivity Check Index (RQUICKI) was calculated. It was found that glucose, insulin, NEFA, BHB, bilirubin and potassium concentrations were influenced differently by the three defined dosages of propylene glycol at four different sampling periods. Whereas RQUICKI, cholesterol, AST and GLDH did not differ between the sampling periods and treatments. The major results of the study are that the effect of PG is dose-dependent and that the effect of PG is depending on the time of application according to calving. It can be concluded that in fresh cows higher dosages are necessary to provoke similar effects in comparison to dry, close up and lactating cows. Although the study did not compare to topdressing of PG from the results it is reasonable to believe that bolus application of a specific PG volume is necessary to provoke the effect.

  4. Prepartum dietary energy source fed to beef cows: II. Effects on progeny postnatal growth, glucose tolerance, and carcass composition. (United States)

    Radunz, A E; Fluharty, F L; Relling, A E; Felix, T L; Shoup, L M; Zerby, H N; Loerch, S C


    Mature Angus-cross beef cows (n = 228) were used to evaluate effects of prepartum dietary energy source on postnatal growth and carcass composition of progeny in a 2-yr study. Starting at approximately 160 d of gestation, cows were fed diets consisting of 1 of 3 primary energy sources: grass hay (HY), corn (CN), or dried corn distillers grains with solubles (DG). The CN and DG diets were limit-fed to achieve similar energy intakes as cows fed HY. Following parturition, cows were fed a common diet and managed as a single group. Calves were weaned at an average of 185 ± 6 d of age and backgrounded for 28 d. A subset of progeny (n = 134) was individually fed a common finishing diet until slaughter, when each calf reached 1.2 ± 0.05 cm of backfat. A glucose tolerance test (GTT) was conducted in year 2 on 4 calves/treatment after 41 and 111 d on the finishing diet (DOF). Calf birth weights were greater (P = 0.002) in calves from cows fed CN and DG than calves from cows fed HY, and weaning BW (P = 0.08) was less for calves from cows fed HY vs. CN. Receiving BW, final BW, and HCW did not differ (P ≥ 0.16) among treatments. No difference (P ≥ 0.28) in ADG, morbidity, and mortality from birth to slaughter was observed among treatments. In response to a GTT, increased DOF resulted in greater (P ≤ 0.005) fasting insulin, faster glucose disappearance rate, and greater insulin:glucose area under the curve ratio. Glucose disappearance rate was greater (P = 0.01) in calves from cows fed CN than in calves from cows fed HY or DG. A greater initial insulin response (P = 0.005) was observed in calves from cows fed CN or DG than in calves from cows fed HY. Carcass traits used to measure yield grade did not differ (P ≥ 0.19) among treatments. Calves from dams fed CN had the lowest marbling score (P = 0.03) and intramuscular fat content (P = 0.07). These results indicate that prepartum maternal dietary energy source can alter fetal adipose tissue development and insulin


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kornyat S.


    Full Text Available For the correction of reproductive function of cows with ovarian hypofunction practices use a number of hormones. Recently, to stimulate reproductive function using herbal medicines that have gonadotropic effect or stimulate secretion of steroid hormones who try to use to increase fertility. Therefore, we carried out an attempt to develop a method of regulation of reproductive function of the ovaries of cows using combination therapies that can provide effective treatment by studying the biochemical parameters of animals. The cows were divided depending on the treatment to control and two experimental groups of 5 animals in each group. Groups were formed by the following treatment regimens indicated pathology. Cows control group treated by next scheme: day 1 — intramuscular injection drug in vitro at a dose of 10 ml; day 2 —PMSG intramuscular administration of the drug at a dose of 500 IU; day 3 —intramuscular injection drug Surfahon at a dose of 50 mg. Cows from experimental group 1 was injected intramuscularly liposomal drug based on herbal (Rhodiola rosea, Salvia; Animals from second experimental group were injected intramuscularly liposomal drug based on phyto-substances (Rhodiola rosea, Salvia with gonadotropin-releasing hormone (Surfahon. Analysis of biochemical parameters of blood serum of cows with ovarian hypofunction found low concentrations of estradiol-17-β and progesterone. Between the control and experimental groups concentration of progesterone and estradiol-17-β differ within 10%, which indicates the same level of disease in all animals selected. Level carotene, ascorbic acid and cholesterol in all groups was within the physiological norm and differed slightly. It was established that the treatment of cows with hypofunction ovaries in the experimental group 1 progesterone level 7 days after treatment was 11.5, and 2 - on 41,4% (p <0,01 higher than in the control group animals, indicating that the revitalization of the

  6. Respiratory heat loss of Holstein cows in a tropical environment (United States)

    Campos Maia, Alex Sandro; Gomes Dasilva, Roberto; Battiston Loureiro, Cintia Maria


    In order to develop statistical models to predict respiratory heat loss in dairy cattle using simple physiological and environmental measurements, 15 Holstein cows were observed under field conditions in a tropical environment, in which the air temperature reached up to 40°C. The measurements of latent and sensible heat loss from the respiratory tract of the animals were made by using a respiratory mask. The results showed that under air temperatures between 10 and 35°C sensible heat loss by convection decreased from 8.24 to 1.09 W m-2, while the latent heat loss by evaporation increased from 1.03 to 56.51 W m-2. The evaporation increased together with the air temperature in almost a linear fashion until 20°C, but it became increasingly high as the air temperature rose above 25°C. Convection was a mechanism of minor importance for respiratory heat transfer. In contrast, respiratory evaporation was an effective means of thermoregulation for Holsteins in a hot environment. Mathematical models were developed to predict both the sensible and latent heat loss from the respiratory tract in Holstein cows under field conditions, based on measurements of the ambient temperature, and other models were developed to predict respiration rate, tidal volume, mass flow rate and expired air temperature as functions of the ambient temperature and other variables.

  7. Technical and economic feasibility of development innovative technological solutions for expansion the adjustment range of high-power CCP (United States)

    Arakelyan, E. K.; Andryushin, A. V.; Burtsev, S. Y.; Andryushin, K. A.


    The analysis of technical and parametric constraints on the adjustment range of highpower CCP and recommended technological solutions in the technical literature for their elimination. Established that in the conditions of toughening the requirements for economy, reliability and maneuverability on the part of the system operator with the participation of CCP in control the frequency and power in the power system, existing methods do not ensure the fulfillment of these requirements. The current situation in the energy sector — the lack of highly manoeuvrable power equipment leads to the need participate in control of power consumption diagrams for all types of power plants, including CCP, although initially they were intended primarily for basic loads. Large-scale research conducted at the department of Automated control systems of technological processes, showed the possibility of a significant expansion of the adjustment range of CCP when it operating in the condensing mode and in the heating mode. The report presents the main results of these research for example the CCP-450 and CCP-450T. Various technological solutions are considered: when CCP in the condensation mode — the use of bypass steam distribution schemes, the transfer of a part of the steam turbine into a low-steam mode; when CCP operation in the heating mode — bypass steam distribution and the transfer CCP to gas turbine unit — power heating plants mode with the transfer the steam turbine to the motor mode. Data on the evaluation of the technical and economic feasibility of the proposed innovative technological solutions are presented in comparison with the methods used to solve this problem, which are used in practice, such as passing through the failures of the electric load graphs by transferring the CCP to the mode of operation with incomplete equipment. When comparing, both the economics, and the maneuverability and reliability of the equipment are considered.

  8. Development of the III-V Barrier PhotoDetector Heterostructures for Spectral Range Above 10 microns (United States)


    efficiency of photodetectors with Ga-free absorbers doped with Be to free hole concentration levels of mid 1016 cm-3. 9. The graded GaInSb metamorphic...pursued. The developed GaInSb and AlInSb graded buffers served as a platform for growth of strain-free low-dislocation-density bulk InAsSb layers. The...materials using metamorphic buffers on GaSb substrates was pursued. The developed GaInSb and AlInSb graded buffers served as a platform for growth of

  9. Improved forage strategies for high-yielding dairy cows in Vietnam : report of a workshop

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouters, A.P.; Lee, van der J.


    This report presents results of the workshop "Improved forage strategies for high-yielding dairy cows in Vietnam" which was held with Vietnamese stakeholders on January 17-18, 2013 in Ho Chi Minh City as part of the project "Forage and Grass Production for Dairy Development in Vietnam" funded by the

  10. Effect of sensor systems for cow management on milk production, somatic cell count, and reproduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steeneveld, W.; Vernooij, J.C.M.; Hogeveen, H.


    To improve management on dairy herds, sensor systems have been developed that can measure physiological, behavioral, and production indicators on individual cows. It is not known whether using sensor systems also improves measures of health and production in dairy herds. The objective of this study

  11. Effect of sensor systems for cow management on milk production, somatic cell count and reproduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steeneveld, W.; Vernooij, J.C.M.; Hogeveen, H.


    To improve management on dairy herds, sensor systems have been developed that can measure physiological, behavioral, and production indicators on individual cows. It is not known whether using sensor systems also improves measures of health and production in dairy herds. The objective of this study

  12. Lysis of mastitis pathogens isolated from dairy cow milk samples by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To avoid the use of broad spectrum antibiotics which can induce antibiotic resistance, we developed a recombinant lysostaphin with high purity against mastitis pathogens isolated from dairy cow milk. The gene encoding for mature lysostaphin peptide was cloned into an Escherichia coli expression systems, pET28a, ...

  13. The impact of subclinical ketosis in dairy cows on greenhouse gas emissions of milk production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mostert, P.F.; Bokkers, E.A.M.; Middelaar, van C.E.; Boer, de I.J.M.


    This study aimed to estimate the impact of subclinical ketosis (SCK) and related diseases in dairy cows on greenhouse gas
    (GHG) emissions of milk production. A dynamic stochastic Monte Carlo simulation model was developed and combined
    with life cycle assessment (LCA) to quantify the impact

  14. Ecology and development of Douglas-fir seedlings and associated plant species in a Coast Range plantation (United States)

    Philip M. McDonald; Gary O. Fiddler


    On an average site in northern coastal California, a tanoak-mixed shrub community was given several treatments (manual release one, two, and three times; a combination chainsaw and cut surface chemical treatment; two foliar chemicals; and a tank mix of the two chemicals) to study its development over an 11-year period in both a broadcast-burned (untreated control) and...

  15. Home in the heat: Dramatic seasonal variation in home range of desert golden eagles informs management for renewable energy development (United States)

    Melissa Braham; Tricia Miller; Adam E. Duerr; Michael Lanzone; Amy Fesnock; Larry LaPre; Daniel Driscoll; Todd. Katzner


    Renewable energy is expanding quickly with sometimes dramatic impacts to species and ecosystems. To understand the degree to which sensitive species may be impacted by renewable energy projects, it is informative to know how much space individuals use and how that space may overlap with planned development. We used global positioning system-global system for mobile...

  16. New guidelines for managing cow's milk allergy in infants. (United States)

    Meyer, Rosan


    The prevalence of allergic disease has increased markedly over the last 50 years. Food allergy usually manifests in early childhood as part of the so-called atopic march and most commonly includes one or more of the following foods: cow's milk, hen's egg, soy, peanuts and tree nuts, wheat, sesame seed, kiwi fruit and seafood. In the UK about 2% of infants develop cow's milk protein allergy (CMPA), but as many as 15% of infants present with symptoms suggestive of an adverse reaction to cow's milk protein. The diagnosis of CMPA is based on one or more of the following: a detailed clinical history, allergy test results (skin prick testing [SPT] and/or specific immunoglobulin E [IgE]) and, if required, supervised incremental milk challenges. The majority of UK primary care centres do not have access to these tests and may also be unfamiliar with the interpretation or results. In addition, they do not have the facilities for supervised food challenges. Empirical treatment is often required pending confirmation of allergy or referral to a specialist centre, but requires clear guidelines. No consensus guidelines currently exist for the diagnosis and management of CMPA in the UK. An international task force has recently published proposed guidelines for the management of CMPA. These provide separate algorithms covering the diagnosis and management of CMPA for both breast-fed and formula-fed infants and discuss the use of hypoallergenic formulae, elimination diets and diagnostic tests. Revisions and adaptations for the UK market are required and are discussed in this article.

  17. Risk factors for subclinical and clinical ketosis and association with production parameters in dairy cows in the Netherlands. (United States)

    Vanholder, T; Papen, J; Bemers, R; Vertenten, G; Berge, A C B


    Ketosis is associated with many transition cow diseases and the subclinical form has been found to be a common condition in high-producing dairy cows. The objectives of this field study in the Netherlands were (1) to determine risk factors for subclinical ketosis [SCK; 1.2-2.9mmol of β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA)/L of serum] and clinical ketosis (CK: ≥3.0mmol of BHBA/L of serum) at 7 to 14 d in milk and (2) to assess the association of SCK and CK with production parameters at the first dairy herd improvement (DHI) testing. Twenty-three dairies were enrolled by a local veterinary practice from 2009 to 2010, and 1,715 cows were screened for ketosis by measuring serum BHBA concentrations at 7 to 14 d in milk. Overall, 47.2% of cows had SCK and 11.6% had CK. Mixed generalized logit models with a random effect of herd were used to evaluate cow level factors associated with SCK and CK. The associations of SCK and CK with milk production parameters were tested using mixed linear models with a random effect of herd. Cows at a moderate (3.25-3.75) or fat (≥4) body condition score before calving were more likely to develop SCK and CK than thin (body condition score≤3.0) cows. The risk for developing SCK was higher in parity 2 and older cows compared with heifers, whereas for CK only, parity ≥3 cows had a higher risk. The quarter of the year in which a cow calved was associated with the risk for SCK and CK. For SCK quarter 1 (January-March) and quarter 2 (April-June), and for CK quarter 1, quarter 2, and quarter 3 (July-September) all increased the risk of development of the condition compared with quarter 4 (October-December). An increased yield of colostrum at first milking was associated with increasing risk for SCK and CK. Prolonged previous lactation length and dry period length were both associated with increased odds for SCK and CK. Subclinical ketosis and CK were associated with a higher milk yield, a higher milk fat percentage, and a lower milk protein percentage

  18. Role of mast cells in cow metritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Guo-Qing


    Full Text Available Introduction: Bovine postpartum metritis causes great losses. Mast cell (MC-released mediators participate in uterine inflammation and immune response, but their role in postpartum metritis in cows has not been reported. This study investigated the effect of endometrial MC on the disorder.

  19. Role of mast cells in cow metritis


    Wang Guo-Qing; Hou Jin-Long; Huang Huan-Yu; Yuan Chao-Wen


    Introduction: Bovine postpartum metritis causes great losses. Mast cell (MC)-released mediators participate in uterine inflammation and immune response, but their role in postpartum metritis in cows has not been reported. This study investigated the effect of endometrial MC on the disorder.

  20. Cow's Eye Dissection in the Physics Lab. (United States)

    Lapp, David R.; Keenan, James E.


    Proposes the science demonstration of dissecting a cow's eye to integrate biology and physics in the study of optics and lenses. Reviews the anatomy of the eye, describes the visual process and covers topics as index of refraction of the cornea, microscopic receptors, the lens, and the retina. (MDH)

  1. Silage alcohols in dairy cow nutrition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raun, Birgitte Marie Løvendahl

    Corn silages with high propanol concentrations has been suspected to cause reduced feed intake and health problems for dairy cows in the post-pattum transition period. With the increasing use of hetero fermentative inoculants to support corn silage fermentation it is likely that silage concentrat...

  2. Automated behaviour monitoring in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mol, de R.M.; Verhoeven, P.H.F.M.; Hogewerf, P.H.; Ipema, A.H.


    Acceleration sensors in a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) were used to monitor the behaviour of dairy cows. The data processing from 3D acceleration into behaviour classification (lying, standing or walking) was based on a two-steps method: first the distinction between lying and standing/walking was

  3. Hepatitis in growth promotor treated cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, M.J.


    Adult female beef cattle found positive for stanozolol in the urine were investigated for liver pathology. In all the animals toxic hepatitis was found, including cholestasis, periportal fibrosis and inflammation, focal necrosis and blood filled lacunae. As no clinical data of the cows were

  4. Modelling extended lactations of dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vargas, B.; Koops, W.J.; Herrero, M.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.


    Nine mathematical models were compared for their ability to predict daily milk yields (n = 294,986) in standard 305-d and extended lactations of dairy cows of Costa Rica. Lactations were classified by parity (first and later), lactation length (9 to 10, 11 to 12, 13 to 14, 15 to 16, and 16 to 17

  5. Association between Lameness and Indicators of Dairy Cow Welfare Based on Locomotion Scoring, Body and Hock Condition, Leg Hygiene and Lying Behavior (United States)

    Ramanoon, Siti Z.; Shaik Mossadeq, Wan Mastura; Mansor, Rozaihan; Syed-Hussain, Sharifah Salmah


    Simple Summary Lameness is a major welfare issue in dairy cows. Locomotion scoring (LS) is mostly used in identifying lame cows based on gait and postural changes. However, lameness shares some important associations with body condition, hock condition, leg hygiene and behavioral changes such as lying behavior. These measures are considered animal-based indicators in assessing welfare in dairy cows. This review discusses lameness as a welfare problem, the use of LS, and the relationship with the aforementioned welfare assessment protocols. Such information could be useful in depicting the impact on cow welfare as well as in reducing the occurrence of lameness in dairy herds. Abstract Dairy cow welfare is an important consideration for optimal production in the dairy industry. Lameness affects the welfare of dairy herds by limiting productivity. Whilst the application of LS systems helps in identifying lame cows, the technique meets with certain constraints, ranging from the detection of mild gait changes to on-farm practical applications. Recent studies have shown that certain animal-based measures considered in welfare assessment, such as body condition, hock condition and leg hygiene, are associated with lameness in dairy cows. Furthermore, behavioural changes inherent in lame cows, especially the comfort in resting and lying down, have been shown to be vital indicators of cow welfare. Highlighting the relationship between lameness and these welfare indicators could assist in better understanding their role, either as risk factors or as consequences of lameness. Nevertheless, since the conditions predisposing a cow to lameness are multifaceted, it is vital to cite the factors that could influence the on-farm practical application of such welfare indicators in lameness studies. This review begins with the welfare consequences of lameness by comparing normal and abnormal gait as well as the use of LS system in detecting lame cows. Animal-based measures related to

  6. Consequences of two or four months of finishing feeding of culled dry dairy cows on carcass characteristics and technological and sensory meat quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, M.; Madsen, N. T.; Bligaard, H. B.


    yield at culling ranging from 1 to 25 kg/d and had LW varying from 330 to 778 kg. Cows were housed in tiestalls and had free access to barley straw and water during a 7-d drying-off period. Cows were allocated to three equal treatment groups based on parity, LW, BCS, and culling reason. A control group...... (C) was slaughtered immediately after drying-off (n=43), a group (F2) was finishing-fed for 63 days (n=41), and a group (F4) was finishing-fed for 126 days (n=41). In the finishing period, cows had free access to a TMR (10.6 MJ ME and 130 g CP per kg of DM). Cows on treatment, F2 and F4 gained 1...... with 1st parity cows, older cows ate 12% more feed, had similar daily gain, were heavier, and had higher BCS and fatness including IMF. The results show that it is possible to dry-off and finish-feed culled dairy cows resulting in larger muscles, increased fatness, improved overall carcass quality...

  7. Sustaining health in faith community nursing practice: emerging processes that support the development of a middle-range theory. (United States)

    Dyess, Susan MacLeod; Chase, Susan K


    This article reveals processes that support theoretical development for holistic nursing in the context of a faith community. The emerging processes enhance the articulation of the holistically focused practice, add clarity to faith community nursing activities and outcomes, and contribute to theoretical clarification and development. Theoretical clarity is essential to guide faith community nursing practice, research, and education because there is tremendous potential for the specialty practice to contribute to the health of a community across the continuum of caring and because to date there has been no unifying model for this practice proposed. A lack of a theoretical basis can result in disparate and disconnected approaches to st