WorldWideScience

Sample records for range central nevada

  1. Mountain lions: preliminary findings on home-range use and density, central Sierra Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald L. Neal; George N. Steger; Ronald C. Bertram

    1987-01-01

    Between August 1983 and December 1985, 19 mountain lions were captured, radio equipped, and monitored daily within a portion of the North Kings deer herd range on the west slope of the central Sierra Nevada in California. The density of adult mountain lions was estimated to be one per 33.3 km²; that of adults and kittens together was estimated to be one per 20...

  2. Threatened plant species of the Nevada Test Site, Ash Meadows, central-southern Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beatley, J.C.

    1977-04-01

    This report is a companion one to Endangered Plant Species of the Nevada Test Site, Ash Meadows, and Central-Southern Nevada (COO-2307-11) and deals with the threatened plant species of the same area. The species are those cited in the Federal Register, July 1, 1975, and include certain ones listed as occurring only in California or Arizona, but which occur also in central-southern Nevada. As with the earlier report, the purpose of this one is to record in detail the location of the past plant collections which constitute the sole or principal basis for defining the species' distributions and frequency of occurrence in southern Nye County, Nevada, and to recommend the area of the critical habitat where this is appropriate. Many of the species occur also in southern California, and for these the central-southern Nevada records are presented for consideration of the overall status of the species throughout its range.

  3. Terrestrial cosmogenic surface exposure dating of glacial and associated landforms in the Ruby Mountains-East Humboldt Range of central Nevada and along the northeastern flank of the Sierra Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesnousky, Steven G.; Briggs, Richard; Caffee, Marc W.; Ryerson, Rick J.; Finkel, Robert C.; Owen, Lewis A.

    2016-01-01

    Deposits near Lamoille in the Ruby Mountains-East Humboldt Range of central Nevada and at Woodfords on the eastern edge of the Sierra Nevada each record two distinct glacial advances. We compare independent assessments of terrestrial cosmogenic nuclide (TCN) surface exposure ages for glacial deposits that we have determined to those obtained by others at the two sites. At each site, TCN ages of boulders on moraines of the younger advance are between 15 and 30 ka and may be associated with marine oxygen isotope stage (MIS) 2. At Woodfords, TCN ages of boulders on the moraine of the older advance are younger than ~ 60 ka and possibly formed during MIS 4, whereas boulders on the correlative outwash surface show ages approaching 140 ka (~ MIS 6). The TCN ages of boulders on older glacial moraine at Woodfords thus appear to severely underestimate the true age of the glacial advance responsible for the deposit. The same is possibly true at Lamoille where clasts sampled from the moraine of the oldest advance have ages ranging between 20 and 40 ka with a single outlier age of ~ 80 ka. The underestimations are attributed to the degradation and denudation of older moraine crests. Noting that boulder ages on the older advances at each site overlap significantly with MIS 2. We speculate that erosion of the older moraines has been episodic, with a pulse of denudation accompanying the inception of MIS 2 glaciation.

  4. Unusual Chemistry of the Miocene Central Basin and Range: zr and LREE Enriched Mafic Rocks of the Lucy Gray and Mccullough Mountains, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnsen, R. L.; Smith, E. I.

    2011-12-01

    The dominantly intermediate mid-Miocene (ca. 16-12 Ma) volcanic section in the northern and central McCullough Range of the Basin and Range Province, Nevada, typifies igneous rocks in similar-aged, adjacent mountain ranges (e.g., the Highland Range and the Eldorado Mountains). Calc-alkaline andesite to dacite domes, flows, and related pyroclastic materials dominate while rhyolite and basalt are volumetrically minor constituents. These rocks have the typical "arc" chemical signature prevalent in subduction zones and in pre-extensional Basin and Range igneous rocks (Zr, Nb, Ti depletions, Beer Bottle Pass Granite; and, perhaps most intriguing, 3) the ~1.4 Ga Sulphide Queen carbonatite and age-equivalent shonkinite, syenite, and granite of Mountain Pass. Shonkinites are well known for their extreme LREE enrichment and these in particular contain up to 1000 ppm Zr as well. Could a small amount of contamination of a highly enriched crustal rock such as shonkinite or syenite with a more normal OIB-like basaltic melt account for the odd character of these Miocene rocks? Or is it more likely indicative of an unusually enriched LM source?

  5. A ground-based magnetic survey of Frenchman Flat, Nevada National Security Site and Nevada Test and Training Range, Nevada: data release and preliminary interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Jeffrey D.; Burton, Bethany L.; Curry-Elrod, Erika; Drellack, Sigmund

    2014-01-01

    The Nevada National Security Site (NNSS, formerly the Nevada Test Site) is located in southern Nevada approximately 105 kilometers (km) (65 miles) northwest of Las Vegas. Frenchman Flat is a sedimentary basin located on the eastern edge of NNSS and extending eastward into the adjacent Nevada Test and Training Range (NTTR).

  6. Monitoring Soil Erosion of a Burn Site in the Central Basin and Range Ecoregion: Final Report on Measurements at the Gleason Fire Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Julianne [DRI; Etyemezian, Vicken [DRI; Shillito, Rose [DRI; Cablk, Mary [DRI; Fenstermaker, Lynn [DRI; Shafer, David [DOE Legacy Management

    2013-10-01

    The increase in wildfires in arid and semi-arid parts of Nevada and elsewhere in the southwestern United States has implications for post-closure management and long-term stewardship for Soil Corrective Action Units (CAUs) on the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) for which the Nevada Field Office of the United States Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration has responsibility. For many CAUs and Corrective Action Sites, where closure-in-place alternatives are now being implemented or considered, there is a chance that these sites could burn over at some time while they still pose a risk to the environment or human health, given the long half lives of some of the radionuclide contaminants. This study was initiated to examine the effects and duration of wildfire on wind and water erodibility on sites analogous to those that exist on the NNSS. The data analyzed herein were gathered at the prescribed Gleason Fire site near Ely, Nevada, a site comparable to the northern portion of the NNSS. Quantification of wind erosion was conducted with a Portable In-Situ Wind ERosion Lab (PI-SWERL) on unburned soils, and on interspace and plant understory soils within the burned area. The PI-SWERL was used to estimate emissions of suspendible particles (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters less than or equal to 10 micrometers) at different wind speeds. Filter samples, collected from the exhaust of the PI-SWERL during measurements, were analyzed for chemical composition. Based on nearly three years of data, the Gleason Fire site does not appear to have returned to pre burn wind erosion levels. Chemical composition data of suspendible particles are variable and show a trend toward pre-burn levels, but provide little insight into how the composition has been changing over time since the fire. Soil, runoff, and sediment data were collected from the Gleason Fire site to monitor the water erosion potential over the nearly three-year period. Soil

  7. Digital elevation model of Walker Lake, West-Central Nevada

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Walker Lake lies within a topographically closed basin in west-central Nevada and is the terminus of the Walker River. Accurately determining the bathymetry and...

  8. Tonopah Test Range Post-Closure Inspection Annual Report, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, Calendar Year 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office; Bechtel Nevada

    2004-04-01

    This post-closure inspection report provides documentation of the semiannual inspection activities, maintenance and repair activities, and conclusions and recommendations for calendar year 2003 for eight corrective action units located on the Tonopah Test Range, Nevada.

  9. The Basin and Range Province in Utah, Nevada, and California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Thomas B.

    1943-01-01

    In this report an attempt has been made to summarize and in places to interpret the published information that was available through 1938 on the geology of those parts of Nevada, California, and Utah that are included in the geologic province known as the Basin and Range province. This region includes most of the Great Basin, from which no water flows to the sea, as well as part of the drainage basin of the lower Colorado River. It is characterized by numerous parallel, linear mountain ranges that are separated from one another by wide valleys or topographic basins. All the major divisions of geologic time are represented by the rocks exposed in this region. The oldest are of pre-Cambrian age and crop out chiefly along the eastern and southern borders. They have been carefully studied at only a few localities, and the correlation and extent of the subdivision so far recognized is uncertain. There appear to be at least three series of pre-Cambrian rocks which are probably separated from one another by profound unconformities. Large masses of intrusive igneous rocks have been recognized only in the oldest series. During the Paleozoic era the region was a part of the Cordilleran geosyncline, and sediments were deposited during all of the major and most of the minor subdivisions of the era. There are thick and widespread accumulations of Cambrian and Ordovician strata, the maximum aggregate thickness possibly exceeding 23,000 feet. The eastern and western boundaries of the province were approximately those of the area of rapid subsidence within the geosyncline, though the axes of maximum subsidence oscillated back and forth during the two periods. The Silurian and Devonian seas, on the other hand, extended beyond the province and, possibly as a consequence, are represented by much thinner sections - of the order of 6,000 feet. At the end of the Devonian period the geosyncline was split by the emergence of a geanticline in western Nevada, and Mississippian and

  10. Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 417: Central Nevada Test Area Surface, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. Campbell

    2000-04-01

    This Corrective Action Plan provides methods for implementing the approved corrective action alternative as provided in the Corrective Action Decision Document for the Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA), Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 417 (DOE/NV, 1999). The CNTA is located in the Hot Creek Valley in Nye County, Nevada, approximately 137 kilometers (85 miles) northeast of Tonopah, Nevada. The CNTA consists of three separate land withdrawal areas commonly referred to as UC-1, UC-3, and UC-4, all of which are accessible to the public. CAU 417 consists of 34 Corrective Action Sites (CASs). Results of the investigation activities completed in 1998 are presented in Appendix D of the Corrective Action Decision Document (DOE/NV, 1999). According to the results, the only Constituent of Concern at the CNTA is total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH). Of the 34 CASs, corrective action was proposed for 16 sites in 13 CASs. In fiscal year 1999, a Phase I Work Plan was prepared for the construction of a cover on the UC-4 Mud Pit C to gather information on cover constructibility and to perform site management activities. With Nevada Division of Environmental Protection concurrence, the Phase I field activities began in August 1999. A multi-layered cover using a Geosynthetic Clay Liner as an infiltration barrier was constructed over the UC-4 Mud Pit. Some TPH impacted material was relocated, concrete monuments were installed at nine sites, signs warning of site conditions were posted at seven sites, and subsidence markers were installed on the UC-4 Mud Pit C cover. Results from the field activities indicated that the UC-4 Mud Pit C cover design was constructable and could be used at the UC-1 Central Mud Pit (CMP). However, because of the size of the UC-1 CMP this design would be extremely costly. An alternative cover design, a vegetated cover, is proposed for the UC-1 CMP.

  11. Corrective Action Decision Document/ Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 443: Central Nevada Test Area-Subsurface Central Nevada Test Area, Nevada, Rev. No. 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Susan Evans

    2004-11-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document/Corrective Action Plan (CADD/CAP) has been prepared for the subsurface at the Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA) Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 443, CNTA - Subsurface, Nevada, in accordance with the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (FFACO) (1996). CAU 443 is located in Hot Creek Valley in Nye County, Nevada, north of U.S. Highway 6, about 48 kilometers north of Warm Springs, Nevada. The CADD/CAP combines the decision document (CADD) with the corrective action plan (CAP) and provides or references the specific information necessary to recommend corrective actions for the UC-1 Cavity (Corrective Action Site 58-57-001) at CAU 443, as provided in the FFACO. The purpose of the CADD portion of the document (Section 1.0 to Section 4.0) is to identify and provide a rationale for the selection of a recommended corrective action alternative for the subsurface at CNTA. To achieve this, the following tasks were required: (1) Develop corrective action objectives; (2) Identify corrective action alternative screening criteria; (3) Develop corrective action alternatives; (4) Perform detailed and comparative evaluations of the corrective action alternatives in relation to the corrective action objectives and screening criteria; and (5) Recommend a preferred corrective action alternative for the subsurface at CNTA. A Corrective Action Investigation (CAI) was performed in several stages from 1999 to 2003, as set forth in the ''Corrective Action Investigation Plan for the Central Nevada Test Area Subsurface Sites (Corrective Action Unit No. 443)'' (DOE/NV, 1999). Groundwater modeling was the primary activity of the CAI. Three phases of modeling were conducted for the Faultless underground nuclear test. The first involved the gathering and interpretation of geologic and hydrogeologic data into a three-dimensional numerical model of groundwater flow, and use of the output of the flow model for a

  12. Well Completion Report for Corrective Action Unit 443 Central Nevada Test Area Nye County, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-12-01

    The drilling program described in this report is part of a new corrective action strategy for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 443 at the Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA). The drilling program included drilling two boreholes, geophysical well logging, construction of two monitoring/validation (MV) wells with piezometers (MV-4 and MV-5), development of monitor wells and piezometers, recompletion of two existing wells (HTH-1 and UC-1-P-1S), removal of pumps from existing wells (MV-1, MV-2, and MV-3), redevelopment of piezometers associated with existing wells (MV-1, MV-2, and MV-3), and installation of submersible pumps. The new corrective action strategy includes initiating a new 5-year proof-of-concept monitoring period to validate the compliance boundary at CNTA (DOE 2007). The new 5-year proof-of-concept monitoring period begins upon completion of the new monitor wells and collection of samples for laboratory analysis. The new strategy is described in the Corrective Action Decision Document/Corrective Action Plan addendum (DOE 2008a) that the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection approved (NDEP 2008).

  13. Report on expedited site characterization of the Central Nevada Test Area, Nye County, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuhr, L. [Technos Inc., Miami, FL (United States); Wonder, J.D.; Bevolo, A.J. [Ames Lab., IA (United States)

    1997-09-01

    This report documents data collection, results, and interpretation of the expedited site characterization (ESC) pilot project conducted from September 1996 to June 1997 at the Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA), Nye County, Nevada. Characterization activities were limited to surface sites associated with deep well drilling and ancillary operations at or near three emplacement well areas. Environmental issues related to the underground nuclear detonation (Project Faultless) and hydrologic monitoring wells were not addressed as a part of this project. The CNTA was divided into four functional areas for the purpose of this investigation and report. These areas include the vicinity of three emplacement wells (UC-1, UC-3, and UC-4) and one mud waste drilling mud collection location (Central Mud Pit; CMP). Each of these areas contain multiple, potentially contaminated features, identified either from historic information, on-site inspections, or existing data. These individual features are referred to hereafter as ``sites.`` The project scope of work involved site reconnaissance, establishment of local grid systems, site mapping and surveying, geophysical measurements, and collection and chemical analysis of soil and drilling mud samples. Section 2.0 through Section 4.0 of this report provide essential background information about the site, project, and details of how the ESC method was applied at CNTA. Detailed discussion of the scope of work is provided in Section 5.0, including procedures used and locations and quantities of measurements obtained. Results and interpretations for each of the four functional areas are discussed separately in Sections 6.0, 7.0, 8.0, and 9.0. These sections provide a chronological presentation of data collected and results obtained, followed by interpretation on a site-by-site basis. Key data is presented in the individual sections. The comprehensive set of data is contained in appendices.

  14. Geospatial Database of Hydroclimate Variables, Spring Mountains and Sheep Range, Clark County, Nevada

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This point feature class contains 81,481 points arranged in a 270-meter spaced grid that covers the Spring Mountains and Sheep Range in Clark County, Nevada. Points...

  15. Water Level Altitude Contours for the Diamond Valley Flow System, Central Nevada, 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data were created as part of a hydrologic study to characterize groundwater budgets and water quality in the Diamond Valley Flow System (DVFS), central Nevada....

  16. Groundwater discharge areas for Antelope, Kobeh, and Monitor Valleys, Central Nevada, 1964

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset represents "phreatophyte areas" mapped as part of a groundwater reconnaissance effort in four valleys in central Nevada and published in 1964. The data...

  17. Groundwater Discharge Area for the Diamond Valley Flow System, Central Nevada

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data were created as part of a hydrologic study to characterize groundwater budgets and water quality in the Diamond Valley Flow System (DVFS), central Nevada....

  18. Tonopah Test Range Post-Closure Inspection Annual Report, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, Calendar Year 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. B. Jackson

    2003-08-01

    This Post-Closure Inspection Annual Report provides documentation of the semiannual inspections conducted at the following Corrective Action Units (CAU)s: CAU 400: Bomblet Pit and Five Points Landfill; CAU 404: Roller Coaster Lagoons and Trench; CAU 407: Roller Coaster RadSafe Area; CAU 424: Area 3 Landfill Complexes; CAU 426: Cactus Spring Waste Trenches; CAU 427: Septic Waste Systems 2, 6; and CAU 453: Area 9 UXO Landfill, all located at the Tonopah Test Range, Nevada. Post-closure inspections are not required at CAU 400 but are conducted to monitor vegetation and fencing at the site. Site inspections were conducted in May and November 2002. All site inspections were made after Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) approval of the appropriate Closure Report (CR), excluding CAU 400 which did not require a CR, and were conducted in accordance with the Post-Closure Inspection Plans in the NDEP-approved CRs. Post-closure inspections conducted during 2002 identified several areas requiring maintenance/repairs. Maintenance work and proposed additional monitoring are included in the appropriate section for each CAU. This report includes copies of the Post-Closure Inspection Plans, Post-Closure Inspection Checklists, copies of the field notes, photographs, and the Post-Closure Vegetative Monitoring Report. The Post-Closure Inspection Plan for each CAU is located in Attachment A. Post-Closure Inspection Checklists are in Attachment B. Copies of the field notes from each inspection are included in Attachment C. Attachment D consists of the photographic logs and photographs of the sites. The post-closure vegetative monitoring report for calendar year 2002 is included in Attachment E.

  19. The relationship between normal and strike-slip faults in Valley of Fire State Park, Nevada, and its implications for stress rotation and partitioning of deformation in the east-central Basin and Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Atilla; de Joussineau, Ghislain

    2014-06-01

    This study expands on our earlier studies of the evolution of fracturing and faulting in the Jurassic aeolian Aztec Sandstone exposed over a large area in the Valley of Fire State Park, southeastern Nevada. Based on a nearly three-dimensional data set collected from 200-m-high cliff-face exposures with stair-case morphology composed of steep and flat parts, we find that a series of inclined, relatively low-angle normal faults and their splay fractures are precursors of the strike-slip fault network that we previously documented. We discuss the significance of this finding in terms of the tectonics of the broader area, stress rotation, partitioning of deformation, and the development of fracture clusters with compartmentalization of the structures as a function of spatial, depositional and deformational domains.

  20. Cenozoic evolution of the central Walker Lane Belt, west-central Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petronis, Michael S.

    This dissertation is a collection of four papers that investigate deformation along the North America/Pacific plate boundary, geomagnetic field behavior, and aspects of volcanism in the western part of the Basin and Range Province. Active deformation along the America/Pacific plate boundary is distributed eastward across a wide zone of the western margin of the North American plate, from the San Andreas Fault eastward into the western Basin and Range province an area referred to as the Walker Lane Belt. Chapter three and four investigate aspects of deformation that has been transferred inboard of the continental plate boundary since the mid-Cenozoic inception of the system by investigating a key areas of the central Walker Lane Belt, west-central Nevada (Mina Deflection and southwest Silver Peak Range), where a significant component of the residual strain is being distributed. Deformation in these two areas is being accommodated along a system of late Cenozoic faults with strain partitioned into components of extension, strike slip faulting, and rotation of crustal blocks between the fault systems in the region. The results of this study allow for an assessment of late Tertiary deformation, which leads to a better understanding of the kinematics of deformation in this important part of the Walker Lane Belt. Chapter two investigates the transport direction of the Candelaria pyroclastic sequence by the anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) technique. The AMS data are spatially variable across the region and indicate variable transport directions of the three regionally extensive ignimbrite deposits. The AMS fabric data indicate that the Candelaria pyroclastic sequence was erupted from distinct source areas likely separated by several kilometers. Chapter one investigates unusual geomagnetic field behavior at 25.7 Ma and 23.8 Ma preserved in volcanic rocks in the Mina Deflection. Paleomagnetic data indicate that parts of two transitional field records or reversal

  1. Post-Closure Strategy for Use-Restricted Sites on the Nevada National Security Site, Nevada Test and Training Range, and Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silvas, A. J. [National Security Technologies, LLC. (NSTec), Mercury, NV (United States)

    2014-03-26

    The purpose of this Post-Closure Strategy is to provide a consistent methodology for continual evaluation of post-closure requirements for use-restricted areas on the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS), Nevada Test and Training Range (NTTR), and Tonopah Test Range (TTR) to consolidate, modify, or streamline the program. In addition, this document stipulates the creation of a single consolidated Post-Closure Plan that will detail the current post-closure requirements for all active use restrictions (URs) and outlines its implementation and subsequent revision. This strategy will ensure effective management and control of the post-closure sites. There are currently over 200 URs located on the NNSS, NTTR, and TTR. Post-closure requirements were initially established in the Closure Report for each site. In some cases, changes to the post-closure requirements have been implemented through addenda, errata sheets, records of technical change, or letters. Post-closure requirements have been collected from these multiple sources and consolidated into several formats, such as summaries and databases. This structure increases the possibility of inconsistencies and uncertainty. As more URs are established and the post-closure program is expanded, the need for a comprehensive approach for managing the program will increase. Not only should the current requirements be obtainable from a single source that supersedes all previous requirements, but the strategy for modifying the requirements should be standardized. This will enable more effective management of the program into the future. This strategy document and the subsequent comprehensive plan are to be implemented under the assumption that the NNSS and outlying sites will be under the purview of the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration for the foreseeable future. This strategy was also developed assuming that regulatory control of the sites remains static. The comprehensive plan is not

  2. Hydraulic characterization of overpressured tuffs in central Yucca Flat, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halford, Keith J.; Laczniak, Randell J.; Galloway, Devin L.

    2005-01-01

    A sequence of buried, bedded, air-fall tuffs has been used extensively as a host medium for underground nuclear tests detonated in the central part of Yucca Flat at the Nevada Test Site. Water levels within these bedded tuffs have been elevated hundreds of meters in areas where underground nuclear tests were detonated below the water table. Changes in the ground-water levels within these tuffs and changes in the rate and distribution of land-surface subsidence above these tuffs indicate that pore-fluid pressures have been slowly depressurizing since the cessation of nuclear testing in 1992. Declines in ground-water levels concurrent with regional land subsidence are explained by poroelastic deformation accompanying ground-water flow as fluids pressurized by underground nuclear detonations drain from the host tuffs into the overlying water table and underlying regional carbonate aquifer. A hydraulic conductivity of about 3 x 10-6 m/d and a specific storage of 9 x 10-6 m-1 are estimated using ground-water flow models. Cross-sectional and three-dimensional ground-water flow models were calibrated to measured water levels and to land-subsidence rates measured using Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar. Model results are consistent and indicate that about 2 million m3 of ground water flowed from the tuffs to the carbonate rock as a result of pressurization caused by underground nuclear testing. The annual rate of inflow into the carbonate rock averaged about 0.008 m/yr between 1962 and 2005, and declined from 0.005 m/yr in 2005 to 0.0005 m/yr by 2300.

  3. Groundwater discharge area for Diamond Valley, Central Nevada, 1968

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This dataset represents "phreatophyte areas" mapped as part of an analysis of irrigation pumping in Diamond Valley, Nevada published in 1968. The data were digitized...

  4. Bathymetry of Walker Lake, West-Central Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Thomas J.; Smith, J. LaRue

    2007-01-01

    Walker Lake lies within a topographically closed basin in west-central Nevada and is the terminus of the Walker River. Much of the streamflow in the Walker River is diverted for irrigation, which has contributed to a decline in lake-surface altitude of about 150 feet and an increase in dissolved solids from 2,500 to 16,000 milligrams per liter in Walker Lake since 1882. The increase in salinity threatens the fresh-water ecosystem and survival of the Lahontan cutthroat trout, a species listed as threatened under the Endangered Species Act. Accurately determining the bathymetry and relations between lake-surface altitude, surface area, and storage volume are part of a study to improve the water budget for Walker Lake. This report describes the updated bathymetry of Walker Lake, a comparison of results from this study and a study by Rush in 1970, and an estimate of the 1882 lake-surface altitude. Bathymetry was measured using a single-beam echosounder coupled to a differentially-corrected global positioning system. Lake depth was subtracted from the lake-surface altitude to calculate the altitude of the lake bottom. A Lidar (light detection and ranging) survey and high resolution aerial imagery were used to create digital elevation models around Walker Lake. The altitude of the lake bottom and digital elevation models were merged together to create a single map showing land-surface altitude contours delineating areas that are currently or that were submerged by Walker Lake. Surface area and storage volume for lake-surface altitudes of 3,851.5-4,120 feet were calculated with 3-D surface-analysis software. Walker Lake is oval shaped with a north-south trending long axis. On June 28, 2005, the lake-surface altitude was 3,935.6 feet, maximum depth was 86.3 feet, and the surface area was 32,190 acres. The minimum altitude of the lake bottom from discrete point depths is 3,849.3 feet near the center of Walker Lake. The lake bottom is remarkably smooth except for mounds near

  5. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 541: Small Boy Nevada National Security Site and Nevada Test and Training Range, Nevada with ROTC 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthews, Patrick [Navarro-Intera, LLC (N-I), Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 541 is co-located on the boundary of Area 5 of the Nevada National Security Site and Range 65C of the Nevada Test and Training Range, approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. CAU 541 is a grouping of sites where there has been a suspected release of contamination associated with nuclear testing. This document describes the planned investigation of CAU 541, which comprises the following corrective action sites (CASs): 05-23-04, Atmospheric Tests (6) - BFa Site; 05-45-03, Atmospheric Test Site - Small Boy. These sites are being investigated because existing information on the nature and extent of potential contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives (CAAs). Additional information will be obtained by conducting a corrective action investigation before evaluating CAAs and selecting the appropriate corrective action for each CAS. The results of the field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of viable CAAs that will be presented in the investigation report. The sites will be investigated based on the data quality objectives (DQOs) developed on April 1, 2014, by representatives of the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection; U.S. Air Force; and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office. The DQO process was used to identify and define the type, amount, and quality of data needed to develop and evaluate appropriate corrective actions for CAU 541. The site investigation process also will be conducted in accordance with the Soils Activity Quality Assurance Plan, which establishes requirements, technical planning, and general quality practices to be applied to this activity. The potential contamination sources associated with CASs 05-23-04 and 05-45-03 are from nuclear testing activities conducted at the Atmospheric Tests (6) - BFa Site and Atmospheric Test Site - Small Boy sites. The presence and nature of

  6. Clustering of velocities in a GPS network spanning the Sierra Nevada Block, the northern Walker Lane Belt, and the Central Nevada Seismic Belt, California-Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, James C.; Simpson, Robert W.

    2013-01-01

    The deformation across the Sierra Nevada Block, the Walker Lane Belt, and the Central Nevada Seismic Belt (CNSB) between 38.5°N and 40.5°N has been analyzed by clustering GPS velocities to identify coherent blocks. Cluster analysis determines the number of clusters required and assigns the GPS stations to the proper clusters. The clusters are shown on a fault map by symbols located at the positions of the GPS stations, each symbol representing the cluster to which the velocity of that GPS station belongs. Fault systems that separate the clusters are readily identified on such a map. Four significant clusters are identified. Those clusters are strips separated by (from west to east) the Mohawk Valley-Genoa fault system, the Pyramid Lake-Wassuk fault system, and the Central Nevada Seismic Belt. The strain rates within the westernmost three clusters approximate simple right-lateral shear (~13 nstrain/a) across vertical planes roughly parallel to the cluster boundaries. Clustering does not recognize the longitudinal segmentation of the Walker Lane Belt into domains dominated by either northwesterly trending, right-lateral faults or northeasterly trending, left-lateral faults.

  7. June 2012 Groundwater Sampling at the Central Nevada Test Area (Data Validation Package)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Findlay, Rick [S.M. Stoller Corporation, Broomfield, CO (United States)

    2013-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management conducted annual sampling at the Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA) on June 26-27, 2012, in accordance with the 2004 Correction Action Decision Document/Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 443: Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA)-Subsurface and the addendum to the "Corrective Action Decision Document/Corrective Action Plan" completed in 2008. Sampling and analysis were conducted as specified in the Sampling and Analysis Plan for U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management Sites (LMS/PLN/S04351), continually updated).

  8. Sierra Nevada Yellow-legged Frog Range - CWHR [ds592

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Vector datasets of CWHR range maps are one component of California Wildlife Habitat Relationships (CWHR), a comprehensive information system and predictive model for...

  9. Endangered plant species of the Nevada Test Site, Ash Meadows, and Central-Southern Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beatley, J.C.

    1977-02-01

    A total of 15 vascular plant taxa, currently appearing on the Endangered Species list, occur in southern Nye County, Nevada, and/or adjacent Inyo County, California. It is the purpose of this report to record in detail the locations of the plant collections upon which the distributions are based, and other information relevant to their status as Endangered Species, and to recommend the areas to be designated critical habitats.

  10. Modal Composition and Age of Intrusions in North-Central and Northeast Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Bray, Edward A.; Crafford, A. Elizabeth Jones

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Data presented in this report characterize igneous intrusions of north-central and northeast Nevada and were compiled as part of the Metallogeny of the Great Basin project conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) between 2001 and 2007. The compilation pertains to the area bounded by lats 38.5 and 42 N., long 118.5 W., and the Nevada-Utah border (fig. 1). The area contains numerous large plutons and smaller stocks but also contains equally numerous smaller, shallowly emplaced intrusions, including dikes, sills, and endogenous dome complexes. Igneous intrusions (hereafter, intrusions) of multiple ages are major constituents of the geologic framework of north-central and northeast Nevada (Stewart and Carlson, 1978). Mesozoic and Cenozoic intrusions are particularly numerous and considered to be related to subduction along the west edge of the North American plate during this time. Henry and Ressel (2000) and Ressel and others (2000) have highlighted the association between magmatism and ore deposits along the Carlin trend. Similarly, Theodore (2000) has demonstrated the association between intrusions and ore deposits in the Battle Mountain area. Decades of geologic investigations in north-central and northeast Nevada (hereafter, the study area) demonstrate that most hydrothermal ore deposits are spatially, and probably temporally and genetically, associated with intrusions. Because of these associations, studies of many individual intrusions have been conducted, including those by a large number of Master's and Doctoral thesis students (particularly University of Nevada at Reno students and associated faculty), economic geologists working on behalf of exploration and mining companies, and USGS earth scientists. Although the volume of study area intrusions is large and many are associated with ore deposits, no synthesis of available data that characterize these rocks has been assembled. Compilations that have been produced for intrusions in Nevada

  11. Vascular plants of the Nevada Test Site and Central-Southern Nevada: ecologic and geographic distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beatley, J.C.

    1976-01-01

    The physical environment of the Nevada Test Site and surrounding area is described with regard to physiography, geology, soils, and climate. A discussion of plant associations is given for the Mojave Desert, Transition Desert, and Great Basin Desert. The vegetation of disturbed sites is discussed with regard to introduced species as well as endangered and threatened species. Collections of vascular plants were made during 1959 to 1975. The plants, belonging to 1093 taxa and 98 families are listed together with information concerning ecologic and geographic distributions. Indexes to families, genera, and species are included. (HLW)

  12. 1993 site environmental report Tonopah Test Range, Tonopah, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Culp, T.; Howard, D.; McClellan, Y.

    1994-10-01

    This report summarizes the environmental surveillance activities conducted by Sandia National Laboratories, the US Environmental Protection Agency, and Reynolds Electrical and Engineering Company for the Tonopah Test Range operated by Sandia National Laboratories. Sandia National Laboratories` responsibility for environmental monitoring results extend to those activities performed by Sandia National Laboratories or under its direction. Results from other environmental monitoring activities are included to provide a measure of completeness in reporting. Other environmental compliance programs such as the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, environmental permits, and environmental restoration and waste management programs are also included in this report, prepared for the US Department of Energy in compliance with DOE Order 5400.1.

  13. 1998 Annual Site Environmental Report Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duncan, D.K.; Fink, C.H.; Sanchez, R.V.

    1999-09-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) operates the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) for the Department of Energy (DOE) Weapons Ordnance Program. This annual report (calendar year 1998) summarizes the compliance status to environmental regulations applicable at the site including those statutes that govern air and water quality, waste management cleanup of contaminated areas, control of toxic substances, and adherence to requirements as related to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). In compliance with DOE orders, SNL also conducts environmental surveillance for radiological and nonradiological contaminants. SNL's responsibility for environmental surveillance at TTR extends only to those areas where SNL activities are carried out. Annual radiological and nonradiological routine releases and unplanned releases (occurrences) are also summarized. This report has been prepared in accordance with DOE Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program (DOE 1990a).

  14. 1997 annual site environmental report, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Culp, Todd; Duncan, Dianne (ed.); Forston, William; Sanchez, Rebecca (ed.)

    1998-08-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) operates the Tonopah Test Range for the Department of Energy's (DOE) Weapons Ordnance Program. Thes annual report (calendar year 1997) summarizes the compliance status to environmental regulations applicable at the site including those statutes that govern air and water quality, waste management, cleanup of contaminated areas, control of toxic substances, and adherence to requirements as related to the National Environmental Policy Act. In compliance with DOE orders, SNL also conducts environmental surveillance for radiological and nonradiological contaminants. SNL's responsibility for environmental surveillance extends only to those activities performed by SNL or under its direction. Annual radiological and nonradiological routine releases and unplanned releases (occurrences) are also summarized. This report has been prepared as required by DOE Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program.

  15. Secondary Magnetization of ZEBRA Dolomites in the Basin and Range Province of Eastern Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmore, R. D.; Dulin, S. A.

    2013-12-01

    Zebra dolomites within the Devonian Guilmette Formation of the southern Basin and Range Province, Nevada, are the focus of a paleomagnetic study to determine if a characteristic magnetization exists that will yield insight into the timing of zebra dolomite formation. Zebra dolomites consist of alternating bands of light and dark dolomite, and are found throughout Nevada, often associated with mineralized ore deposits. Although a variety of mechanisms have been suggested for formation, the zebra dolomite throughout Nevada is likely associated with hydrothermal fluid migration. The current study focuses on zebra dolomites that have formed in close stratigraphic proximity and within the Alamo Breccia in the Delamar Range in southeastern Nevada. The Alamo Breccia is an impact generated mega-breccia zone within the Devonian Guilmette Formation. The zebra dolomites, including those in the Alamo Breccia, and host Guilmette in the Delamar Range have a characteristic remanent magnetization (ChRM) with maximum laboratory unblocking temperatures of 480°C that is interpreted to reside in magnetite. The rocks were structurally rotated to remove Cenozoic extension, and the stratigraphic mean direction of the ChRM has a declination of 164.4°, with an inclination of -3°. The calculated pole is at 51.6°N, 90.7°E (dp = 2.2, dm = 4.3) which lies near the late Triassic portion of the apparent polar wander path (APWP) for North America. Based on low burial temperatures, this ChRM is interpreted as a chemical remanent magnetization (CRM) that was acquired due to the mobilization of brines possibly associated with the Triassic Sonoma orogeny. Geochemical data are consistent with alteration by externally derived fluids. The presence of a late Triassic magnetization indicates that the zebra dolomite can be no younger than Late Triassic. Preliminary results from zebra dolomites in other areas in southeastern Nevada indicate a more complex magnetization; some locations contain both

  16. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 499: Hydrocarbon Spill Site, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. B. Campbell

    2002-07-01

    This Closure Report (CR) has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 499: Hydrocarbon Spill Site, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO, 1996) and the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP)-approved Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan for CAU 499: Hydrocarbon Spill Site, Tonopah Test Range (TTR), Nevada (US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office [DOE/NV], 2001). CAU 499 consists of one Corrective Action Site (CAS): RG-25-001-RD24: Radar 24 Diesel Spill Site which is approximately 4.0 kilometers (2.5 miles) southwest of the Area 3 Compound at the end of Avenue 24. The Hydrocarbon Spill Site is a diesel fuel release site that is assumed to have been caused by numerous small historical over-fillings, spills, and leaks from an above-ground storage tank (AST) over a period of approximately 36 years. The tank was located on the east side of Building 24-50 on the TTR.

  17. Well Installation Report for Corrective Action Unit 443, Central Nevada Test Area, Nye County, Nevada, Rev. No.: 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tim Echelard

    2006-01-01

    A Corrective Action Investigation (CAI) was performed in several stages from 1999 to 2003, as set forth in the ''Corrective Action Investigation Plan for the Central Nevada Test Area Subsurface Sites, Corrective Action Unit 443'' (DOE/NV, 1999). Groundwater modeling was the primary activity of the CAI. Three phases of modeling were conducted for the Faultless underground nuclear test. The first phase involved the gathering and interpretation of geologic and hydrogeologic data, and inputting the data into a three-dimensional numerical model to depict groundwater flow. The output from the groundwater flow model was used in a transport model to simulate the migration of a radionuclide release (Pohlmann et al., 2000). The second phase of modeling (known as a Data Decision Analysis [DDA]) occurred after NDEP reviewed the first model. This phase was designed to respond to concerns regarding model uncertainty (Pohll and Mihevc, 2000). The third phase of modeling updated the original flow and transport model to incorporate the uncertainty identified in the DDA, and focused the model domain on the region of interest to the transport predictions. This third phase culminated in the calculation of contaminant boundaries for the site (Pohll et al., 2003). Corrective action alternatives were evaluated and an alternative was submitted in the ''Corrective Action Decision Document/Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 443: Central Nevada Test Area-Subsurface'' (NNSA/NSO, 2004). Based on the results of this evaluation, the preferred alternative for CAU 443 is Proof-of-Concept and Monitoring with Institutional Controls. This alternative was judged to meet all requirements for the technical components evaluated and will control inadvertent exposure to contaminated groundwater at CAU 443.

  18. Irrigated Agricultural Lands and Other Anthropogenic Land Disturbance in the Diamond Valley Flow System, Central Nevada, 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data were created as part of a hydrologic study to characterize groundwater budgets and water quality in the Diamond Valley Flow System (DVFS), central Nevada....

  19. Summer Mean Enhanced Vegetation Index for the Diamond Valley Flow System Groundwater Discharge Area, Central Nevada, 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data were created as part of a hydrologic study to characterize groundwater budgets and water quality in the Diamond Valley Flow System (DVFS), central Nevada....

  20. Closure Report Central Nevada Test Area Subsurface Corrective Action Unit 443 January 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Findlay, Rick [US Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Legacy Management

    2015-11-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) prepared this Closure Report for the subsurface Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 443 at the Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA), Nevada, Site. CNTA was the site of a 0.2- to 1-megaton underground nuclear test in 1968. Responsibility for the site’s environmental restoration was transferred from the DOE, National Nuclear Security Administration, Nevada Field Office to LM on October 1, 2006. The environmental restoration process and corrective action strategy for CAU 443 are conducted in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO 1996, as amended 2011) and all applicable Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) policies and regulations. This Closure Report provides justification for closure of CAU 443 and provides a summary of completed closure activities; describes the selected corrective action alternative; provides an implementation plan for long-term monitoring with well network maintenance and approaches/policies for institutional controls (ICs); and presents the contaminant, compliance, and use-restriction boundaries for the site.

  1. Post-Closure Inspection Report for the Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, for Calendar Year 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2013-01-28

    This report provides the results of the annual post-closure inspections conducted at the closed Corrective Action Units (CAUs) located on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR), Nevada. This report covers calendar year 2012 and includes inspection and repair activities completed at the following CAUs: · CAU 400: Bomblet Pit and Five Points Landfill (TTR) · CAU 407: Roller Coaster RadSafe Area (TTR) · CAU 424: Area 3 Landfill Complexes (TTR) · CAU 453: Area 9 UXO Landfill (TTR) · CAU 487: Thunderwell Site (TTR)

  2. Post-Closure Inspection Report for the Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, For Calendar Year 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2011-03-30

    This report provides the results of the annual post-closure inspections conducted at the closed Corrective Action Units (CAUs) located on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR), Nevada. This report covers calendar year 2010 and includes inspection and repair activities completed at the following seven CAUs: · CAU 400: Bomblet Pit and Five Points Landfill (TTR) · CAU 407: Roller Coaster RadSafe Area (TTR) · CAU 424: Area 3 Landfill Complexes (TTR) · CAU 426: Cactus Spring Waste Trenches (TTR) · CAU 453: Area 9 UXO Landfill (TTR) · CAU 484: Surface Debris, Waste Sites, and Burn Area (TTR) · CAU 487: Thunderwell Site (TTR)

  3. Corrective action decision document, Second Gas Station, Tonopah test range, Nevada (Corrective Action Unit No. 403)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) for Second Gas Station (Corrective Action Unit [CAU] No. 403) has been developed for the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) Nevada Environmental Restoration Project to meet the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) of 1996 as stated in Appendix VI, {open_quotes}Corrective Action Strategy{close_quotes} (FFACO, 1996). The Second Gas Station Corrective Action Site (CAS) No. 03-02-004-0360 is the only CAS in CAU No. 403. The Second Gas Station CAS is located within Area 3 of the Tonopah Test Range (TTR), west of the Main Road at the location of former Underground Storage Tanks (USTs) and their associated fuel dispensary stations. The TTR is approximately 225 kilometers (km) (140 miles [mi]) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada, by air and approximately 56 km (35 mi) southeast of Tonopah, Nevada, by road. The TTR is bordered on the south, east, and west by the Nellis Air Force Range and on the north by sparsely populated public land administered by the Bureau of Land Management and the U.S. Forest Service. The Second Gas Station CAS was formerly known as the Underground Diesel Tank Site, Sandia Environmental Restoration Site Number 118. The gas station was in use from approximately 1965 to 1980. The USTs were originally thought to be located 11 meters (m) (36 feet [ft]) east of the Old Light Duty Shop, Building 0360, and consisted of one gasoline UST (southern tank) and one diesel UST (northern tank) (DOE/NV, 1996a). The two associated fuel dispensary stations were located northeast (diesel) and southeast (gasoline) of Building 0360 (CAU 423). Presently the site is used as a parking lot, Building 0360 is used for mechanical repairs of vehicles.

  4. CHARLES SHELDON ANTELOPE RANGE AND SHELDON NATIONAL ANTELOPE REFUGE, NEVADA AND OREGON.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cathrall, J.B.; Tuchek, E.T.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral survey of the Charles Sheldon Antelope Range and Sheldon National Antelope Refuge, in Humboldt and Washoe Counties, Nevada, and Lake and Harney Counties, Oregon, was conducted. The investigation identified areas of mineral-resource potential within the range and refuge. The range and refuge have areas of substantiated resource potential for precious opal and uranium, a demonstrated resource of decorative building stone, and areas with probable resource potential for mercury and for base- and precious-metal sulfide deposits. Reservoir temperatures, estimated from the analysis of thermal springs, indicate that a probable potential for geothermal resources exists in two areas in the range. No other energy resources were identitied in the area.

  5. 2008 Groundwater Monitoring Report Central Nevada Test Area, Corrective Action Unit 443

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-03-01

    This report presents the 2008 groundwater monitoring results collected by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) for the Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA) Subsurface Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 443. Responsibility for the environmental site restoration of the CNTA was transferred from the DOE Office of Environmental Management (DOE-EM) to DOE-LM on October 1, 2006. The environmental restoration process and corrective action strategy for CAU 443 are conducted in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO 2005) entered into by DOE, the U.S. Department of Defense, and the State of Nevada. The corrective action strategy for the site includes proof-of-concept monitoring in support of site closure. This report summarizes investigation activities associated with CAU 443 that were conducted at the site during fiscal year 2008. This is the second groundwater monitoring report prepared by DOE-LM for the CNTA.

  6. Post-Closure Inspection Report for the Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, for Calendar Year 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silvas, A. J. [National Security Technologies, LLC, Las Vegas, NV (United States). Nevada Test Site; Lantow, Tiffany A. [National Security Technologies, LLC, Las Vegas, NV (United States). Nevada Test Site

    2015-03-25

    This report provides the results of the annual post-closure inspections conducted at the closed Corrective Action Units (CAUs) located on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR), Nevada. This report covers calendar year 2014 and includes inspection and repair activities completed at the following CAUs; CAU 400: Bomblet Pit and Five Points Landfill (TTR); CAU 407: Roller Coaster RadSafe Area (TTR); CAU 424: Area 3 Landfill Complexes (TTR); CAU 453: Area 9 UXO Landfill (TTR); and CAU 487: Thunderwell Site (TTR) Inspections were conducted according to the post-closure plans in the approved Closure Reports and subsequent correspondence with the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection. The post-closure inspection plans and subsequent correspondence modifying the requirements for each CAU are included in Appendix B. The inspection checklists are included in Appendix C. Photographs taken during inspections are included in Appendix D. The annual post-closure inspections were conducted on May 28, 2014. Maintenance was required at CAU 407. Animal burrows were backfilled and erosion repairs were performed. Vegetation monitoring was performed at CAU 407 in June 2014. The vegetation monitoring report is included in Appendix E.

  7. Calendar Year 2004 annual site environmental report : Tonopah Test Range, Nevada & Kauai Test Facility, Hawaii.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montoya, Amber L.; Wagner, Katrina; Goering, Teresa Lynn; Koss, Susan I.; Salinas, Stephanie A.

    2005-09-01

    Tonopah Test Range (TTR) in Nevada and Kauai Test Facility (KTF) in Hawaii are government-owned, contractor-operated facilities operated by Sandia Corporation, a subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), through the Sandia Site Office (SSO), in Albuquerque, NM, manages TTR and KTF's operations. Sandia Corporation conducts operations at TTR in support of DOE/NNSA's Weapons Ordnance Program and has operated the site since 1957. Westinghouse Government Services subcontracts to Sandia Corporation in administering most of the environmental programs at TTR. Sandia Corporation operates KTF as a rocket preparation launching and tracking facility. This Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER) summarizes data and the compliance status of the environmental protection and monitoring program at TTR and KTF through Calendar Year (CY) 2004. The compliance status of environmental regulations applicable at these sites include state and federal regulations governing air emissions, wastewater effluent, waste management, terrestrial surveillance, and Environmental Restoration (ER) cleanup activities. Sandia Corporation is responsible only for those environmental program activities related to its operations. The DOE/NNSA, Nevada Site Office (NSO) retains responsibility for the cleanup and management of ER TTR sites. Currently, there are no ER Sites at KTF. Environmental monitoring and surveillance programs are required by DOE Order 450.1, Environmental Protection Program (DOE 2005) and DOE Order 231.1A, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting (DOE 2004b).

  8. Corrective action investigation plan for CAU No. 424: Area 3 Landfill Complex, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-04-01

    This Correction Action Investigation Plan contains the environmental sample collection objectives and the criteria for conducting site investigation activities at the Area 3 Landfill Complex, CAU No. 424, which is located at the Tonopah Test Range (TTR). The TTR, included in the Nellis Air Force Range, is approximately 255 kilometers (140 miles) northwest of Las Vegas, nevada. The CAU 424 is comprised of eight individual landfill sites that are located around and within the perimeter of the Area 3 Compound. Due to the unregulated disposal activities commonly associated with early landfill operations, an investigation will be conducted at each CAS to complete the following tasks: identify the presence and nature of possible contaminant migration from the landfills; determine the vertical and lateral extent of possible contaminant migration; ascertain the potential impact to human health and the environment; and provide sufficient information and data to develop and evaluate appropriate corrective action strategies for each CAS.

  9. Environmental Assessment for Changes to Reveille Airspace at Nevada Test and Training Range Nellis Air Force Base, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-03-01

    golden eagle, great- horned owl, spotted owl, burrowing owl, peregrine falcons, prairie falcons, and aplomado falcon. Peregrine and prairie...overflights at Naval Air Station Fallon in northern Nevada, that nesting raptors ( golden eagle, bald eagle, prairie falcon, Swainson’s hawk, and...presumed 10 occut elsewhere, on NAFR. Currant milkverch AslragalrJS mrcialu soc G2S I Nonheastem Nyc County, unconfirmed on NAFR or MOA airspace

  10. Geochemical and geochronologic data from the Hall Creek caldera, Toiyabe Range, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colgan, Joseph P.; Henry, Christopher D.

    2017-01-01

    The magmatic, tectonic, and topographic evolution of what is now the northern Great Basin remains controversial, notably the temporal and spatial relation between magmatism and extensional faulting. This controversy is exemplified in the northern Toiyabe Range of central Nevada, where previous geologic mapping suggested the presence of a caldera that sourced the late Eocene (34.0 mega-annum [Ma]) tuff of Hall Creek. This region was also inferred to be the locus of large-magnitude middle Tertiary extension (more than 100 percent strain) localized along the Bernd Canyon detachment fault, and to be the approximate location of a middle Tertiary paleodivide that separated east and west-draining paleovalleys. Geologic mapping, 40Ar/39Ar dating, and geochemical analyses document the geologic history and extent of the Hall Creek caldera, define the regional paleotopography at the time it formed, and clarify the timing and kinematics of post-caldera extensional faulting. During and after late Eocene volcanism, the northern Toiyabe Range was characterized by an east-west trending ridge in the area of present-day Mount Callaghan, probably localized along a Mesozoic anticline. Andesite lava flows erupted around 35–34 Ma ponded hundreds of meters thick in the erosional low areas surrounding this structural high, particularly in the Simpson Park Mountains. The Hall Creek caldera formed ca. 34.0 Ma during eruption of the approximately 400 cubic kilometers (km3) tuff of Hall Creek, a moderately crystal-rich rhyolite (71–77 percent SiO2) ash-flow tuff. Caldera collapse was piston-like with an intact floor block, and the caldera filled with thick (approximately 2,600 meters) intracaldera tuff and interbedded breccia lenses shed from the caldera walls. The most extensive exposed megabreccia deposits are concentrated on or close to the caldera floor in the southwestern part of the caldera. Both silicic and intermediate post-caldera lavas were locally erupted within 400 thousand

  11. Post-Closure Inspection Report for the Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, For Calendar Year 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2009-03-19

    This report provides the results of the annual post-closure inspections conducted at the closed Corrective Action Unit (CAU) sites located on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR), Nevada. This report covers calendar year 2008 and includes inspection and repair activities completed at the following ten CAUs: CAU 400: Bomblet Pit and Five Points Landfill (TTR) CAU 404: Roller Coaster Lagoons and Trench (TTR) CAU 407: Roller Coaster RadSafe Area (TTR) CAU 423: Area 3 Underground Discharge Point, Building 0360 (TTR) CAU 424: Area 3 Landfill Complexes (TTR) CAU 426: Cactus Spring Waste Trenches (TTR) CAU 427: Area 3 Septic Waste Systems 2, 6 (TTR) CAU 453: Area 9 UXO Landfill (TTR) CAU 484: Surface Debris, Waste Sites, and Burn Area (TTR) CAU 487: Thunderwell Site (TTR)

  12. Yellowstone plume trigger for Basin and Range extension and emplacement of the Nevada-Columbia Basin magmatic belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, Victor E; Pierce, Kenneth L.; Morgan Morzel, Lisa Ann

    2015-01-01

    Widespread extension began across the northern and central Basin and Range Province at 17–16 Ma, contemporaneous with magmatism along the Nevada–Columbia Basin magmatic belt, a linear zone of dikes and volcanic centers that extends for >1000 km, from southern Nevada to the Columbia Basin of eastern Washington. This belt was generated above an elongated sublithospheric melt zone associated with arrival of the Yellowstone mantle plume, with a north-south tabular shape attributed to plume ascent through a propagating fracture in the Juan de Fuca slab. Dike orientation along the magmatic belt suggests an extension direction of 245°–250°, but this trend lies oblique to the regional extension direction of 280°–300° during coeval and younger Basin and Range faulting, an ∼45° difference. Field relationships suggest that this magmatic trend was not controlled by regional stress in the upper crust, but rather by magma overpressure from below and forceful dike injection with an orientation inherited from a deeper process in the sublithospheric mantle. The southern half of the elongated zone of mantle upwelling was emplaced beneath a cratonic lithosphere with an elevated surface derived from Late Cretaceous to mid-Tertiary crustal thickening. This high Nevadaplano was primed for collapse with high gravitational potential energy under the influence of regional stress, partly derived from boundary forces due to Pacific–North American plate interaction. Plume arrival at 17–16 Ma resulted in advective thermal weakening of the lithosphere, mantle traction, delamination, and added buoyancy to the northern and central Basin and Range. It was not the sole cause of Basin and Range extension, but rather the catalyst for extension of the Nevadaplano, which was already on the verge of regional collapse.

  13. Long Valley caldera and the UCERF depiction of Sierra Nevada range-front faults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, David P.; Montgomery-Brown, Emily K.

    2015-01-01

    Long Valley caldera lies within a left-stepping offset in the north-northwest-striking Sierra Nevada range-front normal faults with the Hilton Creek fault to the south and Hartley Springs fault to the north. Both Uniform California Earthquake Rupture Forecast (UCERF) 2 and its update, UCERF3, depict slip on these major range-front normal faults as extending well into the caldera, with significant normal slip on overlapping, subparallel segments separated by ∼10  km. This depiction is countered by (1) geologic evidence that normal faulting within the caldera consists of a series of graben structures associated with postcaldera magmatism (intrusion and tumescence) and not systematic down-to-the-east displacements consistent with distributed range-front faulting and (2) the lack of kinematic evidence for an evolving, postcaldera relay ramp structure between overlapping strands of the two range-front normal faults. The modifications to the UCERF depiction described here reduce the predicted shaking intensity within the caldera, and they are in accord with the tectonic influence that underlapped offset range-front faults have on seismicity patterns within the caldera associated with ongoing volcanic unrest.

  14. Post-Closure Inspection Report for the Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, for Calendar Year 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silvas, A. J.

    2014-03-03

    This report provides the results of the annual post-closure inspections conducted at the closed Corrective Action Units (CAUs) located on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR), Nevada. This report covers calendar year 2013 and includes inspection and repair activities completed at the following CAUs: • CAU 400: Bomblet Pit and Five Points Landfill (TTR) • CAU 407: Roller Coaster RadSafe Area (TTR) • CAU 424: Area 3 Landfill Complexes (TTR) • CAU 453: Area 9 UXO Landfill (TTR) • CAU 487: Thunderwell Site (TTR) Inspections were conducted according to the post-closure plans in the approved Closure Reports and subsequent correspondence with the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection. The post-closure inspection plans and subsequent correspondence modifying the requirements for each CAU are included in Appendix B. The inspection checklists are included in Appendix C. Field notes are included in Appendix D. Photographs taken during inspections are included in Appendix E. The annual post-closure inspections were conducted on May 14, 2013. Maintenance was performed at CAU 400, CAU 424, and CAU 453. At CAU 400, animal burrows were backfilled. At CAU 424, erosion repairs were completed at Landfill Cell A3-3, subsidence was repaired at Landfill Cell A3-4, and additional lava rock was placed in high-traffic areas to mark the locations of the surface grade monuments at Landfill Cell A3-3 and Landfill Cell A3-8. At CAU 453, two areas of subsidence were repaired and animal burrows were backfilled. Vegetation monitoring was performed at the CAU 400 Five Points Landfill and CAU 407 in June 2013. The vegetation monitoring report is included in Appendix F.

  15. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 486: Double Tracks RADSAFE Area, Nellis Air Force Range, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ITLV

    1999-07-12

    This Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 486, Double Tracks Radiological Safety (RADSAFE) Area (DTRSA) in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) of 1996 that was agreed to by the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV); the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP); and the U.S Department of Defense (FFACO, 1996). The CADD provides or references the specific information necessary to recommend a preferred corrective action for the single Corrective Action Site (CAS), 71-23-001-71DT, within CAU 486. Corrective Action Unit 486 is located on the Nellis Air Force Range 71 North, west of the Tonopah Test Range (TTR), Nevada. The TTR, located in the Nellis Air Force Range, is approximately 140 miles (mi) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada (Figure 1-1). The DTRSA is located on the west side of the Cactus Range approximately 5 mi southwest of the Cactus Spring gate at the intersection of the Cactus Spring Road and the Double Tracks Control Point Road (Figure 1-2).

  16. Biogeochemistry of a soil catena in the eastern Sierra Nevada Range, NV

    Science.gov (United States)

    As a field/lab project, students in the Soil Biogeochemistry class of the University of Nevada, Reno described and characterized five pedons at Little Valley, NV, at the eastern edge of the Sierra Nevada. Developed largely from granite, the catena encompassed five pedons, which from high to low elev...

  17. Interpretation of a 3D Seismic-Reflection Volume in the Basin and Range, Hawthorne, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louie, J. N.; Kell, A. M.; Pullammanappallil, S.; Oldow, J. S.; Sabin, A.; Lazaro, M.

    2009-12-01

    A collaborative effort by the Great Basin Center for Geothermal Energy at the University of Nevada, Reno, and Optim Inc. of Reno has interpreted a 3d seismic data set recorded by the U.S. Navy Geothermal Programs Office (GPO) at the Hawthorne Army Depot, Nevada. The 3d survey incorporated about 20 NNW-striking lines covering an area of approximately 3 by 10 km. The survey covered an alluvial area below the eastern flank of the Wassuk Range. In the reflection volume the most prominent events are interpreted to be the base of Quaternary alluvium, the Quaternary Wassuk Range-front normal fault zone, and sequences of intercalated Tertiary volcanic flows and sediments. Such a data set is rare in the Basin and Range. Our interpretation reveals structural and stratigraphic details that form a basis for rapid development of the geothermal-energy resources underlying the Depot. We interpret a map of the time-elevation of the Wassuk Range fault and its associated splays and basin-ward step faults. The range-front fault is the deepest, and its isochron map provides essentially a map of "economic basement" under the prospect area. There are three faults that are the most readily picked through vertical sections. The fault reflections show an uncertainty in the time-depth that we can interpret for them of 50 to 200 ms, due to the over-migrated appearance of the processing contractor’s prestack time-migrated data set. Proper assessment of velocities for mitigating the migration artifacts through prestack depth migration is not possible from this data set alone, as the offsets are not long enough for sufficiently deep velocity tomography. The three faults we interpreted appear as gradients in potential-field maps. In addition, the southern boundary of a major Tertiary graben may be seen within the volume as the northward termination of the strong reflections from older Tertiary volcanics. Using a transparent volume view across the survey gives a view of the volcanics in full

  18. Industrial Sites Work Plan for Leachfield Corrective Action Units: Nevada Test Site and Tonopah Test Range, Nevada (including Record of Technical Change Nos. 1, 2, 3, and 4)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DOE/NV

    1998-12-18

    This Leachfield Corrective Action Units (CAUs) Work Plan has been developed in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) that was agreed to by the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV); the State of Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP); and the U.S. Department of Defense (FFACO, 1996). Under the FFACO, a work plan is an optional planning document that provides information for a CAU or group of CAUs where significant commonality exists. A work plan may be developed that can be referenced by leachfield Corrective Action Investigation Plans (CAIPs) to eliminate redundant CAU documentation. This Work Plan includes FFACO-required management, technical, quality assurance (QA), health and safety, public involvement, field sampling, and waste management documentation common to several CAUs with similar site histories and characteristics, namely the leachfield systems at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and the Tonopah Test Range (TT R). For each CAU, a CAIP will be prepared to present detailed, site-specific information regarding contaminants of potential concern (COPCs), sampling locations, and investigation methods.

  19. A conodont-based standard reference section in central Nevada for the lower Middle Ordovician Whiterockian Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet, W.C.; Ethington, Raymond L.; Harris, A.G.

    2005-01-01

    Ranges of conodonts in stratigraphic sections at five localities in the Monitor and Antelope ranges of central Nevada are used graphically to assemble a standard reference section for the lower Middle Ordovician Whiterockian Series. The base of the series is officially 0.3 m above the base of the Antelope Valley Limestone in the stratotype in Whiterock Canyon (Monitor Range). The top is the level at which Baltoniodus gerdae makes a brief appearance in an exposure of the Copenhagen Formation on the flanks of Hill 8308 in the western Antelope Range. Graphic compilation of the sections considered in this report also indicates that a level correlative with the base of the Whiterockian Series in the stratotype section is 66 m above the base of the Antelope Valley Limestone in its de facto type section on Martin Ridge in the eastern part of the Monitor Range. Ranges, diversity, and the composition of the conodont faunas differ markedly in lithofacies adjacent to the basal boundary of the series; hence we are unable to identify a single conodont species, in a credible developmental sequence, to serve as biological marker of that boundary.

  20. POST CLOSURE INSPECTION AND MONITORING REPORT FOR CORRECTIVE ACTION UNIT 417: CENTRAL NEVADA TEST AREA - SURFACE, HOT CREEK VALLEY, NEVADA, FOR CALENDAR YEAR 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BECHTEL NEVADA; NNSA NEVADA SITE OFFICE

    2005-04-01

    This post-closure inspection and monitoring report has been prepared according to the stipulations laid out in the Closure Report (CR) for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 417, Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA)--Surface (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office [NNSA/NV], 2001), and the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO, 1996). This report provides an analysis and summary of site inspections, subsidence surveys, meteorological information, and soil moisture monitoring data for CAU 417, which is located in Hot Creek Valley, Nye County, Nevada. This report covers Calendar Year 2004. Inspections at CAU 417 are conducted quarterly to document the physical condition of the UC-1, UC-3, and UC-4 soil covers, monuments, signs, fencing, and use restricted areas. The physical condition of fencing, monuments, and signs is noted, and any unusual conditions that could impact the integrity of the covers are reported. The objective of the soil moisture monitoring program is to monitor the stability of soil moisture conditions within the upper 1.2 meters (m) (4 feet [ft]) of the UC-1 Central Mud Pit (CMP) cover and detect changes that may be indicative of moisture movement exceeding the cover design performance expectations.

  1. 2009 Groundwater Monitoring Report Central Nevada Test Area, Corrective Action Unit 443

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2010-09-01

    This report presents the 2009 groundwater monitoring results collected by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM) for the Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA) Subsurface Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 443. Responsibility for the environmental site restoration of CNTA was transferred from the DOE Office of Environmental Management to LM on October 1, 2006. The environmental restoration process and corrective action strategy for CAU 443 are conducted in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order entered into by DOE, the U.S. Department of Defense, and the State of Nevada. The corrective action strategy for the site includes proof-of-concept monitoring in support of site closure. This report summarizes investigation activities associated with CAU 443 that were conducted at the site from October 2008 through December 2009. It also represents the first year of the enhanced monitoring network and begins the new 5-year proof-of-concept monitoring period that is intended to validate the compliance boundary

  2. Hydroclimate of the Spring Mountains and Sheep Range, Clark County, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreo, Michael T.; Senay, Gabriel B.; Flint, Alan L.; Damar, Nancy A.; Laczniak, Randell J.; Hurja, James

    2014-01-01

    Precipitation, potential evapotranspiration, and actual evapotranspiration often are used to characterize the hydroclimate of a region. Quantification of these parameters in mountainous terrains is difficult because limited access often hampers the collection of representative ground data. To fulfill a need to characterize ecological zones in the Spring Mountains and Sheep Range of southern Nevada, spatially and temporally explicit estimates of these hydroclimatic parameters are determined from remote-sensing and model-based methodologies. Parameter-elevation Regressions on Independent Slopes Model (PRISM) precipitation estimates for this area ranges from about 100 millimeters (mm) in the low elevations of the study area (700 meters [m]) to more than 700 mm in the high elevations of the Spring Mountains (> 2,800 m). The PRISM model underestimates precipitation by 7–15 percent based on a comparison with four high‑elevation precipitation gages having more than 20 years of record. Precipitation at 3,000-m elevation is 50 percent greater in the Spring Mountains than in the Sheep Range. The lesser amount of precipitation in the Sheep Range is attributed to partial moisture depletion by the Spring Mountains of eastward-moving, cool-season (October–April) storms. Cool-season storms account for 66–76 percent of annual precipitation. Potential evapotranspiration estimates by the Basin Characterization Model range from about 700 mm in the high elevations of the Spring Mountains to 1,600 mm in the low elevations of the study area. The model realistically simulates lower potential evapotranspiration on northeast-to-northwest facing slopes compared to adjacent southeast-to-southwest facing slopes. Actual evapotranspiration, estimated using a Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer based water-balance model, ranges from about 100 to 600 mm. The magnitude and spatial variation of simulated, actual evapotranspiration was validated by comparison to PRISM precipitation

  3. Post-Closure Inspection Report for the Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, For Calendar Year 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2008-06-01

    This report provides the results of the semiannual post-closure inspections conducted at the closed Corrective Action Unit (CAU) sites located on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR), Nevada. This report covers calendar year 2007 and includes inspection and repair activities completed at the following nine CAUs: (1) CAU 400: Bomblet Pit and Five Points Landfill (TTR); (2) CAU 404: Roller Coaster Lagoons and Trench (TTR); (3) CAU 407: Roller Coaster RadSafe Area (TTR); (4) CAU 423: Area 3 Underground Discharge Point, Building 0360 (TTR); (5) CAU 424: Area 3 Landfill Complexes (TTR); (6) CAU 426: Cactus Spring Waste Trenches (TTR); (7) CAU 427: Area 3 Septic Waste Systems 2, 6 (TTR); (8) CAU 453: Area 9 UXO Landfill (TTR); and (9) CAU 487: Thunderwell Site (TTR). In a letter from the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) dated December 5, 2006, NDEP concurred with the request to reduce the frequency of post-closure inspections of CAUs at TTR to an annual frequency. This letter is included in Attachment B. Post-closure inspections were conducted on May 15-16, 2007. All inspections were conducted according to the post-closure plans in the approved Closure Reports. The post-closure inspection plan for each CAU is included in Attachment B, with the exception of CAU 400. CAU 400 does not require post-closure inspections, but inspections of the vegetation and fencing are conducted as a best management practice. The inspection checklists for each site inspection are included in Attachment C, the field notes are included in Attachment D, and the site photographs are included in Attachment E. Vegetation monitoring of CAU 400, CAU 404, CAU 407, and CAU 426 was performed in May 2007, and the vegetation monitoring report is included in Attachment F. Maintenance and/or repairs were performed at CAU 453. Animal burrows observed during the annual inspection at CAU 453 were backfilled on August 1, 2007. At this time, the TTR post-closure site inspections should continue as

  4. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 426: Cactus Spring Waste Trenches, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dave Madsen

    1998-08-01

    This Closure Report provides the documentation for closure of the Cactus Spring Waste Trenches Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 426. The site is located on the Tonopah Test Range, approximately 225 kilometers northwest of Las Vegas, NV. CAU 426 consists of one corrective action site (CAS) which is comprised of four waste trenches. The trenches were excavated to receive solid waste generated in support of Operation Roller Coaster, primary the Double Tracks Test in 1963, and were subsequently backfilled. The Double Tracks Test involved use of live animals to assess the biological hazards associated with the nonnuclear detonation of plutonium-bearing devices. The Nevada Division of Environmental Protection approved Corrective Action Plan (CAP)which proposed ''capping'' methodology. The closure activities were completed in accordance with the approved CAP and consisted of constructing an engineered cover in the area of the trenches, constructing/planting a vegetative cover, installing a perimeter fence and signs, implementing restrictions on future use, and preparing a Post-Closure Monitoring Plan.

  5. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan for Corrective Action Unit 411. Double Tracks Plutonium Dispersion (Nellis), Nevada Test and Training Range, Nevada, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthews, Patrick K. [Navarro-Intera, LLC (N-I), Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2015-03-01

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan addresses the actions needed to achieve closure for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 411, Double Tracks Plutonium Dispersion (Nellis). CAU 411 is located on the Nevada Test and Training Range and consists of a single corrective action site (CAS), NAFR-23-01, Pu Contaminated Soil. There is sufficient information and historical documentation from previous investigations and the 1996 interim corrective action to recommend closure of CAU 411 using the SAFER process. Based on existing data, the presumed corrective action for CAU 411 is clean closure. However, additional data will be obtained during a field investigation to document and verify the adequacy of existing information, and to determine whether the CAU 411 closure objectives have been achieved. This SAFER Plan provides the methodology to gather the necessary information for closing the CAU. The results of the field investigation will be presented in a closure report that will be prepared and submitted to the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) for review and approval. The site will be investigated based on the data quality objectives (DQOs) developed on November 20, 2014, by representatives of NDEP, the U.S. Air Force (USAF), and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office. The DQO process was used to identify and define the type, amount, and quality of data needed to determine whether CAU 411 closure objectives have been achieved. The following text summarizes the SAFER activities that will support the closure of CAU 411; Collect environmental samples from designated target populations to confirm or disprove the presence of contaminants of concern (COCs) as necessary to supplement existing information; If COCs are no longer present, establish clean closure as the corrective action; If COCs are present, the extent of contamination will be defined and further corrective actions

  6. Geology and mineral resources of the Sheldon-Hart Mountain National Wildlife Refuge Complex (Oregon and Nevada), the Southeastern Oregon and North-Central Nevada, and the Southern Idaho and Northern Nevada (and Utah) Sagebrush Focal Areas: Chapter B in Mineral resources of the Sagebrush Focal Areas of Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, Utah, and Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vikre, Peter G.; Benson, Mary Ellen; Bleiwas, Donald I.; Colgan, Joseph P.; Cossette, Pamela M.; DeAngelo, Jacob; Dicken, Connie L.; Drake, Ronald M.; du Bray, Edward A.; Fernette, Gregory L.; Glen, Jonathan M.G.; Haacke, Jon E.; Hall, Susan M.; Hofstra, Albert H.; John, David A.; Ludington, Stephen; Mihalasky, Mark J.; Rytuba, James J.; Shaffer, Brian N.; Stillings, Lisa M.; Wallis, John C.; Williams, Colin F.; Yager, Douglas B.; Zürcher, Lukas

    2016-10-04

    SummaryThe U.S. Department of the Interior has proposed to withdraw approximately 10 million acres of Federal lands from mineral entry (subject to valid existing rights) from 12 million acres of lands defined as Sagebrush Focal Areas (SFAs) in Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, Utah, and Wyoming (for further discussion on the lands involved see Scientific Investigations Report 2016–5089–A). The purpose of the proposed action is to protect the greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) and its habitat from potential adverse effects of locatable mineral exploration and mining. The U.S. Geological Survey Sagebrush Mineral-Resource Assessment (SaMiRA) project was initiated in November 2015 and supported by the Bureau of Land Management to (1) assess locatable mineral-resource potential and (2) to describe leasable and salable mineral resources for the seven SFAs and Nevada additions.This chapter summarizes the current status of locatable, leasable, and salable mineral commodities and assesses the potential of selected locatable minerals in lands proposed for withdrawal that span the Nevada, Oregon, Idaho, and Utah borders. In this report, the four study areas evaluated were (1) the Sheldon-Hart Mountain National Wildlife Refuge Complex SFA in Washoe County, Nevada, and Harney and Lake Counties, Oregon; (2) the Southeastern Oregon and North-Central Nevada SFA in Humboldt County, Nevada, and Harney and Malheur Counties, Oregon; (3) the Southern Idaho and Northern Nevada SFA in Cassia, Owyhee, and Twin Falls Counties, Idaho, Elko County, Nevada, and Box Elder County, Utah; and (4) the Nevada additions in Humboldt and Elko Counties, Nevada.

  7. Unusual central Nevada geologic terranes produced by Late Devonian Antler orogeny and Alamo impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Forrest G.; Sandberg, Charles

    2015-01-01

    This Special Paper is the product of nearly 25 years of geologic investigations. It is an exposition of two small areas, both less than 25 km east of the Mississippian Roberts Mountains allochthon, but each displaying a different, unique geologic terrane, previously undocumented in Nevada and perhaps in North America. One area, the Bisoni-McKay, at the south end of the Fish Creek Range, displays an olistostrome, shed eastward during the late Late Devonian (early Famennian) from a migrating Antler orogenic forebulge. The other, the Warm Springs–Milk Spring, at the south end of the Hot Creek Range, displays a deeper marine terrane affected by the early Late Devonian (middle Frasnian) Alamo impact.

  8. Value of information analysis for Corrective Action Unit Nos. 101 and 102: Central and western Pahute Mesa, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe the basis for and present the results of a value of information analysis (VOIA) for the Pahute Mesa underground test area of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), one of several areas of the Nevada Test Site used for underground nuclear testing in the past. The value of information analysis was used to evaluate and compare potential characterization options at the Pahute Mesa underground test area for site remediation purposes. Thirty six characterization options were evaluated, ranging from a single, inexpensive study using existing data and intended to address a single question or uncertainty, to a forty-million-dollar suite of activities designed to collect and analyze new information to address multiple uncertainties. The characterization options were compared and ranked based on how effective the experts though the information collection would be in reducing uncertainties, how this effected the distance to contaminant boundary, and the cost of the option.

  9. Post-Closure Inspection Report for the Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, For Calendar Year 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2012-02-21

    This report provides the results of the annual post-closure inspections conducted at the closed Corrective Action Units (CAUs) located on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR), Nevada. This report covers calendar year 2011 and includes inspection and repair activities completed at the following CAUs: (1) CAU 400: Bomblet Pit and Five Points Landfill (TTR); (2) CAU 407: Roller Coaster RadSafe Area (TTR); (3) CAU 424: Area 3 Landfill Complexes (TTR); (4) CAU 453: Area 9 UXO Landfill (TTR); and (5) CAU 487: Thunderwell Site (TTR) Inspections were conducted according to the post-closure plans in the approved Closure Reports. The post-closure inspection plan for each CAU is included in Appendix B. The inspection checklists are included in Appendix C, field notes are included in Appendix D, and photographs taken during inspections are included in Appendix E. The annual post-closure inspections were conducted May 3 and 4, 2011. Maintenance was performed at CAU 424, CAU 453, and CAU 487. At CAU 424, two surface grade monuments at Landfill Cell A3-3 could not be located during the inspection. The two monuments were located and marked with lava rock on July 13, 2011. At CAU 453, there was evidence of animal burrowing. Animal burrows were backfilled on July 13, 2011. At CAU 487, one use restriction warning sign was missing, and wording was faded on the remaining signs. A large animal burrow was also present. The signs were replaced, and the animal burrow was backfilled on July 12, 2011. As a best management practice, the use restriction warning signs at CAU 407 were replaced with standard Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order signs on July 13, 2011. Vegetation monitoring was performed at the CAU 400 Five Points Landfill and CAU 407 in June 2011, and the vegetation monitoring report is included in Appendix F.

  10. Spatiotemporal patterns of precipitation inferred from streamflow observations across the Sierra Nevada mountain range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henn, Brian; Clark, Martyn P.; Kavetski, Dmitri; Newman, Andrew J.; Hughes, Mimi; McGurk, Bruce; Lundquist, Jessica D.

    2018-01-01

    Given uncertainty in precipitation gauge-based gridded datasets over complex terrain, we use multiple streamflow observations as an additional source of information about precipitation, in order to identify spatial and temporal differences between a gridded precipitation dataset and precipitation inferred from streamflow. We test whether gridded datasets capture across-crest and regional spatial patterns of variability, as well as year-to-year variability and trends in precipitation, in comparison to precipitation inferred from streamflow. We use a Bayesian model calibration routine with multiple lumped hydrologic model structures to infer the most likely basin-mean, water-year total precipitation for 56 basins with long-term (>30 year) streamflow records in the Sierra Nevada mountain range of California. We compare basin-mean precipitation derived from this approach with basin-mean precipitation from a precipitation gauge-based, 1/16° gridded dataset that has been used to simulate and evaluate trends in Western United States streamflow and snowpack over the 20th century. We find that the long-term average spatial patterns differ: in particular, there is less precipitation in the gridded dataset in higher-elevation basins whose aspect faces prevailing cool-season winds, as compared to precipitation inferred from streamflow. In a few years and basins, there is less gridded precipitation than there is observed streamflow. Lower-elevation, southern, and east-of-crest basins show better agreement between gridded and inferred precipitation. Implied actual evapotranspiration (calculated as precipitation minus streamflow) then also varies between the streamflow-based estimates and the gridded dataset. Absolute uncertainty in precipitation inferred from streamflow is substantial, but the signal of basin-to-basin and year-to-year differences are likely more robust. The findings suggest that considering streamflow when spatially distributing precipitation in complex terrain

  11. Corrective action decision document second gas station, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada (Corrective Action Unit No. 403). Revision No. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) for Second Gas Station has been developed for the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) Nevada Environmental Restoration Project to meet the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) of 1996 as stated in Appendix VI, {open_quotes}Corrective Action Strategy{close_quotes}. The Second Gas Station Corrective Action Site (CAS) No. 03-02-004-03 is the only CAS in CAU No. 403. The Second Gas Station CAS is located within Area 3 of the Tonopah Test Range (TTR), west of the Main Road at the location of former Underground Storage Tanks (USTs) and their associated fuel dispensary stations. The TTR is approximately 225 kilometers (km) (140 miles [mi]) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada, by air and approximately 56 km (3 5 mi) southeast of Tonopah, Nevada, by road. The TTR is bordered on the south, east, and west by the Nellis Air Force Range and on the north by sparsely populated public land administered by the Bureau of Land Management and the U.S. Forest Service.

  12. Geodatabase of the available top and bottom surface datasets that represent the Basin and Range basin-fill aquifers, Arizona, California, Idaho, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, and Utah

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This geodatabase includes spatial datasets that represent the Basin and Range basin-fill aquifers in the States of Arizona, California, Idaho, Nevada, New Mexico,...

  13. Post-Closure Inspection and Monitoring Report for Corrective Action Unit 417: Central Nevada Test Area Surface, Hot Creek Valley, Nevada For Calendar Year 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2007-06-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 417, Central Nevada Test Area - Surface, is located in Hot Creek Valley in northern Nye County, Nevada, and consists of three areas commonly referred to as UC-1, UC-3, and UC-4. CAU 417 consists of 34 Corrective Action Sites (CASs) which were closed in 2000 (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office, 2001). Three CASs at UC-1 were closed in place with administrative controls. At CAS 58-09-01, Central Mud Pit (CMP), a vegetated soil cover was constructed over the mud pit. At the remaining two sites, CAS 58-09-02, Mud Pit, and CAS 58-09-05, Mud Pits (3), aboveground monuments and warning signs were installed to mark the CAS boundaries. Three CASs at UC-3 were closed in place with administrative controls. Aboveground monuments and warning signs were installed to mark the site boundaries at CAS 58-09-06, Mud Pits (5), CAS 58-25-01, Spill, and CAS 58-10-01, Shaker Pad Area. Two CASs that consist of five sites at UC-4 were closed in place with administrative controls. At CAS 58-09-03, Mud Pits (5), an engineered soil cover was constructed over Mud Pit C. At the remaining three sites in CAS 58-09-03 and at CAS 58-10-05, Shaker Pad Area, aboveground monuments and warning signs were installed to mark the site boundaries. The remaining 26 CASs at CAU 417 were either clean-closed or closed by taking no further action.

  14. Reconnaissance geologic map of the northern Kawich and southern Reveille ranges, Nye County, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardner, J.N.; Eddy, A.C.; Goff, F.E.; Grafft, K.S.

    1980-06-01

    A geological survey was performed in Nye County, Nevada. Results of that survey are summarized in the maps included. The general geology of the area is discussed. Major structures are described. The economics resulting from the mineral exploitation in the area are discussed. The hydrogeology and water chemistry of the area are also discussed.

  15. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 408: Bomblet Target Area Tonopah Test Range (TTR), Nevada, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark Krauss

    2010-09-01

    This Closure Report (CR) presents information supporting the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 408: Bomblet Target Area (TTR), Tonopah Test Range, Nevada. This CR complies with the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order that was agreed to by the State of Nevada; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Environmental Management; U.S. Department of Defense; and DOE, Legacy Management. Corrective Action Unit 408 is located at the Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, and consists of Corrective Action Site (CAS) TA-55-002-TAB2, Bomblet Target Areas. This CAS includes the following seven target areas: • Mid Target • Flightline Bomblet Location • Strategic Air Command (SAC) Target Location 1 • SAC Target Location 2 • South Antelope Lake • Tomahawk Location 1 • Tomahawk Location 2 The purpose of this CR is to provide documentation supporting the completed corrective actions and data confirming that the closure objectives for the CAS within CAU 408 were met. To achieve this, the following actions were performed: • Review the current site conditions, including the concentration and extent of contamination. • Implement any corrective actions necessary to protect human health and the environment. • Properly dispose of corrective action and investigation wastes. • Document Notice of Completion and closure of CAU 408 issued by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection. From July 2009 through August 2010, closure activities were performed as set forth in the Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan for CAU 408: Bomblet Target Area, Tonopah Test Range (TTR), Nevada. The purposes of the activities as defined during the data quality objectives process were as follows: • Identify and remove munitions of explosive concern (MEC) associated with DOE activities. • Investigate potential disposal pit locations. • Remove depleted uranium-contaminated fragments and soil. • Determine whether contaminants of concern (COCs) are

  16. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 486: Double Tracks RADSAFE Area Nellis Air Force Range, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. H. Cox

    2000-12-01

    The Double Tracks Radiological Safety Area (DTRSA), Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 486, was clean-closed following the approved Corrective Action Decision Document closure alternative and in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. The CAU consists of a single Corrective Action Site, 71-23-001-71DT. The DTRSA was used during May 1963 to decontaminate vehicles, equipment, personnel and animals from the Double Tracks Test. Double Tracks was one of four storage-transportation tests. The Double Tracks test was conducted in Stonewall Flat, approximately 32 kilometers (20 miles) east of Goldfield, Nevada, on the Nellis Air Force Range. The Double Tracks Test used a single device containing plutonium and depleted uranium and was designed to investigate the characteristics of plutonium-bearing particulate material formed by the non-nuclear detonation of a nuclear weapon. All facilities associated with the DTRSA operation were removed. Based on available information, the areas of concern at the DTRSA consisted of a decon facility (vehicle decon pad and decon sump) in the southern half of the DTRSA, and a burial pit and former loading/unloading area located in the northern half of the DTRSA. Based on the results of the Corrective Action Investigation, radiological field screening detected elevated gamma and alpha readings on excavated plastic debris. Swipe surveys taken on the plastic debris detected removable alpha. No contaminants were detected above preliminary action levels in soil samples. The debris excavated during the corrective action investigation was not characterized. The clean-closure corrective action consisted of excavation, disposal, verification sampling, backfilling, and regrading. Field activities began on May 1, 2000, and ended on May 10, 2000. Soil that was associated with the radiologically contaminated man-made debris was placed into B-25 bins, moved to the designated waste management area where it was scanned, and hauled off

  17. Post-Closure Inspection Report for the Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, for Calendar Year 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2010-05-28

    This report provides the results of the annual post-closure inspections conducted at the closed Corrective Action Unit (CAU) sites located on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR), Nevada. This report covers calendar year 2009 and includes inspection and repair activities completed at the following seven CAUs: · CAU 400: Bomblet Pit and Five Points Landfill (TTR) · CAU 407: Roller Coaster RadSafe Area (TTR) · CAU 424: Area 3 Landfill Complexes (TTR) · CAU 426: Cactus Spring Waste Trenches (TTR) · CAU 453: Area 9 UXO Landfill (TTR) · CAU 484: Surface Debris, Waste Sites, and Burn Area (TTR) · CAU 487: Thunderwell Site (TTR) The annual post-closure inspections were conducted May 5–6, 2009. All inspections were conducted according to the post-closure plans in the approved Closure Reports. The post-closure inspection plan for each CAU is included in Attachment B, with the exception of CAU 400. CAU 400 does not require post-closure inspections, but inspections of the vegetation and fencing are conducted as a best management practice. The inspection checklists for each site inspection are included in Attachment C, the field notes are included in Attachment D, and the site photographs are included in Attachment E. Vegetation monitoring of CAU 400, CAU 404, CAU 407, and CAU 426 was performed in June 2009, and the vegetation monitoring report is included in Attachment F. Maintenance was performed at CAU 453. Animal burrows observed during the annual inspection were backfilled, and a depression was restored to grade on June 25, 2009. Post-closure site inspections should continue as scheduled. Vegetation survey inspections have been conducted annually at CAUs 400, 404, 407, and 426. Discontinuation of vegetation surveys is recommended at the CAU 400 Bomblet Pit and CAU 426, which have been successfully revegetated. Discontinuation of vegetation surveys is also recommended at CAU 404, which has been changed to an administrative closure with no inspections required. Vegetation

  18. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for the Central Nevada Test Area Subsurface Sites (Corrective Action Unit No. 443)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-01

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) describes the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) planned environmental investigation of the subsurface Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA) Corrective Action Unit (CAU) No. 443. The CNTA is located in Hot Creek Valley in Nye County, Nevada, adjacent to U.S. Highway 6, about 48 kilometers (km) (30 miles [mi]) north of Wann Springs, Nevada. The CNTA was the site of Project Faultless, a nuclear device detonated in the subsurface by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) in January 1968. The purposes of this test were to gauge the seismic effects of a relatively large, high-yield detonation completed in Hot Creek Valley (outside the Nevada Test Site) and to determine the suitability of the site for future large detonations. The yield of the Faultless test was between 200 kilotons and 1 megaton. Two similar tests were planned for the CNTA, but neither of them was completed (AEC, 1974).

  19. A Fold Province in the Hinterland of the Sevier Orogenic Belt in Eastern Nevada: A Valley and Ridge in the Basin and Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, S. P.

    2014-12-01

    The overprinting effects of Cenozoic extensional tectonism hinder analysis of the style, geometry, and timing of Cordilleran contractional deformation in the hinterland of the Sevier fold-thrust belt in Nevada. To address this problem, a 1:250,000-scale paleogeologic map of eastern Nevada, showing spatial distributions of Paleozoic-Mesozoic rocks exposed beneath a Paleogene unconformity, divided out at the formation scale, is integrated with maps of dip magnitude for Paleozoic-Mesozoic and Tertiary rocks, published sedimentary thickness records, and a published reconstruction of Basin and Range extension, in order to define and regionally-correlate thrust faults and folds, and estimate the pre-extensional amplitude, wavelength, and limb dips of folds. A new structural province, the Eastern Nevada fold belt (ENFB) is defined, and consists of a 100-150 km-wide region containing as many as five 1st-order, N-trending folds that can be traced for map distances between 100-250 km, have amplitudes between 2-4 km, wavelengths between 20-40 km, pre-extensional limb dips typically between 10-30˚, and deform rocks as young as Jurassic and Early Cretaceous. No regional-scale thrust faults or decollemont horizons breach modern exposure levels in the ENFB. ENFB folds are interpreted to have formed above a deep (≥10 km below the Paleogene unconformity), blind decollemont or shear zone, perhaps the westward projection of the master decollemont of the Sevier fold-thrust belt. Two additional structural provinces of the Sevier hinterland, the Central Nevada thrust belt (CNTB) and Western Utah thrust belt (WUTB), represent zones of N-striking, E-vergent thrust faults and folds that each accommodated ca. 10 km of shortening. Both thrust belts branch northward off of the Sevier thrust belt, and are interpreted to represent contemporary, interior components of the Sevier thrust system. The CNTB, WUTB, and the intervening ENFB collectively record low-magnitude (a few 10's of km) upper

  20. Regional and Seasonal Diet of the Western Burrowing Owl in South-Central Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derek B. Hall, Paul D. Greger, Jeffrey R. Rosier

    2009-04-01

    We examined diets of Western Burrowing Owls (Athene cunicularia hypugaea) based on contents of pellets and large prey remains collected year-round at burrows in each of the 3 regions in south central Nevada (Mojave Desert, Great Basin Desert, and Transition region). The most common prey items, based on percent frequency of occurrence, were crickets and grasshoppers, beetles, rodents, sun spiders, and scorpions. The most common vertebrate prey was kangaroo rats (Dipodomys spp.). True bugs (Hemiptera), scorpions, and western harvest mice (Reithrodontomys megalotis) occurred most frequently in pellets from the Great Basin Desert region. Kangaroo rats (Dipodomys spp.) and pocket mice (Perognathinae) were the most important vertebrate prey items in the Transition and Mojave Desert regions, respectively. Frequency of occurrence of any invertebrate prey was high (>80%) in samples year-round but dropped in winter samples, with scorpions and sun spiders exhibiting the steepest declines. Frequency of occurrence of any vertebrate prey peaked in spring samples, was intermediate for winter and summer samples, and was lowest in fall samples. With the possible exception of selecting for western harvest mice in the Great Basin Desert region, Western Burrowing Owls in our study appeared to be opportunistic foragers with a generalist feeding strategy.

  1. Corrective action investigation plan for Central Nevada Test Area, CAU No. 417

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-04-01

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) is part of a US Department of Energy (DOE)-funded environmental investigation of the Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA). This CAIP addresses the surface investigation and characterization of 15 identified Corrective Action Sites (CASs). In addition, several other areas of the CNTA project area have surface expressions that may warrant investigation. These suspect areas will be characterized, if necessary, in subsequent CAIPs or addendums to this CAIP prepared to address these sites. This CAIP addresses only the 15 identified CASs as shown in Table 2-1 that are associated with the drilling and construction of a number of testing wells designed as part of an underground nuclear testing program. The purpose of the wells at the time of construction was to provide subsurface access for the emplacement, testing, and post detonation evaluations of underground nuclear devices. If contamination is found at any of the 15-surface CASs, the extent of contamination will be determined in order to develop an appropriate corrective action.

  2. Air Pollution and Watershed Research in the Central Sierra Nevada of California: Nitrogen and Ozone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolyn Hunsaker

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Maintaining healthy forests is the major objective for the Forest Service scientists and managers working for the U.S. Department of Agriculture. Air pollution, specifically ozone (O3 and nitrogenous (N air pollutants, may severely affect the health of forest ecosystems in the western U.S. Thus, the monitoring of air pollution concentration and deposition levels, as well as studies focused on understanding effects mechanisms, are essential for evaluation of risks associated with their presence. Such information is essential for development of proper management strategies for maintaining clean air, clean water, and healthy ecosystems on land managed by the Forest Service. We report on two years of research in the central Sierra Nevada of California, a semi-arid forest at elevations of 1100–2700 m. Information on O3 and N air pollutants is obtained from a network of 18 passive samplers. We relate the atmospheric N concentration to N concentrations in streams, shallow soil water, and bulk deposition collectors within the Kings River Experimental Watershed. This watershed also contains an intensive site that is part of a recent Forest Service effort to calculate critical loads for N, sulfur, and acidity to forest ecosystems. The passive sampler design allows for extensive spatial measurements while the watershed experiment provides intensive spatial data for future analysis of ecosystem processes.

  3. Fuel deposition rates of montane and subalpine conifers in the central Sierra Nevada, California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wagtendonk, J.W.; Moore, P.E.

    2010-01-01

    Fire managers and researchers need information on fuel deposition rates to estimate future changes in fuel bed characteristics, determine when forests transition to another fire behavior fuel model, estimate future changes in fuel bed characteristics, and parameterize and validate ecosystem process models. This information is lacking for many ecosystems including the Sierra Nevada in California, USA. We investigated fuel deposition rates and stand characteristics of seven montane and four subalpine conifers in the Sierra Nevada. We collected foliage, miscellaneous bark and crown fragments, cones, and woody fuel classes from four replicate plots each in four stem diameter size classes for each species, for a total of 176 sampling sites. We used these data to develop predictive equations for each fuel class and diameter size class of each species based on stem and crown characteristics. There were consistent species and diameter class differences in the annual amount of foliage and fragments deposited. Foliage deposition rates ranged from just over 50 g m-2 year-1 in small diameter mountain hemlock stands to ???300 g m-2 year-1 for the three largest diameter classes of giant sequoia. The deposition rate for most woody fuel classes increased from the smallest diameter class stands to the largest diameter class stands. Woody fuel deposition rates varied among species as well. The rates for the smallest woody fuels ranged from 0.8 g m-2 year-1 for small diameter stands of Jeffrey pine to 126.9 g m-2 year-1 for very large diameter stands of mountain hemlock. Crown height and live crown ratio were the best predictors of fuel deposition rates for most fuel classes and species. Both characteristics reflect the amount of crown biomass including foliage and woody fuels. Relationships established in this study allow predictions of fuel loads to be made on a stand basis for each of these species under current and possible future conditions. These predictions can be used to

  4. Potential areas of ground-water discharge in the Basin and Range carbonate-rock aquifer system, White Pine County, Nevada, and adjacent parts of Nevada and Utah

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These data represent potential areas of ground-water discharge for selected hydrographic areas in eastern Nevada and western Utah. The data are based on phreatophyte...

  5. Range-limited centrality measures in complex networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ercsey-Ravasz, Mária; Lichtenwalter, Ryan N.; Chawla, Nitesh V.; Toroczkai, Zoltán

    2012-06-01

    Here we present a range-limited approach to centrality measures in both nonweighted and weighted directed complex networks. We introduce an efficient method that generates for every node and every edge its betweenness centrality based on shortest paths of lengths not longer than ℓ=1,...,L in the case of nonweighted networks, and for weighted networks the corresponding quantities based on minimum weight paths with path weights not larger than wℓ=ℓΔ, ℓ=1,2...,L=R/Δ. These measures provide a systematic description on the positioning importance of a node (edge) with respect to its network neighborhoods one step out, two steps out, etc., up to and including the whole network. They are more informative than traditional centrality measures, as network transport typically happens on all length scales, from transport to nearest neighbors to the farthest reaches of the network. We show that range-limited centralities obey universal scaling laws for large nonweighted networks. As the computation of traditional centrality measures is costly, this scaling behavior can be exploited to efficiently estimate centralities of nodes and edges for all ranges, including the traditional ones. The scaling behavior can also be exploited to show that the ranking top list of nodes (edges) based on their range-limited centralities quickly freezes as a function of the range, and hence the diameter-range top list can be efficiently predicted. We also show how to estimate the typical largest node-to-node distance for a network of N nodes, exploiting the afore-mentioned scaling behavior. These observations were made on model networks and on a large social network inferred from cell-phone trace logs (˜5.5×106 nodes and ˜2.7×107 edges). Finally, we apply these concepts to efficiently detect the vulnerability backbone of a network (defined as the smallest percolating cluster of the highest betweenness nodes and edges) and illustrate the importance of weight-based centrality measures in

  6. Post-Closure Inspection Report for the Tonopah Test Range, Nevada. For Calendar Year 2015, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthews, Patrick [Navarro, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Petrello, Jaclyn [Navarro, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2016-03-01

    This report provides the results of the annual post-closure inspections conducted at the closed corrective action units (CAUs) located on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR), Nevada. This report covers calendar year 2015 and includes inspection and repair activities completed at the following CAUs; CAU 400: Bomblet Pit and Five Points Landfill (TTR); CAU 407: Roller Coaster RadSafe Area (TTR); CAU 424: Area 3 Landfill Complexes (TTR); CAU 453: Area 9 UXO Landfill (TTR); and CAU 487: Thunderwell Site (TTR) Inspections were conducted according to the post-closure plans in the approved closure reports and subsequent correspondence with the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection. The post-closure inspection plans and subsequent correspondence modifying the requirements for each CAU are included in Appendix B. The inspection checklists are included in Appendix C. Field notes are included in Appendix D. The annual post-closure inspections were conducted on May 12, 2015. Maintenance was required at CAU 453. Cracking along the north trench was repaired. One monument is missing at CAU 424; it will be replaced in 2016. Postings at CAUs 407, 424, 453, and 487 contain contact information for TTR Security. It was noted that protocols may not be in place to ensure that the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office (NNSA/NFO) is notified if access is needed at these sites. NNSA/NFO is working with the U.S. Air Force and Sandia to determine whether more appropriate contact information or new protocols are warranted for each CAU. Based on these inspections, there has not been a significant change in vegetation, and vegetation monitoring was not recommended at CAU 400 or CAU 407 in 2015.

  7. Interannual Variations in Aerosol Sources and Their Impact on Orographic Precipitation Over California's Central Sierra Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creamean, J. M.; Ault, A. P.; White, A. B.; Neiman, P. J.; Ralph, F. M.; Minnis, Patrick; Prather, K. A.

    2014-01-01

    Aerosols that serve as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and ice nuclei (IN) have the potential to profoundly influence precipitation processes. Furthermore, changes in orographic precipitation have broad implications for reservoir storage and flood risks. As part of the CalWater I field campaign (2009-2011), the impacts of aerosol sources on precipitation were investigated in the California Sierra Nevada. In 2009, the precipitation collected on the ground was influenced by both local biomass burning (up to 79% of the insoluble residues found in precipitation) and long-range transported dust and biological particles (up to 80% combined), while in 2010, by mostly local sources of biomass burning and pollution (30-79% combined), and in 2011 by mostly long-range transport from distant sources (up to 100% dust and biological). Although vast differences in the source of residues was observed from year-to-year, dust and biological residues were omnipresent (on average, 55% of the total residues combined) and were associated with storms consisting of deep convective cloud systems and larger quantities of precipitation initiated in the ice phase. Further, biological residues were dominant during storms with relatively warm cloud temperatures (up to -15 C), suggesting these particles were more efficient IN compared to mineral dust. On the other hand, lower percentages of residues from local biomass burning and pollution were observed (on average 31% and 9%, respectively), yet these residues potentially served as CCN at the base of shallow cloud systems when precipitation quantities were low. The direct connection of the source of aerosols within clouds and precipitation type and quantity can be used in models to better assess how local emissions versus long-range transported dust and biological aerosols play a role in impacting regional weather and climate, ultimately with the goal of more accurate predictive weather forecast models and water resource management.

  8. 2012 Groundwater Monitoring Report Central Nevada Test Area, Subsurface Corrective Action Unit 443

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-04-01

    The Central Nevada Test Area was the site of a 0.2- to 1-megaton underground nuclear test in 1968. The surface of the site has been closed, but the subsurface is still in the corrective action process. The corrective action alternative selected for the site was monitoring with institutional controls. Annual sampling and hydraulic head monitoring are conducted as part of the subsurface corrective action strategy. The site is currently in the fourth year of the 5-year proof-of-concept period that is intended to validate the compliance boundary. Analytical results from the 2012 monitoring are consistent with those of previous years. Tritium remains at levels below the laboratory minimum detectable concentration in all wells in the monitoring network. Samples collected from reentry well UC-1-P-2SR, which is not in the monitoring network but was sampled as part of supplemental activities conducted during the 2012 monitoring, indicate concentrations of tritium that are consistent with previous sampling results. This well was drilled into the chimney shortly after the detonation, and water levels continue to rise, demonstrating the very low permeability of the volcanic rocks. Water level data from new wells MV-4 and MV-5 and recompleted well HTH-1RC indicate that hydraulic heads are still recovering from installation and testing. Data from wells MV-4 and MV-5 also indicate that head levels have not yet recovered from the 2011 sampling event during which several thousand gallons of water were purged. It has been recommended that a low-flow sampling method be adopted for these wells to allow head levels to recover to steady-state conditions. Despite the lack of steady-state groundwater conditions, hydraulic head data collected from alluvial wells installed in 2009 continue to support the conceptual model that the southeast-bounding graben fault acts as a barrier to groundwater flow at the site.

  9. 2013 Annual Site Environmental Report for Sandia National Laboratories Tonopah Test Range Nevada & Kauai Test Facility Hawaii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffith, Stacy Rene [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Agogino, Karen [National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), Washington, DC (United States); Li, Jun [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); White, Nancy [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Minitrez, Alexandra [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Avery, Penny [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bailey-White, Brenda [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bonaguidi, Joseph [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Catechis, Christopher [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); duMond, Michael [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Eckstein, Joanna [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Evelo, Stacie [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Forston, William [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Herring, III, Allen [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lantow, Tiffany [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Martinez, Reuben [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Mauser, Joseph [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Miller, Amy [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Miller, Mark [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Payne, Jennifer [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Peek, Dennis [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Reiser, Anita [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ricketson, Sherry [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Roma, Charles [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Salinas, Stephanie [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ullrich, Rebecca [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-08-01

    Tonopah Test Range (TTR) in Nevada and Kauai Test Facility (KTF) in Hawaii are government-owned, contractor-operated facilities managed and operated by Sandia Corporation (Sandia), a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), through the Sandia Field Office (SFO), in Albuquerque, New Mexico, administers the contract and oversees contractor operations at TTR and KTF. Sandia manages and conducts operations at TTR in support of the DOE/NNSA’s Weapons Ordnance Program and has operated the site since 1957. Navarro Research and Engineering subcontracts to Sandia in administering most of the environmental programs at TTR. Sandia operates KTF as a rocket preparation launching and tracking facility. This Annual Site Environmental Report summarizes data and the compliance status of the sustainability, environmental protection, and monitoring program at TTR and KTF through Calendar Year 2013. The compliance status of environmental regulations applicable at these sites include state and federal regulations governing air emissions, wastewater effluent, waste management, terrestrial surveillance, Environmental Restoration (ER) cleanup activities, and the National Environmental Policy Act. Sandia is responsible only for those environmental program activities related to its operations. The DOE/NNSA/Nevada Field Office retains responsibility for the cleanup and management of TTR ER sites. Environmental monitoring and surveillance programs are required by DOE Order 231.1B, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting (DOE 2012).

  10. Calendar year 2002 annual site environmental report for Tonopah Test Range, Nevada and Kauai Test Facility, Hawaii.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, Katrina; Sanchez, Rebecca V.; Mayeux, Lucie; Koss, Susan I.; Salinas, Stephanie A.

    2003-09-01

    Tonopah Test Range (TTR) in Nevada and Kauai Test Facility (KTF) in Hawaii are government-owned, contractor-operated facilities operated by Sandia Corporation, a subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), through the Sandia Site Office (SSO), in Albuquerque, NM, oversees TTR and KTF's operations. Sandia Corporation conducts operations at TTR in support of DOE/NNSA's Weapons Ordnance Program and has operated the site since 1957. Westinghouse Government Services subcontracts to Sandia Corporation in administering most of the environmental programs at TTR. Sandia Corporation operates KTF as a rocket preparation launching and tracking facility. This Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER) summarizes data and the compliance status of the environmental protection and monitoring program at TTR and KTF through Calendar Year (CY) 2002. The compliance status of environmental regulations applicable at these sites include state and federal regulations governing air emissions, wastewater effluent, waste management, terrestrial surveillance, and Environmental Restoration (ER) cleanup activities. Sandia Corporation is responsible only for those environmental program activities related to its operations. The DOE/NNSA, Nevada Site Office (NSO) retains responsibility for the cleanup and management of ER TTR sites. Currently, there are no ER Sites at KTF. Environmental monitoring and surveillance programs are required by DOE Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program (DOE 1990) and DOE Order 231.1, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting (DOE 1996).

  11. Calendar year 2003 : annual site enviromental report for Tonopah Test Range, Nevada and Kauai Test Facility, Hawaii.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, Katrina; Sanchez, Rebecca V.; Mayeux, Lucie; Koss, Susan I.; Salinas, Stephanie A.

    2004-09-01

    Tonopah Test Range (TTR) in Nevada and Kauai Test Facility (KTF) in Hawaii are government-owned, contractor-operated facilities operated by Sandia Corporation, a subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), through the Sandia Site Office (SSO), in Albuquerque, NM, manages TTR and KTF's operations. Sandia Corporation conducts operations at TTR in support of DOE/NNSA's Weapons Ordnance Program and has operated the site since 1957. Westinghouse Government Services subcontracts to Sandia Corporation in administering most of the environmental programs at TTR. Sandia Corporation operates KTF as a rocket preparation launching and tracking facility. This Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER) summarizes data and the compliance status of the environmental protection and monitoring program at TTR and KTF through Calendar Year (CY) 2003. The compliance status of environmental regulations applicable at these sites include state and federal regulations governing air emissions, wastewater effluent, waste management, terrestrial surveillance, and Environmental Restoration (ER) cleanup activities. Sandia Corporation is responsible only for those environmental program activities related to its operations. The DOE/NNSA, Nevada Site Office (NSO) retains responsibility for the cleanup and management of ER TTR sites. Currently, there are no ER Sites at KTF. Environmental monitoring and surveillance programs are required by DOE Order 450.1, Environmental Protection Program (DOE 2003) and DOE Order 231.1 Chg 2., Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting (DOE 1996).

  12. Calendar year 2007 annual site environmental report for Tonopah Test Range, Nevada and Kauai Test Facility, Hawaii,

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agogino, Karen [Department of Energy, Albuquerque, NM (United States). National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA); Sanchez, Rebecca [Sandia Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2008-09-30

    Tonopah Test Range (TTR) in Nevada and Kauai Test Facility (KTF) in Hawaii are government-owned, contractor-operated facilities operated by Sandia Corporation (Sandia), a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)/National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), through the Sandia Site Offi ce (SSO), in Albuquerque, NM, administers the contract and oversees contractor operations at TTR and KTF. Sandia manages and conducts operations at TTR in support of the DOE/NNSA’s Weapons Ordnance Program and has operated the site since 1957. Washington Group International subcontracts to Sandia in administering most of the environmental programs at TTR. Sandia operates KTF as a rocket preparation launching and tracking facility. This Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER) summarizes data and the compliance status of the environmental protection and monitoring program at TTR and KTF through Calendar Year (CY) 2007. The compliance status of environmental regulations applicable at these sites include state and federal regulations governing air emissions, wastewater effluent, waste management, terrestrial surveillance, and Environmental Restoration (ER) cleanup activities. Sandia is responsible only for those environmental program activities related to its operations. The DOE/NNSA/Nevada Site Offi ce (NSO) retains responsibility for the cleanup and management of ER TTR sites. Currently, there are no ER Sites at KTF. Environmental monitoring and surveillance programs are required by DOE Order 450.1, Environmental Protection Program (DOE 2007a) and DOE Manual 231.1-1A, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting Manual (DOE 2007).

  13. Determining Home Range and Preferred Habitat of Feral Horses on the Nevada National Security Site Using Geographic Information Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, Ashley V. [Univ. of Denver, CO (United States)

    2014-05-30

    Feral horses (Equus caballus) are free-roaming descendants of domesticated horses and legally protected by the Wild and Free-Roaming Horses and Burros Act of 1971, which mandates how feral horses and burros should be managed and protected on federal lands. Using a geographic information system to determine the home range and suitable habitat of feral horses on the federally managed Nevada National Security Site can enable wildlife biologists in making best management practice recommendations. Home range was estimated at 88.1 square kilometers. Site suitability was calculated for elevation, forage, slope, water presence and horse observations. These variables were combined in successive iterations into one polygon. Suitability rankings established that 85 square kilometers are most suitable habitat, with 2,052 square kilometers of good habitat 1,252 square kilometers of fair habitat and 122 square kilometers of least suitable habitat.

  14. Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 407: Roller Coaster RADSAFE Area, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. M. Fitzmaurice

    2000-05-01

    This Corrective Action Plan (CAP) has been prepared for the Roller Coaster RADSAFE Area Corrective Action Unit 407 in accordance with the Federal Facility and Consent Order (Nevada Division of Environmental Protection [NDEP] et al., 1996). This CAP provides the methodology for implementing the approved Corrective Action Alternative as listed in the Corrective Action Decision Document (U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office, 1999). The RCRSA was used during May and June of 1963 to decontaminate vehicles, equipment, and personnel from the Clean Slate tests. The Constituents of Concern (COCs) identified during the site characterization include plutonium, uranium, and americium. No other COCS were identified. The following closure actions will be implemented under this plan: (1) Remove and dispose of surface soils which are over three times background for the area. Soils identified for removal will be disposed of at an approved disposal facility. Excavated areas will be backfilled with clean borrow soil fi-om a nearby location. (2) An engineered cover will be constructed over the waste disposal pit area where subsurface COCS will remain. (3) Upon completion of the closure and approval of the Closure Report by NDEP, administrative controls, use restrictions, and site postings will be used to prevent intrusive activities at the site. Barbed wire fencing will be installed along the perimeter of this unit. Post closure monitoring will consist of site inspections to determine the condition of the engineered cover. Any identified maintenance and repair requirements will be remedied within 90 working days of discovery and documented in writing at the time of repair. Results of all inspections/repairs for a given year will be addressed in a single report submitted annually to the NDEP.

  15. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 486: Double Tracks RADSAFE Area Nellis Air Force Range, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    IT Las Vegas

    1998-10-15

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) has been developed in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) that was agreed to by the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV); the State of Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP); and the US Department of Defense (FFACO, 1996). The CAIP is a document that provides or references all of the specific information for investigation activities associated with Corrective Action Units (CAUs) or Corrective Action Sites (CASs). According to the FFACO, CASs are sites potentially requiring corrective action(s) and may include solid waste management units or individual disposal or release sites (FFACO, 1996). Corrective Action Units consist of one or more CASs grouped together based on geography, technical similarity, or agency responsibility for the purpose of determining corrective actions. This CAIP contains the environmental sample collection objectives and the criteria for conducting site investigation activities at CAU 486, the Double Tracks Radiological Safety (RADSAFE) Area (DTRSA) which is located on the Nellis Air Force Range 71North (N), west of the Tonopah Test Range (TTR). The TTR, included in the Nellis Air Force Range Complex, is approximately 255 kilometers (km) (140 miles [mi]) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada (Figure 1-1). Corrective Action Unit 486 is comprised of CAS 71-23-001-71DT consisting of two areas of concern referred to as the vehicle decontamination area and the animal burial pit. The DTRSA is located on the west side of the Cactus Range approximately 8 km (5 mi) southwest of the Cactus Spring gate at the intersection of the Cactus Spring Road and the Double Tracks Control Point Road (Figure 1-2). The DTRSA was used during May 1963 to decontaminate vehicles, equipment, personnel, and animals from the Double Tracks test. The DTRSA is one of three areas identified as a potential location for the disposal of radioactively contaminated

  16. Post-Closure Inspection and Monitoring Report for Corrective Action Unit 417: Central Nevada Test Area Surface, Hot Creek Valley, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-03-01

    This report presents results of data collected during the annual post-closure site inspections conducted at the Central Nevada Test Area surface Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 417 in May 2011 and July 2012. The annual post-closure site inspections included inspections of the UC-1, UC-3, and UC-4 sites in accordance with the Post-Closure Monitoring Plan provided in the CAU 417 Closure Report (NNSA/NV 2001). The annual inspections conducted at the UC-1 Central Mud Pit (CMP) indicated that the site and soil cover were in good condition. No new fractures or extension of existing fractures were observed and no issues with the fence or gate were identified. The vegetation on the cover continues to look healthy, but the biennial vegetation survey conducted during the 2012 inspection indicated that the total foliar cover was slightly higher in 2009 than in 2012. This may be indicative of a decrease in precipitation observed during the 2-year monitoring period. The precipitation totaled 9.9 inches from July 1, 2010, through June 30, 2011, and 5 inches from July 1, 2011, through June 30, 2012. This decrease in precipitation is also evident in the soil moisture data obtained from the time domain reflectometry sensors. Soil moisture content data show that the UC-1 cover is performing as designed, and evapotranspiration is effectively removing water from the cover.

  17. Post-Closure Inspection and Monitoring Report for Corrective Action Unit 417: Central Nevada Test Area Surface, Hot Creek Valley, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-01-01

    This report presents data collected during the annual post-closure site inspection conducted at the Central Nevada Test Area Surface Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 417 in May of 2008. The annual post-closure site inspection included inspections of the UC-1, UC-3, and UC-4 sites in accordance with the Post-Closure Monitoring Plan provided in the CAU 417 Closure Report (NNSA/NV 2001). The annual inspection conducted at the UC-1 Central Mud Pit (CMP) indicated that the site and soil cover were in good condition. Three new cracks or fractures were observed in the soil cover during the annual inspection and were immediately filled with bentonite chips. The vegetation on the soil cover was adequate, but showed signs of the area's ongoing drought. No issues were identified with the CMP fence, gate, or subsidence monuments. No issues were identified with the warning signs and monuments at the other two UC-1 locations. The annual subsidence survey was conducted at UC-1 CMP and UC-4 Mud Pit C in August 2008. The results of the subsidence surveys indicate that the covers are performing as expected, and no unusual subsidence was observed.

  18. Eruptive history, geochronology, and post-eruption structural evolution of the late Eocene Hall Creek Caldera, Toiyabe Range, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colgan, Joseph P.; Henry, Christopher D.

    2017-02-24

    The magmatic, tectonic, and topographic evolution of what is now the northern Great Basin remains controversial, notably the temporal and spatial relation between magmatism and extensional faulting. This controversy is exemplified in the northern Toiyabe Range of central Nevada, where previous geologic mapping suggested the presence of a caldera that sourced the late Eocene (34.0 mega-annum [Ma]) tuff of Hall Creek. This region was also inferred to be the locus of large-magnitude middle Tertiary extension (more than 100 percent strain) localized along the Bernd Canyon detachment fault, and to be the approximate location of a middle Tertiary paleodivide that separated east and west-draining paleovalleys. Geologic mapping, 40Ar/39Ar dating, and geochemical analyses document the geologic history and extent of the Hall Creek caldera, define the regional paleotopography at the time it formed, and clarify the timing and kinematics of post-caldera extensional faulting. During and after late Eocene volcanism, the northern Toiyabe Range was characterized by an east-west trending ridge in the area of present-day Mount Callaghan, probably localized along a Mesozoic anticline. Andesite lava flows erupted around 35–34 Ma ponded hundreds of meters thick in the erosional low areas surrounding this structural high, particularly in the Simpson Park Mountains. The Hall Creek caldera formed ca. 34.0 Ma during eruption of the approximately 400 cubic kilometers (km3) tuff of Hall Creek, a moderately crystal-rich rhyolite (71–77 percent SiO2) ash-flow tuff. Caldera collapse was piston-like with an intact floor block, and the caldera filled with thick (approximately 2,600 meters) intracaldera tuff and interbedded breccia lenses shed from the caldera walls. The most extensive exposed megabreccia deposits are concentrated on or close to the caldera floor in the southwestern part of the caldera. Both silicic and intermediate post-caldera lavas were locally erupted within 400 thousand

  19. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 412: Clean Slate I Plutonium Dispersion (TTR) Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthews, Patrick [Navarro, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2016-08-22

    This Closure Report (CR) presents information supporting the clean closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 412: Clean Slate I Plutonium Dispersion (TTR), located on the Tonopah Test Range, Nevada. CAU 412 consists of a release of radionuclides to the surrounding soil from a storage–transportation test conducted on May 25, 1963. Corrective action investigation (CAI) activities were performed in April and May 2015, as set forth in the Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan for Corrective Action Unit 412: Clean Slate I Plutonium Dispersion (TTR), Tonopah Test Range, Nevada; and in accordance with the Soils Activity Quality Assurance Plan. The purpose of the CAI was to fulfill data needs as defined during the data quality objectives process. The CAU 412 dataset of investigation results was evaluated based on a data quality assessment. This assessment demonstrated the dataset is complete and acceptable for use in fulfilling the data needs identified by the data quality objectives process. This CR provides documentation and justification for the clean closure of CAU 412 under the FFACO without further corrective action. This justification is based on historical knowledge of the site, previous site investigations, implementation of the 1997 interim corrective action, and the results of the CAI. The corrective action of clean closure was confirmed as appropriate for closure of CAU 412 based on achievement of the following closure objectives: Radiological contamination at the site is less than the final action level using the ground troops exposure scenario (i.e., the radiological dose is less than the final action level): Removable alpha contamination is less than the high contamination area criterion: No potential source material is present at the site, and any impacted soil associated with potential source material has been removed so that remaining soil contains contaminants at concentrations less than the final action levels: and There is

  20. GPS Imaging of Sierra Nevada Uplift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, W. C.; Blewitt, G.; Kreemer, C.

    2015-12-01

    Recent improvements in the scope and precision of GPS networks across California and Nevada have allowed for uplift of the Sierra Nevada to be observed directly. Much of the signal, in the range of 1 to 2 mm/yr, has been attributed to lithospheric scale rebound following massive groundwater withdrawal in the San Joaquin Valley in southern California, exacerbated by drought since 2011. However, natural tectonic deformation associated with long term uplift of the range may also contribute to the observed signal. We have developed new algorithms that enhance the signal of Sierra Nevada uplift and improve our ability to interpret and separate natural tectonic signals from anthropogenic contributions. We apply our new Median Interannual Difference Adjusted for Skewness (MIDAS) algorithm to the vertical times series and a inverse distance-weighted median spatial filtering and Delaunay-based interpolation to despeckle the rate map. The resulting spatially continuous vertical rate field is insensitive to outliers and steps in the GPS time series, and omits isolated features attributable to unstable stations or unrepresentative rates. The resulting vertical rate field for California and Nevada exhibits regionally coherent signals from the earthquake cycle including interseismic strain accumulation in Cascadia, postseismic relaxation of the mantle from recent large earthquakes in central Nevada and southern California, groundwater loading changes, and tectonic uplift of the Sierra Nevada and Coast Ranges. Uplift of the Sierra Nevada extends from the Garlock Fault in the south to an indefinite boundary in the north near the latitude of Mt. Lassen to the eastern Sierra Nevada range front in Owen's Valley. The rates transition to near zero in the southern Walker Lane. The eastern boundary of uplift coincides with the highest strain rates in the western Great Basin, suggesting higher normal fault slip rates and a component of tectonic uplift of the Sierra Nevada.

  1. Modeling fluid flow and heat transfer at Basin and Range faults: preliminary results for Leach hot springs, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Dina L.; Smith, Leslie; Storey, Michael L.; Nielson, Dennis L.

    1994-01-01

    The hydrothermal systems of the Basin and Range Province are often located at or near major range bounding normal faults. The flow of fluid and energy at these faults is affected by the advective transfer of heat and fluid from an to the adjacent mountain ranges and valleys, This paper addresses the effect of the exchange of fluid and energy between the country rock, the valley fill sediments, and the fault zone, on the fluid and heat flow regimes at the fault plane. For comparative purposes, the conditions simulated are patterned on Leach Hot Springs in southern Grass Valley, Nevada. Our simulations indicated that convection can exist at the fault plane even when the fault is exchanging significant heat and fluid with the surrounding country rock and valley fill sediments. The temperature at the base of the fault decreased with increasing permeability of the country rock. Higher groundwater discharge from the fault and lower temperatures at the base of the fault are favored by high country rock permabilities and fault transmissivities. Preliminary results suggest that basal temperatures and flow rates for Leach Hot Springs can not be simulated with a fault 3 km deep and an average regional heat flow of 150 mW/m2 because the basal temperature and mass discharge rates are too low. A fault permeable to greater depths or a higher regional heat flow may be indicated for these springs.

  2. Structural organization of process zones in upland watersheds of central Nevada and its influence on basin connectivity, dynamics, and wet meadow complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerry R. Miller; Mark L. Lord; Lionel F. Villarroel; Dru Germanoski; Jeanne C. Chambers

    2012-01-01

    The drainage network within upland watersheds in central Nevada can be subdivided into distinct zones each dominated by a unique set of processes on the basis of valley form, the geological materials that comprise the valley floor, and the presence or absence of surficial channels. On hillslopes, the type and structure (frequency, length, and spatial arrangement) of...

  3. Holocene Paleoenvironment of the North-central Great Basin: Preliminary Results from Favre Lake, Northern Ruby Mountains, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starratt, S.; Wahl, D.; Wan, E.; Anderson, L.; Wanket, J.; Olson, H.; Lloyd-Davies, T.; Kusler, J.

    2009-12-01

    Little is known about Holocene climate variability in north-central Nevada. This study aims to assess changes in watershed vegetation, fire history, lake levels and limnological conditions in order to understand secular to millennial-scale changes in regional climate. Favre Lake (2,899 m a.s.l.; 12 m deep; 7.7 hectares) is a flow-through lake in the northern Ruby Mountains. The primary sources of influent, both of which appear to be intermittent, are Castle Lake (2,989 m a.s.l.) and Liberty Lake (3,077 m a.s.l.). The bedrock of the three lake basins is early Paleozoic marble and Mesozoic granite and metamorphic rocks. Bathymetric maps and temperature, pH, salinity, and conductivity profiles have been generated for Favre Lake. Surface samples and a series of cores were also collected using a modified Livingstone piston corer. The presence of the Mazama ash in the basal sediment (~4 m below the sediment/water interface) indicates the record extends to ~7,700 cal yr B.P. Magnetic susceptibility (MS) and loss-on-ignition data indicate that the sediments in the lowest part of the core contain primary and reworked Mazama ash. About 2,000 years ago CaCO3 increased from 2 to 3% of the inorganic sediment. The upper 25 cm of the core are marked by an increase in MS which may indicate increased erosion due to grazing. Between about 7,700 and 6,000 cal yr B.P. the diatom flora is dominated by a diverse assemblage of benthic species. The remainder of the core is dominated by Fragilaria, suggesting that lake level rose and flooded the shelf that surrounds the depocenter of the lake. This is supported by changes in the abundance of the aquatic fern Isoetes. Pinus and Artemisia dominate the pollen record, followed by subordinate levels of Poaceae, Asteraceae, Amaranthaceae, and Sarcobatus. The late early Holocene (7,700-6,000 cal yr B.P.) is dominated by Pinus which is present in reduced amounts during the middle Holocene (6,000-3,000 cal yr B.P.) and then returns to dominance in

  4. Expeditionary Readiness Course Expansion Final Supplemental Environmental Assessment, Nevada Test and Training Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    constituting special-status taxa is relatively low (10 percent of flora). Cheatgrass, red brome , halogeton, and Russian thistle are invasive species that...NOXIOUS WEEDS AND INVASIVE PLANT SPECIES Cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum), red brome (Bromus madritensis var. rubens), halogeton (Halogeton glomeratus), and...found throughout the North Range. Red brome is mostly restricted to valley bottoms and alluvial fans in the South Range. Both of these grasses are

  5. In-situ arsenic remediation in Carson Valley, Douglas County, west-central Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Angela P.; Maurer, Douglas K.; Stollenwerk, Kenneth G.; Welch, Alan H.

    2010-01-01

    Conventional arsenic remediation strategies primarily involve above-ground treatment that include costs involved in the disposal of sludge material. The primary advantages of in-situ remediation are that building and maintaining a large treatment facility are not necessary and that costs associated with the disposal of sludge are eliminated. A two-phase study was implemented to address the feasibility of in-situ arsenic remediation in Douglas County, Nevada. Arsenic concentrations in groundwater within Douglas County range from 1 to 85 micrograms per liter. The primary arsenic species in groundwater at greater than 250 ft from land surface is arsenite; however, in the upper 150 ft of the aquifer arsenate predominates. Where arsenite is the primary form of arsenic, the oxidation of arsenite to arsenate is necessary. The results of the first phase of this investigation indicated that arsenic concentrations can be remediated to below the drinking-water standard using aeration, chlorination, iron, and pH adjustment. Arsenic concentrations were remediated to less than 10 micrograms per liter in groundwater from the shallow and deep aquifer when iron concentrations of 3-6 milligrams per liter and pH adjustments to less than 6 were used. Because of the rapid depletion of dissolved oxygen, the secondary drinking-water standards for iron (300 micrograms per liter) and manganese (100 micrograms per liter) were exceeded during treatment. Treatment was more effective in the shallow well as indicated by a greater recovery of water meeting the arsenic standard. Laboratory and field tests were included in the second phase of this study. Laboratory column experiments using aquifer material indicated the treatment process followed during the first phase of this study will continue to work, without exceeding secondary drinking-water standards, provided that groundwater was pre-aerated and an adequate number of pore volumes treated. During the 147-day laboratory experiment, no

  6. Detachment Faulting in the Western Basin and Range: New Geometric, Thermal, and Temporal Constraints From the Bare Mountain Region in Southwestern Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrill, D. A.; Stamatakos, J. A.; Morris, A. P.; Donelick, R. A.; Blythe, A. E.

    2001-12-01

    Zircon and apatite fission-track cooling ages for 50 samples taken from Bare Mountain and surrounding areas of southern Nevada, analyzed in conjunction with structural and paleomagnetic data and calcite deformation geothermometry data, provide new constraints on the timing and distribution of detachment faulting in the western Basin and Range. Our results show that: (i) Bare Mountain was tilted to the east or northeast, probably during Middle Miocene extension, prior to development of the Bullfrog Hills detachment system. (ii) Bare Mountain cooled through the fission-track closure temperature for fluorine-rich apatite (115-125 C) more or less as a unit at 8 to 17 Ma. (iii) Northwest Bare Mountain cooled through the zircon closure temperature (250 C) at 8 to 17 Ma, whereas the rest of the mountain cooled through this temperature between the Late Paleozoic and the Eocene. The combination of tilting at Bare Mountain and the apatite and zircon fission-track cooling ages indicates the presence of a west-dipping breakaway fault at Bare Mountain at around 15 Ma. New apatite fission-track cooling ages from Yucca Flat, Frenchman Flat, Mount Sterling, the Striped Hills, the Resting Springs Range, and the Funeral Mountains, when combined with published apatite ages, constrain the regional position of a west-dipping breakaway fault and exhumed footwall. The current position of the trailing edge of the hanging wall of this system is the Death Valley - Furnace Creek fault system. Migration rates of the cooling front in the footwall of this system range from 4.0 mm/yr at the latitude of Bare Mountain to 7.3 mm/yr at the latitude of central Death Valley. * Work performed at the CNWRA for the U.S. NRC under contract number NRC-02-97-009. This is an independent product of the CNWRA and does not necessarily reflect the views or regulatory position of the NRC.

  7. Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 428: Area 3 Septic Waste Systems 1 and 5 Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. S. Tobiason

    2000-08-01

    Area 3 Septic Waste Systems 1 and 5 are located in Area 3 of the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) (Figure 1). The site is listed in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO, 1996) as Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 428 and includes Corrective Action Sites 03-05-002-SW01 (Septic Waste System 1 [SWS 1]), and 03-05-002-SW05 (Septic Waste System 5 [SWS 5]). The site history for the CAU is provided in the Corrective Action Investigation Plan (U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office [DOE/NV], 1999). SWS 1 consists of two leachfields and associated septic tanks. SWS 1 received effluent from both sanitary and industrial sources from various buildings in Area 3 of the TTR (Figure 2). SWS 5 is comprised of one leachfield and outfall with an associated septic tank. SWS 5 received effluent from sources in Building 03-50 in Area 3 of the TTR (Figure 2). Both systems were active until 1990 when a consolidated sewer system was installed. The purpose of this Corrective Action Plan (CAP) is to provide the strategy and methodology to close the Area 3 SWS 1 and 5. The CAU will be closed following state and federal regulations and the FFACO (1996). Site characterization was done during May and June 1999. Samples of the tank contents, leachfield soil, and soil under the tanks and pipes were collected. The results of the characterization were reported in the Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) (DOE/NV, 2000). Additional sampling was done in May 2000, the results of which are presented in this plan. Soil sample results indicated that two constituents of concern were detected above Preliminary Action Levels (PALs). Total arsenic was detected at a concentration of 68.7 milligrams per kilogram (mg/kg). The arsenic was found under the center distribution line at the proximal end of the SWS 5 Leachfield (Figure 3). Total benzo(a)pyrene was detected at a concentration of 480 micrograms per kilogram ({micro}g/kg). The benzo(a)pyrene was found in the soil under the

  8. Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 424: Area 3 Landfill Complex, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bechtel Nevada

    1998-08-31

    This corrective action plan provides the closure implementation methods for the Area 3 Landfill Complex, Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 424, located at the Tonopah Test Range. The Area 3 Landfill Complex consists of 8 landfill sites, each designated as a separate corrective action site.

  9. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 414: Clean Slate III Plutonium Dispersion (TTR) Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthews, Patrick [Navarro, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 414 is located on the Tonopah Test Range, which is approximately 130 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada, and approximately 40 miles southeast of Tonopah, Nevada. The CAU 414 site consists of the release of radionuclides to the surface and shallow subsurface from the conduct of the Clean Slate III (CSIII) storage–transportation test conducted on June 9, 1963. CAU 414 includes one corrective action site (CAS), TA-23-03CS (Pu Contaminated Soil). The known releases at CAU 414 are the result of the atmospheric dispersal of contamination from the 1963 CSIII test. The CSIII test was a nonnuclear detonation of a nuclear device located inside a reinforced concrete bunker covered with 8 feet of soil. This test dispersed radionuclides, primarily uranium and plutonium, on the ground surface. The presence and nature of contamination at CAU 414 will be evaluated based on information collected from a corrective action investigation (CAI). The investigation is based on the data quality objectives (DQOs) developed on June 7, 2016, by representatives of the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection; the U.S. Air Force; and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office. The DQO process was used to identify and define the type, amount, and quality of data needed to develop and evaluate appropriate corrective action alternatives for CAU 414.

  10. Past and future demographic dynamics of alpine species: limited genetic consequences despite dramatic range contraction in a plant from the Spanish Sierra Nevada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco-Pastor, J L; Fernández-Mazuecos, M; Vargas, P

    2013-08-01

    Anthropogenic global climate change is expected to cause severe range contractions among alpine plants. Alpine areas in the Mediterranean region are of special concern because of the high abundance of endemic species with narrow ranges. This study combined species distribution models, population structure analyses and Bayesian skyline plots to trace the past and future distribution and diversity of Linaria glacialis, an endangered narrow endemic species that inhabits summits of Sierra Nevada (Spain). The results showed that: (i) the habitat of this alpine-Mediterranean species in Sierra Nevada suffered little changes during glacial and interglacial stages of late Quaternary; (ii) climatic oscillations in the last millennium (Medieval Warm Period and Little Ice Age) moderately affected the demographic trends of L. glacialis; (iii) future warming conditions will cause severe range contractions; and (iv) genetic diversity will not diminish at the same pace as the distribution range. As a consequence of the low population structure of this species, genetic impoverishment in the alpine zones of Sierra Nevada should be limited during range contraction. We conclude that maintenance of large effective population sizes via high mutation rates and high levels of gene flow may promote the resilience of alpine plant species when confronted with global warming. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Geothermal Resource Analysis and Structure of Basin and Range Systems, Especially Dixie Valley Geothermal Field, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Blackwell; Kenneth Wisian; Maria Richards; Mark Leidig; Richard Smith; Jason McKenna

    2003-08-14

    Publish new thermal and drill data from the Dizie Valley Geothermal Field that affect evaluation of Basin and Range Geothermal Resources in a very major and positive way. Completed new geophysical surveys of Dizie Valley including gravity and aeromagnetics and integrated the geophysical, seismic, geological and drilling data at Dizie Valley into local and regional geologic models. Developed natural state mass and energy transport fluid flow models of generic Basin and Range systems based on Dizie Valley data that help to understand the nature of large scale constraints on the location and characteristics of the geothermal systems. Documented a relation between natural heat loss for geothermal and electrical power production potential and determined heat flow for 27 different geothermal systems. Prepared data set for generation of a new geothermal map of North American including industry data totaling over 25,000 points in the US alone.

  12. POST CLOSURE INSPECTION AND MONITORING REPORT FOR CORRECTIVE ACTION UNIT 417: CENTRAL NEVADA TEST AREA - SURFACE, HOT CREEK VALLEY, NEVADA; FOR CALENDAR YEAR 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-04-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 417, Central Nevada Test Area - Surface, is located in Hot Creek Valley in northern Nye County, Nevada, and consists of three areas commonly referred to as UC-1, UC-3, and UC-4. CAU 417 consists of 34 Corrective Action Sites (CASs) which were closed in 2000 (U. S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office, 2001). Three CASs at UC-1 were closed in place with administrative controls. At CAS 58-09-01, Central Mud Pit (CMP), a vegetated soil cover was constructed over the mud pit. At the remaining two sites CAS 58-09-02, Mud Pit and 58-09-05, Mud Pits (3), aboveground monuments and warning signs were installed to mark the CAS boundaries. Three CASs at UC-3 were closed in place with administrative controls. Aboveground monuments and warning signs were installed to mark the site boundaries at CAS 58-09-06, Mud Pits (5), CAS 58-25-01, Spill and CAS 58-10-01, Shaker Pad Area. Two CASs that consist of five sites at UC-4 were closed in place with administrative controls. At CAS 58-09-03, Mud Pits 9, an engineered soil cover was constructed over Mud Pit C. At the remaining three sites in CAS 58-09-03 and at CAS 58-10-05, Shaker Pad Area, aboveground monuments and warning signs were installed to mark the site boundaries. The remaining 26 CASs at CAU 417 were either clean-closed or closed by taking no further action. Quarterly post-closure inspections are performed at the CASs that were closed in place at UC-I, UC-3, and UC-4. During calendar year 2005, site inspections were performed on March 15, June 16, September 22, and December 7. The inspections conducted at the UC-1 CMP documented that the site was in good condition and continued to show integrity of the cover unit. No new cracks or fractures were observed until the December inspection. A crack on the west portion of the cover showed evidence of lateral expansion; however, it is not at an actionable level. The crack will be sealed by filling with

  13. Cheatgrass Dead Zones in Northern Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reports of areas of cheatgrass die-off are becoming more frequent. In 2009, we investigated cheatgrass die-off in north-central Nevada. Dead zones ranged from several to hundreds of acres in size and were largely unvegetated and covered by cheatgrass litter with a distinct gray cast. We collected re...

  14. Site exploration for rock-mechanics field tests in the Grouse Canyon Member, Belted Range Tuff, U12g Tunnel Complex, Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langkopf, B.S.; Eshom, E.

    1982-02-01

    This report describes site exploration work completed in support of planned rock-mechanics field tests in the Grouse Canyon Member of the Belted Range Ruff at Nevada Test Site`s, G-Tunnel. As part of this work, the Rock Mechanics Drift (RMD) and the Rock Mass Property Alcove (RMPA) were mined and three coreholes drilled. The results of mapping and corehole logging are displayed, described, and analyzed.

  15. Investigating the influence of long-range transport on surface O{sub 3} in Nevada, USA, using observations from multiple measurement platforms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fine, Rebekka, E-mail: rebekkafine@gmail.com [Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Science, University of Nevada-Reno, Reno, NV (United States); Miller, Matthieu B. [Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Science, University of Nevada-Reno, Reno, NV (United States); Yates, Emma L.; Iraci, Laura T. [Atmospheric Science Branch, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Gustin, Mae Sexauer, E-mail: mgustin@cabnr.unr.edu [Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Science, University of Nevada-Reno, Reno, NV (United States)

    2015-10-15

    The current United States (US) National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for O{sub 3} (75 ppb) is expected to be revised to between 60 and 70 ppb. As the NAAQS becomes more stringent, characterizing the extent of O{sub 3} and precursors transported into the US is increasingly important. Given the high elevation, complex terrain, and location in the Intermountain West, the State of Nevada is ideally situated to intercept air transported into the US. Until recently, measurements of O{sub 3} and associated pollutants were limited to areas in and around the cities of Las Vegas and Reno. In 2011, the Nevada Rural Ozone Initiative began and through this project 13 surface monitoring sites were established. Also in 2011, the NASA Ames Alpha Jet Atmospheric eXperiment (AJAX) began making routine aircraft measurements of O{sub 3} and other greenhouse gases in Nevada. The availability of aircraft and surface measurements in a relatively rural, remote setting in the Intermountain West presented a unique opportunity to investigate sources contributing to the O{sub 3} observed in Nevada. Our analyses indicate that stratosphere to troposphere transport, long-range transport of Asian pollution, and regional emissions from urban areas and wildfires influence surface observations. The complexity of sources identified here along with the fact that O{sub 3} frequently approaches the threshold being considered for a revised NAAQS indicate that interstate and international cooperation will be necessary to achieve compliance with a more stringent regulatory standard. Further, on a seasonal basis we found no significant difference between daily 1-h maximum O{sub 3} at surface sites, which ranged in elevation from 888 to 2307 m, and aircraft measurements of O{sub 3} < 2500 m which suggests that similar processes influence daytime O{sub 3} across rural Nevada and indicates that column measurements from Railroad Valley, NV are useful in understanding these processes. - Highlights:

  16. Petrology and geochemistry of the Grouse Canyon Member of the Belted Range Tuff, Rock-Mechanics Drift, U12g Tunnel, Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connolly, J.R.; Mansker, W.L.; Hicks, R.; Allen, C.C.; Husler, J.; Keil, K.; Lappin, A.R.

    1983-04-01

    G-Tunnel at Nevada Test Site (NTS) is the site of thermal and thermomechanical experiments examining the feasibility of emplacing heat-producing nuclear wastes in silicic tuffs. This report describes the general stratigraphy, mineralogy, and bulk chemistry of welded portions of the Grouse Canyon Member of the Belted Range Tuff, the unit in which most of these experiments will be performed. The geologic characteristics of the Grouse Canyon Member are compared with those of the Topopah Spring Member of the Paintbrush Tuff, presently the preferred horizon for an actual waste repository at Yucca Mountain, near the southwest boundary of Nevada Test Site. This comparison suggests that test results obtained in welded tuff from G-Tunnel are applicable, with limitations, to evaluation of the Topopah Spring Member at Yucca Mountain.

  17. A Validation Process for the Groundwater Flow and Transport Model of the Faultless Nuclear Test at Central Nevada Test Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed Hassan

    2003-01-01

    Many sites of groundwater contamination rely heavily on complex numerical models of flow and transport to develop closure plans. This has created a need for tools and approaches that can be used to build confidence in model predictions and make it apparent to regulators, policy makers, and the public that these models are sufficient for decision making. This confidence building is a long-term iterative process and it is this process that should be termed ''model validation.'' Model validation is a process not an end result. That is, the process of model validation cannot always assure acceptable prediction or quality of the model. Rather, it provides safeguard against faulty models or inadequately developed and tested models. Therefore, development of a systematic approach for evaluating and validating subsurface predictive models and guiding field activities for data collection and long-term monitoring is strongly needed. This report presents a review of model validation studies that pertain to groundwater flow and transport modeling. Definitions, literature debates, previously proposed validation strategies, and conferences and symposia that focused on subsurface model validation are reviewed and discussed. The review is general in nature, but the focus of the discussion is on site-specific, predictive groundwater models that are used for making decisions regarding remediation activities and site closure. An attempt is made to compile most of the published studies on groundwater model validation and assemble what has been proposed or used for validating subsurface models. The aim is to provide a reasonable starting point to aid the development of the validation plan for the groundwater flow and transport model of the Faultless nuclear test conducted at the Central Nevada Test Area (CNTA). The review of previous studies on model validation shows that there does not exist a set of specific procedures and tests that can be easily adapted and

  18. Preliminary Correlation Map of Geomorphic Surfaces in North-Central Frenchman Flat, Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bechtel Nevada

    2005-08-01

    This correlation map (scale = 1:12,000) presents the results of a mapping initiative that was part of the comprehensive site characterization required to operate the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site, a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility located in northern Frenchman Flat at the Nevada Test Site. Eight primary map units are recognized for Quaternary surfaces: remnants of six alluvial fan or terrace surfaces, one unit that includes colluvial aprons associated with hill slopes, and one unit for anthropogenically disturbed surfaces. This surficial geology map provides fundamental data on natural processes for reconstruction of the Quaternary history of northern Frenchman Flat, which in turn will aid in the understanding of the natural processes that act to develop the landscape, and the time-frames involved in landscape development. The mapping was conducted using color and color-infrared aerial photographs and field verification of map unit composition and boundaries. Criteria for defining the map unit composition of geomorphic surface units are based on relative geomorphic position, landform morphology, and degree of preservation of surface morphology. The bedrock units identified on this map were derived from previous published mapping efforts and are included for completeness.

  19. Groundwater discharge by evapotranspiration, Dixie Valley, west-central Nevada, March 2009-September 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, C. Amanda; Huntington, Jena M; Buto, Susan G.; Moreo, Michael T.; Smith, J. LaRue; Andraski, Brian J.

    2014-01-01

    With increasing population growth and land-use change, urban communities in the desert Southwest are progressively looking toward remote basins to supplement existing water supplies. Pending applications by Churchill County for groundwater appropriations from Dixie Valley, Nevada, a primarily undeveloped basin east of the Carson Desert, have prompted a reevaluation of the quantity of naturally discharging groundwater. The objective of this study was to develop a revised, independent estimate of groundwater discharge by evapotranspiration (ETg) from Dixie Valley using a combination of eddy-covariance evapotranspiration (ET) measurements and multispectral satellite imagery. Mean annual ETg was estimated during water years 2010 and 2011 at four eddy-covariance sites. Two sites were in phreatophytic shrubland dominated by greasewood, and two sites were on a playa. Estimates of total ET and ETg were supported with vegetation cover mapping, soil physics considerations, water‑level measurements from wells, and isotopic water sourcing analyses to allow partitioning of ETg into evaporation and transpiration components. Site-based ETg estimates were scaled to the basin level by combining remotely sensed imagery with field reconnaissance. Enhanced vegetation index and brightness temperature data were compared with mapped vegetation cover to partition Dixie Valley into five discharging ET units and compute basin-scale ETg. Evapotranspiration units were defined within a delineated groundwater discharge area and were partitioned as (1) playa lake, (2) playa, (3) sparse shrubland, (4) moderate-to-dense shrubland, and (5) grassland.

  20. Geophysical Data from Spring Valley to Delamar Valley, East-Central Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mankinen, Edward A.; Roberts, Carter W.; McKee, Edwin H.; Chuchel, Bruce A.; Morin, Robert L.

    2007-01-01

    Cenozoic basins in eastern Nevada and western Utah constitute major ground-water recharge areas in the eastern part of the Great Basin and these were investigated to characterize the geologic framework of the region. Prior to these investigations, regional gravity coverage was variable over the region, adequate in some areas and very sparse in others. Cooperative studies described herein have established 1,447 new gravity stations in the region, providing a detailed description of density variations in the middle to upper crust. All previously available gravity data for the study area were evaluated to determine their reliability, prior to combining with our recent results and calculating an up-to-date isostatic residual gravity map of the area. A gravity inversion method was used to calculate depths to pre-Cenozoic basement rock and estimates of maximum alluvial/volcanic fill in the major valleys of the study area. The enhanced gravity coverage and the incorporation of lithologic information from several deep oil and gas wells yields a much improved view of subsurface shapes of these basins and provides insights useful for the development of hydrogeologic models for the region.

  1. Hydrogeologic framework and occurrence, movement, and chemical characterization of groundwater in Dixie Valley, west-central Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntington, Jena M.; Garcia, C. Amanda; Rosen, Michael R.

    2014-01-01

    Dixie Valley, a primarily undeveloped basin in west-central Nevada, is being considered for groundwater exportation. Proposed pumping would occur from the basin-fill aquifer. In response to proposed exportation, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Bureau of Reclamation and Churchill County, conducted a study to improve the understanding of groundwater resources in Dixie Valley. The objective of this report is to characterize the hydrogeologic framework, the occurrence and movement of groundwater, the general water quality of the basin-fill aquifer, and the potential mixing between basin-fill and geothermal aquifers in Dixie Valley. Various types of geologic, hydrologic, and geochemical data were compiled from previous studies and collected in support of this study. Hydrogeologic units in Dixie Valley were defined to characterize rocks and sediments with similar lithologies and hydraulic properties influencing groundwater flow. Hydraulic properties of the basin-fill deposits were characterized by transmissivity estimated from aquifer tests and specific-capacity tests. Groundwater-level measurements and hydrogeologic-unit data were combined to create a potentiometric surface map and to characterize groundwater occurrence and movement. Subsurface inflow from adjacent valleys into Dixie Valley through the basin-fill aquifer was evaluated using hydraulic gradients and Darcy flux computations. The chemical signature and groundwater quality of the Dixie Valley basin-fill aquifer, and potential mixing between basin-fill and geothermal aquifers, were evaluated using chemical data collected from wells and springs during the current study and from previous investigations. Dixie Valley is the terminus of the Dixie Valley flow system, which includes Pleasant, Jersey, Fairview, Stingaree, Cowkick, and Eastgate Valleys. The freshwater aquifer in the study area is composed of unconsolidated basin-fill deposits of Quaternary age. The basin-fill hydrogeologic unit

  2. Interbasin groundwater flow in south central Nevada: A further comment on the discussion between Davisson et. al.. [1999a, 1999b] and Thomas [1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winograd, Isaac J.

    2001-02-01

    In their response to the comments by Thomas [1999], Davisson et al. [1999a] dismiss a large set of potentiometric measurements pertinent to an understanding of the hydrogeology of Yucca and Frenchman Flats in southcentral Nevada. This commentary is submitted to demonstrate, first, that their dismissal of this data set is unfounded and, second, that these potentiometric data call into question the central thesis of the original paper by Davisson et al. [1999b].

  3. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 413: Clean Slate II Plutonium Dispersion (TTR) Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthews, Patrick; Burmeister, Mark; Gallo, Patricia

    2016-04-21

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 413 is located on the Tonopah Test Range, which is approximately 130 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada, and approximately 40 miles southeast of Tonopah, Nevada. The CAU 413 site consists of the release of radionuclides to the surface and shallow subsurface from the conduct of the Clean Slate II (CSII) storage–transportation test conducted on May 31, 1963. CAU 413 includes one corrective action site (CAS), TA-23-02CS (Pu Contaminated Soil). The known releases at CAU 413 are the result of the atmospheric deposition of contamination from the 1963 CSII test. The CSII test was a non-nuclear detonation of a nuclear device located inside a reinforced concrete bunker covered with 2 feet of soil. This test dispersed radionuclides, primarily plutonium, on the ground surface. The presence and nature of contamination at CAU 413 will be evaluated based on information collected from a corrective action investigation (CAI). The investigation is based on the data quality objectives (DQOs) developed on June 17, 2015, by representatives of the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection; the U.S. Air Force; and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office. The DQO process was used to identify and define the type, amount, and quality of data needed to develop and evaluate appropriate corrective actions for CAU 413. The CAI will include radiological surveys, geophysical surveys, collection and analyses of soil samples, and assessment of investigation results. The collection of soil samples will be accomplished using both probabilistic and judgmental sampling approaches. To facilitate site investigation and the evaluation of DQO decisions, the releases at CAU 413 have been divided into seven study groups.

  4. Simulation of the Lower Walker River Basin hydrologic system, west-central Nevada, using PRMS and MODFLOW models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allander, Kip K.; Niswonger, Richard G.; Jeton, Anne E.

    2014-01-01

    Walker Lake is a terminal lake in west-central Nevada with almost all outflow occurring through evaporation. Diversions from Walker River since the early 1900s have contributed to a substantial reduction in flow entering Walker Lake. As a result, the lake is receding, and salt concentrations have increased to a level in which Oncorhynchus clarkii henshawi (Lahontan Cutthroat trout) are no longer present, and the lake ecosystem is threatened. Consequently, there is a concerted effort to restore the Walker Lake ecosystem and fishery to a level that is more sustainable. However, Walker Lake is interlinked with the lower Walker River and adjacent groundwater system which makes it difficult to understand the full effect of upstream water-management actions on the overall hydrologic system including the lake level, volume, and dissolved-solids concentrations of Walker Lake. To understand the effects of water-management actions on the lower Walker River Basin hydrologic system, a watershed model and groundwater flow model have been developed by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Bureau of Reclamation and the National Fish and Wildlife Foundation.

  5. Surface water quality along the Central John Muir Trail in the Sierra Nevada Mountains: coliforms and algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ursem, Carling; Evans, C Scott; Ger, Kemal Ali; Richards, John R; Derlet, Robert W

    2009-01-01

    The John Muir Trail (JMT) in the Sierra Nevada Mountains of California is one of the most popular alpine wilderness trails in the United States, where backpackers depend on trailside water sources for more than 335 km (208 miles). This study addressed the risk of acquiring waterborne disease by analyzing prevalence and changes in coliform bacteria and Escherichia coli (E. coli) in lakes and streams adjacent to the central JMT. Chlorophyll-a levels were also measured as an indicator of high elevation eutrophication. Categories of environmental land use which might affect water quality were defined as: Pristine areas rarely traversed by humans; Backpack off-trail areas not traversed by pack or stock animals; and Multiuse areas with backpacker and animal use. We analyzed surface water at 36 different sites three separate times over an eight week period in the summer of 2008. Chlorophyll-a concentration increased significantly in Backpack and Multiuse sites over the summer months, but not in Pristine sites. Similar results were obtained for coliforms, with prevalence also increasing significantly over the summer months in Backpack and Multiuse sites. There was a much higher prevalence of E. coli in Multiuse sites compared to Pristine and Backpack sites. Our study provides evidence pack and stock animals serve as a source of microbial contamination of water along this section of trail.

  6. Budgets and chemical characterization of groundwater for the Diamond Valley flow system, central Nevada, 2011–12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, David L.; Mayers, C. Justin; Garcia, C. Amanda; Buto, Susan G.; Huntington, Jena M.

    2016-07-29

    The Diamond Valley flow system consists of six hydraulically connected hydrographic areas in central Nevada. The general down-gradient order of the areas are southern and northern Monitor Valleys, Antelope Valley, Kobeh Valley, Stevens Basin, and Diamond Valley. Groundwater flow in the Diamond Valley flow system terminates at a large playa in the northern part of Diamond Valley. Concerns relating to continued water-resources development of the flow system resulted in a phased hydrologic investigation that began in 2005 by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with Eureka County. This report presents the culmination of the phased investigation to increase understanding of the groundwater resources of the basin-fill aquifers in the Diamond Valley flow system through evaluations of groundwater chemistry and budgets. Groundwater chemistry was characterized using major ions and stable isotopes from groundwater and precipitation samples. Groundwater budgets accounted for all inflows, outflows, and changes in storage, and were developed for pre-development (pre-1950) and recent (average annual 2011–12) conditions. Major budget components include groundwater discharge by evapotranspiration and groundwater withdrawals; groundwater recharge by precipitation, and interbasin flow; and storage change.

  7. Patterns of fossil distributions within their environmental context from the Middle Triassic in South Canyon, Central Nevada, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro M. Monarrez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Middle Triassic records the return of diverse marine communities after the severe effects of the end-Permian mass extinction. This diversification leads to the Mesozoic/modern adaptive radiation resulting in substantial changes in marine communities in comparison to their Paleozoic predecessors. This analysis focuses on the faunal abundance, ecological patterns, and environmental interpretation of a Middle Triassic section in Central Nevada. Twelve bulk samples were collected. Visible fossils were identified and tallied from hand samples and thin-sections were used to aid in environmental interpretation. Beginning in the Late Anisian, we observed an ammonoid dominated to flat-clam, epifaunal dominated benthic community within a muddy, quiet, inner shelf depositional environment. Through time, epifaunal bivalves dominate within a middle shelf environment followed by an increase in infaunalization and shell-thickness. During this time the presence of oncoids and the reported finding of corals suggest the middle shelf environment gave way to a higher energy patch reef shelf edge environment. Finally, we observe epifaunal brachiopods communities at the top of our section deposited in a middle shelf environment. In sum, we observe the dominance of modern taxa (i.e., bivalves with Paleozoic ecologies (i.e., epifaunal, followed by the dominance of modern taxa with Modern ecologies (i.e., infaunal, thick shells and then a return to Paleozoic taxa (i.e., brachiopods and Paleozoic ecologies within an overall transgressive environment.

  8. Spatial distribution of snow water equivalent across the central and southern Sierra Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bales, R. C.; Rice, R.; Meng, X.

    2010-12-01

    Daily snow water equivalent (SWE), gridded at 500-m spatial resolution, was reconstructed for 2001-2009 using canopy-corrected fractional snow covered area (fSCA) from MODIS and a temperature-index snowmelt calculation. The MODIS fractional SCA was based on the MODSCAG (MODIS Snow Covered Area and Grain size/albedo) model, and provides a daily estimate of SCA across complex terrain that avoids some of the inherent biases in a binary SCA product. fSCA corrections of up to 40% were made in dense forests of the western and 30% in the eastern Sierra Nevada to account for the satellite only detecting snow in viewable gaps in the canopy. Degree days for the temperature-index model were calculated using monthly average lapse rates, with values varying by ±25% over the seasonal snowmelt period. Elevation-dependent degree-day coefficients were estimated from snowmelt rates observed at snow-pillow sites distributed over the region, with values generally increasing over the snowmelt period. As there are no spatial ground-truth measurements for validation of the amount and spatial variability of the resulting product, SWE amounts were compared with point precipitation measurements, point SWE measurements and an interpolated/gridded precipitation product (PRISM). Changes in gridded SWE, representing snowmelt rates, were compared with melt recorded at snow pillows and with discharge recorded at stream gauges. At peak accumulation the gridded SWE values were generally within 25% of SWE measured at snow pillows in the same 500-m grid cell, but SWE at each snow pillow melted out 2-6 weeks before snow disappeared from the corresponding grid cell. Comparison of the gridded SWE with precipitation required partitioning the precipitation into rain versus snow, which was based on a combination of ground temperature and available dew-point temperature values. At higher elevations both station measurements and interpolated /gridded precipitation were generally within 50% of SWE

  9. A late Frasnian (Late Devonian) radiolarian, sponge spicule, and conodont fauna from the Slaven Chert, northern Shoshone Range, Roberts Mountains allochthon, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boundy-Sanders, S. Q.; Sandberg, C.A.; Murchey, B.L.; Harris, A.G.

    1999-01-01

    Co-occuring conodonts, radiolarians, and sponge spicules from the type locality of the Slaven Chert, northern Shoshone Range, Nevada, indicate that the radiolarian and sponge spicule assemblage described herein correlates with the Late rhenana conodont Zone (late Frasnian). The moderately well preserved radiolarians are the first Frasnian-age fauna described from the Western Hemisphere. They include spumellarians, Ceratoikiscum, and Paleoscenidium, and a radiolarian which we have assigned to a new genus, Durahelenifore Boundy-Sanders and Murchey, with its type species, Durahelenifore robustum Boundy-Sanders and Murchey. Sponge spicules include umbellate microscleres of the Subclass Amphidiscophora, Order Hemidiscosa, previously documented only in Pennsylvanian and younger rocks.

  10. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit No. 423: Building 03-60 Underground Discharge Point, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DOE/NV

    1997-10-01

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) has been developed in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) that was agreed to by the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV), the State of Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP), and the US Department of Defense. The CAIP is a document that provides or references all of the specific information for investigation activities associated with Corrective Action Units (CAUS) or Corrective Action Sites (CASs) (FFACO, 1996). As per the FFACO (1996), CASs are sites potentially requiring corrective action(s) and may include solid waste management units or individual disposal or release sites. Corrective Action Units consist of one or more CASs grouped together based on geography, technical similarity, or agency responsibility for the purpose of determining corrective actions. This CAIP contains the environmental sample collection objectives and the criteria for conducting site investigation activities at CAU No. 423, the Building 03-60 Underground Discharge Point (UDP), which is located in Area 3 at the Tonopah Test Range (TTR). The TTR, part of the Nellis Air Force Range, is approximately 225 kilometers (km) (140 miles [mi]) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada (Figures 1-1 and 1-2). Corrective Action Unit No. 423 is comprised of only one CAS (No. 03-02-002-0308), which includes the Building 03-60 UDP and an associated discharge line extending from Building 03-60 to a point approximately 73 meters (m) (240 feet [ft]) northwest as shown on Figure 1-3.

  11. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 404: Roller Coaster Sewage Lagoons and North Disposal Trench, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada with ROTC 1, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynn Kidman

    1998-09-01

    This Closure Report provides the documentation for closure of the Roller Coaster Sewage Lagoons and North Disposal Trench Comective Action Unit (CAU) 404. CAU 404 consists of the Roller Coaster Sewage Lagoons (Corrective Action Site [CAS] TA-03-O01-TA-RC) and the North Disposal Trench (CAS TA-21-001-TA-RC). The site is located on the Tonopah Test Range, approximately 225 kilometers (km) (140 miles [mi]) northwest ofLas Vegas, Nevada. . The sewage lagoons received ~quid sanitary waste horn the Operation Roller Coaster Man Camp in 1963 and debris from subsequent range and construction cleanup activities. The debris and ordnance was subsequently removed and properly dispos~, however, pesticides were detected in soil samples born the bottom of the lagoons above the U,S. Environmental Protection Agency Region IX Prelimimuy Remediation Goals (EPA 1996). . The North Disposal Trench was excavated in 1963. Debris from the man camp and subsequent range and construction cleanup activities was placed in the trench. Investigation results indicated that no constituents of concern were detected in soil samples collected from the trench. Remedial alternative proposed in the Comctive Action Decision Document (CADD) fm the site was “Covering” (DOE, 1997a). The Nevada Division of”Enviromnental Protection (NDEP)-approved Correction Action Plan (CAP) proposed the “Covering” niethodology (1997b). The closure activities were completed in accorhce with the approwil CAP and consisted of baclctllling the sewage lagoons and disposal trench, constructing/planting an engineered/vegetative cover in the area of the sewage lagoons and dikposal trencQ installing a perimeter fence and signs, implementing restrictions on fi~e use, and preparing a Post-Closure Monitoring Plan. “ Since closure activities. for CAU 404 have been completed in accordance with the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection-approved CAP (DOE, 1997b) as documented in this Closure Report, the U.S. Department of

  12. Nevada Monitoring System to Assess Climate Variability and Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devitt, D. A.; Arnone, J.; Biondi, F.; Fenstermaker, L. F.; Saito, L.; Young, M.; Riddle, B.; Strachan, S. D.; Bird, B.; McCurdy, G.; Lyles, B. F.

    2010-12-01

    The Nevada System of Higher Education (University of Nevada Las Vegas, University of Nevada Reno and the Desert Research Institute) was awarded a multiyear NSF EPSCoR grant to support infrastructure associated with regional climate change research. The overall project is comprised of 5 components: education, cyberinfrastructure, policy, climate modeling and water/ecology. The water and ecology components are using their infrastructure funding for the assessment of climate variability and change on ecosystem function and hydrologic services. A series of 10 m tall towers are under construction and are being equipped with a wide array of sensors to monitor atmospheric, soil and plant parameters over time. The towers are located within the Mojave and Great Basin Deserts in two transects; the Mojave Desert transect is located in the southern Nevada Sheep Mountain Range and the Great Basin transect is located in the east central Nevada Snake Mountain Range. The towers are centrally positioned in well-defined vegetation zones. In southern Nevada these zones are represented by the following plant species: Creosote/Bursage (Creosotebush scrub zone); Blackbrush/Joshua Tree (Blackbrush zone); Pinyon/ Juniper (pygmy conifer zone), Ponderosa Pine (montane zone) and Bristlecone Pine (subalpine zone). The Snake Mountain transect incorporates the eastern and western valleys on both sides of the mountain range. The vegetation zones are represented by: Greasewood and mixed shrub (salt desert zone); Big Sage (sagebrush zone); Pinyon/Juniper (pygmy conifer zone); White/Douglas Fir, Ponderosa Pine and Aspen (montane zone); and Bristlecone/Limber Pine and Engelmann Spruce (subalpine zone). We are currently in the third year of funding with a goal of having the majority of towers fully operational by winter 2010. In close collaboration with our cyberinfrastructure component team, all data acquired from the transect monitoring stations will be made available to other researchers and the

  13. Geological mapping in Doonerak Fenster, Central Brooks Range, Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mull, C.C.; Adams, K.E.; Dillon, J.T.

    1985-04-01

    Mapping of the north flank of the Doonerak fenster has traced the Amawk thrust, the sole fault of the Endicott Mountains allochthon, from the North Fork of the Koyukuk River - Mount Doonerak area eastward for more than 40 km (25 mi) to the east plunge of the Doonerak anticline at Koyuktuvuk Creek near the Dietrich River. Mapping has concentrated on the structural style of the area and on the autochthonous or parautochthonous Carboniferous Lisburne Group, Kayak shale, Kekiktuk Conglomerate - which are present along most of the anticline - and Triassic Karen Creek Sandstone, Triassic Shublik Formation, and Permian-Triassic Sadlerochit Group - which are present only in the west. This Triassic to Mississippian section closely resembles the coeval autochthonous to Parautochthonous Ellesmerian section of the subsurface to the north and in the Brooks Range to the northeast.

  14. Structural architecture of the central Brooks Range foothills, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Thomas E.; Potter, Christopher J.; O'Sullivan, Paul B.

    2002-01-01

    Five structural levels underlie the Brooks Range foothills, from lowest to highest: (1) autochthon, at a depth of ~9 km; (2) Endicott Mountains allochthon (EMA), thickest under the northern Brooks Range (>15 km) and wedging out northward above the autochthon; (3) higher allochthons (HA), with a composite thickness of 1.5+ km, wedging out northward at or beyond the termination of EMA; (4) Aptian-Albian Fortress Mountain Formation (FM), deposited unconformably on deformed EMA and HA and thickening northward into a >7-km-thick succession of deformed turbidites (Torok Formation); (5) gently folded Albian-Cenomanian deltaic deposits (Nanushuk Group). The dominant faulting pattern in levels 2-3 is thin-skinned thrusting and thrust-related folds formed before deposition of Cretaceous strata. These structures are cut by younger steeply south-dipping reverse faults that truncate and juxtapose structural levels 1-4 and expose progressively deeper structural levels to the south. Structural levels 4-5 are juxtaposed along a north-dipping zone of south-vergent folds and thrusts. Stratigraphic and fission-track age data suggest a kinematic model wherein the foothills belt was formed first, by thrusting of HA and EMA as deformational wedges onto the regionally south-dipping authochon at 140-120Ma. After deposition of FM and Torok during mid-Cretaceous hinterland extension and uplift, a second episode of contractional deformation at 60 Ma shortened the older allochthonous deformational wedges (EMA, HA) and overlying strata on north-vergent reverse faults. To the north, where the allochthons wedge out, shortening caused duplexing in the Torok and development of a triangle zone south of the Tuktu escarpment.

  15. Environmental control on water quality; cases studies from Battle Mountain mining district, north-central Nevada. Chapter A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuttle, Michele L.W.; Wanty, Richard B.; Berger, Byron R.; Stillings, Lisa M.

    2003-01-01

    The environmental controls on water quality were the focus of our study in a portion of the Battle Mountain mining district, north-central Nevada. Samples representing areas outside known mineralized areas, in undisturbed mineralized areas, and in mined areas were chemically and isotopically analyzed. The results are related to geologic, hydrologic, and climatic data. Streams in background areas outside the mineralized zones reflect normal weathering of volcanically derived rocks. The waters are generally dilute, slightly alkaline in pH, and very low in metals. As these streams flow into mineralized zones, their character changes. In undisturbed mineralized areas, discharge into streams of ground water through hydrologically conductive fractures can be traced with chemistry and, even more effectively, with sulfur isotopic composition of dissolved sulfate. Generally, these tracers are much more subtle than in those areas where mining has produced adits and mine-waste piles. The influence of drainage from these mining relicts on water quality is often dramatic, especially in unusually wet conditions. In one heavily mined area, we were able to show that the unusually wet weather in the winter and spring greatly degraded water quality. Addition of calcite to the acid, metalrich mine drainage raised the stream pH and nearly quantitatively removed the metals through coprecipitation and (or) adsorption onto oxyhydroxides. This paper is divided into four case studies used to demonstrate our results. Each addresses the role of geology, hydrology, mining activity and (or) local climate on water quality. Collectively, they provide a comprehensive look at the important factors affecting water quality in this portion of the Battle Mountain mining district.

  16. Evapotranspiration units in the Basin and Range carbonate-rock aquifer system, White Pine County, Nevada, and adjacent parts of Nevada and Utah

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Accurate estimates of ground-water discharge are crucial in the development of a water budget for the Basin and Range Carbonate-rock Aquifer System (BARCAS) study...

  17. Irrigated Acreage Within the Basin and Range Carbonate-Rock Aquifer System, White Pine County, Nevada and Adjacent Areas in Nevada and Utah

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Accurate delineations of irrigated acreage are needed for the development of water-use estimates and in determining water-budget calculations for the Basin and Range...

  18. Range-wide genetic differentiation among North American great gray owls (Strix nebulosa) reveals a distinct lineage restricted to the Sierra Nevada, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Joshua M; Keane, John J; Savage, Wesley K; Godwin, Steven A; Shafer, Jo Ann; Jepsen, Eric P; Gerhardt, Rick; Stermer, Chris; Ernest, Holly B

    2010-07-01

    Investigations of regional genetic differentiation are essential for describing phylogeographic patterns and informing management efforts for species of conservation concern. In this context, we investigated genetic diversity and evolutionary relationships among great gray owl (Strix nebulosa) populations in western North America, which includes an allopatric range in the southern Sierra Nevada in California. Based on a total dataset consisting of 30 nuclear microsatellite DNA loci and 1938-base pairs of mitochondrial DNA, we found that Pacific Northwest sampling groups were recovered by frequency and Bayesian analyses of microsatellite data and each population sampled, except for western Canada, showed evidence of recent population bottlenecks and low effective sizes. Bayesian and maximum likelihood phylogenetic analyses of sequence data indicated that the allopatric Sierra Nevada population is also a distinct lineage with respect to the larger species range in North America; we suggest a subspecies designation for this lineage should be considered (Strix nebulosa yosemitensis). Our study underscores the importance of phylogeographic studies for identifying lineages of conservation concern, as well as the important role of Pleistocene glaciation events in driving genetic differentiation of avian fauna. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. SHRIMP-RG U-Pb isotopic systematics of zircon from the Angel Lake orthogneiss, East Humboldt Range, Nevada: is this really Archean crust? REPLY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premo, Wayne R.

    2010-01-01

    The comments from McGrew and Snoke are well received and their concerns for the interpretations in our paper (Premo et al., 2008), which questions the original contention that the Angel Lake orthogneiss is an Archean rock, are many and varied—all of which we will attempt to address. As they point out, this issue is an important one as this particular crustal exposure may delimit the southwestern extent of the Archean Wyoming province (Foster et al., 2006; Mueller and Frost, 2006), which has implications for the true crustal evolution of this region of the Great Basin and perhaps more importantly its relationship (if any) to the location of the world-class gold deposits of north-central Nevada (e.g., Howard, 2003).

  20. Post-Closure Inspection Report for Corrective Action Unit 426: Cactus Spring Waste Trenches Tonopah Test Range, Nevada Calendar Year 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. B. Campbell

    2001-06-01

    Post-closure monitoring requirements for the Cactus Spring Waste Trenches (Corrective Action Unit [CAW 426]) (Figure 1) are described in Closure Report for corrective Action Unit 426, Cactus Spring Waste Trenches. Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, report number DOE/NV--226. The Closure Report (CR) was submitted to the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) on August 14, 1998. Permeability results of soils adjacent to the engineered cover and a request for closure of CAU 404 were transmitted to the NDEP on April 29, 1999. The CR (containing the Post-Closure Monitoring Plan) was approved by the NDEP on May 13, 1999. Post-closure monitoring at CAU 426 consists of the following: (1) Site inspections done twice a year to evaluate the condition of the unit; (2) Verification that the site is secure; (3) Notice of any subsidence or deficiencies that may compromise the integrity of the unit; (4) Remedy of any deficiencies within 90 days of discovery; and (5) Preparation and submittal of an annual report. Site inspections were conducted on June 19, 2000, and November 21, 2000. All inspections were made after NDEP approval of the CR, and were conducted in accordance with the Post-Closure Monitoring Plan in the NDEP-approved CR. This report includes copies of the inspection checklists, photographs, recommendations, and conclusions. The Post-Closure Inspection Checklists are found in Attachment A, a copy of the field notes is found in Attachment B, and copies of the inspection photographs are found in Attachment C.

  1. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 410: Waste Disposal Trenches, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, Revision 0 (includes ROTCs 1, 2, and 3)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NNSA/NV

    2002-07-16

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan contains the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office's approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 410 under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 410 is located on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR), which is included in the Nevada Test and Training Range (formerly the Nellis Air Force Range) approximately 140 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. This CAU is comprised of five Corrective Action Sites (CASs): TA-19-002-TAB2, Debris Mound; TA-21-003-TANL, Disposal Trench; TA-21-002-TAAL, Disposal Trench; 09-21-001-TA09, Disposal Trenches; 03-19-001, Waste Disposal Site. This CAU is being investigated because contaminants may be present in concentrations that could potentially pose a threat to human health and/or the environment, and waste may have been disposed of with out appropriate controls. Four out of five of these CASs are the result of weapons testing and disposal activities at the TTR, and they are grouped together for site closure based on the similarity of the sites (waste disposal sites and trenches). The fifth CAS, CAS 03-19-001, is a hydrocarbon spill related to activities in the area. This site is grouped with this CAU because of the location (TTR). Based on historical documentation and process know-ledge, vertical and lateral migration routes are possible for all CASs. Migration of contaminants may have occurred through transport by infiltration of precipitation through surface soil which serves as a driving force for downward migration of contaminants. Land-use scenarios limit future use of these CASs to industrial activities. The suspected contaminants of potential concern which have been identified are volatile organic compounds; semivolatile organic compounds; high explosives; radiological constituents including depleted

  2. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 490: Station 44 Burn Area, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada (Rev. No.: 0, February 2001)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DOE/NV

    2001-02-23

    This Corrective Action Decision Document identifies and rationalizes the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's selection of a recommended Corrective Action Alternative (CAA) appropriate to facilitate the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 490, Station 44 Burn Area, Tonopah Test Range (TTR), Nevada, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 490 is located on the Nellis Air Force Range and the Tonopah Test Range and is approximately 140 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. This CAU is comprised of four Corrective Action Sites (CASs): 03-56-001-03BA, Fire Training Area (located southwest of Area 3); RG-56-001-RGBA, Station 44 Burn Area (located west of Main Lake); 03-58-001-03FN, Sandia Service Yard (located north of the northwest corner of Area 3); and 09-54-001-09L2, Gun Propellant Burn Area (located south of the Area 9 Compound on the TTR). A Corrective Action Investigation was performed in July and August 2000, and analytes detected during the corrective action investigation were evaluated against preliminary action levels to determine contaminants of concern (COCs). There were no COCs identified in soil at the Gun Propellant Burn Area or the Station 44 Burn Area; therefore, there is no need for corrective actions at these two sites. Five soil samples at the Fire Training Area and seven at the Sandia Service Yard exceeded PALs for total petroleum hydrocarbons-diesel. Upon the identification of COCs specific to CAU 490, Corrective Action Objectives were developed based on a review of existing data, future use, and current operations at the TTR, with the following three CAAs under consideration: Alternative 1 - No Further Action, Alternative 2 - Closure In Place - No Further Action With Administrative Controls, and Alternative 3 - Clean Closure by Excavation and Disposal. These alternatives were evaluated based on four general corrective action standards and five remedy selection decision factors. Based

  3. Modeling speleothem δ 13C variability in a central Sierra Nevada cave using 14C and 87Sr/ 86Sr

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oster, Jessica L.; Montañez, Isabel P.; Guilderson, Thomas P.; Sharp, Warren D.; Banner, Jay L.

    2010-09-01

    Carbon isotopes in speleothems can vary in response to a number of complex processes active in cave systems that are both directly and indirectly related to climate. Progressing downward from the soil zone overlying the cave, these processes include soil respiration, fluid-rock interaction in the host limestone, degassing of CO 2 and precipitation of calcite upflow from the speleothem drip site, and calcite precipitation at the drip site. Here we develop a new approach to independently constrain the roles of water-rock interaction and soil processes in controlling stalagmite δ 13C. This approach uses the dead carbon proportion (dcp) estimated from coupled 14C and 230Th/U measurements, in conjunction with Sr isotope analyses on stalagmite calcite from a central Sierra Nevada foothills cave in California, a region characterized by a highly seasonal Mediterranean-type climate, to determine the roles of water-rock interaction and soil processes in determining stalagmite δ 13C. Increases in stalagmite dcp between 16.5 and 8.8 ka are coincident with decreased δ 13C, indicating a varying yet substantial contribution from the soil organic matter (SOM) reservoir, likely due to significantly increased average age of SOM in the soil veneer above the cave during wet climatic intervals. We use geochemical and isotope mixing models to estimate the host-carbonate contribution throughout the δ 13C time series and determine the degree of degassing and calcite precipitation that occurred prior to precipitation of stalagmite calcite. The degree of degassing and prior calcite precipitation we calculate varies systematically with other climate indicators, with less degassing and prior calcite precipitation occurring during wetter climatic intervals and more during drier intervals. Modeled δ 13C values and degassing calculations suggest that some degree of prior calcite precipitation is necessary at all time intervals to explain measured stalagmite δ 13C values, even during

  4. Origin and age of the Volcanic Rocks of Tláloc Volcano, Sierra Nevada, Central Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, M.; Grobéty, B.; Arce, J. L.; Rueda, H.

    2007-05-01

    The Tláloc volcano (TV) is a 4125 m high stratovolcano of the Trans Mexican Volcanic Belt (TMVB) and is located in the northern end of the N-S trending Sierra Nevada, 30 km NE of Mexico City. Few data on the petrological and temporal evolution of TV have been published to date. Recently dated deposits gave ages between 32'000 and 34'500±500 years BP (Huddart and Gonzalez, 2004). Mapping and sampling of extrusive rocks in the summit region of TV revealed a dome structure with radiating lava flows consisting of dacitic rocks containing plagioclase and hornblende phenocrysts. Some flows, however, seem to be associated with a collapse structure E of the main summit. Crossing relationships indicate that this structure is older (“Paleo Tláloc”). A stratigraphy of the pyroclastic deposits was established along the northern slope of TV. From the numerous pyroclastic flows, separated by paleosoils and fluviatile deposits, only two pumice and one block and ash flow (BAF) have regional extent. Their thickness - distance relationship and their granulometry point to major explosive events. A carbonized wood sample from the BAF deposit gave ages similar to the previous ages (33'180±550 yr BP and 23'170±270 yr BP), a sample from a pyroclastic flow gave even a younger age (16'620±110 yr BP), suggesting that TV remained active also after the volcanoes Iztaccíhuatl and Popocatépetl further to the South started their activity. Based on these preliminary data it may be necessary to reconsider the accepted scenario of the temporal evolution of the central section of the TMVB, which assumes that the activity migrates from North to South with time. Huddart, D. and Gonzalez, S., 2004. Pyroclastic flows and associated sediments, Tláloc-Telapón, piedmont fringe of the eastern basin of Mexico. In: G.J. Aguirre-Diaz, Macías, J.L., and Siebe, C., (Editor), Penrose Conference. UNAM, Metepec, Puebla, Mexico, pp. 35.

  5. Geochemistry, mineralization, structure, and permeability of a normal-fault zone, Casino mine, Alligator Ridge district, north central Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, K. Jill; Evans, James P.

    2003-05-01

    We examine the geochemical signature and structure of the Keno fault zone to test its impact on the flow of ore-mineralizing fluids, and use the mined exposures to evaluate structures and processes associated with normal fault development. The fault is a moderately dipping normal-fault zone in siltstone and silty limestone with 55-100 m of dip-slip displacement in north-central Nevada. Across-strike exposures up to 180 m long, 65 m of down-dip exposure and 350 m of along-strike exposure allow us to determine how faults, fractures, and fluids interact within mixed-lithology carbonate-dominated sedimentary rocks. The fault changes character along strike from a single clay-rich slip plane 10-20 mm thick at the northern exposure to numerous hydrocarbon-bearing, calcite-filled, nearly vertical slip planes in a zone 15 m wide at the southern exposure. The hanging wall and footwall are intensely fractured but fracture densities do not vary markedly with distance from the fault. Fault slip varies from pure dip-slip to nearly pure strike-slip, which suggests that either slip orientations may vary on faults in single slip events, or stress variations over the history of the fault caused slip vector variations. Whole-rock major, minor, and trace element analyses indicate that Au, Sb, and As are in general associated with the fault zone, suggesting that Au- and silica-bearing fluids migrated along the fault to replace carbonate in the footwall and adjacent hanging wall rocks. Subsequent fault slip was associated with barite and calcite and hydrocarbon-bearing fluids deposited at the southern end of the fault. No correlation exists at the meter or tens of meter scale between mineralization patterns and fracture density. We suggest that the fault was a combined conduit-barrier system in which the fault provides a critical connection between the fluid sources and fractures that formed before and during faulting. During the waning stages of deposit formation, the fault behaved as

  6. Baltazor KGRA and vicinity, Nevada: geothermal reservoir assessment case study, northern Basin and Range province. Final report, 1 October 1978-31 January 1983

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, T.C.

    1983-01-01

    The Baltazor KGRA and McGee/Painted Hills geothermal prospects are located in northern Humboldt County, Nevada along the northwestern margin of the Basin and Range province. Exploration work other than drilling has included groundwater sampling, a microearthquake study, a geologic literature search and photogeologic mapping, compilation of aeromagnetic and gravity mapping, soil mercury surveying, electrical resistivity and self-potential surveys and detailed hydrothermal alteration mapping. Exploration drilling included 27 shallow temperature gradient holes, four intermediate-depth gradient wells and one 3703-foot deep test, Baltazor 45-14. The deep test penetrated Miocene rhyolite, andesite, basalt and andesitic basalt flows before excessive hold deviation forced an end to drilling and completion as a deep temperature observation well. A temperature survey two weeks after completion obtained a 119.7/sup 0/C (247.4/sup 0/F) reading at survey total depth, 1110 m (3640 feet).

  7. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 410: Waste Disposal Trenches, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada: Revision No. 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office

    2003-12-22

    This Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report (CADD/CR) has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 410: Waste Disposal Trenches, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 410 consists of five Corrective Action Sites (CASs): TA-21-003-TANL; 09-21-001-TA09; TA-19-002-TAB2; TA-21-002-TAAL; and 03-19-001. The CADD and CR have been combined into one report because no further action is recommended for this CAU. The corrective action alternative recommended for CAU 410 is Clean Closure; therefore, no corrective action or corrective action plan is required. No use restrictions are required to be placed on this CAU because the investigation showed no evidence of remaining soil contamination or remaining debris/waste upon completion of all investigation activities.

  8. Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility data bearing on the transport direction of mid-tertiary regional ignimbrites, Candelaria Hills area, West-Central Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petronis, Michael S.; Geissman, John W.

    2009-03-01

    In west-central Nevada, the Oligocene Candelaria pyroclastic sequence reaches a local thickness of up to 1.3 km, in what has been referred to as the Candelaria trough, but more generally the accumulation of ash-flow tuffs and related volcanic rocks is less than 300 m thick. Complete to near complete outcrops are scattered over about 3200 km2 in the Candelaria Hills and surrounding ranges of the Southern Walker Lane structural zone. Three regionally extensive compound cooling units within the overall sequence (25.8 Ma Metallic City, 24.1 Ma Belleville, and 23.7 Ma Candelaria Junction Tuffs) have distinguishing characteristics and are the focus of study. At 106 sites, anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) data provide an estimate of transport direction of each tuff. Inferred transport directions based on the AMS data are corrected for a modest clockwise, yet variable magnitude, vertical axis rotation that affected these rocks in late Miocene to Pliocene time, as revealed by paleomagnetic studies. The AMS data show a somewhat orderly pattern of magnetic fabrics that we interpret to define unique transport directions for the Metallic City and Candelaria Junction Tuffs. The low susceptibility and degree of anisotropy of the Belleville Tuff limits our interpretation from this pyroclastic deposit. The Metallic City and Candelaria Junction Tuffs typically show gentle, south-southeast and southeast dipping magnetic fabric imbrication, respectively, and very gently plunging magnetic lineations. These AMS fabric elements indicate the tuffs were transported to the north-northwest and northwest, respectively. The AMS fabric data from the Metallic City and Candelaria Junction Tuffs suggest relatively unrestricted flow during emplacement. Evidence across the 3,200 km2 area to support more regionally controlled channelized flow into and/or flow along the east northeast-west southwest axis of the Candelaria trough is lacking. The ignimbrites clearly filled a topographic

  9. Contribution of Nutrient-enriched Groundwater to Excessive Algal Growth along a Select Reach of the East Fork Carson River, West-Central Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, N. L.; Pahl, R. A.; Rosen, M. R.

    2016-12-01

    A study during the summers of 2010 and 2012 was conducted to determine if nutrient-enriched groundwater discharge contributed to excessive algal growth observed along a 5,800-foot reach of the East Fork Carson River in Carson Valley, west-central Nevada. Groundwater discharge to the river was determined using flow-net analysis, chloride-mass balance, and differences in measured streamflow. Water samples were collected from the river and shallow groundwater wells located in the river and along the banks for determination of nutrient concentrations and sources; algae samples were collected from the 5,800-foot river reach. Groundwater was found to be discharging to the river from both banks along a 405-foot sub-reach in the middle of the 5,800-foot study reach. High nitrate concentrations (2-3 milligrams per liter as nitrogen) were found in the groundwater along the right bank of the sub-reach. Within this sub-reach, river nitrate loads ranged from 1.3 to 7.9 pounds of nitrogen (N) per day; groundwater nitrate loads were estimated to be 0.07 pounds of N per day. Dissolved orthophosphate river loads ranged from 0.12 to 0.20 pounds of phosphorus (P) per day; groundwater orthophosphate loads were estimated to be 0.005 pounds of P per day. This sub-reach had the highest average algal biomass within the study reach. The data suggest that nutrient rich groundwater discharging to the river may create a favorable microenvironment for periphyton that assimilate available nutrients before the groundwater mixes with overlying river water. The source of nitrate in groundwater is likely anthropogenic as groundwater nitrate concentrations above background concentrations were only found along the right bank of the river adjacent to a housing development. Organic-wastewater compounds detected in groundwater samples collected from wells along the right bank within this sub-reach offer independent support that the elevated nitrate concentrations were human-derived.

  10. 2016 Annual Site Environmental report Sandia National Laboratories Tonopah Test Range Nevada & Kaua'i Test Facility Hawai'i.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salas, Angela Maria [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Griffith, Stacy R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-07-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is a multimission laboratory managed and operated by National Technology & Engineering Solutions of Sandia, LLC, a wholly owned subsidiary of Honeywell International Inc., for the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s), National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) under contract DE-NA0003525. The DOE/NNSA Sandia Field Office administers the contract and oversees contractor operations at the SNL, Tonopah Test Range (SNL/TTR) in Nevada and the SNL, Kaua‘i Test Facility (SNL/KTF) in Hawai‘i. SNL personnel manage and conduct operations at SNL/TTR in support of the DOE/NNSA’s Weapons Ordnance Program and have operated the site since 1957. Navarro Research and Engineering personnel perform most of the environmental programs activities at SNL/TTR. The DOE/NNSA/Nevada Field Office retains responsibility for cleanup and management of SNL/TTR Environmental Restoration sites. SNL personnel operate SNL/KTF as a rocket preparation launching and tracking facility. This Annual Site Environmental Report (ASER) summarizes data and the compliance status of sustainability, environmental protection, and monitoring programs at SNL/TTR and SNL/KTF during calendar year 2016. Major environmental programs include air quality, water quality, groundwater protection, terrestrial and biological surveillance, waste management, pollution prevention, environmental restoration, oil and chemical spill prevention, and implementation of the National Environmental Policy Act. This ASER is prepared in accordance with and as required by DOE O 231.1B, Admin Change 1, Environment, Safety, and Health Reporting.

  11. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 428: Area 3 Septic Waste Systems 1 and 5, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office

    2000-02-08

    This Corrective Action Decision Document identifies and rationalizes the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's selection of a recommended corrective action alternative (CAA) appropriate to facilitate the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 428, Septic Waste Systems 1 and 5, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Located in Area 3 at the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) in Nevada, CAU 428 is comprised of two Corrective Action Sites (CASs): (1) CAS 03-05-002-SW01, Septic Waste System 1 and (2) CAS 03-05-002- SW05, Septic Waste System 5. A corrective action investigation performed in 1999 detected analyte concentrations that exceeded preliminary action levels; specifically, contaminants of concern (COCs) included benzo(a) pyrene in a septic tank integrity sample associated with Septic Tank 33-1A of Septic Waste System 1, and arsenic in a soil sample associated with Septic Waste System 5. During this investigation, three Corrective Action Objectives (CAOs) were identified to prevent or mitigate exposure to contents of the septic tanks and distribution box, to subsurface soil containing COCs, and the spread of COCs beyond the CAU. Based on these CAOs, a review of existing data, future use, and current operations in Area 3 of the TTR, three CAAs were developed for consideration: Alternative 1 - No Further Action; Alternative 2 - Closure in Place with Administrative Controls; and Alternative 3 - Clean Closure by Excavation and Disposal. These alternatives were evaluated based on four general corrective action standards and five remedy selection decision factors. Based on the results of the evaluation, the preferred CAA was Alternative 3. This alternative meets all applicable state and federal regulations for closure of the site and will eliminate potential future exposure pathways to the contaminated soils at the Area 3 Septic Waste Systems 1 and 5.

  12. Post-Closure Inspection Report for Corrective Action Unit 404: Roller Coaster Sewage Lagoons and North Disposal Trench Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, Calendar Year 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. B. Campbell

    2001-06-01

    Post-closure monitoring requirements for the Roller Coaster Sewage Lagoons and North Disposal Trench (Corrective Action Unit [CAW 404]) (Figure 1) are described in Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 404, Roller Coaster Sewage Lagoons and North Disposal Trench, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, report number DOE/NV--187. The Closure Report (CR) was submitted to the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) on September 11, 1998. Permeability results of soils adjacent to the engineered cover and a request for closure of CAU 404 were transmitted to the NDEP on April 29, 1999. The CR (containing the Post-Closure Monitoring Plan) was approved by the NDEP on May 18, 1999. Post-closure monitoring at CAU 404 consists of the following: (1) Site inspections done twice a year to evaluate the condition of the unit; (2) Verification that the site is secure; (3) Notice of any subsidence or deficiencies that may compromise the integrity of the unit; (4) Remedy of any deficiencies within 90 days of discovery; and (5) Preparation and submittal of an annual report. Site inspections were conducted on June 19, 2000, and November 21, 2000. The site inspections were conducted after completion of the revegetation activities (October 30, 1997) and NDEP approval of the CR (May 18, 1999). All site inspections were conducted in accordance with the Post-Closure Monitoring Plan in the NDEP-approved CR. This report includes copies of inspection checklists, photographs, recommendations, and conclusions. The Post-Closure Inspection Checklists are found in Attachment A, a copy of the field notes is found in Attachment B, and copies of the inspection photographs are found in Attachment C.

  13. Fire and water: volcanology, geomorphology, and hydrogeology of the Cascade Range, central Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katharine V. Cashman; Natalia I. Deligne; Marshall W. Gannett; Gordon E. Grant; Anne. Jefferson

    2009-01-01

    This field trip guide explores the interactions among the geologic evolution, hydrology, and fluvial geomorphology of the central Oregon Cascade Range. Key topics include the geologic control of hydrologic regimes on both the wet and dry sides of the Cascade Range crest, groundwater dynamics and interaction between surface and groundwater in young volcanic arcs, and...

  14. Pinon-juniper management research at Corona Range and Livestock Research Center in Central New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andres Cibils; Mark Petersen; Shad Cox; Michael Rubio

    2008-01-01

    Description: New Mexico State University's Corona Range and Livestock Research Center (CRLRC) is located in a pinon-juniper (PJ)/grassland ecotone in the southern Basin and Range Province in south central New Mexico. A number of research projects conducted at this facility revolve around soil, plant, livestock, and wildlife responses to PJ woodland management. The...

  15. Precipitation and runoff simulations of select perennial and ephemeral watersheds in the middle Carson River basin, Eagle, Dayton, and Churchill Valleys, west-central Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeton, Anne E.; Maurer, Douglas K.

    2011-01-01

    The effect that land use may have on streamflow in the Carson River, and ultimately its impact on downstream users can be evaluated by simulating precipitation-runoff processes and estimating groundwater inflow in the middle Carson River in west-central Nevada. To address these concerns, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Bureau of Reclamation, began a study in 2008 to evaluate groundwater flow in the Carson River basin extending from Eagle Valley to Churchill Valley, called the middle Carson River basin in this report. This report documents the development and calibration of 12 watershed models and presents model results and the estimated mean annual water budgets for the modeled watersheds. This part of the larger middle Carson River study will provide estimates of runoff tributary to the Carson River and the potential for groundwater inflow (defined here as that component of recharge derived from percolation of excess water from the soil zone to the groundwater reservoir). The model used for the study was the U.S. Geological Survey's Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System, a physically based, distributed-parameter model designed to simulate precipitation and snowmelt runoff as well as snowpack accumulation and snowmelt processes. Models were developed for 2 perennial watersheds in Eagle Valley having gaged daily mean runoff, Ash Canyon Creek and Clear Creek, and for 10 ephemeral watersheds in the Dayton Valley and Churchill Valley hydrologic areas. Model calibration was constrained by daily mean runoff for the 2 perennial watersheds and for the 10 ephemeral watersheds by limited indirect runoff estimates and by mean annual runoff estimates derived from empirical methods. The models were further constrained by limited climate data adjusted for altitude differences using annual precipitation volumes estimated in a previous study. The calibration periods were water years 1980-2007 for Ash Canyon Creek, and water years 1991-2007 for Clear Creek. To

  16. Geophysical studies in the vicinity of Blue Mountain and Pumpernickel Valley near Winnemucca, north-central Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce, David A.

    2012-01-01

    From May 2008 to September 2009, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) collected data from more than 660 gravity stations, 100 line-km of truck-towed magnetometer traverses, and 260 physical-property sites in the vicinity of Blue Mountain and Pumpernickel Valley, northern Nevada (fig. 1). Gravity, magnetic, and physical-property data were collected to study regional crustal structures as an aid to understanding the geologic framework of the Blue Mountain and Pumpernickel Valley areas, which in general, have implications for mineral- and geothermal-resource investigations throughout the Great Basin.

  17. GPS Imaging of vertical land motion in California and Nevada: Implications for Sierra Nevada uplift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, William C.; Blewitt, Geoffrey; Kreemer, Corné

    2016-10-01

    We introduce Global Positioning System (GPS) Imaging, a new technique for robust estimation of the vertical velocity field of the Earth's surface, and apply it to the Sierra Nevada Mountain range in the western United States. Starting with vertical position time series from Global Positioning System (GPS) stations, we first estimate vertical velocities using the MIDAS robust trend estimator, which is insensitive to undocumented steps, outliers, seasonality, and heteroscedasticity. Using the Delaunay triangulation of station locations, we then apply a weighted median spatial filter to remove velocity outliers and enhance signals common to multiple stations. Finally, we interpolate the data using weighted median estimation on a grid. The resulting velocity field is temporally and spatially robust and edges in the field remain sharp. Results from data spanning 5-20 years show that the Sierra Nevada is the most rapid and extensive uplift feature in the western United States, rising up to 2 mm/yr along most of the range. The uplift is juxtaposed against domains of subsidence attributable to groundwater withdrawal in California's Central Valley. The uplift boundary is consistently stationary, although uplift is faster over the 2011-2016 period of drought. Uplift patterns are consistent with groundwater extraction and concomitant elastic bedrock uplift, plus slower background tectonic uplift. A discontinuity in the velocity field across the southeastern edge of the Sierra Nevada reveals a contrast in lithospheric strength, suggesting a relationship between late Cenozoic uplift of the southern Sierra Nevada and evolution of the southern Walker Lane.

  18. GPS Imaging of vertical land motion in California and Nevada: Implications for Sierra Nevada uplift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, William C; Blewitt, Geoffrey; Kreemer, Corné

    2016-10-01

    We introduce Global Positioning System (GPS) Imaging, a new technique for robust estimation of the vertical velocity field of the Earth's surface, and apply it to the Sierra Nevada Mountain range in the western United States. Starting with vertical position time series from Global Positioning System (GPS) stations, we first estimate vertical velocities using the MIDAS robust trend estimator, which is insensitive to undocumented steps, outliers, seasonality, and heteroscedasticity. Using the Delaunay triangulation of station locations, we then apply a weighted median spatial filter to remove velocity outliers and enhance signals common to multiple stations. Finally, we interpolate the data using weighted median estimation on a grid. The resulting velocity field is temporally and spatially robust and edges in the field remain sharp. Results from data spanning 5-20 years show that the Sierra Nevada is the most rapid and extensive uplift feature in the western United States, rising up to 2 mm/yr along most of the range. The uplift is juxtaposed against domains of subsidence attributable to groundwater withdrawal in California's Central Valley. The uplift boundary is consistently stationary, although uplift is faster over the 2011-2016 period of drought. Uplift patterns are consistent with groundwater extraction and concomitant elastic bedrock uplift, plus slower background tectonic uplift. A discontinuity in the velocity field across the southeastern edge of the Sierra Nevada reveals a contrast in lithospheric strength, suggesting a relationship between late Cenozoic uplift of the southern Sierra Nevada and evolution of the southern Walker Lane.

  19. Early Cretaceous, syn-contractional deposition within the Sevier hinterland in central Nevada: preliminary insights from geologic mapping in the Diamond Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Fiori, R. V.; Long, S. P.; Rafferty, K.; Snell, K. E.; Bonde, J.

    2016-12-01

    Documenting the timing and spatial relationships between foreland and hinterland deformation is essential to understanding mountain belt dynamics. Within the U.S. Cordillera, in the hinterland of the Sevier thrust belt, the Central Nevada thrust belt (CNTB) is interpreted to have accommodated 10-15 km of shortening. However, the timing of CNTB deformation is poorly constrained. In order to provide insight into the timing and deformation style of the CNTB, we mapped structures and outcrops of the Early Cretaceous (Aptian; 122-116 Ma) Newark Canyon Formation (Knc) in the southern Diamond Mountains near Eureka, NV. At this latitude, CNTB deformation was dominated by construction of the Eureka culmination, a regional-scale, north-trending anticline interpreted to have grown above an east-vergent, subsurface thrust fault. The Knc type exposure is preserved within the hinge zone of a syncline immediately east of the Eureka culmination; this syncline exhibits a western limb dip of 40-50°E and an eastern limb dip of 10-30°W, and is interpreted as east-vergent. In addition, angular unconformities are observed within the Knc section in the eastern limb, with dip angles shallowing upsection from 25-30° to 10-15°. We interpret this fanning of dips as a growth relationship, and therefore that deposition was contemporaneous with folding. Upsection facies changes and growth relationships are observed throughout the exposure, indicating that deposition within the basin was controlled by contemporaneous folding. These field relationships provide preliminary evidence for contractional deformation of Aptian age within the CNTB. This post-dates the initial emplacement of thrust sheets in the Sevier thrust belt in Utah at this latitude by 10-30 Myr, and therefore indicates out-of-sequence deformation within the Sevier hinterland. Additional mapping and geochronology will be performed, in order to test these findings, and to further analyze the structural history of central Nevada.

  20. Principal facts for gravity stations collected in 2010 from White Pine and Lincoln Counties, east-central Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mankinen, Edward A.; McKee, Edwin H.

    2011-01-01

    Increasing demands on the Colorado River system within the arid Southwestern United States have focused attention on finding new, alternative sources of water. Particular attention is being paid to the eastern Great Basin, where important ground-water systems occur within a regionally extensive sequence of Paleozoic carbonate rocks and in the Cenozoic basin-fill deposits that occur throughout the region. Geophysical investigations to characterize the geologic framework of aquifers in eastern Nevada and western Utah began in a series of cooperative agreements between the U.S. Geological Survey and the Southern Nevada Water Authority in 2003. These studies were intended to better understand the formation of basins, define their subsurface shape and depth, and delineate structures that may impede or enhance groundwater flow. We have combined data from gravity stations established during the current study with previously available data to produce an up-to-date isostatic-gravity map of the study area, using a gravity inversion method to calculate depths to pre-Cenozoic basement rock and to estimate alluvial/volcanic fill in the valleys.

  1. Groundwater Flow Model of Corrective Action Units 101 and 102: Central and Western Pahute Mesa, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greg Ruskauff

    2006-06-01

    The Pahute Mesa groundwater flow model supports the FFACO UGTA corrective action strategy objective of providing an estimate of the vertical and horizontal extent of contaminant migration for each CAU in order to predict contaminant boundaries. A contaminant boundary is the model-predicted perimeter that defines the extent of radionuclide-contaminated groundwater from underground nuclear testing above background conditions exceeding Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) standards. The contaminant boundary will be composed of both a perimeter boundary and a lower hydrostratigraphic unit (HSU) boundary. Additional results showing contaminant concentrations and the location of the contaminant boundary at selected times will also be presented. These times may include the verification period, the end of the five-year proof-of-concept period, as well as other times that are of specific interest. The FFACO (1996) requires that the contaminant transport model predict the contaminant boundary at 1,000 years and “at a 95% level of confidence.” The Pahute Mesa Phase I flow model described in this report provides, through the flow fields derived from alternative hydrostratigraphic framework models (HFMs) and recharge models, one part of the data required to compute the contaminant boundary. Other components include the simplified source term model, which incorporates uncertainty and variability in the factors that control radionuclide release from an underground nuclear test (SNJV, 2004a), and the transport model with the concomitant parameter uncertainty as described in Shaw (2003). The uncertainty in all the above model components will be evaluated to produce the final contaminant boundary. This report documents the development of the groundwater flow model for the Central and Western Pahute Mesa CAUs.

  2. Metals in Devonian kerogenous marine strata at Gibellini and Bisoni properties in southern Fish Creek Range, Eureka County, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desborough, George A.; Poole, F.G.; Hose, R.K.; Radtke, A.S.

    1979-01-01

    A kerogen-rich sequence of siliceous mudstone, siltstone, and chert as much as 60 m thick on ridge 7129 in the southern Fish Creek Range, referred to as Gibellini facies of the Woodruff Formation, has been evaluated on the surface and in drill holes principally for its potential resources of vanadium, zinc, selenium, molybdenum, and syncrude oil content. The strata are part of a strongly deformed allochthonous mass of eugeosynclinal Devonian marine rocks that overlie deformed allochthonous Mississippian siliceous rocks and relatively undeformed autochthonous Mississippian Antler flysch at this locality. The vanadium in fresh black rocks obtained from drill holes and fresh exposures in trenches and roadcuts occurs chiefly in organic matter. Concentrations of vanadium oxide (V2O5) in unoxidized samples range from 3,000 to 7,000 ppm. In oxidized and bleached rock that is prevalent at the surface, concentrations of vanadium oxide range from 6,000 to 8,000 ppm, suggesting a tendency toward enrichment due to surficial weathering and ground-water movement. Zinc occurs in sphalerite, and selenium occurs in organic matter; molybdenum appears to occur both in molybdenite and in organic matter. Concentrations of zinc in unoxidized rock range from 4,000 to 18,000 ppm, whereas in oxidized rock they range from 30 to 100 ppm, showing strong depletion due to weathering. Concentrations of selenium in unoxidized rock range from 30 to 200 ppm, whereas in oxidized rock they range from 200 to 400 ppm, indicating some enrichment upon weathering. Concentrations of molybdenum in unoxidized rock range from 70 to 960 ppm, whereas in oxidized rock they range from 30 to 80 ppm, indicating strong depletion upon weathering. Most fresh black rock is low-grade oil shale, and yields as much as 12 gallons/short ton of syncrude oil. Metahewettite is the principal vanadium mineral in the oxidized zone, but it also occurs sparsely as small nodules and fillings of microfractures in unweathered strata

  3. Map showing the distribution and characteristics of plutonic rocks in the Tonopah 1 degree by 2 degrees Quadrangle, central Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, D.A.

    1987-01-01

    Plutonic rocks, mostly granite and granodiorite, are widely distributed in the west two-thirds of the Tonopah 1 degree by 2 degree quadrangle, Nevada. These rocks were systematically studied as part of the Tonopah CUSMAP project. Studies included field mapping, petrographic and modal analyses, geochemical studies of both fresh and altered plutonic rocks and altered wallrocks, and K-Ar and Rb-Sr radiometric dating. Data collected during this study were combined with previously published data to produce a 1:250,000-scale map of the Tonopah quadrangle showing the distribution of individual plutons and an accompanying table summarizing composition, texture, age, and any noted hydrothermal alteration and mineralization effects for each pluton.

  4. Delineation of the High Enthalpy Reservoirs of the Sierra Nevada Volcanic Geothermal System, South-Central Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, M.; Muñoz, M.; Parada, M.

    2011-12-01

    Geothermal system associated with the Pleistocene-Holocene Sierra Nevada volcano (SNVGS) in the Araucanía Region of Chile has surface manifestations from the north-western flank of the volcano, up to Manzanar and Malalcahuello. Baños del Toro, located on the northwestern flank of the volcano, has numerous fumaroles and acid pools (acid sulfate waters, T=~90°C, pH=2.1, TDS=3080 mg/L); while Aguas de la Vaca, near the base of the volcano, has a bubbling spring (chloride-sulfate waters, T=~60°C, pH=7.0, TDS=950 mg/L). Five shallow (Geotermia) of the Ministry of Energy and Mining, Government of Chile.

  5. Debris flows through different forest age classes in the central Oregon Coast Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. L. May

    2002-01-01

    Abstract - Debris flows in the Pacific Northwest can play a major role in routing sediment and wood stored on hillslopes and in first- through third-order channels and delivering it to higher-order channels. Field surveys following a large regional storm event investigated 53 debris flows in the central Oregon Coast Range to determine relationships among debris flow...

  6. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan for Corrective Action Unit 499: Hydrocarbon Spill Site, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. M. Fitzmaurice

    2001-09-01

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) plan addresses the action necessary for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 499, Hydrocarbon Spill Site, Tonopah Test Range (TTR). This CAU is currently listed in Appendix III of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) (FFACO, 1996). CAU 499 is located on the TTR and consists of the following single Corrective Action Site (CAS) (Figure 1): CAS RG-25-001-RD24 - Radar 24 Diesel Spill Site is a diesel fuel release site that is assumed to have been cased by numerous small historical over fillings, spills and leaks from an above-ground storage tank (AST) over a period of 36 years. The tank was located on the north side of Building 24-50 on the TTR approximately 4.0 kilometers (2.5 miles) southwest of the Area 3 Compound at the end of the Avenue 24.

  7. Final environmental impact statement for the Nevada Test Site and off-site locations in the state of Nevada: Mitigation action plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-02-01

    The DOE Notice of Availability for this environmental impact statement was published in the Federal Register on Friday, October 18, 1996 (61 FR 54437). The final environmental impact statement identifies potential adverse effects resulting from the four use alternatives evaluated and discusses measures that DOE considered for the mitigation of these potential adverse effects. The Secretary of Energy signed the Record of Decision on the management and operation of the Nevada Test Site and other DOE sites in the state of Nevada on December 9, 1996. These decisions will result in the continuation of the multipurpose, multi-program use of the Nevada Test Site, under which DOE will pursue a further diversification of interagency, private industry, and public-education uses while meeting its Defense Program, Waste Management, and Environmental Restoration mission requirements at the Nevada Test Site and other Nevada sites, including the Tonopah Test Range, the Project Shoal Site, the Central Nevada Test Area, and on the Nellis Air Force Range Complex. The Record of Decision also identifies specific mitigation actions beyond the routine day-to-day physical and administrative controls needed for implementation of the decisions. These specific mitigation actions are focused on the transportation of waste and on groundwater availability. This Mitigation Action Plan elaborates on these mitigation commitments.

  8. Evidence for de-sulfidation to form native electrum in the Fire Creek epithermal gold-silver deposit, north-central Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, J.; Day, J. M.; Cook, G. W.

    2012-12-01

    The Fire Creek property is a newly developed and previously unstudied epithermal Au-Ag deposit located in the Northern Shoshone range of north central Nevada. The mineralization occurs within and above en echelon N-NW trending basaltic dykes that are hosted within a co-genetic and bimodal suite of mid-Miocene basalts and andesites formed in association with the Yellowstone hotspot-track. Previous studies of Au-Ag mineralization in the Great Basin have focused primarily on extensively mined and/or low-grade deposits. Therefore, the ability for unrestricted sampling of a major Au-Ag deposit early in its exploration and development represents an opportunity for refined understanding of epithermal ore genesis processes. New petrology reveals at least two distinct pulses of mineralization that in relative order of timing are: 1) S-rich veins which are associated with initial host-rock alteration; 2) quartz- and/or calcite-rich veins which vary from fine-grained to lath-like quartz crystals with large calcite crystals in vein centers. Native electrum occurs only within the second phase of mineralization and typically occurs within quartz and adjacent to cross-cut first-phase S-rich veins. In places the electrum appears to replace or form overgrowths around existing sulfide phases. High levels of gold and silver are found in both the first (0.8 g Au/tonne) and second-phase pulses (37 g Au/tonne). Fire Creek shares many similarities with its northern neighbor, the Mule Canyon Au-Ag deposit, with high Fe sulfide contents for some of the ores, altered wall-rocks and the presence of narrow and discontinuous gold-bearing siliceous veins. Like Fire Creek, Mule Canyon possesses two distinct mineralizing phases, a sulfide rich and a late stage calcite/silica assemblage. The first pulse appears to be identical in both locations with a variation of disseminated to euhedral iron-sulfides and associated intense alteration of host rock. However, Fire Creek differs from Mule Canyon in

  9. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action 405: Area 3 Septic Systems, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada Rev. No.: 0, April 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    IT Coroporation, Las Vegas, NV

    2002-04-17

    This Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report (CADD/CR) has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 405, Area 3 Septic Systems, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Located on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) approximately 235 miles north of Las Vegas, Nevada, CAU 405 consists of three Corrective Action Sites (CASs): 03-05-002-SW03, Septic Waste System (aka: Septic Waste System [SWS] 3); 03-05-002-SW04, Septic Waste System (aka: SWS 4); 03-05-002-SW07, Septic Waste System (aka: SWS 7). The CADD and CR have been combined into one report because no further action is recommended for this CAU, and this report provides specific information necessary to support this recommendation. The CAU consists of three leachfields and associated collection systems that were installed in or near Area 3 for wastewater disposal. These systems were used until a consolidated sewer system was installed in 1990. Historically, operations within various buildin gs in and near Area 3 of the TTR generated sanitary and industrial wastewaters. There is a potential that contaminants of concern (COCs) were present in the wastewaters and were disposed of in septic tanks and leachfields. The justification for closure of this CAU without further action is based on process knowledge and the results of the investigative activities. Closure activities were performed at these CASs between January 14 and February 2, 2002, and included the removal and proper disposal of media containing regulated constituents and proper closure of septic tanks. No further action is appropriate because all necessary activities have been completed. No use restrictions are required to be imposed for these sites since the investigation showed no evidence of COCs identified in the soil for CAU 405.

  10. Mineral and Vegetation Maps of the Bodie Hills, Sweetwater Mountains, and Wassuk Range, California/Nevada, Generated from ASTER Satellite Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockwell, Barnaby W.

    2010-01-01

    Multispectral remote sensing data acquired by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) were analyzed to identify and map minerals, vegetation groups, and volatiles (water and snow) in support of geologic studies of the Bodie Hills, Sweetwater Mountains, and Wassuk Range, California/Nevada. Digital mineral and vegetation mapping results are presented in both portable document format (PDF) and ERDAS Imagine format (.img). The ERDAS-format files are suitable for integration with other geospatial data in Geographic Information Systems (GIS) such as ArcGIS. The ERDAS files showing occurrence of 1) iron-bearing minerals, vegetation, and water, and 2) clay, sulfate, mica, carbonate, Mg-OH, and hydrous quartz minerals have been attributed according to identified material, so that the material detected in a pixel can be queried with the interactive attribute identification tools of GIS and image processing software packages (for example, the Identify Tool of ArcMap and the Inquire Cursor Tool of ERDAS Imagine). All raster data have been orthorectified to the Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) projection using a projective transform with ground-control points selected from orthorectified Landsat Thematic Mapper data and a digital elevation model from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Elevation Dataset (1/3 arc second, 10 m resolution). Metadata compliant with Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) standards for all ERDAS-format files have been included, and contain important information regarding geographic coordinate systems, attributes, and cross-references. Documentation regarding spectral analysis methodologies employed to make the maps is included in these cross-references.

  11. Maritime climate influence on chaparral composition and diversity in the coast range of central California

    OpenAIRE

    Vasey, Michael C; Parker, V Thomas; Holl, Karen D; Loik, Michael E; Hiatt, Seth

    2014-01-01

    © 2014 The Authors. We investigated the hypothesis that maritime climatic factors associated with summer fog and low cloud stratus (summer marine layer) help explain the compositional diversity of chaparral in the coast range of central California. We randomly sampled chaparral species composition in 0.1-hectare plots along a coast-to-interior gradient. For each plot, climatic variables were estimated and soil samples were analyzed. We used Cluster Analysis and Principle Components Analysis t...

  12. Characterization of Trypanosoma rangeli Strains Isolated in Central and South America: an Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grisard Edmundo C

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Trypanosoma rangeli is a hemoflagelate parasite that infects domestic and sylvatic animals, as well as man, in Central and South America. T. rangeli has an overlapping distribution with T. cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas disease, sharing several animal reservoirs and triatomine vectors. We have isolated T. rangeli strains in the State of Santa Catarina, in southern Brazil, which dramatically increased the distribution area of this parasite. This brief review summarizes several studies comparing T. rangeli strains isolated in Santa Catarina with others isolated in Colombia, Honduras and Venezuela. The different methods used include indirect immunofluorescence and western blot assays, lectin agglutination, isoenzyme electrophoresis and random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis, triatomine susceptibility, in vitro cell infection assays, and mini-exon gene analysis.

  13. Toward a Nevada Digital Collaborative

    OpenAIRE

    Jason Vaughan

    2011-01-01

    In mid-2008, a statewide committee was formed to engage in a comprehensive, Nevada statewide digital planning process. This group consisted of broad membership from the range of Nevada cultural heritage institutions, and was focused on creating a five year digital plan for the state, with an emphasis on collaboration amongst various cultural heritage institutions, increased digitization, and adoption of a digital preservation strategy. This article describes the initial work of the parent com...

  14. Field report: Exploring the Doonerak fenster of the central Brooks Range, Alaska, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin V. Strauss

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Arctic Alaska is a ‘suspect’ terrane that encompasses approximately 20% of Alaska, stretching from the southern Brooks Range all the way to the continental shelves of the Chukchi and Beaufort Seas. Although the origin and subsequent travels of this large crustal fragment are debated among geologists, most researchers agree upon its composite nature and exotic origin. To constrain the early geological history of this terrane, we describe a recent expedition to the Doonerak fenster of the central Brooks Range. This area has long been regarded as a key locality for understanding the structural evolution of the Mesozoic–Cenozoic Brooks Range orogen; however, our target was different: a unique sequence of volcanic and siliciclastic rocks (Apoon assemblage exposed beneath a profound pre-Mississippian unconformity, which we argue is of key importance to understanding the early Paleozoic tectonic history of northern Alaska and the greater Arctic.

  15. Corrective Action Decision Document/Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 413: Clean Slate II Plutonium Dispersion (TTR) Tonopah Test Range, Nevada. Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthews, Patrick [Navarro, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2017-05-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document/Corrective Action Plan provides the rationale and supporting information for the selection and implementation of corrective actions at Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 413, Clean Slate II Plutonium Dispersion (TTR). CAU 413 is located on the Tonopah Test Range and includes one corrective action site, TA-23-02CS. CAU 413 consists of the release of radionuclides to the surface and shallow subsurface from the Clean Slate II (CSII) storage–transportation test conducted on May 31, 1963. The CSII test was a non-nuclear detonation of a nuclear device located inside a concrete bunker covered with 2 feet of soil. To facilitate site investigation and the evaluation of data quality objectives decisions, the releases at CAU 413 were divided into seven study groups: 1 Undisturbed Areas 2 Disturbed Areas 3 Sedimentation Areas 4 Former Staging Area 5 Buried Debris 6 Potential Source Material 7 Soil Mounds Corrective action investigation (CAI) activities, as set forth in the CAU 413 Corrective Action Investigation Plan, were performed from June 2015 through May 2016. Radionuclides detected in samples collected during the CAI were used to estimate total effective dose using the Construction Worker exposure scenario. Corrective action was required for areas where total effective dose exceeded, or was assumed to exceed, the radiological final action level (FAL) of 25 millirem per year. The results of the CAI and the assumptions made in the data quality objectives resulted in the following conclusions: The FAL is exceeded in surface soil in SG1, Undisturbed Areas; The FAL is assumed to be exceeded in SG5, Buried Debris, where contaminated debris and soil were buried after the CSII test; The FAL is not exceeded at SG2, SG3, SG4, SG6, or SG7. Because the FAL is exceeded at CAU 413, corrective action is required and corrective action alternatives (CAAs) must be evaluated. For CAU 413, three CAAs were evaluated: no further action, clean closure, and

  16. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 490: Station 44 Burn Area, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada (with Record of Technical Change No.1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office

    2000-06-09

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) contains the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 490 under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Active Unit 490 consists of four Corrective Action Sites (CASs): 03-56-001-03BA, Fire Training Area (FTA); RG-56-001-RGBA, Station 44 Burn Area; 03-58-001-03FN, Sandia Service Yard; and 09-54-001-09L2, Gun Propellant Burn Area. These CASs are located at the Tonopah Test Range near Areas 3 and 9. Historically, the FTA was used for training exercises where tires and wood were ignited with diesel fuel. Records indicate that water and carbon dioxide were the only extinguishing agents used during these training exercises. The Station 44 Burn Area was used for fire training exercises and consisted of two wooden structures. The two burn areas (ignition of tires, wood, and wooden structures with diesel fuel and water) were limited to the building footprints (10 ft by 10 ft each). The Sandia Service Yard was used for storage (i.e., wood, tires, metal, electronic and office equipment, construction debris, and drums of oil/grease) from approximately 1979 to 1993. The Gun Propellant Burn Area was used from the 1960s to 1980s to burn excess artillery gun propellant, solid-fuel rocket motors, black powder, and deteriorated explosives; additionally, the area was used for the disposal of experimental explosive items. Based on site history, the focus of the field investigation activities will be to: (1) determine the presence of contaminants of potential concern (COPCs) at each CAS, (2) determine if any COPCs exceed field-screening levels and/or preliminary action levels, and (3) determine the nature and extent of contamination with enough certainty to support selection of corrective action alternatives for each CAS. The scope of this CAIP is to resolve

  17. Geologic setting and genesis of the Mule Canyon low-sulfidation epithermal gold-silver deposit, north-central Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, D.A.; Hofstra, A.H.; Fleck, R.J.; Brummer, J.E.; Saderholm, E.C.

    2003-01-01

    The Mule Canyon mine exploited shallow, low-sulfidation, epithermal Au-Ag deposits that lie near the west side of the Northern Nevada rift in northern Lander County, Nevada. Mule Canyon consists of six small deposits that contained premining reserves of about 8.2 Mt at an average grade of 3.81 g Au/tonne. It is an uncommon mafic end member of low-sulfidation Au-Ag deposits associated with tholeiitic bimodal basalt-rhyolite magmatism. The ore is hosted by a basalt-andesite eruptive center that formed between about 16.4 to 15.8 Ma during early mafic eruptions related to regionally extensive bimodal magmatism. Hydrothermal alteration and Au-Ag ores formed at about 15.6 Ma and were tightly controlled by north-northwest- to north-striking high-angle fault and breccia zones developed during rifting, emplacement of mafic dikes, and eruption of mafic lava flows. Hydrothermal alteration assemblages are zoned outward from fluid conduits in the sequence silica-adularia, adularia-smectite, smectite (intermediate argillic), and smectite-carbonate (propylitic). All alteration types contain abundant pyrite and/or marcasite ?? arsenopyrite. Field relations indicate that silica-adularia alteration is superimposed on argillic and propylitic alteration. Little or no steam-heated acid-sulfate alteration is present, probably the result of a near-surface water table during hydrothermal alteration and ore deposition. Two distinct ore types are present at Mule Canyon: early replacement and later open-space filling. Replacement ores consist of disseminated and vesicle-filling pyrite, marcasite, and arsenopyrite in argillically altered or weakly silicified rocks. Ore minerals consist of Au-bearing arsenopyrite and arsenian pyrite overgrowths on earlier-formed pyrite and marcasite. Open-space filling ores include narrow stockwork quartz-adularia veins, banded and crustiform opaline and chalcedonic silica-adularia veins, silica-adularia cemented breccias, and sparse carbonate-pyrite and

  18. Radiological and Environmental Monitoring at the Clean Slate I and III Sites, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, With Emphasis on the Implications for Off-site Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizell, Steve A [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Etyemezian, Vic [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); McCurdy, Greg [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Nikolich, George [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Shadel, Craig [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Miller, Julianne J [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2014-09-01

    In 1963, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) (formerly the Atomic Energy Commission [AEC]) implemented Operation Roller Coaster on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) and an adjacent area of the Nevada Test and Training Range (NTTR) (formerly the Nellis Air Force Range [NAFR]). Operation Roller Coaster consisted of four tests in which chemical explosions were detonated in the presence of nuclear devices to assess the dispersal of radionuclides and evaluate the effectiveness of storage structures to contain the ejected radionuclides. These tests resulted in the dispersal of plutonium over the ground surface downwind of the test ground zero (GZ). Three tests—Clean Slate I, II, and III—were conducted on the TTR in Cactus Flat. The fourth, Double Tracks, was conducted in Stonewall Flat on the NTTR. The Desert Research Institute (DRI) installed two monitoring stations in 2008, Station 400 at the Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) Range Operations Center (ROC) and Station 401 at Clean Slate III. Station 402 was installed at Clean Slate I in 2011 to measure radiological, meteorological, and dust conditions. The monitoring activity was implemented to determine if radionuclide contamination in the soil at the Clean Slate sites was being transported beyond the contamination area boundaries. Some of the data collected also permits comparison of radiological exposure at the TTR monitoring stations to conditions observed at Community Environmental Monitoring Program (CEMP) stations around the NTTR. Annual average gross alpha values from the TTR monitoring stations are higher than values from the surrounding CEMP stations. Annual average gross beta values from the TTR monitoring stations are generally lower than values observed for the surrounding CEMP stations. This may be due to use of sample filters with larger pore space because when glass-fiber filters began to be used at TTR Station 400, gross beta values increased. Gamma spectroscopy typically identified only naturally

  19. Interbasin groundwater flow in south central Nevada: A further comment on the discussion between Davisson et. al.. [1999a, 1999b] and Thomas [1999

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Winograd, Isaac J

    2001-01-01

    In their response to the comments by Thomas [1999], Davisson et al. [1999a] dismiss a large set of potentiometric measurements pertinent to an understanding of the hydrogeology of Yucca and Frenchman Flats in southcentral Nevada...

  20. Age and correlation of the Otuk formation, North-Central Brooks Range, Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodnar, K.A.; Mull, C.G.

    1985-04-01

    Allochthonous Triassic rocks of the north-central Brooks Range thrust belt were originally mapped as part of the Middle to Upper Triassic Shublik Formation. Recently, these strata were named the Otuk Formation. Detailed paleontologic studies of 11 measured sections more precisely document the age of the Otuk and show that its base is older than the base of the Shublik and that its top is younger than the top of the Shublik. Megafossils (pelecypods and ammonites) and microfossils (radiolaria, conodonts, and foraminifers) indicate an age range of Early Triassic (Dienerian-Smithian or older) to Middle Jurassic (Bajocian). The lithology consists of 120 m (390 ft) of interbedded, very fine-grained rocks (shale, limestone, and chert) representative of very slow deposition, below wave base in an open marine environment. The Otuk formation does not contain suitable reservoir rocks, but organic geochemical data indicate that the shales are possible oil source rocks. The Otuk formation is disconformable with both the underlying Permian (Wolfcampian-Guadalupian) Siksikpuk Formation and overlying Lower Cretaceous (Valanginian) coquinoid limestone and shale. These unconformities are correlative with similar unconformities in the northeastern Brooks Range and subsurface of the North Slope. Thus, the Otuk formation is a condensed, deeper water, more distal equivalent of the Ivishak and Shublik Formations, Karen Creek Sandstone, and lower Kingak Shale of the northeastern Brooks Range and equivalent subsurface units of the North Slope.

  1. Ecosystem stressors in southern Nevada [Chapter 2] (Executive Summary)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton K. Pendleton; Jeanne C. Chambers; Matthew L. Brooks; Steven M. Ostoja

    2013-01-01

    Southern Nevada ecosystems are subject to a number of stressors that range in scope from local to regional to global. At the regional scale, human population growth and related activities constitute a major stressor. Nevada has undergone significant change due to unprecedented population growth and ongoing global change processes. Nevada’s growth rate has been the...

  2. Zeolites in Eocene basaltic pillow lavas of the Siletz River Volcanics, Central Coast Range, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, Terry E.C.; Staplese, Lloyd W.

    1985-01-01

    Zeolites and associated minerals occur in a tholeiitic basaltic pillow lava sequence that makes up part of the Eocene Siletz River Volcanics in the central Coast Range, Oregon. Regional zoning of zeolite assemblages is not apparent; the zeolites formed in joints, fractures, and interstices, although most occur in central cavities of basalt pillows. The zeolites and associated minerals identified, in general order of paragenetic sequence, are smectite, pyrite, calcite (small spheres), thomsonite, natrolite, analcime, scolecite, mesolite, stilbite, heulandite, apophyllite, chahazite, mordenite, calcite (scalenohedra and twinned rhombohedra), laumontite, and amethystine quartz. Common three-mineral assemblages are: natrolite-analcime-sfilbite, stilbite-heulandite-chabazite, stilbite-apophyllie-chabazite, and natrolite-mesolite-laumontite.Alteration of basaltic glass, which was initially abundant, appears to have been an important factor in formation of the zeolites. Isotopic data suggest that zeolitization occurred during a low-temperature (60 ~ 70°C submarine hydrothermal event, or by reactions of cold (~ 10°C meteoric water with basalt over a long time. The occurrence of different mineral assemblages in cavities of adjacent basalt pillows indicates that these minerals crystallized in dosed systems that were isolated as fractures and joints were sealed by deposition of smectite and early zeolites. Although the total chemical composition of the mineral assemblages in cavities is similar, different mineral species formed because of the sensitivity of zeolite minerals to slight variations in physical and chemical conditions within individual cavities.

  3. Parasitology, virology, and serology of free-ranging coyotes (Canis latrans) from central Georgia, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, Michelle; Gerhold, Richard W; Wilkes, Rebecca P; Gulsby, William D; Maestas, Lauren; Rosypal, Alexa; Miller, Karl V; Miller, Debra L

    2014-10-01

    We examined 31 free-ranging coyotes (Canis latrans) from central Georgia, USA, for select parasites and viral agents. Sixteen coyotes had adult heartworms (Dirofilaria immitis). Serum samples from 27 animals revealed antibodies against canine parvovirus (100%), canine distemper virus (48%), canine adenovirus (37%), and Trypanosoma cruzi (7%); none were detected against Leishmania spp. Twenty-two of 24 (92%) coyotes were positive for Toxoplasma gondii. Real-time PCR of feces revealed 32% of coyotes were shedding canine parvovirus, and sequencing revealed type 2b and 2c. Because coyotes could be a spillover host of domestic dog (Canis lupus familiaris) pathogens, studies of the transmission of pathogens between coyotes and domestic dogs are warranted.

  4. Kinematic Analysis of Fault-Slip Data in the Central Range of Papua, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benyamin Sapiie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available DOI:10.17014/ijog.3.1.1-16Most of the Cenozoic tectonic evolution in New Guinea is a result of obliquely convergent motion that ledto an arc-continent collision between the Australian and Pacific Plates. The Gunung Bijih (Ertsberg Mining District(GBMD is located in the Central Range of Papua, in the western half of the island of New Guinea. This study presentsthe results of detailed structural mapping concentrated on analyzing fault-slip data along a 15-km traverse of theHeavy Equipment Access Trail (HEAT and the Grasberg mine access road, providing new information concerning thedeformation in the GBMD and the Cenozoic structural evolution of the Central Range. Structural analysis indicatesthat two distinct stages of deformation have occurred since ~12 Ma. The first stage generated a series of en-echelonNW-trending (π-fold axis = 300° folds and a few reverse faults. The second stage resulted in a significant left-lateralstrike-slip faulting sub-parallel to the regional strike of upturned bedding. Kinematic analysis reveals that the areasbetween the major strike-slip faults form structural domains that are remarkably uniform in character. The changein deformation styles from contractional to a strike-slip offset is explained as a result from a change in the relativeplate motion between the Pacific and Australian Plates at ~4 Ma. From ~4 - 2 Ma, transform motion along an ~ 270°trend caused a left-lateral strike-slip offset, and reactivated portions of pre-existing reverse faults. This action had aprofound effect on magma emplacement and hydrothermal activity.

  5. Numerical simulation of hydrothermal circulation in the Cascade Range, north-central Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingebritsen, S.E.; Paulson, K.M.

    1990-01-01

    Alternate conceptual models to explain near-surface heat-flow observations in the central Oregon Cascade Range involve (1) an extensive mid-crustal magmatic heat source underlying both the Quaternary arc and adjacent older rocks or (2) a narrower deep heat source which is flanked by a relatively shallow conductive heat-flow anomaly caused by regional ground-water flow (the lateral-flow model). Relative to the mid-crustal heat source model, the lateral-flow model suggests a more limited geothermal resource base, but a better-defined exploration target. We simulated ground-water flow and heat transport through two cross sections trending west from the Cascade range crest in order to explore the implications of the two models. The thermal input for the alternate conceptual models was simulated by varying the width and intensity of a basal heat-flow anomaly and, in some cases, by introducing shallower heat sources beneath the Quaternary arc. Near-surface observations in the Breitenbush Hot Springs area are most readily explained in terms of lateral heat transport by regional ground-water flow; however, the deep thermal structure still cannot be uniquely inferred. The sparser thermal data set from the McKenzie River area can be explained either in terms of deep regional ground-water flow or in terms of a conduction-dominated system, with ground-water flow essentially confined to Quaternary rocks and fault zones.

  6. Tectonic foliations and the distribution of landslides in the southern Central Range, Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chung; Byrne, Timothy B.; Ouimet, William B.; Lin, Ching-Weei; Hu, Jyr-Ching; Fei, Li-Yuan; Wang, Yu-Bo

    2016-12-01

    Geometry of planner geological structures can interact with topographic slope and cause different types of slope failure (e.g. wedge failure, dip slope failure, and toppling etc.). This study focus on how the tectonic foliation influences the landslide pattern in the southern Central Range of Taiwan. The tectonic foliations in this area range from pencil cleavage to schistosity depending on the increasing of metamorphic grade, and different foliations have different influences on the landslide behaviors. To describe the relation between foliation and topographic slope, we create the θD value as the angle between the foliation dip direction azimuth and the topographic downslope direction azimuth at a given location. The location of landslides in the area with pencil cleavage has no preferential θD value, and it suggests the landslide distribution has no correlation with foliation. The location of landslides in the area with well-developed slaty cleavage is mostly in the lower θD value, which suggests the landslides are more likely located in the area where the foliation dip direction is parallel to the topographic downslope direction. The location of landslide in the area with schistosity is mostly in the high θD value area, which suggests the landslides are more likely located in the area where the foliation dip direction is opposite to the topographic downslope direction.

  7. Eluvial gold placer formation on actively rising mountain ranges, Central Otago, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craw, D.; Youngson, J. H.

    1993-05-01

    Eluvial gold deposits in Central Otago, New Zealand, have formed and are still forming on the flanks of actively rising antiformal mountain ranges. These gold deposits are derived mainly by erosion and concentration of fine-grained ( soil and sequences (up to 60 m thick) of poorly sorted immature schist gravels. The gravel sequences consist mainly of matrix-supported mass flow deposits and channellised proximal fan deposits, intercalated on a 1-10 m scale. Gold is concentrated in coarse lag gravels (up to 40 cm clasts) at channel bases. Topographic slopes on the rising ranges show an evolutionary trend in space and time, from gentle weakly dissected surfaces, through slightly degraded but convex slopes, to deeply incised convex streams. Eluvial gold occurs sporadically on the gentle slopes, but the most efficient concentration processes occurred where steeper convex slopes yielded an apron of fan sediments. Gold concentration at these sites resulted from selective and localized removal ("winnowing") of most schist debris, leaving coarse lag gravels and gold. The combination of authigenic grain size increase and residual concentration ensures that the eluvial deposits retain coarse-grained gold, and that only fine-grained gold is released to the alluvial systems downstream.

  8. Nevada Infrastructure for Climate Change Science, Education, and Outreach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dana, G. L.; Lancaster, N.; Mensing, S. A.; Piechota, T.

    2008-12-01

    Great Basin Ranges, one anticipated on a mountain range in southern Nevada and the second to be located in north-central Nevada. Climatic, hydrologic and ecological data from these transects will be downloaded into high capacity data storage units and made available to researchers through creation of the Nevada climate change portal. Our research will aim to answer two interdisciplinary science questions key to understanding the effects of future climate change on Great Basin mountain ecosystems and the potential management strategies for responding to these changes: 1) How will climate change affect water resources and linked ecosystem resources and human systems? And 2) How will climate change affect disturbance regimes (e.g., wildland fires, invasive species, insect outbreaks, droughts) and linked systems? Infrastructure developed through this project will provide new interdisciplinary capability to detect, analyze, and model effects of regional climate change in mountainous regions of the west and provide a major contribution to existing climate change research and monitoring networks.

  9. Geology and mineral resources of the North-Central Idaho Sagebrush Focal Area: Chapter C in Mineral resources of the Sagebrush Focal Areas of Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, Utah, and Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, Karen; Zürcher, Lukas; Hofstra, Albert H.; Van Gosen, Bradley S.; Benson, Mary Ellen; Box, Stephen E.; Anderson, Eric D.; Bleiwas, Donald I.; DeAngelo, Jacob; Drake, Ronald M.; Fernette, Gregory L.; Giles, Stuart A.; Glen, Jonathan M. G.; Haacke, Jon E.; Horton, John D.; John, David A.; Robinson,, Gilpin R.; Rockwell, Barnaby W.; San Juan, Carma A.; Shaffer, Brian N.; Smith, Steven M.; Williams, Colin F.

    2016-10-04

    SummaryThe U.S. Department of the Interior has proposed to withdraw approximately 10 million acres of Federal lands from mineral entry (subject to valid existing rights) from 12 million acres of lands defined as Sagebrush Focal Areas (SFAs) in Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, Utah, and Wyoming (for further discussion on the lands involved see Scientific Investigations Report 2016–5089–A). The purpose of the proposed action is to protect the greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) and its habitat from potential adverse effects of locatable mineral exploration and mining. The U.S. Geological Survey Sagebrush Mineral-Resource Assessment (SaMiRA) project was initiated in November 2015 and supported by the Bureau of Land Management to (1) assess locatable mineral-resource potential and (2) to describe leasable and salable mineral resources for the seven SFAs and Nevada additions.This chapter summarizes the current status of locatable, leasable, and salable mineral commodities and assesses the potential of locatable minerals in the North-Central Idaho SFA, which extends from east-central to south-central Idaho. The geologically complex area is composed of many different rock units that locally contain potential mineral resources.

  10. Maritime climate influence on chaparral composition and diversity in the coast range of central California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasey, Michael C; Parker, V Thomas; Holl, Karen D; Loik, Michael E; Hiatt, Seth

    2014-09-01

    We investigated the hypothesis that maritime climatic factors associated with summer fog and low cloud stratus (summer marine layer) help explain the compositional diversity of chaparral in the coast range of central California. We randomly sampled chaparral species composition in 0.1-hectare plots along a coast-to-interior gradient. For each plot, climatic variables were estimated and soil samples were analyzed. We used Cluster Analysis and Principle Components Analysis to objectively categorize plots into climate zone groups. Climate variables, vegetation composition and various diversity measures were compared across climate zone groups using ANOVA and nonmetric multidimensional scaling. Differences in climatic variables that relate to summer moisture availability and winter freeze events explained the majority of variance in measured conditions and coincided with three chaparral assemblages: maritime (lowland coast where the summer marine layer was strongest), transition (upland coast with mild summer marine layer influence and greater winter precipitation), and interior sites that generally lacked late summer water availability from either source. Species turnover (β-diversity) was higher among maritime and transition sites than interior sites. Coastal chaparral differs from interior chaparral in having a higher obligate seeder to facultative seeder (resprouter) ratio and by being dominated by various Arctostaphylos species as opposed to the interior dominant, Adenostoma fasciculatum. The maritime climate influence along the California central coast is associated with patterns of woody plant composition and β-diversity among sites. Summer fog in coastal lowlands and higher winter precipitation in coastal uplands combine to lower late dry season water deficit in coastal chaparral and contribute to longer fire return intervals that are associated with obligate seeders and more local endemism. Soil nutrients are comparatively less important in explaining plant

  11. Alpine debris flows triggered by a 28 July 1999 thunderstorm in the central Front Range, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godt, Jonathan W.; Coe, Jeffrey A.

    2007-02-01

    On 28 July 1999, about 480 alpine debris flows were triggered by an afternoon thunderstorm along the Continental Divide in Clear Creek and Summit counties in the central Front Range of Colorado. The thunderstorm produced about 43 mm of rain in 4 h, 35 mm of which fell in the first 2 h. Several debris flows triggered by the storm impacted Interstate Highway 70, U.S. Highway 6, and the Arapahoe Basin ski area. We mapped the debris flows from color aerial photography and inspected many of them in the field. Three processes initiated debris flows. The first process initiated 11% of the debris flows and involved the mobilization of shallow landslides in thick, often well vegetated, colluvium. The second process, which was responsible for 79% of the flows, was the transport of material eroded from steep unvegetated hillslopes via a system of coalescing rills. The third, which has been termed the "firehose effect," initiated 10% of the debris flows and occurred where overland flow became concentrated in steep bedrock channels and scoured debris from talus deposits and the heads of debris fans. These three processes initiated high on steep hillsides (> 30°) in catchments with small contributing areas (material along their paths.

  12. Patterns of cytotype variation of Turnera sidoides subsp. pinnatifida (Turneraceae) in mountain ranges of central Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elías, Gabriela; Sartor, María; Solís Neffa, Viviana G

    2011-01-01

    Cytogeographical variability among 564 plants from 26 populations of Turnera sidoides subsp. pinnatifida in mountain ranges of central Argentina was analysed with meiotic chromosome counts and flow cytometry and is described at regional and local scales. Populations were primarily tetraploids (2n = 4x = 28), although diploid (2n = 2x = 14), hexaploid (2n = 2x = 42), and mixed populations of diploids and triploids (2n = 3x = 21) were also found. Diploids, triploids, and hexaploids were fewer in number and restricted to narrow areas, while tetraploids were the most common and geographically widespread cytotype. Diploids grew at higher altitudes and in colder and wet locations; tetraploids had the broadest ecological spectrum, while hexaploids occurred at the lowest altitudes and in drier conditions. The cytotypes were also spatially segregated at a microgeographical scale. Diploids grew in the piedmont, tetraploids were in the adjacent valley, and in the contact zone of both cytotypes, patches of diploids and triploids were found. At a regional scale, the distribution of the cytotypes may be governed by a combination of ecological and historical variables, while segregation in the contact zone may be independent of the selective environment because the cytotypes are unable to coexist as a result of reproductive exclusion. The role of triploids is also discussed.

  13. Heat flow and hydrothermal circulation in the cascade range, north-central Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingebritsen, S E; Sherrod, D R; Mariner, R H

    1989-03-17

    In north-central Oregon a large area of near-zero near-surface conductive heat flow occurs in young volcanic rocks of the Cascade Range. Recent advective heat flux measurements and a heat-budget analysis suggest that ground-water circulation sweeps sufficient heat out of areas where rocks younger than 6 Ma (million years ago) are exposed to account for the anomalously high advective and conductive heat discharge measured in older rocks at lower elevations. Earlier workers have proposed that an extensive midcrustal magmatic heat source is responsible for this anomalously high heat flow. Instead, high heat flow in the older rocks may be a relatively shallow phenomenon caused by regional ground-water flow. Any deeper anomaly may be relatively narrow, spatially variable, and essentially confined to the Quaternary (less than 2 Ma) arc. Magmatic intrusion at a rate of 9 to 33 cubic kilometers per kilometer of arc length per million years can account for the total heat flow anomaly. Deep drilling in the areas of high heat flow in the older rocks could indicate which model is more appropriate for the near-surface heat flow data.

  14. Zeolites in the Miocene Briones Sandstone and related formations of the central Coast Ranges, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, K.J.; Whiteley, Karen R.

    1973-01-01

    Authigenic zeolites present in the generally tuffaceous Miocene Briones Sandstone and related formations of the central Coast Ranges of California indicate three stages of diagenetic history: (1) Initial alteration of pyroclastic materials to clinoptilolite (and montmorillonite) that is widely distributed in small amounts throughout the region. (2) Subsequent crystallization of heulandite followed by stilbite in fractures at a few places. (3) Widespread development of laumontite in only the southern part of the region, where the sandstone appears to have been downfolded and faulted to greater depths than elsewhere. Laumontite occurs both as pervasive cement of sandstone and as filling of fractures, and was produced through the reaction of interstitial solutions with other zeolites and with such major constituents of the sandstone as plagioclase, montmorillonite, and calcite at temperatures of 100° C or higher. Mordenite was found at only one locality, closely associated with clinoptilolite and opal. Analcite occurs in diverse settings, and its relation to the other zeolites is obscure.  Sparry calcite and coexisting stilbite, laumontite, or analcite in veins seem to make up nonequilibrium assemblages.

  15. Lateral continuity of the Blarney Creek Thrust, Doonerak Windown, Central Brooks Range, Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seidensticker, C.M.; Julian, F.E.; Phelps, J.C.; Oldow, J.S.; Avellemant, H.G.

    1985-04-01

    The contact between Carboniferous and lower Paleozoic rocks, exposed along the northern margin of the Doonerak window in the central Brooks Range, is a major thrust fault called the Blarney Creek thrust (BCT). The BCT has been traced over a distance of 25 km, from Falsoola Mountain to Wien Mountain. The tectonic nature of this contact is demonstrated by: (1) omission of stratigraphic units above and below the BCT; (2) large angular discordance in orientation of first-generation cleavage at the BCT; (3) numerous thrust imbricates developed in the upper-plate Carboniferous section that sole into the BCT; and (4) truncation of an upper-plate graben structure at the BCT. Lack of evidence for pre-Carboniferous deformation in the lower plate casts doubt on the interpretation of the contact as an angular unconformity. However, the localized presence below the BCT of Mississippian Kekiktuk Conglomerate and Kayak Shale, in apparent depositional contact with lower Paleozoic rocks, suggests that the BCT follows an originally disconformable contact between the Carboniferous and lower Paleozoic rocks. The juxtaposition of younger over older rocks at the BCT is explained by calling upon the BCT to act as the upper detachment surface of a duplex structure. Duplex development involves initial imbrication of the Carboniferous section using the BCT as a basal decollement, followed by formation of deeper thrusts in the lower Paleozoic section, which ramp up and merge into the BCT.

  16. Telluric and D.C. Resistivity Techniques Applied to the Geophysical Investigation of Basin and Range Geothermal Systems, Part III: The Analysis of Data From Grass Valley, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beyer, J. H. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1977-06-01

    This paper contains a detailed interpretation of E-field ratio telluric, bipole-dipole resistivity mapping, and dipole-dipole resistivity data obtained in the course of geophysical exploration of the Leach Hot Springs area of Grass Valley, Nevada. Several areas are singled out as being worthy of further investigation of their geothermal potential. Comparison of the three electrical exploration techniques indicates that: the bipole-dipole resistivity mapping method is the least useful; the dipole-dipole resistivity method can be very useful, but is, for practical purposes, exceptionally expensive and difficult to interpret; the E-field ratio telluric method can be a highly successful reconnaissance technique for delineating structures and relating the resistivities of different regions within the survey area.

  17. Telluric and D. C. resistivity techniques applied to the geophysical investigation of basin and range geothermal systems. Part III. The analysis of data from Grass Valley, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beyer, J.H.

    1977-06-01

    A detailed interpretation is presented of E-field ratio telluric, bipole-dipole resistivity mapping, and dipole-dipole resistivity data obtained in the course of geophysical exploration of the Leach Hot Springs area of Grass Valley, Nevada. Several areas are singled out as being worthy of further investigation of their geothermal potential. Comparison of the three electrical exploration techniques indicates that: the bipole-dipole resistivity mapping method is the least useful; the dipole-dipole resistivity method can be very useful, but is, for practical purposes, exceptionally expensive and difficult to interpret; the E-field ratio telluric method can be a highly successful reconnaissance technique for delineating structures and relating the resistivities of different regions within the survey area.

  18. A Miocene to Pleistocene climate and elevation record of the Sierra Nevada (California).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulch, A; Sarna-Wojcicki, A M; Perkins, M E; Chamberlain, C P

    2008-05-13

    Orographic precipitation of Pacific-sourced moisture creates a rain shadow across the central part of the Sierra Nevada (California) that contrasts with the southern part of the range, where seasonal monsoonal precipitation sourced to the south obscures this rain shadow effect. Orographic rainout systematically lowers the hydrogen isotope composition of precipitation (deltaD(ppt)) and therefore deltaD(ppt) reflects a measure of the magnitude of the rain shadow. Hydrogen isotope compositions of volcanic glass (deltaD(glass)) hydrated at the earth's surface provide a unique opportunity to track the elevation and precipitation history of the Sierra Nevada and adjacent Basin and Range Province. Analysis of 67 well dated volcanic glass samples from widespread volcanic ash-fall deposits located from the Pacific coast to the Basin and Range Province demonstrates that between 0.6 and 12.1 Ma the hydrogen isotope compositions of meteoric water displayed a large (>40 per thousand) decrease from the windward to the leeward side of the central Sierra Nevada, consistent with the existence of a rain shadow of modern magnitude over that time. Evidence for a Miocene-to-recent rain shadow of constant magnitude and systematic changes in the longitudinal climate and precipitation patterns strongly suggest that the modern first-order topographic elements of the Sierra Nevada characterized the landscape over at least the last 12 million years.

  19. Trends, Long-range Transport and Lifetime of DDT in and over Central Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammel, G.; Dvorská, A.; Stohl, A.; Klánová, J.; Ries, L.

    2009-04-01

    Dichlorophenyltrichloroethane, DDT, and its major metabolites dichlorophenyldichloroethylene, DDE, and dichlorophenyldichloroethane, DDD, are long-lived in the environment (persistent) and circulate since the 1950s. They accumulate along food chains, cause detrimental effects in marine and terrestrial wild life, and pose a hazard for human health. DDT is a multicompartmental substance with only a small mass fraction residing in air. Decreasing concentration trends are recorded in Europe, where the substance has not been used since ?1988 (Holoubek et al., 2007). Transport in the free troposphere is expected by models (Lammel & Semeena, 2005; Semeena et al., 2006), but no observations in the free troposphere had been reported in Europe. The degradation rates of DDT, DDE and DDD are uncertain. In particular, the hydroxyl radical reaction rate coefficients in air are unknown. DDT monitoring data in air at a central European continental background station, Kosetice, Czech Republic, were used in combination with back-trajectories (HYSPLIT model, NOAA) to localize DDT sources in central, western and northern Europe. The decreasing trend continued during recent years, 2004-06. During 2 campaigns at a high mountain site in the Alps (Zugspitze, 2650 m a.s.l.) mean concentrations of 0.23, 0.63 and 0.08 pg m-3 of DDT, DDE and DDD, respectively, were measured in summer and 0.73, 2.22, and 0.52 pg m-3, respectively, in winter. The levels were not lower in free tropospheric air than in boundary layer air. Transport and residence times in air were quantified using Lagrangian particle dispersion model retroplume analyses (FLEXPART model; Stohl et al., 1998). During a stable anti-cyclonic situation photochemical lifetimes corresponded to kOH climate and substance properties on the fate and atmospheric long-range transport of persistent organic pollutants - examples of DDT and γ-HCH, Atmos. Chem. Phys. 6, 1231-1248 Stohl A., Hittenberger M., Wotawa G. (1998): Validation of the

  20. Geology and mineral resources of the North-Central Montana Sagebrush Focal Area: Chapter D in Mineral resources of the Sagebrush Focal Areas of Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, Utah, and Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauk, Jeffrey L.; Zientek, Michael L.; Hearn, B. Carter; Parks, Heather L.; Jenkins, M. Christopher; Anderson, Eric D.; Benson, Mary Ellen; Bleiwas, Donald I.; DeAngelo, Jacob; Denning, Paul D.; Dicken, Connie L.; Drake, Ronald M.; Fernette, Gregory L.; Folger, Helen W.; Giles, Stuart A.; Glen, Jonathan M. G.; Granitto, Matthew; Haacke, Jon E.; Horton, John D.; Kelley, Karen D.; Ober, Joyce A.; Rockwell, Barnaby W.; San Juan, Carma A.; Sangine, Elizabeth S.; Schweitzer, Peter N.; Shaffer, Brian N.; Smith, Steven M.; Williams, Colin F.; Yager, Douglas B.

    2016-10-04

    SummaryThe U.S. Department of the Interior has proposed to withdraw approximately 10 million acres of Federal lands from mineral entry (subject to valid existing rights) from 12 million acres of lands defined as Sagebrush Focal Areas (SFAs) in Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, Utah, and Wyoming (for further discussion on the lands involved see Scientific Investigations Report 2016–5089–A). The purpose of the proposed action is to protect the greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) and its habitat from potential adverse effects of locatable mineral exploration and mining. The U.S. Geological Survey Sagebrush Mineral-Resource Assessment (SaMiRA) project was initiated in November 2015 and supported by the Bureau of Land Management to (1) assess locatable mineral-resource potential and (2) to describe leasable and salable mineral resources for the seven SFAs and Nevada additions.This chapter summarizes the current status of locatable, leasable, and salable mineral commodities and assesses the potential of locatable minerals in the North-Central Montana SFA. The proposed withdrawal area that is evaluated in this report is located in north-central Montana, and includes parts of Fergus, Petroleum, Phillips, and Valley Counties.

  1. Paleoglacier reconstruction of the central massif of Gredos range during Last Glacial Maximum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Néstor; Tanarro, Luis Miguel

    2017-04-01

    The accurate reconstruction of paleoglaciers require a well determined extent and morphology of them, one of the main problems is the absence of glacial geomorphic evidences which made possible the delimitation of the ice limits, for this reason physical-based models are useful for ice surface reconstruction in areas where geomorphological information is incomplete. A paleoglacier reconstruction during its maximum extension is presented for a high mountain area of the western part of the central massif of Gredos range, in the center of Iberian Peninsula, this area is located 30 km west of Almanzor (40˚ 14' 48? N; 5˚ 17' 52? W; 2596 m a.s.l.), the highest peak of Iberian Central System (ICS) and covers five gorges: La Nava, Taheña- Honda, La Vega, San Martín and Los Infiernos, the first three facing North, San Martin facing Northwest and Los Infiernos facing West. Despite the existence of some works analyzing the extension of paleoglaciers in the ICS during its maximum extension, there is still a need to improve the understanding of this zone, to provide a more detailed knowlegde of the evolution of the range and to know more in detail the full extent of paleoglaciers in this area. For delimitate the glaciated area the most distant frontal moraines with a larger geomorphological entity that indicates a great advance or a prolonged stay and stabilization which would presumably correspond with the maximum advance of the glaciers have been mapped, for that, photo interpretation of digital aerial photographs (25 cm resolution) has been done, in some areas where the location or limits of the moraines were not clear 3D images were used, all the work was complemented with detailed field surveys. Once the ice limits have been determined is necessary to estimate the topography of the paleoglaciers, for that purpose a simple steady-state models that assume a perfectly plastic ice rheology have been used, reconstructing the theoretical ice profiles and obtaining the extent

  2. Geomorphological map of glaciated gorges in a granitic massif (Gredos range, Central Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Néstor; Tanarro, Luis Miguel; Palacios, David

    2017-04-01

    A detailed geomorphological map on a 1:10,000 scale is presented for a high mountain area in Gredos range (Iberian Central System), this area is located in a granitic massif 160 km West of Madrid and comprises three gorges : La Vega, Taheña-Honda and La Nava. Only few detailed geomorphological maps of the Gredos range are available despite the wide diversity of landforms, in order to improve the understanding of this zone, this geomorphological map of the area has been produced, showing in detail the geomorphologic diversity of these gorges. The map was created with the aid of 25 cm resolution aerial photographs, 25 cm resolution satellite images, Iberpix 3D images provided by the Spanish National Geographic Institute and verified with field work. The landforms were delimitated with a stereoscope and satellite image pairs and digitized using GIS and CAD software, in some areas 3D glasses has been used with 3D images and the software Esri ArcScene. The landforms resulting from interpretation of aerial photographs and satellite images were classified using the IGUL (Institute of Geography, University of Lausanne) legend system (developed at the end of the 1980s) combined with the legend proposed by Peña et al. (1997) and some personal adaptations. The map legend includes 45 landforms divided into seven sections: structural, hydrography, fluvial, gravitative, glacial, nival and anthropic landforms. The use of both legend systems allows us to represent the landform types distributed over an area of 40 km2 and to identify the geomorphic processes involved in their morphogenesis, this variety of processes and landforms identified demonstrated that geomorphological cartography obtained by combining traditional image interpretation and GIS technology facilitates the production of geomorphological maps and the obtaining of valuable data for identify and understand surface processes and landforms. References: Maillard, B., Lambiel, C., Martin, S., Pellitero, R., Reynard, E

  3. Toward a Nevada Digital Collaborative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Vaughan

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In mid-2008, a statewide committee was formed to engage in a comprehensive, Nevada statewide digital planning process. This group consisted of broad membership from the range of Nevada cultural heritage institutions, and was focused on creating a five year digital plan for the state, with an emphasis on collaboration amongst various cultural heritage institutions, increased digitization, and adoption of a digital preservation strategy. This article describes the initial work of the parent committee and two subsequent working groups, funded by the Library Technology and Services Act and aided by outside consultants. Early steps included a comprehensive planning survey and various meetings to understand the capabilities and desires of both primary stakeholders and the community at large. While several challenges not necessarily unique to Nevada arose over the first couple of years, a clear path forward for additional progress has been charted.

  4. Structural analysis of the Gachsar sub-zone in central Alborz range; constrain for inversion tectonics followed by the range transverse faulting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yassaghi, A.; Naeimi, A.

    2010-04-01

    Analysis of the Gachsar structural sub-zone has been carried out to constrain structural evolution of the central Alborz range situated in the central Alpine Himalayan orogenic system. The sub-zone bounded by the northward-dipping Kandovan Fault to the north and the southward-dipping Taleghan Fault to the south is transversely cut by several sinistral faults. The Kandovan Fault that controls development of the Eocene rocks in its footwall from the Paleozoic-Mesozoic units in the fault hanging wall is interpreted as an inverted basin-bounding fault. Structural evidences include the presence of a thin-skinned imbricate thrust system propagated from a detachment zone that acts as a footwall shortcut thrust, development of large synclines in the fault footwall as well as back thrusts and pop-up structures on the fault hanging wall. Kinematics of the inverted Kandovan Fault and its accompanying structures constrain the N-S shortening direction proposed for the Alborz range until Late Miocene. The transverse sinistral faults that are in acute angle of 15° to a major magnetic lineament, which represents a basement fault, are interpreted to develop as synthetic Riedel shears on the cover sequences during reactivation of the basement fault. This overprinting of the transverse faults on the earlier inverted extensional fault occurs since the Late Miocene when the south Caspian basin block attained a SSW movement relative to the central Iran. Therefore, recent deformation in the range is a result of the basement transverse-fault reactivation.

  5. Phase I Transport Model of Corrective Action Units 101 and 102: Central and Western Pahute Mesa, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada with Errata Sheet 1, 2, 3, Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greg Ruskauff

    2009-02-01

    As prescribed in the Pahute Mesa Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) (DOE/NV, 1999) and Appendix VI of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) (1996, as amended February 2008), the ultimate goal of transport analysis is to develop stochastic predictions of a contaminant boundary at a specified level of uncertainty. However, because of the significant uncertainty of the model results, the primary goal of this report was modified through mutual agreement between the DOE and the State of Nevada to assess the primary model components that contribute to this uncertainty and to postpone defining the contaminant boundary until additional model refinement is completed. Therefore, the role of this analysis has been to understand the behavior of radionuclide migration in the Pahute Mesa (PM) Corrective Action Unit (CAU) model and to define, both qualitatively and quantitatively, the sensitivity of such behavior to (flow) model conceptualization and (flow and transport) parameterization.

  6. Age, geochemical composition, and distribution of Oligocene ignimbrites in the northern Sierra Nevada, California: Implications for landscape morphology, elevation, and drainage divide geography of the Nevadaplano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassel, Elizabeth J.; Calvert, Andrew T.; Graham, Stephan A.

    2009-01-01

    To gain a better understanding of the topographic and landscape evolution of the Cenozoic Sierra Nevada and Basin and Range, we combine geochemical and isotopic age correlations with palaeoaltimetry data from widely distributed ignimbrites in the northern Sierra Nevada, California. A sequence of Oligocene rhyolitic ignimbrites is preserved across the modern crest of the range and into the western foothills. Using trace and rare earth element geochemical analyses of volcanic glass, these deposits have been correlated to ignimbrites described and isotopically dated in the Walker Lane fault zone and in central Nevada (Henry et al., 2004, Geologic map of the Dogskin mountain quadrangle; Washoe County, Nevada; Faulds et al., 2005, Geology, v. 33, p. 505–508). Ignimbrite deposits were sampled within the northern Sierra Nevada and western Nevada, and four distinct geochemical compositions were identified. The majority of samples from within the northern Sierra Nevada have compositions similar to the tuffs of Axehandle Canyon or Rattlesnake Canyon, both likely sourced from the same caldera complex in either the Clan Alpine Mountains or the Stillwater Range, or to the tuff of Campbell Creek, sourced from the Desatoya Mountains caldera. New 40Ar/39Ar age determinations from these samples of 31.2, 30.9, and 28.7 Ma, respectively, support these correlations. Based on an Oligocene palinspastic reconstruction of the region, our results show that ignimbrites travelled over 200 km from their source calderas across what is now the crest of the Sierra Nevada, and that during that time, no drainage divide existed between the ignimbrite source calderas in central Nevada and sample locations 200 km to the west. Palaeoaltimetry data from Sierra Nevada ignimbrites, based on the hydrogen isotopic composition of hydration water in glass, reflect the effect of a steep western slope on precipitation and indicate that the area had elevations similar to the present-day range. These

  7. NPP Grassland: Central Plains Experimental Range (SGS), USA, 1939-1990, R1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set records the productivity of a semiarid shortgrass prairie steppe located in the Central Plains Experimental Reserve (CPER)/Pawnee National Grassland in...

  8. Varying selection differential throughout the climatic range of Norway spruce in Central Europe

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kapeller, Stefan; Dieckmann, Ulf; Schueler, Silvio

    2017-01-01

    .... To understand the genetic capacity of Norway spruce populations in Central Europe, we analyzed the variation in tree heights at the juvenile stage in common garden experiments established from the species' warm‐dry to cold...

  9. Strain histories from the eastern Central Range of Taiwan: A record of advection through a collisional orogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondro, Claire A.; Fisher, Donald; Yeh, En-Chao

    2017-05-01

    In the eastern Central Range of Taiwan there is a regional variation in the orientation of maximum finite stretch across the slate belt, with down-dip maximum stretch found in the western Central Range and along-strike maximum stretch in the eastern Central Range. Incremental strain histories from syntectonic fibers in pyrite pressure shadows indicate a progressive change in extension direction from down dip to along strike during deformation, there is a corresponding temporal variation in stretching direction shown in samples from the eastern edge of the Central Range, a pattern that mimics the regional west-to-east spatial variation. These observed temporal and spatial strain distributions are used to evaluate the kinematics associated with slaty cleavage development during advection through the Taiwan orogenic system. The subduction zone beneath the island of Taiwan is influenced by two types of obliquity that have the potential to generate the observed along-strike stretching. First, the plate motion vector of the Philippine Sea plate relative to the Eurasian plate is slightly oblique to the regional strike of the mountain range, which could result in partitioning of strike slip shearing into the interior of the collision. Second, the north-south Luzon volcanic arc on the Philippine Sea Plate is obliquely oriented relative to the northeast-southwest edge of the Eurasian continental margin, which could result in lateral extrusion of the ductile core of the range. Incremental strain histories in cleavage-parallel samples represent a time-for-space equivalence where the stretching direction is fixed relative to the position within the mountain belt architecture (e.g., the topographic divide), and temporal variations in the eastern central Range reflect lateral advection through the strain field in response to accretionary and erosional fluxes. Incremental strain histories in cleavage perpendicular samples show both clockwise and counter-clockwise rotation of

  10. Biologic and genetic characteristics of Toxoplasma gondii isolates in free-range chickens from Nicaragua, Central America

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dubey, J.P.; Sundar, N.; Pineda, N.

    2006-01-01

    The prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in free-ranging chickens is a good indicator of the prevalence of T. gondii oocysts in the soil because chickens feed from the ground. The prevalence of T. gondii in 98 free-range chickens (Gallus domesticus) from Nicragua was determined. Antibodies to T. gondi...... in definitive feline hosts. This is the first report of genetic characterization of T. gondii isolates from Nicragua, Central America....

  11. Evapotranspiration Rate Measurements of Vegetation Typical of Ground-Water Discharge Areas in the Basin and Range Carbonate-Rock Aquifer System, White Pine County, Nevada, and Adjacent Areas in Nevada and Utah, September 2005-August 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreo, Michael T.; Laczniak, Randell J.; Stannard, David I.

    2007-01-01

    Evapotranspiration was measured at six eddy-correlation sites for a 1-year period between September 1, 2005, and August 31, 2006. Five sites were in phreatophytic shrubland dominated by greasewood, and one site was in a grassland meadow. The measured annual evapotranspiration ranged from 10.02 to 12.77 inches at the shrubland sites and 26.94 inches at the grassland site. Evapotranspiration rates correlated to measured vegetation densities and to satellite-derived vegetation indexes. Evapotranspiration rates were greater at sites with denser vegetation. The primary water source supporting evapotranspiration was water derived from local precipitation at the shrubland sites, and ground water at the grassland site. Measured precipitation, ranging from 6.21 to 11.41 inches, was within 20 percent of the computed long-term annual mean. The amount of ground water consumed by phreatophytes depends primarily on local precipitation and vegetation density. The ground-water contribution to local evapotranspiration ranged from 6 to 38 percent of total evapotranspiration at the shrubland sites, and 70 percent of total evapotranspiration at the grassland site. Average depth to water ranged from 7.2 to 32.4 feet below land surface at the shrubland sites, and 3.9 feet at the grassland site. Water levels declined throughout the growing season and recovered during the non-growing season. Diurnal water-level fluctuations associated with evapotranspiration were evident at some sites but not at others.

  12. Groundwater-level change and evaluation of simulated water levels for irrigated areas in Lahontan Valley, Churchill County, west-central Nevada, 1992 to 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David W.; Buto, Susan G.; Welborn, Toby L.

    2016-09-14

    The acquisition and transfer of water rights to wetland areas of Lahontan Valley, Nevada, has caused concern over the potential effects on shallow aquifer water levels. In 1992, water levels in Lahontan Valley were measured to construct a water-table map of the shallow aquifer prior to the effects of water-right transfers mandated by the Fallon Paiute-Shoshone Tribal Settlement Act of 1990 (Public Law 101-618, 104 Stat. 3289). From 1992 to 2012, approximately 11,810 water-righted acres, or 34,356 acre-feet of water, were acquired and transferred to wetland areas of Lahontan Valley. This report documents changes in water levels measured during the period of water-right transfers and presents an evaluation of five groundwater-flow model scenarios that simulated water-level changes in Lahontan Valley in response to water-right transfers and a reduction in irrigation season length by 50 percent.Water levels measured in 98 wells from 2012 to 2013 were used to construct a water-table map. Water levels in 73 of the 98 wells were compared with water levels measured in 1992 and used to construct a water-level change map. Water-level changes in the 73 wells ranged from -16.2 to 4.1 feet over the 20-year period. Rises in water levels in Lahontan Valley may correspond to annual changes in available irrigation water, increased canal flows after the exceptionally dry and shortened irrigation season of 1992, and the increased conveyance of water rights transferred to Stillwater National Wildlife Refuge. Water-level declines generally occurred near the boundary of irrigated areas and may be associated with groundwater pumping, water-right transfers, and inactive surface-water storage reservoirs. The largest water-level declines were in the area near Carson Lake.Groundwater-level response to water-right transfers was evaluated by comparing simulated and observed water-level changes for periods representing water-right transfers and a shortened irrigation season in areas near Fallon

  13. Metallogeny of The Sierra de Guanajuato Range, Central México

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedro F., Z. D.

    2004-12-01

    The Sierra de Guanajuato Range (SGR), trending N315° at Central México, is an orographic feature extending over a distance of 80 km. SGR comprises three well defined lithostratigraphic units: (1) a cretaceous basement including an arc-derived terrane named Guanajuato Arc (GA) made of gabbro, diorite and basaltic pillowed lava, and volcano-sedimentary rocks belonging to Arperos fore-arc basin which are geochemically anomalous in Au (0.15 ppm), Ag (3 ppm), Cu (40 ppm), Pb (50 ppm) and Zn (15 ppm); (2) Early Tertiary intrusive rocks, e.g., Comanja Granite which is affected by the presence of tourmalinized (schörl) aplito-pegmatite dykes mineralized with rare earths elements, and (3) Eocene redbeds (1,500-2000 m) and Oligocene-Miocene volcanics cover. The metallogeny of the SGR shows a multiple origin in time and space: volcano-sedimentary, granitic and volcanic, being possible to define three metallogenic epochs: cretaceous, paleocene and oligocene. Cretaceous epoch includes: (a) volcanogenic massive sulphide deposits (VMS) of bimodal-siliclastic type belonging to León-Guanajuato district; wallrock of VMS is made of felsic-internediate volcanics and black argillite; at Los Gavilanes deposit paragenesis is next: chalcopyrite > sphalerite > galena, pyrite > pyrrhotite > marcasite; grade is as follows: Au: .02-.07 g/t; Ag: 157-18.5 g/t; Cu: 2.24-0.81%, Pb: 4.16-0.03%; Zn: 10.35-3.02 %; (b) lens-shaped stratiform bodies of massive pyrite (i. ex., San Ignacio prospect; ˜ 4,000 ton) of exhalative-sedimentary origin with chalcopyrite and sphalerite microveins. Paleocene epoch includes both quartz-cordierite-sanidine veins and replacement bodies of hydrothermal metamorphic filliation (W +Se-Bi, Pb, Zn, Cu), and pyrometasomatic bodies [Cu, Pb, Zn (Ag), W] which genetically are linked to Comanja Granite emplacement. The wallrock at El Maguey mine (35,000 ton; 0.6% WO3) is made of hornfel and the vein (1.8-3.2m width) has a banding structure made of : \\{quartz & K

  14. Seasonal neighbors: residential development encroaches on mule deer winter range in central Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marie Oliver; Jeff Kline

    2012-01-01

    Mule deer populations in central Oregon are in decline, largely because of habitat loss. Several factors are likely contributors. Encroaching juniper and invasive cheatgrass are replacing deer forage with high nutritional value, such as bitterbrush and sagebrush. Fire suppression and reduced timber harvests mean fewer acres of early successional forest, which also...

  15. Upper triassic continental margin strata of the central alaska range: Implications for paleogeographic reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Till, A.B.; Harris, A.G.; Wardlaw, B.R.; Mullen, M.

    2007-01-01

    Remnants of a Late Triassic continental margin and ocean basin are scattered across central and southern Alaska. Little is known about the fundamental nature of the margin because most remnants have not been studied in detail and a protracted period of terrane accretion and margin-parallel translation has disrupted original stratigraphic and structural relationships.

  16. Granulomatous pneumonia due to Spirocerca lupi in two free-ranging maned wolves (Chrysocyon brachyurus) from central Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    This case report describes the anatomic pathology findings in two free-ranging maned wolves (Chrysocyon brachyurus) from central-western region of Brazil presenting granulomatous pneumonia associated with intralesional infection by Spirocerca lupi. Both wolves had multiple, white, 1-1.5 cm in diamet...

  17. Spatial and temporal dynamics of fucoid populations (Ascophyllum nodosum and Fucus serratus: a comparison between central and range edge populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita M Araújo

    Full Text Available Persistence of populations at range edges relies on local population dynamics and fitness, in the case of geographically isolated populations of species with low dispersal potential. Focusing on spatial variations in demography helps to predict the long-term capability for persistence of populations across the geographical range of species' distribution. The demography of two ecological and phylogenetically close macroalgal species with different life history characteristics was investigated by using stochastic, stage-based matrix models. Populations of Ascophyllum nodosum and Fucus serratus were sampled for up to 4 years at central locations in France and at their southern range limits in Portugal. The stochastic population growth rate (λ(s of A. nodosum was lower and more variable in central than in southern sites whilst for F. serratus this trend was reversed with λ(s much lower and more variable in southern than in central populations. Individuals were larger in central than in southern populations for both species, which was reflected in the lower transition probabilities of individuals to larger size classes and higher probability of shrinkage in the southern populations. In both central and southern populations elasticity analysis (proportional sensitivity of population growth rate showed that fertility elements had a small contribution to λ(s that was more sensitive to changes in matrix transitions corresponding to survival. The highest elasticities were found for loop transitions in A. nodosum and for growth to larger size classes in F. serratus. Sensitivity analysis showed high selective pressure on individual growth for both species at both locations. The results of this study highlight the deterministic role of species-specific life-history traits in population demography across the geographical range of species. Additionally, this study demonstrates that individuals' life-transitions differ in vulnerability to environmental

  18. Spatial and temporal dynamics of fucoid populations (Ascophyllum nodosum and Fucus serratus): a comparison between central and range edge populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Rita M; Serrão, Ester A; Sousa-Pinto, Isabel; Åberg, Per

    2014-01-01

    Persistence of populations at range edges relies on local population dynamics and fitness, in the case of geographically isolated populations of species with low dispersal potential. Focusing on spatial variations in demography helps to predict the long-term capability for persistence of populations across the geographical range of species' distribution. The demography of two ecological and phylogenetically close macroalgal species with different life history characteristics was investigated by using stochastic, stage-based matrix models. Populations of Ascophyllum nodosum and Fucus serratus were sampled for up to 4 years at central locations in France and at their southern range limits in Portugal. The stochastic population growth rate (λ(s)) of A. nodosum was lower and more variable in central than in southern sites whilst for F. serratus this trend was reversed with λ(s) much lower and more variable in southern than in central populations. Individuals were larger in central than in southern populations for both species, which was reflected in the lower transition probabilities of individuals to larger size classes and higher probability of shrinkage in the southern populations. In both central and southern populations elasticity analysis (proportional sensitivity) of population growth rate showed that fertility elements had a small contribution to λ(s) that was more sensitive to changes in matrix transitions corresponding to survival. The highest elasticities were found for loop transitions in A. nodosum and for growth to larger size classes in F. serratus. Sensitivity analysis showed high selective pressure on individual growth for both species at both locations. The results of this study highlight the deterministic role of species-specific life-history traits in population demography across the geographical range of species. Additionally, this study demonstrates that individuals' life-transitions differ in vulnerability to environmental variability and

  19. Binocular correspondence and the range of fusible horizontal disparities in the central visual field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrold, Ashleigh L; Grove, Philip M

    2015-01-01

    Binocular disparities underlie precise stereoscopic depth perception but only over a finite range. At large disparities, objects appear diplopic, and depth perception is degraded. Measurements of the range of horizontal disparities for which single vision is experienced have previously been restricted to the horizontal plane of regard. We extended these mappings, in two experiments, to the upper and lower visual fields and eccentric meridians. In Experiment 1, we measured empirical corresponding points and fusional limits at identical elevations in the median plane for 20 participants. We observed a vertical shear in binocular correspondence consistent with a backward inclined empirical vertical horopter and the fusional range centered upon it. In Experiment 2, we mapped the vertical horopter and fusional limits for a second set of elevations in the median plane and at two additional eccentricities and found a similar pattern of results as in Experiment 1. For 23 of 25 participants in this study, we found that the relationship between measurements of the vertical horopter and fusional range is similar to the established relationship between Panum's fusional range and the horizontal horopter. Our data replicate previous findings that the vertical horopter is inclined top back. We are the first to illustrate that the fusional range of horizontal disparities is approximately centered upon the vertical horopter in the median plane and along eccentric meridians.

  20. [Lateglacial and Holocene vegetation history in the mountain range of central Pyrenees].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubert, Sandrine; Belet, Jean-Marc; Bouchette, Anne; Otto, Thierry; Dedoubat, Jean-Jacques; Fontugne, Michel; Jalut, Guy

    2004-04-01

    We present the pollen analysis of a new sedimentary sequence taken at La Pouretère ( 1720 m), in the mountain vegetation zone of the Marcadau valley (central Pyrenees). The Lateglacial and Holocene chronology is supported by six 14C-dating results. The complementary analysis of some vegetal macroremains, stomata, pollen-clusters and the use of pollen influx allows us to elucidate the dynamic of mountain species such as Pinus and specially Abies but also to infer the unusual part played by Betula at the beginning of the Postglacial period.

  1. Long-range and short-range dihadron angular correlations in central PbPb collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 2.76 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Chatrchyan, Serguei; Sirunyan, Albert M; Tumasyan, Armen; Adam, Wolfgang; Bergauer, Thomas; Dragicevic, Marko; Erö, Janos; Fabjan, Christian; Friedl, Markus; Fruehwirth, Rudolf; Ghete, Vasile Mihai; Hammer, Josef; Haensel, Stephan; Hoch, Michael; Hörmann, Natascha; Hrubec, Josef; Jeitler, Manfred; Kiesenhofer, Wolfgang; Krammer, Manfred; Liko, Dietrich; Mikulec, Ivan; Pernicka, Manfred; Rohringer, Herbert; Schöfbeck, Robert; Strauss, Josef; Taurok, Anton; Teischinger, Florian; Wagner, Philipp; Waltenberger, Wolfgang; Walzel, Gerhard; Widl, Edmund; Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth; Mossolov, Vladimir; Shumeiko, Nikolai; Suarez Gonzalez, Juan; Bansal, Sunil; Benucci, Leonardo; De Wolf, Eddi A; Janssen, Xavier; Maes, Joris; Maes, Thomas; Mucibello, Luca; Ochesanu, Silvia; Roland, Benoit; Rougny, Romain; Selvaggi, Michele; Van Haevermaet, Hans; Van Mechelen, Pierre; Van Remortel, Nick; Blekman, Freya; Blyweert, Stijn; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Devroede, Olivier; Gonzalez Suarez, Rebeca; Kalogeropoulos, Alexis; Maes, Michael; Van Doninck, Walter; Van Mulders, Petra; Van Onsem, Gerrit Patrick; Villella, Ilaria; Charaf, Otman; Clerbaux, Barbara; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Dero, Vincent; Gay, Arnaud; Hammad, Gregory Habib; Hreus, Tomas; Marage, Pierre Edouard; Thomas, Laurent; Vander Velde, Catherine; Vanlaer, Pascal; Adler, Volker; Cimmino, Anna; Costantini, Silvia; Grunewald, Martin; Klein, Benjamin; Lellouch, Jérémie; Marinov, Andrey; Mccartin, Joseph; Ryckbosch, Dirk; Thyssen, Filip; Tytgat, Michael; Vanelderen, Lukas; Verwilligen, Piet; Walsh, Sinead; Zaganidis, Nicolas; Basegmez, Suzan; Bruno, Giacomo; Caudron, Julien; Ceard, Ludivine; Cortina Gil, Eduardo; De Favereau De Jeneret, Jerome; Delaere, Christophe; Favart, Denis; Giammanco, Andrea; Grégoire, Ghislain; Hollar, Jonathan; Lemaitre, Vincent; Liao, Junhui; Militaru, Otilia; Ovyn, Severine; Pagano, Davide; Pin, Arnaud; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Schul, Nicolas; Beliy, Nikita; Caebergs, Thierry; Daubie, Evelyne; Alves, Gilvan; De Jesus Damiao, Dilson; Pol, Maria Elena; Henrique Gomes E Souza, Moacyr; Carvalho, Wagner; Melo Da Costa, Eliza; De Oliveira Martins, Carley; Fonseca De Souza, Sandro; Mundim, Luiz; Nogima, Helio; Oguri, Vitor; Prado Da Silva, Wanda Lucia; Santoro, Alberto; Silva Do Amaral, Sheila Mara; Sznajder, Andre; Bernardes, Cesar Augusto; De Almeida Dias, Flavia; Tomei, Thiago; De Moraes Gregores, Eduardo; Lagana, Caio; Da Cunha Marinho, Franciole; Mercadante, Pedro G; Novaes, Sergio F; Padula, Sandra; Darmenov, Nikolay; Dimitrov, Lubomir; Genchev, Vladimir; Iaydjiev, Plamen; Piperov, Stefan; Rodozov, Mircho; Stoykova, Stefka; Sultanov, Georgi; Tcholakov, Vanio; Trayanov, Rumen; Vankov, Ivan; Dimitrov, Anton; Hadjiiska, Roumyana; Karadzhinova, Aneliya; Kozhuharov, Venelin; Litov, Leander; Mateev, Matey; Pavlov, Borislav; Petkov, Peicho; Bian, Jian-Guo; Chen, Guo-Ming; Chen, He-Sheng; Jiang, Chun-Hua; Liang, Dong; Liang, Song; Meng, Xiangwei; Tao, Junquan; Wang, Jian; Wang, Jian; Wang, Xianyou; Wang, Zheng; Xiao, Hong; Xu, Ming; Zang, Jingjing; Zhang, Zhen; Ban, Yong; Guo, Shuang; Guo, Yifei; Li, Wenbo; Mao, Yajun; Qian, Si-Jin; Teng, Haiyun; Zhang, Linlin; Zhu, Bo; Zou, Wei; Cabrera, Andrés; Gomez Moreno, Bernardo; Ocampo Rios, Alberto Andres; Osorio Oliveros, Andres Felipe; Sanabria, Juan Carlos; Godinovic, Nikola; Lelas, Damir; Lelas, Karlo; Plestina, Roko; Polic, Dunja; Puljak, Ivica; Antunovic, Zeljko; Dzelalija, Mile; Brigljevic, Vuko; Duric, Senka; Kadija, Kreso; Morovic, Srecko; Attikis, Alexandros; Galanti, Mario; Mousa, Jehad; Nicolaou, Charalambos; Ptochos, Fotios; Razis, Panos A; Finger, Miroslav; Finger Jr, Michael; Assran, Yasser; Khalil, Shaaban; Mahmoud, Mohammed; Hektor, Andi; Kadastik, Mario; Müntel, Mait; Raidal, Martti; Rebane, Liis; Azzolini, Virginia; Eerola, Paula; Fedi, Giacomo; Czellar, Sandor; Härkönen, Jaakko; Heikkinen, Mika Aatos; Karimäki, Veikko; Kinnunen, Ritva; Kortelainen, Matti J; Lampén, Tapio; Lassila-Perini, Kati; Lehti, Sami; Lindén, Tomas; Luukka, Panja-Riina; Mäenpää, Teppo; Tuominen, Eija; Tuominiemi, Jorma; Tuovinen, Esa; Ungaro, Donatella; Wendland, Lauri; Banzuzi, Kukka; Korpela, Arja; Tuuva, Tuure; Sillou, Daniel; Besancon, Marc; Choudhury, Somnath; Dejardin, Marc; Denegri, Daniel; Fabbro, Bernard; Faure, Jean-Louis; Ferri, Federico; Ganjour, Serguei; Gentit, François-Xavier; Givernaud, Alain; Gras, Philippe; Hamel de Monchenault, Gautier; Jarry, Patrick; Locci, Elizabeth; Malcles, Julie; Marionneau, Matthieu; Millischer, Laurent; Rander, John; Rosowsky, André; Shreyber, Irina; Titov, Maksym; Verrecchia, Patrice; Baffioni, Stephanie; Beaudette, Florian; Benhabib, Lamia; Bianchini, Lorenzo; Bluj, Michal; Broutin, Clementine; Busson, Philippe; Charlot, Claude; Dahms, Torsten; Dobrzynski, Ludwik; Elgammal, Sherif; Granier de Cassagnac, Raphael; Haguenauer, Maurice; Miné, Philippe; Mironov, Camelia; Ochando, Christophe; Paganini, Pascal; Sabes, David; Salerno, Roberto; Sirois, Yves; Thiebaux, Christophe; Wyslouch, Bolek; Zabi, Alexandre; Agram, Jean-Laurent; Andrea, Jeremy; Bloch, Daniel; Bodin, David; Brom, Jean-Marie; Cardaci, Marco; Chabert, Eric Christian; Collard, Caroline; Conte, Eric; Drouhin, Frédéric; Ferro, Cristina; Fontaine, Jean-Charles; Gelé, Denis; Goerlach, Ulrich; Greder, Sebastien; Juillot, Pierre; Karim, Mehdi; Le Bihan, Anne-Catherine; Mikami, Yoshinari; Van Hove, Pierre; Fassi, Farida; Mercier, Damien; Baty, Clement; Beauceron, Stephanie; Beaupere, Nicolas; Bedjidian, Marc; Bondu, Olivier; Boudoul, Gaelle; Boumediene, Djamel; Brun, Hugues; Chasserat, Julien; Chierici, Roberto; Contardo, Didier; Depasse, Pierre; El Mamouni, Houmani; Fay, Jean; Gascon, Susan; Ille, Bernard; Kurca, Tibor; Le Grand, Thomas; Lethuillier, Morgan; Mirabito, Laurent; Perries, Stephane; Sordini, Viola; Tosi, Silvano; Tschudi, Yohann; Verdier, Patrice; Lomidze, David; Anagnostou, Georgios; Edelhoff, Matthias; Feld, Lutz; Heracleous, Natalie; Hindrichs, Otto; Jussen, Ruediger; Klein, Katja; Merz, Jennifer; Mohr, Niklas; Ostapchuk, Andrey; Perieanu, Adrian; Raupach, Frank; Sammet, Jan; Schael, Stefan; Sprenger, Daniel; Weber, Hendrik; Weber, Martin; Wittmer, Bruno; Ata, Metin; Bender, Walter; Dietz-Laursonn, Erik; Erdmann, Martin; Frangenheim, Jens; Hebbeker, Thomas; Hinzmann, Andreas; Hoepfner, Kerstin; Klimkovich, Tatsiana; Klingebiel, Dennis; Kreuzer, Peter; Lanske, Dankfried; Magass, Carsten; Merschmeyer, Markus; Meyer, Arnd; Papacz, Paul; Pieta, Holger; Reithler, Hans; Schmitz, Stefan Antonius; Sonnenschein, Lars; Steggemann, Jan; Teyssier, Daniel; Bontenackels, Michael; Davids, Martina; Duda, Markus; Flügge, Günter; Geenen, Heiko; Giffels, Manuel; Haj Ahmad, Wael; Heydhausen, Dirk; Kress, Thomas; Kuessel, Yvonne; Linn, Alexander; Nowack, Andreas; Perchalla, Lars; Pooth, Oliver; Rennefeld, Jörg; Sauerland, Philip; Stahl, Achim; Thomas, Maarten; Tornier, Daiske; Zoeller, Marc Henning; Aldaya Martin, Maria; Behrenhoff, Wolf; Behrens, Ulf; Bergholz, Matthias; Bethani, Agni; Borras, Kerstin; Cakir, Altan; Campbell, Alan; Castro, Elena; Dammann, Dirk; Eckerlin, Guenter; Eckstein, Doris; Flossdorf, Alexander; Flucke, Gero; Geiser, Achim; Hauk, Johannes; Jung, Hannes; Kasemann, Matthias; Katkov, Igor; Katsas, Panagiotis; Kleinwort, Claus; Kluge, Hannelies; Knutsson, Albert; Krämer, Mira; Krücker, Dirk; Kuznetsova, Ekaterina; Lange, Wolfgang; Lohmann, Wolfgang; Mankel, Rainer; Marienfeld, Markus; Melzer-Pellmann, Isabell-Alissandra; Meyer, Andreas Bernhard; Mnich, Joachim; Mussgiller, Andreas; Olzem, Jan; Pitzl, Daniel; Raspereza, Alexei; Raval, Amita; Rosin, Michele; Schmidt, Ringo; Schoerner-Sadenius, Thomas; Sen, Niladri; Spiridonov, Alexander; Stein, Matthias; Tomaszewska, Justyna; Walsh, Roberval; Wissing, Christoph; Autermann, Christian; Blobel, Volker; Bobrovskyi, Sergei; Draeger, Jula; Enderle, Holger; Gebbert, Ulla; Kaschube, Kolja; Kaussen, Gordon; Klanner, Robert; Lange, Jörn; Mura, Benedikt; Naumann-Emme, Sebastian; Nowak, Friederike; Pietsch, Niklas; Sander, Christian; Schettler, Hannes; Schleper, Peter; Schröder, Matthias; Schum, Torben; Schwandt, Joern; Stadie, Hartmut; Steinbrück, Georg; Thomsen, Jan; Barth, Christian; Bauer, Julia; Berger, Joram; Buege, Volker; Chwalek, Thorsten; De Boer, Wim; Dierlamm, Alexander; Dirkes, Guido; Feindt, Michael; Gruschke, Jasmin; Hackstein, Christoph; Hartmann, Frank; Heinrich, Michael; Held, Hauke; Hoffmann, Karl-Heinz; Honc, Simon; Komaragiri, Jyothsna Rani; Kuhr, Thomas; Martschei, Daniel; Mueller, Steffen; Müller, Thomas; Niegel, Martin; Oberst, Oliver; Oehler, Andreas; Ott, Jochen; Peiffer, Thomas; Quast, Gunter; Rabbertz, Klaus; Ratnikov, Fedor; Ratnikova, Natalia; Renz, Manuel; Saout, Christophe; Scheurer, Armin; Schieferdecker, Philipp; Schilling, Frank-Peter; Schott, Gregory; Simonis, Hans-Jürgen; Stober, Fred-Markus Helmut; Troendle, Daniel; Wagner-Kuhr, Jeannine; Weiler, Thomas; Zeise, Manuel; Zhukov, Valery; Ziebarth, Eva Barbara; Daskalakis, Georgios; Geralis, Theodoros; Kesisoglou, Stilianos; Kyriakis, Aristotelis; Loukas, Demetrios; Manolakos, Ioannis; Markou, Athanasios; Markou, Christos; Mavrommatis, Charalampos; Ntomari, Eleni; Petrakou, Eleni; Gouskos, Loukas; Mertzimekis, Theodoros; Panagiotou, Apostolos; Stiliaris, Efstathios; Evangelou, Ioannis; Foudas, Costas; Kokkas, Panagiotis; Manthos, Nikolaos; Papadopoulos, Ioannis; Patras, Vaios; Triantis, Frixos A; Aranyi, Attila; Bencze, Gyorgy; Boldizsar, Laszlo; Hajdu, Csaba; Hidas, Pàl; Horvath, Dezso; Kapusi, Anita; Krajczar, Krisztian; Sikler, Ferenc; Veres, Gabor Istvan; Vesztergombi, Gyorgy; Beni, Noemi; Molnar, Jozsef; Palinkas, Jozsef; Szillasi, Zoltan; Veszpremi, Viktor; Raics, Peter; Trocsanyi, Zoltan Laszlo; Ujvari, Balazs; Beri, Suman Bala; Bhatnagar, Vipin; Dhingra, Nitish; Gupta, Ruchi; Jindal, Monika; Kaur, Manjit; Kohli, Jatinder Mohan; Mehta, Manuk Zubin; Nishu, Nishu; Saini, Lovedeep Kaur; Sharma, Archana; Singh, Anil; Singh, Jasbir; Singh, Supreet Pal; Ahuja, Sudha; Bhattacharya, Satyaki; Choudhary, Brajesh C; Gomber, Bhawna; Gupta, Pooja; Jain, Sandhya; Jain, Shilpi; Khurana, Raman; Kumar, Ashok; Naimuddin, Md; Ranjan, Kirti; Shivpuri, Ram Krishen; Choudhury, Rajani Kant; Dutta, Dipanwita; Kailas, Swaminathan; Kumar, Vineet; Mehta, Pourus; Mohanty, Ajit Kumar; Pant, Lalit Mohan; Shukla, Prashant; Aziz, Tariq; Guchait, Monoranjan; Gurtu, Atul; Maity, Manas; Majumder, Devdatta; Majumder, Gobinda; Mazumdar, Kajari; Mohanty, Gagan Bihari; Saha, Anirban; Sudhakar, Katta; Wickramage, Nadeesha; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Dugad, Shashikant; Mondal, Naba Kumar; Arfaei, Hessamaddin; Bakhshiansohi, Hamed; Etesami, Seyed Mohsen; Fahim, Ali; Hashemi, Majid; Jafari, Abideh; Khakzad, Mohsen; Mohammadi, Abdollah; Mohammadi Najafabadi, Mojtaba; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, Saeid; Safarzadeh, Batool; Zeinali, Maryam; Abbrescia, Marcello; Barbone, Lucia; Calabria, Cesare; Colaleo, Anna; Creanza, Donato; De Filippis, Nicola; De Palma, Mauro; Fiore, Luigi; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Lusito, Letizia; Maggi, Giorgio; Maggi, Marcello; Manna, Norman; Marangelli, Bartolomeo; My, Salvatore; Nuzzo, Salvatore; Pacifico, Nicola; Pierro, Giuseppe Antonio; Pompili, Alexis; Pugliese, Gabriella; Romano, Francesco; Roselli, Giuseppe; Selvaggi, Giovanna; Silvestris, Lucia; Trentadue, Raffaello; Tupputi, Salvatore; Zito, Giuseppe; Abbiendi, Giovanni; Benvenuti, Alberto; Bonacorsi, Daniele; Braibant-Giacomelli, Sylvie; Brigliadori, Luca; Capiluppi, Paolo; Castro, Andrea; Cavallo, Francesca Romana; Cuffiani, Marco; Dallavalle, Gaetano-Marco; Fabbri, Fabrizio; Fanfani, Alessandra; Fasanella, Daniele; Giacomelli, Paolo; Giunta, Marina; Grandi, Claudio; Marcellini, Stefano; Masetti, Gianni; Meneghelli, Marco; Montanari, Alessandro; Navarria, Francesco; Odorici, Fabrizio; Perrotta, Andrea; Primavera, Federica; Rossi, Antonio; Rovelli, Tiziano; Siroli, Gianni; Travaglini, Riccardo; Albergo, Sebastiano; Cappello, Gigi; Chiorboli, Massimiliano; Costa, Salvatore; Tricomi, Alessia; Tuve, Cristina; Barbagli, Giuseppe; Ciulli, Vitaliano; Civinini, Carlo; D'Alessandro, Raffaello; Focardi, Ettore; Frosali, Simone; Gallo, Elisabetta; Gonzi, Sandro; Lenzi, Piergiulio; Meschini, Marco; Paoletti, Simone; Sguazzoni, Giacomo; Tropiano, Antonio; Benussi, Luigi; Bianco, Stefano; Colafranceschi, Stefano; Fabbri, Franco; Piccolo, Davide; Fabbricatore, Pasquale; Musenich, Riccardo; Benaglia, Andrea; De Guio, Federico; Di Matteo, Leonardo; Gennai, Simone; Ghezzi, Alessio; Malvezzi, Sandra; Martelli, Arabella; Massironi, Andrea; Menasce, Dario; Moroni, Luigi; Paganoni, Marco; Pedrini, Daniele; Ragazzi, Stefano; Redaelli, Nicola; Sala, Silvano; Tabarelli de Fatis, Tommaso; Buontempo, Salvatore; Carrillo Montoya, Camilo Andres; Cavallo, Nicola; De Cosa, Annapaola; Fabozzi, Francesco; Iorio, Alberto Orso Maria; Lista, Luca; Merola, Mario; Paolucci, Pierluigi; Azzi, Patrizia; Bacchetta, Nicola; Bellan, Paolo; Bellato, Marco; Biasotto, Massimo; Bisello, Dario; Branca, Antonio; Checchia, Paolo; De Mattia, Marco; Dorigo, Tommaso; Gasparini, Fabrizio; Gonella, Franco; Gozzelino, Andrea; Gulmini, Michele; Lacaprara, Stefano; Lazzizzera, Ignazio; Margoni, Martino; Maron, Gaetano; Meneguzzo, Anna Teresa; Nespolo, Massimo; Passaseo, Marina; Perrozzi, Luca; Pozzobon, Nicola; Ronchese, Paolo; Simonetto, Franco; Torassa, Ezio; Tosi, Mia; Triossi, Andrea; Vanini, Sara; Baesso, Paolo; Berzano, Umberto; Ratti, Sergio P; Riccardi, Cristina; Torre, Paola; Vitulo, Paolo; Viviani, Claudio; Biasini, Maurizio; Bilei, Gian Mario; Caponeri, Benedetta; Fanò, Livio; Lariccia, Paolo; Lucaroni, Andrea; Mantovani, Giancarlo; Menichelli, Mauro; Nappi, Aniello; Romeo, Francesco; Santocchia, Attilio; Taroni, Silvia; Valdata, Marisa; Azzurri, Paolo; Bagliesi, Giuseppe; Bernardini, Jacopo; Boccali, Tommaso; Broccolo, Giuseppe; Castaldi, Rino; D'Agnolo, Raffaele Tito; Dell'Orso, Roberto; Fiori, Francesco; Foà, Lorenzo; Giassi, Alessandro; Kraan, Aafke; Ligabue, Franco; Lomtadze, Teimuraz; Martini, Luca; Messineo, Alberto; Palla, Fabrizio; Segneri, Gabriele; Serban, Alin Titus; Spagnolo, Paolo; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, Guido; Venturi, Andrea; Verdini, Piero Giorgio; Barone, Luciano; Cavallari, Francesca; Del Re, Daniele; Di Marco, Emanuele; Diemoz, Marcella; Franci, Daniele; Grassi, Marco; Longo, Egidio; Nourbakhsh, Shervin; Organtini, Giovanni; Pandolfi, Francesco; Paramatti, Riccardo; Rahatlou, Shahram; Rovelli, Chiara; Amapane, Nicola; Arcidiacono, Roberta; Argiro, Stefano; Arneodo, Michele; Biino, Cristina; Botta, Cristina; Cartiglia, Nicolo; Castello, Roberto; Costa, Marco; Demaria, Natale; Graziano, Alberto; Mariotti, Chiara; Marone, Matteo; Maselli, Silvia; Migliore, Ernesto; Mila, Giorgia; Monaco, Vincenzo; Musich, Marco; Obertino, Maria Margherita; Pastrone, Nadia; Pelliccioni, Mario; Romero, Alessandra; Ruspa, Marta; Sacchi, Roberto; Sola, Valentina; Solano, Ada; Staiano, Amedeo; Vilela Pereira, Antonio; Belforte, Stefano; Cossutti, Fabio; Della Ricca, Giuseppe; Gobbo, Benigno; Montanino, Damiana; Penzo, Aldo; Heo, Seong Gu; Nam, Soon-Kwon; Chang, Sunghyun; Chung, Jin Hyuk; Kim, Dong Hee; Kim, Gui Nyun; Kim, Ji Eun; Kong, Dae Jung; Park, Hyangkyu; Ro, Sang-Ryul; Son, Dohhee; Son, Dong-Chul; Son, Taejin; Kim, Jaeho; Kim, Jae Yool; Song, Sanghyeon; Choi, Suyong; Hong, Byung-Sik; Jeong, Min-Soo; Jo, Mihee; Kim, Hyunchul; Kim, Ji Hyun; Kim, Tae Jeong; Lee, Kyong Sei; Moon, Dong Ho; Park, Sung Keun; Rhee, Han-Bum; Seo, Eunsung; Shin, Seungsu; Sim, Kwang Souk; Choi, Minkyoo; Kang, Seokon; Kim, Hyunyong; Park, Chawon; Park, Inkyu; Park, Sangnam; Ryu, Geonmo; Choi, Young-Il; Choi, Young Kyu; Goh, Junghwan; Kim, Min Suk; Kwon, Eunhyang; Lee, Jongseok; Lee, Sungeun; Seo, Hyunkwan; Yu, Intae; Bilinskas, Mykolas Jurgis; Grigelionis, Ignas; Janulis, Mindaugas; Martisiute, Dalia; Petrov, Pavel; Sabonis, Tomas; Castilla-Valdez, Heriberto; De La Cruz-Burelo, Eduard; Heredia-de La Cruz, Ivan; Lopez-Fernandez, Ricardo; Magaña Villalba, Ricardo; Sánchez-Hernández, Alberto; Villasenor-Cendejas, Luis Manuel; Carrillo Moreno, Salvador; Vazquez Valencia, Fabiola; Salazar Ibarguen, Humberto Antonio; Casimiro Linares, Edgar; Morelos Pineda, Antonio; Reyes-Santos, Marco A; Krofcheck, David; Tam, Jason; Butler, Philip H; Doesburg, Robert; Silverwood, Hamish; Ahmad, Muhammad; Ahmed, Ijaz; Asghar, Muhammad Irfan; Hoorani, Hafeez R; Khan, Wajid Ali; Khurshid, Taimoor; Qazi, Shamona; Brona, Grzegorz; Cwiok, Mikolaj; Dominik, Wojciech; Doroba, Krzysztof; Kalinowski, Artur; Konecki, Marcin; Krolikowski, Jan; Frueboes, Tomasz; Gokieli, Ryszard; Górski, Maciej; Kazana, Malgorzata; Nawrocki, Krzysztof; Romanowska-Rybinska, Katarzyna; Szleper, Michal; Wrochna, Grzegorz; Zalewski, Piotr; Almeida, Nuno; Bargassa, Pedrame; David Tinoco Mendes, Andre; Faccioli, Pietro; Ferreira Parracho, Pedro Guilherme; Gallinaro, Michele; Musella, Pasquale; Nayak, Aruna; Ribeiro, Pedro Quinaz; Seixas, Joao; Varela, Joao; Afanasiev, Serguei; Belotelov, Ivan; Bunin, Pavel; Golutvin, Igor; Kamenev, Alexey; Karjavin, Vladimir; Kozlov, Guennady; Lanev, Alexander; Moisenz, Petr; Palichik, Vladimir; Perelygin, Victor; Shmatov, Sergey; Smirnov, Vitaly; Volodko, Anton; Zarubin, Anatoli; Golovtsov, Victor; Ivanov, Yury; Kim, Victor; Levchenko, Petr; Murzin, Victor; Oreshkin, Vadim; Smirnov, Igor; Sulimov, Valentin; Uvarov, Lev; Vavilov, Sergey; Vorobyev, Alexey; Vorobyev, Andrey; Andreev, Yuri; Dermenev, Alexander; Gninenko, Sergei; Golubev, Nikolai; Kirsanov, Mikhail; Krasnikov, Nikolai; Matveev, Viktor; Pashenkov, Anatoli; Toropin, Alexander; Troitsky, Sergey; Epshteyn, Vladimir; Gavrilov, Vladimir; Kaftanov, Vitali; Kossov, Mikhail; Krokhotin, Andrey; Lychkovskaya, Natalia; Popov, Vladimir; Safronov, Grigory; Semenov, Sergey; Stolin, Viatcheslav; Vlasov, Evgueni; Zhokin, Alexander; Boos, Edouard; Ershov, Alexander; Gribushin, Andrey; Kodolova, Olga; Korotkikh, Vladimir; Lokhtin, Igor; Markina, Anastasia; Obraztsov, Stepan; Perfilov, Maxim; Petrushanko, Sergey; Sarycheva, Ludmila; Savrin, Viktor; Snigirev, Alexander; Vardanyan, Irina; Andreev, Vladimir; Azarkin, Maksim; Dremin, Igor; Kirakosyan, Martin; Leonidov, Andrey; Rusakov, Sergey V; Vinogradov, Alexey; Azhgirey, Igor; Bitioukov, Sergei; Grishin, Viatcheslav; Kachanov, Vassili; Konstantinov, Dmitri; Korablev, Andrey; Krychkine, Victor; Petrov, Vladimir; Ryutin, Roman; Slabospitsky, Sergey; Sobol, Andrei; Tourtchanovitch, Leonid; Troshin, Sergey; Tyurin, Nikolay; Uzunian, Andrey; Volkov, Alexey; Adzic, Petar; Djordjevic, Milos; Krpic, Dragomir; Milosevic, Jovan; Aguilar-Benitez, Manuel; Alcaraz Maestre, Juan; Arce, Pedro; Battilana, Carlo; Calvo, Enrique; Cepeda, Maria; Cerrada, Marcos; Chamizo Llatas, Maria; Colino, Nicanor; De La Cruz, Begona; Delgado Peris, Antonio; Diez Pardos, Carmen; Domínguez Vázquez, Daniel; Fernandez Bedoya, Cristina; Fernández Ramos, Juan Pablo; Ferrando, Antonio; Flix, Jose; Fouz, Maria Cruz; Garcia-Abia, Pablo; Gonzalez Lopez, Oscar; Goy Lopez, Silvia; Hernandez, Jose M; Josa, Maria Isabel; Merino, Gonzalo; Puerta Pelayo, Jesus; Redondo, Ignacio; Romero, Luciano; Santaolalla, Javier; Senghi Soares, Mara; Willmott, Carlos; Albajar, Carmen; Codispoti, Giuseppe; de Trocóniz, Jorge F; Cuevas, Javier; Fernandez Menendez, Javier; Folgueras, Santiago; Gonzalez Caballero, Isidro; Lloret Iglesias, Lara; Vizan Garcia, Jesus Manuel; Brochero Cifuentes, Javier Andres; Cabrillo, Iban Jose; Calderon, Alicia; Chuang, Shan-Huei; Duarte Campderros, Jordi; Felcini, Marta; Fernandez, Marcos; Gomez, Gervasio; Gonzalez Sanchez, Javier; Jorda, Clara; Lobelle Pardo, Patricia; Lopez Virto, Amparo; Marco, Jesus; Marco, Rafael; Martinez Rivero, Celso; Matorras, Francisco; Munoz Sanchez, Francisca Javiela; Piedra Gomez, Jonatan; Rodrigo, Teresa; Rodríguez-Marrero, Ana Yaiza; Ruiz-Jimeno, Alberto; Scodellaro, Luca; Sobron Sanudo, Mar; Vila, Ivan; Vilar Cortabitarte, Rocio; Abbaneo, Duccio; Auffray, Etiennette; Auzinger, Georg; Baillon, Paul; Ball, Austin; Barney, David; Bell, Alan James; Benedetti, Daniele; Bernet, Colin; Bialas, Wojciech; Bloch, Philippe; Bocci, Andrea; Bolognesi, Sara; Bona, Marcella; Breuker, Horst; Bunkowski, Karol; Camporesi, Tiziano; Cerminara, Gianluca; Coarasa Perez, Jose Antonio; Curé, Benoît; D'Enterria, David; De Roeck, Albert; Di Guida, Salvatore; Dupont-Sagorin, Niels; Elliott-Peisert, Anna; Frisch, Benjamin; Funk, Wolfgang; Gaddi, Andrea; Georgiou, Georgios; Gerwig, Hubert; Gigi, Dominique; Gill, Karl; Giordano, Domenico; Glege, Frank; Gomez-Reino Garrido, Robert; Gouzevitch, Maxime; Govoni, Pietro; Gowdy, Stephen; Guiducci, Luigi; Hansen, Magnus; Hartl, Christian; Harvey, John; Hegeman, Jeroen; Hegner, Benedikt; Hoffmann, Hans Falk; Honma, Alan; Innocente, Vincenzo; Janot, Patrick; Kaadze, Ketino; Karavakis, Edward; Lecoq, Paul; Lourenco, Carlos; Maki, Tuula; Malberti, Martina; Malgeri, Luca; Mannelli, Marcello; Masetti, Lorenzo; Maurisset, Aurelie; Meijers, Frans; Mersi, Stefano; Meschi, Emilio; Moser, Roland; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Mulders, Martijn; Nesvold, Erik; Nguyen, Matthew; Orimoto, Toyoko; Orsini, Luciano; Perez, Emmanuelle; Petrilli, Achille; Pfeiffer, Andreas; Pierini, Maurizio; Pimiä, Martti; Piparo, Danilo; Polese, Giovanni; Racz, Attila; Rodrigues Antunes, Joao; Rolandi, Gigi; Rommerskirchen, Tanja; Rovere, Marco; Sakulin, Hannes; Schäfer, Christoph; Schwick, Christoph; Segoni, Ilaria; Sharma, Archana; Siegrist, Patrice; Simon, Michal; Sphicas, Paraskevas; Spiropulu, Maria; Stoye, Markus; Tadel, Matevz; Tropea, Paola; Tsirou, Andromachi; Vichoudis, Paschalis; Voutilainen, Mikko; Zeuner, Wolfram Dietrich; Bertl, Willi; Deiters, Konrad; Erdmann, Wolfram; Gabathuler, Kurt; Horisberger, Roland; Ingram, Quentin; Kaestli, Hans-Christian; König, Stefan; Kotlinski, Danek; Langenegger, Urs; Meier, Frank; Renker, Dieter; Rohe, Tilman; Sibille, Jennifer; Starodumov, Andrei; Bortignon, Pierluigi; Caminada, Lea; Chanon, Nicolas; Chen, Zhiling; Cittolin, Sergio; Dissertori, Günther; Dittmar, Michael; Eugster, Jürg; Freudenreich, Klaus; Grab, Christoph; Hintz, Wieland; Lecomte, Pierre; Lustermann, Werner; Marchica, Carmelo; Martinez Ruiz del Arbol, Pablo; Meridiani, Paolo; Milenovic, Predrag; Moortgat, Filip; Nägeli, Christoph; Nef, Pascal; Nessi-Tedaldi, Francesca; Pape, Luc; Pauss, Felicitas; Punz, Thomas; Rizzi, Andrea; Ronga, Frederic Jean; Rossini, Marco; Sala, Leonardo; Sanchez, Ann - Karin; Sawley, Marie-Christine; Stieger, Benjamin; Tauscher, Ludwig; Thea, Alessandro; Theofilatos, Konstantinos; Treille, Daniel; Urscheler, Christina; Wallny, Rainer; Weber, Matthias; Wehrli, Lukas; Weng, Joanna; Aguilo, Ernest; Amsler, Claude; Chiochia, Vincenzo; De Visscher, Simon; Favaro, Carlotta; Ivova Rikova, Mirena; Millan Mejias, Barbara; Otiougova, Polina; Regenfus, Christian; Robmann, Peter; Schmidt, Alexander; Snoek, Hella; Chang, Yuan-Hann; Chen, Kuan-Hsin; Dutta, Suchandra; Kuo, Chia-Ming; Li, Syue-Wei; Lin, Willis; Liu, Zong-Kai; Lu, Yun-Ju; Mekterovic, Darko; Volpe, Roberta; Wu, Jing-Han; Yu, Shin-Shan; Bartalini, Paolo; Chang, Paoti; Chang, You-Hao; Chang, Yu-Wei; Chao, Yuan; Chen, Kai-Feng; Hou, George Wei-Shu; Hsiung, Yee; Kao, Kai-Yi; Lei, Yeong-Jyi; Lu, Rong-Shyang; Shiu, Jing-Ge; Tzeng, Yeng-Ming; Wang, Minzu; Adiguzel, Aytul; Bakirci, Mustafa Numan; Cerci, Salim; Dozen, Candan; Dumanoglu, Isa; Ekenel, Ali; Eskut, Eda; Girgis, Semiray; Gokbulut, Gul; Hos, Ilknur; Kangal, Evrim Ersin; Kayis Topaksu, Aysel; Onengut, Gulsen; Ozdemir, Kadri; Ozturk, Sertac; Polatoz, Ayse; Sogut, Kenan; Sunar Cerci, Deniz; Tali, Bayram; Topakli, Huseyin; Uzun, Dilber; Vergili, Latife Nukhet; Vergili, Mehmet; Yilmaz, Sedat; Akin, Ilina Vasileva; Aliev, Takhmasib; Bilmis, Selcuk; Deniz, Muhammed; Gamsizkan, Halil; Guler, Ali Murat; Ocalan, Kadir; Ozpineci, Altug; Serin, Meltem; Sever, Ramazan; Surat, Ugur Emrah; Yildirim, Eda; Zeyrek, Mehmet; Deliomeroglu, Mehmet; Demir, Durmus; Gülmez, Erhan; Isildak, Bora; Kaya, Mithat; Kaya, Ozlem; Ozkorucuklu, Suat; Sonmez, Nasuf; Levchuk, Leonid; Bostock, Francis; Brooke, James John; Cheng, Teh Lee; Clement, Emyr; Cussans, David; Frazier, Robert; Goldstein, Joel; Grimes, Mark; Hansen, Maria; Hartley, Dominic; Heath, Greg P; Heath, Helen F; Kreczko, Lukasz; Metson, Simon; Newbold, Dave M; Nirunpong, Kachanon; Poll, Anthony; Senkin, Sergey; Smith, Vincent J; Ward, Simon; Basso, Lorenzo; Belyaev, Alexander; Brew, Christopher; Brown, Robert M; Camanzi, Barbara; Cockerill, David JA; Coughlan, John A; Harder, Kristian; Harper, Sam; Jackson, James; Kennedy, Bruce W; Olaiya, Emmanuel; Petyt, David; Radburn-Smith, Benjamin Charles; Shepherd-Themistocleous, Claire; Tomalin, Ian R; Womersley, William John; Worm, Steven; Bainbridge, Robert; Ball, Gordon; Ballin, Jamie; Beuselinck, Raymond; Buchmuller, Oliver; Colling, David; Cripps, Nicholas; Cutajar, Michael; Davies, Gavin; Della Negra, Michel; Ferguson, William; Fulcher, Jonathan; Futyan, David; Gilbert, Andrew; Guneratne Bryer, Arlo; Hall, Geoffrey; Hatherell, Zoe; Hays, Jonathan; Iles, Gregory; Jarvis, Martyn; Karapostoli, Georgia; Lyons, Louis; MacEvoy, Barry C; Magnan, Anne-Marie; Marrouche, Jad; Mathias, Bryn; Nandi, Robin; Nash, Jordan; Nikitenko, Alexander; Papageorgiou, Anastasios; Pesaresi, Mark; Petridis, Konstantinos; Pioppi, Michele; Raymond, David Mark; Rogerson, Samuel; Rompotis, Nikolaos; Rose, Andrew; Ryan, Matthew John; Seez, Christopher; Sharp, Peter; Sparrow, Alex; Tapper, Alexander; Tourneur, Stephane; Vazquez Acosta, Monica; Virdee, Tejinder; Wakefield, Stuart; Wardle, Nicholas; Wardrope, David; Whyntie, Tom; Barrett, Matthew; Chadwick, Matthew; Cole, Joanne; Hobson, Peter R; Khan, Akram; Kyberd, Paul; Leslie, Dawn; Martin, William; Reid, Ivan; Teodorescu, Liliana; Hatakeyama, Kenichi; Liu, Hongxuan; Bose, Tulika; Carrera Jarrin, Edgar; Fantasia, Cory; Heister, Arno; St John, Jason; Lawson, Philip; Lazic, Dragoslav; Rohlf, James; Sperka, David; Sulak, Lawrence; Avetisyan, Aram; Bhattacharya, Saptaparna; Chou, John Paul; Cutts, David; Ferapontov, Alexey; Heintz, Ulrich; Jabeen, Shabnam; Kukartsev, Gennadiy; Landsberg, Greg; Luk, Michael; Narain, Meenakshi; Nguyen, Duong; Segala, Michael; Sinthuprasith, Tutanon; Speer, Thomas; Tsang, Ka Vang; Breedon, Richard; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, Manuel; Chauhan, Sushil; Chertok, Maxwell; Conway, John; Cox, Peter Timothy; Dolen, James; Erbacher, Robin; Friis, Evan; Ko, Winston; Kopecky, Alexandra; Lander, Richard; Liu, Haidong; Maruyama, Sho; Miceli, Tia; Nikolic, Milan; Pellett, Dave; Robles, Jorge; Salur, Sevil; Schwarz, Thomas; Searle, Matthew; Smith, John; Squires, Michael; Tripathi, Mani; Vasquez Sierra, Ricardo; Veelken, Christian; Andreev, Valeri; Arisaka, Katsushi; Cline, David; Cousins, Robert; Deisher, Amanda; Duris, Joseph; Erhan, Samim; Farrell, Chris; Hauser, Jay; Ignatenko, Mikhail; Jarvis, Chad; Plager, Charles; Rakness, Gregory; Schlein, Peter; Tucker, Jordan; Valuev, Vyacheslav; Babb, John; Chandra, Avdhesh; Clare, Robert; Ellison, John Anthony; Gary, J William; Giordano, Ferdinando; Hanson, Gail; Jeng, Geng-Yuan; Kao, Shih-Chuan; Liu, Feng; Liu, Hongliang; Long, Owen Rosser; Luthra, Arun; Nguyen, Harold; Shen, Benjamin C; Stringer, Robert; Sturdy, Jared; Sumowidagdo, Suharyo; Wilken, Rachel; Wimpenny, Stephen; Andrews, Warren; Branson, James G; Cerati, Giuseppe Benedetto; Evans, David; Golf, Frank; Holzner, André; Kelley, Ryan; Lebourgeois, Matthew; Letts, James; Mangano, Boris; Padhi, Sanjay; Palmer, Christopher; Petrucciani, Giovanni; Pi, Haifeng; Pieri, Marco; Ranieri, Riccardo; Sani, Matteo; Sharma, Vivek; Simon, Sean; Sudano, Elizabeth; Tu, Yanjun; Vartak, Adish; Wasserbaech, Steven; Würthwein, Frank; Yagil, Avraham; Yoo, Jaehyeok; Barge, Derek; Bellan, Riccardo; Campagnari, Claudio; D'Alfonso, Mariarosaria; Danielson, Thomas; Flowers, Kristen; Geffert, Paul; Incandela, Joe; Justus, Christopher; Kalavase, Puneeth; Koay, Sue Ann; Kovalskyi, Dmytro; Krutelyov, Vyacheslav; Lowette, Steven; Mccoll, Nickolas; Pavlunin, Viktor; Rebassoo, Finn; Ribnik, Jacob; Richman, Jeffrey; Rossin, Roberto; Stuart, David; To, Wing; Vlimant, Jean-Roch; Apresyan, Artur; Bornheim, Adolf; Bunn, Julian; Chen, Yi; Gataullin, Marat; Ma, Yousi; Mott, Alexander; Newman, Harvey B; Rogan, Christopher; Shin, Kyoungha; Timciuc, Vladlen; Traczyk, Piotr; Veverka, Jan; Wilkinson, Richard; Yang, Yong; Zhu, Ren-Yuan; Akgun, Bora; Carroll, Ryan; Ferguson, Thomas; Iiyama, Yutaro; Jang, Dong Wook; Jun, Soon Yung; Liu, Yueh-Feng; Paulini, Manfred; Russ, James; Vogel, Helmut; Vorobiev, Igor; Cumalat, John Perry; Dinardo, Mauro Emanuele; Drell, Brian Robert; Edelmaier, Christopher; Ford, William T; Gaz, Alessandro; Heyburn, Bernadette; Luiggi Lopez, Eduardo; Nauenberg, Uriel; Smith, James; Stenson, Kevin; Ulmer, Keith; Wagner, Stephen Robert; Zang, Shi-Lei; Agostino, Lorenzo; Alexander, James; Cassel, David; Chatterjee, Avishek; Das, Souvik; Eggert, Nicholas; Gibbons, Lawrence Kent; Heltsley, Brian; Hopkins, Walter; Khukhunaishvili, Aleko; Kreis, Benjamin; Nicolas Kaufman, Gala; Patterson, Juliet Ritchie; Puigh, Darren; Ryd, Anders; Salvati, Emmanuele; Shi, Xin; Sun, Werner; Teo, Wee Don; Thom, Julia; Thompson, Joshua; Vaughan, Jennifer; Weng, Yao; Winstrom, Lucas; Wittich, Peter; Biselli, Angela; Cirino, Guy; Winn, Dave; Abdullin, Salavat; Albrow, Michael; Anderson, Jacob; Apollinari, Giorgio; Atac, Muzaffer; Bakken, Jon Alan; Banerjee, Sunanda; Bauerdick, Lothar AT; Beretvas, Andrew; Berryhill, Jeffrey; Bhat, Pushpalatha C; Bloch, Ingo; Borcherding, Frederick; Burkett, Kevin; Butler, Joel Nathan; Chetluru, Vasundhara; Cheung, Harry; Chlebana, Frank; Cihangir, Selcuk; Cooper, William; Eartly, David P; Elvira, Victor Daniel; Esen, Selda; Fisk, Ian; Freeman, Jim; Gao, Yanyan; Gottschalk, Erik; Green, Dan; Gunthoti, Kranti; Gutsche, Oliver; Hanlon, Jim; Harris, Robert M; Hirschauer, James; Hooberman, Benjamin; Jensen, Hans; Johnson, Marvin; Joshi, Umesh; Khatiwada, Rakshya; Klima, Boaz; Kousouris, Konstantinos; Kunori, Shuichi; Kwan, Simon; Leonidopoulos, Christos; Limon, Peter; Lincoln, Don; Lipton, Ron; Lykken, Joseph; Maeshima, Kaori; Marraffino, John Michael; Mason, David; McBride, Patricia; Miao, Ting; Mishra, Kalanand; Mrenna, Stephen; Musienko, Yuri; Newman-Holmes, Catherine; O'Dell, Vivian; Pordes, Ruth; Prokofyev, Oleg; Saoulidou, Niki; Sexton-Kennedy, Elizabeth; Sharma, Seema; Spalding, William J; Spiegel, Leonard; Tan, Ping; Taylor, Lucas; Tkaczyk, Slawek; Uplegger, Lorenzo; Vaandering, Eric Wayne; Vidal, Richard; Whitmore, Juliana; Wu, Weimin; Yang, Fan; Yumiceva, Francisco; Yun, Jae Chul; Acosta, Darin; Avery, Paul; Bourilkov, Dimitri; Chen, Mingshui; De Gruttola, Michele; Di Giovanni, Gian Piero; Dobur, Didar; Drozdetskiy, Alexey; Field, Richard D; Fisher, Matthew; Fu, Yu; Furic, Ivan-Kresimir; Gartner, Joseph; Kim, Bockjoo; Konigsberg, Jacobo; Korytov, Andrey; Kropivnitskaya, Anna; Kypreos, Theodore; Matchev, Konstantin; Mitselmakher, Guenakh; Muniz, Lana; Prescott, Craig; Remington, Ronald; Schmitt, Michael Houston; Scurlock, Bobby; Sellers, Paul; Skhirtladze, Nikoloz; Snowball, Matthew; Wang, Dayong; Yelton, John; Zakaria, Mohammed; Ceron, Cristobal; Gaultney, Vanessa; Kramer, Laird; Lebolo, Luis Miguel; Linn, Stephan; Markowitz, Pete; Martinez, German; Mesa, Dalgis; Rodriguez, Jorge Luis; Adams, Todd; Askew, Andrew; Bochenek, Joseph; Chen, Jie; Diamond, Brendan; Gleyzer, Sergei V; Haas, Jeff; Hagopian, Sharon; Hagopian, Vasken; Jenkins, Merrill; Johnson, Kurtis F; Prosper, Harrison; Quertenmont, Loic; Sekmen, Sezen; Veeraraghavan, Venkatesh; Baarmand, Marc M; Dorney, Brian; Guragain, Samir; Hohlmann, Marcus; Kalakhety, Himali; Ralich, Robert; Vodopiyanov, Igor; Adams, Mark Raymond; Anghel, Ioana Maria; Apanasevich, Leonard; Bai, Yuting; Bazterra, Victor Eduardo; Betts, Russell Richard; Callner, Jeremy; Cavanaugh, Richard; Dragoiu, Cosmin; Gauthier, Lucie; Gerber, Cecilia Elena; Hamdan, Saleh; Hofman, David Jonathan; Khalatyan, Samvel; Kunde, Gerd J; Lacroix, Florent; Malek, Magdalena; O'Brien, Christine; Silvestre, Catherine; Smoron, Agata; Strom, Derek; Varelas, Nikos; Akgun, Ugur; Albayrak, Elif Asli; Bilki, Burak; Clarida, Warren; Duru, Firdevs; Lae, Chung Khim; McCliment, Edward; Merlo, Jean-Pierre; Mermerkaya, Hamit; Mestvirishvili, Alexi; Moeller, Anthony; Nachtman, Jane; Newsom, Charles Ray; Norbeck, Edwin; Olson, Jonathan; Onel, Yasar; Ozok, Ferhat; Sen, Sercan; Wetzel, James; Yetkin, Taylan; Yi, Kai; Barnett, Bruce Arnold; Blumenfeld, Barry; Bonato, Alessio; Eskew, Christopher; Fehling, David; Giurgiu, Gavril; Gritsan, Andrei; Guo, Zijin; Hu, Guofan; Maksimovic, Petar; Rappoccio, Salvatore; Swartz, Morris; Tran, Nhan Viet; Whitbeck, Andrew; Baringer, Philip; Bean, Alice; Benelli, Gabriele; Grachov, Oleg; Kenny Iii, Raymond Patrick; Murray, Michael; Noonan, Daniel; Sanders, Stephen; Wood, Jeffrey Scott; Zhukova, Victoria; Barfuss, Anne-fleur; Bolton, Tim; Chakaberia, Irakli; Ivanov, Andrew; Khalil, Sadia; Makouski, Mikhail; Maravin, Yurii; Shrestha, Shruti; Svintradze, Irakli; Wan, Zongru; Gronberg, Jeffrey; Lange, David; Wright, Douglas; Baden, Drew; Boutemeur, Madjid; Eno, Sarah Catherine; Ferencek, Dinko; Gomez, Jaime; Hadley, Nicholas John; Kellogg, Richard G; Kirn, Malina; Lu, Ying; Mignerey, Alice; Rossato, Kenneth; Rumerio, Paolo; Santanastasio, Francesco; Skuja, Andris; Temple, Jeffrey; Tonjes, Marguerite; Tonwar, Suresh C; Twedt, Elizabeth; Alver, Burak; Bauer, Gerry; Bendavid, Joshua; Busza, Wit; Butz, Erik; Cali, Ivan Amos; Chan, Matthew; Dutta, Valentina; Everaerts, Pieter; Gomez Ceballos, Guillelmo; Goncharov, Maxim; Hahn, Kristan Allan; Harris, Philip; Kim, Yongsun; Klute, Markus; Lee, Yen-Jie; Li, Wei; Loizides, Constantinos; Luckey, Paul David; Ma, Teng; Nahn, Steve; Paus, Christoph; Ralph, Duncan; Roland, Christof; Roland, Gunther; Rudolph, Matthew; Stephans, George; Stöckli, Fabian; Sumorok, Konstanty; Sung, Kevin; Wenger, Edward Allen; Xie, Si; Yang, Mingming; Yilmaz, Yetkin; Yoon, Sungho; Zanetti, Marco; Cooper, Seth; Cushman, Priscilla; Dahmes, Bryan; De Benedetti, Abraham; Dudero, Phillip Russell; Franzoni, Giovanni; Haupt, Jason; Klapoetke, Kevin; Kubota, Yuichi; Mans, Jeremy; Rekovic, Vladimir; Rusack, Roger; Sasseville, Michael; Singovsky, Alexander; Cremaldi, Lucien Marcus; Godang, Romulus; Kroeger, Rob; Perera, Lalith; Rahmat, Rahmat; Sanders, David A; Summers, Don; Bloom, Kenneth; Bose, Suvadeep; Butt, Jamila; Claes, Daniel R; Dominguez, Aaron; Eads, Michael; Keller, Jason; Kelly, Tony; Kravchenko, Ilya; Lazo-Flores, Jose; Malbouisson, Helena; Malik, Sudhir; Snow, Gregory R; Baur, Ulrich; Godshalk, Andrew; Iashvili, Ia; Jain, Supriya; Kharchilava, Avto; Kumar, Ashish; Shipkowski, Simon Peter; Smith, Kenneth; Alverson, George; Barberis, Emanuela; Baumgartel, Darin; Boeriu, Oana; Chasco, Matthew; Reucroft, Steve; Swain, John; Trocino, Daniele; Wood, Darien; Zhang, Jinzhong; Anastassov, Anton; Kubik, Andrew; Odell, Nathaniel; Ofierzynski, Radoslaw Adrian; Pollack, Brian; Pozdnyakov, Andrey; Schmitt, Michael Henry; Stoynev, Stoyan; Velasco, Mayda; Won, Steven; Antonelli, Louis; Berry, Douglas; Hildreth, Michael; Jessop, Colin; Karmgard, Daniel John; Kolb, Jeff; Kolberg, Ted; Lannon, Kevin; Luo, Wuming; Lynch, Sean; Marinelli, Nancy; Morse, David Michael; Pearson, Tessa; Ruchti, Randy; Slaunwhite, Jason; Valls, Nil; Wayne, Mitchell; Ziegler, Jill; Bylsma, Ben; Durkin, Lloyd Stanley; Gu, Jianhui; Hill, Christopher; Killewald, Phillip; Kotov, Khristian; Ling, Ta-Yung; Rodenburg, Marissa; Williams, Grayson; Adam, Nadia; Berry, Edmund; Elmer, Peter; Gerbaudo, Davide; Halyo, Valerie; Hebda, Philip; Hunt, Adam; Jones, John; Laird, Edward; Lopes Pegna, David; Marlow, Daniel; Medvedeva, Tatiana; Mooney, Michael; Olsen, James; Piroué, Pierre; Quan, Xiaohang; Saka, Halil; Stickland, David; Tully, Christopher; Werner, Jeremy Scott; Zuranski, Andrzej; Acosta, Jhon Gabriel; Huang, Xing Tao; Lopez, Angel; Mendez, Hector; Oliveros, Sandra; Ramirez Vargas, Juan Eduardo; Zatserklyaniy, Andriy; Alagoz, Enver; Barnes, Virgil E; Bolla, Gino; Borrello, Laura; Bortoletto, Daniela; Everett, Adam; Garfinkel, Arthur F; Gutay, Laszlo; Hu, Zhen; Jones, Matthew; Koybasi, Ozhan; Kress, Matthew; Laasanen, Alvin T; Leonardo, Nuno; Liu, Chang; Maroussov, Vassili; Merkel, Petra; Miller, David Harry; Neumeister, Norbert; Shipsey, Ian; Silvers, David; Svyatkovskiy, Alexey; Yoo, Hwi Dong; Zablocki, Jakub; Zheng, Yu; Jindal, Pratima; Parashar, Neeti; Boulahouache, Chaouki; Cuplov, Vesna; Ecklund, Karl Matthew; Geurts, Frank JM; Padley, Brian Paul; Redjimi, Radia; Roberts, Jay; Zabel, James; Betchart, Burton; Bodek, Arie; Chung, Yeon Sei; Covarelli, Roberto; de Barbaro, Pawel; Demina, Regina; Eshaq, Yossof; Flacher, Henning; Garcia-Bellido, Aran; Goldenzweig, Pablo; Gotra, Yury; Han, Jiyeon; Harel, Amnon; Miner, Daniel Carl; Orbaker, Douglas; Petrillo, Gianluca; Vishnevskiy, Dmitry; Zielinski, Marek; Bhatti, Anwar; Ciesielski, Robert; Demortier, Luc; Goulianos, Konstantin; Lungu, Gheorghe; Malik, Sarah; Mesropian, Christina; Yan, Ming; Atramentov, Oleksiy; Barker, Anthony; Duggan, Daniel; Gershtein, Yuri; Gray, Richard; Halkiadakis, Eva; Hidas, Dean; Hits, Dmitry; Lath, Amitabh; Panwalkar, Shruti; Patel, Rishi; Richards, Alan; Rose, Keith; Schnetzer, Steve; Somalwar, Sunil; Stone, Robert; Thomas, Scott; Cerizza, Giordano; Hollingsworth, Matthew; Spanier, Stefan; Yang, Zong-Chang; York, Andrew; Eusebi, Ricardo; Gilmore, Jason; Gurrola, Alfredo; Kamon, Teruki; Khotilovich, Vadim; Montalvo, Roy; Osipenkov, Ilya; Pakhotin, Yuriy; Pivarski, James; Safonov, Alexei; Sengupta, Sinjini; Tatarinov, Aysen; Toback, David; Weinberger, Michael; Akchurin, Nural; Bardak, Cemile; Damgov, Jordan; Jeong, Chiyoung; Kovitanggoon, Kittikul; Lee, Sung Won; Mane, Poonam; Roh, Youn; Sill, Alan; Volobouev, Igor; Wigmans, Richard; Yazgan, Efe; Appelt, Eric; Brownson, Eric; Engh, Daniel; Florez, Carlos; Gabella, William; Issah, Michael; Johns, Willard; Kurt, Pelin; Maguire, Charles; Melo, Andrew; Sheldon, Paul; Snook, Benjamin; Tuo, Shengquan; Velkovska, Julia; Arenton, Michael Wayne; Balazs, Michael; Boutle, Sarah; Cox, Bradley; Francis, Brian; Hirosky, Robert; Ledovskoy, Alexander; Lin, Chuanzhe; Neu, Christopher; Yohay, Rachel; Gollapinni, Sowjanya; Harr, Robert; Karchin, Paul Edmund; Lamichhane, Pramod; Mattson, Mark; Milstène, Caroline; Sakharov, Alexandre; Anderson, Michael; Bachtis, Michail; Bellinger, James Nugent; Carlsmith, Duncan; Dasu, Sridhara; Efron, Jonathan; Flood, Kevin; Gray, Lindsey; Grogg, Kira Suzanne; Grothe, Monika; Hall-Wilton, Richard; Herndon, Matthew; Hervé, Alain; Klabbers, Pamela; Klukas, Jeffrey; Lanaro, Armando; Lazaridis, Christos; Leonard, Jessica; Loveless, Richard; Mohapatra, Ajit; Palmonari, Francesco; Reeder, Don; Ross, Ian; Savin, Alexander; Smith, Wesley H; Swanson, Joshua; Weinberg, Marc

    2011-01-01

    First measurements of dihadron correlations for charged particles are presented for central PbPb collisions at a nucleon-nucleon center-of-mass energy of 2.76 TeV over a broad range in relative pseudorapidity, Delta(eta), and the full range of relative azimuthal angle, Delta(phi). The data were collected with the CMS detector, at the LHC. A broadening of the away-side (Delta(phi) approximately pi) azimuthal correlation is observed at all Delta(eta), as compared to the measurements in pp collisions. Furthermore, long-range dihadron correlations in Delta(eta) are observed for particles with similar phi values. This phenomenon, also known as the "ridge", persists up to at least |Delta(eta)| = 4. For particles with transverse momenta (pt) of 2-4 GeV/c, the ridge is found to be most prominent when these particles are correlated with particles of pt = 2-6 GeV/c, and to be much reduced when paired with particles of pt = 10-12 GeV/c.

  2. Corrective Action Investigation plan for Corrective Action Unit 263: Area 25 Building 4839 Leachfield, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, March 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ITLV

    1999-03-01

    The Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 263, the Area 25 Building 4839 Leachfield, has been developed in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order that was agreed to by the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office; the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection; and the US Department of Defense. Corrective Action Unit 263 is comprised of the Corrective Action Site 25-05-04 sanitary leachfield and associated collection system. This Corrective Action Investigation Plan is used in combination with the Work Plan for Leachfield Corrective Action Units: Nevada Test Site and Tonopah Test Range, Nevada (DOE/NV, 1998d). The Leachfield Work Plan was developed to streamline investigations at Leachfield Corrective Action Units by incorporating management, technical, quality assurance, health and safety, public involvement, field sampling, and waste management information common to a set of Corrective Action Units with similar site histories and characteristics into a single document that can be referenced. This Corrective Action Investigation Plan provides investigative details specific to Corrective Action Unit 263. Corrective Action Unit 263 is located southwest of Building 4839, in the Central Propellant Storage Area. Operations in Building 4839 from 1968 to 1996 resulted in effluent releases to the leachfield and associated collection system. In general, effluent released to the leachfield consisted of sanitary wastewater from a toilet, urinal, lavatory, and drinking fountain located within Building 4839. The subsurface soils in the vicinity of the collection system and leachfield may have been impacted by effluent containing contaminants of potential concern generated by support activities associated with the Building 4839 operations.

  3. Varying selection differential throughout the climatic range of Norway spruce in Central Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapeller, Stefan; Dieckmann, Ulf; Schueler, Silvio

    2017-01-01

    Predicting species distribution changes in global warming requires an understanding of how climatic constraints shape the genetic variation of adaptive traits and force local adaptations. To understand the genetic capacity of Norway spruce populations in Central Europe, we analyzed the variation in tree heights at the juvenile stage in common garden experiments established from the species' warm-dry to cold-moist distribution limits. We report the following findings: First, 47% of the total tree height variation at trial sites is attributable to the tree populations irrespective of site climate. Second, tree height variation within populations is higher at cold-moist trial sites than at warm-dry sites and higher within populations originating from cold-moist habitats than from warm-dry habitats. Third, for tree ages of 7-15 years, the variation within populations increases at cold-moist trial sites, whereas it remains constant at warm-dry sites. Fourth, tree height distributions are right-skewed at cold-moist trial sites, whereas they are nonskewed, but platykurtic at warm-dry sites. Our results suggest that in cold environments, climatic conditions impose stronger selection and probably restrict the distribution of spruce, whereas at the warm distribution limit, the species' realized niche might rather be controlled by external drivers, for example, forest insects.

  4. Geology and mineral deposits of Churchill County, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willden, Ronald; Speed, Robert C.

    1974-01-01

    Churchill County, in west-central Nevada, is an area of varied topography and geology that has had a rather small total mineral production. The western part of the county is dominated by the broad low valley of the Carson Sink, which is underlain by deposits of Lake Lahontan. The bordering mountain ranges to the west and south are of low relief and underlain largely by Tertiary volcanic and sedimentary units. Pre-Tertiary rocks are extensively exposed east of the Carson Sink in the Stillwater Range, Clan Alpine Mountains, Augusta Mountains, and New Pass Mountains. The eastern valleys are underlain by Quaternary alluvial and lacustrine deposits contemporaneous with the western deposits of Lake Lahontan. The eastern mountain ranges are more rugged than the western ranges and have higher relief; the eastern valleys are generally narrower.

  5. What do fault patterns reveal about the latest phase of extension within the Northern Snake Range metamorphic core complex, Nevada, USA?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismat, Zeshan; Riley, Paul; Lerback, Jory

    2016-08-01

    The Northern Snake Range is a classic example of a metamorphic core complex, Basin-and-Range province, United States. It is composed of a plastically deformed footwall and a brittlely deformed hanging wall, separated by the Northern Snake Range low-angle detachment (NSRD). Brittle deformation, however, is not confined to the hanging wall. This paper focuses on exposures in Cove Canyon, located on the SE flank of the Northern Snake Range, where penetrative, homogeneous faults are well exposed throughout the hanging wall, footwall and NSRD, and overprint early plastic deformation. These late-stage fault sets assisted Eocene-Miocene extension. Detailed analysis of the faults reveals the following: (1) The shortening direction defined by faults is similar to the shortening direction defined by the stretching lineation in the footwall mylonites, indicating that the extensional kinematic history remained unchanged as the rocks were uplifted into the elastico-frictional regime. (2) After ∼17 Ma, extension may have continued entirely within elastic-frictional regime via cataclastic flow. (3) This latest deformation phase may have been accommodated by a single, continuous event. (3) Faults within NSRD boudins indicate that deformation within the detachment zone was non-coaxial during the latest phase of extension.

  6. Strontium Isotopic Composition of Paleozoic Carbonate Rocks in the Nevada Test Site Vicinity, Clark, Lincoln, and Nye Counties, Nevada and Inyo County, California.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James B. Paces; Zell E. Peterman; Kiyoto Futa; Thomas A. Oliver; and Brian D. Marshall.

    2007-08-07

    Ground water moving through permeable Paleozoic carbonate rocks represents the most likely pathway for migration of radioactive contaminants from nuclear weapons testing at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. The strontium isotopic composition (87Sr/86Sr) of ground water offers a useful means of testing hydrochemical models of regional flow involving advection and reaction. However, reaction models require knowledge of 87Sr/86Sr data for carbonate rock in the Nevada Test Site vicinity, which is scarce. To fill this data gap, samples of core or cuttings were selected from 22 boreholes at depth intervals from which water samples had been obtained previously around the Nevada Test Site at Yucca Flat, Frenchman Flat, Rainier Mesa, and Mercury Valley. Dilute acid leachates of these samples were analyzed for a suite of major- and trace-element concentrations (MgO, CaO, SiO2, Al2O3, MnO, Rb, Sr, Th, and U) as well as for 87Sr/86Sr. Also presented are unpublished analyses of 114 Paleozoic carbonate samples from outcrops, road cuts, or underground sites in the Funeral Mountains, Bare Mountain, Striped Hills, Specter Range, Spring Mountains, and ranges east of the Nevada Test Site measured in the early 1990's. These data originally were collected to evaluate the potential for economic mineral deposition at the potential high-level radioactive waste repository site at Yucca Mountain and adjacent areas (Peterman and others, 1994). Samples were analyzed for a suite of trace elements (Rb, Sr, Zr, Ba, La, and Ce) in bulk-rock powders, and 87Sr/86Sr in partial digestions of carbonate rock using dilute acid or total digestions of silicate-rich rocks. Pre-Tertiary core samples from two boreholes in the central or western part of the Nevada Test Site also were analyzed. Data are presented in tables and summarized in graphs; however, no attempt is made to interpret results with respect to ground-water flow paths in this report. Present-day 87Sr/86Sr values are compared to

  7. Strontium Isotopic Composition of Paleozoic Carbonate Rocks in the Nevada Test Site Vicinity, Clark, Lincoln, and Nye Counties, Nevada, and Inyo County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paces, James B.; Peterman, Zell E.; Futo, Kiyoto; Oliver, Thomas A.; Marshall, Brian D.

    2007-01-01

    Ground water moving through permeable Paleozoic carbonate rocks represents the most likely pathway for migration of radioactive contaminants from nuclear weapons testing at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. The strontium isotopic composition (87Sr/86Sr) of ground water offers a useful means of testing hydrochemical models of regional flow involving advection and reaction. However, reaction models require knowledge of 87Sr/86Sr data for carbonate rock in the Nevada Test Site vicinity, which is scarce. To fill this data gap, samples of core or cuttings were selected from 22 boreholes at depth intervals from which water samples had been obtained previously around the Nevada Test Site at Yucca Flat, Frenchman Flat, Rainier Mesa, and Mercury Valley. Dilute acid leachates of these samples were analyzed for a suite of major- and trace-element concentrations (MgO, CaO, SiO2, Al2O3, MnO, Rb, Sr, Th, and U) as well as for 87Sr/86Sr. Also presented are unpublished analyses of 114 Paleozoic carbonate samples from outcrops, road cuts, or underground sites in the Funeral Mountains, Bare Mountain, Striped Hills, Specter Range, Spring Mountains, and ranges east of the Nevada Test Site measured in the early 1990's. These data originally were collected to evaluate the potential for economic mineral deposition at the potential high-level radioactive waste repository site at Yucca Mountain and adjacent areas (Peterman and others, 1994). Samples were analyzed for a suite of trace elements (Rb, Sr, Zr, Ba, La, and Ce) in bulk-rock powders, and 87Sr/86Sr in partial digestions of carbonate rock using dilute acid or total digestions of silicate-rich rocks. Pre-Tertiary core samples from two boreholes in the central or western part of the Nevada Test Site also were analyzed. Data are presented in tables and summarized in graphs; however, no attempt is made to interpret results with respect to ground-water flow paths in this report. Present-day 87Sr/86Sr values are compared to values

  8. Research Brief: Impacts of Extreme Fires in the Sierra Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonathan Long

    2014-01-01

    Scientists from PSW considered the effects of severe wildfire in the Sierra Nevada and southern Cascade Range in a recent synthesis that focused on promoting resiliency of forests and the societies connected to them. Fire is indispensable to maintaining the health and productivity of most forests in the Sierra Nevada, and fires can also rejuvenate aquatic systems by...

  9. Final Environmental Assessment for the Integrated Natural Resources Management Plan for Nellis Air Force Base, Creech Air Force Base, and the Nevada Test And Training Range, NV

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    are considered invasive species. The three most promi- nent annual invasives are tumbleweed or Russian thistle (Sa/so/a tragus) , red brome (Bromus...rubens), and cheat-grass (8. tectorum) . Red brome is desert-adapted and has become com- mon on the South Range, while cheat-grass is adapted to cooler...unaffected by EuroAmerican activities. Russian thistle, red brome , and cheat-grass are aggressive colonizers on disturbed soils, and they have

  10. Paleomagnetism of the Lodo Formation and kinematic evolution of the Vallecitos Syncline, Coast Ranges, Central California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, K.; Rieth, J. A.; Pluhar, C. J.

    2015-12-01

    The WNW-ESE-striking Vallecitos Syncline spans part of the California Coast Ranges, and is bounded by the Calaveras-San Andreas Fault System in the west and the Great Valley in the east. A northwest bend is observed as the syncline approaches the Calaveras and San Andreas Faults to the west, possibly a result of localized clockwise tectonic rotation. We present new paleomagnetic data from four sites across the syncline in an east-west transect to test this hypothesis. We sampled shale, sandstone, and siltstone from the Lodo Formation at Tumey Hills, Griswold Hills, New Idria, and Paicines. Using standard paleomagnetic methods, we conducted low temperature and thermal demagnetization. Data from some localities were generally scattered and difficult to interpret, suffering a major secondary chemical remanent magnetization. However the eastern end of the Vallecitos Syncline exhibited interpretable results. About a third of samples showed a strong reverse polarity at Griswold Hills and New Idria Mine, indicating that magnetization of the samples pre-date tilting of the outcrop and a secondary magnetization was acquired post deformation. Characteristic remanent magnetizations also exhibit inclination shallowing at three sites, likely the effect of compaction rather than poleward transport, since the fourth in the Tumey Hills exhibits minimal shallowing. Furthermore, results from Tumey Hills, and Griswold Hills indicate no localized tectonic rotation. Based on these findings, we tentatively conclude that the eastern end of the Vallecitos Syncline experienced no rotation, within error. Results from the western end remain inconclusive.

  11. Late Quaternary Surface Rupture and Associated Transpressive Uplift on a Section of the State Line Fault in the south-central Amargosa Desert Basin, Southwestern Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menges, C. M.; Fridrich, C.; Blakely, R. J.; Thompson, R. A.

    2003-12-01

    New geomorphic, geophysical, and structural data indicate that a section of the Pahrump-Stewart Valley (State Line) fault on the northern piedmont of the Resting Spring Range is associated with late Quaternary surface rupture and related transpressive domal uplift. Detailed aeromagnetic and gravity data clearly image this northwest-trending strike-slip fault in the subsurface as a continuous multi-strand fault system that continues >35 km further northwest into the south-central Amargosa Desert basin than previously established. This continuation of the fault consists of a sigmoidal bend characterized by a constraining bend on the north flank of the Resting Spring Range, paired with a releasing bend on the north flank of the southeastern Funeral Mountains. Bedrock mapping in the Amargosa Desert indicates a cumulative late Cenozoic right-lateral displacement of ˜15 km across the entire fault zone. In the Resting Spring area, the major central strand of the State Line fault zone is inactive but offsets playa facies of the Artists Drive Formation (equivalent), internally folded into a giant southeast-plunging chevron syncline, against fluvial and playa margin facies of the same formation that are folded into a broad northwest-plunging anticline. These deformed Tertiary strata are exposed in the core of a large (10 x 18 km) domal Quaternary uplift, centered on the northern piedmont of the range, that coincides with a major transpressive left-step in the adjoining active trace of the fault zone. The domal uplift is indicated by persistent incision into Tertiary bedrock (1-5+ m deep) beneath stepped sequences of straths capped by thin and locally warped mid-Pleistocene to Holocene alluvial-gravel veneers. Quaternary activity on the fault zone in this area is now focused on a strand along the northern and eastern border of the uplifted area marked by a discontinuous, 8-10 km long series of aligned, en-echelon, or anastomosing fault scarps that commonly bound linear

  12. Apatite (U-Th)/He Thermochronometry as an innovative Geothermal Exploration Tool - A case study from the Wassuk Range, Hawthorne, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorynski, K. E.; Stockli, D. F.; Walker, J. D.

    2010-12-01

    A utility-grade geothermal system requires increased, near-surface temperatures (>120°C), water to transfer heat, and structural or sedimentological fluid conduits. In extensional tectonic settings, geothermal anomalies often occur in areas with recent, high strain accumulation and complex faulting (i.e., cross-faults, accommodation zones) where exhumation and uplift of footwall rocks transfer heat, via advection, to the near-surface which is further carried by water through structural fluid conduits. Apatite helium (AHe) thermochronometric footwall age mapping can be used in conjunction with these genetic occurrence models to further focus regional-scale geothermal exploration efforts to areas of probabilistic increased fracture permeability and most recent, rapid footwall exhumation. Furthermore, partially reset apatites resulting from interaction with hydrothermal fluids (>40°C) will show which areas have been hottest most recently. This case study in the Wassuk Range, Hawthrone, NV confirms the utility of AHe thermochronometry as a geothermal exploration tool. A dense grid of footwall samples were collected adjacent to the Hawthorne geothermal anomaly (>85°C BHT) located in the hanging wall of the Wassuk Range block. Our data show that the location of the present-day geothermal anomaly correlates with the location of 1) the most recent episode of rapid footwall exhumation at 3.5-4 Ma, 2) km scale accommodation zones between differentially tilted Wassuk Range blocks, and 3) an elevated Miocene geothermal gradient. Furthermore, anomalously young AHe ages (Hawthorne geothermal anomaly and likely resulted from interaction with a deep-seated geothermal cell or hot hydrothermal fluids.

  13. Preliminary Assessment for CAU 485: Cactus Spring Ranch Pu and Du Site, CAS No. TA-39-001-TAGR: Soil Contamination, Tonapah Test Range, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ITLV

    1998-07-01

    Corrective Action Unit 485, Corrective Action Site TA-39-001-TAGR, the Cactus Spring Ranch Soil Contamination Area, is located approximately six miles southwest of the Area 3 Compound at the eastern mouth of Sleeping Column Canyon in the Cactus Range on the Tonopah Test Range. This site was used in conjunction with animal studies involving the biological effects of radionuclides (specifically plutonium) associated with Operation Roller Coaster. According to field records, a hardened layer of livestock feces ranging from 2.54 centimeters (cm) (1 inch [in.]) to 10.2 cm (4 in.) thick is present in each of the main sheds. IT personnel conducted a field visit on December 3, 1997, and noted that the only visible feces were located within the east shed, the previously fenced area near the east shed, and a small area southwest of the west shed. Other historical records indicate that other areas may still be covered with animal feces, but heavy vegetation now covers it. It is possible that radionuclides are present in this layer, given the history of operations in this area. Chemicals of concern may include plutonium and depleted uranium. Surface soil sampling was conducted on February 18, 1998. An evaluation of historical documentation indicated that plutonium should not be and depleted uranium could not be present at levels significantly above background as the result of test animals being penned at the site. The samples were analyzed for isotopic plutonium using method NAS-NS-3058. The results of the analysis indicated that plutonium levels of the feces and surface soil were not significantly elevated above background.

  14. Geochemistry of altered and mineralized rocks from the Morey and Fandango Wilderness Study Areas, northern Hot Creek Range, Nye County, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, J.T.; John, D.A.; Malcolm, M.J.; Briggs, P.H.; Crock, J.G.

    1986-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey and the St. Johns River Water Management District are investigating the hydrogeology of the Floridan aquifer system. An essential element of this investigation is the design and construction of a monitor well network in the lower saline water-bearing zone which occurs at about 2,000 ft below land surface. During 1985, a well near Ponte Vedra in northeast St. Johns County was completed into the lower saline water-bearing zone at a depth of 1,980 to 2,035 ft below land surface. This well and other wells drilled under this or other programs will be used to monitor water levels and water chemistry of the lower saline zone. Chloride concentrations in water above the lower saline zone ranged from 14 to 270 mg/L and specific conductance ranged from 450 to 1,440 micromhos/cm c. In the lower zone, chloride concentrations were as much as 16,210 mg/L and specific conductance as much as 46,000 micromhos per centimeter. Aquifer head and artesian flow from the well generally increased with depth. Water temperatures also increased from 23 C in the upper part of the aquifer to more than 28 C in the lower saline zone. (USGS)

  15. Updated paleomagnetic pole from Cretaceous plutonic rocks of the Sierra Nevada, California: Tectonic displacement of the Sierra Nevada block

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillhouse, John W.; Gromme, Sherman

    2011-01-01

    We report remanent magnetization measurements from 13 sites in Cretaceous plutonic rocks in the northern Sierra Nevada (38°N–39.5°N). By increasing the number of available paleomagnetic sites, the new data tighten constraints on the displacement history of the Sierra Nevada block and its pre-extensional position relative to interior North America. We collected samples in freshly exposed outcrops along four highway transects. The rocks include diorite, granodiorite, and tonalite with potassium-argon ages (hornblende) ranging from 100 Ma to 83 Ma. By combining our results with previous paleomagnetic determinations from the central and southern Sierra Nevada (excluding sites from the rotated southern tip east of the White Wolf–Kern Canyon fault system), we find a mean paleomagnetic pole of 70.5°N, 188.2°E, A95 = 2.6° (N = 26, Fisher concentration parameter, K = 118). Thermal demagnetization indicates that the characteristic remanence is generally unblocked in a narrow range within 35 °C of the Curie temperature of pure magnetite. Small apparent polar wander during the Cretaceous normal-polarity superchron, plus prolonged acquisition of remanence at the site level, may account for the low dispersion of virtual geomagnetic poles and relatively large K value. Tilt estimates based on overlapping sediments, stream gradients, and thermochronology of the Sierra Nevada plutons vary from 0° to 3° down to the southwest. Without tilt correction, the mean paleomagnetic pole for the Sierra Nevada is essentially coincident with the North American reference pole during the Cretaceous stillstand (125 Ma to 80 Ma). At 95% confidence, the apparent latitude shift is 1.1° ± 3.0° (positive northward), and the apparent rotation is negligible, 0.0° ± 4.7°. Correcting for each degree of tilt, which is limited to 3° on geologic evidence, increases the rotation anomaly 2.2° counterclockwise, while the apparent latitude shift remains unchanged.

  16. MOUNT MORIAH ROADLESS AREA, NEVADA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Robert R.; Wood, Robert H.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral survey identified the northeastern part of the Mount Moriah Roadless Area in extreme east-central Nevada as an area of probable potential for the occurrence of small, isolated deposits containing lead and zinc. Many active quarries in a unique high-quality decorative building stone occur in the area and have substantiated mineral-resource potential. Further studies in the roadless area might include detailed mapping of exposed Prospect Mountain Quartzite building stone units and notation of their suitability for quarrying. More detailed geochemical studies in the area of probable base-metal resource potential might include additional stream-sediment sampling and sampling along fault zones.

  17. Preliminary Assessment for CAU 485: Cactus Spring Ranch Pu and DU Site CAS No. TA-39-001-TAGR: Soil Contamination, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    Corrective Action Unit 485, Corrective Action Site TA-39-001-TAGR, the Cactus Spring Ranch Soil Contamination Area, is located approximately six miles southwest of the Area 3 Compound at the eastern mouth of Sleeping Column Canyon in the Cactus Range on the Tonopah Test Range. This site was used in conjunction with animal studies involving the biological effects of radionuclides (specifically plutonium) associated with Operation Roofer Coaster. The location had been used as a ranch by private citizens prior to government control of the area. According to historical records, Operation Roofer Coaster activities involved assessing the inhalation uptake of plutonium in animals from the nonnuclear detonation of nuclear weapons. Operation Roofer Coaster consisted of four nonnuclear destruction tests of a nuclear device. The four tests all took place during May and June 1963 and consisted of Double Tracks and Clean Slate 1, 11, and 111. Eighty-four dogs, 84 burros, and 136 sheep were used for the Double Tracks test, and ten sheep and ten dogs were used for Clean Slate 11. These animals were housed at Cactus Spring Ranch. Before detonation, all animals were placed in cages and transported to the field. After the shot, they were taken to the decontamination area where some may have been sacrificed immediately. All animals, including those sacrificed, were returned to Cactus Spring Ranch at this point to have autopsies performed or to await being sacrificed at a later date. A description of the Cactus Spring Ranch activities found in project files indicates the ranch was used solely for the purpose of the Roofer Coaster tests and bioaccumulation studies and was never used for any other project. No decontamination or cleanup had been conducted at Cactus Spring Ranch prior to the start of the project. When the project was complete, the pits at Cactus Spring Ranch were filled with soil, and trailers where dogs were housed and animal autopsies had been performed were removed

  18. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan for Corrective Action Unit 425: Area 9 Main Lake Construction Debris Disposal Area, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. B. Campbell

    2002-04-01

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan addresses the action necessary for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 425, Area 9 Main Lake Construction Debris Disposal Area. This CAU is currently listed in Appendix III of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO, 1996). This site will be cleaned up under the SAFER process since the volume of waste exceeds the 23 cubic meters (m{sup 3}) (30 cubic yards [yd{sup 3}]) limit established for housekeeping sites. CAU 425 is located on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) and consists of one Corrective Action Site (CAS) 09-08-001-TA09, Construction Debris Disposal Area (Figure 1). CAS 09-08-001-TA09 is an area that was used to collect debris from various projects in and around Area 9. The site is located approximately 81 meters (m) (265 feet [ft]) north of Edwards Freeway northeast of Main Lake on the TTR. The site is composed of concrete slabs with metal infrastructure, metal rebar, wooden telephone poles, and concrete rubble from the Hard Target and early Tornado Rocket sled tests. Other items such as wood scraps, plastic pipes, soil, and miscellaneous nonhazardous items have also been identified in the debris pile. It is estimated that this site contains approximately 2280 m{sup 3} (3000 yd{sup 3}) of construction-related debris.

  19. Streamlined approach for environmental restoration (SAFER) plan for corrective action unit 412: clean slate I plutonium dispersion (TTR) tonopah test range, Nevada, revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthews, Patrick K.

    2015-04-01

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan addresses the actions needed to achieve closure for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 412. CAU 412 is located on the Tonopah Test Range and consists of a single corrective action site (CAS), TA-23-01CS, Pu Contaminated Soil. There is sufficient information and historical documentation from previous investigations and the 1997 interim corrective action to recommend closure of CAU 412 using the SAFER process. Based on existing data, the presumed corrective action for CAU 412 is clean closure. However, additional data will be obtained during a field investigation to document and verify the adequacy of existing information and determine whether the CAU 412 closure objectives have been achieved. This SAFER Plan provides the methodology to gather the necessary information for closing the CAU.The following summarizes the SAFER activities that will support the closure of CAU 412:• Collect environmental samples from designated target populations to confirm or disprove the presence of contaminants of concern (COCs) as necessary to supplement existing information.• If no COCs are present, establish clean closure as the corrective action. • If COCs are present, the extent of contamination will be defined and further corrective actions will be evaluated with the stakeholders (NDEP, USAF).• Confirm the preferred closure option is sufficient to protect human health and the environment.

  20. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan for Corrective Action Unit 408: Bomblet Target Area Tonopah Test Range (TTR), Nevada, Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark Krauss

    2010-03-01

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan addresses the actions needed to achieve closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 408, Bomblet Target Area (TTR). Corrective Action Unit 408 is located at the Tonopah Test Range and is currently listed in Appendix III of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 408 comprises Corrective Action Site TA-55-002-TAB2, Bomblet Target Areas. Clean closure of CAU 408 will be accomplished by removal of munitions and explosives of concern within seven target areas and potential disposal pits. The target areas were used to perform submunitions related tests for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The scope of CAU 408 is limited to submunitions released from DOE activities. However, it is recognized that the presence of other types of unexploded ordnance and munitions may be present within the target areas due to the activities of other government organizations. The CAU 408 closure activities consist of: • Clearing bomblet target areas within the study area. • Identifying and remediating disposal pits. • Collecting verification samples. • Performing radiological screening of soil. • Removing soil containing contaminants at concentrations above the action levels. Based on existing information, contaminants of potential concern at CAU 408 include unexploded submunitions, explosives, Resource Conservation Recovery Act metals, and depleted uranium. Contaminants are not expected to be present in the soil at concentrations above the action levels; however, this will be determined by radiological surveys and verification sample results.

  1. Hydrologic Data for the Groundwater Flow and Contaminant Transport Model of Corrective Action Units 101 and 102: Central and Western Pahute Mesa, Nye County, Nevada, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drici, Warda [Stoller-Navarro Joint Venture, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2004-02-01

    This report documents the analysis of the available hydrologic data conducted in support of the development of a Corrective Action Unit (CAU) groundwater flow model for Central and Western Pahute Mesa: CAUs 101 and 102.

  2. Contaminant Transport Parameters for the Groundwater Flow and Contaminant Transport Model of Corrective Action Units 101 and 102: Central and Western Pahute Mesa, Nye County, Nevada, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drici, Warda [International Technologies Corporation, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2003-08-01

    This report documents the analysis of the available transport parameter data conducted in support of the development of a Corrective Action Unit (CAU) groundwater flow model for Central and Western Pahute Mesa: CAUs 101 and 102.

  3. Low-angle normal faults in the south-central Brooks Range fold and thrust belt, Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gottschalk, R.R.; Oldow, J.S.

    1988-05-01

    A north-south structural transect through the south-central Brooks Range, Alaska, exposes three lithologically distinct, fault-bounded packages of rock, all regionally metamorphosed during the Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous contractional deformation that formed much of the Brooks Range fold and thrust belt. These are, from south to north and structurally highest to lowest, (1) the prehnite-pumpellyite facies ophiolitic rocks of the Angayucham terrane, (2) the low-grade metasedimentary rocks of the Rosie Creek allochthon, and (3) pumpellyite-actinolite to glaucophane-epidote facies metamorphic rocks of the schist belt. The presence of rocks metamorphosed and deformed at shallow levels of the fold and thrust belt (the Angayucham terrane and Rosie Creek allochthon) lying structurally above rocks representing the deepest exposed levels of the fold and thrust belt (the schist belt) indicates that the imbricate stack is disrupted by south-dipping, low-angle normal faults along the southern margin of the Brooks Range. The authors propose that normal faults developed in response to the uplift of the schist belt and the overlying metasedimentary and ophiolitic allochthons by north-directed thrusting in the late Early Cretaceous. Thrusting resulting in the oversteepening of the imbricate stack, causing compensatory normal faulting along the southern flank of the ramp structure. Normal faults may have provided at least local structural control of the locus of Albian and younger sedimentation in the Koyukuk basin. 34 references.

  4. Detailed study of irrigation drainage in and near wildlife management areas, west-central Nevada, 1987-90; Part C, Summary of irrigation-drainage effects on water quality, bottom sediment, and biota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Ray J.

    1993-01-01

    This report presents a summary of the detailed scientific study of Stillwater Wildlife Management Area and other nearby wetlands in west-central Nevada during 1987-90. The work was funded by the National Irrigation Water Quality Program of the U.S. Department of the Interior with the overall objectives of determining (1) the extent, magnitude, and effects of selected water-quality constituents associated with irrigation drainage on fish, wildlife, and human health, and (2) the sources and exposure pathways that cause contamination where adverse effects are documented. Much of the information in this report was summarized from two previously published interpretive reports that were completed to fulfill study objectives. Where applicable, data for the study area from other published sources also were utilized. The results of these studies indicate that the aquatic biota in natural wetlands of the Carson Desert are adversely affected by hydrological and geochemical sources and processes in the Newlands Irrigation Project area. Reactions between water and naturally occurring minerals in the shallow alluvial aquifer increase concentrations of potentially toxic constituents in ground water that eventually enters the wetlands. Once in the wetlands, these constituents are furhter concentrated by evaporation and transpiration. Water from some agricultural drains that enter Stillwater WMA was acutely toxic to aquatic organisms. The drains in the agricultural areas, which eventually discharge to the wetlands, were also implicated as sites of uptake of selenium and mercury by aquatic organisms.

  5. A new PCR-based approach indicates the range of Clonorchis sinensis now extends to Central Thailand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca J Traub

    Full Text Available Differentiation of the fish-borne trematodes belonging to the Opisthorchiidae, Heterophyidae and Lecithodendriidae is important from a clinical and epidemiological perspective, yet it is impossible to do using conventional coprological techniques, as the eggs are morphologically similar. Epidemiological investigation therefore currently relies on morphological examination of adult worms following expulsion chemotherapy. A PCR test capable of amplifying a segment of the internal transcribed spacer region of ribosomal DNA for the opisthorchiid and heterophyid flukes eggs taken directly from faeces was developed and evaluated in a rural community in central Thailand. The lowest quantity of DNA that could be amplified from individual adults of Opisthorchis viverrini, Clonorchis sinensis and Haplorchis taichui was estimated at 0.6 pg, 0.8 pg and 3 pg, respectively. The PCR was capable of detecting mixed infection with the aforementioned species of flukes under experimental conditions. A total of 11.6% of individuals in rural communities in Sanamchaikaet district, central Thailand, were positive for 'Opisthorchis-like' eggs in their faeces using conventional parasitological detection techniques. In comparison to microscopy, the PCR yielded a sensitivity and specificity of 71.0% and 76.7%, respectively. Analysis of the microscopy-positive PCR products revealed 64% and 23% of individuals to be infected with O. viverrini and C. sinensis, respectively. The remaining 13% (three individuals were identified as eggs of Didymozoidae, presumably being passed mechanically in the faeces following the ingestion of infected fishes. An immediate finding of this study is the identification and first report of a C. sinensis-endemic community in central Thailand. This extends the known range of this liver fluke in Southeast Asia. The PCR developed herein provides an important tool for the specific identification of liver and intestinal fluke species for future

  6. The influence of upper-crust lithology on topographic development in the central Coast Ranges of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, A.F.; Mahan, S.A.

    2012-01-01

    A fundamental geological tenet is that as landscapes evolve over graded to geologic time, geologic structures control patterns of topographic distribution in mountainous areas such that terrain underlain by competent rock will be higher than terrain underlain by incompetent rock. This paper shows that in active orogens where markedly weak and markedly strong rocks are juxtaposed along contacts that parallel regional structures, relatively high topography can form where strain is localized in the weak rock. Such a relationship is illustrated by the topography of the central Coast Ranges between the Pacific coastline and the San Andreas fault zone (SAFZ), and along the length of the Gabilan Mesa (the "Gabilan Mesa segment" of the central Coast Ranges). Within the Gabilan Mesa segment, the granitic upper crust of the Salinian terrane is in contact with the accretionary-prism m??lange upper crust of the Nacimiento terrane along the inactive Nacimiento fault zone. A prominent topographic lineament is present along most of this lithologic boundary, approximately 50 to 65. km southwest of the SAFZ, with the higher topography formed in the m??lange on the southwest side of the Nacimiento fault. This paper investigates factors influencing the pattern of topographic development in the Gabilan Mesa segment of the central Coast Ranges by correlating shortening magnitude with the upper-crust compositions of the Salinian and Nacimiento terranes. The fluvial geomorphology of two valleys in the Gabilan Mesa, which is within the Salinian terrane, and alluvial geochronology based on optically-stimulated luminescence (OSL) age estimates, reveal that the magnitude of shortening accommodated by down-to-the-southwest tilting of the mesa since 400ka is less than 1 to 2m. Our results, combined with those of previous studies, indicate that at least 63% to 78% of late-Cenozoic, northeast-southwest directed, upper-crustal shortening across the Gabilan Mesa segment has been accommodated

  7. Geochemical and Isotopic Data for Oligocene Ignimbrites, Calderas, and Granitic Plutons, Southern Stillwater Range and Clan Alpine Mountains: Insights into the Volcanic-Plutonic Connection and Crustal Evolution in Western Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, D. A.; Colgan, J. P.; Watts, K. E.; Henry, C.; Cousens, B.

    2015-12-01

    Oligocene calderas and underlying plutons in the southern Stillwater Range (SSR) and Clan Alpine Mountains (CAM) in western Nevada were tilted (40->90°) by large-magnitude Miocene extension and unconformably overlain by 15-13 Ma intermediate and mafic lava flows. New geologic mapping, geochemistry, and Ar-Ar and U-Pb dating document 2 brief periods of magmatism resulting in 5 nested calderas and related plutons in sections locally ≥9 km thick. Early magmatism at ~29 Ma included the Deep Canyon caldera in CAM, and in the SSR, pre-caldera rhyolites, ~5 km of pre- and post-collapse intermediate lavas and rhyolite tuff that filled Job Canyon caldera (JC, ~29.4 to 28.8 Ma), and the >4-5 km thick IXL pluton (~28.5 Ma) that intruded JC and is compositionally similar to the tuff and lava flows. The second period included 3 ignimbrite units in 3 calderas: small-volume tuff of Louderback Mountains (LM, low-silica rhyolite; ≥600 m thick; ~25.3 Ma); multiple cooling units of tuff of Poco Canyon (PC, high-silica rhyolite; ≤4.5 km thick; ~25.3 Ma); and ≥2500 km3 of tuff of Elevenmile Canyon (EC, trachydacite to rhyolite; ≤4.5 km thick; 25.1 Ma) that covers ~1600 km2 and extends east from SSR to the northern Desatoya Mountains. The composite Freeman Creek pluton (granodiorite, ~25.0 Ma; granite, ~24.8 Ma) and Chalk Mountain rhyolite porphyry (~25.2 Ma) and granite (~24.8 Ma) plutons intruded LM, PC and EC calderas. Radiogenic isotopes in all caldera units are similar (Sri~0.7050, ΕNd~0.0), while oxygen isotope compositions are variable (δ18Oquartz=5.7-8.4‰, δ18Ozircon=4.1-6.3‰), corresponding to a magmatic range of 5.6-7.6‰, including 2-5 km) underlie compositionally and temporally related caldera-filling ignimbrites, (2) caldera-forming cycles are isotopically variable, requiring temporally and spatially distinct magma sources, and (3) caldera magmas have a strong mantle affinity and overlap isotopically (Sr, Nd, and O) with regional Late Cenozoic basalts.

  8. Wetlands Inventory Nevada

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Nevada wetlands inventory is a unit of a nationwide survey undertaken by the Fish and Wildlife Service to locate and tabulate by habitat types the important...

  9. Special Nevada report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-09-23

    This report is submitted to Congress by the Secretary of the Air Force, the Secretary of the Navy, and the Secretary of the Interior pursuant to Section 6 of the Military Lands Withdrawal Act of 1986. It contains an analysis and evaluation of the effects on public health and safety resulting from DOD and Department of Energy (DOE) military and defense-related uses on withdrawn public lands in the State of Nevada and in airspace overlying the State. This report describes the cumulative impacts of those activities on public and private property in Nevada and on plants, fish and wildlife, cultural, historic, scientific, recreational, wilderness and other resources of the public lands of Nevada. An analysis and evaluation of possible measures to mitigate the cumulative effects of the withdrawal of lands and the use of airspace in Nevada for defense-related purposes was conducted, and those considered practical are listed.

  10. Hydrogeology of Nevada

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set consists of hydrogeology for the State of Nevada. Consolidated rocks and unconsolidated sediments are the two major hydrogeologic units. Consolidated...

  11. Himalayan ibex (Capra ibex sibirica habitat suitability and range resource dynamics in the Central Karakorum National Park, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garee Khan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The study investigates Himalayan ibex (Capra ibex sibirica and their range resource condition within the preferred habitat in the Central Karakoram National Park, Pakistan. We apply ecological niche factor analysis (ENFA using 110 ibex sighting data and 6 key biophysical variables describing the habitat conditions and produce habitat suitability and maps with GIS and statistical tool (BioMapper. The modeling results of specialization factor shows some limitation for ibex over the use of slope, elevation, vegetation types and ruggedness. The habitat area selection for the ibex is adjusted to the ibex friendly habitat available conditions. The model results predicted suitable habitat for ibex in certain places, where field observation was never recorded. The range resource dynamics depict a large area that comes under the alpine meadows has the highest seasonal productivity, assessed by remote sensing based fortnightly vegetation condition data of the last 11 years. These meadows are showing browning trend over the years, attributable to grazing practices or climate conditions. At lower elevation, there are limited areas with suitable dry steppes, which may cause stress on ibex, especially during winter.

  12. Rock Geochemistry and Mineralogy from Fault Zones and Polymetallic Fault Veins of the Central Front Range, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caine, Jonathan S.; Bove, Dana J.

    2010-01-01

    During the 2004 to 2008 field seasons, approximately 200 hand samples of fault and polymetallic vein-related rocks were collected for geochemical and mineralogical analyses. The samples were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey as part of the Evolution of Brittle Structures Task under the Central Colorado Assessment Project (CCAP) of the Mineral Resources Program (http://minerals.cr.usgs.gov/projects/colorado_assessment/index.html). The purpose of this work has been to characterize the relation between epithermal, polymetallic mineral deposits, paleostress, and the geological structures that hosted fluid flow and localization of the deposits. The data in this report will be used to document and better understand the processes that control epithermal mineral-deposit formation by attempting to relate the geochemistry of the primary structures that hosted hydrothermal fluid flow to their heat and fluid sources. This includes processes from the scale of the structures themselves to the far field scale, inclusive of the intrusive bodies that have been thought to be the sources for the hydrothermal fluid flow. The data presented in this report are part of a larger assessment effort on public lands. The larger study area spans the region of the southern Rocky Mountains in Colorado from the Wyoming to New Mexico borders and from the eastern boundary of the Front Range to approximately the longitude of Vail and Leadville, Colorado. Although the study area has had an extensive history of geological mapping, the mapping has resulted in a number of hypotheses that are still in their infancy of being tested. For example, the proximity of polymetallic veins to intrusive bodies has been thought to reflect a genetic relation between the two features; however, this idea has not been well tested with geochemical indicators. Recent knowledge regarding the coupled nature of stress, strain, fluid flow, and geochemistry warrant new investigations and approaches to test a variety of

  13. Gradual loss of genetic diversity of Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. populations in the invaded range of central Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kočiš-Tubić Nataša

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As an invasive allergenic weed, Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. causes serious public health and economic problems in invaded ranges of Europe. Over the last two decades, while expanding toward southern parts of Serbia, this common ragweed has become a very troublesome plant species in the whole country. Considering the importance of genetic studies in understanding of invasive species, our main objectives in this study were to analyze the genetic diversity and genetic structure of Ambrosia artemisiifolia populations from Central Serbia, a relatively recently invaded region. Comparing values of genetic measures obtained by microsatellite analyses, a number of differences were detected in genetic diversity between sampled populations. Allelic richness-r (ranged from 5.42 to 7.80, the mean number of alleles per locus-NA (5.8-8.4 and the mean number of rare alleles per locus-NR (2.8-5.8 have quite similar ranges across populations. We observed greater genetic variability in populations from the northern part of investigated area than in southern populations. Based on pairwise Fst values, AMOVA results and PCo Analysis, moderate differentiation among population was detected, while the STRUCTURE analysis clearly separated SR-Kru and SR-Les. Data obtained for analyses of differentiation and gradual losses of genetic diversity of sampled populations provides useful information about invasion dynamics of common ragweed in recently invaded region. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 173002 and the Secretariat for Science and Tehnological Development, Province of Vojvodina (No. 114-457-2173/2011-01

  14. Studies of geology and hydrology in the Basin and Range Province, Southwestern United States, for isolation of high-level radioactive waste - Characterization of the Bonneville region, Utah and Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedinger, M.S.; Sargent, K.A.; Langer, William H.

    1990-01-01

    The Bonneville region of the Basin and Range province in westcentral Utah and adjacent Nevada includes several basins lying south of the Great Salt Lake Desert. Physiographically, the region consists of linear, north-trending mountain ranges separated by valleys, many of which are closed basins underlain by thick sequences of fill. Surface drainage of open basins and ground-water flow is to the Great Salt Lake Desert. In structure and composition the ranges are faulted Paleozoic rocks, locally intruded by Mesozoic and Tertiary plugs and stocks. In the southern and northeastern parts of the region, volcanic rocks are widespread and form large parts of some mountain ranges. The Paleozoic sedimentary rocks include great thicknesses of carbonate rocks which compose a significant aquifer in the regionMedia considered to have potential for isolation of high-level radioactive waste in the region include intrusive rocks, such as granite; ash-flow tuff; and basalt and basaltic andesite lava flows. These rock types, basin fill, and possibly other rock types, may have potential as host media in the unsaturated zone. Quaternary tectonism in the region is evidenced by seismic activity, local areas of above-normal geothermal heat flow, Quaternary faulting, late Cenozoic volcanic activity, and active vertical crustal movement. The Bonneville region is part of a large ground-water flow system that is integrated partly through basin-fill deposits, but largely through an underlying carbonate-rock sequence. The region includes: (1) several topographically closed basins with virtually no local surface discharge that are drained by the underlying carbonate-rock aquifer; (2) closed basins with local surface discharge by evapotranspiration; and (3) basins open to the Great Salt Lake Desert that discharge by groundwater underflow and evapotranspiration. The carbonate-rock aquifer discharges to large springs in the Desert and in basins tributary to the Desert. The climate is arid to

  15. What controls the long-term sediment flux from headwater catchments in the low mountain ranges of central Europe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, A.; Bork, H.; Heckmann, T.; Larsen, J.

    2012-12-01

    than the error range of the mass balance, the recent activity represents the largest phase of sediment export in the last ~12 000 years. This also corresponds to the only record of stratigraphic inter-connection between the gully fan and floodplain of the trunk stream, which has also become silt dominated. This study provides a clear process understanding of the links between the dominant controls on headwater catchment erosion, and downstream floodplain activity, and has implications for how climate and human impacts are interpreted in the Holocene sedimentary records of the mountain landscapes of central Europe.

  16. Yew matriarchies of the Sierra de Francia. Dynamics and ecology of recently identified Yew populations in the Central Iberian Mountain Range (Sistema Central

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prudencio Fernández-González

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: Our study design presents two main objectives: 1 to create a census that details the number of yew individuals and their geographic distribution, and 2 to attempt to unravel possible reproductive relationships and their connection between true population nuclei and meta-population models.Area of study: Recently identified yew populations (Taxus baccata L. were studied in the western sector of the Sistema Central mountain range of theIberian Peninsula, known as the Sierra de Francia. The study was carried out in five watersheds within Las Batuecas-Sierra de Francia Natural Park.Material and Methods: All yew specimens were counted and assigned to age groups. The notable differences observed in regeneration aof these communities propitiates population analysis aimed at explaining the landscape connectivity relationships between the different population nuclei and the possibility of defining the meta-population set. Ecological niche models were also created to define the main ecological characteristics of the different subpopulations studied, and to compare them.Main results: Yew in the Sierra de Francia live in an array of different Mediterranean forests, indicative of species dynamics in theIberian Peninsula. 2,450 specimens were recorded and classified into the three types of yew forest population dynamics: regressional-, naturally regenerating-, and incipient- (i.e.  colonizing new territories.Research highlights: The essential role of connectivity between populations was recognized and confirmed in this study, specifically among the large female trees located at the headwaters. Based on the role of these female trees, we have created a model called “yew matriarchies”, which serves to express the relevance of large female yew trees in population dynamics.Keywords: Taxus baccata; census; connectivity; seed dispersal.

  17. Structure and dendroecology of Thuja occidentalis in disjunct stands south of its contiguous range in the central Appalachian Mountains, USA

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    Joshua A. Kincaid

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Information on forest structure, growth, and disturbance history is essential for effective forest management in a dynamic landscape. Because most of our research concerning the ecology and growth of Thuja occidentalis comes from sites in northern portions of its range, highly contextual biotic and abiotic factors that affect the species in more southern locales may not be fully accounted for. This research characterized the structural attributes and growth dynamics of Thuja occidentalis in disjunct forest stands south of its contiguous range margin. Methods The Thuja occidentalis forests examined in this research were located in the central Appalachian Mountains, USA, approximately 440 km south of the contiguous range margin of the species. Forest structural attributes were characterized in two Thuja occidentalis forest stands, which are rare in the region. Tree-ring chronologies were used to examine the influences of disturbance and climate on the growth of Thuja occidentalis. Results The forests contained a total of 13 tree species with Thuja occidentalis contributing substantially to the basal area of the sites. Thuja occidentalis stems were absent in the smallest size class, while hardwood species were abundant in the smallest classes. Thuja occidentalis stems also were absent from the < 70 years age class. By contrast, Thuja occidentalis snags were abundant within stands. Growth-release events were distributed across the disturbance chronology and generally affected a small number of trees. The Thuja occidentalis tree-ring chronology possessed an interseries correlation of 0.62 and mean sensitivity of 0.25. The correlation between mean temperature and Thuja occidentalis growth was weak and variable. Growth and moisture variables were more strongly correlated, and this relationship was predominantly positive. Conclusions Structural attributes indicate the forests are in the understory reinitiation stage of forest development

  18. Hydrologic response and watershed sensitivity to climate warming in California's Sierra Nevada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Null, Sarah E; Viers, Joshua H; Mount, Jeffrey F

    2010-04-01

    This study focuses on the differential hydrologic response of individual watersheds to climate warming within the Sierra Nevada mountain region of California. We describe climate warming models for 15 west-slope Sierra Nevada watersheds in California under unimpaired conditions using WEAP21, a weekly one-dimensional rainfall-runoff model. Incremental climate warming alternatives increase air temperature uniformly by 2 degrees, 4 degrees, and 6 degrees C, but leave other climatic variables unchanged from observed values. Results are analyzed for changes in mean annual flow, peak runoff timing, and duration of low flow conditions to highlight which watersheds are most resilient to climate warming within a region, and how individual watersheds may be affected by changes to runoff quantity and timing. Results are compared with current water resources development and ecosystem services in each watershed to gain insight into how regional climate warming may affect water supply, hydropower generation, and montane ecosystems. Overall, watersheds in the northern Sierra Nevada are most vulnerable to decreased mean annual flow, southern-central watersheds are most susceptible to runoff timing changes, and the central portion of the range is most affected by longer periods with low flow conditions. Modeling results suggest the American and Mokelumne Rivers are most vulnerable to all three metrics, and the Kern River is the most resilient, in part from the high elevations of the watershed. Our research seeks to bridge information gaps between climate change modeling and regional management planning, helping to incorporate climate change into the development of regional adaptation strategies for Sierra Nevada watersheds.

  19. Beyond health gain: the range of health system benefits expressed by social groups in Mexico and Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Block, M A; Sandiford, P; Ruiz, J A; Rovira, J

    2001-05-01

    Current health reform proposals in most developing countries stress health gain as the chief evaluation criterion. Essential service packages are formulated using cost-effectiveness methods for the selection of interventions without sufficient regard for other factors that are significant for successful implementation and acceptance by the needy. This paper presents the results of research undertaken in Mexico and Central America to test the hypothesis that population groups view health gain as only one among several benefits derived from health systems. The goal at this stage was two-fold: (a) to identify through qualitative methods the range of benefits that are significant for a wide cross-section of social groups and (b) to classify such benefits in types amenable to be used in the development of instruments to measure the benefits intended and actually produced by health systems. Fourteen focus groups were undertaken in Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Mexico and Nicaragua representing diverse age, gender, occupation and social conditions. Six major types of health system benefits were identified besides health gain: reassurance/uncertainty reduction, economic security, confidence in health system quality, financial benefits derived from the system, health care process utility and health system fairness. Benefits most often mentioned can be classed under health care process utility and confidence in system quality. They also have the most consensus across social groups. Other benefits mentioned have an affinity with social conditions. Human resource-derived utility stands out by its frequency in the range of benefits mentioned. Health systems and health sector reform proposals must emphasise those aspects of quality related to human resources to be in accord with population expectations.

  20. First information on age and growth of Padogobius bonelli (Bonaparte, 1846 outside of its native range: River Aggia (Central Italy

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    Pompei L.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Padogobius bonelli is a goby native to Northern Italy, but several populations are established in Central Italy out of its native range. P. bonelli caused negative impact on native fish community but any study on growth in the introduced areas has ever been conducted. In this study age, growth and condition of a non-native population of P. bonelli from the River Aggia were investigated. Samples (n = 422 were collected monthly from January to December 2012. Age estimation was based on scalimetry and five age classes (0+–4+ were observed. Sex ratio was strongly male-biased. Growth in previous years was determined by back-calculation from scale measurements and the occurrence of Lee’s phenomenon was tested. Von Bertalanffy growth parameters were estimated (Males: L∞ = 8.35 cm, k = 0.40, Φ′ = 1.44; Females: L∞ = 8.71, k = 0.43 , Φ′ = 1.51. No differences in growth between sexes were observed, despite sexual dimorphism based on the larger size of males is count as a typical trait of the species. This result could be affected by the reverse Lee’s phenomenon that acts only on females, since in the population selectively survived females of larger size. Smaller females would be disadvantaged, especially during the breeding season, as highlighted by the low somatic condition observed in the period April–June.

  1. Long-range transported dissolved organic matter, ions and black carbon deposited on Central Asian snow covered glaciers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmale, Julia; Kang, Shichang; Peltier, Richard

    2014-05-01

    Ninety percent of the Central Asian population depend on water precipitated in the mountains stored in glaciers and snow cover. Accelerated melting of the snow and ice can be induced by the deposition of airborne impurities such as mineral dust, black carbon and co-emitted species leading to significant reductions of the surface albedo. However, Central Asia is a relatively understudied region and data on the source regions, chemical and microphysical characteristics as well as modelling studies of long-range transported air pollution and dust to the Tien Shan mountains is very scarce. We studied the atmospheric aerosol deposited most likely between summer 2012 and summer 2013on three different glaciers in the Kyrgyz Republic. Samples were taken from four snow pits on the glaciers Abramov (2 pits, 39.59 °N, 71.56 °E, 4390 m elevation, 240 cm deep, and 39.62°N, 71.52 °E, 4275 m elevation, 125 cm deep), Ak-Shiirak (41.80 °N, 78.18 °E, 4325 m elevation, 75 cm deep) and Suek (41.78 °N, 77.75 °E, 4341 m elevation, 200 cm deep). The latter two glaciers are located roughly within 6 and 38 km of an operating gold mine. The snow was analyzed for black carbon, ions, metals and organic carbon. We here focus on the results of inorganic ion measurements and organic carbon speciation based on analysis with an Aerodyne high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) and potential pollution sources that can be deduced from the chemical information as well as back trajectories. Average contributions of snow impurities measured by the HR-ToF-AMS were dominated by organic carbon. Relative concentrations of organic carbon, sulfate, nitrate and ammonium in snow were 86 %, 3 %, 9 % and 2 % respectively for Abramov, 92 %, 1 %, 5 % and 1 % for Suek, and 95 %, 1 %, 3 % and 1 % for Ak-Shiirak. Generally, impurities on Suek and Ak-Shiirak were three and five times higher than on Abramov. Mass concentrations of organic carbon were on average 6 times higher in samples

  2. Faulting in the Yucca Mountain region: Critical review and analyses of tectonic data from the central Basin and Range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrill, D.A.; Stirewalt, G.L.; Henderson, D.B.; Stamatakos, J.; Morris, A.P.; Spivey, K.H. [Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (United States). Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses; Wernicke, B.P. [California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena, CA (United States). Div. of Geological and Planetary Sciences

    1996-03-01

    Yucca Mountain, Nevada, has been proposed as the potential site for a high-level waste (HLW) repository. The tectonic setting of Yucca Mountain presents several potential hazards for a proposed repository, such as potential for earthquake seismicity, fault disruption, basaltic volcanism, magma channeling along pre-existing faults, and faults and fractures that may serve as barriers or conduits for groundwater flow. Characterization of geologic structures and tectonic processes will be necessary to assess compliance with regulatory requirements for the proposed high level waste repository. In this report, we specifically investigate fault slip, seismicity, contemporary stain, and fault-slip potential in the Yucca Mountain region with regard to Key Technical Uncertainties outlined in the License Application Review Plan (Sections 3.2.1.5 through 3.2.1.9 and 3.2.2.8). These investigations center on (i) alternative methods of determining the slip history of the Bare Mountain Fault, (ii) cluster analysis of historic earthquakes, (iii) crustal strain determinations from Global Positioning System measurements, and (iv) three-dimensional slip-tendency analysis. The goal of this work is to assess uncertainties associated with neotectonic data sets critical to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses` ability to provide prelicensing guidance and perform license application review with respect to the proposed HLW repository at Yucca Mountain.

  3. 40Ar/39Ar and U-Pb Ages and Isotopic Data for Oligocene Ignimbrites, Calderas, and Granitic Plutons, Southern Stillwater Range and Clan Alpine Mountains: Insights into the Volcanic-Plutonic Connection and Crustal Evolution in Western Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, D. A.; Watts, K. E.; Henry, C.; Colgan, J. P.; Cousens, B.

    2014-12-01

    Calderas in the southern Stillwater Range (SSR) and Clan Alpine Mountains (CAM) were formed during the mid-Tertiary ignimbrite flareup and subsequently tilted (40->90°) by large-magnitude extension. New geologic mapping, geochemistry, and 40Ar/39Ar and SHRIMP U-Pb zircon dating document 2 periods of magmatism resulting in 4 nested calderas and related granitoid plutons in sections up to 10 km thick. The first period included pre-caldera rhyolite lava domes (30(?) Ma), ~5 km of pre- and post-collapse intermediate lavas and rhyolite tuff that filled the Job Canyon caldera (~29.4 to 28.8 Ma), and the >4-5 km thick, geochemically similar IXL pluton (28.9±0.4 Ma) that intruded the Job Canyon caldera. The second period included pre-caldera rhyolite lava domes and dikes (~25.5 Ma) and 3 ignimbrite units in 3 calderas: tuff of the Louderback Mountains (low-silica rhyolite; ≥600 m thick; ~25.2 Ma); tuff of Poco Canyon (high-silica rhyolite; up to 4.3 km thick; 25.27±0.05 Ma); and ≥2000 km3 tuff of Elevenmile Canyon (trachydacite to rhyolite; up to 4.5 km thick; 25.12±0.01 Ma). The composite Freeman Creek pluton (granite, 24.8±0.4 Ma; granodiorite, 25.0±0.2 Ma) and Chalk Mountain rhyolite porphyry (25.2±0.2 Ma) and granite (24.8±0.3 Ma) plutons intruded the Poco Canyon and Elevenmile Canyon calderas. Early (30 Ma) rhyolites have the least radiogenic compositions (Sri~0.7040), whereas other units are relatively homogeneous (Sri~0.7050, ENd~0.0). Oxygen isotope compositions for SSR and CAM calderas are highly variable (d18Oquartz=5.6-8.2‰, d18Osanidine=5.5-7.0‰, d18Ozircon= 4.1-6.3‰), corresponding to a magmatic range of 5.7-7.9‰. U-Pb dating of zircons indicates homogeneous age populations and few/no xenocrysts and antecrysts. These data show that (1) thick plutons (>2-5 km) underlie compositionally and temporally related caldera-filling ignimbrites, (2) caldera-forming cycles are isotopically variable, requiring divergent magmatic sources in relatively

  4. Identification of 18S ribosomal DNA genotype of Acanthamoeba from hot spring recreation areas in the central range, Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Bing-Mu; Ma, Po-Hua; Liou, Tai-Sheng; Chen, Jung-Sheng; Shih, Feng-Cheng

    2009-04-01

    SummaryAcanthamoeba is a free-living amoebae ubiquitous to aquatic environments. Within the genus a few species are recognized as opportunistic potential human pathogens, which cause granulomatous amoebic encephalitis (GAE) and keratitis. Infections of keratitis are frequently reported through wearing lens while swimming in the non-disinfected aquatic environment. Contaminations in hot tubs, spas and public baths are also possible. As a result, in this study, we identified Acanthamoeba based on the PCR amplification with a genus-specific primer pair and investigated the distribution of Acanthamoeba at five hot spring recreation areas in central range, Taiwan. We gathered data on factors potentially associated with the pathogen's distribution, including various sampling sites, aquatic environment, physical and microbiological water quality parameters. Spring water was collected from 55 sites and Acanthamoeba was detected in 9 (16.4%). The most frequently detected was Acanthamoeba griffini, followed by Acanthamoeba jacobsi. Legionella were detected in 18 (32.7%) of the sites sampled in this study. The species of Legionella identified included Legionella pneumophila serotype 6, serotype 1, and Legionella erythra. Overall, 9.1% of the samples contained both Acanthamoeba and Legionella. The prevalence of Acanthamoeba was contrary to the levels of microbiological indicators recommended by Taiwan CDC, and no significant differences (Mann-Whitney U test, P < 0.05) were observed between the presence/absence of Acanthamoeba and water quality parameters. Results of this survey confirm the existence of Acanthamoeba in Taiwan spring recreation areas. Acanthamoeba, the organism responsible for the majority of Acanthamoeba keratitis and can serve as vehicles for facultative pathogens, should be considered a potential threat for health associated with human activities in spring recreation areas of Taiwan.

  5. Folding by cataclastic flow at shallow crustal levels in the Canyon Range, Sevier orogenic belt, west-central Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismat, Zeshan; Mitra, Gautam

    2001-02-01

    Folds form by ductile deformation typically involving continuous flow. In the elastico-frictional regime, such deformation may be accomplished by cataclastic flow involving collective movement on a population of fractures and zones. The Canyon Range (CR) syncline, part of the CR thrust sheet in west-central Utah, developed in this regime. The CR syncline is composed of thick-bedded quartzite units with a small material contrast between layers, limiting limb rotation by flexural slip alone. Thus, fracture populations developed to accommodate fold tightening by limb rotation and thinning, and the formation of transverse zones across the fold. Several generations of fracture and deformation zone (DZ) networks are recognized from mesoscopic and microscopic evidence, and can be related to stages of folding. The net result of the large number of distributed fractures and deformation zones is a continuous deformation that is homogeneous at the scale of the outcrop. All these lines of evidence suggest that large-scale cataclastic flow accommodated folding by allowing rigid mesoscopic blocks to slide along bounding DZs. Along its length, the CR syncline consists of several segments bounded by transverse zones with different mechanisms accommodating fold tightening in adjacent segments. In one segment, fold tightening progressed by limb rotation, and then out-of-the-core thrusting. In contrast, fold tightening in the adjoining segments occurred by rotation and thinning of one limb and possible hinge migration, with the steeply dipping to overturned limb showing progressive thinning of units on a megascopic scale and progressive increase in the thickness and density of deformation zones at all scales.

  6. Biases in the diurnal temperature range in Central Europe in an ensemble of regional climate models and their possible causes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyselý, Jan; Plavcová, Eva

    2012-09-01

    The study examines how regional climate models (RCMs) reproduce the diurnal temperature range (DTR) in their control simulations over Central Europe. We evaluate 30-year runs driven by perfect boundary conditions (the ERA40 reanalysis, 1961-1990) and a global climate model (ECHAM5) of an ensemble of RCMs with 25-km resolution from the ENSEMBLES project. The RCMs' performance is compared against the dataset gridded from a high-density stations network. We find that all RCMs underestimate DTR in all seasons, notwithstanding whether driven by ERA40 or ECHAM5. Underestimation is largest in summer and smallest in winter in most RCMs. The relationship of the models' errors to indices of atmospheric circulation and cloud cover is discussed to reveal possible causes of the biases. In all seasons and all simulations driven by ERA40 and ECHAM5, underestimation of DTR is larger under anticyclonic circulation and becomes smaller or negligible for cyclonic circulation. In summer and transition seasons, underestimation tends to be largest for the southeast to south flow associated with warm advection, while in winter it does not depend on flow direction. We show that the biases in DTR, which seem common to all examined RCMs, are also related to cloud cover simulation. However, there is no general tendency to overestimate total cloud amount under anticyclonic conditions in the RCMs, which suggests the large negative bias in DTR for anticyclonic circulation cannot be explained by a bias in cloudiness. Errors in simulating heat and moisture fluxes between land surface and atmosphere probably contribute to the biases in DTR as well.

  7. Biases in the diurnal temperature range in Central Europe in an ensemble of regional climate models and their possible causes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kysely, Jan [Institute of Atmospheric Physics AS CR, Prague 4 (Czech Republic); Plavcova, Eva [Institute of Atmospheric Physics AS CR, Prague 4 (Czech Republic); Charles University, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Prague (Czech Republic)

    2012-09-15

    The study examines how regional climate models (RCMs) reproduce the diurnal temperature range (DTR) in their control simulations over Central Europe. We evaluate 30-year runs driven by perfect boundary conditions (the ERA40 reanalysis, 1961-1990) and a global climate model (ECHAM5) of an ensemble of RCMs with 25-km resolution from the ENSEMBLES project. The RCMs' performance is compared against the dataset gridded from a high-density stations network. We find that all RCMs underestimate DTR in all seasons, notwithstanding whether driven by ERA40 or ECHAM5. Underestimation is largest in summer and smallest in winter in most RCMs. The relationship of the models' errors to indices of atmospheric circulation and cloud cover is discussed to reveal possible causes of the biases. In all seasons and all simulations driven by ERA40 and ECHAM5, underestimation of DTR is larger under anticyclonic circulation and becomes smaller or negligible for cyclonic circulation. In summer and transition seasons, underestimation tends to be largest for the southeast to south flow associated with warm advection, while in winter it does not depend on flow direction. We show that the biases in DTR, which seem common to all examined RCMs, are also related to cloud cover simulation. However, there is no general tendency to overestimate total cloud amount under anticyclonic conditions in the RCMs, which suggests the large negative bias in DTR for anticyclonic circulation cannot be explained by a bias in cloudiness. Errors in simulating heat and moisture fluxes between land surface and atmosphere probably contribute to the biases in DTR as well. (orig.)

  8. Effect of latitude and mountain height on the timberline (Betula pubescens ssp. czerpanovii elevation along the central Scandinavian mountain range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arvid Odland

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Previously published isoline maps of Fennoscandian timberlines show that their highest elevations lie in the high mountain areas in central south Norway and from there the limits decrease in all directions. These maps are assumed to show differences in “climatic forest limits”, but the isoline patterns indicate that factors other than climate may be decisive in most of the area. Possibly the effects of ‘massenerhebung’ and the “summit syndrome” may locally have major effects on the timberline elevation. The main aim of the present study is to quantify the effect of latitude and mountain height on the regional variation of mountain birch timberline elevation. The study is a statistical analysis of previous published data on the timberline elevation and nearby mountain height. Selection of the study sites has been stratified to the Scandinavian mountain range (the Scandes from 58 to 71o N where the timberlines reach their highest elevations. The data indicates that only the high mountain massifs in S Norway and N Sweden are sufficiently high to allow birch forests to reach their potential elevations. Stepwise regression shows that latitude explains 70.9% while both latitude and mountain explain together 89.0% of the timberline variation. Where the mountains are low (approximately 1000 m higher than the measured local timberlines effects of the summit syndrome will lower the timberline elevation substantially and climatically determined timberlines will probably not have been reached. This indicates that models of future timberlines and thereby the alpine area extent in a warmer world may result in unrealistic conclusions without taking account of local mountain heights.

  9. Nevada National Security Site Environmental Report 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wills, Cathy

    2013-09-11

    This report was prepared to meet the information needs of the public and the requirements and guidelines of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for annual site environmental reports. It was prepared by National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec), for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office (NNSA/NFO) (formerly designated as the Nevada Site Office [NNSA/NSO]). The new field office designation occurred in March 2013. Published reports cited in this 2012 report, therefore, may bear the name or authorship of NNSA/NSO. This and previous years’ reports, called Annual Site Environmental Reports (ASERs), Nevada Test Site Environmental Reports (NTSERs), and, beginning in 2010, Nevada National Security Site Environmental Reports (NNSSERs), are posted on the NNSA/NFO website at http://www.nv.energy.gov/library/publications/aser.aspx. This NNSSER was prepared to satisfy DOE Order DOE O 231.1B, “Environment, Safety and Health Reporting.” Its purpose is to (1) report compliance status with environmental standards and requirements, (2) present results of environmental monitoring of radiological and nonradiological effluents, (3) report estimated radiological doses to the public from releases of radioactive material, (4) summarize environmental incidents of noncompliance and actions taken in response to them, (5) describe the NNSA/NFO Environmental Management System and characterize its performance, and (6) highlight significant environmental programs and efforts. This NNSSER summarizes data and compliance status for calendar year 2012 at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) (formerly the Nevada Test Site) and its two support facilities, the North Las Vegas Facility (NLVF) and the Remote Sensing Laboratory–Nellis (RSL-Nellis). It also addresses environmental restoration (ER) projects conducted at the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) and the Nevada Test and Training Range (NTTR). Through a Memorandum of Agreement, NNSA/NFO is

  10. Estimates of natural ground-water discharge and characterization of water quality in Dry Valley, Washoe County, West-Central Nevada, 2002-2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, David L.; Maurer, Douglas K.; Lopes, Thomas J.; Halford, Keith J.

    2004-01-01

    The Dry Valley Hydrographic Area is being considered as a potential source area for additional water supplies for the Reno-Sparks area, which is about 25 miles south of Dry Valley. Current estimates of annual ground-water recharge to Dry Valley have a considerable range. In undeveloped valleys, such as Dry Valley, long-term ground-water discharge can be assumed the same as long-term ground-water recharge. Because estimating ground-water discharge has more certainty than estimating ground-water recharge from precipitation, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Washoe County, began a three-year study to re-evaluate the ground-water resources by estimating natural ground-water discharge and characterize ground-water quality in Dry Valley. In Dry Valley, natural ground-water discharge occurs as subsurface outflow and by ground-water evapotranspiration. The amount of subsurface outflow from the upper part of Dry Valley to Winnemucca and Honey Lake Valleys likely is small. Subsurface outflow from Dry Valley westward to Long Valley, California was estimated using Darcy's Law. Analysis of two aquifer tests show the transmissivity of poorly sorted sediments near the western side of Dry Valley is 1,200 to 1,500 square feet per day. The width of unconsolidated sediments is about 4,000 feet between exposures of tuffaceous deposits along the State line, and decreases to about 1,500 feet (0.5 mile) west of the State line. The hydraulic gradient east and west of the State line ranges from 0.003 to 0.005 foot per foot. Using these values, subsurface outflow to Long Valley is estimated to be 50 to 250 acre-feet per year. Areas of ground-water evapotranspiration were field mapped and partitioned into zones of plant cover using relations derived from Landsat imagery acquired July 8, 2002. Evapotranspiration rates for each plant-cover zone were multiplied by the corresponding area and summed to estimate annual ground-water evapotranspiration. About 640 to 790 acre-feet per

  11. Fens, seasonal wetlands, and the unconfined pumice aquifer east of the Cascade Range, south-central Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, M. L.; Large, A.; Mowbray, A.; Weatherford, J.; Webb, B.

    2013-12-01

    Fens and seasonal wetlands in the headwaters of the Klamath and Deschutes river basins in south-central Oregon are present in an area blanketed by 2 to 3 m of pumice during the Holocene eruption of Mount Mazama. The lower pumice unit, moderately sorted coarse pumice lapilli to blocks (0.3 to 0.7 cm), phenocrysts, and lithics is 1.5 to 2 m thick; the upper pumice unit, poorly sorted lapilli to blocks (0.2 to 6 cm), minor phenocrysts, and lithics is 1 m thick. Pumice is a perched, unconfined aquifer over low permeability bedrock or pre-eruption fine-grained sediment. Early landscape response included partial erosion of pumice from pre-eruption valleys followed by partial filling by alluvium: phenocryst- and lithic-rich sand grading upward to glassy silt with rounded pumice pebbles. Groundwater-fed wetlands, fens, associated with the unconfined pumice aquifer occur as areas of diffuse groundwater discharge through gently sloping, convex surfaces underlain by up to 1.4 m of peat. Locally, focused discharge through the confining peat layer feeds low discharge streams. Carnivorous plants (sundews and pitcher plants) may be present. The sharp contact between peat and underlying pumice is an erosion surface that cuts progressively deeper into the upper and lower pumice units downslope. At the base of the slope peat with fen discharge feeding surface flow, alluvium with no surface flow, or a subtle berm separating the slope underlain by peat from the valley bottom underlain by alluvium may be present. Distinct vegetation changes take place at this transition. The erosion surface that underlies the peat layer in the fen is at the surface on the opposing valley wall and progressively rises up through the lower and upper pumice units: iron staining and cementation of pumice is locally prominent. Up to 1.5 m difference in water table occurs between the fen and opposing valley wall. Water table in piezometers screened in peat is at the surface. Locally, water table screened in

  12. Geothermal energy in Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    The nature of goethermal resources in Nevada and resource applications are discussed. The social and economic advantages of utilizing geothermal energy are outlined. Federal and State programs established to foster the development of geothermal energy are discussed. The names, addresses, and phone numbers of various organizations actively involved in research, regulation, and the development of geothermal energy are included. (MHR)

  13. Sierra Nevada (Granada, Spain)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilgado, José D.; Enghoff, Henrik; Tinaut, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Millipedes (Diplopoda), with a few notable exceptions, are poor dispersers, showing a very high degree of endemicity, not the least in mountains. The first samplings of the Mesovoid Shallow Substratum (MSS) of the higher altitudes of the Sierra Nevada Mountains (Baetic System, Southern Spain) have...

  14. Nevada Isostatic Gravity Grid

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A 2 kilometer Isostatic anomaly grid for the state of Nevada. Number of columns is 269 and number of rows is 394. The order of the data is from the lower left to the...

  15. Tonopah test range - outpost of Sandia National Laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, L.

    1996-03-01

    Tonopah Test Range is a unique historic site. Established in 1957 by Sandia Corporation, Tonopah Test Range in Nevada provided an isolated place for the Atomic Energy Commission to test ballistics and non-nuclear features of atomic weapons. It served this and allied purposes well for nearly forty years, contributing immeasurably to a peaceful conclusion to the long arms race remembered as the Cold War. This report is a brief review of historical highlights at Tonopah Test Range. Sandia`s Los Lunas, Salton Sea, Kauai, and Edgewood testing ranges also receive abridged mention. Although Sandia`s test ranges are the subject, the central focus is on the people who managed and operated the range. Comments from historical figures are interspersed through the narrative to establish this perspective, and at the end a few observations concerning the range`s future are provided.

  16. Nevada National Security Site Environmental Report 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cathy Wills, ed

    2012-09-12

    This report was prepared to meet the information needs of the public and the requirements and guidelines of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for annual site environmental reports. It was prepared by National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec), for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO). This and previous years reports, called Annual Site Environmental Reports (ASERs), Nevada Test Site Environmental Reports (NTSERs), and, beginning in 2010, Nevada National Security Site Environmental Reports (NNSSERs), are posted on the NNSA/NSO website at http://www.nv.energy.gov/library/publications/aser.aspx. This NNSSER was prepared to satisfy DOE Order DOE O 231.1B, 'Environment, Safety and Health Reporting.' Its purpose is to (1) report compliance status with environmental standards and requirements, (2) present results of environmental monitoring of radiological and nonradiological effluents, (3) report estimated radiological doses to the public from releases of radioactive material, (4) summarize environmental incidents of noncompliance and actions taken in response to them, (5) describe the NNSA/NSO Environmental Management System and characterize its performance, and (6) highlight significant environmental programs and efforts. This NNSSER summarizes data and compliance status for calendar year 2011 at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) (formerly the Nevada Test Site) and its two support facilities, the North Las Vegas Facility (NLVF) and the Remote Sensing Laboratory-Nellis (RSL-Nellis). It also addresses environmental restoration (ER) projects conducted at the Tonopah Test Range (TTR). Through a Memorandum of Agreement, NNSA/NSO is responsible for the oversight of TTR ER projects, and the Sandia Site Office of NNSA (NNSA/SSO) has oversight of all other TTR activities. NNSA/SSO produces the TTR annual environmental report available at http://www.sandia.gov/news/publications/environmental/index.html.

  17. My Road to the Nevada High School Youth Forum

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Nevada Section of the Society for Range Management hosts an annual Range Camp for high school students. During the weeklong camp students learn about rangeland topics and take part in range monitoring activities. At the end of the week a student is chosen that demonstrated hard work and leadersh...

  18. Soil and geomorphological parameters to characterize natural environmental and human induced changes within the Guadarrama Range (Central Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Thomas; Inclán-Cuartas, Rosa M.; Santolaria-Canales, Edmundo; Saa, Antonio; Rodríguez-Rastrero, Manuel; Tanarro-Garcia, Luis M.; Luque, Esperanza; Pelayo, Marta; Ubeda, Jose; Tarquis, Ana; Diaz-Puente, Javier; De Marcos, Javier; Rodriguez-Alonso, Javier; Hernandez, Carlos; Palacios, David; Gallardo-Díaz, Juan; Fidel González-Rouco, J.

    2016-04-01

    Mediterranean mountain ecosystems are often complex and remarkably diverse and are seen as important sources of biological diversity. They play a key role in the water and sediment cycle for lowland regions as well as preventing and mitigating natural hazards especially those related to drought such as fire risk. However, these ecosystems are fragile and vulnerable to changes due to their particular and extreme climatic and biogeographic conditions. Some of the main pressures on mountain biodiversity are caused by changes in land use practices, infrastructure and urban development, unsustainable tourism, overexploitation of natural resources, fragmentation of habitats, particularly when located close to large population centers, as well as by pressures related toclimate change. The objective of this work is to select soil and geomorphological parameters in order to characterize natural environmental and human induced changes within the newly created National Park of the Sierra de Guadarrama in Central Spain, where the presence of the Madrid metropolitan area is the main factor of impact. This is carried out within the framework of the Guadarrama Monitoring Network (GuMNet) of the Campus de ExcelenciaInternacionalMoncloa, where long-term monitoring of the atmosphere, soil and bedrock are priority. This network has a total of ten stations located to the NW of Madrid and in this case, three stations have been selected to represent different ecosystems that include: 1) an alluvial plain in a lowland pasture area (La Herreria at 920 m a.s.l.), 2) mid mountain pine-forested and pasture area (Raso del Pino at 1801 m a.s.l.) and 3) high mountain grassland and rock area (Dos Hermanas at 2225 m a.s.l.). At each station a site geomorphological description, soil profile description and sampling was carried out. In the high mountain area information was obtained for monitoring frost heave activity and downslope soil movement. Basic soil laboratory analyses have been carried out

  19. Study of the Reed Dolomite Aided by Remotely Sensed Imagery, Central White-Inyo Range, Easternmost California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, W. G.; Paylor, Earnest D., II

    1996-01-01

    Remote-sensing methods are of great value in assessing the stratigraphy and geologic structure of inaccessible terrains, especially where lithologic contrasts are marked. In this report, we show that such techniques can be successfully applied to a massive carbonate unit, the Reed Dolomite, exposed in the Wacuoba Mountain, Blanco Mountain, and Mount Barcroft quadrangles of east-central California.

  20. Range 74 Target Complexes, Environmental Assessment, Nevada Test and Training Range, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-07-01

    and operation of the target complexes, the 15. SUBJECT TERMS 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT Same as Report (SAR) 18...yumanensis yes W S1 (Yuma Clapper Rail) WATCH-LIST TAXA *************** Plants - Gymnosperms (conifers

  1. Environmental assessment for liquid waste treatment at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-01-01

    This environmental assessment (EA) examines the potential impacts to the environment from treatment of low-level radioactive liquid and low-level mixed liquid and semi-solid wastes generated at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The potential impacts of the proposed action and alternative actions are discussed herein in accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, as amended in Title 42 U.S.C. (4321), and the US Department of Energy (DOE) policies and procedures set forth in Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 1021 and DOE Order 451.1, ``NEPA Compliance Program.`` The potential environmental impacts of the proposed action, construction and operation of a centralized liquid waste treatment facility, were addressed in the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Nevada Test Site and Off-Site Locations in the State of Nevada. However, DOE is reevaluating the need for a centralized facility and is considering other alternative treatment options. This EA retains a centralized treatment facility as the proposed action but also considers other feasible alternatives.

  2. Weights, hematology and serum chemistry of free-ranging brown boobies (Sula leucogaster) in Johnston Atoll, Central Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Work, Thierry M.

    1999-01-01

    Hematologic and serum chemistry values are reported for 105 brown boobies (Sula leucogaster) from Johnston Atoll, Central Pacific. Hematocrit, estimated total plasma solids, total and differential white cell counts, serum glucose, calcium, phosphorus, uric acid, total protein, albumin, globulin, aspartate aminotransferase, and creatinine phosphokinase were analyzed. Hematologic and serum chemistry values varied with age and sex. Values were compared with those of red-footed boobies and other tropical and temperate marine pelecaniforms.

  3. Nevada National Security Site Environmental Report 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wills (editor), Cathy [National Security Technologies, LLC. (NSTec), Mercury, NV (United States)

    2017-09-07

    This Nevada National Security Site Environmental Report (NNSSER) was prepared to satisfy DOE Order DOE O 231.1B, “Environment, Safety and Health Reporting.” Its purpose is to (1) report compliance status with environmental standards and requirements, (2) present results of environmental monitoring of radiological and nonradiological effluents, (3) report estimated radiological doses to the public from releases of radioactive material, (4) summarize environmental incidents of noncompliance and actions taken in response to them, (5) describe the National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office (NNSA/NFO) Environmental Management System and characterize its performance, and (6) highlight significant environmental programs and efforts. This NNSSER summarizes data and compliance status for calendar year 2016 at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) and its two Nevada-based support facilities, the North Las Vegas Facility (NLVF) and the Remote Sensing Laboratory–Nellis (RSL-Nellis). It also addresses environmental restoration (ER) projects conducted at the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) and the Nevada Test and Training Range (NTTR). NNSA/NFO directs the management and operation of the NNSS and six sites across the nation. In addition to the NNSA itself, the six sites include two in Nevada (NLVF and RSL-Nellis) and four in other states (RSL-Andrews in Maryland, Livermore Operations in California, Los Alamos Operations in New Mexico, and Special Technologies Laboratory in California). Los Alamos, Lawrence Livermore, and Sandia National Laboratories are the principal organizations that sponsor and implement the nuclear weapons programs at the NNSS. National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec), is the current Management and Operating contractor accountable for the successful execution of work and ensuring that work is performed in compliance with environmental regulations. The six sites all provide support to enhance the NNSS as a location for its multiple

  4. Pathogen-Host Associations and Predicted Range Shifts of Human Monkeypox in Response to Climate Change in Central Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Henri A Thomassen; Trevon Fuller; Salvi Asefi-Najafabady; Julia A G Shiplacoff; Mulembakani, Prime M.; Seth Blumberg; Johnston, Sara C.; Kisalu, Neville K.; Timothée L Kinkela; Fair, Joseph N.; Wolfe, Nathan D.; Shongo, Robert L.; Matthew LeBreton; Hermann Meyer; Wright, Linda L

    2013-01-01

    Climate change is predicted to result in changes in the geographic ranges and local prevalence of infectious diseases, either through direct effects on the pathogen, or indirectly through range shifts in vector and reservoir species. To better understand the occurrence of monkeypox virus (MPXV), an emerging Orthopoxvirus in humans, under contemporary and future climate conditions, we used ecological niche modeling techniques in conjunction with climate and remote-sensing variables. We first c...

  5. Geologic map of the Hart Peak Quadrangle, California and Nevada: a digital database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielson, Jane E.; Turner, Ryan D.; Bedford, David R.

    1999-01-01

    The Hart Peak 1:24,000-scale quadrangle is located about 12 km southwest of Searchlight, Nevada, comprehending the eastern part of the Castle Peaks, California, and most of the Castle Mountains and the northwestern part of the Piute Range, in California and Nevada. The Castle Peaks area constitutes the northeasternmost part of the northeast-trending New York Mountains. The Castle Mountains straddle the California-Nevada State line between the Castle Peaks and north-trending Piute Range. The southern part of the Piute Range, near Civil War-era Fort Piute, adjoins Homer Mountain mapped by Spencer and Turner (1985). Adjacent and nearby 1:24,000-scale quadrangles include Castle Peaks, East of Grotto Hills, Homer Mountain, and Signal Hill, Calif.; also Tenmile Well and West of Juniper Mine, Calif. and Nev. The oldest rocks in the Hart Peak quadrangle are Early Proterozoic gneiss and foliated granite that crop out in the northern part of the quadrangle on the eastern flank of the Castle Peaks and in the central Castle Mountains (Wooden and Miller, 1990). Paleozoic rocks are uncommon and Mesozoic granitic rocks are not found in the map area. The older rocks are overlain nonconformably by several km of Miocene volcanic deposits, which accumulated in local basins. Local dikes and domes are sources of most Miocene eruptive units; younger Miocene intrusions cut all the older rocks. Upper Miocene to Quaternary gravel deposits interfinger with the uppermost volcanic flows; the contact between volcanic rocks and the gravel deposits is unconformable locally. Canyons and intermontane valleys contain dissected Quaternary alluvialfan deposits that are mantled by active drainage and alluvial fan detritus.

  6. Two stages of deformation and fluid migration in the central Brooks Range fold-and-thrust belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Thomas E.; Potter, Christopher J.; O'Sullivan, Paul B.; Shelton, Kevin L.; Underwood, Michael B.

    2004-01-01

    The Brooks Range is a north-directed fold and thrust belt that forms the southern boundary of the North Slope petroleum province in northern Alaska. Field-based studies have long recognized that large-magnitude, thin-skinned folding and thrusting in the Brooks Range occurred during arc-continent collision in the Middle Jurassic to Early Cretaceous (Neocomian). Folds and thrusts, however, also deform middle and Upper Cretaceous strata of the Colville foreland basin and thus record a younger phase of deformation that apatite fission-track data have shown to occur primarily during the early Tertiary (~60 and ~45 Ma). A structural and kinematic model that reconciles these observations is critical to understanding the petroleum system of the Brooks Range fold and thrust belt.

  7. MOHO ORIENTATION BENEATH CENTRAL CALIFORNIA FROM REGIONAL EARTHQUAKE TRAVEL TIMES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppenheimer, David H.; Eaton, Jerry P.

    1984-01-01

    This paper examines relative Pn arrival times, recorded by the U. S. Geological Survey seismic network in central and northern California from an azimuthally distributed set of regional earthquakes. Improved estimates are presented of upper mantle velocities in the Coast Ranges, Great Valley, and Sierra Nevada foothills and estimates of the orientation of the Moho throughout this region. Finally, the azimuthal distribution of apparent velocities, corrected for dip and individual station travel time effects, is then studied for evidence of upper mantle velocity anisotropy and for indications of lower crustal structure in central California.

  8. Nevada Underserved Science Education Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicole Rourke; Jason Marcks

    2004-07-06

    Nevada Underserved Science Education Program (NUSEP) is a project to examine the effect of implementing new and innovative Earth and space science education curriculum in Nevada schools. The project provided professional development opportunities and educational materials for teachers participating in the program.

  9. Pesticides Are Involved With Population Declines of Amphibians in the California Sierra Nevadas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald W. Sparling

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Several species of frogs and toads are in serious decline in the Sierra Nevada Mountains of California. These species include the threatened red-legged frog (Rana aurora, foothill yellow-legged frog (R. boylii, mountain yellow-legged frog (R. muscosa, Cascades frog (Rana cascadae, western toad (Bufo boreas and Yosemite toad (B. canorus. For many of these species current distributions are down to 10% of historical ranges [1,2]. Several factors including introduced predators [3,4,5], habitat loss [2], and ultraviolet radiation [6] have been suggested as causes of these declines. Another probable cause is air-borne pesticides from the Central Valley of California. The Central Valley, especially the San Joaquin Valley, is a major agricultural region where millions of pounds of active ingredient pesticides are applied each year (http://www.cdpr.ca.gov/dprdatabase.htm. Prevailing westerly winds from the Pacific Coast transport these pesticides into the Sierras [7,8].

  10. Pathogen-host associations and predicted range shifts of human monkeypox in response to climate change in central Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henri A Thomassen

    Full Text Available Climate change is predicted to result in changes in the geographic ranges and local prevalence of infectious diseases, either through direct effects on the pathogen, or indirectly through range shifts in vector and reservoir species. To better understand the occurrence of monkeypox virus (MPXV, an emerging Orthopoxvirus in humans, under contemporary and future climate conditions, we used ecological niche modeling techniques in conjunction with climate and remote-sensing variables. We first created spatially explicit probability distributions of its candidate reservoir species in Africa's Congo Basin. Reservoir species distributions were subsequently used to model current and projected future distributions of human monkeypox (MPX. Results indicate that forest clearing and climate are significant driving factors of the transmission of MPX from wildlife to humans under current climate conditions. Models under contemporary climate conditions performed well, as indicated by high values for the area under the receiver operator curve (AUC, and tests on spatially randomly and non-randomly omitted test data. Future projections were made on IPCC 4(th Assessment climate change scenarios for 2050 and 2080, ranging from more conservative to more aggressive, and representing the potential variation within which range shifts can be expected to occur. Future projections showed range shifts into regions where MPX has not been recorded previously. Increased suitability for MPX was predicted in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. Models developed here are useful for identifying areas where environmental conditions may become more suitable for human MPX; targeting candidate reservoir species for future screening efforts; and prioritizing regions for future MPX surveillance efforts.

  11. Pathogen-host associations and predicted range shifts of human monkeypox in response to climate change in central Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomassen, Henri A; Fuller, Trevon; Asefi-Najafabady, Salvi; Shiplacoff, Julia A G; Mulembakani, Prime M; Blumberg, Seth; Johnston, Sara C; Kisalu, Neville K; Kinkela, Timothée L; Fair, Joseph N; Wolfe, Nathan D; Shongo, Robert L; LeBreton, Matthew; Meyer, Hermann; Wright, Linda L; Muyembe, Jean-Jacques; Buermann, Wolfgang; Okitolonda, Emile; Hensley, Lisa E; Lloyd-Smith, James O; Smith, Thomas B; Rimoin, Anne W

    2013-01-01

    Climate change is predicted to result in changes in the geographic ranges and local prevalence of infectious diseases, either through direct effects on the pathogen, or indirectly through range shifts in vector and reservoir species. To better understand the occurrence of monkeypox virus (MPXV), an emerging Orthopoxvirus in humans, under contemporary and future climate conditions, we used ecological niche modeling techniques in conjunction with climate and remote-sensing variables. We first created spatially explicit probability distributions of its candidate reservoir species in Africa's Congo Basin. Reservoir species distributions were subsequently used to model current and projected future distributions of human monkeypox (MPX). Results indicate that forest clearing and climate are significant driving factors of the transmission of MPX from wildlife to humans under current climate conditions. Models under contemporary climate conditions performed well, as indicated by high values for the area under the receiver operator curve (AUC), and tests on spatially randomly and non-randomly omitted test data. Future projections were made on IPCC 4(th) Assessment climate change scenarios for 2050 and 2080, ranging from more conservative to more aggressive, and representing the potential variation within which range shifts can be expected to occur. Future projections showed range shifts into regions where MPX has not been recorded previously. Increased suitability for MPX was predicted in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo. Models developed here are useful for identifying areas where environmental conditions may become more suitable for human MPX; targeting candidate reservoir species for future screening efforts; and prioritizing regions for future MPX surveillance efforts.

  12. Streamlined approach for environmental restoration plan for corrective action unit 430, buried depleted uranium artillery round No. 1, Tonopah test range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-09-01

    This plan addresses actions necessary for the restoration and closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) No. 430, Buried Depleted Uranium (DU) Artillery Round No. 1 (Corrective Action Site No. TA-55-003-0960), a buried and unexploded W-79 Joint Test Assembly (JTA) artillery test projectile with high explosives (HE), at the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV) Tonopah Test Range (TTR) in south-central Nevada. It describes activities that will occur at the site as well as the steps that will be taken to gather adequate data to obtain a notice of completion from Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP). This plan was prepared under the Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) concept, and it will be implemented in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Industrial Sites Quality Assurance Project Plan.

  13. Beyond Colorado's Front Range - A new look at Laramide basin subsidence, sedimentation, and deformation in north-central Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, James C.; Trexler, James H.; Cashman, Patricia H.; Miller, Ian M.; Shroba, Ralph R.; Cosca, Michael A.; Workman, Jeremiah B.

    2010-01-01

    This field trip highlights recent research into the Laramide uplift, erosion, and sedimentation on the western side of the northern Colorado Front Range. The Laramide history of the North Park?Middle Park basin (designated the Colorado Headwaters Basin in this paper) is distinctly different from that of the Denver basin on the eastern flank of the range. The Denver basin stratigraphy records the transition from Late Cretaceous marine shale to recessional shoreline sandstones to continental, fluvial, marsh, and coal mires environments, followed by orogenic sediments that span the K-T boundary. Upper Cretaceous and Paleogene strata in the Denver basin consist of two mega-fan complexes that are separated by a 9 million-year interval of erosion/non-deposition between about 63 and 54 Ma. In contrast, the marine shale unit on the western flank of the Front Range was deeply eroded over most of the area of the Colorado Headwaters Basin (approximately one km removed) prior to any orogenic sediment accumulation. New 40Ar-39Ar ages indicate the oldest sediments on the western flank of the Front Range were as young as about 61 Ma. They comprise the Windy Gap Volcanic Member of the Middle Park Formation, which consists of coarse, immature volcanic conglomerates derived from nearby alkalic-mafic volcanic edifices that were forming at about 65?61 Ma. Clasts of Proterozoic granite, pegmatite, and gneiss (eroded from the uplifted core of the Front Range) seem to arrive in the Colorado Headwaters Basin at different times in different places, but they become dominant in arkosic sandstones and conglomerates about one km above the base of the Colorado Headwaters Basin section. Paleocurrent trends suggest the southern end of the Colorado Headwaters Basin was structurally closed because all fluvial deposits show a northward component of transport. Lacustrine depositional environments are indicated by various sedimentological features in several sections within the >3 km of sediment

  14. Genetic structure of Galitzkya macrocarpa and G. potaninii, two closely related endemics of central Asian mountain ranges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesche, K; Hensen, I; Undrakh, R

    2006-11-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS Habitats in mountains are often isolated. Plants growing in these sites face severe dispersal limitations, but also difficulties for recruitment. The focus was laid on the magnitude of genetic differences among populations but also on the size of potentially occurring clones. RAPD fingerprints were obtained from 23 populations in southern Mongolia. Sampling covered the entire distribution range of Galitzkya macrocarpa; samples of G. potaninii represented only the Mongolian part of its mainly northern Chinese range. The Mongolian endemic G. macrocarpa showed moderately strong population differentiation (Phi ST = 0.251), and limited evidence for isolation by distance. Local genetic diversity was not positively correlated to habitat size, and not reduced in peripheral populations. Clonal growth is possible, but most plants originate from sexual reproduction. In contrast, populations of G. potaninii were highly differentiated (Phi ST = 0.550); and the most remote outposts had reduced genetic diversity. In these areas, isolation is expected to date back to glacial times. Effects of natural fragmentation differ among species. Both are rare, but G. macrocarpa appears to be able to maintain genetic diversity over its range. Clonal growth is an option in its mixed reproduction strategy and allows survival under harsh conditions. In contrast, genetic structure in G. potaninii gives reason for concern, and further studies on population dynamics are needed.

  15. Thermal implications of the cessation of subduction in the Sierra Nevada and Baja- California arcs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkan, K.; Blackwell, D. D.

    2006-12-01

    The thermal regime in the extinct Sierra Nevada arc has undergone substantial transformation as a result of the cessation of subduction in the last 30 My. The dynamic mechanism of cooling in the arc has been replaced by re-equilibration of the lithosphere toward continental averages. Preliminary 1D thermal models reveal that the effect of asthenospheric heating at the bottom do not lead to credible changes in the lithospheric temperatures for a 30 My years period in terms of surface manifestations. In the Great Valley, neither the topography nor the surface heat flow show considerable variations before and after the cessation of subduction. On the other hand, Sierra Nevada has experienced substantial uplift in the post subduction California. In the Sierra Nevada, the surface heat flow lags deep temperature response but the topography responds directly to temperatures at depth. As the end of subduction migrated north with the Mendocino triple junction, the dynamic equilibrium between the cold Sierra Nevada and Basin and Range has been upset and the high temperatures of Basin and Range started to invade the Sierra Nevada lithosphere. Our 2D thermal model reveals that conductive heating of the Sierran lithosphere by the hot Basin and Range lithosphere could be the dominant source for the tilted uplift in the Sierra Nevada. The heating from the bottom is likely not very effective in Sierra Nevada as no uplift is observed in the neighboring Great Valley region. The thermal uplift due to Basin and Range heating is substantial at the east edge of the Sierra Nevada and decreases rapidly toward the west. The uplift as far as 100 km toward west could be accommodated by flexural bending of the cold Sierra Nevada lithosphere as the eastern edge thermally expanded. A similar thermo-tectonic scenario could explain the westward tilted Baja-California peninsular ranges which were part of the same tectonic setting of the Sierra Nevada during subduction. We also investigated the

  16. Geology and mineral resources of the Southwestern and South-Central Wyoming Sagebrush Focal Area, Wyoming, and the Bear River Watershed Sagebrush Focal Area, Wyoming and Utah: Chapter E in Mineral resources of the Sagebrush Focal Areas of Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, Utah, and Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Anna B.; Hayes, Timothy S.; Benson, Mary Ellen; Yager, Douglas B.; Anderson, Eric D.; Bleiwas, Donald I.; DeAngelo, Jacob; Dicken, Connie L.; Drake, Ronald M.; Fernette, Gregory L.; Giles, Stuart A.; Glen, Jonathan M. G.; Haacke, Jon E.; Horton, John D.; Parks, Heather L.; Rockwell, Barnaby W.; Williams, Colin F.

    2016-10-04

    SummaryThe U.S. Department of the Interior has proposed to withdraw approximately 10 million acres of Federal lands from mineral entry (subject to valid existing rights) from 12 million acres of lands defined as Sagebrush Focal Areas (SFAs) in Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, Utah, and Wyoming (for further discussion on the lands involved see Scientific Investigations Report 2016–5089–A). The purpose of the proposed action is to protect the greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) and its habitat from potential adverse effects of locatable mineral exploration and mining. The U.S. Geological Survey Sagebrush Mineral-Resource Assessment (SaMiRA) project was initiated in November 2015 and supported by the Bureau of Land Management to (1) assess locatable mineral-resource potential and (2) to describe leasable and salable mineral resources for the seven SFAs and Nevada additions.This chapter summarizes the current status of locatable, leasable, and salable mineral commodities and assesses the potential of locatable minerals in the Southwestern and South-Central Wyoming and Bear River Watershed, Wyoming and Utah, SFAs.

  17. Post-orogenic evolution of mountain ranges and associated foreland basins: Initial investigation of the central Pyrenees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Thomas; Sinclair, Hugh; Ford, Mary; Naylor, Mark

    2017-04-01

    Mountain topography, including surrounding foreland basins, results from the long-term competition between tectonic and surface processes linked to climate. Numerous studies on young active mountain ranges such as the Southern Alps, New Zealand and Taiwan, have investigated the interaction between tectonics, climate and erosion on the topographic landscape. However most of the mountain ranges in the world are in various stages of post-orogenic decay, such as the European Alps, Urals, Caledonides, Appalachians and Pyrenees. The landscape evolution of these decaying mountains, which involve relatively inactive tectonics, should appear simple with progressive and relatively uniform erosion resulting in a general lowering of both elevation and topographic relief. However, in a number of examples, post-orogenic systems suggest a complex dynamism and interactions with their associated foreland basins in term of spatio-temporal variations in erosion and sedimentary flux. The complexity and transition to post-orogenesis is a function of multiple processes. Underpinning the transition to a post-orogenic state is the competition between erosion and crustal thickening; the balance of these processes determines the timing and magnitude of isostatic rebound and hence subsidence versus uplift of the foreland basin. It is expected that any change in the parameters controlling the balance of erosion versus crustal thickening will impact the topographic evolution and sediment flux from the mountain range and foreland basin to the surrounding continental margin. This study will focus on the causes and origins of the processes that define post-orogenesis. This will involve analyses of low-temperature thermochronological and topographic data, geodynamical modelling and sedimentological analyses (grainsize distribution). The Pyrenees and its associated northern retro-foreland basin, the Aquitaine basin, will form the natural laboratory for the project as it is one of the best

  18. Mechanical performance of hydrogel contact lenses with a range of power under parallel plate compression and central load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robitaille, Michael; Shi, Jiayi; McBride, Shannon; Wan, Kai-Tak

    2013-06-01

    When a contact lens is compressed between two parallel plates (PPC) or under a central load (CLC), the constitutive relation depends not only on the mechanical properties such as elastic modulus, E, of the hydrogel materials, but also the lens power, d, or thickness variation, h(ϕ0), along the meridional direction ϕ0. Hyperopic lenses (d>0) are thicker at the apex along the optical axis and thin out gradually along the meridian, while myopic lenses (d<0) are thinnest at the apex. Mechanical deformation is quantified by the inter-relationship between applied force, F, vertical displacement of the external load, w0, contact or dimple radius, a, and the deformed profile, w(r). Force responses show that lenses with positive d are apparently stiffer in the initial loading but become more compliant as load increases. Conversely, lenses with negative d are more deformable initially and becomes gradually more resistant to loading. This is consistent with the theoretical shell model using the same E. The mechanical behavior has significant impacts in defining the degree of comfort of contact lenses as well as the lens adhesion to the corneal epithelium. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Geomorphic evidences of lateral propagation and differential uplift of the two segments of frontal Siwalik range, central Himalaya, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, P. K.; Deopa, T.

    2015-12-01

    The Siwalik range forms the southernmost terrane of the Himalaya. The frontal mountains of this range rise abruptly against the vast Indo-Gangetic plains along the range-bounding Himalayan Frontal Thrust (HFT), which marks the present day principal displacement zone between Indian and Eurasian plates. With an aim of understanding the morphotectonics of different mountain segments in such a zone of intense tectonic activities, we have analyzed geomorphic indices like 'basin asymmetry factor' (AF), 'transverse topography asymmetry factor' (T), 'basin elongation ratio' (BR) and 'hypsometric integral' (HI) of fifty six drainage basins of 3rd streams in conjunction with 'mountain-front sinuosity' (Smf), 'valley-floor width to height ratio' (Vf) and drainage characteristics of the two large, neighboring segments of the frontal Siwalik mountains. Referred to here as the 'eastern segment' and 'western segment', these two mountain-segments are separated from each other and adjoining mountain-segments by antecedent streams of fourth and fifth order. In both the mountain-segments, the Smf values are mostly between 1.0-1.6 and, likewise, the Vf of most of the streams, calculated at a fix distance of 800m from the mountain-front, is invariably drainage basins and 65% of the eastern-segment's drainage basins indicate their down-tilting towards the west. The azimuths of the Ts of theses basins are not always in conformity with AF suggested down-tilting, but the azimuths of the larger magnitude Ts are by and large in conformity with the AF suggested down-tilting. However, the BR and HI values of all the drainage basins of a mountain-segment do not show any spatial variation. These results suggest that both the studied mountain-segments are actively uplifting, but with faster rate in their eastern part. Moreover, the drainage pattern and deflections in and around both the segments reveal their lateral progression from east to west.

  20. Kinematics of the Sierra Nevada and Oregon Crustal Blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollick, J. J.; McCaffrey, R.; Sella, G.

    2004-12-01

    Northern California contains the intersection of the NW moving Sierra Nevada block and the clockwise rotating Oregon block. Adding to the tectonic complexity of the region are the interactions of the Pacific plate, Basin and Range, California Coast Ranges, Mendocino fracture zone, San Andreas fault and the Juan de Fuca plate. Our research focuses on how the interactions of these features influence the motions of the Oregon and Sierra Nevada blocks. We processed Global Positioning System (GPS) data collected during the 1998 and 1999 National Geodetic Survey High Accuracy Reference Network (HARN) surveys and by us in 2003. Our preliminary analysis of the velocity field indicates that the Oregon crustal block is rotating clockwise relative to the Sierra Nevada block around a pole approximately west of the Mendocino Triple Junction. Our future work involves finding a more exact location of the relative pole rotation between the blocks, the degree of rotation, and how this motion is being taken up.

  1. Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cathy Wills, ed.

    2010-09-13

    The Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2009 was prepared to meet the information needs of the public and the requirements and guidelines of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for annual site environmental reports. It was prepared by National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec), for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO). This and previous years’ Nevada Test Site Environmental Reports (NTSERs) are posted on the NNSA/NSO website at http://www.nv.doe.gov/library/publications/aser.aspx. This NTSER was prepared to satisfy DOE Order DOE O 231.1A, “Environment, Safety and Health Reporting.” Its purpose is to (1) report compliance status with environmental standards and requirements, (2) present results of environmental monitoring of radiological and nonradiological effluents, (3) report estimated radiological doses to the public from releases of radioactive material, (4) summarize environmental incidents of noncompliance and actions taken in response to them, (5) describe the NNSA/NSO Environmental Management System and characterize its performance, and (6) highlight significant environmental programs and efforts. This NTSER summarizes data and compliance status for calendar year 2009 at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and its two support facilities, the North Las Vegas Facility (NLVF) and the Remote Sensing Laboratory (RSL)-Nellis. It also addresses environmental restoration (ER) projects conducted at the Tonopah Test Range (TTR). Through a Memorandum of Agreement, NNSA/NSO is responsible for the oversight of TTR ER projects, and the Sandia Site Office of NNSA (NNSA/SSO) has oversight of all other TTR activities. NNSA/SSO produces the TTR annual environmental report available at http://www.sandia.gov/news/publications/environmental/index.html.

  2. Continuing Inflation at Three Sisters Volcanic Center, Central Oregon Cascade Range, USA, From GPS, InSAR, and Leveling Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisowski, M.; Dzurisin, D.; Wicks, C. W.

    2007-12-01

    Uplift of a broad area centered ~5 km west of South Sister volcano in central Oregon started sometime after fall 1996, accelerated after fall 1998, and was continuing when last surveyed with GPS and leveling in fall 2006. Surface displacements were measured whenever possible since 1992 with satellite radar interferometry (InSAR), annually since 2001 with GPS and leveling campaigns, and with a continuous GPS station since 2001. The average maximum displacement rate from InSAR was 3 to 5 cm/yr during 1998--2001 and ~1.4 cm/yr during 2004--2006. The other three datasets show a similar pattern, i.e., surface dilation and uplift rates decreased over time but deformation continued through 2006. Our best-fit model is a spherical point pressure (Mogi) source located 6.0--6.5 km below the surface and 4.5--5 km west-southwest of the summit of South Sister volcano. Any marginal improvement gained by using a more complicated source shape is not constrained by the data. This same model fits the deformation data for 2001--2003 and 2003--2006 equally well, so there is no indication that the location or shape of the source has changed. However, the source inflation rate has decreased exponentially since 2001 with a 1/e decay time of about 4 years. The net increase in source volume from the beginning of the episode (~1997) through 2006 was 60 × 106 m3 ± 10 × 106 m3. The only unusual seismicity near the deforming area was a swarm of about 300 small earthquakes on March 23- -26, 2004 ---the first notable seismicity for at least two decades. Timing of the swarm generally coincides with slowing of surface deformation, but any link between the two, if one exists, is not understood. Similar episodes in the past probably would have gone unnoticed if, as we suspect, most were small intrusions that do not culminate in eruptions.

  3. Results of InSAR and GPS Measurement of Tectonic Deformation of the Eastern California Shear Zone and Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, W. C.; Li, Z.; Plag, H.; Blewitt, G.; Kreemer, C.

    2006-12-01

    Across the Eastern California Shear Zone, southern Walker Lane Belt and Yucca Mountain, Nevada, the geodetically measured deformation rate decreases eastward from the Sierra Nevada Mountains toward the central Basin and Range. In the vicinity of Yucca Mountain, the horizontal crustal deformation rate (~20 nanostrains/yr) and vertical velocity variations (Frenchman Flat earthquake (Mw 4.8), groundwater pumping, and what may be atmosphere variations in Death Valley. We are developing an improved time series approach for analyzing the 11-years of ERS data that uses realistic errors in the interferograms. We will evaluate the results for their ability to improve constraint on the pattern of tectonic deformation in the rapidly deforming Eastern California Shear zone and southern Walker Lane belt, and to constrain the less rapid tectonic deformation in the vicinity of the Yucca Mountain.

  4. Transmitter-equipped darts in a protocol for chemically immobilizing free-ranging red deer (Cervus elaphus in Central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro Nicoloso

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-two free-ranging red deer (Cervus elaphus, 9 males and 13 females (7 months to 13 years old, were captured in October-November 2006 and December 2007, along the Apenninic ridge (44°06’N, 11°00’E between the Pistoia (Tuscany and Bologna (Emilia-Romagna provinces, as part of a reintroduction project in Gran Sasso and Laga’s Mountains National Park (42°33’N, 13°28’E, Italy. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a red deer capture protocol, using equipped transmitter darts, in Apennine areas where other methods had not been successful. The red deer were darted (by an operative team of 5-7 operators during dark hours with a mixture of Zoletil® (Z and xylazine (X and, whenever secondary dosages became necessary, a mixture of ketamine (K and X were used. Twenty-five animals were shot, only 3 of which could not be approached to re-dart them. All animals were darted, during dark hours, from a vehicle at a distance of 10-30 m and then recovered, using 3-cc disposable Pneu-dart® transmitter darts, 50-280 m (median 80 m from the dart site. These technical choices were forced by an uneven and wooded environment of the study area. Before the transport to the reintroduction site, the animals were kept in a lairage stable, arranged in single boxes, provided with water and food. This accommodation was necessary to collect a reasonable number of animals to arrange the transport. The immobilized animals were brought to the stable and haemoglobin saturation and heart rate were constantly monitored with a pulse oximeter. Oxygen was insufflated into a nostril at a rate of 10 litres/min for 20-35 min. Atipamezole was administered two thirds intramuscularly (IM and one third intravenously, 45 to 120 min after the last IM narcotic injection, to revive the animals. No side effects other than different levels of meteorism, were displayed. In conclusion, the protocol applied, which proved safe for the animals and had optimal

  5. Significance of zircon U-Pb ages from the Pescadero felsite, west-central California coast ranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Robert J.; Moore, Diane E.; ,; Martens, UWE C.; Clark, J.C.

    2011-01-01

    Weathered felsite is associated with the late Campanian–Maastrichtian Pigeon Point Formation near Pescadero, California. Poorly exposed, its age and correlation are uncertain. Is it part of the Pigeon Point section west of the San Gregorio–Hosgri fault? Does it rest on Nacimiento block basement? Is it dextrally offset from the Oligocene Cambria Felsite, ∼185 km to the southeast? Why is a calc-alkaline hypabyssal igneous rock intrusive into the outboard accretionary prism? To address these questions, we analyzed 43 oscillatory-zoned zircon crystals from three incipiently recrystallized pumpellyite ± prehnite ± laumontite-bearing Pescadero felsite samples by sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe–reverse geometry (SHRIMP-RG) and laser ablation–inductively coupled plasma–mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) techniques. Thirty-three zircons gave late Mesozoic U-Pb ages, with single-grain values ranging from 81 to 167 Ma; ten have pre-Mesozoic, chiefly Proterozoic ages. A group of the four youngest Pescadero zircons yielded an apparent maximum igneous age of ca. 86–90 Ma. Reflecting broad age scatter and presence of partly digested sandstone inclusions, we interpret the rest of the zircons (perhaps all) as xenocrysts. Twenty-three zircons were separated and analyzed from two samples of the similar Cambria Felsite, yielding a unimodal 27 Ma U-Pb age. Clearly, the origin of the Upper Oligocene Cambria Felsite is different from that of the Upper Cretaceous Pescadero felsite; these rocks are not correlated, and do not constrain displacement along the San Gregorio–Hosgri fault. Peak ages differ slightly, but relative probability curves for Mesozoic and pre-Mesozoic Pescadero zircons compare well, for example, with abundant U-Pb age data for detrital zircons from Franciscan metaclastic strata ∼100 km to the east in the Diablo Range–San Francisco Bay area, San Joaquin Great Valley Group turbidites, Upper Cretaceous Nacimiento block Franciscan strata, and Upper

  6. Mycorrhizal compatibility and symbiotic seed germination of orchids from the Coastal Range and Andes in south central Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Hector; Valadares, Rafael; Contreras, Domingo; Bashan, Yoav; Arriagada, Cesar

    2017-04-01

    Little is known about Orchidaceae plants in Chile and their mycorrhizal associations, a key issue for designing protective actions for endangered species. We investigated root fungi from seven terrestrial orchid species to identify potential mycorrhizal fungi. The main characteristics of Rhizoctonia-like fungi were observed under light microscopy, and isolates were identified through PCR-ITS sequencing. Molecular identification of fungal sequences showed a high diversity of fungi colonizing roots. Fungal ability to germinate seeds of different orchids was determined in symbiotic germination tests; 24 fungal groups were isolated, belonging to the genera Tulasnella, Ceratobasidium, and Thanatephorus. Furthermore, dark septate and other endophytic fungi were identified. The high number of Rhizoctonia-like fungi obtained from adult orchids from the Coastal mountain range suggests that, after germination, these orchids may complement their nutritional demands through mycoheterotrophy. Nonetheless, beneficial associations with other endophytic fungi may also co-exist. In this study, isolated mycorrhizal fungi had the ability to induce seed germination at different efficiencies and with low specificity. Germin ation rates were low, but protocorms continued to develop for 60 days. A Tulasnella sp. isolated from Chloraea gavilu was most effective to induce seed germination of different species. The dark septate endophytic (DSE) fungi did not show any effect on seed development; however, their widespread occurrence in some orchids suggests a putative role in plant establishment.

  7. Field examination of shale and argillite in northern Nye County, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connolly, J. R.; Woodward, L. A.; Emanuel, K. M.; Keil, K.

    1981-12-01

    Thirty-two locales underlain by clay-rich strata ranging from Cambrian Pioche Shale to Mississippian Chainman Shale and equivalents were examined in northern Nye County, Nevada. The text of the report summarizes data for each stratigraphic unit examined. Checklists for tabulating field data at each locale are included in an appendix. Working guidelines used to evaluate the locales include a minimum thickness of 150 m (500 ft) of relatively pure clay-rich bedrock, subsurface depth between 150 m (500 ft) and 900 m (3000 ft), low topographic relief, low seismic and tectonic activity, and avoidance of areas with mineral resource production or potential. Field studies indicate that only the Chainman Shale, specifically in the central and northern parts of the Pancake Range, appears to contain sites that meet these guidelines.

  8. Distribution, life history, management, and current status of Astragalus beatleyae on the US Department of Energy's Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blomquist, K.W.; Wills, C.A.; Ostler, W.K.; Rautenstrauch, K.R.; O' Farrell, T.P.

    1992-11-01

    A beatleyae is a small milk vetch found in south-central Nevada on portions of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and Nellis Air Force Range. This species has been classified as a Category 1 candidate species for federal listing under the Endangered Species Act because of its limited range and threats from human activities, primarily activities conducted by the US Department of Energy, Nevada Field Office (DOE/NV). The status of A. beatleyae was last evaluated over 13 years ago (Rhoads et al., 1979, Beatley, 1978). Since then, numerous conservation measures have been taken by DOE/NV and additional information on the status of this population has been obtained. Field surveys have been conducted to locate new populations of A. beatleyae. Because of this work, the known range of this species has been expanded approximately 300%. DOE/NV has established. a conservation agreement with the US Fish and Wildlife Service and developed a Species Management Plan. This report is a presentation of the results of that population monitoring study. Also included in this report are a review of other field investigations and conservation measures taken by DOE/NV, a review of the current threats to A. beatleyae, and a reassessment of the status of this species under the Endangered Species Act.

  9. Distribution, life history, management, and current status of Astragalus beatleyae on the US Department of Energy`s Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blomquist, K.W.; Wills, C.A.; Ostler, W.K.; Rautenstrauch, K.R.; O`Farrell, T.P.

    1992-11-01

    A beatleyae is a small milk vetch found in south-central Nevada on portions of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and Nellis Air Force Range. This species has been classified as a Category 1 candidate species for federal listing under the Endangered Species Act because of its limited range and threats from human activities, primarily activities conducted by the US Department of Energy, Nevada Field Office (DOE/NV). The status of A. beatleyae was last evaluated over 13 years ago (Rhoads et al., 1979, Beatley, 1978). Since then, numerous conservation measures have been taken by DOE/NV and additional information on the status of this population has been obtained. Field surveys have been conducted to locate new populations of A. beatleyae. Because of this work, the known range of this species has been expanded approximately 300%. DOE/NV has established. a conservation agreement with the US Fish and Wildlife Service and developed a Species Management Plan. This report is a presentation of the results of that population monitoring study. Also included in this report are a review of other field investigations and conservation measures taken by DOE/NV, a review of the current threats to A. beatleyae, and a reassessment of the status of this species under the Endangered Species Act.

  10. Intraspecific lineage divergence and its association with reproductive trait change during species range expansion in central Eurasian wild wheat Aegilops tauschii Coss. (Poaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuoka, Yoshihiro; Takumi, Shigeo; Kawahara, Taihachi

    2015-09-30

    How species ranges form in landscapes is a matter of long-standing evolutionary interest. However, little is known about how natural phenotypic variations of ecologically important traits contribute to species range expansion. In this study, we examined the phylogeographic patterns of phenotypic changes in life history (seed production) and phenological (flowering time) traits during the range expansion of Aegilops tauschii Coss. from the Transcaucasus and Middle East to central Asia. Our comparative analyses of the patterns of natural variations for those traits and their association with the intraspecific lineage structure showed that (1) the eastward expansion to Asia was driven by an intraspecific sublineage (named TauL1b), (2) high seed production ability likely had an important role at the initial dispersal stage of TauL1b's expansion to Asia, and (3) the phenological change to early flowering phenotypes was one of the key adaptation events for TauL1b to further expand its range in Asia. This study provides for the first time a broad picture of the process of Ae. tauschii's eastward range expansion in which life history and phenological traits may have had respective roles in its dispersal and adaptation in Asia. The clear association of seed production and flowering time patterns with the intraspecific lineage divergence found in this study invites further genetic research to bring the mechanistic understanding of the changes in these key functional traits during range expansion within reach.

  11. Sierra Nevada Subregional Boundary - Sierra Nevada Conservancy [ds542

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Sierra Nevada Conservancy (SNC) boundary. The boundary was mapped to correspond with statute AB 2600 (2004) and as re-defined in AB 1201 (2005). Work on the boundary...

  12. Public Schools, Nevada, 2009, Nevada Department of Education

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Nevada Department of Education locations of public schools for the 2008-2009 school year. List of schools furnished by NDE. Locations furnished by the US EPA Region 9.

  13. Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada. Final environmental impact statement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1977-09-01

    This environmental statement for the Nevada Test Site (NTS) considers underground nuclear detonations with yields of one megaton or less, along with the preparations necessary for such detonations. The testing activities considered also include other continuing and intermittent activities, both nuclear and nonnuclear, which can best be conducted in the remote and controlled area of the Nevada Test Site. These activities are listed, with emphasis on weapons testing programs which do not remain static.

  14. Nevada`s role in the hydrogen economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaeth, T. [Dept. of Energy, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The paper discusses the promise of hydrogen and its possible applications, barriers to its development, the role that the Nevada Test Site could play if it were made more available to public and private institutions for research, and the ``clean city`` concept being developed jointly with California, Utah, and Nevada. This concept would create a ``clean corridor`` along the route from Salt Lake City through Reno to Sacramento, Los Angeles, Las Vegas, and back to Salt Lake City.

  15. Geodetic observations and modeling of magmatic inflation at the Three Sisters volcanic center, central Oregon Cascade Range, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzurisin, Daniel; Lisowski, Michael; Wicks, Charles W.; Poland, Michael P.; Endo, Elliot T.

    2006-02-01

    intruding the upper crust along the brittle-ductile interface — a process that must occur episodically beneath the Cascade Range but in the past would have escaped detection in the absence of unusual seismicity. We speculate that such intrusive episodes last from days to years and are separated by quiescent periods of decades to centuries. The likelihood that the current episode at Three Sisters will culminate in an eruption is judged to be low, but the impact of an eruption could be great. The USGS has updated its volcano hazards assessment for the Three Sisters region, notified appropriate agencies and the public, and is helping to prepare an emergency coordination and communication plan.

  16. Rock-Ice Feature Inventory for the Sierra Nevada, California, USA, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Sierra Nevada is a tectonic uplift mountain range with a gradual gain in elevation on the west side and a steep escarpment on the east. Most of the mapped...

  17. Nevada Thickness of Cenozoic Deposits

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This study of gravity data from Nevada is part of a statewide analysis of mineral resources. The main objective of the gravity study were: 1) to infer the structure...

  18. Humboldt River main stem, Nevada

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set contains the main stem of the Humboldt River as defined by Humboldt Project personnel of the U.S. Geological Survey Nevada District, 2001. The data set...

  19. Long-range and short-range dihadron angular correlations in central PbPb collisions at a nucleon-nucleon center of mass energy of 2.76 TeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatrchyan, Serguei [Yerevan Physics Inst. (Armenia); et al.

    2011-07-01

    First measurements of dihadron correlations for charged particles are presented for central PbPb collisions at a nucleon-nucleon center-of-mass energy of 2.76 TeV over a broad range in relative pseudorapidity, Delta(eta), and the full range of relative azimuthal angle, Delta(phi). The data were collected with the CMS detector, at the LHC. A broadening of the away-side (Delta(phi) approximately pi) azimuthal correlation is observed at all Delta(eta), as compared to the measurements in pp collisions. Furthermore, long-range dihadron correlations in Delta(eta) are observed for particles with similar phi values. This phenomenon, also known as the "ridge", persists up to at least |Delta(eta)| = 4. For particles with transverse momenta (pt) of 2-4 GeV/c, the ridge is found to be most prominent when these particles are correlated with particles of pt = 2-6 GeV/c, and to be much reduced when paired with particles of pt = 10-12 GeV/c.

  20. Environmental assessment for double tracks test site, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV), with appropriate approvals from the U.S. Air Force (USAF), proposes to conduct environmental restoration operations at the Double Tracks test site located on the Nellis Air Force Range (NAFR) in Nye County, Nevada. This environmental assessment (EA) evaluates the potential environmental consequences of four alternative actions for conducting the restoration operation and of the no action alternative. The EA also identifies mitigation measures, where appropriate, designed to protect natural and cultural resources and reduce impacts to human health and safety. The environmental restoration operation at the Double Tracks test site would serve two primary objectives. First, the proposed work would evaluate the effectiveness of future restoration operations involving contamination over larger areas. The project would implement remediation technology options and evaluate how these technologies could be applied to the larger areas of contaminated soils on the Nevada Test Site (NTS), the Tonopah Test Range (TTR), and the NAFR. Second, the remediation would provide for the removal of plutonium contamination down to or below a predetermined level which would require cleanup of 1 hectare (ha) (2.5 acres), for the most likely case, or up to 3.0 ha (7.4 acres) of contaminated soil, for the upper bounding case.

  1. Field-trip guide to mafic volcanism of the Cascade Range in Central Oregon—A volcanic, tectonic, hydrologic, and geomorphic journey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deligne, Natalia I.; Mckay, Daniele; Conrey, Richard M.; Grant, Gordon E.; Johnson, Emily R.; O'Connor, Jim; Sweeney, Kristin

    2017-08-16

    The Cascade Range in central Oregon has been shaped by tectonics, volcanism, and hydrology, as well as geomorphic forces that include glaciations. As a result of the rich interplay between these forces, mafic volcanism here can have surprising manifestations, which include relatively large tephra footprints and extensive lava flows, as well as water shortages, transportation and agricultural disruption, and forest fires. Although the focus of this multidisciplinary field trip will be on mafic volcanism, we will also look at the hydrology, geomorphology, and ecology of the area, and we will examine how these elements both influence and are influenced by mafic volcanism. We will see mafic volcanic rocks at the Sand Mountain volcanic field and in the Santiam Pass area, at McKenzie Pass, and in the southern Bend region. In addition, this field trip will occur during a total solar eclipse, the first one visible in the United States in more than 25 years (and the first seen in the conterminous United States in more than 37 years).The Cascade Range is the result of subduction of the Juan de Fuca plate underneath the North American plate. This north-south-trending volcanic mountain range is immediately downwind of the Pacific Ocean, a huge source of moisture. As moisture is blown eastward from the Pacific on prevailing winds, it encounters the Cascade Range in Oregon, and the resulting orographic lift and corresponding rain shadow is one of the strongest precipitation gradients in the conterminous United States. We will see how the products of the volcanoes in the central Oregon Cascades have had a profound influence on groundwater flow and, thus, on the distribution of Pacific moisture. We will also see the influence that mafic volcanism has had on landscape evolution, vegetation development, and general hydrology.

  2. Mixed population genomics support for the central marginal hypothesis across the invasive range of the cane toad (Rhinella marina) in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trumbo, Daryl R; Epstein, Brendan; Hohenlohe, Paul A; Alford, Ross A; Schwarzkopf, Lin; Storfer, Andrew

    2016-09-01

    Understanding factors that cause species' geographic range limits is a major focus in ecology and evolution. The central marginal hypothesis (CMH) predicts that species cannot adapt to conditions beyond current geographic range edges because genetic diversity decreases from core to edge due to smaller, more isolated edge populations. We employed a population genomics framework using 24 235-33 112 SNP loci to test major predictions of the CMH in the ongoing invasion of the cane toad (Rhinella marina) in Australia. Cane toad tissue samples were collected along broad-scale, core-to-edge transects across their invasive range. Geographic and ecological core areas were identified using GIS and habitat suitability indices from ecological niche modelling. Bayesian clustering analyses revealed three genetic clusters, in the northwest invasion-front region, northeast precipitation-limited region and southeast cold temperature-limited region. Core-to-edge patterns of genetic diversity and differentiation were consistent with the CMH in the southeast, but were not supported in the northeast and showed mixed support in the northwest. Results suggest cold temperatures are a likely contributor to southeastern range limits, consistent with CMH predictions. In the northeast and northwest, ecological processes consisting of a steep physiological barrier and ongoing invasion dynamics, respectively, are more likely explanations for population genomic patterns than the CMH. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. A new genus and species of larval mite (Acari: Prostigmata: Microtrombidiidae) parasitising Orthoptera (Tettigoniidae) from the Sierra Nevada, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayoral, Jaime G; Barranco, Pablo

    2012-09-01

    Nevada capileirarum n. g., n. sp. (Acari: Microtrombidiidae: Microtrombidiinae) is described from ectoparasitic larvae parasitising two endemic species of Orthoptera (Tettigoniidae), Baetica ustulata (Rambur) and Pycnogaster inermis (Rambur) from the Sierra Nevada mountain range, Granada, Spain. A key to the larvae of microtrombidiine genera with three dorsal scuta and a coxal setal formula of 2-1-1 is presented.

  4. Bedrock geologic map of the Yucca Mountain area, Nye County, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Day, W.C.; Potter, C.J.; Sweetkind, D.S.; Fridrich, C.J. [Geological Survey, Denver, CO (US); Dickerson, R.P.; San Juan, C.A.; Drake, R.M. II [Pacific Western Technologies, Inc., Denver, CO (US)

    1998-11-01

    Yucca Mountain, Nye County, Nevada, has been identified as a potential site for underground storage of high-level radioactive nuclear waste. Detailed bedrock geologic maps form an integral part of the site characterization program by providing the fundamental framework for research into the geologic hazards and hydrologic behavior of the mountain. This bedrock geologic map provides the geologic framework and structural setting for the area in and adjacent to the site of the potential repository. The study area comprises the northern and central parts of Yucca Mountain, located on the southern flank of the Timber Mountain-Oasis Valley caldera complex, which was the source for many of the volcanic units in the area. The Timber Mountain-Oasis Valley caldera complex is part of the Miocene southwestern Nevada volcanic field, which is within the Walker Lane belt. This tectonic belt is a northwest-striking megastructure lying between the more active Inyo-Mono and Basin-and-Range subsections o f the southwestern Great Basin.

  5. Nevada Test Site Waste Acceptance Criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office, Waste Acceptance Criteria

    1999-05-01

    This document provides the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada Test Site will accept low-level radioactive and mixed waste for disposal; and transuranic and transuranic mixed waste for interim storage at the Nevada Test Site.

  6. Libraries in Nevada: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/libraries/nevada.html Libraries in Nevada To use the sharing features on ... page, please enable JavaScript. Elko Great Basin College Library 1500 College Parkway Elko, NV 89801 775-753- ...

  7. Supplemental Investigation Plan for FFACO Use Restrictions, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynn Kidman

    2008-02-01

    This document is part of an effort to re-evaluate all FFACO URs against the current RBCA criteria (referred to in this document as the Industrial Sites [IS] RBCA process) as defined in the Industrial Sites Project Establishment of Final Action Levels (NNSA/NSO, 2006a). After reviewing all of the existing FFACO URs, the 12 URs addressed in this Supplemental Investigation Plan (SIP) could not be evaluated against the current RBCA criteria as sufficient information about the contamination at each site was not available. This document presents the plan for conducting field investigations to obtain the needed information. This SIP includes URs from Corrective Action Units (CAUs) 326, 339, 358, 452, 454, 464, and 1010, located in Areas 2, 6, 12, 19, 25, and 29 of the Nevada Test Site, which is approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada; and CAU 403, located in Area 3 of the Tonopah Test Range, which is approximately 165 miles north of Las Vegas, Nevada.

  8. Comparability of Icare Pro Rebound Tonometer with Goldmann Applanation and Noncontact Tonometer in a Wide Range of Intraocular Pressure and Central Corneal Thickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamçelik, Nevbahar; Atalay, Eray; Cicik, Erdogan; Özkök, Ahmet

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the agreement between the reading values of the Goldmann applanation tonometer (GAT), Icare Pro rebound tonometer (IRT) and noncontact tonometer (NCT) in glaucoma patients. This cross-sectional study comprised 292 eyes of 292 patients selected from a glaucoma outpatient clinic. The intraocular pressure (IOP) was measured sequentially, at a 10-min interval each, in the following order: NCT, IRT and GAT. The central corneal thickness (CCT) was measured using Pentacam HR before the IOP measurements. The mean IOPs measured by the GAT, NCT and IRT were 20.17 ± 6.73 mm Hg (range: 4-48), 19.77 ± 6.88 mm Hg (range: 3-46) and 19.30 ± 5.15 mm Hg (range: 7.30-44.5), respectively. The correlation coefficients of the GAT and IRT, NCT and IRT, and GAT and NCT measurements were r(2) = 0.673, r(2) = 0.663 and r(2) = 0.938 (all p measured IOPs, whereas it underestimates in high GAT-measured IOPs. The measurements of all 3 devices were also correlated with the CCT at a statistically significant level (GAT: r(2) = 0.063, NCT: r(2) = 0.063, IRT: r(2) = 0.058). The agreement between the IRT and GAT measurements is higher in the IOP range of 9-22 mm Hg, whereas significant discrepancies occur as the IOP deviates from normal values. The variability of the IRT and GAT measurements over a wide range of CCT is minimal. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Repository site data report for unsaturated tuff, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tien, P.L.; Updegraff, C.D.; Siegel, M.D.; Wahi, K.K.; Guzowski, R.V.

    1985-11-01

    The US Department of Energy is currently considering the thick sequences of unsaturated, fractured tuff at Yucca Mountain, on the southwestern boundary of the Nevada Test Site, as a possible candidate host rock for a nuclear-waste repository. Yucca Mountain is in one of the most arid areas in the United States. The site is within the south-central part of the Great Basin section of the Basin and Range physiographic province and is located near a number of silicic calderas of Tertiary age. Although localized zones of seismic activity are common throughout the province, and faults are present at Yucca Mountain, the site itself is basically aseismic. No data are available on the composition of ground water in the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain. It has been suggested that the composition is bounded by the compositions of water from wells USW-H3, UE25p-1, J-13, and snow or rain. There are relatively few data available from Yucca Mountain on the moisture content and saturation, hydraulic conductivity, and characteristic curves of the unsaturated zone. The available literature on thermomechanical properties of tuff does not always distinguish between data from the saturated zone and data from the unsaturated zone. Geochemical, hydrologic, and thermomechanical data available on the unsaturated tuffs of Yucca Mountain are tabulated in this report. Where the data are very sparse, they have been supplemented by data from the saturated zone or from areas other than Yucca Mountain. 316 refs., 58 figs., 37 tabs.

  10. Environmental overview of geothermal development: northern Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slemmons, D.B.; Stroh, J.M.; Whitney, R.A. (eds.)

    1980-08-01

    Regional environmental problems and issues associated with geothermal development in northern Nevada are studied to facilitate environmental assessment of potential geothermal resources. The various issues discussed are: environmental geology, seismicity of northern Nevada, hydrology and water quality, air quality, Nevada ecosystems, noise effects, socio-economic impacts, and cultural resources and archeological values. (MHR)

  11. Nevada Test Site Waste Acceptance Criteria (NTSWAC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NNSA/NSO Waste Management Project

    2008-06-01

    This document establishes the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office, Nevada Test Site Waste Acceptance Criteria (NTSWAC). The NTSWAC provides the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada Test Site will accept low-level radioactive (LLW) and LLW Mixed Waste (MW) for disposal.

  12. Contours, 2ft Contour Information in AutoCAD & ArcInfo formats. AutoCAD contains cut line information. NAD83, Nevada State Plane, West Zone, US Foot. Broken into Township, Range, and Section Grids, Published in 2006, City of Carson City Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Contours dataset current as of 2006. 2ft Contour Information in AutoCAD & ArcInfo formats. AutoCAD contains cut line information. NAD83, Nevada State Plane, West...

  13. Hydrothermal alteration maps of the central and southern Basin and Range province of the United States compiled from Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mars, John L.

    2013-01-01

    Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data and Interactive Data Language (IDL) logical operator algorithms were used to map hydrothermally altered rocks in the central and southern parts of the Basin and Range province of the United States. The hydrothermally altered rocks mapped in this study include (1) hydrothermal silica-rich rocks (hydrous quartz, chalcedony, opal, and amorphous silica), (2) propylitic rocks (calcite-dolomite and epidote-chlorite mapped as separate mineral groups), (3) argillic rocks (alunite-pyrophyllite-kaolinite), and (4) phyllic rocks (sericite-muscovite). A series of hydrothermal alteration maps, which identify the potential locations of hydrothermal silica-rich, propylitic, argillic, and phyllic rocks on Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) band 7 orthorectified images, and geographic information systems shape files of hydrothermal alteration units are provided in this study.

  14. Nevada Test Site seismic: telemetry measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albright, J N; Parker, L E; Horton, E H

    1983-08-01

    The feasibility and limitations of surface-to-tunnel seismic telemetry at the Nevada Test Site were explored through field measurements using current technology. Range functions for signaling were determined through analysis of monofrequency seismic signals injected into the earth at various sites as far as 70 km (43 mi) from installations of seismometers in the G-Tunnel complex of Rainier Mesa. Transmitted signal power at 16, 24, and 32 Hz was measured at two locations in G-Tunnel separated by 670 m (2200 ft). Transmissions from 58 surface sites distributed primarily along three azimuths from G-Tunnel were studied. The G-Tunnel noise environment was monitored over the 20-day duration of the field tests. Noise-power probability functions were calculated for 20-s and 280-s seismic-record populations. Signaling rates were calculated for signals transmitted from superior transmitter sites to G-Tunnel. A detection threshold of 13 dB re 1 nm/sup 2/ displacement power at 95% reliability was demanded. Consideration of field results suggests that even for the frequency range used in this study, substantially higher signaling rates are likely to be obtained in future work in view of the present lack of information relevant to hardware-siting criteria and the seismic propagation paths at the Nevada Test Site. 12 references.

  15. Reconnaissance exploration geochemistry in the central Brooks Range, northern Alaska: Implications for exploration of sediment-hosted zinc-lead-silver deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, K.D.; Kelley, D.L.

    1992-01-01

    A reconnaissance geochemical survey was conducted in the southern Killik River quadrangle, central Brooks Range, northern Alaska. The Brooks Range lies within the zone of continuous permafrost which may partially inhibit chemical weathering and oxidation. The minus 30-mesh and nonmagnetic heavy-mineral concentrate fractions of sediment samples were chosen as the sample media for the survey so that mechanical rather than chemical dispersion patterns would be enhanced. A total of 263 sites were sampled within the southern half of the Killik River quadrangle at an average sample density of approximately one sample per 12 km2. All samples were submitted for multi-element analyses. In the western and central Brooks Range, several known sediment-hosted Zn-Pb-Ag(-Ba) deposits occur within a belt of Paleozoic rocks of the Endicott Mountains allochthon. Exploration for this type of deposit in the Brook Range is difficult, due to the inherently high background values for Ba, Zn and Pb in shale and the common occurrence of metamorphic quartz-calcite veins, many of which contain traces of sulfide minerals. Stream sediments derived from these sources produce numerous geochemical anomalies which are not necessarily associated with significant mineralization. R-mode factor analysis provides a means of distinguishing between element associations related to lithology and those related to possible mineralization. Factor analysis applied to the multi-element data from the southern Killik River quadrangle resulted in the discovery of two additional Zn-Pb-Ag mineral occurrences of considerable areal extent which are 80-100 km east of any previously known deposit. These have been informally named the Kady and Vidlee. Several lithogeochemical element associations, or factors, and three factors which represent sulfide mineralization were identified: Ag-Pb-Zn (galena and sphalerite) and Fe-Ni-Co-Cu (pyrite ?? chalcopyrite) in the concentrate samples and Cd-Zn-Pb-As-Mn in the sediment

  16. Evaluating long-range volcanic ash hazard using supercomputing facilities: application to Somma-Vesuvius (Italy), and consequences for civil aviation over the Central Mediterranean Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folch, A.; Sulpizio, R.

    2010-11-01

    Volcanic ash causes multiple hazards. One hazard of increasing importance is the threat posed to civil aviation, which occurs over proximal to long-range distances. Ash fallout disrupts airport operations, while the presence of airborne ash at low altitudes near airports affects visibility and the safety of landing and take-off operations. Low concentrations of ash at airplane cruise levels are sufficient to force re-routing of in-flight aircrafts. Volcanic fallout deposits spanning large distances have been recognized from the Somma-Vesuvius volcano for several Holocene explosive eruptions. Here we develop hazard and isochron maps for distal ash fallout from the Somma-Vesuvius, as well as hazard maps for critical ash concentrations at relevant flight levels. Maps are computed by coupling a meteorological model with a fully numeric tephra dispersal model that can account for ash aggregation processes, which are relevant to the dispersion dynamics of fine ash. The simulations were carried out using supercomputing facilities, spanning on entire meteorological year that is statistically representative of the local meteorology during the last few decades. Seasonal influences are also analyzed. The eruptive scenario is based on a Subplinian I-type eruption, which is within the range of the maximum expected event for this volcano. Results allow us to quantify the impact that an event of this magnitude and intensity would have on the main airports and aerial corridors of the Central Mediterranean Area.

  17. Exposure of Free-Ranging Wild Carnivores and Domestic Dogs to Canine Distemper Virus and Parvovirus in the Cerrado of Central Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furtado, Mariana Malzoni; Hayashi, Erika Midori Kida; Allendorf, Susan Dora; Coelho, Claudio José; de Almeida Jácomo, Anah Tereza; Megid, Jane; Ramos Filho, José Domingues; Silveira, Leandro; Tôrres, Natália Mundim; Ferreira Neto, José Soares

    2016-09-01

    Human population growth around protected areas increases the contact between wild and domestic animals, promoting disease transmission between them. This study investigates the exposure of free-ranging wild carnivores and domestic dogs to canine distemper virus (CDV) and parvovirus in Emas National Park (ENP) in the Cerrado savanna of central Brazil. Serum samples were collected from 169 wild carnivores, including the maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus), crab-eating fox (Cerdocyon thous), hoary fox (Pseudalopex vetulus), puma (Puma concolor), ocelot (Leopardus pardalis), pampas cat (Leopardus colocolo), jaguarundi (Herpailurus yagouaroundi), striped hog-nosed skunk (Conepatus semistriatus) and coati (Nasua nasua), and from 35 domestic dogs living on rural properties bordering ENP. Serological tests showed that 10.6% of wild carnivores (maned wolves, crab-eating foxes and ocelots) and 71.4% of domestic dogs were exposed to CDV, and 56.8% of wild carnivores, including all species sampled except coatis, and 57.1% of domestic dogs were exposed to parvovirus. This report is the first to indicate that the free-ranging pampas cat, jaguarundi and striped hog-nosed skunk are exposed to parvovirus. CDV and parvovirus deserve attention in ENP, and it is extremely important to monitor the health of carnivore populations and perform molecular diagnosis of the viruses to determine the possible involvement of the domestic dog in their transmission.

  18. Report to Congress on Sustainable Ranges, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Air Facility Quantico in FY2008. RAICUZ studies at Townsend Range, Chocolate Mountain Aerial Gunnery Range, and Barry M Goldwater Range-West are on...representatives from Arizona, California, Nevada, New Mexico and Utah and other interested stakeholders. Part of the working group’s tactical

  19. Final Environmental Assessment Nellis Air Force Base School Initiative, Nellis Air Force Base, Clark County, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    4-5 Table 4-2. A-Weighted (dBA) Sound Levels of Construction Equipment and Modeled Attenuation at Various Distances...NEPA National Environmental Policy Act NOA Notice of Availability NPDES National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System NPS National Park Service...NRHP National Register of Historic Places NRS Nevada Revised Statutes NTTR Nevada Test and Training Range NO2 nitrogen dioxide O3 ozone Nellis AFB

  20. Pandemic H1N1 influenza isolated from free-ranging Northern Elephant Seals in 2010 off the central California coast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracey Goldstein

    Full Text Available Interspecies transmission of influenza A is an important factor in the evolution and ecology of influenza viruses. Marine mammals are in contact with a number of influenza reservoirs, including aquatic birds and humans, and this may facilitate transmission among avian and mammalian hosts. Virus isolation, whole genome sequencing, and hemagluttination inhibition assay confirmed that exposure to pandemic H1N1 influenza virus occurred among free-ranging Northern Elephant Seals (Mirounga angustirostris in 2010. Nasal swabs were collected from 42 adult female seals in April 2010, just after the animals had returned to the central California coast from their short post-breeding migration in the northeast Pacific. Swabs from two seals tested positive by RT-PCR for the matrix gene, and virus was isolated from each by inoculation into embryonic chicken eggs. Whole genome sequencing revealed greater than 99% homology with A/California/04/2009 (H1N1 that emerged in humans from swine in 2009. Analysis of more than 300 serum samples showed that samples collected early in 2010 (n = 100 were negative and by April animals began to test positive for antibodies against the pH1N1 virus (HI titer of ≥1∶40, supporting the molecular findings. In vitro characterizations studies revealed that viral replication was indistinguishable from that of reference strains of pH1N1 in canine kidney cells, but replication was inefficient in human epithelial respiratory cells, indicating these isolates may be elephant seal adapted viruses. Thus findings confirmed that exposure to pandemic H1N1 that was circulating in people in 2009 occurred among free-ranging Northern Elephant Seals in 2010 off the central California coast. This is the first report of pH1N1 (A/Elephant seal/California/1/2010 in any marine mammal and provides evidence for cross species transmission of influenza viruses in free-ranging wildlife and movement of influenza viruses between humans and wildlife.

  1. Magmatism and Epithermal Gold-Silver Deposits of the Southern Ancestral Cascade Arc, Western Nevada and Eastern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, David A.; du Bray, Edward A.; Henry, Christopher D.; Vikre, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Many epithermal gold-silver deposits are temporally and spatially associated with late Oligocene to Pliocene magmatism of the southern ancestral Cascade arc in western Nevada and eastern California. These deposits, which include both quartz-adularia (low- and intermediate-sulfidation; Comstock Lode, Tonopah, Bodie) and quartz-alunite (high-sulfidation; Goldfield, Paradise Peak) types, were major producers of gold and silver. Ancestral Cascade arc magmatism preceded that of the modern High Cascades arc and reflects subduction of the Farallon plate beneath North America. Ancestral arc magmatism began about 45 Ma, continued until about 3 Ma, and extended from near the Canada-United States border in Washington southward to about 250 km southeast of Reno, Nevada. The ancestral arc was split into northern and southern segments across an inferred tear in the subducting slab between Mount Shasta and Lassen Peak in northern California. The southern segment extends between 42°N in northern California and 37°N in western Nevada and was active from about 30 to 3 Ma. It is bounded on the east by the northeast edge of the Walker Lane. Ancestral arc volcanism represents an abrupt change in composition and style of magmatism relative to that in central Nevada. Large volume, caldera-forming, silicic ignimbrites associated with the 37 to 19 Ma ignimbrite flareup are dominant in central Nevada, whereas volcanic centers of the ancestral arc in western Nevada consist of andesitic stratovolcanoes and dacitic to rhyolitic lava domes that mostly formed between 25 and 4 Ma. Both ancestral arc and ignimbrite flareup magmatism resulted from rollback of the shallowly dipping slab that began about 45 Ma in northeast Nevada and migrated south-southwest with time. Most southern segment ancestral arc rocks have oxidized, high potassium, calc-alkaline compositions with silica contents ranging continuously from about 55 to 77 wt%. Most lavas are porphyritic and contain coarse plagioclase

  2. Experimental Infrasound Studies in Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrin, E. T.; Negraru, P. T.; Golden, P.; Williams, A.

    2009-12-01

    An experimental propagation study was carried out in Nevada in June 2009 on Julian days 173-177. During this field experiment we deployed 16 single channel digital infrasound recorders to monitor the munitions disposal activities near Hawthorne, NV. The sensors were deployed in a single line and placed approximately 12 km apart at distances ranging from 2 to 177 km. A four element semi-permanent infrasound array named FNIAR was installed approximately 154 km north of the detonation site in line with the individual temporary recorders. Tropospheric arrivals were observed during all days of the experiment, but during day 176 the observed arrivals had very large amplitudes. A large signal was observed at 58 km from the detonation site with amplitude as large as 4 Pascals, while at 94 km no signal was observed. At FNIAR the amplitude of the tropospheric arrival was 1 Pascal. During this day meteorological data acquired in the propagation path showed a strong jet stream to the north. On day 177 we were not able to identify tropospheric arrivals beyond 34 km, but at stations beyond 152 km we observed stratospheric arrivals. Continuous monitoring of these signals at FNIAR shows that stratospheric arrivals are the most numerous. In a two month period, from 06/15/2009 to 08/15/2009 there were 35 operational days at the Hawthorne disposal facility resulting in 212 explosions with known origin times. Based on the celerity values there were 115 explosions that have only stratospheric arrivals (celerities of 300-275 m/s), 72 explosions with both tropospheric (celerities above 330 m/s) and stratospheric arrivals, 20 explosions that were not detected and five explosions that have only tropospheric arrivals.

  3. Field, petrologic, and geochemical relations of the Grouse Canyon Member of the belted range tuff in the GTUF rock mechanics test area, U12g tunnel, Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connolly, J.R.; Keil, K.

    1985-08-01

    This report summarizes the results of petrochemical studies of welded Grouse Canyon Member tuff in the G-Tunnel Underground Rock Mechanics Facility (GTUF), carried out in support of thermomechanical testing. The Grouse Canyon Member in GTUF is divided into three partial-cooling units (A, B, and C from the base upward), separated by tuffaceous breccias that mark partial cooling breaks. Unit B is most suitable for in situ experiments due to the presence of a thick, densely welded, relatively homogeneous central zone. Unit A is not favorable due to thinness, lithologic variability and extensive zeolitization. Unit B is not favorable due to variable degree of welding, and irregular zones of clay alteration. The Grouse Canyon Member is a marginally peralkaline comendite tuff; whole-rock agpaitic indices are close to 1.0. Phenocrysts present include sodic sanidine (An{sub 4}Ab{sub 55}Or{sub 41}), quartz, and minor clinopyroxene, fayalitic olivine, biotite, and Fe/Ti oxides. Devitrification yields axiolitic and spherulitic sodic sanidine and quartz, granophyric quartz, and minor sodic pyroxene and amphibole. These assemblages are characteristic of iron-rich peralkaline silicic tuffs. This differs slightly from the Topopah Spring Member at Yucca Mountain, in which there are no olivine or pyroxene phenocrysts and no ferromagnesian devitrification phases. Zeolitization in Unit A and the underlying Tunnel Bed 5 has added CaO from, and released Na{sub 2}O to, groundwater under oxidizing conditions. 26 refs., 16 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Algal-Based Renewable Energy for Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritsen, Christian [Desert Research Institute, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2017-03-31

    To help in the overall evaluation of the potential for growing algal biomass in high productivity systems, we conducted a study that evaluated water from geothermal sources and cultivated mixed consortia from hot springs in Nevada, we evaluated their growth at moderately high varying temperatures and then evaluated potential manipulations that could possibly increase their biomass and oleaginous production. Studies were conducted at scales ranging from the laboratory benchtop to raceways in field settings. Mixed consortia were readily grown at all scales and growth could be maintained in Nevada year round. Moderate productivities were attained even during the shoulder seasons- where temperature control was maintained by hot water and seasonally cold temperatures when there was still plentiful solar radiation. The results enhance the prospects for economic feasibility of developing algal based industries in areas with geothermal energy or even other large alternative sources of heat that are not being used for other purposes. The public may benefit from such development as a means for economic development as well as development of industries for alternative energy and products that do not rely on fossil fuels.

  5. Nevada National Security Site Environmental Report 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. Wills, ed.

    2011-09-13

    This NNSSER was prepared to satisfy DOE Order DOE O 231.1B, “Environment, Safety and Health Reporting.” Its purpose is to (1) report compliance status with environmental standards and requirements, (2) present results of environmental monitoring of radiological and nonradiological effluents, (3) report estimated radiological doses to the public from releases of radioactive material, (4) summarize environmental incidents of noncompliance and actions taken in response to them, (5) describe the NNSA/NSO Environmental Management System and characterize its performance, and (6) highlight significant environmental programs and efforts. This NNSSER summarizes data and compliance status for calendar year 2010 at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) (formerly the Nevada Test Site) and its two support facilities, the North Las Vegas Facility (NLVF) and the Remote Sensing Laboratory–Nellis (RSL-Nellis). It also addresses environmental restoration (ER) projects conducted at the Tonopah Test Range (TTR). Through a Memorandum of Agreement, NNSA/NSO is responsible for the oversight of TTR ER projects, and the Sandia Site Office of NNSA (NNSA/SSO) has oversight of all other TTR activities. NNSA/SSO produces the TTR annual environmental report available at http://www.sandia.gov/news/publications/environmental/index.html.

  6. Surface-Wave Tomography of Yucca Flat, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toney, L. D.; Abbott, R. E.; Knox, H. A.; Preston, L. A.; Hoots, C. R.

    2016-12-01

    In 2015, Sandia National Laboratories conducted an active-source seismic survey of Yucca Flat, Nevada, on the Nevada National Security Site. The Yucca Flat basin hosted over 900 nuclear tests between 1951 and 1992. Data from this survey will help characterize seismic propagation effects of the area, informing models for the next phase of the Source Physics Experiments. The survey source was a 13,000-kg weight-drop at 91 locations along a 19-km N-S transect and 56 locations along an 11-km E-W transect. Over 350 three-component 2-Hz geophones were variably spaced at 10, 20, and 100 m along each line. We employed roll-along survey geometry to ensure 10-m receiver spacing within 2 km of the source. Phase velocity surface-wave analysis via the refraction-microtremor (ReMi) method was previously performed on this data in order to obtain an S-wave velocity model of the subsurface. However, the results of this approach were significantly impacted in areas where ray paths were proximate to underground nuclear tests, resulting in a spatially incomplete model. We have processed the same data utilizing group velocities and the multiple filter technique (MFT), with the hope that the propagation of wave groups is less impacted by the disrupted media surrounding former tests. We created a set of 30 Gaussian band-pass filters with scaled relative passbands and central frequencies ranging from 1 to 50 Hz. We picked fundamental Rayleigh wave arrivals from the filtered data; these picks were then inverted for 2D S-wave velocity along the transects. The new S-wave velocity model will be integrated with previous P-wave tomographic results to yield a more complete model of the subsurface structure of Yucca Flat. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  7. Estimation of mercury vapor flux from natural substrate in Nevada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehner, Richard E; Gustin, Mae S

    2002-10-01

    The contribution of mercury to the atmosphere from natural sources is not well-quantified, particularly at the regional scale. This modeling study employed a Geographic Information Systems (GIS) approach to estimate mercury flux from substrate in Nevada, which lies within one of the global belts of geologic Hg enrichment. In situ mercury flux measurements were taken from a variety of substrate types with a wide range of mercury concentrations. This empirical data forms the basis of equations applied to a database of over 71,000 rock and soil samples used in scaling mercury flux for Nevada. The GIS was employed to spatially model estimated flux values according to sample type, geology, presence/absence of hydrothermal alteration, and meteorological conditions. The area average flux calculated for Nevada adjusted for meteorological conditions is 4.2 +/- 1.4 ng m-2 h-1, which corresponds to a approximately 29 kg daily emission of mercury. Areas of hydrothermal alteration emit 12.9 +/- 3.6 ng m-2 h-1, accounts for 22% of net mercury emissions yet represents only 7% of the area of Nevada. Unaltered geologic units have low fluxes (3.5 +/- 1.2 ng m-2 h-1) but, because of their large area, emit 78% of the total mercury.

  8. Nevada Infrastructure for Climate Change Science, Education, and Outreach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dana, G. L.; Piechota, T. C.; Lancaster, N.; Mensing, S. A.

    2009-12-01

    The Nevada system of Higher Education, including the University of Nevada, Las Vegas, the University of Nevada, Reno, the Desert Research Institute, and Nevada State College have begun a five year research and infrastructure building program, funded by the National Science Foundation Experimental Program to Stimulate Competitive Research (NSF EPSCoR) with the vision “to create a statewide interdisciplinary program and virtual climate change center that will stimulate transformative research, education, and outreach on the effects of regional climate change on ecosystem resources (especially water) and support use of this knowledge by policy makers and stakeholders.” Six major strategies are proposed: 1) Develop a capability to model climate change and its effects at a regional and sub-regional scales to evaluate different future scenarios and strategies (Climate Modeling Component) 2) Develop data collection, modeling, and visualization infrastructure to determine and analyze effects on ecosystems and disturbance regimes (Ecological Change Component) 3) Develop data collection, modeling, and visualization infrastructure to better quantify and model changes in water balance and resources under climate change (Water Resources Component) 4) Develop data collection and modeling infrastructure to assess effects on human systems, responses to institutional and societal aspects, and enhance policy making and outreach to communities and stakeholders (Policy, Decision-Making, and Outreach Component) 5) Develop a data portal and software to support interdisciplinary research via integration of data from observational networks and modeling (Cyberinfrastructure Component) and 6) Develop educational infrastructure to train students at all levels and provide public outreach in climate change issues (Education Component). As part of the new infrastructure, two observational transects will be established across Great Basin Ranges, one in southern Nevada in the Spring Mountains

  9. A new Lower Triassic ichthyopterygian assemblage from Fossil Hill, Nevada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Neil P; Motani, Ryosuke; Embree, Patrick; Orchard, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    We report a new ichthyopterygian assemblage from Lower Triassic horizons of the Prida Formation at Fossil Hill in central Nevada. Although fragmentary, the specimens collected so far document a diverse fauna. One partial jaw exhibits isodont dentition with blunt tipped, mesiodistally compressed crowns and striated enamel. These features are shared with the Early Triassic genus Utatsusaurus known from coeval deposits in Japan and British Columbia. An additional specimen exhibits a different dentition characterized by relatively small, rounded posterior teeth resembling other Early Triassic ichthyopterygians, particularly Grippia. This Nevada assemblage marks a southward latitudinal extension for Early Triassic ichthyopterygians along the eastern margin of Panthalassa and indicates repeated trans-hemispheric dispersal events in Early Triassic ichthyopterygians.

  10. A new Lower Triassic ichthyopterygian assemblage from Fossil Hill, Nevada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil P. Kelley

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a new ichthyopterygian assemblage from Lower Triassic horizons of the Prida Formation at Fossil Hill in central Nevada. Although fragmentary, the specimens collected so far document a diverse fauna. One partial jaw exhibits isodont dentition with blunt tipped, mesiodistally compressed crowns and striated enamel. These features are shared with the Early Triassic genus Utatsusaurus known from coeval deposits in Japan and British Columbia. An additional specimen exhibits a different dentition characterized by relatively small, rounded posterior teeth resembling other Early Triassic ichthyopterygians, particularly Grippia. This Nevada assemblage marks a southward latitudinal extension for Early Triassic ichthyopterygians along the eastern margin of Panthalassa and indicates repeated trans-hemispheric dispersal events in Early Triassic ichthyopterygians.

  11. Residential Energy Efficiency Potential: Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-16

    Energy used by Nevada single-family homes that can be saved through cost-effective improvements. Prepared by Eric Wilson and Noel Merket, NREL, and Erin Boyd, U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis.

  12. The Point Sal–Point Piedras Blancas correlation and the problem of slip on the San Gregorio–Hosgri fault, central California Coast Ranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colgan, Joseph P.; Stanley, Richard G.

    2016-01-01

    Existing models for large-magnitude, right-lateral slip on the San Gregorio–Hosgri fault system imply much more deformation of the onshore block in the Santa Maria basin than is supported by geologic data. This problem is resolved by a model in which dextral slip on this fault system increases gradually from 0–10 km near Point Arguello to ∼150 km at Cape San Martin, but such a model requires abandoning the cross-fault tie between Point Sal and Point Piedras Blancas, which requires 90–100 km of right-lateral slip on the southern Hosgri fault. We collected stratigraphic and detrital zircon data from Miocene clastic rocks overlying Jurassic basement at both localities to determine if either section contained unique characteristics that could establish how far apart they were in the early Miocene. Our data indicate that these basins formed in the early Miocene during a period of widespread transtensional basin formation in the central Coast Ranges, and they filled with sediment derived from nearby pre-Cenozoic basement rocks. Although detrital zircon data do not indicate a unique source component in either section, they establish the maximum depositional age of the previously undated Point Piedras Blancas section to be 18 Ma. We also show that detrital zircon trace-element data can be used to discriminate between zircons of oceanic crust and arc affinity of the same age, a potentially useful tool in future studies of the California Coast Ranges. Overall, we find no characteristics in the stratigraphy and provenance of the Point Sal and Point Piedras Blancas sections that are sufficiently unique to prove whether they were far apart or close together in the early Miocene, making them of questionable utility as piercing points.

  13. Epidemiology of viral pathogens of free-ranging dogs and Indian foxes in a human-dominated landscape in central India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belsare, A V; Vanak, A T; Gompper, M E

    2014-08-01

    There is an increasing concern that free-ranging domestic dog (Canis familiaris) populations may serve as reservoirs of pathogens which may be transmitted to wildlife. We documented the prevalence of antibodies to three viral pathogens, canine parvovirus (CPV), canine distemper virus (CDV) and canine adenovirus (CAV), in free-ranging dog and sympatric Indian fox (Vulpes bengalensis) populations in and around the Great Indian Bustard Wildlife Sanctuary, in Maharashtra, central India. A total of 219 dogs and 33 foxes were sampled during the study period. Ninety-three percentage of dogs and 87% of foxes were exposed to one or more of the three pathogens. Exposure rates in dogs were high: >88% for CPV, >72% for CDV and 71% for CAV. A large proportion of adult dogs had antibodies against these pathogens due to seroconversion following earlier natural infection. The high prevalence of exposure to these pathogens across the sampling sessions, significantly higher exposure rates of adults compared with juveniles, and seroconversion in some unvaccinated dogs documented during the study period suggests that these pathogens are enzootic. The prevalence of exposure to CPV, CDV and CAV in foxes was 48%, 18% and 52%, respectively. Further, a high rate of mortality was documented in foxes with serologic evidence of ongoing CDV infection. Dogs could be playing a role in the maintenance and transmission of these pathogens in the fox population, but our findings show that most dogs in the population are immune to these pathogens by virtue of earlier natural infection, and therefore, these individuals make little current or future contribution to viral maintenance. Vaccination of this cohort will neither greatly improve their collective immune status nor contribute to herd immunity. Our findings have potentially important implications for dog disease control programmes that propose using canine vaccination as a tool for conservation management of wild carnivore populations. © 2014

  14. Unclassified Source Term and Radionuclide Data for the Groundwater Flow and Contaminant Transport Model of Corrective Action Units 101 and 102: Central and Western Pahute Mesa, Nye County, Nevada, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCord, John

    2004-08-01

    This report documents the evaluation of the information and data available on the unclassified source term and radionuclide contamination for Central and Western Pahute Mesa: Corrective Action Units (CAUs) 101 and 102.

  15. Block Interactions in Southern Oregon, Northern California, and Northwestern Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollick, J. J.; McCaffrey, R.; Sella, G.; Stevens, C.; Williams, T.; McCaffrey, C.; Walton, B.

    2003-12-01

    Southern Oregon, northern California, and northwestern Nevada is an area of plate tectonic interest due to the surrounding complex interactions between the Pacific plate, Sierra Nevada block, western Basin and Range, California Coast Range, Mendocino Transform, Juan de Fuca plate and the San Andreas fault. The overall net effects from these interactions on the tri-state area are unknown and constitute the focus of our research. Over a two week period in June and July of 2003, GPS data were collected at approximately 100 sites between 40 - 45 degrees N. and 235 - 245 degrees E. Most of the sites were first occupied as part of National Geodetic Survey HARN surveys in 1998 and 1999. These data are currently being processed and the resulting velocity vectors will be analyzed to ascertain block interactions in the region of interest.

  16. HEALTH SURVEY OF FREE-RANGING RACCOONS (PROCYON LOTOR) IN CENTRAL PARK, NEW YORK, NEW YORK, USA: IMPLICATIONS FOR HUMAN AND DOMESTIC ANIMAL HEALTH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainwater, Kimberly L; Marchese, Krysten; Slavinski, Sally; Humberg, Lee A; Dubovi, Edward J; Jarvis, Jodie A; McAloose, Denise; Calle, Paul P

    2017-04-01

    We conducted health assessments on 113 free-ranging raccoons ( Procyon lotor ) in Central Park, New York City, US, in February 2010, September 2010, and November 2011 in conjunction with a trap-vaccinate-release program to control a raccoon rabies epizootic. Five individuals were sampled at two time points for 118 raccoon examinations in total. We tested 13 of 13 and 8 of 13 euthanized raccoons for rabies and canine distemper virus (CDV), respectively, by antigen testing on brain tissue; all were negative for both viruses. Endoparasitism was the most common necropsy finding, with definitive identification of Baylisascaris procyonis in six of eight (75%) necropsied raccoons. Multiple intestinal parasites were detected in feces of living raccoons, including ascarid-type ova in 25 of 80 (31%) raccoons, with B. procyonis confirmed in one sample. Median blood lead level was 7.3 μg/dL (n=104). Rabies virus neutralizing antibody titer was ≥0.5 IU/mL in 9 of 88 (10%) raccoons naive to rabies vaccination and in 13 of 20 (65%) previously vaccinated raccoons. The majority of raccoons we tested were seropositive for canine parvovirus-2 (54/59, 92%) and Toxoplasma gondii (39/60, 65%). Fewer were seropositive for Rickettsia rickettsii (3/30, 10%). None were seropositive for CDV (n=108), canine adenovirus-1 (n=60), or Borrelia burgdorferi (n=30). Ectoparasites found during 16 of 118 (13.6%) physical examinations included Ixodes texanus ticks (15/118, 12.7%) and Trichodectes octomaculatus lice (1/118, 0.8%). We detected Campylobacter jejuni in 5 of 79 (6%) fecal samples. We detected 11 Salmonella enterica serotypes in 70 of 111 (63.1%) enteric cultures, the most common of which were Salmonella Newport (20/70, 29%) and Salmonella Oranienburg (20/70, 29%). These results indicate that raccoons in Central Park likely are involved in the environmental occurrence and potential disease transmission of a variety of infectious and noninfectious diseases of concern for human, wildlife

  17. MDA8 O3 Values at Rural Surface Sites in Nevada, USA: Results from Two Years of the Nevada Rural Ozone Initiative (NVROI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustin, M. S.; Fine, R.; Miller, M. B.; Burley, J. D.; Jaffe, D. A.; Pierce, R. B.; Lin, M.

    2014-12-01

    Local anthropogenic emissions are limited in Nevada (USA); however, data collected at Great Basin National Park (GBNP), which is located in rural eastern Nevada, indicate that ozone (O3) routinely exceeds the threshold proposed for a more stringent National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS). Here, we focused on data collected between July 2011 and June 2013. For this period, the maximum daily 8-h average (MDA8) O3 at GBNP exceeded the current NAAQS threshold (75 ppb) 7 times. Our analyses indicate that a combination of sources including emissions from regional wildfires and urban areas of southern California as well as stratospheric intrusions and long-range transport of Asian pollution contributed to elevated O3 observed at GBNP. Although MDA8 O3 measured at GBNP was well correlated with that measured at 5 other rural Nevada sites during this period, MDA8 O3 was 3.1 to 12.6 ppb greater at GBNP than at these other rural sites which emphasizes the need for spatially detailed measurements particularly in areas of complex terrain. The maximum MDA8 O3 at these 6 rural NV sites ranged from 68 to 80 ppb. GBNP was the only rural site to exceed the current NAAQS threshold during the period considered; however, when lower thresholds were considered the spatial and temporal extent of exceedances in rural Nevada increased indicating that interstate and international cooperation will be necessary to reduce ambient O3 concentrations in rural Nevada. MDA8 O3 at rural Nevada sites were significantly correlated with measurements at urban Nevada (r = 0.64 to 0.82; p < 0.05) and rural California (r = 0.61 to 0.83; p = 0.00) sites suggesting that common mechanisms influence O3 observed throughout the region.

  18. Hypothesis testing clarifies the systematics of the main Central American Chagas disease vector, Triatoma dimidiata (Latreille, 1811), across its geographic range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorn, Patricia L; de la Rúa, Nicholas M; Axen, Heather; Smith, Nicholas; Richards, Bethany R; Charabati, Jirias; Suarez, Julianne; Woods, Adrienne; Pessoa, Rafaela; Monroy, Carlota; Kilpatrick, C William; Stevens, Lori

    2016-10-01

    The widespread and diverse Triatoma dimidiata is the kissing bug species most important for Chagas disease transmission in Central America and a secondary vector in Mexico and northern South America. Its diversity may contribute to different Chagas disease prevalence in different localities and has led to conflicting systematic hypotheses describing various populations as subspecies or cryptic species. To resolve these conflicting hypotheses, we sequenced a nuclear (internal transcribed spacer 2, ITS-2) and mitochondrial gene (cytochrome b) from an extensive sampling of T. dimidiata across its geographic range. We evaluated the congruence of ITS-2 and cyt b phylogenies and tested the support for the previously proposed subspecies (inferred from ITS-2) by: (1) overlaying the ITS-2 subspecies assignments on a cyt b tree and, (2) assessing the statistical support for a cyt b topology constrained by the subspecies hypothesis. Unconstrained phylogenies inferred from ITS-2 and cyt b are congruent and reveal three clades including two putative cryptic species in addition to T. dimidiata sensu stricto. Neither the cyt b phylogeny nor hypothesis testing support the proposed subspecies inferred from ITS-2. Additionally, the two cryptic species are supported by phylogenies inferred from mitochondrially-encoded genes cytochrome c oxidase I and NADH dehydrogenase 4. In summary, our results reveal two cryptic species. Phylogenetic relationships indicate T. dimidiata sensu stricto is not subdivided into monophyletic clades consistent with subspecies. Based on increased support by hypothesis testing, we propose an updated systematic hypothesis for T. dimidiata based on extensive taxon sampling and analysis of both mitochondrial and nuclear genes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Ten-year chemical signatures associated with long-range transport observed in the free troposphere over the central North Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Zhang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Ten-year observations of trace gases at Pico Mountain Observatory (PMO, a free troposphere site in the central North Atlantic, were classified by transport patterns using the Lagrangian particle dispersion model, FLEXPART. The classification enabled identifying trace gas mixing ratios associated with background air and long- range transport of continental emissions, which were defined as chemical signatures. Comparison between the chemical signatures revealed the impacts of natural and anthropogenic sources, as well as chemical and physical processes during long transport, on air composition in the remote North Atlantic. Transport of North American anthropogenic emissions (NA-Anthro and summertime wildfire plumes (Fire significantly enhanced CO and O3 at PMO. Summertime CO enhancements caused by NA-Anthro were found to have been decreasing by a rate of 0.67 ± 0.60 ppbv/year in the ten-year period, due possibly to reduction of emissions in North America. Downward mixing from the upper troposphere and stratosphere due to the persistent Azores-Bermuda anticyclone causes enhanced O3 and nitrogen oxides. The 'd' [O3]/'d' [CO] value was used to investigate O3 sources and chemistry in different transport patterns. The transport pattern affected by Fire had the lowest 'd' [O3]/'d' [CO], which was likely due to intense CO production and depressed O3 production in wildfire plumes. Slightly enhanced O3 and 'd' [O3]/'d' [CO] were found in the background air, suggesting that weak downward mixing from the upper troposphere is common at PMO. Enhancements of both butane isomers were found during upslope flow periods, indicating contributions from local sources. The consistent ratio of butane isomers associated with the background air and NA-anthro implies no clear difference in the oxidation rates of the butane isomers during long transport. Based on observed relationships between non-methane hydrocarbons, the averaged photochemical age of the air masses at

  20. Geochemical and Isotopic Interpretations of Groundwater Flow in the Oasis Valley Flow System, Southern Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.M. Thomas; F.C. Benedict, Jr.; T.P. Rose; R.L. Hershey; J.B. Paces; Z.E. Peterman; I.M. Farnham; K.H. Johannesson; A.K. Singh; K.J. Stetzenbach; G.B. Hudson; J.M. Kenneally; G.F. Eaton; D.K. Smith

    2003-01-08

    This report summarizes the findings of a geochemical investigation of the Pahute Mesa-Oasis Valley groundwater flow system in southwestern Nevada. It is intended to provide geochemical data and interpretations in support of flow and contaminant transport modeling for the Western and Central Pahute Mesa Corrective Action Units.

  1. Preliminary report on engineering geology of thirteen tunnel sites, Nevada Test Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilmarth, Verl Richard; McKeown, Francis Alexander; Dobrovolny, Ernest

    1958-01-01

    Reconnaissance of 13 areas in and adjacent to Nevada Test Site was completed. Of the 13 areas, Forty Mile Canyon, South-central Shoshone Mountain, and Southeast Shoshone Mountain named in order of preference, offer many advantages for carrying on future underground nuclear explosions.

  2. NEVADA TEST SITE WASTE ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY, NATIONAL NUCLEAR SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, NEVADA SITE OFFICE

    2005-07-01

    This document establishes the U. S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) waste acceptance criteria (WAC). The WAC provides the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada Test Site will accept low-level radioactive and mixed waste for disposal. Mixed waste generated within the State of Nevada by NNSA/NSO activities is accepted for disposal. It includes requirements for the generator waste certification program, characterization, traceability, waste form, packaging, and transfer. The criteria apply to radioactive waste received at the Nevada Test Site Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site for storage or disposal.

  3. The 2011 Hawthorne, Nevada, Earthquake Sequence; Shallow Normal Faulting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, K. D.; Johnson, C.; Davies, J. A.; Agbaje, T.; Knezevic Antonijevic, S.; Kent, G.

    2011-12-01

    An energetic sequence of shallow earthquakes that began in early March 2011 in western Nevada, near the community of Hawthorne, has slowly decreased in intensity through mid-2011. To date about 1300 reviewed earthquake locations have been compiled; we have computed moment tensors for the larger earthquakes and have developed a set of high-precision locations for all reviewed events. The sequence to date has included over 50 earthquakes ML 3 and larger with the largest at Mw 4.6. Three 6-channel portable stations configured with broadband sensors and accelerometers were installed by April 20. Data from the portable instruments is telemetered through NSL's microwave backbone to Reno where it is integrated with regional network data for real-time notifications, ShakeMaps, and routine event analysis. The data is provided in real-time to NEIC, CISN and the IRIS DMC. The sequence is located in a remote area about 15-20 km southwest of Hawthorne in the footwall block of the Wassuk Range fault system. An initial concern was that the sequence might be associated with volcanic processes due to the proximity of late Quaternary volcanic flows; there have been no volcanic signatures observed in near source seismograms. An additional concern, as the sequence has proceeded, was a clear progression eastward toward the Wassuk Range front fault. The east dipping range bounding fault is capable of M 7+ events, and poses a significant hazard to the community of Hawthorne and local military facilities. The Hawthorne Army Depot is an ordinance storage facility and the nation's storage site for surplus mercury. The sequence is within what has been termed the 'Mina Deflection' of the Central Walker Lane Belt. Faulting along the Whiskey Flat section of the Wassuk front fault would be primarily down-to-the-east, with an E-W extension direction; moment tensors for the 2011 earthquake show a range of extension directions from E-W to NW-SE, suggesting a possible dextral component to the Wassuk

  4. Magnetotelluric survey to locate the Archean-Proterozoic suture zone in the northeastern Great Basin, Nevada, Utah, and Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, Jay A.; Rodriguez, Brian D.

    2013-01-01

    North-central Nevada contains a large amount of gold in linear belts, the origin of which is not fully understood. During July 2008, September 2009, and August 2010, the U.S. Geological Survey, as part of the Assessment Techniques for Concealed Mineral Resources project, collected twenty-three magnetotelluric soundings along two profiles in Box Elder County, Utah; Elko County, Nevada; and Cassia, Minidoka, and Blaine Counties, Idaho. The main twenty-sounding north-south magnetotelluric profile begins south of Wendover, Nev., but north of the Deep Creek Range. It continues north of Wendover and crosses into Utah, with the north profile terminus in the Snake River Plain, Idaho. A short, three-sounding east-west segment crosses the main north-south profile near the northern terminus of the profile. The magnetotelluric data collected in this study will be used to better constrain the location and strike of the concealed suture zone between the Archean crust and the Paleoproterozoic Mojave province. This report releases the magnetotelluric sounding data that was collected. No interpretation of the data is included.

  5. Reducing the impact of summer cattle grazing on water quality in the Sierra Nevada Mountains of California: a proposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derlet, Robert W; Goldman, Charles R; Connor, Michael J

    2010-06-01

    The Sierra Nevada Mountain range serves as an important source of drinking water for the State of California. However, summer cattle grazing on federal lands affects the overall water quality yield from this essential watershed as cattle manure is washed into the lakes and streams or directly deposited into these bodies of water. This organic pollution introduces harmful microorganisms and also provides nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus which increase algae growth causing eutrophication of otherwise naturally oligotrophic mountain lakes and streams. Disinfection and filtration of this water by municipal water districts after it flows downstream will become increasingly costly. This will be compounded by increasing surface water temperatures and the potential for toxins release by cyanobacteria blooms. With increasing demands for clean water for a state population approaching 40 million, steps need to be implemented to mitigate the impact of cattle on the Sierra Nevada watershed. Compared to lower elevations, high elevation grazing has the greatest impact on the watershed because of fragile unforgiving ecosystems. The societal costs from non-point pollution exceed the benefit achieved through grazing of relatively few cattle at the higher elevations. We propose limiting summer cattle grazing on public lands to lower elevations, with a final goal of allowing summer grazing on public lands only below 1,500 m elevation in the Central and Northern Sierra and 2,000 m elevation in the Southern Sierra.

  6. Deposition patterns and transport mechanisms for the endocrine disruptor 4-nonylphenol across the Sierra Nevada Mountains, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Rebecca; Van de Bittner, Kyle; Morgan-Jones, Sean

    2014-12-01

    Dust and particulate distribution patterns are shifting as global climate change brings about longer drought periods. Particulates act as vehicles for long range transport of organic pollutants, depositing at locations far from their source. Nonylphenol, a biodegradation product of nonylphenol polyethoxylate, is a known endocrine disruptor. Nonylphenol polyethoxylate enters the environment as an inert ingredient in pesticide sprays, potentially traveling great distances from its application site. This is of concern when a highly agricultural region, California's Central Valley, lies adjacent to sensitive areas like the Eastern Sierra Nevada Mountains. The distribution and transport mechanisms for 4-nonylphenol were investigated in Eastern Sierra Nevada canyons. Regions close to canyon headwalls showed trace amounts of 4-nonylphenol in surface water, snow, and atmospheric deposition. Exposed areas had yearly average concentrations as high as 9 μg/L. Distribution patterns are consistent with particulate-bound transport. This suggests with increasing drought periods, higher levels of persistent organic pollutants are likely. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Report on the Myomatrix Conference April 22-24, 2012, University of Nevada, Reno, Nevada, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkowski, Anne; Bönnemann, Carsten; Brown, Susan; Thorsteinsdóttir, Sólveig; Dominov, Janice; Ruegg, Markus A; Matter, Michelle L; Guttridge, Denis; Crosbie-Watson, Rachelle H; Kardon, Gabrielle; Nagaraju, Kanneboyina; Girgenrath, Mahasweta; Burkin, Dean J

    2013-02-01

    The Myomatrix 2012 conference held April 22-24th, 2012 at the University of Nevada, Reno convened 73 international participants to discuss the dynamic relationship between muscle and its matrix in muscular dystrophy with a specific focus on congenital muscular dystrophy. Seven sessions over 2½ days defined three central themes: (1) the role of extracellular matrix proteins and compartments in development and specifically in congenital muscular dystrophy (CMD) (2) the role of extracellular matrix signaling and adhesion to membrane receptors and (3) the balance and interplay between inflammation and fibrosis as drivers of altered matrix stiffness, impaired regeneration and progressive dystrophy. This report highlights major conference findings and the translational roadmap as defined by conference attendees. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Environmental Impact Analysis Process, Groom Mountain Range, Lincoln County, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-10-01

    occasional 6) T6S, R56E, Sec. 19, 7800 feet, few Erigeron ovinus occurs in crevices, with shallow, coarse soil on lime - stone, typically at the base...Phrynosoma phatyrhinos) X X X Sagebrush lizard (Sceloperous graciosus) X X X Western fence lizard (Sceloperous occidentalis) X X X X Side blotched lizard

  9. 1995 Site environmental report Tonopah Test Range, Tonopah, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Culp, T. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Forston, W. [Kirk-Mayer, Inc., Tonopah, NV (United States)

    1996-09-01

    This report summarizes the environmental surveillance activities conducted by Sandia National Laboratories. Sandia National Laboratories` responsibility for environmental surveillance results extends to those activities performed by Sandia National Laboratories or under its direction. Results from other organizations environmental surveillance activities are included to provide a measure of completeness. Other environmental compliance programs such as the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, environmental permits, and environmental restoration and waste management programs are also included in this report, prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) in compliance with DOE Order 5400.1.

  10. Environmental Impact Statement. Groom Mountain Range, Lincoln County, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-06-01

    excess horses are being removed from the public lands. After that time, maintenance removals will be such that the Palomino Valley Horse Corrals...annual harvest. Survey and forage data indicate that wild horses and other wildlife species, such as antelope, compete for the limited resources...available resulting in domination by wild horses and the exclusion of other wildlife species. The Air Force does not believe this to be a viable mitigation

  11. Nevada Test Site closure program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shenk, D.P.

    1994-08-01

    This report is a summary of the history, design and development, procurement, fabrication, installation and operation of the closures used as containment devices on underground nuclear tests at the Nevada Test Site. It also addresses the closure program mothball and start-up procedures. The Closure Program Document Index and equipment inventories, included as appendices, serve as location directories for future document reference and equipment use.

  12. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 300: Surface Release Areas Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2007-07-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 300 is located in Areas 23, 25, and 26 of the Nevada Test Site, which is located approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. CAU 300 is listed in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order of 1996 as Surface Release Areas and is comprised of the following seven Corrective Action Sites (CASs), which are associated with the identified Building (Bldg): {sm_bullet} CAS 23-21-03, Bldg 750 Surface Discharge {sm_bullet} CAS 23-25-02, Bldg 750 Outfall {sm_bullet} CAS 23-25-03, Bldg 751 Outfall {sm_bullet} CAS 25-60-01, Bldg 3113A Outfall {sm_bullet} CAS 25-60-02, Bldg 3901 Outfall {sm_bullet} CAS 25-62-01, Bldg 3124 Contaminated Soil {sm_bullet} CAS 26-60-01, Bldg 2105 Outfall and Decon Pad The Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP)-approved corrective action alternative for CASs 23-21-03, 23-25-02, and 23-25-03 is no further action. As a best management practice, approximately 48 feet of metal piping was removed from CAS 23-25-02 and disposed of as sanitary waste. The NDEP-approved corrective action alternative for CASs 25-60-01, 25-60-02, 25-62-01, and 26-60-01, is clean closure. Closure activities for these CASs included removing and disposing of soil impacted with total petroleum hydrocarbons-diesel range organics (TPH-DRO), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs), and cesium (Cs)-137, concrete impacted with TPH-DRO, and associated piping impacted with TPH-DRO. CAU 300 was closed in accordance with the NDEP-approved CAU 300 Corrective Action Plan (CAP) (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office [NNSA/NSO], 2006). The closure activities specified in the CAP were based on the recommendations presented in the CAU 300 Corrective Action Decision Document (NNSA/NSO, 2005). This Closure Report documents CAU 300 closure activities. During closure activities, approximately 40 cubic yards (yd3) of low-level waste consisting of TPH-DRO-, PCB

  13. Middle Miocene carnivorans from the Monarch Mill Formation, Nevada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kent Smith

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available he lowest part of the Monarch Mill Formation in the Middlegate basin, west-central Nevada, has yielded a middle Miocene (Barstovian Land Mammal Age vertebrate assemblage, the Eastgate local fauna. Paleobotanical evidence from nearby, nearly contemporaneous fossil leaf assemblages indicates that the Middle Miocene vegetation in the area was mixed coniferous and hardwood forest and chaparral-sclerophyllous shrubland, and suggests that the area had been uplifted to 2700–2800 m paleoaltitude before dropping later to near its present elevation of 1600 m. Thus, the local fauna provides a rare glimpse at a medium- to high-altitude vertebrate community in the intermountain western interior of North America. The local fauna includes the remains of fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and 25 families of mammals. Carnivorans, the focus of this study, include six taxa (three of which are new belonging to four families. Canidae are represented by the borophagine Tomarctus brevirostris and the canine Leptocyon sp. indet. The earliest record and second North American occurrence of the simocyonine ailurid Actiocyon is represented by A. parverratis sp. nov. Two new mustelids, Brevimalictis chikasha gen. et sp. nov. and Negodiaetictis rugatrulleum gen. et sp. nov., may represent Galictinae but are of uncertain subfamilial and tribal affinity. The fourth family is represented by the felid Pseudaelurus sp. indet. Tomarctus brevirostris is limited biochronologically to the Barstovian land mammal age and thus is consistent with the age indicated by other members of the Eastgate local fauna as well as by indirect tephrochronological dates previously associated with the Monarch Mill Formation. Actiocyon parverratis sp. nov. extends the temporal range of the genus Actiocyon from late Clarendonian back to the Barstovian. The Eastgate local fauna improves our understanding of mammalian successions and evolution, during and subsequent to the Mid-Miocene Climatic Optimum

  14. Rapid movement of frozen debris-lobes: implications for permafrost degradation and slope instability in the south-central Brooks Range, Alaska

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. P. Daanen

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available We present the results of a reconnaissance investigation of unusual debris mass-movement features on permafrost slopes that pose a potential infrastructure hazard in the south-central Brooks Range, Alaska. For the purpose of this paper, we describe these features as frozen debris-lobes. We focus on the characterisation of frozen debris-lobes as indicators of various movement processes using ground-based surveys, remote sensing, field and laboratory measurements, and time-lapse observations of frozen debris-lobe systems along the Dalton Highway. Currently, some frozen debris-lobes exceed 100 m in width, 20 m in height and 1000 m in length. Our results indicate that frozen debris-lobes have responded to climate change by becoming increasingly active during the last decades, resulting in rapid downslope movement. Movement indicators observed in the field include toppling trees, slumps and scarps, detachment slides, striation marks on frozen sediment slabs, recently buried trees and other vegetation, mudflows, and large cracks in the lobe surface. The type and diversity of observed indicators suggest that the lobes likely consist of a frozen debris core, are subject to creep, and seasonally unfrozen surface sediment is transported in warm seasons by creep, slumping, viscous flow, blockfall and leaching of fines, and in cold seasons by creep and sliding of frozen sediment slabs. Ground-based measurements on one frozen debris-lobe over three years (2008–2010 revealed average movement rates of approximately 1 cm day−1, which is substantially larger than rates measured in historic aerial photography from the 1950s to 1980s. We discuss how climate change may further influence frozen debris-lobe dynamics, potentially accelerating their movement. We highlight the potential direct hazard that one of the studied frozen debris-lobes may pose in the coming years and decades to the nearby Trans Alaska Pipeline System and the Dalton Highway, the

  15. Mechanisms associated with post-sunset convective initiation close to mountain ranges in Central ArgentinaMany thunderstorms in mid-latitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salio, P. V.; Vidal, L.; Zipser, E. J.; Vila, D. A.

    2016-12-01

    Many thunderstorms in mid-latitude South America stand out in satellite observations as being among the strongest anywhere on Earth in terms of satellite-based convective proxies, such as lightning flash rate per storm, prevalence for extremely tall, wide convective cores and broad stratiform regions. Knowing when and where strong convection is initiated is of great importance because of the close relationship between convective storms, heavy precipitation, and severe weather phenomena. This paper seeks to identify the most salient features associated with mesoscale and synoptic scale that condition the environment in which deep convection develops in mid-latitude South America region close to principal mountain barriers (e.g. the Andes). A specific region of complex terrain in Central Argentina, known as Sierras de Córdoba (SCBA), tend to show active initiation near the end of the afternoon (between 21Z and 00Z) during the warm season. These may become very long-lived systems with lifetimes that can exceed 24 hours and even in extreme cases can reach 60 hours. They have associated cloud shields, with large horizontal extent at the time of maturity (>250,000km2), more than twice the average size of MCSs born outside this particular region. These events are strongly favored by the presence of a mid-level trough with a surface cold front and a westerly jet stream aloft, which along with an intense low-level jet (SALLJ) and local circulations, combine to pre-condition the environment and develop deep moist convection in the region of interest in the afternoon on the east and west side of the topography. MCSs tend to detach from the topography and develop in the valley between the Andes and SCBA, or east away from SCBA, where convergence reaches a maximum in low levels as a consequence of the zonal shift of SALLJ. While the circulation associated with the SALLJ plays an important role in strengthening convergences on the mountain and provides moisture and heat from

  16. Habitat modeling and movements of the Yosemite toad (Anaxyrus (=Bufo) canorus) in the Sierra Nevada, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    C.T. Liang

    2010-01-01

    The Yosemite toad (Anaxyrus (=Bufo) canorus) is a high-elevation species endemic to the Sierra Nevada mountain range in California and is part of the world-wide amphibian declines phenomenon. The toad is thought to have disappeared from over 50% of its historic range even in seemingly undisturbed areas, and...

  17. Geothermal assessment of the MX deployment area in Nevada. Final report, April 1, 1981-April 30, 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trexler, D.T.; Bruce, J.L.; Cates, D.; Dolan, H.H.; Covington, C.H.

    1982-06-01

    A preliminary geothermal resource assessment of the MX deployment area in Nevada focused on Coyote Spring Valley in southeastern Nevada. Initially, an extensive literature search was conducted and a bibliography consisting of 750 entries was compiled covering all aspects of geology pertaining to the study area. A structural study indicates that Coyote Spring Valley lies in a tectonically active area which is favorable for the discovery of geothermal resources. Hot water may be funneled to the near-surface along an extensive fracture and fault system which appears to underlie the valley, according to information gathered during the literature search and aerial photo survey. A total of 101 shallow temperature probes were emplanted in Coyote Spring Valley. Three anomalous temperature points all lying within the same vicinity were identified in the north-central portion of the valley near a fault. A soil-mercury study also identified one zone of anomalous mercury concentrations around the north end of the Arrow Canyon Range. A literature search covering regional fluid geochemistry indicated that the three fluid samples taken from Coyote Spring Valley have a higher concentration of Na + K. During field work, seven fluid samples were collected in Coyote Spring Valley which also appear to be derived from volcanic units due to the presence of Ca-Mg or Na-K carbonate-bicarbonate. A temperature gradient study of six test water wells indicates that only one geothermal well with a temperature of 35.5/sup 0/C (96/sup 0/F) exists in the central portion of the valley at the north end of Arrow Canyon Range near the zone of anomalous soil-mercury points. A cultural assessment of Coyote Spring Valley was performed prior to field work.

  18. Nevada commercial spent nuclear fuel transportation experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-09-01

    The purpose of this report is to present an historic overview of commercial reactor spent nuclear fuel (SNF) shipments that have occurred in the state of Nevada, and to review the accident and incident experience for this type of shipments. Results show that between 1964 and 1990, 309 truck shipments covering approximately 40,000 miles moved through Nevada; this level of activity places Nevada tenth among the states in the number of truck shipments of SNF. For the same period, 15 rail shipments moving through the State covered approximately 6,500 miles, making Nevada 20th among the states in terms of number of rail shipments. None of these shipments had an accident or an incident associated with them. Because the data for Nevada are so limited, national data on SNF transportation and the safety of truck and rail transportation in general were also assessed.

  19. Centrality evolution of the charged–particle pseudorapidity density over a broad pseudorapidity range in Pb–Pb collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{\\rm NN}}=2.76$ TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Adam, Jaroslav; Aggarwal, Madan Mohan; Aglieri Rinella, Gianluca; Agnello, Michelangelo; Agrawal, Neelima; Ahammed, Zubayer; Ahn, Sang Un; Aiola, Salvatore; Akindinov, Alexander; Alam, Sk Noor; Aleksandrov, Dmitry; Alessandro, Bruno; Alexandre, Didier; Alfaro Molina, Jose Ruben; Alici, Andrea; Alkin, Anton; Millan Almaraz, Jesus Roberto; Alme, Johan; Alt, Torsten; Altinpinar, Sedat; Altsybeev, Igor; Alves Garcia Prado, Caio; Andrei, Cristian; Andronic, Anton; Anguelov, Venelin; Anielski, Jonas; Anticic, Tome; Antinori, Federico; Antonioli, Pietro; Aphecetche, Laurent Bernard; Appelshaeuser, Harald; Arcelli, Silvia; Arnaldi, Roberta; Arnold, Oliver Werner; Arsene, Ionut Cristian; Arslandok, Mesut; Audurier, Benjamin; Augustinus, Andre; Averbeck, Ralf Peter; Azmi, Mohd Danish; Badala, Angela; Baek, Yong Wook; Bagnasco, Stefano; Bailhache, Raphaelle Marie; Bala, Renu; Baldisseri, Alberto; Baral, Rama Chandra; Barbano, Anastasia Maria; Barbera, Roberto; Barile, Francesco; Barnafoldi, Gergely Gabor; 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Boggild, Hans; Boldizsar, Laszlo; Bombara, Marek; Book, Julian Heinz; Borel, Herve; Borissov, Alexander; Borri, Marcello; Bossu, Francesco; Botta, Elena; Boettger, Stefan; Bourjau, Christian; Braun-Munzinger, Peter; Bregant, Marco; Breitner, Timo Gunther; Broker, Theo Alexander; Browning, Tyler Allen; Broz, Michal; Brucken, Erik Jens; Bruna, Elena; Bruno, Giuseppe Eugenio; Budnikov, Dmitry; Buesching, Henner; Bufalino, Stefania; Buncic, Predrag; Busch, Oliver; Buthelezi, Edith Zinhle; Bashir Butt, Jamila; Buxton, Jesse Thomas; Caffarri, Davide; Cai, Xu; Caines, Helen Louise; Calero Diaz, Liliet; Caliva, Alberto; Calvo Villar, Ernesto; Camerini, Paolo; Carena, Francesco; Carena, Wisla; Carnesecchi, Francesca; Castillo Castellanos, Javier Ernesto; Castro, Andrew John; Casula, Ester Anna Rita; Ceballos Sanchez, Cesar; Cepila, Jan; Cerello, Piergiorgio; Cerkala, Jakub; Chang, Beomsu; Chapeland, Sylvain; Chartier, Marielle; Charvet, Jean-Luc Fernand; Chattopadhyay, Subhasis; Chattopadhyay, Sukalyan; 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Gonzalez Ferreiro, Elena; Ferretti, Alessandro; Festanti, Andrea; Feuillard, Victor Jose Gaston; Figiel, Jan; Araujo Silva Figueredo, Marcel; Filchagin, Sergey; Finogeev, Dmitry; Fionda, Fiorella; Fiore, Enrichetta Maria; Fleck, Martin Gabriel; Floris, Michele; Foertsch, Siegfried Valentin; Foka, Panagiota; Fokin, Sergey; Fragiacomo, Enrico; Francescon, Andrea; Frankenfeld, Ulrich Michael; Fuchs, Ulrich; Furget, Christophe; Furs, Artur; Fusco Girard, Mario; Gaardhoeje, Jens Joergen; Gagliardi, Martino; Gago Medina, Alberto Martin; Gallio, Mauro; Gangadharan, Dhevan Raja; Ganoti, Paraskevi; Gao, Chaosong; Garabatos Cuadrado, Jose; Garcia-Solis, Edmundo Javier; Gargiulo, Corrado; Gasik, Piotr Jan; Gauger, Erin Frances; Germain, Marie; Gheata, Andrei George; Gheata, Mihaela; Ghosh, Premomoy; Ghosh, Sanjay Kumar; Gianotti, Paola; Giubellino, Paolo; Giubilato, Piero; Gladysz-Dziadus, Ewa; Glassel, Peter; Gomez Coral, Diego Mauricio; Gomez Ramirez, Andres; Gonzalez, Victor; Gonzalez Zamora, Pedro; 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Humanic, Thomas; Hussain, Nur; Hussain, Tahir; Hutter, Dirk; Hwang, Dae Sung; Ilkaev, Radiy; Inaba, Motoi; Ippolitov, Mikhail; Irfan, Muhammad; Ivanov, Marian; Ivanov, Vladimir; Izucheev, Vladimir; Jacobs, Peter Martin; Jadhav, Manoj Bhanudas; Jadlovska, Slavka; Jadlovsky, Jan; Jahnke, Cristiane; Jakubowska, Monika Joanna; Jang, Haeng Jin; Janik, Malgorzata Anna; Pahula Hewage, Sandun; Jena, Chitrasen; Jena, Satyajit; Jimenez Bustamante, Raul Tonatiuh; Jones, Peter Graham; Jung, Hyungtaik; Jusko, Anton; Kalinak, Peter; Kalweit, Alexander Philipp; Kamin, Jason Adrian; Kang, Ju Hwan; Kaplin, Vladimir; Kar, Somnath; Karasu Uysal, Ayben; Karavichev, Oleg; Karavicheva, Tatiana; Karayan, Lilit; Karpechev, Evgeny; Kebschull, Udo Wolfgang; Keidel, Ralf; Keijdener, Darius Laurens; Keil, Markus; Khan, Mohammed Mohisin; Khan, Palash; Khan, Shuaib Ahmad; Khanzadeev, Alexei; Kharlov, Yury; Kileng, Bjarte; Kim, Do Won; Kim, Dong Jo; Kim, Daehyeok; Kim, Hyeonjoong; Kim, Jinsook; Kim, Mimae; Kim, Minwoo; 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Podesta Lerma, Pedro Luis Manuel; Poghosyan, Martin; Polishchuk, Boris; Poljak, Nikola; Poonsawat, Wanchaloem; Pop, Amalia; Porteboeuf, Sarah Julie; Porter, R Jefferson; Pospisil, Jan; Prasad, Sidharth Kumar; Preghenella, Roberto; Prino, Francesco; Pruneau, Claude Andre; Pshenichnov, Igor; Puccio, Maximiliano; Puddu, Giovanna; Pujahari, Prabhat Ranjan; Punin, Valery; Putschke, Jorn Henning; Qvigstad, Henrik; Rachevski, Alexandre; Raha, Sibaji; Rajput, Sonia; Rak, Jan; Rakotozafindrabe, Andry Malala; Ramello, Luciano; Rami, Fouad; Raniwala, Rashmi; Raniwala, Sudhir; Rasanen, Sami Sakari; Rascanu, Bogdan Theodor; Rathee, Deepika; Read, Kenneth Francis; Redlich, Krzysztof; Reed, Rosi Jan; Rehman, Attiq Ur; Reichelt, Patrick Simon; Reidt, Felix; Ren, Xiaowen; Renfordt, Rainer Arno Ernst; Reolon, Anna Rita; Reshetin, Andrey; Revol, Jean-Pierre; Reygers, Klaus Johannes; Riabov, Viktor; Ricci, Renato Angelo; Richert, Tuva Ora Herenui; Richter, Matthias Rudolph; Riedler, Petra; Riegler, Werner; Riggi, Francesco; Ristea, Catalin-Lucian; Rocco, Elena; Rodriguez Cahuantzi, Mario; Rodriguez Manso, Alis; Roeed, Ketil; Rogochaya, Elena; Rohr, David Michael; Roehrich, Dieter; Romita, Rosa; Ronchetti, Federico; Ronflette, Lucile; Rosnet, Philippe; Rossi, Andrea; Roukoutakis, Filimon; Roy, Ankhi; Roy, Christelle Sophie; Roy, Pradip Kumar; Rubio Montero, Antonio Juan; Rui, Rinaldo; Russo, Riccardo; Ryabinkin, Evgeny; Ryabov, Yury; Rybicki, Andrzej; Sadovskiy, Sergey; Safarik, Karel; Sahlmuller, Baldo; Sahoo, Pragati; Sahoo, Raghunath; Sahoo, Sarita; Sahu, Pradip Kumar; Saini, Jogender; Sakai, Shingo; Saleh, Mohammad Ahmad; Salzwedel, Jai Samuel Nielsen; Sambyal, Sanjeev Singh; Samsonov, Vladimir; Sandor, Ladislav; Sandoval, Andres; Sano, Masato; Sarkar, Debojit; Scapparone, Eugenio; Scarlassara, Fernando; Schiaua, Claudiu Cornel; Schicker, Rainer Martin; Schmidt, Christian Joachim; Schmidt, Hans Rudolf; Schuchmann, Simone; Schukraft, Jurgen; Schulc, Martin; Schuster, Tim Robin; Schutz, Yves Roland; Schwarz, Kilian Eberhard; Schweda, Kai Oliver; Scioli, Gilda; Scomparin, Enrico; Scott, Rebecca Michelle; Sefcik, Michal; Seger, Janet Elizabeth; Sekiguchi, Yuko; Sekihata, Daiki; Selyuzhenkov, Ilya; Senosi, Kgotlaesele; Senyukov, Serhiy; Serradilla Rodriguez, Eulogio; Sevcenco, Adrian; Shabanov, Arseniy; Shabetai, Alexandre; Shadura, Oksana; Shahoyan, Ruben; Shangaraev, Artem; Sharma, Ankita; Sharma, Mona; Sharma, Monika; Sharma, Natasha; Shigaki, Kenta; Shtejer Diaz, Katherin; Sibiryak, Yury; Siddhanta, Sabyasachi; Sielewicz, Krzysztof Marek; Siemiarczuk, Teodor; Silvermyr, David Olle Rickard; Silvestre, Catherine Micaela; Simatovic, Goran; Simonetti, Giuseppe; Singaraju, Rama Narayana; Singh, Ranbir; Singha, Subhash; Singhal, Vikas; Sinha, Bikash; Sarkar - Sinha, Tinku; Sitar, Branislav; Sitta, Mario; Skaali, Bernhard; Slupecki, Maciej; Smirnov, Nikolai; Snellings, Raimond; Snellman, Tomas Wilhelm; Soegaard, Carsten; Song, Jihye; Song, Myunggeun; Song, Zixuan; Soramel, Francesca; Sorensen, Soren Pontoppidan; Sozzi, Federica; Spacek, Michal; Spiriti, Eleuterio; Sputowska, Iwona Anna; Spyropoulou-Stassinaki, Martha; Stachel, Johanna; Stan, Ionel; Stefanek, Grzegorz; Stenlund, Evert Anders; Steyn, Gideon Francois; Stiller, Johannes Hendrik; Stocco, Diego; Strmen, Peter; Alarcon Do Passo Suaide, Alexandre; Sugitate, Toru; Suire, Christophe Pierre; Suleymanov, Mais Kazim Oglu; Suljic, Miljenko; Sultanov, Rishat; Sumbera, Michal; Szabo, Alexander; Szanto De Toledo, Alejandro; Szarka, Imrich; Szczepankiewicz, Adam; Szymanski, Maciej Pawel; Tabassam, Uzma; Takahashi, Jun; Tambave, Ganesh Jagannath; Tanaka, Naoto; Tangaro, Marco-Antonio; Tarhini, Mohamad; Tariq, Mohammad; Tarzila, Madalina-Gabriela; Tauro, Arturo; Tejeda Munoz, Guillermo; Telesca, Adriana; Terasaki, Kohei; Terrevoli, Cristina; Teyssier, Boris; Thaeder, Jochen Mathias; Thomas, Deepa; Tieulent, Raphael Noel; Timmins, Anthony Robert; Toia, Alberica; Trogolo, Stefano; Trombetta, Giuseppe; Trubnikov, Victor; Trzaska, Wladyslaw Henryk; Tsuji, Tomoya; Tumkin, Alexandr; Turrisi, Rosario; Tveter, Trine Spedstad; Ullaland, Kjetil; Uras, Antonio; Usai, Gianluca; Utrobicic, Antonija; Vajzer, Michal; Vala, Martin; Valencia Palomo, Lizardo; Vallero, Sara; Van Der Maarel, Jasper; Van Hoorne, Jacobus Willem; Van Leeuwen, Marco; Vanat, Tomas; Vande Vyvre, Pierre; Varga, Dezso; Diozcora Vargas Trevino, Aurora; Vargyas, Marton; Varma, Raghava; Vasileiou, Maria; Vasiliev, Andrey; Vauthier, Astrid; Vechernin, Vladimir; Veen, Annelies Marianne; Veldhoen, Misha; Velure, Arild; Venaruzzo, Massimo; Vercellin, Ermanno; Vergara Limon, Sergio; Vernet, Renaud; Verweij, Marta; Vickovic, Linda; Viesti, Giuseppe; Viinikainen, Jussi Samuli; Vilakazi, Zabulon; Villalobos Baillie, Orlando; Villatoro Tello, Abraham; Vinogradov, Alexander; Vinogradov, Leonid; Vinogradov, Yury; Virgili, Tiziano; Vislavicius, Vytautas; Viyogi, Yogendra; Vodopyanov, Alexander; Volkl, Martin Andreas; Voloshin, Kirill; Voloshin, Sergey; Volpe, Giacomo; Von Haller, Barthelemy; Vorobyev, Ivan; Vranic, Danilo; Vrlakova, Janka; Vulpescu, Bogdan; Vyushin, Alexey; Wagner, Boris; Wagner, Jan; Wang, Hongkai; Wang, Mengliang; Watanabe, Daisuke; Watanabe, Yosuke; Weber, Michael; Weber, Steffen Georg; Weiser, Dennis Franz; Wessels, Johannes Peter; Westerhoff, Uwe; Whitehead, Andile Mothegi; Wiechula, Jens; Wikne, Jon; Wilde, Martin Rudolf; Wilk, Grzegorz Andrzej; Wilkinson, Jeremy John; Williams, Crispin; Windelband, Bernd Stefan; Winn, Michael Andreas; Yaldo, Chris G; Yang, Hongyan; Yang, Ping; Yano, Satoshi; Yasar, Cigdem; Yin, Zhongbao; Yokoyama, Hiroki; Yoo, In-Kwon; Yoon, Jin Hee; Yurchenko, Volodymyr; Yushmanov, Igor; Zaborowska, Anna; Zaccolo, Valentina; Zaman, Ali; Zampolli, Chiara; Correia Zanoli, Henrique Jose; Zaporozhets, Sergey; Zardoshti, Nima; Zarochentsev, Andrey; Zavada, Petr; Zavyalov, Nikolay; Zbroszczyk, Hanna Paulina; Zgura, Sorin Ion; Zhalov, Mikhail; Zhang, Haitao; Zhang, Xiaoming; Zhang, Yonghong; Chunhui, Zhang; Zhang, Zuman; Zhao, Chengxin; Zhigareva, Natalia; Zhou, Daicui; Zhou, You; Zhou, Zhuo; Zhu, Hongsheng; Zhu, Jianhui; Zichichi, Antonino; Zimmermann, Alice; Zimmermann, Markus Bernhard; Zinovjev, Gennady; Zyzak, Maksym

    2016-03-10

    The centrality dependence of the charged–particle pseudorapidity density measured with ALICE in Pb–Pb collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{\\rm NN}}=2.76$ TeV over a broad pseudorapidity range is presented. This Letter extends to more peripheral collisions the previous results reported by ALICE. No strong evolution of the charged–particle pseudorapidity density distributions with centrality is observed, and when the results are normalized to the number of participating nucleons in the collisions, the centrality evolution is likewise small. This suggests that hard contributions to the charged–particle multiplicity are limited. The broad pseudorapidity range allows precise estimates of the total number of produced charged particles which we find to range from $162\\pm 22$(syst.) to $17170\\pm 770$(syst.) in 80–90% and 0–5% central collisions, respectively. The results are compared to models which describe ${\\rm d}N_{\\rm ch}/{\\rm d}\\eta$ at mid–rapidity in the most central Pb–Pb collisions and it is found that t...

  20. Centrality evolution of the charged-particle pseudorapidity density over a broad pseudorapidity range in Pb–Pb collisions at sNN=2.76 TeV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Adam

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The centrality dependence of the charged-particle pseudorapidity density measured with ALICE in Pb–Pb collisions at sNN=2.76 TeV over a broad pseudorapidity range is presented. This Letter extends the previous results reported by ALICE to more peripheral collisions. No strong change of the overall shape of charged-particle pseudorapidity density distributions with centrality is observed, and when normalised to the number of participating nucleons in the collisions, the evolution over pseudorapidity with centrality is likewise small. The broad pseudorapidity range (−3.5<η<5 allows precise estimates of the total number of produced charged particles which we find to range from 162±22(syst. to 17170±770(syst. in 80–90% and 0–5% central collisions, respectively. The total charged-particle multiplicity is seen to approximately scale with the number of participating nucleons in the collision. This suggests that hard contributions to the charged-particle multiplicity are limited. The results are compared to models which describe dNch/dη at mid-rapidity in the most central Pb–Pb collisions and it is found that these models do not capture all features of the distributions.

  1. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 240: Area 25 Vehicle Washdown, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    US Department of Energy Nevada Operations Office

    1999-09-16

    This Corrective Action Decision Document identifies and rationalizes the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Offices's selection of a recommended corrective action alternative (CAA) appropriate to facilitate the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 240: Area 25 Vehicle Washdown, Nevada Test Site, Nevada. This corrective action investigation was conducted in accordance with the Corrective Action Investigation Plan for CAU 240 as developed under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Located in Area 25 at the Nevada Test Site in Nevada, CAU 240 is comprised of three Corrective Action Sites (CASs): 25-07-01, Vehicle Washdown Area (Propellant Pad); 25-07-02, Vehicle Washdown Area (F and J Roads Pad); and 25-07-03, Vehicle Washdown Station (RADSAFE Pad). In March 1999, the corrective action investigation was performed to detect and evaluate analyte concentrations against preliminary action levels (PALs) to determine contaminants of concern (COCs). There were no COCs identified at CAS 25-07-01 or CAS 25-07-03; therefore, there was no need for corrective action at these two CASs. At CAS 25-07-02, diesel-range organics and radionuclide concentrations in soil samples from F and J Roads Pad exceeded PALs. Based on this result, potential CAAs were identified and evaluated to ensure worker, public, and environmental protection against potential exposure to COCs in accordance with Nevada Administrative Code 445A. Following a review of potential exposure pathways, existing data, and future and current operations in Area 25, two CAAs were identified for CAU 240 (CAS 25-07-02): Alternative 1 - No Further Action and Alternative 2 - Clean Closure by Excavation and Disposal. Alternative 2 was identified as the preferred alternative. This alternative was judged to meet all requirements for the technical components evaluated, compliance with all applicable state and federal regulations for closure of the site, as well as minimizing potential future exposure

  2. Ammonia at Blodgett Forest, Sierra Nevada, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, Marc L.; Littlejohn, David

    2007-11-06

    Ammonia is a reactive trace gas that is emitted in large quantities by animal agriculture and other sources in California, which subsequently forms aerosol particulate matter, potentially affecting visibility, climate, and human health. We performed initial measurements of NH{sub 3} at the Blodgett Forest Research Station (BFRS) during a two week study in June, 2006. The site is used for ongoing air quality research and is a relatively low-background site in the foothills of the Sierra Nevada. Measured NH{sub 3} mixing ratios were quite low (< 1 to {approx} 2 ppb), contrasting with typical conditions in many parts of the Central Valley. Eddy covariance measurements showed NH{sub 3} fluxes that scaled with measured NH{sub 3} mixing ratio and calculated aerodynamic deposition velocity, suggesting dry deposition is a significant loss mechanism for atmospheric NH{sub 3} at BFRS. A simple model of NH{sub 3} transport to the site supports the hypothesis that NH{sub 3} is transported from the Valley to BFRS, but deposits on vegetation during the summer. Further work is necessary to determine whether the results obtained in this study can be generalized to other seasons.

  3. Rural migration in southern Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosser, D.; Soden, D.L.

    1993-08-01

    This study reviews the history of migration in two rural counties in Southern Nevada. It is part of a larger study about the impact of a proposed high-level nuclear waste repository on in- and out-migration patterns in the state. The historical record suggests a boom and bust economic cycle has predominated in the region for the past century creating conditions that should be taken into account by decision makers when ascertaining the long-term impacts of the proposed repository.

  4. Special Nevada Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-09-23

    Monte Cristo Springs, Salisbury Well and Quartz Mountain Camp) were associated with ranching. On the EC South Range, neither inert/training nor...Recreation Resource x 1000) xl000) Airspace (acres x 1000) Beaver Dam 2.2 8.7 Desert Cathedral Gorge 1.6 39.8 Desert Echo Canyon Reservoir 0.9 47.1 Desert...Smokey * * Berlin-Ichthyosaur Gabbs S 74 82 Cathedral Gorge Desert * Cave Lake Dayton Echo Canyon Reservoir Desert Floyd Lamb Fort Churchill Kershaw-Ryan

  5. Precipitation and Runoff Simulations of the Carson Range and Pine Nut Mountains, and Updated Estimates of Ground-Water Inflow and the Ground-Water Budgets for Basin-Fill Aquifers of Carson Valley, Douglas County, Nevada, and Alpine County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeton, Anne E.; Maurer, Douglas K.

    2007-01-01

    Recent estimates of ground-water inflow to the basin-fill aquifers of Carson Valley, Nevada, and California, from the adjacent Carson Range and Pine Nut Mountains ranged from 22,000 to 40,000 acre-feet per year using water-yield and chloride-balance methods. In this study, watershed models were developed for watersheds with perennial streams and for watersheds with ephemeral streams in the Carson Range and Pine Nut Mountains to provide an independent estimate of ground-water inflow. This report documents the development and calibration of the watershed models, presents model results, compares the results with recent estimates of ground-water inflow to the basin-fill aquifers of Carson Valley, and presents updated estimates of the ground-water budget for basin-fill aquifers of Carson Valley. The model used for the study was the Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System, a physically based, distributed-parameter model designed to simulate precipitation and snowmelt runoff as well as snowpack accumulation and snowmelt processes. Geographic Information System software was used to manage spatial data, characterize model drainages, and to develop Hydrologic Response Units. Models were developed for * Two watersheds with gaged perennial streams in the Carson Range and two watersheds with gaged perennial streams in the Pine Nut Mountains using measured daily mean runoff, * Ten watersheds with ungaged perennial streams using estimated daily mean runoff, * Ten watershed with ungaged ephemeral streams in the Carson Range, and * A large area of ephemeral runoff near the Pine Nut Mountains. Models developed for the gaged watersheds were used as index models to guide the calibration of models for ungaged watersheds. Model calibration was constrained by daily mean runoff for 4 gaged watersheds and for 10 ungaged watersheds in the Carson Range estimated in a previous study. The models were further constrained by annual precipitation volumes estimated in a previous study to provide

  6. Deep Resistivity Structure of Mid Valley, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallin, Erin L.; Rodriguez, Brian D.; Williams, Jackie M.

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) at their Nevada Site Office (NSO) are addressing ground-water contamination resulting from historical underground nuclear testing through the Environmental Management (EM) program and, in particular, the Underground Test Area (UGTA) project. From 1951 to 1992, 828 underground nuclear tests were conducted at the Nevada Test Site northwest of Las Vegas (DOE UGTA, 2003). Most of these tests were conducted hundreds of feet above the ground-water table; however, more than 200 of the tests were near, or within, the water table. This underground testing was limited to specific areas of the Nevada Test Site including Pahute Mesa, Rainier Mesa/Shoshone Mountain (RM-SM), Frenchman Flat, and Yucca Flat. One issue of concern is the nature of the somewhat poorly constrained pre-Tertiary geology and its effects on ground-water flow in the area subsequent to a nuclear test. Ground-water modelers would like to know more about the hydrostratigraphy and geologic structure to support a hydrostratigraphic framework model that is under development for the Rainier Mesa/Shoshone Mountain (RM-SM) Corrective Action Unit (CAU) (National Security Technologies, 2007). During 2003, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the DOE and NNSA-NSO collected and processed data at the Nevada Test Site in and near Yucca Flat (YF) to help define the character, thickness, and lateral extent of the pre-Tertiary confining units. We collected 51 magnetotelluric (MT) and audio-magnetotelluric (AMT) stations for that research (Williams and others, 2005a, 2005b, 2005c, 2005d, 2005e, and 2005f). In early 2005 we extended that research with 26 additional MT data stations (Williams and others, 2006) located on and near Rainier Mesa and Shoshone Mountain (RM-SM). The new stations extended the area of the hydrogeologic study previously conducted in Yucca Flat, further refining what is known about the pre

  7. Contaminant studies in the Sierra Nevadas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparling, D.W.; Fellers, G.

    2002-01-01

    full text: Several species of anuran amphibians (frogs and toads) are experiencing severe population declines in even seemingly pristine areas of the Sierra Mountains of California. Among the most severely depressed species are the redlegged frog, the foothill and mountain yellow-legged frogs, the Yosemite toad, and the Cascades frog. Several factors, such as habitat fragmentation, introduced predators (especially fish), and disease, have been linked to these declines. But recent evidence from a USGS-led study shows that contaminants are a primary factor. During the past three years, researchers from the USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, the Western Ecology Research Center, the USDA Beltsville Agriculture Research Center, and the Texas A&M University have teamed up to conduct an extensive study on airborne pesticides and their effects on amphibian populations in the Sierra Nevada Mountains. Previous work on environmental chemistry demonstrated that pesticides from the intensely agricultural Central Valley of California are being blown into the more pristine Sierra Nevada Mountains, especially around Sequoia and Yosemite National Parks. Several pesticides, including diazinon, chlorpyrifos, malathion and endosulfan, can be measured in snow, rainfall, and pond waters in these national parks. With the exception of endosulfan, these pesticides affect and even kill both invertebrates and vertebrate species by inhibiting cholinesterase, an enzyme essential to proper nervous system functioning. In the summer of 2001, we published a paper showing that these same pesticides are now found in adults and the tadpoles of Pacific treefrogs. The results of this landmark study showed that more than 50 percent of the tadpoles and adults sampled in Yosemite and Sequoia National Parks had detectable levels of diazinon or chlorpyrifos and that 86 percent of the Pacific treefrogs sampled in the Lake Tahoe region had detectable levels of endosulfan. In contrast, frogs that were

  8. Closure report for CAU No. 400: Bomblet Pit and Five Points Landfill, Tonopah test range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    This Closure Reports presents the information obtained from corrective and investigative actions performed to affirm the decision for clean closure of Corrective Action Unit No. 400 which includes the Bomblet Pit and the Five Points Landfill, two sites used for disposal of unexploded ordnance (UXO) and other solid waste at the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) Tonopah Test Range, located in south-central Nevada. The first phase, or corrective action, for clean closure was performed under the Voluntary Correction Action Work Plan for Ordnance Removal from Five Disposal Sites at the Tonopah Test Range, hereafter referred to as the VCA Work Plan. The second phase consisted of collecting verification samples under the Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan, CA U No. 400: Bomblet Pit and Five Points Landfill, Tonopah Test Range, hereafter referred to as the SAFER Plan. Results of the two phases are summarized in this document.

  9. Provenance and palaeogeographic implications of Eocene-Oligocene sedimentary rocks in the northwestern Basin and Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egger, A.E.; Colgan, J.P.; York, C.

    2009-01-01

    A thick sequence of uppermost Eocene to lower Oligocene volcaniclastic and sedimentary rocks is exposed at the base of the Warner Range in northeastern California. This isolated exposure provides insight into the palaeogeographic setting of the northwestern Basin and Range during this time period. Significant thinning of the unit over 35km of lateral exposure and predominantly volcanic clast compositions suggest that the sequence was deposited in an alluvial plain adjacent to a volcanic arc. Palaeocurrent indicators in the conglomerates define a NNE transport direction. Detrital zircon analysis on coarse sandstones and dating of individual granite cobbles show a range of ages consistent with a local, volcanic source area primarily from the SSW with some far-travelled input from northern Nevada; the far-travelled component increases in influence as the unit thins to the north. Comparison with other sedimentary sequences of Eocene age and integration with palaeofloral and geophysical data help to define drainage divides, and suggest that this sequence accumulated in a relatively isolated, intra-arc basin. This localized accumulation differs markedly from contemporaneous drainages to the south that transported material westwards from central Nevada to the palaeoshoreline, and suggests that ongoing volcanism had a strong influence on palaeogeography in this region during the Eocene and Oligocene.

  10. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 263: Area 25 Building 4839 Leachfields, Nevada Test Site, Revision 0, DOE/NV--535 UPDATED WITH RECORD OF TECHNICAL CHANGE No.1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    US DOE Nevada Operations Office

    1999-04-12

    The Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 263, the Area 25 Building 4839 Leachfield, has been developed in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order that was agreed to by the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office; the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection; and the US Department of Defense. Corrective Action Unit 263 is comprised of the Corrective Action Site 25-05-04 sanitary leachfield and associated collection system. This Corrective Action Investigation Plan is used in combination with the Work Plan for Leachfield Corrective Action Units: Nevada Test Site and Tonopah Test Range, Nevada (DOE/NV, 1998d). The Leachfield Work Plan was developed to streamline investigations at Leachfield Corrective Action Units by incorporating management, technical, quality assurance, health and safety, public involvement, field sampling, and waste management information common to a set of Corrective Action Units with similar site histories and characteristics into a single document that can be referenced. This Corrective Action Investigation Plan provides investigative details specific to Corrective Action Unit 263. Corrective Action Unit 263 is located southwest of Building 4839, in the Central Propellant Storage Area. Operations in Building 4839 from 1968 to 1996 resulted in effluent releases to the leachfield and associated collection system. In general, effluent released to the leachfield consisted of sanitary wastewater from a toilet, urinal, lavatory, and drinking fountain located within Building 4839. The subsurface soils in the vicinity of the collection system and leachfield may have been impacted by effluent containing contaminants of potential concern generated by support activities associated with the Building 4839 operations.

  11. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 135: Areas 25 Underground Storage Tanks, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. H. Cox

    2001-06-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 135, Area 25 Underground Storage Tanks, was closed in accordance with the approved Corrective Action Plan (DOE/NV, 2000). CAU 135 consists of three Corrective Action Sites (CAS). Two of these CAS's were identified in the Corrective Action Investigation Data Quality Objective meeting as being improperly identified as underground storage tanks. CAS 25-02-03 identified as the Deluge Valve Pit was actually an underground electrical vault and CAS 25-02-10 identified as an Underground Storage Tank was actually a former above ground storage tank filled with demineralized water. Both of these CAS's are recommended for a no further action closure. CAS 25-02-01 the Underground Storage Tanks commonly referred to as the Engine Maintenance Assembly and Disassembly Waste Holdup Tanks and Vault was closed by decontaminating the vault structure and conducting a radiological verification survey to document compliance with the Nevada Test Site unrestricted use release criteria. The Area 25 Underground Storage Tanks, (CAS 25-02-01), referred to as the Engine Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly (E-MAD) Waste Holdup Tanks and Vault, were used to receive liquid waste from all of the radioactive and cell service area drains at the E-MAD Facility. Based on the results of the Corrective Action Investigation conducted in June 1999, discussed in ''The Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 135: Area 25 Underground Storage Tanks, Nevada Test Site, Nevada'' (DOE/NV, 199a), one sample from the radiological survey of the concrete vault interior exceeded radionuclide preliminary action levels. The analytes from the sediment samples exceeded the preliminary action levels for polychlorinated biphenyls, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act metals, total petroleum hydrocarbons as diesel-range organics, and radionuclides. The CAU 135 closure activities consisted of scabbling radiological ''hot spots

  12. Nevada National Security Site Environmental Report 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wills, C.

    2014-09-09

    This report was prepared to meet the information needs of the public and the requirements and guidelines of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for annual site environmental reports. It was prepared by National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec), for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office (NNSA/NFO) (formerly designated as the Nevada Site Office [NNSA/NSO]). The new field office designation occurred in March 2013. Published reports cited in this 2013 report, therefore, may bear the name or authorship of NNSA/NSO. This and previous years’ reports, called Annual Site Environmental Reports (ASERs), Nevada Test Site Environmental Reports (NTSERs), and, beginning in 2010, Nevada National Security Site Environmental Reports (NNSSERs), are posted on the NNSA/NFO website at http://www.nv.energy.gov/library/publications/aser.aspx.

  13. Nevada Isostatic Residual Gravity Over Basement

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This study of gravity data from Nevada is part of a statewide analysis of mineral resources. The main objective of the gravity study were: 1) to infer the structure...

  14. Geothermal energy in Nevada: development and utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    The nature of geothermal resources in Nevada and resource applications are discussed. The social and economic advantages of using geothermal energy are outlined. Federal and state programs established to foster the development of geothermal energy are discussed. (MHR)

  15. Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bechtel Nevada

    2004-10-01

    The Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2003 was prepared by Bechtel Nevada to meet the requirements and guidelines of the U.S. Department of Energy and the information needs of the public. This report is meant to be useful to members of the public, public officials, regulators, and Nevada Test Site contractors. The Executive Summary strives to present in a concise format the purpose of the document, the NTS mission and major programs, a summary of radiological releases and doses to the public resulting from site operations, a summary of non-radiological releases, and an overview of the Nevada Test Site Environmental Management System. The Executive Summary, combined with the following Compliance Summary, are written to meet all the objectives of the report and to be stand-alone sections for those who choose not to read the entire document.

  16. Water-table contours of Nevada

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set consists of water-table contours for Nevada. These data were created as part of an effort to provide statewide information on water table and depth to...

  17. Gravity Data for the State of Nevada

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gravity data for the entire state of Nevada and adjacent parts of California, Utah, and Arizona are presented. About 80,000 gravity stations were compiled primarily...

  18. Concentration-discharge relationships in headwater streams of the Sierra Nevada, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carolyn T. Hunsaker; Dale W. Johnson

    2017-01-01

    We examined streamwater concentration-discharge relationships for eight small, forest watersheds ranging in elevation from 1,485 to 2,465 m in the southern Sierra Nevada. These headwater streams revealed nearly chemostatic behavior by current definitions for K+, Ca...

  19. Effect of temperature on potassium and sodium exchange in a Sierra-Nevada riparian soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the course of investigating nutrient availability in a montane meadow ecosystem of the Sierra Nevada range, it was determined that the proportion of Na+ and K+ on the exchanger phase was significantly affected by season (winter vs. summer and fall). The underlying mechanism(s) controlling this se...

  20. Structural geology of the French Peak accommodation zone, Nevada Test Site, southwestern Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudson, M.R.

    1997-12-31

    The French Peak accommodation zone (FPAZ) forms an east-trending bedrock structural high in the Nevada Test Site region of southwestern Nevada that formed during Cenozoic Basin and Range extension. The zone separates areas of opposing directions of tilt and downthrow on faults in the Yucca Flat and Frenchman Flat areas. Paleomagnetic data show that rocks within the accommodation zone adjacent to Yucca Flat were not strongly affected by vertical-axis rotation and thus that the transverse strikes of fault and strata formed near their present orientation. Both normal- and oblique strike-slip faulting in the FPAZ largely occurred under a normal-fault stress regime, with least principal stress oriented west-northwest. The normal and sinistral faults in the Puddle Peka segment transfers extension between the Plutonium Valley normal fault zone and the Cane Spring sinistral fault. Recognition of sinistral shear across the Puddle Peak segment allows the Frenchman Flat basin to be interpreted as an asymmetric pull-apart basin developed between the FPAZ and a zone of east-northeast-striking faults to the south that include the Rock Valley fault. The FPAZ has the potential to influence ground-water flow in the region in several ways. Fracture density and thus probably fracture conductivity is high within the FPAZ due to the abundant fault splays present. Moreover,, fractures oriented transversely to the general southward flow of ground water through Yucca Flat area are significant and have potential to laterally divert ground water. Finally, the FPAZ forms a faulted structural high whose northern and southern flanks may permit intermixing of ground waters from different aquifer levels, namely the lower carbonate, welded tuff, and alluvial aquifers. 42 refs.

  1. Growth of White fir after Douglas-fir tussock moth outbreaks: long-term records in the Sierra Nevada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd E. Wickman

    1986-01-01

    Radial growth of white fir trees, Abies concolor (Gord. and Glend.) Lindl. ex Hildebr., defoliated almost 30 years ago by Douglas-fir tussock moth, Orgyia pseudotsugata (McDunnough), in the central Sierra Nevada was compared with 22 years of growth prior to the outbreak. There was little difference in growth between the two...

  2. Content of chemical elements in tree rings of lodgepole pine and whitebark pine from a subalpine Sierra Nevada forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    David L. Peterson; Darren R. Anderson

    1990-01-01

    The wood of lodgepole pines and whitebark pines from a high elevation site in the east central Sierra Nevada of California was analyzed for chemical content to determine whether there were any temporal patterns of chemical distribution in tree rings. Cores were taken from 10 trees of each species and divided into 5-year increments for chemical analysis. Correlation...

  3. Airborne Pesticides as an Unlikely Cause for Population Declines of Alpine Frogs in the Sierra Nevada, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airborne pesticides from the Central Valley of California have been implicated as a cause for population declines of several amphibian species, with the strongest evidence for the mountain yellow-legged frog complex (Rana muscosa and R. sierrae) in the Sierra Nevada. We measured...

  4. Report on Carson Sink (Churchill Co.) Nevada : Its duck food resources and value as a Federal Migratory Bird Refuge Site

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Carson Sink is a low basin and drainage sump in a desert valley of west-central Nevada. It embraces parts of 14 townships but the unit here considered falls within a...

  5. Estimating contribution of wildland fires to ambient ozone levels in National Parks in the Sierra Nevada, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haiganoush K. Preisler; Shiyuan (Sharon) Zhong; Annie Esperanza; Timothy J. Brown; Andrzej Bytnerowicz; Leland Tarnay

    2010-01-01

    Data from four continuous ozone and weather monitoring sites operated by the National Park Service in Sierra Nevada, California, are used to develop an ozone forecasting model and to estimate the contribution of wildland fires on ambient ozone levels. The analyses of weather and ozone data pointed to the transport of ozone precursors from the Central Valley as an...

  6. Tracking the Archean-Proterozoic suture zone in the northeastern Great Basin, Nevada and Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, B.D.; Williams, J.M.

    2008-01-01

    It is important to know whether major mining districts in north-central Nevada are underlain by crust of the Archean Wyoming craton, known to contain major orogenic gold deposits or, alternatively, by accreted crust of the Paleoproterozoic Mojave province. Determining the location and orientation of the Archean-Proterozoic suture zone between these provinces is also important because it may influence subsequent patterns of sedimentation, deformation, magmatism, and hydrothermal activity. The suture zone is exposed in northeastern Utah and south-western Wyoming and exhibits a southwest strike. In the Great Basin, the suture zone strike is poorly constrained because it is largely concealed below a Neoproterozoic-Paleozoic miogeocline and Cenozoic basin fill. Two-dimensional resistivity modeling of three regional north-south magnetotelluric sounding profiles in western Utah, north-central Nevada, and northeastern Nevada, and one east-west profile in northeastern Nevada, reveals a deeply penetrating (>10 km depth), broad (tens of kilometers) conductor (1-20 ohm-meters) that may be the Archean-Proterozoic suture zone, which formed during Early Proterozoic rifting of the continent and subsequent Proterozoic accretion. This major crustal conductor changes strike direction from southwest in Utah to northwest in eastern Nevada, where it broadens to ???100 km width that correlates with early Paleozoic rifting of the continent. Our results suggest that the major gold belts may be over-isolated blocks of Archean crust, so Phanerozoic mineral deposits in this region may be produced, at least in part, from recycled Archean gold. Future mineral exploration to the east may yield large gold tonnages. ?? 2008 Geological Society of America.

  7. The Apennine hare Lepus corsicanus in Latium, Central Italy: a habitat suitability model and comparison with its current range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Maria Angelici

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available La lepre appenninica Lepus corsicanus nel Lazio, Italia centrale: un modello di idoneità ambientale a confronto con la distribuzione attuale.
    La lepre appenninica (Lepus corsicanus è un endemismo italiano distribuito in Italia centro-meridionale, in Sicilia e in Corsica. Nel Lazio esistono piccole popolazioni, spesso isolate tra loro. Scopo di questo lavoro è la realizzazione di un modello di idoneità ambientale per questa specie. L’areale sinora conosciuto nel Lazio dimostra che il taxon è adattabile a diverse tipologie ambientali e a varie altitudini s.l.m. Il modello è stato elaborato su piattaforma GIS, attribuendo al tipo di uso del suolo (secondo la classificazione del progetto CLC e alla quota (categorie DTM un punteggio conforme alle preferenze ecologiche della specie. Il modello ottenuto è stato comparato con uno proposto precedentemente e confrontato con la distribuzione attuale della specie ottenuta a partire dai dati di presenza raccolti dal 1990 al 2009. Anche considerando la maggior mole di dati utilizzata nel presente studio, la differenza più evidente tra i due modelli è l’estensione maggiore delle aree ad alta idoneità ambientale da noi ottenuta. L’85.7% delle localizzazioni ricade nella classe di idoneità più elevata, suggerendo che il modello riflette le preferenze ecologiche della specie e può rappresentare un utile strumento gestionale.

  8. Completion Report for Well ER-20-4 Corrective Action Units 101 and 102: Central and Western Pahute Mesa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2011-04-30

    Well ER-20-4 was drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office in support of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project at the Nevada National Security Site, Nye County, Nevada. The well was drilled in August and September 2010 as part of the Pahute Mesa Phase II drilling program. The primary purpose of the well was to investigate the possibility of radionuclide transport from up-gradient underground nuclear tests conducted in central Pahute Mesa. This well also provided detailed hydrogeologic information in the Tertiary volcanic section that will help reduce uncertainties within the Pahute Mesa-Oasis Valley hydrostratigraphic framework model.

  9. Mapping thermal maturity in the Chainman shale, near Eureka, Nevada, with Landsat Thematic Mapper images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowan, L.C.; Pawlewicz, M.J.; Jones, O.D.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if there is a correlation between measurements of organic matter (OM) maturity and laboratory measurements of visible and near-infrared spectral reflectance, and if Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) images could be used to map maturity. The maturity of Mississippian Chainman Shale samples collected in east-central Nevada and west-central Utah was determined by using vitrinite reflectance and Rock-Eval pyrolysis. TM 4/TM 5 values correspond well to vitrinite reflectance and hydrogen index variations, and therefore this ratio was used to evaluate a TM image of the Eureka, Nevada, area for mapping thermal maturity differences in the Chainman Shale. -from Authors

  10. EnergyFit Nevada (formerly known as the Nevada Retrofit Initiative) final report and technical evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvill, Anna; Bushman, Kate; Ellsworth, Amy

    2014-06-17

    The EnergyFit Nevada (EFN) Better Buildings Neighborhood Program (BBNP, and referred to in this document as the EFN program) currently encourages Nevada residents to make whole-house energy-efficient improvements by providing rebates, financing, and access to a network of qualified home improvement contractors. The BBNP funding, consisting of 34 Energy Efficiency Conservation Block Grants (EECBG) and seven State Energy Program (SEP) grants, was awarded for a three-year period to the State of Nevada in 2010 and used for initial program design and implementation. By the end of first quarter in 2014, the program had achieved upgrades in 553 homes, with an average energy reduction of 32% per home. Other achievements included: Completed 893 residential energy audits and installed upgrades in 0.05% of all Nevada single-family homes1 Achieved an overall conversation rate of 38.1%2 7,089,089 kWh of modeled energy savings3 Total annual homeowner energy savings of approximately $525,7523 Efficiency upgrades completed on 1,100,484 square feet of homes3 $139,992 granted in loans to homeowners for energy-efficiency upgrades 29,285 hours of labor and $3,864,272 worth of work conducted by Nevada auditors and contractors4 40 contractors trained in Nevada 37 contractors with Building Performance Institute (BPI) certification in Nevada 19 contractors actively participating in the EFN program in Nevada 1 Calculated using 2012 U.S. Census data reporting 1,182,870 homes in Nevada. 2 Conversion rate through March 31, 2014, for all Nevada Retrofit Initiative (NRI)-funded projects, calculated using the EFN tracking database. 3 OptiMiser energy modeling, based on current utility rates. 4 This is the sum of $3,596,561 in retrofit invoice value and $247,711 in audit invoice value.

  11. Nevada Test Site Resource Management Plan: Annual summary, January 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-01-01

    The Nevada Test Site Resource Management Plan published in December of 1998 (DOE/NV--518) describes the Nevada Test Site stewardship mission and how its accomplishment will preserve the resources of the ecoregion while accomplishing the objectives of the mission. As part of the Nevada Test Site Resource Management Plan, DOE Nevada Operations Office has committed to perform and publish an annual summary review of DOE Nevada Operations' stewardship of the Nevada Test Site. This annual summary includes a description of progress made toward the goals of the Nevada Test Site Resource Management Plan, pertinent monitoring data, actions that were taken to adapt to changing conditions, and any other changes to the Nevada Test Site Resource Management Plan.

  12. The effects of Federal programs on wetlands in Nevada

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Federal programs have significantly affected the quality and quantity of wetlands in Nevada. These affects are due to the large proportion of Nevada that is...

  13. Addendum to the Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 529: Area 25 Contaminated Materials, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krauss, Mark J

    2013-10-01

    This document constitutes an addendum to the Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 529: Area 25 Contaminated Materials, Nevada Test Site, Nevada as described in the document Recommendations and Justifications To Remove Use Restrictions Established under the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order dated September 2013. The Use Restriction (UR) Removal document was approved by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection on October 16, 2013. The approval of the UR Removal document constituted approval of each of the recommended UR removals. In conformance with the UR Removal document, this addendum consists of: This page that refers the reader to the UR Removal document for additional information The cover, title, and signature pages of the UR Removal document The NDEP approval letter The corresponding section of the UR Removal document This addendum provides the documentation justifying the cancellation of the UR for CAS 25-23-17, Contaminated Wash (Parcel H). This UR was established as part of FFACO corrective actions and was based on the presence of total petroleum hydrocarbon diesel-range organics contamination at concentrations greater than the NDEP action level at the time of the initial investigation.

  14. HYDROLOGIC CHARACTERISTICS OF FAULTS AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.P. Dickerson

    2000-10-19

    Yucca Mountain comprises a series of north-trending ridges composed of tuffs within the southwest Nevada volcanic field, 120 km northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. These ridges are formed of east-dipping blocks of interbedded welded and nonwelded tuff that are offset along steep, mostly west-dipping faults that have tens to hundreds of meters of vertical separation. Yucca Mountain is currently under study as a potential site for underground storage of high-level radioactive waste, with the principle goal being the safe isolation of the waste from the accessible environment. To this end, an understanding of the behavior of ground-water flow through the mountain in the unsaturated zone and beneath the mountain in the saturated zone is critical. The percolation of water through the mountain and into the ground-water flow system beneath the potential repository site is predicated on: (1) the amount of water available at the surface as a result of the climatic conditions, (2) the hydrogeologic characteristics of the volcanic strata that compose the mountain. and (3) the hydrogeologic characteristics of the structures, particularly fault zones and fracture networks, that disrupt these strata. This paper addresses the hydrogeologic characteristics of the fault zones at Yucca Mountain, focusing primarily on the central part of the mountain where the potential repository block is located.

  15. Zircon U-Pb age of the Pescadero felsite: A late Cretaceous igneous event in the forearc, west-central California Coast Ranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, W.G.; Martens, U.C.; McLaughlin, R.J.; Clark, J.C.; Moore, Diane E.

    2011-01-01

    Weathered felsite is associated with the late Campanian-Maastrichtian Pigeon Point Formation near Pescadero, California. Poorly exposed, its age and correlation are uncertain. Is it part of the Pigeon Point section west of the San Gregorio-Hosgri fault? Does it rest on Nacimiento block basement? Is it dextrally offset from the Oligocene Cambria Felsite, ~185 km to the southeast? Why is a calc-alkaline hypabyssal igneous rock intrusive into the outboard accretionary prism? To address these questions, we analyzed 43 oscillatory-zoned zircon crystals from three incipiently recrystallized pumpellyite ?? prehnite ?? laumontite-bearing Pescadero felsite samples by sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe-reverse geometry (SHRIMPRG) and laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) techniques. Thirty-three zircons gave late Mesozoic U-Pb ages, with single-grain values ranging from 81 to 167 Ma; ten have pre-Mesozoic, chiefl y Proterozoic ages. A group of the four youngest Pescadero zircons yielded an apparent maximum igneous age of ca. 86-90 Ma. Refl ecting broad age scatter and presence of partly digested sandstone inclusions, we interpret the rest of the zircons (perhaps all) as xenocrysts. Twenty-three zircons were separated and analyzed from two samples of the similar Cambria Felsite, yielding a unimodal 27 Ma U-Pb age. Clearly, the origin of the Upper Oligocene Cambria Felsite is different from that of the Upper Cretaceous Pescadero felsite; these rocks are not correlated, and do not constrain displacement along the San Gregorio-Hosgri fault. Peak ages differ slightly, but relative probability curves for Mesozoic and pre-Mesozoic Pescadero zircons compare well, for example, with abundant U-Pb age data for detrital zircons from Franciscan metaclastic strata ~100 km to the east in the Diablo Range- San Francisco Bay area, San Joaquin Great Valley Group turbidites, Upper Cretaceous Nacimiento block Franciscan strata, and Upper Cretaceous

  16. Arboreal forage lichen response to partial cutting of high elevation mountain caribou range in the Quesnel Higland of east-central British Columbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela J. Waterhouse

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Group selection silvicultural systems have been recommended for managing mountain caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou habitat in high elevation Engelmann spruce – subalpine fir forests in east-central British Columbia. We measured the response of arboreal lichen (a key winter forage to harvesting of 30% of the forested area using three partial cutting treatments, which created small (0.03 ha, medium (0.13 ha, and large (1.0 ha openings, and a no-harvest treatment. Treatments were replicated on four sites, and monitored over a ten year post-harvest period. The short-term loss of lichen associated with removal of approximately one third of the trees was partially offset by a significant (P=0.01 increase in lichen abundance on trees in the caribou feeding zone (up to 4.5 m in the three partial cutting treatments relative to trees in the uncut forest. Differences among treatments in the change in lichen composition, as measured by the percentage of Alectoria sarmentosa and Bryoria spp., were marginally significant (P=0.10. The partial cutting treatments showing a greater likelihood of shifting towards more Bryoria spp. than no-harvest treatment (P=0.04. In the year of harvest (1993, larger trees were found to hold more lichen than smaller trees (P=0.04, and live trees supported more lichen than dead trees (P=0.01, but lichen loading was similar among tree species (P=0.51. Tree fall rates were similar among treatments, based on the ten year average (0.6–0.8% of sample trees per year. The results indicate that caribou foraging habitat is maintained in the residual forest when group selection systems that remove only 30% of the trees are applied. Information on the distribution of lichen is useful for developing stand level prescriptions. Providing lichen bearing habitat meets just one of the needs of caribou. A comprehensive approach that considers all factors and their interactions is essential to maintain and recover the threatened mountain

  17. Topographic Evolution of the Sierra Nevada Resolved by Inversion of Low-Temperature Thermochronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPhillips, D. F.; Brandon, M. T.

    2011-12-01

    At present, there are two competing ideas for the topographic evolution of the Sierra Nevada Range. One idea is that the Sierra Nevada was formed as a monocline in the Cretaceous, marking the transition from the Great Valley forearc basin to the west, and a high Nevadaplano plateau to the east, similar to the west flank of the modern Altiplano of the Andes. Both the thermochronologic signature of local relief and the stable isotopic evidence of a topographic rain shadow support this hypothesis. However, a suite of geomorphic observations suggests that the Sierra gained a large fraction of its present elevation as recently as the Pliocene. This recent surface uplift could have been driven by convective removal of in the lower part of the lithosphere and/or by changes in dynamic topography associated with deep subduction of the Farallon plate. Here we present the first comprehensive analysis of low-temperature thermochronology in the Sierra Nevada, which provides a definitive solution, which indicates that both ideas are likely correct. Our analysis is distinguished by three new factors: The first is that we allow for separate evolutions for the local relief and the long-wavelength topography. Second, we use Al-in-Hb paleobarometry to constrain the initial depth of emplacement for the Sierra Nevada plutons. Third, our analysis is tied to a sea-level reference by using the paleo-bathymetric record of the Great Valley basin, where it on-laps the Sierra Nevada batholith. According to our analysis, westward tilting of the Sierra accounts for 2 km of uplift since 20 Ma. Topographic relief increased by a factor of 2. These findings suggest that the Sierra Nevada lost elevation through most of the Tertiary but regained much of its initial elevation following the onset of surface uplift in the Miocene.

  18. Environmental Survey preliminary report, Nevada Test Site, Mercury, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-04-01

    This report presents the preliminary findings from the first phase of the Environmental Survey of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Nevada Test Site (NTS), conducted June 22 through July 10, 1987. The Survey is being conducted by a multidisciplinary team of environmental specialists led and managed by the Office of Environment, Safety and Health's Office of Environmental Audit. Individual team members are outside experts being supplied by a private contractor. The objective of the Survey is to identify environmental problems and areas of environmental risk associated with the NTS. The Survey covers all environment media and all areas of environmental regulation. It is being performed in accordance with the DOE Environmental Survey Manual. This phase of the Survey involves the review of existing site environmental data, observations of the operations and activities performed at the NTS, and interviews with site personnel. The Survey team developed a Sampling and Analysis Plan to assist in further assessing certain environmental problems identified during its on-site activities. The Sampling and Analysis Plan is being executed by the Battelle Columbus Division under contract with DOE. When completed, the results will be incorporated into the NTS Environmental Survey Interim Report. The Interim Report will reflect the final determinations of the NTS Survey. 165 refs., 42 figs., 52 tabs.

  19. Mio Pliocene volcaniclastic deposits in the Famatina Ranges, southern Central Andes: A case of volcanic controls on sedimentation in broken foreland basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martina, Federico; Dávila, Federico M.; Astini, Ricardo A.

    2006-04-01

    A well-constrained record of Miocene-Pliocene explosive volcanism is preserved within the broken foreland of Western Argentina along the Famatina Ranges. This paper focuses on the volcaniclastic record known as the Río Blanco member of the El Durazno Formation. Three facies can be recognized in the study area: (1) massive tuffs; (2) volcaniclastic conglomerates and (3) pumiceous sandstones. These facies are interpreted as primary pyroclastic flow deposits (ignimbrites) and reworked volcanogenic deposits within interacting volcanic-fluvial depositional systems. Alternation between ignimbrites and volcanogenic sandstones and conglomerates suggest a recurrent pattern of sedimentation related to recurrent volcanic activity. Considering the facies mosaic and relative thicknesses of facies, short periods of syn-eruption sedimentation (volcaniclastic deposits) seem to have been separated by longer inter-eruption periods, where normal stream-flow processes were dominant. The volcaniclastic component decreases up-section, suggesting a gradual reduction in volcanic activity. The mean sedimentation rate of the Río Blanco member is higher (0.44 mm/year) than those obtained for the underlying and overlying units. This increase cannot be fully explained by foreland basement deformation and tectonic loading. Hence, we propose subsidence associated with volcanic activity as the causal mechanism. Volcanism would have triggered additional accommodation space through coeval pyroclastic deposition, modification of the stream equilibrium profile, flexural loading of volcanoes, and thermal processes. These mechanisms may have favored the preservation of volcaniclastic beds in the high-gradient foreland system of Famatina during the Mio-Pliocene. Thus, the Río Blanco member records the response of fluvial systems to large, volcanism-induced sediment loads.

  20. Climate, rain shadow, and human-use influences on fire regimes in the eastern Sierra Nevada, California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.P. North; K.M. van de Water; S.L. Stephens; B.M. Collins

    2009-01-01

    There have been few fire history studies of eastern Sierra Nevada forests in California, USA, where a steep elevation gradient, rain shadow conditions, and forest stand isolation may produce different fire regimes than those found on the range’s western slope. We investigated historic fire regimes and potential climate influences on four forest types ranging in...

  1. Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BECHTEL NEVADA

    2005-10-01

    The ''Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2004'' was prepared by Bechtel Nevada (BN) to meet the information needs of the public and the requirements and guidelines of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for annual site environmental reports. This Executive Summary presents the purpose of the document, the major programs conducted at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), NTS key environmental initiatives, radiological releases and potential doses to the public resulting from site operations, a summary of non-radiological releases, implementation status of the NTS Environmental Management System, and significant environmental accomplishments. Much of the content of this Executive Summary is also presented in a separate stand-alone pamphlet titled ''Nevada Test Site Environmental Report Summary 2004''. It was produced this year to provide a more cost-effective and wider distribution of a hardcopy summary of the ''Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2004'' to interested DOE stakeholders.

  2. United States Geological Survey, programs in Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has been collecting and interpreting natural-resources data in Nevada for more than 100 years. This long-term commitment enables planners to manage better the resources of a State noted for paradoxes. Although Nevada is one of the most sparsely populated States in the Nation, it has the fastest growing population (fig. 1). Although 90 percent of the land is rural, it is the fourth most urban State. Nevada is the most arid State and relies heavily on water resources. Historically, mining and agriculture have formed the basis of the economy; now tourism and urban development also have become important. The USGS works with more than 40 local, State, and other Federal agencies in Nevada to provide natural-resources information for immediate and long-term decisions.Subjects included in this fact sheet:Low-Level Radioactive-Waste DisposalMining and Water in the Humboldt BasinAquifer Systems in the Great BasinWater Allocation in Truckee and Carson BasinsNational Water-Quality Assessment ProgramMinerals Assessment for Land ManagementIrrigation DrainageGround-Water Movement at Nevada Test SiteOil and Gas ResourcesNational Mapping ProgramDigital Mapping and Aerial PhotographyCollection of Hydrologlc DataGeologic MappingEarthquake HazardsAssessing Mineral Resources of the SubsurfaceEarth Observation DataCooperative Programs

  3. The Southern Nevada Agency Partnership Science and Research Synthesis: Science to support land management in Southern Nevada - Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeanne C. Chambers; Matthew L. Brooks; Burton K. Pendleton; Carol B. Raish

    2013-01-01

    This synthesis provides information related to the Southern Nevada Agency Partnership (SNAP) Science and Research Strategy Goal 1 - to restore, sustain and enhance southern Nevada’s ecosystems - and Goal 2 - to provide for responsible use of southern Nevada’s lands in a manner that preserves heritage resources and promotes an understanding of human interaction with the...

  4. The Southern Nevada Agency Partnership Science and Research Synthesis: Science to support land management in Southern Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeanne C. Chambers; Matthew L. Brooks; Burton K. Pendleton; Carol B. Raish

    2013-01-01

    This synthesis provides information related to the Southern Nevada Agency Partnership (SNAP) Science and Research Strategy Goal 1 - to restore, sustain and enhance southern Nevada’s ecosystems - and Goal 2 - to provide for responsible use of southern Nevada’s lands in a manner that preserves heritage resources and promotes an understanding of human interaction with the...

  5. Differential uplift and denudation of the Kungei and Terzkey ranges bordering the Issyk-Kul intermontane basin, Kyrgyz Tien Shan mountains (Central Asia): constraints from apatite fission-track analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Grave, J.; Buslov, M. M.; van den Haute, P.

    2003-04-01

    The Tien Shan mountain belt forms one of the most active intracontinental belts in the world. Its Cenozoic evolution is directly related to ongoing convergence of the Indian and Eurasian plates. The Tien Shan are draped along the northern rim of the rigid and stable Tarim Basin in Central Asia, north of the Tibetan Plateau. The mountain belt is composed of E-W trending ranges, alternating with intermontane basins. The lens shaped Issyk-Kul (IK) basin in northern Kyrgyzstan is a striking example of such a basin and accommodates the Issyk-Kul Lake. It is bordered by the Kungei (north) and the Terzkey ranges (south). While the present lake level is situated at 1607 m a.s.l., the elevation of both ranges reaches 5000 m. Both mountain ranges (cored by pink Ordovician granites and exhibiting large altitude differences) were sampled for AFT analysis along elevation profiles. In addition, samples from other IK basement rocks were collected in areas outside the ranges. AFT ages in the Kungei range fall roughly between 120 Ma and 170 Ma, while those for the Terzkey range were substantially lower (60 Ma to 110 Ma). The additional basement apatites sampled throughout the area have ages between 110 Ma and 160 Ma, corresponding to those of the Kungei range. The Kungei age-elevation plot is quite normal with ages decreasing with decreasing altitude, while the Terzkey range samples exhibit additional scatter. No "break in slope" is observed in any of the profiles and this together with the fact that all track length distributions carry a substantial Apatite Partial Annealing Zone signature (mean lengths are between 12.5 and 13.0 µm for both ranges) gives evidence of the mixed nature of the AFT ages. In contrast with the AFT data by Bullen et al. (2001) from the Kyrgyz range to the west of the IK basin, no late Cenozoic AFT ages were found for our samples. Hence the active tectonic phase experienced by the Tien Shan since the Late Miocene must undoubtedly have uplifted the Kungei

  6. The chronology for the d18O record from Devils Hole, Nevada, extended into the Mid-Holocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landwehr, J.M.; Sharp, W.D.; Coplen, T.B.; Ludwig, K. R.; Winograd, I.J.

    2011-01-01

    This report presents the numeric values for the chronology of the paleoclimatically relevant mid-to-late Pleistocene record of the ratios of stable oxygen isotope (delta18O) in vein calcite from Devils Hole, Nev., which recently had been extended into the mid-Holocene. Dating was obtained using 230Th-234U-238U thermal ionization mass spectrometry. Devils Hole is a subaqueous cave of tectonic origin, which developed in the discharge zone of a regional aquifer in south-central Nevada. The primary groundwater recharge source area is the Spring Mountains, the highest mountain range in southern Nevada [altitude 3,630 meters (m)], approximately 80 kilometers to the east of the cavern. The walls of the open fault zone comprising the cave system are coated with dense vein calcite precipitated from the through-flowing groundwater. The calcite, up to 40 centimeters (cm) thick, contains a continuous record of the sequential variation of the composition of stable oxygen isotopes in the ground water over time. The vein calcite has also proven to be a suitable material for precise uranium-series dating via thermal ionization mass spectrometry utilizing the 230Th-234U-238U decay clock. Earlier work has presented data from the Devils Hole core DH-11, a 36-cm-long core of vein calcite recovered from a depth of about 30 m below the water table (about 45 m beneath the ground surface). The DH-11 core provided a continuous record of isotopic oxygen variation from 567,700 to 59,800 years before present. Recent work has extended this record up to 4,500 years before present, into the mid-Holocene epoch.

  7. δ18O and δD of lake waters across the Coast Range and Cascades, central Oregon: Modern insights from hydrologically open lakes into the control of landscape on lake water composition in deep time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelstein, D. B.; Curtin, T.

    2016-12-01

    Reconstructing the stable isotopic composition of paleolake water normally requires an assumption of paleotemperature. However, hydrologically open paleolakes with short water residence times may have recorded paleoprecipitation along topographic gradients that are independent of lake water temperature. To identify the environmental and geographic controls on the isotopic composition of lake water, we sampled 22 natural lakes and reservoirs along a longitudinal and elevation gradient from the Pacific Ocean up and over the Coast and Cascade Ranges of central Oregon to the High Lava Plains in 2013 and 2015. The transect spans lakes of different origins, 6 geomorphic regions and an elevation range of 2-1942 m absl. The Coast Range lakes are sand hosted whereas the remaining are bedrock (volcanic and sedimentary) hosted. The lakes are hydrologically open and dominated by meteoric recharge. The water residence time ranges from months to decades. Samples were analyzed for temperature, pH, and total dissolved solids (TDS) in the field, and alkalinity and major cations and anions and stable isotopes of D and O in the lab. The pH ranges from 7 to 9.8 and shows no systematic variation based on substrate type or elevation. The lakes are dilute (avg. TDS = 35.8 ppm) and have low alkalinties (18.9 mg/L CaCO3) except for those in the High Lava Plains (avg. TDS = 337 ppm, alk: 291.2 mg/L CaCO3). In the Coast Range, Na is the major cation on an equivalent basis, reflecting proximity to the ocean. The easternmost lakes within the Coast Range are dominated by Ca, reflecting different drainage basins and substrate type. Lakes in the Western and High Cascades are dominated by Ca. The dominant cation and stable isotopic analyses clearly differentiate waters from different geomorphic regions. The δ18O ranges from -5.7 to -9.3 ‰ (VSMOW), and δD ranges from -37.8 to -63.6 ‰ (VSMOW) in the Coast Range whereas the δ18O ranges from -9.7 to -12.1 ‰ (VSMOW) and δD ranges from -71

  8. Nevada Test Site Wetlands Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. J. Hansen

    1997-05-01

    This report identifies 16 Nevada Test Site (NTS) natural water sources that may be classified by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) as jurisdictional wetlands and identifies eight water sources that may be classified as waters of the United States. These water sources are rare, localized habitats on the NTS that are important to regional wildlife and to isolated populations of water tolerant plants and aquatic organisms. No field investigations on the NTS have been conducted in the past to identify those natural water sources which would be protected as rare habitats and which may fall under regulatory authority of the Clean Water Act (CWA) of 1997. This report identifies and summarizes previous studies of NTS natural water sources, and identifies the current DOE management practices related to the protection of NTS wetlands. This report also presents management goals specific for NTS wetlands that incorporate the intent of existing wetlands legislation, the principles of ecosystem management, and the interests of regional land managers and other stakeholders.

  9. Nevada National Security Site Waste Acceptance Criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2011-01-01

    This document establishes the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) Nevada National Security Site Waste Acceptance Criteria (NNSSWAC). The NNSSWAC provides the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) will accept low-level radioactive waste and mixed low-level waste for disposal. The NNSSWAC includes requirements for the generator waste certification program, characterization, traceability, waste form, packaging, and transfer. The criteria apply to radioactive waste received at the NNSS Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Complex for disposal. The NNSA/NSO and support contractors are available to assist you in understanding or interpreting this document. For assistance, please call the NNSA/NSO Waste Management Project at (702) 295-7063 or fax to (702) 295-1153.

  10. Nevada National Security Site Waste Acceptance Criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2010-09-03

    This document establishes the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) Nevada National Security Site Waste Acceptance Criteria (NNSSWAC). The NNSSWAC provides the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) will accept low-level radioactive waste and mixed low-level waste for disposal. The NNSSWAC includes requirements for the generator waste certification program, characterization, traceability, waste form, packaging, and transfer. The criteria apply to radioactive waste received at the NNSS Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Complex for disposal. The NNSA/NSO and support contractors are available to assist you in understanding or interpreting this document. For assistance, please call the NNSA/NSO Waste Management Project at (702) 295-7063 or fax to (702) 295-1153.

  11. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 528: Polychlorinated Biphenyls Contamination, Nevada Test Site, Nevada: Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office

    2004-03-15

    This Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) identifies and rationalizes the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office's selection of a recommended corrective action alternative appropriate to facilitate the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 528: Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) Contamination, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Located in Area 25 of the NTS, CAU 528 consists of one Corrective Action Site (CAS): 25-27-03, Polychlorinated Biphenyls Surface Contamination. Corrective Action Unit 528 was created to address the presence of PCBs around the Test Cell C concrete pad. Corrective action investigation activities were performed from August 24, 2003, through January 8, 2004. The PCBs and total petroleum hydrocarbons-diesel range organics were identified as contaminants of concern in the surface and shallow subsurface soils in 12 areas (Areas 1 through 12) at CAS 25-27-03. Based on the review of existing data, future use, and current operations at the NTS, the following alternatives have been developed for consideration: Alternative 1 - No Further Action; Alternative 2 - Clean Closure; Alternative 3 - Closure in Place with Administrative Controls. The three corrective action alternatives were evaluated on their technical merits, focusing on performance, reliability, feasibility, and safety. Alternative 3 is the preferred corrective action for CAS 25-27-03. The selected alternative was judged to meet all requirements for the technical components evaluated for closure of the sites and additionally to minimize potential future exposure pathways to the contaminated media at CAU 528.

  12. Regional Attenuation of Southern Nevada Using Multiphase Inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyle, M. L.; Walter, W. R.; Pasyanos, M.

    2014-12-01

    Seismic event amplitude estimation plays an important role in a range of endeavors including the discrimination between earthquakes and explosions and seismic hazard estimation. Reasonable amplitude estimation requires knowledge of the attenuation experienced by seismic waves as they travel through the earth. In this study, we investigate the attenuation structure in the region of Southern Nevada as part of the Source Physics Experiment (SPE). The SPE consists of a series of chemical explosions at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) designed to improve our understanding of explosion physics and enable better modeling of explosion sources. Phase I of the SPE is currently being conducted in the Climax Stock Granite and Phase II will move to a contrasting dry alluvium geology. Phase III is planned to be a direct earthquake-to-explosion comparison in Rock Valley at the southern end of NNSS. For the Rock Valley experiment, a chemical explosion would be placed at the hypocenter of a small shallow earthquake and recorded at a common set of receivers. A sequence of unusually shallow events along the Rock Valley Fault Zone in May of 1993 was recorded by a network of stations operated by the University of Nevada-Reno (UNR) and makes this novel experiment possible. As part of a feasibility study for this phase of the SPE, LLNL, UNR and NSTec are working to improve our understanding of the region and the propagation of energy from sources in the area to local and regional stations in the western U.S. Eight new seismic stations, including two borehole sensors, located at the original 1993 sites and additional sites, have been installed and ongoing seismicity along the fault is currently being recorded. Examination of the local attenuation structure is an important part of our site characterization. We wish to ensure that an explosion generated at a Rock Valley site will be large enough to be recorded at regional distances, and a well-constrained attenuation study will aid

  13. Nevada gaming: revenues and taxes (1945-95).

    Science.gov (United States)

    DePolo, R; Pingle, M

    1997-01-01

    In 1931, Nevada legalized casino gambling, an act which allowed its "gaming industry" to develop. Because many jurisdictions outside Nevada are now embracing legalized gambling as a path to a brighter economic future and because this proliferation presents Nevada with new challenges and opportunities, it is a good time to review the Nevada experience. Here, the focus is on gaming revenues and gaming tax collections during the 1945-95 period. We find that the growth rate of Nevada's gaming industry has slowed over time, with the relative importance of gaming in the Nevada economy peaking in the late 1970's. The Nevada economy has since been gradually diversifying, something which will increasingly pressure Nevadans to look for government revenue sources other than gaming if current levels of government services are to be maintained.

  14. Nevada Test Site Waste Acceptance Criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U. S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office

    2005-10-01

    This document establishes the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) waste acceptance criteria (WAC). The WAC provides the requirements, terms, and conditions under which the Nevada Test Site (NTS) will accept low-level radioactive (LLW) and mixed waste (MW) for disposal. It includes requirements for the generator waste certification program, characterization, traceability, waste form, packaging, and transfer. The criteria apply to radioactive waste received at the NTS Area 3 and Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) for storage or disposal.

  15. Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2008 Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cathy A. Wills

    2009-09-01

    The Nevada Test Site Environmental Report (NTSER) 2008 was prepared to meet the information needs of the public and the requirements and guidelines of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for annual site environmental reports. It was prepared by National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec), for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO). This and previous years’ NTSERs are posted on the NNSA/NSO website at http://www.nv.doe.gov/library/publications/aser.aspx.

  16. Nevada Test Site Radiation Protection Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radiological Control Managers' Council, Nevada Test Site

    2007-08-09

    Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 835, 'Occupational Radiation Protection', establishes radiation protection standards, limits, and program requirements for protecting individuals from ionizing radiation resulting from the conduct of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) activities. 10 CFR 835.101(a) mandates that DOE activities be conducted in compliance with a documented Radiation Protection Program (RPP) as approved by DOE. This document promulgates the RPP for the Nevada Test Site (NTS), related (onsite or offsite) DOE National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) operations, and environmental restoration offsite projects.

  17. Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cathy A. Wills

    2009-09-01

    The Nevada Test Site Environmental Report (NTSER) 2008 was prepared to meet the information needs of the public and the requirements and guidelines of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for annual site environmental reports. It was prepared by National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec), for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO). This and previous years’ NTSERs are posted on the NNSA/NSO website at http://www.nv.doe.gov/library/publications/aser.aspx.

  18. Helping Nevada School Children Become Sun Smart

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-11-28

    This podcast features Christine Thompson, Community Programs Manager at the Nevada Cancer Coalition, and author of a recent study detailing a school-based program to help Nevada school children establish healthy sun safety habits and decrease UV exposure. Christine answers questions about her research and what impact her what impact the program had on children’s skin health.  Created: 11/28/2017 by Preventing Chronic Disease (PCD), National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 11/28/2017.

  19. Nevada nuclear waste storage investigations: Exploratory shaft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, D. C.; Merson, T. J.

    1982-06-01

    It is proposed that an Exploratory Shaft (ES) be constructed in Yucca Mountain on or near the southwest portion of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) as part of the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations. This document described a conceptual design for an ES and a cost estimate based on a set of construction assumptions. Included in this document are appendixes consisting of supporting studies done at NTS by Fenix and Scisson, Inc. and Holmes and Narver, Inc. These appendixes constitute a history of the development of the design and are included as part of the record.

  20. Colloid research for the Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryant, E.A.

    1992-05-01

    Research is needed to understand the role of particulates in the migration of radionuclides away from the sites of nuclear tests at the Nevada Test Site. The process of testing itself may produce a reservoir of particles to serve as vectors for the transport of long-lived radionuclides in groundwater. Exploratory experiments indicate the presence of numerous particulates in the vicinity of the Cambric test but a much lower loading in a nearby well that has been pumped continuously for 15 years. Recent groundwater colloid research is briefly reviewed to identify sampling and characterization methods that may be applicable at the Nevada Test Site.

  1. Fugitive Mercury Emissions From Nevada Gold Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, M. B.; Eckley, C. S.; Gustin, M.; Marsik, F.

    2008-12-01

    Mercury (Hg) can be released from point sources at gold mines (e.g. stacks associated with ore processing facilities) as well as from diffuse fugitive sources (e.g. waste rock dumps, heap leaches, etc). Fugitive Hg emissions have not been quantified for active gold mines and as such a large knowledge gap exists concerning the magnitude of total emissions from this source type. This study measured fugitive Hg emissions from two active gold mines in Northern Nevada. To contextualize the magnitude of the mine emissions with respect to those associated with natural surfaces, data were collected from undisturbed areas near the mines that are of similar geologic character. The initial results from this project have shown that there is a large range in surface Hg concentrations and associated emissions to the atmosphere from different surface types within a mine as well as between the two mines. At both mines, the lowest surface Hg concentrations and emissions were associated with the alluvium/overburden waste rock dumps. Surface Hg concentrations and emissions at nearby undisturbed sites were of similar magnitude. Surface concentrations and emissions were substantially higher from active heap leaches. In addition to the difference in fluxes for specific materials, measured emissions must be put within the context of material spatial extent and temporal variability. Here we compare Hg emission contributions from mining and undisturbed materials as a function of space and time (diel and seasonal), and illustrate the need for collection of these types of data in order to reduce uncertainties in understanding air-surface Hg exchange.

  2. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 396: Area 20 Spill Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office; Bechtel Nevada

    2004-06-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 396, Area 20 Spill Sites, is located on the Nevada Test Site approximately 105 kilometers (65 miles) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. CAU 396 is listed in Appendix II of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order of 1996 and consists of the following four Corrective Action Sites (CASs) located in Area 20 of the Nevada Test Site: CAS 20-25-01, Oil Spills (2); CAS 20-25-02, Oil Spills; CAS 20-25-03, Oil Spill; CAS 20-99-08, Spill. Closure activities for CAU 396 were conducted in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order and the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection-approved Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan for CAU 396.

  3. CLOSURE REPORT FOR CORRECTIVE ACTION UNIT 528: POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYLS CONTAMINATION NEVADA TEST SITE, NEVADA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BECHTEL NEVADA

    2006-09-01

    This Closure Report (CR) describes the closure activities performed at CAU 528, Polychlorinated Biphenyls Contamination, as presented in the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP)-approved Corrective Action Plan (CAP) (US. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office [NNSAINSO], 2005). The approved closure alternative was closure in place with administrative controls. This CR provides a summary of the completed closure activities, documentation of waste disposal, and analytical data to confirm that the remediation goals were met.

  4. Geologic map of the Vigo NE quadrangle, Lincoln County, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Robert B.; Harding, Anne E.

    2006-01-01

    This map of the Vigo NE quadrangle, Lincoln County, Nevada records the distribution, stratigraphy, and structural relationships of Tertiary intracaldera lavas and tuffs in the southeastern part of the Kane Springs Wash caldera, extracaldera Tertiary and upper Paleozoic rocks, and late Cenozoic surficial deposits both within and outside the caldera. The alkaline to peralkaline Kane Springs Wash caldera is the youngest (14 Ma) of three chemically related metaluminous to peralkaline calderas (Boulder Canyon caldera, 15 Ma; Narrow Canyon caldera, 16 Ma) of the nested Kane Springs Wash caldera complex. The chemistry of this caldera complex became progressively more alkalic with time, in contrast to the older calc-alkalic calderas and caldera complexes to the north that migrated progressively southward in eastern Nevada. The increasingly peralkaline eruptions from the Kane Springs Wash caldera complex reached a climax that was simultaneous with the end of both rapid extension and magmatism in this part of the Basin and Range. Using the assumption that degree of tilting is related to the degree of extension, the rate of extension increased until the abrupt halt at about 14 Ma. Silicic volcanism terminated at the Kane Springs Wash caldera followed only by local sporadic basaltic eruptions that ended by about 8 Ma. The northern boundary of an east-west-trending amagmatic corridor appears in the Vigo NE quadrangle south of the Kane Springs Wash caldera.

  5. Late Tertiary Petrified Wood from Nevada, USA: Evidence of Multiple Silicification Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George E. Mustoe

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Late Tertiary fossil woods from the state of Nevada provide an opportunity for observing the mineralization sequences that cause buried wood to become permineralized. Oligocene and Miocene caldera basins contain abundant petrified wood that ranges in composition from incipient silicification to complete permineralization. Examination of specimens from 21 localities reveals that the petrifaction sequence can follow multiple pathways. Fossil wood specimens from a single stratum may have different mineralization; silicification may vary even within a single specimen. Despite these variations, several trends are evident. Features in Nevada specimens suggest that two fundamental processes are involved: early mineralization of cell walls, and later silica deposition in lumina, vessels, and rot pockets from groundwater that permeated these open spaces. The process of open-space filling may be analogous to the genesis of geodes and veins, where multiple episodes of hydrothermal precipitation may produce opal, chalcedony, and quartz as deposits within a single cavity. Silica polymorphs may coexist as primary precipitates, or they may originate from solid-state transformation of a single parent material. Relic lepisphere textures observed in some chalcedony wood specimens are evidence of opal→chalcedony transition. In Nevada, specimens that contain crystalline quartz, this mineral appears to have been formed by direct precipitation in open spaces, not from recrystallization of chalcedony. Opal-A has seldom been reported in fossil wood, but this amorphous material is fairly common in Nevada specimens.

  6. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 540: Spill Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McClure, Lloyd

    2006-10-01

    This Closure Report (CR) presents information supporting the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 540: Spill Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada. This CR complies with the requirements of the 'Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order' (1996) that was agreed to by the State of Nevada, the U.S. Department of Energy, and the U.S. Department of Defense. Corrective Action Unit 540 is located within Areas 12 and 19 of the Nevada Test Site and is comprised of the following Corrective Action Sites (CASs): CAS 12-44-01, ER 12-1 Well Site Release; CAS 12-99-01, Oil Stained Dirt; CAS 19-25-02, Oil Spill; CAS 19-25-04, Oil Spill; CAS 19-25-05, Oil Spill; CAS 19-25-06, Oil Spill; CAS 19-25-07, Oil Spill; CAS 19-25-08, Oil Spills (3); and CAS 19-44-03, U-19bf Drill Site Release. The purpose of this CR is to provide documentation supporting recommendations of no further action for the CASs within CAU 540. To achieve this, the following actions were performed: (1) Reviewed the current site conditions, including the concentration and extent of contamination; (2) Performed closure activities to address the presence of substances regulated by 'Nevada Administrative Code' 445A.2272 (NAC, 2002); and (3) Documented Notice of Completion and closure of CAU 540 issued by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection.

  7. Nevada`s energy research strategy. Progress report, September 30, 1991--September 29, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNelis, D.N.

    1992-10-01

    This document was produced by the University and Community College System of Nevada (UCCSN) under a grant from the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Research as part of the DOE-Experimental Program for the Simulation of Competitive Research (DOE-EPSCoR). The document develops Nevada`s strategies for the UCCSN to broaden and deepen energy-related research over the next five years in hydrology sciences, environmental biology and chemistry, chemical physics, and global change. A strategy was also developed to support energy-related research with education and human resources in science, math and engineering. A key concept of these strategies is continued success under the DOE-EPSCOR program. Participation in the Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, Civilian Radioactive Waste Management, Basic Energy Science and Global Climate Change programs in collaboration with the Nevada Test Site and DOE multi-program laboratories is also part of Nevada`s strategy for success in energy-related research.

  8. Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 261: Area 25 Test Cell A Leachfield System, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. M. Fitzmaurice

    2000-08-01

    This Corrective Action Plan (CAP) has been prepared for the Corrective Action Unit (CAU)261 Area 25 Test Cell A Leachfield System in accordance with the Federal Facility and Consent Order (Nevada Division of Environmental Protection [NDEP] et al., 1996). This CAP provides the methodology for implementing the approved corrective action alternative as listed in the Corrective Action Decision Document (U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office, 1999). Investigation of CAU 261 was conducted from February through May of 1999. There were no Constituents of Concern (COCs) identified at Corrective Action Site (CAS) 25-05-07 Acid Waste Leach Pit (AWLP). COCs identified at CAS 25-05-01 included diesel-range organics and radionuclides. The following closure actions will be implemented under this plan: Because COCs were not found at CAS 25-05-07 AWLP, no action is required; Removal of septage from the septic tank (CAS 25-05-01), the distribution box and the septic tank will be filled with grout; Removal of impacted soils identified near the initial outfall area; and Upon completion of this closure activity and approval of the Closure Report by NDEP, administrative controls, use restrictions, and site postings will be used to prevent intrusive activities at the site.

  9. Depth to ground water of Nevada

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This is a raster-based, depth to ground-water data set for the State of Nevada. The source of this data set is a statewide water-table contour data set constructed...

  10. Water-table altitude of Nevada

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This is a raster-based, depth to ground-water data set for the State of Nevada. The source of this data set is a statewide water-table contour data set constructed...

  11. Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cathy Wills

    2008-09-01

    The Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2007 (NTSER) was prepared to meet the information needs of the public and the requirements and guidelines of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) for annual site environmental reports. It was prepared by National Security Technologies, LLC (NSTec). This Executive Summary presents the purpose of the document, the major programs conducted at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), NTS key environmental initiatives, radiological releases and potential doses to the public resulting from site operations, a summary of nonradiological releases, implementation status of the NTS Environmental Management System, a summary of compliance with environmental regulations, pollution prevention and waste minimization accomplishments, and significant environmental accomplishments. Much of the content of this Executive Summary is also presented in a separate stand-alone pamphlet titled Nevada Test Site Environmental Report Summary 2007. This NTSER was prepared to satisfy DOE Order 231.1A, Environment, Safety and Health Reporting. Its purpose is to (1) report compliance status with environmental standards and requirements, (2) present results of environmental monitoring of radiological and nonradiological effluents, (3) report estimated radiological doses to the public from releases of radioactive material, (4) summarize environmental incidents of noncompliance and actions taken in response to them, (5) describe the NTS Environmental Management System and characterize its performance, and (6) highlight significant environmental programs and efforts. This report meets these objectives for the NTS and three offsite Nevada facilities mentioned in this report.

  12. Southern Nevada ecosystem stressors [Chapter 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton K. Pendleton; Jeanne C. Chambers; Mathew L. Brooks; Steven M. Ostoja

    2013-01-01

    Southern Nevada ecosystems and their associated resources are subject to a number of global and regional/local stressors that are affecting the sustainability of the region. Global stressors include elevated carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations and associated changes in temperature and precipitation patterns and amounts, solar radiation, and nutrient cycles (Smith and...

  13. Ozone, nitric acid, and ammonia air pollution is unhealthy for people and ecosystems in southern Sierra Nevada, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cisneros, Ricardo; Bytnerowicz, Andrzej; Schweizer, Donald; Zhong, Sharon; Traina, Samuel; Bennett, Deborah H

    2010-10-01

    Two-week average concentrations of ozone (O3), nitric acid vapor (HNO3) and ammonia (NH3) were measured with passive samplers during the 2002 summer season across the central Sierra Nevada Mountains, California, along the San Joaquin River drainage. Elevated concentrations of the pollutants were determined with seasonal means for individual sites ranging between 62 and 88 ppb for O3, 1.0-3.8 microg m(-3) for HNO3, and 2.6-5.2 microg m(-3) for NH3. Calculated O3 exposure indices were very high, reaching SUM00-191 ppm h, SUM60-151 ppm h, and W126-124 ppm h. Calculated nitrogen (N) dry deposition ranged from 1.4 to 15 kg N ha(-1) for maximum values, and 0.4-8 kg N ha(-1) for minimum values; potentially exceeding Critical Loads (CL) for nutritional N. The U.S., California, and European 8 h O3 human health standards were exceeded during 104, 108, and 114 days respectively, indicating high risk to humans from ambient O3.

  14. Range and Frequency of Africanized Honey Bees in California (USA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiaki Kono

    Full Text Available Africanized honey bees entered California in 1994 but few accounts of their northward expansion or their frequency relative to European honey bees have been published. We used mitochondrial markers and morphometric analyses to determine the prevalence of Africanized honeybees in San Diego County and their current northward progress in California west of the Sierra Nevada crest. The northernmost African mitotypes detected were approximately 40 km south of Sacramento in California's central valley. In San Diego County, 65% of foraging honey bee workers carry African mitochondria and the estimated percentage of Africanized workers using morphological measurements is similar (61%. There was no correlation between mitotype and morphology in San Diego County suggesting Africanized bees result from bidirectional hybridization. Seventy percent of feral hives, but only 13% of managed hives, sampled in San Diego County carried the African mitotype indicating that a large fraction of foraging workers in both urban and rural San Diego County are feral. We also found a single nucleotide polymorphism at the DNA barcode locus COI that distinguishes European and African mitotypes. The utility of this marker was confirmed using 401 georeferenced honey bee sequences from the worldwide Barcode of Life Database. Future censuses can determine whether the current range of the Africanized form is stable, patterns of introgression at nuclear loci, and the environmental factors that may limit the northern range of the Africanized honey bee.

  15. Groundwater Quality in the Central Eastside San Joaquin Valley, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belitz, Kenneth; Landon, Matthew K.

    2010-01-01

    The Central Eastside study unit is located in California's San Joaquin Valley. The 1,695 square mile study unit includes three groundwater subbasins: Modesto, Turlock, and Merced (California Department of Water Resources, 2003). The primary water-bearing units consist of discontinuous lenses of gravel, sand, silt, and clay, which are derived largely from the Sierra Nevada Mountains to the east. Public-supply wells provide most of the drinking water supply in the Central Eastside. Consequently, the primary aquifer in the Central Eastside study unit is defined as that part of the aquifer corresponding to the perforated interval of wells listed in the California Department of Public Health database. Public-supply wells are typically drilled to depths of 200 to 350 feet, consist of solid casing from the land surface to a depth of about 100 to 200 feet, and they are perforated below the solid casing. Water quality in the shallower and deeper parts of the aquifer system may differ from that in the primary aquifer. The Central Eastside study unit has hot and dry summers and cool, moist, winters. Average annual rainfall ranges from 11 to 15 inches. The Stanislaus, Tuolumne, and Merced Rivers, with headwaters in the Sierra Nevada Mountains, are the primary streams traversing the study unit. Land use in the study unit is approximately 59 percent (%) agricultural, 34% natural (primarily grassland), and 7% urban. The primary crops are almonds, walnuts, peaches, grapes, grain, corn, and alfalfa. The largest urban areas (2003 population in parentheses) are the cities of Modesto (206,872), Turlock (63,467), and Merced (69,512). Municipal water use accounts for about 5% of the total water use in the Central Eastside study unit, with the remainder used for irrigated agriculture. Groundwater accounts for about 75% of the municipal supply, and surface water accounts for about 25%. Recharge to the groundwater flow system is primarily from percolation of irrigation return

  16. The Stanislaus Group in a Beheaded Drainage: Tectonics at the Margin of the Sierra Nevada Microplate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, R.; Pluhar, C. J.; Carlson, C. W.; Jones-Cervantes, S. A.

    2016-12-01

    West of Bridgeport Valley near the Sierra Nevada crest, the Little Walker Caldera erupted Late Miocene Stanislaus Group lavas (Table Mountain Formation) and tuffs (Eureka Valley Tuff). Remnants of these rocks are now distributed from the western Sierra Nevada foothills across the range and into the Walker Lane. This wide distribution is attributed to the lavas flowing down paleochannels, and provides an excellent marker for post-emplacement deformation in the region. Priest (1978) documented a thick section of these lavas along Flatiron Ridge and other peaks surrounding Buckeye Canyon, including 4 members in stratigraphic order: Lower, Large Plagioclase, Two Pyroxene, and Upper Member. Lithologically similar lavas have been identified near Hetch Hetchy, and previously reported geochemical and new paleomagnetic data support this correlation. The lavas flowed down a now-beheaded late Miocene drainage, supporting a westward shift of the Sierra Nevada crest since the Late Miocene. New paleomagnetic results from from Priest's measured section reveal that the Upper Member and the Two Pyroxene Member are reversed polarity. The Large Plagioclase member has an excursional direction and the Lower member flows are excursional and normal polarities. Based on remanence and geochemistry, we correlate the Upper Member with the Hetch Hetchy lavas, indicating a 60 km long paleochannel that the lava flowed down. The Sierra Nevada crest presently divides these outcrops of Stanislaus Group lavas. Because lava can only flow downhill, the crest of the Sierra Nevada must have been east of the Table Mountain Formation outcrops in the late Miocene. Using the established paleomagnetic reference direction for the Eureka Valley Tuff members we demonstrate 15° clockwise vertical-axis rotation at sites stepping from Mono Basin towards the Sierra Crest graben. Numerous northwest trending faults in the area cutting Stanislaus Group rocks indicate that deformation through the area was

  17. REGIONAL ANALYSIS OF INORGANIC NITROGEN YIELD AND RETENTION IN HIGH-ELEVATION ECOSYSTEMS OF THE SIERRA NEVADA AND ROCKY MOUNTAINS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yields and retention of inorganic nitrogen (DIN) and nitrate concentrations in surface runoff are summarized for 28 high elevation watersheds in the Sierra Nevada, California and Rocky Mountains of Wyoming and Colorado. Catchments ranged in elevation from 2475 to 3603 m and from...

  18. Great Basin cold desert shrublands and the Desert Experimental Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley G. Kitchen; Stephanie L. Carlson

    2008-01-01

    The Great Basin is a vast, internally drained region of the Western United States, bounded by the Sierra Nevada and southern Cascade Mountain ranges to the west and the Wasatch Mountains and western rim of the Colorado Plateau to the east. Although less discrete, northern and southern boundaries are generally defined by the drainages of the Columbia and Colorado Rivers...

  19. Winter orographic precipitation ratios in the Sierra Nevada - Large-scale atmospheric circulations and hydrologic consequences