WorldWideScience

Sample records for range clearance competition

  1. Robotic Range Clearance Competition (R2C2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-01

    clearance times by two thirds and costs by one third if automated clearing equipment is used (Skibba, 2003 - Honey Lake Robotic Range Clearance Operations...September 2012. 9. REFERENCES Skibba K. Brian, Honey Lake Robotic Range Clearance Operations, AFRL-RX-TY-TR- 2010-0003, Tyndall AFB: AFRL Materials...Location Date Kick Off Event Crystal City 22 October 2009 Industry Day Tyndall AFB 10 Dec 2009 Signed Letters of Intent Online 3 May 2010 Category

  2. A Computational Approach to Competitive Range Expansions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Markus F.; Poxleitner, Gabriele; Hebisch, Elke; Frey, Erwin; Opitz, Madeleine

    2014-03-01

    Bacterial communities represent complex and dynamic ecological systems. Environmental conditions and microbial interactions determine whether a bacterial strain survives an expansion to new territory. In our work, we studied competitive range expansions in a model system of three Escherichia coli strains. In this system, a colicin producing strain competed with a colicin resistant, and with a colicin sensitive strain for new territory. Genetic engineering allowed us to tune the strains' growth rates and to study their expansion in distinct ecological scenarios (with either cyclic or hierarchical dominance). The control over growth rates also enabled us to construct and to validate a predictive computational model of the bacterial dynamics. The model rested on an agent-based, coarse-grained description of the expansion process and we conducted independent experiments on the growth of single-strain colonies for its parametrization. Furthermore, the model considered the long-range nature of the toxin interaction between strains. The integration of experimental analysis with computational modeling made it possible to quantify how the level of biodiversity depends on the interplay between bacterial growth rates, the initial composition of the inoculum, and the toxin range.

  3. Evolution of competitive ability within Lonicera japonica's invaded range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory A. Evans; Francis F. Kilkenny; Laura F. Galloway

    2013-01-01

    Factors influencing invasive taxa may change during the course of an invasion. For example, intraspecific competition is predicted to be more important in areas with older stands of dense monospecific invaders than at the margins of an invaded range. We evaluated evolution in response to predicted changes in competition by comparing the intraspecific competitive...

  4. Competition between ethanol clearance and retinoic acid biosynthesis in the induction of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabtai, Yehuda; Fainsod, Abraham

    2017-10-05

    Several models have been proposed to explain the neurodevelopmental syndrome induced by alcohol exposure of human embryos, known as Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD). One of the proposed models suggests a competition for the enzymes required for retinoic acid biosynthesis. The outcome of such competition is the development under conditions of reduced retinoic acid signaling. Retinoic acid is one of the biologically-active metabolites of vitamin A (retinol) and regulates numerous embryonic and differentiation processes. The developmental malformations characteristic of FASD resemble those observed in vitamin A deficiency syndrome, and inhibition of retinoic acid biosynthesis or signaling in experimental models. There is extensive biochemical and enzymatic overlap between ethanol clearance and retinoic acid biosynthesis. Several lines of evidence suggest that in the embryo the competition takes place between acetaldehyde and retinaldehyde for the aldehyde dehydrogenase activity. In adults, this competition also involves the alcohol dehydrogenase activity. The ethanol-induced developmental defects can be rescued by increasing the levels of retinol, retinaldehyde or retinaldehyde dehydrogenase. Acetaldehyde inhibits the production of retinoic acid by retinaldehyde dehydrogenase further supporting the competition model. All the evidence supports the reduction of retinoic acid signaling as the etiological trigger in the induction of FASD.

  5. Congruence between geographic range distribution and local competitive ability of two Lupinus species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milla, Rubén; Escudero, Adrián; Iriondo, José M

    2011-09-01

    In spite of its relevance, we lack rigorous evidence on whether widespread species are superior local competitors compared with coexisting narrowly distributed congeners. We ran a competition experiment between two lupins that coexist at their shared geographic range: Lupinus angustifolius L. (widespread) and L. gredensis Gandoger (narrow endemic). • We set up mixed and monospecific populations of the two species, monitored survival and fecundity until the death of the whole cohorts, and measured variables of putative relevance to the competition process. We used aster modeling to address lifetime individual fitness and generalized linear models to assess the effect of species, type of competition, and competition environment on a suite of competition indices. • Lupinus angustifolius showed higher fitness and exerted a stronger competitive effect on its heterospecific neighbors. This occurred through higher fecundity late in the season rather than through differential survival at earlier stages. • This is the first evidence of lifetime superior competitive potential of a widespread species over a narrow endemic congener. This competitive response might scale up to the geographic distribution range and may partially explain the limited distribution of the narrow endemic. Extension to other carefully selected study cases and more in-depth field experiments may help to assess the generality of this pattern and understand how local processes translate into geographic patterns.

  6. Close Range Photogrammetry in Space - Measuring the On-Orbit Clearance between Hardware on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddle, Donn

    2017-01-01

    When photogrammetrists read an article entitled "Photogrammetry in Space" they immediately think of terrestrial mapping using satellite imagery. However in the last 19 years the roll of close range photogrammetry in support of the manned space flight program has grown exponentially. Management and engineers have repeatedly entrusted the safety of the vehicles and their crews to the results of photogrammetric analysis. In February 2010, the Node 3 module was attached to the port side Common Berthing Mechanism (CBM) of the International Space Station (ISS). Since this was not the location at which the module was originally designed to be located on the ISS, coolant lines containing liquid ammonia, were installed externally from the US Lab to Node 3 during a spacewalk. During mission preparation I had developed a plan and a set of procedures to have the astronauts acquire stereo imagery of these coolant lines at the conclusion of the spacewalk to enable us to map their as-installed location relative to the rest of the space station. Unfortunately, the actual installation of the coolant lines took longer than expected and in an effort to wrap up the spacewalk on time, the mission director made a real-time call to drop the photography. My efforts to reschedule the photography on a later spacewalk never materialized, so rather than having an as-installed model for the location of coolant lines, the master ISS CAD database continued to display an as-designed model of the coolant lines. Fast forward to the summer of 2015, the ISS program planned to berth a Japanese cargo module to the nadir Common Berthing Mechanism (CBM), immediately adjacent to the Node 3 module. A CAD based clearance analysis revealed a negative four inch clearance between the ammonia lines and a thruster nozzle on the port side of the cargo vehicle. Recognizing that the model of the ammonia line used in the clearance analysis was "as-designed" rather than "as-installed", I was asked to determine the

  7. Port Competition in the Northern Range from Le Havre to Hamburg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Thorez

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The main European ports of the Northern Range facingstrong competition develop various strategies. Rotterdam andLe Havre, fast transit, Antwe1p, logistic activities with storage,Hamburg, hub for central and eastem Europe. These strategieswill be described in the paper.All of them are building new container terminals and usenew tools in technology of communications to increase trafficand to enable shipping lines to achieve their own strategies. Thenew equipments will also b.: analysed.In the last years, the competition is mainly on the links withthe hinterland. Major ports t1y to enlarge their hinterlands bytransshipment, railway con"idors, waterway connections andhighways. The importance of ports and inland intermodalnodes is growing.Nowadays, port competition in the Northern Range is locatednot only in the ports.

  8. An Investigation into the Prediction of in Vivo Clearance for a Range of Flavin-containing Monooxygenase Substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Barry C; Srivastava, Abhishek; Colclough, Nicola; Wilson, Joanne; Reddy, Venkatesh Pilla; Amberntsson, Sara; Li, Danxi

    2017-10-01

    Flavin-containing monooxygenases (FMO) are metabolic enzymes mediating the oxygenation of nucleophilic atoms such as nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus, and selenium. These enzymes share similar properties to the cytochrome P450 system but can be differentiated through heat inactivation and selective substrate inhibition by methimazole. This study investigated 10 compounds with varying degrees of FMO involvement to determine the nature of the correlation between human in vitro and in vivo unbound intrinsic clearance. To confirm and quantify the extent of FMO involvement six of the compounds were investigated in human liver microsomal (HLM) in vitro assays using heat inactivation and methimazole substrate inhibition. Under these conditions FMO contribution varied from 21% (imipramine) to 96% (itopride). Human hepatocyte and HLM intrinsic clearance (CLint) data were scaled using standard methods to determine the predicted unbound intrinsic clearance (predicted CLint u) for each compound. This was compared with observed unbound intrinsic clearance (observed CLint u) values back calculated from human pharmacokinetic studies. A good correlation was observed between the predicted and observed CLint u using hepatocytes (R(2) = 0.69), with 8 of the 10 compounds investigated within or close to a factor of 2. For HLM the in vitro-in vivo correlation was maintained (R(2) = 0.84) but the accuracy was reduced with only 3 out of 10 compounds falling within, or close to, twofold. This study demonstrates that human hepatocytes and HLM can be used with standard scaling approaches to predict the human in vivo clearance for FMO substrates. Copyright © 2017 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  9. Competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bridoux, F.; Vodosek, M.; Den Hartog, D.N.; McNett, J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Competition traditionally refers to the actions that firms take in a product market to outperform rivals in attracting customers and generating revenues. Yet, competition extends beyond product markets to other arenas such as factor markets, where firms compete for resources, and the political

  10. Characterization of in vitro glucuronidation clearance of a range of drugs in human kidney microsomes: comparison with liver and intestinal glucuronidation and impact of albumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Katherine L; Houston, J Brian; Galetin, Aleksandra

    2012-04-01

    Previous studies have shown the importance of the addition of albumin for characterization of hepatic glucuronidation in vitro; however, no reports exist on the effects of albumin on renal or intestinal microsomal glucuronidation assays. This study characterized glucuronidation clearance (CL(int, UGT)) in human kidney, liver, and intestinal microsomes in the presence and absence of bovine serum albumin (BSA) for seven drugs with differential UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 1A9 and UGT2B7 specificity, namely, diclofenac, ezetimibe, gemfibrozil, mycophenolic acid, naloxone, propofol, and telmisartan. The impact of renal CL(int, UGT) on accuracy of in vitro-in vivo extrapolation (IVIVE) of glucuronidation clearance was investigated. Inclusion of 1% BSA for acidic drugs and 2% for bases/neutral drugs in incubations was found to be suitable for characterization of CL(int, UGT) in different tissues. Although BSA increased CL(int, UGT) in all tissues, the extent was tissue- and drug-dependent. Scaled CL(int, UGT) in the presence of BSA ranged from 2.22 to 207, 0.439 to 24.4, and 0.292 to 23.8 ml · min(-1) · g tissue(-1) in liver, kidney, and intestinal microsomes. Renal CL(int, UGT) (per gram of tissue) was up to 2-fold higher in comparison with that for liver for UGT1A9 substrates; in contrast, CL(int, UGT) for UGT2B7 substrates represented approximately one-third of hepatic estimates. Scaled renal CL(int, UGT) (in the presence of BSA) was up to 30-fold higher than intestinal glucuronidation for the drugs investigated. Use of in vitro data obtained in the presence of BSA and inclusion of renal clearance improved the IVIVE of glucuronidation clearance, with 50% of drugs predicted within 2-fold of observed values. Characterization and consideration of kidney CL(int, UGT) is particularly important for UGT1A9 substrates.

  11. Competition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

      The Staff Association is organising a competition from April 11 to 20. There are several Go Sport gift vouchers with a value of 50 € each to win. Try your luck! To participate, you just have to be a member of the Staff Association and take the online quiz: https://ap-vote.web.cern.ch/content/jeu-concours. The winners will be drawn among the correct answers.

  12. Competition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

      The Staff Association is organising a competition from 13 to 21 December 2016. There are several Go Sport vouchers to win with a value of 50 € each. Try your luck! To participate, you just have to be a member of the Staff Association and take the online quiz: https://ap-vote.web.cern.ch/content/jeu-concours-de-noel. The winners will be drawn among the correct answers.

  13. Competition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    Get ready for the Easter Egg Hunt! The Staff Association is organising a competition from 10 to 21 April 2017. There are several Go Sport gift vouchers to win, with a value of 50 € each. Try your luck! Count the number of different eggs that we have hidden on our website. Then indicate your answer in the online form. To participate, you just need to be a member of the Staff Association. Winners will be randomly drawn among the correct answers.

  14. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

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  15. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

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    Full Text Available ... a Family Parenting as an Adult With CF Treatments & Therapies People with cystic fibrosis are living longer and ... to specialized CF care and a range of treatment options. Airway Clearance Active Cycle of Breathing Technique ( ...

  16. Mucociliary clearance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkholm, Mathias; Mortensen, Jann

    2014-01-01

    Mucociliary clearance has long been known to be a significant innate defence mechanism against inhaled microbes and irritants. Important knowledge has been gathered regarding the anatomy and physiology of this system, and in recent years, extensive studies of the pathophysiology related to lung...... pharmacological interventions on clearance rate, to study the importance of defective mucus clearance in different lung diseases or as a diagnostic tool in the work-up of patients with recurrent airway diseases. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the anatomy, physiology, pathophysiology...... diseases characterized by defective mucus clearance have resulted in a variety of therapies, which might be able to enhance clearance from the lungs. In addition, ways to study in vivo mucociliary clearance in humans have been developed. This can be used as a means to assess the effect of different...

  17. How disturbance, competition, and dispersal interact to prevent tree range boundaries from keeping pace with climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yu; Duveneck, Matthew J; Gustafson, Eric J; Serra-Diaz, Josep M; Thompson, Jonathan R

    2018-01-01

    Climate change is expected to cause geographic shifts in tree species' ranges, but such shifts may not keep pace with climate changes because seed dispersal distances are often limited and competition-induced changes in community composition can be relatively slow. Disturbances may speed changes in community composition, but the interactions among climate change, disturbance and competitive interactions to produce range shifts are poorly understood. We used a physiologically based mechanistic landscape model to study these interactions in the northeastern United States. We designed a series of disturbance scenarios to represent varied disturbance regimes in terms of both disturbance extent and intensity. We simulated forest succession by incorporating climate change under a high-emissions future, disturbances, seed dispersal, and competition using the landscape model parameterized with forest inventory data. Tree species range boundary shifts in the next century were quantified as the change in the location of the 5th (the trailing edge) and 95th (the leading edge) percentiles of the spatial distribution of simulated species. Simulated tree species range boundary shifts in New England over the next century were far below (usually change (usually more than 110 km over 100 years) under a high-emissions scenario. Simulated species` ranges shifted northward at both the leading edge (northern boundary) and trailing edge (southern boundary). Disturbances may expedite species' recruitment into new sites, but they had little effect on the velocity of simulated range boundary shifts. Range shifts at the trailing edge tended to be associated with photosynthetic capacity, competitive ability for light and seed dispersal ability, whereas shifts at the leading edge were associated only with photosynthetic capacity and competition for light. This study underscores the importance of understanding the role of interspecific competition and disturbance when studying tree range

  18. Vegetation pattern formation in semiarid systems induced by long-range competition in the absence of facilitation mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Garcia, Ricardo; Calabrese, Justin M.; Hernandez-Garcia, Emilio; Lopez, Cristobal

    2014-05-01

    Regular patterns and spatial organization of vegetation have been observed in many arid and semiarid ecosystems worldwide, covering a diverse range of plant taxa and soil types. A key common ingredient in these systems is that plant growth is severely limited by water availability, and thus plants likely compete strongly for water. The study of such patterns is especially interesting because their features may reveal much about the underlying physical and biological processes that generated them in addition to giving information on the characteristics of the ecosystem. It is possible, for instance, to infer their resilience against anthropogenic disturbances or climatic changes that could cause abrupt shifts in the system and lead it to a desert state. Therefore much research has focused on identifying the underlying mechanisms that can produce spatial patterning in water-limited systems (Klausmeier, 1999). They are believed to arise from the interplay between long-range competition and facilitation processes acting at smaller distances (Borgogno et al., 2009). This combination of mechanisms is justified by arguing that water percolates more readily through the soil in vegetated areas (short range), and that plants compete for water resources over greater distances via long lateral roots (long range). However, recent studies have shown that even in the limit of local facilitation patterns may still appear (Martinez-Garcia et al., 2013). In this work (Martinez-Garcia et al., 2013b), we show that, under rather general conditions, long-range competition alone is the minimal ingredient to shape gapped and stripped vegetation patterns typical of models that also account for facilitation in addition to competition. To this end we propose a simple, general model for the dynamics of vegetation, which includes only long-range competition between plants. Competition is introduced through a nonlocal term, where the kernel function quantifies the intensity of the interaction

  19. The interaction of intraspecific competition and habitat on individual diet specialization: a near range-wide examination of sea otters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newsome, Seth D; Tinker, M Tim; Gill, Verena A; Hoyt, Zachary N; Doroff, Angela; Nichol, Linda; Bodkin, James L

    2015-05-01

    The quantification of individuality is a common research theme in the fields of population, community, and evolutionary ecology. The potential for individuality to arise is likely context-dependent, and the influence of habitat characteristics on its prevalence has received less attention than intraspecific competition. We examined individual diet specialization in 16 sea otter (Enhydra lutris) populations from southern California to the Aleutian Islands in Alaska. Because population histories, relative densities, and habitat characteristics vary widely among sites, we could examine the effects of intraspecific competition and habitat on the prevalence of individual diet specialization. Using observed diet data, we classified half of our sites as rocky substrate habitats and the other half containing a mixture of rocky and unconsolidated (soft) sediment substrates. We used stable isotope data to quantify population- and individual-level diet variation. Among rocky substrate sites, the slope [±standard error (SE)] of the positive significant relationship between the within-individual component (WIC) and total isotopic niche width (TINW) was shallow (0.23 ± 0.07) and negatively correlated with sea otter density. In contrast, the slope of the positive WIC/TINW relationship for populations inhabiting mixed substrate habitats was much higher (0.53 ± 0.14), suggesting a low degree of individuality, irrespective of intraspecific competition. Our results show that the potential for individuality to occur as a result of increasing intraspecific competition is context-dependent and that habitat characteristics, which ultimately influence prey diversity, relative abundance, and the range of skillsets required for efficient prey procurement, are important in determining when and where individual diet specialization occurs in nature.

  20. Impact of specific training and competition on myocardial structure and function in different age ranges of male handball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrebi, Brahim; Tkatchuk, Vladimir; Hlila, Nawel; Mouelhi, Emna; Belhani, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Handball activity involves cardiac changes and demands a mixture of both eccentric and concentric remodeling within the heart. This study seeks to explore heart performance and cardiac remodeling likely to define cardiac parameters which influence specific performance in male handball players across different age ranges. Forty three players, with a regular training and competitive background in handball separated into three groups aged on average 11.78 ± 0.41 for youth players aka "schools", "elite juniors" 15.99 ± 0.81 and "elite adults" 24.46 ± 2.63 years, underwent echocardiography and ECG examinations. Incremental ergocycle and specific field (SFT) tests have also been conducted. With age and regular training and competition, myocardial remodeling in different age ranges exhibit significant differences in dilatation's parameters between "schools" and "juniors" players, such as the end-diastolic diameter (LVEDD) and the end-systolic diameter of the left ventricle (LVESD), the root of aorta (Ao) and left atrial (LA), while significant increase is observed between "juniors" and "adults" players in the interventricular septum (IVS), the posterior wall thicknesses (PWT) and LV mass index. ECG changes are also noted but NS differences were observed in studied parameters. For incremental maximal test, players demonstrate a significant increase in duration and total work between "schools" and "juniors" and, in total work only, between "juniors" and "seniors". The SFT shows improvement in performance which ranged between 26.17 ± 1.83 sec to 31.23 ± 2.34 sec respectively from "seniors" to "schools". The cross-sectional approach used to compare groups with prior hypothesis that there would be differences in exercise performance and cardiac parameters depending on duration of prior handball practice, leads to point out the early cardiac remodeling within the heart as adaptive change. Prevalence of cardiac chamber dilation with less hypertrophy remodeling was found

  1. Sexual segregation in juvenile New Zealand sea lion foraging ranges: implications for intraspecific competition, population dynamics and conservation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine S Leung

    Full Text Available Sexual segregation (sex differences in spatial organisation and resource use is observed in a large range of taxa. Investigating causes for sexual segregation is vital for understanding population dynamics and has important conservation implications, as sex differences in foraging ecology may affect vulnerability to area-specific human activities. Although behavioural ecologists have proposed numerous hypotheses for this phenomenon, the underlying causes of sexual segregation are poorly understood. We examined the size-dimorphism and niche divergence hypotheses as potential explanations for sexual segregation in the New Zealand (NZ sea lion (Phocarctos hookeri, a nationally critical, declining species impacted by trawl fisheries. We used satellite telemetry and linear mixed effects models to investigate sex differences in the foraging ranges of juvenile NZ sea lions. Male trip distances and durations were almost twice as long as female trips, with males foraging over the Auckland Island shelf and in further locations than females. Sex was the most important variable in trip distance, maximum distance travelled from study site, foraging cycle duration and percent time at sea whereas mass and age had small effects on these characteristics. Our findings support the predictions of the niche divergence hypothesis, which suggests that sexual segregation acts to decrease intraspecific resource competition. As a consequence of sexual segregation in foraging ranges, female foraging grounds had proportionally double the overlap with fisheries operations than males. This distribution exposes female juvenile NZ sea lions to a greater risk of resource competition and bycatch from fisheries than males, which can result in higher female mortality. Such sex-biased mortality could impact population dynamics, because female population decline can lead to decreased population fecundity. Thus, effective conservation and management strategies must take into account

  2. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

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  3. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

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    Full Text Available ... Airway Clearance Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs) There are different ways to clear your airways. Most are easy ... to loosen mucus from airway walls. See how different airway clearance techniques work to help you clear ...

  4. Impact of specific training and competition on myocardial structure and function in different age ranges of male handball players.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brahim Agrebi

    Full Text Available Handball activity involves cardiac changes and demands a mixture of both eccentric and concentric remodeling within the heart. This study seeks to explore heart performance and cardiac remodeling likely to define cardiac parameters which influence specific performance in male handball players across different age ranges. Forty three players, with a regular training and competitive background in handball separated into three groups aged on average 11.78 ± 0.41 for youth players aka "schools", "elite juniors" 15.99 ± 0.81 and "elite adults" 24.46 ± 2.63 years, underwent echocardiography and ECG examinations. Incremental ergocycle and specific field (SFT tests have also been conducted. With age and regular training and competition, myocardial remodeling in different age ranges exhibit significant differences in dilatation's parameters between "schools" and "juniors" players, such as the end-diastolic diameter (LVEDD and the end-systolic diameter of the left ventricle (LVESD, the root of aorta (Ao and left atrial (LA, while significant increase is observed between "juniors" and "adults" players in the interventricular septum (IVS, the posterior wall thicknesses (PWT and LV mass index. ECG changes are also noted but NS differences were observed in studied parameters. For incremental maximal test, players demonstrate a significant increase in duration and total work between "schools" and "juniors" and, in total work only, between "juniors" and "seniors". The SFT shows improvement in performance which ranged between 26.17 ± 1.83 sec to 31.23 ± 2.34 sec respectively from "seniors" to "schools". The cross-sectional approach used to compare groups with prior hypothesis that there would be differences in exercise performance and cardiac parameters depending on duration of prior handball practice, leads to point out the early cardiac remodeling within the heart as adaptive change. Prevalence of cardiac chamber dilation with less hypertrophy remodeling

  5. Impact of specific training and competition on myocardial structure and function in different age ranges of male handball players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrebi, Brahim; Tkatchuk, Vladimir; Hlila, Nawel; Mouelhi, Emna; Belhani, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Handball activity involves cardiac changes and demands a mixture of both eccentric and concentric remodeling within the heart. This study seeks to explore heart performance and cardiac remodeling likely to define cardiac parameters which influence specific performance in male handball players across different age ranges. Forty three players, with a regular training and competitive background in handball separated into three groups aged on average 11.78±0.41 for youth players aka “schools”, “elite juniors” 15.99±0.81 and “elite adults” 24.46±2.63 years, underwent echocardiography and ECG examinations. Incremental ergocycle and specific field (SFT) tests have also been conducted. With age and regular training and competition, myocardial remodeling in different age ranges exhibit significant differences in dilatation’s parameters between “schools” and “juniors” players, such as the end-diastolic diameter (LVEDD) and the end-systolic diameter of the left ventricle (LVESD), the root of aorta (Ao) and left atrial (LA), while significant increase is observed between “juniors” and “adults” players in the interventricular septum (IVS), the posterior wall thicknesses (PWT) and LV mass index. ECG changes are also noted but NS differences were observed in studied parameters. For incremental maximal test, players demonstrate a significant increase in duration and total work between “schools” and “juniors” and, in total work only, between “juniors” and “seniors”. The SFT shows improvement in performance which ranged between 26.17±1.83 sec to 31.23±2.34 sec respectively from “seniors” to “schools”. The cross-sectional approach used to compare groups with prior hypothesis that there would be differences in exercise performance and cardiac parameters depending on duration of prior handball practice, leads to point out the early cardiac remodeling within the heart as adaptive change. Prevalence of cardiac chamber dilation

  6. Competition on the range: science vs. perception in a bison–cattle conflict in the western USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranglack, Dustin H; Durham, Susan; du Toit, Johan T

    2015-01-01

    1. Competition between livestock and wild ungulates is commonly perceived to occur on shared rangelands. In the Henry Mountains (HM) of Utah, a free-ranging population of bison Bison bison has raised concerns among ranchers holding grazing permits on these public lands. Bison are the most conspicuous potential competitors with cattle, but lagomorphs (mainly jackrabbits Lepus californicus) are also abundant in this area. The local ranching community is applying political pressure on state and federal agencies to resolve ‘the bison problem’, but the relative grazing impacts of bison, cattle and lagomorphs have not previously been quantified. 2. We constructed 40 grazing exclosures (each 5·95 m2) in the conflict area: 20 excluded bison + cattle (‘partial’) and 20 excluded bison + cattle + lagomorphs (‘full’). All exclosures, each with a paired open reference plot, were monitored for 1 year, and above-ground plant production was measured. GPS telemetry (bison) and scheduled grazing (cattle) allowed visitation to be quantified for each ungulate species based on the number of ‘animal days’ in the area. Rancher perceptions of wildlife–cattle interactions were recorded in a questionnaire survey. 3. Ranchers perceived bison as a high-level competitor with cattle, whereas lagomorphs were perceived as low-level competitors. 4. Grazed reference plots yielded an average (±SE) of 22·7 g m−2 (±5·16) of grass, compared to 36·5 g m−2 (±7·33) in the partial exclosures and 43·7 g m−2 (±7·61) in the full exclosures. Exclusion of large herbivores thus resulted in a 13·8 g m−2 increase in grass biomass relative to the reference plots (P = 0·005), with the additional exclusion of lagomorphs resulting in a further 7·18 g m−2 increase (P = 0·048). 5. Overall, lagomorphs accounted for 34·1%, bison 13·7% and cattle 52·3% of the total grass biomass removed by all herbivores on the shared range. 6. Synthesis and applications. Cattle face a greater

  7. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

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  8. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

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  9. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

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  10. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

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  11. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

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  12. Competitive solubilization of phenol by cationic surfactant micelles in the range of low additive and surfactant concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaghi, Radhouane; de Ménorval, Louis-Charles; Charnay, Clarence; Derrien, Gaëlle; Zajac, Jerzy

    2009-05-05

    Competitive interactions of phenol (PhOH) with micellar aggregates of hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide (HTAB) against 1-butanol (BuOH) in aqueous solutions at surfactant concentrations close to the critical micelle concentration (CMC), BuOH concentration of 0.5 mmol kg(-1), and phenol contents of 1, 5, or 10 mmol kg(-1) have been investigated at 303 K by means of (1)H NMR spectroscopy, titration calorimetry, and solution conductimetry. The solubilization loci for phenol were deduced from the composition-dependence of the (1)H chemical shifts assigned to various protons in the surfactant and additive units. Since in pure HTAB solutions phenol is already in competition with Br(-), addition of 1 mmol kg(-1) NaBr to the system weakens the phenol competitiveness. The presence of butanol in the HTAB micelles causes phenol to penetrate deeper toward the hydrophobic micelle core. For higher phenol contents, the butanol molecules are constrained to remain in the bulk solution and are progressively replaced within the HTAB micelles by the aromatic units. The competitive character of phenol solubilization against butanol is well supported by changes in the thermodynamic parameters of HTAB micellization in the presence of both of the additives.

  13. Security Clearance Tracking System

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Archives and Records Administration — SCTS supports the adjudication process of private background investigations and clearances for potential employees, contractors, interns and student workers.

  14. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Folding Consortium Mucociliary Clearance Consortium SUCCESS WITH THERAPIES RESEARCH CONSORTIUM Therapeutics Development Network TDN Coordinating Center Study Services Working With the TDN Tools and Resources ...

  15. Trade-offs and upper limits to signal performance during close-range vocal competition in gray tree frogs hyla versicolor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichert, Michael S; Gerhardt, H Carl

    2012-10-01

    Performance limitations on signal production constrain signal evolution. Variation in signaling performance may be related to signaler quality and therefore is likely to be a salient aspect of communication systems. When multiple signal components are involved in communication, there may be trade-offs between components, and performance can be measured as the degree to which signalers approach the upper limits of the trade-off function. We examined vocal performance in the gray tree frog Hyla versicolor, in which females prefer values of call duration and rate exceeding the usual range of variation within and among males. We recorded interactions between pairs of males calling on mobile platforms that allowed us to manipulate intermale distance and place males in highly competitive environments. We found that, although there was a clear upper boundary on the ability of males to maximize call duration and call rate simultaneously, call effort did not remain constant in this highly competitive situation. Our estimates of an upper limit to vocal performance were corroborated by analyses of calling behavior in the context of close-range mate attraction. We discuss potential constraints on signaling performance and the relevance of this measure of performance for both intrasexual and intersexual communication.

  16. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

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    Full Text Available ... decisions about your health care. CF Genetics: The Basics CF Mutations Video Series CFTR2 Personalized Medicine Types ... of Breathing Technique Airway Clearance Techniques Autogenic Drainage Basics of Lung Care Chest Physical Therapy Coughing and ...

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    Full Text Available ... Care Guidelines Pancreatic Enzymes Clinical Care Guidelines Vitamin D Deficiency Clinical Care Guidelines Other CF-related Conditions ... Reports Research Consortia CF Biomarker Consortium CFTR 3-D Structure Consortium CFTR Folding Consortium Mucociliary Clearance Consortium ...

  18. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

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    Full Text Available ... Clinical Care Guidelines Liver Disease Clinical Care Guidelines Respiratory Care Guidelines CF Airway Clearance Therapies Clinical Care ... attack bacteria. Choose What's Best for You Your respiratory therapist or another member of your CF care ...

  19. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

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    Full Text Available ... Medications Antibiotics Bronchodilators Mucus Thinners Nebulizer Care at Home Vascular Access Devices: PICCs and Ports Partnerships for ... Facebook Twitter YouTube Instagram Email DONATE Breadcrumb Navigation Home Life With CF Treatments and Therapies Airway Clearance ...

  20. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

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    Full Text Available ... CYSTIC FIBROSIS Learn about cystic fibrosis, a genetic lung disorder that affects the pancreas and other organs, ... Clearance Techniques (ACTs) Autogenic Drainage (AD) Basics of Lung Care Chest Physical Therapy Coughing and Huffing High- ...

  1. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

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    Full Text Available ... MEDICATIONS The Partnerships for Sustaining Daily Care Initiative Success With Therapies Research Consortium Your CF Care Team ... Structure Consortium CFTR Folding Consortium Mucociliary Clearance Consortium SUCCESS WITH THERAPIES RESEARCH CONSORTIUM Therapeutics Development Network TDN ...

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    Full Text Available ... Clinician Career Development Awards Clinician Training Awards Mutation Analysis Program Network News Network News: NACFC 2017 Network ... for airway clearance. Facebook Twitter Email More Related Content Medications Autogenic Drainage Positive Expiratory Pressure High-Frequency ...

  3. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

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    Full Text Available ... Advocacy Achievements Advocacy News Briefings, Testimonies, and Regulatory Comments Congressional Cystic Fibrosis Caucus Our Policy Agenda Policy ... for airway clearance. Facebook Twitter Email More Related Content Medications Autogenic Drainage Positive Expiratory Pressure High-Frequency ...

  4. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

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    Full Text Available ... people with cystic fibrosis so that they make smart decisions about CF-related research, treatment, and access ... Facebook Twitter YouTube Instagram Email DONATE Breadcrumb Navigation Home Life With CF Treatments and Therapies Airway Clearance ...

  5. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

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    Full Text Available ... Consider Regarding a Lung Transplant Medications Antibiotics Bronchodilators Mucus Thinners Nebulizer Care at Home Vascular Access Devices ... them use percussion (clapping) or vibration to loosen mucus from airway walls. See how different airway clearance ...

  6. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

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    Full Text Available ... Medications Antibiotics Bronchodilators Mucus Thinners Nebulizer Care at Home Vascular Access Devices PICCs and Ports Partnerships for ... Facebook Twitter YouTube Instagram Email DONATE Breadcrumb Navigation Home Life With CF Treatments and Therapies Airway Clearance ...

  7. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

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    Full Text Available ... in CF Clinical Care Guidelines Cystic Fibrosis-Related Diabetes Clinical Care Guidelines Liver Disease Clinical Care Guidelines Respiratory Care Guidelines CF Airway Clearance Therapies Clinical Care Guidelines Chronic Medications to Maintain Lung Health Clinical Care Guidelines ...

  8. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

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    Full Text Available ... in CF Clinical Care Guidelines Cystic Fibrosis-Related Diabetes Clinical Care Guidelines Liver Disease Clinical Care Guidelines Respiratory Care Guidelines CF Airway Clearance Therapies Clinical Care Guidelines Chronic Medications to Maintain Lung ...

  9. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

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    Full Text Available ... Make a Charitable Gift Our Corporate Supporters Workplace Engagement DONATE YOUR PROPERTY eCards for a Cure About ... airway walls. See how different airway clearance techniques work to help you clear the thick, sticky mucus ...

  10. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

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    Full Text Available ... Beall Therapeutics Development Award Patient Registry Care Center Data CF Patient Registry Reports Research Consortia CF Biomarker Consortium CFTR 3-D Structure Consortium CFTR Folding Consortium Mucociliary Clearance Consortium SUCCESS ...

  11. Carbon Nanotubes in the Human Respiratory Tract-Clearance Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturm, Robert

    2017-03-01

    Clearance of single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNT, diameter: 5 nm) and multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT, diameter: 50 nm) in the respiratory tract was predicted for various age groups (infants, children, adolescents, and adults). The model was founded on the assumption that lung clearance takes place in three distinct phases: (i) fast mucociliary clearance, (ii) slow bronchial clearance, and (iii) alveolar clearance. To each of these phases a specific fraction of deposited particles was attributed, the amount of which depended on particles' geometry and particles' deposition sites in the respiratory system. Clearance velocities were expressed by respective clearance half-times ranging from several hours in the case of fast clearance to tens of days in the case of slow clearance. Results of the simulations clearly demonstrate that for the specific deposition scenario (sitting, nasal breathing) considered here fast clearance fraction exhibits a slight decrease with increasing age, but total clearance times (i.e. time spans, within which 100% of the deposited particulate mass are removed) are rather constant among the age groups. Nanotubes deposited in the respiratory bronchioles and alveoli are usually subject to a long-term storage in these structures and, thus, may trigger malignant transformations in adjacent cells and tissues. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Occupational Hygiene Society.

  12. Prediction of hepatic microsomal intrinsic clearance and human clearance values for drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolic, Katarina; Agababa, Danica

    2009-10-01

    Twenty-nine drugs of different structures were used in theoretical QSAR analysis of human hepatic microsomal intrinsic clearance (in vitro T(1/2) and in vitro CL'(int)) and whole body clearance (CL(blood)). The examined compounds demonstrated a wide range of scaled intrinsic clearance values. Constitutional, geometrical, physico-chemical and electronic descriptors were computed for the examined structures by use of the Marvin Sketch 5.1.3_2, the Chem3D Ultra 7.0.0 and the Dragon 5.4 program. Partial least squares regression (PLSR), has been applied for selection of the most relevant molecular descriptors and development of quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) model for human hepatic microsomal intrinsic clearance (in vitro T(1/2)). Optimal QSAR models with nine and ten variables, R(2)>0.808 and cross-validation parameter q(pre)(2)>0.623, were selected and compared. Since the microsomal in vitro T(1/2) data can be used for calculation of in vitro CL'(int) and in vivo CL(blood), the developed QSAR model will enable one to analyze the kinetics of cytochrome P450-mediated reactions in term of intrinsic clearance and whole body clearance. A comparison is made between predictions produced from the QSAR analysis and experimental data, and there appears to be generally satisfactory correlations with the literature values for intrinsic clearance data.

  13. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... toddlers will need help from a parent or caregiver. Older kids and adults can choose ACTs that they can do on their ... (clapping) or vibration to loosen mucus from airway walls. See how different airway clearance techniques work to help you clear the thick, sticky mucus ...

  14. What Limits the Distribution of Liriomyza huidobrensis and Its Congener Liriomyza sativae in Their Native Niche: When Temperature and Competition Affect Species' Distribution Range in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Castañeda, G; MacVean, C; Cardona, C; Hof, A R

    2017-07-01

    Factors limiting distribution range for most species are generally unknown regardless of whether they are native or invasive. We studied factors that could enable or restrict the distribution of two cosmopolitan invasive leafminer fly species, Liriomyza huidobrensis (Blanchard) and Liriomyza sativae (Blanchard) in their native niche. In order to test which ecological and environmental factors affect leafminer distribution we conducted thermal tolerance assays, sampled along elevation gradients and modeled species distribution. Findings from the field and rearing chambers showed a physiological restriction due to high temperatures for L. huidobrensis at 28-29 °C, above which adult emergence is compromised. We also found that maximum temperatures below 22 °C, typical of tropical highlands, favored L. huidobrensis. L. sativae was found across a wider temperature range (i.e., from 21 to 36 °C) in Guatemala. Our finding of a physiological threshold in temperature for L. huidobrensis may enable us to predict its invasive risk when combined with the environmental conditions at horticultural ports of entry and the global agricultural landscape. Further, it strengthens our predictions on shifts in distribution of the leafminer fly under future climate. We also found a temperature mediated competitive exclusion interaction between the two herbivore species, where L. sativae occurred at temperatures < 22 °C only in the absence of L. huidobrensis. We show that parasitoids had a negative effect on the leafminer flies, which varied with host plant. Finally, we show the importance of taking a multiaspect approach when investigating what limits distribution and invasiveness of a species. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.

  15. Cilia and Mucociliary Clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustamante-Marin, Ximena M; Ostrowski, Lawrence E

    2017-04-03

    Mucociliary clearance (MCC) is the primary innate defense mechanism of the lung. The functional components are the protective mucous layer, the airway surface liquid layer, and the cilia on the surface of ciliated cells. The cilia are specialized organelles that beat in metachronal waves to propel pathogens and inhaled particles trapped in the mucous layer out of the airways. In health this clearance mechanism is effective, but in patients with primary cilia dyskinesia (PCD) the cilia are abnormal, resulting in deficient MCC and chronic lung disease. This demonstrates the critical importance of the cilia for human health. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge of the components of the MCC apparatus, focusing on the role of cilia in MCC. Copyright © 2017 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  16. Site clearance working group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The Gulf of Mexico and Louisiana continue to be areas with a high level of facility removal, and the pace of removal is projected to increase. Regulations were promulgated for the Gulf of Mexico and Louisiana requiring that abandoned sites be cleared of debris that could interfere with fishing and shrimping activities. The site clearance regulations also required verification that the sites were clear. Additionally, government programs were established to compensate fishermen for losses associated with snagging their equipment on oil and gas related objects that remained on the water bottoms in areas other than active producing sites and sites that had been verified as clear of obstructions and snags. The oil and gas industry funds the compensation programs. This paper reviews the regulations and evolving operating practices in the Gulf of Mexico and Louisiana where site clearance and fisherman`s gear compensation regulations have been in place for a number of years. Although regulations and guidelines may be in place elsewhere in the world, this paper focuses on the Gulf of Mexico and Louisiana. Workshop participants are encouraged to bring up international issues during the course of the workshop. Additionally, this paper raises questions and focuses on issues that are of concern to the various Gulf of Mexico and Louisiana water surface and water bottom stakeholders. This paper does not have answers to the questions or issues. During the workshop participants will debate the questions and issues in an attempt to develop consensus opinions and/or make suggestions that can be provided to the appropriate organizations, both private and government, for possible future research or policy adjustments. Site clearance and facility removal are different activities. Facility removal deals with removal of the structures used to produce oil and gas including platforms, wells, casing, piles, pipelines, well protection structures, etc.

  17. EDITORIAL: Physics competitions Physics competitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordens, H.; Mathelitsch, L.

    2009-11-01

    back to 1967, when the first Olympiad was organized in Warsaw, Poland. Today this Olympiad is a worldwide enterprise, and in the 2008 competition in Hanoi, Vietnam, students from 82 countries took part. An overview of the problems and a summary of the results of this Olympiad are given in the first paper, prepared by the organizers of the competition [3]. The students work on four or five different problems, three theoretical ones on one day, and one or two experimental tasks on another. On each day, they have five hours to accomplish their tasks. The problems are prepared by the local organizer, usually a team of physicists from universities in the home country. The level is set by an international syllabus, and the content and wording of the problems have to be agreed by a majority of the supervisors (one from each participating country) in an initial meeting. Afterwards the tasks are translated into the various languages of the competitors; the students also write their results in their own language. The number of awards (gold, silver and bronze, as well as honorable mentions) varies from competition to competition, since it depends on the number of participants. A team consists of at most five students, but they do not act as a team—they work independantly. The selection process in individual countries varies, but is usually executed in several steps, starting from school competitions and going on to regional and national ones. Training courses are often organized on the same levels. Big differences can be seen in training courses at the highest level, the duration ranging from one week to several months. The International Young Physicists Tournament (IYPT) is completely different in spirit [4]. Whereas the students work individually in the Olympiad, IYPT is a competition between teams. In addition, the 17 tasks are known almost a year in advance. The problems are very open, allow for different approaches and include experimental as well as theoretical work. The

  18. Allometric scaling for predicting human clearance of bisphenol A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collet, Séverine H., E-mail: s.collet@envt.fr; Picard-Hagen, Nicole, E-mail: n.hagen-picard@envt.fr; Lacroix, Marlène Z., E-mail: m.lacroix@envt.fr; Puel, Sylvie, E-mail: s.puel@envt.fr; Viguié, Catherine, E-mail: c.viguie@envt.fr; Bousquet-Melou, Alain, E-mail: a.bousquet-Melou@envt.fr; Toutain, Pierre-Louis, E-mail: pltoutain@wanadoo.fr; Gayrard, Véronique, E-mail: v.gayrard@envt.fr

    2015-05-01

    The investigation of interspecies differences in bisphenol A (BPA) pharmacokinetics (PK) may be useful for translating findings from animal studies to humans, identifying major processes involved in BPA clearance mechanisms, and predicting BPA PK parameters in man. For the first time, a large range of species in terms of body weight, from 0.02 kg (mice) to 495 kg (horses) was used to predict BPA clearance in man by an allometric approach. BPA PK was evaluated after intravenous administration of BPA in horses, sheep, pigs, dogs, rats and mice. A non-compartmental analysis was used to estimate plasma clearance and steady state volume of distribution and predict BPA PK parameters in humans from allometric scaling. In all the species investigated, BPA plasma clearance was high and of the same order of magnitude as their respective hepatic blood flow. By an allometric scaling, the human clearance was estimated to be 1.79 L/min (equivalent to 25.6 mL/kg.min) with a 95% prediction interval of 0.36 to 8.83 L/min. Our results support the hypothesis that there are highly efficient and hepatic mechanisms of BPA clearance in man. - Highlights: • Allometric scaling was used to predict BPA pharmacokinetic parameters in humans. • In all species, BPA plasma clearance approached hepatic blood flow. • Human BPA clearance was estimated to be 1.79 L/min.

  19. Clearance of mutant huntingtin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-Jiang; Li, He; Li, Shihua

    2010-07-01

    Mutant huntingtin (htt) carries an expanded polyglutamine (polyQ) repeat (> 36 glutamines) in its N-terminal region, which leads htt to become misfolded and kill neuronal cells in Huntington disease (HD). The cytotoxicity of N-terminal mutant htt fragments is evident by severe neurological phenotypes of transgenic mice that express these htt fragments. Clearance of mutant htt is primarily mediated by the ubiquitin-proteasomal sysmtem (UPS) and autophagy. However, the relative efficiency of these two systems to remove toxic forms of mutant htt has not been rigorously compared. Using cellular and mouse models of HD, we found that inhibiting the UPS leads to a greater accumulation of mutant htt than inhibiting autophagy. Moreover, N-terminal mutant htt fragments, but not full-length mutant htt, accumulate in the HD mouse brains after inhibiting the UPS. These findings suggest that the UPS is more efficient than autophagy to remove N-terminal mutant htt.

  20. Analysis of viral clearance unit operations for monoclonal antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miesegaes, George; Lute, Scott; Brorson, Kurt

    2010-06-01

    Demonstration of viral clearance is a critical step in assuring the safety of biotechnology products. We generated a viral clearance database that contains product information, unit operation process parameters, and viral clearance data from monoclonal antibody and antibody-related regulatory submissions to FDA. Here we present a broad overview of the database and resulting analyses. We report that the diversity of model viruses tested expands as products transition to late-phase. We also present averages and ranges of viral clearance results by Protein A and ion exchange chromatography steps, low pH chemical inactivation, and virus filtration, focusing on retro- and parvoviruses. For most unit operations, an average log reduction value (LRV, a measure of clearance power) for retrovirus of >4 log(10) were measured. Cases where clearance data fell outside of the anticipated range (i.e., outliers) were rationally explained. Lastly, a historical analysis did not find evidence of any improvement trend in viral clearance over time. The data collectively suggest that many unit operations in general can reliably clear viruses.

  1. Aerial Refueling Clearance Process Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-21

    R. 4.9.3 Ball Valve/Leakage R. dhkARSAG DOC dtd. 6dec. 13; rev.21jan.14 Aerial Refueling Tanker/Receiver Clearance Compatibility Assessment Checklist...Clearance 9.6 Receiver Canopy/Boom Clearance 9.7 Lightning /Static Discharge Impact 10. Standards Compliance 10.1 STANAG 7191 Boom/ Recp. 10.2 AR...Type R. 4.9.1 Gate/Leakage R. 4.9.2 Poppet/Leakage R. 4.9.3 Ball Valve/Leakage R. 4.9.4 Other Leakage Source R. 4.10 Fuel Ingestion Hazard……... R. 5.0

  2. CO2 clearance by membrane lungs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Liqun; Kaesler, Andreas; Fernando, Piyumindri; Thompson, Alex J; Toomasian, John M; Bartlett, Robert H

    2017-10-01

    Commercial membrane lungs are designed to transfer a specific amount of oxygen per unit of venous blood flow. Membrane lungs are much more efficient at removing CO2 than adding oxygen, but the range of CO2 transfer is rarely reported. Commercial membrane lungs were studied with the goal of evaluating CO2 removal capacity. CO2 removal was measured in 4 commercial membrane lungs under standardized conditions. CO2 clearance can be greater than 4 times that of oxygen at a given blood flow when the gas to blood flow ratio is elevated to 4:1 or 8:1. The CO2 clearance was less dependent on surface area and configuration than oxygen transfer. Any ECMO system can be used for selective CO2 removal.

  3. Competitive Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergeron, Pierrette; Hiller, Christine A.

    2002-01-01

    Reviews the evolution of competitive intelligence since 1994, including terminology and definitions and analytical techniques. Addresses the issue of ethics; explores how information technology supports the competitive intelligence process; and discusses education and training opportunities for competitive intelligence, including core competencies…

  4. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... living longer and more fulfilling lives, thanks in part to specialized CF care and a range of ... Previous Issues Partnerships for Sustaining Daily Care As part of the Cystic Fibrosis Foundation's mission to help ...

  5. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the CF community to inform key efforts to support the management of daily care. MORE THAN TAKING ... the search for a cure for CF and supports a broad range of research initiatives to tackle ...

  6. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... broad range of research initiatives to tackle the disease from all angles. ... Restoration Research We Fund for Nonsense and Rare Mutations Research We Fund to Treat and Prevent CF ...

  7. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the world’s leader in the search for a cure for CF and supports a broad range of ... Complications Research We Fund for a One-Time Cure Track Record of Progress New Developments in Research ...

  8. Competition in a Business Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellegaard, Chris; Medlin, Christopher J

    Competition and cooperation stabilize and structure business networks. In business research there is little focus on network based competition between firms and on how firms compete to gain network position. We review a range of conceptualizations of competition and cooperation and work towards...... research and also managerial thinking about network strategy and implementation....

  9. Lithium clearance in chronic nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamper, A L; Holstein-Rathlou, N H; Leyssac, P P

    1989-01-01

    1. Lithium clearance measurements were made in 72 patients with chronic nephropathy of different aetiology and moderate to severely reduced renal function. 2. Lithium clearance was strictly correlated with glomerular filtration rate, and there was no suggestion of distal tubular reabsorption...... of lithium or influence of osmotic diuresis. 3. Fractional reabsorption of lithium was reduced in most patients with glomerular filtration rates below 25 ml/min. 4. Calculated fractional distal reabsorption of sodium was reduced in most patients with glomerular filtration rates below 50 ml/min. 5. Lithium...... that lithium clearance may be a measure of the delivery of sodium and water from the renal proximal tubule. With this assumption it was found that adjustment of the sodium excretion in chronic nephropathy initially takes place in the distal parts of the nephron (loop of Henle, distal tubule and collecting duct...

  10. Lactate clearance in cardiorespiratory emergency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serena Greco

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Early goal directed therapy has been found to improve prognosis in septic patients, if the therapeutic goal is achieved within the first six hours. The aim of our study is to demonstrate that in patients with acute cardiorespiratory failure, rapid (within 2 hours lactate clearance can help define patients’ prognosis. 67 consecutive patients, admitted to our 16-bed Emergency Medicine ward for acute cardiorespiratory failure (age 75,9 ± 9,8 (APACHE II score 19,0 ± 4,1, were included in the study. Blood lactate concentration was read at admission and after 2, 6 and 24 hours. We evaluated mortality at seven days and the use of orotracheal intubation (patients with negative outcome vs. discharge or transfer to a non-emergency ward with subsequent discharge (patients with negative outcome. Lactate concentration at admission was 4,6 ± 2,5 mmol/l; lactate clearance (% at 2 hours was 40,4 ± 32,1 in patients with a positive outcome and –8,3 ± 5,0 in patients with a negative outcome (p < 0,05. Lactate clearance at 2 hours < 25% is correlated to a negative outcome with an 84,2% sensitivity and a 79,2% specificity. The positive predictive value was 61,5% and the negative predictive value was 92,2%. Systematic lactate clearance monitoring can be used in cases of acute cardiorespiratory insufficiency to identify patients with a high risk of negative outcome. In our study, low clearance at two hours was associated with an increase in mortality and/or the need for orotracheal intubation. Conversely, a clearance at two hours of > 25% in most cases confirms the therapeutic strategy undertaken. Serial evaluation of blood lactate concentration may therefore be useful in guiding treatment strategies.

  11. Selective Competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Dubovik (Andrei); A. Parakhonyak (Alexei)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractWe consider a dynamic (differential) game with three players competing against each other. Each period each player can allocate his resources so as to direct his competition towards particular rivals -- we call such competition selective. The setting can be applied to a wide variety of

  12. Competitive intelligence

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a competitive edge and also ensure that companies develop an external focus to their business.2. In 2001/02, a team of researchers from both the academic world and the business sector in .... strategic and tactical decisions may be made.15 Much work has been done in ..... could be used to create a competitive advantage;.

  13. Not All Children with Cystic Fibrosis Have Abnormal Esophageal Neutralization during Chemical Clearance of Acid Reflux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodley, Frederick W; Moore-Clingenpeel, Melissa; Machado, Rodrigo Strehl; Nemastil, Christopher J; Jadcherla, Sudarshan R; Hayes, Don; Kopp, Benjamin T; Kaul, Ajay; Di Lorenzo, Carlo; Mousa, Hayat

    2017-09-01

    Acid neutralization during chemical clearance is significantly prolonged in children with cystic fibrosis, compared to symptomatic children without cystic fibrosis. The absence of available reference values impeded identification of abnormal findings within individual patients with and without cystic fibrosis. The present study aimed to test the hypothesis that significantly more children with cystic fibrosis have acid neutralization durations during chemical clearance that fall outside the physiological range. Published reference value for acid neutralization duration during chemical clearance (determined using combined impedance/pH monitoring) was used to assess esophageal acid neutralization efficiency during chemical clearance in 16 children with cystic fibrosis (3 to cystic fibrosis. Duration of acid neutralization during chemical clearance exceeded the upper end of the physiological range in 9 of 16 (56.3%) children with and in 3 of 16 (18.8%) children without cystic fibrosis (p=0.0412). The likelihood ratio for duration indicated that children with cystic fibrosis are 2.1-times more likely to have abnormal acid neutralization during chemical clearance, and children with abnormal acid neutralization during chemical clearance are 1.5-times more likely to have cystic fibrosis. Significantly more (but not all) children with cystic fibrosis have abnormally prolonged esophageal clearance of acid. Children with cystic fibrosis are more likely to have abnormal acid neutralization during chemical clearance. Additional studies involving larger sample sizes are needed to address the importance of genotype, esophageal motility, composition and volume of saliva, and gastric acidity on acid neutralization efficiency in cystic fibrosis children.

  14. 32 CFR 644.535 - Support in clearance of Air Force lands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Support in clearance of Air Force lands. 644.535 Section 644.535 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL... Excess Land and Improvements § 644.535 Support in clearance of Air Force lands. Where Air Force range...

  15. Household Clearances in Victorian Fiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Trotter

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The deathbed apart, there are few scenes more profoundly disturbing in nineteenth-century fiction than the household clearance, or the process of 'selling up': the identification of domestic material goods for sale at auction, either in situ, or elsewhere. Of course, we shouldn't be surprised at this, if the Victorians took the idea of home anything like as seriously as they made out. How could such a violation or wilful sacrifice of domesticity not be profoundly disturbing? This essay argues that scenes of household clearance in nineteenth-century fiction possess a density and an edge which exceed any shock they might have administered to the sensibilities of the house-proud. Such scenes expose to critical view an aspect of existence otherwise generally understood, then as now, not to require or to benefit from illumination. The aims of the essay are twofold: 1 to demonstrate the pervasiveness of scenes of household clearance in Victorian fiction, with reference to Dickens, Thackeray, Eliot, Hardy, and others; 2 to put forward an explanation for the imaginative charge they carry, which runs counter to a strong emphasis in the current understanding of nineteenth-century fiction's perspective on a newly abundant material culture.

  16. Host range, symbiotic effectiveness and nodulation competitiveness ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-04-17

    Apr 17, 2008 ... soil nitrogen status which is a major threat to food production (Sanginga, 2003). Biological ... an important food legume that features prominently in many farming systems in Africa including Ghana (Fening ..... (2005). Role of trehalose transport and utilization in Sinorhizobium meliloti-alfalfa interactions. Mol.

  17. 78 FR 49721 - Petition for Rulemaking To Adopt Revised Competitive Switching Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-15

    ... Switching Rules AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board, DOT. ACTION: Notice of public hearing. SUMMARY: The... submitted by NITL to modify the Board's standards for mandatory competitive switching. Under its proposal.... Derrick A. Gardner, Clearance Clerk. BILLING CODE 4915-01-P ...

  18. Case competitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjoldager, Anne Gram

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents and discusses a teaching project with case competitions for MA students of specialised translation at the Aarhus School of Business, Aarhus University. Drawing on a series of online questionnaires, the paper ascertains how the project was evaluated by the participating students...

  19. Indicators of competitive activity of the oarswomen on kayaks at the Olympic distance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chychkan O.A.

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The frame of competitive activity of sportsmen on kayaks different sports qualification on a distance of 500 meters is construed. 20 sportsmen of different sports qualification have been inspected. During competitions were fixed: number paddle boat and a road clearance time of a distance. It is exhibited variances in a level of competitive activity. Competitive activity expediently to value on parameters of a road clearance time of a distance, an amount paddle boat on a distance, roads of a boat for 1 paddle boat, an average velocity of a boat, average rate, average duration paddle boat, an average velocity of a boat in a cycle paddle boat, to factor mechanics.

  20. EDITORIAL: Physics competitions Physics competitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordens, H.; Mathelitsch, L.

    2010-07-01

    This editorial opens the second special section on physics competitions in European Journal of Physics. In the first section last year, we asked for feedback on the idea of such a section and on the content of the articles. We received no answer whatsoever, which can be interpreted in two ways: the section is not interesting enough to raise motivation for feedback, or the reader is satisfied. Having no indication which scenario is the correct one, we are optimistic and favour the second. The section at hand contains three articles. Again, as last year, the organizer of the annual Olympiad reports on tasks and outcomes of this competition. The Olympiad took place in Merida, Mexico, and was by far the largest event with 316 contestants from 68 countries. Again, the predominance of Asian/Chinese students was manifest, showing how serious the training is taken by both their authorities and students. Unfortunately, the winners of the last International Young Physicists' Tournament (IYPT), the team from Korea, did not accept the offer to report on their prize-winning contribution. We are thankful that two students from Austria, who achieved second place with their team, took over and reported on the task which they presented in the finals of the competition. It connects the fields of sport and physics and explains a special move in skateboarding. The third contribution introduces a different competition, 'International Conference of Young Scientists'. On one hand, as in the Olympiad, it addresses individuals, not teams. On the other, as in the IYPT, students have several months to prepare and also the quality of the presentation is an important element of the judgment. In fact, this competition comes closer to real scientific research compared to the other events. Finally and again, we hope that this section will serve several purposes: To show the competitions as a very important tool in the support of gifted students. To raise awareness amongst university teachers, and

  1. Logo competition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2013-01-01

    Award of the prizes The price ceremony for the Staff Association’s new logo competition which took place on Friday 1st March at 5 p.m. was a big success. The first prize, an Ezee Suisse electric bike, was won by Paulo Rios, from Portugal. In his absence, the bike was handed to his brother Vitor. The other five winners of the competition also received their prize: Go Sport vouchers. A peize draw was then organized to award 22 other participants with prizes offered by our commercial partners (Aquaparc, BCGE, L’Occitane, Passeport Gourmand, Sephora, Theater La Comédie de Genève), whom we would like to warmly thank. After all prices were distributed the evening continued with discussions around a friendly drink.

  2. Optimal Competition : A Benchmark for Competition Policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boone, J.

    2003-01-01

    This paper introduces optimal competition: the best form of competition in an industry that a competition authority can achieve under the information constraint that it cannot observe firms' effciency levels.We show that the optimal competition outcome in an industry becomes more competitive as more

  3. Business plan competition

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    "Venture – Companies for tomorrow" is a business plan competition, which supports students and other junior entrepreneurs in developing their business plans. The sixth edition of the competition is now taking place. Venture 2008 highlights: - prize money totalling CHF 150’000; - possibility to optimize business ideas and business plans with the help of experienced coaches: around 200 coaches are available, with a wide range of backgrounds, entrepreneurs as well as venture capitalists; -\tpossibility to present business ideas and business plans to potential investors ("Investor Days" - 17 January and 7 May); - active involvement in the start-up community; -\tcontribution to potential independence. The competition consists of two phases: Phase I, Business idea, Deadline for submission of business idea: 5 December 2007 (online at http://www.venture.ch). Award Ceremony: 17 January 2008 Phase II, Business plan Deadline for submission of business plan: 2 April 2008 (online at...

  4. Lithium clearance in chronic nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamper, A L; Holstein-Rathlou, N H; Leyssac, P P

    1989-01-01

    of lithium or influence of osmotic diuresis. 3. Fractional reabsorption of lithium was reduced in most patients with glomerular filtration rates below 25 ml/min. 4. Calculated fractional distal reabsorption of sodium was reduced in most patients with glomerular filtration rates below 50 ml/min. 5. Lithium...... that lithium clearance may be a measure of the delivery of sodium and water from the renal proximal tubule. With this assumption it was found that adjustment of the sodium excretion in chronic nephropathy initially takes place in the distal parts of the nephron (loop of Henle, distal tubule and collecting duct......). With more severe impairment the proximal tubule also becomes involved in the adjustment....

  5. Green technology; only Forest Clearance is needed

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Graphics. How was Forest Clearance granted before the procedures for constitution of ESZ was completed? How was Forest Clearance granted before the procedures for constitution of ESZ was completed? How was land in Murmurwadi still under litigation made available? How was ...

  6. Intelligent Engine Systems: HPT Clearance Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    The Advanced Thermally Actuated Clearance Control System underwent several studies. Improved flow path isolation quantified what can be gained by making the HPT case nearly adiabatic. The best method of heat transfer was established, and finally two different borrowed air cooling circuits were evaluated to be used for the HPT Active Clearance Control System.

  7. Clearance of materials from accelerator facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rokni Sayed H.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A new Technical Standard that supports the clearance of materials and equipment (personal property from U.S. Department of Energy (DOE accelerator facilities has been developed. The Standard focuses on personal property that has the potential to be radiologically impacted by accelerator operations. It addresses material clearance programs and protocols for off-site releases without restriction on use. Common metals with potential volumetric activation are of main interest with technical bases provided in Appendices of the Standard. The clearance protocols in the Standard include three elements: 1 clearance criteria, 2 process knowledge, and 3 measurement methods. This paper presents the technical aspects of the new Standard, discusses operational experience gained in clearance of materials and equipment from several accelerator facilities at SLAC and examples as to how this Standard can be applied to benefit the entirety of the DOE Accelerator Complex.

  8. Lung Clearance Index and Structural Lung Disease on Computed Tomography in Early Cystic Fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Kathryn A; Rosenow, Tim; Turkovic, Lidija; Skoric, Billy; Banton, Georgia; Adams, Anne-Marie; Simpson, Shannon J; Murray, Conor; Ranganathan, Sarath C; Stick, Stephen M; Hall, Graham L

    2016-01-01

    The lung clearance index is a measure of ventilation distribution derived from the multiple-breath washout technique. It has been suggested as a surrogate for chest computed tomography to detect structural lung abnormalities in individuals with cystic fibrosis (CF); however, the associations between lung clearance index and early structural lung disease are unclear. We assessed the ability of the lung clearance index to reflect structural lung disease on the basis of chest computed tomography across the entire pediatric age range. Lung clearance index was assessed in 42 infants (ages 0-2 yr), 39 preschool children (ages 3-6 yr), and 38 school-age children (7-16 yr) with CF before chest computed tomography and in 72 healthy control subjects. Scans were evaluated for CF-related structural lung disease using the Perth-Rotterdam Annotated Grid Morphometric Analysis for Cystic Fibrosis quantitative outcome measure. In infants with CF, lung clearance index is insensitive to structural disease (κ = -0.03 [95% confidence interval, -0.05 to 0.16]). In preschool children with CF, lung clearance index correlates with total disease extent. In school-age children, lung clearance index correlates with extent of total disease, bronchiectasis, and air trapping. In preschool and school-age children, lung clearance index has a good positive predictive value (83-86%) but a poor negative predictive value (50-55%) to detect the presence of bronchiectasis. These data suggest that lung clearance index may be a useful surveillance tool to monitor structural lung disease in preschool and school-age children with CF. However, lung clearance index cannot replace chest computed tomography to screen for bronchiectasis in this population.

  9. 77 FR 21989 - Critical Infrastructure Private Sector Clearance Program Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-12

    ... SECURITY Critical Infrastructure Private Sector Clearance Program Request AGENCY: National Protection and... information provided. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Critical Infrastructure Private Sector Clearance Program (PSCP) sponsors clearances for private sector partners who are responsible for critical infrastructure...

  10. COMPETITIVE INTELLIGENCE

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandru Govoreanu; Andreea Mora; Anca Serban

    2010-01-01

    There are many challenges to face in this century. It’s an era of information. Those who have the best information are going to win the race for supremacy on the market. More and more managers are aware of the fact that they have to do something to remain on the market and to be successful. They have to adapt and to try to gain an advantage over the competitors. Nowadays, the only thing that makes the difference is the company’s competitiveness. The times when the one who had the capacity to ...

  11. EDITORIAL: Physics competitions Physics competitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordens, H.; Mathelitsch, L.

    2011-07-01

    International tests on competences, such as TIMSS or PISA, and knowledge of young students have revealed low average scores in many countries, often unexpectedly. One effective measure to increase the average standard of a population is to bring the last third of the group to a higher level. Therefore, many nations put some effort into this activity. This brings the danger that not enough attention is paid to students at the other end, those who are talented. Indeed, it is a very difficult task for a teacher to support the less able and at the same time challenge the gifted students, to lead them to the limits of their abilities and provide for a smooth transition to university study. Physics competitions have been proven to fulfil these last demands to a large degree, and therefore are an important additional and, to some extent, complementary tool for the promotion of talented students. This third special section on physics competitions in European Journal of Physics contains three papers, each dealing with a different form of science contest. The first continues the series of presentations of tasks performed at the International Young Physicists' Tournament, which was held in Vienna in 2011. First place went to the team from Singapore, and they have put their investigation on vertical oscillations of coupled magnets into written form (not required by the tournament, where an oral presentation and a defence and discussion are the central aspects). Their paper shows how rich in physics this problem is, and what level of solutions high-school students can already achieve. Sadly, those responsible for the organization of last year's International Physics Olympiad did not provide us with a report on this competition. This is unfortunate, since the Olympiad in Zagreb was very successful and, in particular, the experimental tasks were creative and demanding. Very similar to the aims and the execution of the Physics Olympiad is the International Olympiad on Astronomy

  12. Correlation of Cystatin-C with Glomerular Filtration Rate by Inulin Clearance in Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Aditi R.; Karumanchi, S. Ananth; Fan, Shu-Ling; Horowitz, Gary L.; Seely, Ellen W.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To test utility of cystatin-C as a marker of glomerular filtration rate during pregnancy, we performed serial correlations with inulin clearance during pregnancy and postpartum. Methods Twelve subjects received inulin infusions and serum cystatin-C at three time points. Pearson's correlation coefficient was calculated. Results Cystatin-C levels ranged 0.66 to 1.48 mg/L during pregnancy, and 0.72 to 1.26 mg/L postpartum. Inulin clearance ranged 130 to 188 ml/min during pregnancy, and 110 to 167 ml/min postpartum. Cystatin-C did not correlate with inulin clearance at any time point. Conclusion Serum cystatin-C did not correlate with inulin clearance during pregnancy or postpartum. PMID:22008011

  13. Compressor airfoil tip clearance optimization system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, David A.; Pu, Zhengxiang

    2015-08-18

    A compressor airfoil tip clearance optimization system for reducing a gap between a tip of a compressor airfoil and a radially adjacent component of a turbine engine is disclosed. The turbine engine may include ID and OD flowpath boundaries configured to minimize compressor airfoil tip clearances during turbine engine operation in cooperation with one or more clearance reduction systems that are configured to move the rotor assembly axially to reduce tip clearance. The configurations of the ID and OD flowpath boundaries enhance the effectiveness of the axial movement of the rotor assembly, which includes movement of the ID flowpath boundary. During operation of the turbine engine, the rotor assembly may be moved axially to increase the efficiency of the turbine engine.

  14. 32 CFR 154.16 - Security clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... U.S. Senate and House of Representatives do not require personnel security clearances. They may be... part. The Director, Washington Headquarters Services (WHS) will initiate the required investigation...

  15. Keratoconus fittings: apical clearance or apical support?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMonnies, Charles W

    2004-07-01

    To examine the relative merits of apical support and apical clearance fitting of rigid gas-permeable contact lenses for keratoconus. After an historic review of fitting approaches for keratoconus, a case report is described in which an adventitious apical clearance fitting for early keratoconus might have been associated with accelerated progress of the ectasia. The hypothesis that apical clearance fittings increase the risk of accelerating ectasia progression in early keratoconus is examined in counterpoint to the hypothesis that apical support fittings increase the risk of apical scarring. Reference is made to the responses of normal corneas to apical clearance fitting and to apical contact fittings used in orthokeratology fittings. The tendency for corneas to mold to contact lens curvature is reviewed. The possibility that reduced corneal thickness or tissue softening and associated changes to the biomechanical properties of the cornea in keratoconus may facilitate molding with apical clearance fitting is examined. Known and putative risk factors for fitting complications that are associated with apical clearance and apical touch contact lens fitting are given as a basis for the reader to draw conclusions about the management of contact lens fitting for keratoconus. The possibility of symptomless adverse responses is a strong indication for frequent routine aftercare reviews.

  16. Competitive advantage and competitive dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milisavljević Momčilo

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding competitors means locating and defining their main elements. The first element is participants - companies that compete and create a network of rivalry. Apart from our company it includes other participants in the market (investors, consumers, distributors, providers and producers of substitute and complementary products. The other element is additional value - net profit and loss which every competitor brings to the others. Measuring of additional value requires measurement of value for every single company, and then comparing it with situation without that company. The third element is the rules which create a structure and a system in which the battle is proceeded. The rules may be written (laws, contracts or non-written (habits, culture, spoken deals. The forth element is tactics - maneuvers of the company in creating profit and competitive advantage. Four main tactics are prevent, attack, discourage and react. The fifth element is the bounders of the market competitors.

  17. Capreomycin kinetics in renal impairment and clearance by hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, C R; Garrett, L E; Winn, R E; Springberg, P D; Vicks, S; Porter, D K; Pierson, W P; Wolny, J D; Brier, G L; Black, H R

    1988-11-01

    The single-dose kinetics of capreomycin are described for 12 renal patients and seven healthy control subjects. Creatinine clearances (CrCl) ranged from zero to 121 ml/min. After single-dose intravenous infusions, mean +/- SD capreomycin clearance values (L/kg/h x 10(-2)) were 0.558 +/- 0.160 for the dialysis group (n = 4, CrCl = 1.4 +/- 1.9), 1.77 +/- 0.45 for the moderate renal group (n = 3, CrCl = 25 +/- 5), 2.82 +/- 1.52 for the mild renal group (n = 4, CrCl = 46 +/- 5), and 5.73 +/- 1.54 for the normal renal group (n = 7, CrCl = 109 +/- 11); p less than 0.01, using analysis of variance. The correlation between capreomycin clearance and CrCl was r = 0.90. Hemodialysis cleared clinically significant amounts of capreomycin. These data imply that capreomycin maintenance doses need to be reduced for renal patients.

  18. Lower metabolic clearance of tizanidine in Japanese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momo, Kenji; Homma, Masato; Kohda, Yukinao

    2013-12-01

    Our aim was to determine whether metabolic clearance, renal clearance, or both elimination pathways contribute to ethnic differences in tizanidine clearance, which is ~ 2-fold higher in Caucasians than in Asians. The pharmacokinetic parameters of tizanidine in 9 healthy male Japanese subjects were compared with those of Caucasians in previous studies. Metabolic clearance of tizanidine was lower in Japanese than in Caucasian subjects (5.9 vs. 8.1 - 10.9 l/h/kg), although renal clearances were similar (0.040 vs. 0.047 - 0.055 l/h/kg). The results suggest that ethnic differences in tizanidine clearance are due to differences in metabolic clearance.

  19. Lunabotics Mining Competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Rob; Murphy, Gloria

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation describes a competition to design a lunar robot (lunabot) that can be controlled either remotely or autonomously, isolated from the operator, and is designed to mine a lunar aggregate simulant. The competition is part of a systems engineering curriculum. The 2010 competition winners in five areas of the competition were acknowledged, and the 2011 competition was announced.

  20. Competitive spirit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Leicester University will host the 65 international teams of students who will assemble in July for this year's International Physics Olympiad . The last time the Olympiad came to the UK was in 1986 in London, and it was the notable enthusiasm of the Leicester Physics and Astronomy department which persuaded the Olympiad Committee to give them the chance of organizing the prestigious event. The students taking part from all over the world are studying physics at A-level or an equivalent standard and they will take part in an intellectual marathon of theoretical and practical examinations. Each national team comprises five students selected from three rounds of competition and the teams will receive an official welcome from the city, as well as opportunities to visit some of the important educational and cultural centres of the surrounding region. The finalists will also be able to test their skills and initiative at the Challenger Learning Centre, which forms part of Leicester's new National Space Science Centre. Specific information on the event can be found on the Olympiad-2000 website at www.star.le.ac.uk/IphO-2000 . The Rudolf Ortvay problem solving contest in physics, which takes place in November, is a tradition of Eötvös University in Budapest, Hungary. The competition was first opened to international participants in 1998, enabling students from universities around the world to show their knowledge, ingenuity, problem-solving skills and physical insight into problems that are far beyond routine level. The problems (30 - 35 each year) are chosen from different branches of theoretical as well as applied physics. They have varying levels of difficulty, and every contestant can send solutions for ten problems. The focus is not on school-level problem-solving routines but rather on the `physical' way of thinking, recognition of the heart of the problem and an appropriate choice of mathematics. The majority of the assigned problems are original, few having

  1. Competition, Competitiveness and Development: Lessons from ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    competitive or restrictive business practices. As evidenced by the rapidly growing number of countries involved in the preparation, adoption and implementation of competition laws and policies, there is growing awareness among developing ...

  2. Competitive balance in national European soccer competitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haan, M.A.; Koning, R.H.; van Witteloostuijn, A.; Albert, Jim; Koning, Ruud H.

    2007-01-01

    According to popular belief, competitive balance in national soccer competitions in Europe has decreased due to the Bosman ruling and the introduction of the Champions League. We test this hypothesis using data from 7 national competitions, for a host of indicators. We find some evidence for

  3. Prediction of human drug clearance by multiple metabolic pathways: integration of hepatic and intestinal microsomal and cytosolic data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubitt, Helen E; Houston, J Brian; Galetin, Aleksandra

    2011-05-01

    The current study assesses hepatic and intestinal glucuronidation, sulfation, and cytochrome P450 (P450) metabolism of raloxifene, quercetin, salbutamol, and troglitazone using different in vitro systems. The fraction metabolized by conjugation and P450 metabolism was estimated in liver and intestine, and the importance of multiple metabolic pathways on accuracy of clearance prediction was assessed. In vitro intrinsic sulfation clearance (CL(int, SULT)) was determined in human intestinal and hepatic cytosol and compared with hepatic and intestinal microsomal glucuronidation (CL(int, UGT)) and P450 clearance (CL(int, CYP)) expressed per gram of tissue. Hepatic and intestinal cytosolic scaling factors of 80.7 mg/g liver and 18 mg/g intestine were estimated from published data. Scaled CL(int, SULT) ranged between 0.7 and 11.4 ml · min(-1) · g(-1) liver and 0.1 and 3.3 ml · min(-1) · g(-1) intestine (salbutamol and quercetin were the extremes). Salbutamol was the only compound with a high extent of sulfation (51 and 28% of total CL(int) for liver and intestine, respectively) and also significant renal clearance (26-57% of observed plasma clearance). In contrast, the clearance of quercetin was largely accounted for by glucuronidation. Drugs metabolized by multiple pathways (raloxifene and troglitazone) demonstrated improved prediction of intravenous clearance using data from all hepatic pathways (44-86% of observed clearance) compared with predictions based only on the primary pathway (22-36%). The assumption of no intestinal first pass resulted in underprediction of oral clearance for raloxifene, troglitazone, and quercetin (3-22% of observed, respectively). Accounting for the intestinal contribution to oral clearance via estimated intestinal availability improved prediction accuracy for raloxifene and troglitazone (within 2.5-fold of observed). Current findings emphasize the importance of both hepatic and intestinal conjugation for in vitro-in vivo extrapolation

  4. Standardizing the measurement of parasite clearance in falciparum malaria: the parasite clearance estimator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flegg Jennifer A

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A significant reduction in parasite clearance rates following artesunate treatment of falciparum malaria, and increased failure rates following artemisinin combination treatments (ACT, signaled emergent artemisinin resistance in Western Cambodia. Accurate measurement of parasite clearance is therefore essential to assess the spread of artemisinin resistance in Plasmodium falciparum. The slope of the log-parasitaemia versus time relationship is considered to be the most robust measure of anti-malarial effect. However, an initial lag phase of numerical instability often precedes a steady exponential decline in the parasite count after the start of anti-malarial treatment. This lag complicates the clearance estimation, introduces observer subjectivity, and may influence the accuracy and consistency of reported results. Methods To address this problem, a new approach to modelling clearance of malaria parasites from parasitaemia-time profiles has been explored and validated. The methodology detects when a lag phase is present, selects the most appropriate model (linear, quadratic or cubic to fit log-transformed parasite data, and calculates estimates of parasite clearance adjusted for this lag phase. Departing from previous approaches, parasite counts below the level of detection are accounted for and not excluded from the calculation. Results Data from large clinical studies with frequent parasite counts were examined. The effect of a lag phase on parasite clearance rate estimates is discussed, using individual patient data examples. As part of the World Wide Antimalarial Resistance Network's (WWARN efforts to make innovative approaches available to the malaria community, an automated informatics tool: the parasite clearance estimator has been developed. Conclusions The parasite clearance estimator provides a consistent, reliable and accurate method to estimate the lag phase and malaria parasite clearance rate. It could be used

  5. Effects of leakage through clearance seals on the performance of a 10 K Stirling-cycle refrigerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keung, C. S.; Lindale, E.

    1985-01-01

    The use of clearance seals is essential to achieve long life, wear free operation of Stirling cycle cryogenic refrigerators. The effect of leakage through clearance seals on the performance of such a refrigerator operating at temperatures ranging from 20 K down to 10 K was determined. The ability of a Stirling cycle refrigerator to achieve 10 K with clearance seals was successfully demonstrated. It is indicated that the leakage flow undergoes gap regeneration before reaching the cold expansion volume. A simple model of gap regeneration was used to estimate the regeneration loss due to the leakage flow. This regeneration process minimizes the loss in refrigerator performance caused by the clearance seal leakage. It is found that clearance seals remain effective down to a refrigeration temperature of 10 K.

  6. Influence of hemodialysis on regadenoson clearance in an in vitro hemodialysis model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharibian, Katherine N; Murthy, Venkatesh L; Mueller, Bruce A

    2018-02-01

    Regadenoson is a novel pharmacological stress agent whose disposition during hemodialysis is not known. The purpose of this study was to determine the clearance of regadenoson under varying dialytic conditions using an in vitro hemodialysis model. Whole human blood was used to analyze the effect of hemodialysis on the clearance of regadenoson. Regadenoson transmembrane clearance (CL D ) was assessed for both a standard permeability and a high permeability polysulfone hemodialyzer with blood/dialysate flow rates of 300/600 and 400/800 mL/min. A two-tailed, paired Student's t test was used to compare regadenoson CL D between hemodialyzer types and flow rates. The mean ± SD regadenoson CL D values ranged between 62.5 ± 11.8 and 89.1 ± 24.0 mL/min for all dialytic conditions. There was no significant difference in regadenoson CL D between hemodialyzer types and flow rates (p > .05). Hemodialysis enhances the clearance of regadenoson independent of hemodialyzer permeability and blood/dialysate flow rate. This clearance is modest relative to total body clearance and is unlikely to produce a clinically significant outcome.

  7. Entrepreneurship and corporate competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihailović Božo

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Macroeconomics reforms are not enough for long-range stability. Transition enterprises in domestic economy hasn't prepare itself for the market economy. It has some specific characteristics which are analyzed in this paper. Entrepreneurship is the corner stone for enterprise development in the sense of achieving sustainable competitiveness in the contemporary globalized world economy. There are two possibilities to introduce it in transition enterprises: (a self-development (development by itself or evolution and (b create partnerships or alliance with some reputable competitor. In current situation, author proposal is for the second solution.

  8. A Parametric Study of Actuator Requirements for Active Turbine Tip Clearance Control of a Modern High Bypass Turbofan Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratz, Jonathan L.; Chapman, Jeffryes W.; Guo, Ten-Huei

    2017-01-01

    The efficiency of aircraft gas turbine engines is sensitive to the distance between the tips of its turbine blades and its shroud, which serves as its containment structure. Maintaining tighter clearance between these components has been shown to increase turbine efficiency, increase fuel efficiency, and reduce the turbine inlet temperature, and this correlates to a longer time-on-wing for the engine. Therefore, there is a desire to maintain a tight clearance in the turbine, which requires fast response active clearance control. Fast response active tip clearance control will require an actuator to modify the physical or effective tip clearance in the turbine. This paper evaluates the requirements of a generic active turbine tip clearance actuator for a modern commercial aircraft engine using the Commercial Modular Aero-Propulsion System Simulation 40k (C-MAPSS40k) software that has previously been integrated with a dynamic tip clearance model. A parametric study was performed in an attempt to evaluate requirements for control actuators in terms of bandwidth, rate limits, saturation limits, and deadband. Constraints on the weight of the actuation system and some considerations as to the force which the actuator must be capable of exerting and maintaining are also investigated. From the results, the relevant range of the evaluated actuator parameters can be extracted. Some additional discussion is provided on the challenges posed by the tip clearance control problem and the implications for future small core aircraft engines.

  9. Pharmacologic agents for mucus clearance in bronchiectasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Girish B; Ilowite, Jonathan S

    2012-06-01

    There are no approved pharmacologic agents to enhance mucus clearance in non-cystic fibrosis (CF) bronchiectasis. Evidence supports the use of hyperosmolar agents in CF, and studies with inhaled mannitol and hypertonic saline are ongoing in bronchiectasis. N-acetylcysteine may act more as an antioxidant than a mucolytic in other lung diseases. Dornase α is beneficial to patients with CF, but is not useful in patients with non-CF bronchiectasis. Mucokinetic agents such as β-agonists have the potential to improve mucociliary clearance in normals and many disease states, but have not been adequately studied in patients with bronchiectasis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Airway clearance techniques for bronchiectasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Annemarie L; Burge, Angela T; Holland, Anne E

    2015-11-23

    People with non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis commonly experience chronic cough and sputum production, features that may be associated with progressive decline in clinical and functional status. Airway clearance techniques (ACTs) are often prescribed to facilitate expectoration of sputum from the lungs, but the efficacy of these techniques in a stable clinical state or during an acute exacerbation of bronchiectasis is unclear. Primary: to determine effects of ACTs on rates of acute exacerbation, incidence of hospitalisation and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in individuals with acute and stable bronchiectasis. Secondary: to determine whether:• ACTs are safe for individuals with acute and stable bronchiectasis; and• ACTs have beneficial effects on physiology and symptoms in individuals with acute and stable bronchiectasis. We searched the Cochrane Airways Group Specialised Register of trials from inception to November 2015 and PEDro in March 2015, and we handsearched relevant journals. Randomised controlled parallel and cross-over trials that compared an ACT versus no treatment, sham ACT or directed coughing in participants with bronchiectasis. We used standard methodological procedures as expected by The Cochrane Collaboration. Seven studies involving 105 participants met the inclusion criteria of this review, six of which were cross-over in design. Six studies included adults with stable bronchiectasis; the other study examined clinically stable children with bronchiectasis. Three studies provided single treatment sessions, two lasted 15 to 21 days and two were longer-term studies. Interventions varied; some control groups received a sham intervention and others were inactive. The methodological quality of these studies was variable, with most studies failing to use concealed allocation for group assignment and with absence of blinding of participants and personnel for outcome measure assessment. Heterogeneity between studies precluded inclusion of

  11. Clearance of seborrhoeic keratoses with topical dobesilate

    OpenAIRE

    Cuevas, Pedro; Angulo, Javier; Salgüero, Irene; Giménez-Gallego, Guillermo

    2012-01-01

    A patient with two seborrhoeic keratoses in the face received a single daily application of dobesilate cream during 6 months. Dobesilate achieved complete clearance of the seborrhoeic keratosis lesions with good cosmoses, suggesting that this compound is a safe and efficient candidate in the treatment of seborrhoeic keratoses.

  12. Clearance of seborrhoeic keratoses with topical dobesilate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuevas, Pedro; Angulo, Javier; Salgüero, Irene; Giménez-Gallego, Guillermo

    2012-06-21

    A patient with two seborrhoeic keratoses in the face received a single daily application of dobesilate cream during 6 months. Dobesilate achieved complete clearance of the seborrhoeic keratosis lesions with good cosmoses, suggesting that this compound is a safe and efficient candidate in the treatment of seborrhoeic keratoses.

  13. Apoptotic Cell Clearance in Drosophila melanogaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Zheng

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The swift clearance of apoptotic cells (ACs (efferocytosis by phagocytes is a critical event during development of all multicellular organisms. It is achieved through phagocytosis by professional or amateur phagocytes. Failure in this process can lead to the development of inflammatory autoimmune or neurodegenerative diseases. AC clearance has been conserved throughout evolution, although many details in its mechanisms remain to be explored. It has been studied in the context of mammalian macrophages, and in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, which lacks “professional” phagocytes such as macrophages, but in which other cell types can engulf apoptotic corpses. In Drosophila melanogaster, ACs are engulfed by macrophages, glial, and epithelial cells. Drosophila macrophages perform similar functions to those of mammalian macrophages. They are professional phagocytes that participate in phagocytosis of ACs and pathogens. Study of AC clearance in Drosophila has identified some key elements, like the receptors Croquemort and Draper, promoting Drosophila as a suitable model to genetically dissect this process. In this review, we survey recent works of AC clearance pathways in Drosophila, and discuss the physiological outcomes and consequences of this process.

  14. Bromsulphalein (BSP) clearance in ageing rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hollander, C.F.; Leeuw-Israel, F.R. de; Arp-Neefjes, J.M.

    1968-01-01

    Liver function in ageing rats was studied, using the bromsulphalein (BSP) clearance test. The test was done on ultramicro scale. This made it possible to repeat the test several times in the same animal and to start a longitudinal study. In 3-month-old rats the BSP retentions, measured 15, 30 and 45

  15. Frequency of stone clearance after extracorporeal shockwave ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A. Khalique

    2017-02-24

    Feb 24, 2017 ... Abstract. Objective: To determine the rate of stone clearance after extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL) for renal stones in adult patients with renal insufficiency. Subjects and methods: This is a cross-sectional descriptive study of 117 adult patients who underwent. ESWL. The indications for ESWL ...

  16. Augmenting solute clearance in peritoneal dialysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krediet, R. T.; Douma, C. E.; van Olden, R. W.; Ho-Dac-Pannekeet, M. M.; Struijk, D. G.

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The removal of low molecular weight solutes by peritoneal dialysis is less than by hemodialysis. The targets for Kt/Vurea and creatinine clearance formulated in the Dialysis Outcome Quality Initiative are unlikely to be achieved in a substantial portion of peritoneal dialysis patients.

  17. Competition in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Porter, Michael E.; Mariko Sakakibara

    2004-01-01

    This article examines competition in Japan and its link to postwar economic prosperity. While Japan's industrial structure and competition policy seem to indicate that competition in Japan has been less intense, the empirical evidence does not support this conclusion. The sectors in which competition was restricted prove to be those where Japan was not internationally successful. In the internationally successful sectors, internal competition in Japan was invariably fierce. While the level of...

  18. Distinguishing aggregate formation and aggregate clearance using cell based assays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Eenjes, E.; J.M. Dragich; H. Kampinga (Harm); A. Yamamoto, A.

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThe accumulation of ubiquitinated proteinaceous inclusions represents a complex process, reflecting the disequilibrium between aggregate formation and aggregate clearance. Although decreasing aggregate formation or augmenting aggregate clearance will ultimately lead to diminished

  19. 19 CFR 122.26 - Entry and clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Private Aircraft § 122.26 Entry and clearance. Private aircraft, as defined... information as set forth in § 122.22(c), and grants electronic clearance via electronic mail or telephone. ...

  20. The influence of body posture on lithium clearance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamper, A L; Strandgaard, S; Holstein-Rathlou, N H

    1988-01-01

    To establish appropriate standard circumstances for lithium clearance measurements, a study was undertaken in 12 healthy volunteers. In each subject, the glomerular filtration rate (GFR), as estimated by [51Cr]EDTA plasma clearance, and the renal clearances of lithium, sodium and potassium were m...... during moderate physical activity. Hence, when renal tubular function is studied with the lithium clearance method, standardization of posture and physical activity is important. In such studies physical activity such as walking should particularly be avoided....

  1. The influence of livestock management on land use competition between domestic and wild ungulates: sheep and chamois Rupicapra pyrenaica parva Cabrera in the Cantabrian range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebollo, S.

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available The spatial distribution and competition for the use of resources between sheep —transhumant merino— and chamois Rupicapra pyrenaica parva. Cabrera, 1910 has been analyzed during the summer grazing period in the Cantabrian range. The studied area, —a 750 ha. wide high pass— was divided into sectors depending on geophysical variables (substratum, aspect and elevation and vegetation types. Sheep land use was analyzed by direct observation of the flock and by means of enquiries to the shepherd. Chamois were studied before and during the time sheep were present in the pastureland, with the help of fixed itineraries that enabled us to visually cover the whole area. The assessment of land use was carried out by corrected frequency and preference index for each of the studied environmental variables. Sheep grazed in the whole area excepting for beech woods (Fagus sylvatica, rocky and steep zones and dense scrub patches.
    The location of the sheepfolds —shelters, enclosures and associated pastures— is a key factor in the management of the pastoral system. They are usually placed in a central position from where the flock make their every day course, normally directed to higher zones, in the studied area, chamois distribution is limited by the scarcity of zones over 1.800 m., and by the strong sheep grazing pressure at all elevations. Chamois leave the areas grazed by the sheep flock, creating an almost total segregation. They occupy steep rocky slopes and the beech woods edges close to them, both situated furthest away from the sheepfolds.

    [es] Durante el periodo estival de utilización de los pastos de puerto en la Cordillera Cantábrica, se analiza la distribución espacial de las ovejas —merinas trashumantes— y rebecos —Rupicapra pyrenaica parva. Cabrera 1910— y su posible competencia en el uso de los recursos. Como referencia se llevó a cabo una sectorización del territorio —750 ha.— seg

  2. Evaluation of an Active Clearance Control System Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinetz, Bruce M.; Lattime, Scott B.; Taylor, Shawn; DeCastro, Jonathan A.; Oswald, Jay; Melcher, Kevin J.

    2005-01-01

    Reducing blade tip clearances through active tip clearance control in the high pressure turbine can lead to significant reductions in emissions and specific fuel consumption as well as dramatic improvements in operating efficiency and increased service life. Current engines employ scheduled cooling of the outer case flanges to reduce high pressure turbine tip clearances during cruise conditions. These systems have relatively slow response and do not use clearance measurement, thereby forcing cold build clearances to set the minimum clearances at extreme operating conditions (e.g., takeoff, reburst) and not allowing cruise clearances to be minimized due to the possibility of throttle transients (e.g., step change in altitude). In an effort to improve upon current thermal methods, a first generation mechanically-actuated active clearance control (ACC) system has been designed and fabricated. The system utilizes independent actuators, a segmented shroud structure, and clearance measurement feedback to provide fast and precise active clearance control throughout engine operation. Ambient temperature performance tests of this first generation ACC system assessed individual seal component leakage rates and both static and dynamic overall system leakage rates. The ability of the nine electric stepper motors to control the position of the seal carriers in both open- and closed-loop control modes for single and multiple cycles was investigated. The ability of the system to follow simulated engine clearance transients in closed-loop mode showed the system was able to track clearances to within a tight tolerance ( 0.001 in. error).

  3. 14 CFR 1260.63 - Customs clearance and visas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Customs clearance and visas. 1260.63 Section 1260.63 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION GRANTS AND COOPERATIVE AGREEMENTS General Special Conditions § 1260.63 Customs clearance and visas. Customs Clearance and Visas (For...

  4. COMPETITIVENESS AND COMPETITIVE ORIENTATIONS: EVALUATION OF STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Z. Efimova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Education of a competitive student is a strategically significant problem of the system of higher education in modern social and economic conditions. Personal competitiveness and competitive orientations – priority quality of future expert for successful future professional experience.The aim of the present research is to study factors of competitive orientations formation and criteria for evaluation of competitiveness of student’s youth in the Russian society.Methodology and research methods. Results of theoretical researches of Russian and foreign researchers are generalized; secondary analysis of data based on results of sociological researches and analysis of official statistical data are carried out. The results of the sociological survey undertaken in 2017 on the basis of statistical methods were processed and studied by the instrumentality of IBM SPSS Statistics 23 program; 1196 students of institutions of higher and secondary vocational education of the Tyumen region took part.Results and scientific novelty. It is stated that senior students feel themselves more competitive. It is revealed that a quarter of students who took part in the survey, generally men, count themselves competitive. A continuous distance of goal-setting is recorded among these respondents; in every third case they have plans of professional growth for five and more years that allows them to build attractive competitive strategy.The level of the competitiveness is directly connected with such indicators as “social stratum”, “overall life satisfaction”, “self-esteem of health”, “tendency to lead a healthy lifestyle” and “the level of trust in the surrounding people”. Mostly the students oriented on competition look into the future with confidence and optimism.Respondents focused on the competitiveness were more tend to demonstrate their abilities and cause admiration, have a creative approach towards work, be ready for surprises

  5. Radial Clearance Found To Play a Key Role in the Performance of Compliant Foil Air Bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radil, Kevin C.

    2003-01-01

    optimum radial clearance exists that will maximize the amount of load that the bearing is capable of supporting. With respect to this optimum, two different performance regimes were observed that are a function of the amount of radial clearance. Tests showed that bearings with radial clearances below the optimum in regime I were susceptible to sudden seizure, a failure mode indicative of thermal runaway caused by high preload. The high preload is in response to an insufficient amount of radial clearance available to accommodate the thermal growth of the bearing and shaft. However, radial clearances greater than the optimum in regime II resulted in low bearing preloads that did not cause any heat-related problems, and the failure mode was due to fluid-film breakdown. In fact, bearings operating with radial clearances twice as much as the optimum suffered a decrease in the maximum load capacity of only about 20 percent. Therefore, special attention has to be given to the range of operating conditions expected in the bearing/shaft system since changes in temperature, centrifugal, and hydrodynamic effects can all affect radial clearance. This enhanced understanding of foil air bearing behavior will greatly aid our efforts to transition Oil-Free technology to future aircraft engines.

  6. Reduced Postvasectomy Semen Analysis Testing With the Implementation of Special Clearance Parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieniek, Jared M; Fleming, Tyler B; Clark, Joseph Y

    2015-09-01

    To determine the applicability of postvasectomy special clearance parameters (semen analysis) suggested by the American Urological Association and to define the associated cost savings with avoidance of further testing. We retrospectively reviewed the cohort of men undergoing vasectomy from December 2009 to August 2012 at a single institution. Patient demographics and postvasectomy semen analysis (PVSA) results were collected for clearance parameter comparisons. During the study period, 230 patients underwent vasectomy with a mean ± SD age of 36.4 ± 6.5 years. Among the cohort, 83.5% were married and 95.2% had one or more children. The initial PVSA was completed by 111 (48.3%) patients at a mean of 17.8 weeks (range 4-45) following vasectomy. Sperm was identified on initial PVSA in 40 patients (36.0%); 1 patient was found to have motile sperm. Of 39 patients, 38 (97.4%) with nonmotile sperm on PVSA could be cleared to cease other contraceptives based on the most recent clearance guidelines. For those completing an initial PVSA, postvasectomy clearance increased from 64.0% to 98.2% representing a potential cost savings of $2356 in repeat semen testing. Postvasectomy contraceptive clearance can be greatly increased when rare nonmotile sperm parameters are included although postvasectomy semen testing compliance remains poor. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Gas turbine engine active clearance control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deveau, Paul J. (Inventor); Greenberg, Paul B. (Inventor); Paolillo, Roger E. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    Method for controlling the clearance between rotating and stationary components of a gas turbine engine are disclosed. Techniques for achieving close correspondence between the radial position of rotor blade tips and the circumscribing outer air seals are disclosed. In one embodiment turbine case temperature modifying air is provided in flow rate, pressure and temperature varied as a function of engine operating condition. The modifying air is scheduled from a modulating and mixing valve supplied with dual source compressor air. One source supplies relatively low pressure, low temperature air and the other source supplies relatively high pressure, high temperature air. After the air has been used for the active clearance control (cooling the high pressure turbine case) it is then used for cooling the structure that supports the outer air seal and other high pressure turbine component parts.

  8. Dietary Intake of Competitive Bodybuilders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spendlove, Jessica; Mitchell, Lachlan; Gifford, Janelle; Hackett, Daniel; Slater, Gary; Cobley, Stephen; O'Connor, Helen

    2015-07-01

    Competitive bodybuilders are well known for extreme physique traits and extremes in diet and training manipulation to optimize lean mass and achieve a low body fat. Although many of the dietary dogmas in bodybuilding lack scientific scrutiny, a number, including timing and dosing of high biological value proteins across the day, have more recently been confirmed as effective by empirical research studies. A more comprehensive understanding of the dietary intakes of bodybuilders has the potential to uncover other dietary approaches, deserving of scientific investigation, with application to the wider sporting, and potential health contexts, where manipulation of physique traits is desired. Our objective was to conduct a systematic review of dietary intake practices of competitive bodybuilders, evaluate the quality and currency of the existing literature, and identify research gaps to inform future studies. A systematic search of electronic databases was conducted from the earliest record until March 2014. The search combined permutations of the terms 'bodybuilding', 'dietary intake', and 'dietary supplement'. Included studies needed to report quantitative data (energy and macronutrients at a minimum) on habitual dietary intake of competitive bodybuilders. The 18 manuscripts meeting eligibility criteria reported on 385 participants (n = 62 women). Most studies were published in the 1980-1990s, with three published in the past 5 years. Study methodological quality was evaluated as poor. Energy intake ranged from 10 to 24 MJ/day for men and from 4 to 14 MJ/day for women. Protein intake ranged from 1.9 to 4.3 g/kg for men and from 0.8 to 2.8 g/kg for women. Intake of carbohydrate and fat was 6 months from competition) or immediate post-competition period and lowest during competition preparation (≤6 months from competition) or competition week. The most commonly reported dietary supplements were protein powders/liquids and amino acids. The studies failed to provide

  9. Bomb strike experiment for mine clearance operations

    OpenAIRE

    Ray, Gregory P.

    2006-01-01

    The Bomb Strike Experiment for Mine Countermeasure Operations, currently sponsored through the Office of Naval Research mine impact burial prediction project, is part of a multi-year, comprehensive effort aimed at enhancing the Navyâ s fleet naval mine clearance capability and success. The investigation discussed in this paper examines the experimental and theoretical characteristics of a rigid body falling through the air, water, and sediment column at high speed. Several experiments were ...

  10. Deterrence in Oligopolistic Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-03-01

    processes and outcomes of competition. The theoretical literature, dating from Cournot [1838], is predominantly deductive and positive. That is, -5...provide salient, albeit rough, predictions about the processes and outcomes of competition. The theoretical literature, dating from Cournot [1838], is

  11. Lunar Regolith Excavation Competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liles, Cassandra

    2009-01-01

    The Lunar Regolith Excavation Competition is a new competition that needs graphics, logos, rules, as well as an arena. Although this is the first year of the competition, the competition is modeled after an existing competition, the Centennial Lunar Excavator Challenge. This competition however is aimed at college students. This makes the challenge identifying key aspects of the original competition and modeling them to fit into an easier task, and creating exciting advertisement that helps encourage participation. By using a youth focus group, young insight, as well as guiding advice from experts in the field, hopefully an arena can be designed and built, rules can be molded and created to fit, and alluring graphics can be printed to bring about a successful first year of the Lunar Regolith Excavation Competition.

  12. Creativity and Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roweton, William E.

    1982-01-01

    The effect of competition on ideational creativity is considered in light of the theories of J. Adams, J. Abramson, P. Torrance, M. Raina, and J. Heifetz. It is concluded that the data show competition to facilitate creativity. (SW)

  13. Activity-Dependent Plasticity of Astroglial Potassium and Glutamate Clearance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giselle Cheung

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent evidence has shown that astrocytes play essential roles in synaptic transmission and plasticity. Nevertheless, how neuronal activity alters astroglial functional properties and whether such properties also display specific forms of plasticity still remain elusive. Here, we review research findings supporting this aspect of astrocytes, focusing on their roles in the clearance of extracellular potassium and glutamate, two neuroactive substances promptly released during excitatory synaptic transmission. Their subsequent removal, which is primarily carried out by glial potassium channels and glutamate transporters, is essential for proper functioning of the brain. Similar to neurons, different forms of short- and long-term plasticity in astroglial uptake have been reported. In addition, we also present novel findings showing robust potentiation of astrocytic inward currents in response to repetitive stimulations at mild frequencies, as low as 0.75 Hz, in acute hippocampal slices. Interestingly, neurotransmission was hardly affected at this frequency range, suggesting that astrocytes may be more sensitive to low frequency stimulation and may exhibit stronger plasticity than neurons to prevent hyperexcitability. Taken together, these important findings strongly indicate that astrocytes display both short- and long-term plasticity in their clearance of excess neuroactive substances from the extracellular space, thereby regulating neuronal activity and brain homeostasis.

  14. Ireland's Competitiveness Challenge 2011

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The NCC publishes two annual competitiveness reports. Ireland's Competitiveness Challenge focuses on the national competitiveness issues of most importance to the enterprise sector and identifies policy recommendations required to address these issues. The report focuses on pursuing policies to improve competitiveness, particularly those to reduce the cost base for enterprise, to enhance the performance of the entire education system, and to deliver meaningful public sector reform. Ireland's ...

  15. In Defence of Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prvulovich, Zika Rad

    1982-01-01

    Examines objections to competition as presented by educational philosopher Michael Fielding and others. The two major types of criticism of competition are that it is unfair and divisive and that it is selfish and immoral. The author advocates educational experiences which combine self-competition with cooperation. (AM)

  16. Productive and Unproductive Competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guerra, Alice; Luppi, Barbara; Parisi, Francesco

    Conventional theories of competition classify contests as being either “productive,” when the competitive efforts generate a surplus for society, or “unproductive,” when competition generates no social surplus and merely distributes already existing resources. These two discrete categories of com...

  17. Competition in EU banking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Jonghe, Olivier; Diepstraten, Maaike; Schepens, Glenn; Beck, Thorsten; Casu, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    This chapter discusses recent EU-wide movements in bank competition and concentration. We start with a concise overview of the most frequently used competition and concentration measures. Given that different measures may capture different aspects of bank competition, we focus on the differences and

  18. Tip clearance effects on loads and performances of semi-open impeller centrifugal pumps at different specific speeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boitel, G.; Fedala, D.; Myon, N.

    2016-11-01

    Relevant industrial standards or customer's specifications could strictly forbid any device adjusting the axial rotor/stator position, so that tip clearance between semi-open impeller and casing might become a result of the pump machining tolerances and assembling process, leading to big tip clearance variations compared to its nominal value. Consequently, large disparities of global performances (head, power, efficiency) and axial loads are observed with high risk of both specifications noncompliance and bearing damages. This work aims at quantifying these variations by taking into account tip clearance value and pump specific speed. Computational Fluid Dynamics is used to investigate this phenomenon by means of steady simulations led on a semi-open centrifugal pump numerical model including secondary flows, based on a k-omega SST turbulence model. Four different specific speed pump sizes are simulated (from 8 to 50, SI units), with three tip clearances for each size on a wide flow range (from 40% to 120% of the best efficiency point). The numerical results clearly show that head, power and efficiency increase as the tip clearance decreases for the whole flow range. This effect is more significant when the specific speed is low. Meanwhile, the resulting axial thrust on the impeller is very sensitive to the tip clearance and can even lead to direction inversion.

  19. Gender and Competition in Adolescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreber, Anna; Essen, Emma von; Ranehill, Eva

    2013-01-01

    We look at gender differences among adolescents in Sweden in preferences for competition, altruism and risk. For competitiveness, we explore two different tasks that differ in associated stereotypes. We find no gender difference in competitiveness when comparing performance under competition...

  20. Effects of Karenia brevis on clearance rates and bioaccumulation of brevetoxins in benthic suspension feeding invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echevarria, Michael; Naar, Jerome P; Tomas, Carmelo; Pawlik, Joseph R

    2012-01-15

    Blooms of the toxic alga Karenia brevis occur along coastlines where sessile suspension feeding invertebrates are common components of benthic communities. We studied the effects of K. brevis on four benthic suspension feeding invertebrates common to the coast of the SE United States: the sponge Haliclona tubifera, the bryozoan Bugula neritina, the bivalve Mercenaria mercenaria, and the tunicate Styela plicata. In controlled laboratory experiments, we determined the rate at which K. brevis was cleared from the seawater by these invertebrates, the effect of K. brevis on clearance rates of a non-toxic phytoplankton species, Rhodomonas sp., and the extent to which brevetoxins bioaccumulated in tissues of invertebrates using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). All four invertebrate species cleared significant quantities of K. brevis from seawater, with mean clearance rates ranging from 2.27 to 6.71 L g h⁻¹ for H. tubifera and S. plicata, respectively. In the presence of K. brevis, clearance rates of Rhodomonas sp. by B. neritina and S. plicata were depressed by 75% and 69%, respectively, while clearance rates by H. tubifera and M. mercenaria were unaffected. Negative effects of K. brevis were impermanent; after a recovery period of 13 h, B. neritina and S. plicata regained normal clearance rates. All four invertebrates accumulated high concentrations of brevetoxin after a 4h exposure to K. brevis, but when animals were transferred to filtered seawater for 15 h after exposure, brevetoxin concentrations in the tissues of H. tubifera and B. neritina decreased by ∼80%, while there was no change in toxin concentration in the tissues of S. plicata and M. mercenaria. High cell concentrations of K. brevis may cause a suppression of clearance rates in benthic suspension feeding invertebrates, resulting in a positive feedback for bloom formation. Also, high concentrations of toxin may accumulate in the tissues of benthic suspension feeding invertebrates that may

  1. Controversial topic: return to competitive sport after severe traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pangilinan, Percival H; Hornyak, Joseph E

    2007-11-01

    Various guidelines have been proposed for returning to sport after concussion or mild TBI. However, no such guidelines exist for severe TBI. This study presents three cases of athletes who sustained severe TBIs and returned to competition. The rational for their clearance will be discussed.

  2. PRICES IN COMPETITIVE SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VADUVA MARIA

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Regularities of competitive market determine rules for determining prices and their dynamics. Orientation prices to competition (competitive pricing is the strategy most frequently used in countries with market economies and especially for exports. Moreover, in an economy dominated by market competition it cannot be ignored without certain risks the prices resulting from competition between products bidders. Companies that use this type of strategy seek to maintain a level of prices linked to that charged by other competitors (or exporting producers generally no longer covering production costs or demand, relying on the assumption that the average market price is a reasonable basis of costs. But the way how practical guidance and reporting to the competition in every price strategy, will be determined by the company's market position, by the available power and enjoyed prestige, objectives and prospects of its market share etc. according to these elements, there may be several versions of pricing strategies oriented to competitors.

  3. Heterogeneous logics of competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mossin, Christiane

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the article is to demonstrate that in order to understand competition as a socially organizing phenomenon, we should not examine competition in isolation, but as constellations of heterogeneous logics. More precisely, the article is based on two main theoretical points: (1) Logics...... of competition are only realized as particular forms of social organization by virtue of interplaying with other kinds of logics, like legal logics. (2) Competition logics enjoy a peculiar status in-between constructedness and givenness; although competition depends on laws and mechanisms of socialization, we...... still experience competition as an expression of spontaneous human activities. On the basis of these perspectives, a study of fundamental rights of EU law, springing from the principle of ‘free movement of people’, is conducted. The first part of the empirical analysis seeks to detect the presence...

  4. Competitive Intelligence HF Czechforge

    OpenAIRE

    Nejtek, Petr

    2012-01-01

    This diploma thesis focuses on options of Competitive Intelligence solutions in small and medium enterprises. Applied part is conducted in a medium sized manufacturing company. Theoretical part of this thesis introduces areas of Competitive Intelligence and Business Intelligence, basic technological overview and illustrates Competitive Intelligence cycle description. In Czech republic, majority of companies are in a form of a small or medium enterprise, therefore theoretical definition is pro...

  5. Surfactant secretion and clearance in the newborn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, P.A.; Wright, J.R.; Clements, J.A. (Univ. of California, San Francisco (USA))

    1989-10-01

    Pregnant rabbits (30 days) were injected intravenously with (3H)choline 8 h before delivery. The fetuses were delivered, and lung lavage and lamellar body phospholipids (PL) were analyzed. Some newborns also received radioactively labeled surfactant intratracheally on delivery and were permitted to breathe. With time, intratracheal label decreased in lavage and appeared in the lamellar body fraction, and intravenous label accumulated in both pools. Using a tracer analysis for non-steady state, we calculated surfactant secretion and clearance rates for the newborn period. Before birth, both rates rose slightly from 1.8 micrograms PL.g body wt-1.h-1 at 6 h before birth to 7.3 at birth. Immediately after birth, secretion rate rose to 37.7 micrograms PL.g body wt-1.h-1. Between 1.5 and 2 h after birth it fell to a minimum of 1.8 micrograms PL.g body wt-1.h-1 and then rose slowly to 6.0 at 12 h. After birth, clearance rate increased less than secretion rate (maximum 24.7 micrograms PL.g body wt-1.h-1 shortly after birth) then followed the same pattern but did not balance secretion rate in the 1st day.

  6. Services Competitiveness: Some Conceptual and Methodological Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes Ghibuțiu

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The increasing trend towards services offshoring during the last decade and its wide-ranging consequences for the international division of labour placed services globalisation and the associated topic of competitiveness into the forefront of debates on international trade. Despite focusing widely the interest of economists and politicians alike, knowledge about the complex issues related to services competitiveness is still scarce. Both theoretical and empirical research on this topic continues to be hampered by the great heterogeneity of services and the lack of adequate statistical data and instruments as well as measurement problems deriving from it. The absence of international consensus on what competitiveness in general and in services in particular really means is adding to these difficulties. While there is large agreement on the economic and social importance of competitiveness, it is less clear what this notion actually denotes, nor is there a common understanding of the main determinants of competitiveness or the most proper instruments for measuring it. Hence, the very notion of competitiveness remains rather vague and subject to different interpretations, and it becomes even more ambiguous when transposed to services. Drawing on current literature that deals with services competitiveness and its determinants, the present paper addresses some conceptual and methodological aspects related to this topic. It highlights the increasing importance of individual countries’ competitiveness in trade in services and tries to distinguish the main characteristics of the concept of competitiveness when applied to trade in services. It also sheds light on the complex nature of the relationship between services and competitiveness due to the peculiarities of services internationalisation and concludes by discussing the main determinants of services competitiveness.

  7. Impact of Lower Pole Anatomy on Stone Clearance After Shock Wave Lithotripsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Shun Juan

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available This study retrospectively analyzed patients treated with shock wave ithotripsy (SWL for lower calyceal stones, to determine the influence of the lower pole anatomy and stone size in predicting the clearance of fragments. Between June 2000 and March 2002, we reviewed excretory urography (IVU of 59 patients with isolated lower pole stones treated with SWL. A total of 44 men and 15 women, with an age ranging between 23 and 78 years (mean, 55 years, were included in the study. The patients were divided into two groups, either a stone-free group or residual-stone group. After SWL, overall stone rate was 57.6%, and clearance for stones less than 10 mm in diameter was 64.5%, whereas clearance was 50% for stones between 10 and 20 mm in diameter. Intrarenal anatomy on IVU, such as infundibular width and infundibulopelvi-ureteric angle showed no significant difference between the stone-free and residual-stone groups. Our analysis showed that three significant variables were relevant to stone clearance: infundibular length, stone size and stone burden. We conclude that SWL is the best treatment for lower pole kidney stones 10 mm or less in diameter, showing lower complication and acceptable stone-free rates.

  8. A prototype wireless inertial-sensing device for measuring toe clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Daniel T H; Charry, E; Begg, R; Palaniswami, M

    2008-01-01

    Tripping and slipping are serious health concerns for the elderly because they result in life threatening injuries i.e., fractures and high medical costs. Our recent work in detection of tripping gait patterns has demonstrated that minimum toe clearance (MTC) is a sensitive falls risk predictor. MTC measurement has previously been done in gait laboratories and on treadmills which potentially imposes controlled walking conditions. In this paper, we describe a prototype design of a wireless device for monitoring vertical toe clearance. The sensors consists of a tri-axis accelerometer and dual-axis gyroscope connected to Crossbow sensor motes for wireless data transmission. Sensor data are transmitted to a laptop and displayed on a Matlab graphic user interface (GUI). We have performed zero base and treadmill experiments to investigate sensor performance to environmental variations and compared the calculated toe clearance against measurements made by an Optotrak motion system. It was found that device outputs were approximately independent of small ambient temperature variations, had a reliable range of 20m indoors and 50m outdoors and a maximum transmission rate of 20 packets/s. Toe clearance measurements were found to follow the Optotrak measurement trend but could be improved further by dealing with double integration errors and improving data transmission rates.

  9. Clearance of the rodent retrovirus, XMuLV, by protein A chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, Julia; Connell-Crowley, Lisa

    2015-04-01

    Protein A chromatography is the most common unit operation used in the manufacture of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) due to its high affinity and specificity for the IgG Fc domain. However, protein A chromatography is often not effective for viral clearance. Typical log reduction values (LRV) for the model retrovirus XMuLV range between 1 and 4 logs, while effective steps such as viral filtration can achieve 5-7 logs of clearance. XMuLV LRVs obtained on protein A are reproducible for a given mAb, but can vary widely for different mAbs, even with the same operating conditions. In order to understand the mechanism of XMuLV clearance on protein A, we have investigated its partitioning on Mabselect SuRe protein A resin and explored how the virus interacts with resin, product, and impurities. The results show that XMuLV has some interaction with the resin backbone and ligand, but also appears to bind to and coelute with the mAb. The interaction with product was further examined by evaluating the effect of feed conditions, loading, and different washes on XMuLV partitioning on the column. Understanding the mechanism of XMuLV removal on a protein A, resin provides insight into the variability and low viral clearance of this step and suggests ways in which the removal of virus by this step can be improved. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Cerebrospinal Fluid Clearance in Alzheimer Disease Measured with Dynamic PET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Leon, Mony J; Li, Yi; Okamura, Nobuyuki; Tsui, Wai H; Saint-Louis, Les A; Glodzik, Lidia; Osorio, Ricardo S; Fortea, Juan; Butler, Tracy; Pirraglia, Elizabeth; Fossati, Silvia; Kim, Hee-Jin; Carare, Roxana O; Nedergaard, Maiken; Benveniste, Helene; Rusinek, Henry

    2017-09-01

    Evidence supporting the hypothesis that reduced cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) clearance is involved in the pathophysiology of Alzheimer disease (AD) comes primarily from rodent models. However, unlike rodents, in which predominant extracranial CSF egress is via olfactory nerves traversing the cribriform plate, human CSF clearance pathways are not well characterized. Dynamic PET with 18 F-THK5117, a tracer for tau pathology, was used to estimate the ventricular CSF time-activity as a biomarker for CSF clearance. We tested 3 hypotheses: extracranial CSF is detected at the superior turbinates; CSF clearance is reduced in AD; and CSF clearance is inversely associated with amyloid deposition. Methods: Fifteen subjects, 8 with AD and 7 normal control volunteers, were examined with 18 F-THK5117. Ten subjects additionally underwent 11 C-Pittsburgh compound B ( 11 C-PiB) PET scanning, and 8 were 11 C-PiB-positive. Ventricular time-activity curves of 18 F-THK5117 were used to identify highly correlated time-activity curves from extracranial voxels. Results: For all subjects, the greatest density of CSF-positive extracranial voxels was in the nasal turbinates. Tracer concentration analyses validated the superior nasal turbinate CSF signal intensity. AD patients showed ventricular tracer clearance reduced by 23% and 66% fewer superior turbinate CSF egress sites. Ventricular CSF clearance was inversely associated with amyloid deposition. Conclusion: The human nasal turbinate is part of the CSF clearance system. Lateral ventricle and superior nasal turbinate CSF clearance abnormalities are found in AD. Ventricular CSF clearance reductions are associated with increased brain amyloid depositions. These data suggest that PET-measured CSF clearance is a biomarker of potential interest in AD and other neurodegenerative diseases. © 2017 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging.

  11. Competition, Ownership and Productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baghdasaryan, Delia; la Cour, Lisbeth

    2013-01-01

    Theoretical results support two concurrent views regarding the mediating role that ownership structure might play on the effect of competition on firm performance. According to one stream of literature, competition has a high, positive impact in companies that have an effective ownership structur...

  12. The Reinforcement Learning Competitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Whiteson, S.; Tanner, B.; White, A.

    2010-01-01

    This article reports on the reinforcement learning competitions, which have been held annually since 2006. In these events, researchers from around the world developed reinforcement learning agents to compete in domains of various complexity and difficulty. We focus on the 2008 competition, which

  13. Competition research improves services

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... are leading to more choices for consumers in Uzbekistan. 5. Case study. THE POWER OF COMPETITIVE MARKETS. Competition and Development. One issue that all migrant workers face is how to send some of that all-important paycheque home — quickly, safely, and at the lowest possible cost. S e rg e y. S o ro k in a.

  14. Competition in investment banking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrina Ellis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We construct a comprehensive measure of overall investment banking competitiveness for follow-on offerings that aggregates the various dimensions of competition such as fees, pricing accuracy, analyst recommendations, distributional abilities, market making prowess, debt offering capabilities, and overall reputation. The measure allows us to incorporate trade-offs that investment banks may use in competing for new or established clients. We find that firms who switch to similar-quality underwriters enjoy more intense competition among investment banks which manifests in lower fees and more optimistic recommendations. Investment banks do compete vigorously for some clients, with the level of competition related to the likelihood of gaining or losing clients. Finally, investment banks not performing up to market norms are more likely to be dropped in the follow-on offering. In contrast, firms who seek a higher reputation underwriter face relatively non-competitive markets.

  15. Sperm competition in birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkhead, T R

    1998-05-01

    Sperm competition in birds occurs when a female is inseminated by more than one male during a single breeding cycle. Despite most birds being socially monogamous, sperm competition is widespread and results in frequent extra-pair paternity. Sperm competition is a fundamental part of sexual selection since it results in differential reproductive success among males. Male adaptations to sperm competition include relatively large testes, large sperm stores and long spermatozoa, mate guarding and frequent pair copulations. Females show no obvious morphological adaptations to sperm competition but, by controlling whether copulations are successful, they probably determine its frequency and extent. Despite this, the evolutionary benefits females acquire from extra-pair fertilizations are poorly understood. Experiments in which females are inseminated with equal numbers of spermatozoa from two males usually show last male sperm precedence. Understanding the mechanism of sperm competition requires understanding of why the last male to inseminate a female fertilizes a disproportionate number of eggs. The data from sperm competition studies on the domestic fowl, turkeys and zebra finches are consistent only with a passive sperm loss model of sperm competition. The mechanism is as follows: after insemination, spermatozoa enter the sperm storage tubules located in the oviduct, from which they are lost at a constant rate over days or weeks. All else being equal, the interval between two inseminations determines the probability of fertilization: the second of two inseminations fertilizes most eggs simply because, by the time fertilization occurs, fewer of these spermatozoa have been lost. Other factors also affect the outcome of sperm competition: the timing of insemination relative to oviposition, the differential fertilizing capacity of males and differences in the numbers of spermatozoa inseminated; as a consequence, last male sperm precedence is not automatic. On the basis

  16. Neanderthal extinction by competitive exclusion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William E Banks

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite a long history of investigation, considerable debate revolves around whether Neanderthals became extinct because of climate change or competition with anatomically modern humans (AMH. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We apply a new methodology integrating archaeological and chronological data with high-resolution paleoclimatic simulations to define eco-cultural niches associated with Neanderthal and AMH adaptive systems during alternating cold and mild phases of Marine Isotope Stage 3. Our results indicate that Neanderthals and AMH exploited similar niches, and may have continued to do so in the absence of contact. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The southerly contraction of Neanderthal range in southwestern Europe during Greenland Interstadial 8 was not due to climate change or a change in adaptation, but rather concurrent AMH geographic expansion appears to have produced competition that led to Neanderthal extinction.

  17. Blood flow and clearance in tendons. Studies with dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, G; Davies, R; Tothill, P

    1984-05-01

    Blood flow in intact tendons in dogs was measured using 57Co-labelled microspheres and compared with the simultaneous clearance of a diffusible radionuclide, 85Sr, by the same tendons. Clearance was significantly greater than flow in all tendons, indicating that diffusion from surrounding tissues may be important in the nutrition of normal tendons.

  18. Estimation of hepatic blood flow by hydrogen gas clearance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gouma, D. J.; Coelho, J. C.; Schlegel, J.; Fisher, J. D.; Li, Y. F.; Moody, F. G.

    1986-01-01

    The hydrogen gas clearance technique was evaluated to estimate regional hepatic blood flow. Initially, the H2 gas method was compared to the indocyanine green clearance in mini pigs. The blood flow measured by the H2 gas method (0.49 +/- 0.03 ml/min/gm) was only 39% of the calculated blood flow by

  19. 32 CFR 644.516 - Clearance of Air Force lands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Clearance of Air Force lands. 644.516 Section 644... Excess Land and Improvements § 644.516 Clearance of Air Force lands. The Chief of Engineers has no responsibility for inspecting or clearing excess Air Force land of explosives or chemical/biological contaminants...

  20. 19 CFR 4.61 - Requirements for clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... TREASURY VESSELS IN FOREIGN AND DOMESTIC TRADES Foreign Clearances § 4.61 Requirements for clearance. (a... either on the Customs Form 1300 or by approved electronic means. Customs port directors may permit the... (see § 4.71). (16) Inspection of meat, meat-food products, and inedible fats (see § 4.72). (17...

  1. 77 FR 44641 - Critical Infrastructure Private Sector Clearance Program Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-30

    ...: Once. Affected Public: Designated private sector employees of critical infrastructure entities or... SECURITY Critical Infrastructure Private Sector Clearance Program Request AGENCY: National Protection and... Collection Request (ICR) to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for review and clearance in accordance...

  2. 48 CFR 32.502-2 - Contract finance office clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract finance office clearance. 32.502-2 Section 32.502-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION... finance office clearance. The contracting officer shall obtain the approval of the contract finance office...

  3. 48 CFR 832.502-2 - Contract finance office clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract finance office clearance. 832.502-2 Section 832.502-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... finance office clearance. Contracting officers must obtain approval from the DSPE before taking the...

  4. 48 CFR 1432.502-2 - Contract finance office clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract finance office clearance. 1432.502-2 Section 1432.502-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... finance office clearance. The CO shall obtain approval of the bureau finance office prior to taking...

  5. 32 CFR 644.522 - Clearance of military scrap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Clearance of military scrap. 644.522 Section 644... Excess Land and Improvements § 644.522 Clearance of military scrap. Military scrap can contain or be... destruction, by using command, of all military scrap and scrap metal from lands suitable for cultivation or...

  6. Discrepancy between circadian rhythms of inulin and creatinine clearance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Acker, B. A.; Koomen, G. C.; Koopman, M. G.; Krediet, R. T.; Arisz, L.

    1992-01-01

    To elucidate the disparity between circadian rhythmicity of inulin and creatinine clearance, we simultaneously measured inulin and creatinine clearances every 3 hours during 1 day in 14 normal subjects and in 8 patients with nephrotic syndrome. All patients and normal subjects had a circadian rhythm

  7. 75 FR 52798 - State-07, Cryptographic Clearance Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-27

    ..., the user account is disabled. RETENTION AND DISPOSAL: Records are retired in accordance with published..., Cryptographic Clearance Records Summary: Notice is hereby given that the Department of State proposes to amend an existing system of records, Cryptographic Clearance Records, State-07, pursuant to the provisions...

  8. Wide Area Recovery and Resiliency Program (WARRP) Interim Clearance Strategy for Environments Contaminated with Hazardous Chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    imperative that the community address the range of values, and have agreement, before a disaster strikes. Pre-event clearance level concurrence is...on the cleanup of specific sites: those containing only cesium-137 (Goiania) and those containing 137Cs and other radionuclides ( Chernobyl ...targets and consider initiatives to enhance the quality of life of the residents of the contaminated areas. Recovery experience from the Chernobyl

  9. Is the Global Competitiveness Report the right measure of macroeconomic competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Djogo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to research the effect of abandoning the assumption of long-term time horizon in terms of reliability of the Global Competitiveness Report (GCR findings. In order to achieve this goal we will compare the GCR findings with the findings of a composite index of competitiveness, named 6 BIC (Basic Indicators of Competitiveness. We have developed this index on the theoretical basis provided by Krugman, Fagerbergs, Scott, Lodge, Aiginger and others. Economists are aware that any theoretical conception, including the GCR, relies on a number of assumptions and postulations. If some of those have been under scrutiny, then the whole construction and its findings would lose their credibility. One of the most significant assumptions rooted in the Global Competitiveness Report is its longevity. In the long-term, the change in productivity level through price competitiveness certainly brings out a change in outcome competitiveness level. However, the effects in short-to-middle term are not certain. Our findings show that there is a whole range of countries whose national competitiveness is either under-estimated by the GCR (for example Russia, Turkey, Estonia, Moldova or overvalued (Finland, Ireland, Iceland, Portugal, Spain in short-to-middle term. The basic conclusion from the obtained results of the research is that the GCR does not provide sufficiently good view of the current competitiveness of the countries, and that this indicator needs to be extended also with other competitiveness indicators, such as those selected in our paper

  10. Mucociliary clearance defects in a murine in vitro model of pneumococcal airway infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fliegauf, Manfred; Sonnen, Andreas F-P; Kremer, Bernhard; Henneke, Philipp

    2013-01-01

    Mucociliary airway clearance is an innate defense mechanism that protects the lung from harmful effects of inhaled pathogens. In order to escape mechanical clearance, airway pathogens including Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) are thought to inactivate mucociliary clearance by mechanisms such as slowing of ciliary beating and lytic damage of epithelial cells. Pore-forming toxins like pneumolysin, may be instrumental in these processes. In a murine in vitro airway infection model using tracheal epithelial cells grown in air-liquid interface cultures, we investigated the functional consequences on the ciliated respiratory epithelium when the first contact with pneumococci is established. High-speed video microscopy and live-cell imaging showed that the apical infection with both wildtype and pneumolysin-deficient pneumococci caused insufficient fluid flow along the epithelial surface and loss of efficient clearance, whereas ciliary beat frequency remained within the normal range. Three-dimensional confocal microscopy demonstrated that pneumococci caused specific morphologic aberrations of two key elements in the F-actin cytoskeleton: the junctional F-actin at the apical cortex of the lateral cell borders and the apical F-actin, localized within the planes of the apical cell sides at the ciliary bases. The lesions affected the columnar shape of the polarized respiratory epithelial cells. In addition, the planar architecture of the entire ciliated respiratory epithelium was irregularly distorted. Our observations indicate that the mechanical supports essential for both effective cilia strokes and stability of the epithelial barrier were weakened. We provide a new model, where--in pneumococcal infection--persistent ciliary beating generates turbulent fluid flow at non-planar distorted epithelial surface areas, which enables pneumococci to resist mechanical cilia-mediated clearance.

  11. Mucociliary clearance defects in a murine in vitro model of pneumococcal airway infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manfred Fliegauf

    Full Text Available Mucociliary airway clearance is an innate defense mechanism that protects the lung from harmful effects of inhaled pathogens. In order to escape mechanical clearance, airway pathogens including Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus are thought to inactivate mucociliary clearance by mechanisms such as slowing of ciliary beating and lytic damage of epithelial cells. Pore-forming toxins like pneumolysin, may be instrumental in these processes. In a murine in vitro airway infection model using tracheal epithelial cells grown in air-liquid interface cultures, we investigated the functional consequences on the ciliated respiratory epithelium when the first contact with pneumococci is established. High-speed video microscopy and live-cell imaging showed that the apical infection with both wildtype and pneumolysin-deficient pneumococci caused insufficient fluid flow along the epithelial surface and loss of efficient clearance, whereas ciliary beat frequency remained within the normal range. Three-dimensional confocal microscopy demonstrated that pneumococci caused specific morphologic aberrations of two key elements in the F-actin cytoskeleton: the junctional F-actin at the apical cortex of the lateral cell borders and the apical F-actin, localized within the planes of the apical cell sides at the ciliary bases. The lesions affected the columnar shape of the polarized respiratory epithelial cells. In addition, the planar architecture of the entire ciliated respiratory epithelium was irregularly distorted. Our observations indicate that the mechanical supports essential for both effective cilia strokes and stability of the epithelial barrier were weakened. We provide a new model, where--in pneumococcal infection--persistent ciliary beating generates turbulent fluid flow at non-planar distorted epithelial surface areas, which enables pneumococci to resist mechanical cilia-mediated clearance.

  12. Competition in education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Hanne; Christensen, Søren

    Competition in education has two functions: selection and motivation. How do these two functions correlate, contradict or co-exist? How has the educational system reflected on the relation between competition as motivational technology and as a technology for selection? The aim of this paper...... is to formulate the problem of competition in education as a relation between selection and motivation and provide an analytical strategy to grasp this problem. Our ambition is to theorize the problem and give empirical illustrations of how the connection between selection and motivation has been articulated...... in various educational institutions and programs....

  13. Competitiveness: new economic paradigm?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlene Peñaloza

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays competitiveness is made up of “the new” paradigm that allows to prevail in the global World. Thus, it is inevitable to ask, was it required to be competitive to be successful in the international trade arena? Recognizing the discussion about it and its theoretical-conceptual density, the present paper studies this old notion whose meaning, in essence, is always the same one. This applies even though new realities in the present world-wide atmosphere confer to it a distinguishing character and new and old players are forced to organize actions and bring efforts together to obtain the competitive supremacy.

  14. Concept analysis of competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bychkovskii Andrei Yurevich

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Approaches to determine the competitiveness of enterprises. The techniques of estimating the probability of bankruptcy as the lowest level of competitiveness of the organization. Asked to assess the competitiveness on the basis of the analysis of internal and external factors of the company. External factors are asked to provide a financial and economic, political, industrial, technological, social, environmental. Internal factors proposed to explore, using the model of "the golden rule of business economics" in conjunction with approaches for assessing the ability of the enterprise to create value.

  15. Gaining Relational Competitive Advantages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Yimei; Zhang, Si; Li, Jizhen

    2015-01-01

    Establishing strategic technological partnerships (STPs) with foreign partners is an increasingly studied topic within the innovation management literature. Partnering firms can jointly create sources of relational competitive advantage. Chinese firms often lack research and development (R......&D) capabilities but are increasingly becoming preferred technological partners for transnational corporations. We investigate an STP between a Scandinavian and a Chinese firm and try to explore how to gain relational competitive advantage by focusing on its two essential stages: relational rent generation...... and appropriation. Based on an explorative case study, we develop a conceptual framework that consists of process, organizational alliance factors, and coordination modes that we propose lead to relational competitive advantage....

  16. Delayed parasite clearance after treatment with dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine in Plasmodium falciparum malaria patients in central Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thriemer, Kamala; Hong, Nguyen Van; Rosanas-Urgell, Anna; Phuc, Bui Quang; Ha, Do Manh; Pockele, Evi; Guetens, Pieter; Van, Nguyen Van; Duong, Tran Thanh; Amambua-Ngwa, Alfred; D'Alessandro, Umberto; Erhart, Annette

    2014-12-01

    Reduced susceptibility of Plasmodium falciparum toward artemisinin derivatives has been reported from the Thai-Cambodian and Thai-Myanmar borders. Following increasing reports from central Vietnam of delayed parasite clearance after treatment with dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DHA-PPQ), the current first-line treatment, we carried out a study on the efficacy of this treatment. Between September 2012 and February 2013, we conducted a 42-day in vivo and in vitro efficacy study in Quang Nam Province. Treatment was directly observed, and blood samples were collected twice daily until parasite clearance. In addition, genotyping, quantitative PCR (qPCR), and in vitro sensitivity testing of isolates was performed. The primary endpoints were parasite clearance rate and time. The secondary endpoints included PCR-corrected and uncorrected cure rates, qPCR clearance profiles, in vitro sensitivity results (for chloroquine, dihydroartemisinin, and piperaquine), and genotyping for mutations in the Kelch 13 propeller domain. Out of 672 screened patients, 95 were recruited and 89 available for primary endpoint analyses. The median parasite clearance time (PCT) was 61.7 h (interquartile range [IQR], 47.6 to 83.2 h), and the median parasite clearance rate had a slope half-life of 6.2 h (IQR, 4.4 to 7.5 h). The PCR-corrected efficacy rates were estimated at 100% at day 28 and 97.7% (95% confidence interval, 91.2% to 99.4%) at day 42. At day 3, the P. falciparum prevalence by qPCR was 2.5 times higher than that by microscopy. The 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50s) of isolates with delayed clearance times (≥ 72 h) were significantly higher than those with normal clearance times for all three drugs. Delayed parasite clearance (PCT, ≥ 72 h) was significantly higher among day 0 samples carrying the 543 mutant allele (47.8%) than those carrying the wild-type allele (1.8%; P = 0.048). In central Vietnam, the efficacy of DHA-PPQ is still satisfactory, but the parasite clearance time

  17. Competition and Cheating

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in these peer struggles. Watch how children play board games or card games, and you will recognize the competitiveness, striving and social learning taking place and sometimes digressing into cheating. As ...

  18. Competition from Isotopic Modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginie Fabre

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available During later MOIS3, in Europe two populations were present, autochthonous Neanderthals and modern humans. Ecological competition between these two populations has often been evoked but never demonstrated. Our aim is to establish whether resource competition occurred. In this paper, in order to examine the possibility of ecological competition between these two populations, 599 isotopic data were subjected to rigorous statistical treatment and analysis through mixing models. The aim of this paper was to compare dietary strategies of Neanderthals and modern humans over time. Our conclusions suggest that Neanderthals and modern humans shared dietary habits in the particular environmental context of MOIS3 characterised in Europe by climatic deterioration. In this environmental context, the resource competition between Neanderthals and modern humans may have accelerated the disappearance of the Neanderthal population.

  19. DMEPOS Competitive Bidding

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The DMEPOS Competitive Bidding Program was mandated by Congress through the Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act of 2003 (MMA). The statute...

  20. Architectural Competition and BIM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Nils Lykke; Frandsen, Anne Kathrine; Øien, Turid Borgestrand

    2015-01-01

    New technological and societal developments have entailed changes within the building sector; including building trades becomingacademically based, and the introduction of new building materials, new concepts and ICT-based designsand communication, traditional methods and organizations are being...... on architecturalcompetitions, a series of interviews was conducted with building clients as well as architects, focusing on the impact of the above-mentioned changes within the building sector on architectural competitions as an institution. In the interviews, ICT and notleast BIM was a recurring theme that both parties saw...... consultants) and the applied technologies (competition forms, ICT tools, directives) in architectural competitions in a theoretical actor-network perspective. The diverging understandings of the role of BIM are demonstrating one of many negotiations in progress in the network of architectural competitions...

  1. COMPETITIVENESS FOR SUSTAINABLE ECONOMIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelu Eugen POPESCU

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The current economic environment puts pressure on all national economies which struggle to improve their competitiveness and innovativeness in a sustainable way. This article aims to present the current state of the competitiveness by reviewing the main literature and worldwide researches, in order to provide a brief overview of the determinants that drive productivity and economic success at global and national level, taking into consideration the entrepreneurial activity for a country’s competitiveness and economic growth. The paper identifies the ways in which efficiency driven countries can improve their policies and get a better return on their investments, underlining a set of competitiveness enhancing policies (measures that can be implemented by public and private institutions in order to strengthen the economic fundamentals of the economies.

  2. FameLab competition

    CERN Document Server

    2011-01-01

    Are you 18 to 35 years old and studying or working in science in Switzerland? Are you passionate about your job and keen on exciting public imagination with a vision of the 21st century of science? Then this competition is for you!   For more information, check out http://www.famelab.ch/ or http://famelab.org/ or write to info@famelab.ch. Read more about the Famelab competition in this Bulletin article.  

  3. Managing Dynamic Competition

    OpenAIRE

    Tracy R. Lewis; Huseyin Yildirim

    2002-01-01

    In many important high-technology markets, including software development, data processing, communications, aeronautics, and defense, suppliers learn through experience how to provide better service at lower cost. This paper examines how a buyer designs dynamic competition among rival suppliers to exploit learning economies while minimizing the costs of becoming locked in to one producer. Strategies for controlling dynamic competition include the handicapping of more efficient suppliers in pr...

  4. World competitiveness and agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. van Zyl

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available Against the background of a changing environment in which market factors and greater world trade and competitiveness are increasingly becoming the only criteria for success, a framework for the analysis of world competitiveness is initially developed. This is followed by a discussion on the growth of productivity in agriculture, as well as an exposition of the role of agricultural research. Thirdly, price factors and the terms of trade are discussed, followed by a summary of policy implications.

  5. Analyzing sustainable competitive advantage

    OpenAIRE

    Abdul Malek Nurul Aida; Shahzad Khuram; Takala Josu; Bojnec Stefan; Papler Drago; Liu Yang

    2016-01-01

    In today’s dynamic business environment, a key challenge for all companies is to make adaptive adjustments to their manufacturing strategy. This study demonstrates the competitive priorities of manufacturing strategy in hydro-power case company to evaluate the level of sustainable competitive advantage and also to further analyze how business strategies are aligned with manufacturing strategies. This research is based on new holistic analytical evaluation of manufacturing strategy index, sens...

  6. Telecommunications Competition Regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Productivity Commission

    2002-01-01

    On 21 June 2000 the Commission received a reference from the Treasurer on telecommunications-specific competition regulation for inquiry and report within 12 months of receipt of the reference. In conducting the review, the Commission was to have regard to the state of competition in the telecommunications market, and the impact of new technologies and delivery platforms. In making its recommendations, the Commission would aim to improve the overall economic performance of the Australian econ...

  7. COMPETITION AS MARKET MECHANISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Ya. Kazhuro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The essence of a competition as an objective law for development of the commodities production based on private ownership of the means of production and commodity exchange has been revealed in the paper. The paper presents an economic basis of market economy (private ownership which generates a corresponding production objective. Such purpose is a maximization of profit and a minimization of market subject expenses. Therefore, a struggle for the most favourable conditions on commodity production and sales is inevitable in such situation. The struggle is considered in the community with developed market economy as a competition.The competition is regarded not as an exogenic factor exerting its influence on market economic system from the outside, but as an objective phenomenon which is inherent to management market system in itself. Such treatment is substantiated by economic disintegration of individual commodity producers. Being an important engine of market economy, the competition does not establish its laws, and its role is to be an executive of data which are internally inherent in commodity production laws and firstly it concerns a profit maximization law which defines a purpose and guiding motif of economic entities in the given economy.The competition plays a contradictory role under conditions of market economy. On the one hand, it makes manufacturers constantly to aspire to expense reduction for the sake of profit increase. This has resulted in labour productivity increase, production cost decrease and a company receives an opportunity to reduce retail price for its products. Consequently, the competition acts as a potential factor for lowering of prices while increasing production efficiency. On the other hand, sellers have more freedom in price fixing under conditions of imperfect competition as they sell their products under the conditions of a monopolistic competition or an oligopoly. This is the main weakest point of the market

  8. Numerical simulation of tip clearance impact on a pumpjet propulsor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Lu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Numerical simulation based on the Reynolds Averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD method had been carried out with the commercial code ANSYS CFX. The structured grid and SST k–ω turbulence model had been adopted. The impact of non-condensable gas (NCG on cavitation performance had been introduced into the Schnerr and Sauer cavitation model. The numerical investigation of cavitating flow of marine propeller E779A was carried out with different advance ratios and cavitation numbers to verify the numerical simulation method. Tip clearance effects on the performance of pumpjet propulsor had been investigated. Results showed that the structure and characteristics of the tip leakage vortex and the efficiency of the propulsor dropped more sharply with the increase of the tip clearance size. Furthermore, the numerical simulation of tip clearance cavitation of pumpjet propulsor had been presented with different rotational speed and tip clearance size. The mechanism of tip clearance cavitation causing a further loss of the efficiency had been studied. The influence of rotational speed and tip clearance size on tip clearance cavitation had been investigated.

  9. Integrated Turbine Tip Clearance and Gas Turbine Engine Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Jeffryes W.; Kratz, Jonathan; Guo, Ten-Huei; Litt, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Gas turbine compressor and turbine blade tip clearance (i.e., the radial distance between the blade tip of an axial compressor or turbine and the containment structure) is a major contributing factor to gas path sealing, and can significantly affect engine efficiency and operational temperature. This paper details the creation of a generic but realistic high pressure turbine tip clearance model that may be used to facilitate active tip clearance control system research. This model uses a first principles approach to approximate thermal and mechanical deformations of the turbine system, taking into account the rotor, shroud, and blade tip components. Validation of the tip clearance model shows that the results are realistic and reflect values found in literature. In addition, this model has been integrated with a gas turbine engine simulation, creating a platform to explore engine performance as tip clearance is adjusted. Results from the integrated model explore the effects of tip clearance on engine operation and highlight advantages of tip clearance management.

  10. Aerosol Medications for Treatment of Mucus Clearance Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Bruce K

    2015-06-01

    Airway mucus hypersecretion and secretion retention can result from inflammation, irritation, stimulation, or mucus-producing tumors. Secretion clearance can be furthered hampered by ciliary dysfunction and by weakness or restrictive lung disease, leading to an ineffective cough. There are a number of different mucoactive medications that have been used to reduce hypersecretion, make secretions easier to transport, or increase the efficiency of cough or mucus clearance. In this paper, I review the pathophysiology of secretory hyper-responsiveness and mucus hypersecretion and discuss the different aerosol medications that can be used to augment secretion clearance. Copyright © 2015 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  11. Healthy Competition and Unsound Comparison: Reforming Educational Competition in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Søren

    2015-01-01

    It is frequently claimed that the "competition state" responds to external competition by making competition increasingly central to its internal processes as well. This article discusses education reform in Singapore as departing from the opposite position. In Singapore "excessive" competition in education is now targeted by…

  12. COMPETITION: CLASSICAL VERSUS NEOCLASSICAL VIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Mihaela Cornelia Sandu

    2013-01-01

    Competition is an important element from economical theory. Over time it has experienced several definitions and classifications much of them being contradictory. In this paper I will make a parallel between classical and neoclassical point of view according to competition. Keywords. Competition; neoclassical theory; classical theory; monopolistic; perfect competition.

  13. Traffic incident management in hazardous materials spills in incident clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Hazardous materials spills provide unique challenges to traffic incident clearance. When hazardous materials are present, not only do response personnel have to deal with typical traffic incident issues, they also must deal with potential chemical ha...

  14. IFNL4 affects clearance of hepatitis C virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scientists have discovered a new human interferon gene, Interferon Lambda 4 (IFNL4), that affects clearance of the hepatitis C virus. They also identified an inherited genetic variant within IFNL4 that predicts how people respond to treatment for hepatit

  15. 49 CFR 229.71 - Clearance above top of rail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ....71 Clearance above top of rail. No part or appliance of a locomotive except the wheels, flexible nonmetallic sand pipe extension tips, and trip cock arms may be less than 21/2 inches above the top of rail. ...

  16. Clearance capacity of rat liver Kupffer, endothelial, and parenchymal cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Praaning-van Dalen, D.P.; Brouwer, A.; Knook, D.L.

    1981-01-01

    The clearance of five radioactively labeled test substances - polyvinylpyrrolidone, colloidal albumin, antimony sulfur colloid, endotoxin, and heparin - by the reticuloendothelial system was studied after i.v. injection of these substances into rats. The participation of parenchymal, Kupffer, and

  17. JAVAMIX: A Tactical Decision Aid to Evaluate Minefield Clearance Plans

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Filho, Jose

    2001-01-01

    A Tactical Decision Aid (TDA) for mixed minefield clearance, JAVAMIX, was designed, developed and tested, The TDA uses a Monte Carlo Simulation and it is based on the Monte Carlo option of the TDA MIXER (Washburn, 1995...

  18. Intradialytic clearance of opioids: methadone versus hydromorphone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlman, Ryan; Giladi, Hili; Brecht, Krista; Ware, Mark A; Hebert, Terence E; Joseph, Lawrence; Shir, Yoram

    2013-12-01

    Opioids are commonly prescribed to patients with chronic pain associated with end-stage renal disease requiring hemodialysis. The stability of opioid analgesia during dialysis may vary among different opioids. No studies to date have corroborated this clinical observation by directly comparing plasma concentrations of different opioids during dialysis. We compared changes in peridialysis plasma concentrations of 2 pharmacokinetically distinct opioids, methadone and hydromorphone (HM). Fourteen dialysis patients with chronic pain received either methadone or HM for at least 2 weeks before beginning the study. Blood samples were obtained immediately before, during, and after hemodialysis in 2 separate dialysis sessions, 1 week apart, and were analyzed for opioid concentrations. Methadone plasma concentrations were more stable during hemodialysis compared to HM: the mean percent change of methadone plasma levels was 14.9% ± 8.2% (± SD) compared with 55.1% ± 8.1% in the HM treatment group, a difference of 40.2% (95% confidence interval 17.14 to 63.14). The mean plasma clearance of methadone was 19.9 ± 8.5 mL/min (± SD) compared with 105.7 ± 8.3 mL/min for HM, a difference of 85.7 mL/min (95% confidence interval 61.9 to 109.1). There were no differences between the 2 opioid groups in pain scores, side effect profile, and quality of life. Methadone therapy was not associated with an increased rate of adverse events. If confirmed by larger clinical studies, methadone could be considered as one of the opioids of choice in dialysis patients. Copyright © 2013 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Mechanistic evaluation of virus clearance by depth filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkiteshwaran, Adith; Fogle, Jace; Patnaik, Purbasa; Kowle, Ron; Chen, Dayue

    2015-01-01

    Virus clearance by depth filtration has not been well-understood mechanistically due to lack of quantitative data on filter charge characteristics and absence of systematic studies. It is generally believed that both electrostatic interactions and sized based mechanical entrapment contribute to virus clearance by depth filtration. In order to establish whether the effectiveness of virus clearance correlates with the charge characteristics of a given depth filter, a counter-ion displacement technique was employed to determine the ionic capacity for several depth filters. Two depth filters (Millipore B1HC and X0HC) with significant differences in ionic capacities were selected and evaluated for their ability to eliminate viruses. The high ionic capacity X0HC filter showed complete porcine parvovirus (PPV) clearance (eliminating the spiked viruses to below the limit of detection) under low conductivity conditions (≤2.5 mS/cm), achieving a log10 reduction factor (LRF) of > 4.8. On the other hand, the low ionic capacity B1HC filter achieved only ∼2.1-3.0 LRF of PPV clearance under the same conditions. These results indicate that parvovirus clearance by these two depth filters are mainly achieved via electrostatic interactions between the filters and PPV. When much larger xenotropic murine leukemia virus (XMuLV) was used as the model virus, complete retrovirus clearance was obtained under all conditions evaluated for both depth filters, suggesting the involvement of mechanisms other than just electrostatic interactions in XMuLV clearance. © 2014 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  20. Cerebrospinal fluid clearance in Alzheimer disease measured with dynamic PET

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Leon, Mony J.; Li, Yi; Okamura, Nobuyuki

    2017-01-01

    Evidence supporting the hypothesis that reduced cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) clearance is involved in the pathophysiology of Alzheimer disease (AD) comes primarily from rodent models. However, unlike rodents, in which predominant extracranial CSF egress is via olfactory nerves traversing the cribrif......Evidence supporting the hypothesis that reduced cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) clearance is involved in the pathophysiology of Alzheimer disease (AD) comes primarily from rodent models. However, unlike rodents, in which predominant extracranial CSF egress is via olfactory nerves traversing...

  1. Marketing mix and competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anđelković Slobodan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Competitiveness cannot simply be viewed as a country's ability to export or generate trade surpluses, since these can be brought about at least temporarily by means of artificially lowering the exchange rate and/or compressing domestic expenditures, as has been done in recent years by many DC that have tried to adjust to diminished resource availability. Authors standpoint is that international competitiveness requires creating comparative advantage where it does not exist, and requires action on several levels including an emerging consensus on the importance of macroeconomic policy, role and accountability of the government as well as the imperative of developing and internalizing technology body of knowledge for achieving competitiveness. Particular attention is given to the role and impact of marketing instruments marketing mix.

  2. Price competition in procurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keisler, J.M.; Buehring, W.A.

    1996-07-01

    When creating a private market to provide a public good, government agencies can influence the market`s competitive characteristics. Markets have predictable, but often counterintuitive, behaviors. To succeed in applying available controls, and thereby reduce future costs, agencies must understand the behavior of the market. A model has been constructed to examine some issues in establishing competition for a structure in which there are economies of scale and government is obligated to purchase a fixed total quantity of a good. This model is used to demonstrate a way to estimate the cost savings from several alternative plans for a buyer exploring competitive procurement. The results are not and cannot be accurate for budgeting purposes; rather, they indicate the approximate magnitude of changes in cost that would be associated with changes in the market structure within which procurement occurs.

  3. Crop–weed competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gallandt, Eric R.; Weiner, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    Competition from weeds is the most important of all biological factors that reduce agricultural crop yield. This occurs primarily because weeds use resources that would otherwise be available to the crop. The magnitude of yield loss is affected by numerous agronomic and environmental factors, most...... importantly, weed density and time of emergence relative to the crop. Practices that (1) reduce the density of weeds, (2) maximise occupation of space or uptake of resources by the crop or (3) establish an early-season size advantage of the crop over the weeds will minimise the competitive effects of weeds...... on crops. Longer term management of crop–weed competition can be achieved through crop rotations, specifically crop sequences that reduce the weed seed bank, and therefore seedling density, and prevent proliferation of perennial weeds. Key ConceptsKey Concepts * Plant growth requires sunlight, water...

  4. Context Construction through Competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Poul F.

    This paper examines the relation between the evolution of statehood and institutionalised competition in the European context. The first half of the paper develops a historical-sociological view on the evolution of modern political power in the state form in Europe while the second half the paper...... reconstructs how the institutionalisation of competition as a specific type of policy tool which has been used by emerging modern states to establish its authority vis-à-vis competing claims to authority. It furthermore engages in an examination of corporatist and governance based attempts to respectively curb...... and expand the use of competition as a tool for organising social processes and the implications of the se attempts for the state of statehood....

  5. Competitive Advantage through Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brem, Alexander; Maier, Maximilian; Wimschneider, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to describe how Nespresso achieved competitive advantage through innovation by changing the rules of the game in its industry. Design/methodology/approach Nespresso was analyzed based on public available secondary data, in combination with related academic...... concepts on innovation and competitive advantage. Findings The company succeeded by the thorough application of a strategy that, through perfect alignment, allowed the company to reach a unique market position. However, as described in the case, it took a relatively long time and the company came close...... as a source for competitive advantage. Research limitations/implications Especially given the current market situation, the case offers different starting points for discussion about innovation and long-term company success. Practical implications Especially before the current market situation, the case...

  6. Competitive Behavior, Stress, and Gender

    OpenAIRE

    Halko, Marja-Liisa; Sääksvuori, Lauri

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates whether chronic stress and acute physiological responses to competitive stress can explain individual and gender differences in competitiveness. We measure individuals' autonomic nervous system activity in a resting state as well as under non-competitive and competitive incentives in a real task using heart rate variability measurement. We find that basal heart rate variability, a proxy for chronic stress, and acute competition-induced changes in heart rate variability...

  7. Competition Policy and Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møllgaard, Peter; Lorentzen, Jo

    2005-01-01

    We briefly review the rationale behind technological alliances and provide a snapshot oftheir role in global competition, especially insofar as it is based around intellectual capital.They nicely illustrate the increased importance of horizontal agreements and thusestablish the relevance of the t......We briefly review the rationale behind technological alliances and provide a snapshot oftheir role in global competition, especially insofar as it is based around intellectual capital.They nicely illustrate the increased importance of horizontal agreements and thusestablish the relevance...... policy, innovation, alliances, industrial policy...

  8. Price Competition on Graphs

    OpenAIRE

    Heijnen, Pim; Soetevent, Adriaan

    2014-01-01

    This paper extends Hotelling's model of price competition with quadratic transportation costs from a line to graphs. We derive an algorithm to calculate firm-level demand for any given graph, conditional on prices and firm locations. These graph models of price competition may lead to spatial discontinuities in firm-level demand. We show that the existence result of D'Aspremont et al. (1979) does not extend to simple star graphs and conjecture that this non-existence result holds more general...

  9. Competition Fosters Trust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huck, Steffen; Lünser, Gabriele; Tyran, Jean-Robert Karl

    2012-01-01

    We study the effects of reputation and competition in a trust game. If trustees are anonymous, outcomes are poor: trustees are not trustworthy, and trustors do not trust. If trustees are identifiable and can, hence, build a reputation, efficiency quadruples but is still at only a third of the first...... best. Adding more information by granting trustors access to all trustees' complete history has, somewhat surprisingly, no effect. On the other hand, we find that competition, coupled with some minimal information, eliminates the trust problem almost completely...

  10. Competition Fosters Trust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huck, Steffen; Ruchala, Gabriele K.; Tyran, Jean-Robert

    We study the effects of reputation and competition in a stylized market for experience goods. If interaction is anonymous, such markets perform poorly: sellers are not trustworthy, and buyers do not trust sellers. If sellers are identifiable and can, hence, build a reputation, efficiency quadruples...... but is still at only a third of the first best. Adding more information by granting buyers access to all sellers’ complete history has, somewhat surprisingly, no effect. On the other hand, we find that competition, coupled with some minimal information, eliminates the trust problem almost completely...

  11. Competitive intelligence as an enabler for firm competitiveness: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Maune

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to provide an overview, from literature, about how competitive intelligence can be an enabler towards a firm’s competitiveness. This overview is done under the background of intense global competition that firms are currently experiencing. This paper used a qualitative content analysis as a data collection methodology on all identified journal articles on competitive intelligence and firm competitiveness. To identify relevant literature, academic databases and search engines were used. Moreover, a review of references in related studies led to more relevant sources, the references of which were further reviewed and analysed. To ensure reliability and trustworthiness, peer-reviewed journal articles and triangulation were used. The paper found that competitive intelligence is an important enabler of firm competitiveness. The findings from this paper will assist business managers to understand and improve their outlook of competitive intelligence as an enabler of firm competitiveness and will be of great academic value.

  12. Regional Competition for Confidence: Features of Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Svyatoslavovna Vazhenina

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The increase in economic independence of the regions inevitably leads to an increase in the quality requirements of the regional economic policy. The key to successful regional policy, both during its development and implementation, is the understanding of the necessity of gaining confidence (at all levels, and the inevitable participation in the competition for confidence. The importance of confidence in the region is determined by its value as a competitive advantage in the struggle for partners, resources and tourists, and attracting investments. In today’s environment the focus of governments, regions and companies on long-term cooperation is clearly expressed, which is impossible without a high level of confidence between partners. Therefore, the most important competitive advantages of territories are intangible assets such as an attractive image and a good reputation, which builds up confidence of the population and partners. The higher the confidence in the region is, the broader is the range of potential partners, the larger is the planning horizon of long-term concerted action, the better are the chances of acquiring investment, the higher is the level of competitive immunity of the territories. The article defines competition for confidence as purposeful behavior of a market participant in economic environment, aimed at acquiring specific intangible competitive advantage – the confidence of the largest possible number of other market actors. The article also highlights the specifics of confidence as a competitive goal, presents factors contributing to the destruction of confidence, proposes a strategy to fight for confidence as a program of four steps, considers the factors which integrate regional confidence and offers several recommendations for the establishment of effective regional competition for confidence

  13. Correlation of intrinsic in vitro and in vivo clearance for drugs metabolized by hepatic UDP-glucuronosyltransferases in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamori, Fumihiro; Naritomi, Yoichi; Furutani, Masako; Takamura, Fujiko; Miura, Hiroya; Murai, Hidetsugu; Terashita, Shigeyuki; Teramura, Toshio

    2011-01-01

    A method for quantitatively predicting the hepatic clearance of drugs by UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) from in vitro data has not yet been established. We examined the relationship between in vitro and in vivo intrinsic clearance by rat hepatic UGTs using 10 drugs. For these 10 drugs, the in vitro intrinsic clearance by UGTs (CL(int, in vitro)) measured using alamethicin-activated rat liver microsomes was in the range 0.10-4500 ml/min/kg. Microsomal binding (f(u, mic)) was determined to be in the range 0.29-0.95 and the unbound intrinsic clearance (CL(uint, in vitro)) to be in the range 0.11-9600 ml/min/kg. The contribution of rat hepatic glucuronidation to drug elimination was 12.0%-76.6% and in vivo intrinsic clearance by UGTs was 5.7-9000 ml/min/kg. To evaluate the discrepancy between the in vitro and in vivo values, a scaling factor was calculated (CL(int, in vivo)/CL(int, in vitro)); the values were found to be in the range 0.89-110. The average fold error of the scaling factor values incorporating f(u, mic) was closer to unity than that without f(u, mic). The scaling factor values incorporating f(u, mic) were drugs and drugs, indicating a small discrepancy between in vitro and in vivo values. Thus, using alamethicin-activated liver microsomes, incorporating f(u, mic) into CL(int, in vitro), and considering the contribution of glucuronidation may enable us to quantitatively predict in vivo hepatic glucuronidation from in vitro data.

  14. Multicultural universities in Russia and their competitiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Ermakov, Y.

    2013-01-01

    The article discusses a range of problems associated with multicultural education and multicultural universities (for example, the State Polar Academy), analyzes the key features and capabilities of multicultural higher educational institutions that increase their competitiveness in the framework of the Bologna process.

  15. Dynamic microvesicle release and clearance within the cardiovascular system: triggers and mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayers, Lisa; Nieuwland, Rienk; Kohler, Malcolm; Kraenkel, Nicolle; Ferry, Berne; Leeson, Paul

    2015-12-01

    Interest in cell-derived microvesicles (or microparticles) within cardiovascular diagnostics and therapeutics is rapidly growing. Microvesicles are often measured in the circulation at a single time point. However, it is becoming clear that microvesicle levels both increase and decrease rapidly in response to certain stimuli such as hypoxia, acute cardiac stress, shear stress, hypertriglyceridaemia and inflammation. Consequently, the levels of circulating microvesicles will reflect the balance between dynamic mechanisms for release and clearance. The present review describes the range of triggers currently known to lead to microvesicle release from different cellular origins into the circulation. Specifically, the published data are used to summarize the dynamic impact of these triggers on the degree and rate of microvesicle release. Secondly, a summary of the current understanding of microvesicle clearance via different cellular systems, including the endothelial cell and macrophage, is presented, based on reported studies of clearance in experimental models and clinical scenarios, such as transfusion or cardiac stress. Together, this information can be used to provide insights into potential underlying biological mechanisms that might explain the increases or decreases in circulating microvesicle levels that have been reported and help to design future clinical studies. © 2015 Authors; published by Portland Press Limited.

  16. Technetium-99m mercaptoacetyltriglycine clearance: reference values for infants and children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schofer, O. [Department of Pediatrics, Johannes-Gutenberg University, Mainz (Germany); Koenig, G. [Department of Pediatrics, Johannes-Gutenberg University, Mainz (Germany); Bartels, U. [Department of Pediatrics, Johannes-Gutenberg University, Mainz (Germany); Bockisch, A. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Johannes-Gutenberg University, Mainz (Germany); Piepenburg, R. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Johannes-Gutenberg University, Mainz (Germany); Beetz, R. [Department of Pediatrics, Johannes-Gutenberg University, Mainz (Germany); Meyer, G. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Ludwig Maximilians University, Munich (Germany); Hahn, K. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Ludwig Maximilians University, Munich (Germany)

    1995-11-01

    Six hundred and thirty-nine clearance studies performed in children aged 7 days to 19 years utilizing technetium-99m mercaptoacetyltriglycine (MAG 3) were retrospectively analysed. Standardized conditions for the investigation included: parenteral hydration (60 ml/hxm{sup 2} body surface) in addition to normal oral fluid intake, weight-related dose of {sup 99m}Tc-MAG 3 (1 MBq/kg body weight, minimum 15 MBq) and calculation of clearance according to Bubeck et al. Of the 513 children, 169 included in this analysis could be classified as ``normal`` with regard to their renal function. Normal kidney function was judged by the following criteria: normal GFR for age, normal tubular function (absence of proteinuria and glucosuria), normal renal parenchyma (on ultrasonography, MAG 3 scan and intravenous pyelography), absence of significant obstruction and gross reflux (> grade I) no single kidney and no difference in split renal function > 20%. Results showed increasing MAG 3 clearance values for infants during the first months of life, reaching the normal range for older children and adults between 7 and 12 months. (orig.)

  17. Prion formation, but not clearance, is supported by protein misfolding cyclic amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shikiya, Ronald A; Eckland, Thomas E; Young, Alan J; Bartz, Jason C

    2014-01-01

    Prion diseases are fatal transmissible neurodegenerative disorders that affect animals including humans. The kinetics of prion infectivity and PrP(Sc) accumulation can differ between prion strains and within a single strain in different tissues. The net accumulation of PrP(Sc) in animals is controlled by the relationship between the rate of PrP(Sc) formation and clearance. Protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA) is a powerful technique that faithfully recapitulates PrP(Sc) formation and prion infectivity in a cell-free system. PMCA has been used as a surrogate for animal bioassay and can model species barriers, host range, strain co-factors and strain interference. In this study we investigated if degradation of PrP(Sc) and/or prion infectivity occurs during PMCA. To accomplish this we performed PMCA under conditions that do not support PrP(Sc) formation and did not observe either a reduction in PrP(Sc) abundance or an extension of prion incubation period, compared to untreated control samples. These results indicate that prion clearance does not occur during PMCA. These data have significant implications for the interpretation of PMCA based experiments such as prion amplification rate, adaptation to new species and strain interference where production and clearance of prions can affect the outcome.

  18. Competition and Development

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    For non-commercial and academic uses only, this publication may be copied and redistributed provided suitable credit and reference is given to IDRC and the original ... This publication may be read online at www.idrc.ca/books, and serves as the focal point for an IDRC thematic website on competition law and policy: ...

  19. Conflict exposure and competitiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cecchi, Francesco; Leuveld, Koen; Voors, Maarten

    2016-01-01

    We use data from a street football tournament and a series of lab-in-field experiments in postconflict Sierra Leone to examine the impact of exposure to conflict violence on competitive behavior. We find that football players who experienced more intense exposure to violence are more likely to get a

  20. Mediterranean Way of Competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Art Kovacic

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean area have a special concept of competitiveness topic. Normally is that region not so industrial and knowledge based oriented as a North Europe.That countries can't reach the same development level as the north one. Lisbon's and Goethenburg's strategies create the main framework of development programme. Mediterranean programme is such a case. European internal market has forced the EU countries to increase competitiveness. The economic prosperity of countries is associated with their ability to generate or attract economic activities which are able to increase income by performing well on themarket. Financial crisis in the EU has changed the look on the competitiveness research. Economy in the main countries has to find way of recovery. Former giants of the financial world have found themselves suddenly facing bankruptcy.Inevitably, the crisis is also having an effect on households and businesses - economic growth has slowed sharply and in some EU countries unemployment has begun to increase for the first time in several years. Form that perspective we have to find the right solution of European competitiveness.

  1. Profit maximization mitigates competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dierker, Egbert; Grodal, Birgit

    1996-01-01

    competition than utility maximization. Since profit maximization tends to raise prices, it may be regarded as beneficial for the owners as a whole. Moreover, if profit maximization is a good proxy for utility maximization, then there is no need for a general equilibrium analysis that takes the distribution...

  2. Context Construction Through Competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Poul F.

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the relationship between the evolution of statehood and competition in the European context. To begin with, a particular take on the evolution of modern political power in the state form in Europe is developed. Against this background, the article reconstructs how the instit......This article examines the relationship between the evolution of statehood and competition in the European context. To begin with, a particular take on the evolution of modern political power in the state form in Europe is developed. Against this background, the article reconstructs how...... the institutionalization of competition as a specific type of policy tool has been used by emerging modern states to establish their authority vis-à-vis competing claims to public authority in society. The article, furthermore, engages in an examination of (neo-)corporatist and governance-based attempts both to curb...... and to expand the use of competition as a tool for organizing social processes, and the implications of these attempts for the state of statehood....

  3. Political Competition and Polarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, Christian

    This paper considers political competition and the consequences of political polarization when parties are better informed about how the economy functions than voters are. Specifically, parties know the cost producing a public good, voters do not. An incumbent's choice of policy acts like a signal...

  4. Growing Competition for Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, Susan

    2001-01-01

    Describes the Questia subscription-based online academic digital books library. Highlights include weaknesses of the collection; what college students want from a library; importance of marketing; competition for traditional academic libraries that may help improve library services; and the ability of Questia to overcome barriers and…

  5. Explaining competitive reaction effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeflang, P.S.H.; Wittink, D.R.

    Changes in promotional expenditure decisions for a brand, as in other marketing decisions, should be based on the expected impact on purchase and consumption behavior as well as on the likely reactions by competitors. Purchase behavior may be predicted from estimated demand functions. Competitive

  6. Competition Law in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Anand Raj; Cynthia Lian; Wen-Ly Chin

    2015-01-01

    There is still some way for Malaysia to go and the lack of merger control (for the foreseeable future) remains a significant shortcoming in the Malaysian competition law regime at this stage. Anand Raj, Cynthia Lian, & Wen-Ly Chin (Shearn Delamore & Co., Kuala Lumpur)

  7. Industrial location and competitiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Brakman (Steven); J.H. Garretsen (Harry); J.G.M. van Marrewijk (Charles)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractThe interaction between the extent of location advantages and the intensity of firm competition relative to the size of the market jointly determines the location of industrial activity. Technology, factor endowments, geography, and scale economies are influential for determining

  8. Business Ideas Competition

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Business Ideas Competition "The Rainbow Seed Fund is a UK fund, which provides finance to support the commercialization of good ideas founded on scientific research; it is for the benefit of the UK industry in particular. To encourage ideas from CERN the Rainbow Seed Fund is running a business ideas competition.The winner of this competition will receive an immediate cash prize of GBP £1,000. In addition the Rainbow Seed Fund may well provide finance for market research, for protection of Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) and for prototyping to take the idea forward. Further awards of GBP £750 will be made for ideas which gain investment from the Fund.Candidates will only be required to prepare a 2-4-page summary of their business idea, and not a full business plan. Full details and an entry form are available at www.rainbowseedfund.com ." ALL Members of the Personnel seeking participation in the business ideas competition are asked to submit their ideas via the CERN TT Unit (Jean-Marie.Le Goff@cern.ch) th...

  9. Evaluation of terrain geomorphometric characteristics for ground clearance charts production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirko A. Borisov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Geomorphometric exploration applied in the military terrain analysis is based on the GIS methodology of spatial analyses and is related primarily to military terrain analyses. It includes relief assessment aiming at producing ground clearance charts for the analysis of terrain maneuverability and its deployment, cover and concealment possibilities. An evaluation analysis of geomorphological parameters was performed for the Avala test area using a few terrain parameters (visibility, terrain aspect and slope as well as some terrain qualitative categories (e.g. vegetation density. Terrain slope Slope and aspect are morphometric terrain parameters that can be derived directly from the DTM using some GIS operations. Slope is the first derivative of a surface and has both magnitude and direction. Slope is perhaps the most important aspect of the surface form, since surfaces are formed completely of slopes, and slope angles control the gravitational force available for geomorphic work. Mathematically, the tangent of the slope angle is the first derivative of altitude, and it is a tangent or percent slope as this surface parameter is generally referred to. Slope is defined at each point as the slope of a plane tangent to the surface at that point. In practice, however, slope is generally measured over a finite distance, especially when data are obtained from a contour map. Terrain aspect Aspect is also the first derivative of a surface and has both magnitude and direction. The term aspect is defined as the direction of the biggest slope vector on the tangent plane projected onto the horizontal plane. Aspect is the bearing (or azimuth of the slope direction, and its angle ranges from 0 to 360°. Analyses of terrain slope and ground clearance for military forces The analysis of land assessment of the Avala test area included the definition of relief categories in relation to cover and concealment purposes with the aim to include the geomorphological basis

  10. A novel gripper design for multi hand tools grasping under tight clearance constraints and external torque effect

    KAUST Repository

    Shaqura, Mohammad

    2017-08-29

    A robotic multi tool gripper design and implementation is presented in this paper. The proposed design targets applications where an actuation task is performed using a wide selection of standard hand tools. The manipulation motion is assumed to be rotational which requires a firm grip to account for external torque on the grasped tool. The setup is assumed to be a conventional workshop panel with hand tools being hanged close to each other, which constraints lateral clearance around the target, and near the wall of the panel, which constraints the depth clearance. Off the shelf grippers are mostly heavy and bulky which make them unsuitable for these requirements. Moreover, they are not optimized in terms of power consumption, simplicity and compactness. These generic grippers are mostly designed for pick and place tasks where no external torques other than those caused by the object weight affects the gripper. The design challenge involves building a gripper that is capable of operating in limited clearance space, firmly grip a variety of standard hand tools with different sizes and shapes. The proposed design is optimized for these objectives and offers a low cost and power consumption solution. The design has been validated in lab and outdoor experiments and has been deployed in real operating platform used in an international robotics competition.

  11. Environmental structure and competitive scoring advantages in team competitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merritt, Sears; Clauset, Aaron

    2013-10-01

    In most professional sports, playing field structure is kept neutral so that scoring imbalances may be attributed to differences in team skill. It thus remains unknown what impact environmental heterogeneities can have on scoring dynamics or competitive advantages. Applying a novel generative model of scoring dynamics to roughly 10 million team competitions drawn from an online game, we quantify the relationship between the structure within a competition and its scoring dynamics, while controlling the impact of chance. Despite wide structural variations, we observe a common three-phase pattern in the tempo of events. Tempo and balance are highly predictable from a competition's structural features alone and teams exploit environmental heterogeneities for sustained competitive advantage. Surprisingly, the most balanced competitions are associated with specific environmental heterogeneities, not from equally skilled teams. These results shed new light on the design principles of balanced competition, and illustrate the potential of online game data for investigating social dynamics and competition.

  12. Competitive Inhibition of Renal Tubular Secretion of Gemifloxacin by Probenecid▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landersdorfer, Cornelia B.; Kirkpatrick, Carl M. J.; Kinzig, Martina; Bulitta, Jürgen B.; Holzgrabe, Ulrike; Drusano, George L.; Sörgel, Fritz

    2009-01-01

    Probenecid interacts with transport processes of drugs at several sites in the body. For most quinolones, renal clearance is reduced by concomitant administration of probenecid. The interaction between gemifloxacin and probenecid has not yet been studied. We studied the extent, time course, site(s), and mechanism of this interaction. Seventeen healthy volunteers participated in a randomized, two-way crossover study. Subjects received 320 mg gemifloxacin as an oral tablet without and with 4.5 g probenecid divided in eight oral doses. Drug concentrations in plasma and urine were analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. WinNonlin was used for noncompartmental analysis, compartmental modeling, and statistics, and NONMEM was used for visual predictive checks. Concomitant administration of probenecid increased plasma gemifloxacin concentrations and amounts excreted in urine compared to baseline amounts. Data are average estimates (percent coefficients of variation). Modeling showed a competitive inhibition of the renal tubular secretion of gemifloxacin by probenecid as the most likely mechanism of the interaction. The estimated Km and Vmax for the saturable part of renal elimination were 9.16 mg/liter (20%) and 113 mg/h (21%), respectively. Based on the molar ratio, the affinity for the renal transporter was 10-fold higher for gemifloxacin than for probenecid. Since probenecid reached an ∼200-times-higher area under the molar concentration-time curve from 0 to 24 h than gemifloxacin, probenecid inhibited the active tubular secretion of gemifloxacin. Probenecid also reduced the nonrenal clearance of gemifloxacin from 25.2 (26%) to 21.0 (23%) liters/h. Probenecid inhibited the renal tubular secretion of gemifloxacin, most likely by a competitive mechanism, and slightly decreased nonrenal clearance of gemifloxacin. PMID:19564368

  13. Competitive inhibition of renal tubular secretion of gemifloxacin by probenecid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landersdorfer, Cornelia B; Kirkpatrick, Carl M J; Kinzig, Martina; Bulitta, Jürgen B; Holzgrabe, Ulrike; Drusano, George L; Sörgel, Fritz

    2009-09-01

    Probenecid interacts with transport processes of drugs at several sites in the body. For most quinolones, renal clearance is reduced by concomitant administration of probenecid. The interaction between gemifloxacin and probenecid has not yet been studied. We studied the extent, time course, site(s), and mechanism of this interaction. Seventeen healthy volunteers participated in a randomized, two-way crossover study. Subjects received 320 mg gemifloxacin as an oral tablet without and with 4.5 g probenecid divided in eight oral doses. Drug concentrations in plasma and urine were analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. WinNonlin was used for noncompartmental analysis, compartmental modeling, and statistics, and NONMEM was used for visual predictive checks. Concomitant administration of probenecid increased plasma gemifloxacin concentrations and amounts excreted in urine compared to baseline amounts. Data are average estimates (percent coefficients of variation). Modeling showed a competitive inhibition of the renal tubular secretion of gemifloxacin by probenecid as the most likely mechanism of the interaction. The estimated K(m) and Vmax for the saturable part of renal elimination were 9.16 mg/liter (20%) and 113 mg/h (21%), respectively. Based on the molar ratio, the affinity for the renal transporter was 10-fold higher for gemifloxacin than for probenecid. Since probenecid reached an approximately 200-times-higher area under the molar concentration-time curve from 0 to 24 h than gemifloxacin, probenecid inhibited the active tubular secretion of gemifloxacin. Probenecid also reduced the nonrenal clearance of gemifloxacin from 25.2 (26%) to 21.0 (23%) liters/h. Probenecid inhibited the renal tubular secretion of gemifloxacin, most likely by a competitive mechanism, and slightly decreased nonrenal clearance of gemifloxacin.

  14. TREM2 deficiency reduces the efficacy of immunotherapeutic amyloid clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Xianyuan; Werner, Georg; Bohrmann, Bernd; Liesz, Arthur; Mazaheri, Fargol; Capell, Anja; Feederle, Regina; Knuesel, Irene; Kleinberger, Gernot; Haass, Christian

    2016-09-01

    Immunotherapeutic approaches are currently the most advanced treatments for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Antibodies against amyloid β-peptide (Aβ) bind to amyloid plaques and induce their clearance by microglia via Fc receptor-mediated phagocytosis. Dysfunctions of microglia may play a pivotal role in AD pathogenesis and could result in reduced efficacy of antibody-mediated Aβ clearance. Recently, heterozygous mutations in the triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 (TREM2), a microglial gene involved in phagocytosis, were genetically linked to late onset AD Loss of TREM2 reduces the ability of microglia to engulf Aβ. We have now investigated whether loss of TREM2 affects the efficacy of immunotherapeutic approaches. We show that anti-Aβ antibodies stimulate Aβ uptake and amyloid plaque clearance in a dose-dependent manner in the presence or absence of TREM2. However, TREM2-deficient N9 microglial cell lines, macrophages as well as primary microglia showed significantly reduced uptake of antibody-bound Aβ and as a consequence reduced clearance of amyloid plaques. Titration experiments revealed that reduced efficacy of amyloid plaque clearance by Trem2 knockout cells can be compensated by elevating the concentration of therapeutic antibodies. © 2016 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license.

  15. Pulmonary function and clearance after prolonged sulfuric acid aerosol exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ives, P.J. (ABB Environmental, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)); Gerrity, T.R.; DeWitt, P.; Folinsbee, L.J. (Environmental Protection Agency, Chapel Hill, NC (United States))

    1991-03-15

    The authors studied pulmonary function and clearance responses after a 4 H exposure to 75-100 {mu}g/m{sup 3} sulfuric acid aerosol (SAA). Healthy subjects, who exercised for 30 min/H at ventilation of about 25 L/min, were exposed once to clean air and once to SAA. Oral hygiene and acidic juice gargle were used to minimize oral ammonia. Lung function tests, including spirometry, plethysmography, and partial flow-volume (PEFV) curves were performed before and after exposure. Clearance of 99m-Technetium labeled iron oxide was assessed after each exposure. The first moment of fractional tracheobronchial retention (M1TBR), after correcting for 24 H retention and normalizing to time zero, was used as an index of clearance. There were no significant changes in lung volumes, airways resistance, or maximum expiratory flows after SAA exposure. Flow at 40% of total lung capacity on PEFV curves decreased 17% (NS) after SAA exposure. Tracheobronchial clearance was accelerated after a single exposure to SAA; M1TBR decreased from 73 {plus minus} 5 min (air) to 69 {plus minus} 5 min (SAA). These results suggest that acute prolonged exposure to low levels of SAA has minimal effects on lung mechanics in healthy subjects but does produce a modest acceleration of particle clearance.

  16. Optimal Interval for Success in Judo World-Ranking Competitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchini, Emerson; Takito, Monica Y; da Silva, Rodrigo M; Shiroma, Seihati A; Wicks, Lance; Julio, Ursula F

    2017-05-01

    To determine the optimal interval between competitions for success in the different events of the judo world tour. A total of 20,916 female and 29,900 male competition participations in the judo world-tour competitions held between January 2009 and December 2015 were analyzed, considering the dependent variable, winning a medal, and the independent variables, levels of competition. There was an increased probability of winning a medal when the interval was in the 10- to 13-wk range for both male and female athletes competing at Grand Prix, Continental-Championship, and World-Championship events, whereas for Grand Slam, only men had an increased probability of winning a medal in this interval range. Furthermore, men had increased probability of podium positions in Continental Championship, World Master, and Olympic Games when the interval was longer than 14 wk. Optimal interval period between successive competitions varies according to competition level and sex; shorter intervals (6-9 wk) were better for female athletes competing at the lowest competition level (Continental Open), but for most of the competitions, the 10- to 13-wk interval was detected as optimal for both male and female athletes (Grand Prix, Continental Championship, and World Championship), whereas for the ranking-based qualified male competitions (ie, Masters and Olympic Games), a longer period (>14 wk) is needed.

  17. Competition and quality in home health care markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Kyoungrae; Polsky, Daniel

    2014-03-01

    Market-based solutions are often proposed to improve health care quality; yet evidence on the role of competition in quality in non-hospital settings is sparse. We examine the relationship between competition and quality in home health care. This market is different from other markets in that service delivery takes place in patients' homes, which implies low costs of market entry and exit for agencies. We use 6 years of panel data for Medicare beneficiaries during the early 2000s. We identify the competition effect from within-market variation in competition over time. We analyze three quality measures: functional improvements, the number of home health visits, and discharges without hospitalization. We find that the relationship between competition and home health quality is nonlinear and its pattern differs by quality measure. Competition has positive effects on functional improvements and the number of visits in most ranges, but in the most competitive markets, functional outcomes and the number of visits slightly drop. Competition has a negative effect on discharges without hospitalization that is strongest in the most competitive markets. This finding is different from prior research on hospital markets and suggests that market-specific environments should be considered in developing polices to promote competition. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Impact of mechanism vibration characteristics by joint clearance and optimization design of its multi-objective robustness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Baoping; Wang, Chao; Zhang, Yu; Gong, Yajun; Hu, Sanbao

    2017-12-01

    Joint clearances and friction characteristics significantly influence the mechanism vibration characteristics; for example: as for joint clearances, the shaft and bearing of its clearance joint collide to bring about the dynamic normal contact force and tangential coulomb friction force while the mechanism works; thus, the whole system may vibrate; moreover, the mechanism is under contact-impact with impact force constraint from free movement under action of the above dynamic forces; in addition, the mechanism topology structure also changes. The constraint relationship between joints may be established by a repeated complex nonlinear dynamic process (idle stroke - contact-impact - elastic compression - rebound – impact relief - idle stroke movement - contact-impact). Analysis of vibration characteristics of joint parts is still a challenging open task by far. The dynamic equations for any mechanism with clearance is often a set of strong coupling, high-dimensional and complex time-varying nonlinear differential equations which are solved very difficultly. Moreover, complicated chaotic motions very sensitive to initial values in impact and vibration due to clearance let high-precision simulation and prediction of their dynamic behaviors be more difficult; on the other hand, their subsequent wearing necessarily leads to some certain fluctuation of structure clearance parameters, which acts as one primary factor for vibration of the mechanical system. A dynamic model was established to the device for opening the deepwater robot cabin door with joint clearance by utilizing the finite element method and analysis was carried out to its vibration characteristics in this study. Moreover, its response model was carried out by utilizing the DOE method and then the robust optimization design was performed to sizes of the joint clearance and the friction coefficient change range so that the optimization design results may be regarded as reference data for selecting bearings

  19. Competition in Soccer Leagues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Bodil Olai; Tvede, Mich

    In the present paper a model of competition between sports clubs in a sports league is presented. Clubs are endowed with initial players but at a cost clubs are able to sell their initial players and buy new players. The results are that: if the quality of players is one-dimensional, then equilib......In the present paper a model of competition between sports clubs in a sports league is presented. Clubs are endowed with initial players but at a cost clubs are able to sell their initial players and buy new players. The results are that: if the quality of players is one......-dimensional, then equilibria in pure strategies exist, and; if the quality of players is multi-dimensional, then there need not exist equilibria in pure strategies, but equilibria in mixed strategies exist. Equilibria in mixed strategies resemblance signings on deadline day in european soccer...

  20. CORPORATE CULTURE AND COMPETITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROGOJANU Angela

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Culture is one of those terms that are difficult to express distinctly, but everyone knows it when they sense it. Many articles have been written in recent years about corporate culture, which can be looked at as a system. Inputs include feedback from society, professions, laws, stories, heroes, values on competition or service, etc. Outputs are organizational behaviors, technologies, strategies, image, products, services, appearance, etc. Most organizations don't consciously try to create a certain culture, as it is typically created unconsciously, based on the values of the top management or the founders of an organization. In this paper we try to see whether corporate culture has any influence on competition and if it has, whether it is a positive one or a negative one.

  1. RECONSIDERING COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Zaharia

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Development of the competitive advantage involves a considerable effort from any organization. In particular, those organizations involved in a strong competitive market require the development of strategies to allocate long-term strategic marketing resources, efficiently and with easily quantifiable results. Faced with a multitude of phenomena and processes sometimes contradictory on different markets of consumption, contemporarily marketing has the mission to develop as creative as possible the business strategy of the organizations, their capacity of interacting with customers and other categories of audience. Such concepts as strategic positioning, relational marketing, management of the relationship with the consumer, marketing integrated research, a.s.o. are only a few of the tools with the help of which the marketing managers will implement successful operational strategies. All these developments are creating a real new paradigm of Marketing aimed to better explain the new types of complex market relationship in which the 21st Century organization is .

  2. Designing Competitive Service Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Veronica; Turner, Trevor

    The explosives developed in Europe in the late nineteenth and early twentieth ­century by the famous Swede and patron of the world peace prize, Alfred Nobel, were extremely durable and, apart from the introduction of the electric detonator, have remained in use with minor modifications for almost a century (Fig. 5.1a). In the 1970s a new invention started a process of change that has transformed the explosives business from being a supplier of products to a provider of a service. Survival very much depended on the agility of ICI Explosives UK, hereinafter referred to as "ICI Explosives," in adapting to the new competitive environment. Manufacturing excellence was not a solution. Innovative thinking was required to sustain the ­business as changes in technology reduced the complexity that had ­protected the business from serious competition for over a century.

  3. Single elimination competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, T. M. A.; Coe, J. B.; Ahnert, S. E.

    2008-09-01

    We study a simple model of competition in which each player has a fixed strength: randomly selected pairs of players compete, the stronger one wins and the loser is eliminated. We show that the best indicator of future success is not the number of wins but a player's wealth: the accumulated wealth of all defeated players. We calculate the distributions of strength and wealth for two versions of the problem: in the first, the loser is replaced; in the second, the loser is not. The probability of attaining a given wealth is shown to be path-independent. We illustrate our model with the popular game of conkers and discuss an extension to round-robin sports competition.

  4. The Literature of Competitive Intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Thomas D.

    1994-01-01

    Describes competitive intelligence (CI) literature in terms of its location, quantity, authorship, length, and problems of bibliographic access. Highlights include subject access; competitive intelligence research; espionage and security; monographs; and journals. (21 references) (LRW)

  5. Competition: the answers

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    The correct answers to the Staff Association Competition are: How many women delegates are there currently in the Staff Council? -14 Who is the current President of the Staff Association? - Alessandro Raimondo Which year was the Nursery School established by the Staff Association at CERN?  -1965 How many CERN clubs are supported by the Staff Association? -44 What is the supreme representative body of the Staff Association ? -The Staff Council   The winners will be informed by email.

  6. CIES Grant competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Council for International Exchange of Scholars, Washington, D.C., has announced the 1990-191 Fulbright Scholar Awards and the 1990-1991 Research Fellowships in India competitions.The 1990-1991 Fulbright grants in research and university lecturing abroad for periods of 3 months to 1 year have openings in over 100 countries, in most academic disciplines. Professionals, retired faculty, and independent scholars are encouraged to apply.

  7. Attention Competition with Advertisement

    OpenAIRE

    Cetin, Uzay; Bingol, Haluk O.

    2012-01-01

    In the new digital age, information is available in large quantities. Since information consumes primarily the attention of its recipients, the scarcity of attention is becoming the main limiting factor. In this study, we investigate the impact of advertisement pressure on a cultural market where consumers have a limited attention capacity. A model of competition for attention is developed and investigated analytically and by simulation. Advertisement is found to be much more effective when a...

  8. Competitive quantity discounts

    OpenAIRE

    Calzolari, Giacomo; Denicolò, Vincenzo

    2010-01-01

    We analyze the effects of competition with quantity discounts in a duopoly model with asymmetric firms. Consumers are privately informed about demand, so firms use quantity discounts as a price discrimination device. However, a dominant firm may also use quantity discounts to weaken or eliminate its competitor. We analyze the effects of quantity discounts on firms' profits and consumer surplus. Our main finding is that quantity discounts can decrease social welfare (i.e., the sum of producers...

  9. Paternalism and tax competition

    OpenAIRE

    Kaisa Kotakorpi

    2007-01-01

    When consumers make mistakes, the government may wish to use paternalistic taxation as a corrective measure. We examine a country whose government attempts to use taxation to reduce the consumption of a harmful good, and analyse the extent to which cross-border shopping and tax competition undermine the feasibility of paternalistic taxation. We show that the paternalistic component of a tax on a harmful good is reduced due to the possibility of cross-border shopping, but it does not disappear...

  10. Competitiveness - higher education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Labas Istvan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Involvement of European Union plays an important role in the areas of education and training equally. The member states are responsible for organizing and operating their education and training systems themselves. And, EU policy is aimed at supporting the efforts of member states and trying to find solutions for the common challenges which appear. In order to make our future sustainable maximally; the key to it lies in education. The highly qualified workforce is the key to development, advancement and innovation of the world. Nowadays, the competitiveness of higher education institutions has become more and more appreciated in the national economy. In recent years, the frameworks of operation of higher education systems have gone through a total transformation. The number of applying students is continuously decreasing in some European countries therefore only those institutions can “survive” this shortfall, which are able to minimize the loss of the number of students. In this process, the factors forming the competitiveness of these budgetary institutions play an important role from the point of view of survival. The more competitive a higher education institution is, the greater the chance is that the students would like to continue their studies there and thus this institution will have a greater chance for the survival in the future, compared to ones lagging behind in the competition. Aim of our treatise prepared is to present the current situation and main data of the EU higher education and we examine the performance of higher education: to what extent it fulfils the strategy for smart, sustainable and inclusive growth which is worded in the framework of Europe 2020 programme. The treatise is based on analysis of statistical data.

  11. Competition in Defense Acquisitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-01

    the James MacGregor Burns Academy of Leadership (all at the University of Maryland). For 2003 – 2004, he served as Interim Dean of the School of...40 Figure 16. Results of Public/Private Competitions 1978 - 1994...15-50% Joint Economic Committee 1973 20 52% IDA 1974 20 37% LMI 1974 1 22% ARINC 1976 13 47% APRO 1978 11 12% IDA 1979 31 31% TASC 1979 45 30

  12. Injuries in Competitive Cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohlmann, J T

    1981-05-01

    In brief: There are relatively few injuries in competitive cycling, and abrasions are the most common. In this study most injuries occurred to the left side of the cyclist, and most common causes were flat tires and colliding with other cyclists. The number of injuries decreased as the cyclist gained more experience. Preventive measures include keeping the bicycle in top mechanical condition, wearing strong, durable clothing and a helmet, and knowing how to fall.

  13. Quality by design approach for viral clearance by protein a chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Min; Miesegaes, George R; Lee, Michael; Coleman, Daniel; Yang, Bin; Trexler-Schmidt, Melody; Norling, Lenore; Lester, Philip; Brorson, Kurt A; Chen, Qi

    2014-01-01

    Protein A chromatography is widely used as a capture step in monoclonal antibody (mAb) purification processes. Antibodies and Fc fusion proteins can be efficiently purified from the majority of other complex components in harvested cell culture fluid (HCCF). Protein A chromatography is also capable of removing modest levels of viruses and is often validated for viral clearance. Historical data mining of Genentech and FDA/CDER databases systematically evaluated the removal of model viruses by Protein A chromatography. First, we found that for each model virus, removal by Protein A chromatography varies significantly across mAbs, while remains consistent within a specific mAb product, even across the acceptable ranges of the process parameters. In addition, our analysis revealed a correlation between retrovirus and parvovirus removal, with retrovirus data generally possessing a greater clearance factor. Finally, we describe a multivariate approach used to evaluate process parameter impacts on viral clearance, based on the levels of retrovirus-like particles (RVLP) present among process characterization study samples. It was shown that RVLP removal by Protein A is robust, that is, parameter effects were not observed across the ranges tested. Robustness of RVLP removal by Protein A also correlates with that for other model viruses such as X-MuLV, MMV, and SV40. The data supports that evaluating RVLP removal using process characterization study samples can establish multivariate acceptable ranges for virus removal by the protein A step for QbD. By measuring RVLP instead of a model retrovirus, it may alleviate some of the technical and economic challenges associated with performing large, design-of-experiment (DoE)—type virus spiking studies. This approach could also serve to provide useful insight when designing strategies to ensure viral safety in the manufacturing of a biopharmaceutical product. PMID:23860745

  14. Quality by design approach for viral clearance by protein a chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Min; Miesegaes, George R; Lee, Michael; Coleman, Daniel; Yang, Bin; Trexler-Schmidt, Melody; Norling, Lenore; Lester, Philip; Brorson, Kurt A; Chen, Qi

    2014-01-01

    Protein A chromatography is widely used as a capture step in monoclonal antibody (mAb) purification processes. Antibodies and Fc fusion proteins can be efficiently purified from the majority of other complex components in harvested cell culture fluid (HCCF). Protein A chromatography is also capable of removing modest levels of viruses and is often validated for viral clearance. Historical data mining of Genentech and FDA/CDER databases systematically evaluated the removal of model viruses by Protein A chromatography. First, we found that for each model virus, removal by Protein A chromatography varies significantly across mAbs, while remains consistent within a specific mAb product, even across the acceptable ranges of the process parameters. In addition, our analysis revealed a correlation between retrovirus and parvovirus removal, with retrovirus data generally possessing a greater clearance factor. Finally, we describe a multivariate approach used to evaluate process parameter impacts on viral clearance, based on the levels of retrovirus-like particles (RVLP) present among process characterization study samples. It was shown that RVLP removal by Protein A is robust, that is, parameter effects were not observed across the ranges tested. Robustness of RVLP removal by Protein A also correlates with that for other model viruses such as X-MuLV, MMV, and SV40. The data supports that evaluating RVLP removal using process characterization study samples can establish multivariate acceptable ranges for virus removal by the protein A step for QbD. By measuring RVLP instead of a model retrovirus, it may alleviate some of the technical and economic challenges associated with performing large, design-of-experiment (DoE)-type virus spiking studies. This approach could also serve to provide useful insight when designing strategies to ensure viral safety in the manufacturing of a biopharmaceutical product. © 2013 The Authors. Biotechnology and Bioengineering Published by Wiley

  15. Cold-air performance of free power turbine designed for 112-kilowatt automotive gas-turbine engine 3: Effect of stator vane end clearances on performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofskey, M. G.; Mclallin, K. L.

    1978-01-01

    An experimental investigation of a free power turbine designed for a 112-kW, automotive, gas turbine engine was made to determine the penalty in performance due to the stator vane end clearances. Tests were made over a range of mean section stator vane angles from 26 deg to 50 deg (as measured from the plane of rotation) with the vane end clearances filled. These results were compared with test results of the same turbine with vane end clearances open. At design equivalent values of rotative speed and pressure ratio and at a vane angle of 35 deg, the mass flow with the vane and clearances filled was about 8 percent lower than mass flow with vane end clearances open. The decrease in mass flow was mitigated by increasing the vane angle. With the vane end clearances filled, there was about a 66 percent reduction in mass flow when the vane angle was decreased from 40 deg to 26 deg. For the same decrease in vane angle the stator throat area decreased by about 50 percent. This result indicates that the rotor losses were increasing with decreasing vane angle.

  16. Privatization, Competition and Beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mete Gundogan

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Privatization not only results in the transfer of state assets, but it also reduces economic role of the government. Developing and developed countries have experienced privatization in different ways for years. This article focuses upon the issue of privatization in Turkey. Turkey launched its comprehensive economic liberalization program named ‘structural adjustment reform' in 1980 by the stimulation of the World Bank and IMF. Later on, privatization has been an official state ideology with two institutions, the Privatization Higher Council and the Privatization Administration. Some of their implementations have been given. Privatization policies have multiple, often together with often inter-related and conflicting political, economic and financial objectives. They must be evaluated according to political, social and economical structures and conditions of the country concerned. Together with privatization, competition and its institutional framework with implementations have also been analyzed in the paper. The paper maintains that there seemed no direct and strong relationship between the privatization endeavours and institutional competition. Finally, the study points out that Turkey seems to be a bare-foot runner in its privatization venture unless there is a proper competitive market, together with a sound social security system and a profound capital market.

  17. Antipyrine clearance during experimental and occupational exposure to toluene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Døssing, M; Bælum, Jesper; Lundqvist, G R

    1983-01-01

    Exposure to toluene vapour enhances hepatic microsomal enzyme function in animals as assessed by the metabolism of the test drug antipyrine. Thirty six printing trade workers with long term occupational exposure to a mixture of organic solvents and 39 matched controls were randomly allocated...... into four groups. Eighteen printers and 21 controls were exposed to 100 ppm of toluene during 6.5 hours in an exposure chamber. The remaining 18 printers and 18 controls were exposed to 0 ppm of toluene under similar conditions. The salivary clearance of antipyrine was measured immediately after the stay...... clearance 12 printing trade workers with 17 years (median) of occupational exposure to toluene vapour at concentrations of about 100 ppm were investigated before and four weeks after cessation of exposure. No difference in antipyrine clearance was found either within the groups or between the groups at any...

  18. APPLICATION OF DSM IN OBSTACLE CLEARANCE SURVEYING OF AERODROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Qiao

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Compared to the wide use of digital elevation model (DEM, digital surface model (DSM receives less attention because that it is composed by not only terrain surface, but also vegetations and man-made objects which are usually regarded as useless information. Nevertheless, these objects are useful for the identification of obstacles around an aerodrome. The primary objective of the study was to determine the applicability of DSM in obstacle clearance surveying of aerodrome. According to the requirements of obstacle clearance surveying at QT airport, aerial and satellite imagery were used to generate DSM, by means of photogrammetry, which was spatially analyzed with the hypothetical 3D obstacle limitation surfaces (OLS to identify the potential obstacles. Field surveying was then carried out to retrieve the accurate horizontal position and height of the obstacles. The results proved that the application of DSM could make considerable improvement in the efficiency of obstacle clearance surveying of aerodrome.

  19. Using wearable UWB radios to measure foot clearance during walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Yongbin; Soh, Cheong Boon; Gunawan, Erry; Low, Kay-Soon; Maskooki, Arash

    2013-01-01

    Foot clearance above ground is a key factor for a better understanding of the complicated relationship between falls and gait. This paper proposes a wearable system using UWB transceivers to monitor the vertical heel/toe clearance during walking. First, a pair of very small and light antennas is placed on a point approximating to the heel/toe of the foot, acting as a transmitter and receiver. Then, the reflected signal from ground is captured and propagation delay is detected using noise suppressed Modified-Phase-Only-Correlator (MPOC). The performance of the UWB-based system was compared with an ultrasound system for stationary movements. The experimental results show that an overall mean difference between these two systems is about 0.634mm with correlation coefficient value of 0.9604. The UWB-based system is then used to measure foot clearance during walking which shows promising results for gait events detection.

  20. Measurement of interlayer pressure in micro-clearance based on photonic crystal fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Zhang; Zhi, Zhuang; Minghai, Li; Shaoquan, Hu; Rong, Zhang; Yang, Minghong

    2017-06-01

    A novel measurement method for interlayer pressure in micro-clearance based on photonic crystal fiber is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. A sensor with a height of only 230 µm was fabricated using polarization-maintaining photonic crystal fiber with higher birefringence. Experimental results show that the linearity and repeatability of the proposed sensor are 1.61%FS and 0.55%FS respectively. The sensor covered by a flimsy cushion material exhibits a large bearing pressure capability of 18.2 MPa, and the work range extends to 5 MPa. Such measurement technology could be very promising for mechanical characterization in narrow space.

  1. Competition policy and cartel size

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, A.M.; Harrington Jr., J.E.

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines endogenous cartel formation in the presence of a competition authority. Competition policy makes the most inclusive stable cartels less inclusive. In particular, small firms that might have been cartel members in the absence of a competition authority are no longer members.

  2. Competitive Intelligence and Social Advantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, Elisabeth; Cronin, Blaise

    1994-01-01

    Presents an overview of issues concerning civilian competitive intelligence (CI). Topics discussed include competitive advantage in academic and research environments; public domain information and libraries; covert and overt competitive intelligence; data diversity; use of the Internet; cooperative intelligence; and implications for library and…

  3. 99mTc-mercaptoacetyltriglycine camera-based measurement of renal clearance: should the result be normalized for body surface area?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingensmith, William C

    2013-12-01

    Testing the rate of creatinine clearance by measuring the level of creatinine in the blood and in a 24-h urine collection is a common method of evaluating renal function. The result is routinely normalized for body surface area (BSA). Alternatively, renal clearance can be measured by (99m)Tc-mercaptoacetyltriglycine (MAG3) renal imaging without the need for urine collection. Frequently, the (99m)Tc-MAG3 camera-based result is also normalized for BSA. I evaluated the need for BSA normalization of renal clearance measurements in (99m)Tc-MAG3 imaging studies from both a conceptual and a mathematic point of view. Both approaches involved analyzing the effect of patient size, that is, BSA, on the factors blood volume, renal blood flow, and amount of test substance present in the blood in the creatinine clearance method compared with the (99m)Tc-MAG3 camera-based method. Both the conceptual and the mathematic analyses were consistent with a significant difference between the creatinine and (99m)Tc-MAG3 approaches to measuring renal clearance. Larger patients have larger kidneys, greater renal blood flow, higher renal clearances, larger blood volumes, more muscle mass, and higher BSAs than smaller patients. However, the concentration of creatinine in the blood of patients of any size with normal renal function is similar because the amount of creatinine released into the blood varies with patient muscle mass, which varies with blood volume. Because normalization for BSA is needed for creatinine clearance, a single reference range can be used for all patients. In the case of measurement of renal clearance with (99m)Tc-MAG3 imaging (assuming a constant dose), the concentration of tracer in the blood will vary inversely with patient size because blood volume varies with patient size. Thus, as patient size increases, the blood concentration of tracer will go down and compensate for the increase in renal blood flow and renal clearance, and conversely. Consequently, the (99m

  4. Mucociliary clearance, airway inflammation and nasal symptoms in urban motorcyclists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tereza C.S. Brant

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: There is evidence that outdoor workers exposed to high levels of air pollution exhibit airway inflammation and increased airway symptoms. We hypothesized that these workers would experience increased airway symptoms and decreased nasal mucociliary clearance associated with their exposure to air pollution. METHODS: In total, 25 non-smoking commercial motorcyclists, aged 18-44 years, were included in this study. These drivers work 8-12 hours per day, 5 days per week, driving on urban streets. Nasal mucociliary clearance was measured by the saccharine transit test; airway acidification was measured by assessing the pH of exhaled breath condensate; and airway symptoms were measured by the Sino-nasal Outcome Test-20 questionnaire. To assess personal air pollution exposure, the subjects used a passive-diffusion nitrogen dioxide (NO2 concentration-monitoring system during the 14 days before each assessment. The associations between NO2 and the airway outcomes were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney test and the Chi-Square test. Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01976039. RESULTS: Compared with clearance in healthy adult males, mucociliary clearance was decreased in 32% of the motorcyclists. Additionally, 64% of the motorcyclists had airway acidification and 92% experienced airway symptoms. The median personal NO2 exposure level was 75 mg/m3 for these subjects and a significant association was observed between NO2 and impaired mucociliary clearance (p = 0.036. CONCLUSION: Non-smoking commercial motorcyclists exhibit increased airway symptoms and airway acidification as well as decreased nasal mucociliary clearance, all of which are significantly associated with the amount of exposure to air pollution.

  5. Effect of Internal Clearance on Load Distribution and Life of Radially Loaded Ball and Roller Bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oswald, Fred B.; Zaretsky, Erwin V.; Poplawski, Joseph V.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of internal clearance on radially loaded deepgroove ball and cylindrical roller bearing load distribution and fatigue life was determined for four clearance groups defined in the bearing standards. The analysis was extended to negative clearance (interference) conditions to produce a curve of life factor versus internal clearance. Rolling-element loads can be optimized and bearing life maximized for a small negative operating clearance. Life declines gradually with positive clearance and rapidly with increasing negative clearance. Relationships were found between bearing life and internal clearance as a function of ball or roller diameter, adjusted for load. Results are presented as life factors for radially loaded bearings independent of bearing size or applied load. In addition, a modified Stribeck Equation is presented that relates the maximum rolling-element load to internal bearing clearance.

  6. A novel, Q-PCR based approach to measuring endogenous retroviral clearance by capture protein A chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Min; Lute, Scott; Norling, Lenore; Hong, Connie; Safta, Aurelia; O'Connor, Deborah; Bernstein, Lisa J; Wang, Hua; Blank, Greg; Brorson, Kurt; Chen, Qi

    2009-04-01

    Quantification of virus removal by the purification process during production is required for clinical use of biopharmaceuticals. The current validation approach for virus removal by chromatography steps typically involves time-consuming spiking experiments with expensive model viruses at bench scale. Here we propose a novel, alternative approach that can be applied in at least one instance: evaluating retroviral clearance by protein A chromatography. Our strategy uses a quantitative PCR (Q-PCR) assay that quantifies the endogenous type C retrovirus-like particle genomes directly in production Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cell culture harvests and protein A pools. This eliminates the need to perform spiking with model viruses, and measures the real virus from the process. Using this new approach, clearance values were obtained that was comparable to those from the old model-virus spike/removal approach. We tested the concept of design space for CHO retrovirus removal using samples from a protein A characterization study, where a wide range of chromatographic operating conditions were challenged, including load density, flow rate, wash, pooling, temperature, and resin life cycles. Little impact of these variables on CHO retrovirus clearance was found, arguing for implementation of the design space approach for viral clearance to support operational ranges and manufacturing excursions. The viral clearance results from Q-PCR were confirmed by an orthogonal quantitative product-enhanced reverse transcriptase (Q-PERT) assay that quantifies CHO retrovirus by their reverse transcriptase (RT) enzyme activity. Overall, our results demonstrate that protein A chromatography is a robust retrovirus removal step and CHO retrovirus removal can be directly measured at large scale using Q-PCR assays.

  7. Mucociliary and cough clearance as a biomarker for therapeutic development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennett, William D; Daviskas, Evangelia; Hasani, Amir

    2010-01-01

    A workshop/symposium on “Mucociliary and Cough Clearance (MCC/CC) as a Biomarker for Therapeutic Development” was held on October 21–22, 2008, in Research Triangle Park, NC, to discuss the methods for measurement of MCC/CC and how they may be optimized for assessing new therapies designed...... to improve clearance of airway secretions from the lungs. The utility of MCC/CC as a biomarker for disease progression and therapeutic intervention is gaining increased recognition as a valuable tool in the clinical research community. A number of investigators currently active in using MCC/CC for diagnostic...

  8. Diabetic nephropathy: glomerular filtration rate and estimated creatinine clearance

    OpenAIRE

    Guimarães, J; Bastos, M.; Melo, M.; Carvalheiro, M.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess in diabetic nephropathy, the accuracy of estimated creatinine clearance (calculated with the Cockroft Gault formula) and the clearance of the Tc99m-DTPA, to measure the glomerular filtration rate (GFR). PATIENTS AND METHODS: We analysed the GFR measure by Tc99m-DTPA method and the estimated by the Cockroft Gault formula, in 21 subjects with type 1 or type 2 diabetes. RESULTS: There was a strong positive correlation between the two methods but the Cockroft Gault formula un...

  9. Effect of oral N-acetylcysteine on mucus clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millar, A B; Pavia, D; Agnew, J E; Lopez-Vidriero, M T; Lauque, D; Clarke, S W

    1985-07-01

    Oral N-acetylcysteine has been advocated as a mucolytic agent for use in chronic bronchitis. We have investigated the effects of regular use of this drug at a dose of 200 mg thrice daily for 4 weeks in nine patients with chronic bronchitis on lung function, lung mucociliary clearance and sputum viscosity in a controlled, double-blind, crossover study. No significant differences were found in lung function, mucociliary clearance curves or sputum viscosity following treatment with N-acetylcysteine compared to control or placebo measurements.

  10. The influence of body posture on lithium clearance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamper, A L; Strandgaard, S; Holstein-Rathlou, N H

    1988-01-01

    measured four times at 1-week intervals: two in the supine and one in the sitting position, and one when the subject was walking around. Glomerular filtration rate was not influenced by posture changes. On the contrary, lithium clearance, which in the supine position was 30 +/- 9 ml/min (1 SD), tended...... during moderate physical activity. Hence, when renal tubular function is studied with the lithium clearance method, standardization of posture and physical activity is important. In such studies physical activity such as walking should particularly be avoided....

  11. Clearance of technetium-99m-DTPA and HRCT findings in the evaluation of patients with Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karkavitsas Nikolaos

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clearance of inhaled technetium-labeled diethylenetriamine pentaacetate (99mTc-DTPA is a marker of epithelial damage and an index of lung epithelial permeability. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of 99mTc-DTPA scan in patients with Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF. Our hypothesis is that the rate of pulmonary 99mTc-DTPA clearance could be associated with extent of High Resolution Computed Tomography (HRCT abnormalities, cell differential of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF and pulmonary function tests (PFTs in patients with IPF. Methods We studied prospectively 18 patients (14 male, 4 female of median age 67yr (range 55–81 with histologically proven IPF. HRCT scoring included the mean values of extent of disease. Mean values of these percentages represented the Total Interstitial Disease Score (TID. DTPA clearance was analyzed according to a dynamic study using a Venticis II radioaerosol delivery system. Results The mean (SD TID score was 36 ± 12%, 3 patients had mild, 11 moderate and 4 severe TID. Abnormal DTPA clearance half-time (t1/2 Conclusion Our data suggest that 99mTc-DTPA lung scan is not well associated with HRCT abnormalities, PFTs, and BALF cellularity in patients with IPF. Further studies in large scale of patients are needed to define the role of this technique in pulmonary fibrosis.

  12. Competition Advocacy: the Italian Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Rebecchini

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Competition advocacy is considered, together with enforcement, the core business of an antitrust authority. Broadly speaking there are at least three main tasks regularly performed by most, if not all, antitrust agencies that are amenable to the advocacy function: addressing laws and regulations in order to remove unnecessary impediments to competition; engaging in sector enquiries to understand markets behavior and identify critical issues; explaining the benefits of open competitive markets to the public opinion. This article examines these three main tasks and outlines the challenges for competition agencies, with references to the experience of the Italian Competition Authority (ICA and the initiatives undertaken at international level.

  13. Competition, cooperation, and collective choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Thomas; Reuben Paris, Ernesto Guillermo; Tyran, Jean-Robert Karl

    2014-01-01

    The ability of groups to implement efficiency-enhancing institutions is emerging as a central theme of research in economics. This paper explores voting on a scheme of intergroup competition, which facilitates cooperation in a social dilemma situation. Experimental results show that the competitive...... scheme fosters cooperation. Competition is popular, but the electoral outcome depends strongly on specific voting rules of institutional choice. If the majority decides, competition is almost always adopted. If likely losers from competition have veto power, it is often not, and substantial gains...

  14. The role of fiscal competitiveness in strengthening the competitiveness of Bosnia and Herzegovina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maksimović Ljiljana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A country's competitiveness is the domain of economic theory, which analyzes the facts and policies that shape the country's ability to create and maintain an environment that creates greater value for companies and prosperity for its citizens (Garelli, 2009. Competitiveness has become one of the most important issues of our time. Its significance, in addition to the traditional role of striving to be better than others, has been contributed by the global economic crisis. Enhancing productivity and competitiveness must be the basic idea of economic policy. The World Economic Forum has been conducting an analysis of international competitiveness for three decades. Bosnia and Herzegovina gained the 88th place in economic competitiveness ranking in 2012. The tax rates are seen as one of the reasons for such a position. Starting from this, this paper attempts to analyze the tax rates and the tax burden on income tax in Bosnia and Herzegovina and to perform the comparative analysis with neighboring countries in order to point out the limited range of tax policies to strengthen the country's competitiveness.

  15. Competitive Moves over Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antero, Michelle; Hedman, Jonas; Henningsson, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    This paper applies the Red Queen theory to explain how organizations utilize various sourcing arrangements in order to compete in an evolutionary arms race where only the strongest competitors will survive. This case study incorporates competition and views sourcing strategies as a means to improve...... its viability to survive in the marketplace. The study begins with a review of sourcing literature to position the Red Queen theory within the sourcing literature. It subsequently applies the framework to a case study of SAP AG to illustrate how sourcing strategies changed over time in response...

  16. Attention competition with advertisement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetin, Uzay; Bingol, Haluk O

    2014-09-01

    In the new digital age, information is available in large quantities. Since information consumes primarily the attention of its recipients, the scarcity of attention is becoming the main limiting factor. In this study, we investigate the impact of advertisement pressure on a cultural market where consumers have a limited attention capacity. A model of competition for attention is developed and investigated analytically and by simulation. Advertisement is found to be much more effective when the attention capacity of agents is extremely scarce. We have observed that the market share of the advertised item improves if dummy items are introduced to the market while the strength of the advertisement is kept constant.

  17. Competitive Manufacturing Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rymaszewska, Anna; Christensen, Irene; Karlsson, Christer

    The increasing complexity of business environments and the pressure for organizations on delivering new products faster while maintaining the superior quality of their products, has forced manufacturing organizations to rethink their operations. Managers responsible for manufacturing ramp-up need...... to constantly improve this process in terms of time to volume, according to predefined cost and quality measures. The importance of the success of this process can lead to a significant creation of competitive advantage. This paper addresses the challenges of the manufacturing ramp-up process in the context...... of lean improvements as well as organizational learning....

  18. Attention competition with advertisement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetin, Uzay; Bingol, Haluk O.

    2014-09-01

    In the new digital age, information is available in large quantities. Since information consumes primarily the attention of its recipients, the scarcity of attention is becoming the main limiting factor. In this study, we investigate the impact of advertisement pressure on a cultural market where consumers have a limited attention capacity. A model of competition for attention is developed and investigated analytically and by simulation. Advertisement is found to be much more effective when the attention capacity of agents is extremely scarce. We have observed that the market share of the advertised item improves if dummy items are introduced to the market while the strength of the advertisement is kept constant.

  19. Competitive facility location models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kononov, A. V.; Kochetov, Yu. A.; Plyasunov, A. V.

    2009-06-01

    Two classes of competitive facility location models are considered, in which several persons (players) sequentially or simultaneously open facilities for serving clients. The first class consists of discrete two-level programming models. The second class consists of game models with several independent players pursuing selfish goals. For the first class, its relationship with pseudo-Boolean functions is established and a novel method for constructing a family of upper and lower bounds on the optimum is proposed. For the second class, the tight PLS-completeness of the problem of finding Nash equilibriums is proved.

  20. Rowing competitions and perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Alfinio; Bernhardt, Stephen A.; Shipman, Henry L.

    2015-02-01

    This paper is about integrating the use of graphing technology (specifically, GeoGebra) with principles of motion, principles of perspective, and the concept of vanishing points to model a dynamic event. Students were asked to analyse video images of a rowing competition filmed with a single camera positioned perpendicular to the race. The fixed position of the camera in such races makes it difficult to determine whether a scull closer to the camera is actually overtaking another, more distant scull. The paper illustrates how students in their first year at the university can integrate the use of technology, science, mathematics, and writing to solve a real world problem involving motion.

  1. Investigation of Performance and Rotor Tip Flow Field in a Low Speed Research Compressor with Circumferential Groove Casing Treatment at Varying Tip Clearance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Rolfes

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimental investigations in a single-stage low speed axial research compressor are presented. The influence of four different rotor tip clearances on the overall compressor performance and on the rotor tip flow field is investigated in configurations with and without circumferential groove casing treatments. Piezo-resistive pressure transducers are used to capture the unsteady flow field in the rotor tip region. The investigated casing groove is effectively working at the three largest investigated tip clearance sizes. The largest achieved operating range increase by the groove is 6.9%. The groove can delay the upstream movement of the flow interface between leakage flow and main flow and thus increase the stable operating range. Rotating instabilities are shown to exist at large tip clearance sizes in throttled operating conditions. Their amplitudes can be damped by the casing groove. No modal activities could be detected in the current single-stage compressor build.

  2. Anatomical factors predicting lower calyceal stone clearance after ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    M. Khan

    2016-02-17

    Feb 17, 2016 ... 1992;147:322–4. [6] Elbahanasy AM, Shalhav AL, Hoenig DM, Elashry OM, Smith DS,. McDougall EM, et al. Lower caliceal stone clearance after shock wave lithotripsy or ureteroscopy: the impact of lower pole radiographic anatomy. J Urol 1998;159:676–82. [7] Kiely EA, Madigan D, Ryan PC, Butler MR.

  3. Celllular Uptake and Clearance of TIO2 Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Differential rates of cellular uptake and clearance of engineered nanomaterials may influence the propensity for tissue accumulation under chronic exposure conditions. A retinal pigment epithelial cell line (ARPE-19) was used to investigate 1) if Ti02 (Degussa, P25) nanoparticles...

  4. Hyperinsulinism and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS): role of insulin clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, M C; Vesco, R; Vigneri, E; Ciresi, A; Giordano, C

    2015-12-01

    Insulin resistance and compensatory hyperinsulinism are the predominant metabolic defects in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). However, hyperinsulinism, as well as being compensatory, can also express a condition of reduced insulin clearance. Our aim was to evaluate the differences in insulin action and metabolism between women with PCOS (with normal glucose tolerance) and age- and BMI-matched women with prediabetes (without hyperandrogenism and ovulatory disorders). 22 women with PCOS and 21 age/BMI-matched women with prediabetes were subjected to a Hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp and an Oral Glucose tolerance Test (OGTT). Insulin sensitivity was assessed by the glucose infusion rate during clamp (M value); insulin secretion by Insulinogenic index, Oral Disposition Index (DIo) and AUC(2h-insulin) during OGTT; and insulin clearance by the metabolic clearance rate of insulin (MCRI) during clamp. Women with PCOS showed significantly higher levels of AUC(2h-insulin) (p PCOS [420 (IQR 227-588) vs. 743 (IQR 597-888) ml m(-2) min(-1): p PCOS group, a strong independent inverse correlation was only observed between MCRI and AUC(2h-insulin) (PCOS: β:-0.878; p PCOS there is peripheral insulin sensitivity similar to that of women with prediabetes. What sets PCOS apart is the hyperinsulinism, today still simplistically defined "compensatory"; actually this is mainly related to decreased insulin clearance whose specific causes and dynamics have yet to be clarified.

  5. 19 CFR 148.23 - Examination and clearance of baggage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Examination and clearance of baggage. 148.23 Section 148.23 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... § 148.32. (2) Works of art classifiable under subheadings 9701.10.00 or 9701.90.00, HTSUS. (3) Works of...

  6. Mucociliary Clearance Time in Patients with and without Rhinitis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    While rhinitis is not a life-threatening condition, complications may occur and the condition can significantly impair quality of life. In order to measure the mucociliary clearance time in patients with and without rhinitis a study was conducted in the ENT, H&N, and orthopedic departments at KNH. Methods: 130 cases between ...

  7. 50 CFR 14.52 - Clearance of imported wildlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Clearance of imported wildlife. 14.52 Section 14.52 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TAKING, POSSESSION, TRANSPORTATION, SALE, PURCHASE, BARTER, EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND...

  8. In Vivo Renal Clearance, Biodistribution, Toxicity of Gold nanoclusters

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Xiao-Dong; Shen, Xiu; Liu, Pei-Xun; Fan, Fei-Yue; Fan, Sai-Jun; 10.1016/j.biomaterials.2012.03.020

    2012-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles have shown great prospective in cancer diagnosis and therapy, but they can not be metabolized and prefer to accumulate in liver and spleen due to their large size. The gold nanoclusters with small size can penetrate kidney tissue and have promise to decrease in vivo toxicity by renal clearance. In this work, we explore the in vivo renal clearance, biodistribution, and toxicity responses of the BSA- and GSH-protected gold nanoclusters for 24 hours and 28 days. The BSA-protected gold nanoclusters have low-efficient renal clearance and only 1% of gold can be cleared, but the GSH-protected gold nanoclusters have high-efficient renal clearance and 36 % of gold can be cleared after 24 hours. The biodistribution further reveals that 94% of gold can be metabolized for the GSH-protected nanoclusters, but only less than 5% of gold can be metabolized for the BSA-protected nanoclusters after 28 days. Both of the GSH- and BSA-protected gold nanoclusters cause acute infection, inflammation, and kidney fu...

  9. 20 CFR 655.150 - Interstate clearance of job order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... elapsed, and must refer each qualified U.S. worker who applies (or on whose behalf an application is made... EMPLOYMENT OF FOREIGN WORKERS IN THE UNITED STATES Labor Certification Process for Temporary Agricultural Employment in the United States (H-2A Workers) Post-Acceptance Requirements § 655.150 Interstate clearance of...

  10. Mucociliary and cough clearance as a biomarker for therapeutic development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennett, William D; Daviskas, Evangelia; Hasani, Amir

    2010-01-01

    A workshop/symposium on “Mucociliary and Cough Clearance (MCC/CC) as a Biomarker for Therapeutic Development” was held on October 21–22, 2008, in Research Triangle Park, NC, to discuss the methods for measurement of MCC/CC and how they may be optimized for assessing new therapies designed...

  11. Factors affecting lower calyceal stone clearance after Extracorporeal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    shanker

    Abstract. Objective: Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) is one of the most commonly used procedures to remove renal calculi from the lower calyces. The aim of this work is to study the impact of radiological, anatomical and demographic factors on stone clearance after ESWL of lower calyceal calculi. Patients and ...

  12. Factors affecting lower calyceal stone clearance after Extracorporeal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) is one of the most commonly used procedures to remove renal calculi from the lower calyces. The aim of this work is to study the impact of radiological, anatomical and demographic factors on stone clearance after ESWL of lower calyceal calculi. Patients and ...

  13. Spontaneous Clearance of Hepatitis C after Liver and Renal Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CH Dale

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous clearance of hepatitis C virus (HCV is rare in immunocompromised patients, such as those who have undergone organ transplantation. It has been recognized that patients receiving liver transplantation for HCV-related disease have decreased graft and patient survival compared with those transplanted for other etiologies. There is a growing trend toward treating HCV recurrence aggressively after liver transplantation. For other organ transplant recipients with concurrent HCV, treatment is not often an option, given the high rates of graft rejection and loss secondary to interferon and its immunomodulatory effects. Although spontaneous clearance of HCV has been reported in recipients of solitary liver and renal transplants, a common factor arising in these cases has been previous exposure to interferon. To date, no reports of spontaneous clearance of HCV RNA have been reported in a multiorgan transplant recipient. A case of spontaneous clearance of HCV RNA in an immunocompromised patient, within five months of simultaneous liver and kidney retransplantation is described. Importantly, this patient had no previous exposure to interferon.

  14. The influence of body posture on lithium clearance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamper, A L; Strandgaard, S; Holstein-Rathlou, N H

    1988-01-01

    measured four times at 1-week intervals: two in the supine and one in the sitting position, and one when the subject was walking around. Glomerular filtration rate was not influenced by posture changes. On the contrary, lithium clearance, which in the supine position was 30 +/- 9 ml/min (1 SD), tended...

  15. Tidal volume and alveolar clearance of insoluble particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, J; Wollmer, P; Dahlbäck, M; Luts, A; Jonson, B

    1994-02-01

    We studied the effect of 3 h of large tidal volume ventilation on alveolar clearance of 0.63-micron fluorescent latex particles in rabbits during pentobarbital anesthesia. After particle deposition, six animals were killed as controls, six were subjected to large tidal volume ventilation with a peak pressure of 27 cmH2O, and six were subjected to conventional ventilation with a peak pressure of 11 cmH2O. Mean tidal volumes were 30.2 +/- 6.1 and 8.4 +/- 1.6 ml/kg in the large tidal volume and conventional groups, respectively. End-expiratory pressure was 2 cmH2O in all groups. Compliance decreased only after large tidal ventilation (P = 0.0036). Compared with controls the conventional ventilation group showed no alveolar clearance, but more particles were clustered within macrophages (P = 0.01). Compared with other groups the large tidal volume group had fewer alveolar particles (P = 0.0005), most of which were single particles. Accordingly, large tidal volumes enhance alveolar particle clearance, which is possibly related to distension-related evacuation of surfactant to proximal airways. Clearance may be due to accelerated motion of the particle-loaded macrophage in response to the fast film motion. Alternatively, single particles embedded in the surfactant film may be dragged by the fast-moving film toward the airways.

  16. Solute clearance in CRRT: prescribed dose versus actual delivered dose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyndon, William D; Wille, Keith M; Tolwani, Ashita J

    2012-03-01

    Substantial efforts have been made toward defining the dose threshold of continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) associated with improved survival in critically ill patients with acute kidney injury. Published studies have used prescribed effluent rates, expressed as total effluent volume (TEV) per weight and unit time (mL/kg/h), as a surrogate for dose. The purpose of this study was to compare differences in CRRT dose based on prescribed effluent rate, measured TEV and direct measurement of urea and creatinine clearance. We analyzed data that had been prospectively collected on 200 patients enrolled in a randomized trial comparing survival with a prescribed effluent rate of 20 mL/kg/h (standard dose) to 35 mL/kg/h (high dose) using pre-dilution continuous venovenous hemodiafiltration (CVVHDF). Filters were changed every 72 h. Blood urea nitrogen (BUN), serum creatinine (SCr), effluent urea nitrogen (EUN) and effluent creatinine (ECr) were collected daily. Actual delivered dose was calculated as: (EUN/BUN)*TEV for urea and (ECr/SCr)*TEV for creatinine. Data were available for 165 patients. In both groups, prescribed dose differed significantly from the measured TEV dose (P < 0.001). In the standard dose group, there was no difference between the measured TEV dose and actual delivered urea and creatinine clearances. However, in the high-dose group, measured TEV dose differed significantly from delivered urea clearance by 7.1% (P < 0.001) and creatinine clearance by 13.9% (P < 0.001). Dose based on prescribed effluent rate or measured TEV is a poor substitute for actual CVVHDF creatinine and urea clearance.

  17. Association of serum cytokines with oral HPV clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Jennifer O; Bream, Jay H; Sugar, Elizabeth A; Coles, Christian L; Weber, Kathleen M; Burk, Robert D; Wiley, Dorothy J; Cranston, Ross D; Reddy, Susheel; Margolick, Joseph B; Strickler, Howard D; Wentz, Alicia; Jacobson, Lisa; Guo, Yingshi; Xiao, Weihong; Gillison, Maura L; D'Souza, Gypsyamber

    2016-07-01

    Initial studies suggest higher serum levels of some pro-inflammatory cytokines may be associated with decreased cervical human papillomavirus (HPV) clearance. However, the relationship of cytokines with oral HPV clearance has not been explored. From 2010 to 2014, oral rinse and serum samples were collected semi-annually from 1601 adults. Oral rinse samples were tested for HPV DNA using PCR. Based on oral HPV results, 931 serum samples were selected for cytokine evaluation to include a roughly equal number of prevalent (n=307), incident (n=313), and no oral HPV infections (n=311). Electrochemiluminescence multiplex assays were used to determine the concentrations of IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-10, IL-12 and IL-13. The relationship between serum cytokine concentrations (categorized into quartiles) and oral HPV clearance was evaluated with Wei-Lin-Weissfeld regression models, adjusting for HPV infection type (prevalent vs. incident), age, HIV status, and CD4 T cell count. Higher TNF-α concentration was associated with decreased clearance in men (highest vs. lowest quartile, adjusted hazard ratio [aHR]=0.52, 95% CI=0.34-0.79) and women (aHR=0.76, 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.55-1.04), with stronger associations in men than women (p-interaction=0.049). Higher IL-2 concentration was associated with reduced clearance in men (aHR=0.69, 95% CI=0.50-0.95), but not women (p-interaction=0.058). Results were similar within CD4 T cell strata (CD4⩾500 or CD4HPV infection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Ammonia clearance with haemofiltration in adults with liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slack, Andrew J; Auzinger, Georg; Willars, Chris; Dew, Tracy; Musto, Rebecca; Corsilli, Daniel; Sherwood, Roy; Wendon, Julia A; Bernal, William

    2014-01-01

    Ammonia is recognized as a toxin central to complications of liver failure. Hyperammonaemia has important clinical consequences, but optimal means to reduce circulating levels are uncertain. In patients with liver disease, continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) with haemofiltration (HF) is often required to treat concurrent kidney injury, but its effects upon ammonia levels are poorly characterized. To evaluate the effect of HF at different treatment intensities on ammonia clearance (AC) and arterial ammonia concentration. Prospective study of adult patients with liver failure and arterial ammonia >100 μmol/L requiring CRRT using veno-venous HF. Arterial ammonia concentration and AC measured at 1 and 24 h after initiation of low (35 ml/kg/h) or high (90 ml/kg/h) filtration volume. Twenty-four patients (10 acute liver failure, 10 chronic liver disease and 4 following liver resection) were studied. Clearance of urea and ammonia solutes correlated closely (r = 0.819, P = 0.007). Ammonia clearance correlated closely with ultrafiltration rate (r = 0.86, P < 0.001). At 1 h, AC was 39 (34-54) ml/min (low volume) vs 85 (62-105) ml/min (high volume) CRRT, (P < 0.001) and at 24 h 44 (34-63) vs 105 (82-109) ml/min, (P = 0.01). Overall, a 22% reduction in median arterial ammonia concentration was observed over 24 h of HF from 156 (137-176) to 122 (85-133) μmol/L, (P ≤ 0.0001). Clinically significant ammonia clearance can be achieved in adult patients with hyperammonaemia utilizing continuous VVHF. Ammonia clearance is closely correlated with ultrafiltration rate. HF was associated with a fall in arterial ammonia concentration. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Prediction of propofol clearance in children from an allometric model developed in rats, children and adults versus a 0.75 fixed-exponent allometric model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeters, Mariska Y M; Allegaert, Karel; Blussé van Oud-Alblas, Heleen J; Cella, Massimo; Tibboel, Dick; Danhof, Meindert; Knibbe, Catherijne A J

    2010-04-01

    For propofol clearance, allometric scaling has been applied successfully for extrapolations between species (rats and humans) and within the human bodyweight range (children and adults). In this analysis, the human bodyweight range is explored to determine for which range an allometric model with a fixed or estimated exponent can be used to predict propofol clearance, without correction for maturation. The predictive value of the allometric equation, clearance (CL) is equal to 0.071 x bodyweight in kg0.78, which was developed from rats, children and adults, and the predictive value of a fixed exponent allometric model derived from the basal metabolic rate, CL is equal to CL standardized to a 70 kg adult x (bodyweight in kg standardized to a 70 kg adult)0.75, were evaluated across five independent patient groups including (i) 25 (pre)term neonates with a postmenstrual age of 27-43 weeks; (ii) 22 postoperative infants aged 4-18 months; (iii) 12 toddlers aged 1-3 years; (iv) 14 adolescents aged 10-20 years; and (v) 26 critically ill adults sedated long term. The median percentage error of the predictions was calculated using the equation %error = (CL(allometric) - CL(i))/CL(i) x 100, where CL(allometric) is the predicted propofol clearance from the allometric equations for each individual and CL(i) is the individual-predicted (post hoc) propofol clearance value derived from published population pharmacokinetic models. In neonates, the allometric model developed from rats, children and adults, and the fixed-exponent allometric model, systematically overpredicted individual propofol clearance, with median percentage errors of 288% and 216%, respectively, whereas in infants, both models systematically underpredicted individual propofol clearance, with median percentage errors of -43% and -55%, respectively. In toddlers, adolescents and adults, both models performed reasonably well, with median percentage errors of -12% and -32%, respectively, in toddlers, 16% and -14

  20. A novel technique of contrast-enhanced optical coherence tomography imaging in evaluation of clearance of lipids in human tears.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Emanuele Napoli

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The aim of this work was to gather preliminary data in different conditions of healthy eyes, aqueous tear deficient dry eyes, obstructive meibomian gland disease (MGD and non-obvious obstructive MGD (NOMGD individuals, using a new, contrast-enhanced optical coherence tomography (OCT imaging method to evaluate the clearance of lipids in human tears. METHODS: Eighty-two adult patients presenting with complaints of ocular irritation were studied for abnormalities of the ocular surface and classified as healthy (n = 21, aqueous tear deficient dry eyes (n = 20, obstructive MGD (n = 15 and NOMGD (n = 26 individuals. A lipid-based tracer, containing an oil-in-water emulsion, was used to obtain an enhanced OCT imaging of the lower tear meniscus. After instillation, a dramatic initial increase of reflectivity of the lower tear meniscus was detected by OCT, followed by a decay back to baseline values over time. Based on this finding, the clearance of lipids was measured in real-time by Fourier-domain anterior segment OCT. RESULTS: The differences in the clearance of lipids among the four groups as well as the correlations between symptom questionnaire score, standardized visual scale test, fluorescein break-up time, ocular surface fluorescein staining score, Schirmer I test scores were found to be statistically significant. The individual areas under the curve of the clearance of lipids calculated by the receiver operating characteristic curve technique ranged from 0.66 to 0.98, suggesting reliable sensitivity and specificity of lipid-enhanced OCT imaging. CONCLUSIONS: This new technique of contrast-enhanced OCT imaging of the tear film following lipid-based tracer instillation provides a measure of the clearance of lipids. The quantitative values found are in agreement with other methods of evaluation of the lacrimal system. An improvement of the clinician's ability in the diagnosis and understanding of abnormalities of the ocular surface may be

  1. A novel technique of contrast-enhanced optical coherence tomography imaging in evaluation of clearance of lipids in human tears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napoli, Pietro Emanuele; Coronella, Franco; Satta, Giovanni Maria; Fossarello, Maurizio

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work was to gather preliminary data in different conditions of healthy eyes, aqueous tear deficient dry eyes, obstructive meibomian gland disease (MGD) and non-obvious obstructive MGD (NOMGD) individuals, using a new, contrast-enhanced optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging method to evaluate the clearance of lipids in human tears. Eighty-two adult patients presenting with complaints of ocular irritation were studied for abnormalities of the ocular surface and classified as healthy (n = 21), aqueous tear deficient dry eyes (n = 20), obstructive MGD (n = 15) and NOMGD (n = 26) individuals. A lipid-based tracer, containing an oil-in-water emulsion, was used to obtain an enhanced OCT imaging of the lower tear meniscus. After instillation, a dramatic initial increase of reflectivity of the lower tear meniscus was detected by OCT, followed by a decay back to baseline values over time. Based on this finding, the clearance of lipids was measured in real-time by Fourier-domain anterior segment OCT. The differences in the clearance of lipids among the four groups as well as the correlations between symptom questionnaire score, standardized visual scale test, fluorescein break-up time, ocular surface fluorescein staining score, Schirmer I test scores were found to be statistically significant. The individual areas under the curve of the clearance of lipids calculated by the receiver operating characteristic curve technique ranged from 0.66 to 0.98, suggesting reliable sensitivity and specificity of lipid-enhanced OCT imaging. This new technique of contrast-enhanced OCT imaging of the tear film following lipid-based tracer instillation provides a measure of the clearance of lipids. The quantitative values found are in agreement with other methods of evaluation of the lacrimal system. An improvement of the clinician's ability in the diagnosis and understanding of abnormalities of the ocular surface may be achieved by this simple approach.

  2. Rapid Treponema pallidum clearance from blood and ulcer samples following single dose benzathine penicillin treatment of early syphilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipple, Craig; Jones, Rachael; McClure, Myra; Taylor, Graham

    2015-02-01

    Currently, the efficacy of syphilis treatment is measured with anti-lipid antibody tests. These can take months to indicate cure and, as a result, syphilis treatment trials require long periods of follow-up. The causative organism, Treponema pallidum (T. pallidum), is detectable in the infectious lesions of early syphilis using DNA amplification. Bacteraemia can likewise be identified, typically in more active disease. We hypothesise that bacterial clearance from blood and ulcers will predict early the standard serology-measured treatment response and have developed a qPCR assay that could monitor this clearance directly in patients with infectious syphilis. Patients with early syphilis were given an intramuscular dose of benzathine penicillin. To investigate the appropriate sampling timeframe samples of blood and ulcer exudate were collected intensively for T. pallidum DNA (tpp047 gene) and RNA (16S rRNA) quantification. Sampling ended when two consecutive PCRs were negative. Four males were recruited. The mean peak level of T. pallidum DNA was 1626 copies/ml whole blood and the mean clearance half-life was 5.7 hours (std. dev. 0.53). The mean peak of 16S rRNA was 8879 copies/ml whole blood with a clearance half-life of 3.9 hours (std. dev. 0.84). From an ulcer, pre-treatment, 67,400 T. pallidum DNA copies and 7.08 x 107 16S rRNA copies were detected per absorbance strip and the clearance half-lives were 3.2 and 4.1 hours, respectively. Overall, T. pallidum nucleic acids were not detected in any sample collected more than 56 hours (range 20-56) after treatment. All patients achieved serologic cure. In patients with active early syphilis, measuring T. pallidum levels in blood and ulcer exudate may be a useful measure of treatment success in therapeutic trials. These laboratory findings need confirmation on a larger scale and in patients receiving different therapies.

  3. A comparison of analytic procedures for measurement of fractional dextran clearances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemmelder, MH; de Jong, PE; de Zeeuw, D

    1998-01-01

    Fractional dextran clearances have been extensively used to study glomerular size selectivity. We report on an analysis of different laboratory procedures involved in measuring fractional dextran clearances. The deproteinization of plasma samples by 20% trichloroacetic acid (TCA) revealed a protein

  4. Distinguishing aggregate formation and aggregate clearance using cell-based assays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eenjes, Evelien; Dragich, Joanna M.; Kampinga, Harm H.; Yamamoto, Ai

    2016-01-01

    The accumulation of ubiquitylated proteinaceous inclusions represents a complex process, reflecting the disequilibrium between aggregate formation and aggregate clearance. Although decreasing aggregate formation or augmenting aggregate clearance will ultimately lead to a diminished aggregate burden,

  5. Distinguishing aggregate formation and aggregate clearance using cell-based assays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eenjes, E. (Evelien); Dragich, J.M. (Joanna M.); H. Kampinga (Harm); Yamamoto, A. (Ai)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractThe accumulation of ubiquitylated proteinaceous inclusions represents a complex process, reflecting the disequilibrium between aggregate formation and aggregate clearance. Although decreasing aggregate formation or augmenting aggregate clearance will ultimately lead to a diminished

  6. XMM classroom competitions : reaching for the stars!

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-09-01

    Partnered by a unique education network 'European Schoolnet'(*), ESA is today launching these three competitions for schools (age range: 8 to final year) in its Member States: draw a telescope, describe the benefits of space-based astronomy or produce an astronomy observation proposal. Details can be found on the special competition website : http://sci.esa.int/xmm/competition "Draw me a telescope!" This competition for 8 to 12 year-olds asks the class to draw a telescope (inside a 20 - 50 cm diameter circle). The 14 winning entries, one per Member State, will be included in a specially-designed official XMM mission logo to go on the Ariane-5 launcher fairing for official unveiling on launch day. A representative of each winning class will be invited to Kourou for the launch. Deadline for entries : 8 October 1999. For full information on how to enter see : http://sci.esa.int/xmm/competition "What's new, Mr Galileo?" The essay competition for 13 to 15 year-olds challenges an English class, writing in the international language of space, to submit a single page (500 words maximum) description of space-based astronomy and its benefits for humanity. The 14 winners, one per Member States, will be invited to Kourou to visit the Guiana Space Centre, Europe's spaceport, and witness final XMM launch preparations. Deadline for entries : 15 October 1999. For full information on how to enter see : http://sci.esa.int/xmm/competition. "Stargazing" In the final-year class competition, ESA is providing a unique opportunity to use the XMM telescope. Here, the physics class, assisted by the scientific community, has to submit an observation project. The 14 winning proposals will be put into practice in 2000 at a summer camp. Further details will be announced once XMM is in orbit. Note to editors: The X-ray Multi-Mirror mission is the second Cornerstone of ESA's Horizon 2000 Plus science programme. The telescope will revolutionise cosmic X-ray astronomy by harvesting far more X

  7. Competition, Work Rules and Productivity

    OpenAIRE

    Benjamin Bridgman

    2011-01-01

    More competitive markets are associated with higher productivity. However, changes in competition complicate productivity measurement since changing mark-ups may shift factor shares. This paper examines productivity measurement in markets with market power and restrictive work rules: rules that induce wages to be paid for non-productive labor hours. It develops a theoretical model to explain why workers would want restrictive work rules and how competition leads to their reduction. I model a ...

  8. Competition Policy and Property Rights

    OpenAIRE

    John Vickers

    2009-01-01

    One of the most controversial questions in current competition policy is when, if ever, should competition law require a firm with market power to share its property, notably intellectual property, with its rivals? And if supply is required, on what terms? These questions are discussed with reference to recent law cases including the EC Microsoft judgment of 2007 and the US linkLine case of 2009. The analysis focuses on whether competition law and regulation are complements or substitutes, an...

  9. Competition Advocacy: Time for Rethink?

    OpenAIRE

    Evenett, Simon J.

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the conventional wisdom concerning competition advocacy, paying particular attention to the applicability of such wisdom to developing countries. The definition of competition advocacy, its evaluation, and the likelihood of its successful implementation are discussed in some detail. The paper concludes with a call for considerably more thought about what, hitherto, has been one of the relatively uncontroversial aspects of many competition authorities' activities.

  10. PUBLIC EDUCATION AND ECONOMIC COMPETITIVENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel-Andrei Donici

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available There is a certain connection between education and economic competitiveness. The relation between these two concepts is easy to intuit. On the medium and long term investments in education generate astrong increase in a country’s level of economic competitiveness. Through education the human capital is formed, and it affects all economic fields. Therefore we can observe that human capital has a decisive influence on the economic competitiveness of a country.

  11. Comparative Advertising and Competition Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Barigozzi, Francesca

    2004-01-01

    Only recently, competition authorities tend to agree on comparative advertising being helpful in promoting competition. They now encourage firms to use it. They reason that comparative advertising, if fair and not misleading, increases consumers' information about alternative brands. For this to work, comparative claims must be credible. Competition policy and legal practice are essential in making comparative advertising (directly and indirectly) informative. In this paper, first we provide ...

  12. Comparative Advertising and Competition Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Barigozzi, F.; Peitz, M.

    2004-01-01

    Only recently, competition authorities tend to agree on comparative advertising being helpful in promoting competition. They now encourage firms to use it. They reason that comparative advertising, if fair and not misleading, increases consumers’ information about alternative brands. For this to work, comparative claims must be credible. Competition policy and legal practice are essential in making comparative advertising (directly and indirectly) informative. In this paper,...

  13. Electronic Commerce and Competitive Procurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-06-01

    AD-A238 831 " ELECTRONIC COMMERCE AND COMPETITIVE PROCUREMENT Report PL006R1 June 1991 DTIC AJUL 2 9 1991"M Daniel J. Drake John A. Ciucci Prepared...TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS Electronic Commerce and Competitive Procurement C MDA903-90-C-0006 PE 0902198D 6. AUTHOR(S) Daniel J. Drake and... electronic commerce techniques ( electronic Jata interchange (EDI). electronic mail (E-mail), electronic bulletin boards and facsimile] to competitive

  14. Metabolic Profiling of Human Long-Term Liver Models and Hepatic Clearance Predictions from In Vitro Data Using Nonlinear Mixed-Effects Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratochwil, Nicole A; Meille, Christophe; Fowler, Stephen; Klammers, Florian; Ekiciler, Aynur; Molitor, Birgit; Simon, Sandrine; Walter, Isabelle; McGinnis, Claudia; Walther, Johanna; Leonard, Brian; Triyatni, Miriam; Javanbakht, Hassan; Funk, Christoph; Schuler, Franz; Lavé, Thierry; Parrott, Neil J

    2017-03-01

    Early prediction of human clearance is often challenging, in particular for the growing number of low-clearance compounds. Long-term in vitro models have been developed which enable sophisticated hepatic drug disposition studies and improved clearance predictions. Here, the cell line HepG2, iPSC-derived hepatocytes (iCell®), the hepatic stem cell line HepaRG™, and human hepatocyte co-cultures (HμREL™ and HepatoPac®) were compared to primary hepatocyte suspension cultures with respect to their key metabolic activities. Similar metabolic activities were found for the long-term models HepaRG™, HμREL™, and HepatoPac® and the short-term suspension cultures when averaged across all 11 enzyme markers, although differences were seen in the activities of CYP2D6 and non-CYP enzymes. For iCell® and HepG2, the metabolic activity was more than tenfold lower. The micropatterned HepatoPac® model was further evaluated with respect to clearance prediction. To assess the in vitro parameters, pharmacokinetic modeling was applied. The determination of intrinsic clearance by nonlinear mixed-effects modeling in a long-term model significantly increased the confidence in the parameter estimation and extended the sensitive range towards 3% of liver blood flow, i.e., >10-fold lower as compared to suspension cultures. For in vitro to in vivo extrapolation, the well-stirred model was used. The micropatterned model gave rise to clearance prediction in man within a twofold error for the majority of low-clearance compounds. Further research is needed to understand whether transporter activity and drug metabolism by non-CYP enzymes, such as UGTs, SULTs, AO, and FMO, is comparable to the in vivo situation in these long-term culture models.

  15. Local Tax Competition in Poland?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swianiewicz Paweł

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The concept of tax competition has been successfully applied in an analysis conducted in several European countries, but so far it has not been systematically tested either in Poland or in other countries of Central and Eastern Europe. There are two types of competition discussed in the article: classic competition for mobile tax base and ‘yardstick competition’, in which local politicians compete for political capital being related to the comparison of tax rates with neighbouring municipalities. It is expected that in Poland the ‘yardstick competition’ is more important from the classic competition for the mobile tax base.

  16. Sport competitions in Antique Chersoneses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moutiev A.V.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available It is examined the content of physical education in Chersoneses in the ancient period. It is shown the participation of citizens in the Chersoneses competitions at various levels. Stressed the importance of physical culture, sports, sports training, organizing and conducting athletic competitions. Show the direction of physical education of youth, training for local and Panhellenic competitions, military service. The role of the teacher of gymnastics in physical education students in public schools. It is noted that the study involved in Chersoneses pedagogical methods and techniques. It is established that the citizens of Chersoneses actively participated in Panhellenic competitions and they became the victors.

  17. Competition in the Mashup Ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Shiga

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Mashups combine data from multiple sources to create innovative web applications. Data providers gain compelling advantages in offering an open application programming interface (API, but face a competitive environment where growth occurs by virtue of developers' independent choices and where competitors are also complementors. This article explores the nature of competition within the mashup ecosystem by focusing on competitive actions taken by API providers and their link to mashup network structure. The resulting insights help entrants and incumbents refine their competitive strategies within this complex and unique environment.

  18. The Competitiveness of Public Transport

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Poliak Milos; Poliakova Adela; Mrnikova Michaela; Simurková Patricia; Jaskiewicz Marek; Jurecki Rafał

    2017-01-01

    Examining the competitiveness of public transport plays an important role because through public transport, the transport of passengers to schools, public healthcare establishments and work is ensured...

  19. BUSINESS COMPETITORS AND COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUCIU TITUS

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the concept of competition, both from the perspective of the economic sector –where it is characteristic for pure monopole, oligopoly, monopole competition and pure competition, as well asfrom the market’s point of view – where it determines the strategies, objectives, advantages and weaknesses of acompany. The main point of the paper is the criticism of the pure and perfect competition theory. Concluding,the author insists on innovation, especially on the model of open innovation.

  20. 48 CFR 245.7101-4 - DD Form 1640, Request for Plant Clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false DD Form 1640, Request for Plant Clearance. 245.7101-4 Section 245.7101-4 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE... Forms 245.7101-4 DD Form 1640, Request for Plant Clearance. Use to request plant clearance assistance or...

  1. A comprehensive test of evolutionarily increased competitive ability in a highly invasive plant species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Srijana; Gruntman, Michal; Bilton, Mark; Seifan, Merav; Tielbörger, Katja

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims A common hypothesis to explain plants' invasive success is that release from natural enemies in the introduced range selects for reduced allocation to resistance traits and a subsequent increase in resources available for growth and competitive ability (evolution of increased competitive ability, EICA). However, studies that have investigated this hypothesis have been incomplete as they either did not test for all aspects of competitive ability or did not select appropriate competitors. Methods Here, the prediction of increased competitive ability was examined with the invasive plant Lythrum salicaria (purple loosestrife) in a set of common-garden experiments that addressed these aspects by carefully distinguishing between competitive effect and response of invasive and native plants, and by using both intraspecific and interspecific competition settings with a highly vigorous neighbour, Urtica dioica (stinging nettle), which occurs in both ranges. Key Results While the intraspecific competition results showed no differences in competitive effect or response between native and invasive plants, the interspecific competition experiment revealed greater competitive response and effect of invasive plants in both biomass and seed production. Conclusions The use of both intra- and interspecific competition experiments in this study revealed opposing results. While the first experiment refutes the EICA hypothesis, the second shows strong support for it, suggesting evolutionarily increased competitive ability in invasive populations of L. salicaria. It is suggested that the use of naturally co-occurring heterospecifics, rather than conspecifics, may provide a better evaluation of the possible evolutionary shift towards greater competitive ability. PMID:25301818

  2. The State of Competition and the Competition Regime of Ethiopia ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Ethiopia has made progress toward market-oriented economic management, but the state of domestic competition remains weak, even with the competition law in place. Most small and large enterprises are accustomed to socialist government support. They now face the challenge of struggling to catch up with a ...

  3. The competitive challenge. [Competition in the independent power industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burr, M.T.

    1992-01-01

    This article examines the strategies necessary to succeed in the increasingly competitive independent power industry. The topics of the article include the factors encouraging mergers, acquisitions, and joint ventures, the availability of financing, changes in the market, regulatory climate changes, competition and power planning, Not In My Back Yard and project siting, and the road ahead.

  4. Competitive interactions are mediated in a sex-specific manner by arbuscular mycorrhiza in Antennaria dioica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, S; Vega-Frutis, R; Kytöviita, M-M

    2017-03-01

    Plants usually interact with other plants, and the outcome of such interaction ranges from facilitation to competition depending on the identity of the plants, including their sexual expression. Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi have been shown to modify competitive interactions in plants. However, few studies have evaluated how AM fungi influence plant intraspecific and interspecific interactions in dioecious species. The competitive abilities of female and male plants of Antennaria dioica were examined in a greenhouse experiment. Females and males were grown in the following competitive settings: (i) without competition, (ii) with intrasexual competition, (iii) with intersexual competition, and (iv) with interspecific competition by Hieracium pilosella - a plant with similar characteristics to A. dioica. Half of the pots were grown with Claroideoglomus claroideum, an AM fungus isolated from the same habitat as the plant material. We evaluated plant survival, growth, flowering phenology, and production of AM fungal structures. Plant survival was unaffected by competition or AM fungi. Competition and the presence of AM fungi reduced plant biomass. However, the sexes responded differently to the interaction between fungal and competition treatments. Both intra- and interspecific competition results were sex-specific, and in general, female performance was reduced by AM colonization. Plant competition or sex did not affect the intraradical structures, extraradical hyphae, or spore production of the AM fungus. These findings suggest that plant sexual differences affect fundamental processes such as competitive ability and symbiotic relationships with AM fungi. © 2016 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  5. Tip-Clearance Measurement in the First Stage of the Compressor of an Aircraft Engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Iker; Przysowa, Radosław; Amorebieta, Josu; Zubia, Joseba

    2016-11-11

    In this article, we report the design of a reflective intensity-modulated optical fiber sensor for blade tip-clearance measurement, and the experimental results for the first stage of a compressor of an aircraft engine operating in real conditions. The tests were performed in a ground test cell, where the engine completed four cycles from idling state to takeoff and back to idling state. During these tests, the rotational speed of the compressor ranged between 7000 and 15,600 rpm. The main component of the sensor is a tetrafurcated bundle of optical fibers, with which the resulting precision of the experimental measurements was 12 µm for a measurement range from 2 to 4 mm. To get this precision the effect of temperature on the optoelectronic components of the sensor was compensated by calibrating the sensor in a climate chamber. A custom-designed MATLAB program was employed to simulate the behavior of the sensor prior to its manufacture.

  6. Microwave Sensor for Blade Tip Clearance and Structural Health Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woike, Mark R.; Bencic, Timothy J.

    2008-01-01

    The use of microwave based sensors for the health monitoring of rotating machinery is being explored at the NASA Glenn Research Center. The microwave sensor works on the principle of sending a continuous signal towards a rotating component and measuring the reflected signal. The phase shift of the reflected signal is proportional to the distance between the sensor and the component that is being measured. This type of sensor is beneficial in that it has the ability to operate at extremely high temperatures and is unaffected by contaminants that may be present in the rotating machinery. It is intended to use these probes in the hot sections of turbine engines for closed loop turbine clearance control and structural health measurements. Background on the sensors, an overview of their calibration and preliminary results from using them to make blade tip clearance and health measurements on a large axial vane fan will be presented.

  7. Gas film lubrication equations for very small clearances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobehart, J.R. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Reyna, L.G. [International Business Machines Corp., Yorktown Heights, NY (United States). Thomas J. Watson Research Center

    1994-05-01

    In the hard disk magnetic recording technology, the slider carrying the magnetic elements is supported above the magnetic disk by a self-acting air bearing, which produces the load support. A lubricating film must support a required load with suitably small frictional energy losses and without introducing undesirable instabilities. Under submicron clearance conditions, gas film flow can not be described with continuum models since the molecular mean free path is not negligible compared with the clearance. Accurate results for the load-carrying capacity of gas films for arbitrary Knudsen number are very important since they strongly influence the design of the flying head slider and, consequently, the performance of the magnetic disk storage unit. Here we generalize the previous lubrication equations for arbitrary Knudsen number, accommodation coefficient and a small inclination of the slider relative to the magnetic disk surface.

  8. Anti- versus Pro-Competitive Mergers

    OpenAIRE

    Fridolfsson, Sven-Olof

    2007-01-01

    In a framework where mergers are mutually excluding, I show that firms pursue anti- rather than (alternative) pro-competitive mergers. Potential outsiders to anti-competitive mergers refrain from pursuing pro-competitive mergers if the positive externalities from anti-competitive mergers are strong enough. Potential outsiders to pro-competitive mergers pursue anti-competitive mergers if the negative externalities from the pro-competitive mergers are strong enough. Potential participants in an...

  9. Competitiveness in tourism economies of the APEC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reyna María Ibáñez Pérez

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available It is estimated that by 2030 the influx of tourists worldwide scope 1. 7 billion people. For such figures become a reality, timely in formation that can be taken as a reference for the generation of strategies aimed at harnessing the tourism potential of the various destinations in the world is required, plus a coordinated work between different economies, blocks and organizations. Here, in this article, an overview of the situation and development of tourism competitiveness of nations that make up the Forum Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC is provided. The methodology consisted of review of specialized search and sta tistical information influx, income and tourism competitiveness globally and literature APEC member country. The main results indicate that globally between 2010 and 2013, APEC countries experienced an increase in tourism revenues of 25%, a figure that exceeds global trends. In 2013, the level of tourism competitiveness presented by APEC, ranged between 6 and 82 position globally and only 53% of the 19 APEC economies that were evaluated by the World Economic Forum (WEF, improved their level of competitiveness. In relation to the regulatory framework linked to tourism, nations like Peru, Brunei and Russia reached the lowest ratings of the block thus have enormous work to do to improve your score in this category. In business environment and infrastructure, highlighted America. While in human and cultural resources, proved to be the issue in which APEC economies outperformed. Finally, results for APEC economies, evidence that critical areas are those concerning regulation and policies; and particularly sustainability issue, which can become a bottleneck in terms of competitiveness in the area of APEC therefore must strengthen and design better strategies for joint efforts in relation to such matters.

  10. Airline competition at European airports

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frenken, K.; van Terwisga, S.; Verburg, T.; Burghouwt, G.

    2004-01-01

    Hub-and-spoke networks of airlines create entry barriers at large hub airports. As a result, deregulation does not necessary lead to more competition. In this paper, airline competition at European airports in the 1990s is analysed. Results show important differences between airports, which are

  11. A Learning Software Design Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Simon; Hokanson, Brad; Bernhardt, Paul; Johnson, Mark

    2002-01-01

    Explains the University of Minnesota Learning Software Design Competition, focusing on its goals and emphasis on innovation. Describes the review process to evaluate and judge the software, lists the winners, identifies a new class of educational software, and outlines plans for future competitions. (Author/LRW)

  12. MEASURING COMPETITIVENESS OF ECONOMIC ENTITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUNGIU-PUPĂZAN MARIANA CLAUDIA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A competitive structure of a national economy is influenced by the competitiveness of each of the actors made the national economy. In other words, to achieve competitive economic structure shall contribute all sectors of the national economy and hence all branches of the national economy, all organizations within each branch. Thus, the productive sectors of the economy contribute by increasing their competitiveness, GDP growth, added value, while other branches making a contribution through activity, increased quality of life (health, culture, social in training skilled labor (education to ensure effective functioning of the judiciary, protection of private property and citizen safety, lower crime rate (police, reducing the risk of political instability, increasing social cohesion, social disparities (richness and extreme poverty, and discrimination against women and minority groups. Human resources are probably the most important factor determining the competitiveness of an area. The ability of a country to move up the value chain is closely related to human resource capability. In understanding the competitive evaluation is important to assess not only in terms of education, improvement, skills and work experience, but also in terms of other attributes, more difficult to measure, as entrepreneurial relationships, creativity and risk tolerance. Secondly, we must accept that individual productivity is determined by external factors. Latent potential of the individual can develop when the person moves to another environment that provides better and more opportunities. Currently structural changes to remain competitive obtaining essential parameters of the Romanian economy to cope with competitive pressures of the single European market.

  13. The competition for supplier resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pulles, Niels Jaring

    2014-01-01

    Suppliers can have a major influence on the overall competitiveness of a firm. When firms lack certain capabilities or resources within their own organization, collaborations with suppliers can help them to acquire these resources and capabilities externally and improve competitive advantage.

  14. DOE Collegiate Wind Competition (Presentation)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, J.

    2014-02-01

    This presentation for the January Stakeholder Engagement and Outreach webinar outlines the expanded need for workers in the wind industry and provides an overview of the DOE Wind Competition (to be held in May 2014) and the guiding principles of the competition.

  15. Competitive Sport, Winning and Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Peter J.

    1989-01-01

    Analyzes the arguments against including competitive sports in the compulsory curriculum. Considers the adverse effects of selfishness and the emphasis upon winning and discusses the role of the teacher in competitive sports. Concludes that teachers can avoid miseducation by altering the value orientation, appealing to rationality, and becoming…

  16. The Power Trading Agent Competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Ketter (Wolfgang); J. Collins (John); P. Reddy (Prashant); C. Flath (Christoph); M.M. de Weerdt (Mathijs)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThis is the specification for the Power Trading Agent Competition for 2012 (Power TAC 2012). Power TAC is a competitive simulation that models a “liberalized” retail electrical energy market, where competing business entities or “brokers” offer energy services to customers through tariff

  17. The Power Trading Agent Competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ketter, W.; Collins, J.; Reddy, P.; Flath, C.; De Weerdt, M.M.

    2011-01-01

    This is the specification for the Power Trading Agent Competition for 2012 (Power TAC 2012). Power TAC is a competitive simulation that models a “liberalized” retail electrical energy market, where competing business entities or “brokers” offer energy services to customers through tariff contracts,

  18. EU Competition Policy Since 1990

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartalevich, Dzmitry

    2013-01-01

    in anticartel enforcement policies, antimonopoly regulation, and the regulation of mergers and acquisitions. The purpose of this article is to fill the gap by attempting to link EU competition policy with U.S. antitrust, provide a critical overview of the most important elements of European competition policy......, and merger control....

  19. A Survey of Robotic Competitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Balogh

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available A survey of robotic competitions all over the world, their short history and present state is given. Contests are classified according to their difficulty and conditions. Typical competition categories, also with interesting robot constructions are described. Sense, advantages and disadvantages of contests are discussed, especially concerning educational purposes. At the same time, our experiences with organising the contest Istrobot are presented.

  20. Design + energy: results of a national student design competition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    A national competition for students in schools of architecture was conducted during the Spring of 1980. The competition was the first of a series of competitions that emphasized the integration of architectural design and energy considerations in medium-scale building projects, and specifically applying passive solar design strategies and the appropriate use of brick masonry materials. Some 300 faculty members and over 2200 students representing 80 of the 92 US architecture schools participated in the program. A summary is presented of the program and the range of submissions grouped by problem types and general climatic region.

  1. Respiratory Protection Program medical clearance for respirator use

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    Background on occupational exposure to various inhalents is discussed including on-site hazard control measures, procedures, physiological effects, and interpretation of results for the medical clearance of employee for use of personal respiratory protection devices. The purpose of the Respiratory Protection Program at LeRC is outlined, and the specifics of the Medical Surveillance Program for Respiratory Protection at LeRC are discussed.

  2. Harnessing Apoptotic Cell Clearance to Treat Autoimmune Arthritis

    OpenAIRE

    Philippe Saas; Francis Bonnefoy; Eric Toussirot; Sylvain Perruche

    2017-01-01

    Early-stage apoptotic cells possess immunomodulatory properties. Proper apoptotic cell clearance during homeostasis has been shown to limit subsequent immune responses. Based on these observations, early-stage apoptotic cell infusion has been used to prevent unwanted inflammatory responses in different experimental models of autoimmune diseases or transplantation. Moreover, this approach has been shown to be feasible without any toxicity in patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic cell tr...

  3. Ship manoeuvring at very small and negative under keel clearance

    OpenAIRE

    Vantorre, M.; Delefortrie, G.; Laforce, E.; De Vlieger, H.; Claeys, S.

    2004-01-01

    A selection of results of systematic captive manoeuvring test series with a container carrier model above a solid bottom as well as above and in simulated mud layers is presented. The effect of under keel clearance - with emphasis on very small and even negative values referred to the water-mud interface - on linear manoeuvring coefficients and dynamic stability parameters is discussed. Controllability and manoeuvrability appear to be affected particularly by the influence of water depth on t...

  4. The kidneys play a central role in the clearance of rhGH in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Bill; Thygesen, Peter; Kreilgaard, Mads

    2016-01-01

    The kidneys are thought to play an important role in the clearance of recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH), but the relative importance is not clear. Obtaining knowledge of clearance pathway is an important prerequisite for the development of new long acting growth hormone analogues targeted...... at treatment of patients with growth hormone disorders. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relative importance of the kidneys in the clearance of rhGH. The study employed a newly validated nephrectomy rat model and a population based pharmacokinetic approach to assess renal clearance of rh...... that renal clearance plays a pivotal role in the elimination of rhGH in rats....

  5. Assessment of eptifibatide clearance by hemodialysis using an in vitro system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Joanna Q; McNeely, Elizabeth B; Green, Christie A; Jennings, Lisa K

    2010-01-01

    Eptifibatide is a parenteral glycoprotein IIb-IIIa inhibitor that prevents platelet aggregation. Although contraindicated in dialysis patients due to limited safety and dialysis data, eptifibatide is prescribed in this population and is associated with bleeding complications. This study was done to determine dialysis clearance (CL(D)) of eptifibatide using an in vitro system. Three common dialyzers were tested. In vitro dialysis was performed at a dialysate flow rate of 500 ml/min, 'blood' flow rate (Q(B)) of 200 and 400 ml/min, and the minimal ultrafiltration rate. Eptifibatide CL(D) and fraction removed were calculated for each condition. CL(D) ranged from 122 to 225 ml/min and was not significantly different among the dialyzers tested. CL(D) was flow dependent with higher clearances observed at higher Q(B). The estimated fraction of eptifibatide removed was 73-83%. These data suggest that hemodialysis is an effective method to decrease the effects of eptifibatide in patients with impaired kidney function. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Reducing prescribing errors through creatinine clearance alert redesign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melton, Brittany L; Zillich, Alan J; Russell, Scott A; Weiner, Michael; McManus, M Sue; Spina, Jeffrey R; Russ, Alissa L

    2015-10-01

    Literature has shown that computerized creatinine clearance alerts reduce errors during prescribing, and applying human factors principles may further reduce errors. Our objective was to apply human factors principles to creatinine clearance alert design and assess whether the redesigned alerts increase usability and reduce prescribing errors compared with the original alerts. Twenty Veterans Affairs (VA) outpatient providers (14 physicians, 2 nurse practitioners, and 4 clinical pharmacists) completed 2 usability sessions in a counterbalanced study to evaluate original and redesigned alerts. Each session consisted of fictional patient scenarios with 3 medications that warranted prescribing changes because of renal impairment, each associated with creatinine clearance alerts. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected to assess alert usability and the occurrence of prescribing errors. There were 43% fewer prescribing errors with the redesigned alerts compared with the original alerts (P = .001). Compared with the original alerts, redesigned alerts significantly reduced prescribing errors for allopurinol and ibuprofen (85% vs 40% and 65% vs 25%, P = .012 and P = .008, respectively), but not for spironolactone (85% vs 65%). Nine providers (45%) voiced confusion about why the alert was appearing when they encountered the original alert design. When laboratory links were presented on the redesigned alert, laboratory information was accessed 3.5 times more frequently. Although prescribing errors were high with both alert designs, the redesigned alerts significantly improved prescribing outcomes. This investigation provides some of the first evidence on how alerts may be designed to support safer prescribing for patients with renal impairment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The use of manual hyperinflation in airway clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denehy, L

    1999-10-01

    Manual lung hyperinflation (MH) is one of a number of techniques which are employed by the physiotherapist in the critical care setting. The technique was first described with physiotherapy 30 yrs ago and commonly involves a slow, deep inspiration, inspiratory pause and fast unobstructed expiration. The use of MH varies between and within countries. It is commonly employed by physiotherapists to assist in the removal of secretions and re-expand areas of atelectasis. Despite the popularity of the technique, research examining its efficacy is conflicting, especially the effect of MH on cardiovascular parameters. Recent studies examining mucociliary transport in intubated and ventilated patients have shown impaired clearance of secretions, but research evaluating the role of MH specifically in airway clearance is scant. The use of the additional physiotherapy techniques, gravity assisted drainage and chest wall vibrations, may enhance the efficacy of MH in promoting airway clearance, but further research is necessary. Controversy exists regarding the safety and effectiveness of application of manual lung hyperinflation in intubated patients. Clearly, more randomized controlled studies are necessary in order to provide a sound scientific rationale for the application of manual lung hyperinflation in the treatment of critically ill patients.

  8. Effects of rapid maxillary expansion on nasal mucociliary clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babacan, Hasan; Doruk, Cenk; Uysal, Ismail Onder; Yuce, Salim

    2016-03-01

    To evaluate the changes in nasal mucociliary clearance in orthodontic patients after rapid maxillary expansion (RME) therapy. Forty-two children (25 boys and 17 girls) participated in this study. The RME group consisted of 21 patients (mean age, 13.8 years), who had undergone RME at the initiation of orthodontic treatment. The control group consisted of 21 subjects (mean age, 13.6 years), who were attending the department of orthodontics for active orthodontic treatment. The nasal mucociliary clearance was assessed by the saccharin test. Saccharin transit times (STTs) were measured for each treated subject before expansion (T1), after RME (T2), and after a 3-month retention period (T3). Records were obtained at the same time intervals for each group. The STT decreased significantly in the RME group after expansion and retention (P expansion and retention (P maxillary narrowness and without any history of nasal or systemic disease were within normal limits. However, RME increased the mucociliary clearance in patients who had maxillary narrowness, having positive effects on nasal physiology and increasing nasal cavity volume.

  9. Mechanisms of phagocytosis and host clearance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovewell, Rustin R.; Patankar, Yash R.

    2014-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic bacterial pathogen responsible for a high incidence of acute and chronic pulmonary infection. These infections are particularly prevalent in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and cystic fibrosis: much of the morbidity and pathophysiology associated with these diseases is due to a hypersusceptibility to bacterial infection. Innate immunity, primarily through inflammatory cytokine production, cellular recruitment, and phagocytic clearance by neutrophils and macrophages, is the key to endogenous control of P. aeruginosa infection. In this review, we highlight recent advances toward understanding the innate immune response to P. aeruginosa, with a focus on the role of phagocytes in control of P. aeruginosa infection. Specifically, we summarize the cellular and molecular mechanisms of phagocytic recognition and uptake of P. aeruginosa, and how current animal models of P. aeruginosa infection reflect clinical observations in the context of phagocytic clearance of the bacteria. Several notable phenotypic changes to the bacteria are consistently observed during chronic pulmonary infections, including changes to mucoidy and flagellar motility, that likely enable or reflect their ability to persist. These traits are likewise examined in the context of how the bacteria avoid phagocytic clearance, inflammation, and sterilizing immunity. PMID:24464809

  10. Nonpharmacologic airway clearance techniques in hospitalized patients: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Jeff; Sathe, Nila A; Krishnaswami, Shanthi; McPheeters, Melissa L

    2013-12-01

    Nonpharmacologic airway clearance techniques are used to reduce the sequelae of obstructive secretions. We systematically reviewed comparative studies of nonpharmacologic interventions that health professionals can employ to achieve mucus clearance in hospitalized or postoperative patients without cystic fibrosis, over the age of 12 months. We searched MEDLINE and other databases from 1990 to 2012 to identify relevant literature. Two reviewers independently assessed each study against predetermined inclusion/exclusion criteria. Two reviewers also independently extracted data regarding subject and intervention characteristics and outcomes, and assigned overall quality ratings. The 32 studies meeting the review criteria included 24 randomized controlled trials, 7 crossover randomized controlled trials, and one prospective cohort study. Studies were typically small and together included a total of 2,453 subjects (mean 76/study). Studies generally examined chest physical therapy/physiotherapy modalities in postoperative or critically ill subjects or those with COPD. Interventions, comparators, and populations varied considerably across studies, hampering our ability to draw firm conclusions. Interventions, including conventional chest physical therapy/physiotherapy, intrapulmonary percussive ventilation, and positive expiratory pressure, typically provided small benefits in pulmonary function, gas exchange, oxygenation, and need for/duration of ventilation, among other outcomes, but differences between groups were generally small and not significant. Harms of the techniques were not consistently reported, though airway clearance techniques were generally considered safe in studies that did comment on adverse effects. Further research with clearly characterized populations and interventions is needed to understand the potential benefits and harms of these techniques.

  11. Dysregulation of Nutrient Sensing and CLEARance in Presenilin Deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavya Reddy

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Attenuated auto-lysosomal system has been associated with Alzheimer disease (AD, yet all underlying molecular mechanisms leading to this impairment are unknown. We show that the amino acid sensing of mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1 is dysregulated in cells deficient in presenilin, a protein associated with AD. In these cells, mTORC1 is constitutively tethered to lysosomal membranes, unresponsive to starvation, and inhibitory to TFEB-mediated clearance due to a reduction in Sestrin2 expression. Normalization of Sestrin2 levels through overexpression or elevation of nuclear calcium rescued mTORC1 tethering and initiated clearance. While CLEAR network attenuation in vivo results in buildup of amyloid, phospho-Tau, and neurodegeneration, presenilin-knockout fibroblasts and iPSC-derived AD human neurons fail to effectively initiate autophagy. These results propose an altered mechanism for nutrient sensing in presenilin deficiency and underline an importance of clearance pathways in the onset of AD.

  12. RENAL CLEARANCE AND URINARY EXCRETION OF CIPROFLOXACIN IN GOATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. IQBAL, I. JAVED, B. ASLAM, F. MUHAMMAD AND I. U. JAN

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The renal clearance and urinary excretion of ciprofloxacin were investigated in eight healthy female goats. In each animal, ciprofloxacin was administered intramuscularly at the rate of 5 mg/kg body weight. Following drug administration, blood and urine samples were collected at different time intervals and analyzed for ciprofloxacin and creatinine. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC was used to determine the drug concentration in the plasma and urine. The value of diuresis after single administration of ciprofloxacin was 0.073 ± 0.014 ml/min/kg. Mean (± SE values for renal clearance of creatinine and ciprofloxacin were 1.870 ± 0.385 and 0.982 ± 0.166 ml/min/kg, respectively. The ratio between the renal clearance of ciprofloxacin and that of creatinine remained less than one, which was indicative of back diffusion. The mean (± SE value for the cumulative percent of ciprofloxacin dose excreted at 10 hours following its intramuscular administration was 13.03 ± 2.07. Based on these results, it was evident that besides glomerular filtration, renal handling of drug involved back diffusion also. It was concluded that in local goats glomerular filtration rate (GFR was lower than that reported for their foreign counterparts.

  13. In silico prediction of total human plasma clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berellini, Giuliano; Waters, Nigel J; Lombardo, Franco

    2012-08-27

    The prediction of the total human plasma clearance of novel chemical entities continues to be of paramount importance in drug design and optimization, because it impacts both dose size and dose regimen. Although many in vivo and in vitro methods have been proposed, a well-constructed, well-validated, and less resource-intensive computational tool would still be very useful in an iterative compound design cycle. A new completely in silico linear PLS (partial least-squares) model to predict the human plasma clearance was built on the basis of a large data set of 754 compounds using physicochemical descriptors and structural fragments, the latter able to better represent biotransformation processes. The model has been validated using the "ELASTICO" approach (Enhanced Leave Analog-Structural, Therapeutic, Ionization Class Out) based on ten therapeutic/structural analog classes. The model yields a geometric mean fold error (GMFE) of 2.1 and a percentage of compounds predicted within 2- and 3-fold error of 59% and 80%, respectively, showing an improved performance when compared with previous published works in predicting clearance of neutral compounds, and a very good performance with ionized molecules at pH 7.5, able to compare favorably with fairly accurate in vivo methods.

  14. Modeling discrete competitive facility location

    CERN Document Server

    Karakitsiou, Athanasia

    2015-01-01

    This book presents an up-to-date review of modeling and optimization approaches for location problems along with a new bi-level programming methodology which captures the effect of competition of both producers and customers on facility location decisions. While many optimization approaches simplify location problems by assuming decision making in isolation, this monograph focuses on models which take into account the competitive environment in which such decisions are made. New insights in modeling, algorithmic and theoretical possibilities are opened by this approach and new applications are possible. Competition on equal term plus competition between market leader and followers are considered in this study, consequently bi-level optimization methodology is emphasized and further developed. This book provides insights regarding modeling complexity and algorithmic approaches to discrete competitive location problems. In traditional location modeling, assignment of customer demands to supply sources are made ...

  15. COMPETITIVE PRODUCT ADVANTAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian MICU

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Cost advantages may be either internal or external. Internal economics of scope, scale, or experience, and external economies of focus or logistical integration, enable a company to produce some products at a lower cost than the competition. The coordination of pricing with suppliers, although not actually economizing resources, can improve the efficiency of pricing by avoiding the incrementalization of a supplier's nonincremental fixed costs and profit. Any of these strategies can generate cost advantages that are, at least in the short run, sustainable. Even cost advantages that are not sustainable, however, can generate temporary savings that are often the key to building more sustainable cost or product advantages later.. Even when a product's physical attributes are not readily differentiable, opportunities to develop product advantages remain. The augmented product that customers buy is more than the particular product or service exchanged. It includes all sorts of ancillary services and intangible relationships that make buying thesame product from one company less difficult, less risky, or more pleasant than buying from a competitor. Superior augmentation of the same basic product can add substantial value in the eyes of consumers, leading them to pay willingly what are often considerable price premiums.

  16. Numerical investigation of tip clearance effects on the performance of ducted propeller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ding Yongle

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Tip clearance loss is a limitation of the improvement of turbomachine performance. Previous studies show the Tip clearance loss is generated by the leakage flow through the tip clearance, and is roughly linearly proportional to the gap size. This study investigates the tip clearance effects on the performance of ducted propeller. The investigation was carried out by solving the Navier-Stokes equations with the commercial Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD code CFX14.5. These simulations were carried out to determine the underlying mechanisms of the tip clearance effects. The calculations were performed at three different chosen advance ratios. Simulation results showed that the tip loss slope was not linearly at high advance due to the reversed pressure at the leading edge. Three type of vortical structures were observed in the tip clearance at different clearance size.

  17. The ACAT inhibitor avasimibe increases the fractional clearance rate of postprandial triglyceride-rich lipoproteins in miniature pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, John R; Telford, Dawn E; Barrett, P Hugh R; Huff, Murray W

    2005-12-30

    Previously, we have shown, in vivo, that the acyl coenzyme A: cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) inhibitor avasimibe decreases hepatic apolipoprotein (apo) B secretion into plasma. To test the hypothesis that avasimibe modulates postprandial triglyceride-rich lipoprotein (TRL) metabolism in vivo, an oral fat load (2 g fat/kg) containing retinol was given to 9 control miniature pigs and to 9 animals after 28 days treatment with avasimibe (10 mg/kg/day, n=5; 25 mg/kg/day, n=4). The kinetic parameters for plasma retinyl palmitate (RP) metabolism were determined by multi-compartmental modeling using SAAM II. Avasimibe decreased the 2-h TRL (d20) triglyceride concentrations by 34%. The TRL triglyceride 0-12 h area under the curve (AUC) was decreased by 21%. In contrast, avasimibe had no effect on peak TRL RP concentrations, time to peak, or its rate of appearance into plasma, however, the TRL RP 0-12 h AUC was decreased by 17%. Analysis of the RP kinetic parameters revealed that the TRL fractional clearance rate (FCR) was increased 1.4-fold with avasimibe. The TRL RP FCR was negatively correlated with very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) apoB production rate measured in the fasting state (r=-0.504). No significant changes in total intestinal lipid concentrations were observed. Thus, although avasimibe had no effect on intestinal TRL secretion, plasma TRL clearance was significantly increased; an effect that may relate to a decreased competition with hepatic VLDL for removal processes.

  18. Dewetting transition assisted clearance of (NFGAILS) amyloid fibrils from cell membranes by graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jiajia; Yang, Zaixing; Gu, Zonglin [Institute of Quantitative Biology and Medicine, SRMP and RAD-X, Collaborative Innovation Center of Radiation Medicine of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions, and Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory of Radiation Medicine and Protection, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China); Li, Haotian [Bio-X Lab, Department of Physics, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Garate, Jose Antonio [IBM Thomas J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, New York 10598 (United States); Zhou, Ruhong, E-mail: ruhongz@us.ibm.com [Institute of Quantitative Biology and Medicine, SRMP and RAD-X, Collaborative Innovation Center of Radiation Medicine of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions, and Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory of Radiation Medicine and Protection, Soochow University, Suzhou 215123 (China); IBM Thomas J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, New York 10598 (United States); Department of Chemistry, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States)

    2014-12-14

    Clearance of partially ordered oligomers and monomers deposited on cell membrane surfaces is believed to be an effective route to alleviate many potential protein conformational diseases (PCDs). With large-scale all-atom molecular dynamics simulations, here we show that graphene nanosheets can easily and quickly win a competitive adsorption of human islet amyloid polypeptides (hIAPP{sub 22-28}) NFGAILS and associated fibrils against cell membrane, due to graphene's unique two-dimensional, highly hydrophobic surface with its all-sp{sup 2} hybrid structure. A nanoscale dewetting transition was observed at the interfacial region between the fibril (originally deposited on the membrane) and the graphene nanosheet, which significantly assisted the adsorption of fibrils onto graphene from the membrane. The π–π stacking interaction between Phe23 and graphene played a crucial role, providing the driving force for the adsorption at the graphene surface. This study renders new insight towards the importance of water during the interactions between amyloid peptides, the phospholipidic membrane, and graphene, which might shed some light on future developments of graphene-based nanomedicine for preventing/curing PCDs like type II diabetes mellitus.

  19. Dewetting transition assisted clearance of (NFGAILS) amyloid fibrils from cell membranes by graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiajia; Yang, Zaixing; Li, Haotian; Gu, Zonglin; Garate, Jose Antonio; Zhou, Ruhong

    2014-12-01

    Clearance of partially ordered oligomers and monomers deposited on cell membrane surfaces is believed to be an effective route to alleviate many potential protein conformational diseases (PCDs). With large-scale all-atom molecular dynamics simulations, here we show that graphene nanosheets can easily and quickly win a competitive adsorption of human islet amyloid polypeptides (hIAPP22-28) NFGAILS and associated fibrils against cell membrane, due to graphene's unique two-dimensional, highly hydrophobic surface with its all-sp2 hybrid structure. A nanoscale dewetting transition was observed at the interfacial region between the fibril (originally deposited on the membrane) and the graphene nanosheet, which significantly assisted the adsorption of fibrils onto graphene from the membrane. The π-π stacking interaction between Phe23 and graphene played a crucial role, providing the driving force for the adsorption at the graphene surface. This study renders new insight towards the importance of water during the interactions between amyloid peptides, the phospholipidic membrane, and graphene, which might shed some light on future developments of graphene-based nanomedicine for preventing/curing PCDs like type II diabetes mellitus.

  20. Baseline data of parasite clearance in patients with falciparum malaria treated with an artemisinin derivative: an individual patient data meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulla, Salim; Ashley, Elizabeth A; Bassat, Quique; Bethell, Delia; Björkman, Anders; Borrmann, Steffen; D'Alessandro, Umberto; Dahal, Prabin; Day, Nicholas P; Diakite, Mahamadou; Djimde, Abdoulaye A; Dondorp, Arjen M; Duong, Socheat; Edstein, Michael D; Fairhurst, Rick M; Faiz, M Abul; Falade, Catherine; Flegg, Jennifer A; Fogg, Carole; Gonzalez, Raquel; Greenwood, Brian; Guérin, Philippe J; Guthmann, Jean-Paul; Hamed, Kamal; Hien, Tran Tinh; Htut, Ye; Juma, Elizabeth; Lim, Pharath; Mårtensson, Andreas; Mayxay, Mayfong; Mokuolu, Olugbenga A; Moreira, Clarissa; Newton, Paul; Noedl, Harald; Nosten, Francois; Ogutu, Bernhards R; Onyamboko, Marie A; Owusu-Agyei, Seth; Phyo, Aung Pyae; Premji, Zul; Price, Ric N; Pukrittayakamee, Sasithon; Ramharter, Michael; Sagara, Issaka; Se, Youry; Suon, Seila; Stepniewska, Kasia; Ward, Stephen A; White, Nicholas J; Winstanley, Peter A

    2015-09-22

    Artemisinin resistance in Plasmodium falciparum manifests as slow parasite clearance but this measure is also influenced by host immunity, initial parasite biomass and partner drug efficacy. This study collated data from clinical trials of artemisinin derivatives in falciparum malaria with frequent parasite counts to provide reference parasite clearance estimates stratified by location, treatment and time, to examine host factors affecting parasite clearance, and to assess the relationships between parasite clearance and risk of recrudescence during follow-up. Data from 24 studies, conducted from 1996 to 2013, with frequent parasite counts were pooled. Parasite clearance half-life (PC1/2) was estimated using the WWARN Parasite Clearance Estimator. Random effects regression models accounting for study and site heterogeneity were used to explore factors affecting PC1/2 and risk of recrudescence within areas with reported delayed parasite clearance (western Cambodia, western Thailand after 2000, southern Vietnam, southern Myanmar) and in all other areas where parasite populations are artemisinin sensitive. PC1/2 was estimated in 6975 patients, 3288 of whom also had treatment outcomes evaluate d during 28-63 days follow-up, with 93 (2.8 %) PCR-confirmed recrudescences. In areas with artemisinin-sensitive parasites, the median PC1/2 following three-day artesunate treatment (4 mg/kg/day) ranged from 1.8 to 3.0 h and the proportion of patients with PC1/2 >5 h from 0 to 10 %. Artesunate doses of 4 mg/kg/day decreased PC1/2 by 8.1 % (95 % CI 3.2-12.6) compared to 2 mg/kg/day, except in populations with delayed parasite clearance. PC1/2 was longer in children and in patients with fever or anaemia at enrolment. Long PC1/2 (HR = 2.91, 95 % CI 1.95-4.34 for twofold increase, p Cambodia, the region with the highest prevalence of artemisinin resistance, there was no evidence for increasing PC1/2 since 2007. Several factors affect PC1/2. As substantial heterogeneity in parasite

  1. Rates of acquisition and clearance of pneumococcal serotypes in the nasopharynges of children in Kilifi District, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullahi, Osman; Karani, Angela; Tigoi, Caroline C; Mugo, Daisy; Kungu, Stella; Wanjiru, Eva; Jomo, Jane; Musyimi, Robert; Lipsitch, Marc; Scott, J Anthony G

    2012-10-01

    To understand and model the impact of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines at the population level, we need to know the transmission dynamics of individual pneumococcal serotypes. We estimated serotype-specific clearance and acquisition rates of nasopharyngeal colonization among Kenyan children. Children aged 3-59 months who were identified as carriers in a cross-sectional survey were followed-up approximately 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, and 32 days later and monthly thereafter until culture of 2 consecutive swabs yielded an alternative serotype or no pneumococcus. Serotype-specific clearance rates were estimated by exponential regression of interval-censored carriage durations. Duration was estimated as the reciprocal of the clearance rate, and acquisition rates were estimated on the basis of prevalence and duration, assuming an equilibrium state. Of 2840 children sampled between October 2006 and December 2008, 1868 were carriers. The clearance rate was 0.032 episodes/day (95% confidence interval [CI], .030-.034), for a carriage duration of 31.3 days, and the rate varied by serotype (P< .0005). Carriage durations for the 28 serotypes with ≥ 10 carriers ranged from 6.7 to 50 days. Clearance rates increased with year of age, adjusted for serotype (hazard ratio, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.15-1.27). The acquisition rate was 0.061 episodes/day (95% CI, .055-.067), which did not vary with age. Serotype-specific acquisition rates varied from 0.0002 to 0.0022 episodes/day. Serotype-specific acquisition rates correlated with prevalence (r=0.91; P< .00005) and with acquisition rates measured in a separate study involving 1404 newborns in Kilifi (r=0.87; P< .00005). The large sample size and short swabbing intervals provide a precise description of the prevalence, duration, and acquisition of carriage of 28 pneumococcal serotypes. In Kilifi, young children experience approximately 8 episodes of carriage per year. The declining prevalence with age is attributable to increasing clearance rates.

  2. Marketing Aspect of Banking Competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nieizviestna Olena V.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to study the need for application of marketing tools in order to improve competitiveness and competitive advantages of banks. By analyzing, systematizing and summarizing the scientific works of many scientists, the relationship between the competitiveness of the commercial bank and its share in the banking market has been discovered. In the process of studying the integration of the strategy of maximizing customer satisfaction in the practice of strategic competition in the banking market there was presented the author’s position regarding the need to take into account the structure of the customer loyalty, as it is it that helps to properly distribute the bank’s marketing efforts. It has been proved that the technology of bank marketing should not only include the systems of identifying customer needs, creation of new financial products, but also contribute to the formation of the multi-factor strategic model of competitive strategy of the bank competitive development. It has been proposed to use the SWOT-analysis in order to effectively manage the bank’s competitiveness.

  3. Competition for nutrient and light: stable coexistence, alternative stable states, or competitive exclusion?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Passarge, J.; Hol, S.; Escher, M.; Huisman, J.

    2006-01-01

    Competition theory has put forward three contrasting hypotheses: Competition for nutrients and light may lead to (i) stable coexistence of species, (ii) alternative stable states, or (iii) competitive exclusion. This paper presents a detailed investigation of competition among phytoplankton species

  4. Competition for nutrients and light: Stable coexistence, alternative stable states or competitive exclusion?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Passarge, J.; Hol, S.; Escher, M.; Huisman, J.

    2006-01-01

    Abstract. Competition theory has put forward three contrasting hypotheses: Competition for nutrients and light may lead to (i) stable coexistence of species, (ii) alternative stable states, or (iii) competitive exclusion. This paper presents a detailed investigation of competition among

  5. Price Competition or Tacit Collusion

    OpenAIRE

    Yano, Makoto; Komatsubara, Takashi

    2012-01-01

    Every now and then, we observe a fierce price war in a real world market, through which competing firms end up with a Bertrand-like price competition equilibrium. Despite this, very little has been known in the existing literature as to why a price competition market is formed. We address this question in the context of a choice between engaging in price competition and holding a price leader. Focusing on a duopoly market, we demonstrate that if supply is tight relative to demand, and if the ...

  6. Optimal control for competitive-cooperative systems: Modeling flexible coalitions in tomorrow`s competitive world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lenhart, S. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)]|[Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Mathematics; Protopopescu, V. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1994-09-01

    The last years have witnessed a dramatic shift of the world`s military, political, and economic paradigm from a bi-polar competitive gridlock to a more fluid, multi-player environment. This change has necessarily been followed by a re-evaluation of the strategic thinking and by a reassessment of mutual positions, options, and decisions. The essential attributes of the new situation are modeled by a system of nonlinear evolution equations with competitive/cooperative interactions. The mathematical setting is quite general to accommodate models related to military confrontation, arms control, economic competition, political negotiations, etc. Irrespective of the specific details, all these situations share a common denominator, namely the presence of various players with different and often changing interests and goals. The interests, ranging from conflicting to consensual, are defined in a context of interactions between the players that vary from competitive to cooperative. Players with converging interests tend to build up cooperative coalitions while coalitions with diverging interests usually compete among themselves, but this is not an absolute requirement (namely, one may have groups with converging interests and competitive interactions, and vice-versa). Appurtenance to a coalition may change in time according to the shift in one`s perceptions, interests, or obligations. During the time evolution, the players try to modify their strategies as to best achieve their respective goals. An objective functional quantifying the rate of success (payoff) vs. effort (cost) measures the degree of goal attainment for all players involved, thus selecting an optimal strategy based on optimal controls. While the technical details may vary from problem to problem, the general approach described here establishes a standard framework for a host of concrete situations that may arise from tomorrow`s {open_quotes}next competition{close_quotes}.

  7. 77 FR 2676 - Competitive Postal Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-19

    ... Postal Service an artificial competitive advantage. The Commission gave considerable weight to the... 39 CFR Part 3015 Competitive Postal Products AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking. SUMMARY: The Commission is initiating a review to determine whether competitive...

  8. Correlation of high flow nasal cannula outlet area with gas clearance and pressure in adult upper airway replicas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Charles P; Katz, Ira M; Caillibotte, Georges; Finlay, Warren H; Martin, Andrew R

    2017-11-11

    Primary benefits of high flow nasal cannula therapy include washout of carbon dioxide rich exhaled gas and increased airway pressures during tidal breathing. This work reports on the influence of high flow nasal cannula outlet area on upper airways gas clearance and tracheal pressures using measurements in five realistic adult nose-throat airway replicas. Two commercial high flow nasal cannulas and one generic nasal cannula of varying size were compared. 100% oxygen was supplied via cannulas at flow rates ranging from 30 to 90l/min to replicas originally filled with air, and oxygen concentrations at the larynx and trachea were compared over time. Additionally, and separately, replicas were connected to a mechanical lung simulator to simulate tidal breathing while undergoing high flow nasal cannula therapy, with tracheal pressure-time waveforms recorded. Faster gas clearance corresponded with higher flow rates (Pflow rates, tracheal positive end expiratory pressures increase was greater with the smallest cannula (∆PPEEP=785SD(185) Pa) compared to the largest cannula (∆PPEEP=380SD(120)Pa). Regression analysis indicates that positive end expiratory pressure is proportional to the square of flow velocities exiting the cannula and nares (R2=0.906). Since increased pressure and clearance rate have been associated with improved clinical outcomes in previous studies, our results suggest that smaller cannula outlet area may be preferable. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Competitive inhibition of renal tubular secretion of ciprofloxacin and metabolite by probenecid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landersdorfer, Cornelia B; Kirkpatrick, Carl M J; Kinzig, Martina; Bulitta, Jürgen B; Holzgrabe, Ulrike; Jaehde, Ulrich; Reiter, Andreas; Naber, Kurt G; Rodamer, Michael; Sörgel, Fritz

    2010-02-01

    Probenecid influences transport processes of drugs at several sites in the body and decreases elimination of several quinolones. We sought to explore extent, time course, and mechanism of the interaction between ciprofloxacin and probenecid at renal and nonrenal sites. A randomized, two-way crossover study was conducted in 12 healthy volunteers (in part previously published Clin Pharmacol Ther 1995; 58: 532-41). Subjects received 200 mg ciprofloxacin as 30-min intravenous infusion without and with 3 g probenecid divided into five oral doses. Drug concentrations were analysed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography. Ciprofloxacin and its 2-aminoethylamino-metabolite (M1) in plasma and urine with and without probenecid were modelled simultaneously with WinNonlin. Data are ratio of geometric means (90% confidence intervals). Addition of probenecid reduced the median renal clearance from 23.8 to 8.25 l h(-1)[65% reduction (59, 71), P Probenecid reduced ciprofloxacin nonrenal clearance by 8% (1, 14) (P probenecid. The affinity for the renal transporter was 4.4 times higher for ciprofloxacin and 3.6 times higher for M1 than for probenecid, based on the molar ratio. Probenecid did not affect volume of distribution of ciprofloxacin or M1, nonrenal clearance or intercompartmental clearance of ciprofloxacin. Probenecid inhibited the renal tubular secretion of ciprofloxacin and M1, probably by a competitive mechanism and due to reaching >100-fold higher plasma concentrations. Formation of M1, nonrenal clearance and distribution of ciprofloxacin were not affected.

  10. Foraging optimally for home ranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Michael S.; Powell, Roger A.

    2012-01-01

    Economic models predict behavior of animals based on the presumption that natural selection has shaped behaviors important to an animal's fitness to maximize benefits over costs. Economic analyses have shown that territories of animals are structured by trade-offs between benefits gained from resources and costs of defending them. Intuitively, home ranges should be similarly structured, but trade-offs are difficult to assess because there are no costs of defense, thus economic models of home-range behavior are rare. We present economic models that predict how home ranges can be efficient with respect to spatially distributed resources, discounted for travel costs, under 2 strategies of optimization, resource maximization and area minimization. We show how constraints such as competitors can influence structure of homes ranges through resource depression, ultimately structuring density of animals within a population and their distribution on a landscape. We present simulations based on these models to show how they can be generally predictive of home-range behavior and the mechanisms that structure the spatial distribution of animals. We also show how contiguous home ranges estimated statistically from location data can be misleading for animals that optimize home ranges on landscapes with patchily distributed resources. We conclude with a summary of how we applied our models to nonterritorial black bears (Ursus americanus) living in the mountains of North Carolina, where we found their home ranges were best predicted by an area-minimization strategy constrained by intraspecific competition within a social hierarchy. Economic models can provide strong inference about home-range behavior and the resources that structure home ranges by offering falsifiable, a priori hypotheses that can be tested with field observations.

  11. Endogenous, Imperfectly Competitive Business Cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whitta-Jacobsen, Hans Jørgen

    We investigate how imperfect competition affects the occurrence and the properties of endogenous, rational expectations business cycles in an overlapping generations model with constant returns to scale in production. The model has explicit product and labor markets all characterized...

  12. Age estimation in competitive sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timme, Maximilian; Steinacker, Jürgen Michael; Schmeling, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    To maintain the principle of sporting fairness and to protect the health of athletes, it is essential that age limits for youth sporting competitions are complied with. Forensic scientists have developed validated procedures for age estimation in living individuals. Methods have also been published for age estimation in competitive sports. These methods make use of the ossification stage of an epiphyseal plate to draw conclusions about an athlete's age. This article presents published work on the use of magnetic resonance imaging for age estimation in competitive sports. In addition, it looks at the effect on age estimation of factors such as an athlete's socioeconomic status, the use of hormones and anabolic substances as well as chronic overuse of the growth plates. Finally, recommendations on the components required for a valid age estimation procedure in competitive sports are suggested.

  13. Does Competitive Sourcing Really Pay?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Friar, Allen

    2007-01-01

    .... The stated policy objective in the revised circular is, "To ensure that the American people receive maximum value for their tax dollars, commercial activities should be subject to the forces of competition" (0MB, 2003, May 29...

  14. The Power Trading Agent Competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Ketter (Wolfgang); J. Collins (John); P. Reddy (Prashant); C. Flath (Christoph)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThis is the specification for the Power Trading Agent Competition for 2011 (Power TAC 2011). Agents are simulations of electrical power brokers, who must compete with each other for both power production and consumption, and manage their portfolios.

  15. Organization of competitive duel games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živanović Milan V.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Play is the basic child activity in preschool period. Its attractiveness for the children of that age has been used for educational purposes by including cognitive content and goals into play activities. In middle, and, particularly, in senior and preparatory preschool group there is more interest for games of competitive nature. In this respect, the role of teacher is not merely limited to good knowledge and selection of competitive games; it also concerns their organization depending on special, time-wise, technical and population-wise conditions. In our pedagogical literature very little has been written on this topic. Hence, it no surprise that this issue is omitted in curricula of preschool teacher training colleges. The goal of this text is to emphasize the importance of proper organization of competitive duel games and describe the most common types of those competitions in practice.

  16. FLEXIBLE BUDGET OF SPORT COMPETITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Vukasović

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Manager of sport competition has right to decide and also to take responsibility for costs, income and financial results. From economic point of wiev flexible budget and planning cost calculations is top management base for analyzing success level of sport competition. Flexible budget is made before sport competition with few output level, where one is always from static plan-master plan. At the end of competition when we have results, we make report of plan executing and we also analyzing plan variances. Results of comparation between achieved and planning level of static budget can be acceptable if achieved level is approximate to budget level or if we analyzing results from gross or net income. Flexible budget become very important in case of world eco- nomic crises

  17. MICROECONOMIC ANALYSIS IN COMPETITION POLICY

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Paul Prisecaru

    2013-01-01

    .... By explaining the way that microeconomic concepts like "market power", "critical loss" or "price elasticity of demand" are used by the modern competition policy, the microeconomics scholar can get...

  18. The Third International Timetabling Competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Post, Gerhard F.; Di Gaspero, Luca; Kingston, Jeffrey H.; McCollum, Barry; Schaerf, Andrea; Kjenstad, D.; Riise, A.; Nordlander, T.E.; McCollum, B.; Burke, E.

    This paper is the organizers’ report on the Third International Timetabling Competition (ITC2011), run during the first half of 2012. Its participants tackled 35 instances of the high school timetabling problem, taken from schools in 10 countries.

  19. Global Energy Forecasting Competition 2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hong, Tao; Pinson, Pierre; Fan, Shu

    2014-01-01

    The Global Energy Forecasting Competition (GEFCom2012) attracted hundreds of participants worldwide, who contributed many novel ideas to the energy forecasting field. This paper introduces both tracks of GEFCom2012, hierarchical load forecasting and wind power forecasting, with details...

  20. The Scientific Competitiveness of Nations

    CERN Document Server

    Cimini, Giulio; Labini, Francesco Sylos

    2014-01-01

    We use citation data of scientific articles produced by individual nations in different scientific domains to determine the structure and efficiency of national research systems. We characterize the scientific fitness of each nation$-$that is, the competitiveness of its research system$-$and the complexity of each scientific domain by means of a non-linear iterative algorithm able to assess quantitatively the advantage of scientific diversification. We find that technological leading nations, beyond having the largest production of scientific papers and the largest number of citations, do not specialize in a few scientific domains. Rather, they diversify as much as possible their research system. On the other side, less developed nations are competitive only in scientific domains where also many other nations are present. Diversification thus represents the key element that correlates with scientific and technological competitiveness. A remarkable implication of this structure of the scientific competition is...

  1. Has competition lowered hospital prices?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwanziger, Jack; Mooney, Cathleen

    2005-01-01

    On Jan. 1, 1997, New York ended its regulation of hospital prices with the intent of using competitive markets to control prices and increase efficiency. This paper uses data that come from annual reports filed by all health maintenance organizations (HMOs) operating in New York and include payments to and usage in the major hospitals in an HMO's network. We estimate the relationship between implied prices and hospital, plan, and market characteristics. The models show that after 1997, hospitals in more competitive markets paid less. Partially offsetting these price reductions were price increases associated with hospital mergers that reduced the competitiveness of the local market. Hospital deregulation was successful, at least in the short run, in using price competition to reduce hospital payments; it is unclear whether this success will be undermined by the structural changes taking place in the hospital industry.

  2. Depressive symptoms in children with cystic fibrosis and parents and its effects on adherence to airway clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Beth A; Modi, Avani C; Quittner, Alexandra L; Wood, Beatrice L

    2010-08-01

    Little is currently known about the co-morbidity of depression and cystic fibrosis (CF) and there is currently no empirical research on the effects of depressive symptoms on adherence in children and adolescents with CF. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the extent of depressive symptoms in children and adolescents with CF and their parents, and determine whether depressive symptoms in the child and/or parent was associated with adherence to airway clearance. We also evaluated whether children's perceptions of relational security with a parent were associated with adherence to airway clearance. Participants included 39 children with CF ages 7-17 years and their primary caregivers. Depressive symptoms were measured with the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI) and the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D). The Relatedness Questionnaire assessed the quality of parent-child relational security. Adherence to airway clearance was measured using the daily phone diary (DPD), an empirically validated adherence measure for youth with CF. Rates of depressive symptoms were elevated in children with CF and their parents (29% for children; 35% for mothers; 23% for fathers). Child depressive symptoms were significantly associated with lower rates of adherence to airway clearance, after controlling for demographic variables (r = -0.34, P = 0.02). Child depressive symptoms were associated with worse perceptions of parental relationships (t(35) = 3.2; P = 0.002) and the quality of this relationship was also related to worse adherence (r = 0.42, P = 0.005). A large percentage of youth with CF and their parents reported elevated symptoms of depression. Children scoring in the depressed range on a standardized screening measure and those with less secure parent-child relationships were at greatest risk for poor adherence. Thus, depressive symptoms and family relationships are appropriate targets for adherence promotion interventions, which may

  3. Strategic Delegation in Price Competition

    OpenAIRE

    Güth, Werner; Pull, Kerstin; Stadler, Manfred

    2012-01-01

    We study price competition in heterogeneous markets where price decisions are delegated to agents. Principals implement a revenue sharing scheme to which agents react by commonly charging a sales price. The results of our model exemplify the importance of both intrafirm- and interfirm interactions of principals and agents in competition. We show that price delegation can increase or decrease the firms' surplus depending on the heterogeneity of the market and the number of agents employed by t...

  4. Finite land resources and competition

    OpenAIRE

    Haberl, Helmut; Mbow, Cheikh; Deng, Xiangzheng; Irwin, Elena G; Kerr, Suzi; Kuemmerle, Tobias; Mertz, Ole; Meyfroidt, Patrick; Turner II, B. L.

    2014-01-01

    Rising demand for land-based products (food, feed, fi ber, and bioenergy) as well as conservation of forests and carbon sinks create increasing competition for land. Landuse competition has many drivers, takes different forms, and can have many significant implications for ecosystems as well as societal well-being. This chapter discusses several emerging issues, including the effect of increased demand for nonprovisioning ecosystem services ( biodiversity conservation and carbon sequestration...

  5. Bank Mergers, Competition and Liquidity

    OpenAIRE

    Carletti, Elena; Hartmann, Philipp; Spagnolo, Giancarlo

    2004-01-01

    We model the impact of bank mergers on loan competition, reserve holdings and aggregate liquidity. A merger changes the distribution of liquidity shocks and creates an internal money market, leading to financial cost efficiencies and more precise estimates of liquidity needs. The merged banks may increase their reserve holdings through an internalization effect or decrease them because of a diversification effect. The merger also affects loan market competition, which in turn modifies the dis...

  6. Internal Control and Organizational Competitiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Salinas, Esteban S.; .

    2015-01-01

    By a review and bibliographical analysis, some relations of organizational control were made out of the content of some models of such a control.The problem identifies that organizational competitiveness has emphasized the external factors of the organizations forgetting that there is an organizational disposition that can contribute to improve the competitiveness of an enterprise (internal factors). The main objective is identifying the contribution of the system of internal control to impro...

  7. Corporate Strategies and Global Competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, René Taudal; Jensen, Kristoffer; Christensen, René Schrøder

    2017-01-01

    This article analyzes the competitive strategies of Odense Steel Shipyard between 1918 and 2012 and challenges existing scholarship on competition in global industries. Until the 1980s, the yard adopted typical strategies in shipbuilding, starting with cost leadership and subsequently adopting...... global segmentation and differentiation strategies. From the mid-1980s, however, it successfully followed a unique national responsiveness strategy, which scholars including Dong Sung Cho and Michael E. Porter had ruled out in shipbuilding. The article shows how shipyard owners shaped strategies...

  8. Gaining and losing competitive advantage

    OpenAIRE

    Christian Bellak

    2003-01-01

    Efficient policies to stimulate the competitiveness of firms require knowledge of future firm-strategies and a proper assessment of the location advantages of a country or region. Therefore, industry comparative advantage analysis needs to be complemented by firm competitive advantage analysis. This yields four hypotheses of firm strategies on the basis of the existing advantage combination. Detailed empirical analysis of a representative sample of Austrian manufacturing firms during 1990- 20...

  9. Organization of competitive duel games

    OpenAIRE

    Živanović Milan V.

    2015-01-01

    Play is the basic child activity in preschool period. Its attractiveness for the children of that age has been used for educational purposes by including cognitive content and goals into play activities. In middle, and, particularly, in senior and preparatory preschool group there is more interest for games of competitive nature. In this respect, the role of teacher is not merely limited to good knowledge and selection of competitive games; it also concerns their organization depending on spe...

  10. Technology competition and regulatory advantage

    OpenAIRE

    Boscheck, Ralf

    2010-01-01

    The importance of competition law as a policy lever to help the EU compete at the forefront of science and technology seems to have been overlooked by the Commission. As a consequence, the EU appears to be at a disadvantage to the USA in terms of the regulatory environment for intellectual property and licensing practices. This article examines these differences and explores the pros and cons of the European and American approaches to competition law, ultimately arguing in favour of regulator...

  11. Creating and Sustaining Competitive Advantage

    OpenAIRE

    Lage Hansen, Jakob

    2010-01-01

    The paper provides a general framework for examining how governance choice affects competitive advantage. I argue that firms rely on assets for competing, and that these assets can be accessed by different governance structures (i.e., they can be in- or outsourced). The transaction cost economics framework is used to expose strengths and weaknesses of governance structures with respect to creating and sustaining competitive advantage. The result is a tradeoff to consider when choosing how to ...

  12. Sustainability and Competitiveness of Tourism

    OpenAIRE

    Angelkova, Tanja; Koteski, Cane; Jakovlev, Zlatko; Mitrevska, Elizabeta

    2011-01-01

    Tourism is an activity that can have a really big impact on sustainable development. Sustainability of tourism involves extensive cooperation between tourist companies, tourist destinations and national, regional and local authorities in order to cover a broad group of challenges and at the same time to remain competitive. Opportunities for sustainable tourism development and preservation of its competitiveness, largely influenced by the quality of the environment, preserved and attractive...

  13. International Tax Competition and Coordination

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Keen; Konrad, Kai A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to provide a comprehensive survey of the theory of international tax competition. Starting with the standard framework, it visits the non-cooperative equilibrium of tax competition, analyses aspects of partial and regional coordination, repeated interaction, stock-flow-effects, agglomeration effects and time consistency issues in dynamic models. We discuss profit shifting in the Keen-Kanbur model and then survey frameworks to analyze countries’ bidding for firms, tax rate diff...

  14. DXC'11 Industrial Track Competition Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Competition data, including nominal and faulty scenarios, for Diagnostic Problem I of the Third International Diagnostic Competition. Three file formats are...

  15. Apical clearance rigid contact lenses induce corneal steepening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swarbrick, Helen A; Hiew, Ross; Kee, Ai Vy; Peterson, Sophia; Tahhan, Nina

    2004-06-01

    Anecdotal reports suggest that steeply fitted rigid contact lenses can induce corneal steepening and myopic shifts in refraction. This study investigated changes in corneal topography, corneal thickness, and refraction after short-term wear of apical clearance lenses. : Ten young adults participated in the study in which apical clearance lenses (Conoid, Hydron Pty. Ltd., Frenchs Forest, NSW, Australia), fitted approximately 0.3 mm steeper than the flattest keratometric reading, were worn for 4 h. A polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) lens was worn in one eye, and a Boston XO lens (Bausch & Lomb, Rochester, NY) was worn in the other. Lenses were nonfenestrated in the first trial, and a single midperipheral fenestration was incorporated for a second trial. Corneal topography was monitored using the EyeSys topographic analysis system (EyeSys Vision, Inc., Houston, TX); central corneal thickness was quantified using ultrasonic pachometry; and refraction and anterior ocular response were also monitored. Significant central corneal edema (8.2 +/- 2.2%) was demonstrated in the PMMA lens-wearing eye only. Fenestration did not reduce the edema response. We found significant corneal steepening over a 5- to 6-mm central zone, which was more pronounced in the PMMA lens-wearing eye and was modified by lens fenestration. The curvature changes altered central corneal shape from prolate (Q = -0.06 +/- 0.10) to oblate (Q = -0.26 +/- 0.31). A slight myopic shift in refraction (-0.38 +/- 0.60 D) was found with the PMMA lenses only. : Apical clearance lenses induce corneal steepening after short-term wear. Although corneal molding is implicated as the primary factor driving the shape change, corneal edema and postlens tear film pressures can modify this response.

  16. Microstructure of Systems with Competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarty, Saurish

    The micro-structure of systems with competition often exhibits many universal features. In this thesis, we study certain aspects of these structural features as well as the microscopic interactions using disparate exact and approximate techniques. This thesis can be broadly divided into two parts. In the first part, we use statistical mechanics arguments to make general statements about length and timescales in systems with two-point interactions. We demonstrate that at high temperatures, the correlation function of general O(n) systems exhibits a universal form. This form enables the extraction of microscopic interaction potentials from the high temperature correlation functions. In systems with long range interactions, we find that the largest correlation length diverges in the limit of high temperatures. We derive an exact form for the correlation function in large-n systems with general two-point interactions at finite temperatures. From this, we obtain some features of the correlation and modulation lengths in general systems in the large-n limit. We derive a new exponent characterizing modulation lengths (or times) in systems in which the modulation length (or time) either diverges or becomes constant as a parameter, such as temperature exceeds a threshold value. In the second part of this thesis, we study the micro-structure of a metallic glass system using molecular dynamics simulations. We use both classical and first principles simulation to obtain atomic configurations in the liquid as well as the glassy phase. We analyze these using standard methods of local structure analysis -- calculation of pair correlation function and structure factor, Voronoi construction, calculation of bond orientational order parameters and calculation of Honeycutt indices. We show the enhancement of icosahedral order in the glassy phase. Apart from this, we also use the techniques of community detection to obtain the inherent structures in the system using an algorithm which

  17. Autophagic clearance of bacterial pathogens: molecular recognition of intracellular microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pareja, Maria Eugenia Mansilla; Colombo, Maria I

    2013-01-01

    Autophagy is involved in several physiological and pathological processes. One of the key roles of the autophagic pathway is to participate in the first line of defense against the invasion of pathogens, as part of the innate immune response. Targeting of intracellular bacteria by the autophagic machinery, either in the cytoplasm or within vacuolar compartments, helps to control bacterial proliferation in the host cell, controlling also the spreading of the infection. In this review we will describe the means used by diverse bacterial pathogens to survive intracellularly and how they are recognized by the autophagic molecular machinery, as well as the mechanisms used to avoid autophagic clearance.

  18. Dual clearance squeeze film damper for high load conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, D. P.

    1985-01-01

    Squeeze film dampers are widely used to control vibrations in aircraft turbine engines and other rotating machinery. However, if shaft unbalance rises appreciably above the design value (e.g., due to a turbine blade loss), a conventional squeeze film becomes overloaded, and is no longer effective in controlling vibration amplitudes and bearing forces. A damper concept characterized by two oil films is described. Under normal conditions, only one low-clearance film is active, allowing precise location of the shaft centerline. Under high unbalance conditions, both films are active, controlling shaft vibration in a near-optimum manner, and allowing continued operation until a safe shutdown can be made.

  19. Bacterial clearance after total splenectomy and splenic autotransplantation in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marques, R.G. E-mail: rmarques@uerj.br; Petroianu, Andy; Oliveira, M.B.N. de; Bernardo-Filho, M.; Boasquevisque, E.M.; Portela, M.C

    2002-12-01

    Wistar rats submitted to isolated total splenectomy or total splenectomy combined with splenic autotransplantation were inoculated with {sup 99m}technetium-labeled Escherichia coli. Measurement of isotope uptake in the organs of the mononuclear phagocytic system showed a greater bacterial bloodstream clearance in rats with splenic autotransplantation. Although uptake of bacteria in the spleen was higher in the control group, the number of bacteria remaining in the bloodstream did not differ between groups. These results indicate that splenic autotransplantation preserves the phagocytic function of the spleen.

  20. A modification of the saccharine test for nasal mucociliary clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deitmer, T

    1986-12-01

    The saccharine test for assessing mucociliary clearance in the nose is the most practicable method. As the used sodium salt of saccharine is well water soluble, there is suspicion of interference with the very delicate two-layer-system of mucus or transport merely in the periciliary fluid, thus bringing about methodical errors. This is avoided by using inert tracers such as radioactively tagged ion exchange resin particles, which on the other hand must be observed with expensive equipment. A synthesis of both methods is demonstrated by using saccharine loaden ion exchange resin particles. The validity of the test is proven in vitro and in vivo.

  1. Innovative Approaches to Ensuring the Competitiveness of Small Agricultural Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danko Yuriy I.

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to justify the innovative approaches to ensuring the competitiveness of small agricultural enterprises by building short “local” supply chains in view of the concepts of sustainable agriculture. The study analyzes the modern scientific approaches and the real state of ensuring the competitiveness of small and medium agricultural enterprises. It is proposed to introduce a three-component model of competitiveness, which includes reviewing the range of products and related market niches, restructuring supply chains and creating associations (clusters. The innovative models of bringing the final product to the consumer have been generalized. The functional and operational distribution in the system of ensuring the competitiveness of agricultural enterprises has been formed. The prospects for further research are to determine the cost-effectiveness of the proposed measures for the specific subject of industrial activity.

  2. National and Regional Competitiveness in the Crisis Context. Successful Examples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gina Cristina DIMIAN

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper addresses the issue of national and regional competitiveness in the context of socio-economic and financial crisis. Competitiveness is a complex concept which can be studied at both the firm and the local and national level.Thus, in economic terms the competitiveness is most often associated with the productivity or efficiency with which inputs are transformed into goods and services. As for the regional competitiveness it should be analyzed in terms of results (revenue, employment and in relation to its determinants: ranging from the classical production factors (capital, labour, technological progress to the “soft” factors (human capital, research and development, dissemination of knowledge.The current economic environment has revealed that countries such as China, India, Brazil and also the Czech Republic and Poland, following prudent economic policies, have managed to make from macroeconomic stability, investment in education and research some of their major drivers of economic growth.

  3. Understanding of the Interaction between Clearance Leakage Flow and Main Passage Flow in a VGT Turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Zhao

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The clearance flow between the nozzle and endwall in a variable geometry turbine (VGT has been numerically investigated to understand the clearance effect on the VGT performance and internal flow. It was found that the flow rate through turbine increases but the turbine efficiency decreases with height of clearance. Detailed flow field analyses indicated that most of the efficiency loss resulting from the leakage flow occurs at the upstream of the rotor area, that is, in the nozzle endwall clearance and between the nozzle vanes. There are two main mechanisms associated with this efficiency loss. One is due to the formation of the local vortex flow structure between the clearance flow and the main flow. The other is due to the impact of the clearance flow on the main flow after the nozzle throat. This impact reduces the span of shockwave with increased shockwave magnitude by changing the trajectory of the main flow.

  4. COMPETITION IN ROMANIAN BANKING SECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Capraru Bogdan

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent turmoil in the global financial system has impacted severely on the banking sector with many banks suffering large losses and necessitating the need to raise additional capital privately or through their respective national governments. In our study we investigate the impact of structural reforms performed throughout the European Union (EU accession process on competition and contestability of banking systems in Romania. The literature of the measurement of competition can be divided into two major approaches: structural and non-structural. The structural approach to the assessment of competition embraces the Structure-Conduct-Performance Hypothesis (SCP and the Efficient Structure Hypothesis (ESH. The structural approach, as the name suggests, assesses bank competition by examining measures of market structure such as concentration ratios (the share of assets held by the top 3 or 5 institutions or indices (e.g., the Herfindhal-Hirschman index and supposes that higher concentration in the banking market causes less competitive bank conduct and leads to higher bank profitability. The SCP model is originally developed by Bain (1956. The second approach, ESH, developed by Demsetz (1973 and Peltzmann (1977 suggests that the superior performance of the market leaders determines the market structure, implying that higher efficiency produces both higher concentration and greater profitability. The non-structural indicators of competition are mainly based on the measures of monopoly power developed by Lerner (1934. The Lerner Index suggests the mark-up of price over marginal cost. An alternative non-structural indicator of the degree of market competition is the Panzar and Rosse (1987 H-statistic. The H-statistic measures the extent to which changes in banking costs are reflected in changes in banking revenues. In order to examine the level of competition and market power of banks in Romania for period 2003 - 2009, we estimate the non

  5. Public healthcare interests require strict competition enforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loozen, Edith M H

    2015-07-01

    Several countries have introduced competition in their health systems in order to maintain the supply of high quality health care in a cost-effective manner. The introduction of competition triggers competition enforcement. Since healthcare is characterized by specific market failures, many favor healthcare-specific competition enforcement in order not only to account for the competition interest, but also for the healthcare interests. The question is whether healthcare systems based on competition can succeed when competition enforcement deviates from standard practice. This paper analyzes whether healthcare-specific competition enforcement is theoretically sound and practically effective. This is exemplified by the Dutch system that is based on regulated competition and thus crucially depends on getting competition enforcement right. Governments are responsible for correcting market failures. Markets are responsible for maximizing the public healthcare interests. By securing sufficient competitive pressure, competition enforcement makes sure they do. When interpreted according to welfare-economics, competition law takes into account both costs and benefits specific market behavior may have for healthcare. Competition agencies and judiciary are not legitimized to deviate from standard evidentiary requirements. Dutch case law shows that healthcare-specific enforcement favors the healthcare undertakings concerned, but to the detriment of public health care. Healthcare-specific competition enforcement is conceptually flawed and counterproductive. In order for healthcare systems based on competition to succeed, competition enforcement should be strict. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. COMPETITIVE INTELLIGENCE ANALYSIS - SCENARIOS METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Valeriu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Keeping a company in the top performing players in the relevant market depends not only on its ability to develop continually, sustainably and balanced, to the standards set by the customer and competition, but also on the ability to protect its strategic information and to know in advance the strategic information of the competition. In addition, given that economic markets, regardless of their profile, enable interconnection not only among domestic companies, but also between domestic companies and foreign companies, the issue of economic competition moves from the national economies to the field of interest of regional and international economic organizations. The stakes for each economic player is to keep ahead of the competition and to be always prepared to face market challenges. Therefore, it needs to know as early as possible, how to react to others’ strategy in terms of research, production and sales. If a competitor is planning to produce more and cheaper, then it must be prepared to counteract quickly this movement. Competitive intelligence helps to evaluate the capabilities of competitors in the market, legally and ethically, and to develop response strategies. One of the main goals of the competitive intelligence is to acknowledge the role of early warning and prevention of surprises that could have a major impact on the market share, reputation, turnover and profitability in the medium and long term of a company. This paper presents some aspects of competitive intelligence, mainly in terms of information analysis and intelligence generation. Presentation is theoretical and addresses a structured method of information analysis - scenarios method – in a version that combines several types of analysis in order to reveal some interconnecting aspects of the factors governing the activity of a company.

  7. Brain-wide pathway for waste clearance captured by contrast-enhanced MRI

    OpenAIRE

    Iliff, Jeffrey J; Lee, Hedok; Yu, Mei; Feng, Tian; Logan, Jean; Nedergaard, Maiken; Benveniste, Helene

    2013-01-01

    The glymphatic system is a recently defined brain-wide paravascular pathway for cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and interstitial fluid (ISF) exchange that facilitates efficient clearance of solutes and waste from the brain. CSF enters the brain along para-arterial channels to exchange with ISF, which is in turn cleared from the brain along para-venous pathways. Because soluble amyloid β clearance depends on glymphatic pathway function, we proposed that failure of this clearance system contributes t...

  8. Population differences in ganciclovir clearance as determined by nonlinear mixed-effects modelling.

    OpenAIRE

    Yuen, G J; Drusano, G. L.; Fletcher, C.; Capparelli, E; Connor, J D; Lalezari, J P; Drew, L.; Follansbee, S; Busch, D.; Jacobson, M.

    1995-01-01

    We examined the pharmacokinetics of ganciclovir in different populations of cytomegalovirus (CMV)-infected patients through the use of nonlinear mixed-effects modelling. As expected, patient weight and estimated creatinine clearance were shown to be important covariates in the serum ganciclovir clearance. Unexpectedly, major differences in ganciclovir clearance between different populations of patients were found. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients with CMV retinitis cleared...

  9. Histamine Clearance Through Polyspecific Transporters in the Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Takeo; Yanai, Kazuhiko

    2017-01-01

    Histamine plays an important role as a neurotransmitter in diverse brain functions, and clearance of histamine is essential to avoid excessive histaminergic neuronal activity. Histamine N-methyltransferase, which is an enzyme in the central nervous system that metabolizes histamine, is localized to the cytosol. This suggests that a histamine transport process is essential to inactivate histamine. Previous reports have shown the importance of astrocytes for histamine transport, although neuronal histamine transport could not be ruled out. High-affinity and selective histamine transporters have not yet been discovered, although it has been reported that the following three polyspecific transporters transport histamine: organic cation transporter (OCT) 2, OCT3, and plasma membrane monoamine transporter (PMAT). The K m values of human OCT2, OCT3, and PMAT are 0.54, 0.64, and 4.4 mM, respectively. The three transporters are expressed in the brain, and their regional distribution is different. Recent studies revealed the contribution of OCT3 and PMAT to histamine transport by primary human astrocytes. Several investigations using mice supported the importance of OCT3 for histamine clearance in the brain. However, further studies are required to elucidate the detailed mechanism of histamine transport in the brain.

  10. Ketamine Inhibits Lung Fluid Clearance through Reducing Alveolar Sodium Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Cui

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ketamine is a broadly used anaesthetic for analgosedation. Accumulating clinical evidence shows that ketamine causes pulmonary edema with unknown mechanisms. We measured the effects of ketamine on alveolar fluid clearance in human lung lobes ex vivo. Our results showed that intratracheal instillation of ketamine markedly decreased the reabsorption of 5% bovine serum albumin instillate. In the presence of amiloride (a specific ENaC blocker, fluid resolution was not further decreased, suggesting that ketamine could decrease amiloride-sensitive fraction of AFC associated with ENaC. Moreover, we measured the regulation of amiloride-sensitive currents by ketamine in A549 cells using whole-cell patch clamp mode. Our results suggested that ketamine decreased amiloride-sensitive Na+ currents (ENaC activity in a dose-dependent fashion. These data demonstrate that reduction in lung ENaC activity and lung fluid clearance following administration of ketamine may be the crucial step of the pathogenesis of resultant pulmonary edema.

  11. A porphyrin-PEG polymer with rapid renal clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Haoyuan; Hernandez, Reinier; Geng, Jumin; Sun, Haotian; Song, Wentao; Chen, Feng; Graves, Stephen A; Nickles, Robert J; Cheng, Chong; Cai, Weibo; Lovell, Jonathan F

    2016-01-01

    Tetracarboxylic porphyrins and polyethylene glycol (PEG) diamines were crosslinked in conditions that gave rise to a water-soluble porphyrin polyamide. Using PEG linkers 2 kDa or larger prevented fluorescence self-quenching. This networked porphyrin mesh was retained during dialysis with membranes with a 100 kDa pore size, yet passed through the membrane when centrifugal filtration was applied. Following intravenous administration, the porphyrin mesh, but not the free porphyrin, was rapidly cleared via renal excretion. The process could be monitored by fluorescence analysis of collected urine, with minimal background due to the large Stokes shift of the porphyrin (230 nm separating excitation and emission peaks). In a rhabdomyolysis mouse model of renal failure, porphyrin mesh urinary clearance was significantly impaired. This led to slower accumulation in the bladder, which could be visualized non-invasively via fluorescence imaging. Without further modification, the porphyrin mesh was chelated with (64)Cu for dynamic whole body positron emission tomography imaging of renal clearance. Together, these data show that small porphyrin-PEG polymers can serve as effective multimodal markers of renal function. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Role of Erythrocyte CD47 in Intracerebral Hematoma Clearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Wei; Mao, Shanshan; Xi, Guohua; Keep, Richard F; Hua, Ya

    2016-02-01

    Enhancing hematoma clearance through phagocytosis may reduce brain injury after intracerebral hemorrhage. In the current study, we investigated the role of cluster of differentiation 47 (CD47) in regulating erythrophagocytosis and brain injury after intracerebral hemorrhage in nude mice. This study was in 2 parts. First, male adult nude mice had an intracaudate injection of 30 μL saline, blood from male adult wild-type (WT) mice, or blood from CD47 knockout mice. Second, mice had an intracaudate injection of 30 μL CD47 knockout blood with clodronate or control liposomes. Clodronate liposomes were also tested in saline-injected mice. All mice then had magnetic resonance imaging to measure hematoma size and brain swelling. Brains were used for immunohistochemistry and Western blot. Erythrophagocytosis occurred in and around the hematoma. Injection of CD47 knockout blood resulted in quicker clot resolution, less brain swelling, and less neurological deficits compared with wild-type blood. Higher brain heme oxygenase-1 levels and more microglial activation (mostly M2 polarized microglia) at day 3 were found after CD47 knockout blood injection. Co-injection of clodronate liposomes, to deplete phagocytes, caused more severe brain swelling and less clot resolution. These results indicated that CD47 has a key role in hematoma clearance after intracerebral hemorrhage. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  13. Necroptosis Promotes Staphylococcus aureus Clearance by Inhibiting Excessive Inflammatory Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kipyegon Kitur

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus aureus triggers inflammation through inflammasome activation and recruitment of neutrophils, responses that are critical for pathogen clearance but are associated with substantial tissue damage. We postulated that necroptosis, cell death mediated by the RIPK1/RIPK3/MLKL pathway, would function to limit pathological inflammation. In models of skin infection or sepsis, Mlkl−/− mice had high bacterial loads, an inability to limit interleukin-1b (IL-1b production, and excessive inflammation. Similarly, mice treated with RIPK1 or RIPK3 inhibitors had increased bacterial loads in a model of sepsis. Ripk3−/− mice exhibited increased staphylococcal clearance and decreased inflammation in skin and systemic infection, due to direct effects of RIPK3 on IL-1b activation and apoptosis. In contrast to Casp1/4−/− mice with defective S. aureus killing, the poor outcomes of Mlkl−/− mice could not be attributed to impaired phagocytic function. We conclude that necroptotic cell death limits the pathological inflammation induced by S. aureus.

  14. Effectiveness of small barriers as means to reduce clearance distances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tchouvelev, Andrei V.; Cheng, Zhong [A.V.Tchouvelev and Associates, 6591 Spinnaker Circle, Mississauga, Ont. (Canada); Agranat, Vladimir M. [Hydrogenics Corp., 5985 McLaughlin Road, Mississauga, Ont. (Canada); Zhubrin, Serguei V. [Flowsolve Limited, 130 Arthur Road, London SW19 8AA (United Kingdom)

    2007-07-15

    Hydrogen clearance or safety distance can be defined as the minimum distance between a hydrogen leak source and surrounding equipment, property or personnel beyond which the risk to the said recipients associated with existing hydrogen hazards is deemed acceptable. The same principal is applied to determine clearances to ignition sources and air intakes only the criteria in this case are the risk of ignition or the risk of intaking a flammable mixture. The study of effects of small barriers as means to reduce clearance distances for compressed hydrogen releases is important for the development of installation codes and risk mitigation requirements. In this paper, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling techniques were applied to the numerical simulation of the effects of a protective wall of 1 m by 1 m on reducing the size of hydrogen cloud. The protective wall was 1 m away from a 70 MPa (700 bar) 60 L tank, from which an incidental hydrogen release impinged horizontally onto the wall, causing a complicated 3D dispersion of hydrogen cloud. In-house CFD codes first accurately estimated the non-linear hydrogen mass release rate decreasing with time. Then the effects of the wall on the propagation speed of the hydrogen cloud moving behind the wall were investigated using the PHOENICS software package, provided with both the ideal gas law and the real gas law expressed by the Abel-Nobel equation of state (AN-EOS). The distributions of lower flammability limit (LFL) and 50% of LFL hydrogen clouds were described in detail based on the numerical results. It was found that the 50% of LFL hydrogen clouds (2% vol) could propagate behind the wall in less than 0.2 s after the onset of the release. The horizontal extents corresponding to 50% of LFL hydrogen cloud on the central vertical plane are 9.6 m at 5 s when they are predicted using the ideal gas law. When using the real gas law, the predicted extents decrease to 6.3 m at 5 s. The ideal gas law significantly

  15. GLOBAL COMPETITION AND ROMANIA’S NATIONAL COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pop Nicolae Alexandru

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Analyzing products and services around us it is clear that most of them are the result of production factors, labor and capital becoming more international and increasingly less and less national. We are witnessing the globalization of markets and production, to a large global integration and interdependence, increase personalization of production and services as a result of new communication systems interaction and flexible production processes. Markets will continue to homogenize and diversify at the same time, so it is important that as a global marketer one addresses a market segment defined by income, age, and consumption habits and not by membership of a nation. The most visible and polarized is the premium segment fighting for high income clients where brand value plays an important role. Instead identification of large segments of customers offers the advantages of scale economy in production and marketing for global enterprises. Consumer profile is the dominant global consumer requesting and accepting global products and services easily. In fact, what can force an economic alignment to achieve the best performance, rather than the global consumer. The research methodology used includes literature review, comparative analysis, synthesis of data based on bibliographic resources and official documents.The aim of the paper is to highlight current models that underlie the competitive advantage of nations and assess the competitive advantage of Romania in the context of the global market. A case study is used to offer an overview of competitive advantage of Antibiotice Iasi SA, a competitive player, in a global pharmaceutical market with strong global competition. Countries moderate companies’ achievements of global efficiency objectives due to the countries’ rivalry. Romania has to understand that it is in competition with other countries in order to fulfill economic, political and social objectives. The scope in the end is the well

  16. Lithium clearance method and the renal response to low-dose dopamine in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Niels Vidiendal; Olsen, M H; Fogh-Andersen, N

    1993-01-01

    .00 hours on three different occasions. After an overnight fast, the subjects were water-loaded and clearance studies were started at 09.00 hours with a 1h baseline period and three 1h periods during dopamine infusion. 2. Baseline sodium clearance with placebo was 0.65 +/- 0.35 ml/min, but with lithium.......05) and 10% (P sodium clearance were significantly diminished after 450mg (P ... values of sodium clearance and effective renal plasma flow.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)...

  17. Clearance rate of Mytilus edulis (L.) as a function of current velocity and mussel aggregation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Pernille; Vismann, Bent

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to investigate the effect of water current velocities on the clearance rate of Mytilus edulis when different numbers of mussels were used in the experiments. An automatic setup, which controlled and monitored the algal concentration continually, was used to measure...... the effect of increasing current velocity (0.05-1.4 m/sec) on the M. edulis clearance rate. Clearance rate measurements were performed under constant food concentrations of 3,000 cells/mL of Rhodomonas salina on either 3 mussels or 20 mussels. We found that the clearance rate of 20 mussels was unaffected...

  18. The Role of Radial Clearance on the Performance of Foil Air Bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radil, Kevin; Howard, Samuel; Dykas, Brian

    2002-01-01

    Load capacity tests were conducted to determine how radial clearance variations affect the load capacity coefficient of foil air bearings. Two Generation III foil air bearings with the same design but possessing different initial radial clearances were tested at room temperature against an as-ground PS304 coated journal operating at 30,000 rpm. Increases in radial clearance were accomplished by reducing the journal's outside diameter via an in-place grinding system. From each load capacity test the bearing load capacity coefficient was calculated from the rule-of-thumb (ROT) model developed for foil air bearings. The test results indicate that, in terms of the load capacity coefficient, radial clearance has a direct impact on the performance of the foil air bearing. Each test bearing exhibited an optimum radial clearance that resulted in a maximum load capacity coefficient. Relative to this optimum value are two separate operating regimes that are governed by different modes of failure. Bearings operating with radial clearances less than the optimum exhibit load capacity coefficients that are a strong function of radial clearance and are prone to a thermal runaway failure mechanism and bearing seizure. Conversely, a bearing operating with a radial clearance twice the optimum suffered only a 20 percent decline in its maximum load capacity coefficient and did not experience any thermal management problems. However, it is unknown to what degree these changes in radial clearance had on other performance parameters, such as the stiffness and damping properties of the bearings.

  19. 77 FR 28853 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Generic Clearance for Usability Data Collections

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-16

    ... Clearance for Usability Data Collections AGENCY: National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST... data collections will be designed to determine requirement and evaluate the usability and utility of...

  20. Analysis of foot clearance in firefighters during ascent and descent of stairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesler, Richard M; Horn, Gavin P; Rosengren, Karl S; Hsiao-Wecksler, Elizabeth T

    2016-01-01

    Slips, trips, and falls are a leading cause of injury to firefighters with many injuries occurring while traversing stairs, possibly exaggerated by acute fatigue from firefighting activities and/or asymmetric load carriage. This study examined the effects that fatigue, induced by simulated firefighting activities, and hose load carriage have on foot clearance while traversing stairs. Landing and passing foot clearances for each stair during ascent and descent of a short staircase were investigated. Clearances decreased significantly (p stair clearance or an increased risk of over-stepping during descent. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  1. 76 FR 59379 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Generic Clearance for Research in Development...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-26

    ... Treasury Department Clearance Officer, Department of the Treasury, Room 11010, 1750 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW... during the shopping, application, and origination process. In addition, the CFPB may perform qualitative...

  2. TAX HARMONIZATION VERSUS FISCAL COMPETITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Alexandru MACSIM

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent years have brought into discussion once again subjects like tax harmonization and fiscal competition. Every time the European Union tends to take a step forward critics enter the scene and give contrary arguments to European integration. Through this article we have offered our readers a compelling view over the “battle” between tax harmonization and fiscal competition. While tax harmonization has key advantages as less costs regarding public revenues, leads to higher degree of integration and allows the usage of fiscal transfers between regions, fiscal competition is no less and presents key advantages as high reductions in tax rates and opens a large path for new investments, especially FDI. Choosing tax harmonization or fiscal competition depends on a multitude of variables, of circumstances, the decision of choosing one path or the other being ultimately influenced by the view of central and local authorities. Our analysis indicates that if we refer to a group of countries that are a part of a monetary union or that form a federation, tax harmonization seems to be the best path to choose. Moving the analysis to a group of regions that aren’t taking any kind of correlated actions or that have not signed any major treaties regarding monetary or fiscal policies, the optimal solution is fiscal competition.

  3. Competitive Liner Shipping Network Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karsten, Christian Vad

    The goal of this thesis is to develop decision support tools, which can be used to optimize container shipping networks while supporting competitive transportation services. The competitiveness of container liner shipping is to a high degree determined by transportation times and number of transs......The goal of this thesis is to develop decision support tools, which can be used to optimize container shipping networks while supporting competitive transportation services. The competitiveness of container liner shipping is to a high degree determined by transportation times and number...... of transshipments on the most important sailing routes. The proposed methods in this thesis, aimed at liner shipping network design, integrate competitiveness such that the fuel consumption per transported container is reduced without increasing the transit times.A well-designed route net is decisive for container...... shipping company earnings.The operation of the route net constitute the majority of the total costs, so it is essential to achieve a good capacity utilization in a route plan with travel times that satisfy customer requirements. Most academic articles dealing with the design of container networks neither...

  4. The Scientific Competitiveness of Nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimini, Giulio; Gabrielli, Andrea; Sylos Labini, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    We use citation data of scientific articles produced by individual nations in different scientific domains to determine the structure and efficiency of national research systems. We characterize the scientific fitness of each nation-that is, the competitiveness of its research system-and the complexity of each scientific domain by means of a non-linear iterative algorithm able to assess quantitatively the advantage of scientific diversification. We find that technological leading nations, beyond having the largest production of scientific papers and the largest number of citations, do not specialize in a few scientific domains. Rather, they diversify as much as possible their research system. On the other side, less developed nations are competitive only in scientific domains where also many other nations are present. Diversification thus represents the key element that correlates with scientific and technological competitiveness. A remarkable implication of this structure of the scientific competition is that the scientific domains playing the role of "markers" of national scientific competitiveness are those not necessarily of high technological requirements, but rather addressing the most "sophisticated" needs of the society.

  5. MICROECONOMIC ANALYSIS IN COMPETITION POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Prisecaru

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents some of the most important microeconomic tools used in assessing antitrust and merger cases by the competition authorities. By explaining the way that microeconomic concepts like “market power”, “critical loss” or “price elasticity of demand” are used by the modern competition policy, the microeconomics scholar can get a practical perspective on the way that these concepts fit into the more general concept of “competition policy”. Extensive economic research has shown what are the market forces and economic factors that determine how cartels, which are at the core of antitrust policy, are established and sustained over time. One of the most important of these factors is the markets exposure to innovation, especially disruptive innovation. In these markets, the paradox, from a competition policy perspective, can be considered the fact that collusion is one of the least important concerns, due to the specific elements that determine the nature of competition.Instead, the main anticompetitive risk in the markets exposed to intensive innovation is unilateral conduct by which dominant incumbents can exclude competitors.

  6. Designing competitions for education in robotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Nils Axel; Ravn, Ole

    2012-01-01

    The paper describes design considerations for making a robot competition. Topics as level of participants, learning objective, evaluation form, task design and competition rules are treated. It is shown that careful design considering these topics are necessary for a succesful outcome...... of a competition. The conclusions are based on examples from more than 15 years of experience with robotic competitions....

  7. Assessment of glomerular filtration rate in diabetic nephropathy using the plasma clearance of 51Cr-EDTA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, H P; Rossing, P; Mathiesen, E R

    1998-01-01

    Plasma clearance of 51Cr-EDTA is widely used to assess the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in diabetic nephropathy. Originally, the ratio between the intravenously injected amount of tracer and the total area under the plasma concentration curve was used for the calculation of total 51Cr...... and rate of decline in GFR based upon these three methods. Bland & Altman plots were used to illustrate the range of agreement. We investigated 76 insulin-dependent diabetic (IDDM) patients with microalbuminuria or diabetic nephropathy. GFR was measured after a single intravenous injection of 3.7 MBq 51Cr...

  8. Tuning Mazda B6 Engine for Sports Competitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukács, E.; Polóni, M.

    2011-12-01

    Improving output parameters of the Mazda B6 combustion engine from the vehicle Mazda 323 for amateur "hill climb" and "rally" competitions has been analysed. Tuning of such an engine for sport competitions means the optimisation of its parameters at the lowest possible economic costs, within the revolution range 4000 - 6000 min-1, where the engine during competition works most often. With the help of the program Lotus Engine Simulations, the construction of the exhaust manifold has been optimised, together with valve timing and other adjustments, listed in the work, on output parameters of the engine. The optimum combinations of parameters were experimentally verified on a chassis dynamometer. Final adaptations have led within the previously specified range of revolutions to an improvement between 5 and 22% in power and torque.

  9. Bronchoscintigraphy and pulmonary clearance of {sup 99{sup m}}Tc-albumin colloid in study of mucociliary clearance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mortensen, Jann

    1998-12-31

    A radioaerosol based method for measuring MC was introduced. It included an inhalation protocol that resulted in a predominant deposition of radioaerosol in the central bronchi and two simple procedures of evaluation: 1) a visual semi-quantitative bronchoscintigraphic analysis, and 2) a quantitative analysis of the retention of the radioactivity at different points after the inhalation. The results showed that bronchoscintigraphy was a simple technique that may be used to visualize a stimulation of mucociliary transport in the central airways of individuals that do not suffer from too much mucus hypersecretion. Comparison of the MC between individuals, however, should preferably be performed by the method of quantitative analysis of the radioactivity disappearance. A change of MC was found to be one of the first detectable effects on lung function of tobacco smoking. It could be effectively detected by measurement of radioaerosol clearance both by bronchoscintigraphy and simple quantification of the MC. The MC may be either acutely enhanced, reduced or not changed by smoking. Long-term smoking impairs MC. The enhancement of MC by {beta}{sub 2}-agonists was very limited in most patients with CF. In the hope of increasing mucus transport in patients with CF, these are treated with various chest physiotherapy techniques. The radioaerosol based method of measurement of MC could assess mucus clearance by chest physiotherapy and cough. (au) 141 refs.

  10. Osmotic diuresis-induced hypernatremia: better explained by solute-free water clearance or electrolyte-free water clearance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popli, Subhash; Tzamaloukas, Antonios H; Ing, Todd S

    2014-01-01

    Hypernatremia may result from inadequate water intake, excessive water loss or a combination of the two. Osmotic diuresis leads to losses of both solute and water. The relationship between solute and water losses determines the resulting changes in serum osmolality and sodium concentration. Total solute loss is routinely higher than loss of water in osmotic diuresis. Theoretically, then, decreases in serum osmolality (and serum sodium concentration) should follow. In clinical situations of osmotic diuresis, however, reduction in osmolality can take place, but not reduction in serum sodium concentration. It is of note that serum sodium concentration changes are related to urinary losses of sodium and potassium but not to the loss of total solute. In osmotic diuresis, the combined loss of sodium and potassium per liter of urine is lower than the concurrent serum sodium level. Consequently, hypernatremia can ensue. A patient who presented with osmotic diuresis and hypernatremia is described here. In this patient, we have shown that electrolyte-free water clearance is a better index of the effect of osmotic diuresis on serum sodium concentration than the classic solute-free water clearance.

  11. Finite land resources and competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haberl, Helmut; Mbow, Cheikh; Deng, Xiangzheng

    2014-01-01

    such as fossil fuels), mitigation and adaptation policies related to climate change, as well as climate change impacts and demographic pressures. The chapter concludes with a discussion of major research gaps, and it outlines priority research topics, including the improved analysis of interdependencies of land...... as their functions (objectives, distribution/ equity, effectiveness/efficiency). Analysis of long-term trajectories suggests that land-use competition is likely to intensify in the medium- to long-term future, mainly in the face of expected scarcities in resource supply (e.g., in terms of limited resources......Rising demand for land-based products (food, feed, fi ber, and bioenergy) as well as conservation of forests and carbon sinks create increasing competition for land. Landuse competition has many drivers, takes different forms, and can have many significant implications for ecosystems as well...

  12. INNOVATIVE CLUSTER OR COMPETITIVENESS POLE?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Scutaru

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the situation of clusters in Romania and their areas of activity and innovation in entrepreneurship Romanian state. It is made also a territorial distribution of clusters on the eight regions. The findings lead to the conclusion that there are some clusters that have the vocation to become poles of competitiveness in areas such as renewable energy, automotive, electronics, health, biotechnology, mechatronics or ICT (Information and Communication Technology which represent the resources for future of the Romanian economy. Regarding the degree of innovation of Romanian Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs, the level is relatively modest, 30.8% of all enterprises being innovative. If we were to answer the question the title suggests, we would say "yes" to both since the innovative cluster as well as the competitiveness pole promotes par excellence, innovation through study, research and stimulation of creativity. And this is more than enough to support economic growth of Romania and maintain the competitiveness worldwide.

  13. Accident prevention in competitive cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLennan, J G; McLennan, J C; Ungersma, J

    1988-01-01

    A prospective study of risk factors and injury patterns of competitive cyclists in 10 races at altitudes over 1,500 meters was carried out over 4 years. In 1986, 1,500 licensed racers were compared to a similar group of over 3,900 racers in the 3 previous years to determine if the incidence and severity of injury could be lessened. Factors addressed were the use of helmets, binding-type pedals, equipment inspection, improved medical coverage, and the prevention of acute mountain sickness and exposure. The injury rate and injuries per 100 hours of racing competition were half of that seen in prior years. Severity of injury was lessened as over 80% of the injured racers returned to competition within 1 week in contrast to only 66% during the period from 1983 to 1985. A successful program for injury prevention and the lessening of the severity of injury at altitudes is proposed.

  14. NEW APPROACHES TO EXPORT COMPETITIVENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Petronela NEGREA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The economic literature and the political discourse typically look at international competitiveness mainly by the means of export market shares. However, globalisation, production fragmentation and the growing importance of global value chains (GVCs increasingly challenge traditional approaches of export competitiveness and call for a more accurate and disaggregated level of analysis. Due to the growing fragmentation of production, a country exports now include a significant amount of imports of intermediate goods which are part of the export value. In this case, a simple analysis of the evolution of exports can distort the international competitive position of a country. The article suggests a new approach based on the value-added content of international trade measured by means of global value chain analysis.

  15. Game on: creating competitive advantages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riskind, Patricia; Foreman, M Shane

    2004-01-01

    Whether you are opening a new imaging center or trying to keep an existing center competitive, there are 3 critical factors: customer service, marketing, and a "what's next?" attitude. Customer service: Outstanding customer service is what sticks in the minds of referring physicians and patients. Not only does providing better service differentiate you from the competition, but it also boosts employee morale and motivates people to acquire new skills. Marketing: From the front office staff to the radiologists,promoting the center should be part of every employee's job description. Simply paying lip service to the concept of marketing will not cut it. A "what's next?" attitude: Complacency is a luxury that does not exist in today's competitive health care arena. Three facilities provide examples of how these factors applied to their success.

  16. Rapid Treponema pallidum clearance from blood and ulcer samples following single dose benzathine penicillin treatment of early syphilis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig Tipple

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the efficacy of syphilis treatment is measured with anti-lipid antibody tests. These can take months to indicate cure and, as a result, syphilis treatment trials require long periods of follow-up. The causative organism, Treponema pallidum (T. pallidum, is detectable in the infectious lesions of early syphilis using DNA amplification. Bacteraemia can likewise be identified, typically in more active disease. We hypothesise that bacterial clearance from blood and ulcers will predict early the standard serology-measured treatment response and have developed a qPCR assay that could monitor this clearance directly in patients with infectious syphilis. Patients with early syphilis were given an intramuscular dose of benzathine penicillin. To investigate the appropriate sampling timeframe samples of blood and ulcer exudate were collected intensively for T. pallidum DNA (tpp047 gene and RNA (16S rRNA quantification. Sampling ended when two consecutive PCRs were negative. Four males were recruited. The mean peak level of T. pallidum DNA was 1626 copies/ml whole blood and the mean clearance half-life was 5.7 hours (std. dev. 0.53. The mean peak of 16S rRNA was 8879 copies/ml whole blood with a clearance half-life of 3.9 hours (std. dev. 0.84. From an ulcer, pre-treatment, 67,400 T. pallidum DNA copies and 7.08 x 107 16S rRNA copies were detected per absorbance strip and the clearance half-lives were 3.2 and 4.1 hours, respectively. Overall, T. pallidum nucleic acids were not detected in any sample collected more than 56 hours (range 20-56 after treatment. All patients achieved serologic cure. In patients with active early syphilis, measuring T. pallidum levels in blood and ulcer exudate may be a useful measure of treatment success in therapeutic trials. These laboratory findings need confirmation on a larger scale and in patients receiving different therapies.

  17. CFD simulation of a dry scroll vacuum pump with clearances, solid heating and thermal deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spille-Kohoff, A.; Hesse, J.; Andres, R.; Hetze, F.

    2017-08-01

    Although dry scroll vacuum pumps (DSPV) are essential devices in many different industrial processes, the CFD simulation of such pumps is not widely used and often restricted to simplified cases due to its complexity: The working principle with a fixed and an orbiting scroll leads to working chambers that are changing in time and are connected through moving small radial and axial clearances in the range of 10 to 100 μm. Due to the low densities and low mass flow rates in vacuum pumps, it is important to include heat transfer towards and inside the solid components. Solid heating is very slow compared to the scroll revolution speed and the gas behaviour, thus a special workflow is necessary to reach the working conditions in reasonable simulation times. The resulting solid temperature is then used to compute the thermal deformation, which usually results in gap size changes that influence leakage flows. In this paper, setup steps and results for the simulation of a DSVP are shown and compared to theoretical and experimental results. The time-varying working chambers are meshed with TwinMesh, a hexahedral meshing programme for positive displacement machines. The CFD simulation with ANSYS CFX accounts for gas flow with compressibility and turbulence effects, conjugate heat transfer between gas and solids, and leakage flows through the clearances. Time-resolved results for torques, chamber pressure, mass flow, and heat flow between gas and solids are shown, as well as time- and space-resolved results for pressure, velocity, and temperature for different operating conditions of the DSVP.

  18. Augmented Renal Clearance in Critical Illness: An Important Consideration in Drug Dosing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherif Hanafy Mahmoud

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Augmented renal clearance (ARC is a manifestation of enhanced renal function seen in critically ill patients. The use of regular unadjusted doses of renally eliminated drugs in patients with ARC might lead to therapy failure. The purpose of this scoping review was to provide and up-to-date summary of the available evidence pertaining to the phenomenon of ARC. A literature search of databases of available evidence in humans, with no language restriction, was conducted. Databases searched were MEDLINE (1946 to April 2017, EMBASE (1974 to April 2017 and the Cochrane Library (1999 to April 2017. A total of 57 records were included in the present review: 39 observational studies (25 prospective, 14 retrospective, 6 case reports/series and 12 conference abstracts. ARC has been reported to range from 14–80%. ARC is currently defined as an increased creatinine clearance of greater than 130 mL/min/1.73 m2 best measured by 8–24 h urine collection. Patients exhibiting ARC tend to be younger (<50 years old, of male gender, had a recent history of trauma, and had lower critical illness severity scores. Numerous studies have reported antimicrobials treatment failures when using standard dosing regimens in patients with ARC. In conclusion, ARC is an important phenomenon that might have significant impact on outcome in critically ill patients. Identifying patients at risk, using higher doses of renally eliminated drugs or use of non-renally eliminated alternatives might need to be considered in ICU patients with ARC. More research is needed to solidify dosing recommendations of various drugs in patients with ARC.

  19. in_focus - Competition and Development: The Power of Competitive ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2008-01-01

    Jan 1, 2008 ... However, it has also made developing countries more vulnerable to new and potentially harmful types of anticompetitive business practices. ... true and fair competition to sustainable development and an effective marketplace, touching on issues of globalization, consumer welfare, cartels and monopolies, ...

  20. African Competition Forum: Promoting Open and Competitive Markets

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Markets in developing countries are often marked by anti-competitive behaviour, concentrated market power, and low access for newcomers. This limits local enterprise development and innovation. This project supports African countries in their bid to promote markets that work better for all producers and consumers.

  1. Credit rating dynamics and competition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hirth, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    I analyze the market for credit ratings with competition between more than two rating agencies. How can honest rating behavior be achieved, and under which conditions can a new honest rating agency successfully invade a market with inflating incumbents? My model predicts cyclic dynamics if sophis......I analyze the market for credit ratings with competition between more than two rating agencies. How can honest rating behavior be achieved, and under which conditions can a new honest rating agency successfully invade a market with inflating incumbents? My model predicts cyclic dynamics...

  2. Knee pain in competitive swimming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodeo, S A

    1999-04-01

    The high volume of training in competitive swimming results in cumulative overload injuries. Knee pain ranks second to shoulder pain as a common complaint in competitive swimmers. Most knee pain occurs on the medial side of the knee and, most commonly, in breaststroke swimmers; however, knee pain may accompany all strokes. This article reviews the incidence of knee pain, the biomechanic and anatomic factors predisposing to injury, specific injury patterns, injury diagnosis, and the treatment and prevention of injury to the knee in swimmers.

  3. Effect of clearance and punch speed on the cutting surface quality results of a brass blanking on the micropunch CNC machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ristiawan, Ichsan; Mahardika, Muslim

    2017-04-01

    This study is an early stage of testing of micro punch CNC machine that has been created to obtain the best parameters in the blanking process by using certain variables. An experiment to determine the effect of clearance and the punch speed in brass with the workpiece in the form of a circular hole diameter of 800 µm was conducted. This study uses micro punch CNC machine designed and tested through simulations and experiments directly related to the ability and requirement. Clearance used is 2.5 to 10% with a certain range. The slab thickness used is 300 µm. The punch speed variation used is 100, 800, 1600 and 2500 mm / minute. This study shows the influence of clearance on the punch result surface quality, the smaller of the clearance then the greater burnish area produced than the roll over, fracture and burr zone. The effect of the punch speed used show low leverage. Design, manufacturing, and testing of this machine is an early reference to the development of punch machine in the manufacturing of medical devices and micro-sized mechanics such as micro-filter and bone plates.

  4. Improvements in Obstacle Clearance Parameters and Reaction Time Over a Series of Obstacles Revealed After Five Repeated Testing Sessions in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jehu, Deborah A; Lajoie, Yves; Paquet, Nicole

    2017-12-21

    The purpose of this study was to investigate obstacle clearance and reaction time parameters when crossing a series of six obstacles in older adults. A second aim was to examine the repeated exposure of this testing protocol once per week for 5 weeks. In total, 10 older adults (five females; age: 67.0 ± 6.9 years) walked onto and over six obstacles of varying heights (range: 100-200 mm) while completing no reaction time, simple reaction time, and choice reaction time tasks once per week for 5 weeks. The highest obstacles elicited the lowest toe clearance, and the first three obstacles revealed smaller heel clearance compared with the last three obstacles. Dual tasking negatively impacted obstacle clearance parameters when information processing demands were high. Longer and less consistent time to completion was observed in Session 1 compared with Sessions 2-5. Finally, improvements in simple reaction time were displayed after Session 2, but choice reaction time gradually improved and did not reach a plateau after repeated testing.

  5. Total skin clearance results in improvements in health-related quality of life and reduced symptom severity among patients with moderate to severe psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, Hema N; Chau, Dina; Milmont, Cassandra E; Yang, Wenjjing; Erondu, Ngozi; Revicki, Dennis A; Klekotka, Paul

    2015-06-01

    Newer therapies provide high levels of skin clearance in patients with moderate to severe psoriasis. However, insufficient evidence exists on the impact of total skin clearance from the patient's perspective. To examine effects of total skin clearance on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and psoriasis symptom severity in subjects with moderate to severe psoriasis. Pooled data from a phase 2 dose-ranging trial in psoriasis using brodalumab (antibody to interleukin-17 receptor A) were used to compare subjects with static physician global assessment (sPGA) 1 versus sPGA 0 and subjects with Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI) 75 to Quality Index (DLQI = 0) and no psoriasis symptoms (Psoriasis Symptom Inventory = 0). Of subjects with sPGA 0 (clear) and 1 (almost clear), 61.4% and 45.7% had a DLQI = 0 (p = 0.15), and 65.5% and 32.6% had a Psoriasis Symptom Inventory = 0 (p = 0.001), respectively. Significantly more subjects with sPGA 1 continued to report itching, redness, scaling, and flaking compared to subjects with sPGA 0. Similar results were observed based on PASI score. A higher proportion of subjects with total skin clearance reported no impairment in HRQoL and no psoriasis symptoms than those who were almost clear.

  6. Lactate Clearance Predicts Survival Among Patients in the Emergency Department with Severe Sepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sundeep R. Bhat

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Lactate clearance has been implicated as a predictor of mortality among emergency department (ED patients with severe sepsis or septic shock. We aimed to validate prior studies showing that lactate clearance during the ED stay is associated with decreased mortality. Methods: Retrospective dual-centered cross-sectional study using patients identified in the YaleNew Haven Hospital Emergency Medicine sepsis registry with severe sepsis or septic shock who had initial lactate levels measured in the ED and upon arrival (<24 hours to the hospital floor. Lactate clearance was calculated as percent of serum lactate change from ED to floor measurement. We compared mortality and hospital interventions between patients who cleared lactate and those who did not. Results: 207 patients (110 male; 63.17±17.9 years were included. Two reviewers extracted data with 95% agreement. One hundred thirty-six patients (65.7% had severe sepsis and 71 patients (34.3% had septic shock. There were 171 patients in the clearance group and 36 patients in the non-clearance group. The 28-day mortality rates were 15.2% in the lactate clearance group and 36.1% in the non-clearance group (p<0.01. Vasopressor support was initiated more often in the nonclearance group (61.1% than in the clearance group (36.8%, p<0.01 and mechanical ventilation was used in 66.7% of the non-clearance group and 36.3% of the clearance group (p=0.001. Conclusion: Patients who do not clear their lactate in the ED have significantly higher mortality than those with decreasing lactate levels. Our results are confirmatory of other literature supporting that lactate clearance may be used to stratify mortality-risk among patients with severe sepsis or septic shock.

  7. Competitive interactions are mediated in a sex-specific manner by arbuscular mycorrhiza in Antennaria dioica

    OpenAIRE

    Varga, Sandra; Vega-Frutis, Rocío; Kytöviita, Minna-Maarit

    2017-01-01

    Plants usually interact with other plants, and the outcome of such interaction ranges from facilitation to competition depending on the identity of the plants, including their sexual expression. Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi have been shown to modify competitive interactions in plants. However, few studies have evaluated how AM fungi influence plant intraspecific and interspecific interactions in dioecious species. The competitive abilities of female and male plants of Antennaria dioic...

  8. Marketing technologies for building competitiveness of companies export

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana Tsygankova

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In context of post-industrial development of global economy, escalating competition in international goods markets, the definition of competitive export is proposed based upon both existing criteria – sustainability, effectiveness, adaptivity and fair competition, and on those described in the work – ecological performance, service maintenance, brand awareness and high technology. Given that, it is proved that with the aim of detailing the elements of competitive export, the latter should be typified depending upon the performer (export competitiveness of a company, country, region and subject (export competitiveness of goods, services, rights upon intellectual property objects, keeping in mind universal and specific features of export criteria proposed to be characterised through a range of indices on corporate and state levels. Groups of factors affecting export competitiveness building are systematized (institutional, financial and economic, marketing, foreign trade, scientific and technological, resource-related and social and ecological. Marketing technologies are typified on corporate level under the following criteria: novelty, object, creative component availability, internationalization stages, international marketing forms, digitalization level, management functions, customer-centreness scale, international marketing activity stages, financial security, specific features of intercorporate coordination. The practice of applying international marketing technologies by companies is investigated. In context of necessity to overcome crisis phenomena and increase competitive export volume, an assessment is made of integrating national manufacturing into regulated global chains of creating added value with the relevant rating, in particular, depending upon the available potential, minimality of technical and organizational changes, marketing relevancy, enabling to determine the manufacturing areas most prepared to cooperation, and

  9. Construction training process of highly skilled players in mini-football for competition period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stasiuk I.I.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Analyzed the structure and content of the competition period in mini-football. It was determined that the structure of the competition period consists of 4 competitive mesocycles. In each mesocycle includes various types of micro-cycles (competitive, cross-game and rehabilitation. Reflects the ratio of specific and non-specific (general preparations means training work. So in the competitive period for competitive mesocycles general preparations exercises ranged from 38.3 to 42.4%, special-preparation - from 29.9 to 32.6%, competitive - from 20.9 to 23.3%. The intensity of the training load in intergame microcycles less than competitive. This corresponds to the strategy of building the training process in the competitive period. During the competition period the ratio of the training load was: aerobic focus - 49.2%, mixed - 46.1%, anaerobic alactate - 2.4%, anaerobic glycolytic - 2.3%. Defines the scope and focus of the training load: longer the aerobic work, then - mixed, anaerobic- alactate and anaerobic-glycolytic. The comparative characteristics of the intensity of the training load in competitive and intergame microcycles.

  10. Esophageal clearance scintigraphy in, diabetic patients; A preliminary study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karayalcin, B.; Karayalcin, U.; Aburano, Tamio; Nakajima, Kenichi; Hisada, Kinichi; Morise, Toshio; Okada, Toshihide; Takeda, Ryoyu (Kanazawa Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1992-05-01

    The aim of this preliminary study was to evaluate the predictive value of esophageal clearance scintigraphy (ECS) in the diagnosis of esophageal autonomic neuropathy in diabetic patients without any esophageal symptoms. A single swallon ECS was performed in 12 diabetic patients and 15 normal volunteers, and esophageal transit time (ETT) and esophageal (Es) T 1/2 values were calculated. ETT and Es 1/2 were found to be significantly prolonged in the diabetic group (p<0.01 and p<0.05, respectively). In this preliminary study, our results strongly suggest that ECS may be an important noninvasive diagnostic tool in the evaluation of diabetic patients with asymptomatic esophageal autonomic neuropathy. (author).

  11. Container scanning to reduce time of customs clearance process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri da Cunha Ferreira,

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available One way to increase customs clearance efficiency and to assure supply chain security is the use of non-intrusive inspection equipment, such as scanners. In Brazil, scanners are new, but their use at port terminals is growing rapidly. Considering the possibility of Brazilian Customs requesting 100% scanning of loads, this study aims to assess the operational impacts of this possible request at a specific port terminal. This is the originality of this research. To do so, this study uses applied simulation methods in a case study. Results show that for the current scenario, scanners do not appear to be an operational bottleneck at this port, but the scanning capacity will be exceeded with the planned port expansion. Hence, scheduling rules for single machines were applied to optimize scanning performance. These heuristics provided good performance, suggesting that scanners can provide benefits to priority cargo handling, and could eventually increase the performance of port terminals throughout the country.

  12. Macrophage Clearance of Apoptotic Cells: A Critical Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siamon Gordon

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available As the body continues to grow and age, it becomes essential to maintain a balance between living and dying cells. Macrophages and dendritic cells play a central role in discriminating among viable, apoptotic, and necrotic cells, as selective and efficient phagocytes, without inducing inappropriate inflammation or immune responses. A great deal has been learnt concerning clearance receptors for modified and non-self-ligands on potential targets, mediating their eventual uptake, disposal, and replacement. In this essay, we assess current understanding of the phagocytic recognition of apoptotic cells within their tissue environment; we conclude that efferocytosis constitutes a more complex process than simply removal of corpses, with regulatory interactions between the target and effector cells, which determine the outcome of this homeostatic process.

  13. Type 1 interferons contribute to the clearance of senescent cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katlinskaya, Yuliya V; Carbone, Christopher J; Yu, Qiujing; Fuchs, Serge Y

    2015-01-01

    The major known function of cytokines that belong to type I interferons (IFN, including IFNα and IFNβ) is to mount the defense against viruses. This function also protects the genetic information of host cells from alterations in the genome elicited by some of these viruses. Furthermore, recent studies demonstrated that IFN also restrict proliferation of damaged cells by inducing cell senescence. Here we investigated the subsequent role of IFN in elimination of the senescent cells. Our studies demonstrate that endogenous IFN produced by already senescent cells contribute to increased expression of the natural killer (NK) receptor ligands, including MIC-A and ULBP2. Furthermore, neutralization of endogenous IFN or genetic ablation of its receptor chain IFNAR1 compromises the recognition of senescent cells and their clearance in vitro and in vivo. We discuss the role of IFN in protecting the multi-cellular host from accumulation of damaged senescent cells and potential significance of this mechanism in human cancers.

  14. The Consumer Guide to Competition: A Practical Handbook | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This handbook, aimed at informing consumer organisations and advocates, explores the range of issues that competition analysis can cover and points out ... of regulation too often focuses on a simplistic reading of classical economics or small government, which causes polarized debates over issues of regulation. What is ...

  15. Are invasive plants more competitive than native conspecifics? Patterns vary with competitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yulong; Feng, Yulong; Valiente-Banuet, Alfonso; Li, Yangping; Liao, Zhiyong; Zhang, Jiaolin; Chen, Yajun

    2015-10-22

    Invasive plants are sometimes considered to be more competitive than their native conspecifics, according to the prediction that the invader reallocates resources from defense to growth due to liberation of natural enemies ['Evolution of Increased Competitive Ability' (EICA) hypothesis]. However, the differences in competitive ability may depend on the identity of competitors. In order to test the effects of competitors, Ageratina adenophora plants from both native and invasive ranges competed directly, and competed with native residents from both invasive (China) and native (Mexico) ranges respectively. Invasive A. adenophora plants were more competitive than their conspecifics from native populations when competing with natives from China (interspecific competition), but not when competing with natives from Mexico. Invasive A. adenophora plants also showed higher competitive ability when grown in high-density monoculture communities of plants from the same population (intrapopulation competition). In contrast, invasive A. adenophora plants showed lower competitive ability when competing with plants from native populations (intraspecific competition). Our results indicated that in the invasive range A. adenophora has evolved to effectively cope with co-occurring natives and high density environments, contributing to invasion success. Here, we showed the significant effects of competitors, which should be considered carefully when testing the EICA hypothesis.

  16. DJ-1/PARK7 Impairs Bacterial Clearance in Sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amatullah, Hajera; Shan, Yuexin; Beauchamp, Brittany L; Gali, Patricia L; Gupta, Sahil; Maron-Gutierrez, Tatiana; Speck, Edwin R; Fox-Robichaud, Alison E; Tsang, Jennifer L Y; Mei, Shirley H J; Mak, Tak W; Rocco, Patricia R M; Semple, John W; Zhang, Haibo; Hu, Pingzhao; Marshall, John C; Stewart, Duncan J; Harper, Mary-Ellen; Liaw, Patricia C; Liles, W Conrad; Dos Santos, Claudia C

    2017-04-01

    Effective and rapid bacterial clearance is a fundamental determinant of outcomes in sepsis. DJ-1 is a well-established reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger. Because cellular ROS status is pivotal to inflammation and bacterial killing, we determined the role of DJ-1 in bacterial sepsis. We used cell and murine models with gain- and loss-of-function experiments, plasma, and cells from patients with sepsis. Stimulation of bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs) with endotoxin resulted in increased DJ-1 mRNA and protein expression. Cellular and mitochondrial ROS was increased in DJ-1-deficient ( -/- ) BMMs compared with wild-type. In a clinically relevant model of polymicrobial sepsis (cecal ligation and puncture), DJ-1 -/- mice had improved survival and bacterial clearance. DJ-1 -/- macrophages exhibited enhanced phagocytosis and bactericidal activity in vitro, and adoptive transfer of DJ-1 -/- bone marrow-derived mononuclear cells rescued wild-type mice from cecal ligation and puncture-induced mortality. In stimulated BMMs, DJ-1 inhibited ROS production by binding to p47 phox , a critical component of the NADPH oxidase complex, disrupting the complex and facilitating Nox2 (gp91 phox ) ubiquitination and degradation. Knocking down DJ-1 (siRNA) in THP-1 (human monocytic cell line) and polymorphonuclear cells from patients with sepsis enhanced bacterial killing and respiratory burst. DJ-1 protein levels were elevated in plasma from patients with sepsis. Higher levels of circulating DJ-1 were associated with increased organ failure and death. These novel findings reveal DJ-1 impairs optimal ROS production for bacterial killing with important implications for host survival in sepsis.

  17. Thoracolumbar spine clearance: Clinical examination for patients with distracting injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cason, Ben; Rostas, Jack; Simmons, Jon; Frotan, Mohammed A; Brevard, Sidney B; Gonzalez, Richard P

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to prospectively assess the sensitivity of clinical examination to screen for thoracolumbar spine (TLS) injury in awake and alert blunt trauma patients with distracting injuries. From December 2012 to June 2014, all blunt trauma patients older than 13 years were prospectively evaluated as per standard TLS examination protocol at a Level 1 trauma center. Awake and alert patients with Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score of 14 or greater underwent clinical examination of the TLS. Clinical examination was performed regardless of distracting injuries. Patients with no complaints of pain or tenderness on examination of the TLS were considered clinically cleared of injury. Patients with distracting injuries, including those clinically cleared and those with complaints of TLS pain or tenderness, underwent computed tomographic scan of the entire TLS. Patients with minor distracting injuries were not considered to have a distracting injury. A total of 950 blunt trauma patients were entered, 530 (56%) of whom had at least one distracting injury. Two hundred nine patients (40%) with distracting injuries had a positive TLS clinical examination result, of whom 50 (25%) were diagnosed with TLS injury. Three hundred twenty-one patients (60%) with distracting injuries were initially clinically cleared, in whom 17 (5%) TLS injuries were diagnosed. There were no missed injuries that required surgical intervention, with only four injuries receiving TLS orthotic bracing. This yielded an overall clinical clearance sensitivity for injury of 75% and sensitivity for clinically significant injury of 89%. In awake and alert blunt trauma patients with distracting injuries, clinical examination is a sensitive screening method for significant TLS injury. Radiologic assessment may be unnecessary for safe clearance of the asymptomatic TLS in patients with distracting injuries. These findings suggest significant potential reduction of both health care cost and patient

  18. Atorvastatin delays the glucose clearance rate in hypercholesterolemic rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Daxin; Wang, Yanli; Gao, Shoucui; Wang, Xiaojing; Sun, Wentao; Bai, Liang; Cheng, Gong; Chu, Yonglie; Zhao, Sihai; Liu, Enqi

    2015-05-01

    The administration of statin might increase the risk of new-onset diabetes in hypercholesterolemic patients based on the recent clinical evidence. However, the causal relationship must be clarified and confirmed in animal experiments. Therefore, we mimicked hypercholesterolemia by feeding rabbits a high-cholesterol diet (HCD) and performed 16 weeks of atorvastatin administration to investigate the effect of statin on glucose metabolism. The intravenous glucose tolerance test showed that plasma glucose levels in the statin-treated rabbits were consistently higher and that there was a slower rate of glucose clearance from the blood than in HCD rabbits. The incremental area under the curve for glucose in the statin-treated rabbits was also significantly larger than in the HCD rabbits. However, there was no significant difference between the two groups in the intravenous insulin tolerance test. The glucose-lowering ability of exogenous insulin was not impaired by statin treatment in hypercholesterolemic rabbits. The administration of a single dose of statin did not affect glucose metabolism in normal rabbits. The statin also significantly increased the levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, alanine aminotransferase and aspartate transaminase and decreased plasma levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in the hypercholesterolemic rabbits, whereas it did not affect plasma levels of glucose and insulin. The current results showed that atorvastatin treatment resulted in a significant delay of glucose clearance in hypercholesterolemic rabbits, and this rabbit model could be suitable for studying the effects of statin on glucose metabolism. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Competitive economics of nuclear power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hellman, R.

    1981-03-02

    Some 12 components of a valid study of the competitive economics of a newly ordered nuclear power plant are identified and explicated. These are then used to adjust the original cost projections of four authoritative studies of nuclear and coal power economics.

  20. Building New Competition Law Regimes

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The new administration had no choice but to devise a set of urgent economic reforms to replace the poorly-performing state-led development strategy. ...... Interestingly, the promulgation of both competition laws in 1979 and 1999 were products of the military-installed governments, rather than elected civilian governments.

  1. The Reinforcement Learning Competition 2014

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dimitrakakis, C.; Li, G.; Tziortziotis, N.

    2014-01-01

    Reinforcement learning is one of the most general problems in artificial intelligence. It has been used to model problems in automated experiment design, control, economics, game playing, scheduling and telecommunications. The aim of the reinforcement learning competition is to encourage the

  2. Competitive behaviour in supply chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwia Konecka

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The article deals with the results of literature and empirical research into competitiveness and behaviour of entities in supply chains. Methods: A research hypothesis has been formulated that both partnership as well as dominance relations occur between enterprises functioning as suppliers-consignees. In order to verify the hypothesis a survey was completed in 2012. It encompassed 116 enterprises (manufacturers - 33, service providers - 32 and sellers - 24 as well as enterprises selling goods and providing services - 27 of which 54 were large, 26 medium and 36 were small enterprises. Competitive behaviour in supply chains has been identified and analysed. Furthermore, the authors intended to identify, reveal and examine possible interdependences between competitive behaviour and behaviour typical of supply chain strategies. Results and conclusions: The analysis of survey results revealed a tendency to preserve equilibrium between a chain leader and dependent enterprises. It may be easily justified in practice as on the one hand there is a need to keep the supply chain competitive and on the other hand to avoid the interruptions, which could occur as a result of elimination of dependent enterprises.

  3. Robotics Competitions and Science Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benke, Gertraud

    2012-01-01

    This paper looks at the distinctions between science classrooms and the robotics competition described in the article "Examining the mediation of power in a collaborative community: engaging in informal science as authentic practice" written by Anton Puvirajah, Geeta Verma and Horace Webb. Using the framework of "productive disciplinary…

  4. EU environmental policy and competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Boban

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Protection of the environment was not a specific importance to the Community although the Treaty of Rome expressly specified that "health, safety environmental protection" shall be based on "a high level of protection". In deciding upon a framework for a European environmental policy, the Community was also responding to increased public awareness of the problem and concerns about the state of the natural and man-made environment. During the past years, competitiveness concerns have dominated the EU policy debate, in the course of which a growing consensus is being developed on the importance of eco-innovations and resource efficiency for EU competitiveness and on the market opportunities they offer. There is an increasing evidence that environmental policy and eco-innovations can promote economic growth, as well as maintain and create jobs, contributing both to competitiveness and employment. Environmental constraints to rapid economic growth are increasingly recognized by countries, leading to a rising awareness of the need for sustainable development. Implementation of an environmental policy however, generates significant implications for competition among countries.

  5. Competition in a Social Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legara, Erika Fille; Longjas, Anthony; Batac, Rene

    Complex adaptive agents develop strategies in the presence of competition. In modern human societies, there is an inherent sense of locality when describing inter-agent dynamics because of its network structure. One then wonders whether the traditional advertising schemes that are globally publicized and target random individuals are as effective in attracting a larger portion of the population as those that take advantage of local neighborhoods, such as "word-of-mouth" marketing schemes. Here, we demonstrate using a differential equation model that schemes targeting local cliques within the network are more successful at gaining a larger share of the population than those that target users randomly at a global scale (e.g., television commercials, print ads, etc.). This suggests that success in the competition is dependent not only on the number of individuals in the population but also on how they are connected in the network. We further show that the model is general in nature by considering examples of competition dynamics, particularly those of business competition and language death.

  6. Competitive Liner Shipping Network Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karsten, Christian Vad; Brouer, Berit Dangaard; Pisinger, David

    2017-01-01

    leg are used to balance sailing speed against operational costs, hence ensuring that the found network is competitive on both transit time and cost. We present a matheuristic for the problem where a MIP is used to select which ports should be inserted or removed on a route. Computational results...... on fluctuations in bunker price which confirms the applicability of the algorithm....

  7. Competition with Charters Motivates Districts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holley, Marc J.; Lueken, Martin F.; Egalite, Anna J.

    2013-01-01

    Proponents of market-based education reform often argue that introducing charter schools and other school choice policies creates a competitive dynamic that will prompt low-performing districts to improve their practice. Rather than simply providing an alternative to neighborhood public schools for a handful of students, the theory says, school…

  8. Urban Competition and Urban Crisis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Anni

    The essay gives a brief summery of Michel Foucault's 1978-1979 lectures which offers an important point of reference for a deeper understanding of the shift from liberal to neo-liberal ideas. Here he points out that neo-liberalism is an art of governemt that seeks to enforce competition. But his ...

  9. Cooperative competition for future mobility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nunen, E. van; Kwakkernaat, M.R.J.A.E.; Ploeg, J.; Netten, B.D.

    2012-01-01

    In May 2011, the Grand Cooperative Driving Challenge (GCDC) was held, providing the possibility for teams to develop and compare their cooperative driving solutions in a competitive setting. The challenge was organized to further accelerate developments in the area of cooperative driving. Nine

  10. Competitive Cooperation: The Iceberg Profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Jerry L.

    Competitive athletes' scores on the Profile of Mood States (POMS) test create an iceberg-like pattern known as the "Iceberg Profile." Their scores for tension, depression, anger, fatigue, and confusion are low while their scores on vigor juts upward creating the "Iceberg Profile." Persons in a cooperative relationship are often…

  11. An Amusement Park Physics Competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moll, Rachel F.

    2010-01-01

    Amusement park physics is a popular way to reinforce physics concepts and to motivate physics learners. This article describes a novel physics competition where students use simple tools to take amusement park ride measurements and use the data to answer challenging exam questions. Research into the impact of participating in the competition…

  12. Market competition and efficient cooperation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandts, J.; Riedl, A.M.

    2016-01-01

    We use laboratory experiments to study the causal effects of favorable and unfavorable competitive market experience on cooperation in a subsequent social dilemma game. The issues we study are part of the broader topic of whether there are behavioral spillovers between different spheres of social

  13. Cooperation and competition between relatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    West, S.A.; Pen, I.R.; Griffin, A.S.

    2002-01-01

    Individuals are predicted to. behave more altruistically and less competitively toward their relatives, because they share a relatively high proportion of their genes (e.g., one-half for siblings and one-eighth for cousins). Consequently, by helping a relative reproduce, an individual passes its

  14. Competition, cooperation, and corporate culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kosfeld, M.; von Siemens, F.A.

    2011-01-01

    Cooperation between workers can be of substantial value to a firm, yet its level often varies substantially between firms. We show that these differences can unfold in a competitive labor market if workers have heterogeneous social preferences and preferences are private information. In our model,

  15. "Project Psychology": A Classroom Competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleck, Bethany K. B.; Hussey, Heather D.

    2009-01-01

    The authors describe an original and unique series of classroom group-work activities organized as a competitive game called "Project Psychology," which was implemented in an Introduction to Psychology course. The project goals included increasing student participation, interest, content comprehension, and motivation. Fostering…

  16. increased larval competitive ability without

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-06-01

    Jun 1, 2016 ... tion at high density should result in the increase of efficiency of conversion of food to biomass, and were better interpreted through the lens of α-selection. We show here that populations of D. ananassae and D. n. nasuta subjected to extreme larval crowding evolve greater competitive ability and pre-adult ...

  17. Competition, cooperation, and collective choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Thomas; Reuben Paris, Ernesto Guillermo; Tyran, Jean-Robert Karl

    The ability of groups to implement efficiency-enhancing institutions is emerging as a central theme of research in economics. This paper explores voting on a scheme of intergroup competition which facilitates cooperation in a social dilemma situation. Experimental results show that the competitiv...

  18. Competition and Mergers among Nonprofits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prüfer, J.

    2007-01-01

    Should mergers among nonprofit organizations be regulated differently than mergers among for-profit firms? The relevant empirical literature is highly controversial, the theoretical literature is scarce. We analyze the question by modeling duopoly competition with quality-differentiated goods. We

  19. Competition and Mergers among Nonprofits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prüfer, J.

    2007-01-01

    Should mergers among nonprofit organizations be regulated differently than mergers among for-profit firms? The relevant empirical literature is highly controversial, the theoretical literature is scarce. I analyze the question by modeling duopoly competition with quality-differentiated goods. I

  20. Competitive Think Tanks in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelstrup, Jesper Dahl

    the view that changing policy environments results in convergence of think tank strategies across Europe. As a perspective the paper shows that competitive think tanks do have a high average impact pr. staff on both mass and new media compared to other types of think tanks. This may indicate...

  1. Media Competition and Electoral Politics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piolatto, A.; Schuett, F.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: We build a framework linking competition in the media market to political participation, media slant, and selection of politicians. Media outlets report on the ability of candidates running for office and compete for audience through their choice of slant. Citizens derive utility from

  2. Plasma clearance of noradrenaline does not change with age in normal subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilsted, J; Christensen, N J; Larsen, S

    1985-01-01

    Noradrenaline kinetics (plasma concentrations, plasma clearance and appearance rates) were investigated in seven elderly healthy subjects and in six young healthy subjects. Forearm venous plasma noradrenaline concentrations were higher in the elderly subjects compared with the young subjects....... Plasma clearance of noradrenaline was identical in the two groups. The increase in plasma noradrenaline concentration, with age, probably reflects an increased sympathetic nervous activity....

  3. 76 FR 35069 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Generic Clearance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-15

    ..., in accordance with the Administration's commitment to improving service delivery. By qualitative... Request; Generic Clearance for the Collection of Qualitative Feedback on Agency Service Delivery AGENCY...): ``Generic Clearance for the Collection of Qualitative Feedback on Agency Service Delivery '' to OMB for...

  4. 77 FR 6128 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Generic Clearance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-07

    ... Administration's commitment to improving service delivery. By qualitative feedback we mean information that... Collection; Comment Request; Generic Clearance for the Collection of Qualitative Feedback on Agency Service... Collection Request (Generic ICR): ``Generic Clearance for the Collection of Qualitative Feedback on Agency...

  5. 76 FR 25693 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Generic Clearance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-05

    ... Administration's commitment to improving service delivery. By qualitative feedback we mean information that... Clearance for the Collection of Qualitative Feedback on Agency Service Delivery AGENCY: U.S. Department of...): ``Generic Clearance for the Collection of Qualitative Feedback on Agency Service Delivery'' to OMB for...

  6. 77 FR 15139 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Comment Request; Generic Survey Clearance for the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-14

    ..., contracts, and cooperative agreements to colleges, universities, and other eligible institutions, and... Clearance (TOC), NSF primarily uses the data from the EHR Generic Clearance for program planning, management... attainment of NSF's program, project, and strategic goals, and as identified by the President's...

  7. Renal Clearance: Using an Interactive Activity to Visualize a Tricky Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Kerry

    2016-01-01

    Renal clearance, the volume of blood cleared of a substance in a particular time period, is commonly recognized as one of the most difficult concepts in physiology. This difficulty may in part reflect the quantitative nature of renal clearance since many life sciences majors perceive that mathematics is irrelevant to their discipline. Students may…

  8. 78 FR 69643 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Generic Clearance for Customer Satisfaction...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-20

    ... extension of the generic clearance to conduct customer satisfaction research which may be in the form of... customer satisfaction research efforts. Each research design is reviewed for content, utility, and user... Census Bureau Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Generic Clearance for Customer...

  9. 75 FR 38775 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Generic Clearance for Customer Satisfaction...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-06

    ...; Generic Clearance for Customer Satisfaction Research AGENCY: U.S. Census Bureau. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... Bureau is requesting an extension of the generic clearance to conduct customer satisfaction research... on feedback from its various customer satisfaction research efforts. Each research design is reviewed...

  10. Delayed clearance of serum HBsAg in compensated cirrhosis B

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fattovich, G; Giustina, G; Sanchez-Tapias, J

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence, prognostic factors and clinical significance of delayed clearance of serum HBsAg in compensated cirrhosis B.......The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence, prognostic factors and clinical significance of delayed clearance of serum HBsAg in compensated cirrhosis B....

  11. Factors Associated with Spontaneous Clearance of Hepatitis C Virus in Chinese Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Kong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C virus (HCV infections spontaneously clear in approximately 15–45% of infected individuals. Factors which influence spontaneous HCV clearance remain to be identified. The purpose of the present study was to identify variables associated with spontaneous HCV clearance in a referred population of Chinese patients. The prevalence of host, viral, and environmental factors known to influence the outcome of HCV infections was compared in 92 HCV spontaneous clearance subjects and 318 HCV persistent infection subjects. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify those factors associated with spontaneous HCV clearance. In univariate analysis, female gender, a history of icteric hepatitis, serologic evidence of concurrent HBV infection, and rs12979860 CC genotype were positively associated with spontaneous HCV clearance, while alcohol consumption was negatively associated with clearance. In multivariate analysis, female gender, a history of icteric hepatitis, concurrent HBV infection, and rs12979860 CC genotype remained independent variables associated with spontaneous HCV clearance. Spontaneous HCV clearance is more likely to occur in females, subjects with a history of icteric hepatitis, HBV coinfections, and those with the rs12979860 CC genotype.

  12. Factors affecting lower calyceal stone clearance after Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Azab

    2013-03-01

    Conclusions: There is no statistically significant effect of stone size, anatomy of the lower calyx and BMI on stone clearance after ESWL of lower calyceal stones. However, small stone size (≤2 cm, a shorter and wider infundibulum and a larger lower-pole infundibulopelvic angle seem to promote a more rapid and more complete stone clearance.

  13. 78 FR 48076 - Facility Security Clearance and Safeguarding of National Security Information and Restricted Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-07

    ... [NRC-2011-0268] RIN 3150-AJ07 Facility Security Clearance and Safeguarding of National Security..., Classified National Security Information. The rule would allow licensees flexibility in determining the means... to 10 CFR part 95. PART 95--FACILITY SECURITY CLEARANCE AND SAFEGUARDING OF NATIONAL SECURITY...

  14. 78 FR 69286 - Facility Security Clearance and Safeguarding of National Security Information and Restricted Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-19

    ... COMMISSION 10 CFR Part 95 RIN 3150-AJ07 Facility Security Clearance and Safeguarding of National Security..., Classified National Security Information. In addition, this direct final rule allowed licensees flexibility... required security education training for employees of NRC licensees possessing security clearances so that...

  15. 32 CFR 644.68 - Title Clearance-Certificate of Title and Title Insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Title Clearance-Certificate of Title and Title... (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Acquisition Procurement of Title Evidence, Title Clearance, and Closings § 644.68 Title Clearance—Certificate of Title and Title Insurance. (a) Curative action...

  16. Lithium clearance method and the renal response to low-dose dopamine in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, N V; Olsen, M H; Fogh-Andersen, N

    1993-01-01

    -induced changes in effective renal plasma flow, glomerular filtration rate or osmolal clearance. Neither lithium nor dopamine influenced plasma concentrations of renin, aldosterone or atrial natriuretic peptide. 4. In conclusion, single test doses of lithium, as normally used in lithium clearance studies...

  17. Measurement of glomerular filtration rate in adults: accuracy of five single-sample plasma clearance methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehling, M; Rabøl, A

    1989-01-01

    investigation the total plasma clearance of 51Cr-EDTA (ethylenediaminetetra-acetate) was assessed from 13 blood samples taken 5-300 min post-injection in 44 adult patients with GFR greater than 15 ml min-1. In 34 of these patients the plasma clearance of 99Tcm-DTPA (diethylenetriaminepenta...

  18. 30 CFR 27.36 - Test for adequacy of electrical insulation and clearances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Test for adequacy of electrical insulation and clearances. MSHA shall examine, and test in a manner it deems suitable, electrical insulation and clearances between electrical conductors to determine adequacy... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Test for adequacy of electrical insulation and...

  19. 76 FR 61132 - Privacy Act; System of Records: State-77, Country Clearance Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-03

    ... disabled. ] RETENTION AND DISPOSAL: Records are disposed of in accordance with published Department of... Act; System of Records: State-77, Country Clearance Records SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that the Department of State proposes to create a system of records, Country Clearance Records, State-77, pursuant to...

  20. 49 CFR 236.73 - Open-wire transmission line; clearance to other circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Open-wire transmission line; clearance to other... line; clearance to other circuits. Open-wire transmission line operating at voltage of 750 volts or... THE INSTALLATION, INSPECTION, MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES...