WorldWideScience

Sample records for range charged particles

  1. Effective-range function methods for charged particle collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspard, David; Sparenberg, Jean-Marc

    2018-04-01

    Different versions of the effective-range function method for charged particle collisions are studied and compared. In addition, a novel derivation of the standard effective-range function is presented from the analysis of Coulomb wave functions in the complex plane of the energy. The recently proposed effective-range function denoted as Δℓ [Ramírez Suárez and Sparenberg, Phys. Rev. C 96, 034601 (2017), 10.1103/PhysRevC.96.034601] and an earlier variant [Hamilton et al., Nucl. Phys. B 60, 443 (1973), 10.1016/0550-3213(73)90193-4] are related to the standard function. The potential interest of Δℓ for the study of low-energy cross sections and weakly bound states is discussed in the framework of the proton-proton S10 collision. The resonant state of the proton-proton collision is successfully computed from the extrapolation of Δℓ instead of the standard function. It is shown that interpolating Δℓ can lead to useful extrapolation to negative energies, provided scattering data are known below one nuclear Rydberg energy (12.5 keV for the proton-proton system). This property is due to the connection between Δℓ and the effective-range function by Hamilton et al. that is discussed in detail. Nevertheless, such extrapolations to negative energies should be used with caution because Δℓ is not analytic at zero energy. The expected analytic properties of the main functions are verified in the complex energy plane by graphical color-based representations.

  2. Physical measurements for ion range verification in charged particle therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Testa, M.

    2010-10-01

    This PhD thesis reports on the experimental investigation of the prompt photons created during the fragmentation of the carbon beam used in particle therapy. Two series of experiments have been performed at the GANIL and GSI facilities with 95 MeV/u and 305 MeV/u 12 C 6+ ion beams stopped in PMMA and water phantoms. In both experiments a clear correlation was obtained between the C-ion range and the prompt photon profile. A major issue of these measurements is the discrimination between the prompt photon signal (which is correlated with the ion path) and a vast neutron background uncorrelated with the Bragg-Peak position. Two techniques are employed to allow for this photon-neutron discrimination: the time-of-flight (TOF) and the pulse-shape-discrimination (PSD). The TOF technique allowed demonstrating the correlation of the prompt photon production and the primary ion path while the PSD technique brought great insights to better understand the photon and neutron contribution in TOF spectra. In this work we demonstrated that a collimated set-up detecting prompt photons by means of TOF measurements, could allow real-time control of the longitudinal position of the Bragg-peak under clinical conditions. In the second part of the PhD thesis a simulation study was performed with Geant4 Monte Carlo code to assess the influence of the main design parameters on the efficiency and spatial resolution achievable with a multidetector and multi-collimated Prompt Gamma Camera. Several geometrical configurations for both collimators and stack of detectors have been systematically studied and the considerations on the main design constraints are reported. (author)

  3. Approximate, analytic solutions of the Bethe equation for charged particle range

    OpenAIRE

    Swift, Damian C.; McNaney, James M.

    2009-01-01

    By either performing a Taylor expansion or making a polynomial approximation, the Bethe equation for charged particle stopping power in matter can be integrated analytically to obtain the range of charged particles in the continuous deceleration approximation. Ranges match reference data to the expected accuracy of the Bethe model. In the non-relativistic limit, the energy deposition rate was also found analytically. The analytic relations can be used to complement and validate numerical solu...

  4. A serial 4DCT study to quantify range variations in charged particle radiotherapy of thoracic cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Shinichiro; Dong, Lei; Starkschall, George; Mohan, Radhe; Chen, George T.Y.

    2014-01-01

    Weekly serial 4DCT scans were acquired under free breathing conditions to assess water-equivalent path length (WEL) variations due to both intrafractional and interfractional changes in tissue thickness and density and to calculate proton dose distributions resulting from anatomical variations observed in serial 4DCT. A template of region of interests (ROIs) was defined on the anterior-posterior (AP) beam's eye view, and WEL measurements were made over these ROIs to quantify chest wall thickness variations. Interfractional proton dose distributions were calculated to assess changes in the expected dose distributions caused by range variations. Mean intrafractional chest wall WEL changes during respiration varied by: -4.1 mm (<-10.2 mm), -3.6 mm (<-7.1 mm), -3.2 mm (<-5.6 mm) and -2.5 mm (<-5.1 mm) during respiration in the ITV, upper, middle and lower lung regions, respectively. The mean interfractional chest wall WEL variation at Week 6 decreased by -4.0 mm (<-8.6 mm), -9.1 mm (<-17.9 mm), -9.4 mm (<-25.3 mm) and -4.5 mm (<-15.6 mm) in the ITV, upper, middle and lower lung regions, respectively. The variations were decomposed into anterior and posterior chest wall thickness changes. Dose overshoot beyond the target was observed when the initial boli was applied throughout the treatment course. This overshoot is due to chest wall thickness variations and target positional variations. The radiological path length can vary significantly during respiration as well as over the course of several weeks of charged particle therapy. Intrafractional/interfractional chest wall thickness changes can be a significant source of range variation in treatment of lung tumors with charged particle beams, resulting in dose distribution perturbations from the initial plan. Consideration of these range variations should be made in choosing the therapeutic charged particle beam range. (author)

  5. Azimuthal asymmetries of the charged particle densities in EAS in the range of KASCADE-Grande

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sima, O.; Morariu, C.; Manailescu, C.; Rebel, H.; Haungs, A.

    2009-03-01

    The reconstruction of Extended Air Showers (EAS) observed by ground level particle detectors is based on the characteristics of observables like particle lateral density (PLD), arrival time signals etc. Lateral densities, inferred from detector data, are usually parameterized by applying various lateral distribution functions (LDF). The LDFs are used in turn for evaluating quantities like the total number of particles, the density at particular radial distances. Typical expressions for LDFs anticipate azimuthal symmetry of the density around the shower axis. The deviations of the particle lateral density from this assumption are smoothed out in the case of compact arrays like KASCADE, but not in the case of arrays like Grande, which only sample a smaller part of the azimuthal variation. In this report we discuss the origin of the asymmetry: geometric, attenuation and geomagnetic effects. Geometric effects occur in the case of inclined showers, due to the fact that the observations are made in a plane different from the intrinsic shower plane. Hence the projection procedure from the observational plane to the relevant normal shower plane plays a significant role. Attenuation effects arise from the differences between the distances travelled by particles that reach the ground at the same radial coordinate but with various azimuthal positions in the case of inclined showers. The influence of the geomagnetic field distorts additionally the charged particle distributions in a way specific to the geomagnetic location. Based on dedicated CORSIKA simulations we have evaluated the magnitude of the effects. Focused to geometric and attenuation effects, procedures for minimizing the effects of the azimuthal asymmetry of lateral density in the intrinsic shower plane were developed. The consequences of the reconstruction of the charge particle sizes determined with the Grande array are also discussed and a procedure for practical application of restoring the azimuthal symmetry

  6. Charged-particle spectroscopy in the microsecond range following projectile fragmentation

    CERN Document Server

    Pfützner, M; Grzywacz, R; Janas, Z; Momayezi, M; Bingham, C; Blank, B; Chartier, M; Geissel, H; Giovinazzo, J; Hellström, M; Kurcewicz, J; Lalleman, A S; Mazzocchi, C; Mukha, I; Plettner, C; Roeckl, E; Rykaczewski, K; Schmidt, K; Simon, R S; Stanoiu, M; Thomas, J C

    2002-01-01

    We present a new approach to charged-particle spectroscopy of short-lived nuclei produced by relativistic projectile fragmentation. The system based on digital DGF-4C CAMAC modules and newly developed fast-reset preamplifiers was tested at the Fragment Separator of GSI. We were able to detect low-energy (approx 1 MeV) decay signals occurring a few microseconds after a heavy-ion implantation accompanied by a release of approx 1 GeV energy. Applications for the study of one- and two-proton radioactivity are discussed.

  7. Measurements of double differential charged particle emission cross sections and development of a wide range charged particles spectrometer for ten`s MeV neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nauchi, Yasushi; Baba, Mamoru; Kiyosumi, Takehide [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Faculty of Engineering] [and others

    1997-03-01

    We measured (n,xp), (n,xd) cross sections of C and Al for En=64.3 MeV neutrons at the {sup 7}Li(p,n) neutron sources facility at TIARA (Takasaki Establishment, JAERI) by using a conventional SSD-NaI telescope placed in the air. They show characteristic energy and angular dependence in high energy regions. In order to extend the measurements to low energy protons and {alpha} particles, a new spectrometer consisting of low pressure gas counters and BaF{sub 2} scintillators is now under development. A low threshold for low energy {alpha} particles will be achieved by using the gas counters. The particle identification over a wide energy range will be achieved by combining the {Delta}E-E method for low energy particles with the pulse shape discrimination (PSD) method of BaF{sub 2} for high energy particles. (author)

  8. Long-range two-particle correlations of strange hadrons with charged particles in pPb and PbPb collisions at LHC energies

    CERN Document Server

    Khachatryan, Vardan; Tumasyan, Armen; Adam, Wolfgang; Bergauer, Thomas; Dragicevic, Marko; Erö, Janos; Fabjan, Christian; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; Hartl, Christian; Hörmann, Natascha; Hrubec, Josef; Jeitler, Manfred; Kiesenhofer, Wolfgang; Knünz, Valentin; Krammer, Manfred; Krätschmer, Ilse; Liko, Dietrich; Mikulec, Ivan; Rabady, Dinyar; Rahbaran, Babak; Rohringer, Herbert; Schöfbeck, Robert; Strauss, Josef; Taurok, Anton; Treberer-Treberspurg, Wolfgang; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Mossolov, Vladimir; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Suarez Gonzalez, Juan; Alderweireldt, Sara; Bansal, Monika; Bansal, Sunil; Cornelis, Tom; De Wolf, Eddi A; Janssen, Xavier; Knutsson, Albert; Luyckx, Sten; Ochesanu, Silvia; Rougny, Romain; Van De Klundert, Merijn; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Remortel, Nick; Van Spilbeeck, Alex; Blekman, Freya; Blyweert, Stijn; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Daci, Nadir; Heracleous, Natalie; Keaveney, James; Lowette, Steven; Maes, Michael; Olbrechts, Annik; Python, Quentin; Strom, Derek; Tavernier, Stefaan; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Mulders, Petra; Van Onsem, Gerrit Patrick; Villella, Ilaria; Caillol, Cécile; Clerbaux, Barbara; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Dobur, Didar; Favart, Laurent; Gay, Arnaud; Grebenyuk, Anastasia; Léonard, Alexandre; Mohammadi, Abdollah; Perniè, Luca; Reis, Thomas; Seva, Tomislav; Thomas, Laurent; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Wang, Jian; Zenoni, Florian; Adler, Volker; Beernaert, Kelly; Benucci, Leonardo; Cimmino, Anna; Costantini, Silvia; Crucy, Shannon; Dildick, Sven; Fagot, Alexis; Garcia, Guillaume; Mccartin, Joseph; Ocampo Rios, Alberto Andres; Ryckbosch, Dirk; Salva Diblen, Sinem; Sigamani, Michael; Strobbe, Nadja; Thyssen, Filip; Tytgat, Michael; Yazgan, Efe; Zaganidis, Nicolas; Basegmez, Suzan; Beluffi, Camille; Bruno, Giacomo; Castello, Roberto; Caudron, Adrien; Ceard, Ludivine; Da Silveira, Gustavo Gil; Delaere, Christophe; Du Pree, Tristan; Favart, Denis; Forthomme, Laurent; Giammanco, Andrea; Hollar, Jonathan; Jafari, Abideh; Jez, Pavel; Komm, Matthias; Lemaitre, Vincent; Nuttens, Claude; Pagano, Davide; Perrini, Lucia; Pin, Arnaud; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Popov, Andrey; Quertenmont, Loic; Selvaggi, Michele; Vidal Marono, Miguel; Vizan Garcia, Jesus Manuel; Beliy, Nikita; Caebergs, Thierry; Daubie, Evelyne; Hammad, Gregory Habib; Aldá Júnior, Walter Luiz; Alves, Gilvan; Brito, Lucas; Correa Martins Junior, Marcos; Dos Reis Martins, Thiago; Mora Herrera, Clemencia; Pol, Maria Elena; Carvalho, Wagner; Chinellato, Jose; Custódio, Analu; Melo Da Costa, Eliza; De Jesus Damiao, Dilson; De Oliveira Martins, Carley; Fonseca De Souza, Sandro; Malbouisson, Helena; Matos Figueiredo, Diego; Mundim, Luiz; Nogima, Helio; Prado Da Silva, Wanda Lucia; Santaolalla, Javier; Santoro, Alberto; Sznajder, Andre; Tonelli Manganote, Edmilson José; Vilela Pereira, Antonio; Bernardes, Cesar Augusto; Dogra, Sunil; Tomei, Thiago; De Moraes Gregores, Eduardo; Mercadante, Pedro G; Novaes, Sergio F; Padula, Sandra; Aleksandrov, Aleksandar; Genchev, Vladimir; Iaydjiev, Plamen; Marinov, Andrey; Piperov, Stefan; Rodozov, Mircho; Stoykova, Stefka; Sultanov, Georgi; Tcholakov, Vanio; Vutova, Mariana; Dimitrov, Anton; Glushkov, Ivan; Hadjiiska, Roumyana; Kozhuharov, Venelin; Litov, Leander; Pavlov, Borislav; Petkov, Peicho; Bian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Guo-Ming; Chen, He-Sheng; Chen, Mingshui; Du, Ran; Jiang, Chun-Hua; Plestina, Roko; Tao, Junquan; Wang, Zheng; Asawatangtrakuldee, Chayanit; Ban, Yong; Liu, Shuai; Mao, Yajun; Qian, Si-Jin; Wang, Dayong; Zhang, Linlin; Zou, Wei; Avila, Carlos; Chaparro Sierra, Luisa Fernanda; Florez, Carlos; Gomez, Juan Pablo; Gomez Moreno, Bernardo; Sanabria, Juan Carlos; Godinovic, Nikola; Lelas, Damir; Polic, Dunja; Puljak, Ivica; Antunovic, Zeljko; Kovac, Marko; Brigljevic, Vuko; Kadija, Kreso; Luetic, Jelena; Mekterovic, Darko; Sudic, Lucija; Attikis, Alexandros; Mavromanolakis, Georgios; Mousa, Jehad; Nicolaou, Charalambos; Ptochos, Fotios; Razis, Panos A; Bodlak, Martin; Finger, Miroslav; Finger Jr, Michael; Assran, Yasser; Ellithi Kamel, Ali; Mahmoud, Mohammed; Radi, Amr; Kadastik, Mario; Murumaa, Marion; Raidal, Martti; Tiko, Andres; Eerola, Paula; Fedi, Giacomo; Voutilainen, Mikko; Härkönen, Jaakko; Karimäki, Veikko; Kinnunen, Ritva; Kortelainen, Matti J; Lampén, Tapio; Lassila-Perini, Kati; Lehti, Sami; Lindén, Tomas; Luukka, Panja-Riina; Mäenpää, Teppo; Peltola, Timo; Tuominen, Eija; Tuominiemi, Jorma; Tuovinen, Esa; Wendland, Lauri; Talvitie, Joonas; Tuuva, Tuure; Besancon, Marc; Couderc, Fabrice; Dejardin, Marc; Denegri, Daniel; Fabbro, Bernard; Faure, Jean-Louis; Favaro, Carlotta; Ferri, Federico; Ganjour, Serguei; Givernaud, Alain; Gras, Philippe; Hamel de Monchenault, Gautier; Jarry, Patrick; Locci, Elizabeth; Malcles, Julie; Rander, John; Rosowsky, André; Titov, Maksym; Baffioni, Stephanie; Beaudette, Florian; Busson, Philippe; Charlot, Claude; Dahms, Torsten; Dalchenko, Mykhailo; Dobrzynski, Ludwik; Filipovic, Nicolas; Florent, Alice; Granier de Cassagnac, Raphael; Mastrolorenzo, Luca; Miné, Philippe; Mironov, Camelia; Naranjo, Ivo Nicolas; Nguyen, Matthew; Ochando, Christophe; Paganini, Pascal; Regnard, Simon; Salerno, Roberto; Sauvan, Jean-Baptiste; Sirois, Yves; Veelken, Christian; Yilmaz, Yetkin; Zabi, Alexandre; Agram, Jean-Laurent; Andrea, Jeremy; Aubin, Alexandre; Bloch, Daniel; Brom, Jean-Marie; Chabert, Eric Christian; Collard, Caroline; Conte, Eric; Fontaine, Jean-Charles; Gelé, Denis; Goerlach, Ulrich; Goetzmann, Christophe; Le Bihan, Anne-Catherine; Van Hove, Pierre; Gadrat, Sébastien; Beauceron, Stephanie; Beaupere, Nicolas; Boudoul, Gaelle; Bouvier, Elvire; Brochet, Sébastien; Carrillo Montoya, Camilo Andres; Chasserat, Julien; Chierici, Roberto; Contardo, Didier; Depasse, Pierre; El Mamouni, Houmani; Fan, Jiawei; Fay, Jean; Gascon, Susan; Gouzevitch, Maxime; Ille, Bernard; Kurca, Tibor; Lethuillier, Morgan; Mirabito, Laurent; Perries, Stephane; Ruiz Alvarez, José David; Sabes, David; Sgandurra, Louis; Sordini, Viola; Vander Donckt, Muriel; Verdier, Patrice; Viret, Sébastien; Xiao, Hong; Tsamalaidze, Zviad; Autermann, Christian; Beranek, Sarah; Bontenackels, Michael; Edelhoff, Matthias; Feld, Lutz; Hindrichs, Otto; Klein, Katja; Ostapchuk, Andrey; Perieanu, Adrian; Raupach, Frank; Sammet, Jan; Schael, Stefan; Weber, Hendrik; Wittmer, Bruno; Zhukov, Valery; Ata, Metin; Brodski, Michael; Dietz-Laursonn, Erik; Duchardt, Deborah; Erdmann, Martin; Fischer, Robert; Güth, Andreas; Hebbeker, Thomas; Heidemann, Carsten; Hoepfner, Kerstin; Klingebiel, Dennis; Knutzen, Simon; Kreuzer, Peter; Merschmeyer, Markus; Meyer, Arnd; Millet, Philipp; Olschewski, Mark; Padeken, Klaas; Papacz, Paul; Reithler, Hans; Schmitz, Stefan Antonius; Sonnenschein, Lars; Teyssier, Daniel; Thüer, Sebastian; Weber, Martin; Cherepanov, Vladimir; Erdogan, Yusuf; Flügge, Günter; Geenen, Heiko; Geisler, Matthias; Haj Ahmad, Wael; Heister, Arno; Hoehle, Felix; Kargoll, Bastian; Kress, Thomas; Kuessel, Yvonne; Künsken, Andreas; Lingemann, Joschka; Nowack, Andreas; Nugent, Ian Michael; Perchalla, Lars; Pooth, Oliver; Stahl, Achim; Asin, Ivan; Bartosik, Nazar; Behr, Joerg; Behrenhoff, Wolf; Behrens, Ulf; Bell, Alan James; Bergholz, Matthias; Bethani, Agni; Borras, Kerstin; Burgmeier, Armin; Cakir, Altan; Calligaris, Luigi; Campbell, Alan; Choudhury, Somnath; Costanza, Francesco; Diez Pardos, Carmen; Dooling, Samantha; Dorland, Tyler; Eckerlin, Guenter; Eckstein, Doris; Eichhorn, Thomas; Flucke, Gero; Garay Garcia, Jasone; Geiser, Achim; Gunnellini, Paolo; Hauk, Johannes; Hempel, Maria; Horton, Dean; Jung, Hannes; Kalogeropoulos, Alexis; Kasemann, Matthias; Katsas, Panagiotis; Kieseler, Jan; Kleinwort, Claus; Krücker, Dirk; Lange, Wolfgang; Leonard, Jessica; Lipka, Katerina; Lobanov, Artur; Lohmann, Wolfgang; Lutz, Benjamin; Mankel, Rainer; Marfin, Ihar; Melzer-Pellmann, Isabell-Alissandra; Meyer, Andreas Bernhard; Mittag, Gregor; Mnich, Joachim; Mussgiller, Andreas; Naumann-Emme, Sebastian; Nayak, Aruna; Novgorodova, Olga; Ntomari, Eleni; Perrey, Hanno; Pitzl, Daniel; Placakyte, Ringaile; Raspereza, Alexei; Ribeiro Cipriano, Pedro M; Roland, Benoit; Ron, Elias; Sahin, Mehmet Özgür; Salfeld-Nebgen, Jakob; Saxena, Pooja; Schmidt, Ringo; Schoerner-Sadenius, Thomas; Schröder, Matthias; Seitz, Claudia; Spannagel, Simon; Vargas Trevino, Andrea Del Rocio; Walsh, Roberval; Wissing, Christoph; Aldaya Martin, Maria; Blobel, Volker; Centis Vignali, Matteo; Draeger, Arne-Rasmus; Erfle, Joachim; Garutti, Erika; Goebel, Kristin; Görner, Martin; Haller, Johannes; Hoffmann, Malte; Höing, Rebekka Sophie; Kirschenmann, Henning; Klanner, Robert; Kogler, Roman; Lange, Jörn; Lapsien, Tobias; Lenz, Teresa; Marchesini, Ivan; Ott, Jochen; Peiffer, Thomas; Pietsch, Niklas; Poehlsen, Jennifer; Pöhlsen, Thomas; Rathjens, Denis; Sander, Christian; Schettler, Hannes; Schleper, Peter; Schlieckau, Eike; Schmidt, Alexander; Seidel, Markus; Sola, Valentina; Stadie, Hartmut; Steinbrück, Georg; Troendle, Daniel; Usai, Emanuele; Vanelderen, Lukas; Vanhoefer, Annika; Barth, Christian; Baus, Colin; Berger, Joram; Böser, Christian; Butz, Erik; Chwalek, Thorsten; De Boer, Wim; Descroix, Alexis; Dierlamm, Alexander; Feindt, Michael; Frensch, Felix; Giffels, Manuel; Hartmann, Frank; Hauth, Thomas; Husemann, Ulrich; Katkov, Igor; Kornmayer, Andreas; Kuznetsova, Ekaterina; Lobelle Pardo, Patricia; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Müller, Thomas; Nürnberg, Andreas; Quast, Gunter; Rabbertz, Klaus; Ratnikov, Fedor; Röcker, Steffen; Simonis, Hans-Jürgen; Stober, Fred-Markus Helmut; Ulrich, Ralf; Wagner-Kuhr, Jeannine; Wayand, Stefan; Weiler, Thomas; Wolf, Roger; Anagnostou, Georgios; Daskalakis, Georgios; Geralis, Theodoros; Giakoumopoulou, Viktoria Athina; Kyriakis, Aristotelis; Loukas, Demetrios; Markou, Athanasios; Markou, Christos; Psallidas, Andreas; Topsis-Giotis, Iasonas; Kesisoglou, Stilianos; Panagiotou, Apostolos; Saoulidou, Niki; Stiliaris, Efstathios; Aslanoglou, Xenofon; Evangelou, Ioannis; Flouris, Giannis; Foudas, Costas; Kokkas, Panagiotis; Manthos, Nikolaos; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Paradas, Evangelos; Bencze, Gyorgy; Hajdu, Csaba; Hidas, Pàl; Horvath, Dezso; Sikler, Ferenc; Veszpremi, Viktor; Vesztergombi, Gyorgy; Zsigmond, Anna Julia; Beni, Noemi; Czellar, Sandor; Karancsi, János; Molnar, Jozsef; Palinkas, Jozsef; Szillasi, Zoltan; Raics, Peter; Trocsanyi, Zoltan Laszlo; Ujvari, Balazs; Swain, Sanjay Kumar; Beri, Suman Bala; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Gupta, Ruchi; Bhawandeep, Bhawandeep; Kalsi, Amandeep Kaur; Kaur, Manjit; Kumar, Ramandeep; Mittal, Monika; Nishu, Nishu; Singh, Jasbir; Kumar, Ashok; Kumar, Arun; Ahuja, Sudha; Bhardwaj, Ashutosh; Choudhary, Brajesh C; Kumar, Ajay; Malhotra, Shivali; Naimuddin, Md; Ranjan, Kirti; Sharma, Varun; Banerjee, Sunanda; Bhattacharya, Satyaki; Chatterjee, Kalyanmoy; Dutta, Suchandra; Gomber, Bhawna; Jain, Sandhya; Jain, Shilpi; Khurana, Raman; Modak, Atanu; Mukherjee, Swagata; Roy, Debarati; Sarkar, Subir; Sharan, Manoj; Abdulsalam, Abdulla; Dutta, Dipanwita; Kailas, Swaminathan; Kumar, Vineet; Mohanty, Ajit Kumar; Pant, Lalit Mohan; Shukla, Prashant; Topkar, Anita; Aziz, Tariq; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Bhowmik, Sandeep; Chatterjee, Rajdeep Mohan; Dewanjee, Ram Krishna; Dugad, Shashikant; Ganguly, Sanmay; Ghosh, Saranya; Guchait, Monoranjan; Gurtu, Atul; Kole, Gouranga; Kumar, Sanjeev; Maity, Manas; Majumder, Gobinda; Mazumdar, Kajari; Mohanty, Gagan Bihari; Parida, Bibhuti; Sudhakar, Katta; Wickramage, Nadeesha; Bakhshiansohi, Hamed; Behnamian, Hadi; Etesami, Seyed Mohsen; Fahim, Ali; Goldouzian, Reza; Khakzad, Mohsen; Mohammadi Najafabadi, Mojtaba; Naseri, Mohsen; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, Saeid; Rezaei Hosseinabadi, Ferdos; Safarzadeh, Batool; Zeinali, Maryam; Felcini, Marta; Grunewald, Martin; Abbrescia, Marcello; Barbone, Lucia; Calabria, Cesare; Chhibra, Simranjit Singh; Colaleo, Anna; Creanza, Donato; De Filippis, Nicola; De Palma, Mauro; Fiore, Luigi; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, Giorgio; Maggi, Marcello; My, Salvatore; Nuzzo, Salvatore; Pompili, Alexis; Pugliese, Gabriella; Radogna, Raffaella; Selvaggi, Giovanna; Silvestris, Lucia; Singh, Gurpreet; Venditti, Rosamaria; Zito, Giuseppe; Abbiendi, Giovanni; Benvenuti, Alberto; Bonacorsi, Daniele; Braibant-Giacomelli, Sylvie; Brigliadori, Luca; Campanini, Renato; Capiluppi, Paolo; Castro, Andrea; Cavallo, Francesca Romana; Codispoti, Giuseppe; Cuffiani, Marco; Dallavalle, Gaetano-Marco; Fabbri, Fabrizio; Fanfani, Alessandra; Fasanella, Daniele; Giacomelli, Paolo; Grandi, Claudio; Guiducci, Luigi; Marcellini, Stefano; Masetti, Gianni; Montanari, Alessandro; Navarria, Francesco; Perrotta, Andrea; Primavera, Federica; Rossi, Antonio; Rovelli, Tiziano; Siroli, Gian Piero; Tosi, Nicolò; Travaglini, Riccardo; Albergo, Sebastiano; Cappello, Gigi; Chiorboli, Massimiliano; Costa, Salvatore; Giordano, Ferdinando; Potenza, Renato; Tricomi, Alessia; Tuve, Cristina; Barbagli, Giuseppe; Ciulli, Vitaliano; Civinini, Carlo; D'Alessandro, Raffaello; Focardi, Ettore; Gallo, Elisabetta; Gonzi, Sandro; Gori, Valentina; Lenzi, Piergiulio; Meschini, Marco; Paoletti, Simone; Sguazzoni, Giacomo; Tropiano, Antonio; Benussi, Luigi; Bianco, Stefano; Fabbri, Franco; Piccolo, Davide; Ferretti, Roberta; Ferro, Fabrizio; Lo Vetere, Maurizio; Robutti, Enrico; Tosi, Silvano; Dinardo, Mauro Emanuele; Fiorendi, Sara; Gennai, Simone; Gerosa, Raffaele; Ghezzi, Alessio; Govoni, Pietro; Lucchini, Marco Toliman; Malvezzi, Sandra; Manzoni, Riccardo Andrea; Martelli, Arabella; Marzocchi, Badder; Menasce, Dario; Moroni, Luigi; Paganoni, Marco; Pedrini, Daniele; Ragazzi, Stefano; Redaelli, Nicola; Tabarelli de Fatis, Tommaso; Buontempo, Salvatore; Cavallo, Nicola; Di Guida, Salvatore; Fabozzi, Francesco; Iorio, Alberto Orso Maria; Lista, Luca; Meola, Sabino; Merola, Mario; Paolucci, Pierluigi; Azzi, Patrizia; Bacchetta, Nicola; Bellato, Marco; Biasotto, Massimo; Branca, Antonio; Carlin, Roberto; Checchia, Paolo; Dall'Osso, Martino; Dorigo, Tommaso; Fanzago, Federica; Galanti, Mario; Gasparini, Fabrizio; Gasparini, Ugo; Giubilato, Piero; Gozzelino, Andrea; Kanishchev, Konstantin; Lacaprara, Stefano; Margoni, Martino; Meneguzzo, Anna Teresa; Pazzini, Jacopo; Pozzobon, Nicola; Ronchese, Paolo; Simonetto, Franco; Torassa, Ezio; Tosi, Mia; Zotto, Pierluigi; Zucchetta, Alberto; Gabusi, Michele; Ratti, Sergio P; Re, Valerio; Riccardi, Cristina; Salvini, Paola; Vitulo, Paolo; Biasini, Maurizio; Bilei, Gian Mario; Ciangottini, Diego; Fanò, Livio; Lariccia, Paolo; Mantovani, Giancarlo; Menichelli, Mauro; Romeo, Francesco; Saha, Anirban; Santocchia, Attilio; Spiezia, Aniello; Androsov, Konstantin; Azzurri, Paolo; Bagliesi, Giuseppe; Bernardini, Jacopo; Boccali, Tommaso; Broccolo, Giuseppe; Castaldi, Rino; Ciocci, Maria Agnese; Dell'Orso, Roberto; Donato, Silvio; Fiori, Francesco; Foà, Lorenzo; Giassi, Alessandro; Grippo, Maria Teresa; Ligabue, Franco; Lomtadze, Teimuraz; Martini, Luca; Messineo, Alberto; Moon, Chang-Seong; Palla, Fabrizio; Rizzi, Andrea; Savoy-Navarro, Aurore; Serban, Alin Titus; Spagnolo, Paolo; Squillacioti, Paola; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, Guido; Venturi, Andrea; Verdini, Piero Giorgio; Vernieri, Caterina; Barone, Luciano; Cavallari, Francesca; D'imperio, Giulia; Del Re, Daniele; Diemoz, Marcella; Grassi, Marco; Jorda, Clara; Longo, Egidio; Margaroli, Fabrizio; Meridiani, Paolo; Micheli, Francesco; Nourbakhsh, Shervin; Organtini, Giovanni; Paramatti, Riccardo; Rahatlou, Shahram; Rovelli, Chiara; Santanastasio, Francesco; Soffi, Livia; Traczyk, Piotr; Amapane, Nicola; Arcidiacono, Roberta; Argiro, Stefano; Arneodo, Michele; Bellan, Riccardo; Biino, Cristina; Cartiglia, Nicolo; Casasso, Stefano; Costa, Marco; Degano, Alessandro; Demaria, Natale; Finco, Linda; Mariotti, Chiara; Maselli, Silvia; Migliore, Ernesto; Monaco, Vincenzo; Musich, Marco; Obertino, Maria Margherita; Ortona, Giacomo; Pacher, Luca; Pastrone, Nadia; Pelliccioni, Mario; Pinna Angioni, Gian Luca; Potenza, Alberto; Romero, Alessandra; Ruspa, Marta; Sacchi, Roberto; Solano, Ada; Staiano, Amedeo; Tamponi, Umberto; Belforte, Stefano; Candelise, Vieri; Casarsa, Massimo; Cossutti, Fabio; Della Ricca, Giuseppe; Gobbo, Benigno; La Licata, Chiara; Marone, Matteo; Schizzi, Andrea; Umer, Tomo; Zanetti, Anna; Chang, Sunghyun; Kropivnitskaya, Anna; Nam, Soon-Kwon; Kim, Dong Hee; Kim, Gui Nyun; Kim, Min Suk; Kong, Dae Jung; Lee, Sangeun; Oh, Young Do; Park, Hyangkyu; Sakharov, Alexandre; Son, Dong-Chul; Kim, Tae Jeong; Kim, Jae Yool; Song, Sanghyeon; Choi, Suyong; Gyun, Dooyeon; Hong, Byung-Sik; Jo, Mihee; Kim, Hyunchul; Kim, Yongsun; Lee, Byounghoon; Lee, Kyong Sei; Park, Sung Keun; Roh, Youn; Choi, Minkyoo; Kim, Ji Hyun; Park, Inkyu; Ryu, Geonmo; Ryu, Min Sang; Choi, Young-Il; Choi, Young Kyu; Goh, Junghwan; Kim, Donghyun; Kwon, Eunhyang; Lee, Jongseok; Seo, Hyunkwan; Yu, Intae; Juodagalvis, Andrius; Komaragiri, Jyothsna Rani; Md Ali, Mohd Adli Bin; Castilla-Valdez, Heriberto; De La Cruz-Burelo, Eduard; Heredia-de La Cruz, Ivan; Hernandez-Almada, Alberto; Lopez-Fernandez, Ricardo; Sánchez Hernández, Alberto; Carrillo Moreno, Salvador; Vazquez Valencia, Fabiola; Pedraza, Isabel; Salazar Ibarguen, Humberto Antonio; Casimiro Linares, Edgar; Morelos Pineda, Antonio; Krofcheck, David; Butler, Philip H; Reucroft, Steve; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ahmad, Muhammad; Hassan, Qamar; Hoorani, Hafeez R; Khalid, Shoaib; Khan, Wajid Ali; Khurshid, Taimoor; Shah, Mehar Ali; Shoaib, Muhammad; Bialkowska, Helena; Bluj, Michal; Boimska, Bożena; Frueboes, Tomasz; Górski, Maciej; Kazana, Malgorzata; Nawrocki, Krzysztof; Romanowska-Rybinska, Katarzyna; Szleper, Michal; Zalewski, Piotr; Brona, Grzegorz; Bunkowski, Karol; Cwiok, Mikolaj; Dominik, Wojciech; Doroba, Krzysztof; Kalinowski, Artur; Konecki, Marcin; Krolikowski, Jan; Misiura, Maciej; Olszewski, Michał; Wolszczak, Weronika; Bargassa, Pedrame; Beirão Da Cruz E Silva, Cristóvão; Faccioli, Pietro; Ferreira Parracho, Pedro Guilherme; Gallinaro, Michele; Lloret Iglesias, Lara; Nguyen, Federico; Rodrigues Antunes, Joao; Seixas, Joao; Varela, Joao; Vischia, Pietro; Afanasiev, Serguei; Bunin, Pavel; Gavrilenko, Mikhail; Golutvin, Igor; Gorbunov, Ilya; Kamenev, Alexey; Karjavin, Vladimir; Konoplyanikov, Viktor; Lanev, Alexander; Malakhov, Alexander; Matveev, Viktor; Moisenz, Petr; Palichik, Vladimir; Perelygin, Victor; Shmatov, Sergey; Skatchkov, Nikolai; Smirnov, Vitaly; Zarubin, Anatoli; Golovtsov, Victor; Ivanov, Yury; Kim, Victor; Levchenko, Petr; Murzin, Victor; Oreshkin, Vadim; Smirnov, Igor; Sulimov, Valentin; Uvarov, Lev; Vavilov, Sergey; Vorobyev, Alexey; Vorobyev, Andrey; Andreev, Yuri; Dermenev, Alexander; Gninenko, Sergei; Golubev, Nikolai; Kirsanov, Mikhail; Krasnikov, Nikolai; Pashenkov, Anatoli; Tlisov, Danila; Toropin, Alexander; Epshteyn, Vladimir; Gavrilov, Vladimir; Lychkovskaya, Natalia; Popov, Vladimir; Safronov, Grigory; Semenov, Sergey; Spiridonov, Alexander; Stolin, Viatcheslav; Vlasov, Evgueni; Zhokin, Alexander; Andreev, Vladimir; Azarkin, Maksim; Dremin, Igor; Kirakosyan, Martin; Leonidov, Andrey; Mesyats, Gennady; Rusakov, Sergey V; Vinogradov, Alexey; Belyaev, Andrey; Boos, Edouard; Ershov, Alexander; Gribushin, Andrey; Klyukhin, Vyacheslav; Kodolova, Olga; Korotkikh, Vladimir; Lokhtin, Igor; Obraztsov, Stepan; Petrushanko, Sergey; Savrin, Viktor; Snigirev, Alexander; Vardanyan, Irina; Azhgirey, Igor; Bayshev, Igor; Bitioukov, Sergei; Kachanov, Vassili; Kalinin, Alexey; Konstantinov, Dmitri; Krychkine, Victor; Petrov, Vladimir; Ryutin, Roman; Sobol, Andrei; Tourtchanovitch, Leonid; Troshin, Sergey; Tyurin, Nikolay; Uzunian, Andrey; Volkov, Alexey; Adzic, Petar; Ekmedzic, Marko; Milosevic, Jovan; Rekovic, Vladimir; Alcaraz Maestre, Juan; Battilana, Carlo; Calvo, Enrique; Cerrada, Marcos; Chamizo Llatas, Maria; Colino, Nicanor; De La Cruz, Begona; Delgado Peris, Antonio; Domínguez Vázquez, Daniel; Escalante Del Valle, Alberto; Fernandez Bedoya, Cristina; Fernández Ramos, Juan Pablo; Flix, Jose; Fouz, Maria Cruz; Garcia-Abia, Pablo; Gonzalez Lopez, Oscar; Goy Lopez, Silvia; Hernandez, Jose M; Josa, Maria Isabel; Navarro De Martino, Eduardo; Pérez Calero Yzquierdo, Antonio María; Puerta Pelayo, Jesus; Quintario Olmeda, Adrián; Redondo, Ignacio; Romero, Luciano; Senghi Soares, Mara; Albajar, Carmen; de Trocóniz, Jorge F; Missiroli, Marino; Moran, Dermot; Brun, Hugues; Cuevas, Javier; Fernandez Menendez, Javier; Folgueras, Santiago; Gonzalez Caballero, Isidro; Brochero Cifuentes, Javier Andres; Cabrillo, Iban Jose; Calderon, Alicia; Duarte Campderros, Jordi; Fernandez, Marcos; Gomez, Gervasio; Graziano, Alberto; Lopez Virto, Amparo; Marco, Jesus; Marco, Rafael; Martinez Rivero, Celso; Matorras, Francisco; Munoz Sanchez, Francisca Javiela; Piedra Gomez, Jonatan; Rodrigo, Teresa; Rodríguez-Marrero, Ana Yaiza; Ruiz-Jimeno, Alberto; Scodellaro, Luca; Vila, Ivan; Vilar Cortabitarte, Rocio; Abbaneo, Duccio; Auffray, Etiennette; Auzinger, Georg; Bachtis, Michail; Baillon, Paul; Ball, Austin; Barney, David; Benaglia, Andrea; Bendavid, Joshua; Benhabib, Lamia; Benitez, Jose F; Bernet, Colin; Bianchi, Giovanni; Bloch, Philippe; Bocci, Andrea; Bonato, Alessio; Bondu, Olivier; Botta, Cristina; Breuker, Horst; Camporesi, Tiziano; Cerminara, Gianluca; Colafranceschi, Stefano; D'Alfonso, Mariarosaria; D'Enterria, David; Dabrowski, Anne; David Tinoco Mendes, Andre; De Guio, Federico; De Roeck, Albert; De Visscher, Simon; Di Marco, Emanuele; Dobson, Marc; Dordevic, Milos; Dupont-Sagorin, Niels; Elliott-Peisert, Anna; Eugster, Jürg; Franzoni, Giovanni; Funk, Wolfgang; Gigi, Dominique; Gill, Karl; Giordano, Domenico; Girone, Maria; Glege, Frank; Guida, Roberto; Gundacker, Stefan; Guthoff, Moritz; Hammer, Josef; Hansen, Magnus; Harris, Philip; Hegeman, Jeroen; Innocente, Vincenzo; Janot, Patrick; Kousouris, Konstantinos; Krajczar, Krisztian; Lecoq, Paul; Lourenco, Carlos; Magini, Nicolo; Malgeri, Luca; Mannelli, Marcello; Marrouche, Jad; Masetti, Lorenzo; Meijers, Frans; Mersi, Stefano; Meschi, Emilio; Moortgat, Filip; Morovic, Srecko; Mulders, Martijn; Musella, Pasquale; Orsini, Luciano; Pape, Luc; Perez, Emmanuelle; Perrozzi, Luca; Petrilli, Achille; Petrucciani, Giovanni; Pfeiffer, Andreas; Pierini, Maurizio; Pimiä, Martti; Piparo, Danilo; Plagge, Michael; Racz, Attila; Rolandi, Gigi; Rovere, Marco; Sakulin, Hannes; Schäfer, Christoph; Schwick, Christoph; Sharma, Archana; Siegrist, Patrice; Silva, Pedro; Simon, Michal; Sphicas, Paraskevas; Spiga, Daniele; Steggemann, Jan; Stieger, Benjamin; Stoye, Markus; Takahashi, Yuta; Treille, Daniel; Tsirou, Andromachi; Veres, Gabor Istvan; Vlimant, Jean-Roch; Wardle, Nicholas; Wöhri, Hermine Katharina; Wollny, Heiner; Zeuner, Wolfram Dietrich; Bertl, Willi; Deiters, Konrad; Erdmann, Wolfram; Horisberger, Roland; Ingram, Quentin; Kaestli, Hans-Christian; Kotlinski, Danek; Langenegger, Urs; Renker, Dieter; Rohe, Tilman; Bachmair, Felix; Bäni, Lukas; Bianchini, Lorenzo; Buchmann, Marco-Andrea; Casal, Bruno; Chanon, Nicolas; Dissertori, Günther; Dittmar, Michael; Donegà, Mauro; Dünser, Marc; Eller, Philipp; Grab, Christoph; Hits, Dmitry; Hoss, Jan; Lustermann, Werner; Mangano, Boris; Marini, Andrea Carlo; Martinez Ruiz del Arbol, Pablo; Masciovecchio, Mario; Meister, Daniel; Mohr, Niklas; Nägeli, Christoph; Nessi-Tedaldi, Francesca; Pandolfi, Francesco; Pauss, Felicitas; Peruzzi, Marco; Quittnat, Milena; Rebane, Liis; Rossini, Marco; Starodumov, Andrei; Takahashi, Maiko; Theofilatos, Konstantinos; Wallny, Rainer; Weber, Hannsjoerg Artur; Amsler, Claude; Canelli, Maria Florencia; Chiochia, Vincenzo; De Cosa, Annapaola; Hinzmann, Andreas; Hreus, Tomas; Kilminster, Benjamin; Lange, Clemens; Millan Mejias, Barbara; Ngadiuba, Jennifer; Robmann, Peter; Ronga, Frederic Jean; Taroni, Silvia; Verzetti, Mauro; Yang, Yong; Cardaci, Marco; Chen, Kuan-Hsin; Ferro, Cristina; Kuo, Chia-Ming; Lin, Willis; Lu, Yun-Ju; Volpe, Roberta; Yu, Shin-Shan; Chang, Paoti; Chang, You-Hao; Chang, Yu-Wei; Chao, Yuan; Chen, Kai-Feng; Chen, Po-Hsun; Dietz, Charles; Grundler, Ulysses; Hou, George Wei-Shu; Kao, Kai-Yi; Lei, Yeong-Jyi; Liu, Yueh-Feng; Lu, Rong-Shyang; Majumder, Devdatta; Petrakou, Eleni; Tzeng, Yeng-Ming; Wilken, Rachel; Asavapibhop, Burin; Srimanobhas, Norraphat; Suwonjandee, Narumon; Adiguzel, Aytul; Bakirci, Mustafa Numan; Cerci, Salim; Dozen, Candan; Dumanoglu, Isa; Eskut, Eda; Girgis, Semiray; Gokbulut, Gul; Gurpinar, Emine; Hos, Ilknur; Kangal, Evrim Ersin; Kayis Topaksu, Aysel; Onengut, Gulsen; Ozdemir, Kadri; Ozturk, Sertac; Polatoz, Ayse; Sunar Cerci, Deniz; Tali, Bayram; Topakli, Huseyin; Vergili, Mehmet; Akin, Ilina Vasileva; Bilin, Bugra; Bilmis, Selcuk; Gamsizkan, Halil; Karapinar, Guler; Ocalan, Kadir; Sekmen, Sezen; Surat, Ugur Emrah; Yalvac, Metin; Zeyrek, Mehmet; Gülmez, Erhan; Isildak, Bora; Kaya, Mithat; Kaya, Ozlem; Cankocak, Kerem; Vardarlı, Fuat Ilkehan; Levchuk, Leonid; Sorokin, Pavel; Brooke, James John; Clement, Emyr; Cussans, David; Flacher, Henning; Frazier, Robert; Goldstein, Joel; Grimes, Mark; Heath, Greg P; Heath, Helen F; Jacob, Jeson; Kreczko, Lukasz; Lucas, Chris; Meng, Zhaoxia; Newbold, Dave M; Paramesvaran, Sudarshan; Poll, Anthony; Senkin, Sergey; Smith, Vincent J; Williams, Thomas; Belyaev, Alexander; Brew, Christopher; Brown, Robert M; Cockerill, David JA; Coughlan, John A; Harder, Kristian; Harper, Sam; Olaiya, Emmanuel; Petyt, David; Shepherd-Themistocleous, Claire; Thea, Alessandro; Tomalin, Ian R; Womersley, William John; Worm, Steven; Baber, Mark; Bainbridge, Robert; Buchmuller, Oliver; Burton, Darren; Colling, David; Cripps, Nicholas; Cutajar, Michael; Dauncey, Paul; Davies, Gavin; Della Negra, Michel; Dunne, Patrick; Ferguson, William; Fulcher, Jonathan; Futyan, David; Gilbert, Andrew; Hall, Geoffrey; Iles, Gregory; Jarvis, Martyn; Karapostoli, Georgia; Kenzie, Matthew; Lane, Rebecca; Lucas, Robyn; Lyons, Louis; Magnan, Anne-Marie; Malik, Sarah; Mathias, Bryn; Nash, Jordan; Nikitenko, Alexander; Pela, Joao; Pesaresi, Mark; Petridis, Konstantinos; Raymond, David Mark; Rogerson, Samuel; Rose, Andrew; Seez, Christopher; Sharp, Peter; Tapper, Alexander; Vazquez Acosta, Monica; Virdee, Tejinder; Zenz, Seth Conrad; Cole, Joanne; Hobson, Peter R; Khan, Akram; Kyberd, Paul; Leggat, Duncan; Leslie, Dawn; Martin, William; Reid, Ivan; Symonds, Philip; Teodorescu, Liliana; Turner, Mark; Dittmann, Jay; Hatakeyama, Kenichi; Kasmi, Azeddine; Liu, Hongxuan; Scarborough, Tara; Charaf, Otman; Cooper, Seth; Henderson, Conor; Rumerio, Paolo; Avetisyan, Aram; Bose, Tulika; Fantasia, Cory; Lawson, Philip; Richardson, Clint; Rohlf, James; St John, Jason; Sulak, Lawrence; Alimena, Juliette; Berry, Edmund; Bhattacharya, Saptaparna; Christopher, Grant; Cutts, David; Demiragli, Zeynep; Dhingra, Nitish; Ferapontov, Alexey; Garabedian, Alex; Heintz, Ulrich; Kukartsev, Gennadiy; Laird, Edward; Landsberg, Greg; Luk, Michael; Narain, Meenakshi; Segala, Michael; Sinthuprasith, Tutanon; Speer, Thomas; Swanson, Joshua; Breedon, Richard; Breto, Guillermo; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, Manuel; Chauhan, Sushil; Chertok, Maxwell; Conway, John; Conway, Rylan; Cox, Peter Timothy; Erbacher, Robin; Gardner, Michael; Ko, Winston; Lander, Richard; Miceli, Tia; Mulhearn, Michael; Pellett, Dave; Pilot, Justin; Ricci-Tam, Francesca; Searle, Matthew; Shalhout, Shalhout; Smith, John; Squires, Michael; Stolp, Dustin; Tripathi, Mani; Wilbur, Scott; Yohay, Rachel; Cousins, Robert; Everaerts, Pieter; Farrell, Chris; Hauser, Jay; Ignatenko, Mikhail; Rakness, Gregory; Takasugi, Eric; Valuev, Vyacheslav; Weber, Matthias; Burt, Kira; Clare, Robert; Ellison, John Anthony; Gary, J William; Hanson, Gail; Heilman, Jesse; Ivova Rikova, Mirena; Jandir, Pawandeep; Kennedy, Elizabeth; Lacroix, Florent; Long, Owen Rosser; Luthra, Arun; Malberti, Martina; Nguyen, Harold; Olmedo Negrete, Manuel; Shrinivas, Amithabh; Sumowidagdo, Suharyo; Wimpenny, Stephen; Andrews, Warren; Branson, James G; Cerati, Giuseppe Benedetto; Cittolin, Sergio; D'Agnolo, Raffaele Tito; Evans, David; Holzner, André; Kelley, Ryan; Klein, Daniel; Lebourgeois, Matthew; Letts, James; Macneill, Ian; Olivito, Dominick; Padhi, Sanjay; Palmer, Christopher; Pieri, Marco; Sani, Matteo; Sharma, Vivek; Simon, Sean; Sudano, Elizabeth; Tadel, Matevz; Tu, Yanjun; Vartak, Adish; Welke, Charles; Würthwein, Frank; Yagil, Avraham; Barge, Derek; Bradmiller-Feld, John; Campagnari, Claudio; Danielson, Thomas; Dishaw, Adam; Flowers, Kristen; Franco Sevilla, Manuel; Geffert, Paul; George, Christopher; Golf, Frank; Gouskos, Loukas; Incandela, Joe; Justus, Christopher; Mccoll, Nickolas; Richman, Jeffrey; Stuart, David; To, Wing; West, Christopher; Yoo, Jaehyeok; Apresyan, Artur; Bornheim, Adolf; Bunn, Julian; Chen, Yi; Duarte, Javier; Mott, Alexander; Newman, Harvey B; Pena, Cristian; Rogan, Christopher; Spiropulu, Maria; Timciuc, Vladlen; Wilkinson, Richard; Xie, Si; Zhu, Ren-Yuan; Azzolini, Virginia; Calamba, Aristotle; Carlson, Benjamin; Ferguson, Thomas; Iiyama, Yutaro; Paulini, Manfred; Russ, James; Vogel, Helmut; Vorobiev, Igor; Cumalat, John Perry; Ford, William T; Gaz, Alessandro; Luiggi Lopez, Eduardo; Nauenberg, Uriel; Smith, James; Stenson, Kevin; Ulmer, Keith; Wagner, Stephen Robert; Alexander, James; Chatterjee, Avishek; Chu, Jennifer; Dittmer, Susan; Eggert, Nicholas; Mirman, Nathan; Nicolas Kaufman, Gala; Patterson, Juliet Ritchie; Ryd, Anders; Salvati, Emmanuele; Skinnari, Louise; Sun, Werner; Teo, Wee Don; Thom, Julia; Thompson, Joshua; Tucker, Jordan; Weng, Yao; Winstrom, Lucas; Wittich, Peter; Winn, Dave; Abdullin, Salavat; Albrow, Michael; Anderson, Jacob; Apollinari, Giorgio; Bauerdick, Lothar AT; Beretvas, Andrew; Berryhill, Jeffrey; Bhat, Pushpalatha C; Bolla, Gino; Burkett, Kevin; Butler, Joel Nathan; Cheung, Harry; Chlebana, Frank; Cihangir, Selcuk; Elvira, Victor Daniel; Fisk, Ian; Freeman, Jim; Gao, Yanyan; Gottschalk, Erik; Gray, Lindsey; Green, Dan; Grünendahl, Stefan; Gutsche, Oliver; Hanlon, Jim; Hare, Daryl; Harris, Robert M; Hirschauer, James; Hooberman, Benjamin; Jindariani, Sergo; Johnson, Marvin; Joshi, Umesh; Kaadze, Ketino; Klima, Boaz; Kreis, Benjamin; Kwan, Simon; Linacre, Jacob; Lincoln, Don; Lipton, Ron; Liu, Tiehui; Lykken, Joseph; Maeshima, Kaori; Marraffino, John Michael; Martinez Outschoorn, Verena Ingrid; Maruyama, Sho; Mason, David; McBride, Patricia; Merkel, Petra; Mishra, Kalanand; Mrenna, Stephen; Musienko, Yuri; Nahn, Steve; Newman-Holmes, Catherine; O'Dell, Vivian; Prokofyev, Oleg; Sexton-Kennedy, Elizabeth; Sharma, Seema; Soha, Aron; Spalding, William J; Spiegel, Leonard; Taylor, Lucas; Tkaczyk, Slawek; Tran, Nhan Viet; Uplegger, Lorenzo; Vaandering, Eric Wayne; Vidal, Richard; Whitbeck, Andrew; Whitmore, Juliana; Yang, Fan; Acosta, Darin; Avery, Paul; Bortignon, Pierluigi; Bourilkov, Dimitri; Carver, Matthew; Cheng, Tongguang; Curry, David; Das, Souvik; De Gruttola, Michele; Di Giovanni, Gian Piero; Field, Richard D; Fisher, Matthew; Furic, Ivan-Kresimir; Hugon, Justin; Konigsberg, Jacobo; Korytov, Andrey; Kypreos, Theodore; Low, Jia Fu; Matchev, Konstantin; Milenovic, Predrag; Mitselmakher, Guenakh; Muniz, Lana; Rinkevicius, Aurelijus; Shchutska, Lesya; Snowball, Matthew; Sperka, David; Yelton, John; Zakaria, Mohammed; Hewamanage, Samantha; Linn, Stephan; Markowitz, Pete; Martinez, German; Rodriguez, Jorge Luis; Adams, Todd; Askew, Andrew; Bochenek, Joseph; Diamond, Brendan; Haas, Jeff; Hagopian, Sharon; Hagopian, Vasken; Johnson, Kurtis F; Prosper, Harrison; Veeraraghavan, Venkatesh; Weinberg, Marc; Baarmand, Marc M; Hohlmann, Marcus; Kalakhety, Himali; Yumiceva, Francisco; Adams, Mark Raymond; Apanasevich, Leonard; Bazterra, Victor Eduardo; Berry, Douglas; Betts, Russell Richard; Bucinskaite, Inga; Cavanaugh, Richard; Evdokimov, Olga; Gauthier, Lucie; Gerber, Cecilia Elena; Hofman, David Jonathan; Khalatyan, Samvel; Kurt, Pelin; Moon, Dong Ho; O'Brien, Christine; Silkworth, Christopher; Turner, Paul; Varelas, Nikos; Albayrak, Elif Asli; Bilki, Burak; Clarida, Warren; Dilsiz, Kamuran; Duru, Firdevs; Haytmyradov, Maksat; Merlo, Jean-Pierre; Mermerkaya, Hamit; Mestvirishvili, Alexi; Moeller, Anthony; Nachtman, Jane; Ogul, Hasan; Onel, Yasar; Ozok, Ferhat; Penzo, Aldo; Rahmat, Rahmat; Sen, Sercan; Tan, Ping; Tiras, Emrah; Wetzel, James; Yetkin, Taylan; Yi, Kai; Barnett, Bruce Arnold; Blumenfeld, Barry; Bolognesi, Sara; Fehling, David; Gritsan, Andrei; Maksimovic, Petar; Martin, Christopher; Swartz, Morris; Baringer, Philip; Bean, Alice; Benelli, Gabriele; Bruner, Christopher; Kenny III, Raymond Patrick; Malek, Magdalena; Murray, Michael; Noonan, Daniel; Sanders, Stephen; Sekaric, Jadranka; Stringer, Robert; Wang, Quan; Wood, Jeffrey Scott; Barfuss, Anne-Fleur; Chakaberia, Irakli; Ivanov, Andrew; Khalil, Sadia; Makouski, Mikhail; Maravin, Yurii; Saini, Lovedeep Kaur; Shrestha, Shruti; Skhirtladze, Nikoloz; Svintradze, Irakli; Gronberg, Jeffrey; Lange, David; Rebassoo, Finn; Wright, Douglas; Baden, Drew; Belloni, Alberto; Calvert, Brian; Eno, Sarah Catherine; Gomez, Jaime; Hadley, Nicholas John; Kellogg, Richard G; Kolberg, Ted; Lu, Ying; Marionneau, Matthieu; Mignerey, Alice; Pedro, Kevin; Skuja, Andris; Tonjes, Marguerite; Tonwar, Suresh C; Apyan, Aram; Barbieri, Richard; Bauer, Gerry; Busza, Wit; Cali, Ivan Amos; Chan, Matthew; Di Matteo, Leonardo; Dutta, Valentina; Gomez Ceballos, Guillelmo; Goncharov, Maxim; Gulhan, Doga; Klute, Markus; Lai, Yue Shi; Lee, Yen-Jie; Levin, Andrew; Luckey, Paul David; Ma, Teng; Paus, Christoph; Ralph, Duncan; Roland, Christof; Roland, Gunther; Stephans, George; Stöckli, Fabian; Sumorok, Konstanty; Velicanu, Dragos; Veverka, Jan; Wyslouch, Bolek; Yang, Mingming; Zanetti, Marco; Zhukova, Victoria; Dahmes, Bryan; Gude, Alexander; Kao, Shih-Chuan; Klapoetke, Kevin; Kubota, Yuichi; Mans, Jeremy; Pastika, Nathaniel; Rusack, Roger; Singovsky, Alexander; Tambe, Norbert; Turkewitz, Jared; Acosta, John Gabriel; Oliveros, Sandra; Avdeeva, Ekaterina; Bloom, Kenneth; Bose, Suvadeep; Claes, Daniel R; Dominguez, Aaron; Gonzalez Suarez, Rebeca; Keller, Jason; Knowlton, Dan; Kravchenko, Ilya; Lazo-Flores, Jose; Malik, Sudhir; Meier, Frank; Snow, Gregory R; Zvada, Marian; Dolen, James; Godshalk, Andrew; Iashvili, Ia; Kharchilava, Avto; Kumar, Ashish; Rappoccio, Salvatore; Alverson, George; Barberis, Emanuela; Baumgartel, Darin; Chasco, Matthew; Haley, Joseph; Massironi, Andrea; Morse, David Michael; Nash, David; Orimoto, Toyoko; Trocino, Daniele; Wang, Ren-Jie; Wood, Darien; Zhang, Jinzhong; Hahn, Kristan Allan; Kubik, Andrew; Mucia, Nicholas; Odell, Nathaniel; Pollack, Brian; Pozdnyakov, Andrey; Schmitt, Michael Henry; Stoynev, Stoyan; Sung, Kevin; Velasco, Mayda; Won, Steven; Brinkerhoff, Andrew; Chan, Kwok Ming; Drozdetskiy, Alexey; Hildreth, Michael; Jessop, Colin; Karmgard, Daniel John; Kellams, Nathan; Lannon, Kevin; Luo, Wuming; Lynch, Sean; Marinelli, Nancy; Pearson, Tessa; Planer, Michael; Ruchti, Randy; Valls, Nil; Wayne, Mitchell; Wolf, Matthias; Woodard, Anna; Antonelli, Louis; Brinson, Jessica; Bylsma, Ben; Durkin, Lloyd Stanley; Flowers, Sean; Hill, Christopher; Hughes, Richard; Kotov, Khristian; Ling, Ta-Yung; Puigh, Darren; Rodenburg, Marissa; Smith, Geoffrey; Winer, Brian L; Wolfe, Homer; Wulsin, Howard Wells; Driga, Olga; Elmer, Peter; Hebda, Philip; Hunt, Adam; Koay, Sue Ann; Lujan, Paul; Marlow, Daniel; Medvedeva, Tatiana; Mooney, Michael; Olsen, James; Piroué, Pierre; Quan, Xiaohang; Saka, Halil; Stickland, David; Tully, Christopher; Werner, Jeremy Scott; Zuranski, Andrzej; Brownson, Eric; Mendez, Hector; Ramirez Vargas, Juan Eduardo; Barnes, Virgil E; Benedetti, Daniele; Bortoletto, Daniela; De Mattia, Marco; Gutay, Laszlo; Hu, Zhen; Jha, Manoj; Jones, Matthew; Jung, Kurt; Kress, Matthew; Leonardo, Nuno; Lopes Pegna, David; Maroussov, Vassili; Miller, David Harry; Neumeister, Norbert; Radburn-Smith, Benjamin Charles; Shi, Xin; Shipsey, Ian; Silvers, David; Svyatkovskiy, Alexey; Wang, Fuqiang; Xie, Wei; Xu, Lingshan; Yoo, Hwi Dong; Zablocki, Jakub; Zheng, Yu; Parashar, Neeti; Stupak, John; Adair, Antony; Akgun, Bora; Ecklund, Karl Matthew; Geurts, Frank JM; Li, Wei; Michlin, Benjamin; Padley, Brian Paul; Redjimi, Radia; Roberts, Jay; Zabel, James; Betchart, Burton; Bodek, Arie; Covarelli, Roberto; de Barbaro, Pawel; Demina, Regina; Eshaq, Yossof; Ferbel, Thomas; Garcia-Bellido, Aran; Goldenzweig, Pablo; Han, Jiyeon; Harel, Amnon; Khukhunaishvili, Aleko; Petrillo, Gianluca; Vishnevskiy, Dmitry; Ciesielski, Robert; Demortier, Luc; Goulianos, Konstantin; Lungu, Gheorghe; Mesropian, Christina; Arora, Sanjay; Barker, Anthony; Chou, John Paul; Contreras-Campana, Christian; Contreras-Campana, Emmanuel; Duggan, Daniel; Ferencek, Dinko; Gershtein, Yuri; Gray, Richard; Halkiadakis, Eva; Hidas, Dean; Kaplan, Steven; Lath, Amitabh; Panwalkar, Shruti; Park, Michael; Patel, Rishi; Salur, Sevil; Schnetzer, Steve; Somalwar, Sunil; Stone, Robert; Thomas, Scott; Thomassen, Peter; Walker, Matthew; Rose, Keith; Spanier, Stefan; York, Andrew; Bouhali, Othmane; Castaneda Hernandez, Alfredo; Eusebi, Ricardo; Flanagan, Will; Gilmore, Jason; Kamon, Teruki; Khotilovich, Vadim; Krutelyov, Vyacheslav; Montalvo, Roy; Osipenkov, Ilya; Pakhotin, Yuriy; Perloff, Alexx; Roe, Jeffrey; Rose, Anthony; Safonov, Alexei; Sakuma, Tai; Suarez, Indara; Tatarinov, Aysen; Akchurin, Nural; Cowden, Christopher; Damgov, Jordan; Dragoiu, Cosmin; Dudero, Phillip Russell; Faulkner, James; Kovitanggoon, Kittikul; Kunori, Shuichi; Lee, Sung Won; Libeiro, Terence; Volobouev, Igor; Appelt, Eric; Delannoy, Andrés G; Greene, Senta; Gurrola, Alfredo; Johns, Willard; Maguire, Charles; Mao, Yaxian; Melo, Andrew; Sharma, Monika; Sheldon, Paul; Snook, Benjamin; Tuo, Shengquan; Velkovska, Julia; Arenton, Michael Wayne; Boutle, Sarah; Cox, Bradley; Francis, Brian; Goodell, Joseph; Hirosky, Robert; Ledovskoy, Alexander; Li, Hengne; Lin, Chuanzhe; Neu, Christopher; Wood, John; Clarke, Christopher; Harr, Robert; Karchin, Paul Edmund; Kottachchi Kankanamge Don, Chamath; Lamichhane, Pramod; Sturdy, Jared; Belknap, Donald; Carlsmith, Duncan; Cepeda, Maria; Dasu, Sridhara; Dodd, Laura; Duric, Senka; Friis, Evan; Hall-Wilton, Richard; Herndon, Matthew; Hervé, Alain; Klabbers, Pamela; Lanaro, Armando; Lazaridis, Christos; Levine, Aaron; Loveless, Richard; Mohapatra, Ajit; Ojalvo, Isabel; Perry, Thomas; Pierro, Giuseppe Antonio; Polese, Giovanni; Ross, Ian; Sarangi, Tapas; Savin, Alexander; Smith, Wesley H; Taylor, Devin; Verwilligen, Piet; Vuosalo, Carl; Woods, Nathaniel

    2015-03-06

    Measurements of two-particle angular correlations between an identified strange hadron (${\\rm K}^0_{\\rm S}$ or $\\Lambda$/$\\overline{\\Lambda}$) and a charged particle, emitted in pPb collisions, are presented over a wide range in pseudorapidity and full azimuth. The data, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of approximately 35 nb$^{-1}$, were collected at a nucleon-nucleon center-of-mass energy ($\\sqrt{s_{NN}}$) of 5.02 TeV with the CMS detector at the LHC. The results are compared to semi-peripheral PbPb collision data at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 2.76 TeV, covering similar charged-particle multiplicities in the events. The observed azimuthal correlations at large relative pseudorapidity are used to extract the second-order ($v_2$) and third-order ($v_3$) anisotropy harmonics of ${\\rm K}^0_{\\rm S}$ and $\\Lambda$/$\\overline{\\Lambda}$ particles. These quantities are studied as a function of the charged-particle multiplicity in the event and the transverse momentum of the particles. For high-multiplicity pPb event...

  9. A simple method to increase the current range of the TERA chip in charged particle therapy applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cirio, R. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, sez. di Torino, via P. Giuria,1, 10125 Torino (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Università di Torino, via P. Giuria,1, 10125 Torino (Italy); Fausti, F. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, sez. di Torino, via P. Giuria,1, 10125 Torino (Italy); Dipartimento di Elettronica e Telecomunicazioni del Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi, 24, 10129 Torino (Italy); Fanola Guarachi, L. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, sez. di Torino, via P. Giuria,1, 10125 Torino (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Università di Torino, via P. Giuria,1, 10125 Torino (Italy); Giordanengo, S., E-mail: Simona.Giordanengo@to.infn.it [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, sez. di Torino, via P. Giuria,1, 10125 Torino (Italy); Marchetto, F.; Mazza, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, sez. di Torino, via P. Giuria,1, 10125 Torino (Italy); Monaco, V.; Sacchi, R. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, sez. di Torino, via P. Giuria,1, 10125 Torino (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Università di Torino, via P. Giuria,1, 10125 Torino (Italy); Talpacci, E. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Università di Torino, via P. Giuria,1, 10125 Torino (Italy); Varasteh Anvar, M. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, sez. di Torino, via P. Giuria,1, 10125 Torino (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Università di Torino, via P. Giuria,1, 10125 Torino (Italy); Vignati, A. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, sez. di Torino, via P. Giuria,1, 10125 Torino (Italy)

    2015-10-21

    The development of the next generation of accelerators for charged particle radiotherapy aims to reduce dimensions and operational complexity of the machines by engineering pulsed beams accelerators. The drawback is the increased difficulty to monitor the beam delivery. Within each pulse, instantaneous currents larger by two to three orders of magnitude than present applications are expected, which would saturate the readout of the monitor chambers. In this paper, we report of a simple method to increase by almost two orders of magnitude the current range of an Application Specific Integrated Circuit chip previously developed by our group to read out monitor ionization chambers.

  10. Charged particle detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagen, R.D.

    1975-01-01

    A device for detecting the emission of charged particles from a specimen is described. The specimen is placed within an accumulator means which statically accumulates any charged particles emitted from the specimen. The accumulator means is pivotally positioned between a first capacitor plate having a positive electrical charge and a second capacitor plate having a negative electrical charge. The accumulator means is attracted to one capacitor plate and repelled from the other capacitor plate by an amount proportional to the amount and intensity of charged particles emitted by the specimen. (auth)

  11. Sources for charged particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arianer, J.

    1997-01-01

    This document is a basic course on charged particle sources for post-graduate students and thematic schools on large facilities and accelerator physics. A simple but precise description of the creation and the emission of charged particles is presented. This course relies on every year upgraded reference documents. Following relevant topics are considered: electronic emission processes, technological and practical considerations on electron guns, positron sources, production of neutral atoms, ionization, plasma and discharge, different types of positive and negative ion sources, polarized particle sources, materials for the construction of ion sources, low energy beam production and transport. (N.T.)

  12. Restoring the azimuthal symmetry of lateral distributions of charged particles in the range of the KASCADE-Grande experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sima, O.; Rebel, H.; Haungs, A.; Toma, G.; Manailescu, C.; Morariu, C.; Arteaga, J.C.; Bekk, K.; Bertaina, M.; Bluemer, J.; Bozdog, H.; Brancus, I.M.; Chiavassa, A.; Cosavella, F.; Souza, V. de; Doll, P.; Engel, R.; Finger, M.; Glasstetter, R.; Grupen, C.

    2011-01-01

    The reconstruction of Extensive Air Showers (EAS) observed by particle detectors at the ground is based on the characteristics of observables like the lateral particle density and the arrival times. The lateral densities, inferred for different EAS components from detector data, are usually parameterised by applying various lateral distribution functions (LDFs). The LDFs are used in turn for evaluating quantities like the total number of particles or the density at particular radial distances. Typical expressions for LDFs anticipate azimuthal symmetry of the density around the shower axis. The deviations of the lateral particle density from this assumption arising from various reasons are smoothed out in the case of compact arrays like KASCADE, but not in the case of arrays like Grande, which only sample a smaller part of the azimuthal variation. KASCADE-Grande, an extension of the former KASCADE experiment, is a multi-component Extensive Air Shower (EAS) experiment located at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (Campus North), Germany. The lateral distributions of charged particles are deduced from the basic information provided by the Grande scintillators - the energy deposits - first in the observation plane, then in the intrinsic shower plane. In all steps azimuthal dependences should be taken into account. As the energy deposit in the scintillators is dependent on the angles of incidence of the particles, azimuthal dependences are already involved in the first step: the conversion from the energy deposits to the charged particle density. This is done by using the Lateral Energy Correction Function (LECF) that evaluates the mean energy deposited by a charged particle taking into account the contribution of other particles (e.g. photons) to the energy deposit. By using a very fast procedure for the evaluation of the energy deposited by various particles we prepared realistic LECFs depending on the angle of incidence of the shower and on the radial and

  13. Charged particle traps II applications

    CERN Document Server

    Werth, Günther; Major, Fouad G

    2009-01-01

    This, the second volume of Charged Particle Traps, is devoted to applications, complementing the first volume’s comprehensive treatment of the theory and practice of charged particle traps, their many variants and refinements. In recent years, applications of far reaching importance have emerged ranging from the ultra-precise mass determinations of elementary particles and their antiparticles and short-lived isotopes, to high-resolution Zeeman spectroscopy on multiply-charged ions, to microwave and optical spectroscopy, some involving "forbidden" transitions from metastable states of such high resolution that optical frequency standards are realized by locking lasers to them. Further the potential application of trapped ions to quantum computing is explored, based on the extraordinary quantum state coherence made possible by the particle isolation. Consideration is given to the Paul and Penning traps as potential quantum information processors.

  14. Charged particle beams

    CERN Document Server

    Humphries, Stanley

    2013-01-01

    Detailed enough for a text and sufficiently comprehensive for a reference, this volume addresses topics vital to understanding high-power accelerators and high-brightness-charged particle beams. Subjects include stochastic cooling, high-brightness injectors, and the free electron laser. Humphries provides students with the critical skills necessary for the problem-solving insights unique to collective physics problems. 1990 edition.

  15. Charged particle accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ress, T.I.; Nolde, G.V.

    1974-01-01

    A charged particle accelerator is described. It is made of an enclosure arranged for channeling a stream of charged particles along a predetermined path, and propelling means juxtaposed to said enclosure for generating therein a magnetic field moving in a predetermined direction with respect to each point of said path, the magnetic flux vector of that field being transverse to that path at every point, which gives the particles, along said path, a velocity connected to that of the mobile field by a predetermined relation. This can be applied to the fast production of chemical compounds, to the emission of neutrons and of thermal energy, and to the production of mechanical energy for propelling space ships [fr

  16. Charged particle accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ress, T I; Nolde, G V

    1974-11-25

    A charged particle accelerator is described. It is made of an enclosure arranged for channeling a stream of charged particles along a predetermined path, and propelling means juxtaposed to the enclosure for generating a magnetic field moving in a predetermined direction with respect to each point of the path, the magnetic flux vector of that field being transverse to that path at every point, which gives the particles, along said path, a velocity connected to that of the mobile field by a predetermined relation. This can be applied to the fast production of chemical compounds, to the emission of neutrons and of thermal energy, and to the production of mechanical energy for propelling space ships.

  17. Charged-particle multiplicity distributions over a wide pseudorapidity range in proton-proton collisions at root s=0.9, 7, and 8 TeV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Acharya, S.; Adamova, D.; Adolfsson, J.; Aggarwal, M. M.; AglieriRinella, G.; Agnello, M.; Agrawal, N.; Ahammed, Z.; Ahmad, N.; Ahn, S. U.; Aiola, S.; Akindinov, A.; Alam, S. N.; Alba, J. L. B.; Albuquerque, D. S. D.; Aleksandrov, D.; Alessandro, B.; AlfaroMolina, R.; Alici, A.; Alkin, A.; Alme, J.; Alt, T.; Altenkamper, L.; Altsybeev, I.; Alves GarciaPrado, C.; Janssen, M M; Andrei, C.; Andreou, D.; Andrews, H. A.; Andronic, A.; Anguelov, V.; Anson, C. D.; Anticic, T.; Antinori, F.; Antonioli, P.; Anwar, R.; Aphecetche, L.; Appelshaeuser, H.; Arcelli, S.; Arnaldi, R.; Arnold, O. W.; Arsene, I. C.; Arslandok, M.; Audurier, B.; Augustinus, A.; Averbeck, R.; Azmi, M. D.; Badala, A.; Baek, Y. W.; Bagnasco, S.; Bailhache, R.; Bala, R.; Baldisseri, A.; Ball, M.C.; Baral, R. C.; Barbano, A. M.; Barbera, R.; Barile, F.; Barioglio, L.; Barnafoldi, G. G.; Barnby, L. S.; Barret, V.; Bartalini, P.; Barth, K.; Bartsch, E.; Basile, M.; Bastid, N.; Basu, S.; Bathen, B.; Batigne, G.; Camejo, A. Batista; Batyunya, B.; Batzing, P. C.; Bearden, I. G.; Beck, H.; Bedda, C.; Behera, N. K.; Belikov, I.; Bellini, F.; Bello Martinez, H.; Bellwied, R.; Beltran, L. G. E.; Belyaev, V.; Bencedi, G.; Beole, S.; Bercuci, A.; Berdnikov, Y.; Berenyi, D.; Bertens, R. A.; Berzano, D.; Betev, L.; Bhasin, A.; Bhat, I. R.; Bhati, A. K.; Bhattacharjee, B.; Bhom, J.; Bianchi, L.; Bianchi, N.; Bianchin, C.; Bielcik, J.; Bielcikova, J.; Bilandzic, A.; Biswas, R.; Biswas, S.; Blair, J. T.; Blau, D.; Blume, C.; Boca, G.; Bock, F.; Bogdanov, A.; Boldizsar, L.; Bombara, M.; Bonomi, G.; Bonora, M.; Book, J.; Borel, H.; Borissov, A.; Borri, M.; Botta, E.; Bourjau, C.; Braun-Munzinger, P.; Bregant, M.; Broker, T. A.; Browning, T. A.; Broz, M.; Brucken, E. J.; Bruna, E.; Bruno, G. E.; Budnikov, D.; Buesching, H.; Bufalino, S.; Buhler, P.; Buncic, P.; Busch, O.; Buthelezi, Z.; Butt, J. B.; Buxton, J. T.; Cabala, J.; Caffarri, D.; Caines, H.; Caliva, A.; Calvo Villar, E.; Camerini, P.; Capon, A. A.; Carena, F.; Carena, W.; Carnesecchi, F.; Castellanos, J. Castillo; Castro, A. J.; Casula, E. A R; Ceballos Sanchez, C.; Cerello, P.; Chandra, S.; Chang, B.; Chapeland, S.; Chartier, M.; Charvet, J. L.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chauvin, A.; Cherney, M.; Cheshkov, C.; Cheynis, B.; Barroso, V. Chibante; Chinellato, D. D.; Cho, Sukhee; Chochula, P.; Choi, K.; Chojnacki, M.; Choudhury, S.; Chowdhury, T.; Christakoglou, P.; Christensen, C. H.; Christiansen, P.; Chujo, T.; Chung, S. U.; Cicalo, C.; Cifarelli, L.; Cindolo, F.; Cleymans, J.; Colamaria, F.; Colella, D.; Collu, A.; Colocci, M.; Concas, M.; Balbastre, G. Conesa; Del Valle, Z. Conesa; Connors, M. E.; Contreras, J. G.; Cormier, T. M.; Morales, Y. Corrales; Cortes Maldonado, I.; Cortese, P.; Cosentino, M. R.; Costa, F.; Costanza, S.; Crkovska, J.; Crochet, P.; Cuautle, E.; Cunqueiro, L.; Dahms, T.; Dainese, A.; Danisch, M. C.; Danu, A.; Das, D.; Das, I.; Das, S.; Dash, A.; Dash, S.; Dasgupta, S. S.; DeCaro, A.; De Cataldo, G.; De Conti, C.; De Cuveland, J.; De Falco, A.; De Gruttola, D.; De Marco, N.; De Pasquale, S.; De Souza, R. Derradi; Degenhardt, H. F.; Deisting, A.; Deloff, A.; Deplano, C.; Dhankher, P.; Di Bari, D.; Di Mauro, A.; Di Nezza, P.; Di Ruzza, B.; Diakonov, I.; Diaz Corchero, M. A.; Dietel, T.; Dillenseger, P.; Divia, R.; Djuvsland, O.; Dobrin, A.; Domenicis Gimenez, D.; Doenigus, B.; Dordic, O.; Doremalen, L. V. V.; Drozhzhova, T.; Dubey, A. K.; Dubla, A.; Ducroux, L.; Duggal, A. K.; Dupieux, P.; Ehlers, R. J.; Elia, D.; Endress, E.; Engel, H.; Epple, E.; Erazmus, B.; Erhardt, F.; Espagnon, B.; Esumi, S.; Eulisse, G.; Eum, J.; Evans, D.; Evdokimov, S.; Fabbietti, L.; Faivre, J.; Fantoni, A.; Fasel, M.; Feldkamp, L.; Feliciello, A.; Feofilov, G.; Ferencei, J.; FernandezTellez, A.; Ferreiro, E. G.; Ferretti, A.; Festanti, A.; Feuillard, V. J. G.; Figiel, J.; Figueredo, M. A S; Filchagin, S.; Finogeev, D.; Fionda, F. M.; Fiore, E. M.; Floris, M.; Foertsch, S.; Foka, P.; Fokin, S.; Fragiacomo, E.; Francescon, A.; De Francisco, A.; Frankenfeld, U.; Fronze, G. G.; Fuchs, U.; Furget, C.; Furs, A.; Girard, M. Fusco; Gaardhoje, J. J.; Gagliardi, M.; Gago, A. M.; Gajdosova, K.; Gallio, M.; Galvan, C. D.; Ganoti, P.; Gao, C.; Garabatos, C.; Garcia-Solis, E.; Garg, K.; Garg, P.; Gargiulo, C.; Gasik, P.; Gauger, E. F.; Ducati, M. B. Gay; Germain, M.; Ghosh, J.; Ghosh, P.; Ghosh, S. K.; Gianotti, P.; Giubellino, P.; Giubilato, P.; Gladysz-Dziadus, E.; Glaessel, P.; GomezCoral, D. M.; Ramirez, A. Gomez; Gonzalez, A. S.; Gonzalez, V; Gonzalez-Zamora, P.; Gorbunov, S.; Goerlich, L.; Gotovac, S.; Grabski, V.; Graczykowski, L. K.; Graham, K. L.; Greiner, L. C.; Grelli, A.; Grigoras, C.; Grigoriev, V.; Grigoryan, A.; Guber, F.; Guernane, R.; Guerzoni, B.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gunji, T.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, R.; Guzman, I. B.; Haake, R.; Hadjidakis, C.; Hamagaki, H.; Hamar, G.; Hamon, J. C.; Harris, J. W.; Harton, A.; Hasan, H.; Hatzifotiadou, D.; Hayashi, S.; Heckel, S. T.; Hellbaer, E.; Helstrup, H.; Herghelegiu, A.; HerreraCorral, G.; Herrmann, F.; Hess, B. A.; Hetland, K. F.; Hillemanns, H.; Hills, C.; Hippolyte, B.; Hladky, J.; Hohlweger, B.; Horak, D.; Sorkine-Hornung, Olga; Hosokawa, R.; Hristov, P.; Hughes, C.W.; Humanic, T. J.; Hussain, N.; Hussain, T.; Hutter, D.; Hwang, D. S.; Iga Buitron, S. A.; Ilkaev, R.; Inaba, M.; Ippolitov, M.; Irfan, M.; Isakov, V.; Ivanov, M.; Ivanov, V.; Izucheev, V.; Jacak, B.; Jacazio, N.; Jacholkowski, A.; Jacobs, P. M.; Jadhav, M. B.; Jadlovska, S.; Jadlovsky, J.; Jaelani, S.; Jahnke, C.; Jakubowska, M. J.; Janik, M. A.; Jayarathna, P. H S Y; Jena, C.; Jena, S.; Jeric, M.; Bustamante, R. T Jimenez; Jones, P. G.; Jusko, A.; Kalinak, P.; Kalweit, A.; Kang, J. H.; Kaplin, V.; Kar, S.; Uysal, A. Karasu; Karavichev, O.; Karavicheva, T.; Karayan, L.; Karpechev, E.; Kebschull, U.; Keidel, R.; Keijdener, D. L. D.; Keil, M.; Ketzer, B.; Khan, P.M.; Khan, Shfaqat A.; Khanzadeev, A.; Kharlov, Y.; Khatun, A.; Khuntia, A.; Kielbowicz, M. M.; Kileng, B.; Kim, D.-S.; Kim, D. W.; Kim, D. J.; Kim, H.; Kim, J. S.; Kim, J.; Kim, M.; Kim, M.; Kim, S.; Kim, T.; Kirsch, S.; Kisel, I.; Kiselev, S.; Kisiel, A.; Kiss, G.; Klay, J. L.; Klein, C; Klein, J.; Klein-Boeing, C.; Klewin, S.; Kluge, A.; Knichel, M. L.; Knospe, A. G.; Kobdaj, C.; Kofarago, M.; Kollegger, T.; Kolojvari, A.; Kondratiev, V.; Kondratyeva, N.; Kondratyuk, E.; Konevskikh, A.; Konyushikhin, M.; Kopcik, M.; Kour, M.; Kouzinopoulos, C.; Kovalenko, O.; Kovalenko, V.; Kowalski, M.L.; Meethaleveedu, G. Koyithatta; Kralik, I.; Kravcakova, A.; Krivda, M.; Krizek, F.; Kryshen, E.; Krzewicki, M.; Kubera, A. M.; Kucera, V.; Kuhn, C.; Kuijer, P. G.; Kumar, A.; Kumar, J.; Kumar, L.; Kumar, S.; Kundu, Seema; Kurashvili, P.; Kurepin, A.; Kurepin, A. B.; Kuryakin, A.; Kushpil, S.; Kweon, M. J.; Kwon, Y.; La Pointe, S. L.; La Rocca, P.; Lagana Fernandes, C.; Lai, Y. S.; Lakomov, I.; Langoy, R.; Lapidus, K.; Lara, C.; Lardeux, A.; Lattuca, A.; Laudi, E.; Lavicka, R.; Lazaridis, L.; Lea, R.; Leardini, L.; Lee, S.; Lehas, F.; Strunz-Lehner, Christine; Lehrbach, J.; Lemmon, R. C.; Lenti, V.; Leogrande, E.; Leon Monzon, I.; Levai, P.; Li, S.; Li, X.; Lien, J.; Lietava, R.; Lim, B.; Lindal, S.; Lindenstruth, V.; Lindsay, S. W.; Lippmann, C.; Lisa, M. A.; Litichevskyi, V.; Ljunggren, H. M.; Llope, W. J.; Lodato, D. F.; Loenne, P. I.; Loginov, V.; Loizides, C.; Loncar, P.; Lopez, X.; Lopez Torres, E.; Lowe, A.; Luettig, P.; Lunardon, M.; Luparello, G.; Lupi, M.; Lutz, T. H.; Maevskaya, A.; Mager, M.; Mahajan, S.; Mahmood, S. M.; Maire, A.; Majka, R. D.; Malaev, M.; Malinina, L.; Mal'kevich, D.; Malzacher, P.; Mamonov, A.; Manko, V.; Manso, F.; Manzari, V.; Mao, Y.; Marchisone, M.; Mares, J.; Margagliotti, G. V.; Margotti, A.; Margutti, J.; Marin, A.; Markert, C.; Marquard, M.; Martin, N. A.; Martinengo, P.; Martinez, J. A. L.; Martinez, M. I.; Garcia, G. Martinez; Pedreira, M. Martinez; Mas, A.; Masciocchi, S.; Masera, M.; Masoni, A.; Masson, E.; Mastroserio, A.; Mathis, A. M.; Matyja, A.; mayer, C.; Mazer, J.; Mazzilli, M.; Mazzoni, M. A.; Meddi, F.; Melikyan, Y.; Menchaca-Rocha, A.; Meninno, E.; Mercado Perez, J.; Meres, M.; Mhlanga, S.; Miake, Y.; Mieskolainen, M. M.; Mihaylov, D. L.; Mihaylov, D. L.; Milano, L.; Milosevic, J.; Mischke, A.; Mishra, A. N.; Miskowiec, D.; Mitra, J.; Mitu, C. M.; Mohammadi, N.; Mohanty, B.; Khan, M. Mohisin; Montes, E.; De Godoy, D. A Moreira; Moreno, L. A. P.; Moretto, S.; Morreale, A.; Morsch, A.; Muccifora, V.; Mudnic, E.; Muehlheim, D.; Muhuri, S.; Mukherjee, M.; Mulligan, J. D.; Munhoz, M. G.; Muenning, K.; Munzer, R. H.; Murakami, H.; Murray, S.; Musa, L.; Musinsky, J.; Myers, C. J.; Myrcha, J. W.; Naik, B.; Nair, Rajiv; Nandi, B. K.; Nania, R.; Nappi, E.; Narayan, A.; Naru, M. U.; daLuz, H. Natal; Nattrass, C.; Navarro, S. R.; Nayak, K.; Nayak, R.; Nayak, T. K.; Nazarenko, S.; Nedosekin, A.; De Oliveira, R. A. Negrao; Nellen, L.; Nesbo, S. V.; Ng, F.; Nicassio, M.; Niculescu, M.; Niedziela, J.; Nielsen, B. S.; Nikolaev, S.; Nikulin, S.; Nikulin, V.; Nobuhiro, A.; Noferini, F.; Nomokonov, P.; Nooren, G.; Noris, J. C. C.; Norman, J.; Nyanin, A.; Nystrand, J.; Oeschler, H.; Oh, S.; Ohlson, A.; Okubo, T.; Olah, L.; Oleniacz, J.; Oliveira Da Silva, A. C.; Oliver, M. H.; Onderwaater, J.; Oppedisano, C.; Orava, R.; Oravec, M.; Ortiz Velasquez, A.; Oskarsson, A.; Otwinowski, J.; Oyama, K.; Pachmayer, Y.; Pacik, V.; Pagano, D.; Pagano, P.; Paic, G.; Palni, P.; Pan, J.; Pandey, A. K.; Panebianco, S.; Papikyan, V.; Pappalardo, G. S.; Pareek, P.; Park, J.; Parmar, S.; Passfeld, A.; Pathak, S. P.; Paticchio, V.; Patra, R. N.; Paul, B.; Pei, H.; Peitzmann, T.; Peng, X.; Pereira, L. G.; Da Costa, H. Pereira; Peresunko, D.; Lezama, E. Perez; Peskov, V.; Pestov, Y.; Petracek, V.; Petrov, V.; Petrovici, M.; Petta, C.; Pezzi, R. P.; Piano, S.; Pikna, M.; Pillot, P.; Pimentel, L. O. D. L.; Pinazza, O.; Pinsky, L.; Piyarathna, D. B.; Ploskon, M.; Planinic, M.; Pliquett, F.; Pluta, J.; Pochybova, S.; Podesta-Lerma, P. L M; Poghosyan, M. G.; Polichtchouk, B.; Poljak, N.; Poonsawat, W.; Pop, A.; Poppenborg, H.; Porteboeuf-Houssais, S.; Porter, J.; Pozdniakov, V.; Prasad, S. K.; Preghenella, R.; Prino, F.; Pruneau, C. A.; Pshenichnov, I.; Puccio, M.; Puddu, G.; Pujahari, P.; Punin, V.; Putschke, J.; Rachevski, A.; Raha, S.; Rajput, S.; Rak, J.; Rakotozafindrabe, A.; Ramello, L.; Rami, F.; Rana, D. B.; Raniwala, R.; Raniwala, S.; Rasanen, S. S.; Rascanu, B. T.; Rathee, D.; Ratza, V.; Ravasenga, I.; Read, K. F.; Redlich, K.; Rehman, A.; Reichelt, P.; Reidt, F.; Ren, X.; Renfordt, R.; Reolon, A. R.; Reshetin, A.; Reygers, K.; Riabov, V.; Ricci, R. A.; Richert, T.; Richter, M.; Riedler, P.; Riegler, W.; Riggi, F.; Ristea, C.; Rodriguez Cahuantzi, M.; Roed, K.; Rogochaya, E.; Rohr, D.; Rohrich, D.; Rokita, P. S.; Ronchetti, F.; Rosnet, P.; Rossi, A.; Rotondi, A.; Roukoutakis, F.; Roy, A.; Roy, C.; Roy, P.; Rubio Montero, A. J.; Rueda, O. V.; Rui, R.; Russo, R.; Rustamov, A.; Ryabinkin, E.; Ryabov, Y.; Rybicki, A.; Saarinen, S.; Sadhu, S.; Sadovsky, S.; Safarik, K.; Saha, S. K.; Sahlmuller, B.; Sahoo, B.; Sahoo, P.; Sahoo, R.; Sahoo, S.; Sahu, P. K.; Saini, J.; Sakai, S.; Saleh, M. A.; Salzwedel, J.; Sambyal, S.; Samsonov, V.; Sandoval, A.; Sarkar, D.; Sarkar, N.; Sarma, P.; Sas, M. H. P.; Scapparone, E.; Scarlassara, F.; Scharenberg, R. P.; Scheid, H. S.; Schiaua, C.; Schicker, R.; Schmidt, C.; Schmidt, H. R.; Schmidt, M. O.; Schmidt, M.; Schuchmann, S.; Schukraft, J.; Schutz, Y.; Schwarz, K.; Schweda, K.; Scioli, G.; Scomparin, E.; Scott, R.; Sefcik, M.; Seger, J. E.; Sekiguchi, Y.; Sekihata, D.; Selyuzhenkov, I.; Senosi, K.; Senyukov, S.; Serradilla, E.; Sett, P.; Sevcenco, A.; Shabanov, A.; Shabetai, A.; Shahoyan, R.; Shaikh, W.; Shangaraev, A.; Sharma, A.; Sharma, A.; Sharma, M.; Sharma, M.; Sharma, N.; Sheikh, A. I.; Shigaki, K.; Shou, Q. Y.; Shtejer, K.; Sibiriak, Y.; Siddhanta, S.; Sielewicz, K. M.; Siemiarczuk, T.; Silvermyr, D.; Silvestre, C.; Simatovic, G.; Simonetti, G.; Singaraju, R.; Singh, R; Singhal, V.; Sinha, T.; Sitar, B.; Sitta, M.; Skaali, T. B.; Slupecki, M.; Smirnov, N.; Snellings, R. J. M.; Snellman, T. W.; Song, J.; Song, M.; Soramel, F.; Sorensen, S.; Sozzi, F.; Spiriti, E.; Sputowska, I.; Srivastava, B. K.; Stachel, J.; Stan, I.; Stankus, P.; Stenlund, E.; Stocco, D.; Strmen, P.; Suaide, A. A P; Sugitate, T.; Suire, C.; Suleymanov, M.; Suljic, M.; Sultanov, R.; Sumbera, M.; Sumowidagdo, S.; Suzuki, K.; Swain, S.; Szabo, A.; Szarka, I.; Szczepankiewicz, A.; Tabassam, U.; Takahashi, J.; Tambave, G. J.; Tanaka, N.; Tarhini, M.; Tariq, M.; Tarzila, M. G.; Tauro, A.; Tejeda Munoz, G.; Telesca, A.; Terasaki, K.; Terrevoli, C.; Teyssier, B.; Thakur, D.; Thakur, J. S.; Thomas, D.; Tieulent, R.; Tikhonov, A.; Timmins, A. R.; Toia, A.; tripathy, S.; Trogolo, S.; Trombetta, G.; Tropp, Linda; Trubnikov, V.; Trzaska, W. H.; Trzeciak, B. A.; Tsuji, T.; Tumkin, A.; Turrisi, R.; Tveter, T. S.; Ullaland, K.; Umaka, E. N.; Uras, A.; Usai, G. L.; Utrobicic, A.; Vala, M.; Van der Maarel, J.; Van Hoorne, J. W.; van Leeuwen, M.; Vanat, T.; Vyvre, P. Vande; Varga, D.; Vargas, A.; Vargyas, M.; Varma, R.; Vasileiou, M.; Vasiliev, A.; Vauthier, A.; Doce, O. Vazquez; Vechernin, V.; Veen, A. M.; Velure, A.; Vercellin, E.; Vergara Limon, S.; Vernet, R.; Vertesi, R.; Vickovic, L.; Vigolo, S.; Viinikainen, J.; Vilakazi, Z.; Baillie, O. Villalobos; Villatoro Tello, A.; Vinogradov, A.; Vinogradov, L.; Virgili, T.; Vislavicius, V.; Vodopyanov, A.; Voelkl, M. A.; Voloshin, K.; Voloshin, S. A.; Volpe, G.; Haller, B.; Vorobyev, I.; Voscek, D.; Vranic, D.; Vrlakova, J.; Wagner, B.; Wagner, J.; Wang, H.; Wang, M.; Watanabe, D.; Watanabe, Y.; Weber, M.; Weber, S. G.; Weiser, D. F.; Wenzel, S. C.; Wessels, J. P.; Westerhoff, U.; Whitehead, A. M.; Wiechula, J.; Wikne, J.; Wilk, G.; Wilkinson, J.; Willems, G. A.; Williams, M. C S; Willsher, E.; Windelband, B.; Witt, W. E.; Yalcin, S.; Yamakawa, K.; Yang, P.; Yano, S.; Yin, Z.; Yokoyama, H.; Yoo, I. K.; Yoon, J. H.; Yurchenko, V.; Zaccolo, V.; Zaman, A.; Zampolli, C.; Zanoli, H. J. C.; Zardoshti, N.; Zarochentsev, A.; Zavada, P.; Zaviyalov, N.; Zbroszczyk, H.; Zhalov, M.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, X.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, C.; Zhang, Z.; Zhao, C.; Zhigareva, N.; Zhou, D.; Zhou, Y.; Zhou, Z.; Zhu, H.; Zhu, J.; Zhu, X.; Zichichi, A.; Zimmermann, A.; Zimmermann, M. B.; Zinovjev, G.; Zmeskal, J.; Zou, Shui

    2017-01-01

    We present the charged-particle multiplicity distributions over a wide pseudorapidity range ( −3.4<η<5.0 ) for pp collisions at s√=0.9,7 , and 8 TeV at the LHC. Results are based on information from the Silicon Pixel Detector and the Forward Multiplicity Detector of ALICE, extending the

  18. Charged Particle Radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, Chris

    2004-01-01

    The Coulomb multiple scattering of charged particles as they pass through material allows them to be used as a radiographic probe. This forms the basis for a new kind of radiography that is finding application where conventional x-ray radiography is limited by flux or backgrounds. Charged-particle radiography is providing a versatile new probe that has advantages over conventional x-ray radiography for some unique application. Proton radiography has been used to make quantitative motion pictures of high explosive driven experiments and proves to be of great value for radiographing experiments that mock up nuclear weapon primaries for stockpile certification. By taking advantage of magnetic lens to magnify images and by using the very bright beams that can be made with electrons, charged-particle radiography may be useful for studying the fine spatial detail and very fast motion in laser driven implosion experiments at the National Ignition Facility. Finally, radiographs can be made using cosmic-ray muons for searching vehicles and cargo containers for surreptitious cargo of high z materials such as uranium or plutonium.

  19. Note: A 102 dB dynamic-range charge-sampling readout for ionizing particle/radiation detectors based on an application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pullia, A.; Zocca, F.; Capra, S.

    2018-02-01

    An original technique for the measurement of charge signals from ionizing particle/radiation detectors has been implemented in an application-specific integrated circuit form. The device performs linear measurements of the charge both within and beyond its output voltage swing. The device features an unprecedented spectroscopic dynamic range of 102 dB and is suitable for high-resolution ion and X-γ ray spectroscopy. We believe that this approach may change a widespread paradigm according to which no high-resolution spectroscopy is possible when working close to or beyond the limit of the preamplifier's output voltage swing.

  20. Tables of range and rate of energy loss of charged particles of energy 0,5 to 150 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williamson, C; Boujot, J P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1962-07-01

    The accurate knowledge of ranges and rates of energy loss of charged particles is very important for physicists working with nuclear accelerators. The tabulations of Aron, Hoffmann, and Williams and later of Madey and Rich have proved extremely useful. However, recent experimental range measurements have indicated the need for a new tabulation of the range-energy relation. It was felt that a useful purpose would be served by performing the calculations for a large number of stopping materials distributed throughout the periodic table, including the materials most commonly used as targets, detectors, and entrance foils. (authors)

  1. Sequential charged particle reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hori, Jun-ichi; Ochiai, Kentaro; Sato, Satoshi; Yamauchi, Michinori; Nishitani, Takeo

    2004-01-01

    The effective cross sections for producing the sequential reaction products in F82H, pure vanadium and LiF with respect to the 14.9-MeV neutron were obtained and compared with the estimation ones. Since the sequential reactions depend on the secondary charged particles behavior, the effective cross sections are corresponding to the target nuclei and the material composition. The effective cross sections were also estimated by using the EAF-libraries and compared with the experimental ones. There were large discrepancies between estimated and experimental values. Additionally, we showed the contribution of the sequential reaction on the induced activity and dose rate in the boundary region with water. From the present study, it has been clarified that the sequential reactions are of great importance to evaluate the dose rates around the surface of cooling pipe and the activated corrosion products. (author)

  2. Charged particle accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arakawa, Kazuo.

    1969-01-01

    An accelerator is disclosed having a device which permits the electrodes of an accelerator tube to be readily conditioned in an uncomplicated manner before commencing operation. In particle accelerators, it is necessary to condition the accelerator electrodes before a stable high voltage can be applied. Large current accelerators of the cockcroft-walton type require a complicated manual operation which entails applying to the electrodes a low voltage which is gradually increased to induce a vacuum discharge and then terminated. When the discharge attains an extremely low level, the voltage is again impressed and again raised to a high value in low current type accelerators, a high voltage power supply charges the electrodes once to induce discharge followed by reapplying the voltage when the vacuum discharge reaches a low level, according to which high voltage is automatically applied. This procedure, however, requires that the high voltage power supply be provided with a large internal resistance to limit the current to within several milliamps. The present invention connects a high voltage power supply and an accelerator tube through a discharge current limiting resistor wired in parallel with a switch. Initially, the switch is opened enabling the power supply to impress a voltage limited to a prescribed value by a suitably chosen resistor. Conditioning is effected by allowing the voltage between electrodes to increase and is followed by closing the switch through which high voltage is applied directly to the accelerator for operation. (K.J. Owens)

  3. Charged-particle multiplicity distributions over a wide pseudorapidity range in proton-proton collisions at √(s) = 0.9, 7, and 8 TeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acharya, S. [Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre, Kolkata (India); Adamova, D. [Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Rez u Prahy (Czech Republic). Nuclear Physics Inst.; Adolfsson, J. [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Div. of Experimental High Energy Physics; Collaboration: ALICE Collaboration; and others

    2017-12-15

    We present the charged-particle multiplicity distributions over a wide pseudorapidity range (-3.4<η<5.0) for pp collisions at √(s) = 0.9, 7, and 8 TeV at the LHC. Results are based on information from the Silicon Pixel Detector and the Forward Multiplicity Detector of ALICE, extending the pseudorapidity coverage of the earlier publications and the high-multiplicity reach. The measurements are compared to results from the CMS experiment and to PYTHIA, PHOJET and EPOS LHC event generators, as well as IP-Glasma calculations. (orig.)

  4. Heavy charged particle therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizoe, Jun-etsu

    1995-01-01

    A pilot study of heavy charged particles with heavy ion medical accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC) for advanced H and N cancer has been carried out from June 1994 at National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS). As of the beginning of August 1994, three patients were treated by 290 MeV carbon ions. The patients had adenocarcinoma of the cheek mucosa, squamous cell carcinoma of the ethmoid sinus and adenoid cystic carcinoma of the sublingual gland. Patients were immobilized by individual head coach and thermosplint facial shell. Individual collimators and bolus were also prepared for each ports. Dose fractionation for the initial pilot study group was 16.2 GyE/18 fractions/6 weeks, which would be equivalent to standard fractionation of 60.0 Gy/30 fractions/6 weeks with photons. This dose fractionation was considered to be 20% lesser than 75 GyE/37.5 fractions/7.5 weeks, which is estimated to be maximum tolerance dose for advanced H and N cancers. HIMAC worked well and there was no major trouble causing any treatment delay. Acute skin reactions of 3 patients were 2 cases of bright erythema with patchy moist desquamation and one of dull erythema, which were evaluated as equivalent reaction with irradiated dose. Acute mucosa reactions appeared to have lesser reaction than predicted mucositis. Tumor reactions of three patients were partial reaction (PR) at the end of treatment and nearly complete remission (CR) after 6 months of treatment. From October 1994, we started to treat patients with advanced H and N cancer with 10% high dose than previous dose. And new candidates of pilot study with non small cell lung cancer, brain tumor and carcinoma of the tongue were entered into pilot study. At the end of February 1995, a total of 21 patients were treated by carbon ions. (J.P.N.)

  5. Optics of charged particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wollnik, H.

    1987-01-01

    Suitable for both the specialist and non-specialist, this book develops all statements from first principles. Key chapters of the book focus upon how to design particle-optical systems, the systematics of image abberations, the effects of fringing fields, systematics of beams, and solutions for particle-optical systems. An undergraduate background in physics and mathematics is required for this work

  6. Radiobiology of heavy charged particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraft, G.

    1996-11-01

    The increase in the biological efficiency is the major motivation to use ions heavier than protons for therapy. Therefore, the detailed understanding of the radiobiological potential of heavy ions like carbon or oxygen is the basic condition of a proper application of these ions in therapy. But also for the lightest ion, the proton, evidence accumulates that changes in the radiobiological properties at the end of the particle range influence the therapeutic effect. Compared to sparsely ionizing radiation heavy charged particles exhibit a different physical interaction with the target material: The highly charged ions interact mostly via Coulomb forces with the electrons of the target material producing a track of ionizations and highly kinetic electrons along the path of the primary ion. In these tracks damage to the biological structures like the DNA occurs in a non stochastic, but spatially correlated way yielding a dramatic variation in the biological severity of the created damage. In cell-experiments the variation in the relative biological efficiency has been measured for many biological reactions like cell inactivation, chromosome aberrations and DNA damage. An overview on the inactivation data will be given and theoretical approaches will be discussed and compared to experimental data. (orig.)

  7. Measuring momentum for charged particle tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Christopher; Fraser, Andrew Mcleod; Schultz, Larry Joe; Borozdin, Konstantin N.; Klimenko, Alexei Vasilievich; Sossong, Michael James; Blanpied, Gary

    2010-11-23

    Methods, apparatus and systems for detecting charged particles and obtaining tomography of a volume by measuring charged particles including measuring the momentum of a charged particle passing through a charged particle detector. Sets of position sensitive detectors measure scattering of the charged particle. The position sensitive detectors having sufficient mass to cause the charged particle passing through the position sensitive detectors to scatter in the position sensitive detectors. A controller can be adapted and arranged to receive scattering measurements of the charged particle from the charged particle detector, determine at least one trajectory of the charged particle from the measured scattering; and determine at least one momentum measurement of the charged particle from the at least one trajectory. The charged particle can be a cosmic ray-produced charged particle, such as a cosmic ray-produced muon. The position sensitive detectors can be drift cells, such as gas-filled drift tubes.

  8. New spectrometer for charged particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wajsfelner, Rene

    1970-02-01

    This thesis is devoted to the study and development of an electrostatic spectrometer which is not only more accurate for the determination of size distributions of electrically charged radio-active atmospheric aerosols, but which can also be used for measuring the grain-size distribution of any cloud of particles which will previously have been charged according to a known, reproducible law. An experimental study has been made of the development of this precipitator and also of its calibration. The electrical charge on spherical polystyrene latex particles suspended in air by atomization has been studied; a theoretical explanation of these results is put forward. (author) [fr

  9. Slowing of charged particles by particle methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercier, B.

    1985-03-01

    We review some facts about particle methods for solving linear hyperbolic equations. We show how one gets an evaluation of integral quantities like: ∫ u(x,t) zeta(x,t) dxdt where u denotes the solution and zeta an arbitrary weight function. Then, we apply the method to the equation describing charged particle transport in a plasma with emphasis on the evaluation of energy deposition on ions and electrons [fr

  10. Scattering length and effective range for charged-particle scattering in a plane and in higher dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verhaar, B.J.; de Goey, L.P.H.; Vredenbregt, E.J.D.

    1985-01-01

    The concepts of scattering length a and effective range r/sub e/ previously introduced for low-energy scattering from a potential V(r) in a plane and in higher dimensions are extended to include a 1/r potential (strength parameter γ). Both a and r/sub e/ have the physical significance of being equal to the radius of an equivalent hard sphere giving rise to the same O(k 0 ) and O(k 2 ) terms in the expression for the phase shift. The method used is based on the properties of the ''local scattering length'' a(r,γ) for the potential V(r) cut off at radius r and an ''equivalent hard-sphere radius'' a(r,k,γ) for wave number knot =0. It is shown that these quantities have a smooth behavior for γ→0 and for dimension n→2

  11. Charged-particle coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, W.L.; Crane, J.K.; Hendricks, C.D.

    1980-01-01

    Advanced target designs require thicker (approx. 300 μm) coatings and better surface finishes that can be produced with current coating techniques. An advanced coating technique is proposed to provide maximum control of the coating flux and optimum manipulation of the shell during processing. In this scheme a small beam of ions or particles of known incident energy are collided with a levitated spherical mandrel. Precise control of the incident energy and angle of the deposition flux optimizes the control of the coating morphology while controlled rotation and noncontact support of the shell minimizes the possibility of particulate or damage generated defects. Almost infinite variability of the incident energy and material in this process provides increased flexibility of the target designs which can be physically realized

  12. Charged particle acceleration with plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bravo O, A.

    1989-01-01

    Under certain conditions it is possible to create spatial charge waves (OCE) in a plasma (ionized gas) through some disturbance mechanism, the phenomenon produces electric fields of high intensity that are propagated at velocities near to a c. When charged particles are connected to such OCE they may be accelerated to very high energies in short distances. At present electric fields of approximately 10 7 V/cm have been observed. (Author). 4 refs

  13. Charged-particle research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    This program encompasses a broad range of studies centered about the Dynamitron and Tandem Van de Graaff accelerators in the Physics Division. These include studies of nuclear reactions of potential interest in thermonuclear energy generation, the A dependence of Coulomb displacement energies in f/sub 7/2/-shell nuclei, properties of isotopes of interest to explosive nucleosynthesis, laser spectroscopy of radioactive ions, accelerator mass spectrometry, fundamental aspects of weak interactions as evidenced in nuclear-decay processes, and parity violation in specific nuclear levels induced by neutral weak currents

  14. Display of charged ionizing particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cano S, D.; Ortiz A, M. D.; Amarillas S, L. E.; Vega C, H. R.

    2017-10-01

    The human being is exposed to sources of ionizing and non-ionizing radiation, both of natural or anthropogenic origin. None of these, except non-ionizing such as visible light and infrared radiation, can be detected by the sense of sight and touch respectively. The sun emits charged particles with speeds close to the light that interact with the atoms of the gases present in the atmosphere, producing nuclear reactions that in turn produce other particles that reach the surface of the Earth and reach the living beings. On Earth there are natural radioisotopes that, when they disintegrate, emit ionizing radiation that contributes to the dose we receive. A very old system that allows the visualization of the trajectories of the charged ionizing particles is the Fog Chamber that uses a saturated steam that when crossed by particles with mass and charge, as alpha and beta particles produce condensation centers along its path leaves a trace that can be seen. The objective of this work was to build a fog chamber using easily accessible materials. To measure the functioning of the fog chamber, cosmic rays were measured, as well as a source of natural metal uranium. The fog chamber allowed seeing the presence of traces in alcohol vapor that are produced in a random way. Introducing the uranium foil inside the fog chamber, traces of alpha particles whose energy varies from 4 to 5 MeV were observed. (Author)

  15. Search milli-charged particles at SLAC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langeveld, W.G.J. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Particles with electric charge q {triple_bond} Qe {le} 10{sup -3} e and masses in the range 1-1000 MeV/c{sup 2} are not excluded by present experiments or by astrophysical or cosmological arguments. A beam dump experiment uniquely suited to the detection of such {open_quotes}milli-charged{close_quotes} particles has been carried out at SLAC, utilizing the short-duration pulses of the SLC electron beam to establish a tight coincidence window for the signal. The detector, a large scintillation counter sensitive to very small energy depositions, provided much greater sensitivity than previous searches. Analysis of the data leads to the exclusion of a substantial portion of the charge-mass plane. In this report, a preliminary mass-dependent upper limit is presented for the charge of milli-charged particles, ranging from Q = 1.7 x 10{sup -5} at milli-charged particle mass 0.1 MeV/c{sup 2} to Q = 9.5 x 10{sup -4} at 100 MeV/c{sup 2}.

  16. Charged particle confinement in magnetic mirror

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bora, D.; John, P.I.; Saxena, Y.C.; Varma, R.K.

    1982-01-01

    The behaviour of single charged particle trapped in a magnetic mirror has been investigated experimentally. The particle injected off axis and trapped in a magnetic mirror, leak out of the mirror with the leakage characterized by multiple decay times. The observed decay times are in good agreement with predictions of a ''wave mechanical like'' model by Varma, over a large range of relevant parameters. (author)

  17. Identification and energy measurement of charged particles in the 50-300 MeV energy range by means of a magnet-free hardron spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayukov, Yu D.; Bukiej, A.E.; Gavrilov, V.B.

    1980-01-01

    Studied are the main characteristics (efficiency, time delay and amplitude singal distribution) of a magnet-free hadron spectrometer, in which a plastic scintillator block is the main part. The plastic scintillator having the form of a cylinder of the 20 cm diameter and the 20 cm height is examined with a photomultiplier through a 50 cm light guide. The dependencies of the amplitude conversion coefficient and signal time delay on the distance between the scintillation point and the light guide are resented. The analysis of the results obtained has shown that the closer the beam passes to the light guide, the greater is the signal amplitude. The counter signal delay linearly increases with the distance increase between the beam and the light guide. The dependence of the spectrometer efficiency on the proton energy is measured as well. The investigations have proved possible utilization of the scintillation detector described for identification of charged particles in the 50-300 MeV range and measurement of their energy with the 3-8% accuracy

  18. Centrality evolution of the charged-particle pseudorapidity density over a broad pseudorapidity range in Pb–Pb collisions at sNN=2.76 TeV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Adam

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The centrality dependence of the charged-particle pseudorapidity density measured with ALICE in Pb–Pb collisions at sNN=2.76 TeV over a broad pseudorapidity range is presented. This Letter extends the previous results reported by ALICE to more peripheral collisions. No strong change of the overall shape of charged-particle pseudorapidity density distributions with centrality is observed, and when normalised to the number of participating nucleons in the collisions, the evolution over pseudorapidity with centrality is likewise small. The broad pseudorapidity range (−3.5<η<5 allows precise estimates of the total number of produced charged particles which we find to range from 162±22(syst. to 17170±770(syst. in 80–90% and 0–5% central collisions, respectively. The total charged-particle multiplicity is seen to approximately scale with the number of participating nucleons in the collision. This suggests that hard contributions to the charged-particle multiplicity are limited. The results are compared to models which describe dNch/dη at mid-rapidity in the most central Pb–Pb collisions and it is found that these models do not capture all features of the distributions.

  19. Geometrical charged-particle optics

    CERN Document Server

    Rose, Harald

    2012-01-01

    This second edition is an extended version of the first edition of Geometrical Charged-Particle Optics. The updated reference monograph is intended as a guide for researchers and graduate students who are seeking a comprehensive treatment of the design of instruments and beam-guiding systems of charged particles and their propagation in electromagnetic fields. Wave aspects are included in this edition for explaining electron holography, the Aharanov-Bohm effect and the resolution of electron microscopes limited by diffraction. Several methods for calculating the electromagnetic field are presented and procedures are outlined for calculating the properties of systems with arbitrarily curved axis. Detailed methods are presented for designing and optimizing special components such as aberration correctors, spectrometers, energy filters monochromators, ion traps, electron mirrors and cathode lenses. In particular, the optics of rotationally symmetric lenses, quadrupoles, and systems composed of these elements are...

  20. Medium energy charged particle spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keppler, E.; Wilken, B.; Richer, K.; Umlauft, G.; Fischer, K.; Winterhoff, H.P.

    1976-10-01

    The charged particle spectrometer E8 on HELIOS A and B will be described in some detail. It covers proton energies from 80 keV to 6 MeV, electrons from 20 keV to 2 MeV, and positrons from 150 to 550 keV. Its flight performance will be discussed. From examples of measurements the capability of the instrument will be demonstrated. (orig.) [de

  1. Charge-exchange diagnostic of fusion alpha particles and ICRF driven minority ions in MeV energy range in JET plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izvozchikov, A.B.; Khudoleev, A.V.; Petrov, M.P.; Petrov, S.Ya.; Kozlovskij, S.S.; Corti, S.; Gondahalekar, A.

    1991-12-01

    An important concern in alpha particle heating physics is that fusion alpha particles will be lost before giving all their energy to heat the plasma. In other words, that the radial diffusion time of the alphas may be shorter than their slowing down time in the plasma core. Therefore radially resolved measurements of density and energy spectrum of slowing-down alphas confined in the plasma are high priority diagnostic objectives. In this report application of Charge Exchange Neutral Particle Analysis on Joint European Torus will be discussed. After a description of physical principles of the method a suitable Neutral Particle Analyzer (NPA) will be described in detail and estimates of measurement performance made for different plasma heating and confinement modes in JET. (author)

  2. Charged particle scintillation mass spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baranov, P.S.; Zhuravlev, E.E.; Nafikov, A.A.; Osadchi , A.I.; Raevskij, V.G.; Smirnov, P.A.; Cherepnya, S.N.; Yanulis, Yu.P.

    1982-01-01

    A scintillation mass-spectrometer for charged particle identification by the measured values of time-of-flight and energy operating on line with the D-116 computer is described. Original time detectors with 100x100x2 mm 3 and 200x2 mm 2 scintillators located on the 1- or 2 m path length are used in the spectrometer. The 200x200x200 mm 3 scintillation unit is used as a E-counter. Time-of-flight spectra of the detected particles on the 2 m path length obtained in spectrometer test in the beam of charged particles escaping from the carbon target at the angle of 130 deg under 1.2 GeV bremsstrahlung beam of the ''Pakhra'' PIAS synchrotron are presented. Proton and deuteron energy spectra as well as mass spectrum of all the particles detected by the spectrometer are given. Mass resolution obtained on the 2 m path length for π-mesons is +-25%, for protons is +-5%, for deuterons is +-3%

  3. Experimental determination of the steady-state charging probabilities and particle size conservation in non-radioactive and radioactive bipolar aerosol chargers in the size range of 5–40 nm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kallinger, Peter, E-mail: peter.kallinger@univie.ac.at; Szymanski, Wladyslaw W. [University of Vienna, Faculty of Physics (Austria)

    2015-04-15

    Three bipolar aerosol chargers, an AC-corona (Electrical Ionizer 1090, MSP Corp.), a soft X-ray (Advanced Aerosol Neutralizer 3087, TSI Inc.), and an α-radiation-based {sup 241}Am charger (tapcon & analysesysteme), were investigated on their charging performance of airborne nanoparticles. The charging probabilities for negatively and positively charged particles and the particle size conservation were measured in the diameter range of 5–40 nm using sucrose nanoparticles. Chargers were operated under various flow conditions in the range of 0.6–5.0 liters per minute. For particular experimental conditions, some deviations from the chosen theoretical model were found for all chargers. For very small particle sizes, the AC-corona charger showed particle losses at low flow rates and did not reach steady-state charge equilibrium at high flow rates. However, for all chargers, operating conditions were identified where the bipolar charge equilibrium was achieved. Practically, excellent particle size conservation was found for all three chargers.

  4. Charged-particle activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schweikert, E.A.

    1978-01-01

    The paper discusses the methodology and application of nuclear activation with ion beams (1 9 via 16 O( 3 He,p) 18 F, 12 C( 3 He,α) 11 C and 14 N(p,α) 11 C respectively. Recently, triton activation has been shown to be inherently still superior to 3 He activation for the determination of oxygen [ 16 O( 3 H,n) 18 F]. Lithium, boron, carbon and sulphur can be detected rapidly, nondestructively and with high sensitivity (approximately 0.25ppm for Li and B) via ''quasi-prompt'' activation based on the detection of short-lived, high-energy beta emitters (10ms 1 H( 7 Li,n) 7 Be for example. Nondestructive multielement analysis: Proton activation has the inherent potential for meeting requirements of broad elemental coverage, sensitivity (ppm and sub-ppm range) and selectivity. Up to 30 elements have been determined in Al, Co, Ag, Nb, Rh, Ta and biological samples, using 12-MeV proton activation followed by gamma-ray spectrometry. These capabilities are further enhanced with the counting of X-ray emitters, 28 elements (26 9 ) and accuracy using proton activation. 204 Pb/ 206 Pb ratios can also be determined with a relative precision of a few per cent. Although charged-particle activation analysis is a well-established trace analysis technique, broad potential capabilities remain to be explored, e.g. those arising from ultrashort-lived nuclides, heavy ion interactions and the combination of delayed and prompt methods. (author)

  5. The dynamics of a charged particle

    OpenAIRE

    Rohrlich, Fritz

    2008-01-01

    Using physical arguments, I derive the physically correct equations of motion for a classical charged particle from the Lorentz-Abraham-Dirac equations (LAD) which are well known to be physically incorrect. Since a charged particle can classically not be a point particle because of the Coulomb field divergence, my derivation accounts for that by imposing a basic condition on the external force. That condition ensures that the particle's finite size charge distribution looks like a point charg...

  6. Energetic charged particles above thunderclouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fullekrug, Martin; Diver, Declan; Pincon, Jean-Louis; Renard, Jean-Baptiste; Phelps, Alan D.R.; Bourdon, Anne; Helling, Christiane; Blanc, Elisabeth; Honary, Farideh; Kosch, Mike; Harrison, Giles; Sauvaud, Jean-Andre; Lester, Mark; Rycroft, Michael; Kosch, Mike; Horne, Richard B.; Soula, Serge; Gaffet, Stephane

    2013-01-01

    The French government has committed to launch the satellite TARANIS to study transient coupling processes between the Earth's atmosphere and near-Earth space. The prime objective of TARANIS is to detect energetic charged particles and hard radiation emanating from thunderclouds. The British Nobel prize winner C. T. R. Wilson predicted lightning discharges from the top of thunderclouds into space almost a century ago. However, new experiments have only recently confirmed energetic discharge processes which transfer energy from the top of thunderclouds into the upper atmosphere and near-Earth space; they are now denoted as transient luminous events, terrestrial gamma-ray flashes and relativistic electron beams. This meeting report builds on the current state of scientific knowledge on the physics of plasmas in the laboratory and naturally occurring plasmas in the Earth's atmosphere to propose areas of future research. The report specifically reflects presentations delivered by the members of a novel Franco-British collaboration during a meeting at the French Embassy in London held in November 2011. The scientific subjects of the report tackle ionization processes leading to electrical discharge processes, observations of transient luminous events, electromagnetic emissions, energetic charged particles and their impact on the Earth's atmosphere. The importance of future research in this area for science and society, and towards spacecraft protection, is emphasized. (authors)

  7. Charged-particle mutagenesis 2. Mutagenic effects of high energy charged particles in normal human fibroblasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, D. J.; Tsuboi, K.; Nguyen, T.; Yang, T. C.

    1994-01-01

    The biological effects of high Linear Energy Transfer (LET) charged particles are a subject of great concern with regard to the prediction of radiation risk in space. In this report, mutagenic effects of high LET charged particles are quantitatively measured using primary cultures of human skin fibroblasts, and the spectrum of induced mutations are analyzed. The LET of the charged particles ranged from 25 KeV/micrometer to 975 KeV/micrometer with particle energy (on the cells) between 94-603 MeV/u. The X-chromosome linked hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (hprt) locus was used as the target gene. Exposure to these high LET charged particles resulted in exponential survival curves; whereas, mutation induction was fitted by a linear model. The Relative Biological Effect (RBE) for cell-killing ranged from 3.73 to 1.25, while that for mutant induction ranged from 5.74 to 0.48. Maximum RBE values were obtained at the LET of 150 keV/micrometer. The inactivation cross-section (alpha i) and the action cross-section for mutant induction (alpha m) ranged from 2.2 to 92.0 sq micrometer and 0.09 to 5.56 x 10(exp -3) sq micrometer respectively. The maximum values were obtained by Fe-56 with an LET of 200 keV/micrometer. The mutagenicity (alpha m/alpha i) ranged from 2.05 to 7.99 x 10(exp -5) with the maximum value at 150 keV/micrometer. Furthermore, molecular analysis of mutants induced by charged particles indicates that higher LET beams are more likely to cause larger deletions in the hprt locus.

  8. Charged-particle mutagenesis II. Mutagenic effects of high energy charged particles in normal human fibroblasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, D. J.; Tsuboi, K.; Nguyen, T.; Yang, T. C.

    1994-01-01

    The biological effects of high LET charged particles are a subject of great concern with regard to the prediction of radiation risk in space. In this report, mutagenic effects of high LET charged particles are quantitatively measured using primary cultures of human skin fibroblasts, and the spectrum of induced mutations are analyzed. The LET of the charged particles ranged from 25 KeV/micrometer to 975 KeV/micrometer with particle energy (on the cells) between 94-603 MeV/u. The X-chromosome linked hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (hprt) locus was used as the target gene. Exposure to these high LET charged particles resulted in exponential survival curves; whereas, mutation induction was fitted by a linear model. The Relative Biological Effect (RBE) for cell-killing ranged from 3.73 to 1.25, while that for mutant induction ranged from 5.74 to 0.48. Maximum RBE values were obtained at the LET of 150 keV/micrometer. The inactivation cross-section (alpha i) and the action cross-section for mutant induction (alpha m) ranged from 2.2 to 92.0 micrometer2 and 0.09 to 5.56 x 10(-3) micrometer2, respectively. The maximum values were obtained by 56Fe with an LET of 200 keV/micrometer. The mutagenicity (alpha m/alpha i) ranged from 2.05 to 7.99 x 10(-5) with the maximum value at 150 keV/micrometer. Furthermore, molecular analysis of mutants induced by charged particles indicates that higher LET beams are more likely to cause larger deletions in the hprt locus.

  9. Spinning charged test particles and Cosmic Censorship

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caderni, N [Cambridge Univ. Inst. of Astronomy (UK); Calvani, M [Padua Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Astronomia

    1979-04-16

    The authors consider spinning charged test particles in the gravitational field of a rotating charged black hole, and it is shown that the hole cannot be destroyed, according to the Cosmic Censorship hypothesis.

  10. Spinning charged test particles and Cosmic Censorship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caderni, N.; Calvani, M.

    1979-01-01

    The authors consider spinning charged test particles in the gravitational field of a rotating charged black hole, and it is shown that the hole cannot be destroyed, according to the Cosmic Censorship hypothesis. (Auth.)

  11. A search for stable massive particles carrying electric charges in the range of 2e to 6e in proton-proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV recorded with the ATLAS detector at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Zimmermann, Simone

    This dissertation presents a search for long-lived, multi-charged particles using the ATLAS detector at the LHC. Motivation for this search arose from an unexploited search regime at ATLAS of stable massive particles with electric charges of |q| = 2e to |q| = 5e. Additional motivation can be found in several beyond the Standard Model physics theories. Proton-proton collisions recorded during the 2011 LHC running at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 4.4 $fb^{-1}$, are examined in a signature-based analysis. The search seeks out charged particle tracks exhibiting anomalously high ionization consistent with stable massive particles with electric charges in the range from |q| = 2e to |q| = 6e. For this search, new variables of specific energy loss per path length dE/dx are used in the candidate selection. One of these variables, the TRT dE/dx, is developed in the course of this thesis and is described in detail. No excess is observed with respect to the prediction of Standard Model...

  12. A search for stable massive particles carrying electric charges in the range of 2e to 6e in proton-proton collisions at {radical}(s)=7 TeV recorded with the ATLAS detector at the LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmermann, Simone

    2013-08-15

    This dissertation presents a search for long-lived, multi-charged particles using the ATLAS detector at the LHC. Motivation for this search arose from an unexploited search regime at ATLAS of stable massive particles with electric charges of vertical stroke q vertical stroke = 2e to vertical stroke q vertical stroke = 5e. Additional motivation can be found in several beyond the Standard Model physics theories. Proton-proton collisions recorded during the 2011 LHC running at {radical}(s)=7 TeV, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 4.4 fb{sup -1}, are examined in a signature-based analysis. The search seeks out charged particle tracks exhibiting anomalously high ionization consistent with stable massive particles with electric charges in the range from vertical stroke q vertical stroke =2e to vertical stroke q vertical stroke =6e. For this search, new variables of specific energy loss per path length dE/dx are used in the candidate selection. One of these variables, the TRT dE/dx, is developed in the course of this thesis and is described in detail. No excess is observed with respect to the prediction of Standard Model processes. The 95% C.L. upper cross section limits are also interpreted as mass exclusion limits for a simplified Drell-Yan production model.

  13. A search for stable massive particles carrying electric charges in the range of 2e to 6e in proton-proton collisions at √(s)=7 TeV recorded with the ATLAS detector at the LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmermann, Simone

    2013-08-01

    This dissertation presents a search for long-lived, multi-charged particles using the ATLAS detector at the LHC. Motivation for this search arose from an unexploited search regime at ATLAS of stable massive particles with electric charges of vertical stroke q vertical stroke = 2e to vertical stroke q vertical stroke = 5e. Additional motivation can be found in several beyond the Standard Model physics theories. Proton-proton collisions recorded during the 2011 LHC running at √(s)=7 TeV, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 4.4 fb -1 , are examined in a signature-based analysis. The search seeks out charged particle tracks exhibiting anomalously high ionization consistent with stable massive particles with electric charges in the range from vertical stroke q vertical stroke =2e to vertical stroke q vertical stroke =6e. For this search, new variables of specific energy loss per path length dE/dx are used in the candidate selection. One of these variables, the TRT dE/dx, is developed in the course of this thesis and is described in detail. No excess is observed with respect to the prediction of Standard Model processes. The 95% C.L. upper cross section limits are also interpreted as mass exclusion limits for a simplified Drell-Yan production model.

  14. Surface charge accumulation of particles containing radionuclides in open air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong-Ha; Yiacoumi, Sotira; Tsouris, Costas

    2015-05-01

    Radioactivity can induce charge accumulation on radioactive particles. However, electrostatic interactions caused by radioactivity are typically neglected in transport modeling of radioactive plumes because it is assumed that ionizing radiation leads to charge neutralization. The assumption that electrostatic interactions caused by radioactivity are negligible is evaluated here by examining charge accumulation and neutralization on particles containing radionuclides in open air. A charge-balance model is employed to predict charge accumulation on radioactive particles. It is shown that particles containing short-lived radionuclides can be charged with multiple elementary charges through radioactive decay. The presence of radioactive particles can significantly modify the particle charge distribution in open air and yield an asymmetric bimodal charge distribution, suggesting that strong electrostatic particle interactions may occur during short- and long-range transport of radioactive particles. Possible effects of transported radioactive particles on electrical properties of the local atmosphere are reported. The study offers insight into transport characteristics of airborne radionuclides. Results are useful in atmospheric transport modeling of radioactive plumes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Motion of charged particles in the magnetosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukherjee, G.K.; Rajaram, R.

    1981-01-01

    The adiabatic motion of charged particles in the magnetosphere has been investigated using Mead-Fairfield magnetospheric field model (Mead and Fairfield, 1975). Since the motion of charged particles in a dipolar field geometry is well understood, we bring out in this paper some important features in characteristic motion due to non-dipolar distortions in the field geometry. We look at the tilt averaged picture of the field configuration and estimate theoretically the parameters like bounce period, longitudinal invariant and the bounce averaged drift velocities of the charged particle in the Mead-Fairfield field geometry. These parameters are evaluated as a function of pitch angle and azimuthal position in the region of ring current (5 to 7 Earth radii from the centre of the Earth) for four ranges of magnetic activity. At different longitudes the non-dipolar contribution as a percentage of dipole value in bounce period and longitudinal invariant shows maximum variation for particles close to 90 0 pitch angles. For any low pitch angle, these effects maximize at the midnight meridian. The radial component of the bounce averaged drift velocity is found to be greatest at the dawn-dusk meridians and the contribution vanishes at the day and midnight meridians for all pitch angles. In the absence of tilt-dependent terms in the model, the latitudinal component of the drift velocity vanishes. On the other hand, the relative non-dipolar contribution to bounce averaged azimuthal drift velocity is very high as compared to similar contribution in other characteristic parameters of particle motion. It is also shown that non-dipolar contribution in bounce period, longitudinal invariant and bounce averaged drift velocities increases in magnitude with increase in distance and magnetic activity. (orig.)

  16. Electronically shielded solid state charged particle detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balmer, D.K.; Haverty, T.W.; Nordin, C.W.; Tyree, W.H.

    1996-01-01

    An electronically shielded solid state charged particle detector system having enhanced radio frequency interference immunity includes a detector housing with a detector entrance opening for receiving the charged particles. A charged particle detector having an active surface is disposed within the housing. The active surface faces toward the detector entrance opening for providing electrical signals representative of the received charged particles when the received charged particles are applied to the active surface. A conductive layer is disposed upon the active surface. In a preferred embodiment, a nonconductive layer is disposed between the conductive layer and the active surface. The conductive layer is electrically coupled to the detector housing to provide a substantially continuous conductive electrical shield surrounding the active surface. The inner surface of the detector housing is supplemented with a radio frequency absorbing material such as ferrite. 1 fig

  17. Scintillation Detectors for Charged Particles and Photons

    CERN Document Server

    Lecoq, P

    2011-01-01

    Scintillation Detectors for Charged Particles and Photons in 'Charged Particle Detectors - Particle Detectors and Detector Systems', part of 'Landolt-Börnstein - Group I Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms: Numerical Data and Functional Relationships in Science and Technology, Volume 21B1: Detectors for Particles and Radiation. Part 1: Principles and Methods'. This document is part of Part 1 'Principles and Methods' of Subvolume B 'Detectors for Particles and Radiation' of Volume 21 'Elementary Particles' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I 'Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms'. It contains the Subsection '3.1.1 Scintillation Detectors for Charged Particles and Photons' of Section '3.1 Charged Particle Detectors' of Chapter '3 Particle Detectors and Detector Systems' with the content: 3.1.1 Scintillation Detectors for Charged Particles and Photons 3.1.1.1 Basic detector principles and scintillator requirements 3.1.1.1.1 Interaction of ionizing radiation with scintillator material 3.1.1.1.2 Important scint...

  18. Dynamics of neutral and charged aerosol particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leppae, J.

    2012-07-01

    Atmospheric aerosol particles have various climate effects and adverse health effects, which both depend on the size and number concentration of the particles. Freshly-formed particles are not large enough to impact neither health nor climate and they are most susceptible to removal by collisions with larger pre-existing particles. Consequently, the knowledge of both the formation and the growth rate of particles are crucially important when assessing the health and climate effects of atmospheric new particle formation. The purpose of this thesis is to increase our knowledge of the dynamics of neutral and charged aerosol particles with a specific interest towards the particle growth rate and processes affecting the aerosol charging state. A new model, Ion-UHMA, which simulates the dynamics of neutral and charged particles, was developed for this purpose. Simple analytical formulae that can be used to estimate the growth rate due to various processes were derived and used to study the effects of charged particles on the growth rate. It was found that the growth rate of a freshly-formed particle population due to condensation and coagulation could be significantly increased when a considerable fraction of the particles are charged. Finally, recent data-analysis methods that have been applied to the aerosol charging states obtained from the measurements were modified for a charge asymmetric framework. The methods were then tested on data obtained from aerosol dynamics simulations. The methods were found to be able to provide reasonable estimates on the growth rate and proportion of particles formed via ion-induced nucleation, provided that the growth rate is high enough and that the charged particles do not grow much more rapidly than the neutral ones. A simple procedure for estimating whether the methods are suitable for analysing data obtained in specific conditions was provided. In this thesis, the dynamics of neutral and charged aerosol particles were studied in

  19. Collisional charging of individual submillimeter particles: Using ultrasonic levitation to initiate and track charge transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Victor; James, Nicole M.; Waitukaitis, Scott R.; Jaeger, Heinrich M.

    2018-03-01

    Electrostatic charging of insulating fine particles can be responsible for numerous phenomena ranging from lightning in volcanic plumes to dust explosions. However, even basic aspects of how fine particles become charged are still unclear. Studying particle charging is challenging because it usually involves the complexities associated with many-particle collisions. To address these issues, we introduce a method based on acoustic levitation, which makes it possible to initiate sequences of repeated collisions of a single submillimeter particle with a flat plate, and to precisely measure the particle charge in situ after each collision. We show that collisional charge transfer between insulators is dependent on the hydrophobicity of the contacting surfaces. We use glass, which we modify by attaching nonpolar molecules to the particle, the plate, or both. We find that hydrophilic surfaces develop significant positive charges after contacting hydrophobic surfaces. Moreover, we demonstrate that charging between a hydrophilic and a hydrophobic surface is suppressed in an acidic environment and enhanced in a basic one. Application of an electric field during each collision is found to modify the charge transfer, again depending on surface hydrophobicity. We discuss these results within the context of contact charging due to ion transfer, and we show that they lend strong support to O H- ions as the charge carriers.

  20. Quantum and classical dissipation of charged particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibarra-Sierra, V.G. [Departamento de Física, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana at Iztapalapa, Av. San Rafael Atlixco 186, Col. Vicentina, 09340 México D.F. (Mexico); Anzaldo-Meneses, A.; Cardoso, J.L.; Hernández-Saldaña, H. [Área de Física Teórica y Materia Condensada, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana at Azcapotzalco, Av. San Pablo 180, Col. Reynosa-Tamaulipas, Azcapotzalco, 02200 México D.F. (Mexico); Kunold, A., E-mail: akb@correo.azc.uam.mx [Área de Física Teórica y Materia Condensada, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana at Azcapotzalco, Av. San Pablo 180, Col. Reynosa-Tamaulipas, Azcapotzalco, 02200 México D.F. (Mexico); Roa-Neri, J.A.E. [Área de Física Teórica y Materia Condensada, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana at Azcapotzalco, Av. San Pablo 180, Col. Reynosa-Tamaulipas, Azcapotzalco, 02200 México D.F. (Mexico)

    2013-08-15

    A Hamiltonian approach is presented to study the two dimensional motion of damped electric charges in time dependent electromagnetic fields. The classical and the corresponding quantum mechanical problems are solved for particular cases using canonical transformations applied to Hamiltonians for a particle with variable mass. Green’s function is constructed and, from it, the motion of a Gaussian wave packet is studied in detail. -- Highlights: •Hamiltonian of a damped charged particle in time dependent electromagnetic fields. •Exact Green’s function of a charged particle in time dependent electromagnetic fields. •Time evolution of a Gaussian wave packet of a damped charged particle. •Classical and quantum dynamics of a damped electric charge.

  1. Quantum and classical dissipation of charged particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibarra-Sierra, V.G.; Anzaldo-Meneses, A.; Cardoso, J.L.; Hernández-Saldaña, H.; Kunold, A.; Roa-Neri, J.A.E.

    2013-01-01

    A Hamiltonian approach is presented to study the two dimensional motion of damped electric charges in time dependent electromagnetic fields. The classical and the corresponding quantum mechanical problems are solved for particular cases using canonical transformations applied to Hamiltonians for a particle with variable mass. Green’s function is constructed and, from it, the motion of a Gaussian wave packet is studied in detail. -- Highlights: •Hamiltonian of a damped charged particle in time dependent electromagnetic fields. •Exact Green’s function of a charged particle in time dependent electromagnetic fields. •Time evolution of a Gaussian wave packet of a damped charged particle. •Classical and quantum dynamics of a damped electric charge

  2. Quantum mechanics of charged particle beam optics

    CERN Document Server

    Khan, Sameen Ahmed

    2018-01-01

    Theory of charged particle beam optics is basic to the design and working of charged particle beam devices from electron microscopes to accelerator machines. Traditionally, the optical elements of the devices are designed and operated based on classical mechanics and classical electromagnetism, and only certain specific quantum mechanical aspects are dealt with separately using quantum theory. This book provides a systematic approach to quantum theory of charged particle beam optics, particularly in the high energy cases such as accelerators or high energy electron microscopy.

  3. Electrostatic Charging and Particle Interactions in Microscopic Insulating Grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Victor

    In this thesis, we experimentally investigate the electrostatic charging as well as the particle interactions in microscopic insulating grains. First, by tracking individual grains accelerated in an electric field, we quantitatively demonstrate that tribocharging of same-material grains depends on particle size. Large grains tend to charge positively, and small ones tend to charge negatively. Theories based on the transfer of trapped electrons can explain this tendency but have not been validated. Here we show that the number of trapped electrons, measured independently by a thermoluminescence technique, is orders of magnitude too small to be responsible for the amount of charge transferred. This result reveals that trapped electrons are not responsible for same-material tribocharging of dielectric particles. Second, same-material tribocharging in grains can result in important long-range electrostatic interactions. However, how these electrostatic interactions contribute to particle clustering remains elusive, primarily due to the lack of direct, detailed observations. Using a high-speed camera that falls with a stream charged grains, we observe for the first time how charged grains can undergo attractive as well as repulsive Kepler-like orbits. Charged particles can be captured in their mutual electrostatic potential and form clusters via multiple bounces. Dielectric polarization effects are directly observed, which lead to additional attractive forces and stabilize "molecule-like" arrangements of charged particles. Third, we have developed a new method to study the charge transfer of microscopic particles based on acoustic levitation techniques. This method allows us to narrow the complex problem of many-particle charging down to precise charge measurements of a single sub-millimeter particle colliding with a target plate. By simply attaching nonpolar groups onto glass surfaces, we show that the contact charging of a particle is highly dependent on

  4. Nuclear data needs in nuclear astrophysics: Charged-particle reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Michael S.

    2001-01-01

    Progress in understanding a diverse range of astrophysical phenomena - such as the Big Bang, the Sun, the evolution of stars, and stellar explosions - can be significantly aided by improved compilation, evaluation, and dissemination of charged-particle nuclear reaction data. A summary of the charged-particle reaction data needs in these and other astrophysical scenarios is presented, along with recommended future nuclear data projects. (author)

  5. Robust statistical reconstruction for charged particle tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Larry Joe; Klimenko, Alexei Vasilievich; Fraser, Andrew Mcleod; Morris, Christopher; Orum, John Christopher; Borozdin, Konstantin N; Sossong, Michael James; Hengartner, Nicolas W

    2013-10-08

    Systems and methods for charged particle detection including statistical reconstruction of object volume scattering density profiles from charged particle tomographic data to determine the probability distribution of charged particle scattering using a statistical multiple scattering model and determine a substantially maximum likelihood estimate of object volume scattering density using expectation maximization (ML/EM) algorithm to reconstruct the object volume scattering density. The presence of and/or type of object occupying the volume of interest can be identified from the reconstructed volume scattering density profile. The charged particle tomographic data can be cosmic ray muon tomographic data from a muon tracker for scanning packages, containers, vehicles or cargo. The method can be implemented using a computer program which is executable on a computer.

  6. Anisotropic and correlated emissions of short range charged particles in anti pAg/Br reactions at 1. 4 GeV/c incident momentum observed in photographic emulsions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breivik, F.O.; Jacobsen, T.; Soerensen, S.O.

    1984-07-01

    Anti pAg/Br reactions at 1.4 GeV/c incident momentum are studied by means of the emulsion technique. A group of short range charged particles is observed. For the events with one short track, a backward and transversal emission is seen, which probably is due to some very fast process. For the events with two short tracks, a back-to-back emission is seen, indicating some two-body decay, where the target nucleus possibly behaves spectator-like.

  7. Anisotropic and correlated emissions of short range charged particles in anti pAg/Br reactions at 1.4 GeV/c incident momentum observed in photographic emulsions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breivik, F.O.; Jacobsen, T.; Soerensen, S.O.

    1984-01-01

    Anti pAg/Br reactions at 1.4 GeV/c incident momentum are studied by means of the emulsion technique. A group of short range charged particles is observed. For the events with one short track, a backward and transversal emission is seen, which probably is due to some very fast process. For the events with two short tracks, a back-to-back emission is seen, indicating some two-body decay, where the target nucleus possibly behaves spectator-like. (Auth.)

  8. Anisotropic and correlated emissions of short range charged particles in anti pAg/Br reactions of 1.4 GeV/c incident momentum observed in photographic emulsions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breivik, F.O.; Jacobsen, T.; Soerensen, S.O.

    1983-12-01

    Anti pAg/Br reactions at 1.4 GeV/c incident momentum were studied by means of the emulsion technique. A group of short range charged particles was observed. For the events with one short track, a backward and transversal emission was seen, probably due to some very fast process. For the events with two short tracks, a back-to-back emission was seen, indicating some two-body decay where the target nucleus possibly behaves spectator-like. The rates and forward collimations suggest that the same physical process causes the different multiplicities

  9. Equilibration of particles with abelian charges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redlich, K.; Tounsi, A.

    2002-01-01

    We formulate the kinetic equation for time evolution and chemical equilibration of particles that carries an abelian charge. We show that dependently on the thermal conditions inside a fireball the system approaches to different chemical equilibrium limits. The role of exact conservation of quantum numbers in the kinetic description of rarely produced particles is explained. (orig.)

  10. Charged-particle multiplicity distributions over a wide pseudorapidity range in proton-proton collisions at root s=0.9, 7, and 8 TeV

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Acharya, S.; Adamová, Dagmar; Bielčík, J.; Bielčíková, Jana; Brož, M.; Contreras, J. G.; Ferencei, Jozef; Hladký, Jan; Horák, D.; Křížek, Filip; Kučera, Vít; Kushpil, Svetlana; Lavička, R.; Mareš, Jiří A.; Petráček, V.; Šumbera, Michal; Vaňát, Tomáš; Závada, Petr

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 77, č. 12 (2017), č. článku 825. ISSN 1434-6044 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LG15052 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 ; RVO:61389005 Keywords : ALICE collaboration * heavy ion collisions * LHC Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders; BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics (FZU-D) OBOR OECD: Nuclear physics; Particles and field physics (FZU-D) Impact factor: 5.331, year: 2016

  11. Electro-optical detection of charged particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semertzidis, Y.K.; Castillo, V.; Kowalski, L.; Kraus, D.E.; Larsen, R.; Lazarus, D.M.; Magurno, B.; Nikas, D.; Ozben, C.; Srinivasan-Rao, T.; Tsang, T.

    2000-01-01

    We have made the first observation of a charged particle beam by means of its electro-optical effect on the polarization of laser light in a LiNbO 3 crystal. The modulation of the laser light during the passage of a pulsed electron beam was observed using a fast photodiode and a digital oscilloscope. The fastest rise time measured, 120 ps, was obtained in the single shot mode and was limited by the bandwidth of the oscilloscope and the associated electronics. This technology holds good for detectors of greatly improved spatial and temporal resolution for single relativistic charged particles as well as particle beams

  12. Electro-optical detection of charged particles

    CERN Document Server

    Semertzidis, Y K; Kowalski, L A; Kraus, D E; Larsen, R; Lazarus, D M; Magurno, B; Nikas, D; Ozben, C; Srinivasan-Rao, T; Tsang, Thomas

    2000-01-01

    We have made the first observation of a charged particle beam by means of its electro-optical effect on the polarization of laser light in a LiNbO sub 3 crystal. The modulation of the laser light during the passage of a pulsed electron beam was observed using a fast photodiode and a digital oscilloscope. The fastest rise time measured, 120 ps, was obtained in the single shot mode and was limited by the bandwidth of the oscilloscope and the associated electronics. This technology holds good for detectors of greatly improved spatial and temporal resolution for single relativistic charged particles as well as particle beams.

  13. Electro-optical detection of charged particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semertzidis, Y.K.; Castillo, V.; Kowalski, L.; Kraus, D.E.; Larsen, R.; Lazarus, D.M. E-mail: lazarus@sun2.bnl.gov; Magurno, B.; Nikas, D.; Ozben, C.; Srinivasan-Rao, T.; Tsang, T

    2000-10-01

    We have made the first observation of a charged particle beam by means of its electro-optical effect on the polarization of laser light in a LiNbO{sub 3} crystal. The modulation of the laser light during the passage of a pulsed electron beam was observed using a fast photodiode and a digital oscilloscope. The fastest rise time measured, 120 ps, was obtained in the single shot mode and was limited by the bandwidth of the oscilloscope and the associated electronics. This technology holds good for detectors of greatly improved spatial and temporal resolution for single relativistic charged particles as well as particle beams.

  14. Charge changing cross sections for heavy-particle collisions in the energy range from 0.1 eV to 10 MeV, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuno, Kazuhiko

    1978-12-01

    This paper presents a compilation of the experimental works on charge changing cross sections for neutral atoms, negative- and positive-atomic ions of atomic numbers Z = 2 - 5 in collisions with atoms and simple molecules. A systematic survey of the literature has been made through October 1977. Some recent data are also included. The result is summarized in graphical forms with reference lists attached. (author)

  15. Charge changing cross sections for heavy-particle collisions in the energy range from 0.1 eV to 10 MeV, 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuno, Kazuhiko

    1978-12-01

    This paper presents a compilation of the experimental works on charge changing cross sections for neutral atoms, negative- and positive-atomic ions of atomic numbers Z = 9 - 11 in collisions with atoms and simple molecules. A systematic survey of the leterature has been made through October 1977. Some recent data are also included. The result is summarized in graphical forms with reference lists attached. (author)

  16. Charge changing cross sections for heavy-particle collisions in the energy range from 0.1 eV to 10 MeV, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuno, Kazuhiko

    1978-12-01

    This paper presents a compilation of the experimental works on charge changing cross sections for neutral atoms, negative- and positive-atomic ions of atomic numbers Z = 6 - 8 in collisions with atoms and simple molecules. A systematic survey of the literature has been made through October 1977. Some recent data are also included. The result is summarized in graphical forms with reference lists attached. (author)

  17. Treatment of cancer with heavy charged particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, J.R.

    1981-01-01

    The clinical radiotherapy trial has accured 243 patients irradiated with particles and 13 patients irradiated as controls in randomized studies. Of the 243 particle patients, 194 have been treated with helium ions, either solely or in combination with photon irradiation, and 49 have received all or part of their irradiation with one of the heavier particles, either carbon, neon, or argon ions. The project thus can be divided into two general phases: (1) evaluation of improved dose distribution without significant biologic advantage by use of helium ion irradiation; and (2) evaluation of improved dose distribution and enhanced biologic effect by irradiation with heavy charged particles such as carbon, neon, and argon ions

  18. Coulomb-Fourier representation approach to three-body scattering with charged particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alt, E.O.; Levin, S.B.; Yakovlev, S.L.

    2004-01-01

    We present a novel approach for calculating charged-composite particle scattering. It consists in eliminating by means of a suitably chosen representation that part of the interaction which is of longest range and, hence, gives rise to all the troublesome features which plague charged particle scattering theories. In this paper only the simplest case is considered, namely that of two charged and one neutral particles which interact via pairwise strong potentials, and a repulsive Coulomb potential between the charged particles

  19. Charged particle discrimination with silicon surface barrier detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coote, G.E.; Pithie, J.; Vickridge, I.C.

    1996-01-01

    The application for materials analysis of nuclear reactions that give rise to charged particles is a powerful surface analytical and concentration depth profiling technique. Spectra of charged particles, with energies in the range 0.1 to 15 MeV, emitted from materials irradiated with beams of light nuclei such as deuterons are measured with silicon surface barrier detectors. The spectra from multi-elemental materials typically encountered in materials research are usually composed of an overlapping superposition of proton, alpha, and other charged particle spectra. Interpretation of such complex spectra would be simplified if a means were available to electronically discriminate between the detector response to the different kinds of charged particle. We have investigated two methods of discriminating between different types of charged particles. The fast charge pulses from a surface barrier detector have different shapes, depending on the spatial distribution of energy deposition of the incident particle. Fast digitisation of the pulses, followed by digital signal processing provides one avenue for discrimination. A second approach is to use a thin transmission detector in front of a thick detector as a detector telescope. For a given incident energy, different types of charged particles will lose different amounts of energy in the thin detector, providing an alternative means of discrimination. We show that both approaches can provide significant simplification in the interpretation of charged particle spectra in practical situations, and suggest that silicon surface barrier detectors having graded electronic properties could provide improved discrimination compared to the current generation of detectors having homogeneous electronic properties. (author).12 refs., 2 tabs., 28 figs

  20. Stereotactic radiosurgery. The role of charged particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levy, R.P.; Schulte, R.W.M.; Slater, J.D.; Miller, D.W.; Slater, J.M. [Loma Linda Univ. Medical Center, CA (United States). Dept. of Radiation Medicine

    1999-08-01

    Stereotactic radiosurgery using charged-particle beams has been the subject of biomedical research and clinical development for more than 50 years. Charged particles of proton mass or greater manifest unique physical properties that can be used to place a high dose of radiation preferentially within the boundaries of a deeply located intracranial target volume. Since 1954, nearly 10 000 patients have been treated using this technique. Treated disorders include pituitary tumors, vascular malformations, primary and metastatic brain tumors, and subfoveal neovascularization. Charged-particle radiosurgery is particularly advantageous for the conformal treatment of large and/or irregularly shaped lesions, or for the treatment of lesions located in front of or adjacent to sensitive brain structures. (orig.)

  1. Stereotactic radiosurgery. The role of charged particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levy, R.P.; Schulte, R.W.M.; Slater, J.D.; Miller, D.W.; Slater, J.M.

    1999-01-01

    Stereotactic radiosurgery using charged-particle beams has been the subject of biomedical research and clinical development for more than 50 years. Charged particles of proton mass or greater manifest unique physical properties that can be used to place a high dose of radiation preferentially within the boundaries of a deeply located intracranial target volume. Since 1954, nearly 10 000 patients have been treated using this technique. Treated disorders include pituitary tumors, vascular malformations, primary and metastatic brain tumors, and subfoveal neovascularization. Charged-particle radiosurgery is particularly advantageous for the conformal treatment of large and/or irregularly shaped lesions, or for the treatment of lesions located in front of or adjacent to sensitive brain structures. (orig.)

  2. Bibliography of integral charged particle nuclear data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holden, N.E.; Burrows, T.W.

    1982-03-01

    This publication is the second supplement to the archival edition of the National Nuclear Data Center's charged-particle bibliography. This supplement contains citations to all references scanned since March 15, 1981, and all corrections and additions to previous citations, and indexes all data received in the international exchanged format (EXFOR). The primary goal of the bibliography has been to satisfy the need expressed by the Nuclear Reaction Data Center Network for a concise and comprehensive bibliography of integral charged-particle cross section data and to provide an index of data exchanged among the members. In 1980, coverage was expanded to include differential data relevant to charged-particle-induced neutron-source reactions

  3. Charged particle accelerators for inertial fusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humphries, S. Jr.

    1991-01-01

    The long history of successful commercial applications of charged-particle accelerators is largely a result of initiative by private industry. The Department of Energy views accelerators mainly as support equipment for particle physicists rather than components of an energy generation program. In FY 91, the DOE spent over 850 M$ on building and supporting accelerators for physics research versus 5 M$ on induction accelerators for fusion energy. The author believes this emphasis is skewed. One must address problems of long-term energy sources to preserve the possibility of basic research by future generations. In this paper, the author reviews the rationale for accelerators as inertial fusion drivers, emphasizing that these devices provide a viable path of fusion energy from viewpoints of both physics and engineering. In this paper, he covered the full range of accelerator fusion applications. Because of space limitations, this paper concentrates on induction linacs for ICF, an approach singled out in recent reports by the National Academy of Sciences and the Fusion Policy Advisory Committee as a promising path to long-term fusion power production. Review papers by Cook, Leung, Franzke, Hofmann and Reiser in these proceedings give details on light ion fusion and RF accelerator studies

  4. Clinical physics for charged particle treatment planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, G.T.Y.; Pitluck, S.; Lyman, J.T.

    1981-01-01

    The installation of a computerized tomography (CT) scanner which can be used with the patient in an upright position is described. This technique will enhance precise location of tumor position relative to critical structures for accurate charged particle dose delivery during fixed horizontal beam radiotherapy. Pixel-by-pixel treatment planning programs have been developed to calculate the dose distribution from multi-port charged particle beams. The plan includes CT scans, data interpretation, and dose calculations. The treatment planning computer is discussed. Treatment planning for irradiation of ocular melanomas is described

  5. Leading charged particle correlations at ALICE

    CERN Document Server

    Krizek, F

    2012-01-01

    A leading charged particle correlation analysis was performed on p + p data measured by the ALICE experiment at √s = 7 TeV. The main emphasis was on the xE distributions for a given charged hadron trigger momentum pTt. It was observed that dN/dxE is driven by the imbalance function at low xE. At high xE it shows exponential behavior and the extracted slope can be related to hzti of the trigger particle.

  6. Charged-particle calculations using Boltzmann transport methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, T.J.; Dodds, H.L. Jr.; Robinson, M.T.; Holmes, D.K.

    1981-01-01

    Several aspects of radiation damage effects in fusion reactor neutron and ion irradiation environments are amenable to treatment by transport theory methods. In this paper, multigroup transport techniques are developed for the calculation of charged particle range distributions, reflection coefficients, and sputtering yields. The Boltzmann transport approach can be implemented, with minor changes, in standard neutral particle computer codes. With the multigroup discrete ordinates code, ANISN, determination of ion and target atom distributions as functions of position, energy, and direction can be obtained without the stochastic error associated with atomistic computer codes such as MARLOWE and TRIM. With the multigroup Monte Carlo code, MORSE, charged particle effects can be obtained for problems associated with very complex geometries. Results are presented for several charged particle problems. Good agreement is obtained between quantities calculated with the multigroup approach and those obtained experimentally or by atomistic computer codes

  7. Fog camera to visualize ionizing charged particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trujillo A, L.; Rodriguez R, N. I.; Vega C, H. R.

    2014-10-01

    The human being can not perceive the different types of ionizing radiation, natural or artificial, present in the nature, for what appropriate detection systems have been developed according to the sensibility to certain radiation type and certain energy type. The objective of this work was to build a fog camera to visualize the traces, and to identify the trajectories, produced by charged particles with high energy, coming mainly of the cosmic rays. The origin of the cosmic rays comes from the solar radiation generated by solar eruptions where the protons compose most of this radiation. It also comes, of the galactic radiation which is composed mainly of charged particles and gamma rays that comes from outside of the solar system. These radiation types have energy time millions higher that those detected in the earth surface, being more important as the height on the sea level increases. These particles in their interaction produce secondary particles that are detectable by means of this cameras type. The camera operates by means of a saturated atmosphere of alcohol vapor. In the moment in that a charged particle crosses the cold area of the atmosphere, the medium is ionized and the particle acts like a condensation nucleus of the alcohol vapor, leaving a visible trace of its trajectory. The built camera was very stable, allowing the detection in continuous form and the observation of diverse events. (Author)

  8. A hybrid charged-particle guide for studying (n, charged particle) reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haight, R.C.; White, R.M.; Zinkle, S.J.

    1983-01-01

    Charged-particle transport systems consisting of magnetic quadrupole lenses have been employed in recent years in the study of (n, charged particle) reactions. A new transport system was completed at the laboratory that is based both on magnetic lenses as well as electrostatic fields. The magnetic focusing of the charged-particle guide is provided by six magnetic quadrupole lenses arranged in a CDCCDC sequence (in the vertical plane). The electrostatic field is produced by a wire at high voltage which stretches the length of the guide and is physically at the centre of the magnetic axis. The magnetic lenses are used for charged particles above 5 MeV; the electrostatic guide is used for lower energies. This hybrid system possesses the excellent focusing and background rejection properties of other magnetic systems. For low energy charged-particles, the electrostatic transport avoids the narrow band-passes in charged-particle energy which are a problem with purely magnetic transport systems. This system is installed at the LLNL Cyclograaff facility for the study of (n, charged particle) reactions at neutron energies up to 35 MeV. (Auth.)

  9. Automatic analysis of charged particle spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seres, Z.; Kiss, A.

    1975-11-01

    A computer program system is developed for off-line automatic analysis of a series of charged particle spectra measured by solid-state detectors and collected on magnetic tapes. The procedure results in complete angular distributions for the excited levels of the final nucleus up to about 15 MeV. (orig.) [de

  10. Charged particles as Kaluza-Klein monopoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, H.-M.; Tsou, S.T.

    1984-05-01

    The authors describe some explorations into the possibility of treating charged particles as monopoles in a Kaluza-Klein world. Such considerations may be useful in the future for constructing model theories in which both matter and gauge structure emerge as consequences of space-time geometry. (author)

  11. Atomic interactions of charged particles with matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bichsel, H.

    1993-01-01

    Ideas about the interactions of charged particles with matter are discussed. First, some experimental information is presented. Concepts related to collision cross sections and the Bethe model for them are given. The stopping power is derived and applied to the discussion of depth dose functions ('Bragg curves'). Some details of the energy loss in microscopic volumes are discussed

  12. Bmad: A relativistic charged particle simulation library

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sagan, D.

    2006-01-01

    Bmad is a subroutine library for simulating relativistic charged particle beams in high-energy accelerators and storage rings. Bmad can be used to study both single and multi-particle beam dynamics using routines to track both particles and macroparticles. Bmad has various tracking algorithms including Runge-Kutta and symplectic (Lie algebraic) integration. Various effects such as wakefields, and radiation excitation and damping can be simulated. Bmad has been developed in a modular, object-oriented fashion to maximize flexibility. Interface routines allow Bmad to be called from C/C++ as well as Fortran programs. Bmad is well documented. Every routine is individually annotated, and there is an extensive manual

  13. Cell inactivation by heavy charged particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blakely, E A [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States). Cell and Molecular Biology Div.

    1992-06-01

    The inactivation of cells resulting in lethal or aberrant effects by charged particles is of growing interest. Charged particles at extremely high LET are capable of completely eliminating cell-type and cell-line differences in repair capacity. It is still not clear however whether the repair systems are inactivated, or merely that heavy-ion lesions are less repairable. Studies correlating the particle inactivation dose of radioresistant cells with intact DNA analyzed with pulse field gel electrophoresis and other techniques may be useful, but more experiments are also needed to assess the fidelity of repair. For particle irradiations between 40-100 keV/{mu}m there is however evidence for particle-induced activation of specific genes in mammalian cells, and certain repair processes in bacteria. New data are available on the inactivation of developmental processes in several systems including seeds, and cells of the nematode C. elegans. Future experimental and theoretical modeling research emphasis should focus on exploring particle-induced inactivation of endpoints assessing functionality and not just lethality, and on analyzing molecular damage and genetic effects arising in damage but non-inactivated survivors. The discrete nature of selective types of particle damage as a function of radiation quality indicates the value of accelerated ions as probes of normal and aberrant biological processes. Information obtained from molecular analyses of damage and repair must however be integrated into the context of cellular and tissue functions of the organism. (orig.).

  14. Charged Particle Diffusion in Isotropic Random Magnetic Fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subedi, P.; Matthaeus, W. H.; Chuychai, P.; Parashar, T. N.; Chhiber, R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware 19716 (United States); Sonsrettee, W. [Faculty of Engineering and Technology, Panyapiwat Institute of Management, Nonthaburi 11120 (Thailand); Blasi, P. [INAF/Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo E. Fermi, 5—I-50125 Firenze (Italy); Ruffolo, D. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand); Montgomery, D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States); Dmitruk, P. [Departamento de Física Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires Ciudad Universitaria, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Wan, M. [Department of Mechanics and Aerospace Engineering, Southern University of Science and Technology, Shenzhen, Guangdong 518055 (China)

    2017-03-10

    The investigation of the diffusive transport of charged particles in a turbulent magnetic field remains a subject of considerable interest. Research has most frequently concentrated on determining the diffusion coefficient in the presence of a mean magnetic field. Here we consider the diffusion of charged particles in fully three-dimensional isotropic turbulent magnetic fields with no mean field, which may be pertinent to many astrophysical situations. We identify different ranges of particle energy depending upon the ratio of Larmor radius to the characteristic outer length scale of turbulence. Two different theoretical models are proposed to calculate the diffusion coefficient, each applicable to a distinct range of particle energies. The theoretical results are compared to those from computer simulations, showing good agreement.

  15. Electro-optical Detection of Charged Particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazarus, D.M.

    2001-01-01

    The electric field of charged particles can induce transient changes in the polarization of light that produce sub-picosecond modulation of a laser beam. This is a consequence of the electro-optical effect in which the presence of the electric field in an electro-optical medium produces a change in the index of refraction of the medium resulting in a phase retardation between polarization components parallel and perpendicular to the electric field. We have observed the electro-optical effect due to 10 picosecond electron beam bunches with rise times that were limited by the bandwidth of our data acquisition system. This technology is being applied to particle beam diagnostics and has the potential to produce charged particle detectors combining excellent spatial resolution with unprecedented temporal precision.

  16. Charged particle activation analysis: present status and future perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chowdhury, D.P.

    2006-01-01

    Charged particle activation analysis is a highly sensitive nuclear analytical technique for the determination of elements at trace and ultra trace levels. CPAA involves the irradiation of samples with high energy charged particles, both light ions and heavy ions, from an accelerator in the energy range of 10 to 100 MeV. CPAA has been developed and standardized for the determination of several elements at trace levels in various types of materials using high energy ion beams from VEC machine at Kolkata. A brief review on CPAA is presented here based on our present works and its applications in future. (author)

  17. Kinetics of particle ensembles with variable charges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivlev, A. V.; Zhdanov, S.; Klumov, B.; Morfill, G.; Tsytovich, V. N.; Angelis, U. de

    2005-01-01

    One of the remarkable features distinguishing complex (dusty) plasmas from usual plasmas is that charges on the grains are not constant, but fluctuate in time around some equilibrium value which, in then, is some function of spatial coordinates. Generally, ensembles of particles with variable charges are non-Hamiltonian systems where the mutual collisions do not conserve energy. Therefore, the use of thermodynamic potentials to describe such systems is not really valid. An appropriate way to investigate their evolution is to employ the kinetic approach. We studied (both analytical and numerically) two cases: (a) inhomogeneous charge-it depends on the particle coordinate but does not change in time, and (b)fluctuating charge-it changes in time around the equilibrium value, which is constant in space. For both cases we used the Fokker-Planck approach to derive the collision integral which describes the momentum and energy transfer in mutual particle collisions as well as in the collisions with neutrals. We obtained that the mean particle energy grows in time when the neutral friction is below a certain threshold (as shown in Fig. 1). In case (a) the energy changes as ∞(t c r-t)''2, in case (b) it scales as ∞(t c r-t)''-1, exhibiting the explosion-like growth with t c r a critical time scale. The obtained solutions can be of significant importance for laboratory dusty plasmas as well as for space plasma environments, where inhomogeneous charge distributions are often present. For instance, the instability can cause dust heating in low-pressure complex plasma experiments, it can be responsible for the melting of plasma crystals, it might operate in protoplanetary disks and effect the kinetics of the planet formation, etc. (Author)

  18. A scintillation detector set measuring the charge particle energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dore, Chantal.

    1979-01-01

    The S143 experiment, at CERN in 1976, needed both the measurement and the identification of light nuclei, and especially the separation between 3 H and 3 He, over a large energy range. In the chosen solution, in addition to semiconductor detectors, some scintillation counters are used. The non-linearity of light versus energy of charged particles was complicated by the fact there was two different linear laws according to the charge of particles. To obtain good analogic signals over a dynamic range nearly equal to 200, the signals from several dynodes were used simultaneously. In the experimental setting up, each scintillator was put directly in contact with the corresponding photocathode. In spite of a special shielding, some perturbations due to the magnet placed close by required to bring important corrections to linear laws. Thanks to complementary informations from semiconductor counters, a full separation between charge 1 and charge 2 particles was possible. A suitable identification as guaranted among charge 1 particles, but only kinematic constraints gave the possibility to extract 4 He corresponding to the elastic scattering [fr

  19. Moment approach to charged particle beam dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Channell, P.J.

    1983-01-01

    We have derived the hierarchy of moment equations that describes the dynamics of charged-particle beams in linear accelerators and can truncate the hierarchy at any level either by discarding higher moments or by a cumulant expansion discarding only correlation functions. We have developed a procedure for relating the density expansion linearly to the moments to any order. The relation of space-charge fields to the density has been derived; and an accurate, systematic, and computationally convenient expansion of the resultant integrals has been developed

  20. Improved non-invasive method for aerosol particle charge measurement employing in-line digital holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Anjan Kumar

    Electrically charged particles are found in a wide range of applications ranging from electrostatic powder coating, mineral processing, and powder handling to rain-producing cloud formation in atmospheric turbulent flows. In turbulent flows, particle dynamics is influenced by the electric force due to particle charge generation. Quantifying particle charges in such systems will help in better predicting and controlling particle clustering, relative motion, collision, and growth. However, there is a lack of noninvasive techniques to measure particle charges. Recently, a non-invasive method for particle charge measurement using in-line Digital Holographic Particle Tracking Velocimetry (DHPTV) technique was developed in our lab, where charged particles to be measured were introduced to a uniform electric field, and their movement towards the oppositely charged electrode was deemed proportional to the amount of charge on the particles (Fan Yang, 2014 [1]). However, inherent speckle noise associated with reconstructed images was not adequately removed and therefore particle tracking data was contaminated. Furthermore, particle charge calculation based on particle deflection velocity neglected the particle drag force and rebound effect of the highly charged particles from the electrodes. We improved upon the existing particle charge measurement method by: 1) hologram post processing, 2) taking drag force into account in charge calculation, 3) considering rebound effect. The improved method was first fine-tuned through a calibration experiment. The complete method was then applied to two different experiments, namely conduction charging and enclosed fan-driven turbulence chamber, to measure particle charges. In all three experiments conducted, the particle charge was found to obey non-central t-location scale family of distribution. It was also noted that the charge distribution was insensitive to the change in voltage applied between the electrodes. The range of voltage

  1. Escape of charged particles from a neutron star

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelizzari, M.A.

    1976-01-01

    The theory of particle trajectories in an axisymmetric magnetic field, formulated by C. Stormer, can be extended to cover conservative force fields as well. As such, it is an ideal tool to study the escape of charged particles from a rapidly rotating neutron star, enabling one to determine the maximum range of their trajectories in space. With the aid of this theory, it is shown that a neutron star, rotating in a vacuum with rotation and magnetic axes aligned, will not evolve a perfectly conducting magnetosphere if the neutron star is the only source of charge. The sign of charge accelerated from the equatorial regions will be magnetically trapped to a toroidal region very near the star, and the opposite sign of charge, emerging from the polar regions, will escape from the magnetosphere until a critical stellar charge is reached, after which polar charges will be electrostatically bound to the magnetosphere. This selective magnetic trapping of one sign of charge, which prevents the formation of a stellar wind, is a consequence of the magnetic field's orientation relative to the internal charge density of the neutron star

  2. Plasma based charged-particle accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bingham, R; Mendonca, J T; Shukla, P K

    2004-01-01

    Studies of charged-particle acceleration processes remain one of the most important areas of research in laboratory, space and astrophysical plasmas. In this paper, we present the underlying physics and the present status of high gradient and high energy plasma accelerators. We will focus on the acceleration of charged particles to relativistic energies by plasma waves that are created by intense laser and particle beams. The generation of relativistic plasma waves by intense lasers or electron beams in plasmas is important in the quest for producing ultra-high acceleration gradients for accelerators. With the development of compact short pulse high brightness lasers and electron positron beams, new areas of studies for laser/particle beam-matter interactions is opening up. A number of methods are being pursued vigorously to achieve ultra-high acceleration gradients. These include the plasma beat wave accelerator mechanism, which uses conventional long pulse (∼100 ps) modest intensity lasers (I ∼ 10 14 -10 16 W cm -2 ), the laser wakefield accelerator (LWFA), which uses the new breed of compact high brightness lasers ( 10 18 W cm -2 , the self-modulated LWFA concept, which combines elements of stimulated Raman forward scattering, and electron acceleration by nonlinear plasma waves excited by relativistic electron and positron bunches. In the ultra-high intensity regime, laser/particle beam-plasma interactions are highly nonlinear and relativistic, leading to new phenomena such as the plasma wakefield excitation for particle acceleration, relativistic self-focusing and guiding of laser beams, high-harmonic generation, acceleration of electrons, positrons, protons and photons. Fields greater than 1 GV cm -1 have been generated with particles being accelerated to 200 MeV over a distance of millimetre. Plasma wakefields driven by positron beams at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center facility have accelerated the tail of the positron beam. In the near future

  3. Relativistic scattering theory of charged spinless particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alt, E.O.; Hannemann, M.

    1986-01-01

    In the context of relativistic quantum mechanics the scattering is discussed of two and three charged spinless particles. The corresponding transition operators are shown to satisfy four-dimensional Lippmann-Schwinger and eight-dimensional Faddeev-type equations, respectively. A simplified model of two particles with Coulomb interaction can be solved exactly. Calculations have been made of (i) the partial wave S-matrix from which the bound state spectrum has been extracted; the latter agrees with a fourth-order result of Schwinger; (ii) the full scattering amplitude which in the weak-field limit coincides with the expression derived by Fried et al. from eikonalized QED. (author)

  4. High-LET charged particle radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, J.R.; California Univ., San Francisco, CA

    1991-07-01

    The Department of Radiation Oncology at UCSF Medical Center and the Radiation Oncology Department at UC Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory have been evaluating the use of high LET charged particle radiotherapy in a Phase 1--2 research trial ongoing since 1979. In this clinical trail, 239 patients have received at least 10 Gy (physical) minimum tumor dose with neon ions, meaning that at least one-half of their total treatment was given with high-LET charged particle therapy. Ninety-one patients received all of their therapy with neon ions. Of the 239 patients irradiated, target sites included lesions in the skin, subcutaneous tissues, head and neck such as paranasal sinuses, nasopharynx and salivary glands (major and minor), skull base and juxtaspinal area, GI tract including esophagus, pancreas and biliary tract, prostate, lung, soft tissue and bone. Analysis of these patients has been carried out with a minimum followup period of 2 years

  5. High gradient lens for charged particle beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Jiuan

    2014-04-29

    Methods and devices enable shaping of a charged particle beam. A dynamically adjustable electric lens includes a series of alternating a series of alternating layers of insulators and conductors with a hollow center. The series of alternating layers when stacked together form a high gradient insulator (HGI) tube to allow propagation of the charged particle beam through the hollow center of the HGI tube. A plurality of transmission lines are connected to a plurality of sections of the HGI tube, and one or more voltage sources are provided to supply an adjustable voltage value to each transmission line of the plurality of transmission lines. By changing the voltage values supplied to each section of the HGI tube, any desired electric field can be established across the HGI tube. This way various functionalities including focusing, defocusing, acceleration, deceleration, intensity modulation and others can be effectuated on a time varying basis.

  6. Universal behavior of charged particle production in heavy ion collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phobos Collaboration; Steinberg, Peter A.; Back, B. B.; Baker, M. D.; Barton, D. S.; Betts, R. R.; Ballintijn, M.; Bickley, A. A.; Bindel, R.; Budzanowski, A.; Busza, W.; Carroll, A.; Decowski, M. P.; Garcia, E.; George, N.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gushue, S.; Halliwell, C.; Hamblen, J.; Heintzelman, G. A.; Henderson, C.; Hofman, D. J.; Hollis, R. S.; Hołński, R.; Holzman, B.; Iordanova, A.; Johnson, E.; Kane, J. L.; Katzy, J.; Khan, N.; Kucewicz, W.; Kulinich, P.; Kuo, C. M.; Lin, W. T.; Manly, S.; McLeod, D.; Michałowski, J.; Mignerey, A. C.; Nouicer, R.; Olszewski, A.; Pak, R.; Park, I. C.; Pernegger, H.; Reed, C.; Remsberg, L. P.; Reuter, M.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Rosenberg, L.; Sagerer, J.; Sarin, P.; Sawicki, P.; Skulski, W.; Steadman, S. G.; Steinberg, P.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Stodulski, M.; Sukhanov, A.; Tang, J.-L.; Teng, R.; Trzupek, A.; Vale, C.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G. J.; Verdier, R.; Wadsworth, B.; Wolfs, F. L. H.; Wosiek, B.; Woźniak, K.; Wuosmaa, A. H.; Wysłouch, B.

    2003-03-01

    The PHOBOS experiment at RHIC has measured the multiplicity of primary charged particles as a function of centrality and pseudorapidity in Au+Au collisions at sqrt(s_NN) = 19.6, 130 and 200 GeV. Two kinds of universal behavior are observed in charged particle production in heavy ion collisions. The first is that forward particle production, over a range of energies, follows a universal limiting curve with a non-trivial centrality dependence. The second arises from comparisons with pp/pbar-p and e+e- data. N_tot/(N_part/2) in nuclear collisions at high energy scales with sqrt(s) in a similar way as N_tot in e+e- collisions and has a very weak centrality dependence. This feature may be related to a reduction in the leading particle effect due to the multiple collisions suffered per participant in heavy ion collisions.

  7. Charged particles in external electromagnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giovannini, N.P.D.

    1976-01-01

    The present study contains a general theoretical group analysis of the problem of a charged massive particle moving in an (arbitrary) classical external electromagnetic field. This analysis is essentially based on the space-time symmetry properties of e.m. fields and e.m. field equations, as well as the fact that the considered equations of motion depend on the field via a potential

  8. Controlling Charged Particles with Inhomogeneous Electrostatic Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrero, Federico A. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    An energy analyzer for a charged-particle spectrometer may include a top deflection plate and a bottom deflection plate. The top and bottom deflection plates may be non-symmetric and configured to generate an inhomogeneous electrostatic field when a voltage is applied to one of the top or bottom deflection plates. In some instances, the top and bottom deflection plates may be L-shaped deflection plates.

  9. The charged particle accelerators subsystems modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Averyanov, G P; Kobylyatskiy, A V

    2017-01-01

    Presented web-based resource for information support the engineering, science and education in Electrophysics, containing web-based tools for simulation subsystems charged particle accelerators. Formulated the development motivation of Web-Environment for Virtual Electrophysical Laboratories. Analyzes the trends of designs the dynamic web-environments for supporting of scientific research and E-learning, within the framework of Open Education concept. (paper)

  10. Geometrical charged-particle optics. 2. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rose, Harald

    2013-01-01

    Provides a unique theoretical treatment of charged-particle optics. Displays novel unpublished results on several topics. Provides insight into the properties of charged-particle devices. Treats wave optical properties of the electron. Presents the resolution limit of electron microscopes and novel theoretical treatment of the Stern-Gerlach effect. This second edition is an extended version of the first edition of Geometrical Charged-Particle Optics. The updated reference monograph is intended as a guide for researchers and graduate students who are seeking a comprehensive treatment of the design of instruments and beam-guiding systems of charged particles and their propagation in electromagnetic fields. Wave aspects are included in this edition for explaining electron holography, the Aharanov-Bohm effect and the resolution of electron microscopes limited by diffraction. Several methods for calculating the electromagnetic field are presented and procedures are outlined for calculating the properties of systems with arbitrarily curved axis. Detailed methods are presented for designing and optimizing special components such as aberration correctors, spectrometers, energy filters monochromators, ion traps, electron mirrors and cathode lenses. In particular, the optics of rotationally symmetric lenses, quadrupoles, and systems composed of these elements are discussed extensively. Beam properties such as emittance, brightness, transmissivity and the formation of caustics are outlined. Relativistic motion and spin precession of the electron are treated in a covariant way by introducing the Lorentz-invariant universal time and by extending Hamilton's principle from three to four spatial dimensions where the laboratory time is considered as the fourth pseudo-spatial coordinate. Using this procedure and introducing the self action of the electron, its accompanying electromagnetic field and its radiation field are calculated for arbitrary motion. In addition, the Stern

  11. Charged particle layers in the Debye limit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Kenneth I; Kalman, Gabor J; Kyrkos, Stamatios

    2002-09-01

    We develop an equivalent of the Debye-Hückel weakly coupled equilibrium theory for layered classical charged particle systems composed of one single charged species. We consider the two most important configurations, the charged particle bilayer and the infinite superlattice. The approach is based on the link provided by the classical fluctuation-dissipation theorem between the random-phase approximation response functions and the Debye equilibrium pair correlation function. Layer-layer pair correlation functions, screened and polarization potentials, static structure functions, and static response functions are calculated. The importance of the perfect screening and compressibility sum rules in determining the overall behavior of the system, especially in the r--> infinity limit, is emphasized. The similarities and differences between the quasi-two-dimensional bilayer and the quasi-three-dimensional superlattice are highlighted. An unexpected behavior that emerges from the analysis is that the screened potential, the correlations, and the screening charges carried by the individual layers exhibit a marked nonmonotonic dependence on the layer separation.

  12. Charged particle layers in the Debye limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golden, Kenneth I.; Kalman, Gabor J.; Kyrkos, Stamatios

    2002-01-01

    We develop an equivalent of the Debye-Hueckel weakly coupled equilibrium theory for layered classical charged particle systems composed of one single charged species. We consider the two most important configurations, the charged particle bilayer and the infinite superlattice. The approach is based on the link provided by the classical fluctuation-dissipation theorem between the random-phase approximation response functions and the Debye equilibrium pair correlation function. Layer-layer pair correlation functions, screened and polarization potentials, static structure functions, and static response functions are calculated. The importance of the perfect screening and compressibility sum rules in determining the overall behavior of the system, especially in the r→∞ limit, is emphasized. The similarities and differences between the quasi-two-dimensional bilayer and the quasi-three-dimensional superlattice are highlighted. An unexpected behavior that emerges from the analysis is that the screened potential, the correlations, and the screening charges carried by the individual layers exhibit a marked nonmonotonic dependence on the layer separation

  13. Charging and coagulation of radioactive and nonradioactive particles in the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yong-ha; Yiacoumi, Sotira

    2016-01-01

    Charging and coagulation influence one another and impact the particle charge and size distributions in the atmosphere. However, few investigations to date have focused on the coagulation kinetics of atmospheric particles accumulating charge. This study presents three approaches to include mutual effects of charging and coagulation on the microphysical evolution of atmospheric particles such as radioactive particles. The first approach employs ion balance, charge balance, and a bivariate population balance model (PBM) to comprehensively calculate both charge accumulation and coagulation rates of particles. The second approach involves a much simpler description of charging, and uses a monovariate PBM and subsequent effects of charge on particle coagulation. The third approach is further simplified assuming that particles instantaneously reach their steady-state charge distributions. It is found that compared to the other two approaches, the first approach can accurately predict time-dependent changes in the size and charge distributions of particles over a wide size range covering from the free molecule to continuum regimes. The other two approaches can reliably predict both charge accumulation and coagulation rates for particles larger than about 0.04 micrometers and atmospherically relevant conditions. These approaches are applied to investigate coagulation kinetics of particles accumulating charge in a radioactive neutralizer, the urban atmosphere, and an atmospheric system containing radioactive particles. Limitations of the approaches are discussed.

  14. Charged spinning black holes as particle accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Shaowen; Liu Yuxiao; Guo Heng; Fu Chune

    2010-01-01

    It has recently been pointed out that the spinning Kerr black hole with maximal spin could act as a particle collider with arbitrarily high center-of-mass energy. In this paper, we will extend the result to the charged spinning black hole, the Kerr-Newman black hole. The center-of-mass energy of collision for two uncharged particles falling freely from rest at infinity depends not only on the spin a but also on the charge Q of the black hole. We find that an unlimited center-of-mass energy can be approached with the conditions: (1) the collision takes place at the horizon of an extremal black hole; (2) one of the colliding particles has critical angular momentum; (3) the spin a of the extremal black hole satisfies (1/√(3))≤(a/M)≤1, where M is the mass of the Kerr-Newman black hole. The third condition implies that to obtain an arbitrarily high energy, the extremal Kerr-Newman black hole must have a large value of spin, which is a significant difference between the Kerr and Kerr-Newman black holes. Furthermore, we also show that, for a near-extremal black hole, there always exists a finite upper bound for center-of-mass energy, which decreases with the increase of the charge Q.

  15. Real-time energy detector for relativistic charged particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piestrup, A.

    1988-01-01

    The objective of the research is to investigate the use of coherent transition radiation to measure the energy of ultra-relativistic charged particles. The research has possible applications for the detection and identification of these particles. It can also be used for beam diagnostics for both high-repetition-rate and single-pulse, high-current accelerators. The device is low cost and can operate in situ while causing little or no perturbation to the beam. Three such coherent radiators have been constructed and tested at two accelerators using electron beam energies ranging from 50 to 228 MeV. Soft x-ray emission (1 keV to 4 keV) was emitted in a circularly symmetrical annulus with half-angle divergence of 2.5 to 9.0 mr. By selecting foil thickness and spacing, it is possible to design radiators whose angle of emission varies radically over a range of charge-particle energies

  16. Scattering of charged particles by a multicenter potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerasimov, O.I.; Stienko, A.G.

    1994-01-01

    Exact expressions are obtained for the amplitude and elastic cross section in the case of scattering of charged particles by a multicenter pseudopotential that includes the Coulomb potential and an arbitrary number of short-range potentials (modeled by zero-range potentials). Asymptotic limits are calculated and explicit expressions are found for the amplitudes of scattering by few-nucleon complexes modeled by superpositions of the Coulomb potential and purely point potentials

  17. Metastable states of plasma particles close to a charged surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shavlov, A. V., E-mail: shavlov@ikz.ru [The Institute of the Earth Cryosphere, RAS Siberian branch, 625000, P.O. 1230, Tyumen (Russian Federation); Tyumen State Oil and Gas University, 38, Volodarskogo St., 625000, Tyumen (Russian Federation); Dzhumandzhi, V. A. [The Institute of the Earth Cryosphere, RAS Siberian branch, 625000, P.O. 1230, Tyumen (Russian Federation)

    2015-09-15

    The free energy of the plasma particles and the charged surface that form an electroneutral system is calculated on the basis of the Poisson-Boltzmann equation. It is shown that, owing to correlation of light plasma particles near the charged surface and close to heavy particles of high charge, there can be metastable states in plasma. The corresponding phase charts of metastable states of the separate components of plasma, and plasma as a whole, are constructed. These charts depend on temperature, the charge magnitude, the size of the particles, and the share of the charge of the light carriers out of the total charge of the plasma particles.

  18. The Influence of Particle Charge on Heterogeneous Reaction Rate Coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aikin, A. C.; Pesnell, W. D.

    2000-01-01

    The effects of particle charge on heterogeneous reaction rates are presented. Many atmospheric particles, whether liquid or solid are charged. This surface charge causes a redistribution of charge within a liquid particle and as a consequence a perturbation in the gaseous uptake coefficient. The amount of perturbation is proportional to the external potential and the square of the ratio of debye length in the liquid to the particle radius. Previous modeling has shown how surface charge affects the uptake coefficient of charged aerosols. This effect is now included in the heterogeneous reaction rate of an aerosol ensemble. Extension of this analysis to ice particles will be discussed and examples presented.

  19. Study of correlations of positive and negative charged particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Y.; Chan, C.H.; Dong, B.L.; Duthie, J.G.; Gregory, J.C.; Hayashi, T.; Yokomi, H.; Christl, M.J.; Derrickson, J.H.; Eby, P.B.; Fountain, W.F.; Parnell, T.A.; Roberts, F.E.; Nagamiya, S.; Dake, S.; Tominaga, T.; Fuki, M.; Iyono, A.; Ogata, T.; Miyamura, O.

    1991-01-01

    Particle correlations of the central collision events of 32 S + Pb at 200 GeV/AMU have been studied by utilizing a Magnetic-Interferomagnetic-Emulsion-Chamber (MAGIC) detector. Particle angles, momentum, and charge-signs are measured for all produced charged tracks for each event. Two-particle correlation functions, C 2 = dN (vertical strokep 1 - p 2 vertical stroke = q)/dp 1 dp 2 , for (++), (--) and (+-) particles are examined. A source radius around 4 - 6 fm is observed for overall identical particle correlations, while unexpected short-range correlations of unlike-sign pairs are observed in the high rapidity region. An analysis of unlike-sign pairs in terms of resonance decays indicated that a large amount (40% relative to pions) of η or ω mesons (decaying into 3 π), or of scalar iso-scalar σ mesons (decaying into 2 π) would be required to explain some of the data. Multi-particle charge-sign clusters are recognized; however, their 'run-test' and 'conjugate-test' show small deviations from statistical fluctuations. (orig.)

  20. Physical aspects of heavy charged particle beams for radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawashima, Katsuhiro

    1989-01-01

    Physical properties of heavy ion beams are discussed to improve the physical dose distributions in view of radiotherapy. Preservation of the structural and functional integrity of adjacent normal tissue is required to achieve great probability of tumor control. This will be accomplished with the reduction of irradiated volume of normal tissues and with greater relative biological effectiveness (RBE) on tumor cells than that on surrounding normal cells. This suggests the use of heavy ion beams as new source of radiation that increases the therapeutic ratio. The basis of the improvement in the physical dose distribution by use of heavy charged particles is due to the finite range of the beams and to the less multiple coulomb scattering of the particles having a heavier atomic mass than proton. The depth dose distributions and dose profiles of heavy particle beams are discussed in this article. The lateral sharpness of heavy charged particles is comparable to the penumbra of high energy photon and electron beams and is not of clinical concern due to less coulomb scattering of heavy ions to lateral direction in traversing a medium. The dose gradient at the end of range of primary beam is dependent upon the energy spread and range straggling of the particles. The magnitude of range straggling is nearly proportional to the range and inversely proportional to the inverse square root of the particle mass. Heavy ion beams also undergo nuclear interactions, in which the primary beam may produce lower atomic number particles. Therefore, the dose beyond the Bragg peak is due to those fragments. Fragmentation increases as a function of the atomic mass to the 2/3 power and with the energy of the particles. Thus, the production of fragments diminishes the depth dose advantages of heavy ions. The choice of ion for radiotherapy may depend on evaluation of important parameter for tumor control. (J.P.N.)

  1. Sound from charged particles in liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Askar'yan, G.A.

    1980-01-01

    Two directions of sound application appearing during the charged particles passing through liquid - in biology and for charged particles registration are considered. Application of this sound in radiology is determined by a contribution of its hypersound component (approximately 10 9 Hz) to radiology effect of ionizing radiation on micro-organisms and cells. Large amplitudes and pressure gradients in a hypersound wave have a pronounced destructive breaking effect on various microobjects (cells, bacteria, viruses). An essential peculiarity of these processes is the possibility of control by choosing conditions changing hypersound generation, propagation and effect. This fact may lead not only to the control by radiaiton effects but also may explain and complete the analogy of ionizing radiation and ultrasound effect on bioobjects. The second direction is acoustic registration of passing ionizing particles. It is based on the possibility of guaranteed signal reception from a shower with 10 15 -10 16 eV energy in water at distances of hundreds of meters. Usage of acoustic technique for neutrino registration in the DUMAND project permits to use a detecting volume of water with a mass of 10 9 t and higher

  2. Anisotropy-Driven Instability in Intense Charged Particle Beams

    CERN Document Server

    Startsev, Edward; Qin, Hong

    2005-01-01

    In electrically neutral plasmas with strongly anisotropic distribution functions, free energy is available to drive different collective instabilities such as the electrostatic Harris instability and the transverse electromagnetic Weibel instability. Such anisotropies develop naturally in particle accelerators and may lead to a detoriation of beam quality. We have generalized the analysis of the classical Harris and Weibel instabilities to the case of a one-component intense charged particle beam with anisotropic temperature including the important effects of finite transverse geometry and beam space-charge. For a long costing beam, the delta-f particle-in-cell code BEST and the eighenmode code bEASt have been used to determine detailed 3D stability properties over a wide range of temperature anisotropy and beam intensity. A theoretical model is developed which describes the essential features of the linear stage of these instabilities. Both, the simulations and analytical theory, clearly show that moderately...

  3. Charged particle beam current monitoring tutorial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webber, R.C.

    1994-10-01

    A tutorial presentation is made on topics related to the measurement of charged particle beam currents. The fundamental physics of electricity and magnetism pertinent to the problem is reviewed. The physics is presented with a stress on its interpretation from an electrical circuit theory point of view. The operation of devices including video pulse current transformers, direct current transformers, and gigahertz bandwidth wall current style transformers is described. Design examples are given for each of these types of devices. Sensitivity, frequency response, and physical environment are typical parameters which influence the design of these instruments in any particular application. Practical engineering considerations, potential pitfalls, and performance limitations are discussed

  4. Behaviour of Charged Spinning Massless Particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Morales

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available We revisit the classical theory of a relativistic massless charged point particle with spin and interacting with an external electromagnetic field. In particular, we give a proper definition of its kinetic energy and its total energy, the latter being conserved when the external field is stationary. We also write the conservation laws for the linear and angular momenta. Finally, we find that the particle’s velocity may differ from c as a result of the spin—electromagnetic field interaction, without jeopardizing Lorentz invariance.

  5. Deflection system for charged-particle beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bates, T

    1982-01-13

    A system is described for achromatically deflecting a beam of charged particles without producing net divergence of the beam comprising three successive magnetic deflection means which deflect the beam alternately in opposite directions; the first and second deflect by angles of less than 50/sup 0/ and the third by an angle of at least 90/sup 0/. Particles with different respective energies are transversely spaced as they enter the third deflection means, but emerge completely superimposed in both position and direction and may be brought to a focus in each of two mutually perpendicular planes, a short distance thereafter. Such a system may be particularly compact, especially in the direction in which the beam leaves the system. It is suitable for deflecting a beam of electrons from a linear accelerator so producing a vertical beam of electron (or with an X-ray target, of X-rays) which can be rotated about a horizontal patient for radiation therapy.

  6. CVD diamond sensors for charged particle detection

    CERN Document Server

    Krammer, Manfred; Berdermann, E; Bergonzo, P; Bertuccio, G; Bogani, F; Borchi, E; Brambilla, A; Bruzzi, Mara; Colledani, C; Conway, J; D'Angelo, P; Dabrowski, W; Delpierre, P A; Dencuville, A; Dulinski, W; van Eijk, B; Fallou, A; Fizzotti, F; Foulon, F; Friedl, M; Gan, K K; Gheeraert, E; Hallewell, G D; Han, S; Hartjes, F G; Hrubec, Josef; Husson, D; Kagan, H; Kania, D R; Kaplon, J; Kass, R; Koeth, T W; Lo Giudice, A; Lü, R; MacLynne, L; Manfredotti, C; Meier, D; Mishina, M; Moroni, L; Oh, A; Pan, L S; Pernicka, Manfred; Peitz, A; Perera, L P; Pirollo, S; Procario, M; Riester, J L; Roe, S; Rousseau, L; Rudge, A; Russ, J; Sala, S; Sampietro, M; Schnetzer, S; Sciortino, S; Stelzer, H; Stone, R; Suter, B; Tapper, R J; Tesarek, R; Trischuk, W; Tromson, D; Vittone, E; Walsh, A M; Wedenig, R; Weilhammer, Peter; Wetstein, M; White, C; Zeuner, W; Zöller, M

    2001-01-01

    CVD diamond material was used to build position-sensitive detectors for single-charged particles to be employed in high-intensity physics experiments. To obtain position information, metal contacts shaped as strips or pixels are applied to the detector surface for one- or two- dimensional coordinate measurement. Strip detectors 2*4 cm/sup 2/ in size with a strip distance of 50 mu m were tested. Pixel detectors of various pixel sizes were bump bonded to electronics chips and investigated. A key issue for the use of these sensors in high intensity experiments is the radiation hardness. Several irradiation experiments were carried out with pions, protons and neutrons exceeding a fluence of 10/sup 15/ particles/cm/sup 2/. The paper presents an overview of the results obtained with strip and pixel detectors in high-energy test beams and summarises the irradiation studies. (8 refs).

  7. Track-structure simulations for charged particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingfelder, Michael

    2012-11-01

    Monte Carlo track-structure simulations provide a detailed and accurate picture of radiation transport of charged particles through condensed matter of biological interest. Liquid water serves as a surrogate for soft tissue and is used in most Monte Carlo track-structure codes. Basic theories of radiation transport and track-structure simulations are discussed and differences compared to condensed history codes highlighted. Interaction cross sections for electrons, protons, alpha particles, and light and heavy ions are required input data for track-structure simulations. Different calculation methods, including the plane-wave Born approximation, the dielectric theory, and semi-empirical approaches are presented using liquid water as a target. Low-energy electron transport and light ion transport are discussed as areas of special interest.

  8. Charge interaction between particle-laden fluid interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hui; Kirkwood, John; Lask, Mauricio; Fuller, Gerald

    2010-03-02

    Experiments are described where two oil/water interfaces laden with charged particles move at close proximity relative to one another. The particles on one of the interfaces were observed to be attracted toward the point of closest approach, forming a denser particle monolayer, while the particles on the opposite interface were repelled away from this point, forming a particle depletion zone. Such particle attraction/repulsion was observed even if one of the interfaces was free of particles. This phenomenon can be explained by the electrostatic interaction between the two interfaces, which causes surface charges (charged particles and ions) to redistribute in order to satisfy surface electric equipotential at each interface. In a forced particle oscillation experiment, we demonstrated the control of charged particle positions on the interface by manipulating charge interaction between interfaces.

  9. Methods of charged-particle activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhri, M. Anwar; Chaudhri, M. Nasir; Jabbar, Q.; Nadeem, Q.

    2006-01-01

    The accuracy of Chaudhri's method for charged-particle activation analysis published in J. Radioanal. Chem. (1977) v. 37 p. 243 has been further demonstrated by extensive calculations. The nuclear reactions 12 C(d,n) 13 N, 63 Cu( 3 He,p) 65 Zn, 107 Ag(α,n) 110 In and 208 Pb(d,p) 209 Pb, the cross sections of which were easily available, have been examined for the detection of 12 C, 63 Cu, 107 Ag and 208 Pb, respectively, in matrices of Cu, Zr and Pb, at the bombarding energies of 4 - 22 MeV. The 'standard' is assumed to be in a carbon matrix. It has been clearly demonstrated that Chaudhri's method, which makes the charged particle activation analysis as simple as neutron activation analysis, provides results which are almost identical to, or only about 1-2 % different, from the results obtained using the full 'Activity Equation' involving solving complex integrals. It is valid even when the difference in the average atomic weights of matrices of the standard and the sample is large. (author)

  10. Charged Particle Tracking with the Timepix ASIC

    CERN Document Server

    Akiba, Kazuyoshi; Collins, P; Crossley, M; Dumps, R; Gersabeck, M; Gligorov, Vladimir V; Llopart, X; Nicol, M; Poikela, T; Cabruja, Enric; Fleta, C; Lozano, M; Pellegrini, G; Bates, R; Eklund, L; Hynds, D; Ferre Llin, L; Maneuski, D; Parkes, C; Plackett, R; Rodrigues, E; Stewart, G; Akiba, K; van Beuzekom, M; Heijne, V; Heijne, E H M; Gordon, H; John, M; Gandelman, M; Esperante, D; Gallas, A; Vazquez Regueiro, P; Bayer, F; Michel, T; Needham, M; Artuso, M; Badman, R; Borgia, A; Garofoli, J; Wang, J; Xing, Z; Buytaert, Jan; Leflat, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    A prototype particle tracking telescope has been constructed using Timepix and Medipix ASIC hybrid pixel assemblies as the six sensing planes. Each telescope plane consisted of one 1.4 cm2 assembly, providing a 256x256 array of 55 micron square pixels. The telescope achieved a pointing resolution of 2.3 micron at the position of the device under test. During a beam test in 2009 the telescope was used to evaluate in detail the performance of two Timepix hybrid pixel assemblies; a standard planar 300 micron thick sensor, and 285 micron thick double sided 3D sensor. This paper describes a detailed charge calibration study of the pixel devices, which allows the true charge to be extracted, and reports on measurements of the charge collection characteristics and Landau distributions. The planar sensor achieved a best resolution of 4.0 micron for angled tracks, and resolutions of between 4.4 and 11 micron for perpendicular tracks, depending on the applied bias voltage. The double sided 3D sensor, which has signific...

  11. [Interaction of protein with charged colloidal particles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durdenko, E V; Kuznetsova, S M; Basova, L V; Tikhonenko, S A; Saburova, E A

    2011-01-01

    The functional state of three proteins of different molecular weight (urease, lactate dehydrogenase, and hemoglobin) in the presence of the linear polyelectrolytes poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAA) and sodium poly(styrenesulfonate) (PSS) in the dissolved state and of the same polyelectrolytes bound to the surface of microspheres has been investigated. Microspheres were prepared by consecutive absorption of oppositely charged polyelectrolytes so that the outer layer of the shell was PAA for the acidic protein urease, and PSS for the alkaline proteins LDH and hemoglobin. It was shown that the dissolved polyelectrolyte completely inactivates all three proteins within one minute with a slight difference in the time constant. (By Hb inactivation are conventionally meant changes in the heme environment observed from the spectrum in the Soret band.) In the presence of microspheres, the proteins were adsorbed on their surface; in this case, more than 95% of the activity was retained within two hours. The proportion of the protein adsorbed on microspheres accounted for about 98% for urease, 72% for Hb, and 35% for LDH, as determined from the tryptophan fluorescence data. The interaction of hemoglobin with another type of charged colloidal particles, phospholipid vesicles, leads to the destruction of the tertiary structure of the protein, which made itself evident in the optical absorption spectra in the Soret band, as well as the spectra of tryptophan fluorescence and circular dichroism. In this case, according to circular dichroism, the percentage of alpha-helical structure of Hb was maintained. The differences in the physical and chemical mechanisms of interaction of proteins with these two types of charged colloidal particles that leads to differences in the degree of denaturing effects are discussed.

  12. Long-Ranged Oppositely Charged Interactions for Designing New Types of Colloidal Clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Faik Demirörs

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Getting control over the valency of colloids is not trivial and has been a long-desired goal for the colloidal domain. Typically, tuning the preferred number of neighbors for colloidal particles requires directional bonding, as in the case of patchy particles, which is difficult to realize experimentally. Here, we demonstrate a general method for creating the colloidal analogs of molecules and other new regular colloidal clusters without using patchiness or complex bonding schemes (e.g., DNA coating by using a combination of long-ranged attractive and repulsive interactions between oppositely charged particles that also enable regular clusters of particles not all in close contact. We show that, due to the interplay between their attractions and repulsions, oppositely charged particles dispersed in an intermediate dielectric constant (4<ϵ<10 provide a viable approach for the formation of binary colloidal clusters. Tuning the size ratio and interactions of the particles enables control of the type and shape of the resulting regular colloidal clusters. Finally, we present an example of clusters made up of negatively charged large and positively charged small satellite particles, for which the electrostatic properties and interactions can be changed with an electric field. It appears that for sufficiently strong fields the satellite particles can move over the surface of the host particles and polarize the clusters. For even stronger fields, the satellite particles can be completely pulled off, reversing the net charge on the cluster. With computer simulations, we investigate how charged particles distribute on an oppositely charged sphere to minimize their energy and compare the results with the solutions to the well-known Thomson problem. We also use the simulations to explore the dependence of such clusters on Debye screening length κ^{−1} and the ratio of charges on the particles, showing good agreement with experimental observations.

  13. Measurement of the electrostatic charge in airborne particles: I - development of the equipment and preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marra Jr. W.D.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The design and construction of a equipment capable of measuring the electrostatic charges in aerosols, named the electrostatic charge classifier, were carried out. They were based on the concept of particle electromobility and the charge classifier was intended to classify the nature and the distribution of electrostatic charges as a function of particle size. The resulting piece of equipment is easy to dismount, which facilitates its cleaning and transport, and easy to operate. Early results indicate that the values of electrostatic charge measured on test particles are inside the range reported in the literature, indicating the adequacy of the technique utilized.

  14. A Search for Free Fractional Electric Charge Elementary Particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halyo, Valerie

    2000-12-04

    A direct search was carried out in bulk matter for free fractional electric charge elementary particles using the largest mass single sample ever studied--about 17.4 mg of silicone oil. The search used an improved and highly automated Millikan oil drop technique. No evidence for fractional charge particles was found. The concentration of particles with fractional charge more than 0.16 e (e being the magnitude of the electron charge) from the nearest integer charge is less than 4.71 x 10{sup -22} particles per nucleon with 95% confidence.

  15. A Search for Free Fractional Electric Charge Elementary Particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halyo, Valerie

    2000-12-04

    A direct search was carried out in bulk matter for free fractional electric charge elementary particles using the largest mass single sample ever studied| about 17.4 mg of silicone oil. The search used an improved and highly automated Millikan oil drop technique. No evidence for fractional charge particles was found. The concentration of particles with fractional charge more than 0.16 e (e being the magnitude of the electron charge) from the nearest integer charge is less than 4.71 x 10{sup -22} particles per nucleon with 95% confidence.

  16. Space charge physics for particle accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Hofmann, Ingo

    2017-01-01

    Understanding and controlling the physics of space charge effects in linear and circular proton and ion accelerators are essential to their operation, and to future high-intensity facilities. This book presents the status quo of this field from a theoretical perspective, compares analytical approaches with multi-particle computer simulations and – where available – with experiments. It discusses fundamental concepts of phase space motion, matched beams and modes of perturbation, along with mathematical models of analysis – from envelope to Vlasov-Poisson equations. The main emphasis is on providing a systematic description of incoherent and coherent resonance phenomena; parametric instabilities and sum modes; mismatch and halo; error driven resonances; and emittance exchange due to anisotropy, as well as the role of Landau damping. Their distinctive features are elaborated in the context of numerous sample simulations, and their potential impacts on beam quality degradation and beam loss are discussed....

  17. Low-energy scattering of charged particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrachina, R.O.; Garibotti, C.R. (Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, San Carlos de Bariloche (Argentina). Inst. Balseiro)

    1983-04-23

    The off-energy-shell T-matrix for two charged particles is studied in the low momentum limit (k->0). The T-matrix for a Coulomb interaction (Tsub(C)) is usually considered as the limit of the amplitude for a screened potential (Tsub(s)) when the screening is removed. We show that this statement is not true for small enough energies. For an attractive interaction Tsub(C) and Tsub(s) differ significantly when k->0. Tsub(c) behaves as ksup(-1/2), while Tsub(s) keeps its k/sup -1/ behaviour even when the screening is turned off. We note that this is an effect which would be observed in ion-atom collisions when one electron is ejected from the atom and captured into a continuum state of the ion.

  18. Low-energy scattering of charged particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrachina, R.O.; Garibotti, C.R. (Instituto Balseiro, Argentina)

    1983-04-23

    The off-energy-shell T-matrix for two charged particles is studied in the low momentum limit ( k ->0 ). The T-matrix for a Coulomb interaction (Tsub(C)) is usually considered as the limit of the amplitude for a screened potential (Tsub(s)) when the screening is removed. This statement is not true for small enough energies. For an attractive interaction Tsub(C) and Tsub(s) differ significantly when k -> 0. Tsub(C) behaves as k sup(-0.5), while Tsub(s) keeps its k/sup -1/ behaviour even when the screening is turned off. This is an effect which would be observed in ion-atom collisions when one electron is ejected from the atom and captured into a continuum state of the ion.

  19. Motion of Charged Particles near Magnetic Field Discontinuities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodin, I.Y.; Fisch, N.J.

    2000-01-01

    The motion of charged particles in slowly changing magnetic fields exhibits adiabatic invariance even in the presence of abrupt magnetic discontinuities. Particles near discontinuities in magnetic fields, what we call ''boundary particles'', are constrained to remain near an arbitrarily fractured boundary even as the particle drifts along the discontinuity. A new adiabatic invariant applies to the motion of these particles

  20. Interdefect charge exchange in silicon particle detectors at cryogenic temperatures

    CERN Document Server

    MacEvoy, B; Hall, G; Moscatelli, F; Passeri, D; Santocchia, A

    2002-01-01

    Silicon particle detectors in the next generation of experiments at the CERN Large Hadron Collider will be exposed to a very challenging radiation environment. The principal obstacle to long-term operation arises from changes in detector doping concentration (N/sub eff/), which lead to an increase in the bias required to deplete the detector and hence achieve efficient charge collection. We have previously presented a model of interdefect charge exchange between closely spaced centers in the dense terminal clusters formed by hadron irradiation. This manifestly non-Shockley-Read-Hall (SRH) mechanism leads to a marked increase in carrier generation rate and negative space charge over the SRH prediction. There is currently much interest in the subject of cryogenic detector operation as a means of improving radiation hardness. Our motivation, however, is primarily to investigate our model further by testing its predictions over a range of temperatures. We present measurements of spectra from /sup 241/Am alpha par...

  1. Discrimination of Charged Particles in a Neutral Beam Line by Using a Solid Scintillation Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woo, Jong-Kwan; Ko, Jewou; Liu, Dong [Jeju National University, Jeju (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-01-15

    In the past several decades, many studies have been conducted to search for non-baryonic dark matter, such as weakly interactive massive particles (WIMPs). In the search for WIMPs, charged particles incident on the detector are background particles because WIMPs are neutral. Charged particles originate from various sources, such as cosmic rays and laboratory materials surrounding the main detector. Therefore, a veto that discriminates charged particles can improve the particle detection efficiency of the entire experiment for detecting WIMPs. Here, we investigate in the thickness range of 1 mm to 5 mm, the optimal thickness of a polystyrene scintillator as a charged particle veto detector. We found that 3-mm-thick polystyrene provides the best performance to veto charged particles and the charged-particle background in the search for the WIMP signal. Furthermore, we fabricated 3-mm-thick and 5-mm-thick polystyrene charged particle veto detectors that will be used in an underground laboratory in the search for WIMP dark matter. After exposing those detectors are the actual beam line, we compared the rate of charged particles measured using those detectors and the rate simulated through a Monte Carlo simulation.

  2. Simulation of isotropic scattering of charged particles by composed potentials

    CERN Document Server

    Gerasimov, O Y

    2003-01-01

    The analytical model of scattering of charged particles by a multicentered adiabatic potential which consists of the long-range Coulomb and short-range potentials is used for the parametrization of experiments of elastic low-energy proton-deuteron scattering. For the energies 2.26-13 MeV, the analytical expressions for the phase scattering function in terms of identical parameters which depend on the lengths and effective radii of proton-proton and proton-neutron scattering and on the effective size of deuteron are obtained. The results are in good qualitative accordance with experiments.

  3. Model for diffusion of a narrow beam of charged particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisenhauer, C.

    1980-01-01

    A simple analytic expression is presented to describe the three-dimensioned spatial distribution of flux or energy deposition by a narrow beam of charged particles. In this expression distances are expressed in terms of a scaling parameter that is proportional to the mean square scattering angle in a single collision. Finite ranges are expressed in terms of the continuous-slowing-down range. Track-length distributions for one-velocity particles and energy deposition for electrons are discussed. Comparisons with rigorous Monte Carlo calculations show that departures from the analytic expression can be expressed as a slowly varying function of order unity. This function can be used as a basis for interpolation over a wide range of source energies and materials

  4. Range and stopping power for slow particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastiano, M.; Fernandez, J. E.; Molinari, V. G.

    1997-01-01

    Generally, the effects of thermal agitation and chemical bonding of the target atoms need to be taken into account to compute properly the range and stopping power of particles. These two effects, however, complicate very much the calculation of the above parameters, and for this reason are usually neglected. In fact, when the energy of the test particles (t.p.) is sufficiently high compared to the thermal or bonding energies, these two effects can be safely disregarded. When the energy of the t.p. is of the same order of the thermal agitation or the chemical bonding, on the other hand, such approximation is not realistic, and to obtain meaningful results one must take into account the velocity distribution of the field particles (f.p.). The aim of this paper is to present a simple model describing the transport of particles (e.g., electrons) in the thermal zone, considering the thermal agitation of f.p. with an arbitrary distribution. It will be shown that in the first part of the slowing down the kinetic energy of t.p. is partially transformed into temperature. In the second part, the temperature tends to reach the equilibrium temperature, while average velocity of t.p. becomes zero. (author)

  5. Searches for Fractionally Charged Particles: What Should Be Done Next?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perl, Martin L.; /SLAC

    2009-01-15

    Since the initial measurements of the electron charge a century ago, experimenters have faced the persistent question as to whether elementary particles exist that have charges that are fractional multiples of the electron charge. I concisely review the results of the last 50 years of searching for fractional charge particles with no confirmed positive results. I discuss the question of whether more searching is worthwhile?

  6. Charge equilibrium processes of energetic incident ions and their range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawagoshi, Hiroshi; Karashima, Shosuke; Watanabe, Tsutomu.

    1984-01-01

    The charge state of energetic ions passing through a certain matter is varied by charge-exchange processes. A rate equation for charge fraction is given by using electron loss and capture cross sections in collision with a target atom under idealized condition. We solved the rate equation of the charge-exchange process of a single electron in a form of linear coupled differential equation. Our calcuiation for the range of ion were carried out for He, Ne and Ar ions passing through an atomic hydrogen gas target. We discuss the charge states of the projectile in relation to a local charge balance consituting a state of charge equilibrium in the target. (author)

  7. Unipolar and bipolar diffusion charging of ultrafine particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adachi, Motoaki; Okuyama, Kikuo; Kousaka, Yasuo.

    1985-01-01

    Unipolar and bipolar diffusion charging of monodisperse ultrafine particles of 4 - 100 nm in diameter has been studied experimentally and theoretically. The particles were charged by unipolar and bipolar ions generated by α-ray irradiation and the charge distribution of particles was directly observed in the electric field after the growth of them by condensation of di-butyl phthalate vapor. In both cases of unipolar and bipolar charging, the experimental results have been found in good agreement with the solution of basic equations where Fuchs' formula is used as the combination probability of an ion with a particle. (author)

  8. Bibliography of integral charged particle nuclear data. Archival edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burrows, T.W.; Dempsey, P.

    1980-03-01

    This is the fourth annual edition of the National Nuclear Data Center charged-particle bibliography. This edition is cumulative and supersedes the previous editions. The bibliography's primary aims are to satisfy the need for a concise and comprehensive index of integral charged-particle cross section data and to provide an index of charged-particle data compiled in the international exchange format. References in this Part are by target for the various incident charged particles (in order of increasing A). The present publication is an archival volume; future publications will be cumulative supplements to this edition

  9. Experimental central nervous system injury after charged-particle irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, A.; Levy, R.P.; Fabrikant, J.I.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on the development of definite paralytic signs, used as an endpoint for the determination of latent periods, which reflect the presence of damage but do not reveal its pathologic characteristics. Paralysis was a nonstochastic effect for which both the probability and severity vary with dose and for which a threshold of dose-response existed. Histologically the primary lesion induced by both charged-particle irradiation and X- or γ-radiation was demyelination and necrosis of the white matter. This has been attributed generally to damage to the oligodendrocytes. The spinal cord tolerance toward fractionated helium radiation was similar to X- or γ-radiation, but the spinal cord was much more sensitive to heavier charged-particle radiation. There was much less sparing and decreased tissue tolerance in the high-LET spread Bragg peak regions of carbon- and neon-ion beams that in the plateau regions. A radiologic model for effects in CNS after charged-particle radiation indicated that the α/β values, a measure of tissue repair capacity, increased with LET as predicted. The α/β values for spinal cord injury with neon range from 2.52 to 12.0 depending on the LET; for helium, the α/β value was 1.52, similar to values for X rays

  10. Coherent electromagnetic radiation of a modulated beam of charged particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pankratov, S G [The State Committee of Standards of the USSR, Moscow, USSR

    1977-12-27

    The intensity of electromagnetic radiation produced by a modulated beam of charged particles is estimated. The coherence effect is due to the modulation, i.e. to periodicity in the particles distribution.

  11. Characterization of triboelectrically charged particles deposited on dielectric surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesterov, A.; Löffler, F.; Cheng, Yun-Chien; Torralba, G.; König, K.; Hausmann, M.; Lindenstruth, V.; Stadler, V.; Bischoff, F. R.; Breitling, F.

    2010-04-01

    A device for the measurement of q/m-values and charge degradation of triboelectrically charged particles deposited on a surface was developed. The setup is based on the integration of currents, which are induced in a Faraday cage by insertion of a solid support covered with charged particles. The conductivity of different particle supports was taken into account. The 'blow-off' method, in which the particles are first deposited, and then blown off using an air stream, can be used for characterization of triboelectric properties of particles relative to different surfaces.

  12. Characterization of triboelectrically charged particles deposited on dielectric surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nesterov, A; Torralba, G; Hausmann, M; Lindenstruth, V [Kirchhoff Institute of Physics, In Neuenheimer Feld 227, Heidelberg (Germany); Loeffler, F; Cheng, Yun-Chien; Koenig, K; Stadler, V; Bischoff, F R [German Cancer Research Centre, In Neuenheimer Feld 280, Heidelberg (Germany); Breitling, F, E-mail: Frank.Breitling@KIT.ed, E-mail: alexander.nesterov-mueller@kit.ed [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute for Microstructure Technology, Herrmann von Helmholtzplatz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2010-04-28

    A device for the measurement of q/m-values and charge degradation of triboelectrically charged particles deposited on a surface was developed. The setup is based on the integration of currents, which are induced in a Faraday cage by insertion of a solid support covered with charged particles. The conductivity of different particle supports was taken into account. The 'blow-off' method, in which the particles are first deposited, and then blown off using an air stream, can be used for characterization of triboelectric properties of particles relative to different surfaces.

  13. Discrete element method modeling of the triboelectric charging of polyethylene particles: Can particle size distribution and segregation reduce the charging?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konopka, Ladislav; Kosek, Juraj

    2015-01-01

    Polyethylene particles of various sizes are present in industrial gas-dispersion reactors and downstream processing units. The contact of the particles with a device wall as well as the mutual particle collisions cause electrons on the particle surface to redistribute in the system. The undesirable triboelectric charging results in several operational problems and safety risks in industrial systems, for example in the fluidized-bed polymerization reactor. We studied the charging of polyethylene particles caused by the particle-particle interactions in gas. Our model employs the Discrete Element Method (DEM) describing the particle dynamics and incorporates the ‘Trapped Electron Approach’ as the physical basis for the considered charging mechanism. The model predicts the particle charge distribution for systems with various particle size distributions and various level of segregation. Simulation results are in a qualitative agreement with experimental observations of similar particulate systems specifically in two aspects: 1) Big particles tend to gain positive charge and small particles the negative one. 2) The wider the particle size distribution is, the more pronounced is the charging process. Our results suggest that not only the size distribution, but also the effect of the spatial segregation of the polyethylene particles significantly influence the resulting charge distribution ‘generated’ in the system. The level of particle segregation as well as the particle size distribution of polyethylene particles can be in practice adjusted by the choice of supported catalysts, by the conditions in the fluidized-bed polymerization reactor and by the fluid dynamics. We also attempt to predict how the reactor temperature affects the triboelectric charging of particles. (paper)

  14. VEDs for charged particle accelerators: Indian scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhandari, R.K.

    2012-01-01

    In the initial times after their invention, the charged particle accelerators have, primarily, been used for fundamental studies on nuclei and atoms. From the first modern accelerator, the cathode ray tube, used by J.J. Thomson for the discovery of electron, very recently the gigantic 27 km circumference Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is operational in the search of Higg's boson and related physics issues. Particle accelerators have emerged as powerful microscopes for investigating the finest details of cells, genes, molecules, atoms, protons, neutrons, muons, electrons, quarks and, possibly, still undiscovered even more fundamental constituents of the universe, such as dark matter and dark energy. Several noble prize winning discoveries have been made using accelerators. Accelerators are now being used in a wide area of industrial and medical applications. They are used for the production of radioisotopes for medical imaging, cancer therapy, food sterilization, treatment of waste water, sterilization of medical equipment, material modification, mass spectroscopy, cargo scanning, fabrication of semiconductors etc. Ongoing effort towards the development of accelerators with megawatt beam power is showing hope for a cleaner source of nuclear energy and treatment of nuclear waste. Several tens of thousands of accelerators are presently operational in the world for basic research and applications. Development of new accelerators has several times been driven by new technologies and materials and sometimes they have driven the technological developments towards cutting edge. Some examples are ultra-high vacuum in large volumes, superfluid helium in cryogenics, cryocoolers, superconducting magnets and RF cavities, high power vacuum electronic devices, global control systems, superfast computing and communication networks, giant data storage/processing systems etc. India has been pursuing a fairly robust programme of accelerator development at various institutions. It

  15. Dust particle charge and screening in the collisional RF plasma sheath

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beckers, J.; Trienekens, D.J.M.; Kroesen, G.M.W.; Sprouse, G.D.

    2012-01-01

    Once immersed in plasma, a dust particle gathers a highly negative charge due to the net collection of free electrons. In most plasma's on earth and with particle sizes is in the micrometer range, the gravitational force is dominant and consequently the particle ends up within the plasma sheath

  16. Reference Cross Sections for Charged-particle Monitor Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermanne, A.; Ignatyuk, A. V.; Capote, R.; Carlson, B. V.; Engle, J. W.; Kellett, M. A.; Kibédi, T.; Kim, G.; Kondev, F. G.; Hussain, M.; Lebeda, O.; Luca, A.; Nagai, Y.; Naik, H.; Nichols, A. L.; Nortier, F. M.; Suryanarayana, S. V.; Takács, S.; Tárkányi, F. T.; Verpelli, M.

    2018-02-01

    Evaluated cross sections of beam-monitor reactions are expected to become the de-facto standard for cross-section measurements that are performed over a very broad energy range in accelerators in order to produce particular radionuclides for industrial and medical applications. The requirements for such data need to be addressed in a timely manner, and therefore an IAEA coordinated research project was launched in December 2012 to establish or improve the nuclear data required to characterise charged-particle monitor reactions. An international team was assembled to recommend more accurate cross-section data over a wide range of targets and projectiles, undertaken in conjunction with a limited number of measurements and more extensive evaluations of the decay data of specific radionuclides. Least-square evaluations of monitor-reaction cross sections including uncertainty quantification have been undertaken for charged-particle beams of protons, deuterons, 3He- and 4He-particles. Recommended beam monitor reaction data with their uncertainties are available at the IAEA-NDS medical portal http://www-nds.iaea.org/medical/monitor_reactions.html.

  17. Charged-particle beam: a safety mandate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, K.C.

    1983-01-01

    The Advanced Test Accelerator (ATA) is a recent development in the field of charged particle beam research at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. With this experimental apparatus, researchers will characterize intense pulses of electron beams propagated through air. Inherent with the ATA concept was the potential for exposure to hazards, such as high radiation levels and hostile breathing atmospheres. The need for a comprehensive safety program was mandated; a formal system safety program was implemented during the project's conceptual phase. A project staff position was created for a safety analyst who would act as a liaison between the project staff and the safety department. Additionally, the safety analyst would be responsible for compiling various hazards analyses reports, which formed the basis of th project's Safety Analysis Report. Recommendations for safety features from the hazards analysis reports were incorporated as necessary at appropriate phases in project development rather than adding features afterwards. The safety program established for the ATA project faciliated in controlling losses and in achieving a low-level of acceptable risk

  18. Spallation nucleosynthesis by accelerated charged-particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goriely, S.

    2008-01-01

    Recent observations have suggested the presence of radioactive elements, such as Pm and 84≤Z≤99 elements) at the surface of the magnetic star HD101065, also known as Przybylski's star. This star is know to be a chemically peculiar star and its anomalous 38 30 heavy elements can be achieved. In this nucleosynthesis process, the secondary-neutron captures play a crucial role. The most attractive feature of the spallation process is the systematic production of Pm and Tc and the possible synthesis of actinides and sub-actinides.Based on such a parametric model, it is also shown that intense fluences of accelerated charged-particles interacting with surrounding material can efficiently produce elements heavier than iron. Different regimes are investigated and shown to be at the origin of p- and s-nuclei in the case of high-fluence low-flux events and r-nuclei for high-fluence high-flux irradiations. The possible existence of such irradiation events need to be confirmed by hydrodynamics simulations, but most of all by spectroscopic observations through the detection of short-lived radio-elements

  19. Effects of charged particles on DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eguchi-Kasai, Kiyomi; Itsukaichi, Hiromi; Murakami, Masahiro

    1995-01-01

    It can be noted that it is not simple double strand breaks (dsb) but the non-reparable breaks that are associated with high biological effectiveness in the cell killing effect for high LET radiation. Here, we have examined the effectiveness of fast neutrons and low (initial energy = 12 MeV/u) or high (135 MeV/u) energy charged particles on cell death in 19 mammalian cell lines including radiosensitive mutants. Some of the radiosensitive lines were deficient in DNA dsb repair such as LX830, M10, V3, and L5178Y-S cells and showed lower values of relative biological effectiveness (RBE) for fast neutrons if compared with their parent cell lines. The other lines of human ataxia-telangiectasia fibroblasts, irs 1, irs 2, irs 3 and irs 1SF cells, which were also radiosensitive but known as proficient in dsb repair, showed moderate RBEs. Dsb repair deficient mutants showed low RBE values for heavy ions. These experimental findings suggest that the DNA repair system does not play a major role against the attack of high linear energy transfer (LET) radiations. Therefore, we hypothesize that a main cause of cell death induced by high LET radiations is due to non-reparable dsb, which are produced at a higher rate compared to low LET radiations. (author)

  20. Interaction of free charged particles with a chirped electromagnetic pulse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khachatryan, A.G.; van Goor, F.A.; Boller, Klaus J.

    2004-01-01

    We study the effect of chirp on electromagnetic (EM) pulse interaction with a charged particle. Both the one-dimensional (1D) and 3D cases are considered. It is found that, in contrast to the case of a nonchirped pulse, the charged particle energy can be changed after the interaction with a 1D EM

  1. Cataractogenic effects of heavy charged particles in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ainsworth, E.J.; Jose, J.G.; Yang, V.V.; Barker, M.E.

    1980-01-01

    The effects of heavy charged particles on the crystalline lens of the eye of mice are important because this tissue has proven susceptible to other forms of high-LET radiation. This report summarizes the results currently available from a prospectively designed study to explore the LET dependence of the cataractogenic process. The present results are consistent with a high cataractogenic effect at 100 keV/μm, because plateau argon 40 ions, with an LET in this range, produce higher average cataracts scores at 9, 11 and 13 months than do carbon 12 or neon 20 ions. In the electron micrographs, significant changes were observed from the controls

  2. Gravitational instantons as models for charged particle systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchetti, Guido; Manton, Nicholas S.

    2013-03-01

    In this paper we propose ALF gravitational instantons of types A k and D k as models for charged particle systems. We calculate the charges of the two families. These are -( k + 1) for A k , which is proposed as a model for k + 1 electrons, and 2 - k for D k , which is proposed as a model for either a particle of charge +2 and k electrons or a proton and k - 1 electrons. Making use of preferred topological and metrical structures of the manifolds, namely metrically preferred representatives of middle dimension homology classes, we construct two different energy functionals which reproduce the Coulomb interaction energy for a system of charged particles.

  3. Charge of a macroscopic particle in a plasma sheath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samarian, A.A.; Vladimirov, S.V.

    2003-01-01

    Charging of a macroscopic body levitating in a rf plasma sheath is studied experimentally and theoretically. The nonlinear charge vs size dependence is obtained. The observed nonlinearity is explained on the basis of an approach taking into account different plasma conditions for the levitation positions of different particles. The importance of suprathermal electrons' contribution to the charging process is demonstrated

  4. Systematics of experimental charge radii of elements and elementary particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antony, M.S.; Britz, J.

    1987-02-01

    The systematics of experimental charge radii of elements and elementary particles ..pi../sup -/, K/sup -/, K/sup 0/, p and n is discussed. The root-meansquare charge radius of a quark core in nucleous derived from the systematics is estimated to be 0.3 fm. Charge radii evaluated from Coulomb displacement energies are also tabulated.

  5. Moving charged particles in lattice Boltzmann-based electrokinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuron, Michael; Rempfer, Georg; Schornbaum, Florian; Bauer, Martin; Godenschwager, Christian; Holm, Christian; de Graaf, Joost

    2016-12-01

    The motion of ionic solutes and charged particles under the influence of an electric field and the ensuing hydrodynamic flow of the underlying solvent is ubiquitous in aqueous colloidal suspensions. The physics of such systems is described by a coupled set of differential equations, along with boundary conditions, collectively referred to as the electrokinetic equations. Capuani et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 121, 973 (2004)] introduced a lattice-based method for solving this system of equations, which builds upon the lattice Boltzmann algorithm for the simulation of hydrodynamic flow and exploits computational locality. However, thus far, a description of how to incorporate moving boundary conditions into the Capuani scheme has been lacking. Moving boundary conditions are needed to simulate multiple arbitrarily moving colloids. In this paper, we detail how to introduce such a particle coupling scheme, based on an analogue to the moving boundary method for the pure lattice Boltzmann solver. The key ingredients in our method are mass and charge conservation for the solute species and a partial-volume smoothing of the solute fluxes to minimize discretization artifacts. We demonstrate our algorithm's effectiveness by simulating the electrophoresis of charged spheres in an external field; for a single sphere we compare to the equivalent electro-osmotic (co-moving) problem. Our method's efficiency and ease of implementation should prove beneficial to future simulations of the dynamics in a wide range of complex nanoscopic and colloidal systems that were previously inaccessible to lattice-based continuum algorithms.

  6. Assessment of Sub-Micron Particles by Exploiting Charge Differences with Dielectrophoresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria F. Romero-Creel

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The analysis, separation, and enrichment of submicron particles are critical steps in many applications, ranging from bio-sensing to disease diagnostics. Microfluidic electrokinetic techniques, such as dielectrophoresis (DEP have proved to be excellent platforms for assessment of submicron particles. DEP is the motion of polarizable particles under the presence of a non-uniform electric field. In this work, the polarization and dielectrophoretic behavior of polystyrene particles with diameters ranging for 100 nm to 1 μm were studied employing microchannels for insulator based DEP (iDEP and low frequency (<1000 Hz AC and DC electric potentials. In particular, the effects of particle surface charge, in terms of magnitude and type of functionalization, were examined. It was found that the magnitude of particle surface charge has a significant impact on the polarization and dielectrophoretic response of the particles, allowing for successful particle assessment. Traditionally, charge differences are exploited employing electrophoretic techniques and particle separation is achieved by differential migration. The present study demonstrates that differences in the particle’s surface charge can also be exploited by means of iDEP; and that distinct types of nanoparticles can be identified by their polarization and dielectrophoretic behavior. These findings open the possibility for iDEP to be employed as a technique for the analysis of submicron biological particles, where subtle differences in surface charge could allow for rapid particle identification and separation.

  7. Charged particle acceleration in nonuniform plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulanov, S.V.; Naumova, N.M.; Pegoraro, F.

    1996-11-01

    The high-gradient electron acceleration schemes that have been demonstrated using LWFA appear promising for the development of plasma-based laser accelerators into practical devices. However, a question still exists: how to avoid the wake field deterioration and the loss of the phase synchronism between the plasma wave and the electrons that prevent them from being accelerated up to the theoretical limit. In order to obtain the highest possible values of the wake electric field one must use as intense laser pulses as possible i.e., pulses with dimensionless amplitudes a much-gt 1. Pulses that have a dimensionless amplitude larger than one tend to be subject to a host of instabilities, such as relativistic self-focusing, self modulation and stimulated Raman scattering, that affect their propagation in the plasma. Such processes could be beneficial, in so far as they increase the pulse energy density, enhance the wake field generation, and provide the mechanism for transporting the laser radiation over several Rayleigh lengths without diffraction spreading. However, it is still far from certain that these processes can be exploited in a controlled form and can lead to regular, stationary wake fields. It is known that, in order to create good quality wake fields, it would be preferable to use laser pulses with steep fronts of order λ p . The present paper aims at analyzing the influence of the laser pulse shape and of the plasma nonuniformity on the charged particle acceleration. This study is based on the results obtained with one dimensional PIC simulations

  8. Charged particle periodicity in the Saturnian magnetosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbary, J.F.; Krimigis, S.M.

    1982-01-01

    The low energy charged particles (LECP) experiments on the Voyager 1 and 2 spacecraft performed measurements of electrons (approx.22 keV to approx.20 MeV) and ions (approx.28 keV to approx.150 MeV) during the Saturn encounters in 1980 and 1981. Count rate ratios of two of the low energy electron (22 to 35 keV and 183 to 500 keV) and ion (43 to 80 keV and 137 to 215 keV) channels exhibit an approximation 10 hour periodicity in the outer Saturnian magnetosphere beyond the orbit of Titan. Electron ratios vary from approx.50 to approx.300; ion ratios vary from approx.3 to approx.20. Similar but less pronounced periodicities are observed for higher and lower energy electron and ion spectral indices. Three complete cycles were observed during the Voyager 2 outbound portion of the encounter from which were determined an electron ratio period of 10/sup h/21/sup m/ +- 48/sup m/ and an ion ratio period of 9/sup h/49/sup m/ +- 59/sup m/. Using Saturn Kilometric Radiation (SKR) and Saturn Electrostatic Discharge (SED) periods, extrapolation backward from Voyager 2 to Voyager 1 suggests that the periodicities are Saturnian rather than Jovian in nature, and that they persist in phase for time intervals at least as long as 287 days. Ratio minima, or spectral hardenings, occur in the same hemisphere as do auroral brightenings, SKR activity, and spoke enhanement. We interpret the observations as prima facie evidence of an asymmetry in the Saturian magnetic field and the root cause of the observed SKR periodicity

  9. The 1st symposium of Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy on fundamental development of the charged particle therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soga, Fuminori

    2002-06-01

    This issue is the collection of the paper presented at the 1st Symposium of Research Center for Charged Particle Therapy on fundamental development of the charged particle therapy. The 31 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  10. Resistive cooling circuits for charged particle traps using crystal resonators

    CERN Document Server

    Kaltenbacher, T; Doser, M; Kellerbauer, A; Pribyl, W

    2011-01-01

    The paper addresses a novel method to couple a signal from charged particles in a Penning trap to a high Q resonant circuit using a crystal resonator. Traditionally the trap capacity is converted into a resonator by means of an inductance. When normal conducting wires (e.g. copper) are applied to build up a coil, the unloaded Q value is limited to a value in the order of 1000. The tuned circuit’s Q factor is directly linked to the input impedance “seen” by the trapped particles at resonance frequency. This parallel resonance impedance is a measure of the efficiency of resistive cooling and thus it should be optimized. We propose here a commercially available crystal resonator since it exhibits a very high Q value and a parallel resonance impedance of several MOhm. The possibility to tune the parallel resonance frequency of the quartz results in filter behavior that allows covering a broad range of frequencies.

  11. Search for fractional charge and heavy stable particles at PETRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barter, W.; Canzler, T.; Cords, D.; Dittmann, P.; Eichler, R.; Felst, R.; Haidt, D.; Kawabata, S.; Krehbiel, H.; Naroska, B.

    1980-01-01

    A search has been made for new particles with charge Q = 2/3, 1, 4/3, 5/3 produced in e + e - -reactions at PETRA. The energy range was Esub(cm) = 27-35 GeV. No such particles were found. Upper limits for the cross-section depending on the assumed mass and production spectrum are given. For Q = 2/3 quarks with mass less than 12 GeVs 2 , upper limits sigma(q anti q)/sigma(μμ) >= 10 - 2 (90% C.L.) are obtained both for inclusive and exclusive production. For the lifetime of the B-meson (msub(B) = 5 GeV/c 2 ) an upper limit tau - 9 s is obtained. (orig.)

  12. Charge neutrality of fine particle (dusty) plasmas and fine particle cloud under gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Totsuji, Hiroo, E-mail: totsuji-09@t.okadai.jp

    2017-03-11

    The enhancement of the charge neutrality due to the existence of fine particles is shown to occur generally under microgravity and in one-dimensional structures under gravity. As an application of the latter, the size and position of fine particle clouds relative to surrounding plasmas are determined under gravity. - Highlights: • In fine particle (dusty) plasmas, the charge neutrality is much enhanced by the existence of fine particles. • The enhancement of charge neutrality generally occurs under microgravity and gravity. • Structure of fine particle clouds under gravity is determined by applying the enhanced charge neutrality.

  13. On adiabatic pair potentials of highly charged colloid particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sogami, Ikuo S.

    2018-03-01

    Generalizing the Debye-Hückel formalism, we develop a new mean field theory for adiabatic pair potentials of highly charged particles in colloid dispersions. The unoccupied volume and the osmotic pressure are the key concepts to describe the chemical and thermodynamical equilibrium of the gas of small ions in the outside region of all of the colloid particles. To define the proper thermodynamic quantities, it is postulated to take an ensemble averaging with respect to the particle configurations in the integrals for their densities consisting of the electric potential satisfying a set of equations that are derived by linearizing the Poisson-Boltzmann equation. With the Fourier integral representation of the electric potential, we calculate first the internal electric energy of the system from which the Helmholtz free energy is obtained through the Legendre transformation. Then, the Gibbs free energy is calculated using both ways of the Legendre transformation with respect to the unoccupied volume and the summation of chemical potentials. The thermodynamic functions provide three types of pair potentials, all of which are inversely proportional to the fraction of the unoccupied volume. At the limit when the fraction factor reduces to unity, the Helmholtz pair potential turns exactly into the well known Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek repulsive potential. The Gibbs pair potential possessing a medium-range strong repulsive part and a long-range weak attractive tail can explain the Schulze-Hardy rule for coagulation in combination with the van der Waals-London potential and describes a rich variety of phenomena of phase transitions observed in the dilute dispersions of highly charged particles.

  14. Diffraction of radiation from channelled charged particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baryshevskij, V.G.; Grubich, A.O.; Dubovskaya, I.Ya.

    1978-01-01

    An explicit expression for cross-section and radiation spectrum at diffraction is calculated. It is shown that photons emitted by channelled particles form a typical diffraction pattern which contains information about the crystal structure. It is also shown that the change of the longitudinal energy of the particle caused by the radiation braking becomes important when the particle energy is increased. (author)

  15. Mass analysis of charged aerosol particles in NLC and PMSE during the ECOMA/MASS campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Robertson

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available MASS (Mesospheric Aerosol Sampling Spectrometer is a multichannel mass spectrometer for charged aerosol particles, which was flown from the Andøya Rocket Range, Norway, through NLC and PMSE on 3 August 2007 and through PMSE on 6 August 2007. The eight-channel analyzers provided for the first time simultaneous measurements of the charge density residing on aerosol particles in four mass ranges, corresponding to ice particles with radii <0.5 nm (including ions, 0.5–1 nm, 1–2 nm, and >3 nm (approximately. Positive and negative particles were recorded on separate channels. Faraday rotation measurements provided electron density and a means of checking charge density measurements made by the spectrometer. Additional complementary measurements were made by rocket-borne dust impact detectors, electric field booms, a photometer and ground-based radar and lidar. The MASS data from the first flight showed negative charge number densities of 1500–3000 cm−3 for particles with radii >3 nm from 83–88 km approximately coincident with PMSE observed by the ALWIN radar and NLC observed by the ALOMAR lidar. For particles in the 1–2 nm range, number densities of positive and negative charge were similar in magnitude (~2000 cm−3 and for smaller particles, 0.5–1 nm in radius, positive charge was dominant. The occurrence of positive charge on the aerosol particles of the smallest size and predominately negative charge on the particles of largest size suggests that nucleation occurs on positive condensation nuclei and is followed by collection of negative charge during subsequent growth to larger size. Faraday rotation measurements show a bite-out in electron density that increases the time for positive aerosol particles to be neutralized and charged negatively. The larger particles (>3 nm are observed throughout the NLC region, 83–88 km, and the smaller particles are observed primarily at the high end of the range, 86–88 km

  16. Mass analysis of charged aerosol particles in NLC and PMSE during the ECOMA/MASS campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Robertson

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available MASS (Mesospheric Aerosol Sampling Spectrometer is a multichannel mass spectrometer for charged aerosol particles, which was flown from the Andøya Rocket Range, Norway, through NLC and PMSE on 3 August 2007 and through PMSE on 6 August 2007. The eight-channel analyzers provided for the first time simultaneous measurements of the charge density residing on aerosol particles in four mass ranges, corresponding to ice particles with radii <0.5 nm (including ions, 0.5–1 nm, 1–2 nm, and >3 nm (approximately. Positive and negative particles were recorded on separate channels. Faraday rotation measurements provided electron density and a means of checking charge density measurements made by the spectrometer. Additional complementary measurements were made by rocket-borne dust impact detectors, electric field booms, a photometer and ground-based radar and lidar. The MASS data from the first flight showed negative charge number densities of 1500–3000 cm−3 for particles with radii >3 nm from 83–88 km approximately coincident with PMSE observed by the ALWIN radar and NLC observed by the ALOMAR lidar. For particles in the 1–2 nm range, number densities of positive and negative charge were similar in magnitude (~2000 cm−3 and for smaller particles, 0.5–1 nm in radius, positive charge was dominant. The occurrence of positive charge on the aerosol particles of the smallest size and predominately negative charge on the particles of largest size suggests that nucleation occurs on positive condensation nuclei and is followed by collection of negative charge during subsequent growth to larger size. Faraday rotation measurements show a bite-out in electron density that increases the time for positive aerosol particles to be neutralized and charged negatively. The larger particles (>3 nm are observed throughout the NLC region, 83–88 km, and the smaller particles are observed primarily at the high end of the range, 86–88 km. The second flight into

  17. Long-range interaction between heterogeneously charged membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jho, Y S; Brewster, R; Safran, S A; Pincus, P A

    2011-04-19

    Despite their neutrality, surfaces or membranes with equal amounts of positive and negative charge can exhibit long-range electrostatic interactions if the surface charge is heterogeneous; this can happen when the surface charges form finite-size domain structures. These domains can be formed in lipid membranes where the balance of the different ranges of strong but short-ranged hydrophobic interactions and longer-ranged electrostatic repulsion result in a finite, stable domain size. If the domain size is large enough, oppositely charged domains in two opposing surfaces or membranes can be strongly correlated by the electrostatic interactions; these correlations give rise to an attractive interaction of the two membranes or surfaces over separations on the order of the domain size. We use numerical simulations to demonstrate the existence of strong attractions at separations of tens of nanometers. Large line tensions result in larger domains but also increase the charge density within the domain. This promotes correlations and, as a result, increases the intermembrane attraction. On the other hand, increasing the salt concentration increases both the domain size and degree of domain anticorrelation, but the interactions are ultimately reduced due to increased screening. The result is a decrease in the net attraction as salt concentration is increased. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  18. CHARGED PARTICLE MULTIPLICITIES IN ULTRA-RELATIVISTIC AU+AU AND CU+CU COLLISIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Back, B. B.; Alver, B.; Back, B. B.; Baker, M. D.; Ballintijn, M.; Barton, D. S.; Betts, R. R.; Bickley, A. A.; Bindel, R.; Busza, W.; Carroll, A.; Chai, Z.; Chetluru, V.; Decowski, M. P.; Garcia, E.; Gburek, T.; George, N.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Halliwell, C.; Hamblen, J.; Harnarine, I.; Hauer, M.; Henderson, C.; Hofman, D. J.; Hollis, R. S.; Holynski, R.; Holzman, B.; Iordanova, A.; Johnson, E.; Kane, J. L.; Khan, N.; Kulinich, P.; Kuo, C. M.; Li, W.; Lin, W. T.; Loizides, C.; Manly, S.; Mignerey, A. C.; Nouicer, R.; Olszewski, A.; Pak, R.; Reed, C.; Richardson, E.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Sagerer, J.; Seals, H.; Sedykh, I.; Smith, C. E.; Stankiewicz, M. A.; Steinberg, P.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Sukhanov, A.; Szostak, A.; Tonjes, M. B.; Trzupek, A.; Vale, C.; Vannieuwenhuizen, G. J.; Vaurynovich, S. S.; Verdier, R.; Veres, G. I.; Walters, P.; Wenger, E.; Willhelm, D.; Wolfs, F. L. H.; Wosiek, B.; Wozniak, K.; Wyngaardt, S.; Wyslouch, B.

    The PHOBOS collaboration has carried out a systematic study of charged particle multiplicities in Cu+Cu and Au+Au collisions at the Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory. A unique feature of the PHOBOS detector is its ability to measure charged particles over a very wide angular range from 0.5° to 179.5° corresponding to |η| <5.4. The general features of the charged particle multiplicity distributions as a function of pseudo-rapidity, collision energy and centrality, as well as system size, are discussed.

  19. Bibliography of integral charged particle nuclear data. Archival edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burrows, T.W.; Dempsey, P.

    1980-03-01

    This is the fourth annual edition of the National Nuclear Data Center charged-particle bibliography. This edition is cumulative and supersedes the previous editions. The bibliography's primary aims are to satisfy the need for a concise and comprehensive index of integral charged-particle cross section data and to provide an index of charged-particle data compiled in the international exchange format, EXFOR. This part of the publication deals with isotope production; references are ordered by mass of the nuclide produced. The present publication is an archival volume; future publications will be cumulative supplements to this edition

  20. Interaction of free charged particles with a chirped electromagnetic pulse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khachatryan, A.G.; Goor, F.A. van; Boller, K.-J.

    2004-01-01

    We study the effect of chirp on electromagnetic (EM) pulse interaction with a charged particle. Both the one-dimensional (1D) and 3D cases are considered. It is found that, in contrast to the case of a nonchirped pulse, the charged particle energy can be changed after the interaction with a 1D EM chirped pulse. Different types of chirp and pulse envelopes are considered. In the case of small chirp, an analytical expression is found for arbitrary temporal profiles of the chirp and the pulse envelope. In the 3D case, the interaction with a chirped pulse results in a polarization-dependent scattering of charged particles

  1. Heavy-ion radiography applied to charged particle radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, G.T.Y.; Fabrikant, J.I.; Holley, W.R.; Tobias, C.A.; Castro, J.R.

    1980-01-01

    The objectives of the heavy-ion radiography research program applied to the clinical cancer research program of charged particle radiotherapy have a twofold purpose: (1) to explore the manner in which heavy-ion radiography and CT reconstruction can provide improved tumor localization, treatment planning, and beam delivery for radiotherapy with accelerated heavy charged particles; and (2) to explore the usefulness of heavy-ion radiography in detecting, localizing, and sizing soft tissue cancers in the human body. The techniques and procedures developed for heavy-ion radiography should prove successful in support of charged particle radiotherapy

  2. The search for fractional charge elemental particles and very massive particles in bulk matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perl, M.

    2000-01-01

    The authors describe their ongoing work on, and future plans for, searches in bulk matter for fractional charge elementary particles and very massive elementary particles. Their primary interest is in searching for such particles that may have been produced in the early universe and may be found in the more primeval matter available in the solar system: meteorites, material from the moon's surface, and certain types of ancient terrestrial rocks. In the future the authors are interested in examining material brought back by sample return probes from asteroids. The authors will describe their experimental methods that are based on new modifications of the Millikan liquid drop technique and modern technology: micromachining, CCD cameras, and desktop computers. Extensions of the experimental methods and technology allow searches for very massive charged particles in primeval matter; particles with masses greater than 1,013 GeV. In the first such searches carried out on earth there will be uncertainties in the mass search range. Therefore the authors will also discuss the advantages of eventually carrying out such searches directly on an asteroid

  3. Charged particle-like branes in ABJM

    CERN Document Server

    Gutierrez, Norberto; Rodriguez-Gomez, Diego

    2010-01-01

    We study the effect of adding lower dimensional brane charges to the 't Hooft monopole, di-baryon and baryon vertex configurations in $AdS_4 \\times \\mathbb{P}^3$. We show that these configurations capture the background fluxes in a way that depends on the induced charges, and therefore, require additional fundamental strings in order to cancel the worldvolume tadpoles. The study of the dynamics reveals that the charges must lie inside some interval in order to find well defined configurations, a situation familiar from the baryon vertex in $AdS_5 \\times S^5$ with charges. For the baryon vertex and the di-baryon the number of fundamental strings must also lie inside an allowed interval. Our configurations are sensitive to the flat $B$-field recently suggested in the literature. We make some comments on its possible role. We also discuss how these configurations are modified in the presence of a non-zero Romans mass.

  4. Multilayer Semiconductor Charged-Particle Spectrometers for Accelerator Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurov, Yu. B.; Lapushkin, S. V.; Sandukovsky, V. G.; Chernyshev, B. A.

    2018-03-01

    The current state of studies in the field of development of multilayer semiconductor systems (semiconductor detector (SCD) telescopes), which allow the energy to be precisely measured within a large dynamic range (from a few to a few hundred MeV) and the particles to be identified in a wide mass range (from pions to multiply charged nuclear fragments), is presented. The techniques for manufacturing the SCD telescopes from silicon and high-purity germanium are described. The issues of measuring characteristics of the constructed detectors and their impact on the energy resolution of the SCD telescopes and on the quality of the experimental data are considered. Much attention is given to the use of the constructed semiconductor devices in experimental studies at accelerators of PNPI (Gatchina), LANL (Los Alamos) and CELSIUS (Uppsala).

  5. Physical properties of charged particle beams for use in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knapp, E.A.

    1975-01-01

    The physical properties of the possible charged particle beams used for cancer radiotherapy are reviewed. Each property is discussed for all interesting particles (π, p, α, Ne ion) and the differences are emphasized. This is followed by a short discussion of the several beam delivery systems used in particle therapy today, emphasizing the differences in the problems for the several different radiations, particularly the differences between the accelerated particle beams and those of a secondary nature. Dose calculation techniques are described

  6. The motion of a charged particle in general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludvigsen, M.

    1979-01-01

    A new approach to the problem of the motion of a self-interacting massive charged particle in general relativity is presented. A charged Robinson-Trautman solution is used as a general relativistic model of such a particle. Such a solution is shown to generate a unique world line in its own H space, which is interpreted as the world line of the particle. Using the R-T dynamical relations, the equation of motion of the particle is derived, which, in the limiting case of zero curvature, is shown to be the same as the classical Lorentz-Dirac equation of motion. (author)

  7. NNDC evaluated charged particle reaction data library (1975)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearlstein, S

    1985-09-01

    The US National Nuclear Data Center developed a `starter` library for charged particle induced nuclear reaction data in a trial ENDF/B format. It was issued in June 1974 and corrected in August 1975. It includes integral cross-section data for 306 nuclides between Z = 21 and 83 for the following reactions in the energy range from 0 to 20 MeV: (p,n); (p,2n); (p,3n); (d,n); (d,2n); (d,3n); (d,p); ({alpha},n); ({alpha},2n); ({alpha},3n); ({alpha},p) and ({alpha},np). The data were calculated following the nuclear systematics developed by J. Lange and H. Muenzel [KFK-767, May 19681]. The library serves to provide unmeasured cross sections and information that usually compares within an order of magnitude with actual data. It also serves as a convenient source for those requiring charged particle data in computerized form. The library contains 38,584 records. The following documentation is a reprint of a report by S. Pearlstein, BNL-19148, May 1974. (author) 6 refs, 12 figs

  8. Performance of PC-based charged particle multi-channel spectrometer utilising particle identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palla, G.; Sziklai, J.; Trajber, Cs.

    1993-12-01

    A collaterally expandable charged particle spectrometer based on PC control and particle identification is described. A typical system configuration consisting of two channels are used to test the system performance. (author) 7 refs.; 5 figs

  9. High energy particle detectors utilizing cryogenic charge storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coon, D; Engels, E Jr; Plants, D; Shepard, P F; Yang, Y [Pittsburgh Univ., PA (USA); Sopira, M; Papania, R [Westinghouse Research and Development Labs., Monroeville, PA (USA)

    1984-09-15

    The mechanism of cryogenic charge storage as a method of particle detection is reviewed. A description of a simple multielement strip detector operated in this mode is given, and partial results on its operating characteristics presented.

  10. Radiobiology with heavy charged particles: a historical review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skarsgard, L.D.

    1997-01-01

    The presentation will attempt to briefly review some of radiobiological data on the effects of heavy charged particles and to discuss the influence of those studies on the clinical application which followed. (orig./MG)

  11. Charged particle beam scanning using deformed high gradient insulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu -Jiuan

    2015-10-06

    Devices and methods are provided to allow rapid deflection of a charged particle beam. The disclosed devices can, for example, be used as part of a hadron therapy system to allow scanning of a target area within a patient's body. The disclosed charged particle beam deflectors include a dielectric wall accelerator (DWA) with a hollow center and a dielectric wall that is substantially parallel to a z-axis that runs through the hollow center. The dielectric wall includes one or more deformed high gradient insulators (HGIs) that are configured to produce an electric field with an component in a direction perpendicular to the z-axis. A control component is also provided to establish the electric field component in the direction perpendicular to the z-axis and to control deflection of a charged particle beam in the direction perpendicular to the z-axis as the charged particle beam travels through the hollow center of the DWA.

  12. Deposition of Aerosol Particles in Electrically Charged Membrane Filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stroem, L

    1972-05-15

    A theory for the influence of electric charge on particle deposition on the surface of charged filters has been developed. It has been tested experimentally on ordinary membrane filters and Nuclepore filters of 8 mum pore size, with a bipolar monodisperse test aerosol of 1 mum particle diameter, and at a filter charge up to 20 muC/m2. Agreement with theory was obtained for the Coulomb force between filter and particle for both kinds of filters. The image force between charged filter and neutral particles did not result in the predicted deposition in the ordinary membrane filter, probably due to lacking correspondence between the filter model employed for the theory, and the real filter. For the Nuclepore filter a satisfactory agreement with theory was obtained, also at image interaction

  13. Charged particle interaction with a chirped electromagnetic pulse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khachatryan, A.G.; Boller, Klaus J.; van Goor, F.A.

    2003-01-01

    It is found that a charged particle can get a net energy gain from the interaction with an electromagnetic chirped pulse. Theoretically, the energy gain increases with the pulse amplitude and with the relative frequency variation in the pulse.

  14. Pseudorapidity distributions of charged particles in Pb–Pb collisions ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The multiplicity and the angular distribution of charged particles are measured in a wide acceptance ... the framework of the Glauber model with the Woods–Saxon nuclear density parametriza- tion and ... First some quality cuts .... Page 6 ...

  15. Radiobiology with heavy charged particles: a historical review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skarsgard, L D [Dept. of Medical Biophysics, B.C. Cancer Research Centre and TRIUMF, Vancouver (Canada)

    1997-09-01

    The presentation will attempt to briefly review some of radiobiological data on the effects of heavy charged particles and to discuss the influence of those studies on the clinical application which followed. (orig./MG)

  16. Techniques used for charged particle nuclear data evaluation at CNDC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuang Youxiang; Sun Zuxun

    1993-01-01

    The methods and techniques used for Charged Particle Nuclear Data (CPND) evaluation at Chinese Nuclear Data Center (CNDC) are summarized, including compilation and evaluation of experimental data, nuclear reaction theory and model calculation, systematics research and comprehensive recommendation etc

  17. Proposal to Search for Magnetically Charged Particles with Magnetic Charge 1e

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, Michael K. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Fryberger, David [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2015-11-02

    A model for composite elementary Standard Model (SM) particles based upon magnetically bound vorton pairs, we briefly introduce here, predicts the existence of a complete family of magnetically charged particles, as well as their neutral isotopic partners (all counterparts to the SM elementary particles), in which the lowest mass (charged) particle would be an electrically neutral stable lepton, but which carries a magnetic charge equivalent to 1e. This new particle, which we call a magneticon (a counterpart to the electron) would be pair produced at all e+e- colliders at an Ecm above twice its mass. In addition, PP and PPbar colliders should also be able to produce these new particles through the Drell-Yan process. To our knowledge, no monopole search experiment has been sensitive to such a low-charged magnetic monopole above a particle mass of about 5 GeV/c2. Hence, we propose that a search for such a stable particle of magnetic charge 1e should be undertaken. We have taken the ATLAS detector at the LHC as an example in which this search might be done. To this end, we modeled the magnetic fields and muon trigger chambers of this detector. We show results from a simple Monte Carlo simulation program to indicate how these particles might look in the detector and describe how one might search for these new particles in the ATLAS data stream.

  18. A CVD diamond beam telescope for charged particle tracking

    CERN Document Server

    Adam, W; Bergonzo, P; de Boer, Wim; Bogani, F; Borchi, E; Brambilla, A; Bruzzi, Mara; Colledani, C; Conway, J; D'Angelo, P; Dabrowski, W; Delpierre, P A; Dulinski, W; Doroshenko, J; Doucet, M; van Eijk, B; Fallou, A; Fischer, P; Fizzotti, F; Kania, D R; Gan, K K; Grigoriev, E; Hallewell, G D; Han, S; Hartjes, F G; Hrubec, Josef; Husson, D; Kagan, H; Kaplon, J; Kass, R; Keil, M; Knöpfle, K T; Koeth, T W; Krammer, Manfred; Meuser, S; Lo Giudice, A; MacLynne, L; Manfredotti, C; Meier, D; Menichelli, D; Mishina, M; Moroni, L; Noomen, J; Oh, A; Pan, L S; Pernicka, Manfred; Perera, L P; Riester, J L; Roe, S; Rudge, A; Russ, J; Sala, S; Sampietro, M; Schnetzer, S; Sciortino, S; Stelzer, H; Stone, R; Suter, B; Trischuk, W; Tromson, D; Vittone, E; Weilhammer, Peter; Wermes, N; Wetstein, M; Zeuner, W; Zöller, M

    2002-01-01

    CVD diamond is a radiation hard sensor material which may be used for charged particle tracking near the interaction region in experiments at high luminosity colliders. The goal of the work described here is to investigate the use of several detector planes made of CVD diamond strip sensors for charged particle tracking. Towards this end a tracking telescope composed entirely of CVD diamond planes has been constructed. The telescope was tested in muon beams and its tracking capability has been investigated.

  19. Solitary Model of the Charge Particle Transport in Collisionless Plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonchik, L.V.; Trukhachev, F.M.

    2006-01-01

    The one-dimensional MHD solitary model of charged particle transport in plasma is developed. It is shown that self-consistent electric field of ion-acoustic solitons can displace charged particles in space, which can be a reason of local electric current generation. The displacement amount is order of a few Debye lengths. It is shown that the current associated with soliton cascade has pulsating nature with DC component. Methods of built theory verification in dusty plasma are proposed

  20. An improved search for elementary particles with fractional electric charge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, E.R.

    1996-08-01

    The SLAC Quark Search Group has demonstrated successful operation of a low cost, high mass throughput Millikan apparatus designed to search for fractionally charged particles. About six million silicone oil drops were measured with no evidence of fractional charges. A second experiment is under construction with 100 times greater throughput which will utilize optimized search fluids

  1. Indirect Charged Particle Detection: Concepts and a Classroom Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childs, Nicholas B.; Horányi, Mihály; Collette, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    We describe the principles of macroscopic charged particle detection in the laboratory and their connections to concepts taught in the physics classroom. Electrostatic dust accelerator systems, capable of launching charged dust grains at hypervelocities (1-100 km/s), are a critical tool for space exploration. Dust grains in space typically have…

  2. Gravity influence on the clustering of charged particles in turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jiang; Nordsiek, Hansen; Shaw, Raymond

    2010-11-01

    We report results aimed at studying the interactions of bidisperse charged inertial particles in homogeneous, isotropic turbulence, under the influence of gravitational settling. We theoretically and experimentally investigate the impact of gravititational settling on particle clustering, which is quantified by the radial distribution function (RDF). The theory is based on a drift-diffusion (Fokker-Planck) model with gravitational settling appearing as a diffusive term depending on a dimensionless settling parameter. The experiments are carried out in a laboratory chamber with nearly homogeneous, isotropic turbulence in which the flow is seeded with charged particles and digital holography used to obtain 3D particle positions and velocities. The derived radial distribution function for bidisperse settling charged particles is compared to the experimental RDFs.

  3. Charged Particle ID with DIRCs in PANDA at FAIR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schepers, Georg [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Collaboration: PANDA Cherenkov Group of the PANDA-Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    The PANDA detector at FAIR, the new international accelerator facility for antiprotons and ions in Darmstadt, will address open questions of hadronic physics. Experiments concerning charmonium spectroscopy are performed with antiproton beams colliding with hydrogen or nuclear targets. The beam momentum range between 1.5 GeV/c and 15 GeV/c allows tests of the predictions by perturbation theory, but will also reveal deviations originating from strong QCD. Excellent charged particle identification over a large momentum range is necessary for all these experiments. In the target spectrometer this will be accomplished by two Cherenkov counters using the DIRC principle, reducing the size of the solenoid and calorimeter. Both counters have to work in a strong magnetic field and withstand high event rates. The concept of the Barrel DIRC, covering the polar angles between 22 and 140 degrees, is based on the successful BaBar DIRC. It uses focusing optics with lenses and fast photon timing. The Endcap Disc DIRC works with a novel radiator geometry and covers the angular range from 5 to 22 degrees. In addition to a fast electronic readout it employs a compact photon detection system. Prototypes were tested with particle beams at GSI, CERN, DESY, and MAMI to validate the design choices. The results achieved and the status of the PANDA DIRC detectors are presented.

  4. Coulomb Fourier transformation: A novel approach to three-body scattering with charged particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alt, E.O.; Levin, S.B.; Yakovlev, S.L.

    2004-01-01

    A unitary transformation of the three-body Hamiltonian which describes a system of two charged and one neutral particles is constructed such that the Coulomb potential which acts between the charged particles is explicitly eliminated. The transformed Hamiltonian and, in particular, the transformed short-range pair interactions are worked out in detail. Thereby it is found that, after transformation, the short-range potentials acting between the neutral and either one of the charged particles become simply Fourier transformed but, in addition, multiplied by a function that represents the Coulombic three-body correlations originating from the action of the other charged particle on the considered pair. This function which is universal as it does not depend on any property of the short-range interaction is evaluated explicitly and its singularity structure is described in detail. In contrast, the short-range potential between the charged particles remains of two-body type but occurs now in the 'Coulomb representation'. Specific applications to Yukawa and Gaussian potentials are given. Since the Coulomb-Fourier-transformed Hamiltonian does no longer contain the Coulomb potential or any other effective interaction of long range, standard methods of short-range few-body scattering theory are applicable

  5. Alternating current long range alpha particle detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacArthur, D.W.; McAtee, J.L.

    1993-01-01

    An alpha particle detector, utilizing alternating currents, which is capable of detecting alpha particles from distinct sources. The use of alternating currents allows use of simpler ac circuits which, in turn, are not susceptible to dc error components. It also allows the benefit of gas gain, if desired. In the invention, a voltage source creates an electric field between two conductive grids, and between the grids and a conductive enclosure. Air containing air ions created by collision with alpha particles is drawn into the enclosure and detected. In some embodiments, the air flow into the enclosure is interrupted, creating an alternating flow of ions. In another embodiment, a modulated voltage is applied to the grid, also modulating the detection of ions

  6. Acceleration of low energy charged particles by gravitational waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voyatzis, G. [University of Thessaloniki, Department of Physics, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece)]. E-mail: voyatzis@auth.gr; Vlahos, L. [University of Thessaloniki, Department of Physics, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Ichtiaroglou, S. [University of Thessaloniki, Department of Physics, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Papadopoulos, D. [University of Thessaloniki, Department of Physics, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece)

    2006-04-03

    The acceleration of charged particles in the presence of a magnetic field and gravitational waves is under consideration. It is shown that the weak gravitational waves can cause the acceleration of low energy particles under appropriate conditions. Such conditions may be satisfied close to the source of the gravitational waves if the magnetized plasma is in a turbulent state.

  7. Acceleration of low energy charged particles by gravitational waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voyatzis, G.; Vlahos, L.; Ichtiaroglou, S.; Papadopoulos, D.

    2006-01-01

    The acceleration of charged particles in the presence of a magnetic field and gravitational waves is under consideration. It is shown that the weak gravitational waves can cause the acceleration of low energy particles under appropriate conditions. Such conditions may be satisfied close to the source of the gravitational waves if the magnetized plasma is in a turbulent state

  8. Iron free permanent magnet systems for charged particle beam optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, S.M.; Halbach, K.

    1995-01-01

    The strength and astounding simplicity of certain permanent magnet materials allow a wide variety of simple, compact configurations of high field strength and quality multipole magnets. Here we analyze the important class of iron-free permanent magnet systems for charged particle beam optics. The theory of conventional segmented multipole magnets formed from uniformly magnetized block magnets placed in regular arrays about a circular magnet aperture is reviewed. Practical multipole configurations resulting are presented that are capable of high and intermediate aperture field strengths. A new class of elliptical aperture magnets is presented within a model with continuously varying magnetization angle. Segmented versions of these magnets promise practical high field dipole and quadrupole magnets with an increased range of applicability

  9. Acceleration of charged particles by lasers in vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cicchitelli, L.; Hora, H.; Scheid, W.

    1989-01-01

    For laser acceleration of electrons (and other charged particles) by lasers to the TeV energy range in vacuum, the scheme of trapping electrons in spatially moving and accelerated intensity gradients or minima of laser fields, the single electron motion in standing wave fields is evaluated in details numerically. Acceleration of the minima results in the acceleration of the electrons as expected from global results of the nonlinear forces. If half-wave length laser pulses propagating in vacuum are used the relativistic exact solutions are derived and evaluated. A disadvantage is the lateral motion requiring a large laser focus. For TeV electron energy, MJ KrF-laser pulses are necessary and the acceleration length is about 10 cm. copyright 1989 American Institute of Physics

  10. Constraints on dark matter particles charged under a hidden gauge group from primordial black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai, De-Chang; Stojkovic, Dejan; Freese, Katherine

    2009-01-01

    In order to accommodate increasingly tighter observational constraints on dark matter, several models have been proposed recently in which dark matter particles are charged under some hidden gauge group. Hidden gauge charges are invisible for the standard model particles, hence such scenarios are very difficult to constrain directly. However black holes are sensitive to all gauge charges, whether they belong to the standard model or not. Here, we examine the constraints on the possible values of the dark matter particle mass and hidden gauge charge from the evolution of primordial black holes. We find that the existence of the primordial black holes with reasonable mass is incompatible with dark matter particles whose charge to mass ratio is of the order of one. For dark matter particles whose charge to mass ratio is much less than one, we are able to exclude only heavy dark matter in the mass range of 10 11 GeV–10 16 GeV. Finally, for dark matter particles whose charge to mass ratio is much greater than one, there are no useful limits coming from primordial black holes

  11. Current and future accelerator technologies for charged particle therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owen, Hywel, E-mail: hywel.owen@manchester.ac.uk [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester (United Kingdom); Cockcroft Institute for Accelerator Science and Technology, Daresbury Science and Innovation Campus, Warrington WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Lomax, Antony [Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen (Switzerland); Department of Physics, ETH Zurich (Switzerland); Jolly, Simon [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London (United Kingdom)

    2016-02-11

    The past few years have seen significant developments both of the technologies available for proton and other charged particle therapies, and of the number and spread of therapy centres. In this review we give an overview of these technology developments, and outline the principal challenges and opportunities we see as important in the next decade. Notable amongst these is the ever-increasing use of superconductivity both in particle sources and for treatment delivery, which is likely to greatly increase the accessibility of charged particle therapy treatments to hospital centres worldwide.

  12. Sources for charged particles; Les sources de particules chargees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arianer, J.

    1997-09-01

    This document is a basic course on charged particle sources for post-graduate students and thematic schools on large facilities and accelerator physics. A simple but precise description of the creation and the emission of charged particles is presented. This course relies on every year upgraded reference documents. Following relevant topics are considered: electronic emission processes, technological and practical considerations on electron guns, positron sources, production of neutral atoms, ionization, plasma and discharge, different types of positive and negative ion sources, polarized particle sources, materials for the construction of ion sources, low energy beam production and transport. (N.T.).

  13. Motion of charged test particles in Reissner-Nordstroem spacetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pugliese, Daniela; Quevedo, Hernando; Ruffini, Remo

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the circular motion of charged test particles in the gravitational field of a charged mass described by the Reissner-Nordstroem spacetime. We study in detail all the spatial regions where circular motion is allowed around either black holes or naked singularities. The effects of repulsive gravity are discussed by finding all the circles at which a particle can have vanishing angular momentum. We show that the geometric structure of stable accretion disks, made of only test particles moving along circular orbits around the central body, allows us to clearly distinguish between black holes and naked singularities.

  14. Motions of charged particles in Goedel-type spacetimes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueiredo, Bartolomeu D.B. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1996-10-01

    Goedel-type spacetimes in Hehl`s non propagating torsion theory are reconsidered by supposing that the curvature source is a Weyssenhoff-Raab fluid and an electromagnetic field. The electromagnetic field implies space time homogeneity and admits a dual interpretation. From the trajectories of the test particles, it is shown that there is a class of such spacetimes for which charged particles can reach regions inaccessible to neutral particles or even photons. (author). 21 refs., 1 fig.

  15. Motions of charged particles in Goedel-type spacetimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figueiredo, Bartolomeu D.B.

    1996-10-01

    Goedel-type spacetimes in Hehl's non propagating torsion theory are reconsidered by supposing that the curvature source is a Weyssenhoff-Raab fluid and an electromagnetic field. The electromagnetic field implies space time homogeneity and admits a dual interpretation. From the trajectories of the test particles, it is shown that there is a class of such spacetimes for which charged particles can reach regions inaccessible to neutral particles or even photons. (author). 21 refs., 1 fig

  16. Quantum theory of relativistic charged particles in external fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruijsenaars, S.N.M.

    1976-01-01

    A study was made on external field theories in which the quantized field corresponds to relativistic elementary particles with non-zero rest mass. These particles are assumed to be charged, thus they have distinct antiparticles. The thesis consists of two parts. The first tries to accommodate the general features of theories of relativistic charged particles in external fields. Spin and dynamics in particular are not specified. In the second part, the results are applied to charged spin-1/2 and spin-0 particles, the dynamics of which are given by the Dirac resp. Klein-Gordon equation. The greater emphasis is on external fields which are rapidly decreasing, infinitely differentiable functions of space-time, but also considers time-independent fields. External fields, other than electromagnetic fields are also considered, e.g. scalar fields

  17. Late time CMB anisotropies constrain mini-charged particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burrage, C.; Redondo, J.; Ringwald, A. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Jaeckel, J. [Univ. of Durham, Inst. for Particle Physics Phenomenology (United Kingdom)

    2009-09-15

    Observations of the temperature anisotropies induced as light from the CMB passes through large scale structures in the late universe are a sensitive probe of the interactions of photons in such environments. In extensions of the Standard Model which give rise to mini-charged particles, photons propagating through transverse magnetic fields can be lost to pair production of such particles. Such a decrement in the photon flux would occur as photons from the CMB traverse the magnetic fields of galaxy clusters. Therefore late time CMB anisotropies can be used to constrain the properties of mini- charged particles. We outline how this test is constructed, and present new constraints on mini-charged particles from observations of the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect in the Coma cluster. (orig.)

  18. Non deterministic methods for charged particle transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besnard, D.C.; Buresi, E.; Hermeline, F.; Wagon, F.

    1985-04-01

    The coupling of Monte-Carlo methods for solving Fokker Planck equation with ICF inertial confinement fusion codes requires them to be economical and to preserve gross conservation properties. Besides, the presence in FPE Fokker-Planck equation of diffusion terms due to collisions between test particles and the background plasma challenges standard M.C. (Monte-Carlo) techniques if this phenomenon is dominant. We address these problems through the use of a fixed mesh in phase space which allows us to handle highly variable sources, avoiding any Russian Roulette for lowering the size of the sample. Also on this mesh are solved diffusion equations obtained from a splitting of FPE. Any non linear diffusion terms of FPE can be handled in this manner. Another method, also presented here is to use a direct particle method for solving the full FPE

  19. Multivariable hypergeometric solutions for three charged particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gasaneo, G.; Colavecchia, F.D.; Garibotti, C.R. [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, San Carlos de Bariloche (Argentina). Centro Atomico Bariloche]|[Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas, San Carlos de Bariloche (Argentina); Miraglia, J.E.; Macri, P. [IAFE, Consejo de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    1997-04-28

    We present a new wavefunction which describes the ion-atom problem above the ionization threshold. This is an approximate solution of the Schrodinger equation for the three-body Coulomb problem that can be expressed in terms of a confluent hypergeometric function of two variables. The proposed wavefunction includes correlation among the motions of the three particles and verifies the correct Coulombic asymptotic behaviours. (author).

  20. Bibliography of integral charged particle nuclear data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burrows, T.W.; Burt, J.S.

    1977-03-01

    This bibliography is divided into three main sections covering experimental, theoretical, and review references. The review section also includes compilation and evaluation references. Each section contains two subsections. The main subsection contains all references satisfying the criteria noted above and the second subsection is devoted to isotope production. The main subsections are ordered by increasing Z and A of the incident particle, then by increasing Z and A of the target nucleus. Within this order, the entries are ordered by residual nucleus and quantity (e.g., sigma(E)). Finally, the entries are ordered by outgoing particles or processes. All entries which have the same target, reaction, and quantity are grouped under a common heading with the most recent reference first. As noted above the second subsection is devoted to isotope production and is limited in the information it carries. Only those references which contain data on a definite residual nucleus or group of nuclei (e.g., fission fragments) are included in these subsections. Entries within these second subsections are ordered by increasing Z and A of the isotope produced and then by quantity. All references containing data on the same isotope production and quantity are grouped together. All lines within a group are ordered by increasing Z and A of the target and then of the incident particle. The final ordering is by increasing minimum energy.

  1. Charged particle flux near the Mars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vernov, S.N.; Tverskoj, B.A.; Yakovlev, V.A.

    1974-01-01

    The data on cosmic ray fluxes, obtained for the first time in the areocentric orbit by means of the 'Mars-2' satellite are given and discussed. The measurements were carried out on the variable solar cosmic ray flux background from December 14, 1971, to June 1, 1972. For this reason it is difficult to strictly separate local increases in the soft particle fluxes near the planet (electrons with Esub(e)>0.1 and 0.3MeV and protons with Esub(p)>1 and 5MeV) from the variation of corresponding particles of a solar origin. The detected intensities exceed the background which is caused by detection of particles of a galactic origin even at the complete overlap of the counter aperture by the planet. The possible causes of the detected irregularities in an intensity are discussed. It has been established definitely that neither Mars nor Venus have radiation belts at an election energy of Esub(e)>100KeV and proton energy of Esup(p)>1

  2. Plot of charged nuclear particles in polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallardo H, J.I.L.

    1975-01-01

    Experiments were made in order to obtain particle tracks and fission fragments in polymers. To increase the damage the polymer is attacked chemically with a solution of KOH, NaOH or other chemical agent, whose concentration depends of the polymer to be treated, maintaining a constant temperature during the process. To count the tracks which perforate the film, a spark counter with controlled nitrogen atmosphere was constructed. In the experiments which were made in order to detect particles, films of cellulose nitrate known as xylonite, daicel and red paper were used. For the detection of fission products, cellulose triacetate and cellulose polycarbonate films, known as kodacel and kimfol were used. The particle tracks on the treated films were optically counted with a microscope. They had a diameter between 12 and 30 microns, and when the thickness of the film permitted it the tracks consisted in perforations from one to another side of the film. The obtained results have permitted to have the necessary reproducibility for the realization of quantitative analysis of irradiations which can be applied to neutron dosimetry. (author)

  3. Bibliography of integral charged particle nuclear data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burrows, T.W.; Burt, J.S.

    1977-03-01

    This bibliography is divided into three main sections covering experimental, theoretical, and review references. The review section also includes compilation and evaluation references. Each section contains two subsections. The main subsection contains all references satisfying the criteria noted above and the second subsection is devoted to isotope production. The main subsections are ordered by increasing Z and A of the incident particle, then by increasing Z and A of the target nucleus. Within this order, the entries are ordered by residual nucleus and quantity (e.g., sigma(E)). Finally, the entries are ordered by outgoing particles or processes. All entries which have the same target, reaction, and quantity are grouped under a common heading with the most recent reference first. As noted above the second subsection is devoted to isotope production and is limited in the information it carries. Only those references which contain data on a definite residual nucleus or group of nuclei (e.g., fission fragments) are included in these subsections. Entries within these second subsections are ordered by increasing Z and A of the isotope produced and then by quantity. All references containing data on the same isotope production and quantity are grouped together. All lines within a group are ordered by increasing Z and A of the target and then of the incident particle. The final ordering is by increasing minimum energy

  4. Charged-particle spectroscopy in organic semiconducting single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciavatti, A.; Basiricò, L.; Fraboni, B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Bologna, Viale Berti Pichat 6/2, 40127 Bologna (Italy); Sellin, P. J. [Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Fraleoni-Morgera, A. [ELETTRA-Sincrotrone Trieste, Strada Statale 14, Km 163.5, Basovizza, Trieste (Italy); Department of Engineering and Architecture, University of Trieste, V. Valerio 10, 34100 Trieste (Italy); CNR-Nano S3 Institute, Via Campi 213/A, 41125 Modena (Italy)

    2016-04-11

    The use of organic materials as radiation detectors has grown, due to the easy processability in liquid phase at room temperature and the possibility to cover large areas by means of low cost deposition techniques. Direct charged-particle detectors based on solution-grown Organic Semiconducting Single Crystals (OSSCs) are shown to be capable to detect charged particles in pulse mode, with very good peak discrimination. The direct charged-particle detection in OSSCs has been assessed both in the planar and in the vertical axes, and a digital pulse processing algorithm has been used to perform pulse height spectroscopy and to study the charge collection efficiency as a function of the applied bias voltage. Taking advantage of the charge spectroscopy and the good peak discrimination of pulse height spectra, an Hecht-like behavior of OSSCs radiation detectors is demonstrated. It has been possible to estimate the mobility-lifetime value in organic materials, a fundamental parameter for the characterization of radiation detectors, whose results are equal to μτ{sub coplanar} = (5 .5 ± 0.6 ) × 10{sup −6} cm{sup 2}/V and μτ{sub sandwich} = (1 .9 ± 0.2 ) × 10{sup −6} cm{sup 2}/V, values comparable to those of polycrystalline inorganic detectors. Moreover, alpha particles Time-of-Flight experiments have been carried out to estimate the drift mobility value. The results reported here indicate how charged-particle detectors based on OSSCs possess a great potential as low-cost, large area, solid-state direct detectors operating at room temperature. More interestingly, the good detection efficiency and peak discrimination observed for charged-particle detection in organic materials (hydrogen-rich molecules) are encouraging for their further exploitation in the detection of thermal and high-energy neutrons.

  5. Trapped charged particles a graduate textbook with problems and solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Madsen, Niels; Thompson, Richard C

    2016-01-01

    At Les Houches in January 2015, experts in the field of particle trapping came together to discuss the fundamental physics of traps and the different types of applications. This textbook collates the lectures delivered there; the Second Winter School on Physics with Trapped Charged Particles. Taken as a whole, the book gives an overview of why traps for charged particles are important, how they work, their special features and limitations, and their application in areas such as precision measurements, mass spectrometry, optical clocks, plasma physics, antihydrogen creation, quantum simulation and quantum information processing. Chapters from various world experts include those on the basic properties of Penning traps, RF traps and particle accelerators, as well as those covering important practical aspects such as vacuum systems, detection techniques, and different types of particle cooling including laser cooling. Finally, individual chapters deal with the different areas of application listed above. Each ...

  6. Charged and Neutral Particles Channeling Phenomena Channeling 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabagov, Sultan B.; Palumbo, Luigi

    2010-04-01

    and L. Gevorgian -- Diffraction radiation as a diagnostics tool at flash / M. Castellano, E. Chiadroni and A. Cianchi -- Methods of charged particle beam cooling / E. G. Bessonov -- Ray tracing calculation of PXR produced in curved and flat crystals by electron beams with large emittance / K. A. Ispirian ... [et al.] -- On dynamic effects in coherent x-radiation of relativistic electron in Bragg scattering geometry / S. V. Blazhevich and A. V. Noskov -- Optimization of relativistic electron diffracted transition radiation yield / S. V. Blazhevich and A. V. Noskov -- Geometrical effect of target crystal on PXR generation as a coherent x-ray source / Y. Hayakawa ... [et al.] -- Observation of dynamical maxima of parametric x-ray radiation for 20 Me V electron energy beam / A. R. Mkrtchyan ... [et al.] -- The comparison of monochromatic x-ray sources based on compact electron accelerators and x-ray tube / Yu. N. Adischev ... [et al.] -- Labsync: a project to develop a European facility based on a table-top synchrotron light source / G. Di Domenico ... [et al.] -- New experimental results with optical diffraction radiation diagnostics / E. Chiadroni ... [et al.] -- The radiation yield in different spectral ranges from low density structured laser plasma with different high Z-admixture / V. Rozanov and G. Vergunova -- Time and angular distributions of ions transmitted through insulating capillaries / F. F. Komarov and A. S. Kamyshan -- X-ray propagation in multiwall carbon nanotubes / P. A. Childs ... [et al.] -- Tunable x-ray source based on mosaic crystals using for medicine applications / D. A. Baklanov ... [et al.] -- Capillary optics based x-ray micro-imaging elemental analysis / D. Hampai ... [et al.] -- Neutron number enhancement in uranium thin film waveguides / S. P. Pogossian -- Schwinger scattering of fast neutrons in aligned crystal / Yu. P. Kunashenko and Yu. L. Pivovarov -- Experimental investigation of Smith-Purcell radiation focusing by using the parabolic

  7. Theory of intense beams of charged particles

    CERN Document Server

    Hawkes, Peter W

    2011-01-01

    Advances in Imaging and Electron Physics merges two long-running serials--Advances in Electronics and Electron Physics and Advances in Optical and Electron Microscopy. This series features extended articles on the physics of electron devices (especially semiconductor devices), particle optics at high and low energies, microlithography, image science and digital image processing, electromagnetic wave propagation, electron microscopy, and the computing methods used in all these domains. * Contributions from leading international scholars and industry experts * Discusses hot topic areas and presents current and future research trends * Invaluable reference and guide for physicists, engineers and mathematicians.

  8. Behaviour of scintillometers with charge particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vigon, M. A.; Montes, J.; Granados, C. E.; Gutierrez, R.

    1959-01-01

    The behaviour of a scintillation plastic and an anthracene crystal for protons and deuterons with energies within 0,2 and 1,7 MeV. has been studied. The beam of monoenergetic particles falls directly on the detector in study in optic contact with a photomultiplicator. The impulse get in an amplifier which sends then to a scale a sting as a monitor and to an analyzer of 100 canals. The spectrum for each energy of incidental beam is obtained taking the maximum of the spectrum as the most probable value of amplitude of the detector reply, and this is represented apposite to the energy. (Author) 6 refs

  9. Fractionally charged particles and one Dirac charge magnetic monopoles: Are they compatible?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.A. Rubakov

    1983-01-01

    Full Text Available The simultaneous existence of fractional electric charges and one Dirac charge magnetic monopoles implies the existence of a long-ranged force different from electromagnetism. This may be either unconfined colour or/and some new gauge interaction. In the latter case, ordinary matter could (and, if colour is unbroken, should carry new charge. This charge, however small the coupling constant be, could be experimentally observed in interactions of monopoles with matter. An experiment for checking this possibility is suggested.

  10. Coordinate determination of high energy charged particles by silicon strip detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anokhin, I.E.; Zinets, O.S.

    2002-01-01

    The coordinate determination accuracy of minimum ionizing and short-range particles by silicon strip detectors has been considered. The charge collection on neighboring strips of the detector is studied and the influence of diffusion and the electric field distribution on the accuracy of the coordinate determination is analyzed. It has been shown that coordinates of both minimum ionizing and short-range particles can be determined with accuracy to a few microns using silicon strip detectors. 11 refs.; 8 figs

  11. Drift mechanism for energetic charged particles at shocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, G.M.; Axford, W.I.; Terasawa, T.

    1983-01-01

    The energy changes of energetic charged particles at a plane shock due to the so-called drift mechanism are analyzed by using the ''adiabatic treatment.'' The analysis shows that for a fast MHD shock, particles lose energy owing to acceleration (curvature) drift in the magnetic field at the shock with the drift velocity being antiparallel to the electric field, and they gain energy owing to gradient drift parallel to the electric field. It is shown that particles with pitch angles aligned along the magnetic field which pass through the shock tend to lose energy owing to acceleration drift, whereas particles with pitch angles nonaligned to the magnetic field gain energy owing to gradient drift. Particles that are reflected by the shock always gain energy. Slow-mode shocks may be similarly analyzed, but in this case curvature drifts give rise to particle energy gains, and gradient drifts result in particle energy losses

  12. Design of Magnetic Charged Particle Lens Using Analytical Potential Formula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Batat, A. H.; Yaseen, M. J.; Abbas, S. R.; Al-Amshani, M. S.; Hasan, H. S.

    2018-05-01

    In the current research was to benefit from the potential of the two cylindrical electric lenses to be used in the product a mathematical model from which, one can determine the magnetic field distribution of the charged particle objective lens. With aid of simulink in matlab environment, some simulink models have been building to determine the distribution of the target function and their related axial functions along the optical axis of the charged particle lens. The present study showed that the physical parameters (i.e., the maximum value, Bmax, and the half width W of the field distribution) and the objective properties of the charged particle lens have been affected by varying the main geometrical parameter of the lens named the bore radius R.

  13. Hybrid finite element and Brownian dynamics method for charged particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huber, Gary A., E-mail: ghuber@ucsd.edu; Miao, Yinglong [Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093-0365 (United States); Zhou, Shenggao [Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Center for Interdiscipline Research, Soochow University, 1 Shizi Street, Suzhou, 215006 Jiangsu (China); Li, Bo [Department of Mathematics and Quantitative Biology Graduate Program, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, California 92093-0112 (United States); McCammon, J. Andrew [Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States); Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093-0365 (United States); Department of Pharmacology, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093-0636 (United States)

    2016-04-28

    Diffusion is often the rate-determining step in many biological processes. Currently, the two main computational methods for studying diffusion are stochastic methods, such as Brownian dynamics, and continuum methods, such as the finite element method. A previous study introduced a new hybrid diffusion method that couples the strengths of each of these two methods, but was limited by the lack of interactions among the particles; the force on each particle had to be from an external field. This study further develops the method to allow charged particles. The method is derived for a general multidimensional system and is presented using a basic test case for a one-dimensional linear system with one charged species and a radially symmetric system with three charged species.

  14. Medical radiation dosimetry theory of charged particle collision energy loss

    CERN Document Server

    McParland, Brian J

    2014-01-01

    Accurate radiation dosimetry is a requirement of radiation oncology, diagnostic radiology and nuclear medicine. It is necessary so as to satisfy the needs of patient safety, therapeutic and diagnostic optimisation, and retrospective epidemiological studies of the biological effects resulting from low absorbed doses of ionising radiation. The radiation absorbed dose received by the patient is the ultimate consequence of the transfer of kinetic energy through collisions between energetic charged particles and atoms of the tissue being traversed. Thus, the ability of the medical physicist to both measure and calculate accurately patient dosimetry demands a deep understanding of the physics of charged particle interactions with matter. Interestingly, the physics of charged particle energy loss has an almost exclusively theoretical basis, thus necessitating an advanced theoretical understanding of the subject in order to apply it appropriately to the clinical regime. ​ Each year, about one-third of the worl...

  15. Transmutation doping of semiconductors by charged particles (review)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlovskii, V.V.; Zakharenkov, L.F.; Shustrov, B.A.

    1992-01-01

    A review is given of the state of the art in one of the current topics in radiation doping of semiconductors, which is process of nuclear transmutation doping (NTD) charged particles. In contrast to the neutron and photonuclear transmutation doping, which have been dealt with in monographs and reviews, NTD caused by the action of charged particles is a subject growing very rapidly in the last 10-15 years, but still lacking systematic accounts. The review consists of three sections. The first section deals with the characteristics of nuclear reactions in semiconductors caused by the action of charged particles: the main stress is on the modeling of NTD processes in semiconductors under the action of charged particles. An analysis is made of the modeling intended to give the total numbers of donors and acceptor impurities introduced by the NTD process, to optimize the compensation coefficients, and to estimate the distributions of the dopants with depth in a semiconductor crystal. In the second section the state of the art of experimental investigations of NTD under the influence of charged particles is considered. In view of the specific objects that have been investigated experimntally, the second section is divided into three subsections: silicon, III-V compounds, other semiconductors and related materials (such as high-temperature superconductors, ferroelectric films, etc.). An analysis is made of the communications reporting experimental data on the total numbers of dopants which are introduced, concentration of the electrically active fraction of the impurity, profiles of the dopant distributions, and conditions for efficient annealing of radiation defects. The third section deals with the suitability of NTD by charged particles for the fabrication of semiconductor devices. 45 refs

  16. A facility for low energy charged particle induced reaction studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilaithong, T.; Singkarat, S.; Yu, L.D.; Intarasiri, S.; Tippawan, U.

    2000-01-01

    In Chiang Mai, a highly stable low energy ion accelerator (0 - 350 kV) facility is being established. A subnano-second pulsing system will be incorporated into the beam transport line. The detecting system will consist of a time-of-flight charged particle spectrometer and a high resolution gamma-ray system. The new facility will be used in the studies of low energy heavy ion backscattering and charged particle induced cross section measurement in the interests of material characterization and nucleosynthesis. (author)

  17. Charged-particle inclusive distributions from hadronic Z0 decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Shaughnessy, K.

    1990-05-01

    We have measured inclusive distributions for charged particles in hadronic decays of the Z boson. The variables chosen for study were the mean charged-particle multiplicity (left-angle n ch right-angle), scaled momentum (x), and momenta transverse to the sphericity axes (p perpendicular in and p perpendicular out ). The distributions have been corrected for detector effects and are compared with data from e + e - annihilation at lower energies and with the predictions of several QCD-based models. The data are in reasonable agreement with expectations. 12 refs., 2 figs

  18. Multistage charged particle accelerator, with high-vacuum insulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holl, P.

    1976-01-01

    A multistage charged-particle accelerator for operating with accelerating voltages higher than 150 kV is described. The device consists essentially of a high-voltage insulator, a source for producing charged particles, a Wehnelt cylinder, an anode, and a post-accelerating tube containing stack-wise positioned post-accelerating electrodes. A high vacuum is used for insulating the parts carrying the high voltages, and at least one cylindrical screen surrounding these parts is interposed between them and the vacuum vessel, which can itself also function as a cylindrical screen

  19. Detection of charged particles with a methylammonium lead tribromide perovskite single crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Qiang [Nuclear Engineering Program, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States); Wei, Haotong; Wei, Wei [Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, Nebraska 68588 (United States); Chuirazzi, William; DeSantis, Dylan [Nuclear Engineering Program, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States); Huang, Jinsong, E-mail: jhuang2@unl.edu [Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, Nebraska 68588 (United States); Cao, Lei, E-mail: cao.152@osu.edu [Nuclear Engineering Program, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States)

    2017-03-11

    Methylammonium lead tribromide (MAPbBr{sub 3}) perovskite crystals have attracted significant attention due to their attractive performance in various optoelectronic applications such as solar cells, light-emitting devices, photodetectors, and recently in X-ray detectors. In this study, we demonstrate a possible use of perovskite-based devices for detection of charged particles (which can be applied in basic scientific research, health physics, and environmental analysis) and investigate the mechanism of fundamental charge transport inside perovskite crystals. It was found that inexpensive MAPbBr{sub 3} single crystals could be used for measuring the energy spectrum of charged particles through direct collection of the produced charge. After fitting the plot of the centroid peak position versus voltage with the Hecht equation for single-polarity charge transport, the obtained hole mobility-lifetime product was in the range of (0.4–1.6)×10{sup −3} cm{sup 2}/V.

  20. Detection of charged particles with a methylammonium lead tribromide perovskite single crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Qiang; Wei, Haotong; Wei, Wei; Chuirazzi, William; DeSantis, Dylan; Huang, Jinsong; Cao, Lei

    2017-01-01

    Methylammonium lead tribromide (MAPbBr_3) perovskite crystals have attracted significant attention due to their attractive performance in various optoelectronic applications such as solar cells, light-emitting devices, photodetectors, and recently in X-ray detectors. In this study, we demonstrate a possible use of perovskite-based devices for detection of charged particles (which can be applied in basic scientific research, health physics, and environmental analysis) and investigate the mechanism of fundamental charge transport inside perovskite crystals. It was found that inexpensive MAPbBr_3 single crystals could be used for measuring the energy spectrum of charged particles through direct collection of the produced charge. After fitting the plot of the centroid peak position versus voltage with the Hecht equation for single-polarity charge transport, the obtained hole mobility-lifetime product was in the range of (0.4–1.6)×10"−"3 cm"2/V.

  1. Production of charged Higgs particles in W+- decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, M.A.; Soriano, M.A.

    1985-01-01

    It is pointed out that the recent detection by the UA1 collaboration of six candidates events for the semileptonic decays of the t quark would if confirmed exclude the existence of pointlike charged scalar particles H +- , includng charged Higgs bosons and charged hyperpions, with mass lower than the reported t-quark mass. This result comes from the fact that, if m/sub H/ + , which in turn implies that the branching ratio for the decay mode W +- →tb-bar(t-barb)→bb-barH +- can be as large as a few percent if the H +- -fermion conpling is proportional to the mass of the heaviest fermion available

  2. Electrostatic plasma lens for focusing negatively charged particle beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncharov, A A; Dobrovolskiy, A M; Dunets, S M; Litovko, I V; Gushenets, V I; Oks, E M

    2012-02-01

    We describe the current status of ongoing research and development of the electrostatic plasma lens for focusing and manipulating intense negatively charged particle beams, electrons, and negative ions. The physical principle of this kind of plasma lens is based on magnetic isolation electrons providing creation of a dynamical positive space charge cloud in shortly restricted volume propagating beam. Here, the new results of experimental investigations and computer simulations of wide-aperture, intense electron beam focusing by plasma lens with positive space charge cloud produced due to the cylindrical anode layer accelerator creating a positive ion stream towards an axis system is presented.

  3. Charge exchange in a divertor plasma with excited particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krasheninnikov, S.I.; Lisitsa, V.S.; Pigarov, A.Y.

    1988-01-01

    A model is constructed for the dynamics of neutral atoms and multicharged ions in a tokamak plasma. The influence of cascade excitation on charge exchange and ionization is taken into account. The effective rates of the resonant charge exchange of a proton with a hydrogen atom, the nonresonant charge exchange of a helium atom with a proton, and that of an α particle with atomic hydrogen are calculated as functions of the parameters of the divertor plasma in a tokamak. The charge exchange H + +He→H+He + can represent a significant fraction (∼30%) of the total helium ionization rate. Incorporating the charge exchange of He 2+ with atomic hydrogen under the conditions prevailing in the divertor plasma of the INTOR reactor can lead to substantial He 2+ →He + conversion and thereby reduce the sputtering of the divertor plates by helium ions

  4. Secondary charged particle spectra and kerma calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coyne, J.J.; Gerstenberg, H.M.; Hennen, L.A.

    1985-01-01

    The calculation of kerma factors from known cross sections is not as simple as is often implied. The kerma factors are strongly influenced by the reaction mechanism assumed. An important example of this dependence on the reaction mechanism is the contribution of the 12 C(n,n')3α reaction to the total kerma in carbon. First, a short review will be given of the ENDF/B-V carbon cross sections which were used in the calculation of carbon kerma factors. Using the reaction channels implied in the ENDF/B-V evaluation, the contribution of various reactions to the total kerma factors in carbon will be given. A detailed analysis of the reaction mechanisms which could contribute to the (n,n')3α reaction in carbon has been carried out. First their contribution to kerma, independent of cross section, will be calculated and then the initial spectra of alpha particles produced by the various reaction mechanisms will be given. A discussion of possible ways of experimentally distinguishing the reaction mechanisms will be made by comparing their different initial spectra and their variation in kerma with neutron energy. Finally, the event-size spectra for tissue-equivalent proportional counters will be presented, giving only the contributions from the (n,n')3α reaction and its various possible reaction channels. 3 refs., 11 figs., 4 tabs

  5. Contribution of silicon recombination properties in resolution of short-range particle detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verbitskaya, E.M.; Eremin, V.K.; Malyarenko, A.M.; Strokan, N.B.; Sukhanov, V.L.

    1987-01-01

    Tracks of short-range particles represent dense clusters of electron-hole pairs 2-4 μm in diameter and 20-30 μm long. Thus, conditions for charge carrier transport in microscopic Si volume are discovered at registration of each particle. Statistical distribution by the specimen square of the main parameter - lifetime of charge carriers (τ) is disclosed as a result of particle chaotic hitting the detector. Analytical description for the shape of the spectral line of the detector is found in the assumption of Gauss distribution τ. The function is applied to the analysis of detector spectra with maximum energy resolution, for which contributions to the shape of the line of the fundamental factors and nonperfection of Si or of the detector structure as a whole are comparable. Excess fluctuations of α-particle energy transformation to the charge of electron-hole pairs are found relatively to adopted values

  6. Contribution of silicon recombination properties in resolution of short-range particle detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verbitskaya, E M; Eremin, V K; Malyarenko, A M; Strokan, N B; Sukhanov, V L

    1987-10-01

    Tracks of short-range particles represent dense clusters of electron-hole pairs 2-4 ..mu..m in diameter and 20-30 ..mu..m long. Thus, conditions for charge carrier transport in microscopic Si volume are discovered at registration of each particle. Statistical distribution by the specimen square of the main parameter - lifetime of charge carriers (tau) is disclosed as a result of particle chaotic hitting the detector. Analytical description for the shape of the spectral line of the detector is found in the assumption of Gauss distribution tau. The function is applied to the analysis of detector spectra with maximum energy resolution, for which contributions to the shape of the line of the fundamental factors and nonperfection of Si or of the detector structure as a whole are comparable. Excess fluctuations of ..cap alpha..-particle energy transformation to the charge of electron-hole pairs are found relatively to adopted values.

  7. Electromagnetic energy and momentum from a charged particle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marx, E.

    1975-01-01

    The flux of the stress-energy tensor across a tube surrounding the world line of a charged particle is computed. By slight modifications of the definition of the Coulomb energy-momentum, the resulting expression contains the radiation reaction term (proportional to the square of the four-acceleration) but not the Schott term (proportional to the derivative of the acceleration). The equation of motion for the particle derived from this expression implies a variable rest mass. (author)

  8. Generation of narrow peaks in spectroscopy of charged particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubbers, Dirk, E-mail: dubbers@physi.uni-heidelberg.de; Schmidt, Ulrich, E-mail: ulrich.schmidt@physi.uni-heidelberg.de

    2016-11-21

    In spectroscopy of charged particles, narrow peaks may appear in continuous spectra if magnetic transport of the particles is involved. These artefacts, which so far have escaped the attention of investigators, can develop whenever geometric detection efficiency is less than 100%. As such peaks may be misinterpreted as new physics, their generation is investigated, both analytically and experimentally, for various detector configurations, including those used in searches for the spontaneous decay of the vacuum in heavy-ion collisions.

  9. Penetration of charged particles through ordered isotropic matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sigmund, P.

    1977-01-01

    A brief summary of some new results on fluctuation phenomena in particle penetration is presented. The results include collision statistics, positive and negative correlations and a framework for the treatment of cumulative effects in particle penetration. Incorporation of projectile and target states in the description and energy-loss straggling are discussed. Small-angle multiple scattering is considered and a comment made on ionic charge states. (B.R.H.)

  10. Display of charged ionizing particles; Visualizacion de particulas cargadas ionizantes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cano S, D.; Ortiz A, M. D.; Amarillas S, L. E.; Vega C, H. R., E-mail: qfbcano@gmail.com [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98060 Zacatecas, Zac. (Mexico)

    2017-10-15

    The human being is exposed to sources of ionizing and non-ionizing radiation, both of natural or anthropogenic origin. None of these, except non-ionizing such as visible light and infrared radiation, can be detected by the sense of sight and touch respectively. The sun emits charged particles with speeds close to the light that interact with the atoms of the gases present in the atmosphere, producing nuclear reactions that in turn produce other particles that reach the surface of the Earth and reach the living beings. On Earth there are natural radioisotopes that, when they disintegrate, emit ionizing radiation that contributes to the dose we receive. A very old system that allows the visualization of the trajectories of the charged ionizing particles is the Fog Chamber that uses a saturated steam that when crossed by particles with mass and charge, as alpha and beta particles produce condensation centers along its path leaves a trace that can be seen. The objective of this work was to build a fog chamber using easily accessible materials. To measure the functioning of the fog chamber, cosmic rays were measured, as well as a source of natural metal uranium. The fog chamber allowed seeing the presence of traces in alcohol vapor that are produced in a random way. Introducing the uranium foil inside the fog chamber, traces of alpha particles whose energy varies from 4 to 5 MeV were observed. (Author)

  11. Method of measuring a profile of the density of charged particles in a particle beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyman, L.G.; Jankowski, D.J.

    1975-01-01

    A profile of the relative density of charged particles in a beam is obtained by disposing a number of rods parallel to each other in a plane perpendicular to the beam and shadowing the beam. A second number of rods is disposed perpendicular to the first rods in a plane perpendicular to the beam and also shadowing the beam. Irradiation of the rods by the beam of charged particles creates radioactive isotopes in a quantity proportional to the number of charged particles incident upon the rods. Measurement of the radioactivity of each of the rods provides a measure of the quantity of radioactive material generated thereby and, together with the location of the rods, provides information sufficient to identify a profile of the density of charged particles in the beam

  12. A study of the interpretations of charm particle decays into three charged particles in NA16

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moa, T.

    1984-03-01

    The variation of the kinematic fit probability as a function of the mass of the decaying particle is studied for all hypotheses tried for the three prong charged decays in the NA16 LECB-EHS experiment. (author)

  13. A systematic review of publications on charged particle therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igaki, Hiroshi; Mizumoto, Masashi; Okumura, Toshiyuki; Hasegawa, Kiyoshi; Kokudo, Norihiro; Sakurai, Hideyuki

    2018-06-01

    Charged particle therapy (proton beam therapy and carbon ion therapy) is a form of radiotherapy which has the unique characteristic of superior depth dose distribution, and has been used for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in a limited number of patients, especially in Japan. We undertook a systematic review to define the clinical utility of charged particle therapy for patients with HCC. We searched the MEDLINE database from 1983 to June 2016 to identify clinical studies on charged particle therapy for HCC. Primary outcomes of interest were local control, overall survival, and late radiation morbidities. A total of 13 cohorts from 11 papers were selected from an initial dataset of 78 papers. They included a randomized controlled trial comparing proton beam therapy with transarterial chemoembolization, 9 phase I or II trials and 2 retrospective studies. The reported actuarial local control rates ranged from 71.4-95% at 3 years, and the overall survival rates ranged from 25-42.3% at 5 years. Late severe radiation morbidities were uncommon, and a total of 18 patients with grade ≥3 late adverse events were reported among the 787 patients included in this analysis. Charged particle therapy for HCC was associated with good local control with limited probability of severe morbidities. The cost-effectiveness and the distinctive clinical advantages of charged particle therapies should be clarified in order to become a socially accepted treatment modality for HCC.

  14. P-matrix description of charged particles interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babenko, V.A.; Petrov, N.M.

    1992-01-01

    The paper deals with formalism of the P-matrix description of two charged particles interaction. Separation in the explicit form of the background part corresponding to the purely Coulomb interaction in the P-matrix is proposed. Expressions for the purely Coulomb P-matrix, its poles, residues and purely Coulomb P-matrix approach eigenfunctions are obtained. (author). 12 refs

  15. Light charged particle multiplicities in fusion and quasifission reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalandarov, Sh. A.; Adamian, G. G.; Antonenko, N. V.; Lacroix, D.; Wieleczko, J. P.

    2018-01-01

    The light charged particle evaporation from the compound nucleus and from the complex fragments in the reactions 32S+100Mo, 121Sb+27Al, 40Ar+164Dy, and 40Ar+ nat Ag is studied within the dinuclear system model. The possibility to distinguish the reaction products from different reaction mechanisms is discussed.

  16. Light charged particle multiplicities in fusion and quasifission reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalandarov, Sh.A. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Institute of Nuclear Physics, Tashkent (Uzbekistan); Adamian, G.G. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Antonenko, N.V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Tomsk Polytechnic University, Mathematical Physics Department, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Lacroix, D. [IN2P3-CNRS, Universite Paris-Sud, Institut de Physique Nucleaire, Orsay (France); Wieleczko, J.P. [GANIL, CEA et IN2P3-CNRS, Caen (France)

    2018-01-15

    The light charged particle evaporation from the compound nucleus and from the complex fragments in the reactions {sup 32}S + {sup 100}Mo, {sup 121}Sb + {sup 27}Al, {sup 40}Ar + {sup 164}Dy, and {sup 40}Ar + {sup nat}Ag is studied within the dinuclear system model. The possibility to distinguish the reaction products from different reaction mechanisms is discussed. (orig.)

  17. Theses of XIX International Seminar on charged particle accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2005-01-01

    Published abstracts of reports of the XIX International Seminar on charged particle accelerators have interest for specialists in the fields of linear accelerator physics and technology, VHF uses, systems of beam diagnostics and automated control, new acceleration methods, as well as for theses who use electrophysical devices in industry, medicine and research

  18. Theses of XX International Seminar on charged particle accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papkovich, V.G.; Rakivnenko, L.M.

    2007-01-01

    Published abstracts of reports of the XX International Seminar on charged particle accelerators have interest for specialists in the fields of linear accelerator physics and technology, VHF uses systems of beam diagnostics and autometed control, new acceleration methods and for theses who use electrophysical devices in industry, medicine and research

  19. Quantum aspects of charged-particle beam optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Sameen Ahmed, E-mail: rohelakhan@yahoo.com [Department of Mathematics and Sciences, College of Arts and Applied Sciences, Dhofar University, Salalah, Sultanate of Oman (Oman)

    2016-06-10

    The classical treatments have been successful in designing numerous charged-particle devices. It is natural to develop a quantum prescription, since all systems are fundamentally quantum mechanical in nature. The quantum theory leads to new insights accompanied with wavelength-dependent contributions. The action of a magnetic quadrupole is derived from the Dirac equation.

  20. Medium-energy charged-particle data for evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearlstein, S.

    1989-01-01

    Medium-energy charged particles incident on targets can cause a variety of nuclear reactions. Charged-particle transport calculations require access to a large body of cross-section data, which results in interest in an evaluated charged-particle data library. Developing an evaluated data library can involve several steps. An index to the literature on measurements and theory is useful to locate information relevant to data evaluation. A computerized compilation of measurements facilitates the intercomparison of different experiments and the determination of how well data are known. Nuclear models, based on theory or phenomenological evidence, are compared with experiment and, where validated, are used to fill in regions where experimental data are not available. Finally, the selected data are placed into computer-readable formats for use in transport calculations. Specialized indexes to bibliography help the scientist to keep up with his field and catch up with new subjects of interest. Several indexes are relevant to medium-energy nuclear data. In addition, these data are covered in several reports not issued on a regular basis. The technical area of medium-energy charged-particle data is maturing. From isolated measurements and theories, a comprehensive approach toward establishing a validated data base extending from low to high energies is emerging

  1. Some peculiarity of element analysis using charged particle beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobzev, A.P.; Abu-Alazm, S.M.; Helal, A.I.; Zahran, N.F.

    2002-01-01

    Multilayer structures, SiC -layers at Si substrate, have been analyzed by RBS, NR, ERD and PIXE methods using the charged particle beams from EG-5 Van de Graaff accelerator of JINR. The depth profiles of the based deposited layers were obtained for the multilayer structures

  2. Bibliography of integral charged-particle nuclear data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burrows, T.W.; Wyant, G.

    1981-03-01

    This publication is the first supplement to the archival edition of the National Nuclear Data Center's charged-particle bibliography. This supplement contains citations to all references scanned since March 15, 1980, and all corrections and additions to previous citations, and indexes all data received in the international exchanged format (EXFOR). The primary goal of the bibliography has been to satisfy the need expressed by the Nuclear Reaction Data Center Network for a concise and comprehensive bibliography of integral charged-particle cross section data and to provide an index of data exchanged among the members. As a result of a recommendation by the recent Workshop on Intense High Energy Neutron Source and Their Characteristics, we have also undertaken to expand the coverage of charged-particle-induced neutron-source reactions to include differential data. This supplement is divided into two sections, References and Isotope Production. The References section contains all references satisfying the criteria noted. The Isotope Production section contains an abbreviated reference line for all entries which contain information on a definite residual nucleus, on particle production, or on mass, charge, or isotopic distributions. Entries in the References section are sequentially numbered. These sequence numbers serve as a link between the two sections

  3. Study of the liquid water luminescence induced by charged particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rusu, Mircea; Stere, Oana; Haiduc, Maria; Caramete, Laurentiu

    2004-01-01

    Many observations suggested that liquid water (with impurities) could give a luminescence output when irradiated with charged particles. We investigate theoretical and practical possibility of detecting such luminescence. Preliminary results on this possibility are presented, and a layout of the device proposed for measuring luminescence is given. (authors)

  4. Challenging the weak cosmic censorship conjecture with charged quantum particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richartz, Mauricio; Saa, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    Motivated by the recent attempts to violate the weak cosmic censorship conjecture for near-extreme black holes, we consider the possibility of overcharging a near-extreme Reissner-Nordstroem black hole by the quantum tunneling of charged particles. We consider the scattering of spin-0 and spin-(1/2) particles by the black hole in a unified framework and obtain analytically, for the first time, the pertinent reflection and transmission coefficients without any small charge approximation. Based on these results, we propose some gedanken experiments that could lead to the violation of the weak cosmic censorship conjecture due to the (classically forbidden) absorption of small energy charged particles by the black hole. As for the case of scattering in Kerr spacetimes, our results demonstrate explicitly that scalar fields are subject to (electrical) superradiance phenomenon, while spin-(1/2) fields are not. Superradiance impose some limitations on the gedanken experiments involving spin-0 fields, favoring, in this way, the mechanisms for creation of a naked singularity by the quantum tunneling of spin-(1/2) charged fermions. We also discuss the implications that vacuum polarization effects and quantum statistics might have on these gedanken experiments. In particular, we show that they are not enough to prevent the absorption of incident small energy particles and, consequently, the formation of a naked singularity.

  5. Motion of Charged Particles in Electromagnetic Fields and Special

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    charged particles as seen from different inertial frames of reference. ... is solved for various initial conditions of the values of q,. --t -+. -+ m,o, E, v and B to be .... on the choice of the particular frame of reference that is employed to describe the ...

  6. Charged particle density distributions in Au + Au collisions at ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Charged particle pseudorapidity distributions have been measured in Au + Au collisions using the BRAHMS detector at RHIC. The results are presented as a function of the collision centrality and the center of mass energy. They are compared to the predictions of different parton scattering models and the important role of ...

  7. Infrared light extinction by charged dielectric core-coat particles

    OpenAIRE

    Thiessen, Elena; Heinisch, Rafael L.; Bronold, Franz X.; Fehske, Holger

    2014-01-01

    We study the effect of surplus electrons on the infrared extinction of dielectric particles with a core-coat structure and propose to use it for an optical measurement of the particle charge in a dusty plasma. The particles consist of an inner core with negative and an outer coat with positive electron affinity. Both the core and the coat give rise to strong transverse optical phonon resonances, leading to anomalous light scattering in the infrared. Due to the radial profile of the electron a...

  8. Search for new charged massive stable particles at CDF

    Science.gov (United States)

    CDF Collaboration

    1996-05-01

    We report on a general search at CDF for new particles which are electrically charged and sufficiently long-lived to allow detection (γ c τ >= 1m). Examples of such particles include free quarks, 4th generation leptons which are lighter than their neutrino, and sextet quarks. Their signature would be particles with high momentum but relatively low velocity, β Fisica Nucleare; the Ministry of Education, Science and Culture of Japan; the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada; the National Science Council of the Republic of China; and the A. P. Sloan Foundation. Supported by U.S. DOE under Contract No. DE-AC02-76CH03000.

  9. Charged particle beam monitoring by means of synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panasyuk, V.S.; Anevskij, S.I.

    1984-01-01

    Optical methods for monitoring the number of accelerated electrons and electron energy by means of beam synchrotron radiation (SR) as well as peculiarities of SR characteristics of beams with a small radius of the orbit are considered. Optical methods for charged particle beam monitoring are shown to ensure operative and precise monitoring the number of particles and particle energy. SR sources with large axial dimensions of an electron beam have specific spectral angular and polarization characteristics. If electron angular distribution at deflection from the median plane is noticeably wider than angular distribution of SR of a certain electron, relative SR characteristics of these soUrces are calculated with high accuracy

  10. Charge identification of highly ionizing particles in desensitized nuclear emulsion using high speed read-out system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toshito, T.; Kodama, K.; Yusa, K.; Ozaki, M.; Amako, K.; Kameoka, S.; Murakami, K.; Sasaki, T.; Aoki, S.; Ban, T.; Fukuda, T.; Naganawa, N.; Nakamura, T.; Natsume, M.; Niwa, K.; Takahashi, S.; Kanazawa, M.; Kanematsu, N.; Komori, M.; Sato, S.; Asai, M.; Koi, T.; Fukushima, C.; Ogawa, S.; Shibasaki, M.; Shibuya, H.

    2006-01-01

    We performed an experimental study of charge identification of heavy ions from helium to carbon having energy of about 290MeV/u using an emulsion chamber. Emulsion was desensitized by means of forced fading (refreshing) to expand a dynamic range of response to highly charged particles. For the track reconstruction and charge identification, the fully automated high speed emulsion read-out system, which was originally developed for identifying minimum ionizing particles, was used without any modification. Clear track by track charge identification up to Z=6 was demonstrated. The refreshing technique has proved to be a powerful technique to expand response of emulsion film to highly ionizing particles

  11. Charged particle in higher dimensional weakly charged rotating black hole spacetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frolov, Valeri P.; Krtous, Pavel

    2011-01-01

    We study charged particle motion in weakly charged higher dimensional black holes. To describe the electromagnetic field we use a test field approximation and the higher dimensional Kerr-NUT-(A)dS metric as a background geometry. It is shown that for a special configuration of the electromagnetic field, the equations of motion of charged particles are completely integrable. The vector potential of such a field is proportional to one of the Killing vectors (called a primary Killing vector) from the 'Killing tower' of symmetry generating objects which exists in the background geometry. A free constant in the definition of the adopted electromagnetic potential is proportional to the electric charge of the higher dimensional black hole. The full set of independent conserved quantities in involution is found. We demonstrate that Hamilton-Jacobi equations are separable, as is the corresponding Klein-Gordon equation and its symmetry operators.

  12. Internal Structure of Charged Particles in a GRT Gravitational Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khlestkov, Yu. A.; Sukhanova, L. A.

    2018-05-01

    With the help of an exact solution of the Einstein and Maxwell equations, the internal structure of a multiply connected space of wormhole type with two unclosed static throats leading out of it into two parallel vacuum spaces or into one space is investigated in GRT for a free electric field and dust-like matter. The given geometry is considered as a particle-antiparticle pair with fundamental constants arising in the form of first integrals in the solution of the Cauchy problem - electric charges ±e of opposite sign in the throats and rest mass m0 - the total gravitational mass of the inner world of the particle in the throat. With the help of the energy conservation law, the unremovable rotation of the internal structure is included and the projection of the angular momentum of which onto the rotation axis is identified with the z-projection of the spin of the charged particle. The radius of 2-Gaussian curvature of the throat R* is identified with the charge radius of the particle, and the z-projection of the magnetic moment and the g-factor are found. The feasibility of the given gravitational model is confirmed by the found condition of independence of the spin quantum number of the electron and the proton s = 1/2 of the charge radius R* and the relativistic rest mass m* of the rotating throat, which is reliably confirmed experimentally, and also by the coincidence with high accuracy of the proton radius calculated in the model R*p = 0.8412·10-13 cm with the value of the proton charge radius obtained experimentally by measuring the Lamb shift on muonic hydrogen. The electron in the given model also turns out to be a structured particle with radius R*e = 3.8617·10-11 cm.

  13. Thermodynamics with pressure and volume under charged particle absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwak, Bogeun

    2017-11-01

    We investigate the variation of the charged anti-de Sitter black hole under charged particle absorption by considering thermodynamic volume. When the energy of the particle is considered to contribute to the internal energy of the black hole, the variation exactly corresponds to the prediction of the first law of thermodynamics. Nevertheless, we find the decrease of the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy for extremal and near-extremal black holes under the absorption, which is an irreversible process. This violation of the second law of thermodynamics is only found when considering thermodynamic volume. We test the weak cosmic censorship conjecture affected by the violation. Fortunately, the conjecture is still valid, but extremal and near-extremal black holes do not change their configurations when any particle enters the black hole. This result is quite different from the case in which thermodynamic volume is not considered.

  14. Range and energetics of charge hopping in organic semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdalla, Hassan; Zuo, Guangzheng; Kemerink, Martijn

    2017-12-01

    The recent upswing in attention for the thermoelectric properties of organic semiconductors (OSCs) adds urgency to the need for a quantitative description of the range and energetics of hopping transport in organic semiconductors under relevant circumstances, i.e., around room temperature (RT). In particular, the degree to which hops beyond the nearest neighbor must be accounted for at RT is still largely unknown. Here, measurements of charge and energy transport in doped OSCs are combined with analytical modeling to reach the univocal conclusion that variable-range hopping is the proper description in a large class of disordered OSC at RT. To obtain quantitative agreement with experiment, one needs to account for the modification of the density of states by ionized dopants. These Coulomb interactions give rise to a deep tail of trap states that is independent of the material's initial energetic disorder. Insertion of this effect into a classical Mott-type variable-range hopping model allows one to give a quantitative description of temperature-dependent conductivity and thermopower measurements on a wide range of disordered OSCs. In particular, the model explains the commonly observed quasiuniversal power-law relation between the Seebeck coefficient and the conductivity.

  15. Perfomance of a high purity germanium multi-detector telescope for long range particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riepe, G.; Protic, D.; Suekoesd, C.; Didelez, J.P.; Frascaria, N.; Gerlic, E.; Hourani, E.; Morlet, M.

    1980-01-01

    A telescope of stacked high purity germanium detectors designed for long range charged particles was tested using medium energy protons. Particle identification and the rejection of the low energy tail could be accomplished on-line allowing the measurement of complex spectra. The efficiency of the detector stack for protons was measured up to 156 MeV incoming energy. The various factors affecting the energy resolution are discussed and their estimated contributions are compared with the experimental results

  16. High-energy charged particles in space at one astronomical unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feynman, J.; Gabriel, S.B.

    1996-01-01

    Single-event effects and many other spacecraft anomalies are caused by positively charged high-energy particles impinging on the vehicle and its component parts. Here, the authors review the current knowledge of the interplanetary particle environment in the energy ranges that are most important for these effects. State-of-the-art engineering models are described briefly along with comments on the future work required in this field

  17. Charged Particle Identification using the Liquid Xenon Calorimeter of the CMD-3 Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Akhmetshin, R R; Anisenkov, A V; Aulchenko, V M; Banzarov, V Sh; Bashtovoy, N S; Bondar, A E; Bragin, A V; Eidelman, S I; Epifanov, D A; Epshteyn, L B; Erofeev, A L; Fedotovich, G V; Gayazov, S E; Grebenuk, A A; Gribanov, S S; Grigoriev, D N; Ignatov, F V; Ivanov, V L; Karpov, S V; Kazanin, V F; Korobov, A A; Kovalenko, O A; Kozyrev, A N; Kozyrev, E A; Krokovny, P P; Kuzmenko, A E; Kuzmin, A S; Logashenko, I B; Lukin, P A; Mikhailov, K Yu; Okhapkin, V S; Pestov, Yu N; Popov, A S; Razuvaev, G P; Ruban, A A; Ryskulov, N M; Ryzhenenkov, A E; Shebalin, V E; Shemyakin, D N; Shwartz, B A; Sibidanov, A L; Solodov, E P; Talyshev, A A; Titov, V M; Vorobiov, A I; Yudin, Yu V

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes a currently being developed procedure of the charged particle identification for CMD-3 detector, installed at the VEPP-2000 collider. The procedure is based on the application of the boosted decision trees classification method, and uses as input variables, among others, the specific energy losses of charged particle in the layers of the liquid Xenon calorimeter. The efficiency of the procedure is demonstrated by an example of the extraction of events of e+e- to K+K- process in the center of mass energy range from 1.8 to 2.0 GeV.

  18. Charged particle multiplicity distributions in Au-Au collisions at RHIC-BNL energies (BRAHMS Experiment)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Argintaru, D.; Bearden, I.G.; Beavis, D.

    2002-01-01

    The BRAHMS Experiment (Broad RAnge Hadronic Magnetic Spectrometers) takes place at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) from Brookhaven National Laboratory and searches for a transition of matter into a new phase called quark-gluon plasma (QGP), a phase transition that appears in extreme conditions of nuclear matter densities and temperatures. Important signals for this transition are related to dependencies of the charged particle multiplicity distributions on the pseudorapidity range. The charged particle multiplicity distributions in Au-Au collisions at RHIC energies are obtained from the global detector measurements. These detectors are: - An array of Si strip detectors and scintillation tiles placed around the interaction region; they cover the range η < 2 in pseudorapidity, measuring the majority of charged particles; - Two systems of Cerenkov detectors (Beam-Beam Counters) placed both sides of the nominal interaction point at 220 cm and cover the range 3 < η < 4.3 in pseudorapidity. These detectors are used for vertex determination and supply a level zero trigger for the entire experiment; - Zero Degree Calorimeters placed at zero degree with respect to the beam axis, both sides of the vertex, measuring the spectator neutrons from the nuclear reactions. These detectors supplies information about the reaction centrality and could estimate the interaction vertex. The paper presents some results on charged particle multiplicities in different pseudorapidity ranges at different impact parameters. Interesting dependencies of the average charged particle multiplicities on the pseudorapidity range, impact parameters and total available energy in the centre of mass system. Some comparisons with the simulation codes predictions and theoretical model estimations are included, too. (authors)

  19. Superconducting quantum interference monitor of charged particle beam current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gertsev, K.F.; Mikheev, M.S.

    1981-01-01

    Description and test results of the monitor of charged particle beam current on the base of the high-frequency superconducting quantum interference detector with lead slotted shield are presented. The toroidal superconducting coil, which covers the measured beam has 16 turns wound by the lead belt of 7 mm width with 0.5 mm gaps between the turns. A superconducting low-coupling monitor having two holes and point oxidated niobium contact has been used in the mode of quanta counting of magnetic flux. The lead point shield was 2 mm thick and it had 30 mm aperture. The coefficient of background shielding within 0-200 Hz frequency range constituted more than 10 8 . The threshold current resolution of the monitor had the value less than 01 μA √Hz. The suggested monitor requires helium cooling. The proposed design of the monitor is applicable for mounting on the vacuum chamber when it is surrounded by helium conductor. In other cases mounting of low-powerful autonomic system or cryostat of helium storage up to several weeks is possible [ru

  20. Nonstationary stochastic charge fluctuations of a dust particle in plasmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shotorban, B

    2011-06-01

    Stochastic charge fluctuations of a dust particle that are due to discreteness of electrons and ions in plasmas can be described by a one-step process master equation [T. Matsoukas and M. Russell, J. Appl. Phys. 77, 4285 (1995)] with no exact solution. In the present work, using the system size expansion method of Van Kampen along with the linear noise approximation, a Fokker-Planck equation with an exact Gaussian solution is developed by expanding the master equation. The Gaussian solution has time-dependent mean and variance governed by two ordinary differential equations modeling the nonstationary process of dust particle charging. The model is tested via the comparison of its results to the results obtained by solving the master equation numerically. The electron and ion currents are calculated through the orbital motion limited theory. At various times of the nonstationary process of charging, the model results are in a very good agreement with the master equation results. The deviation is more significant when the standard deviation of the charge is comparable to the mean charge in magnitude.

  1. Mass spectrometer provided with an optical system for separating neutron particles against charged particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reeher, J R; Story, M S; Smith, R D

    1977-03-03

    This invention concerns a mass spectrometer with an ion focusing optical system that efficiently separates the charged and neutral particles. It concerns an apparatus that can be used in ionisation areas operating at relatively high pressure (> 10/sup -2/ Torr). The invention relates more particularly to a mass spectrometer with an inlet device for the samples to be identified, a sample ionisation system for forming charged and neutral particles, a mass analyser and an optical system for focusing the ions formed in the mass analyser. The optics include several conducting components of which at least one has sides formed of grids, in the direction of the axis, towards the analyser the optics forming a potential well along the axis. The selected charged particles are focused in the analyser and the remaining particles can escape by the openings in the conducting grids.

  2. The charged particle trigger of the CELLO-detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroeder, V.

    1981-01-01

    The fast charged particle trigger of the CELLO-detector at the PETRA e + e - storage ring (DESY) is a fast software programmable hardware processor. It is using multiwire chamber signals as inputs and takes a decision on charged tracks coming from the interaction region in less than 1 μsec. The input signals are addressing Random Access Memory devices in which the mask schemes of all meaningful physical tracks are stored. The RAM output signals give information about the numbers and shapes of the valid masks found. This information is used for fast event acquisition and online data analysis done by a PDP 11 computer. (orig.)

  3. DART: a simulation code for charged particle beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, R.C.; Barr, W.L.; Moir, R.W.

    1988-01-01

    This paper presents a recently modified verion of the 2-D DART code designed to simulate the behavior of a beam of charged particles whose paths are affected by electric and magnetic fields. This code was originally used to design laboratory-scale and full-scale beam direct converters. Since then, its utility has been expanded to allow more general applications. The simulation technique includes space charge, secondary electron effects, and neutral gas ionization. Calculations of electrode placement and energy conversion efficiency are described. Basic operation procedures are given including sample input files and output. 7 refs., 18 figs

  4. Detection of charged particles through a photodiode: design and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angoli, A.; Quirino, L.L.; Hernandez, V.M.; Lopez del R, H.; Mireles, F.; Davila, J.I.; Rios, C.; Pinedo, J.L.

    2006-01-01

    This project develops and construct an charge particle detector mean a pin photodiode array, design and analysis using a silicon pin Fotodiodo that generally is used to detect visible light, its good efficiency, size compact and reduced cost specifically allows to its use in the radiation monitoring and alpha particle detection. Here, so much, appears the design of the system of detection like its characterization for alpha particles where one is reported as alpha energy resolution and detection efficiency. The equipment used in the development of work consists of alpha particle a triple source composed of Am-241, Pu-239 and Cm-244 with 5,55 KBq as total activity, Maestro 32 software made by ORTEC, a multi-channel card Triumph from ORTEC and one low activity electroplated uranium sample. (Author)

  5. Cataract production in mice by heavy charged particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ainsworth, E.H.; Jose, J.; Yang, V.V.; Barker, M.E.

    1981-03-01

    The cataractogenic effects of heavy charged particles have been evaluated in mice in relation to dose and ionization density (LET/sub infinity/). The study was undertaken due to the high potential for eye exposures to HZE particles among SPS personnel working in outer space. This has made it imperative that the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) in relation to LET/sub infinity/ for various particles be defined so that appropriate quality factors (Q) could be assigned for estimation of risk. Although mice and men differ in susceptibility to radiation-induced cataracts, the results from this project should assist in defining appropriate quality factors in relation to LET/sub infinity/, particle mass, charge, or velocity. Evaluation of results indicated that : (1) low single doses (5 to 20 rad) of iron ( 56 Fe) or argon ( 40 Ar) particles are cataractogenic at 11 to 18 months after irradiation; (2) onset and density of the opacification are dose related; (3) cataract density (grade) at 9, 11, 13, and 16 months after irradiation shows partial LET/sub infinity/-dependence; and (4) the severity of cataracts is reduced significantly when 417 rad of 60 Co gamma radiation is given in 24 weekly 17 rad fractions compared to giving this radiation as a single dose, but cataract severity is not reduced by fractionation of 12 C doses over 24 weeks

  6. Formation of charged particles in condensation aerosol generators used for inhalation studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramu, M.C.R.; Vohra, K.G.

    1976-01-01

    Formation of charged particles in a condensation aerosol generator has been studied using a charge collector and a mobility analyzer. Measurements carried out using the charge collector show that the number of charged particles increases with an increase in the particle diameter. The number of charged particles measured also depends on the thickness of the sodium chloride coating on the platinum wire used in the aerosol generator for the production of condensation nuclei. It was found that the charged particle concentration increases with decreasing coating thickness. Mobility measurements have shown that the particles are singly and doubly charged. It has been estimated that about 10% of the particles produced in the generator are charged. The mechanism of formation of charged particles in the aerosol generator has been briefly discussed. (author)

  7. Movement of a charged particle beam in the Earth magnetosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veselovskij, I.S.

    1977-01-01

    The motion of a charged particle beam injected into the Earth magnetosphere in a dipole magnetic field was investigated. Examined were the simplest stationary distributions of particles. The evolution of the distribution function after pulse injection of the beam into the magnetosphere was studied. It was shown that the pulse shape depends on its starting duration. A long pulse spreads on the base and narrows on the flat top with the distance away from the point of injection. A short pulse spreads both on the base and along the height. The flat top is not present. An analytical expression for the pulse shape as a time function is given

  8. Transverse-structure electrostatic charged particle beam lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, M.J.

    1998-10-13

    Electrostatic particle-beam lenses using a concentric co-planar array of independently biased rings can be advantageous for some applications. Traditional electrostatic lenses often consist of axial series of biased rings, apertures, or tubes. The science of lens design has devoted much attention to finding axial arrangements that compensate for the substantial optical aberrations of the individual elements. Thus, as with multi-element lenses for light, a multi-element charged-particle lens can have optical behavior that is far superior to that of the individual elements. Transverse multiple-concentric-ring lenses achieve high performance, while also having advantages in terms of compactness and optical versatility. 7 figs.

  9. In situ measurement of electrostatic charge and charge distribution on flyash particles in power station exhaust stream

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guang, D.

    1992-01-01

    The electrostatic charges and charge distributions on individual flyash particles were experimentally measured in situ at four power stations in New South Wales and in the laboratory with an Electrostatic Charge Classifier. The global charge of these flyashes was also measured. The electrostatic charge on flyash particles of four power stations was found to be globally native. The median charge on the flyash particles varies linearly with particle diameter for all four flyashes. The electrostatic charge on the Tallawarra flyash particles was found to increase after passage through the air heater having huge metal surface areas, suggesting that triboelectrification was the primary charging mechanism for flyash particles. Distinctly different characteristics of the electrostatic charge, particle size and particle shape were found between the Eraring and the Tallawarra flyashes. The spherical Eraring ash has the highest proportion of lines and positively charged particles, but the lowest global charge level among the four flyashes. In contrast, the Tallawarra flyash has just the opposite. It is the distinct characteristics of the flyashes from Eraring and Tallawarra power stations that are responsible for the significant differences in their baghouse performance. The napping feature on the surface of the filter bags used in the Eraring and Tallawarra power stations provides an upstream surface of low fibre density above the fabric bulk. This feature presents and advantage to highly charged particles, like the Tallawarra flyash particles. Highly charged particles tend to deposit on such an upstream surface resulting in a porous dust cake with much less contact areas with the fabric medium than would otherwise be formed. This cake is easy to remove and provides less resistance to the gas flow. After singeing the naps on the filter bag surface at the Eraring power station, the problems of high pressure drop and retention of dust cake on the bas surface have been resolved.

  10. 3D Simulations of Space Charge Effects in Particle Beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adelmann, A

    2002-10-01

    For the first time, it is possible to calculate the complicated three-dimensional proton accelerator structures at the Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI). Under consideration are external and self effects, arising from guiding and space-charge forces. This thesis has as its theme the design, implementation and validation of a tracking program for charged particles in accelerator structures. This work form part of the discipline of Computational Science and Engineering (CSE), more specifically in computational accelerator modelling. The physical model is based on the collisionless Vlasov-Maxwell theory, justified by the low density ({approx} 10{sup 9} protons/cm{sup 3}) of the beam and of the residual gas. The probability of large angle scattering between the protons and the residual gas is then sufficiently low, as can be estimated by considering the mean free path and the total distance a particle travels in the accelerator structure. (author)

  11. First- and second-order charged particle optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, K.L.; Servranckx, R.V.

    1984-07-01

    Since the invention of the alternating gradient principle there has been a rapid evolution of the mathematics and physics techniques applicable to charged particle optics. In this publication we derive a differential equation and a matrix algebra formalism valid to second-order to present the basic principles governing the design of charged particle beam transport systems. A notation first introduced by John Streib is used to convey the essential principles dictating the design of such beam transport systems. For example the momentum dispersion, the momentum resolution, and all second-order aberrations are expressed as simple integrals of the first-order trajectories (matrix elements) and of the magnetic field parameters (multipole components) characterizing the system. 16 references, 30 figures

  12. Charged point particles with magnetic moment in general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amorim, R.; Tiomno, J.

    1977-01-01

    Halbwachs Lagrangean formalism for the theory of charged point particles with spin (g = 2) is generalized and formulated in General Relativity for particles of arbitrary charge and magnetic moment. Equations are obtained, both corresponding to Frenkel's condition Ssub(μν)Xsup(ν) = 0 and to Nakano's condition Ssub(μν)Psup(ν) = 0. With the later condition the exact equations are highly coupled and non linear. When linearized in the electromagnetic and gravitational fields they coincide with de Groot-Suttorp equations for vanishing gravitational fields and with Dixon-Wald equations in the absence of electromagnetic field. The equations corresponding to Frenkel's condition, when linearized in Ssub(μν), coincide with Papapetrou's and Frenkel's equations in the corresponding limits [pt

  13. 3D Simulations of Space Charge Effects in Particle Beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adelmann, A.

    2002-10-01

    For the first time, it is possible to calculate the complicated three-dimensional proton accelerator structures at the Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI). Under consideration are external and self effects, arising from guiding and space-charge forces. This thesis has as its theme the design, implementation and validation of a tracking program for charged particles in accelerator structures. This work form part of the discipline of Computational Science and Engineering (CSE), more specifically in computational accelerator modelling. The physical model is based on the collisionless Vlasov-Maxwell theory, justified by the low density (∼ 10 9 protons/cm 3 ) of the beam and of the residual gas. The probability of large angle scattering between the protons and the residual gas is then sufficiently low, as can be estimated by considering the mean free path and the total distance a particle travels in the accelerator structure. (author)

  14. Interaction range perturbation theory for three-particle problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simenog, I.V.; Shapoval, D.V.

    1988-01-01

    The limit of zero interaction range is correctly defined for a system of three spinless particles and three particles in a doublet state. The scattering amplitude is expanded with respect to the interaction range r, and the corrections of order r ln r, r, and r 2 ln2 r are found. An explicit model-independent asymptotic expression is obtained for the scattering amplitude in terms of the scattering length, and its accuracy is established

  15. Maximization of DRAM yield by control of surface charge and particle addition during high dose implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, J.; Moffatt, S.

    1991-04-01

    Ion implantation processing exposes semiconductor devices to an energetic ion beam in order to deposit dopant ions in shallow layers. In addition to this primary process, foreign materials are deposited as particles and surface films. The deposition of particles is a major cause of IC yield loss and becomes even more significant as device dimensions are decreased. Control of particle addition in a high-volume production environment requires procedures to limit beamline and endstation sources, control of particle transport, cleaning procedures and a well grounded preventative maintenance philosophy. Control of surface charge by optimization of the ion beam and electron shower conditions and measurement with a real-time charge sensor has been effective in improving the yield of NMOS and CMOS DRAMs. Control of surface voltages to a range between 0 and -20 V was correlated with good implant yield with PI9200 implanters for p + and n + source-drain implants.

  16. Universal behavior of charged particle production in heavy ion collisions at RHIC energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Peter A.; Back, B. B.; Baker, M. D.; Barton, D. S.; Betts, R. R.; Ballintijn, M.; Bickley, A. A.; Bindel, R.; Budzanowski, A.; Busza, W.; Carroll, A.; Decowski, M. P.; García, E.; George, N.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gushue, S.; Halliwell, C.; Hamblen, J.; Heintzelman, G. A.; Henderson, C.; Hofman, D. J.; Hollis, R. S.; Holyński, R.; Holzman, B.; Iordanova, A.; Johnson, E.; Kane, J. L.; Katzy, J.; Khan, N.; Kucewicz, W.; Kulinich, P.; Kuo, C. M.; Lin, W. T.; Manly, S.; McLeod, D.; Michałowski, J.; Mignerey, A. C.; Nouicer, R.; Olszewski, A.; Pak, R.; Park, I. C.; Pernegger, H.; Reed, C.; Remsberg, L. P.; Reuter, M.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Rosenberg, L.; Sagerer, J.; Sarin, P.; Sawicki, P.; Skulski, W.; Steadman, S. G.; Steinberg, P.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Stodulski, M.; Sukhanov, A.; Tang, J.-L.; Teng, R.; Trzupek, A.; Vale, C.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G. J.; Verdier, R.; Wadsworth, B.; Wolfs, F. L. H.; Wosiek, B.; Woźniak, K.; Wuosmaa, A. H.; Wysłouch, B.; Phobos Collaboration

    2003-04-01

    The PHOBOS experiment at RHIC has measured the multiplicity of primary charged particles as a function of centrality and pseudorapidity in Au+Au collisions at √ SNN = 19.6, 130 and 200 GeV. Two kinds of universal behavior are observed in charged particle production in heavy ion collisions. The first is that forward particle production, over a range of energies, follows a universal limiting curve with a non-trivial centrality dependence. The second arises from comparisons with pp/ overlinepp and e +e - data. / in nuclear collisions at high energy scales with √ s in a similar way as Nch in e +e - collisions and has a very weak centrality dependence. This feature may be related to a reduction in the leading particle effect due to the multiple collisions suffered per participant in heavy ion collisions.

  17. Uniformly accelerating charged particles. A threat to the equivalence principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyle, Stephen N.

    2008-01-01

    There has been a long debate about whether uniformly accelerated charges should radiate electromagnetic energy and how one should describe their worldline through a flat spacetime, i.e., whether the Lorentz-Dirac equation is right. There are related questions in curved spacetimes, e.g., do different varieties of equivalence principle apply to charged particles, and can a static charge in a static spacetime radiate electromagnetic energy? The problems with the LD equation in flat spacetime are spelt out in some detail here, and its extension to curved spacetime is discussed. Different equivalence principles are compared and some vindicated. The key papers are discussed in detail and many of their conclusions are significantly revised by the present solution. (orig.)

  18. Ponderomotive enhancement of charged particle beam limiting current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grebogi, C.; Uhm, H.S.

    1987-01-01

    The space charge limiting current problem is investigated for a magnetized particle beam propagating in a cylindrical drift tube and in presence of a waveguide mode. It is shown that with a proper choice of a waveguide mode, the limiting current can be greatly enhanced due to ponderomotive effects. Physically, this is accomplished by using the ponderomotive energy to reduce the potential depression due to the beam's self space charge field. Formulas for the limiting current as a function of beam energy and waveguide r.f. field for solid and hollow beams are derived. It is found from these formulas that, in appropriate parameter regimes, the space charge limiting current, say, of a 250kV bem can be enhanced by 70%

  19. Charged particle detectors made from thin layers of amorphous silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morel, J.R.

    1986-05-01

    A series of experiments was conducted to determine the feasibility of using hydrogenated amorphous silicon (α-Si:H) as solid state thin film charged particle detectors. 241 Am alphas were successfully detected with α-Si:H devices. The measurements and results of these experiments are presented. The problems encountered and changes in the fabrication of the detectors that may improve the performance are discussed

  20. The 8{pi} miniball charged-particle detector array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ball, G C; Galindo-Uribarri, A; Andrews, H R; Bray, N C; Lori, J D; Radford, D C; Smith, L V; Tapp, G A; Ward, D [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Chalk River, ON (Canada). Chalk River Nuclear Labs.; Drake, T E [Toronto Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Physics; Waddington, J C [McMaster Univ., Hamilton, ON (Canada). Dept. of Physics

    1992-08-01

    A modular miniature array of 24 CsI(Tl) crystals (0.5 cm) thick coupled to large area photodiodes has been constructed to operate inside the 8{pi} spectrometer. The array was designed to have good resolution, high efficiency, and adequate granularity for detecting light charged particles emitted in coincidence with the gamma rays from the decay of high-spin states populated in heavy-ion fusion-evaporation reactions. 17 refs., 2 tabs., 3 figs.

  1. Charged particle activation analysis at RIKEN. Past, present and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nozaki, T.

    2008-01-01

    From 1960s to 1980s many groups in the world actively studied and utilized charged particle activation analysis (CPAA) mainly for absolute determination of B, C, N, and O in high-purity substances, particularly semiconductor materials. Here, after a short historical note on CPAA, works of the author's group mainly at RIKEN are outlined and then his opinion is shown about how to anticipate on the present shrinking of CPAA. (author)

  2. Charged particle track reconstruction using artificial neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glover, C.; Fu, P.; Gabriel, T.; Handler, T.

    1992-01-01

    This paper summarizes the current state of our research in developing and applying artificial neural network (ANN) algorithm described here is based on a crude model of the retina. It takes as input the coordinates of each charged particle's interaction point (''hit'') in the tracking chamber. The algorithm's output is a set of vectors pointing to other hits that most likely to form a track

  3. Canonical algorithms for numerical integration of charged particle motion equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efimov, I. N.; Morozov, E. A.; Morozova, A. R.

    2017-02-01

    A technique for numerically integrating the equation of charged particle motion in a magnetic field is considered. It is based on the canonical transformations of the phase space in Hamiltonian mechanics. The canonical transformations make the integration process stable against counting error accumulation. The integration algorithms contain a minimum possible amount of arithmetics and can be used to design accelerators and devices of electron and ion optics.

  4. Laser focusing of high-energy charged-particle beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Channell, P.J.

    1986-01-01

    It is shown that laser focusing of high-energy charged-particle beams using the inverse Cherenkov effect is well suited for applications with large linear colliders. Very high gradient (>0.5 MG/cm) lenses result that can be added sequentially without AG cancellation. These lenses are swell understood, have small geometric aberrations, and offer the possibility of correlating phase and energy aberrations to produce an achromatic final focus

  5. The Multi-Element Electronstatic Lens Systems for Controlling and Focusing Charged Particle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sise, O.

    2004-01-01

    Particle optics are very close anolog of photon optics and most of the principles of an barged particle beam can be understood by thinking of the particles as rays of light. There are similar behaviours between particle and photon optics in controlling beams of light and charged particles, such as lenses and mirrors. Extensive information about the properties of charged particle optics, from which appropriate systems can be designed for any specific problem. In this way electrostatic lens systems are used to control beams of c/iarged particle with various energy and directions in several fields, for example electron microscopy, cathode ray tubes, ion accelerators and electron impact studies. In an electrostatic lens system quantative information is required over a wide energy range and a zoom-type of optics is needed. If the magnification is to remain constant over a wide range of energies, quite complicated electrostatic lens systems are required, .containing three, four, five, or even more lens elements. We firstly calculated the optical properties of three and four element cylinder electrostatic lenses with the help of the SIMION and LENSYS programs and developed the method for the calculation of the focal properties of five and more element lenses with afocal mode. In this method we used the combination of three and four element lenses to derive focal properties of multi-element lenses and presented this data over a wide range of energy

  6. Electromagnetic radiation of charged particles in stochastic motion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harko, Tiberiu [Babes-Bolyai University, Department of Physics, Cluj-Napoca (Romania); University College London, Department of Mathematics, London (United Kingdom); Mocanu, Gabriela [Astronomical Institute of the Romanian Academy, Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    2016-03-15

    The study of the Brownian motion of a charged particle in electric and magnetic fields has many important applications in plasma and heavy ions physics, as well as in astrophysics. In the present paper we consider the electromagnetic radiation properties of a charged non-relativistic particle in the presence of electric and magnetic fields, of an exterior non-electromagnetic potential, and of a friction and stochastic force, respectively. We describe the motion of the charged particle by a Langevin and generalized Langevin type stochastic differential equation. We investigate in detail the cases of the Brownian motion with or without memory in a constant electric field, in the presence of an external harmonic potential, and of a constant magnetic field. In all cases the corresponding Langevin equations are solved numerically, and a full description of the spectrum of the emitted radiation and of the physical properties of the motion is obtained. The power spectral density of the emitted power is also obtained for each case, and, for all considered oscillating systems, it shows the presence of peaks, corresponding to certain intervals of the frequency. (orig.)

  7. Neutron-Induced Charged Particle Studies at LANSCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hye Young; Haight, Robert C.

    2014-09-01

    Direct measurements on neutron-induced charged particle reactions are of interest for nuclear astrophysics and applied nuclear energy. LANSCE (Los Alamos Neutron Science Center) produces neutrons in energy of thermal to several hundreds MeV. There has been an effort at LANSCE to upgrade neutron-induced charged particle detection technique, which follows on (n,z) measurements made previously here and will have improved capabilities including larger solid angles, higher efficiency, and better signal to background ratios. For studying cross sections of low-energy neutron induced alpha reactions, Frisch-gridded ionization chamber is designed with segmented anodes for improving signal-to-noise ratio near reaction thresholds. Since double-differential cross sections on (n,p) and (n,a) reactions up to tens of MeV provide important information on deducing nuclear level density, the ionization chamber will be coupled with silicon strip detectors (DSSD) in order to stop energetic charged particles. In this paper, we will present the status of this development including the progress on detector design, calibrations and Monte Carlo simulations. This work is funded by the US Department of Energy - Los Alamos National Security, LLC under Contract DE-AC52-06NA25396.

  8. Numerical Study of Charged Inertial Particles in Turbulence using a Coupled Fluid-P3M Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yuan; Capecelatro, Jesse

    2017-11-01

    Non-trivial interactions between charged particles and turbulence play an important role in many engineering and environmental flows, including clouds, fluidized bed reactors, charged hydrocarbon sprays and dusty plasmas. Due to the long-range nature of electrostatic forces, Coulomb interactions in systems with many particles must be handled carefully to avoid O(N2) computations. The particle-mesh (PM) method is typically employed in Eulerian-Lagrangian (EL) simulations as it avoids computing direct pairwise sums, but it fails to capture short-range interactions that are anticipated to be important when particles cluster. In this presentation, the particle-particle-particle-mesh (P3M) method that scales with O(NlogN) is implemented within a EL framework to simulate charged particles accurately in a tractable manner. The EL-P3M method is used to assess the competition between drag and Coulomb forces for a range of Stokes numbers and charges. Simulations of like- and oppositely-charged particles suspended in a two-dimensional Taylor-Green vortex and three-dimensional homogeneous isotropic turbulence are reported. One-point and two-point statistics obtained using PM and P3M are compared to assess the effect of added accuracy on collision rate and clustering.

  9. Coulomb ionization of inner shells by heavy charged particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapicki, G.

    1975-01-01

    The theory of inner-shell Coulomb ionization by heavy charged particles, of atomic number small compared to the target atomic number, is developed through the extension of work by Brandt and his coworkers for K shells to L shells. In slow collisions relative to the characteristic times of the inner shell electrons, the quantum-mechanical predictions in the plane-wave Born approximation (PWBA) can exceed experimental cross sections by orders of magnitude. The effects of the perturbation of the atom by and the Coulomb deflection of the particle during collisions are included in the theory. The perturbed atomic states amount to a binding of the inner-shell electrons to the moving particle in slow collisions, and to a polarization of the inner shells by the particle passing at large impact parameters during nonadiabatic collisions. These effects, not contained in the PWBA, are treated in the framework of the perturbed stationary state (PSS) theory for slow collisions and in terms of the harmonic oscillator model of Ashley, Brandt, and Ritchie for stopping powers in fast collisions. The effect of the Coulomb deflection of the particle in the field of the target nucleus on the cross sections is incorporated in the semiclassical approximation of Bang and Hansteen. Except for the lightest target atoms, the contribution of electron capture by the particles to inner-shell ionizations is shown to be negligible. The theory as developed earlier for the K shell, and here for L shells, agrees well with the vast body of experimental data on inner-shell Coulomb ionization by heavy charged particles

  10. Effect of long-range repulsive Coulomb interactions on packing structure of adhesive particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sheng; Li, Shuiqing; Liu, Wenwei; Makse, Hernán A

    2016-02-14

    The packing of charged micron-sized particles is investigated using discrete element simulations based on adhesive contact dynamic model. The formation process and the final obtained structures of ballistic packings are studied to show the effect of interparticle Coulomb force. It is found that increasing the charge on particles causes a remarkable decrease of the packing volume fraction ϕ and the average coordination number 〈Z〉, indicating a looser and chainlike structure. Force-scaling analysis shows that the long-range Coulomb interaction changes packing structures through its influence on particle inertia before they are bonded into the force networks. Once contact networks are formed, the expansion effect caused by repulsive Coulomb forces are dominated by short-range adhesion. Based on abundant results from simulations, a dimensionless adhesion parameter Ad*, which combines the effects of the particle inertia, the short-range adhesion and the long-range Coulomb interaction, is proposed and successfully scales the packing results for micron-sized particles within the latest derived adhesive loose packing (ALP) regime. The structural properties of our packings follow well the recent theoretical prediction which is described by an ensemble approach based on a coarse-grained volume function, indicating some kind of universality in the low packing density regime of the phase diagram regardless of adhesion or particle charge. Based on the comprehensive consideration of the complicated inter-particle interactions, our findings provide insight into the roles of short-range adhesion and repulsive Coulomb force during packing formation and should be useful for further design of packings.

  11. Repetitive heterocoagulation of oppositely charged particles for enhancement of magnetic nanoparticle loading into monodisperse silica particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Hideki; Nagao, Daisuke; Konno, Mikio

    2010-03-16

    Oppositely charged particles were repetitively heterocoagulated to fabricate highly monodisperse magnetic silica particles with high loading of magnetic nanoparticles. Positively charged magnetic nanoparticles prepared by surface modification with N-trimethoxysilylpropyl-N,N,N-trimethylammonium chloride (TSA) were used to heterocoagulate with silica particles under basic conditions to give rise to negative silica surface charge and prevent the oxidation of the magnetic nanoparticles. The resultant particles of silica core homogeneously coated with the magnetic nanoparticles were further coated with thin silica layer with sodium silicate in order to enhance colloidal stability and avoid desorption of the magnetic nanoparticles from the silica cores. Five repetitions of the heterocoagulation and the silica coating could increase saturation magnetization of the magnetic silica particles to 27.7 emu/g, keeping the coefficient of variation of particle sizes (C(V)) less than 6.5%. Highly homogeneous loading of the magnetic component was confirmed by measuring Fe-to-Si atomic ratios of individual particles with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy.

  12. Particle trapping by nonlinear resonances and space charge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franchetti, G.; Hofmann, I.

    2006-01-01

    In the FAIR [C.D.R. http://www.gsi.de/GSI Future/cdr/] facility planned at GSI high space charge effects and nonlinear dynamics may play an important role for limiting nominal machine performance. The most relevant interplay of these two effects on the single particle dynamics has been proposed in terms of trapping of particles into stable islands [G. Franchetti, I. Hofmann, AIP Conf. Proc. 642 (2002) 260]. Subsequent numerical studies and dedicated experiments have followed [G. Franchetti et al., Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 6 (2003) 124201; G. Franchetti et al., AIP Conf. Proc. 773 (2005) 137]. We present here the effect of the chromaticity on the mechanisms of halo formation induced by particle trapping into resonances

  13. Analysis of charged particle induced reactions for beam monitor applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surendra Babu, K. [IOP, Academia Sinica, Taipe, Taiwan (China); Lee, Young-Ouk [Nuclear Data Evaluation Laboratory, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (Korea, Republic of); Mukherjee, S., E-mail: smukherjee_msuphy@yahoo.co.in [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, M.S. University of Baroda, Vadodara 390 002 (India)

    2012-07-15

    The reaction cross sections for different residual nuclides produced in the charged particle (p, d, {sup 3}He and {alpha}) induced reactions were calculated and compared with the existing experimental data which are important for beam monitoring and medical diagnostic applications. A detailed literature compilation and comparison were made on the available data sets for the above reactions. These calculations were carried out using the statistical model code TALYS up to 100 MeV, which contains Kalbach's latest systematic for the emission of complex particles and complex particle-induced reactions. All optical model calculations were performed by ECIS-03, which is built into TALYS. The level density, optical model potential parameters were adjusted to get the better description of experimental data. Various pre-equilibrium models were used in the present calculations with default parameters.

  14. Measuring charged particle multiplicity with early ATLAS public data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Üstün, G; Barut, E; Bektaş, E; Özcan, V E

    2017-01-01

    We study 100 images of early LHC collisions that were recorded by the ATLAS experiment and made public for outreach purposes, and extract the charged particle multiplicity as a function of momentum for proton–proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV. As these collisions have already been pre-processed by the ATLAS Collaboration, the particle tracks are visible, but are available to the public only in the form of low-resolution bitmaps. We describe two separate image processing methods, one based on the industry-standard OpenCV library and C++, another based on self-developed algorithms in Python. We present our analysis of the transverse momentum and azimuthal angle distributions of the particles, in agreement with the literature. (paper)

  15. Measuring charged particle multiplicity with early ATLAS public data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Üstün, G.; Barut, E.; Bektaş, E.; Özcan, V. E.

    2017-07-01

    We study 100 images of early LHC collisions that were recorded by the ATLAS experiment and made public for outreach purposes, and extract the charged particle multiplicity as a function of momentum for proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV. As these collisions have already been pre-processed by the ATLAS Collaboration, the particle tracks are visible, but are available to the public only in the form of low-resolution bitmaps. We describe two separate image processing methods, one based on the industry-standard OpenCV library and C++, another based on self-developed algorithms in Python. We present our analysis of the transverse momentum and azimuthal angle distributions of the particles, in agreement with the literature.

  16. Measurements with vertically viewing charge exchange analyzers during ion cyclotron range of frequencies heating in TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaita, R.; Hammett, G.W.; Gammel, G.; Goldston, R.J.; Medley, S.S.; Scott, S.D.; Young, K.M.

    1988-01-01

    The utility of charge exchange neutral particle analyzers for studying energetic ion distributions in high-temperature plasmas has been demonstrated in a variety of tokamak experiments. Power deposition profiles have been estimated in the Princeton large torus (PLT) from particle measurements as a function of energy and angle during heating in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF) and extensive studies of this heating mode are planned for the upcoming operational period in the tokamak fusion test reactor (TFTR). Unlike the horizontally scanning analyzer on PLT, the TFTR system consists of vertical sightlines intersecting a poloidal cross section of the plasma. A bounce-averaged Fokker--Planck program, which includes a quasilinear operator to calculate ICRF-generated energetic ions, is used to simulate the charge exchange flux expected during fundamental hydrogen heating. These sightlines also cross the trajectory of a diagnostic neutral beam (DNB), and it may be possible to observe the fast ion tail during 3 He minority heating, if the DNB is operated in helium for double charge exchange neutralization

  17. Search for highly interacting fractionally charged particles at PEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wlodzimierz, G.

    1982-01-01

    Fractionally charged, highly interacting particles produced in e + e - annihilation at 20 GeV c.m. energy have been search for. The experiment was performed at the positron electron storage ring (PEP) at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC). The search used in the innermost part of the two-arm Free Quark Search (FQS) detector. This part was called the Thin Front End (TFE) and it covered 1/3 of the full solid angle. Each of its arms consisted of five multiwire proportional chambers (MWPC's), used for tracking and dE/dx measurement, and three hodoscopes of 0.16 cm thick Pilot F scintillator. The total thickness of the five MWPC's and the beam pipe was 0.007 hadronic collision lengths (lambda/sub c/). No candidates for fractionally charged particles were found. Upper limits on R/sub q anti q/ = sigma(e + e - →q anti q)/sigma(e + e - →μμ) are between: (1) 0.7% to 7% for quark interaction lengths (lambda/sub q/) equal to lambda/sub c/ and between 3% and 33% for lambda/sub q/ = 100lambda/sub c/ for Q = 1/3e quark charge and for quark masses up to 13 GeV/c 2 ; (2) 2% to 38% for lambda/sub q/ - lambda/sub c/ and from 7% to 160% for lambda/sub q/ = 100lambda/sub c/ for Q = 2/3e quark charge and for masses up to 8 GeV/c 2 . In the inclusive production channel the upper limits on R/sub q/ = sigma(e + e - →qqX)/sigma(e + e - →μμ) are for charge 1/3e only. R/sub q/ varies from 2% to 11% for lambda/sub q/ = lambda/sub c/ and from 3% to 16% for lambda/sub q/ = 100lambda/sub c/ and for quark masses up to 6.5 GeV/c 2 . These are the first limits on the production of fractionally charged particles with lambda/sub q/ = 100lambda/sub c/

  18. CHARGED PARTICLE MOTION IN AN EXPLOSIVELY GENERATED IONIZING SHOCK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boswell, Christopher J.; O'Connor, Patrick D.

    2009-01-01

    Different aspects of the plasma generated in a gas contained in a tube due to detonation of a small explosive charge located at one end of the tube are presented. The motion of the charged particles within the plasma is monitored using Rogowski coils. Using time-resolved emission spectroscopy the temperature and species in the detonation products and compressed gas behind the shock wave are recorded. From the spectral lines of the emission profiles the temperatures and electron density were evaluated to be in the vicinity of 7,000 K and 5x10 22 m -3 . An ultra fast wave traveling down the guide tube ahead of the hydrodynamic shock and causing any charged particles there to move fast enough to be detected by the Rogowski coils was recorded. From the measurements the phase velocity of the wave was calculated at 525 km/s when krypton filled the tube, and 1300 km/s in the case of argon. The temperature and density measurements are consistent with the data reported in the literature for similar tests. The electrostatic pulse measurements are a new phenomena not previously observed.

  19. Determination of charged particle beam parameters with taking into account of space charge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishkhanov, B.S.; Poseryaev, A.V.; Shvedunov, V.I.

    2005-01-01

    One describes a procedure to determine the basic parameters of a paraxial axially-symmetric beam of charged particles taking account of space charge contribution. The described procedure is based on application of the general equation for beam envelope. Paper presents data on its convergence and resistance to measurement errors. The position determination error of crossover (stretching) and radius of beam in crossover is maximum 15% , while the emittance determination error depends on emittance and space charge correlation. The introduced procedure was used to determine parameters of the available electron gun 20 keV energy beam with 0.64 A current. The derived results turned to agree closely with the design parameters [ru

  20. A magnetic field cloak for charged particle beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capobianco-Hogan, K. G.; Cervantes, R.; Deshpande, A.; Feege, N.; Krahulik, T.; LaBounty, J.; Sekelsky, R.; Adhyatman, A.; Arrowsmith-Kron, G.; Coe, B.; Dehmelt, K.; Hemmick, T. K.; Jeffas, S.; LaByer, T.; Mahmud, S.; Oliveira, A.; Quadri, A.; Sharma, K.; Tishelman-Charny, A.

    2018-01-01

    Shielding charged particle beams from transverse magnetic fields is a common challenge for particle accelerators and experiments. We demonstrate that a magnetic field cloak is a viable solution. It allows for the use of dipole magnets in the forward regions of experiments at an Electron Ion Collider (EIC) and other facilities without interfering with the incoming beams. The dipoles can improve the momentum measurements of charged final state particles at angles close to the beam line and therefore increase the physics reach of these experiments. In contrast to other magnetic shielding options (such as active coils), a cloak requires no external powering. We discuss the design parameters, fabrication, and limitations of a magnetic field cloak and demonstrate that cylinders made from 45 layers of YBCO high-temperature superconductor, combined with a ferromagnetic shell made from epoxy and stainless steel powder, shield more than 99% of a transverse magnetic field of up to 0.45 T (95% shielding at 0.5 T) at liquid nitrogen temperature. The ferromagnetic shell reduces field distortions caused by the superconductor alone by 90% at 0.45 T.

  1. Charged particle spectra in different final states at √(s)=13 TeV with the CMS experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grados Luyando, Juan Manuel

    2017-12-01

    In this thesis, measurements of different charged-particle distributions performed with the CMS detector in proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy √(s)=13 TeV are presented. In particular, the charged-particle pseudorapidity distributions, also referred to as charged-particle pseudorapidity densities, the multiplicity distributions of charged particles per event, and different transverse-momentum distributions corresponding to all charged particles, the leading charged-particle, and the integrated spectrum of the latter are presented. The charged-particles are selected with transverse momenta p T >0.5 GeV in the range vertical stroke η vertical stroke <2.4. The data are corrected for the different detector effects such as resolution and efficiency. The measured distributions are presented for four different samples corresponding to an Inclusive event sample, an Inelastic-enhanced event sample, a sample dominated by non-single diffractive dissociation events (NSD-enhanced sample), and a sample enriched by single-diffractive dissociation events (SD-enhanced sample). The measurements presented in this thesis provide extensive and unique insights into low energy exchange processes that dominate the proton-proton interactions. The rich variety of distributions presented for different event samples, especially those enhanced in diffractive processes, are valuable sources of information to understand the transition from the perturbative to the non-perturbative regions and to adjust the model parameters present in modern MC event generators.

  2. Charged particle spectra in different final states at √(s)=13 TeV with the CMS experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grados Luyando, Juan Manuel

    2017-12-15

    In this thesis, measurements of different charged-particle distributions performed with the CMS detector in proton-proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy √(s)=13 TeV are presented. In particular, the charged-particle pseudorapidity distributions, also referred to as charged-particle pseudorapidity densities, the multiplicity distributions of charged particles per event, and different transverse-momentum distributions corresponding to all charged particles, the leading charged-particle, and the integrated spectrum of the latter are presented. The charged-particles are selected with transverse momenta p{sub T}>0.5 GeV in the range vertical stroke η vertical stroke <2.4. The data are corrected for the different detector effects such as resolution and efficiency. The measured distributions are presented for four different samples corresponding to an Inclusive event sample, an Inelastic-enhanced event sample, a sample dominated by non-single diffractive dissociation events (NSD-enhanced sample), and a sample enriched by single-diffractive dissociation events (SD-enhanced sample). The measurements presented in this thesis provide extensive and unique insights into low energy exchange processes that dominate the proton-proton interactions. The rich variety of distributions presented for different event samples, especially those enhanced in diffractive processes, are valuable sources of information to understand the transition from the perturbative to the non-perturbative regions and to adjust the model parameters present in modern MC event generators.

  3. Joint Effect of Particle Charge and Adsorbable Foreign Gases on Vapor Condensation on Fine Aerosol Particles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Levdansky, V.V.; Smolík, Jiří; Moravec, Pavel

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 35, č. 10 (2008), s. 1246-1248 ISSN 0735-1933 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA400720804 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : charged particle * adsorption * condensation Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.332, year: 2008

  4. DART: A simulation code for charged particle beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, R.C.; Barr, W.L.; Moir, R.W.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents a recently modified version of the 2-D code, DART, which can simulate the behavior of a beam of charged particles whose trajectories are determined by electric and magnetic fields. This code was originally used to design laboratory-scale and full-scale beam direct converters. Since then, its utility has been expanded to allow more general applications. The simulation includes space charge, secondary electrons, and the ionization of neutral gas. A beam can contain up to nine superimposed beamlets of different energy and species. The calculation of energy conversion efficiency and the method of specifying the electrode geometry are described. Basic procedures for using the code are given, and sample input and output fields are shown. 7 refs., 18 figs

  5. Standard Practice for Measurement of Mechanical Properties During Charged-Particle Irradiation

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    1996-01-01

    1.1 This practice covers the performance of mechanical tests on materials being irradiated with charged particles. These tests are designed to simulate or provide understanding of, or both, the mechanical behavior of materials during exposure to neutron irradiation. Practices are described that govern the test material, the particle beam, the experimental technique, and the damage calculations. Reference should be made to other ASTM standards, especially Practice E 521. Procedures are described that are applicable to creep and creep rupture tests made in tension and torsion test modes. 1.2 The word simulation is used here in a broad sense to imply an approximation of the relevant neutron irradiation environment. The degree of conformity can range from poor to nearly exact. The intent is to produce a correspondence between one or more aspects of the neutron and charged particle irradiations such that fundamental relationships are established between irradiation or material parameters and the material respons...

  6. Charged particle multiplicity fluctuations in Au + Au collisions at √sNN = 200 GeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wozniak, Krzysztof; the PHOBOS Collaboration; Back, B. B.; Baker, M. D.; Ballintijn, M.; Barton, D. S.; Betts, R. R.; Bickley, A. A.; Bindel, R.; Budzanowski, A.; Busza, W.; Carroll, A.; Chai, Z.; Decowski, M. P.; García, E.; George, N.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gushue, S.; Halliwell, C.; Hamblen, J.; Heintzelman, G. A.; Henderson, C.; Hofman, D. J.; Hollis, R. S.; Hołyński, R.; Holzman, B.; Iordanova, A.; Johnson, E.; Kane, J. L.; Katzy, J.; Khan, N.; Kucewicz, W.; Kulinich, P.; Kuo, C. M.; Lin, W. T.; Manly, S.; McLeod, D.; Mignerey, A. C.; Nouicer, R.; Olszewski, A.; Pak, R.; Park, I. C.; Pernegger, H.; Reed, C.; Remsberg, L. P.; Reuter, M.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Rosenberg, L.; Sagerer, J.; Sarin, P.; Sawicki, P.; Skulski, W.; Steinberg, P.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Sukhanov, A.; Tang, J. L.; Trzupek, A.; Vale, C.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G. J.; Verdier, R.; Wolfs, F. L. H.; Wosiek, B.; Wuosmaa, A. H.; Wysłouch, B.

    2004-08-01

    This paper presents the first PHOBOS results on charged particle multiplicity fluctuations measured for Au+Au collisions at the highest RHIC energy within a wide pseudorapidity range of |η| < 3. The dependence on collision geometry is removed in the analysis by using the normalized difference between the number of particles in separate η bins. We compare our data to HIJING model predictions.

  7. Charged particle multiplicity fluctuations in Au+Au collisions at \\sqrt{s_{NN}} = 200\\, {\\rm GeV}

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wozniak, Krzysztof; PHOBOS Collaboration; Back, B. B.; Baker, M. D.; Ballintijn, M.; Barton, D. S.; Betts, R. R.; Bickley, A. A.; Bindel, R.; Budzanowski, A.; Busza, W.; Carroll, A.; Chai, Z.; Decowski, M. P.; García, E.; George, N.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gushue, S.; Halliwell, C.; Hamblen, J.; Heintzelman, G. A.; Henderson, C.; Hofman, D. J.; Hollis, R. S.; Holynski, R.; Holzman, B.; Iordanova, A.; Johnson, E.; Kane, J. L.; Katzy, J.; Khan, N.; Kucewicz, W.; Kulinich, P.; Kuo, C. M.; Lin, W. T.; Manly, S.; McLeod, D.; Mignerey, A. C.; Nouicer, R.; Olszewski, A.; Pak, R.; Park, I. C.; Pernegger, H.; Reed, C.; Remsberg, L. P.; Reuter, M.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Rosenberg, L.; Sagerer, J.; Sarin, P.; Sawicki, P.; Skulski, W.; Steinberg, P.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Sukhanov, A.; Tang, J. L.; Trzupek, A.; Vale, C.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G. J.; Verdier, R.; Wolfs, F. L. H.; Wosiek, B.; Wuosmaa, A. H.; Wyslouch, B.

    2004-08-01

    This paper presents the first PHOBOS results on charged particle multiplicity fluctuations measured for Au+Au collisions at the highest RHIC energy within a wide pseudorapidity range of |eegr| < 3. The dependence on collision geometry is removed in the analysis by using the normalized difference between the number of particles in separate eegr bins. We compare our data to HIJING model predictions.

  8. Survey of ionic charge states of solar energetic particle events during the first year of ACE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moebius, E.; Popecki, M.A.; Morris, D.; Galvin, A.B.; Heirtzler, D.; Kistler, L.M.; Siren, C.; Klecker, B.; Bogdanov, A.T.; Hovestadt, D.; Mason, G.M.; Dwyer, J.R.; Stone, E.C.

    2000-01-01

    The ionic charge state distributions of solar energetic particle events are determined with ACE SEPICA on an event by event basis, over the time period from launch through the end of 1998. Because of the large geometric factor of SEPICA the observations can be extended to events with very low fluxes. The study is confined to the most abundant species O, Ne, Mg, and Fe. Mean charge states for Fe are observed to vary between ≅11 for CME related events and ≅20 for small events that carry signatures of impulsive events. For these events all elements up to Mg, appear almost fully ionized. The charge states of all species follow the same trend as that of Fe in their variation from event to event. A comparison of observed mean charge states with a model assuming thermal equilibrium shows a general agreement with temperatures ranging from 1.2-10·10 6 K. However, noticeable deviations from charge states at a unique temperature for all species are seen for O at high and for Mg at both high and low charge states, which may suggest the presence of other processes. A distinct correlation is observed between the charge states and the overabundance of heavy ions in comparison with O. It remains puzzling that events with substantial deviations from coronal abundance accelerate almost fully stripped ions, which do not lend themselves easily to fractionation processes based on mass and charge

  9. The connection between solar wind charged particles and tornadoes: Case analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radovanović Milan M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The temperature of charged particles coming from the Sun ranges from several hundred thousands to several millions °C, in extreme cases. Theoretical possibilities of the hydrodynamic air mass seizing by charged particles, i. e. solar wind, are discussed in this paper. On one hand, they are characterized by extremely high temperatures, on the other, by the compression of cold air at an approximate altitude of 90 km towards the top of the cloud of the cyclone, they influence the phenomenon of extremely low temperatures. By using the Mann-Whitney U test we have tried to determine the potential link between certain indicators of solar activity and resulting disturbances in the atmosphere. Analyzed data refer to global daily values for the 2004-2010 period. Our results confirm the possibility of coupling between the charged particles and the vortex air mass movements, based on which a more detailed study of the appearance of a tornado near Sombor on May 12th, 2010, was carried out. It has also been proven that there are grounds for a causality between the sudden arrival of the solar wind charged particles, i. e. protons, and the appearance of a tornado. Based on the presented approach, elements for an entirely novel prediction model are given. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III47007 i br. 176008

  10. Transverse energy and charged particle production in heavy-ion collisions: from RHIC to LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahoo, Raghunath; Mishra, Aditya Nath

    2014-01-01

    We study the charged particle and transverse energy production mechanism from AGS, SPS, Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider (RHIC) to Large Hadron Collider (LHC) energies in the framework of nucleon and quark participants. At RHIC and LHC energies, the number of nucleons-normalized charged particle and transverse energy density in pseudorapidity, which shows a monotonic rise with centrality, turns out to be an almost centrality independent scaling behavior when normalized to the number of participant quarks. A universal function which is a combination of logarithmic and power-law, describes well the charged particle and transverse energy production both at nucleon and quark participant level for the whole range of collision energies. Energy dependent production mechanisms are discussed both for nucleonic and partonic level. Predictions are made for the pseudorapidity densities of transverse energy, charged particle multiplicity and their ratio (the barometric observable, [dE T /dη]/[dN ch /dη] ≡ E T /N ch ) at mid-rapidity for Pb + Pb collisions at √s NN = 5.5 TeV. A comparison with models based on gluon saturation and statistical hadron gas is made for the energy dependence of E T /N ch . (author)

  11. On the secondary charging effects and structure of mesospheric dust particles impacting on rocket probes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Havnes

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The dust probe DUSTY, first launched during the summer of 1994 (flights ECT–02 and ECT–07 from Andøya Rocket Range, northern Norway, was the first probe to unambiguously detect heavy charged mesospheric aerosols, from hereon referred to as dust. In ECT–02 the probe detected negatively charged dust particles in the height interval of 83 to 88.5 km. In this flight, the lower grid in the detector (Grid 2 measures both positive and negative currents in various regions, and we find that the relationship between the current measurements of Grid 2 and the bottom plate can only be explained by influence from secondary charge production on Grid 2. In ECT–07, which had a large coning, positive currents reaching the top grid of the probe were interpreted as due to the impact of positively charged dust particles. We have now reanalyzed the data from ECT–07 and arrived at the conclusion that the measured positive currents to this grid must have been mainly due to secondary charging effects from the impacting dust particles. The grid consists of a set of parallel wires crossed with an identical set of wires on top of it, and we find that if the observed currents were created from the direct impact of charged dust particles, then they should be very weakly modulated at four times the rocket spin rate ωR. Observations show, however, that the observed currents are strongly modulated at 2ωR. We cannot reproduce the observed large modulations of the impact currents in the dust layer if the currents are due only to the transfer of the charges on the impacted dust particles. Based on the results of recent ice cluster impact secondary charging experiments by Tomsic (2003, which found that a small fraction of the ice clusters, when impacting with nearly grazing incidence, carried away one negative charge −1e, we have arrived at the conclusion that similar, but significantly more effective, charging effects must be predominantly responsible for the

  12. On the secondary charging effects and structure of mesospheric dust particles impacting on rocket probes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Havnes, O.; Naesheim, L.I. [Inst. of Physics, Univ. of Tromso (Norway)

    2007-07-01

    The dust probe DUSTY, first launched during the summer of 1994 (flights ECT-02 and ECT-07) from Andoeya Rocket Range, northern Norway, was the first probe to unambiguously detect heavy charged mesospheric aerosols, from hereon referred to as dust. In ECT-02 the probe detected negatively charged dust particles in the height interval of 83 to 88.5 km. In this flight, the lower grid in the detector (Grid 2) measures both positive and negative currents in various regions, and we find that the relationship between the current measurements of Grid 2 and the bottom plate can only be explained by influence from secondary charge production on Grid 2. In ECT-07, which had a large coning, positive currents reaching the top grid of the probe were interpreted as due to the impact of positively charged dust particles. We have now reanalyzed the data from ECT-07 and arrived at the conclusion that the measured positive currents to this grid must have been mainly due to secondary charging effects from the impacting dust particles. The grid consists of a set of parallel wires crossed with an identical set of wires on top of it, and we find that if the observed currents were created from the direct impact of charged dust particles, then they should be very weakly modulated at four times the rocket spin rate {omega}{sub R}. Observations show, however, that the observed currents are strongly modulated at 2{omega}{sub R}. We cannot reproduce the observed large modulations of the impact currents in the dust layer if the currents are due only to the transfer of the charges on the impacted dust particles. Based on the results of recent ice cluster impact secondary charging experiments by Tomsic (2003), which found that a small fraction of the ice clusters, when impacting with nearly grazing incidence, carried away one negative charge - 1e, we have arrived at the conclusion that similar, but significantly more effective, charging effects must be predominantly responsible for the positive

  13. On the secondary charging effects and structure of mesospheric dust particles impacting on rocket probes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Havnes

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The dust probe DUSTY, first launched during the summer of 1994 (flights ECT–02 and ECT–07 from Andøya Rocket Range, northern Norway, was the first probe to unambiguously detect heavy charged mesospheric aerosols, from hereon referred to as dust. In ECT–02 the probe detected negatively charged dust particles in the height interval of 83 to 88.5 km. In this flight, the lower grid in the detector (Grid 2 measures both positive and negative currents in various regions, and we find that the relationship between the current measurements of Grid 2 and the bottom plate can only be explained by influence from secondary charge production on Grid 2. In ECT–07, which had a large coning, positive currents reaching the top grid of the probe were interpreted as due to the impact of positively charged dust particles. We have now reanalyzed the data from ECT–07 and arrived at the conclusion that the measured positive currents to this grid must have been mainly due to secondary charging effects from the impacting dust particles. The grid consists of a set of parallel wires crossed with an identical set of wires on top of it, and we find that if the observed currents were created from the direct impact of charged dust particles, then they should be very weakly modulated at four times the rocket spin rate ωR. Observations show, however, that the observed currents are strongly modulated at 2ωR. We cannot reproduce the observed large modulations of the impact currents in the dust layer if the currents are due only to the transfer of the charges on the impacted dust particles. Based on the results of recent ice cluster impact secondary charging experiments by Tomsic (2003, which found that a small fraction of the ice clusters, when impacting with nearly grazing incidence, carried away one negative charge −1e, we have arrived at the conclusion that similar, but significantly more effective, charging effects must

  14. Perturbative approach to the mode dispersion in charged particle bilayers

    CERN Document Server

    Ballester, D; Tkachenko, I M; Zhang, H

    2003-01-01

    Earlier theoretical and computer studies on the dynamics of strongly coupled charged particle bilayers have revealed the existence of an energy gap (omega(k = 0) not = 0, optical behaviour) for the out-of-phase plasmon. This is in contrast to the correlationless RPA prediction of acoustic (omega approx k) behaviour. We have studied the question whether a classical perturbation calculation for weak coupling shows the onset of the energy gap, and whether there is a minimal coupling threshold for the formation of the gap. A formally exact lowest order expansion technique due to Zhang and Kalman (1992 Phys. Rev. A 45 5935) has been used.

  15. Interaction for solitary waves in coasting charged particle beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Shi-Wei; Hong, Xue-Ren; Shi, Yu-Ren; Duan, Wen-shan, E-mail: duanws@nwnu.edu.cn [College of Physics and Electronic Engineering and Joint Laboratory of Atomic an Molecular Physics of NWNU and IMPCAS, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou 730070 (China); Qi, Xin; Yang, Lei, E-mail: lyang@impcas.ac.cn [Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Han, Jiu-Ning [College of Physics and Electromechanical Engineering, Hexi University, Zhangye 734000 (China)

    2014-03-15

    By using the extended Poincare-Lighthill-Kuo perturbation method, the collision of solitary waves in a coasting charged particle beams is studied. The results show that the system admits a solution with two solitary waves, which move in opposite directions and can be described by two Korteweg-deVries equation in small-amplitude limit. The collision of two solitary waves is elastic, and after the interaction they preserve their original properties. Then the weak phase shift in traveling direction of collision between two solitary waves is derived explicitly.

  16. Scattering of Non-Relativistic Charged Particles by Electromagnetic Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apostol, M.

    2017-11-01

    The cross-section is computed for non-relativistic charged particles (like electrons and ions) scattered by electromagnetic radiation confined to a finite region (like the focal region of optical laser beams). The cross-section exhibits maxima at scattering angles given by the energy and momentum conservation in multi-photon absorption or emission processes. For convenience, a potential scattering is included and a comparison is made with the well-known Kroll-Watson scattering formula. The scattering process addressed in this paper is distinct from the process dealt with in previous studies, where the scattering is immersed in the radiation field.

  17. Motion of charged particles in a knotted electromagnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arrayas, M; Trueba, J L

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we consider the classical relativistic motion of charged particles in a knotted electromagnetic field. After reviewing how to construct electromagnetic knots from maps between the three-sphere and the two-sphere, we introduce a mean quadratic radius of the energy density distribution in order to study some properties of this field. We study the classical relativistic motion of electrons in the electromagnetic field of the Hopf map, and compute their trajectories. It is observed that these electrons initially at rest are strongly accelerated by the electromagnetic force, becoming ultrarelativistic in a period of time that depends on the knot energy and size.

  18. Motion of charged particles in a knotted electromagnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arrayas, M; Trueba, J L, E-mail: joseluis.trueba@urjc.e [Area de Electromagnetismo, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Camino del Molino s/n, 28943 Fuenlabrada, Madrid (Spain)

    2010-06-11

    In this paper we consider the classical relativistic motion of charged particles in a knotted electromagnetic field. After reviewing how to construct electromagnetic knots from maps between the three-sphere and the two-sphere, we introduce a mean quadratic radius of the energy density distribution in order to study some properties of this field. We study the classical relativistic motion of electrons in the electromagnetic field of the Hopf map, and compute their trajectories. It is observed that these electrons initially at rest are strongly accelerated by the electromagnetic force, becoming ultrarelativistic in a period of time that depends on the knot energy and size.

  19. Weak decays of charged K-mesons and charm particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalmus, G.E.

    1993-11-01

    In the first part of the paper the contribution of the bubble chamber in the early and mid 1960s to the understanding of the strangeness changing weak interaction is discussed by means of selected examples in charged K decay. In the second part of the paper the extension of the technique in the late 1970s and early 1980s needed to investigate charm particle properties is briefly discussed. Selected results from bubble chamber experiments are compared with theoretical predictions and with the present experimental information. (author)

  20. Charged particle multiplicities in deep inelastic scattering at HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aid, S.; Anderson, M.; Andreev, V.

    1996-08-01

    Using the H1 detector at HERA, charged particle multiplicity distributions in deep inelastic e + p scattering have been measured over a large kinematical region. The evolution with W and Q 2 of the multiplicity distribution and of the multiplicity moments in pseudorapidity domains of varying size is studied in the current fragmentation region of the hadronic centre-of-mass frame. The results are compared with data from fixed target lepton-nucleon interactions, e + e - annihilations and hadron-hadron collisions as well as with expectations from QCD based parton models. Fits to the negative binomial and lognormal distributions are presented. (orig.)

  1. Explicit K-symplectic algorithms for charged particle dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Yang; Zhou, Zhaoqi; Sun, Yajuan; Liu, Jian; Qin, Hong

    2017-01-01

    We study the Lorentz force equation of charged particle dynamics by considering its K-symplectic structure. As the Hamiltonian of the system can be decomposed as four parts, we are able to construct the numerical methods that preserve the K-symplectic structure based on Hamiltonian splitting technique. The newly derived numerical methods are explicit, and are shown in numerical experiments to be stable over long-term simulation. The error convergency as well as the long term energy conservation of the numerical solutions is also analyzed by means of the Darboux transformation.

  2. Method and apparatus for positioning a beam of charged particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michail, M.S.; Woodard, O.C.; Yourke, H.S.

    1975-01-01

    A beam of charged particles is stepped from one predetermined position to another to form a desired pattern on a semiconductor wafer. There is a dynamic correction for the deviation of the actual position of the beam from its predetermined position, so that the beam is applied to the deviated position rather than the predetermined position. Through the location of four registration marks, the writing field is precisely defined. Writing fields may be interconnected by the sharing of registration marks, enabling the construction of chips which are larger than a single writing field. (auth)

  3. Charged particle induced energy dispersive X-ray analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, S.A.E.

    1979-01-01

    This review article deals with the X-ray emission induced by heavy, charged particles and the use of this process as an analytical method (PIXE). The physical processes involved, X-ray emission and the various reactions contributing to the background, are described in some detail. The sensitivity is calculated theoretically and the results compared with practical experience. A discussion is given on how the sensitivity can be optimized. The experimental arrangements are described and the various technical problems discussed. The analytical procedure, especially the sample preparation, is described in considerable detail. A number of typical practical applications are discussed. (author)

  4. The Mathematics of Charged Particles interacting with Electromagnetic Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kim

    In this thesis, we study the mathematics used to describe systems of charged quantum mechanical particles coupled with their classical self-generated electromagnetic field. We prove the existence of a unique local in time solution to the many-body Maxwell-Schrödinger initial value problem expressed...... in Coulomb gauge and we show that the one-body Maxwell-Schrödinger system as well as the related one-body Maxwell-Pauli system both admit travelling wave solutions....

  5. Systematics of excitation functions for (n, charged particle) reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Zhixiang; Zhou Delin

    1986-06-01

    On the bases of evaporation model considering the preequilibrium emission under some approximations, the analytical expressions including two adjustable parameters have been derived for excitation functions of (n, charged particle) reactions. Fitting these expressions to the available measured data, these parameters have been extracted and the systematic behaviour of the parameters have been studied. More accurate predictions than before could be obtained by using these expressions and systematic parameters. In the present work the neutron energy is considered up to about 20 MeV and the target mass region is 23< A<197

  6. The effect of errors in charged particle beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carey, D.C.

    1987-01-01

    Residual errors in a charged particle optical system determine how well the performance of the system conforms to the theory on which it is based. Mathematically possible optical modes can sometimes be eliminated as requiring precisions not attainable. Other plans may require introduction of means of correction for the occurrence of various errors. Error types include misalignments, magnet fabrication precision limitations, and magnet current regulation errors. A thorough analysis of a beam optical system requires computer simulation of all these effects. A unified scheme for the simulation of errors and their correction is discussed

  7. Explicit K-symplectic algorithms for charged particle dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Yang [School of Mathematics and Physics, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Zhou, Zhaoqi [LSEC, Academy of Mathematics and Systems Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2719, Beijing 100190 (China); Sun, Yajuan, E-mail: sunyj@lsec.cc.ac.cn [LSEC, Academy of Mathematics and Systems Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 2719, Beijing 100190 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Liu, Jian [Department of Modern Physics and School of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Key Laboratory of Geospace Environment, CAS, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Qin, Hong [Department of Modern Physics and School of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States)

    2017-02-12

    We study the Lorentz force equation of charged particle dynamics by considering its K-symplectic structure. As the Hamiltonian of the system can be decomposed as four parts, we are able to construct the numerical methods that preserve the K-symplectic structure based on Hamiltonian splitting technique. The newly derived numerical methods are explicit, and are shown in numerical experiments to be stable over long-term simulation. The error convergency as well as the long term energy conservation of the numerical solutions is also analyzed by means of the Darboux transformation.

  8. Evaluation of charge coupled devices as alpha particle detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pace, R.; Haskard, M.; Watts, S.; Holmes-Siedle, A.; Solanky, M.

    1996-01-01

    The ability of the Charge Coupled Device (CCD) to provide spectroscopic and flux information for highly ionising radiation has been investigated. CCDs and related imaging chips are becoming increasingly affordable. In addition advances in technology are producing smaller and better devices. Since imaging chips are based on some variation of the pn-diode structure it is expected and known that they are sensitive to ionising radiation as well as light. Indeed specially designed CCDs are able to be used to image X-rays. This paper reports on the response of CCDs to alpha particles. (author)

  9. Energy loss of charged particles to molecular gas targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sigmund, P.

    1976-01-01

    The energy loss spectrum of fast charged particles penetrating a dilute molecular gas target has been analysed theoretically, with a homogeneous gas mixture in the state of complete dissociation as a reference standard. It is shown that the geometrical structure of molecules causes the energy-loss straggling and higher moments over the energy-loss spectrum to be greater than the corresponding quantities for a completely dissociated gas of equal composition. Such deviations from additivity are shown to be most pronounced at energies around the stopping-power maximum. There is found supporting evidence in the experimental literature. (Auth.)

  10. 14. conference on accelerators of charged particles. Annotations of reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    Annotations of reports made at the 14 Conference on accelerators of charged particles are presented. The Conference took place 25 - 27 October, 1994 in IHEP, Protvino. Modern trends of development of cyclic and linear accelerators, as well as heavy ion accelerators and colliders have been discussed. Problems of developing accelerators on superhigh energy have been considered. Considerable attention has been paid to accelerating structures, power SHF equipment, beam monitoring systems as well as magnetic and vacuum systems of accelerators. Beam dynamics in accelerators and storage has been considered and new acceleration technique have been proposed. Utilization of accelerators for medicine and other applied purposes has been discussed

  11. Physical sputtering of metallic systems by charged-particle impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lam, N.Q.

    1989-12-01

    The present paper provides a brief overview of our current understanding of physical sputtering by charged-particle impact, with the emphasis on sputtering of metals and alloys under bombardment with particles that produce knock-on collisions. Fundamental aspects of ion-solid interactions, and recent developments in the study of sputtering of elemental targets and preferential sputtering in multicomponent materials are reviewed. We concentrate only on a few specific topics of sputter emission, including the various properties of the sputtered flux and depth of origin, and on connections between sputtering and other radiation-induced and -enhanced phenomena that modify the near-surface composition of the target. The synergistic effects of these diverse processes in changing the composition of the integrated sputtered-atom flux is described in simple physical terms, using selected examples of recent important progress. 325 refs., 27 figs

  12. Rainbows in channeling of charged particles in crystals and nanotubes

    CERN Document Server

    Nešković, Nebojša; Ćosić, Marko

    2017-01-01

    This book discusses the effects, modeling, latest results, and nanotechnology applications of rainbows that appear during channeling of charged particles in crystals and nanotubes. The authors begin with a brief review of the optical and particle rainbow effects followed by a detailed description of crystal rainbows, which appear in ion channeling in crystals, and their modeling using catastrophe theory. The effects of spatial and angular focusing of channeled ions are described, with special attention given to the applications of the former effect to subatomic microscopy. The results of a thorough study of the recent high-resolution channeling experiments performed with protons of energies between 2.0 and 0.7 MeV and a 55 nm thick silicon crystal are also provided. This study opens up the potential for accurate analysis of very thin crystals. Also presented are recent results related to rainbows occurring in proton transmission through carbon nanotubes, and a detailed quantum consideration of the transmissio...

  13. OMICRON, LLNL ENDL Charged Particle Data Library Processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mengoni, A.; Panini, G.C.

    2002-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: The program has been designed to read the Evaluated Charged Particle Library (ECPL) of the LLNL Evaluated Nuclear Data Library (ENDL) and generate output in various forms: interpreted listing, ENDF format and graphs. 2 - Method of solution: A file containing ECPL in card image transmittal format is scanned to retrieve the requested reactions from the requested materials; in addition selections can be made by data type or incident particle. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: The Reaction Property Designator I determines the type of data in the ENDL library (e.g. cross sections, angular distributions, Maxwellian averages, etc.); the program does not take into account the data for I=3,4 (energy-angle-distributions) since there are no data in the current ECPL version

  14. Application of charged particle activation for testing machine part wear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosimova, M.; Tendera, P.

    1985-01-01

    The results of application of the charge particle activation method to investigate machine part wear are presented. Study of radionuclide activity and yield has been carried out at the U-120M isochronous cyclotron by means of the method of iron foil piles from 20 to 100 μm in thick. Protons and deuterons have been used. Wear measurement is based on determination of wear particle activity in a butyric medium. An example of the results of a bench test of activated piston rings and cylinder liner of the engine for trucks is given. The method of surface activation is shown to be acceptable for studying machine part wear under the regular service conditions, especially on the stage of the primary investigations and development, when sampling structural materials and estimating different lubricating oil applicability

  15. Dynamics of Charged Particles and their Radiation Field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poisson, E

    2006-01-01

    The motion of a charged particle interacting with its own electromagnetic field is an area of research that has a long history. On the one hand the theory ought to be straightforward to formulate: one has Maxwell's equations that tell the field how to behave and one has the Lorentz-force law that tells the particle how to move (given the field). On the other hand the theory is fundamentally ambiguous because of the field singularities that necessarily come with a point particle. While each separate sub-problem can easily be solved, to couple the field to the particle in a self-consistent treatment turns out to be tricky. I believe it is this dilemma that has been the main source of the endless fascination. For them it is also rooted in the fact that the electromagnetic self-force problem is deeply analogous to the gravitational self-force problem, which is of direct relevance to future gravitational wave observations. The motion of point particles in curved spacetime has been the topic of a recent Topical Review, and it was the focus of a recent Special Issue. Exceptions are Rohrlich's excellent text, which makes a very useful introduction to radiation reaction, and the Landau and Lifshitz classic, which contains what is probably the most perfect summary of the foundational ideas. It is therefore with some trepidation that I received Herbert Spohn's book, which covers both the classical and quantum theories of a charged particle coupled to its own field (the presentation is limited to flat spacetime). Is this the text that graduate students and researchers should turn to in order to get a complete and accessible education in radiation reaction? My answer is that while the book does indeed contain a lot of useful material, it is not a very accessible source of information, and it is certainly not a student-friendly textbook. Instead, the book presents a technical account of the author's personal take on the theory, and represents a culminating summary of the author

  16. EGUN, Charged Particle Trajectories in Electromagnetic Focusing System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmannsfeldt, W.B.

    2002-01-01

    1 - Description of problem or function: EGUN computes trajectories of charged particles in electrostatic and magnetostatic focusing systems including the effects of space charge and self-magnetic fields. Starting options include Child's Law conditions on cathodes of various shapes, user-specified conditions input for each ray, and a combination of Child's Law conditions and user specifications. Either rectangular or cylindrically symmetric geometry may be used. Magnetic fields may be specified using an arbitrary configuration of coils, or the output of a magnet program, such as Poisson, or by an externally calculated array of the axial fields. 2 - Method of solution: The program first solves Laplace's equation. Next, the first iteration of electron trajectories is started using one of the four starting options. On the first iteration cycle, space charge forces are calculated from the assumption of paraxial flow. As the rays are traced, space charge is computed and stored. After all the electron trajectories have been calculated, the program begins the second cycle by solving the Poisson equation with the space charge from the first iteration. Subsequent iteration cycles follow this pattern. The Poisson equation is solved by an alternate column relaxation technique known as the semi-iterative Chebyshev method. A fourth-order Runge-Kutta method is used to solve the relativistic differential equations of the trajectory calculations. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem - Maxima of: 9001 mesh points in a square mesh, 300 mesh points in the axial direction, 100 mesh points in the radial direction, 101 potentials, 51 rays. In the cylindrical coordinates, the magnetic fields are axially symmetric. In rectangular coordinates, the external field is assumed to be normal to the plane of the problem, which is assumed to be the median plane

  17. Small-scale gradients of charged particles in the heliospheric magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Fan; Giacalone, Joe

    2014-01-01

    Using numerical simulations of charged-particles propagating in the heliospheric magnetic field, we study small-scale gradients, or 'dropouts,' in the intensity of solar energetic particles seen at 1 AU. We use two turbulence models, the foot-point random motion model and the two-component model, to generate fluctuating magnetic fields similar to spacecraft observations at 1 AU. The turbulence models include a Kolmogorov-like magnetic field power spectrum containing a broad range of spatial scales from those that lead to large-scale field-line random walk to small scales leading to resonant pitch-angle scattering of energetic particles. We release energetic protons (20 keV-10 MeV) from a spatially compact and instantaneous source. The trajectories of energetic charged particles in turbulent magnetic fields are numerically integrated. Spacecraft observations are mimicked by collecting particles in small windows when they pass the windows at a distance of 1 AU. We show that small-scale gradients in the intensity of energetic particles and velocity dispersions observed by spacecraft can be reproduced using the foot-point random motion model. However, no dropouts are seen in simulations using the two-component magnetic turbulence model. We also show that particle scattering in the solar wind magnetic field needs to be infrequent for intensity dropouts to form.

  18. Measurement of charged particle spectra in deep-inelastic ep scattering at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexa, C. [National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering (NIPNE), Bucharest (Romania); Andreev, V. [Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Baghdasaryan, A. [Yerevan Physics Institute (Armenia)] [and others; Collaboration: H1 Collaboration

    2013-01-15

    Charged particle production in deep-inelastic ep scattering is measured with the H1 detector at HERA. The kinematic range of the analysis covers low photon virtualities, 5charged particle densities are measured as a function of pseudorapidity ({eta}{sup *}) and transverse momentum (p{sub T}{sup *}) in the range 0<{eta}{sup *}<5 and 0

  19. Space distribution and energy straggling of charged particles via Fokker-Planck equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manservisi, S.; Molinari, V.; Nespoli, A.

    1996-01-01

    The Fokker-Planck equation describing a beam of charged particles entering a homogeneous medium is solved here for a stationary case. Interactions are taken into account through Coulomb cross-section. Starting from the charged-particle distribution as a function of velocity and penetration depth, some important kinetic quantities are calculated, like mean velocity, range and the loss of energy per unit space. In such quantities the energy straggling is taken into account. This phenomenon is not considered in the continuous slowing-down approximation that is commonly used to obtain the range and the stopping power. Finally the well-know Bohr of Bethe formula is found as a first-order approximation of the Fokker-Planck equation

  20. Measurement of charged particle spectra in deep-inelastic ep scattering at HERA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexa, C.; Dobre, M.; Rotaru, M.; Stoicea, G. [National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering (NIPNE), Bucharest (Romania); Andreev, V.; Belousov, A.; Fomenko, A.; Gogitidze, N.; Lebedev, A.; Malinovski, E.; Rusakov, S.; Vazdik, Y. [Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Baghdasaryan, A.; Baghdasaryan, S.; Zohrabyan, H. [Yerevan Physics Institute, Yerevan (Armenia); Bartel, W.; Belov, P.; Brinkmann, M.; Britzger, D.; Campbell, A.J.; Eckerlin, G.; Elsen, E.; Felst, R.; Fischer, D.J.; Fleischer, M.; Gayler, J.; Ghazaryan, S.; Glazov, A.; Gouzevitch, M.; Grebenyuk, A.; Habib, S.; Haidt, D.; Kleinwort, C.; Kraemer, M.; Krueger, K.; Levonian, S.; Lipka, K.; List, B.; List, J.; Lobodzinski, B.; Meyer, A.B.; Meyer, J.; Niebuhr, C.; Olsson, J.E.; Ozerov, D.; Pahl, P.; Petrukhin, A.; Pitzl, D.; Placakyte, R.; Radescu, V.; Schmitt, S.; Sefkow, F.; Shushkevich, S.; South, D.; Steder, M.; Wuensch, E. [DESY, Hamburg (Germany); Begzsuren, K.; Ravdandorj, T. [Institute of Physics and Technology of the Mongolian Academy of Sciences, Ulaanbaatar (Mongolia); Boudry, V.; Specka, A. [Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS/IN2P3, LLR, Palaiseau (France); Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Pandurovic, M. [University of Belgrade, Vinca Institute of Nuclear Sciences, Belgrade (Serbia); Brandt, G. [Oxford University, Department of Physics, Oxford (United Kingdom); Brisson, V.; Jacquet, M.; Pascaud, C.; Zhang, Z.; Zomer, F. [Universite Paris-Sud, CNRS/IN2P3, LAL, Orsay (France); Buniatyan, A.; Huber, F.; Pirumov, H.; Sauter, M.; Schoening, A. [Universitaet Heidelberg, Physikalisches Institut, Heidelberg (Germany); Bylinkin, A.; Bystritskaya, L.; Fedotov, A.; Lubimov, V.; Rostovtsev, A.; Tseepeldorj, B. [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Cantun Avila, K.B.; Contreras, J.G.; Ruiz Tabasco, J.E. [CINVESTAV, Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Merida, Yucatan (Mexico); Ceccopieri, F.; Wolf, E.A. de; Favart, L.; Hreus, T.; Janssen, X.; Roosen, R.; Staykova, Z.; Mechelen, P.Van [Brussels and Universiteit Antwerpen, Inter-University Institute for High Energies ULB-VUB, Antwerpen (Belgium); Cerny, K.; Pokorny, B.; Polifka, R.; Salek, D.; Valkarova, A.; Zacek, J.; Zlebcik, R. [Charles University, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Praha (Czech Republic); Chekelian, V.; Grindhammer, G.; Kiesling, C. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Cvach, J.; Hladky and grave, J.; Reimer, P.; Zalesak, J. [Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Institute of Physics, Praha (Czech Republic); Dainton, J.B.; Gabathuler, E.; Greenshaw, T.; Klein, M.; Kretzschmar, J.; Laycock, P.; Maxfield, S.J.; Mehta, A.; Patel, G.D. [University of Liverpool, Department of Physics, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Daum, K.; Meyer, H. [Universitaet Wuppertal, Fachbereich C, Wuppertal (Germany); Diaconu, C.; Hoffmann, D.; Sauvan, E.; Vallee, C. [Aix-Marseille Univ, CNRS/IN2P3, CPPM, Marseille (France); Dodonov, V. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany); Dossanov, A. [Universitaet Hamburg, Institut fuer Experimentalphysik, Hamburg (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany); Egli, S.; Hildebrandt, M.; Horisberger, R. [Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen (Switzerland); Feltesse, J.; Perez, E.; Schoeffel, L. [CE-Saclay, CEA, DSM/Irfu, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Ferencei, J. [Slovak Academy of Sciences, Institute of Experimental Physics, Kosice (Slovakia); Goerlich, L.; Mikocki, S.; Milcewicz-Mika, I.; Nowak, G.; Sopicki, P.; Turnau, J. [Institute for Nuclear Physics, Cracow (Poland); Grab, C. [ETH, Institut fuer Teilchenphysik, Zuerich (Switzerland); Henderson, R.C.W. [University of Lancaster, Department of Physics, Lancaster (United Kingdom); Hennekemper, E.; Herbst, M.; Schultz-Coulon, H.C. [Universitaet Heidelberg, Kirchhoff-Institut fuer Physik, Heidelberg (Germany); Herrera, G.; Lopez-Fernandez, R. [CINVESTAV IPN, Departamento de Fisica, Mexico City (Mexico); Hiller, K.H.; Kostka, P.; Lange, W.; Naumann, T. [DESY, Zeuthen (Germany); Joensson, L. [University of Lund, Physics Department, Lund (Sweden); Jung, H. [Brussels and Universiteit Antwerpen, Inter-University Institute for High Energies ULB-VUB, Antwerpen (Belgium); DESY, Hamburg (Germany); Kapichine, M.; Morozov, A.; Nikitin, D.; Palichik, V.; Spaskov, V. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Kogler, R.; Nowak, K. [Universitaet Hamburg, Institut fuer Experimentalphysik, Hamburg (Germany); Landon, M.P.J.; Rizvi, E.; Traynor, D. [Queen Mary, University of London, School of Physics and Astronomy, London (United Kingdom); Martyn, H.U. [I. Physikalisches Institut der RWTH, Aachen (Germany); Morris, J.V.; Sankey, D.P.C. [STFC, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Didcot, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom); Mueller, K.; Robmann, P.; Straumann, U.; Truoel, P. [Physik-Institut der Universitaet Zuerich, Zuerich (Switzerland); Newman, P.R.; Thompson, P.D. [University of Birmingham, School of Physics and Astronomy, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Picuric, I.; Raicevic, N. [University of Montenegro, Faculty of Science, Podgorica (Montenegro); Soloviev, Y. [DESY, Hamburg (Germany); Lebedev Physical Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Stella, B. [Dipartimento di Fisica Universita di Roma Tre (Italy); INFN Roma 3, Roma (Italy); Sykora, T. [Brussels and Universiteit Antwerpen, Inter-University Institute for High Energies ULB-VUB, Antwerpen (Belgium); Charles University, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Praha (Czech Republic); Tsakov, I. [Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy, Sofia (Bulgaria); Wegener, D. [TU Dortmund, Institut fuer Physik, Dortmund (Germany); Collaboration: The H1 Collaboration

    2013-04-15

    Charged particle production in deep-inelastic ep scattering is measured with the H1 detector at HERA. The kinematic range of the analysis covers low photon virtualities, 5 < Q{sup 2} < 100 GeV{sup 2}, and small values of Bjorken-x, 10{sup -4} < x < 10{sup -2}. The analysis is performed in the hadronic centre-of-mass system. The charged particle densities are measured as a function of pseudorapidity ({eta}{sup *}) and transverse momentum (p{sub T}{sup *}) in the range 0<{eta}{sup *} < 5 and 0

  1. Measurement of Charged Particle Spectra in Deep-Inelastic ep Scattering at HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Alexa, C.; Baghdasaryan, A.; Baghdasaryan, S.; Bartel, W.; Begzsuren, K.; Belousov, A.; Belov, P.; Boudry, V.; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Brandt, G.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Britzger, D.; Buniatyan, A.; Bylinkin, A.; Bystritskaya, L.; Campbell, A.J.; Cantun Avila, K.B.; Ceccopieri, F.; Cerny, K.; Chekelian, V.; Contreras, J.G.; Cvach, J.; Dainton, J.B.; Daum, K.; De Wolf, E.A.; Diaconu, C.; Dobre, M.; Dodonov, V.; Dossanov, A.; Eckerlin, G.; Egli, S.; Elsen, E.; Favart, L.; Fedotov, A.; Felst, R.; Feltesse, J.; Ferencei, J.; Fischer, D.J.; Fleischer, M.; Fomenko, A.; Gabathuler, E.; Gayler, J.; Ghazaryan, S.; Glazov, A.; Goerlich, L.; Gogitidze, N.; Gouzevitch, M.; Grab, C.; Grebenyuk, A.; Greenshaw, T.; Grindhammer, G.; Habib, S.; Haidt, D.; Henderson, R.C.W.; Hennekemper, E.; Herbst, M.; Herrera, G.; Hildebrandt, M.; Hiller, K.H.; Hladky, J.; Hoffmann, D.; Horisberger, R.; Hreus, T.; Huber, F.; Jacquet, M.; Janssen, X.; Jonsson, L.; Jung, H.; Kapichine, M.; Kiesling, C.; Klein, M.; Kleinwort, C.; Kogler, R.; Kostka, P.; Kramer, M.; Kretzschmar, J.; Kruger, K.; Landon, M.P.J.; Lange, W.; Laycock, P.; Lebedev, A.; Levonian, S.; Lipka, K.; List, B.; List, J.; Lobodzinski, B.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Lubimov, V.; Malinovski, E.; Martyn, H.U.; Maxfield, S.J.; Mehta, A.; Meyer, A.B.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Mikocki, S.; Milcewicz-Mika, I.; Morozov, A.; Morris, J.V.; Muller, K.; Naumann, Th.; Newman, P.R.; Niebuhr, C.; Nikitin, D.; Nowak, G.; Nowak, K.; Olsson, J.E.; Ozerov, D.; Pahl, P.; Palichik, V.; Pandurovic, M.; Pascaud, C.; Patel, G.D.; Perez, E.; Petrukhin, A.; Picuric, I.; Pirumov, H.; Pitzl, D.; Placakyte, R.; Pokorny, B.; Polifka, R.; Radescu, V.; Raicevic, N.; Ravdandorj, T.; Reimer, P.; Rizvi, E.; Robmann, P.; Roosen, R.; Rostovtsev, A.; Rotaru, M.; Ruiz Tabasco, J.E.; Rusakov, S.; Salek, D.; Sankey, D.P.C.; Sauter, M.; Sauvan, E.; Schmitt, S.; Schoeffel, L.; Schoning, A.; Schultz-Coulon, H.C.; Sefkow, F.; Shushkevich, S.; Soloviev, Y.; Sopicki, P.; South, D.; Spaskov, V.; Specka, A.; Staykova, Z.; Steder, M.; Stella, B.; Stoicea, G.; Straumann, U.; Sykora, T.; Thompson, P.D.; Traynor, D.; Truol, P.; Tsakov, I.; Tseepeldorj, B.; Turnau, J.; Valkarova, A.; Vallee, C.; Van Mechelen, P.; Vazdik, Y.; Wegener, D.; Wunsch, E.; Zacek, J.; Zalesak, J.; Zhang, Z.; Zlebcik, R.; Zohrabyan, H.; Zomer, F.

    2013-04-20

    Charged particle production in deep-inelastic ep scattering is measured with the H1 detector at HERA. The kinematic range of the analysis covers low photon virtualities, 5 < Q^2 < 100 GeV^2, and small values of Bjorken-x, 10^{-4} < x < 10^{-2}. The analysis is performed in the hadronic centre-of-mass system. The charged particle densities are measured as a function of pseudorapidity (eta^*) and transverse momentum (p_T^*) in the range 0< \\eta^* < 5 and 0< p_T^* < 10$ GeV differentially in x and Q^2. The data are compared to predictions from different Monte Carlo generators implementing various options for hadronisation and parton evolutions.

  2. Study of talcum charging status in parallel plate electrostatic separator based on particle trajectory analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunxiao, CAO; Zhiqiang, WANG; Jinjun, WANG; Guofeng, LI

    2018-05-01

    Electrostatic separation has been extensively used in mineral processing, and has the potential to separate gangue minerals from raw talcum ore. As for electrostatic separation, the particle charging status is one of important influence factors. To describe the talcum particle charging status in a parallel plate electrostatic separator accurately, this paper proposes a modern images processing method. Based on the actual trajectories obtained from sequence images of particle movement and the analysis of physical forces applied on a charged particle, a numerical model is built, which could calculate the charge-to-mass ratios represented as the charging status of particle and simulate the particle trajectories. The simulated trajectories agree well with the experimental results obtained by images processing. In addition, chemical composition analysis is employed to reveal the relationship between ferrum gangue mineral content and charge-to-mass ratios. Research results show that the proposed method is effective for describing the particle charging status in electrostatic separation.

  3. Spin flip due to the spin–orbit interaction of colliding slow charged particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasorov, P. V.; Fomin, I. V.

    2017-01-01

    The scattering amplitudes of point charged particles is calculated analytically taking into account the spin–orbit interaction. We have considered two cases typical of a hydrogen-like plasma: scattering of an electron by a heavy ion and scattering of an electron by a free electron. The results have been obtained taking into account the ranges of low collision energies smaller than α"2m_ec"2, where α is the fine structure constant.

  4. Influence of penetration controlled irradiation with charged particles on tobacco pollen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, Hiroshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Dept. of Radiation Research for Environment and Resources; Tanaka, Atsushi; Tano, Shigemitsu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Advanced Science Research Center; Inoue, Masayoshi [Kyoto Prefectural Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Agriculture

    1997-09-01

    To investigate the effect of local irradiation on biological systems, an apparatus for penetration controlled irradiation with charged particles was set up. By comparison of ranges of 1.5 MeV/u He{sup 2+} between the theoretically calculated ranges and the practical ranges using RCD dosimeter, it was demonstrated that the range of particles could be controlled linearly by changing the distance from the beam window in the atmosphere to a target. In addition, the penetration controlled irradiation of tobacco pollen increased the frequency of `leaky pollen`. The increased frequency of the leaky pollen suggests that a damage in the pollen envelope would be induced at the range-end. (orig.)

  5. Measurement of charged particle multiplicities in $pp$ collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV in the forward region

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00258707; Abellan Beteta, C.; Adeva, B.; Adinolfi, M.; Adrover, C.; Affolder, A.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Albrecht, J.; Alessio, F.; Alexander, M.; Alkhazov, G.; Alvarez Cartelle, P.; Alves Jr, A.A.; Amato, S.; Amhis, Y.; Anderson, J.; Appleby, R.B.; Aquines Gutierrez, O.; Archilli, F.; Arrabito, L.; Artamonov, A.; Artuso, M.; Aslanides, E.; Auriemma, G.; Bachmann, S.; Back, J.J.; Bailey, D.S.; Balagura, V.; Baldini, W.; Barlow, R.J.; Barschel, C.; Barsuk, S.; Barter, W.; Bates, A.; Bauer, C.; Bauer, Th.; Bay, A.; Bediaga, I.; Belogurov, S.; Belous, K.; Belyaev, I.; Ben-Haim, E.; Benayoun, M.; Bencivenni, G.; Benson, S.; Benton, J.; Bernet, R.; Bettler, M.O.; van Beuzekom, M.; Bien, A.; Bifani, S.; Bird, T.; Bizzeti, A.; Bjornstad, P.M.; Blake, T.; Blanc, F.; Blanks, C.; Blouw, J.; Blusk, S.; Bobrov, A.; Bocci, V.; Bondar, A.; Bondar, N.; Bonivento, W.; Borghi, S.; Borgia, A.; Bowcock, T.J.V.; Bozzi, C.; Brambach, T.; van den Brand, J.; Bressieux, J.; Brett, D.; Britsch, M.; Britton, T.; Brook, N.H.; Brown, H.; Buchler-Germann, A.; Burducea, I.; Bursche, A.; Buytaert, J.; Cadeddu, S.; Callot, O.; Calvi, M.; Calvo Gomez, M.; Camboni, A.; Campana, P.; Carbone, A.; Carboni, G.; Cardinale, R.; Cardini, A.; Carson, L.; Carvalho Akiba, K.; Casse, G.; Cattaneo, M.; Cauet, Ch.; Charles, M.; Charpentier, Ph.; Chiapolini, N.; Ciba, K.; Cid Vidal, X.; Ciezarek, G.; Clarke, P.E.L.; Clemencic, M.; Cliff, H.V.; Closier, J.; Coca, C.; Coco, V.; Cogan, J.; Collins, P.; Comerma-Montells, A.; Constantin, F.; Conti, G.; Contu, A.; Cook, A.; Coombes, M.; Corti, G.; Cowan, G.A.; Currie, R.; D'Almagne, B.; D'Ambrosio, C.; David, P.; David, P.N.Y.; De Bonis, I.; De Capua, S.; De Cian, M.; De Lorenzi, F.; de Miranda, J.M.; De Paula, L.; De Simone, P.; Decamp, D.; Deckenhoff, M.; Degaudenzi, H.; Deissenroth, M.; Del Buono, L.; Deplano, C.; Derkach, D.; Deschamps, O.; Dettori, F.; Dickens, J.; Dijkstra, H.; Diniz Batista, P.; Bonal, F.Domingo; Donleavy, S.; Dordei, F.; Dosil Suarez, A.; Dossett, D.; Dovbnya, A.; Dupertuis, F.; Dzhelyadin, R.; Dziurda, A.; Easo, S.; Egede, U.; Egorychev, V.; Eidelman, S.; van Eijk, D.; Eisele, F.; Eisenhardt, S.; Ekelhof, R.; Eklund, L.; Elsasser, Ch.; Elsby, D.; Esperante Pereira, D.; Esteve, L.; Falabella, A.; Fanchini, E.; Farber, C.; Fardell, G.; Farinelli, C.; Farry, S.; Fave, V.; Fernandez Albor, V.; Ferro-Luzzi, M.; Filippov, S.; Fitzpatrick, C.; Fontana, M.; Fontanelli, F.; Forty, R.; Frank, M.; Frei, C.; Frosini, M.; Furcas, S.; Gallas Torreira, A.; Galli, D.; Gandelman, M.; Gandini, P.; Gao, Y.; Garnier, J-C.; Garofoli, J.; Garra Tico, J.; Garrido, L.; Gascon, D.; Gaspar, C.; Gauvin, N.; Gersabeck, M.; Gershon, T.; Ghez, Ph.; Gibson, V.; Gligorov, V.V.; Gobel, C.; Golubkov, D.; Golutvin, A.; Gomes, A.; Gordon, H.; Grabalosa Gandara, M.; Graciani Diaz, R.; Granado Cardoso, L.A.; Grauges, E.; Graziani, G.; Grecu, A.; Greening, E.; Gregson, S.; Gui, B.; Gushchin, E.; Guz, Yu.; Gys, T.; Haefeli, G.; Haen, C.; Haines, S.C.; Hampson, T.; Hansmann-Menzemer, S.; Harji, R.; Harnew, N.; Harrison, J.; Harrison, P.F.; He, J.; Heijne, V.; Hennessy, K.; Henrard, P.; Hernando Morata, J.A.; van Herwijnen, E.; Hicks, E.; Holubyev, K.; Hopchev, P.; Hulsbergen, W.; Hunt, P.; Huse, T.; Huston, R.S.; Hutchcroft, D.; Hynds, D.; Iakovenko, V.; Ilten, P.; Imong, J.; Jacobsson, R.; Jaeger, A.; Jahjah Hussein, M.; Jans, E.; Jansen, F.; Jaton, P.; Jean-Marie, B.; Jing, F.; John, M.; Johnson, D.; Jones, C.R.; Jost, B.; Kaballo, M.; Kandybei, S.; Karacson, M.; Karbach, T.M.; Keaveney, J.; Kenyon, I.R.; Kerzel, U.; Ketel, T.; Keune, A.; Khanji, B.; Kim, Y.M.; Knecht, M.; Koppenburg, P.; Kozlinskiy, A.; Kravchuk, L.; Kreplin, K.; Kreps, M.; Krocker, G.; Krokovny, P.; Kruse, F.; Kruzelecki, K.; Kucharczyk, M.; Kvaratskheliya, T.; La Thi, V.N.; Lacarrere, D.; Lafferty, G.; Lai, A.; Lambert, D.; Lambert, R.W.; Lanciotti, E.; Lanfranchi, G.; Langenbruch, C.; Latham, T.; Lazzeroni, C.; Le Gac, R.; van Leerdam, J.; Lees, J.P.; Lefevre, R.; Leflat, A.; Lefrancois, J.; Leroy, O.; Lesiak, T.; Li, L.; Li Gioi, L.; Lieng, M.; Liles, M.; Lindner, R.; Linn, C.; Liu, B.; Liu, G.; Lopes, J.H.; Lopez Asamar, E.; Lopez-March, N.; Lu, H.; Luisier, J.; Raighne, A.Mac; Machefert, F.; Machikhiliyan, I.V.; Maciuc, F.; Maev, O.; Magnin, J.; Malde, S.; Mamunur, R.M.D.; Manca, G.; Mancinelli, G.; Mangiafave, N.; Marconi, U.; Marki, R.; Marks, J.; Martellotti, G.; Martens, A.; Martin, L.; Martin Sanchez, A.; Martinez Santos, D.; Massafferri, A.; Mathe, Z.; Matteuzzi, C.; Matveev, M.; Maurice, E.; Maynard, B.; Mazurov, A.; McGregor, G.; McNulty, R.; Mclean, C.; Meissner, M.; Merk, M.; Merkel, J.; Messi, R.; Miglioranzi, S.; Milanes, D.A.; Minard, M.N.; Molina Rodriguez, J.; Monteil, S.; Moran, D.; Morawski, P.; Mountain, R.; Mous, I.; Muheim, F.; Muller, K.; Muresan, R.; Muryn, B.; Muster, B.; Musy, M.; Mylroie-Smith, J.; Naik, P.; Nakada, T.; Nandakumar, R.; Nasteva, I.; Nedos, M.; Needham, M.; Neufeld, N.; Nguyen-Mau, C.; Nicol, M.; Niess, V.; Nikitin, N.; Nomerotski, A.; Novoselov, A.; Oblakowska-Mucha, A.; Obraztsov, V.; Oggero, S.; Ogilvy, S.; Okhrimenko, O.; Oldeman, R.; Orlandea, M.; Otalora Goicochea, J.M.; Owen, P.; Pal, K.; Palacios, J.; Palano, A.; Palutan, M.; Panman, J.; Papanestis, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Parkes, C.; Parkinson, C.J.; Passaleva, G.; Patel, G.D.; Patel, M.; Paterson, S.K.; Patrick, G.N.; Patrignani, C.; Pavel-Nicorescu, C.; Pazos Alvarez, A.; Pellegrino, A.; Penso, G.; Pepe Altarelli, M.; Perazzini, S.; Perego, D.L.; Perez Trigo, E.; Perez-Calero Yzquierdo, A.; Perret, P.; Perrin-Terrin, M.; Pessina, G.; Petrella, A.; Petrolini, A.; Phan, A.; Picatoste Olloqui, E.; Pie Valls, B.; Pietrzyk, B.; Pilar, T.; Pinci, D.; Plackett, R.; Playfer, S.; Plo Casasus, M.; Polok, G.; Poluektov, A.; Polycarpo, E.; Popov, D.; Popovici, B.; Potterat, C.; Powell, A.; du Pree, T.; Prisciandaro, J.; Pugatch, V.; Puig Navarro, A.; Qian, W.; Rademacker, J.H.; Rakotomiaramanana, B.; Rangel, M.S.; Raniuk, I.; Raven, G.; Redford, S.; Reid, M.M.; dos Reis, A.C.; Ricciardi, S.; Rinnert, K.; Roa Romero, D.A.; Robbe, P.; Rodrigues, E.; Rodrigues, F.; Rodriguez Perez, P.; Rogers, G.J.; Roiser, S.; Romanovsky, V.; Rosello, M.; Rouvinet, J.; Ruf, T.; Ruiz, H.; Sabatino, G.; Saborido Silva, J.J.; Sagidova, N.; Sail, P.; Saitta, B.; Salzmann, C.; Sannino, M.; Santacesaria, R.; Santamarina Rios, C.; Santinelli, R.; Santovetti, E.; Sapunov, M.; Sarti, A.; Satriano, C.; Satta, A.; Savrie, M.; Savrina, D.; Schaack, P.; Schiller, M.; Schleich, S.; Schlupp, M.; Schmelling, M.; Schmidt, B.; Schneider, O.; Schopper, A.; Schune, M.H.; Schwemmer, R.; Sciascia, B.; Sciubba, A.; Seco, M.; Semennikov, A.; Senderowska, K.; Sepp, I.; Serra, N.; Serrano, J.; Seyfert, P.; Shao, B.; Shapkin, M.; Shapoval, I.; Shatalov, P.; Shcheglov, Y.; Shears, T.; Shekhtman, L.; Shevchenko, O.; Shevchenko, V.; Shires, A.; Coutinho, R.Silva; Skwarnicki, T.; Smith, A.C.; Smith, N.A.; Smith, E.; Sobczak, K.; Soler, F.J.P.; Solomin, A.; Soomro, F.; Souza De Paula, B.; Spaan, B.; Sparkes, A.; Spradlin, P.; Stagni, F.; Stahl, S.; Steinkamp, O.; Stoica, S.; Stone, S.; Storaci, B.; Straticiuc, M.; Straumann, U.; Subbiah, V.K.; Swientek, S.; Szczekowski, M.; Szczypka, P.; Szumlak, T.; T'Jampens, S.; Teodorescu, E.; Teubert, F.; Thomas, C.; Thomas, E.; van Tilburg, J.; Tisserand, V.; Tobin, M.; Topp-Joergensen, S.; Torr, N.; Tournefier, E.; Tran, M.T.; Tsaregorodtsev, A.; Tuning, N.; Garcia, M.Ubeda; Ukleja, A.; Urquijo, P.; Uwer, U.; Vagnoni, V.; Valenti, G.; Vazquez Gomez, R.; Vazquez Regueiro, P.; Vecchi, S.; Velthuis, J.J.; Veltri, M.; Viaud, B.; Videau, I.; Vilasis-Cardona, X.; Visniakov, J.; Vollhardt, A.; Volyanskyy, D.; Voong, D.; Vorobyev, A.; Voss, H.; Wandernoth, S.; Wang, J.; Ward, D.R.; Watson, N.K.; Webber, A.D.; Websdale, D.; Whitehead, M.; Wiedner, D.; Wiggers, L.; Wilkinson, G.; Williams, M.P.; Williams, M.; Wilson, F.F.; Wishahi, J.; Witek, M.; Witzeling, W.; Wotton, S.A.; Wyllie, K.; Xie, Y.; Xing, F.; Xing, Z.; Yang, Z.; Young, R.; Yushchenko, O.; Zavertyaev, M.; Zhang, F.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, W.C.; Zhang, Y.; Zhelezov, A.; Zhong, L.; Zverev, E.; Zvyagin, A.

    2012-04-20

    The charged particle production in proton-proton collisions is studied with the LHCb detector at a centre-of-mass energy of ${\\sqrt{s} =7}$TeV in different intervals of pseudorapidity $\\eta$. The charged particles are reconstructed close to the interaction region in the vertex detector, which provides high reconstruction efficiency in the $\\eta$ ranges $-2.5<\\eta<-2.0$ and $2.0<\\eta<4.5$. The data were taken with a minimum bias trigger, only requiring one or more reconstructed tracks in the vertex detector. By selecting an event sample with at least one track with a transverse momentum greater than 1 GeV/c a hard QCD subsample is investigated. Several event generators are compared with the data; none are able to describe fully the multiplicity distributions or the charged particle density distribution as a function of $\\eta$. In general, the models underestimate the charged particle production.

  6. Scaling of charged particle production in d+Au collisions at √(sNN)=200GeV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Back, B. B.; Baker, M. D.; Ballintijn, M.; Barton, D. S.; Becker, B.; Betts, R. R.; Bickley, A. A.; Bindel, R.; Busza, W.; Carroll, A.; Decowski, M. P.; García, E.; Gburek, T.; George, N.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gushue, S.; Halliwell, C.; Hamblen, J.; Harrington, A. S.; Henderson, C.; Hofman, D. J.; Hollis, R. S.; Hołyński, R.; Holzman, B.; Iordanova, A.; Johnson, E.; Kane, J. L.; Khan, N.; Kulinich, P.; Kuo, C. M.; Lee, J. W.; Lin, W. T.; Manly, S.; Mignerey, A. C.; Nouicer, R.; Olszewski, A.; Pak, R.; Park, I. C.; Pernegger, H.; Reed, C.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Sagerer, J.; Sarin, P.; Sedykh, I.; Skulski, W.; Smith, C. E.; Steinberg, P.; Stephans, G. S.; Sukhanov, A.; Tonjes, M. B.; Trzupek, A.; Vale, C.; Nieuwenhuizen, G. J.; Verdier, R.; Veres, G. I.; Wolfs, F. L.; Wosiek, B.; Woźniak, K.; Wysłouch, B.; Zhang, J.

    2005-09-01

    The measured pseudorapidity distributions of primary charged particles over a wide pseudorapidity range of |η|≤5.4 and integrated charged particle multiplicities in d+Au collisions at √(sNN)=200GeV are presented as a function of collision centrality. The longitudinal features of d+Au collisions at √(sNN)=200GeV are found to be very similar to those seen in p+A collisions at lower energies. The total multiplicity of charged particles is found to scale with the total number of participants according to NdAuch=1/2Nppch, and the energy dependence of the density of charged particles produced in the fragmentation region exhibits extended longitudinal scaling.

  7. Dose calculations algorithm for narrow heavy charged-particle beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barna, E A; Kappas, C [Department of Medical Physics, School of Medicine, University of Patras (Greece); Scarlat, F [National Institute for Laser and Plasma Physics, Bucharest (Romania)

    1999-12-31

    The dose distributional advantages of the heavy charged-particles can be fully exploited by using very efficient and accurate dose calculation algorithms, which can generate optimal three-dimensional scanning patterns. An inverse therapy planning algorithm for dynamically scanned, narrow heavy charged-particle beams is presented in this paper. The irradiation `start point` is defined at the distal end of the target volume, right-down, in a beam`s eye view. The peak-dose of the first elementary beam is set to be equal to the prescribed dose in the target volume, and is defined as the reference dose. The weighting factor of any Bragg-peak is determined by the residual dose at the point of irradiation, calculated as the difference between the reference dose and the cumulative dose delivered at that point of irradiation by all the previous Bragg-peaks. The final pattern consists of the weighted Bragg-peaks irradiation density. Dose distributions were computed using two different scanning steps equal to 0.5 mm, and 1 mm respectively. Very accurate and precise localized dose distributions, conform to the target volume, were obtained. (authors) 6 refs., 3 figs.

  8. Charged particle spectroscopy with solid state nuclear track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunyadi, I.; Somogyi, G.

    1984-01-01

    Some of earlier and recent methods for differentiation of charged particles according to their energy, based on the use of polymeric etch-track detectors (CN, CA, PC and CR-39) are outlined. The principle of three track methods suitable for nuclear spectroscopy is discussed. These are based on the analysis of the diameter, surface size and shape of etch-track 'cones' produced by charged particles in polymers, after using shorter or longer chemical etching processes. Examples are presented from the results of the last decade in ATOMKI, Debrecen, Hungary, concerning the application of nuclear track spectroscopy to different low-energy nuclear reaction studies, angular distribution and excitation function measurements. These involve the study of (d,α) reaction on sup(14)N, sup(19)F and sup(27)Al nuclei, (sup(3)He,α) reactions on sup(15)N, (p,α) reaction on sup(27)Al and the process sup(12)C(sup(12)C, sup(8)Be)sup(16)O. (author)

  9. In vitro cellular transformation induced by charged particles of defined LET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hei, T.K.; Hall, E.J.; Komatsu, K.; Goldhagen, P.

    1985-01-01

    Cytotoxicity and neoplastic transformation were scored in the C/sub 3/H 10T1/2 cell system following irradiation with protons, deuterons and helium-3 ions of defined LET in the track segment mode. The charged particles were accelerated at the Radiological Research Accelerator Facility at the Nevis Laboratories of Columbia University and provided a range of LET values from 10 to 175 keV/μm. Exponential phase cultures of C3H 10T1/2 cells, growing on a thin mylar surface were irradiated with charged particles of various LET values and subsequently replated onto commercial plastic petri dishes. The cultures were incubated for six weeks at which time they were fixed, stained and type II and III scored as transformants. Over the range of LET values studied thus far, it was found that as the LET of the charged particles increased, the shoulder of the survival curves decreased and approached an exponential function of dose at LET values of 100 keV/μm and above. The transformation incidence, likewise, showed a direct correlation with LET over the dose ranges examined

  10. Charged particle identification with the liquid Xenon calorimeter of the CMD-3 detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, V.L.; Fedotovich, G.V.; Anisenkov, A.V.; Grebenuk, A.A.; Mikhailov, K.Yu.; Kozyrev, A.A.; Shebalin, V.E.; Ruban, A.A.; Bashtovoy, N.S.

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes a procedure of particle identification with the liquid Xenon calorimeter of the CMD-3 detector currently being developed. The procedure uses the boosted decision tree classification method with specific energy losses of charged particles in the liquid Xenon calorimeter as input variables. The efficiency of the procedure is illustrated by an example of the measurement of the cross section of the process e + e − → K + K − in the center-of-mass energy range from 1.8 to 2.0 GeV.

  11. A study of CR-39 track response to charged particles from NOVA implosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, T.W.; Cable, M.D.; Hicks, D.G.; Li, C.K.; Petrasso, R.D.; Seguin, F.H.

    1996-01-01

    We have exposed CR-39 track recording material to a number of NOVA implosions. Radiation from the implosion passed through an array of ranging filters, which aided identification of the incident particles and their energies. The etching procedure was calibrated by including a piece of track exposed to DD protons from a small accelerator. For the same shots, we quantitatively compare the DD neutron yield with the DD proton yield determined from the track. In DT implosions, tracks produced by neutron interactions prevent observation of charged-particle tracks that are produced by the processes of knock-on, secondary or tertiary fusion

  12. Fractional dynamics of charged particles in magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coronel-Escamilla, A.; Gómez-Aguilar, J. F.; Alvarado-Méndez, E.; Guerrero-Ramírez, G. V.; Escobar-Jiménez, R. F.

    2016-02-01

    In many physical applications the electrons play a relevant role. For example, when a beam of electrons accelerated to relativistic velocities is used as an active medium to generate Free Electron Lasers (FEL), the electrons are bound to atoms, but move freely in a magnetic field. The relaxation time, longitudinal effects and transverse variations of the optical field are parameters that play an important role in the efficiency of this laser. The electron dynamics in a magnetic field is a means of radiation source for coupling to the electric field. The transverse motion of the electrons leads to either gain or loss energy from or to the field, depending on the position of the particle regarding the phase of the external radiation field. Due to the importance to know with great certainty the displacement of charged particles in a magnetic field, in this work we study the fractional dynamics of charged particles in magnetic fields. Newton’s second law is considered and the order of the fractional differential equation is (0;1]. Based on the Grünwald-Letnikov (GL) definition, the discretization of fractional differential equations is reported to get numerical simulations. Comparison between the numerical solutions obtained on Euler’s numerical method for the classical case and the GL definition in the fractional approach proves the good performance of the numerical scheme applied. Three application examples are shown: constant magnetic field, ramp magnetic field and harmonic magnetic field. In the first example the results obtained show bistability. Dissipative effects are observed in the system and the standard dynamic is recovered when the order of the fractional derivative is 1.

  13. Charged and Neutral Particle Interactions on Aerospace Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singleterry, R.C. Jr.; Thibeault, Sheila A.; Wilkins, Richard; Huff, Harold

    2002-01-01

    Various candidate aircraft and spacecraft materials were analyzed and compared in a neutron environment using the Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) transport code and in Galactic Cosmic Ray (GCR) and Trapped environments using the HZETRN code. These candidate materials are being used in aerospace vehicles, have been tested in particle beams, or seemed reasonable to analyze in this manner before deciding to manufacture and test them. This analysis shows that hydrogen bearing materials are better than the metal alloys for reducing the number of reflected and transmitted particles. It also shows that neutrons above 1 MeV are reflected out of the face of the slab better when larger quantities of carbon are present in the material. If a neutron absorber is added to the material, fewer neutrons are transmitted through and reflected from the material. This analysis focused on combinations of scatterers and absorbers to optimize these reaction channels on the higher energy neutron component. The absorber addition did not substantially change the charged particle transmission from the value obtained for polyethylene. The ultimate goal of this type of analysis is the selection of a layered material or material type that will optimize dose, dose equivalent, and electronic error rates inside the vehicle (and outside the vehicle if necessary for the mission). This analysis focuses on how the different material types and additives behave in the atmospheric and space related particle fields. As a secondary issue, as the amount of hydrogen bearing materials increase, larger fluxes of thermal neutrons are expected. It has been observed experimentally that large thicknesses of hydrogen bearing materials increase the error rates per neutron that occurs in SRAM memory chips. This effect is still being investigated, but it has been narrowed down to the larger mean neutron energy produced by the hydrogen bearing material. (authors)

  14. Inclusive two charged particle correlations in pp collisions at total energies of 45 and 53 GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Albrow, M G; Bogaerts, A; Bosnjakovic, B; Brooks, J R; Chang, C Y; Clegg, A B; Erné, F C; Kooijman, P M; Loebinger, F K; McCubbin, N A; Murphy, P G; Rudge, A; Sens, Johannes C; Sessoms, A L; Singh, J; Timmer, J; Barber, D P no 1; Bogaerts, A no 1; Bosnjakovic, B no 1; Brooks, J R no 1; Chang, C Y no 1; Clegg, A B no 1; Erné, F C no 1; Kooijman, P M no 1; Loebinger, F K no 1; McCubbin, N A no 1; Murphy, P G no 1; Rudge, A no 1; Sens, J C no 1; Sessoms, A L no 1; Singh, J no 1; Timmer, J no 1; Albrow, M G no 1

    1974-01-01

    Measurements are reported of two particle correlations between either a pi /sup +/, p or p identified in the CHLM small angle spectrometer, and a second charged particle in the central (pionization) region. The results show short range correlation effects for each type of identified particle. Interpreting the data in terms of a cluster model, measurements suggest that approximately 50% of clusters produced at rapidity approximately 2.4 emit a proton. (5 refs).

  15. A study on alpha particles range in Cr-39

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, Z.A.; Talaat, T.M.; Abdel-Aziz, Kh.M.A.; El-Asser, M.R.

    2000-01-01

    Cr-39 plastic nuclear track detector has been used in range determination of alpha particles. A set of experiments was carried out for studying alpha energy and track diameter relationships. This work was done under the optimum conditions of Cr-39 etching in 6.25 N NaOH at 70 degree C for various etching times. Determination of alpha range in Cr-39 recorders was studied at different energy values using the over etched track profile technique. Data are discussed within the framework of track formation theory in plastic foils, comparison between experimental and theoretical values of alpha range is included

  16. Nonlinear dynamics of charged particles in the magnetotail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, James

    1992-01-01

    An important region of the earth's magnetosphere is the nightside magnetotail, which is believed to play a significant role in energy storage and release associated with substorms. The magnetotail contains a current sheet which separates regions of oppositely directed magnetic field. Particle motion in the collisionless magnetotail has been a long-standing problem. Recent research from the dynamical point of view has yielded considerable new insights into the fundamental properties of orbits and of particle distribution functions. A new framework of understanding magnetospheric plasma properties is emerging. Some novel predictions based directly on nonlinear dynamics have proved to be robust and in apparent good agreement with observation. The earth's magnetotail may serve as a paradigm, one accessible by in situ observation, of a broad class of boundary regions with embedded current sheets. This article reviews the nonlinear dynamics of charged particles in the magnetotail configuration. The emphasis is on the relationships between the dynamics and physical observables. At the end of the introduction, sections containing basic material are indicated.

  17. Search for long-lived heavy charged particles using a ring imaging Cherenkov technique at LHCb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaij, R; Adeva, B; Adinolfi, M; Affolder, A; Ajaltouni, Z; Akar, S; Albrecht, J; Alessio, F; Alexander, M; Ali, S; Alkhazov, G; Alvarez Cartelle, P; Alves, A A; Amato, S; Amerio, S; Amhis, Y; An, L; Anderlini, L; Anderson, J; Andreotti, M; Andrews, J E; Appleby, R B; Aquines Gutierrez, O; Archilli, F; d'Argent, P; Artamonov, A; Artuso, M; Aslanides, E; Auriemma, G; Baalouch, M; Bachmann, S; Back, J J; Badalov, A; Baesso, C; Baldini, W; Barlow, R J; Barschel, C; Barsuk, S; Barter, W; Batozskaya, V; Battista, V; Bay, A; Beaucourt, L; Beddow, J; Bedeschi, F; Bediaga, I; Bel, L J; Belyaev, I; Ben-Haim, E; Bencivenni, G; Benson, S; Benton, J; Berezhnoy, A; Bernet, R; Bertolin, A; Bettler, M-O; van Beuzekom, M; Bien, A; Bifani, S; Bird, T; Birnkraut, A; Bizzeti, A; Blake, T; Blanc, F; Blouw, J; Blusk, S; Bocci, V; Bondar, A; Bondar, N; Bonivento, W; Borghi, S; Borgia, A; Borsato, M; Bowcock, T J V; Bowen, E; Bozzi, C; Brett, D; Britsch, M; Britton, T; Brodzicka, J; Brook, N H; Bursche, A; Buytaert, J; Cadeddu, S; Calabrese, R; Calvi, M; Calvo Gomez, M; Campana, P; Campora Perez, D; Capriotti, L; Carbone, A; Carboni, G; Cardinale, R; Cardini, A; Carniti, P; Carson, L; Carvalho Akiba, K; Casanova Mohr, R; Casse, G; Cassina, L; Castillo Garcia, L; Cattaneo, M; Cauet, Ch; Cavallero, G; Cenci, R; Charles, M; Charpentier, Ph; Chefdeville, M; Chen, S; Cheung, S F; Chiapolini, N; Chrzaszcz, M; Cid Vidal, X; Ciezarek, G; Clarke, P E L; Clemencic, M; Cliff, H V; Closier, J; Coco, V; Cogan, J; Cogneras, E; Cogoni, V; Cojocariu, L; Collazuol, G; Collins, P; Comerma-Montells, A; Contu, A; Cook, A; Coombes, M; Coquereau, S; Corti, G; Corvo, M; Counts, I; Couturier, B; Cowan, G A; Craik, D C; Crocombe, A; Cruz Torres, M; Cunliffe, S; Currie, R; D'Ambrosio, C; Dalseno, J; David, P N Y; Davis, A; De Bruyn, K; De Capua, S; De Cian, M; De Miranda, J M; De Paula, L; De Silva, W; De Simone, P; Dean, C T; Decamp, D; Deckenhoff, M; Del Buono, L; Déléage, N; Derkach, D; Deschamps, O; Dettori, F; Dey, B; Di Canto, A; Di Ruscio, F; Dijkstra, H; Donleavy, S; Dordei, F; Dorigo, M; Dosil Suárez, A; Dossett, D; Dovbnya, A; Dreimanis, K; Dujany, G; Dupertuis, F; Durante, P; Dzhelyadin, R; Dziurda, A; Dzyuba, A; Easo, S; Egede, U; Egorychev, V; Eidelman, S; Eisenhardt, S; Eitschberger, U; Ekelhof, R; Eklund, L; El Rifai, I; Elsasser, Ch; Ely, S; Esen, S; Evans, H M; Evans, T; Falabella, A; Färber, C; Farinelli, C; Farley, N; Farry, S; Fay, R; Ferguson, D; Fernandez Albor, V; Ferrari, F; Ferreira Rodrigues, F; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Filippov, S; Fiore, M; Fiorini, M; Firlej, M; Fitzpatrick, C; Fiutowski, T; Fol, P; Fontana, M; Fontanelli, F; Forty, R; Francisco, O; Frank, M; Frei, C; Frosini, M; Fu, J; Furfaro, E; Gallas Torreira, A; Galli, D; Gallorini, S; Gambetta, S; Gandelman, M; Gandini, P; Gao, Y; García Pardiñas, J; Garofoli, J; Garra Tico, J; Garrido, L; Gascon, D; Gaspar, C; Gauld, R; Gavardi, L; Gazzoni, G; Geraci, A; Gerick, D; Gersabeck, E; Gersabeck, M; Gershon, T; Ghez, Ph; Gianelle, A; Gianì, S; Gibson, V; Giubega, L; Gligorov, V V; Göbel, C; Golubkov, D; Golutvin, A; Gomes, A; Gotti, C; Grabalosa Gándara, M; Graciani Diaz, R; Granado Cardoso, L A; Graugés, E; Graverini, E; Graziani, G; Grecu, A; Greening, E; Gregson, S; Griffith, P; Grillo, L; Grünberg, O; Gui, B; Gushchin, E; Guz, Yu; Gys, T; Hadjivasiliou, C; Haefeli, G; Haen, C; Haines, S C; Hall, S; Hamilton, B; Hampson, T; Han, X; Hansmann-Menzemer, S; Harnew, N; Harnew, S T; Harrison, J; He, J; Head, T; Heijne, V; Hennessy, K; Henrard, P; Henry, L; Hernando Morata, J A; van Herwijnen, E; Heß, M; Hicheur, A; Hill, D; Hoballah, M; Hombach, C; Hulsbergen, W; Humair, T; Hussain, N; Hutchcroft, D; Hynds, D; Idzik, M; Ilten, P; Jacobsson, R; Jaeger, A; Jalocha, J; Jans, E; Jawahery, A; Jing, F; John, M; Johnson, D; Jones, C R; Joram, C; Jost, B; Jurik, N; Kandybei, S; Kanso, W; Karacson, M; Karbach, T M; Karodia, S; Kelsey, M; Kenyon, I R; Kenzie, M; Ketel, T; Khanji, B; Khurewathanakul, C; Klaver, S; Klimaszewski, K; Kochebina, O; Kolpin, M; Komarov, I; Koopman, R F; Koppenburg, P; Kravchuk, L; Kreplin, K; Kreps, M; Krocker, G; Krokovny, P; Kruse, F; Kucewicz, W; Kucharczyk, M; Kudryavtsev, V; Kurek, K; Kvaratskheliya, T; La Thi, V N; Lacarrere, D; Lafferty, G; Lai, A; Lambert, D; Lambert, R W; Lanfranchi, G; Langenbruch, C; Langhans, B; Latham, T; Lazzeroni, C; Le Gac, R; van Leerdam, J; Lees, J P; Lefèvre, R; Leflat, A; Lefrançois, J; Leroy, O; Lesiak, T; Leverington, B; Li, Y; Likhomanenko, T; Liles, M; Lindner, R; Linn, C; Lionetto, F; Liu, B; Lohn, S; Longstaff, I; Lopes, J H; Lucchesi, D; Luo, H; Lupato, A; Luppi, E; Lupton, O; Machefert, F; Machikhiliyan, I V; Maciuc, F; Maev, O; Malde, S; Malinin, A; Manca, G; Mancinelli, G; Manning, P; Mapelli, A; Maratas, J; Marchand, J F; Marconi, U; Marin Benito, C; Marino, P; Märki, R; Marks, J; Martellotti, G; Martinelli, M; Martinez Santos, D; Martinez Vidal, F; Martins Tostes, D; Massafferri, A; Matev, R; Mathe, Z; Matteuzzi, C; Mauri, A; Maurin, B; Mazurov, A; McCann, M; McCarthy, J; McNab, A; McNulty, R; McSkelly, B; Meadows, B; Meier, F; Meissner, M; Merk, M; Milanes, D A; Minard, M N; Mitzel, D S; Molina Rodriguez, J; Monteil, S; Morandin, M; Morawski, P; Mordà, A; Morello, M J; Moron, J; Morris, A B; Mountain, R; Muheim, F; Müller, J; Müller, K; Müller, V; Mussini, M; Muster, B; Naik, P; Nakada, T; Nandakumar, R; Nasteva, I; Needham, M; Neri, N; Neubert, S; Neufeld, N; Neuner, M; Nguyen, A D; Nguyen, T D; Nguyen-Mau, C; Niess, V; Niet, R; Nikitin, N; Nikodem, T; Novoselov, A; O'Hanlon, D P; Oblakowska-Mucha, A; Obraztsov, V; Ogilvy, S; Okhrimenko, O; Oldeman, R; Onderwater, C J G; Osorio Rodrigues, B; Otalora Goicochea, J M; Otto, A; Owen, P; Oyanguren, A; Palano, A; Palombo, F; Palutan, M; Panman, J; Papanestis, A; Pappagallo, M; Pappalardo, L L; Parkes, C; Passaleva, G; Patel, G D; Patel, M; Patrignani, C; Pearce, A; Pellegrino, A; Penso, G; Pepe Altarelli, M; Perazzini, S; Perret, P; Pescatore, L; Petridis, K; Petrolini, A; Picatoste Olloqui, E; Pietrzyk, B; Pilař, T; Pinci, D; Pistone, A; Playfer, S; Plo Casasus, M; Poikela, T; Polci, F; Poluektov, A; Polyakov, I; Polycarpo, E; Popov, A; Popov, D; Popovici, B; Potterat, C; Price, E; Price, J D; Prisciandaro, J; Pritchard, A; Prouve, C; Pugatch, V; Puig Navarro, A; Punzi, G; Qian, W; Quagliani, R; Rachwal, B; Rademacker, J H; Rakotomiaramanana, B; Rama, M; Rangel, M S; Raniuk, I; Rauschmayr, N; Raven, G; Redi, F; Reichert, S; Reid, M M; Dos Reis, A C; Ricciardi, S; Richards, S; Rihl, M; Rinnert, K; Rives Molina, V; Robbe, P; Rodrigues, A B; Rodrigues, E; Rodriguez Perez, P; Roiser, S; Romanovsky, V; Romero Vidal, A; Rotondo, M; Rouvinet, J; Ruf, T; Ruiz, H; Ruiz Valls, P; Saborido Silva, J J; Sagidova, N; Sail, P; Saitta, B; Salustino Guimaraes, V; Sanchez Mayordomo, C; Sanmartin Sedes, B; Santacesaria, R; Santamarina Rios, C; Santovetti, E; Sarti, A; Satriano, C; Satta, A; Saunders, D M; Savrina, D; Schiller, M; Schindler, H; Schlupp, M; Schmelling, M; Schmelzer, T; Schmidt, B; Schneider, O; Schopper, A; Schune, M H; Schwemmer, R; Sciascia, B; Sciubba, A; Semennikov, A; Sepp, I; Serra, N; Serrano, J; Sestini, L; Seyfert, P; Shapkin, M; Shapoval, I; Shcheglov, Y; Shears, T; Shekhtman, L; Shevchenko, V; Shires, A; Silva Coutinho, R; Simi, G; Sirendi, M; Skidmore, N; Skillicorn, I; Skwarnicki, T; Smith, E; Smith, E; Smith, J; Smith, M; Snoek, H; Sokoloff, M D; Soler, F J P; Soomro, F; Souza, D; Souza De Paula, B; Spaan, B; Spradlin, P; Sridharan, S; Stagni, F; Stahl, M; Stahl, S; Steinkamp, O; Stenyakin, O; Sterpka, F; Stevenson, S; Stoica, S; Stone, S; Storaci, B; Stracka, S; Straticiuc, M; Straumann, U; Stroili, R; Sun, L; Sutcliffe, W; Swientek, K; Swientek, S; Syropoulos, V; Szczekowski, M; Szczypka, P; Szumlak, T; T'Jampens, S; Tekampe, T; Teklishyn, M; Tellarini, G; Teubert, F; Thomas, C; Thomas, E; van Tilburg, J; Tisserand, V; Tobin, M; Todd, J; Tolk, S; Tomassetti, L; Tonelli, D; Topp-Joergensen, S; Torr, N; Tournefier, E; Tourneur, S; Trabelsi, K; Tran, M T; Tresch, M; Trisovic, A; Tsaregorodtsev, A; Tsopelas, P; Tuning, N; Ubeda Garcia, M; Ukleja, A; Ustyuzhanin, A; Uwer, U; Vacca, C; Vagnoni, V; Valenti, G; Vallier, A; Vazquez Gomez, R; Vazquez Regueiro, P; Vázquez Sierra, C; Vecchi, S; Velthuis, J J; Veltri, M; Veneziano, G; Vesterinen, M; Viaud, B; Vieira, D; Vieites Diaz, M; Vilasis-Cardona, X; Vollhardt, A; Volyanskyy, D; Voong, D; Vorobyev, A; Vorobyev, V; Voß, C; de Vries, J A; Waldi, R; Wallace, C; Wallace, R; Walsh, J; Wandernoth, S; Wang, J; Ward, D R; Watson, N K; Websdale, D; Weiden, A; Whitehead, M; Wiedner, D; Wilkinson, G; Wilkinson, M; Williams, M; Williams, M P; Williams, M; Wilson, F F; Wimberley, J; Wishahi, J; Wislicki, W; Witek, M; Wormser, G; Wotton, S A; Wright, S; Wyllie, K; Xie, Y; Xu, Z; Yang, Z; Yuan, X; Yushchenko, O; Zangoli, M; Zavertyaev, M; Zhang, L; Zhang, Y; Zhelezov, A; Zhokhov, A; Zhong, L

    A search is performed for heavy long-lived charged particles using 3.0 [Formula: see text] of proton-proton collisions collected at [Formula: see text][Formula: see text] 7 and 8  TeV with the LHCb detector. The search is mainly based on the response of the ring imaging Cherenkov detectors to distinguish the heavy, slow-moving particles from muons. No evidence is found for the production of such long-lived states. The results are expressed as limits on the Drell-Yan production of pairs of long-lived particles, with both particles in the LHCb pseudorapidity acceptance, [Formula: see text]. The mass-dependent cross-section upper limits are in the range 2-4 fb (at 95 % CL) for masses between 14 and 309 [Formula: see text].

  18. Search for long-lived heavy charged particles using a ring imaging Cherenkov technique at LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, Roel; Adinolfi, Marco; Affolder, Anthony; Ajaltouni, Ziad; Akar, Simon; Albrecht, Johannes; Alessio, Federico; Alexander, Michael; Ali, Suvayu; Alkhazov, Georgy; Alvarez Cartelle, Paula; Alves Jr, Antonio Augusto; Amato, Sandra; Amerio, Silvia; Amhis, Yasmine; An, Liupan; Anderlini, Lucio; Anderson, Jonathan; Andreotti, Mirco; Andrews, Jason; Appleby, Robert; Aquines Gutierrez, Osvaldo; Archilli, Flavio; d'Argent, Philippe; Artamonov, Alexander; Artuso, Marina; Aslanides, Elie; Auriemma, Giulio; Baalouch, Marouen; Bachmann, Sebastian; Back, John; Badalov, Alexey; Baesso, Clarissa; Baldini, Wander; Barlow, Roger; Barschel, Colin; Barsuk, Sergey; Barter, William; Batozskaya, Varvara; Battista, Vincenzo; Bay, Aurelio; Beaucourt, Leo; Beddow, John; Bedeschi, Franco; Bediaga, Ignacio; Bel, Lennaert; Belyaev, Ivan; Ben-Haim, Eli; Bencivenni, Giovanni; Benson, Sean; Benton, Jack; Berezhnoy, Alexander; Bernet, Roland; Bertolin, Alessandro; Bettler, Marc-Olivier; van Beuzekom, Martinus; Bien, Alexander; Bifani, Simone; Bird, Thomas; Birnkraut, Alex; Bizzeti, Andrea; Blake, Thomas; Blanc, Frédéric; Blouw, Johan; Blusk, Steven; Bocci, Valerio; Bondar, Alexander; Bondar, Nikolay; Bonivento, Walter; Borghi, Silvia; Borgia, Alessandra; Borsato, Martino; Bowcock, Themistocles; Bowen, Espen Eie; Bozzi, Concezio; Brett, David; Britsch, Markward; Britton, Thomas; Brodzicka, Jolanta; Brook, Nicholas; Bursche, Albert; Buytaert, Jan; Cadeddu, Sandro; Calabrese, Roberto; Calvi, Marta; Calvo Gomez, Miriam; Campana, Pierluigi; Campora Perez, Daniel; Capriotti, Lorenzo; Carbone, Angelo; Carboni, Giovanni; Cardinale, Roberta; Cardini, Alessandro; Carniti, Paolo; Carson, Laurence; Carvalho Akiba, Kazuyoshi; Casanova Mohr, Raimon; Casse, Gianluigi; Cassina, Lorenzo; Castillo Garcia, Lucia; Cattaneo, Marco; Cauet, Christophe; Cavallero, Giovanni; Cenci, Riccardo; Charles, Matthew; Charpentier, Philippe; Chefdeville, Maximilien; Chen, Shanzhen; Cheung, Shu-Faye; Chiapolini, Nicola; Chrzaszcz, Marcin; Cid Vidal, Xabier; Ciezarek, Gregory; Clarke, Peter; Clemencic, Marco; Cliff, Harry; Closier, Joel; Coco, Victor; Cogan, Julien; Cogneras, Eric; Cogoni, Violetta; Cojocariu, Lucian; Collazuol, Gianmaria; Collins, Paula; Comerma-Montells, Albert; Contu, Andrea; Cook, Andrew; Coombes, Matthew; Coquereau, Samuel; Corti, Gloria; Corvo, Marco; Counts, Ian; Couturier, Benjamin; Cowan, Greig; Craik, Daniel Charles; Crocombe, Andrew; Cruz Torres, Melissa Maria; Cunliffe, Samuel; Currie, Robert; D'Ambrosio, Carmelo; Dalseno, Jeremy; David, Pieter; Davis, Adam; De Bruyn, Kristof; De Capua, Stefano; De Cian, Michel; De Miranda, Jussara; De Paula, Leandro; De Silva, Weeraddana; De Simone, Patrizia; Dean, Cameron Thomas; Decamp, Daniel; Deckenhoff, Mirko; Del Buono, Luigi; Déléage, Nicolas; Derkach, Denis; Deschamps, Olivier; Dettori, Francesco; Dey, Biplab; Di Canto, Angelo; Di Ruscio, Francesco; Dijkstra, Hans; Donleavy, Stephanie; Dordei, Francesca; Dorigo, Mirco; Dosil Suárez, Alvaro; Dossett, David; Dovbnya, Anatoliy; Dreimanis, Karlis; Dujany, Giulio; Dupertuis, Frederic; Durante, Paolo; Dzhelyadin, Rustem; Dziurda, Agnieszka; Dzyuba, Alexey; Easo, Sajan; Egede, Ulrik; Egorychev, Victor; Eidelman, Semen; Eisenhardt, Stephan; Eitschberger, Ulrich; Ekelhof, Robert; Eklund, Lars; El Rifai, Ibrahim; Elsasser, Christian; Ely, Scott; Esen, Sevda; Evans, Hannah Mary; Evans, Timothy; Falabella, Antonio; Färber, Christian; Farinelli, Chiara; Farley, Nathanael; Farry, Stephen; Fay, Robert; Ferguson, Dianne; Fernandez Albor, Victor; Ferrari, Fabio; Ferreira Rodrigues, Fernando; Ferro-Luzzi, Massimiliano; Filippov, Sergey; Fiore, Marco; Fiorini, Massimiliano; Firlej, Miroslaw; Fitzpatrick, Conor; Fiutowski, Tomasz; Fol, Philip; Fontana, Marianna; Fontanelli, Flavio; Forty, Roger; Francisco, Oscar; Frank, Markus; Frei, Christoph; Frosini, Maddalena; Fu, Jinlin; Furfaro, Emiliano; Gallas Torreira, Abraham; Galli, Domenico; Gallorini, Stefano; Gambetta, Silvia; Gandelman, Miriam; Gandini, Paolo; Gao, Yuanning; García Pardiñas, Julián; Garofoli, Justin; Garra Tico, Jordi; Garrido, Lluis; Gascon, David; Gaspar, Clara; Gauld, Rhorry; Gavardi, Laura; Gazzoni, Giulio; Geraci, Angelo; Gerick, David; Gersabeck, Evelina; Gersabeck, Marco; Gershon, Timothy; Ghez, Philippe; Gianelle, Alessio; Gianì, Sebastiana; Gibson, Valerie; Giubega, Lavinia-Helena; Gligorov, V.V.; Göbel, Carla; Golubkov, Dmitry; Golutvin, Andrey; Gomes, Alvaro; Gotti, Claudio; Grabalosa Gándara, Marc; Graciani Diaz, Ricardo; Granado Cardoso, Luis Alberto; Graugés, Eugeni; Graverini, Elena; Graziani, Giacomo; Grecu, Alexandru; Greening, Edward; Gregson, Sam; Griffith, Peter; Grillo, Lucia; Grünberg, Oliver; Gui, Bin; Gushchin, Evgeny; Guz, Yury; Gys, Thierry; Hadjivasiliou, Christos; Haefeli, Guido; Haen, Christophe; Haines, Susan; Hall, Samuel; Hamilton, Brian; Hampson, Thomas; Han, Xiaoxue; Hansmann-Menzemer, Stephanie; Harnew, Neville; Harnew, Samuel; Harrison, Jonathan; He, Jibo; Head, Timothy; Heijne, Veerle; Hennessy, Karol; Henrard, Pierre; Henry, Louis; Hernando Morata, Jose Angel; van Herwijnen, Eric; Heß, Miriam; Hicheur, Adlène; Hill, Donal; Hoballah, Mostafa; Hombach, Christoph; Hulsbergen, Wouter; Humair, Thibaud; Hussain, Nazim; Hutchcroft, David; Hynds, Daniel; Idzik, Marek; Ilten, Philip; Jacobsson, Richard; Jaeger, Andreas; Jalocha, Pawel; Jans, Eddy; Jawahery, Abolhassan; Jing, Fanfan; John, Malcolm; Johnson, Daniel; Jones, Christopher; Joram, Christian; Jost, Beat; Jurik, Nathan; Kandybei, Sergii; Kanso, Walaa; Karacson, Matthias; Karbach, Moritz; Karodia, Sarah; Kelsey, Matthew; Kenyon, Ian; Kenzie, Matthew; Ketel, Tjeerd; Khanji, Basem; Khurewathanakul, Chitsanu; Klaver, Suzanne; Klimaszewski, Konrad; Kochebina, Olga; Kolpin, Michael; Komarov, Ilya; Koopman, Rose; Koppenburg, Patrick; Kravchuk, Leonid; Kreplin, Katharina; Kreps, Michal; Krocker, Georg; Krokovny, Pavel; Kruse, Florian; Kucewicz, Wojciech; Kucharczyk, Marcin; Kudryavtsev, Vasily; Kurek, Krzysztof; Kvaratskheliya, Tengiz; La Thi, Viet Nga; Lacarrere, Daniel; Lafferty, George; Lai, Adriano; Lambert, Dean; Lambert, Robert W; Lanfranchi, Gaia; Langenbruch, Christoph; Langhans, Benedikt; Latham, Thomas; Lazzeroni, Cristina; Le Gac, Renaud; van Leerdam, Jeroen; Lees, Jean-Pierre; Lefèvre, Regis; Leflat, Alexander; Lefrançois, Jacques; Leroy, Olivier; Lesiak, Tadeusz; Leverington, Blake; Li, Yiming; Likhomanenko, Tatiana; Liles, Myfanwy; Lindner, Rolf; Linn, Christian; Lionetto, Federica; Liu, Bo; Lohn, Stefan; Longstaff, Iain; Lopes, Jose; Lucchesi, Donatella; Luo, Haofei; Lupato, Anna; Luppi, Eleonora; Lupton, Oliver; Machefert, Frederic; Machikhiliyan, Irina V; Maciuc, Florin; Maev, Oleg; Malde, Sneha; Malinin, Alexander; Manca, Giulia; Mancinelli, Giampiero; Manning, Peter Michael; Mapelli, Alessandro; Maratas, Jan; Marchand, Jean François; Marconi, Umberto; Marin Benito, Carla; Marino, Pietro; Märki, Raphael; Marks, Jörg; Martellotti, Giuseppe; Martinelli, Maurizio; Martinez Santos, Diego; Martinez Vidal, Fernando; Martins Tostes, Danielle; Massafferri, André; Matev, Rosen; Mathe, Zoltan; Matteuzzi, Clara; Mauri, Andrea; Maurin, Brice; Mazurov, Alexander; McCann, Michael; McCarthy, James; McNab, Andrew; McNulty, Ronan; McSkelly, Ben; Meadows, Brian; Meier, Frank; Meissner, Marco; Merk, Marcel; Milanes, Diego Alejandro; Minard, Marie-Noelle; Mitzel, Dominik Stefan; Molina Rodriguez, Josue; Monteil, Stephane; Morandin, Mauro; Morawski, Piotr; Mordà, Alessandro; Morello, Michael Joseph; Moron, Jakub; Morris, Adam Benjamin; Mountain, Raymond; Muheim, Franz; Müller, Janine; Müller, Katharina; Müller, Vanessa; Mussini, Manuel; Muster, Bastien; Naik, Paras; Nakada, Tatsuya; Nandakumar, Raja; Nasteva, Irina; Needham, Matthew; Neri, Nicola; Neubert, Sebastian; Neufeld, Niko; Neuner, Max; Nguyen, Anh Duc; Nguyen, Thi-Dung; Nguyen-Mau, Chung; Niess, Valentin; Niet, Ramon; Nikitin, Nikolay; Nikodem, Thomas; Novoselov, Alexey; O'Hanlon, Daniel Patrick; Oblakowska-Mucha, Agnieszka; Obraztsov, Vladimir; Ogilvy, Stephen; Okhrimenko, Oleksandr; Oldeman, Rudolf; Onderwater, Gerco; Osorio Rodrigues, Bruno; Otalora Goicochea, Juan Martin; Otto, Adam; Owen, Patrick; Oyanguren, Maria Aranzazu; Palano, Antimo; Palombo, Fernando; Palutan, Matteo; Panman, Jacob; Papanestis, Antonios; Pappagallo, Marco; Pappalardo, Luciano; Parkes, Christopher; Passaleva, Giovanni; Patel, Girish; Patel, Mitesh; Patrignani, Claudia; Pearce, Alex; Pellegrino, Antonio; Penso, Gianni; Pepe Altarelli, Monica; Perazzini, Stefano; Perret, Pascal; Pescatore, Luca; Petridis, Konstantinos; Petrolini, Alessandro; Picatoste Olloqui, Eduardo; Pietrzyk, Boleslaw; Pilař, Tomas; Pinci, Davide; Pistone, Alessandro; Playfer, Stephen; Plo Casasus, Maximo; Poikela, Tuomas; Polci, Francesco; Poluektov, Anton; Polyakov, Ivan; Polycarpo, Erica; Popov, Alexander; Popov, Dmitry; Popovici, Bogdan; Potterat, Cédric; Price, Eugenia; Price, Joseph David; Prisciandaro, Jessica; Pritchard, Adrian; Prouve, Claire; Pugatch, Valery; Puig Navarro, Albert; Punzi, Giovanni; Qian, Wenbin; Quagliani, Renato; Rachwal, Bartolomiej; Rademacker, Jonas; Rakotomiaramanana, Barinjaka; Rama, Matteo; Rangel, Murilo; Raniuk, Iurii; Rauschmayr, Nathalie; Raven, Gerhard; Redi, Federico; Reichert, Stefanie; Reid, Matthew; dos Reis, Alberto; Ricciardi, Stefania; Richards, Sophie; Rihl, Mariana; Rinnert, Kurt; Rives Molina, Vincente; Robbe, Patrick; Rodrigues, Ana Barbara; Rodrigues, Eduardo; Rodriguez Perez, Pablo; Roiser, Stefan; Romanovsky, Vladimir; Romero Vidal, Antonio; Rotondo, Marcello; Rouvinet, Julien; Ruf, Thomas; Ruiz, Hugo; Ruiz Valls, Pablo; Saborido Silva, Juan Jose; Sagidova, Naylya; Sail, Paul; Saitta, Biagio; Salustino Guimaraes, Valdir; Sanchez Mayordomo, Carlos; Sanmartin Sedes, Brais; Santacesaria, Roberta; Santamarina Rios, Cibran; Santovetti, Emanuele; Sarti, Alessio; Satriano, Celestina; Satta, Alessia; Saunders, Daniel Martin; Savrina, Darya; Schiller, Manuel; Schindler, Heinrich; Schlupp, Maximilian; Schmelling, Michael; Schmelzer, Timon; Schmidt, Burkhard; Schneider, Olivier; Schopper, Andreas; Schune, Marie Helene; Schwemmer, Rainer; Sciascia, Barbara; Sciubba, Adalberto; Semennikov, Alexander; Sepp, Indrek; Serra, Nicola; Serrano, Justine; Sestini, Lorenzo; Seyfert, Paul; Shapkin, Mikhail; Shapoval, Illya; Shcheglov, Yury; Shears, Tara; Shekhtman, Lev; Shevchenko, Vladimir; Shires, Alexander; Silva Coutinho, Rafael; Simi, Gabriele; Sirendi, Marek; Skidmore, Nicola; Skillicorn, Ian; Skwarnicki, Tomasz; Smith, Edmund; Smith, Eluned; Smith, Jackson; Smith, Mark; Snoek, Hella; Sokoloff, Michael; Soler, Paul; Soomro, Fatima; Souza, Daniel; Souza De Paula, Bruno; Spaan, Bernhard; Spradlin, Patrick; Sridharan, Srikanth; Stagni, Federico; Stahl, Marian; Stahl, Sascha; Steinkamp, Olaf; Stenyakin, Oleg; Sterpka, Christopher Francis; Stevenson, Scott; Stoica, Sabin; Stone, Sheldon; Storaci, Barbara; Stracka, Simone; Straticiuc, Mihai; Straumann, Ulrich; Stroili, Roberto; Sun, Liang; Sutcliffe, William; Swientek, Krzysztof; Swientek, Stefan; Syropoulos, Vasileios; Szczekowski, Marek; Szczypka, Paul; Szumlak, Tomasz; T'Jampens, Stephane; Tekampe, Tobias; Teklishyn, Maksym; Tellarini, Giulia; Teubert, Frederic; Thomas, Christopher; Thomas, Eric; van Tilburg, Jeroen; Tisserand, Vincent; Tobin, Mark; Todd, Jacob; Tolk, Siim; Tomassetti, Luca; Tonelli, Diego; Topp-Joergensen, Stig; Torr, Nicholas; Tournefier, Edwige; Tourneur, Stephane; Trabelsi, Karim; Tran, Minh Tâm; Tresch, Marco; Trisovic, Ana; Tsaregorodtsev, Andrei; Tsopelas, Panagiotis; Tuning, Niels; Ubeda Garcia, Mario; Ukleja, Artur; Ustyuzhanin, Andrey; Uwer, Ulrich; Vacca, Claudia; Vagnoni, Vincenzo; Valenti, Giovanni; Vallier, Alexis; Vazquez Gomez, Ricardo; Vazquez Regueiro, Pablo; Vázquez Sierra, Carlos; Vecchi, Stefania; Velthuis, Jaap; Veltri, Michele; Veneziano, Giovanni; Vesterinen, Mika; Viaud, Benoit; Vieira, Daniel; Vieites Diaz, Maria; Vilasis-Cardona, Xavier; Vollhardt, Achim; Volyanskyy, Dmytro; Voong, David; Vorobyev, Alexey; Vorobyev, Vitaly; Voß, Christian; de Vries, Jacco; Waldi, Roland; Wallace, Charlotte; Wallace, Ronan; Walsh, John; Wandernoth, Sebastian; Wang, Jianchun; Ward, David; Watson, Nigel; Websdale, David; Weiden, Andreas; Whitehead, Mark; Wiedner, Dirk; Wilkinson, Guy; Wilkinson, Michael; Williams, Mark Richard James; Williams, Matthew; Williams, Mike; Wilson, Fergus; Wimberley, Jack; Wishahi, Julian; Wislicki, Wojciech; Witek, Mariusz; Wormser, Guy; Wotton, Stephen; Wright, Simon; Wyllie, Kenneth; Xie, Yuehong; Xu, Zhirui; Yang, Zhenwei; Yuan, Xuhao; Yushchenko, Oleg; Zangoli, Maria; Zavertyaev, Mikhail; Zhang, Liming; Zhang, Yanxi; Zhelezov, Alexey; Zhokhov, Anatoly; Zhong, Liang

    2015-12-15

    A search is performed for heavy long-lived charged particles using 3.0 fb$^{-1}$ of pp collisions collected at $\\sqrt{s}$= 7 and 8 TeV with the LHCb detector. The search is mainly based on the response of the ring imaging Cherenkovdetectors to distinguish the heavy, slow-moving particles from muons. No evidence is found for the production of such long-lived states. The results are expressed as limits on the Drell-Yan production of pairs of long-lived particles, with both particles in the LHCb pseudorapidity acceptance, $1.8 < \\eta < 4.9$. The mass-dependent cross-section upper limits are in the range 2-4 fb (at 95\\% CL) for masses between 124 and 309 GeV/c$^2$.

  19. Search for free fractional electric charge elementary particles using an automated millikan oil drop technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halyo; Kim; Lee; Lee; Loomba; Perl

    2000-03-20

    We have carried out a direct search in bulk matter for free fractional electric charge elementary particles using the largest mass single sample ever studied-about 17.4 mg of silicone oil. The search used an improved and highly automated Millikan oil drop technique. No evidence for fractional charge particles was found. The concentration of particles with fractional charge more than 0. 16e ( e being the magnitude of the electron charge) from the nearest integer charge is less than 4.71x10(-22) particles per nucleon with 95% confidence.

  20. Test-particle motion in Einstein's unified field theory. III. Magnetic monopoles and charged particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, C.R.

    1986-01-01

    In a previous paper (paper I), we developed a method for finding the exact equations of structure and motion of multipole test particles in Einstein's unified field theory: the theory of the nonsymmetric field. In that paper we also applied the method and found in Einstein's unified field theory the equations of structure and motion of neutral pole-dipole test particles possessing no electromagnetic multipole moments. In a second paper (paper II), we applied the method and found in Einstein's unified field theory the exact equations of structure and motion of charged test particles possessing no magnetic monopole moments. In the present paper (paper III), we apply the method and find in Einstein's unified field theory the exact equations of structure and motion of charged test particles possessing magnetic monopole moments. It follows from the form of these equations of structure and motion that in general in Einstein's unified field theory a test particle possessing a magnetic monopole moment in a background electromagnetic field must also possess spin

  1. CHARGE-2/C, Flux and Dose Behind Shield from Electron, Proton, Heavy Particle Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ucker, W.R.; Lilley, J.R.

    1994-01-01

    1 - Description of problem or function: The CHARGE code computes flux spectra, dose and other response rates behind a multilayered spherical or infinite planar shield exposed to isotopic fluxes of electrons, protons and heavy charged particles. The doses, or other responses, to electron, primary proton, heavy particle, electron Bremsstrahlung, secondary proton, and secondary neutron radiations are calculated as a function of penetration into the shield; the materials of each layer may be mixtures of elements contained in the accompanying data library, or supplied by the user. The calculation may optionally be halted before the entire shield is traversed by specifying a minimum total dose rate; the computation stops when the dose drops below this value. The ambient electron, proton and heavy particle spectra may be specified in tabular or functional form. These incident charged particle spectra are divided into energy bands or groups, the number or spacing of which are controlled by input data. The variation of the group boundary energies and group spectra as a function of shield penetration uniquely determines charged particle dose rates and secondary particle production rates. The charged particle shielding calculation is essentially the integration of the range- energy equation which expresses the variation of particle energy wit distance travelled. 2 - Method of solution: The 'straight-ahead' approximation is used throughout, that is the changes in particle direction of motion due to elastic scattering are ignored. This approximation is corrected, in the case of electrons, by applying transmission factors obtained from Monte Carlo calculations. Inelastic scattering between protons and the shielding material is assumed to produce two classes of secondaries 1) Cascade protons and neutrons, emitted in the same direction as the primaries 2) Evaporation neutrons, emitted isotropically. The transmission of secondary protons is analyzed in exactly the same way as the

  2. Charge collection efficiency of GaAs detectors studied with low-energy heavy charged particles

    CERN Document Server

    Bates, R; Linhart, V; O'Shea, V; Pospísil, S; Raine, C; Smith, K; Sinor, M; Wilhelm, I

    1999-01-01

    Epitaxially grown GaAs layers have recently been produced with sufficient thickness and low enough free carrier concentration to permit their use as radiation detectors. Initial tests have shown that the epi-material behaves as a classical semiconductor as the depletion behaviour follows the square root dependency on the applied bias. This article presents the results of measurements of the growth of the active depletion depth with increasing bias using low-energy protons and alpha particles as probes for various depths and their comparison to values extrapolated from capacitance measurements. From the proton and alpha particle spectroscopic measurements, an active depth of detector material that collects 100% of the charge generated inside it was determined. The consistency of these results with independent capacitance measurements supports the idea that the GaAs epi-material behaves as a classical semiconductor. (author)

  3. Search for fractionally charged particles in e+e- annihilations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huth, J.E.

    1984-09-01

    We have searched for the production of free Q = +-1/3e, Q = +-2/3e and Q = +-4/3e particles produced in e + e - collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 29 GeV in 77 pb -1 of data collected by the time projection chamber at PEP. No evidence has been found for the production of these particles. Upper limits are established on the inclusive cross section for the production of Q = +-1/3e, Q = +-2/3e, and Q = +-4/3e particles in the mass range 1.0 to 13 GeV/c 2 , improving upon previously established limits. 58 references

  4. Energetic Charged-Particle Phenomena in the Jovian Magnetosphere: First Results from the Ulysses COSPIN Collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, J A; Anglin, J D; Balogh, A; Burrows, J R; Cowley, S W; Ferrando, P; Heber, B; Hynds, R J; Kunow, H; Marsden, R G; McKibben, R B; Müller-Mellin, R; Page, D E; Raviart, A; Sanderson, T R; Staines, K; Wenzel, K P; Wilson, M D; Zhang, M

    1992-09-11

    The Ulysses spacecraft made the first exploration of the region of Jupiter's magnetosphere at high Jovigraphic latitudes ( approximately 37 degrees south) on the dusk side and reached higher magnetic latitudes ( approximately 49 degrees north) on the day side than any previous mission to Jupiter. The cosmic and solar particle investigations (COSPIN) instrumentation achieved a remarkably well integrated set of observations of energetic charged particles in the energy ranges of approximately 1 to 170 megaelectron volts for electrons and 0.3 to 20 megaelectron volts for protons and heavier nuclei. The new findings include (i) an apparent polar cap region in the northern hemisphere in which energetic charged particles following Jovian magnetic field lines may have direct access to the interplanetary medium, (ii) high-energy electron bursts (rise times approximately 17 megaelectron volts) on the dusk side that are apparently associated with field-aligned currents and radio burst emissions, (iii) persistence of the global 10-hour relativistic electron "clock" phenomenon throughout Jupiter's magnetosphere, (iv) on the basis of charged-particle measurements, apparent dragging of magnetic field lines at large radii in the dusk sector toward the tail, and (v) consistent outflow of megaelectron volt electrons and large-scale departures from corotation for nucleons.

  5. Measurement of the charged-particle multiplicity in proton-proton collisions with the ALICE detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grosse-Oetringhaus, Jan Fiete

    2009-04-17

    This thesis has introduced the theoretical framework to describe multiple-particle production. The functioning of two event generators, Pythia and Phojet, as well as theoretical descriptions of the charged-particle multiplicity have been discussed. A summary of pseudorapidity-density (dN{sub ch}/d{eta}) and multiplicity-distribution measurements of charged particles has been presented. Existing results have been shown in an energy range of {radical}(s) = 6GeV to 1.8TeV from bubble chamber experiments and detectors at the ISR, Sp anti pS, and Tevatron. The validity of the introduced models was reviewed and the behavior as function of {radical}(s) was discussed. Analysis procedures for two basic measurements with ALICE, the pseudorapidity density and the multiplicity distribution of charged particles, have been developed. The former allows corrections on a bin-by-bin basis, while the latter requires unfolding of the measured distribution. The procedures have been developed for two independent subdetectors of ALICE, the Silicon Pixel Detector (SPD) and the Time-Projection Chamber (TPC). This allows the comparison of the analysis result in the overlapping regions as an independent cross-check of the measured distribution. Their implementation successfully reproduces different assumed spectra. The procedures have been extensively tested on simulated data using two different event generators, Pythia and Phojet. A comprehensive list of systematic uncertainties was evaluated. Some of these uncertainties still require measured data to verify or extract their magnitude. (orig.)

  6. A Generalized Boltzmann Fokker-Planck Method for Coupled Charged Particle Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prinja, Anil K

    2012-01-09

    The goal of this project was to develop and investigate the performance of reduced-physics formulations of high energy charged particle (electrons, protons and heavier ions) transport that are computationally more efficient than not only analog Monte Carlo methods but also the established condensed history Monte Carlo technique. Charged particles interact with matter by Coulomb collisions with target nuclei and electrons, by bremsstrahlung radiation loss and by nuclear reactions such as spallation and fission. Of these, inelastic electronic collisions and elastic nuclear collisions are the dominant cause of energy-loss straggling and angular deflection or range straggling of a primary particle. These collisions are characterized by extremely short mean free paths (sub-microns) and highly peaked, near-singular differential cross sections about forward directions and zero energy loss, with the situation for protons and heavier ions more extreme than for electrons. For this reason, analog or truephysics single-event Monte Carlo simulation, while possible in principle, is computationally prohibitive for routine calculation of charged particle interaction phenomena.

  7. Measurement of the charged-particle multiplicity in proton-proton collisions with the ALICE detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosse-Oetringhaus, Jan Fiete

    2009-01-01

    This thesis has introduced the theoretical framework to describe multiple-particle production. The functioning of two event generators, Pythia and Phojet, as well as theoretical descriptions of the charged-particle multiplicity have been discussed. A summary of pseudorapidity-density (dN ch /dη) and multiplicity-distribution measurements of charged particles has been presented. Existing results have been shown in an energy range of √(s) = 6GeV to 1.8TeV from bubble chamber experiments and detectors at the ISR, Sp anti pS, and Tevatron. The validity of the introduced models was reviewed and the behavior as function of √(s) was discussed. Analysis procedures for two basic measurements with ALICE, the pseudorapidity density and the multiplicity distribution of charged particles, have been developed. The former allows corrections on a bin-by-bin basis, while the latter requires unfolding of the measured distribution. The procedures have been developed for two independent subdetectors of ALICE, the Silicon Pixel Detector (SPD) and the Time-Projection Chamber (TPC). This allows the comparison of the analysis result in the overlapping regions as an independent cross-check of the measured distribution. Their implementation successfully reproduces different assumed spectra. The procedures have been extensively tested on simulated data using two different event generators, Pythia and Phojet. A comprehensive list of systematic uncertainties was evaluated. Some of these uncertainties still require measured data to verify or extract their magnitude. (orig.)

  8. Search for multiply charged Heavy Stable Charged Particles in data collected with the CMS detector.

    CERN Document Server

    Veeraraghavan, Venkatesh

    Several models of new physics yield particles that are massive, long-lived, and have an electric charge, $Q$, greater than that of the electron, $e$. A search for evidence of such particles was performed using 5.0~fb$^{-1}$ and 18.8~fb$^{-1}$ of proton-proton collision data collected at $\\sqrt{s}=7~$TeV and $\\sqrt{s}=8~$TeV, respectively, with the Compact Muon Solenoid detector at the Large Hadron Collider. The distinctive detector signatures of these particles are that they are slow-moving and highly ionizing. Ionization energy loss and time-of-flight measurements were made using the inner tracker and the muon system, respectively. The search is sensitive to $1e \\leq |Q| \\leq 8e$. Data were found to be consistent with standard model expectations and upper limits on the production cross section of these particles were computed using a Drell-Yan-like production model. Masses below 517, 687, 752, 791, 798, 778, 753, and 724~GeV are excluded for $|Q|=1e$, $2e$, $3e$, $4e$, $5e$, $6e$, $7e$, and $8e$, respectivel...

  9. Search for multiply charged Heavy Stable Charged Particles in data collected with the CMS detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veeraraghavan, Venkatesh [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States)

    2013-10-30

    Several models of new physics yield particles that are massive, long-lived, and have an electric charge, Q, greater than that of the electron, e. A search for evidence of such particles was performed using 5.0 fb-1 and 18.8 fb-1 of proton-proton collision data collected at √s = 7 TeV and √s = 8 TeV, respectively, with the Compact Muon Solenoid detector at the Large Hadron Collider. The distinctive detector signatures of these particles are that they are slow-moving and highly ionizing. Ionization energy loss and time-of- flight measurements were made using the inner tracker and the muon system, respectively. The search is sensitive to 1e ≤ |Q| ≤ 8e. Data were found to be consistent with standard model expectations and upper limits on the production cross section of these particles were computed using a Drell-Yan-like production model. Masses below 517, 687, 752, 791, 798, 778, 753, and 724 GeV are excluded for |Q| = 1e, 2e, 3e, 4e, 5e, 6e, 7e, and 8e, respectively.

  10. Charged particle tracking in high multiplicity events at RHIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foley, K.J.; Love, W.A.

    1985-01-01

    It is generally accepted that the ability to track some fraction of the charged particles produced in heavy ion collisions is very desirable. At a very minimum, one must detect the occurance of multiple interactions in a single crossing. The very tight beam structure at RHIC does not favor time separation, so the location of separate vertices seems the best solution. The limits of tracking large numbers of tracks in a solid angle approaching 4π have been explored. A model detector considered is a 2.5 m radius TPC, a true 3D tracking device. In order to estimate the particle density of a function of production angle, five Hijet Au-Au central events were used to deduce the particle density distribution as a function of polar angle. An important feature of a tracking detector is the effective ''pixel'' size - the area within which two tracks cannot be resolved. In a TPC with multistep avalanche chamber readout this is approximately 3 mm x 3 mm or approx.0.1 cm 2 . Using this pixel size we have calculated the radius at which the number of particles/pixel is 0.01 and 0.1. With the exception of the region very near the beam expect these distributions aren't expected to change very much with the application of a low (approx. 0.5 tesla) magnetic field. While the actual reconstruction efficiency will depend on the fine details of the apparatus and reconstruction program, the 1% fill fraction is safe for efficiencies in the 80 to 90% region. Tracking is found to be feasible at pseudorapidities up to 3

  11. A Light Universal Detector for the Study of Correlations between Photons and Charged Particles

    CERN Document Server

    2002-01-01

    The WA93 experiment combines two essential means of quark matter diagnosis: \\item a)~~~~the measurement of photon production rates relative to charged particles or $ \\pi ^0 ^{a}pos $s \\item b)~~~~the measurement of transverse momenta of charged and neutral particles and their correlations. \\end{enumerate} \\\\ \\\\ The experimental setup consists of highly segmented lead glass arrays (3780~modules) at a distance of 9~m from the target covering the range 2~$<$~y~$<$~3. The detector allows to reconstruct the transverse momentum of $ \\pi ^0 ^{a}pos $s and $ \\eta ^{a}pos $s. A preshower detector which can be operated in a hadron-blind mode complements the photon measurement in the range 3~$<$~y~$<$~5.5. The detector yields the number of photons and,~-~to a limited extend~-, information on the total electromagnetic transverse energy. Charged particle tracking is achieved by a set of newly developed multistep avalanche chambers read out by CCD cameras downstream of the GOLIATH vertex magnet. Bose-Einstein c...

  12. Quenching of scintillation in BaF2 for light charged particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matulewicz, T.

    1992-01-01

    Detectors made of a barium fluoride (BaF 2 ) crystal have recently become popular in the spectroscopy of photons and light charged particles at intermediate energies. The quenching of the scintillation light of BaF 2 crystals is described in the framework of Birks law for light charged particles in the energy range of 20-100 A MeV. Based on the recently published data, the analysis yields a value of Birks constant equal to 1.8±0.3 mg MeV -1 cm -2 and a scintillation efficiency equal to 0.79±0.05 MeV ee MeV -1 . (R.P.) 10 refs.; 2 figs

  13. A Time-of-Flight System for Low Energy Charged Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, Micheal; Sadwick, Krystalyn; Fletcher, Kurt; Padalino, Stephen

    2013-10-01

    A time-of-flight system has been developed to measure the energy of charged particles in the keV range. Positively charged ions passing through very thin carbon films mounted on grids generate secondary electrons. These electrons are accelerated by a -2000 V grid bias towards a grounded channeltron electron multiplier (CEM) which amplifies the signal. Two CEM detector assemblies are mounted 23.1 cm apart along the path of the ions. An ion generates a start signal by passing through the first CEM and a stop signal by passing through the second. The start and stop signals generate a time-of-flight spectrum via conventional electronics. Higher energy alpha particles from radioactive sources have been used to test the system. This time-of-flight system will be deployed to measure the energies of 15 to 30 keV ions produced by a duoplasmatron ion source that is used to characterize ICF detectors.

  14. Charged particle activation analysis of phosphorus in biological materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masumoto, K.; Yagi, M.

    1983-01-01

    Charged particle activation analysis of phosphorus in biological materials using the 31 P(α,n) sup(34m)Cl reaction has been studied. Since sup(34m)Cl is also produced by the 32 S(α,pn) and the 35 Cl(α,α'n) reactions, the thick-target yield curves on phosphorus, sulfur and chlorine were determined in order to choose the optimum irradiation conditions. As a result, it was found that the activation analysis for phosphorus without interferences from sulfur and chlorine is possible by bombarding with less than 17 MeV alphas. The applicability of this method to biological samples was then examined by irradiating several standard reference materials. It was confirmed that phosphorus can readily be determined at the detection limit of 1μg free from interferences due to the matrix elements. (author)

  15. Systems and methods of varying charged particle beam spot size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Jiuan

    2014-09-02

    Methods and devices enable shaping of a charged particle beam. A modified dielectric wall accelerator includes a high gradient lens section and a main section. The high gradient lens section can be dynamically adjusted to establish the desired electric fields to minimize undesirable transverse defocusing fields at the entrance to the dielectric wall accelerator. Once a baseline setting with desirable output beam characteristic is established, the output beam can be dynamically modified to vary the output beam characteristics. The output beam can be modified by slightly adjusting the electric fields established across different sections of the modified dielectric wall accelerator. Additional control over the shape of the output beam can be excreted by introducing intentional timing de-synchronization offsets and producing an injected beam that is not fully matched to the entrance of the modified dielectric accelerator.

  16. Coordinate-sensitive charged particle detector for spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidorenko V. P.

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The authors have designed, manufactured and tested a coordinate-sensitive detector for charged particle spectroscopy. The detector can be used in the devices for the elemental analysis of materials, providing simultaneous analysis of all the elemental composition with high sensitivity and precision. The designed device is based on an integrated circuit (IC and a microchannel plate (MCP electron multiplier. The IC is mounted on a ceramic substrate. Ions fall on the MCP mounted above the IC. Giving rise to a pulse which typically exceeds 106 electrons, each ion falls on the detector electrodes and these pulses are counted. In this research, a two stage stack of MCPs (Hamamatsu was used. The MCPs have a channel diameter of 12 μm on a 15 μm pitch. The results of tests carried out in a mass spectrometer are presented. The designed detector is small, light, and low-power.

  17. Inclusive charged particle cross sections in photoproduction at HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abt, I.

    1994-03-01

    Cross sections are presented for the inclusive production of charged particles measured in electron-proton collisions at low Q 2 with the H1 detector at HERA. The transverse momentum distribution extends up to 8 GeV/c. Its shape is found to be harder than that observed in anti pp collisions at comparable centre-of-mass energies √s γp ∼√s anti pp∼200 GeV, and also harder than in γp collisions at lower energies √s γp ∼18 GeV. Results from quantum chromodynamics (QCD) calculations agree with the measured transverse momentum and pseudorapidity cross sections. (orig.)

  18. Charged beam dynamics, particle accelerators and free electron lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Dattoli, Giuseppe; Sabia, Elio; Artioli, Marcello

    2017-01-01

    Charged Beam Dynamics, Particle Accelerators and Free Electron Lasers summarises different topics in the field of accelerators and of Free Electron Laser (FEL) devices. It is intended as a reference manual for the different aspects of FEL devices, explaining how to design both a FEL device and the accelerator providing the driving beam. It covers both theoretical and experimental aspects, allowing researchers to attempt a first design of a FEL device in different operating conditions. It provides an analysis of what is already available, what is needed, and what the challenges are to determine new progress in this field. All chapters contain complements and exercises that are designed in such a way that the reader will gradually acquire self-confidence with the matter treated in the book.

  19. Fundamentals of charged particle transport in gases and condensed matter

    CERN Document Server

    Robson, Robert E; Hildebrandt, Malte

    2018-01-01

    This book offers a comprehensive and cohesive overview of transport processes associated with all kinds of charged particles, including electrons, ions, positrons, and muons, in both gases and condensed matter. The emphasis is on fundamental physics, linking experiment, theory and applications. In particular, the authors discuss: The kinetic theory of gases, from the traditional Boltzmann equation to modern generalizations A complementary approach: Maxwell’s equations of change and fluid modeling Calculation of ion-atom scattering cross sections Extension to soft condensed matter, amorphous materials Applications: drift tube experiments, including the Franck-Hertz experiment, modeling plasma processing devices, muon catalysed fusion, positron emission tomography, gaseous radiation detectors Straightforward, physically-based arguments are used wherever possible to complement mathematical rigor.

  20. Diffusion of charged particles in a stochastic magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balescu, R.; Misguich, J.H.; Nakach, R.

    1992-07-01

    The diffusive motion of charged particles in a stochastic magnetic field is investigated systematically in a model in which the statistics of both the collisions and the magnetic field are described by coloured noises characterized, respectively, by a finite correlation time and finite correlation lengths. An analytic solution is obtained for the basic nonlinear differential equation of the model..It describes asymptotically a pure diffusion process, in which the mean square displacement in the perpendicular direction, Γ(t), grows proportionally to time (after a sufficiently long time). The corresponding diffusion coefficient scales like the fourth power of the magnetic fluctuation intensity. The values obtained are in very good agreement with experimental data in reverse-field pinch experiments. The present result contradicts earlier results predicting subdiffusive behaviour: Γ(t) ∼ t 1/2 or Γ(t) ∼ t 1/4 . The relation of these results to ours is discussed in detail

  1. Charged particle spectra in p+Pb collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Shulga, Evgeny; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Per-event charged particle spectra and nuclear modification factors are measured with the ATLAS detector at the LHC in p+Pbinteractions at sqrt(s_NN)=5.02 TeV. Results are presented as a function of transverse momentum, rapidity, and in different intervals of collision centrality, which is characterised in p+Pb collisions by the total transverse energy measured over the pseudorapidity interval -3.2

  2. Tumor radiobiology studies with heavy charged-particle beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curtis, S.B.; Tenforde, T.S.; Tenforde, S.D.; Parr, S.S.; Flynn, M.J.

    1981-01-01

    The response of tumor-cell systems to irradiation with carbon, neon, and argon beams at various positions in the plateau and extended peak regions of the Bragg ionization (dose versus depth) curve is being evaluated from experiments conducted both in vivo and in vitro. The radiobiological end points being studied include: tumor volume response, cellular survival after tumor irradiation in situ, cell-kinetic parameters measured by flow cytofluorometry and time-lapse cinematography, and survival of oxic and hypoxic cells irradiated in suspension. One focus of the research effort during the past year has been on the combined effect of radiosensitizing drugs and charged-particle irradiation. In this article, the results are presented of studies on combined drug and radiation treatment of a rat rhabdomyosarcoma tumor and a human melanoma tumor growing in athymic (thymus-less) nude mice

  3. Lorentz covariant canonical symplectic algorithms for dynamics of charged particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yulei; Liu, Jian; Qin, Hong

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, the Lorentz covariance of algorithms is introduced. Under Lorentz transformation, both the form and performance of a Lorentz covariant algorithm are invariant. To acquire the advantages of symplectic algorithms and Lorentz covariance, a general procedure for constructing Lorentz covariant canonical symplectic algorithms (LCCSAs) is provided, based on which an explicit LCCSA for dynamics of relativistic charged particles is built. LCCSA possesses Lorentz invariance as well as long-term numerical accuracy and stability, due to the preservation of a discrete symplectic structure and the Lorentz symmetry of the system. For situations with time-dependent electromagnetic fields, which are difficult to handle in traditional construction procedures of symplectic algorithms, LCCSA provides a perfect explicit canonical symplectic solution by implementing the discretization in 4-spacetime. We also show that LCCSA has built-in energy-based adaptive time steps, which can optimize the computation performance when the Lorentz factor varies.

  4. Some problems of calibration technique in charged particle activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krasnov, N.N.; Zatolokin, B.V.; Konstantinov, I.O.

    1977-01-01

    It is shown that three different approaches to calibration technique based on the use of average cross-section, equivalent target thickness and thick target yield are adequate. Using the concept of thick target yield, a convenient charged particle activation equation is obtained. The possibility of simultaneous determination of two impurities, from which the same isotope is formed, is pointed out. The use of the concept of thick target yield facilitates the derivation of a simple formula for an absolute and comparative methods of analysis. The methodical error does not exceed 10%. Calibration technique and determination of expected sensitivity based on the thick target yield concept is also very convenient because experimental determination of thick target yield values is a much simpler procedure than getting activation curve or excitation function. (T.G.)

  5. 21 CFR 892.5050 - Medical charged-particle radiation therapy system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...-particle radiation therapy system. (a) Identification. A medical charged-particle radiation therapy system... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Medical charged-particle radiation therapy system... equipment, patient and equipment supports, treatment planning computer programs, component parts, and...

  6. Quantitative Measures of Chaotic Charged Particle Dynamics in the Magnetotail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, D. L.; Martin, R. F., Jr.; Burris, C.

    2017-12-01

    It has long been noted that the motion of charged particles in magnetotail-like magnetic fields is chaotic, however, efforts to quantify the degree of chaos have had conflicting conclusions. In this paper we re-examine the question by focusing on quantitative measures of chaos. We first examine the percentage of orbits that enter the chaotic region of phase space and the average trapping time of those particles. We then examine the average exponential divergence rate (AEDR) of the chaotic particles between their first and last crossing of the mid-plane. We show that at resonant energies where the underlying phase space has a high degree of symmetry, only a small number of particle enter the chaotic region, but they are trapped for long periods of time and the time asymptotic value of the AEDR is very close to the average value of the AEDR. At the off-resonant energies where the phase space is highly asymmetric, the majority of the particle enter the chaotic region for fairly short periods of time and the time asymptotic value of the AEDR is much smaller than the average value. The root cause is that in the resonant case, the longest-lived orbits tend interact with the current many times and sample the entire chaotic region, whereas in the non-resonant case the longest-lived orbits only interact with the current sheet a small number of times but have very long mirrorings where the motion is nearly regular. Additionally we use an ad-hoc model where we model the current sheet as a Lorentz scattering system with each interaction with the current sheet being considered as a "collision". We find that the average kick per collision is greatest at off-resonant energies. Finally, we propose a chaos parameter as the product of the AEDR times the average chaotic particle trapping time times the percentage of orbits that are chaotic. We find that this takes on peak values at the resonant energies.

  7. Charged particle induced thermonuclear reaction rates: a compilation for astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grama, C.

    1999-01-01

    We report on the results of the European network NACRE (Nuclear Astrophysics Compilation of REaction rates). The principal reason for setting up the NACRE network has been the necessity of building up a well-documented and detailed compilation of rates for charged-particle induced reactions on stable targets up to Si and on unstable nuclei of special significance in astrophysics. This work is meant to supersede the only existing compilation of reaction rates issued by Fowler and collaborators. The main goal of NACRE network was the transparency in the procedure of calculating the rates. More specifically this compilation aims at: 1. updating the experimental and theoretical data; 2. distinctly identifying the sources of the data used in rate calculation; 3. evaluating the uncertainties and errors; 4. providing numerically integrated reaction rates; 5. providing reverse reaction rates and analytical approximations of the adopted rates. The cross section data and/or resonance parameters for a total of 86 charged-particle induced reactions are given and the corresponding reaction rates are calculated and given in tabular form. Uncertainties are analyzed and realistic upper and lower bounds of the rates are determined. The compilation is concerned with the reaction rates that are large enough for the target lifetimes shorter than the age of the Universe, taken equal to 15 x 10 9 y. The reaction rates are provided for temperatures lower than T = 10 10 K. In parallel with the rate compilation a cross section data base has been created and located at the site http://pntpm.ulb.ac.be/nacre..htm. (authors)

  8. Transverse energy distribution, charged particle multiplicities and spectra in 16O-nucleus collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sunier, J.W.

    1987-01-01

    The HELIOS (High Energy Lepton and Ion Spectrometer) experiment, installed at the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron, proposes to examine in details the physical properties of a state of high energy created in nuclei by ultra-relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions. It is generally believed that, at high densities or temperatures, a phase transition to a plasma of quark and gluons will occur. The dynamic of the expansion of such a plasma and its subsequent condensation into a hadron gas should markedly affect the composition and momentum distribution of the emerging particles and photons. The HELIOS experimental setup therefore combines 4π calorimetric coverage with measurements of inclusive particle spectra, two particle correlations, low and high mass lepton pairs and photons. The emphasis is placed on transverse energy flow (E/sub T/) measurements with good energy resolution, and the ability to trigger the acquisition of data in a variety of E/sub T/ ranges, thereby selecting the impact parameter or the violence of the collisions. This short note presents HELIOS results, for the most part still preliminary, on 16 O-nucleus collisions at the incident energies of 60 and 200 GeV per nucleon. The E/sub T/ distributions from Al, Ag and W targets are discussed and compared to the associated charged particle multiplicities from W. Charged particle and (converted) photon spectra measured with the external magnetic spectrometer are compared for 16 O + W and p + W collisions at 200 GeV per nucleon. 5 refs., 7 figs

  9. Spokes and charged particle transport in HiPIMS magnetrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenning, N; Lundin, D; Minea, T; Vitelaru, C; Costin, C

    2013-01-01

    Two separate scientific communities are shown to have studied one common phenomenon, azimuthally rotating dense plasma structures, also called spokes, in pulsed-power E × B discharges, starting from quite different approaches. The first body of work is motivated by fundamental plasma science and concerns a phenomenon called the critical ionization velocity, CIV, while the other body of work is motivated by the applied plasma science of high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS). Here we make use of this situation by applying experimental observations, and theoretical analysis, from the CIV literature to HiPIMS discharges. For a practical example, we take data from observed spokes in HiPIMS discharges and focus on their role in charged particle transport, and in electron energization. We also touch upon the closely related questions of how they channel the cross-B discharge current, how they maintain their internal potential structure and how they influence the energy spectrum of the ions? New particle-in-cell Monte Carlo collisional simulations that shed light on the azimuthal drift and expansion of the spokes are also presented. (paper)

  10. Measurement of double differential cross sections of charged particle emission reactions by incident DT neutrons. Correction for energy loss of charged particle in sample materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takagi, Hiroyuki; Terada, Yasuaki; Murata, Isao; Takahashi, Akito

    2000-01-01

    In the measurement of charged particle emission spectrum induced by neutrons, correcting the energy loss of charged particle in sample materials becomes a very important inverse problem. To deal with this inverse problem, we have applied the Bayesian unfolding method to correct the energy loss, and tested the performance of the method. Although this method is very simple, it was confirmed from the test that the performance was not inferior to other methods at all, and therefore the method could be a powerful tool for charged particle spectrum measurement. (author)

  11. A Search for Charged Massive Long-Lived Particles Using the D0 Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Y.

    2009-01-01

    A search for charged massive stable particles has been performed with the D0 detector using 1.1 fb -1 of data. The speed of the particle has been calculated based on the time-of-flight and position information in the muon system. The present research is limited to direct pair-production of the charged massive long-lived particles. We do not consider CMSPs that result from the cascade decays of heavier particles. In this analysis, the exact values of the model parameters of the entire supersymmetric particle mass spectrum, relevant for cascade decays, are not important. We found no evidence of the signal. 95% CL cross-section upper limits have been set on the pair-productions of the stable scaler tau lepton, the gaugino-like charginos, and the higgsino-like charginos. The upper cross section limits vary from 0.31 pb to 0.04 pb, for stau masses in the range between 60 GeV and 300 GeV. We use the nominal value of the theoretical cross section to set limits on the mass of the pair produced charginos. We exclude the pair-produced stable gaugino-like charginos with mass below 206 GeV, and higgsino-like charginos below 171 GeV, respectively. Although the present sensitivity is insufficient to test the model of the pair produced stable staus, we do set cross section limits which can be applied to the pair production of any charged massive stable particle candidates with similar kinematics. These are the most restrictive limits to the present on the cross sections for CMSPs and the first published from the Tevatron Collider Run II. The manuscript has been published by Physical Review Letters in April 2009 and is available at arXiv as.

  12. Numerical analysis of the influence of particle charging on the fume formation process in arc welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tashiro, Shinichi; Matsui, Sho; Tanaka, Manabu; Murphy, Anthony B

    2013-01-01

    In order to clarify the influence of electrostatic forces caused by charging of particles on the coagulation process in fume formation in arc welding, a previously developed fume formation model is modified to consider the influence of charging, for both local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) and non-LTE conditions. The model takes into account formation of the particles from metal vapour by nucleation, growth of the particles by condensation of metal vapour and coagulation of the particles by collisions to form secondary particles. Results are obtained for both ballistic and Brownian motion of the particles. It is found that the growth of secondary particles is suppressed when the average particle charge becomes significant, because charging of the particle hinders collisions among secondary particles through the strong repulsive electrostatic force. Furthermore, deviations from LTE strongly affect the coagulation process, because the increased electron density at a given gas temperature increases the charging of particles. Brownian motion leads to larger secondary particles, since the average particle speed is increased. The influence of Brownian motion and particle charging cancel each other to a large extent, particularly when deviations from LTE are considered. (paper)

  13. Single charging events on colloidal particles in a nonpolar liquid with surfactant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreuer, Caspar; Vandewiele, Stijn; Brans, Toon; Strubbe, Filip; Neyts, Kristiaan; Beunis, Filip

    2018-01-01

    Electrical charging of colloidal particles in nonpolar liquids due to surfactant additives is investigated intensively, motivated by its importance in a variety of applications. Most methods rely on average electrophoretic mobility measurements of many particles, which provide only indirect information on the charging mechanism. In the present work, we present a method that allows us to obtain direct information on the charging mechanism, by measuring the charge fluctuations on individual particles with a precision higher than the elementary charge using optical trapping electrophoresis. We demonstrate the capabilities of the method by studying the influence of added surfactant OLOA 11000 on the charging of single colloidal PMMA particles in dodecane. The particle charge and the frequency of charging events are investigated both below and above the critical micelle concentration (CMC) and with or without applying a DC offset voltage. It is found that at least two separate charging mechanisms are present below the critical micelle concentration. One mechanism is a process where the particle is stripped from negatively charged ionic molecules. An increase in the charging frequency with increased surfactant concentration suggests a second mechanism that involves single surfactant molecules. Above the CMC, neutral inverse micelles can also be involved in the charging process.

  14. The Phobos low energy telescope charged particle experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marsden, R.G.; Henrion, J.P.G.; Wenzel, K.P. (European Space Agency, Noordwijk (Netherlands). Space Science Dept.); Afonin, V.V. (AN SSSR, Moscow (USSR). Inst. Kosmicheskikh Issledovanij); Balazs, A.; Erdoes, G.; Rusznyak, P.; Somogyi, A.; Szalai, S.; Varga, A.; Varhalmi, L. (Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest (Hungary). Central Research Inst. for Physics); Richter, A.K.; Witte, M. (Max-Planck-Institut fuer Aeronomie, Katlenburg-Lindau (Germany, F.R.))

    1990-05-01

    The Low Energy Telescope (LET) experiment on board the Phobos 1 and 2 spacecraft measures the flux, energy spectra and elemental composition of solar energetic particles and cosmic ray nuclei from hydrogen up to iron in the energy range {proportional to}1 to {proportional to}75 MeV/n. The LET sensor system comprises a double dE/dX vs E solid-state detector telescope surrounded by a cylindrical plastic scintillator anticoincidence shield, and the instrument is equipped with a comprehensive particle identifier and event priority system that enables rare nuclei to be analysed in preference to the more common species. Isotope separation for light nuclei such as He is also achieved. The sensor is mounted on a rotating platform to enable coarse anisotropy measurements of low energy protons to be made. (orig.).

  15. Charges collection induced in APS by heavy particles: influence of design parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belredon, Xavier

    2003-01-01

    We have studied the design parameters influence on heavy ions-induced charge collection physics in APS. The goal is to determine the key parameters for an optimised space environment 'particle detector' APS design. It appears that diffusion is the dominant charge collection mechanism in all the studied technology types, with a smaller magnitude in case of epitaxial technologies. Following proton irradiation, a delayed charge collection and loss of collected charges have been observed. These phenomena are explained by the combination of carriers diffusion and action of the traps generated in the device. Even if they cannot be avoid in space applications, these effects are reduced in case of epitaxial technologies. This work led to the design parameters definition of an optimized APS 'particle detector' and to its fabrication. The results obtained on this APS confirm the previous conclusions and let us define the detection range of such detectors from 0.03 to 50 MeV.cm 2 .mg -1 . (author) [fr

  16. Current signal of silicon detectors facing charged particles and heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamrita, H.

    2005-07-01

    This work consisted in collecting and studying for the first time the shapes of current signals obtained from charged particles or heavy ions produced by silicon detectors. The document is divided into two main parts. The first consisted in reducing the experimental data obtained with charged particles as well as with heavy ions. These experiments were performed at the Orsay Tandem and at GANIL using LISE. These two experiments enabled us to create a data base formed of current signals with various shapes and various times of collection. The second part consisted in carrying out a simulation of the current signals obtained from the various ions. To obtain this simulation we propose a new model describing the formation of the signal. We used the data base of the signals obtained in experiments in order to constrain the three parameters of our model. In this model, the charge carriers created are regarded as dipoles and their density is related to the dielectric polarization in the silicon detector. This phenomenon induces an increase in permittivity throughout the range of the incident ion and consequently the electric field between the electrodes of the detector is decreased inside the trace. We coupled with this phenomenon a dissociation and extraction mode of the charge carriers so that they can be moved in the electric field. (author)

  17. Adiabatic description of capture into resonance and surfatron acceleration of charged particles by electromagnetic waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artemyev, A V; Neishtadt, A I; Zelenyi, L M; Vainchtein, D L

    2010-12-01

    We present an analytical and numerical study of the surfatron acceleration of nonrelativistic charged particles by electromagnetic waves. The acceleration is caused by capture of particles into resonance with one of the waves. We investigate capture for systems with one or two waves and provide conditions under which the obtained results can be applied to systems with more than two waves. In the case of a single wave, the once captured particles never leave the resonance and their velocity grows linearly with time. However, if there are two waves in the system, the upper bound of the energy gain may exist and we find the analytical value of that bound. We discuss several generalizations including the relativistic limit, different wave amplitudes, and a wide range of the waves' wavenumbers. The obtained results are used for qualitative description of some phenomena observed in the Earth's magnetosphere. © 2010 American Institute of Physics.

  18. Nanoparticle electrostatic loss within corona needle charger during particle-charging process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Chenghsiung; Alonso, Manuel

    2011-01-01

    A numerical investigation has been carried out to examine the electrostatic loss of nanoparticles in a corona needle charger. Two-dimensional flow field, electric field, particle charge, and particle trajectory were simulated to obtain the electrostatic deposition loss at different conditions. Simulation of particle trajectories shows that the number of charges per particle during the charging process depends on the particle diameter, radial position from the symmetry axis, applied voltage, Reynolds number, and axial distance along the charger. The numerical results of nanoparticle electrostatic loss agreed fairly well with available experimental data. The results reveal that the electrostatic loss of nanoparticles increases with increasing applied voltage and electrical mobility of particles; and with decreasing particle diameter and Reynolds number. A regression equation closely fitted the obtained numerical results for different conditions. The equation is useful for directly calculating the electrostatic loss of nanoparticles in the corona needle charger during particle-charging process.

  19. Structures in the K-shell delta electron spectrum near threshold for ionization by fast charged particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amundsen, P.A.; Aashamar, K.

    Results of calculations of the delta electron spectrum for K-shell ionization of atoms by fast charged particles for target charges in the range 6 2 <=40 are presented. Appreciable structure is found in the spectrum near the ionization threshold, in particular for fast projectiles and heavy target elements. The structure can be quite sensitive to the details of the effective atomic potentials. (Auth.)

  20. Theory of using magnetic deflections to combine charged particle beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steckbeck, Mackenzie K. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Doyle, Barney Lee [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Several radiation effects projects in the Ion Beam Lab (IBL) have recently required two disparate charged particle beams to simultaneously strike a single sample through a single port of the target chamber. Because these beams have vastly different mass–energy products (MEP), the low-MEP beam requires a large angle of deflection toward the sample by a bending electromagnet. A second electromagnet located further upstream provides a means to compensate for the small angle deflection experienced by the high-MEP beam during its path through the bending magnet. This paper derives the equations used to select the magnetic fields required by these two magnets to achieve uniting both beams at the target sample. A simple result was obtained when the separation of the two magnets was equivalent to the distance from the bending magnet to the sample, and the equation is given by: Bs= 1/2(rc/rs) Bc, where Bs and Bc are the magnetic fields in the steering and bending magnet and rc/rs is the ratio of the radii of the bending magnet to that of the steering magnet. This result is not dependent upon the parameters of the high MEP beam, i.e. energy, mass, charge state. Therefore, once the field of the bending magnet is set for the low-MEP beam, and the field in the steering magnet is set as indicted in the equation, the trajectory path of any high-MEP beam will be directed into the sample.

  1. Cytotoxic and mutagenic effects of high let charged particles on human skin fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuboi, Koji.; Park, M.S.; Chen, D.J.; Yang, T.C.

    1992-01-01

    Cytotoxic and mutagenic effects of high LET charged particles were quantitatively measured using primary cultures of human skin fibroblasts. The span of LETs selected were from 25 keV/μm(330 MeV/u) to 920 keV/μm (600 MeV/u). Mutations were scored at the hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (HPRT) locus using 6-thioguanine (6-TG) for selection. Exposure to these high LET charged particles resulted in exponential survival curves whereas mutant induction was fitted by a linear model. The Relative Biological Effect (RBE) for cell-killing ranged from 3.73 to 1.25, while that for mutant induction ranged from 5.74 to 0.48. Maximum RBE values were obtained at the LET of 150 keV/μm. The inactivation cross-section (σ i ) and the action cross-section for mutant induction (σ m ) ranged from 2.2 to 92.0 μm 2 and 0.09 to 5.56 x 10 -3 μm 2 respectively, the maximum values were obtained by 56 Fe with an LET of 200 keV/μm. The mutagenicity (σ m /σ i ) ranged from 2.05 to 7.99 x 10 -5 with the maximum value at 150 keV/μm. Furthermore, the results of multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of some of the mutants induced by charged particles indicate that higher LET beams are more likely to cause larger deletions in the hprt locus. (author)

  2. Role of stochastic fluctuations in the charge on macroscopic particles in dusty plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaulina, O.S.; Nefedov, A.P.; Petrov, O.F.; Khrapak, S.A.

    1999-01-01

    The currents which charge a macroscopic particle placed in a plasma consist of discrete charges; hence, the charge can undergo random fluctuations about its equilibrium value. These random fluctuations can be described by a simple model which, if the mechanisms for charging of macroscopic particles are known, makes it possible to determine the dependence of the temporal and amplitude characteristics of the fluctuations on the plasma parameters. This model can be used to study the effect of charge fluctuations on the dynamics of the macroscopic particles. The case of so-called plasma-dust crystals (i.e., highly ordered structures which develop because of strong interactions among macroscopic particles) in laboratory gaseous discharge plasmas is considered as an example. The molecular dynamics method shows that, under certain conditions, random fluctuations in the charge can effectively heat a system of macroscopic particles, thereby impeding the ordering process

  3. Effect of net surface charge on particle sizing and material recognition by using phase Doppler anemometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Jun; Xie Li

    2011-01-01

    By taking net surface charge into consideration, the scattering field of particles illuminated by dual laser beams of phase Doppler anemometry (PDA) is computed based on Mie's theory, and the effect of net surface charge on the phase-diameter relationship and the phase ratio is studied. It is found that the phase-diameter relationship and the relationship between the phase ratio and the refractive index of charged particles could be significantly different from those of uncharged particles, which would lead to errors in particle sizing and the measurement of refractive indices. A method of recognizing charged particles and determining the value of their surface conductivity, which is related to net surface charge, is proposed by utilizing the effect of net surface charge on the measurement of refractive indices using PDA.

  4. Effect of net surface charge on particle sizing and material recognition by using phase Doppler anemometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou Jun; Xie Li

    2011-01-20

    By taking net surface charge into consideration, the scattering field of particles illuminated by dual laser beams of phase Doppler anemometry (PDA) is computed based on Mie's theory, and the effect of net surface charge on the phase-diameter relationship and the phase ratio is studied. It is found that the phase-diameter relationship and the relationship between the phase ratio and the refractive index of charged particles could be significantly different from those of uncharged particles, which would lead to errors in particle sizing and the measurement of refractive indices. A method of recognizing charged particles and determining the value of their surface conductivity, which is related to net surface charge, is proposed by utilizing the effect of net surface charge on the measurement of refractive indices using PDA.

  5. Theoretical Evaluation of the Escape Rate of Charged Particles Trapped in a Potential Energy Well

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang Yongbin; Ordonez, C.A.

    2003-01-01

    In various types of charged particle sources and traps, charged particles are temporarily trapped within a potential energy well. In the work reported, a theoretical evaluation of the escape rate of trapped charged particles is carried out. As a specific example, the loss rate is evaluated for trapped plasma particles that are undergoing both collisions among themselves and collisions with particles of a different plasma species having a different temperature. Conditions are considered in which both species are confined within a nested Penning trap

  6. Transverse Motion of a Particle with an Oscillating Charge and Variable Mass in a Magnetic Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alisultanov, Z. Z.; Ragimkhanov, G. B.

    2018-03-01

    The problem of motion of a particle with an oscillating electric charge and variable mass in an uniform magnetic field has been solved. Three laws of mass variation have been considered: linear growth, oscillations, and stepwise growth. Analytical expressions for the particle velocity at different time dependences of the particle mass are obtained. It is established that simultaneous consideration of changes in the mass and charge leads to a significant change in the particle trajectory.

  7. Mixtures of latex particles and the surfactant of opposite charge used as interface stabilizers--influence of particle contact angle, zeta potential, flocculation and shear energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deleurence, Rémi; Parneix, Caroline; Monteux, Cécile

    2014-09-28

    We investigate the stabilization of air-water interfaces by mixtures of negatively charged latex particles (sulfate polystyrene) and cationic surfactants (alkyl trimethylammonium bromides). First we report results concerning the binding of surfactant molecules to the latex particles. As the surfactant concentration increases, the charge of the particles reverses, from negative to positive, because CnTAB first binds electrostatically to the latex particles and then through hydrophobic interaction with the monolayer already adsorbed on the particles as well as directly with the hydrophobic surface of the latex. Over a large range of surfactant concentrations around the charge inversion, a strong flocculation is observed and 100 μm large aggregates form in the suspension. Unlike previous studies published on mixtures of inorganic particles with oppositely charged surfactants, we show that we can vary the sign of the zeta potential of the particles without changing the contact angle of the particles over a large range of surfactant concentrations. Indeed, the latex particles that we study are more hydrophobic than inorganic particles, hence adding moderate concentrations of the surfactant results in a weak variation of the contact angle while the charge of the particles can be reversed. This enables decoupling of the effect of zeta potential and contact angle on the interfacial properties of the mixtures. Our study shows that the contact angle and the charge of the particles are not sufficient parameters to control the foam properties, and the key-parameters are the flocculation state and the shear energy applied to produce the foam. Indeed, flocculated samples, whatever the sign of the zeta potential, enable production of a stable armour at the interface. The large aggregates do not adsorb spontaneously at the interface because of their large size, however when a large shear energy is used to produce the foam very stable foam is obtained, where particles are trapped

  8. Particle-based simulation of charge transport in discrete-charge nano-scale systems: the electrostatic problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berti, Claudio; Gillespie, Dirk; Eisenberg, Robert S; Fiegna, Claudio

    2012-02-16

    The fast and accurate computation of the electric forces that drive the motion of charged particles at the nanometer scale represents a computational challenge. For this kind of system, where the discrete nature of the charges cannot be neglected, boundary element methods (BEM) represent a better approach than finite differences/finite elements methods. In this article, we compare two different BEM approaches to a canonical electrostatic problem in a three-dimensional space with inhomogeneous dielectrics, emphasizing their suitability for particle-based simulations: the iterative method proposed by Hoyles et al. and the Induced Charge Computation introduced by Boda et al.

  9. 3D Silicon Coincidence Avalanche Detector (3D-SiCAD) for charged particle detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vignetti, M. M.; Calmon, F.; Pittet, P.; Pares, G.; Cellier, R.; Quiquerez, L.; Chaves de Albuquerque, T.; Bechetoille, E.; Testa, E.; Lopez, J.-P.; Dauvergne, D.; Savoy-Navarro, A.

    2018-02-01

    Single-Photon Avalanche Diodes (SPADs) are p-n junctions operated in Geiger Mode by applying a reverse bias above the breakdown voltage. SPADs have the advantage of featuring single photon sensitivity with timing resolution in the picoseconds range. Nevertheless, their relatively high Dark Count Rate (DCR) is a major issue for charged particle detection, especially when it is much higher than the incoming particle rate. To tackle this issue, we have developed a 3D Silicon Coincidence Avalanche Detector (3D-SiCAD). This novel device implements two vertically aligned SPADs featuring on-chip electronics for the detection of coincident avalanche events occurring on both SPADs. Such a coincidence detection mode allows an efficient discrimination of events related to an incoming charged particle (producing a quasi-simultaneous activation of both SPADs) from dark counts occurring independently on each SPAD. A 3D-SiCAD detector prototype has been fabricated in CMOS technology adopting a 3D flip-chip integration technique, and the main results of its characterization are reported in this work. The particle detection efficiency and noise rejection capability for this novel device have been evaluated by means of a β- strontium-90 radioactive source. Moreover the impact of the main operating parameters (i.e. the hold-off time, the coincidence window duration, the SPAD excess bias voltage) over the particle detection efficiency has been studied. Measurements have been performed with different β- particles rates and show that a 3D-SiCAD device outperforms single SPAD detectors: the former is indeed capable to detect particle rates much lower than the individual DCR observed in a single SPAD-based detectors (i.e. 2 to 3 orders of magnitudes lower).

  10. Measurement of triboelectric charging of moving micro particles by means of an inductive cylindrical probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nesterov, A; Loeffler, F; Koenig, K; Trunk, U; Leibe, K; Felgenhauer, T; Bischoff, F R; Breitling, F; Lindenstruth, V; Stadler, V; Hausmann, M

    2007-01-01

    We present a method based on induced currents in a cylindrical probe which allows analysis of the micro-particle charging processes in an aerosol. The micro particles were triboelectrically charged by passing through a dielectric tube coaxially mounted into the probe. The cylindrical probe enabled the quantification of particle charging without prior calibration of the probe. An analytic model was developed for the description of the measured induced currents and implemented into a computer simulation program. The combination of model simulations and an appropriate experimental setup revealed comprehensive data for the determination of the particles' electric charge against time of flight through the tube. In methodological proof of principle experiments, the formations of particle clouds with charges of different signs were observed using magnetite micro particles

  11. Coordinate asymptotics of the (3→3) wave functions for a three charged particle system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merkur'ev, S.P.

    1977-01-01

    Coordinate asymptotics of the (3 → 3) wave functions for three particles system with Coulomb interaction in the scattering problem is plotted. (3 → 3) and (3 → 2) process cases are considered, when the particles are not connected at the initial state. For coordinate asymptotics plotting the basis functions are used which meet Schroedinger equation in the eikonal approximation. The wave functions coordinate asymptotics plotting method is described far from special directions. Wave function asymptotical form is studied in the range of special directions and (3 → 3) scattering amplitude singularities are described. All data are given in accordance with the system with 2 charged particles only. The model in question is of special interest because of the described ppn system the studying of which is of great importance in nuclear physics. Final formulae are discussed for the most general case of three charged particles. Boundary problems for Schroedinger equation are shown to give the only way of definition for the (3 → 3) wave functions. It is pointed out that in special directions wave function coordinate asymptotics is presented with accuracy that gives the possibility to set such a boundary problem

  12. Bounds on long-lived charged massive particles from Big Bang nucleosynthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jedamzik, Karsten, E-mail: jedamzik@lpta.univ-montp2.fr [Laboratoire de Physique Mathémathique et Théorique, CNRS, Université de Montpellier II, F-34095 Montpellier Cedex 5 (France)

    2008-03-01

    The Big Bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) process in the presence of charged massive particles (CHAMPs) is studied in detail. All currently known effects due to the existence of bound states between CHAMPs and nuclei, including possible late-time destruction of {sup 6}Li and {sup 7}Li, are included. The study sets conservative bounds on CHAMP abundances in the decay time range 3×10{sup 2} s∼<τ{sub x}∼<10{sup 12} s. It is stressed that the production of {sup 6}Li at early times T∼10 keV is overestimated by a factor ∼10 when the approximation of the Saha equation for the {sup 4}He bound state fraction is utilized. To obtain conservative limits on the abundance of CHAMPs, a Monte Carlo analysis with ∼3 × 10{sup 6} independent BBN runs, varying the reaction rates of 19 different reactions, is performed. The analysis yields the surprising result that, except for small areas in the particle parameter space, conservative constraints on the abundance of decaying charged particles are currently very close to those of neutral particles. It is shown that, in the case that the rates of a number of heretofore unconsidered reactions may be determined reliably in the future, it is conceivable that the limit on CHAMPs in the early Universe could be tightened by orders of magnitude.

  13. Bounds on long-lived charged massive particles from Big Bang nucleosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedamzik, Karsten

    2008-03-01

    The Big Bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) process in the presence of charged massive particles (CHAMPs) is studied in detail. All currently known effects due to the existence of bound states between CHAMPs and nuclei, including possible late-time destruction of 6Li and 7Li, are included. The study sets conservative bounds on CHAMP abundances in the decay time range 3\\times 10^2~\\mathrm {s}\\lesssim \\tau_x\\lesssim 10^{12}~\\mathrm {s} . It is stressed that the production of 6Li at early times T~10 keV is overestimated by a factor ~10 when the approximation of the Saha equation for the 4He bound state fraction is utilized. To obtain conservative limits on the abundance of CHAMPs, a Monte Carlo analysis with ~3 × 106 independent BBN runs, varying the reaction rates of 19 different reactions, is performed. The analysis yields the surprising result that, except for small areas in the particle parameter space, conservative constraints on the abundance of decaying charged particles are currently very close to those of neutral particles. It is shown that, in the case that the rates of a number of heretofore unconsidered reactions may be determined reliably in the future, it is conceivable that the limit on CHAMPs in the early Universe could be tightened by orders of magnitude.

  14. A Compton Imaging Prototype for Range Verification in Particle Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golnik, C.; Hueso Gonzalez, F.; Kormoll, T.; Pausch, G.; Rohling, H.; Fiedler, F.; Heidel, K.; Schoene, S.; Sobiella, M.; Wagner, A.; Enghardt, W.

    2013-06-01

    During the 2012 AAPM Annual Meeting 33 percent of the delegates considered the range uncertainty in proton therapy as the main obstacle of becoming a mainstream treatment modality. Utilizing prompt gamma emission, a side product of particle tissue interaction, opens the possibility of in-beam dose verification, due to the direct correlation between prompt gamma emission and particle dose deposition. Compton imaging has proven to be a technique to measure three dimensional gamma emission profiles and opens the possibility of adaptive dose monitoring and treatment correction. We successfully built a Compton Imaging prototype, characterized the detectors and showed the imaging capability of the complete device. The major advantage of CZT detectors is the high energy resolution and the high spatial resolution, which are key parameters for Compton Imaging. However, our measurements at the proton beam accelerator facility KVI in Groningen (Netherlands) disclosed a spectrum of prompt gamma rays under proton irradiation up to 4.4 MeV. As CZT detectors of 5 mm thickness do not efficiently absorb photons in such energy ranges, another absorption, based on a Siemens LSO block detector is added behind CZT1. This setup provides a higher absorption probability of high energy photons. With a size of 5.2 cm x 5.2 cm x 2.0 cm, this scintillation detector further increases the angular acceptance of Compton scattered photons due to geometric size. (authors)

  15. Charged Particle Tracking and Vertex Detection Group summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, G.; Meyer, D.

    1984-09-01

    Charged particle tracking is essential in order to investigate the new physics expected at the SSC. The Tracking Group studied radiation damage and rate limitations to tracking devices, vertex detectors, and central tracking. The Group concluded that silicon strips and large wire tracking chambers with small cells can probably survive at the design luminosity of 10 33 cm -2 sec -1 ; however, the presently designed electronics for silicon strip vertex detectors can withstand a luminosity of only 10 31 cm -2 sec -1 . Wire chambers at a radius of less than about 25 cm can withstand a luminosity of less than or equal to 10 32 cm -2 sec -1 only. Actual tracking and pattern recognition in central tracking chambers at a luminosity of 10 33 cm -2 sec -1 will be very difficult because of multiple interactions within the resolving time of the chambers; detailed simulations are needed in order to decide whether tracking is indeed possible at this luminosity. Scintillating glass fibers are an interesting possibility both for vertex detectors and for central trackers, but much research and development is still needed both on the fibers themselves and on the readout

  16. Pore size determination from charged particle energy loss measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brady, F.P.; Armitage, B.H.

    1977-01-01

    A new method aimed at measuring porosity and mean pore size in materials has been developed at Harwell. The energy width or variance of a transmitted or backscattered charged particle beam is measured and related to the mean pore size via the assumption that the variance in total path length in the porous material is given by (Δx 2 )=na 2 , where n is the mean number of pores and a the mean pore size. It is shown on the basis of a general and rigorous theory of total path length distribution that this approximation can give rise to large errors in the mean pore size determination particularly in the case of large porosities (epsilon>0.5). In practice it is found that it is not easy to utilize fully the general theory because accurate measurements of the first four moments are required to determine the means and variances of the pore and inter-pore length distributions. Several models for these distributions are proposed. When these are incorporated in the general theory the determinations of mean pore size from experimental measurements on powder samples are in good agreement with values determined by other methods. (Auth.)

  17. Review of neutron and charged particle intercorrelation programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garner, F.A.; Laidler, J.J.

    1977-01-01

    The U.S. LMFBR programs have sponsored a number of intercorrelation experiments which seek to provide a basis for predicting neutron-induced property changes from a large variety of charged particle simulation data. The results of these and other programs are reviewed and lead to the conclusion that simulation experiments are quite valuable in meeting the goal of providing guidance for design of fission or fusion energy generation devices. Numerous examples are given of simulation experiments which have been influenced or dominated by the presence of unrecognized atypical variables. All major U.S. intercorrelation activities have been concerned primarily with void growth experiments to simulate fast reactor conditions. This reflects not only the early program emphasis on this important radiation-induced phenomenon but also the fact that void swelling is the only high fluence property change which leaves a cumulative microstructural record in the small material volumes characteristic of simulation experiments. Based on past experiences, guidance is provided for application of intercorrelation results to environments other than those found in fast breeder reactors, and to property changes other than swelling

  18. Charged particle therapy with mini-segmented beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Avraham eDilmanian

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available One of the fundamental attributes of proton therapy and carbon ion therapy is the ability of these charged particles to spare tissue distal to the targeted tumor. This significantly reduces normal tissue toxicity and has the potential to translate to a wider therapeutic index. Although, in general, particle therapy also reduces dose to the proximal tissues, particularly in the vicinity of the target, dose to the skin and to other very superficial tissues tends to be higher than that of megavoltage x-rays. The methods presented here, namely Interleaved carbon minibeams and Radiosurgery with arrays of proton and light ion minibeams, both utilize beams segmented into arrays of parallel minibeams of about 0.3 mm incident beam size. These minibeam arrays spare tissues, as demonstrated by synchrotron x-ray experiments. An additional feature of particle minibeams is their gradual broadening due to multiple Coulomb scattering as they penetrate tissues. In the case of interleaved carbon minibeams, which do not broaden much, two arrays of planar carbon minibeams that remain parallel at target depth, are aimed at the target from 90º angles and made to interleave at the target to produce a solid radiation field within the target. As a result the surrounding tissues are exposed only to individual carbon minibeam arrays and are therefore spared. The method was used in four-directional geometry at the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory to ablate a 6.5-mm target in a rabbit brain at a single exposure with 40 Gy physical absorbed dose. Contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging and histology six month later showed very focal target necrosis with nearly no damage to the surrounding brain. As for minibeams of protons and light ions, for which the minibeam broadening is substantial, measurements at MD Anderson Cancer Center in Houston, Texas, and Monte Carlo simulations showed that the broadening minibeams will merge with their neighbors at a certain tissue depth

  19. Summary report on first research coordination meeting on heavy charged-particle interaction data for radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmans, H.; Noy, R.C.

    2008-04-01

    A summary is given of the First Research Coordination Meeting on Heavy Charged-Particle Interaction Data for Radiotherapy. A programme to compile and evaluate charged-particle nuclear data for therapeutic applications was proposed. Detailed coordinated research proposals were also agreed. Technical discussions and the resulting work plan of the Coordinated Research Project are summarized, along with actions and deadlines. (author)

  20. Infinite stochastic acceleration of charged particles from non-relativistic initial energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buts, V.A.; Manujlenko, O.V.; Turkin, Yu.A.

    1997-01-01

    Stochastic charged particle acceleration by electro-magnetic field due to overlapping of non-linear cyclotron resonances is considered. It was shown that non-relativistic charged particles are involved in infinitive stochastic acceleration regime. This effect can be used for stochastic acceleration or for plasma heating by regular electro-magnetic fields

  1. Simulation of distributed parameter system consisting of charged and neutral particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grover, P.S.; Sinha, K.V.

    1986-01-01

    The time-dependent behavior of positively charged light particles have been simulated in an assembly of heavy gas atoms. The system is formulated in terms of partial differential equation. The stability and convergence of the numerical algorithm has been examined. Using this formulation effects of external electric field and temperature have been investigated on the lifetime and distribution function characteristics of charged particles

  2. Effective potential in the problem of scattering of three charged particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kvitsinskii, A.A.; Merkur'ev, S.P.

    1988-01-01

    We study the effective interaction potential in the scattering of a charged particle by a bound state of two other charged particles. Scattering by both the ground and excited states of the target is considered. Explicit representations describing the asymptotic structure of effective potentials are proved

  3. Inclusive photoproduction of single charged particles at high pT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apsimon, R.J.; Flower, P.S.; Hallewell, G.; Morris, J.A.G.; Morris, J.V.; Paterson, C.N.; Sharp, P.H.; Atkinson, M.; Brook, N.; Coyle, P.; Dickinson, B.; Donnachie, A.; Doyle, A.T.; Ellison, R.J.; Foster, J.M.; Hughes-Jones, R.E.; Ibbotson, M.; Kolya, S.D.; Lafferty, G.D.; McCann, H.; McManus, C.; Mercer, D.; Ottewell, P.J.; Reid, D.; Thompson, R.J.; Waterhouse, J.; Barberis, D.; Davenport, M.; Eades, J.; McClatchey, R.; Brodbeck, T.J.; Charity, T.; Clegg, A.B.; Henderson, R.C.W.; Hickman, M.T.; Keemer, N.R.; Newton, D.; O'Connor, A.; Wilson, G.W.; Danaher, S.; Galbraith, W.; Thacker, N.A.; Thompson, L.

    1989-01-01

    Single charged-particle inclusive cross sections for photon, pion and kaon beams on hydrogen at the CERN-SPS are presented as functions of p T and x F . Data cover the range 0.0 T F T < 1.6 GeV/c for the photon-induced data. Using the hadron-induced data to estimate the hadronic behaviour of the photon, the difference distributions and ratios of cross sections are a measure of the contribution of the point-like photon interactions. The data are compared with QCD calculations and show broadly similar features. (orig.)

  4. Diagnostic system for passive charge-exchange particle measurements on JT-60

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemoto, Masahiro; Tobita, Kenji; Kusama, Yoshinori; Takeuchi, Hiroshi

    1988-01-01

    In order to measure energy distributions of the charge-exchange neutral particles in the JT-60 experiments, a compact size electrostatic energy analyzer which the measurable energy range is from 1 keV to 100 keV is developed successfully. Compactness of an analyzer is accomplished by setting an accelerator between a gas stripping cell and a deflector of 45deg injection type. The calibration of the analyzer was carried out owing to confirm the capability of energy analysis and stripping efficiency. This analyzer was applied to measure the energy distribution in additionally heated plasmas in JT-60. The usefullness of the analyzer was confirmed. (author)

  5. Measurements of the charged particle multiplicity distribution in restricted rapidity intervals

    CERN Document Server

    Buskulic, Damir; De Bonis, I; Décamp, D; Ghez, P; Goy, C; Lees, J P; Lucotte, A; Minard, M N; Odier, P; Pietrzyk, B; Ariztizabal, F; Chmeissani, M; Crespo, J M; Efthymiopoulos, I; Fernández, E; Fernández-Bosman, M; Gaitan, V; Garrido, L; Martínez, M; Orteu, S; Pacheco, A; Padilla, C; Palla, Fabrizio; Pascual, A; Perlas, J A; Sánchez, F; Teubert, F; Colaleo, A; Creanza, D; De Palma, M; Farilla, A; Gelao, G; Girone, M; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, G; Maggi, M; Marinelli, N; Natali, S; Nuzzo, S; Ranieri, A; Raso, G; Romano, F; Ruggieri, F; Selvaggi, G; Silvestris, L; Tempesta, P; Zito, G; Huang, X; Lin, J; Ouyang, Q; Wang, T; Xie, Y; Xu, R; Xue, S; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhao, W; Bonvicini, G; Cattaneo, M; Comas, P; Coyle, P; Drevermann, H; Engelhardt, A; Forty, Roger W; Frank, M; Hagelberg, R; Harvey, J; Jacobsen, R; Janot, P; Jost, B; Knobloch, J; Lehraus, Ivan; Markou, C; Martin, E B; Mato, P; Meinhard, H; Minten, Adolf G; Miquel, R; Oest, T; Palazzi, P; Pater, J R; Pusztaszeri, J F; Ranjard, F; Rensing, P E; Rolandi, Luigi; Schlatter, W D; Schmelling, M; Schneider, O; Tejessy, W; Tomalin, I R; Venturi, A; Wachsmuth, H W; Wiedenmann, W; Wildish, T; Witzeling, W; Wotschack, J; Ajaltouni, Ziad J; Bardadin-Otwinowska, Maria; Barrès, A; Boyer, C; Falvard, A; Gay, P; Guicheney, C; Henrard, P; Jousset, J; Michel, B; Monteil, S; Montret, J C; Pallin, D; Perret, P; Podlyski, F; Proriol, J; Rossignol, J M; Saadi, F; Fearnley, Tom; Hansen, J B; Hansen, J D; Hansen, J R; Hansen, P H; Nilsson, B S; Kyriakis, A; Simopoulou, Errietta; Siotis, I; Vayaki, Anna; Zachariadou, K; Blondel, A; Bonneaud, G R; Brient, J C; Bourdon, P; Passalacqua, L; Rougé, A; Rumpf, M; Tanaka, R; Valassi, Andrea; Verderi, M; Videau, H L; Candlin, D J; Parsons, M I; Focardi, E; Parrini, G; Corden, M; Delfino, M C; Georgiopoulos, C H; Jaffe, D E; Antonelli, A; Bencivenni, G; Bologna, G; Bossi, F; Campana, P; Capon, G; Chiarella, V; Felici, G; Laurelli, P; Mannocchi, G; Murtas, F; Murtas, G P; Pepé-Altarelli, M; Dorris, S J; Halley, A W; ten Have, I; Knowles, I G; Lynch, J G; Morton, W T; O'Shea, V; Raine, C; Reeves, P; Scarr, J M; Smith, K; Smith, M G; Thompson, A S; Thomson, F; Thorn, S; Turnbull, R M; Becker, U; Braun, O; Geweniger, C; Graefe, G; Hanke, P; Hepp, V; Kluge, E E; Putzer, A; Rensch, B; Schmidt, M; Sommer, J; Stenzel, H; Tittel, K; Werner, S; Wunsch, M; Beuselinck, R; Binnie, David M; Cameron, W; Colling, D J; Dornan, Peter J; Konstantinidis, N P; Moneta, L; Moutoussi, A; Nash, J; San Martin, G; Sedgbeer, J K; Stacey, A M; Dissertori, G; Girtler, P; Kneringer, E; Kuhn, D; Rudolph, G; Bowdery, C K; Brodbeck, T J; Colrain, P; Crawford, G; Finch, A J; Foster, F; Hughes, G; Sloan, Terence; Whelan, E P; Williams, M I; Galla, A; Greene, A M; Kleinknecht, K; Quast, G; Raab, J; Renk, B; Sander, H G; Wanke, R; Zeitnitz, C; Aubert, Jean-Jacques; Bencheikh, A M; Benchouk, C; Bonissent, A; Bujosa, G; Calvet, D; Carr, J; Diaconu, C A; Etienne, F; Thulasidas, M; Nicod, D; Payre, P; Rousseau, D; Talby, M; Abt, I; Assmann, R W; Bauer, C; Blum, Walter; Brown, D; Dietl, H; Dydak, Friedrich; Ganis, G; Gotzhein, C; Jakobs, K; Kroha, H; Lütjens, G; Lutz, Gerhard; Männer, W; Moser, H G; Richter, R H; Rosado-Schlosser, A; Settles, Ronald; Seywerd, H C J; Stierlin, U; Saint-Denis, R; Wolf, G; Alemany, R; Boucrot, J; Callot, O; Cordier, A; Courault, F; Davier, M; Duflot, L; Grivaz, J F; Jacquet, M; Kim, D W; Le Diberder, F R; Lefrançois, J; Lutz, A M; Musolino, G; Nikolic, I A; Park, H J; Park, I C; Schune, M H; Simion, S; Veillet, J J; Videau, I; Abbaneo, D; Azzurri, P; Bagliesi, G; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bozzi, C; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Ciocci, M A; Ciulli, V; Dell'Orso, R; Fantechi, R; Ferrante, I; Foà, L; Forti, F; Giassi, A; Giorgi, M A; Gregorio, A; Ligabue, F; Lusiani, A; Marrocchesi, P S; Messineo, A; Rizzo, G; Sanguinetti, G; Sciabà, A; Spagnolo, P; Steinberger, Jack; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, G; Triggiani, G; Vannini, C; Verdini, P G; Walsh, J; Betteridge, A P; Blair, G A; Bryant, L M; Cerutti, F; Gao, Y; Green, M G; Johnson, D L; Medcalf, T; Mir, M; Perrodo, P; Strong, J A; Bertin, V; Botterill, David R; Clifft, R W; Edgecock, T R; Haywood, S; Edwards, M; Maley, P; Norton, P R; Thompson, J C; Bloch-Devaux, B; Colas, P; Duarte, H; Emery, S; Kozanecki, Witold; Lançon, E; Lemaire, M C; Locci, E; Marx, B; Pérez, P; Rander, J; Renardy, J F; Rosowsky, A; Roussarie, A; Schuller, J P; Schwindling, J; Si Mohand, D; Trabelsi, A; Vallage, B; Johnson, R P; Kim, H Y; Litke, A M; McNeil, M A; Taylor, G; Beddall, A; Booth, C N; Boswell, R; Cartwright, S L; Combley, F; Dawson, I; Köksal, A; Letho, M; Newton, W M; Rankin, C; Thompson, L F; Böhrer, A; Brandt, S; Cowan, G D; Feigl, E; Grupen, Claus; Lutters, G; Minguet-Rodríguez, J A; Rivera, F; Saraiva, P; Smolik, L; Stephan, F; Apollonio, M; Bosisio, L; Della Marina, R; Giannini, G; Gobbo, B; Ragusa, F; Rothberg, J E; Wasserbaech, S R; Armstrong, S R; Bellantoni, L; Elmer, P; Feng, Z; Ferguson, D P S; Gao, Y S; González, S; Grahl, J; Harton, J L; Hayes, O J; Hu, H; McNamara, P A; Nachtman, J M; Orejudos, W; Pan, Y B; Saadi, Y; Schmitt, M; Scott, I J; Sharma, V; Turk, J; Walsh, A M; Wu Sau Lan; Wu, X; Yamartino, J M; Zheng, M; Zobernig, G

    1995-01-01

    Charged particle multiplicity distributions have been measured with the ALEPH detector in restricted rapidity intervals |Y| \\leq 0.5,1.0, 1.5,2.0\\/ along the thrust axis and also without restriction on rapidity. The distribution for the full range can be parametrized by a log-normal distribution. For smaller windows one finds a more complicated structure, which is understood to arise from perturbative effects. The negative-binomial distribution fails to describe the data both with and without the restriction on rapidity. The JETSET model is found to describe all aspects of the data while the width predicted by HERWIG is in significant disagreement.

  6. Two reactions method for accurate analysis by irradiation with charged particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, K.; Sastri, C.S.; Valladon, M.; Borderie, B.; Debrun, J.L.

    1978-01-01

    In the average stopping power method the formula error itself was negligible but systematic errors could be introduced by the stopping power data used in this formula. A method directly derived from the average stopping power method, but based on the use of two nuclear reactions, is described here. This method has a negligible formula error and does not require the use of any stopping power or range data: accurate and 'self-consistent' analysis by irradiation with charged particles is then possible. (Auth.)

  7. A novel transition radiation detector utilizing superconducting microspheres for measuring the energy of relativistic high-energy charged particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Luke C.L.; Chen, C.P.; Huang, C.Y.; Lee, S.C.; Waysand, G.; Perrier, P.; Limagne, D.; Jeudy, V.; Girard, T.

    2000-01-01

    A novel transition radiation detector (TRD) utilizing superheated superconducting microspheres of tin of 22-26, 27-32 and 32-38 μm in diameter, respectively, has been constructed which is capable of measuring accurately the energy of relativistic high-energy charged particles. The test has been conducted in a high-energy electron beam facility at the CERN PS in the energy range of 1-10 GeV showing an energy dependence of the TR X-ray photon produced and hence the value γ=E/mc 2 of the charged particle

  8. Search for fractionally charged particles in pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Chatrchyan, Serguei; Sirunyan, Albert M; Tumasyan, Armen; Adam, Wolfgang; Aguilo, Ernest; Bergauer, Thomas; Dragicevic, Marko; Erö, Janos; Fabjan, Christian; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; Hammer, Josef; Hörmann, Natascha; Hrubec, Josef; Jeitler, Manfred; Kiesenhofer, Wolfgang; Knünz, Valentin; Krammer, Manfred; Krätschmer, Ilse; Liko, Dietrich; Mikulec, Ivan; Pernicka, Manfred; Rahbaran, Babak; Rohringer, Christine; Rohringer, Herbert; Schöfbeck, Robert; Strauss, Josef; Taurok, Anton; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Walzel, Gerhard; Widl, Edmund; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Mossolov, Vladimir; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Suarez Gonzalez, Juan; Bansal, Monika; Bansal, Sunil; Cornelis, Tom; De Wolf, Eddi A; Janssen, Xavier; Luyckx, Sten; Mucibello, Luca; Ochesanu, Silvia; Roland, Benoit; Rougny, Romain; Selvaggi, Michele; Staykova, Zlatka; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Remortel, Nick; Van Spilbeeck, Alex; Blekman, Freya; Blyweert, Stijn; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Gonzalez Suarez, Rebeca; Kalogeropoulos, Alexis; Maes, Michael; Olbrechts, Annik; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Mulders, Petra; Van Onsem, Gerrit Patrick; Villella, Ilaria; Clerbaux, Barbara; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Dero, Vincent; Gay, Arnaud; Hreus, Tomas; Léonard, Alexandre; Marage, Pierre Edouard; Mohammadi, Abdollah; Reis, Thomas; Thomas, Laurent; Vander Marcken, Gil; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Wang, Jian; Adler, Volker; Beernaert, Kelly; Cimmino, Anna; Costantini, Silvia; Garcia, Guillaume; Grunewald, Martin; Klein, Benjamin; Lellouch, Jérémie; Marinov, Andrey; Mccartin, Joseph; Ocampo Rios, Alberto Andres; Ryckbosch, Dirk; Strobbe, Nadja; Thyssen, Filip; Tytgat, Michael; Verwilligen, Piet; Walsh, Sinead; Yazgan, Efe; Zaganidis, Nicolas; Basegmez, Suzan; Bruno, Giacomo; Castello, Roberto; Ceard, Ludivine; Delaere, Christophe; Du Pree, Tristan; Favart, Denis; Forthomme, Laurent; Giammanco, Andrea; Hollar, Jonathan; Lemaitre, Vincent; Liao, Junhui; Militaru, Otilia; Nuttens, Claude; Pagano, Davide; Pin, Arnaud; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Schul, Nicolas; Vizan Garcia, Jesus Manuel; Beliy, Nikita; Caebergs, Thierry; Daubie, Evelyne; Hammad, Gregory Habib; Alves, Gilvan; Correa Martins Junior, Marcos; De Jesus Damiao, Dilson; Martins, Thiago; Pol, Maria Elena; Henrique Gomes E Souza, Moacyr; Aldá Júnior, Walter Luiz; Carvalho, Wagner; Custódio, Analu; Melo Da Costa, Eliza; De Oliveira Martins, Carley; Fonseca De Souza, Sandro; Matos Figueiredo, Diego; Mundim, Luiz; Nogima, Helio; Oguri, Vitor; Prado Da Silva, Wanda Lucia; Santoro, Alberto; Soares Jorge, Luana; Sznajder, Andre; Souza Dos Anjos, Tiago; Bernardes, Cesar Augusto; De Almeida Dias, Flavia; Tomei, Thiago; De Moraes Gregores, Eduardo; Lagana, Caio; Da Cunha Marinho, Franciole; Mercadante, Pedro G; Novaes, Sergio F; Padula, Sandra; Genchev, Vladimir; Iaydjiev, Plamen; Piperov, Stefan; Rodozov, Mircho; Stoykova, Stefka; Sultanov, Georgi; Tcholakov, Vanio; Trayanov, Rumen; Vutova, Mariana; Dimitrov, Anton; Hadjiiska, Roumyana; Kozhuharov, Venelin; Litov, Leander; Pavlov, Borislav; Petkov, Peicho; Bian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Guo-Ming; Chen, He-Sheng; Jiang, Chun-Hua; Liang, Dong; Liang, Song; Meng, Xiangwei; Tao, Junquan; Wang, Jian; Wang, Xianyou; Wang, Zheng; Xiao, Hong; Xu, Ming; Zang, Jingjing; Zhang, Zhen; Asawatangtrakuldee, Chayanit; Ban, Yong; Guo, Yifei; Li, Wenbo; Liu, Shuai; Mao, Yajun; Qian, Si-Jin; Teng, Haiyun; Wang, Dayong; Zhang, Linlin; Zou, Wei; Avila, Carlos; Gomez, Juan Pablo; Gomez Moreno, Bernardo; Osorio Oliveros, Andres Felipe; Sanabria, Juan Carlos; Godinovic, Nikola; Lelas, Damir; Plestina, Roko; Polic, Dunja; Puljak, Ivica; Antunovic, Zeljko; Kovac, Marko; Brigljevic, Vuko; Duric, Senka; Kadija, Kreso; Luetic, Jelena; Morovic, Srecko; Attikis, Alexandros; Galanti, Mario; Mavromanolakis, Georgios; Mousa, Jehad; Nicolaou, Charalambos; Ptochos, Fotios; Razis, Panos A; Finger, Miroslav; Finger Jr, Michael; Assran, Yasser; Elgammal, Sherif; Ellithi Kamel, Ali; Khalil, Shaaban; Mahmoud, Mohammed; Radi, Amr; Kadastik, Mario; Müntel, Mait; Raidal, Martti; Rebane, Liis; Tiko, Andres; Eerola, Paula; Fedi, Giacomo; Voutilainen, Mikko; Härkönen, Jaakko; Heikkinen, Mika Aatos; Karimäki, Veikko; Kinnunen, Ritva; Kortelainen, Matti J; Lampén, Tapio; Lassila-Perini, Kati; Lehti, Sami; Lindén, Tomas; Luukka, Panja-Riina; Mäenpää, Teppo; Peltola, Timo; Tuominen, Eija; Tuominiemi, Jorma; Tuovinen, Esa; Ungaro, Donatella; Wendland, Lauri; Banzuzi, Kukka; Karjalainen, Ahti; Korpela, Arja; Tuuva, Tuure; Besancon, Marc; Choudhury, Somnath; Dejardin, Marc; Denegri, Daniel; Fabbro, Bernard; Faure, Jean-Louis; Ferri, Federico; Ganjour, Serguei; Givernaud, Alain; Gras, Philippe; Hamel de Monchenault, Gautier; Jarry, Patrick; Locci, Elizabeth; Malcles, Julie; Millischer, Laurent; Nayak, Aruna; Rander, John; Rosowsky, André; Shreyber, Irina; Titov, Maksym; Baffioni, Stephanie; Beaudette, Florian; Benhabib, Lamia; Bianchini, Lorenzo; Bluj, Michal; Broutin, Clementine; Busson, Philippe; Charlot, Claude; Daci, Nadir; Dahms, Torsten; Dobrzynski, Ludwik; Granier de Cassagnac, Raphael; Haguenauer, Maurice; Miné, Philippe; Mironov, Camelia; Naranjo, Ivo Nicolas; Nguyen, Matthew; Ochando, Christophe; Paganini, Pascal; Sabes, David; Salerno, Roberto; Sirois, Yves; Veelken, Christian; Zabi, Alexandre; Agram, Jean-Laurent; Andrea, Jeremy; Bloch, Daniel; Bodin, David; Brom, Jean-Marie; Cardaci, Marco; Chabert, Eric Christian; Collard, Caroline; Conte, Eric; Drouhin, Frédéric; Ferro, Cristina; Fontaine, Jean-Charles; Gelé, Denis; Goerlach, Ulrich; Juillot, Pierre; Le Bihan, Anne-Catherine; Van Hove, Pierre; Fassi, Farida; Mercier, Damien; Beauceron, Stephanie; Beaupere, Nicolas; Bondu, Olivier; Boudoul, Gaelle; Chasserat, Julien; Chierici, Roberto; Contardo, Didier; Depasse, Pierre; El Mamouni, Houmani; Fay, Jean; Gascon, Susan; Gouzevitch, Maxime; Ille, Bernard; Kurca, Tibor; Lethuillier, Morgan; Mirabito, Laurent; Perries, Stephane; Sgandurra, Louis; Sordini, Viola; Tschudi, Yohann; Verdier, Patrice; Viret, Sébastien; Tsamalaidze, Zviad; Anagnostou, Georgios; Autermann, Christian; Beranek, Sarah; Edelhoff, Matthias; Feld, Lutz; Heracleous, Natalie; Hindrichs, Otto; Jussen, Ruediger; Klein, Katja; Merz, Jennifer; Ostapchuk, Andrey; Perieanu, Adrian; Raupach, Frank; Sammet, Jan; Schael, Stefan; Sprenger, Daniel; Weber, Hendrik; Wittmer, Bruno; Zhukov, Valery; Ata, Metin; Caudron, Julien; Dietz-Laursonn, Erik; Duchardt, Deborah; Erdmann, Martin; Fischer, Robert; Güth, Andreas; Hebbeker, Thomas; Heidemann, Carsten; Hoepfner, Kerstin; Klingebiel, Dennis; Kreuzer, Peter; Merschmeyer, Markus; Meyer, Arnd; Olschewski, Mark; Papacz, Paul; Pieta, Holger; Reithler, Hans; Schmitz, Stefan Antonius; Sonnenschein, Lars; Steggemann, Jan; Teyssier, Daniel; Weber, Martin; Bontenackels, Michael; Cherepanov, Vladimir; Erdogan, Yusuf; Flügge, Günter; Geenen, Heiko; Geisler, Matthias; Haj Ahmad, Wael; Hoehle, Felix; Kargoll, Bastian; Kress, Thomas; Kuessel, Yvonne; Lingemann, Joschka; Nowack, Andreas; Perchalla, Lars; Pooth, Oliver; Sauerland, Philip; Stahl, Achim; Aldaya Martin, Maria; Behr, Joerg; Behrenhoff, Wolf; Behrens, Ulf; Bergholz, Matthias; Bethani, Agni; Borras, Kerstin; Burgmeier, Armin; Cakir, Altan; Calligaris, Luigi; Campbell, Alan; Castro, Elena; Costanza, Francesco; Dammann, Dirk; Diez Pardos, Carmen; Eckerlin, Guenter; Eckstein, Doris; Flucke, Gero; Geiser, Achim; Glushkov, Ivan; Gunnellini, Paolo; Habib, Shiraz; Hauk, Johannes; Hellwig, Gregor; Jung, Hannes; Kasemann, Matthias; Katsas, Panagiotis; Kleinwort, Claus; Kluge, Hannelies; Knutsson, Albert; Krämer, Mira; Krücker, Dirk; Kuznetsova, Ekaterina; Lange, Wolfgang; Lohmann, Wolfgang; Lutz, Benjamin; Mankel, Rainer; Marfin, Ihar; Marienfeld, Markus; Melzer-Pellmann, Isabell-Alissandra; Meyer, Andreas Bernhard; Mnich, Joachim; Mussgiller, Andreas; Naumann-Emme, Sebastian; Novgorodova, Olga; Olzem, Jan; Perrey, Hanno; Petrukhin, Alexey; Pitzl, Daniel; Raspereza, Alexei; Ribeiro Cipriano, Pedro M; Riedl, Caroline; Ron, Elias; Rosin, Michele; Salfeld-Nebgen, Jakob; Schmidt, Ringo; Schoerner-Sadenius, Thomas; Sen, Niladri; Spiridonov, Alexander; Stein, Matthias; Walsh, Roberval; Wissing, Christoph; Blobel, Volker; Draeger, Jula; Enderle, Holger; Erfle, Joachim; Gebbert, Ulla; Görner, Martin; Hermanns, Thomas; Höing, Rebekka Sophie; Kaschube, Kolja; Kaussen, Gordon; Kirschenmann, Henning; Klanner, Robert; Lange, Jörn; Mura, Benedikt; Nowak, Friederike; Peiffer, Thomas; Pietsch, Niklas; Rathjens, Denis; Sander, Christian; Schettler, Hannes; Schleper, Peter; Schlieckau, Eike; Schmidt, Alexander; Schröder, Matthias; Schum, Torben; Seidel, Markus; Sola, Valentina; Stadie, Hartmut; Steinbrück, Georg; Thomsen, Jan; Vanelderen, Lukas; Barth, Christian; Berger, Joram; Böser, Christian; Chwalek, Thorsten; De Boer, Wim; Descroix, Alexis; Dierlamm, Alexander; Feindt, Michael; Guthoff, Moritz; Hackstein, Christoph; Hartmann, Frank; Hauth, Thomas; Heinrich, Michael; Held, Hauke; Hoffmann, Karl-Heinz; Husemann, Ulrich; Katkov, Igor; Komaragiri, Jyothsna Rani; Lobelle Pardo, Patricia; Martschei, Daniel; Mueller, Steffen; Müller, Thomas; Niegel, Martin; Nürnberg, Andreas; Oberst, Oliver; Oehler, Andreas; Ott, Jochen; Quast, Gunter; Rabbertz, Klaus; Ratnikov, Fedor; Ratnikova, Natalia; Röcker, Steffen; Schilling, Frank-Peter; Schott, Gregory; Simonis, Hans-Jürgen; Stober, Fred-Markus Helmut; Troendle, Daniel; Ulrich, Ralf; Wagner-Kuhr, Jeannine; Wayand, Stefan; Weiler, Thomas; Zeise, Manuel; Daskalakis, Georgios; Geralis, Theodoros; Kesisoglou, Stilianos; Kyriakis, Aristotelis; Loukas, Demetrios; Manolakos, Ioannis; Markou, Athanasios; Markou, Christos; Mavrommatis, Charalampos; Ntomari, Eleni; Gouskos, Loukas; Mertzimekis, Theodoros; Panagiotou, Apostolos; Saoulidou, Niki; Evangelou, Ioannis; Foudas, Costas; Kokkas, Panagiotis; Manthos, Nikolaos; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Patras, Vaios; Bencze, Gyorgy; Hajdu, Csaba; Hidas, Pàl; Horvath, Dezso; Sikler, Ferenc; Veszpremi, Viktor; Vesztergombi, Gyorgy; Beni, Noemi; Czellar, Sandor; Molnar, Jozsef; Palinkas, Jozsef; Szillasi, Zoltan; Karancsi, János; Raics, Peter; Trocsanyi, Zoltan Laszlo; Ujvari, Balazs; Beri, Suman Bala; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Dhingra, Nitish; Gupta, Ruchi; Kaur, Manjit; Mehta, Manuk Zubin; Nishu, Nishu; Saini, Lovedeep Kaur; Sharma, Archana; Singh, Jasbir; Kumar, Ashok; Kumar, Arun; Ahuja, Sudha; Bhardwaj, Ashutosh; Choudhary, Brajesh C; Malhotra, Shivali; Naimuddin, Md; Ranjan, Kirti; Sharma, Varun; Shivpuri, Ram Krishen; Banerjee, Sunanda; Bhattacharya, Satyaki; Dutta, Suchandra; Gomber, Bhawna; Jain, Sandhya; Jain, Shilpi; Khurana, Raman; Sarkar, Subir; Sharan, Manoj; Abdulsalam, Abdulla; Choudhury, Rajani Kant; Dutta, Dipanwita; Kailas, Swaminathan; Kumar, Vineet; Mehta, Pourus; Mohanty, Ajit Kumar; Pant, Lalit Mohan; Shukla, Prashant; Aziz, Tariq; Ganguly, Sanmay; Guchait, Monoranjan; Maity, Manas; Majumder, Gobinda; Mazumdar, Kajari; Mohanty, Gagan Bihari; Parida, Bibhuti; Sudhakar, Katta; Wickramage, Nadeesha; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Dugad, Shashikant; Arfaei, Hessamaddin; Bakhshiansohi, Hamed; Etesami, Seyed Mohsen; Fahim, Ali; Hashemi, Majid; Hesari, Hoda; Jafari, Abideh; Khakzad, Mohsen; Mohammadi Najafabadi, Mojtaba; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, Saeid; Safarzadeh, Batool; Zeinali, Maryam; Abbrescia, Marcello; Barbone, Lucia; Calabria, Cesare; Chhibra, Simranjit Singh; Colaleo, Anna; Creanza, Donato; De Filippis, Nicola; De Palma, Mauro; Fiore, Luigi; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Lusito, Letizia; Maggi, Giorgio; Maggi, Marcello; Marangelli, Bartolomeo; My, Salvatore; Nuzzo, Salvatore; Pacifico, Nicola; Pompili, Alexis; Pugliese, Gabriella; Selvaggi, Giovanna; Silvestris, Lucia; Singh, Gurpreet; Venditti, Rosamaria; Zito, Giuseppe; Abbiendi, Giovanni; Benvenuti, Alberto; Bonacorsi, Daniele; Braibant-Giacomelli, Sylvie; Brigliadori, Luca; Capiluppi, Paolo; Castro, Andrea; Cavallo, Francesca Romana; Cuffiani, Marco; Dallavalle, Gaetano-Marco; Fabbri, Fabrizio; Fanfani, Alessandra; Fasanella, Daniele; Giacomelli, Paolo; Grandi, Claudio; Guiducci, Luigi; Marcellini, Stefano; Masetti, Gianni; Meneghelli, Marco; Montanari, Alessandro; Navarria, Francesco; Odorici, Fabrizio; Perrotta, Andrea; Primavera, Federica; Rossi, Antonio; Rovelli, Tiziano; Siroli, Gian Piero; Travaglini, Riccardo; Albergo, Sebastiano; Cappello, Gigi; Chiorboli, Massimiliano; Costa, Salvatore; Potenza, Renato; Tricomi, Alessia; Tuve, Cristina; Barbagli, Giuseppe; Ciulli, Vitaliano; Civinini, Carlo; D'Alessandro, Raffaello; Focardi, Ettore; Frosali, Simone; Gallo, Elisabetta; Gonzi, Sandro; Meschini, Marco; Paoletti, Simone; Sguazzoni, Giacomo; Tropiano, Antonio; Benussi, Luigi; Bianco, Stefano; Colafranceschi, Stefano; Fabbri, Franco; Piccolo, Davide; Fabbricatore, Pasquale; Musenich, Riccardo; Tosi, Silvano; Benaglia, Andrea; De Guio, Federico; Di Matteo, Leonardo; Fiorendi, Sara; Gennai, Simone; Ghezzi, Alessio; Malvezzi, Sandra; Manzoni, Riccardo Andrea; Martelli, Arabella; Massironi, Andrea; Menasce, Dario; Moroni, Luigi; Paganoni, Marco; Pedrini, Daniele; Ragazzi, Stefano; Redaelli, Nicola; Sala, Silvano; Tabarelli de Fatis, Tommaso; Buontempo, Salvatore; Carrillo Montoya, Camilo Andres; Cavallo, Nicola; De Cosa, Annapaola; Dogangun, Oktay; Fabozzi, Francesco; Iorio, Alberto Orso Maria; Lista, Luca; Meola, Sabino; Merola, Mario; Paolucci, Pierluigi; Azzi, Patrizia; Bacchetta, Nicola; Bisello, Dario; Branca, Antonio; Carlin, Roberto; Checchia, Paolo; Dorigo, Tommaso; Gasparini, Fabrizio; Gasparini, Ugo; Gozzelino, Andrea; Kanishchev, Konstantin; Lacaprara, Stefano; Lazzizzera, Ignazio; Margoni, Martino; Meneguzzo, Anna Teresa; Pazzini, Jacopo; Pozzobon, Nicola; Ronchese, Paolo; Simonetto, Franco; Torassa, Ezio; Tosi, Mia; Vanini, Sara; Zotto, Pierluigi; Zucchetta, Alberto; Zumerle, Gianni; Gabusi, Michele; Ratti, Sergio P; Riccardi, Cristina; Torre, Paola; Vitulo, Paolo; Biasini, Maurizio; Bilei, Gian Mario; Fanò, Livio; Lariccia, Paolo; Mantovani, Giancarlo; Menichelli, Mauro; Nappi, Aniello; Romeo, Francesco; Saha, Anirban; Santocchia, Attilio; Spiezia, Aniello; Taroni, Silvia; Azzurri, Paolo; Bagliesi, Giuseppe; Bernardini, Jacopo; Boccali, Tommaso; Broccolo, Giuseppe; Castaldi, Rino; D'Agnolo, Raffaele Tito; Dell'Orso, Roberto; Fiori, Francesco; Foà, Lorenzo; Giassi, Alessandro; Kraan, Aafke; Ligabue, Franco; Lomtadze, Teimuraz; Martini, Luca; Messineo, Alberto; Palla, Fabrizio; Rizzi, Andrea; Serban, Alin Titus; Spagnolo, Paolo; Squillacioti, Paola; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, Guido; Venturi, Andrea; Verdini, Piero Giorgio; Barone, Luciano; Cavallari, Francesca; Del Re, Daniele; Diemoz, Marcella; Fanelli, Cristiano; Grassi, Marco; Longo, Egidio; Meridiani, Paolo; Micheli, Francesco; Nourbakhsh, Shervin; Organtini, Giovanni; Paramatti, Riccardo; Rahatlou, Shahram; Sigamani, Michael; Soffi, Livia; Amapane, Nicola; Arcidiacono, Roberta; Argiro, Stefano; Arneodo, Michele; Biino, Cristina; Cartiglia, Nicolo; Costa, Marco; Demaria, Natale; Mariotti, Chiara; Maselli, Silvia; Migliore, Ernesto; Monaco, Vincenzo; Musich, Marco; Obertino, Maria Margherita; Pastrone, Nadia; Pelliccioni, Mario; Potenza, Alberto; Romero, Alessandra; Ruspa, Marta; Sacchi, Roberto; Solano, Ada; Staiano, Amedeo; Vilela Pereira, Antonio; Belforte, Stefano; Candelise, Vieri; Casarsa, Massimo; Cossutti, Fabio; Della Ricca, Giuseppe; Gobbo, Benigno; Marone, Matteo; Montanino, Damiana; Penzo, Aldo; Schizzi, Andrea; Heo, Seong Gu; Kim, Tae Yeon; Nam, Soon-Kwon; Chang, Sunghyun; Kim, Dong Hee; Kim, Gui Nyun; Kong, Dae Jung; Park, Hyangkyu; Ro, Sang-Ryul; Son, Dong-Chul; Son, Taejin; Kim, Jae Yool; Kim, Zero Jaeho; Song, Sanghyeon; Choi, Suyong; Gyun, Dooyeon; Hong, Byung-Sik; Jo, Mihee; Kim, Hyunchul; Kim, Tae Jeong; Lee, Kyong Sei; Moon, Dong Ho; Park, Sung Keun; Choi, Minkyoo; Kim, Ji Hyun; Park, Chawon; Park, Inkyu; Park, Sangnam; Ryu, Geonmo; Cho, Yongjin; Choi, Young-Il; Choi, Young Kyu; Goh, Junghwan; Kim, Min Suk; Kwon, Eunhyang; Lee, Byounghoon; Lee, Jongseok; Lee, Sungeun; Seo, Hyunkwan; Yu, Intae; Bilinskas, Mykolas Jurgis; Grigelionis, Ignas; Janulis, Mindaugas; Juodagalvis, Andrius; Castilla-Valdez, Heriberto; De La Cruz-Burelo, Eduard; Heredia-de La Cruz, Ivan; Lopez-Fernandez, Ricardo; Magaña Villalba, Ricardo; Martínez-Ortega, Jorge; Sánchez-Hernández, Alberto; Villasenor-Cendejas, Luis Manuel; Carrillo Moreno, Salvador; Vazquez Valencia, Fabiola; Salazar Ibarguen, Humberto Antonio; Casimiro Linares, Edgar; Morelos Pineda, Antonio; Reyes-Santos, Marco A; Krofcheck, David; Bell, Alan James; Butler, Philip H; Doesburg, Robert; Reucroft, Steve; Silverwood, Hamish; Ahmad, Muhammad; Ansari, Muhammad Hamid; Asghar, Muhammad Irfan; Hoorani, Hafeez R; Khalid, Shoaib; Khan, Wajid Ali; Khurshid, Taimoor; Qazi, Shamona; Shah, Mehar Ali; Shoaib, Muhammad; Bialkowska, Helena; Boimska, Bozena; Frueboes, Tomasz; Gokieli, Ryszard; Górski, Maciej; Kazana, Malgorzata; Nawrocki, Krzysztof; Romanowska-Rybinska, Katarzyna; Szleper, Michal; Wrochna, Grzegorz; Zalewski, Piotr; Brona, Grzegorz; Bunkowski, Karol; Cwiok, Mikolaj; Dominik, Wojciech; Doroba, Krzysztof; Kalinowski, Artur; Konecki, Marcin; Krolikowski, Jan; Almeida, Nuno; Bargassa, Pedrame; David Tinoco Mendes, Andre; Faccioli, Pietro; Ferreira Parracho, Pedro Guilherme; Gallinaro, Michele; Seixas, Joao; Varela, Joao; Vischia, Pietro; Bunin, Pavel; Gavrilenko, Mikhail; Golutvin, Igor; Gorbunov, Ilya; Karjavin, Vladimir; Konoplyanikov, Viktor; Kozlov, Guennady; Lanev, Alexander; Malakhov, Alexander; Moisenz, Petr; Palichik, Vladimir; Perelygin, Victor; Savina, Maria; Shmatov, Sergey; Smirnov, Vitaly; Volodko, Anton; Zarubin, Anatoli; Evstyukhin, Sergey; Golovtsov, Victor; Ivanov, Yury; Kim, Victor; Levchenko, Petr; Murzin, Victor; Oreshkin, Vadim; Smirnov, Igor; Sulimov, Valentin; Uvarov, Lev; Vavilov, Sergey; Vorobyev, Alexey; Vorobyev, Andrey; Andreev, Yuri; Dermenev, Alexander; Gninenko, Sergei; Golubev, Nikolai; Kirsanov, Mikhail; Krasnikov, Nikolai; Matveev, Viktor; Pashenkov, Anatoli; Tlisov, Danila; Toropin, Alexander; Epshteyn, Vladimir; Erofeeva, Maria; Gavrilov, Vladimir; Kossov, Mikhail; Lychkovskaya, Natalia; Popov, Vladimir; Safronov, Grigory; Semenov, Sergey; Stolin, Viatcheslav; Vlasov, Evgueni; Zhokin, Alexander; Belyaev, Andrey; Boos, Edouard; Dubinin, Mikhail; Dudko, Lev; Ershov, Alexander; Gribushin, Andrey; Klyukhin, Vyacheslav; Kodolova, Olga; Lokhtin, Igor; Markina, Anastasia; Obraztsov, Stepan; Perfilov, Maxim; Petrushanko, Sergey; Popov, Andrey; Sarycheva, Ludmila; Savrin, Viktor; Snigirev, Alexander; Andreev, Vladimir; Azarkin, Maksim; Dremin, Igor; Kirakosyan, Martin; Leonidov, Andrey; Mesyats, Gennady; Rusakov, Sergey V; Vinogradov, Alexey; Azhgirey, Igor; Bayshev, Igor; Bitioukov, Sergei; Grishin, Viatcheslav; Kachanov, Vassili; Konstantinov, Dmitri; Krychkine, Victor; Petrov, Vladimir; Ryutin, Roman; Sobol, Andrei; Tourtchanovitch, Leonid; Troshin, Sergey; Tyurin, Nikolay; Uzunian, Andrey; Volkov, Alexey; Adzic, Petar; Djordjevic, Milos; Ekmedzic, Marko; Krpic, Dragomir; Milosevic, Jovan; Aguilar-Benitez, Manuel; Alcaraz Maestre, Juan; Arce, Pedro; Battilana, Carlo; Calvo, Enrique; Cerrada, Marcos; Chamizo Llatas, Maria; Colino, Nicanor; De La Cruz, Begona; Delgado Peris, Antonio; Domínguez Vázquez, Daniel; Fernandez Bedoya, Cristina; Fernández Ramos, Juan Pablo; Ferrando, Antonio; Flix, Jose; Fouz, Maria Cruz; Garcia-Abia, Pablo; Gonzalez Lopez, Oscar; Goy Lopez, Silvia; Hernandez, Jose M; Josa, Maria Isabel; Merino, Gonzalo; Puerta Pelayo, Jesus; Quintario Olmeda, Adrián; Redondo, Ignacio; Romero, Luciano; Santaolalla, Javier; Senghi Soares, Mara; Willmott, Carlos; Albajar, Carmen; Codispoti, Giuseppe; de Trocóniz, Jorge F; Brun, Hugues; Cuevas, Javier; Fernandez Menendez, Javier; Folgueras, Santiago; Gonzalez Caballero, Isidro; Lloret Iglesias, Lara; Piedra Gomez, Jonatan; Brochero Cifuentes, Javier Andres; Cabrillo, Iban Jose; Calderon, Alicia; Chuang, Shan-Huei; Duarte Campderros, Jordi; Felcini, Marta; Fernandez, Marcos; Gomez, Gervasio; Gonzalez Sanchez, Javier; Graziano, Alberto; Jorda, Clara; Lopez Virto, Amparo; Marco, Jesus; Marco, Rafael; Martinez Rivero, Celso; Matorras, Francisco; Munoz Sanchez, Francisca Javiela; Rodrigo, Teresa; Rodríguez-Marrero, Ana Yaiza; Ruiz-Jimeno, Alberto; Scodellaro, Luca; Vila, Ivan; Vilar Cortabitarte, Rocio; Abbaneo, Duccio; Auffray, Etiennette; Auzinger, Georg; Bachtis, Michail; Baillon, Paul; Ball, Austin; Barney, David; Benitez, Jose F; Bernet, Colin; Bianchi, Giovanni; Bloch, Philippe; Bocci, Andrea; Bonato, Alessio; Botta, Cristina; Breuker, Horst; Camporesi, Tiziano; Cerminara, Gianluca; Christiansen, Tim; Coarasa Perez, Jose Antonio; D'Enterria, David; Dabrowski, Anne; De Roeck, Albert; Di Guida, Salvatore; Dobson, Marc; Dupont-Sagorin, Niels; Elliott-Peisert, Anna; Frisch, Benjamin; Funk, Wolfgang; Georgiou, Georgios; Giffels, Manuel; Gigi, Dominique; Gill, Karl; Giordano, Domenico; Girone, Maria; Giunta, Marina; Glege, Frank; Gomez-Reino Garrido, Robert; Govoni, Pietro; Gowdy, Stephen; Guida, Roberto; Hansen, Magnus; Harris, Philip; Hartl, Christian; Harvey, John; Hegner, Benedikt; Hinzmann, Andreas; Innocente, Vincenzo; Janot, Patrick; Kaadze, Ketino; Karavakis, Edward; Kousouris, Konstantinos; Lecoq, Paul; Lee, Yen-Jie; Lenzi, Piergiulio; Lourenco, Carlos; Magini, Nicolo; Maki, Tuula; Malberti, Martina; Malgeri, Luca; Mannelli, Marcello; Masetti, Lorenzo; Meijers, Frans; Mersi, Stefano; Meschi, Emilio; Moser, Roland; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Mulders, Martijn; Musella, Pasquale; Nesvold, Erik; Orimoto, Toyoko; Orsini, Luciano; Palencia Cortezon, Enrique; Perez, Emmanuelle; Perrozzi, Luca; Petrilli, Achille; Pfeiffer, Andreas; Pierini, Maurizio; Pimiä, Martti; Piparo, Danilo; Polese, Giovanni; Quertenmont, Loic; Racz, Attila; Reece, William; Rodrigues Antunes, Joao; Rolandi, Gigi; Rovelli, Chiara; Rovere, Marco; Sakulin, Hannes; Santanastasio, Francesco; Schäfer, Christoph; Schwick, Christoph; Segoni, Ilaria; Sekmen, Sezen; Sharma, Archana; Siegrist, Patrice; Silva, Pedro; Simon, Michal; Sphicas, Paraskevas; Spiga, Daniele; Tsirou, Andromachi; Veres, Gabor Istvan; Vlimant, Jean-Roch; Wöhri, Hermine Katharina; Worm, Steven; Zeuner, Wolfram Dietrich; Bertl, Willi; Deiters, Konrad; Erdmann, Wolfram; Gabathuler, Kurt; Horisberger, Roland; Ingram, Quentin; Kaestli, Hans-Christian; König, Stefan; Kotlinski, Danek; Langenegger, Urs; Meier, Frank; Renker, Dieter; Rohe, Tilman; Sibille, Jennifer; Bäni, Lukas; Bortignon, Pierluigi; Buchmann, Marco-Andrea; Casal, Bruno; Chanon, Nicolas; Deisher, Amanda; Dissertori, Günther; Dittmar, Michael; Donegà, Mauro; Dünser, Marc; Eugster, Jürg; Freudenreich, Klaus; Grab, Christoph; Hits, Dmitry; Lecomte, Pierre; Lustermann, Werner; Marini, Andrea Carlo; Martinez Ruiz del Arbol, Pablo; Mohr, Niklas; Moortgat, Filip; Nägeli, Christoph; Nef, Pascal; Nessi-Tedaldi, Francesca; Pandolfi, Francesco; Pape, Luc; Pauss, Felicitas; Peruzzi, Marco; Ronga, Frederic Jean; Rossini, Marco; Sala, Leonardo; Sanchez, Ann - Karin; Starodumov, Andrei; Stieger, Benjamin; Takahashi, Maiko; Tauscher, Ludwig; Thea, Alessandro; Theofilatos, Konstantinos; Treille, Daniel; Urscheler, Christina; Wallny, Rainer; Weber, Hannsjoerg Artur; Wehrli, Lukas; Amsler, Claude; Chiochia, Vincenzo; De Visscher, Simon; Favaro, Carlotta; Ivova Rikova, Mirena; Millan Mejias, Barbara; Otiougova, Polina; Robmann, Peter; Snoek, Hella; Tupputi, Salvatore; Verzetti, Mauro; Chang, Yuan-Hann; Chen, Kuan-Hsin; Kuo, Chia-Ming; Li, Syue-Wei; Lin, Willis; Liu, Zong-Kai; Lu, Yun-Ju; Mekterovic, Darko; Singh, Anil; Volpe, Roberta; Yu, Shin-Shan; Bartalini, Paolo; Chang, Paoti; Chang, You-Hao; Chang, Yu-Wei; Chao, Yuan; Chen, Kai-Feng; Dietz, Charles; Grundler, Ulysses; Hou, George Wei-Shu; Hsiung, Yee; Kao, Kai-Yi; Lei, Yeong-Jyi; Lu, Rong-Shyang; Majumder, Devdatta; Petrakou, Eleni; Shi, Xin; Shiu, Jing-Ge; Tzeng, Yeng-Ming; Wan, Xia; Wang, Minzu; Asavapibhop, Burin; Srimanobhas, Norraphat; Adiguzel, Aytul; Bakirci, Mustafa Numan; Cerci, Salim; Dozen, Candan; Dumanoglu, Isa; Eskut, Eda; Girgis, Semiray; Gokbulut, Gul; Gurpinar, Emine; Hos, Ilknur; Kangal, Evrim Ersin; Karaman, Turker; Karapinar, Guler; Kayis Topaksu, Aysel; Onengut, Gulsen; Ozdemir, Kadri; Ozturk, Sertac; Polatoz, Ayse; Sogut, Kenan; Sunar Cerci, Deniz; Tali, Bayram; Topakli, Huseyin; Vergili, Latife Nukhet; Vergili, Mehmet; Akin, Ilina Vasileva; Aliev, Takhmasib; Bilin, Bugra; Bilmis, Selcuk; Deniz, Muhammed; Gamsizkan, Halil; Guler, Ali Murat; Ocalan, Kadir; Ozpineci, Altug; Serin, Meltem; Sever, Ramazan; Surat, Ugur Emrah; Yalvac, Metin; Yildirim, Eda; Zeyrek, Mehmet; Gülmez, Erhan; Isildak, Bora; Kaya, Mithat; Kaya, Ozlem; Ozkorucuklu, Suat; Sonmez, Nasuf; Cankocak, Kerem; Levchuk, Leonid; Bostock, Francis; Brooke, James John; Clement, Emyr; Cussans, David; Flacher, Henning; Frazier, Robert; Goldstein, Joel; Grimes, Mark; Heath, Greg P; Heath, Helen F; Kreczko, Lukasz; Metson, Simon; Newbold, Dave M; Nirunpong, Kachanon; Poll, Anthony; Senkin, Sergey; Smith, Vincent J; Williams, Thomas; Basso, Lorenzo; Bell, Ken W; Belyaev, Alexander; Brew, Christopher; Brown, Robert M; Cockerill, David JA; Coughlan, John A; Harder, Kristian; Harper, Sam; Jackson, James; Kennedy, Bruce W; Olaiya, Emmanuel; Petyt, David; Radburn-Smith, Benjamin Charles; Shepherd-Themistocleous, Claire; Tomalin, Ian R; Womersley, William John; Bainbridge, Robert; Ball, Gordon; Beuselinck, Raymond; Buchmuller, Oliver; Colling, David; Cripps, Nicholas; Cutajar, Michael; Dauncey, Paul; Davies, Gavin; Della Negra, Michel; Ferguson, William; Fulcher, Jonathan; Futyan, David; Gilbert, Andrew; Guneratne Bryer, Arlo; Hall, Geoffrey; Hatherell, Zoe; Hays, Jonathan; Iles, Gregory; Jarvis, Martyn; Karapostoli, Georgia; Lyons, Louis; Magnan, Anne-Marie; Marrouche, Jad; Mathias, Bryn; Nandi, Robin; Nash, Jordan; Nikitenko, Alexander; Papageorgiou, Anastasios; Pela, Joao; Pesaresi, Mark; Petridis, Konstantinos; Pioppi, Michele; Raymond, David Mark; Rogerson, Samuel; Rose, Andrew; Ryan, Matthew John; Seez, Christopher; Sharp, Peter; Sparrow, Alex; Stoye, Markus; Tapper, Alexander; Vazquez Acosta, Monica; Virdee, Tejinder; Wakefield, Stuart; Wardle, Nicholas; Whyntie, Tom; Chadwick, Matthew; Cole, Joanne; Hobson, Peter R; Khan, Akram; Kyberd, Paul; Leggat, Duncan; Leslie, Dawn; 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Tadel, Matevz; Tu, Yanjun; Vartak, Adish; Wasserbaech, Steven; Würthwein, Frank; Yagil, Avraham; Yoo, Jaehyeok; Barge, Derek; Bellan, Riccardo; Campagnari, Claudio; D'Alfonso, Mariarosaria; Danielson, Thomas; Flowers, Kristen; Geffert, Paul; Incandela, Joe; Justus, Christopher; Kalavase, Puneeth; Koay, Sue Ann; Kovalskyi, Dmytro; Krutelyov, Vyacheslav; Lowette, Steven; Mccoll, Nickolas; Pavlunin, Viktor; Rebassoo, Finn; Ribnik, Jacob; Richman, Jeffrey; Rossin, Roberto; Stuart, David; To, Wing; West, Christopher; Apresyan, Artur; Bornheim, Adolf; Chen, Yi; Di Marco, Emanuele; Duarte, Javier; Gataullin, Marat; Ma, Yousi; Mott, Alexander; Newman, Harvey B; Rogan, Christopher; Spiropulu, Maria; Timciuc, Vladlen; Veverka, Jan; Wilkinson, Richard; Xie, Si; Yang, Yong; Zhu, Ren-Yuan; Akgun, Bora; Azzolini, Virginia; Calamba, Aristotle; Carroll, Ryan; Ferguson, Thomas; Iiyama, Yutaro; Jang, Dong Wook; Liu, Yueh-Feng; Paulini, Manfred; Vogel, Helmut; Vorobiev, Igor; Cumalat, John Perry; Drell, Brian Robert; Ford, William T; Gaz, Alessandro; Luiggi Lopez, Eduardo; Smith, James; Stenson, Kevin; Ulmer, Keith; Wagner, Stephen Robert; Alexander, James; Chatterjee, Avishek; Eggert, Nicholas; Gibbons, Lawrence Kent; Heltsley, Brian; Khukhunaishvili, Aleko; Kreis, Benjamin; Mirman, Nathan; Nicolas Kaufman, Gala; Patterson, Juliet Ritchie; Ryd, Anders; Salvati, Emmanuele; Sun, Werner; Teo, Wee Don; Thom, Julia; Thompson, Joshua; Tucker, Jordan; Vaughan, Jennifer; Weng, Yao; Winstrom, Lucas; Wittich, Peter; Winn, Dave; Abdullin, Salavat; Albrow, Michael; Anderson, Jacob; Bauerdick, Lothar AT; Beretvas, Andrew; Berryhill, Jeffrey; Bhat, Pushpalatha C; Bloch, Ingo; Burkett, Kevin; Butler, Joel Nathan; Chetluru, Vasundhara; Cheung, Harry; Chlebana, Frank; Elvira, Victor Daniel; Fisk, Ian; Freeman, Jim; Gao, Yanyan; Green, Dan; Gutsche, Oliver; Hanlon, Jim; Harris, Robert M; Hirschauer, James; Hooberman, Benjamin; Jindariani, Sergo; Johnson, Marvin; Joshi, Umesh; Kilminster, Benjamin; Klima, Boaz; Kunori, Shuichi; Kwan, Simon; Leonidopoulos, Christos; Linacre, Jacob; Lincoln, Don; Lipton, Ron; Lykken, Joseph; Maeshima, Kaori; Marraffino, John Michael; Maruyama, Sho; Mason, David; McBride, Patricia; Mishra, Kalanand; Mrenna, Stephen; Musienko, Yuri; Newman-Holmes, Catherine; O'Dell, Vivian; Prokofyev, Oleg; Sexton-Kennedy, Elizabeth; Sharma, Seema; Spalding, William J; Spiegel, Leonard; Taylor, Lucas; Tkaczyk, Slawek; Tran, Nhan Viet; Uplegger, Lorenzo; Vaandering, Eric Wayne; Vidal, Richard; Whitmore, Juliana; Wu, Weimin; Yang, Fan; Yumiceva, Francisco; Yun, Jae Chul; Acosta, Darin; Avery, Paul; Bourilkov, Dimitri; Chen, Mingshui; Cheng, Tongguang; Das, Souvik; De Gruttola, Michele; Di Giovanni, Gian Piero; Dobur, Didar; Drozdetskiy, Alexey; Field, Richard D; Fisher, Matthew; Fu, Yu; Furic, Ivan-Kresimir; Gartner, Joseph; Hugon, Justin; Kim, Bockjoo; Konigsberg, Jacobo; Korytov, Andrey; Kropivnitskaya, Anna; Kypreos, Theodore; Low, Jia Fu; Matchev, Konstantin; Milenovic, Predrag; Mitselmakher, Guenakh; Muniz, Lana; Park, Myeonghun; Remington, Ronald; Rinkevicius, Aurelijus; Sellers, Paul; Skhirtladze, Nikoloz; Snowball, Matthew; Yelton, John; Zakaria, Mohammed; Gaultney, Vanessa; Hewamanage, Samantha; Lebolo, Luis Miguel; Linn, Stephan; Markowitz, Pete; Martinez, German; Rodriguez, Jorge Luis; Adams, Todd; Askew, Andrew; Bochenek, Joseph; Chen, Jie; Diamond, Brendan; Gleyzer, Sergei V; Haas, Jeff; Hagopian, Sharon; Hagopian, Vasken; Jenkins, Merrill; Johnson, Kurtis F; Prosper, Harrison; Veeraraghavan, Venkatesh; Weinberg, Marc; Baarmand, Marc M; Dorney, Brian; Hohlmann, Marcus; Kalakhety, Himali; Vodopiyanov, Igor; Adams, Mark Raymond; Anghel, Ioana Maria; Apanasevich, Leonard; Bai, Yuting; Bazterra, Victor Eduardo; Betts, Russell Richard; Bucinskaite, Inga; Callner, Jeremy; Cavanaugh, Richard; Evdokimov, Olga; Gauthier, Lucie; Gerber, Cecilia Elena; Hofman, David Jonathan; Khalatyan, Samvel; Lacroix, Florent; Malek, Magdalena; O'Brien, Christine; Silkworth, Christopher; Strom, Derek; Turner, Paul; Varelas, Nikos; Akgun, Ugur; Albayrak, Elif Asli; Bilki, Burak; Clarida, Warren; Duru, Firdevs; Merlo, Jean-Pierre; Mermerkaya, Hamit; Mestvirishvili, Alexi; Moeller, Anthony; Nachtman, Jane; Newsom, Charles Ray; Norbeck, Edwin; Onel, Yasar; Ozok, Ferhat; Sen, Sercan; Tan, Ping; Tiras, Emrah; Wetzel, James; Yetkin, Taylan; Yi, Kai; Barnett, Bruce Arnold; Blumenfeld, Barry; Bolognesi, Sara; Fehling, David; Giurgiu, Gavril; Gritsan, Andrei; Guo, Zijin; Hu, Guofan; Maksimovic, Petar; Rappoccio, Salvatore; Swartz, Morris; Whitbeck, Andrew; Baringer, Philip; Bean, Alice; Benelli, Gabriele; Kenny Iii, Raymond Patrick; Murray, Michael; Noonan, Daniel; Sanders, Stephen; Stringer, Robert; Tinti, Gemma; Wood, Jeffrey Scott; Zhukova, Victoria; Barfuss, Anne-Fleur; Bolton, Tim; Chakaberia, Irakli; Ivanov, Andrew; Khalil, Sadia; Makouski, Mikhail; Maravin, Yurii; Shrestha, Shruti; Svintradze, Irakli; Gronberg, Jeffrey; Lange, David; Wright, Douglas; Baden, Drew; Boutemeur, Madjid; Calvert, Brian; Eno, Sarah Catherine; Gomez, Jaime; Hadley, Nicholas John; Kellogg, Richard G; Kirn, Malina; Kolberg, Ted; Lu, Ying; Marionneau, Matthieu; Mignerey, Alice; Pedro, Kevin; Peterman, Alison; Skuja, Andris; Temple, Jeffrey; Tonjes, Marguerite; Tonwar, Suresh C; Twedt, Elizabeth; Apyan, Aram; Bauer, Gerry; Bendavid, Joshua; Busza, Wit; Butz, Erik; Cali, Ivan Amos; Chan, Matthew; Dutta, Valentina; Gomez Ceballos, Guillelmo; Goncharov, Maxim; Hahn, Kristan Allan; Kim, Yongsun; Klute, Markus; Krajczar, Krisztian; Luckey, Paul David; Ma, Teng; Nahn, Steve; Paus, Christoph; Ralph, Duncan; Roland, Christof; Roland, Gunther; Rudolph, Matthew; Stephans, George; Stöckli, Fabian; Sumorok, Konstanty; Sung, Kevin; Velicanu, Dragos; Wenger, Edward Allen; Wolf, Roger; Wyslouch, Bolek; Yang, Mingming; Yilmaz, Yetkin; Yoon, Sungho; Zanetti, Marco; Cooper, Seth; Dahmes, Bryan; De Benedetti, Abraham; Franzoni, Giovanni; Gude, Alexander; Kao, Shih-Chuan; Klapoetke, Kevin; Kubota, Yuichi; Mans, Jeremy; Pastika, Nathaniel; Rusack, Roger; Sasseville, Michael; Singovsky, Alexander; Tambe, Norbert; Turkewitz, Jared; Cremaldi, Lucien Marcus; Kroeger, Rob; Perera, Lalith; Rahmat, Rahmat; Sanders, David A; Avdeeva, Ekaterina; Bloom, Kenneth; Bose, Suvadeep; Butt, Jamila; Claes, Daniel R; Dominguez, Aaron; Eads, Michael; Keller, Jason; Kravchenko, Ilya; Lazo-Flores, Jose; Malbouisson, Helena; Malik, Sudhir; Snow, Gregory R; Godshalk, Andrew; Iashvili, Ia; Jain, Supriya; Kharchilava, Avto; Kumar, Ashish; Alverson, George; Barberis, Emanuela; Baumgartel, Darin; Chasco, Matthew; Haley, Joseph; Nash, David; Trocino, Daniele; Wood, Darien; Zhang, Jinzhong; Anastassov, Anton; Kubik, Andrew; Mucia, Nicholas; Odell, Nathaniel; Ofierzynski, Radoslaw Adrian; Pollack, Brian; Pozdnyakov, Andrey; Schmitt, Michael Henry; Stoynev, Stoyan; Velasco, Mayda; Won, Steven; Antonelli, Louis; Berry, Douglas; Brinkerhoff, Andrew; Chan, Kwok Ming; Hildreth, Michael; Jessop, Colin; Karmgard, Daniel John; Kolb, Jeff; Lannon, Kevin; Luo, Wuming; Lynch, Sean; Marinelli, Nancy; Morse, David Michael; Pearson, Tessa; Planer, Michael; Ruchti, Randy; Slaunwhite, Jason; Valls, Nil; Wayne, Mitchell; Wolf, Matthias; Bylsma, Ben; Durkin, Lloyd Stanley; Hill, Christopher; Hughes, Richard; Kotov, Khristian; Ling, Ta-Yung; Puigh, Darren; Rodenburg, Marissa; Vuosalo, Carl; Williams, Grayson; Winer, Brian L; Adam, Nadia; Berry, Edmund; Elmer, Peter; Gerbaudo, Davide; Halyo, Valerie; Hebda, Philip; Hegeman, Jeroen; Hunt, Adam; Jindal, Pratima; Lopes Pegna, David; Lujan, Paul; Marlow, Daniel; Medvedeva, Tatiana; Mooney, Michael; Olsen, James; Piroué, Pierre; Quan, Xiaohang; Raval, Amita; Safdi, Ben; Saka, Halil; Stickland, David; Tully, Christopher; Werner, Jeremy Scott; Zuranski, Andrzej; Brownson, Eric; Lopez, Angel; Mendez, Hector; Ramirez Vargas, Juan Eduardo; Alagoz, Enver; Barnes, Virgil E; Benedetti, Daniele; Bolla, Gino; Bortoletto, Daniela; De Mattia, Marco; Everett, Adam; Hu, Zhen; Jones, Matthew; Koybasi, Ozhan; Kress, Matthew; Laasanen, Alvin T; Leonardo, Nuno; Maroussov, Vassili; Merkel, Petra; Miller, David Harry; Neumeister, Norbert; Shipsey, Ian; Silvers, David; Svyatkovskiy, Alexey; Vidal Marono, Miguel; Yoo, Hwi Dong; Zablocki, Jakub; Zheng, Yu; Guragain, Samir; Parashar, Neeti; Adair, Antony; Boulahouache, Chaouki; Ecklund, Karl Matthew; Geurts, Frank JM; Li, Wei; Padley, Brian Paul; Redjimi, Radia; Roberts, Jay; Zabel, James; Betchart, Burton; Bodek, Arie; Chung, Yeon Sei; Covarelli, Roberto; de Barbaro, Pawel; Demina, Regina; Eshaq, Yossof; Ferbel, Thomas; Garcia-Bellido, Aran; Goldenzweig, Pablo; Han, Jiyeon; Harel, Amnon; Miner, Daniel Carl; Vishnevskiy, Dmitry; Zielinski, Marek; Bhatti, Anwar; Ciesielski, Robert; Demortier, Luc; Goulianos, Konstantin; Lungu, Gheorghe; Malik, Sarah; Mesropian, Christina; Arora, Sanjay; Barker, Anthony; Chou, John Paul; Contreras-Campana, Christian; Contreras-Campana, Emmanuel; Duggan, Daniel; Ferencek, Dinko; Gershtein, Yuri; Gray, Richard; Halkiadakis, Eva; Hidas, Dean; Lath, Amitabh; Panwalkar, Shruti; Park, Michael; Patel, Rishi; Rekovic, Vladimir; Robles, Jorge; Rose, Keith; Salur, Sevil; Schnetzer, Steve; Seitz, Claudia; Somalwar, Sunil; Stone, Robert; Thomas, Scott; Cerizza, Giordano; Hollingsworth, Matthew; Spanier, Stefan; Yang, Zong-Chang; York, Andrew; Eusebi, Ricardo; Flanagan, Will; Gilmore, Jason; Kamon, Teruki; Khotilovich, Vadim; Montalvo, Roy; Osipenkov, Ilya; Pakhotin, Yuriy; Perloff, Alexx; Roe, Jeffrey; Safonov, Alexei; Sakuma, Tai; Sengupta, Sinjini; Suarez, Indara; Tatarinov, Aysen; Toback, David; Akchurin, Nural; Damgov, Jordan; Dragoiu, Cosmin; Dudero, Phillip Russell; Jeong, Chiyoung; Kovitanggoon, Kittikul; Lee, Sung Won; Libeiro, Terence; Roh, Youn; Volobouev, Igor; Appelt, Eric; Delannoy, Andrés G; Florez, Carlos; Greene, Senta; Gurrola, Alfredo; Johns, Willard; Kurt, Pelin; Maguire, Charles; Melo, Andrew; Sharma, Monika; Sheldon, Paul; Snook, Benjamin; Tuo, Shengquan; Velkovska, Julia; Arenton, Michael Wayne; Balazs, Michael; Boutle, Sarah; Cox, Bradley; Francis, Brian; Goodell, Joseph; Hirosky, Robert; Ledovskoy, Alexander; Lin, Chuanzhe; Neu, Christopher; Wood, John; Gollapinni, Sowjanya; Harr, Robert; Karchin, Paul Edmund; Kottachchi Kankanamge Don, Chamath; Lamichhane, Pramod; Sakharov, Alexandre; Anderson, Michael; Belknap, Donald; Borrello, Laura; Carlsmith, Duncan; Cepeda, Maria; Dasu, Sridhara; Friis, Evan; Gray, Lindsey; Grogg, Kira Suzanne; Grothe, Monika; Hall-Wilton, Richard; Herndon, Matthew; Hervé, Alain; Klabbers, Pamela; Klukas, Jeffrey; Lanaro, Armando; Lazaridis, Christos; Leonard, Jessica; Loveless, Richard; Mohapatra, Ajit; Ojalvo, Isabel; Palmonari, Francesco; Pierro, Giuseppe Antonio; Ross, Ian; Savin, Alexander; Smith, Wesley H; Swanson, Joshua

    2013-05-21

    A search is presented for free heavy long-lived fractionally charged particles produced in pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV. The data sample was recorded by the CMS detector at the LHC and corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 5.0 inverse femtobarns. Candidate fractionally charged particles are identified by selecting tracks with associated low charge measurements in the silicon tracking detector. Observations are found to be consistent with expectations for background processes. The results of the search are used to set upper limits on the cross section for pair production of fractionally charged, massive spin-1/2 particles that are neutral under SU(3)$_C$ and SU(2)$_L$. We exclude at 95% confidence level such particles with electric charge ±2e/3 with masses below 310 GeV, and those with charge ±e/3 with masses below 140 GeV.

  9. Charged NUT field : [Part] I. Motion of test particles and [Part] II. Cosmic censorship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krori, K.D.

    1981-01-01

    Some properties of the charged NUT field are studied. In the first part of the paper, some general aspects of the charged NUT field have been investigated using uncharged and charged particles. The behaviour of the particles near the singularity has also been considered. In the second part of the paper, the charged NUT sources in the context of cosmic censorship hypothesis are studied. Motion of charged particles in the equatorial plane and along the axis is considered. From this investigation the interesting result is discovered that by such a bombardment of charged test particles, the existing event horizons cannot be destroyed but, in contrast to the Reissner-Nordstrom field, naked singularities do not get enveloped by event horizons. (author)

  10. Design of a device for simultaneous particle size and electrostatic charge measurement of inhalation drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Kewu; Ng, Wai Kiong; Shen, Shoucang; Tan, Reginald B H; Heng, Paul W S

    2008-11-01

    To develop a device for simultaneous measurement of particle aerodynamic diameter and electrostatic charge of inhalation aerosols. An integrated system consisting of an add-on charge measurement device and a liquid impinger was developed to simultaneously determine particle aerodynamic diameter and electrostatic charge. The accuracy in charge measurement and fine particle fraction characterization of the new system was evaluated. The integrated system was then applied to analyze the electrostatic charges of a DPI formulation composed of salbutamol sulphate-Inhalac 230 dispersed using a Rotahaler. The charge measurement accuracy was comparable with the Faraday cage method, and incorporation of the charge measurement module had no effect on the performance of the liquid impinger. Salbutamol sulphate carried negative charges while the net charge of Inhalac 230 and un-dispersed salbutamol sulphate was found to be positive after being aerosolized from the inhaler. The instantaneous current signal was strong with small noise to signal ratio, and good reproducibility of charge to mass ratio was obtained for the DPI system investigated. A system for simultaneously measuring particle aerodynamic diameter and aerosol electrostatic charges has been developed, and the system provides a non-intrusive and reliable electrostatic charge characterization method for inhalation dosage forms.

  11. Charging of mesospheric aerosol particles: the role of photodetachment and photoionization from meteoric smoke and ice particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rapp

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Time constants for photodetachment, photoemission, and electron capture are considered for two classes of mesospheric aerosol particles, i.e., meteor smoke particles (MSPs and pure water ice particles. Assuming that MSPs consist of metal oxides like Fe2O3 or SiO, we find that during daytime conditions photodetachment by solar photons is up to 4 orders of magnitude faster than electron attachment such that MSPs cannot be negatively charged in the presence of sunlight. Rather, even photoemission can compete with electron capture unless the electron density becomes very large (>>1000 cm−3 such that MSPs should either be positively charged or neutral in the case of large electron densities. For pure water ice particles, however, both photodetachment and photoemission are negligible due to the wavelength characteristics of its absorption cross section and because the flux of solar photons has already dropped significantly at such short wavelengths. This means that water ice particles should normally be negatively charged. Hence, our results can readily explain the repeated observation of the coexistence of positive and negative aerosol particles in the polar summer mesopause, i.e., small MSPs should be positively charged and ice particles should be negatively charged. These results have further important implications for our understanding of the nucleation of mesospheric ice particles as well as for the interpretation of incoherent scatter radar observations of MSPs.

  12. Charging of mesospheric aerosol particles: the role of photodetachment and photoionization from meteoric smoke and ice particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rapp

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Time constants for photodetachment, photoemission, and electron capture are considered for two classes of mesospheric aerosol particles, i.e., meteor smoke particles (MSPs and pure water ice particles. Assuming that MSPs consist of metal oxides like Fe2O3 or SiO, we find that during daytime conditions photodetachment by solar photons is up to 4 orders of magnitude faster than electron attachment such that MSPs cannot be negatively charged in the presence of sunlight. Rather, even photoemission can compete with electron capture unless the electron density becomes very large (>>1000 cm−3 such that MSPs should either be positively charged or neutral in the case of large electron densities. For pure water ice particles, however, both photodetachment and photoemission are negligible due to the wavelength characteristics of its absorption cross section and because the flux of solar photons has already dropped significantly at such short wavelengths. This means that water ice particles should normally be negatively charged. Hence, our results can readily explain the repeated observation of the coexistence of positive and negative aerosol particles in the polar summer mesopause, i.e., small MSPs should be positively charged and ice particles should be negatively charged. These results have further important implications for our understanding of the nucleation of mesospheric ice particles as well as for the interpretation of incoherent scatter radar observations of MSPs.

  13. Explicit symplectic algorithms based on generating functions for relativistic charged particle dynamics in time-dependent electromagnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ruili; Wang, Yulei; He, Yang; Xiao, Jianyuan; Liu, Jian; Qin, Hong; Tang, Yifa

    2018-02-01

    Relativistic dynamics of a charged particle in time-dependent electromagnetic fields has theoretical significance and a wide range of applications. The numerical simulation of relativistic dynamics is often multi-scale and requires accurate long-term numerical simulations. Therefore, explicit symplectic algorithms are much more preferable than non-symplectic methods and implicit symplectic algorithms. In this paper, we employ the proper time and express the Hamiltonian as the sum of exactly solvable terms and product-separable terms in space-time coordinates. Then, we give the explicit symplectic algorithms based on the generating functions of orders 2 and 3 for relativistic dynamics of a charged particle. The methodology is not new, which has been applied to non-relativistic dynamics of charged particles, but the algorithm for relativistic dynamics has much significance in practical simulations, such as the secular simulation of runaway electrons in tokamaks.

  14. Entrance channel dependent light-charged particle emission of the 156Er compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, J.F.; Bierman, J.D.; Kelly, M.P.; Sonzogni, A.A.; Vandenbosch, R.; van Schagen, J.P.S.

    1996-01-01

    Light-charged particle decay from the 156 Er compound nucleus, populated by 12 C+ 144 Sm and 60 Ni+ 96 Zr at the same excitation energy, were measured in coincidence with the evaporation residues. The high energy slope of charged particle spectra for the 60 Ni-induced reaction is steeper than for the 12 C-induced reaction. Model calculations including particle evaporation during compound nucleus formation result in good agreement with the data. This suggests that the difference in the charged particle spectra between the two entrance channels is due to a longer formation time in the 60 Ni-induced reaction. 14 refs., 3 figs

  15. Effect of seeds of heavy charged particles of galactic cosmic radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maksimova, Y.N.

    1985-01-01

    The experiments were carried out on Lactuca sativa seeds exposed for 20, 66, 123 and 308 days in a biostack also containing physical detectors of heavy charged particles. The yield of aberrant cells and its dependence on the exposure time and the site where particles hit the object were measured. The cytogenetic examination demonstrated a significant difference between the seeds that were or were not hit by heavy charged particles. A significant contribution of galactic cosmic radiation to the radiobiological effect is indicated. The yield of aberrant cells as a function of the localization of heavy charged particles in the seed is established. The most sensitive target is the root meristem

  16. Destroying charged black holes in higher dimensions with test particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bin; Liu, Weiyang; Tang, Hao; Yue, Rui-Hong

    2017-07-01

    A possible way to destroy the Tangherlini Reissner-Nordström black hole is discussed in the spirit of Wald’s gedanken experiment. By neglecting radiation and self force effects, the absorbing condition and destruction condition of the test point particle which is capable of destroying the black hole are obtained. We find that it is impossible to challenge the weak cosmic censorship for an initially extremal black hole in all dimensions. Instead, it is shown that the near extremal black hole will turn into a naked singularity in this particular process, in which case the allowed range of the particle’s energy is very narrow. The result indicates that the self-force effects may well change the outcome of the calculation.

  17. Scaling of charged particle multiplicity distributions in relativistic nuclear collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahamd, N.; Hushnud; Azmi, M.D.; Zafar, M.; Irfan, M.; Khan, M.M.; Tufail, A.

    2011-01-01

    Validity of KNO scaling in hadron-hadron and hadron-nucleus collisions has been tested by several workers. Multiplicity distributions for p-emulsion interactions are found to be consistent with the KNO scaling hypothesis for pp collisions. The applicability of the scaling law was extended to FNAL energies by earlier workers. Slattery has shown that KNO scaling hypothesis is in fine agreement with the data for pp interactions over a wide range of incident energies. An attempt, is, therefore, made to examine the scaling hypothesis using multiplicity distributions of particles produced in 3.7A GeV/c 16 O-, 4.5A GeV/c and 14.5A GeV/c 28 Si - nucleus interactions

  18. Microstructure evolution of recrystallized Zircaloy-4 under charged particles irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaumé, M.; Onimus, F.; Dupuy, L.; Tissot, O.; Bachelet, C.; Mompiou, F.

    2017-11-01

    Recrystallized zirconium alloys are used as nuclear fuel cladding tubes of Pressurized Water Reactors. During operation, these alloys are submitted to fast neutron irradiation which leads to their in-reactor deformation and to a change of their mechanical properties. These phenomena are directly related to the microstructure evolution under irradiation and especially to the formation of -type dislocation loops. In the present work, the radiation damage evolution in recrystallized Zircaloy-4 has been studied using charged particles irradiation. The loop nucleation and growth kinetics, and also the helical climb of linear dislocations, were observed in-situ using a High Voltage Electron Microscope (HVEM) under 1 MeV electron irradiation at 673 and 723 K. In addition, 600 keV Zr+ ion irradiations were conducted at the same temperature. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) characterizations have been performed after both types of irradiations, and show dislocation loops with a Burgers vector belonging to planes close to { 10 1 bar 0 } first order prismatic planes. The nature of the loops has been characterized. Only interstitial dislocation loops have been observed after ion irradiation at 723 K. However, after electron irradiation conducted at 673 and 723 K, both interstitial and vacancy loops were observed, the proportion of interstitial loops increasing as the temperature is increased. The loop growth kinetics analysis shows that as the temperature increases, the loop number density decreases and the loop growth rate tends to increase. An increase of the flux leads to an increase of the loop number density and a decrease of the loop growth rate. The results are compared to previous works and discussed in the light of point defects diffusion.

  19. Charged-particle transfer reactions and nuclear astrophysics problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artemov, S.V.; Yarmukhamedov, R.; Yuldashev, B.S.; Burtebaev, N.; Duysebaev, A.; Kadyrzhanov, K.K.

    2002-01-01

    In the report a review of the recent results of calculation of the astrophysical S-factors S(E) for the D(α, γ) 6 Li, 3 He(α, γ) 7 Be, 7 Be(p, γ) 8 Be, 12,13 C(p, γ) 13, 14 N and 12 C(p,γ) 16 O* reactions at extremely low energies E, including value E=0 , performed within the framework of a new method taking into account the additional information about the nuclear vertex constant (Nc) (or the respective asymptotic normalization coefficient) are presented. The required values of Nc can be obtained from an analysis of measured differential cross-sections of proton and α-particle transfer reactions (for example A( 3 He,d)B, 6 Li(d, 6 Li)d, 6 Li(α, 6 Li)α, 12 C( 6 Li, d) 16 O* etc.). A comparative analysis between the results obtained by different authors is also done. Taking into account an important role of the NVC's values for the nuclear astrophysical A(p, γ)B and A(α, γ)B reactions, a possibility of obtaining the reliable NVC values for the virtual decay B→A+p and B→A+α from the analysis of differential cross sections both sub- and above-barrier A( 3 He, d) and A( 6,7 Li, 2,3 H)B reactions is discussed in detail. In this line the use the isochronous cyclotron U-150 M, the 'DC-60' heavy ion machine and electrostatic charge-exchanging accelerator UKP-2-1 of Institute of Nuclear Physics of National Nuclear Center of the Republic of Kazakhstan for carrying out the needed experiments is considered and the possibility of the obtained data application for the astrophysical interest is also discussed

  20. On charged particle equilibrium violation in external photon fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchard, Hugo; Seuntjens, Jan; Palmans, Hugo

    2012-03-01

    In a recent paper by Bouchard et al. [Med. Phys. 36(10), 4654-4663 (2009)], a theoretical model of quality correction factors for idealistic so-called plan-class specific reference (PCSR) fields was proposed. The reasoning was founded on the definition of PCSR fields made earlier by Alfonso et al. [Med. Phys. 35(11), 5179-5186 (2008)], requiring the beam to achieve charged particle equilibrium (CPE), in a time-averaged sense, in the reference medium. The relation obtained by Bouchard et al. was derived using Fano's theorem (1954) which states that if CPE is established in a given medium, the dose is independent of point-to-point density variations. A potential misconception on the achievability of the condition required by Fano (1954) might be responsible for false practical conclusions, both in the definition of PCSR fields as well as the theoretical model of quality correction factor. In this paper, the practical achievability of CPE in external beams is treated in detail. The fact that this condition is not achievable in single or composite deliveries is illustrated by an intuitive method and is also formally demonstrated. Fano's theorem is not applicable in external beam radiation dosimetry without (virtually) removing attenuation effects, and therefore, the relation conditionally defined by Bouchard et al. (2009) cannot be valid in practice. A definition of PCSR fields in the recent formalism for nonstandard beams proposed by Alfonso et al. (2008) should be modified, revising the criterion of CPE condition. The authors propose reconsidering the terminology used to describe standard and nonstandard beams. The authors argue that quality correction factors of intensity modulated radiation therapy PCSR fields (i.e., k(Q(pcsr),Q) (f(pcsr),f(ref) )) could be unity under ideal conditions, but it is concluded that further investigation is necessary to confirm that hypothesis.

  1. On charged particle equilibrium violation in external photon fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouchard, Hugo; Seuntjens, Jan; Palmans, Hugo

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: In a recent paper by Bouchard et al.[Med. Phys. 36(10), 4654-4663 (2009)], a theoretical model of quality correction factors for idealistic so-called plan-class specific reference (PCSR) fields was proposed. The reasoning was founded on the definition of PCSR fields made earlier by Alfonso et al.[Med. Phys. 35(11), 5179-5186 (2008)], requiring the beam to achieve charged particle equilibrium (CPE), in a time-averaged sense, in the reference medium. The relation obtained by Bouchard et al. was derived using Fano's theorem (1954) which states that if CPE is established in a given medium, the dose is independent of point-to-point density variations. A potential misconception on the achievability of the condition required by Fano (1954) might be responsible for false practical conclusions, both in the definition of PCSR fields as well as the theoretical model of quality correction factor. Methods: In this paper, the practical achievability of CPE in external beams is treated in detail. The fact that this condition is not achievable in single or composite deliveries is illustrated by an intuitive method and is also formally demonstrated. Conclusions: Fano's theorem is not applicable in external beam radiation dosimetry without (virtually) removing attenuation effects, and therefore, the relation conditionally defined by Bouchard et al. (2009) cannot be valid in practice. A definition of PCSR fields in the recent formalism for nonstandard beams proposed by Alfonso et al. (2008) should be modified, revising the criterion of CPE condition. The authors propose reconsidering the terminology used to describe standard and nonstandard beams. The authors argue that quality correction factors of intensity modulated radiation therapy PCSR fields (i.e., k Q pcsr ,Q f pcsr ,f ref ) could be unity under ideal conditions, but it is concluded that further investigation is necessary to confirm that hypothesis.

  2. NOTE: Ranges of ions in metals for use in particle treatment planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäkel, Oliver

    2006-05-01

    In proton and ion radiotherapy, the range of particles is calculated from x-ray computed tomography (CT) numbers. Due to the strong absorption of x-rays in a metal and a cut-off for large Hounsfield units (HU) in the software of most CT-scanners, a range calculation in metals cannot be based on the measured HU. This is of special importance when metal implants such as gold fillings or hip prostheses are close to the treatment volume. In order to overcome this problem in treatment planning for heavy charged particles, the correct ranges of ions in the metal relative to water have to be assigned in the CT data. Measurements and calculations of carbon ion ranges in various metals are presented that can be used in treatment planning to allow for a more accurate range calculation of carbon ion beams in titanium, steel, tungsten and gold. The suggested values for the relative water-equivalent range and their uncertainties are 3.13 (±3%) for titanium, 5.59 (±3%) for stainless steel and 10.25 (±4%) for gold.

  3. Ranges of ions in metals for use in particle treatment planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaekel, Oliver

    2006-01-01

    In proton and ion radiotherapy, the range of particles is calculated from x-ray computed tomography (CT) numbers. Due to the strong absorption of x-rays in a metal and a cut-off for large Hounsfield units (HU) in the software of most CT-scanners, a range calculation in metals cannot be based on the measured HU. This is of special importance when metal implants such as gold fillings or hip prostheses are close to the treatment volume. In order to overcome this problem in treatment planning for heavy charged particles, the correct ranges of ions in the metal relative to water have to be assigned in the CT data. Measurements and calculations of carbon ion ranges in various metals are presented that can be used in treatment planning to allow for a more accurate range calculation of carbon ion beams in titanium, steel, tungsten and gold. The suggested values for the relative water-equivalent range and their uncertainties are 3.13 (±3%) for titanium, 5.59 (±3%) for stainless steel and 10.25 (±4%) for gold. (note)

  4. Observation of charged particles by the JIKIKEN (EXOS-B), before and after magnetic storm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubo, Haruya; Mukai, Toshinori; Kawashima, Nobuki

    1981-01-01

    The variations of the flux and energy spectrum of charged particles before and after magnetic storm were observed by the satellite JIKIKEN. The flux and the energy spectrum of electrons and ions in the magnetosphere of L about 4 and 5 were observed during the period from April 4 to 11, 1979. At that time, the observation points were on the daytime side. Observations in the morning and just after the noon were made in August, 1979. Observation at night was made in December, 1979. The observation at night showed a rapid increase of the flux of charged particles after magnetic storm. The ions observed in the morning were due to the corotation after storm. The observation in the daytime showed that electrons came by the drift to east and corotation, and ions by the drift to west, making partial ring current to the evening side. These came long after magnetic storm. When magnetic storm was large, the ring current particles invaded to the small L part. The partial ring current ions existed also on the morning side by the corotation. When the ring current ions were dominant, the ion energy spectrum was hard in the observed energy range. (Kato, T.)

  5. A magnetic diverter for charged particle background rejection in the SIMBOL-X telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiga, D.; Fioretti, V.; Bulgarelli, A.; Dell'Orto, E.; Foschini, L.; Malaguti, G.; Pareschi, G.; Tagliaferri, G.; Tiengo, A.

    2008-07-01

    Minimization of charged particle background in X-ray telescopes is a well known issue. Charged particles (chiefly protons and electrons) naturally present in the cosmic environment constitute an important background source when they collide with the X-ray detector. Even worse, a serious degradation of spectroscopic performances of the X-ray detector was observed in Chandra and Newton-XMM, caused by soft protons with kinetic energies ranging between 100 keV and some MeV being collected by the grazing-incidence mirrors and funneled to the detector. For a focusing telescope like SIMBOL-X, the exposure of the soft X-ray detector to the proton flux can increase significantly the instrumental background, with a consequent loss of sensitivity. In the worst case, it can also seriously compromise the detector duration. A well-known countermeasure that can be adopted is the implementation of a properly-designed magnetic diverter, that should prevent high-energy particles from reaching the focal plane instruments of SIMBOL-X. Although Newton-XMM and Swift-XRT are equipped with magnetic diverters for electrons, the magnetic fields used are insufficient to effectively act on protons. In this paper, we simulate the behavior of a magnetic diverter for SIMBOL-X, consisting of commercially-available permanent magnets. The effects of SIMBOL-X optics is simulated through GEANT4 libraries, whereas the effect of the intense required magnetic fields is simulated along with specifically-written numerical codes in IDL.

  6. Particle-in-cell/accelerator code for space-charge dominated beam simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-05-08

    Warp is a multidimensional discrete-particle beam simulation program designed to be applicable where the beam space-charge is non-negligible or dominant. It is being developed in a collaboration among LLNL, LBNL and the University of Maryland. It was originally designed and optimized for heave ion fusion accelerator physics studies, but has received use in a broader range of applications, including for example laser wakefield accelerators, e-cloud studies in high enery accelerators, particle traps and other areas. At present it incorporates 3-D, axisymmetric (r,z) planar (x-z) and transverse slice (x,y) descriptions, with both electrostatic and electro-magnetic fields, and a beam envelope model. The code is guilt atop the Python interpreter language.

  7. Describing long-range charge-separation processes with subsystem density-functional theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solovyeva, Alisa; Neugebauer, Johannes, E-mail: j.neugebauer@uni-muenster.de [Theoretische Organische Chemie, Organisch-Chemisches Institut and Center for Multiscale Theory and Simulation, Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität Münster, Corrensstraße 40, 48149 Münster (Germany); Pavanello, Michele, E-mail: m.pavanello@rutgers.edu [Department of Chemistry, Rutgers University, 73 Warren St., Newark, New Jersey 07102 (United States)

    2014-04-28

    Long-range charge-transfer processes in extended systems are difficult to describe with quantum chemical methods. In particular, cost-effective (non-hybrid) approximations within time-dependent density functional theory (DFT) are not applicable unless special precautions are taken. Here, we show that the efficient subsystem DFT can be employed as a constrained DFT variant to describe the energetics of long-range charge-separation processes. A formal analysis of the energy components in subsystem DFT for such excitation energies is presented, which demonstrates that both the distance dependence and the long-range limit are correctly described. In addition, electronic couplings for these processes as needed for rate constants in Marcus theory can be obtained from this method. It is shown that the electronic structure of charge-separated states constructed by a positively charged subsystem interacting with a negatively charged one is difficult to converge — charge leaking from the negative subsystem to the positive one can occur. This problem is related to the delocalization error in DFT and can be overcome with asymptotically correct exchange–correlation (XC) potentials or XC potentials including a sufficiently large amount of exact exchange. We also outline an approximate way to obtain charge-transfer couplings between locally excited and charge-separated states.

  8. Describing long-range charge-separation processes with subsystem density-functional theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solovyeva, Alisa; Neugebauer, Johannes; Pavanello, Michele

    2014-01-01

    Long-range charge-transfer processes in extended systems are difficult to describe with quantum chemical methods. In particular, cost-effective (non-hybrid) approximations within time-dependent density functional theory (DFT) are not applicable unless special precautions are taken. Here, we show that the efficient subsystem DFT can be employed as a constrained DFT variant to describe the energetics of long-range charge-separation processes. A formal analysis of the energy components in subsystem DFT for such excitation energies is presented, which demonstrates that both the distance dependence and the long-range limit are correctly described. In addition, electronic couplings for these processes as needed for rate constants in Marcus theory can be obtained from this method. It is shown that the electronic structure of charge-separated states constructed by a positively charged subsystem interacting with a negatively charged one is difficult to converge — charge leaking from the negative subsystem to the positive one can occur. This problem is related to the delocalization error in DFT and can be overcome with asymptotically correct exchange–correlation (XC) potentials or XC potentials including a sufficiently large amount of exact exchange. We also outline an approximate way to obtain charge-transfer couplings between locally excited and charge-separated states

  9. Particle-based simulation of charge transport in discrete-charge nano-scale systems: the electrostatic problem

    OpenAIRE

    Berti, Claudio; Gillespie, Dirk; Eisenberg, Robert S; Fiegna, Claudio

    2012-01-01

    The fast and accurate computation of the electric forces that drive the motion of charged particles at the nanometer scale represents a computational challenge. For this kind of system, where the discrete nature of the charges cannot be neglected, boundary element methods (BEM) represent a better approach than finite differences/finite elements methods. In this article, we compare two different BEM approaches to a canonical electrostatic problem in a three-dimensional space with inhomogeneous...

  10. Development of a Charged Particle Microbeam for Single-Particle Subcellular Irradiations at the MIT Laboratory for Accelerator Beam Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanch, Jacquelyn C.

    2004-01-01

    The development of a charged particle microbeam for single particle, subcellular irradiations at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Laboratory for Accelerator Beam Applications (MIT LABA) was initiated under this NEER aeard. The Microbeam apparatus makes use of a pre-existing electrostatic accelerator with a horizontal beam tube

  11. High-energy charged particle bursts in the near-Earth space as earthquake precursors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Yu. Aleksandrin

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available The experimental data on high-energy charged particle fluxes, obtained in various near-Earth space experiments (MIR orbital station, METEOR-3, GAMMA and SAMPEX satellites were processed and analyzed with the goal to search for particle bursts. Particle bursts have been selected in every experiment considered. It was shown that the significant part of high-energy charged particle bursts correlates with seismic activity. Moreover, the particle bursts are observed several hours before strong earthquakes; L-shells of particle bursts and corresponding earthquakes are practically the same. Some features of a seismo-magnetosphere connection model, based on the interaction of electromagnetic emission of seismic origin and radiation belt particles, were considered. Key words. Ionospheric physics (energetic particles, trapped; energetic particles, precipitating; magnetosphere-ionosphere interactions

  12. A search for relativistic particles with fractional electric charge at the Cern collider

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banner, M.; Kofoed-Hansen, O.

    1983-01-01

    A search for relativistic particles with fractional electric charge has been performed at the CERN collider using a telescope of scintillation counters to detect particles with abnormally low ionisation. The thickness of the detector (40 gr cm−2) limits this search to particles without strong...

  13. Light charged particle emission in heavy-ion reactions – What have ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    coincidence with gamma rays, fission products, evaporation residues have yielded interesting results which bring out the influence of nuclear structure, nuclear mean field and dynamics on the emission of these particles. Keywords. Light charged particles; heavy-ion induced reactions; particle spectra and angular distri-.

  14. Heating of charged particles by electrostatic wave propagating perpendicularly to uniform magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niu, Keishiro; Shimojo, Takashi.

    1978-02-01

    Increase in kinetic energy of a charged particle, affected by an electrostatic wave propagating perpendicularly to a uniform magnetic field, is obtained for both the initial and later stages. Detrapping time of the particle from the potential dent of the electrostatic wave and energy increase during trapping of the particle is analytically derived. Numerical simulations are carried out to support theoretical results. (auth.)

  15. Trajectory of Charged Particle in Combined Electric and Magnetic Fields Using Interactive Spreadsheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tambade, Popat S.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this article is to graphically illustrate to the students the physical phenomenon of motion of charged particle under the action of simultaneous electric and magnetic fields by simulating particle motion on a computer. Differential equations of motions are solved analytically and path of particle in three-dimensional space are…

  16. Ultracold Fermi and Bose gases and Spinless Bose Charged Sound Particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minasyan V.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available We propose a novel approach for investigation of the motion of Bose or Fermi liquid (or gas which consists of decoupled electrons and ions in the uppermost hyperfine state. Hence, we use such a concept as the fluctuation motion of “charged fluid particles” or “charged fluid points” representing a charged longitudinal elastic wave. In turn, this elastic wave is quantized by spinless longitudinal Bose charged sound particles with the rest mass m and charge e 0 . The existence of spinless Bose charged sound particles allows us to present a new model for description of Bose or Fermi liquid via a non-ideal Bose gas of charged sound particles . In this respect, we introduce a new postulation for the superfluid component of Bose or Fermi liquid determined by means of charged sound particles in the condensate, which may explain the results of experiments connected with ultra-cold Fermi gases of spin-polarized hydrogen, 6 Li and 40 K, and such a Bose gas as 87 Rb in the uppermost hyperfine state, where the Bose- Einstein condensation of charged sound particles is realized by tuning the magnetic field.

  17. Particle Production in Hadron - Nuclear Matter in the Energy Range Between 50-GeV - 150-GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Braune, Kersten

    1980-01-01

    In an experiment at the CERN SPS the particle production