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Sample records for range air nicotine

  1. Dermal uptake of nicotine from air and clothing: Experimental verification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekö, G; Morrison, G; Weschler, C J; Koch, H M; Pälmke, C; Salthammer, T; Schripp, T; Eftekhari, A; Toftum, J; Clausen, G

    2017-11-02

    This study aims to elucidate in greater detail the dermal uptake of nicotine from air or from nicotine-exposed clothes, which was demonstrated recently in a preliminary study. Six non-smoking participants were exposed to gaseous nicotine (between 236 and 304 μg/m3 ) over 5 hours while breathing clean air through a hood. Four of the participants wore only shorts and 2 wore a set of clean clothes. One week later, 2 of the bare-skinned participants were again exposed in the chamber, but they showered immediately after exposure instead of the following morning. The 2 participants who wore clean clothes on week 1 were now exposed wearing a set of clothes that had been exposed to nicotine. All urine was collected for 84 hours after exposure and analyzed for nicotine and its metabolites, cotinine and 3OH-cotinine. All participants except those wearing fresh clothes excreted substantial amounts of biomarkers, comparable to levels expected from inhalation intake. Uptake for 1 participant wearing exposed clothes exceeded estimated intake via inhalation by >50%. Biomarker excretion continued during the entire urine collection period, indicating that nicotine accumulates in the skin and is released over several days. Absorbed nicotine was significantly lower after showering in 1 subject but not the other. Differences in the normalized uptakes and in the excretion patterns were observed among the participants. The observed cotinine half-lives suggest that non-smokers exposed to airborne nicotine may receive a substantial fraction through the dermal pathway. Washing skin and clothes exposed to nicotine may meaningfully decrease exposure. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Dermal uptake of nicotine from air and clothing: Experimental verification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekö, Gabriel; Morrison, G.; Weschler, Charles J.

    2017-01-01

    clean air through a hood. Four of the participants wore only shorts and 2 wore a set of clean clothes. One week later, 2 of the bare-skinned participants were again exposed in the chamber, but they showered immediately after exposure instead of the following morning. The 2 participants who wore clean...... several days. Absorbed nicotine was significantly lower after showering in 1 subject but not the other. Differences in the normalized uptakes and in the excretion patterns were observed among the participants. The observed cotinine half-lives suggest that non-smokers exposed to airborne nicotine may...

  3. Measurements of dermal uptake of nicotine directly from air and clothing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beko, G.; Morrison, G.; Weschler, Charles J.

    2017-01-01

    In this preliminary study, we have investigated whether dermal uptake of nicotine directly from air or indirectly from clothing can be a meaningful exposure pathway. Two participants wearing only shorts and a third participant wearing clean cotton clothes were exposed to environmental tobacco smo...... was similar to 80 mu g. This study demonstrates meaningful dermal uptake of nicotine directly from air or from nicotine-exposed clothes. The findings are especially relevant for children in homes with smoking or vaping....

  4. Bearings Only Air-to-Air Ranging

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-07-25

    TERMS (Continue on reverse it necessarv and identify WIock numberl FIELD GROUP’ SUB- GIR Air to Air RangingRange Estimationt Min..a simtr Passive...by uarget rnge sad direction or by observer motion in the statistical behavior of the 4.2 &Awo 0*l LA Sqvwnr. Rmng IoiamIin. Since it hu alredy bin...lengths, sad while they indicate irreularty in the estimation processt, they do nix explain its source. Figure 22, whMc as typical of whet can arise

  5. Air nicotine monitoring for second hand smoke exposure in public places in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagdish Kaur

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Air nicotine monitoring is an established method of measuring exposure to second hand smoke (SHS. Not much research has been done in India to measure air nicotine for the purpose of studying exposure to SHS. It is a risk factor and many diseases are known to occur among non smokers if they are exposed to second hand smoke. Objective: To conduct monitoring of air nicotine for second hand smoke exposure in public places across major cities in India. Materials and Methods: A cross sectional survey was conducted across four cities across the country, using passive air monitoring. The buildings included hospitals, secondary schools, Governmental offices, bars and restaurants. The buildings were selected through convenience sampling method keeping in view specific sentinel locations of interest. Result: The presence of air nicotine was recorded in most of the buildings under the study, which included government buildings, hospitals, schools, restaurants and entertainment venues (bars in all four cities under the study. The highest median levels of air nicotine were found in entertainment venues and restaurants in cities. Conclusion: The presence of air nicotine in indoor public places indicates weak implementation of existing smoke free law in India. The findings of this study provide a baseline characterization of exposure to SHS in public places in India, which could be used to promote clean indoor air policies and programs and monitor and evaluate the progress and future smoke-free initiatives in India.

  6. Air nicotine levels in public places in ahmedabad, India: before and after implementation of the smoking ban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jingyan; Modi, Bhavesh V; Tamplin, Stephen A; Aghi, Mira B; Dave, Paresh V; Cohen, Joanna E

    2015-01-01

    To compare air nicotine levels in public places in Ahmedabad, India, before (June 2008) and after (January, 2010) the implementation of a comprehensive smoking ban which was introduced in October 2008. Air nicotine concentrations were measured by sampling of vapor-phase nicotine using passive monitors. In 2008 (baseline), monitors were placed for 5-7 working days in 5 hospitals, 10 restaurants, 5 schools, 5 government buildings, and 10 entertainment venues, of which 6 were hookah bars. In 2010 (follow-up), monitors were placed in 35 similar venues for the same duration. Comparison of the overall median nicotine concentration at baseline (2008) (0.06 μg/m(3) Interquartile range (IQR): 0.02-0.22) to that of follow-up (2010) (0.03 μg/m(3) IQR: 0.00-0.13), reflects a significant decline (% decline = 39.7, P = 0.012) in exposure to second-hand smoke (SHS). The percent change in exposure varied by venue-type. The most significant decrease occurred in hospitals, from 0.04 μg/m(3) at baseline to concentrations under the limit of detection at follow-up (%decline = 100, P places after the smoke-free legislation came into force. However, nicotine concentrations were still detected in most of the venues indicating imperfect compliance with the comprehensive ban.

  7. Measurements of dermal uptake of nicotine directly from air and clothing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekö, G; Morrison, G; Weschler, C J; Koch, H M; Pälmke, C; Salthammer, T; Schripp, T; Toftum, J; Clausen, G

    2017-03-01

    In this preliminary study, we have investigated whether dermal uptake of nicotine directly from air or indirectly from clothing can be a meaningful exposure pathway. Two participants wearing only shorts and a third participant wearing clean cotton clothes were exposed to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), generated by mechanically "smoking" cigarettes, for three hours in a chamber while breathing clean air from head-enveloping hoods. The average nicotine concentration (420 μg/m(3) ) was comparable to the highest levels reported for smoking sections of pubs. Urine samples were collected immediately before exposure and 60 hour post-exposure for bare-skinned participants. For the clothed participant, post-exposure urine samples were collected for 24 hour. This participant then entered the chamber for another three-hour exposure wearing a hood and clothes, including a shirt that had been exposed for five days to elevated nicotine levels. The urine samples were analyzed for nicotine and two metabolites-cotinine and 3OH-cotinine. Peak urinary cotinine and 3OH-cotinine concentrations for the bare-skinned participants were comparable to levels measured among non-smokers in hospitality environments before smoking bans. The amount of dermally absorbed nicotine for each bare-skinned participant was conservatively estimated at 570 μg, but may have been larger. For the participant wearing clean clothes, uptake was ~20 μg, and while wearing a shirt previously exposed to nicotine, uptake was ~80 μg. This study demonstrates meaningful dermal uptake of nicotine directly from air or from nicotine-exposed clothes. The findings are especially relevant for children in homes with smoking or vaping. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Measurements of dermal uptake of nicotine directly from air and clothing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekö, Gabriel; Morrison, Glenn C.; Weschler, Charles J.

    2016-01-01

    a shirt previously exposed to tobacco smoke. Urine samples were subsequently analyzed for nicotine and two of its metabolites. The results demonstrate that nicotine can be dermally absorbed directly from air at rates comparable to passive smoking. Wearing clean clothes significantly decreases uptake......-skinned subjects together with a subject wearing clean clothes were dermally exposed to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) for three hours in a climate chamber; during the exposure all three subjects breathed clean air through hoods covering their heads. The clothed subject later repeated his exposure wearing...

  9. Dermal uptake of nicotine from air and clothing: Experimental verification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekö, Gabriel; Morrison, Glenn; Weschler, Charles J.

    2017-01-01

    Studies suggest that dermal uptake of certain semivolatile organic compounds (SVOC) directly from air can be a significant exposure pathway. This has been experimentally confirmed for two phthalates (Weschler et al., 2015). Morrison et al. (2016) showed that clean clothing can impede, while cloth...

  10. Secondhand smoke exposure and risk following the Irish smoking ban: an assessment of salivary cotinine concentrations in hotel workers and air nicotine levels in bars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulcahy, M; Evans, D S; Hammond, S K; Repace, J L; Byrne, M

    2005-12-01

    To investigate whether the Irish smoking ban has had an impact on secondhand smoke (SHS) exposures for hospitality workers. Before and after the smoking ban a cohort of workers (n = 35) from a sample of city hotels (n = 15) were tested for saliva cotinine concentrations and completed questionnaires. Additionally, a random sample (n = 20) of city centre bars stratified by size (range 400-5000 square feet), were tested for air nicotine concentrations using passive samplers before and after the ban. Salivary cotinine concentrations (ng/ml), duration of self reported exposures to secondhand smoke, air nicotine (microg/cubic metre). Cotinine concentrations reduced by 69%, from 1.6 ng/ml to 0.5 ng/ml median (SD 1.29; p < 0.005). Overall 74% of subjects experienced decreases (range 16-99%), with 60% showing a halving of exposure levels at follow up. Self reported exposure to SHS at work showed a significant reduction from a median 30 hours a week to zero (p < 0.001). There was an 83% reduction in air nicotine concentrations from median 35.5 microg/m3 to 5.95 microg/m3 (p < 0.001). At baseline, three bars (16%) were below the 6.8 microg/m3 air nicotine significant risk level for lung cancer alone; at follow up this increased to 10 (53%). Passive smoking and associated risks were significantly reduced but not totally eliminated. Exposure to SHS is still possible for those working where smoking is still allowed and those working where smoke may migrate from outdoor areas. Further research is required to assess the true extent and magnitude of these exposures.

  11. Measuring PM2.5, Ultrafine Particles, Nicotine Air and Wipe Samples Following the Use of Electronic Cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melstrom, Paul; Koszowski, Bartosz; Thanner, Meridith Hill; Hoh, Eunha; King, Brian; Bunnell, Rebecca; McAfee, Tim

    2017-09-01

    Few studies have examined the extent of inhalation or dermal contact among bystanders following short-term, secondhand e-cigarette exposure. Measure PM2.5 (particles cigarette exposure. E-cigarettes were used ad libitum by three experienced users for 2 hours during two separate sessions (disposable e-cigarettes, then tank-style e-cigarettes, or "tanks") in a 1858 ft3 room. We recorded: uncorrected PM2.5 (using SidePak); UF (using P-Trak); air nicotine concentrations (using air samplers; SKC XAD-4 canisters); ambient air exchange rate (using an air capture hood). Wipe samples were taken by wiping 100 cm2 room surfaces pre- and post- both sessions, and clean cloth wipes were worn during the exposure and collected at the end. Uncorrected PM2.5 and UF were higher (p cigarette use can produce: elevated PM2.5; elevated UF; nicotine in the air; and accumulation of nicotine on surfaces and clothing. Short-term indoor e-cigarette use produced accumulation of nicotine on surfaces and clothing, which could lead to dermal exposure to nicotine. Short-term e-cigarette use produced elevated PM2.5 and ultrafine particles, which could lead to secondhand inhalation of these particles and any chemicals associated with them by bystanders. We measured significant differences in PM2.5 and ultrafine particles between disposable e-cigarettes and tank-style e-cigarettes, suggesting a difference in the exposure profiles of e-cigarette products.

  12. Electronic Cigarettes and Indoor Air Quality: A Simple Approach to Modeling Potential Bystander Exposures to Nicotine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphane Colard

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available There has been rapid growth in the use of electronic cigarettes (“vaping” in Europe, North America and elsewhere. With such increased prevalence, there is currently a debate on whether the aerosol exhaled following the use of e-cigarettes has implications for the quality of air breathed by bystanders. Conducting chemical analysis of the indoor environment can be costly and resource intensive, limiting the number of studies which can be conducted. However, this can be modelled reasonably accurately based on empirical emissions data and using some basic assumptions. Here, we present a simplified model, based on physical principles, which considers aerosol propagation, dilution and extraction to determine the potential contribution of a single puff from an e-cigarette to indoor air. From this, it was then possible to simulate the cumulative effect of vaping over time. The model was applied to a virtual, but plausible, scenario considering an e-cigarette user and a non-user working in the same office space. The model was also used to reproduce published experimental studies and showed good agreement with the published values of indoor air nicotine concentration. With some additional refinements, such an approach may be a cost-effective and rapid way of assessing the potential exposure of bystanders to exhaled e-cigarette aerosol constituents.

  13. Electronic cigarettes and indoor air quality: a simple approach to modeling potential bystander exposures to nicotine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colard, Stéphane; O'Connell, Grant; Verron, Thomas; Cahours, Xavier; Pritchard, John D

    2014-12-24

    There has been rapid growth in the use of electronic cigarettes ("vaping") in Europe, North America and elsewhere. With such increased prevalence, there is currently a debate on whether the aerosol exhaled following the use of e-cigarettes has implications for the quality of air breathed by bystanders. Conducting chemical analysis of the indoor environment can be costly and resource intensive, limiting the number of studies which can be conducted. However, this can be modelled reasonably accurately based on empirical emissions data and using some basic assumptions. Here, we present a simplified model, based on physical principles, which considers aerosol propagation, dilution and extraction to determine the potential contribution of a single puff from an e-cigarette to indoor air. From this, it was then possible to simulate the cumulative effect of vaping over time. The model was applied to a virtual, but plausible, scenario considering an e-cigarette user and a non-user working in the same office space. The model was also used to reproduce published experimental studies and showed good agreement with the published values of indoor air nicotine concentration. With some additional refinements, such an approach may be a cost-effective and rapid way of assessing the potential exposure of bystanders to exhaled e-cigarette aerosol constituents.

  14. Electronic Cigarettes and Indoor Air Quality: A Simple Approach to Modeling Potential Bystander Exposures to Nicotine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colard, Stéphane; O’Connell, Grant; Verron, Thomas; Cahours, Xavier; Pritchard, John D.

    2014-01-01

    There has been rapid growth in the use of electronic cigarettes (“vaping”) in Europe, North America and elsewhere. With such increased prevalence, there is currently a debate on whether the aerosol exhaled following the use of e-cigarettes has implications for the quality of air breathed by bystanders. Conducting chemical analysis of the indoor environment can be costly and resource intensive, limiting the number of studies which can be conducted. However, this can be modelled reasonably accurately based on empirical emissions data and using some basic assumptions. Here, we present a simplified model, based on physical principles, which considers aerosol propagation, dilution and extraction to determine the potential contribution of a single puff from an e-cigarette to indoor air. From this, it was then possible to simulate the cumulative effect of vaping over time. The model was applied to a virtual, but plausible, scenario considering an e-cigarette user and a non-user working in the same office space. The model was also used to reproduce published experimental studies and showed good agreement with the published values of indoor air nicotine concentration. With some additional refinements, such an approach may be a cost-effective and rapid way of assessing the potential exposure of bystanders to exhaled e-cigarette aerosol constituents. PMID:25547398

  15. The expectation of applying IR guidance in medium range air-to-air missiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lijuan; Liu, Ke

    2016-10-01

    IR guidance has been widely used in near range dogfight air-to-air missiles while radar guidance is dominant in medium and long range air-to-air missiles. With the development of stealth airplanes and advanced electronic countermeasures, radar missiles have met with great challenges. In this article, the advantages and potential problems of applying IR guidance in medium range air-to-air missiles are analyzed. Approaches are put forward to solve the key technologies including depressing aerodynamic heating, increasing missiles' sensitivity and acquiring target after launch. IR medium range air-to-air missiles are predicted to play important role in modern battle field.

  16. Nicotine poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicotine is found in: Chewing tobacco Cigarettes E-cigarettes Liquid nicotine Nicotine gum (Nicorette) Nicotine patches (Habitrol, Nicoderm) Pipe tobacco Some insecticides Tobacco leaves Note: This list may not be all-inclusive.

  17. 33 CFR 334.1280 - Bristol Bay, Alaska; air-to-air weapon range, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... weapon range, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force. 334.1280 Section 334.1280 Navigation and Navigable... REGULATIONS § 334.1280 Bristol Bay, Alaska; air-to-air weapon range, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force. (a... enforced by the Commander, Alaskan Air Command, U.S. Air Force, Seattle, Washington, or such agencies as he...

  18. Nicotine Gum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicotine chewing gum is used to help people stop smoking cigarettes. Nicotine chewing gum should be used together with a ... support groups, counseling, or specific behavioral change techniques. Nicotine gum is in a class of medications called ...

  19. Nicotine Lozenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicotine lozenges are used to help people stop smoking. Nicotine lozenges are in a class of medications called smoking cessation aids. They work by providing nicotine to your body to decrease the withdrawal symptoms ...

  20. Thermochemical Properties of Nicotine Salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riggs DM

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC results presented in this report clearly show that the thermal stability and the endothermic peak nicotine release temperatures are different for different nicotine salts and these temperatures appear to be linked to the general microstructural details of the salt itself. In addition, the peak nicotine release temperatures are highly dependent upon the sample size used. The heat of vaporization for neat (non-protonated nicotine is also sample-size dependent. The TGA data showed that the least stable of the salts tested at elevated temperatures was the liquid salt nicotine triacetate followed by the crystalline materials (e.g., nicotine gallate and finally, the amorphous salts (e.g., nicotine alginate. The DSC results revealed that the liquid and crystalline salts exhibit nicotine release endotherms that are strongly related to the sample weight being tested. The amorphous salts show nicotine endotherm peak temperatures that are nearly independent of the sample weight. The range of peak nicotine release temperatures varied depending upon the specific salts and the sample size from 83 oC to well over 200 oC. Based on these results, the evolution of nicotine from the nicotine salt should be expected to vary based on the composition of the salt, the details of its microstructure, and the amount of nicotine salt tested.

  1. The acceptable air velocity range for local air movement in the Tropics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gong, Nan; Tham, K.W.; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2006-01-01

    for 15 minutes, during which the subjects responded to computer-administered questionnaires on their thermal and draft sensations using visual-analogue scales. The results showed that the subjects preferred air movement within a certain range, i.e., a higher percentage was dissatisfied at both low...... and high velocity values. Most dissatisfaction with air movement is caused by thermal sensation, with air movement perception accounting for a smaller proportion. The subjects preferred air movement to be between "just right" and "slightly breezy" and preferred their thermal sensation to be between...... "neutral" and "slightly cool. The study also identified an acceptable air velocity range from 0.3 up to 0.9 m/s under the experimental conditions. This velocity range is relevant for the design of personalized ventilation in practice. This preferred velocity range is higher than the maximum velocity...

  2. Prototype air cleaning system for a firing range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glissmeyer, J.A.; Mishima, J.; Bamberger, J.A.

    1985-01-01

    This report recommends air cleaning system components for the US Army Ballistics Research Laboratory's new large-caliber firing range, which is used for testing depleted uranium (DU) penetrators. The new air cleaning system has lower operating costs during the life of the system compared to that anticipated for the existing air cleaning system. The existing system consists of three banks of filters in series; the first two banks are prefilters and the last are high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters. The principal disadvantage of the existing filters is that they are not cleanable and reusable. Pacific Northwest Laboratory focused the search for alternate air cleaning equipment on devices that do not employ liquids as part of the particle collection mechanism. Collected dry particles were assumed preferable to a liquid waste stream. The dry particle collection devices identified included electrostatic precipitators; inertial separators using turning vanes or cyclones; and several devices employing a filter medium such as baghouses, cartridge houses, cleanable filters, and noncleanable filters similar to those in the existing system. The economics of practical air cleaning systems employing the dry particle collection devices were evaluated in 294 different combinations. 7 references, 21 figures, 78 tables.

  3. Air Force B-21 Long Range Strike Bomber

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-14

    go.usa.gov/cswxQ. 3 The other top priorities, as enunciated by Air Force officials on many occasions, are the F-35A Lightning II fighter and the KC-46A...concept of large aircraft carrying long-range weaponry has resurfaced as DOD’s proposed “Arsenal Plane .” See, inter alia, James Drew, “USAF flaunts...arsenal plane ’ concept at Air Warfare Symposium,” FlightGlobal.com, February 26, 2016, https://www.flightglobal.com/news/articles/usaf-flaunts-arsenal

  4. 27 CFR 21.119 - Nicotine solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nicotine solution. 21.119....119 Nicotine solution. (a) Composition. Five gallons of an aqueous solution containing 40 percent.... One ml of the nicotine solution (previously agitated in the presence of air) is measured into 100 ml...

  5. Impacts of the Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution on air quality in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, Keith; Johansson, Matti; Krzyzanowski, Michal

    2008-01-01

    The Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution has been one of the main ways of protecting the environment in Europe from air pollution. This convention has successfully bridged different political systems even through times of political change, and is a prime example of what can be achieved through intergovernmental cooperation. Through creating an effective framework for controlling and reducing the damage to human health and the environment from transboundary air pollution, this convention has proved successful. This article considers the development of the convention and its work on adverse air pollution effects, in particular on activities related to quantifying effects on human health as carried out by the convention's joint (with WHO) Task Force on the Health Effects of Air Pollution (Task Force on Health), and concludes with some indications of the convention's future priorities.

  6. A medium-range air combat game solution by a pilot advisory system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shinar, J.; Siegel, A.W.; Gold, Y.I.

    1989-01-01

    Air-to-air combat between two aggressive aircraft , both equipped with medium-range guided missiles, is .a key element of future air warfare. This dynamic coni lict can be viewed as an interaction of a twotarget diiferential game (between the air--craft) and two independent missileaircraft

  7. A wide-frequency-range air-jet shaker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herr, Robert W

    1957-01-01

    This paper presents a description of a simple air-jet shaker. Its force can be calibrated statically and appears to be constant with frequency. It is relatively easy to use, and it has essentially massless characteristics. This shaker is applied to define the unstable branch of a frequency-response curve obtained for a nonlinear spring with a single degree of freedom.

  8. Elevated Norepinephrine may be a Unifying Etiological Factor in the Abuse of a Broad Range of Substances: Alcohol, Nicotine, Marijuana, Heroin, Cocaine, and Caffeine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Paul J

    2013-10-13

    A wide range of commonly abused drugs have effects on the noradrenergic neurotransmitter system, including alterations during acute intoxication and chronic use of these drugs. It is not established, however, that individual differences in noradrenergic signaling, which may be present prior to use of drugs, predispose certain persons to substance abuse. This paper puts forth the novel hypothesis that elevated noradrenergic signaling, which may be raised largely due to genetics but also due to environmental factors, is an etiological factor in the abuse of a wide range of substances, including alcohol, nicotine, marijuana, heroin, cocaine, and caffeine. Data are reviewed for each of these drugs comprising their interaction with norepinephrine during acute intoxication, long-term use, subsequent withdrawal, and stress-induced relapse. In general, the data suggest that these drugs acutely boost noradrenergic signaling, whereas long-term use also affects this neurotransmitter system, possibly suppressing it. During acute withdrawal after chronic drug use, noradrenergic signaling tends to be elevated, consistent with the observation that norepinephrine lowering drugs such as clonidine reduce withdrawal symptoms. Since psychological stress can promote relapse of drug seeking in susceptible individuals and stress produces elevated norepinephrine release, this suggests that these drugs may be suppressing noradrenergic signaling during chronic use or instead elevating it only in reward circuits of the brain. If elevated noradrenergic signaling is an etiological factor in the abuse of a broad range of substances, then chronic use of pharmacological agents that reduce noradrenergic signaling, such as clonidine, guanfacine, lofexidine, propranolol, or prazosin, may help prevent or treat drug abuse in general.

  9. Elevated Norepinephrine may be a Unifying Etiological Factor in the Abuse of a Broad Range of Substances: Alcohol, Nicotine, Marijuana, Heroin, Cocaine, and Caffeine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul J. Fitzgerald

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A wide range of commonly abused drugs have effects on the noradrenergic neurotransmitter system, including alterations during acute intoxication and chronic use of these drugs. It is not established, however, that individual differences in noradrenergic signaling, which may be present prior to use of drugs, predispose certain persons to substance abuse. This paper puts forth the novel hypothesis that elevated noradrenergic signaling, which may be raised largely due to genetics but also due to environmental factors, is an etiological factor in the abuse of a wide range of substances, including alcohol, nicotine, marijuana, heroin, cocaine, and caffeine. Data are reviewed for each of these drugs comprising their interaction with norepinephrine during acute intoxication, long-term use, subsequent withdrawal, and stress-induced relapse. In general, the data suggest that these drugs acutely boost noradrenergic signaling, whereas long-term use also affects this neurotransmitter system, possibly suppressing it. During acute withdrawal after chronic drug use, noradrenergic signaling tends to be elevated, consistent with the observation that norepinephrine lowering drugs such as clonidine reduce withdrawal symptoms. Since psychological stress can promote relapse of drug seeking in susceptible individuals and stress produces elevated norepinephrine release, this suggests that these drugs may be suppressing noradrenergic signaling during chronic use or instead elevating it only in reward circuits of the brain. If elevated noradrenergic signaling is an etiological factor in the abuse of a broad range of substances, then chronic use of pharmacological agents that reduce noradrenergic signaling, such as clonidine, guanfacine, lofexidine, propranolol, or prazosin, may help prevent or treat drug abuse in general.

  10. Nicotine Addiction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andel I van; Rambali AB; Amsterdam JGC van; Wolterink G; Aerts LAGJM van; Vleeming W; TOX; SIR; BMT

    2003-01-01

    This report discusses the current knowledge on nicotine dependence, devoting a special chapter to smoking among youths, given that most smoking careers start in adolescence. The transition period, in which youths go from elementary to high school (ages 13-14), showes to be particularly risky for

  11. Nicotine concentration of e-cigarettes used by adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morean, Meghan E; Kong, Grace; Cavallo, Dana A; Camenga, Deepa R; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra

    2016-10-01

    E-cigarettes are popular among youth, but little is known about the nicotine concentrations of e-liquids used by adolescents. In Spring, 2014, we conducted cross-sectional surveys in four Connecticut high schools and two middle schools. Among past-30-day e-cigarette users (n=513, 45% female, mean age 15.9 [SD=1.4]), we examined what nicotine concentration adolescents typically used in their e-cigarettes (range 0-30mg/mL and "I don't know"). We first examined whether age, sex, smoking status, e-cigarette use frequency, and/or e-cigarette acquisition source were associated with using nicotine-free e-liquid, nicotine e-liquid, or not knowing the e-liquid nicotine concentration. Among nicotine users (n=185), we then examined whether the aforementioned variables were associated with using higher nicotine concentrations. Adolescents reported using nicotine-free e-liquid (28.5%), nicotine e-liquid (37.4%), or not knowing their e-liquid nicotine concentration (34.1%). Nicotine users comprised more smokers and heavier e-cigarette users compared to nicotine-free e-liquid users and those who did not know their nicotine concentration. Nicotine users also comprised more males and were more likely to purchase e-cigarettes online or from tobacco shops compared to those who did not know their nicotine concentration. Among nicotine users, cigarette smoking, male sex, and purchasing e-cigarettes from tobacco shops predicted using higher nicotine concentrations. Adolescents reported using e-liquids with variable nicotine concentrations. Smokers, males, and those who purchased their own e-cigarettes reported using the highest nicotine levels. Of concern, many adolescents were unaware of the nicotine concentration in their e-liquid, raising concerns about inadvertent nicotine exposure among youth. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Nicotine Oral Inhalation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicotine oral inhalation is used to help people stop smoking. Nicotine oral inhalation should be used together with a smoking ... Nicotine oral inhalation comes as a cartridge to inhale by mouth using a special inhaler. Follow the directions on ...

  13. Nicotine Nasal Spray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicotine nasal spray is used to help people stop smoking. Nicotine nasal spray should be used together with a ... support groups, counseling, or specific behavior change techniques. Nicotine nasal spray is in a class of medications ...

  14. Nicotine replacement therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoking cessation - nicotine replacement; Tobacco - nicotine replacement therapy ... Before you start using a nicotine replacement product, here are some things to know: The more cigarettes you smoke, the higher the dose you may need to ...

  15. REINFORCING EFFECTS OF NICOTINE AND NON-NICOTINE COMPONENTS OF CIGARETTE SMOKE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Jed E.; Salley, Al; Behm, Frederique M.; Bates, James E.; Westman, Eric C.

    2014-01-01

    We assessed the reinforcing effects of nicotine and non-nicotine components of cigarette smoke, by presenting a concurrent choice paradigm in which participants had access to intravenous (IV) nicotine infusions vs. saline (placebo) infusions and puffs from denicotinized (“denic”) cigarettes vs. air (sham puffs). We also measured the effects on self-administration of prior satiation with each component. Sixteen smokers participated in 7 sessions, consisting of: 1) a baseline smoking assessment, which was used to tailor the nicotine dose per infusion to that of puffs from subjects’ preferred brands of cigarettes; 2) two sessions in which participants were trained to discriminate IV nicotine vs. saline infusions and denic smoke vs. sham (air) puffs; and 3) four sessions assessing choice behavior after different satiation conditions. Results showed that subjects self-administered more puffs of denic smoke than any other alternative, including IV nicotine. IV nicotine, however, was preferred over IV saline and sham puffs. Preference for denic smoke vs. IV nicotine was highly correlated with subjective ratings of “comfort” associated with the two alternatives. Satiation with smoke diminished the number of denic puffs taken during choice periods, while prior administration of nicotine did not affect the number of puffs taken. Smoking withdrawal symptoms were alleviated both by nicotine administration and by denic smoke. These results show that in established smokers, non-nicotine aspects of cigarette smoking have potent reinforcing effects. While current smoking cessation pharmacotherapies primarily address the nicotine component of cigarette addiction, future cessation strategies should also be designed to target non-nicotine factors. PMID:20358364

  16. Tobacco industry manipulation of nicotine dosing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayne, Geoffrey Ferris; Carpenter, Carrie M

    2009-01-01

    For more than a half century, tobacco manufacturers have conducted sophisticated internal research to evaluate nicotine delivery, and modified their products to ensure availability of nicotine to smokers and to optimize its effects. Tobacco has proven to be a particularly effective vehicle for nicotine, enabling manipulation of smoke chemistry and of mechanisms of delivery, and providing sensory cues that critically inform patterns of smoking behavior as well as reinforce the impact of nicotine. A range of physical and chemical product design changes provide precise control over the quantity, form, and perception of nicotine dose, and support compensatory behavior, which is driven by the smoker's addiction to nicotine. Cigarette manufacturers also enhance the physiological effects of nicotine through the introduction and use of compounds that interact with nicotine but do not directly alter its form or delivery. A review of internal documents indicates important historical differences, as well as significant differences between commercial brands, underscoring the effectiveness of methods adopted by manufacturers to control nicotine dosing and target the needs of specific populations of smokers through commercial product development. Although the focus of the current review is on the manipulation of nicotine dosing characteristics, the evidence indicates that product design facilitates tobacco addiction through diverse addiction-potentiating mechanisms.

  17. Long-range measurement system using ultrasonic range sensor with high-power transmitter array in air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sahdev; Furuhashi, Hideo

    2017-02-01

    A long-range measurement system comprising an ultrasonic range sensor with a high-power ultrasonic transmitter array in air was investigated. The system is simple in construction and can be used under adverse conditions such as fog, rain, darkness, and smoke. However, due to ultrasonic waves are well absorbed by air molecules, the measurable range is limited to a few meters. Therefore, we developed a high-power ultrasonic transmitter array consisting of 144 transmitting elements. All elements are arranged in the form of a 12×12 array pattern. The sound pressure level at 5m from the transmitter array was >30dB higher than that of a single element. A measuring range of over 25m was achieved using this transmitter array in conjunction with a receiver array having 32 receiving elements. The characteristics of the transmitter array and range sensor system are discussed by comparing simulation and experimental results. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Passive immunization against nicotine attenuates nicotine discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malin, David H; Alvarado, Candice L; Woodhouse, Katherine S; Karp, Hilary; Urdiales, Evelyn; Lay, Diana; Appleby, Phillip; Moon, William D; Ennifar, Sofiane; Basham, Lisa; Fattom, Ali

    2002-04-26

    Ten rats were trained in a two lever operant chamber to press different levers after a nicotine injection (0.14 mg/kg s.c.) or a saline injection on an FR10 schedule. The rats were then injected i.p. with either 150 mg nicotine-specific IgG or the same amount of control IgG from non-immunized rabbits. On successive days, they were retested with both levers active after a saline injection, a full training dose of nicotine and a half dose of nicotine (0.07 mg/kg s.c.). After saline injection, both groups pressed the saline lever almost exclusively. After each of the nicotine doses, the immunized rats performed a significantly lower percentage of their lever presses on the nicotine lever than did non-immunized rats. The results suggest that passive immunization can interfere with the stimulus properties of nicotine.

  19. Thermodynamic and Transport Properties of Real Air Plasma in Wide Range of Temperature and Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunlin; Wu, Yi; Chen, Zhexin; Yang, Fei; Feng, Ying; Rong, Mingzhe; Zhang, Hantian

    2016-07-01

    Air plasma has been widely applied in industrial manufacture. In this paper, both dry and humid air plasmas' thermodynamic and transport properties are calculated in temperature 300-100000 K and pressure 0.1-100 atm. To build a more precise model of real air plasma, over 70 species are considered for composition. Two different methods, the Gibbs free energy minimization method and the mass action law method, are used to determinate the composition of the air plasma in a different temperature range. For the transport coefficients, the simplified Chapman-Enskog method developed by Devoto has been applied using the most recent collision integrals. It is found that the presence of CO2 has almost no effect on the properties of air plasma. The influence of H2O can be ignored except in low pressure air plasma, in which the saturated vapor pressure is relatively high. The results will serve as credible inputs for computational simulation of air plasma. supported by the National Key Basic Research Program of China (973 Program)(No. 2015CB251002), National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 51521065, 51577145), the Science and Technology Project Funds of the Grid State Corporation (SGTYHT/13-JS-177), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, and State Grid Corporation Project (GY71-14-004)

  20. The metabolic fate of nectar nicotine in worker honey bees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Rand, Esther E; Pirk, Christian W W; Nicolson, Susan W; Apostolides, Zeno

    2017-04-01

    Honey bees (Apis mellifera) are generalist pollinators that forage for nectar and pollen of a very large variety of plant species, exposing them to a diverse range of secondary metabolites produced as chemical defences against herbivory. Honey bees can tolerate high levels of many of these toxic compounds, including the alkaloid nicotine, in their diet without incurring apparent fitness costs. Very little is known about the underlying detoxification processes mediating this tolerance. We examined the metabolic fate of nicotine in newly emerged worker bees using radiolabeled nicotine and LC-MS/MS analysis to determine the kinetic distribution profile of nicotine as well as the absence or presence and identity of any nicotine-derived metabolites. Nicotine metabolism was extensive; virtually no unmetabolised nicotine were recovered from the rectum. The major metabolite found was 4-hydroxy-4-(3-pyridyl) butanoic acid, the end product of 2'C-oxidation of nicotine. It is the first time that 4-hydroxy-4-(3-pyridyl) butanoic acid has been identified in an insect as a catabolite of nicotine. Lower levels of cotinine, cotinine N-oxide, 3'hydroxy-cotinine, nicotine N-oxide and norcotinine were also detected. Our results demonstrated that formation of 4-hydroxy-4-(3-pyridyl) butanoic acid is quantitatively the most significant pathway of nicotine metabolism in honey bees and that the rapid excretion of unmetabolised nicotine does not contribute significantly to nicotine tolerance in honey bees. In nicotine-tolerant insects that do not rely on the rapid excretion of nicotine like the Lepidoptera, it is possible that the 2'C-oxidation of nicotine is the conserved metabolic pathway instead of the generally assumed 5'C-oxidation pathway. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Monitoring firefighter exposure to air toxins at prescribed burns of forest and range biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timothy E. Reinhardt

    1991-01-01

    A variety of potent air toxins are in the smoke produced by burning forest and range biomass. Preliminary data on flrefighter exposures to carbon monoxide and formaldehyde at four prescribed burns of Western United States natural fuels are presented. Formaldehyde may be correlated to carbon monoxide emissions. The firefighters' exposures to these compounds...

  2. Spontaneous ignition of methane-air mixtures in a wide range of pressures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhukov, VP; Sechenov, VA; Starikovskii, AY

    2003-01-01

    The ignition delay in methane-air mixtures (phi = 0.5) within the range of temperatures of 1200-1700 K and pressures of 3-450 atm behind reflected shock waves in a shock tube is measured on the basis of emission of the electron-excited OH radical (transition A(2)Sigma(+) - X(2)Pi) at the wavelength

  3. Ultrasonic ranging module interface and air-track kinematics for the Apple IIe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Western, Arthur B.; Crummett, William P.

    1986-10-01

    The polaroid ultrasound ranging system has been interfaced to an Apple IIe computer. Sufficient resolution is achieved to permit calculation of velocity and acceleration derivatives. The interface is described and the graphical results of several air-track experiments are presented.

  4. Emission rates of air pollutants from portable gas ranges and nitrogen dioxide exposure assessment in restaurants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jun Ho; Youn, Sung Uk; Kwon, Eunkyung; Im, Sungkuk; Akiyama, Yukio; Arashidani, Keiichi; Yang, Wonho

    2009-03-01

    It is important to characterize the emission of air pollutants and suggest an optimum ventilation rate, because the use of portable gas ranges is widespread in houses and restaurants in Korea. Source emission tests were conducted to characterize the emissions of nitrogen oxide (NOx = NO + NO2), carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), formaldehyde (HCHO) and total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs) from portable gas ranges in steady-state using a well-mixed chamber. The ranges of emission rates of air pollutants from portable gas ranges were 0.55-0.94 mg/h for NO, 0.35-1.08 mg/h for NO2, 1.21-1.63 mg/h for NOx 1.39-4.21 mg/h for CO, 2430-2970 mg/h for CO2 and 0-0.12 mg/h for TVOCs. The required mean and maximum ventilation rates to control the air pollutants from portable gas ranges was 2.70 m3/h and 3.13 m3/h on the basis of the NO2 emission rate, respectively. The mean concentrations of food service worker and customer exposures to NO2 by use of portable gas ranges in restaurants were 48.2 +/- 21.5 ppb and 64.7 +/- 31.5 ppb, respectively.

  5. The Influence of Puff Characteristics, Nicotine Dependence, and Rate of Nicotine Metabolism on Daily Nicotine Exposure in African American Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Kathryn C; Dempsey, Delia A; St Helen, Gideon; Delucchi, Kevin; Benowitz, Neal L

    2016-06-01

    African American (AA) smokers experience greater tobacco-related disease burden than Whites, despite smoking fewer cigarettes per day (CPD). Understanding factors that influence daily nicotine intake in AA smokers is an important step toward decreasing tobacco-related health disparities. One factor of interest is smoking topography, or the study of puffing behavior. (i) to create a model using puff characteristics, nicotine dependence, and nicotine metabolism to predict daily nicotine exposure, and (ii) to compare puff characteristics and nicotine intake from two cigarettes smoked at different times to ensure the reliability of the puff characteristics included in our model. Sixty AA smokers smoked their preferred brand of cigarette at two time points through a topography device. Plasma nicotine, expired CO, and changes in subjective measures were measured before and after each cigarette. Total nicotine equivalents (TNE) was measured from 24-hour urine collected during ad libitum smoking. In a model predicting daily nicotine exposure, total puff volume, CPD, sex, and menthol status were significant predictors (R(2) = 0.44, P < 0.001). Total puff volume was significantly greater and inter-puff intervals were significantly shorter after ad lib smoking compared with the first cigarette of the day, but puffing behaviors for both cigarettes were highly correlated (r range = 0.69-0.89, P < 0.001) within-subjects. This is the first study, to our knowledge, to show that puff characteristics of individual cigarettes are predictive of daily nicotine intake. These findings enhance our understanding of the relationship between smoking behavior and nicotine intake in AA smokers. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 25(6); 936-43. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  6. Evolution of the Standard Helium Liquefier and Refrigerator Range Designed by Air Liquide DTA, France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caillaud, A.; Crispel, S.; Grabié, V.; Delcayre, F.; Aigouy, G.

    2008-03-01

    The standard helium liquefier and refrigerator range, called Helial and designed by Air Liquide DTA, has recently been upgraded in order to improve the efficiency of these machines. Indeed, over the multi-range markets requiring these cryogenic systems, (international laboratories, aerospace applications, synchrotrons, HTS applications…), the technological solution has to provide increasingly high performances. The new Helial Evolution range, equipped with very reliable DTA turbo-expanders, constitutes a highly efficient product for this wide application field. The optimizations, adaptations and results of the Helial Evolution series, doubling the performance for the same power consumption, will be presented.

  7. Serum nicotine level among various tobacco users: A study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayanandam Mala

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The use of tobacco and its products has increased in the population over the past two decades, resulting in considerable systemic exposure to nicotine. Aims and Objectives: To estimate and compare the serum nicotine levels among smokers and gutkha chewers, along with the effect of nicotine replacement therapy on serum nicotine levels between them. Materials and Methods: Forty individuals were selected and divided into two groups with 20 individuals in each group. First group included individuals with a smoking habit, whereas the second group included individuals with the habit of chewing gutkha exclusively. Four blood samples were collected from all the participants in both the groups and subjected to serum nicotine estimation. Two blood samples were obtained (first sample after 30 min and the next sample after 60 min following smoking/chewing on the first day, and the other two were obtained after 24 h of tobacco abstinence (after 24 h all the participants were asked to chew nicotine chewing gums each containing 2 mg of nicotine. Statistical Analysis Used: The particulars of age, frequency of habit (smoking and chewing gutkha, and serum nicotine levels before and after replacement therapy (nicotine chewing gum were recorded and analyzed statistically by cross-tabulation for calculation of mean and frequency. Results: The serum concentration of nicotine in smokers at 30 min after smoking ranged 120-309 ng/ml and at 60 min ranged 29-77 ng/ml. In group 1, individuals′ serum nicotine concentration after replacement therapy with nicotine chewing gum ranged 29-77 ng/ml at 30 min and 1-6 ng/ml at 60 min. Serum concentration of nicotine at 30 min after chewing gutkha ranged 86-200 ng/ml and at 60 min ranged 61-102 ng/ml. The serum nicotine concentration in group 2 individuals at 30 min following chewing nicotine gum ranged 24-55 ng/ml and at 60 min ranged 0-3 ng/ml. Conclusion: Serum nicotine concentration in chewers was less at 30 min

  8. Medium-Range Air Quality Forecast During the Beijing Olympic Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y.; Smith, J.; Wang, Z.; Luo, L.; Wu, Q.

    2008-12-01

    Prior to the XXIX Olympiad in Beijing, air quality was a major concern for many athletes and visitors to the Games. In response to the need for enhanced air quality forecasts, we explored and tested the capability of medium-range air quality forecasting in a multimodel ensemble system. The system consists of the Weather Research and Forecasting Model with Chemistry module (WRF-Chem), the Fifth-Generation NCAR/PennState Mesoscale Model (MM5), and the Nested Air Quality Prediction Modeling System (NAQPMS) developed at the Institute of Atmospheric Physics (IAP). Both MM5 and NAQPMS have been in operational use to produce short-term air quality forecasts. WRFChem is the major addition to the multimodel system. Forced with the forecast from the NCEP Global Ensemble Forecast System (GENS) at the lateral boundary, the multimodel system makes ensemble air quality forecasts out to 16 days with emission scenarios that reflect measures for the Olympics, including the closing down of factories around the city and beyond, a traffic control program that reduced the number of automobiles around the city by about half and elimination of all construction activities. Analyses of two forecasts are presented in this study. They were made on 5 August 2008 and 8 August 2008, both covering the entire Olympic period. Each forecast consists of three ensemble members that were produced with the same regional model but were forced by the control and two 'extremes' of the GENS forecast. The two extreme members were hand-picked to represent the best and worst case scenarios. The forecasts are evaluated with observations taken during the Olympic Games that include satellite observations, in-situ meteorological stations, LIDAR and air quality observations at the IAP tower site, 1 km away from the 'Bird Nest'. The analyses show good model skill in the first 3 days and generally satisfactory after 96 hours, with a successful forecast of potential pollution episode on 20 August 2008. The challenge

  9. High dose transdermal nicotine for fast metabolizers of nicotine: a proof of concept placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnoll, Robert A; Wileyto, E Paul; Leone, Frank T; Tyndale, Rachel F; Benowitz, Neal L

    2013-02-01

    Smokers with a faster rate of nicotine metabolism, estimated using the ratio of 3'-hydroxycotinine (3-HC) to cotinine, have lower plasma nicotine levels and are more likely to relapse with 21 mg nicotine patch therapy, than smokers with slower rates of nicotine metabolism. Thus, faster metabolizers of nicotine may require a higher nicotine patch dose to achieve cessation. This proof of concept randomized placebo-controlled trial evaluated the efficacy and safety of 8 weeks of 42 mg transdermal nicotine versus 21 mg, among 87 fast metabolizers of nicotine (3-HC/cotinine ≥ 0.18). After 1 week of treatment, an intent-to-treat (ITT) analysis showed that participants treated with 42 mg nicotine had significantly higher expired-air carbon monoxide (CO)-confirmed 24-hr abstinence (75% vs. 58.1%; OR = 3.21; 95% CI: 1.12-9.24, p = .03) but not 7-day abstinence (50% vs. 34.9%; OR = 2.02; 95% CI: 0.82-4.94, p = .13). After 8 weeks of treatment, ITT analysis showed that participants treated with 42 mg nicotine had marginally higher rates of CO-confirmed 24-hr abstinence (45.5% vs. 30.2%; OR = 2.32; 95% CI: 0.92-5.92, p = .08) but not 7-day abstinence (29.6% vs. 23.3%; OR = 1.52, 95% CI: 0.57-4.07, p = .41). Percent nicotine and cotinine replacement were significantly greater for 42 mg nicotine versus 21 mg (p .10). Further examination of the efficacy of 42 mg nicotine patch therapy for fast metabolizers of nicotine is warranted.

  10. Electronic cigarettes are a source of thirdhand exposure to nicotine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goniewicz, Maciej L; Lee, Lily

    2015-02-01

    Substances remaining on the surfaces in areas where people have smoked contribute to thirdhand exposure. Nicotine from tobacco smoke has been shown to react with oxidizing chemicals in the air to form secondary pollutants, such as carcinogenic nitrosamines. While previous studies have demonstrated thirdhand exposure to nicotine from tobacco smoke, none have investigated whether nicotine from electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) can also be deposited on various surfaces. Three brands of e-cigarettes were refilled with varying nicotine concentrations. We released 100 puffs from each product directly into an exposure chamber. Surface wipe samples were taken from 5 indoor 100 cm(2) surfaces (window, walls, floor, wood, and metal) pre- and post-release of vapors. Nicotine was extracted from the wipes and was analyzed using gas chromatography. Three of the 4 experiments showed significant increases in the amount of nicotine on all five surfaces. The floor and glass windows had the greatest increases in nicotine, on average by a factor of 47 and 6, respectively (p exposure to nicotine from e-cigarettes. Thirdhand exposure levels differ depending on the surface and the e-cigarette brand. Future research should explore the potential risks of thirdhand exposure to carcinogens formed from the nicotine that is released from e-cigarettes. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Environmental Assessment for Construction of Small Arms Range at Tinker Air Force Base, Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-01

    border in the north and south to the Texas Gulf Coast. It consists of prairies and savannas and forms an ecotone between the forested areas of the...space for the new Small Arms Range. SUMMARY OF FINDINGS FOR PROPOSED ACTION: Land Use. A long-term positive impact will result from the remediation of...action. A short term increase in air emissions would be associated with the construction and demolition activities. Water Resources. No adverse effect

  12. Tonopah Test Range Air Monitoring: CY2016 Meteorological, Radiological, and Wind Transported Particulate Observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapman, Jenny [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Nikolich, George [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Shadel, Craig [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); McCurdy, Greg [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Etyemezian, Vicken [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Miller, Julianne J [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Mizell, Steve [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2017-10-01

    In 1963, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) (formerly the Atomic Energy Commission [AEC]), implemented Operation Roller Coaster on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) and an adjacent area of the Nevada Test and Training Range (NTTR) (formerly the Nellis Air Force Range). This operation resulted in radionuclide-contaminated soils at the Clean Slate I, II, and III sites. This report documents observations made during ongoing monitoring of radiological, meteorological, and dust conditions at stations installed adjacent to Clean Slate I and Clean Slate III, and at the TTR Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) Range Operations Control (ROC) center. The primary objective of the monitoring effort is to determine if wind blowing across the Clean Slate sites is transporting particles of radionuclide-contaminated soil beyond the physical and administrative boundaries of the sites.

  13. An Explosive Range Model Based on the Gas Composition, Temperature, and Pressure during Air Drilling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangyu Fan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Air drilling is low cost and effectively improves the penetration rate and causes minimal damage to liquid-sensitive pay zones. However, there is a potential downhole explosion when combustible gas mixed with drilling fluid reaches the combustible condition. In this paper, based on the underground combustion mechanism, an explosive range calculation model is established. This model couples the state equation and the empirical formula method, which considers the inert gas content, pressure, mixed gas component, and temperature. The result shows that increase of the inert gas content narrows the explosive range, while increase of the gas temperature and pressure improves the explosive range. A case in Chongqing, China, is used to validate the explosive range calculation model.

  14. Adaptation to nicotine feeding in Myzus persicae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, John S; Elzinga, Dezi A; Sarkar, Pooja; Xin, Yi-Ran; Ghanim, Murad; Jander, Georg

    2014-08-01

    Lineages of the generalist hemipteran herbivore Myzus persicae (green peach aphid) that have expanded their host range to include tobacco often have elevated nicotine tolerance. The tobacco-adapted M. persicae lineage used in this study was able to reproduce on nicotine-containing artificial diets at concentrations that were 15-fold higher than those that were lethal to a non-adapted M. persicae lineage. Fecundity of the nicotine-tolerant M. persicae lineage was increased by 100 μM nicotine in artificial diet, suggesting that this otherwise toxic alkaloid can serve as a feeding stimulant at low concentrations. This lineage also was pre-adapted to growth on tobacco, exhibiting no drop in fecundity when it was moved onto tobacco from a different host plant. Although growth of the non-tobacco-adapted M. persicae lineage improved after three generations on tobacco, this higher reproductive rate was not associated with increased nicotine tolerance. Myzus persicae gene expression microarrays were used to identify transcripts that are up-regulated in response to nicotine in the tobacco-adapted lineage. Induced expression was found for CYP6CY3, which detoxifies nicotine in M. persicae, other genes encoding known classes of detoxifying enzymes, and genes encoding secreted M. persicae salivary proteins.

  15. Satellite observations of megacity air pollution, biomass burning emissions, and their long- range transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, W. W.; Kollonige, D.; Yurganov, L.; Krueger, A.; Hoff, R.; Barnet, C.; Gleason, J.; Celarier, E.; Krotkov, N.; Liu, X.; Kurosu, T. P.; Osterman, G.; Torres, O.

    2008-12-01

    present satellite observations of long-range transport of air pollution and biomass burning emissions.

  16. Mechanisms of Nicotine Addiction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGehee, Daniel (University of Chicago)

    2002-06-26

    Nicotine reinforces the use of tobacco products primarily through its interaction with specific receptor proteins within the brain's reward centers. A critical step in the process of addiction for many drugs, including nicotine, is the release of the neurotransmitter dopamine. A single nicotine exposure will enhance dopamine levels for hours, however, nicotinic receptors undergo both activation and then desensitization in minutes, which presents an important problem. How does the time course of receptor activity lead to the prolonged release of dopamine? We have found that persistent modulation of both inhibitory and excitatory synaptic connections by nicotine underlies the sustained increase in dopamine release. Because these inputs express different types of nicotinic receptors there is a coordinated shift in the balance of synaptic inputs toward excitation of the dopamine neurons. Excitatory inputs are turned on while inhibitory inputs are depressed, thereby boosting the brain's reward system.

  17. Wipe sampling for nicotine as a marker of thirdhand tobacco smoke contamination on surfaces in homes, cars, and hotels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintana, Penelope J E; Matt, Georg E; Chatfield, Dale; Zakarian, Joy M; Fortmann, Addie L; Hoh, Eunha

    2013-09-01

    Secondhand smoke contains a mixture of pollutants that can persist in air, dust, and on surfaces for months or longer. This persistent residue is known as thirdhand smoke (THS). Here, we detail a simple method of wipe sampling for nicotine as a marker of accumulated THS on surfaces. We analyzed findings from 5 real-world studies to investigate the performance of wipe sampling for nicotine on surfaces in homes, cars, and hotels in relation to smoking behavior and smoking restrictions. The intraclass correlation coefficient for side-by-side samples was 0.91 (95% CI: 0.87-0.94). Wipe sampling for nicotine reliably distinguished between private homes, private cars, rental cars, and hotels with and without smoking bans and was significantly positively correlated with other measures of tobacco smoke contamination such as air and dust nicotine. The sensitivity and specificity of possible threshold values (0.1, 1, and 10 μg/m(2)) were evaluated for distinguishing between nonsmoking and smoking environments. Sensitivity was highest at a threshold of 0.1 μg/m(2), with 74%-100% of smoker environments showing nicotine levels above threshold. Specificity was highest at a threshold of 10 μg/m(2), with 81%-100% of nonsmoker environments showing nicotine levels below threshold. The optimal threshold will depend on the desired balance of sensitivity and specificity and on the types of smoking and nonsmoking environments. Surface wipe sampling for nicotine is a reliable, valid, and relatively simple collection method to quantify THS contamination on surfaces across a wide range of field settings and to distinguish between nonsmoking and smoking environments.

  18. Matrix methods to analyze long-range transport of air pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ball, R H

    1981-01-01

    To assess air quality constraints and impacts of energy activities, models that account for long-range transport processes, as well as for local effects of meteorological dispersion, are required. At the present state of the art of modeling, separate models are used to estimate the detailed, rapidly varying effects of local sources and the long-term average effects of distant sources. Development of the air transport matrix method was undertaken to provide a simpler, faster method of analysis. The method represents results of comprehensive longrange transport models in a simple, easy to use form. The present report is a description of the concept and methodologies used in developing matrices, a preliminary analysis of those matrices and their properties, and a guide to the types of applications they can serve. Matrices have been generated by BNL for transport of sulfur oxide emissions among the 238 Air Quality Control Regions in the conterminous United States, using their AIRSOX model. PNL has used their long-range transport model and a streamlined calculation method to generate matrices for sulfur oxides and for emitted fine particulates. Matrices have been completed for 4 months of meterological data (one in each season) from 1974. BNL further separates matrices according to three categories of sources: utility, industrial, and area sources. They differ in terms of effective stack heights and detailed distribution of source locations within each AQCR. Matrices have also been calculated at the more aggregated levels of state and Federal region boundaries.

  19. Direct action and modulating effect of (+)- and (-)-nicotine on ion channels expressed in trigeminal sensory neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiner, Benjamin S P; Lehmann, Ramona; Thiel, Ulrike; Ziemba, Paul M; Beltrán, Leopoldo R; Sherkheli, Muhammad A; Jeanbourquin, Philippe; Hugi, Alain; Werner, Markus; Gisselmann, Günter; Hatt, Hanns

    2014-04-05

    Nicotine sensory perception is generally thought to be mediated by nicotinic acetylcholine (nACh) receptors. However, recent data strongly support the idea that other receptors (e.g., transient receptor potential A1 channel, TRPA1) and other pathways contribute to the detection mechanisms underlying the olfactory and trigeminal cell response to nicotine flavor. This is in accordance with the reported ability of humans to discriminate between (+)- and (-)- nicotine enantiomers. To get a more detailed understanding of the molecular and cellular basis underlying the sensory perception of nicotine, we studied the activity of (+)- and (-)-nicotine on cultured murine trigeminal sensory neurons and on a range of heterologously expressed receptors. The human TRPA1 channel is activated by (-)-nicotine. In this work, we show that (+)-nicotine is also an activator of this channel. Pharmacological experiments using nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and transient receptor potential blockers revealed that trigeminal neurons express one or more unidentified receptors that are sensitive to (+)- and/or (-)-nicotine. Results also indicate that the presence of extracellular calcium ions is required to elicit trigeminal neuron responses to (+)- and (-)-nicotine. Results also show that both (+)-nicotine and (-)-nicotine can block 5-hydroxytryptamine type 3 (5-HT3) receptor-mediated responses in recombinant expression systems and in cultured trigeminal neurons expressing 5-HT3 receptors. Our investigations broaden the spectra of receptors that are targets for nicotine enantiomers and give new insights into the physiological role of nicotine. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Investigation of Breakpoint and Trend of Daily Air Temperature Range for Mashhad, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    shideh shams

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Air temperature as an important climatic factor can influence variability and distribution of other climatic parameters. Therefore, tracking the changes in air temperature is a popular procedure in climate change studies.. According to the national academy in the last decade, global temperature has raised 0.4 to 0.8⁰C. Instrumental records show that, with the exception of 1998, the 10 warmest year (during the last 150 years, occurred since 2000, and 2014 was the warmest year. Investigation of maximum and minimum air temperature temporal trend indicates that these two parameters behave differently over time. It has been shown that the minimum air temperature raises noticeably more than the maximum air temperature, which causes a reduction in the difference of maximum and minimum daily air temperature (daily temperature range, DTR. There are several factors that have an influence on reducing DTR such as: Urban development, farms’ irrigation and desertification. It has been shown that DTR reduction occurs mostly during winter and is less frequent during summer, which shows the season’s effect on the temperature trend. Considering the significant effects of the climatological factors on economic and agricultural management issues, the aim of this study is to investigate daily air temperature range for yearly, seasonal and monthly time scales, using available statistical methods. Materials and Methods: Daily maximum and minimum air temperature records (from 1950 to 2010 were obtained from Mashhad Meteorological Organization. In order to control the quality of daily Tmax and Tmin data, four different types of quality controls were applied. First of all, gross errors were checked. In this step maximum and minimum air temperature data exceeding unlikely air temperature values, were eliminated from data series. Second, data tolerance was checked by searching for periods longer than a certain number of consecutive days with exactly the

  1. Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walley, Susan C; Jenssen, Brian P

    2015-11-01

    Electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) are rapidly growing in popularity among youth. ENDS are handheld devices that produce an aerosolized mixture from a solution typically containing concentrated nicotine, flavoring chemicals, and propylene glycol to be inhaled by the user. ENDS are marketed under a variety of names, most commonly electronic cigarettes and e-cigarettes. In 2014, more youth reported using ENDS than any other tobacco product. ENDS pose health risks to both users and nonusers. Nicotine, the major psychoactive ingredient in ENDS solutions, is both highly addictive and toxic. In addition to nicotine, other toxicants, carcinogens, and metal particles have been detected in solutions and aerosols of ENDS. Nonusers are involuntarily exposed to the emissions of these devices with secondhand and thirdhand aerosol. The concentrated and often flavored nicotine in ENDS solutions poses a poisoning risk for young children. Reports of acute nicotine toxicity from US poison control centers have been increasing, with at least 1 child death reported from unintentional exposure to a nicotine-containing ENDS solution. With flavors, design, and marketing that appeal to youth, ENDS threaten to renormalize and glamorize nicotine and tobacco product use. There is a critical need for ENDS regulation, legislative action, and counter promotion to protect youth. ENDS have the potential to addict a new generation of youth to nicotine and reverse more than 50 years of progress in tobacco control. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  2. Liquid Nicotine Toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji Won; Baum, Carl R

    2015-07-01

    E-cigarettes, also known as electronic nicotine delivery systems and electronic cigarettes, are advertised as a healthier alternative product to tobacco cigarettes despite limited data on the consequences of e-cigarette use. Currently, there are no US Food and Drug Administration or other federal regulations of e-cigarettes, and calls to poison control centers regarding liquid nicotine toxicity, especially in children, are on the rise. This article presents the background and mechanism of action of e-cigarettes as well as up-to-date details of the toxicity of liquid nicotine. We also present management strategies in the setting of liquid nicotine toxicity.

  3. 33 CFR 334.640 - Gulf of Mexico south of Apalachee Bay, Fla.; Air Force rocket firing range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Bay, Fla.; Air Force rocket firing range. 334.640 Section 334.640 Navigation and Navigable Waters... REGULATIONS § 334.640 Gulf of Mexico south of Apalachee Bay, Fla.; Air Force rocket firing range. (a) The... meanderings of the shore to the point of beginning. (b) The regulations. (1) The fact that aerial rocket...

  4. Origin of reverse-graded bedding in air-fall pumice, Coso Range, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffield, W.A.; Bacon, C.R.; Roquemore, G.R.

    1979-01-01

    The origin of reverse grading in air-fall pyroclastic deposits has been ascribed to: (1) changing conditions at an erupting vent; (2) deposition in water; or (3) rolling of large clasts over smaller clasts on the surface of a steep slope. Structural features in a deposit of air-fall pumice lapilli in the Coso Range, California, indicate that reverse grading there formed by a fourth mechanism during flow of pumice. Reverse-graded beds in this deposit occur where pumice lapilli fell on slopes at or near the angle of repose and formed as parts of the blanket of accumulating pumice became unstable and flowed downslope. The process of size sorting during such flow is probably analogous to that which sorts sand grains in a reverse fashion during avalanching on the slip faces of sand dunes, attributed by Bagnold (1954a) to a grain-dispersive pressure acting on particles subjected to a shear stress. In view of the several ways in which air-fall pyroclastic debris may become reverse graded, caution is advised in interpretation of the origin of this structure both in modern and in ancient deposits. ?? 1979.

  5. Century Tide Nicotine Patch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Century Tide Nicotine Patch, a hi-tech smoking control therapy, is designed in accordance with the scientific principle of nicotine replacement. The therapy is promoted by the World Health Organization. Meanwhile, it also integrates traditional Chinese medical therapy and adopts advanced TTS technology.

  6. Analysis of diurnal air temperature range change in the continental United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Qu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Diurnal temperature range (DTR is an important indicator for climate change. In this paper, diurnal air temperature range variations of the continental United States over the past one hundred years were investigated to discover the temporal trend and spatial patterns. While the annual mean DTR of the United States has steadily decreased during the past decades, it is found that the decreased amplitude has spatial and seasonal patterns. Seasonal and spatial variations of DTR were analyzed for the four regions, northeastern, northwestern, southeastern, and southwestern. Fall and summer witnessed a significant decrease in DTR in all regions. Spring and winter, on the other hand, have experienced much smaller decreases. Temporal trend and spatial patterns of daily maximum and minimum temperatures were also investigated to gain insight of DTR change.

  7. Carboxylate Counteranions in Electronic Cigarette Liquids: Influence on Nicotine Emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Hellani, Ahmad; El-Hage, Rachel; Salman, Rola; Talih, Soha; Shihadeh, Alan; Saliba, Najat A

    2017-08-21

    The wide pH range reported for electronic cigarette (ECIG) liquids indicates that nicotine may be present in one or more chemical forms. The nicotine form affects the bioavailability and delivery of nicotine from inhaled products. Protonated nicotine is normally associated with counteranions in tobacco products. The chemical and physical properties of counteranions may differently influence the nicotine form and emissions in ECIG aerosols. In this study, we examined how these anions influence nicotine emissions and their evaporation behavior and potential decomposition during ECIG operation. ECIG liquid solutions with equal nicotine concentration and pH but different counteranions (formate, acetate, and citrate) were prepared from analytical standards to assess the effect of the counteranion on nicotine partitioning. High performance liquid and gas chromatography methods were developed to determine the counteranions and the two protonated (NicH+) and free base (Nic) forms of nicotine in commercially available and standard solutions of ECIG liquids and aerosols. In commercial samples, acetate and citrate anions were detected. In standard solutions, both formate and acetate ions were found to evaporate intact, but citrate ion decomposed into formic acid and other products. This study also shows that the identity of the counteranion has no effect on total nicotine emission from ECIG in agreement with previous reports on tobacco cigarettes. However, the partitioning of aerosolized nicotine into NicH+ and Nic is anion-dependent even when the parent liquid pH is held constant. These results indicate that the anions found in a given ECIG product may influence the nicotine delivery profile to the user by enriching aerosols with free-base nicotine as in the case of polycarboxylic acids such as citric acid.

  8. Cigarette nicotine yields and nicotine intake among Japanese male workers

    OpenAIRE

    Ueda, K; Kawachi, I.; Nakamura, M; Nogami, H.; Shirokawa, N; Masui, S; Okayama, A; Oshima, A.

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: To analyse brand nicotine yield including "ultra low" brands (that is, cigarettes yielding ≤ 0.1 mg of nicotine by Federal Trade Commission (FTC) methods) in relation to nicotine intake (urinary nicotine, cotinine and trans-3'-hydroxycotinine) among 246 Japanese male smokers.

  9. Nicotine microaerosol inhaler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrus, P G; Rhem, R; Rosenfeld, J; Dolovich, M B

    1999-01-01

    To measure the droplet size distribution of a nicotine pressurized metered-dose inhaler using a nicotine in ethanol solution formulation with hydrofluoroalkane as propellant. Sizing was performed at room temperature by multistage liquid impinger and quartz crystal impactor. The mass median aerodynamic diameter of the nicotine aerosol produced was measured at 1.6 mm by multistage liquid impinger and 1.5 mm by quartz crystal impactor. The inhaler formulation used produces a microaerosol of sufficiently fine droplet size that mimics the puff-by-puff pulmonary arterial bolus nicotine delivery of tobacco smoke. The absence of combustion products such as heat, carcinogens and carbon monoxide permits safer nicotine delivery via the inhaler than is possible via smoked tobacco.

  10. Final Environmental Assessment for the Installation of a Range Safety Lighting System at Avon Park Air Force Range, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    ATV All-terrain Vehicle CEQ Council on Environmental Quality CFR Code of Federal Regulations CGP Construction General Permit CZMA Coastal...Construction General Permit [ CGP ]). In addition, the Air Force requires Best Management Practices be in place, regardless of the size of the...Sterna antillarum N T Mammals Florida panther Puma concolor coryi E E Florida black bear Ursus americanus floridans N T Reptiles and Amphibians

  11. Tonopah Test Range Air Monitoring: CY2015 Meteorological, Radiological, and Airborne Particulate Observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikolich, George [Nevada University, Reno, NV (United States). Desert Research Inst.; Shadel, Craig [Nevada University, Reno, NV (United States). Desert Research Inst.; Chapman, Jenny [Nevada University, Reno, NV (United States). Desert Research Inst.; McCurdy, Greg [Nevada University, Reno, NV (United States). Desert Research Inst.; Etyemezian, Vicken [Nevada University, Reno, NV (United States). Desert Research Inst.; Miller, Julianne J. [Nevada University, Reno, NV (United States). Desert Research Inst.; Mizell, Steve [Nevada University, Reno, NV (United States). Desert Research Inst.

    2016-09-01

    In 1963, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) (formerly the Atomic Energy Commission [AEC]), implemented Operation Roller Coaster on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) and an adjacent area of the Nevada Test and Training Range (NTTR) (formerly the Nellis Air Force Range). The operation resulted in radionuclide-contaminated soils at the Clean Slate I, II, and III sites. This report documents observations made during ongoing monitoring of radiological, meteorological, and dust conditions at stations installed adjacent to Clean Slate I and Clean Slate III, and at the TTR Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) Range Operations Control (ROC) center. The primary objective of the monitoring effort is to determine if winds blowing across the Clean Slate sites are transporting particles of radionuclide-contaminated soil beyond the physical and administrative boundaries of the sites. Radionuclide assessment of airborne particulates in 2015 found the gross alpha and gross beta values of dust collected from the filters at the monitoring stations are consistent with background conditions. The meteorological and particle monitoring indicate that conditions for wind-borne contaminant movement exist at the Clean Slate sites and that, although the transport of radionuclide-contaminated soil by suspension has not been detected, movement by saltation is occurring.

  12. AirSTAR Hardware and Software Design for Beyond Visual Range Flight Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laughter, Sean; Cox, David

    2016-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Airborne Subscale Transport Aircraft Research (AirSTAR) Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) is a facility developed to study the flight dynamics of vehicles in emergency conditions, in support of aviation safety research. The system was upgraded to have its operational range significantly expanded, going beyond the line of sight of a ground-based pilot. A redesign of the airborne flight hardware was undertaken, as well as significant changes to the software base, in order to provide appropriate autonomous behavior in response to a number of potential failures and hazards. Ground hardware and system monitors were also upgraded to include redundant communication links, including ADS-B based position displays and an independent flight termination system. The design included both custom and commercially available avionics, combined to allow flexibility in flight experiment design while still benefiting from tested configurations in reversionary flight modes. A similar hierarchy was employed in the software architecture, to allow research codes to be tested, with a fallback to more thoroughly validated flight controls. As a remotely piloted facility, ground systems were also developed to ensure the flight modes and system state were communicated to ground operations personnel in real-time. Presented in this paper is a general overview of the concept of operations for beyond visual range flight, and a detailed review of the airborne hardware and software design. This discussion is held in the context of the safety and procedural requirements that drove many of the design decisions for the AirSTAR UAS Beyond Visual Range capability.

  13. Equatorial range limits of an intertidal ectotherm are more linked to water than air temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seabra, Rui; Wethey, David S; Santos, António M; Gomes, Filipa; Lima, Fernando P

    2016-10-01

    As climate change is expected to impose increasing thermal stress on intertidal organisms, understanding the mechanisms by which body temperatures translate into major biogeographic patterns is of paramount importance. We exposed individuals of the limpet Patella vulgata Linnaeus, 1758, to realistic experimental treatments aimed at disentangling the contribution of water and air temperature for the buildup of thermal stress. Treatments were designed based on temperature data collected at the microhabitat level, from 15 shores along the Atlantic European coast spanning nearly 20° of latitude. Cardiac activity data indicated that thermal stress levels in P. vulgata are directly linked to elevated water temperature, while high air temperature is only stressful if water temperature is also high. In addition, the analysis of the link between population densities and thermal regimes at the studied locations suggests that the occurrence of elevated water temperature may represent a threshold P. vulgata is unable to tolerate. By combining projected temperatures with the temperature threshold identified, we show that climate change will likely result in the westward expansion of the historical distribution gap in the Bay of Biscay (southwest France), and northward contraction of the southern range limit in south Portugal. These findings suggest that even a minor relaxing of the upwelling off northwest Iberia could lead to a dramatic increase in thermal stress, with major consequences for the structure and functioning of the intertidal communities along Iberian rocky shores. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. 8th Annual report 1999. UN ECE convention on long-range transboundary air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleemola, S.; Forsius, M. [eds.

    1999-07-01

    The Integrated Monitoring Programme (ICP IM) is part of the Effects Monitoring Strategy under the UN ECE Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution. The main aim of ICP IM is to provide a framework to observe and understand the complex changes occurring in the external environment. This report summarizes the work carried out by the ICP IM Programme Centre and several collaborating institutes. The emphasis of the report is in the work done during the programme year 1998/99 including: - a short summary of previous data assessments - a short status report of the ICP IM activities, content of the IM database, and the present geographical coverage of the monitoring network - a documentation of the scientific strategies to carry out data assessment on two priority topics: - assessment of heavy metal pools and fluxes - assessment of cause-effect relationships for understorey vegetation - a description of the WATBAL-model for estimating monthly water balance components, including soil water fluxes. (orig.)

  15. Nicotine addiction and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, J E

    1996-01-01

    The persistence of cigarette smoking despite widespread awareness of adverse health effects results from an underlying addiction to nicotine. Unaided attempts to quit smoking are generally unsuccessful. This article discusses nicotine addition and therapeutic techniques that have been or are being developed to relieve smoking withdrawal symptoms and promote abstinence from smoking. These techniques include nicotine chewing gum, skin patches, nasal sprays, and inhalers, as well as pharmacotherapies such as mecamylamine and clonidine, serotonergic treatments such as buspirone, and antidepressants such as buproprion. A nondrug approach using cigarette substitutes that mimic the airway sensations produced by cigarette smoke is also discussed.

  16. Environmental fate and effects of nicotine released during cigarette production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seckar, Joel A; Stavanja, Mari S; Harp, Paul R; Yi, Yongsheng; Garner, Charles D; Doi, Jon

    2008-07-01

    A variety of test methods were used to study the gradation, bioaccumulation, and toxicity of nicotine. Studies included determination of the octanol-water partition coefficient, conversion to CO2 in soil and activated sludge, and evaluation of the effects on microbiological and algal inhibition as well as plant germination and root elongation. The partitioning of nicotine between octanol and water indicated that nicotine will not bioaccumulate regardless of the pH of the medium. The aqueous and soil-based biodegradation studies indicated that nicotine is readily biodegradable in both types of media. The microbiological inhibition and aquatic and terrestrial toxicity tests indicated that nicotine has low toxicity. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Persistence, Bioaccumulation, and Toxicity Profiler model, based on the structure of nicotine and the predictive rates of hydroxyl radical and ozone reactions, estimated an atmospheric half-life of less than 5.0 h. Using this value in the Canadian Environmental Modeling Center level III model, the half-life of nicotine was estimated as 3.0 d in water and 0.5 d in soil. This model also estimated nicotine discharge into the environment; nicotine would be expected to be found predominantly in water (93%), followed by soil (4%), air (3%), and sediment (0.4%). Using the estimated nicotine concentrations in water, soil, and sediment and the proper median effective concentrations derived from the algal growth, biomass inhibition, and buttercrunch lettuce (Lactuca sativa) seed germination and root elongation studies, hazard quotients of between 10(-7) and 10(-8) were calculated, providing further support for the conclusion that the potential for nicotine toxicity to aquatic and terrestrial species in the environment is extremely low.

  17. Tonopah Test Range Air Monitoring: CY2013 Meteorological, Radiological, and Airborne Particulate Observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizell, Steve A [DRI; Nikolich, George [DRI; Shadel, Craig [DRI; McCurdy, Greg [DRI; Etyemezian, Vicken [DRI; Miller, Julianne J [DRI

    2014-10-01

    In 1963, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) (formerly the Atomic Energy Commission [AEC]), implemented Operation Roller Coaster on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) and an adjacent area of the Nevada Test and Training Range (NTTR) (formerly the Nellis Air Force Range). This test resulted in radionuclide-contaminated soils at Clean Slate I, II, and III. This report documents observations made during on-going monitoring of radiological, meteorological, and dust conditions at stations installed adjacent to Clean Slate I and Clean Slate III and at the TTR Range Operations Control center. The primary objective of the monitoring effort is to determine if winds blowing across the Clean Slate sites are transporting particles of radionuclide-contaminated soils beyond both the physical and administrative boundaries of the sites. Results for the calendar year (CY) 2013 monitoring include: (1) the gross alpha and gross beta values from the monitoring stations are approximately equivalent to the highest values observed during the CY2012 reporting at the surrounding Community Environmental Monitoring Program (CEMP) stations (this was the latest documented data available at the time of this writing); (2) only naturally occurring radionuclides were identified in the gamma spectral analyses; (3) the ambient gamma radiation measurements indicate that the average annual gamma exposure is similar at all three monitoring stations and periodic intervals of increased gamma values appear to be associated with storm fronts passing through the area; and (4) the concentrations of both resuspended dust and saltated sand particles generally increase with increasing wind speed. However, differences in the observed dust concentrations are likely due to differences in the soil characteristics immediately adjacent to the monitoring stations. Neither the resuspended particulate radiological analyses nor the ambient gamma radiation measurements suggest wind transport of radionuclide-contaminated soils.

  18. Tonopah Test Range Air Monitoring. CY2014 Meteorological, Radiological, and Airborne Particulate Observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikoloch, George [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Shadel, Craig [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Chapman, Jenny [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Mizell, Steve A. [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); McCurdy, Greg [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Etyemezian, Vicken [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States); Miller, Julianne J. [Desert Research Inst. (DRI), Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2015-10-01

    In 1963, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) (formerly the Atomic Energy Commission [AEC]), implemented Operation Roller Coaster on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) and an adjacent area of the Nevada Test and Training Range (NTTR) (formerly the Nellis Air Force Range). This test resulted in radionuclide-contaminated soils at Clean Slate I, II, and III. This report documents observations made during ongoing monitoring of radiological, meteorological, and dust conditions at stations installed adjacent to Clean Slate I and Clean Slate III and at the TTR Range Operations Control center. The primary objective of the monitoring effort is to determine if winds blowing across the Clean Slate sites are transporting particles of radionuclide-contaminated soils beyond both the physical and administrative boundaries of the sites. Results for the calendar year (CY) 2014 monitoring are: (1) the gross alpha and gross beta values from the monitoring stations are approximately equivalent to the highest values observed during the CY2014 reporting at the surrounding Community Environmental Monitoring Program (CEMP) stations; (2) only naturally occurring radionuclides were identified in the gamma spectral analyses; (3) the ambient gamma radiation measurements indicate that the average annual gamma exposure is similar at all three monitoring stations and periodic intervals of increased gamma values appear to be associated with storm fronts passing through the area; and (4) the concentrations of both resuspended dust and saltated sand particles generally increase with increasing wind speed. Differences in the observed dust concentrations are likely the result of differences in the soil characteristics immediately adjacent to the monitoring stations. Neither the resuspended particulate radiological analyses nor the ambient gamma radiation measurements suggest wind transport of radionuclide-contaminated soils.

  19. Nicotine and tobacco

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ease your withdrawal symptoms. Health experts warn that e-cigarettes are not a replacement therapy for cigarette smoking. ... not known exactly how much nicotine is in e-cigarette cartridges, because information on labels is often wrong. ...

  20. A miniaturized piezoelectric turbine with self-regulation for increased air speed range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Hailing, E-mail: h.fu14@imperial.ac.uk; Yeatman, Eric M. [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2015-12-14

    This paper presents the design and demonstration of a piezoelectric turbine with self-regulation for increased air speed range. The turbine's transduction is achieved by magnetic “plucking” of a piezoelectric beam by the passing rotor. The increased speed range is achieved by the self-regulating mechanism which can dynamically adjust the magnetic coupling between the magnets on the turbine rotor and the piezoelectric beam using a micro-spring. The spring is controlled passively by the centrifugal force of the magnet on the rotor. This mechanism automatically changes the relative position of the magnets at different rotational speeds, making the coupling weak at low airflow speeds and strong at high speeds. Hence, the device can start up with a low airflow speed, and the output power can be ensured when the airflow speed is high. A theoretical model was established to analyse the turbine's performance, advantages, and to optimize its design parameters. A prototype was fabricated and tested in a wind tunnel. The start-up airflow speed was 2.34 m/s, showing a 30% improvement against a harvester without the mechanism.

  1. SR-CATS: A Short-Range Clear Air Turbulence Sensor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Clear air turbulence (CAT), often referred to as "air pockets," is attributed to Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities at altitudes generally above 18,000ft, often in the...

  2. Reward, Addiction, Withdrawal to Nicotine

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Biasi, Mariella; Dani, John A.

    2011-01-01

    Nicotine is the principle addictive component that drives continued tobacco use despite users’ knowledge of the harmful consequences. The initiation of addiction involves the mesocorticolimbic dopamine system, which contributes to the processing of rewarding sensory stimuli during the overall shaping of successful behaviors. Acting mainly through nicotinic receptors containing the α4 and β2 subunits, often in combination with the α6 subunit, nicotine increases the firing rate and the phasic bursts by midbrain dopamine neurons. Neuroadaptations arise during chronic exposure to nicotine, producing an altered brain condition that requires the continued presence of nicotine to be maintained. When nicotine is removed, a withdrawal syndrome develops. The expression of somatic withdrawal symptoms depends mainly on the α5, α2, and β4 nicotinic subunits involving the epithalamic habenular complex and its targets. Thus, nicotine taps into diverse neural systems and an array of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subtypes to influence reward, addiction, and withdrawal. PMID:21438686

  3. Tonopah Test Range Air Monitoring: CY2012 Meteorological, Radiological, and Airborne Particulate Observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizell, Steve A; Nikolich, George; Shadel, Craig; McCurdy, Greg; Miller, Julianne J

    2013-07-01

    In 1963, the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), predecessor to the US Department of Energy (DOE), implemented Operation Roller Coaster on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) and an adjacent area of the Nevada Test and Training Range (NTTR) (formerly the Nellis Air Force Range (NAFR)). Operation Roller Coaster consisted of four tests in which chemical explosions were detonated in the presence of nuclear devices to assess the dispersal of radionuclides and evaluate the effectiveness of storage structures to contain the ejected radionuclides. These tests resulted in dispersal of plutonium over the ground surface downwind of the test ground zero. Three tests, Clean Slate 1, 2, and 3, were conducted on the TTR in Cactus Flat; the fourth, Double Tracks, was conducted in Stonewall Flat on the NTTR. DOE is working to clean up and close all four sites. Substantial cleaned up has been accomplished at Double Tracks and Clean Slate 1. Cleanup of Clean Slate 2 and 3 is on the DOE planning horizon for some time in the next several years. The Desert Research Institute installed two monitoring stations, number 400 at the Sandia National Laboratories Range Operations Center and number 401 at Clean Slate 3, in 2008 and a third monitoring station, number 402 at Clean Slate 1, in 2011 to measure radiological, meteorological, and dust conditions. The primary objectives of the data collection and analysis effort are to (1) monitor the concentration of radiological parameters in dust particles suspended in air, (2) determine whether winds are re-distributing radionuclides or contaminated soil material, (3) evaluate the controlling meteorological conditions if wind transport is occurring, and (4) measure ancillary radiological, meteorological, and environmental parameters that might provide insight to the above assessments. The following observations are based on data collected during CY2012. The mean annual concentration of gross alpha and gross beta is highest at Station 400 and lowest at Station

  4. The pyrolysis of (-)-(S)-nicotine: racemization and decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, Peter; Lu, Annhelen; Bishop, Louise

    2010-05-05

    The pyrolytic behaviour of (-)-(S)-nicotine in methanol was investigated using on-line pyrolysis GC/MS to establish whether racemization to the R(+) antipode occurs and to identify other products of pyrolysis. The conditions used included pyrolysing the sample for 15 seconds in an atmosphere of 9% oxygen in nitrogen (275 ml/min total flow) across the temperature range of 200 degrees C-1000 degrees C. A chiral Cyclodex-B analytical column (30 m x 0.25 mm i.d. x 0.25 microm film thickness) was used to separate the enantiomers of nicotine, although the two enantiomer peaks were not baseline resolved. The results of the experiment shows that there is no increase in (+)-(R)-nicotine levels across a wide temperature range. This suggests that the elevated levels of (+)-R-nicotine observed in tobacco smoke (compared to tobacco leaf material) are not due to the pyrolytic auto-racemization of (-)-(S)-nicotine but are a result of more complex interactions between (-)-(S)-nicotine and other smoke components. The pyrolysis of isotopically labelled nicotine established that nicotine undergoes thermal decomposition to beta-nicotyrine which in turn may decompose to other products. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  5. The Pyrolysis of (−)-(S)-Nicotine: Racemization and Decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, Peter; Lu, Annhelen; Bishop, Louise

    2010-01-01

    The pyrolytic behaviour of (−)-(S)-nicotine in methanol was investigated using on-line pyrolysis GC/MS to establish whether racemization to the R(+) antipode occurs and to identify other products of pyrolysis. The conditions used included pyrolysing the sample for 15 seconds in an atmosphere of 9% oxygen in nitrogen (275ml/min total flow) across the temperature range of 200°C–1000°C. A chiral Cyclodex-B analytical column (30m × 0.25mm i.d. × 0.25 μm film thickness) was used to separate the enantiomers of nicotine, although the two enantiomer peaks were not baseline resolved. The results of the experiment shows that there is no increase in (+)-(R)-nicotine levels across a wide temperature range. This suggests that the elevated levels of (+)-R-nicotine observed in tobacco smoke (compared to tobacco leaf material) are not due to the pyrolytic auto-racemization of (−)-(S)-nicotine but are a result of more complex interactions between (−)-(S)-nicotine and other smoke components. The pyrolysis of isotopically labelled nicotine established that nicotine undergoes thermal decomposition to β-nicotyrine which in turn may decompose to other products. Chirality 2010. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. PMID:19644958

  6. Nicotine Withdrawal Disrupts Contextual Learning but Not Recall of Prior Contextual Associations: Implications for Nicotine Addiction

    OpenAIRE

    Portugal, George S.; Gould, Thomas J.

    2008-01-01

    Interactions between nicotine and learning could contribute to nicotine addiction. Although previous research indicates that nicotine withdrawal disrupts contextual learning, the effects of nicotine withdrawal on contextual memories acquired before withdrawal are unknown. The present study investigated whether nicotine withdrawal disrupted recall of prior contextual memories by examining the effects of nicotine withdrawal on recall of nicotine conditioned place preference (CPP) and contextual...

  7. 33 CFR 334.630 - Tampa Bay south of MacDill Air Force Base, Fla.; small-arms firing range and aircraft jettison, U...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tampa Bay south of MacDill Air Force Base, Fla.; small-arms firing range and aircraft jettison, U.S. Air Force, MacDill Air Force Base... Force Base, Fla.; small-arms firing range and aircraft jettison, U.S. Air Force, MacDill Air Force Base...

  8. Determining particle size distributions in the inhalable size range for wood dust collected by air samplers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Martin; Muller, Brian S; Bartolucci, Al

    2002-10-01

    In the absence of methods for determining particle size distributions in the inhalable size range with good discrimination, the samples collected by personal air sampling devices can only be characterized by their total mass. This parameter gives no information regarding the size distribution of the aerosol or the size-selection characteristics of different samplers in field use conditions. A method is described where the particles collected by a sampler are removed, suspended, and re-deposited on a mixed cellulose-ester filter, and examined by optical microscopy to determine particle aerodynamic diameters. This method is particularly appropriate to wood dust particles which are generally large and close to rectangular prisms in shape. Over 200 wood dust samples have been collected in three different wood-products industries, using the traditional closed-face polystyrene/acrylonitrile cassette, the Institute of Occupational Medicine inhalable sampler, and the Button sampler developed by the University of Cincinnati. A portion of these samples has been analyzed to determine the limitations of this method. Extensive quality control measures are being developed to improve the robustness of the procedure, and preliminary results suggest the method has an accuracy similar to that required of National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) methods. The results should provide valuable insights into the collection characteristics of the samplers and the impact of these characteristics on comparison of sampler results to present and potential future limit values. The NIOSH Deep South Education and Research Center has a focus on research into hazards of the forestry and associated wood-products industry, and it is hoped to expand this activity in the future.

  9. Long-range transport of Asian dust and air pollutants to Taiwan: observed evidence and model simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.-Y. Lin

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Long-range transport of Asian dust and air pollutants are major environmental concerns of Taiwan during the winter monsoon season when northeasterly winds prevail following passages of cold fronts. Based on hourly measurements of Taiwan Environmental Protection Administration (TEPA air quality monitoring stations, Lidar and in-situ IC, a significant long-range transport dust and air pollutants event on 18 March 2005 has been identified. During this episode, drastically elevated concentrations of PM10, CO and SO2 along with the strong northeasterly on 18 March were observed over background Wanli station, with peaks of about 170 μgm−3, 1.0 ppm and 14 ppb, respectively. We have found that air masses of air pollutants and Asian dust are transported separately. Although the mixing takes place on the way to Taiwan, it mixes slightly when they arrived in Taiwan. The major component of the first PM10 peak were air pollutants, evidenced by the consistent peaks of SO42− and NO3 measured by in-situ IC, while no significant depolarization was measured by Lidar. In contrast, the evident non-spherical particles and hourly PM10 concentration consistently varied with Ca2+ indicating that mineral dust was the major component of the second peak. Trajectory analysis showed that these two peaks come from quite different sources areas. The air masses of the first peak mainly come from anthropogenic area and transport in the low boundary layer (<1500 m while the masses of the second peak originate from high altitude (>4000 m of desert areas. Numerical results showed significant agreement of temporal and vertical variation of aerosol concentration with observations. The phenomena of split air parcels between air pollutants and Asian dust transported to Taiwan are strongly associated with the transport paths and stable and dry atmospheric boundary conditions.

  10. Neurocognitive Insights in Nicotine Addiction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Luijten (Maartje)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractIn the Netherlands, 27% of the population is currently smoking. Nicotine is among the most addictive substances of abuse. Thirty-two percent of the people who tried smoking develop nicotine dependence within ten year. This percentage is higher for nicotine than for other substances of

  11. Nicotine analog inhibition of nicotine self-administration in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Neil E; Robertson, Kimberly; Soti, Ferenc; Kem, William R

    2008-09-01

    Partial agonists and antagonists of addictive drugs have been useful in the treatment of dependence. The purpose of this study is to determine whether nicotine analogs with partial agonist or antagonist properties at alpha4beta2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) inhibit self-administration of nicotine in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were trained to self-administer nicotine (unit dose 0.017 mg/kg) intravenously contingent upon the completion of five lever presses. Once stable responding was established, rats were administered test agents, either as a subcutaneous injection before the daily session or co-infused with nicotine. The number of nicotine injections taken per session was reduced to approximately 50% of baseline after either pre-treatment with the broad spectrum nicotinic receptor antagonist, mecamylamine, or by substituting saline for nicotine (extinction). 4'-Trans-methyl-nicotine, a strong partial agonist, inhibited nicotine self-administration and substituted for nicotine to support self-administration. Partial agonists, prepared by substitution at the 1'-N-position with either ethyl or cyclopropylmethyl moieties, potently inhibited self-administration. Antagonists formed by 5'-methyl substitution also inhibited self-administration, with the 5'-trans-methyl enantiomer about ten times more potent than the 5'-cis-methyl enantiomer. In contrast, antagonists formed by aryl substitution at the 5 position of the pyridyl ring of nicotine did not inhibit self-administration. Intravenous co-infusions had similar effects to the pre-injections. In most instances, doses of the analogs that reduced nicotine self-administration had no effect on food intake when measured using a similar FR5 protocol. Nicotine analogs with alpha4beta2 nAChR partial agonist and antagonist efficacies can inhibit self-administration and may be considered as prototypical smoking-cessation agents.

  12. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 486: Double Tracks RADSAFE Area Nellis Air Force Range, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. H. Cox

    2000-12-01

    The Double Tracks Radiological Safety Area (DTRSA), Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 486, was clean-closed following the approved Corrective Action Decision Document closure alternative and in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. The CAU consists of a single Corrective Action Site, 71-23-001-71DT. The DTRSA was used during May 1963 to decontaminate vehicles, equipment, personnel and animals from the Double Tracks Test. Double Tracks was one of four storage-transportation tests. The Double Tracks test was conducted in Stonewall Flat, approximately 32 kilometers (20 miles) east of Goldfield, Nevada, on the Nellis Air Force Range. The Double Tracks Test used a single device containing plutonium and depleted uranium and was designed to investigate the characteristics of plutonium-bearing particulate material formed by the non-nuclear detonation of a nuclear weapon. All facilities associated with the DTRSA operation were removed. Based on available information, the areas of concern at the DTRSA consisted of a decon facility (vehicle decon pad and decon sump) in the southern half of the DTRSA, and a burial pit and former loading/unloading area located in the northern half of the DTRSA. Based on the results of the Corrective Action Investigation, radiological field screening detected elevated gamma and alpha readings on excavated plastic debris. Swipe surveys taken on the plastic debris detected removable alpha. No contaminants were detected above preliminary action levels in soil samples. The debris excavated during the corrective action investigation was not characterized. The clean-closure corrective action consisted of excavation, disposal, verification sampling, backfilling, and regrading. Field activities began on May 1, 2000, and ended on May 10, 2000. Soil that was associated with the radiologically contaminated man-made debris was placed into B-25 bins, moved to the designated waste management area where it was scanned, and hauled off

  13. Final Environmental Assessment for the Bridge Replacement and Scour Protection Measures at Avon Park Air Force Range, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    documented at the site or are known to occur at or near the project locations: Eastern indigo snake, (Drymarchon corais Avon Park Air Force Range...Eastem indigo snake (D1ymarchon corais couperi) The threatened eastem indigo snake (indigo snake) is a large snake which can reach lengths of up to

  14. BEHAVIORAL MECHANISMS UNDERLYING NICOTINE REINFORCEMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupprecht, Laura E.; Smith, Tracy T.; Schassburger, Rachel L.; Buffalari, Deanne M.; Sved, Alan F.; Donny, Eric C.

    2015-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is the leading cause of preventable deaths worldwide and nicotine, the primary psychoactive constituent in tobacco, drives sustained use. The behavioral actions of nicotine are complex and extend well beyond the actions of the drug as a primary reinforcer. Stimuli that are consistently paired with nicotine can, through associative learning, take on reinforcing properties as conditioned stimuli. These conditioned stimuli can then impact the rate and probability of behavior and even function as conditioning reinforcers that maintain behavior in the absence of nicotine. Nicotine can also act as a conditioned stimulus, predicting the delivery of other reinforcers, which may allow nicotine to acquire value as a conditioned reinforcer. These associative effects, establishing non-nicotine stimuli as conditioned stimuli with discriminative stimulus and conditioned reinforcing properties as well as establishing nicotine as a conditioned stimulus, are predicted by basic conditioning principles. However, nicotine can also act non-associatively. Nicotine directly enhances the reinforcing efficacy of other reinforcing stimuli in the environment, an effect that does not require a temporal or predictive relationship between nicotine and either the stimulus or the behavior. Hence, the reinforcing actions of nicotine stem both from the primary reinforcing actions of the drug (and the subsequent associative learning effects) as well as the reinforcement enhancement action of nicotine which is non-associative in nature. Gaining a better understanding of how nicotine impacts behavior will allow for maximally effective tobacco control efforts aimed at reducing the harm associated with tobacco use by reducing and/or treating its addictiveness. PMID:25638333

  15. Increasing EDV Range through Intelligent Cabin Air Handling Strategies: Annual Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leighton, Daniel [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Rugh, John [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of a Ford Focus Electric demonstrated that a split flow heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) system with rear recirculation ducts can reduce cabin heating loads by up to 57.4% relative to full fresh air usage under some conditions (steady state, four passengers, ambient temperature of -5 deg C). Simulations also showed that implementing a continuous recirculation fraction control system into the original equipment manufacturer (OEM) HVAC system can reduce cabin heating loads by up to 50.0% relative to full fresh air usage under some conditions (steady state, four passengers, ambient temperature of -5 deg C). Identified that continuous fractional recirculation control of the OEM system can provide significant energy savings for EVs at minimal additional cost, while a split flow HVAC system with rear recirculation ducts only provides minimal additional improvement at significant additional cost.

  16. Effect of nicotine and nicotinic receptors on anxiety and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picciotto, Marina R; Brunzell, Darlene H; Caldarone, Barbara J

    2002-07-02

    Nicotine has been shown to have effects on anxiety and depression in both human and animal studies. These studies suggest that nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) can modulate the function of pathways involved in stress response, anxiety and depression in the normal brain, and that smoking can result in alterations of anxiety level and mood. The effects of nicotine are complex however, and nicotine treatment can be either anxiolytic or anxiogenic depending on the anxiety model tested, the route of nicotine administration and the time course of administration. The paradoxical effects of nicotine on emotionality are likely due to the broad expression of nAChRs throughout the brain, the large number of nAChR subtypes that have been identified and the ability of nicotine treatment to both activate and desensitize nAChRs. Activation of nAChRs has been shown to modulate many systems associated with stress response including stress hormone pathways, monoaminergic transmission and release of classical neurotransmitters throughout the brain. Local administration studies in animals have identified brain areas that may be involved in the anxiogenic and anxiolytic actions of nicotine including the lateral septum, the dorsal raphe nuclei, the mesolimbic dopamine system and the hippocampus. The ensemble of studies to date suggest that under certain conditions nicotine can act as an anxiolytic and an antidepressant, but that following chronic use, adaptations to nicotine can occur resulting in increased anxiety and depression following withdrawal.

  17. Vitamin E Nicotinate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimbell R. Duncan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin E refers to a family of compounds that function as lipid-soluble antioxidants capable of preventing lipid peroxidation. Naturally occurring forms of vitamin E include tocopherols and tocotrienols. Vitamin E in dietary supplements and fortified foods is often an esterified form of α-tocopherol, the most common esters being acetate and succinate. The vitamin E esters are hydrolyzed and converted into free α-tocopherol prior to absorption in the intestinal tract. Because its functions are relevant to many chronic diseases, vitamin E has been extensively studied in respect to a variety of diseases as well as cosmetic applications. The forms of vitamin E most studied are natural α-tocopherol and the esters α-tocopheryl acetate and α-tocopheryl succinate. A small number of studies include or focus on another ester form, α-tocopheryl nicotinate, an ester of vitamin E and niacin. Some of these studies raise the possibility of differences in metabolism and in efficacy between vitamin E nicotinate and other forms of vitamin E. Recently, through metabolomics studies, we identified that α-tocopheryl nicotinate occurs endogenously in the heart and that its level is dramatically decreased in heart failure, indicating the possible biological importance of this vitamin E ester. Since knowledge about vitamin E nicotinate is not readily available in the literature, the purpose of this review is to summarize and evaluate published reports, specifically with respect to α-tocopheryl nicotinate with an emphasis on the differences from natural α-tocopherol or α-tocopheryl acetate.

  18. Use of Nicotine in Electronic Nicotine and Non-Nicotine Delivery Systems by US Adults, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Scott R; Kemp, Catherine B; Heath, J Wesley; Pechacek, Terry F; Eriksen, Michael P

    Nicotine in electronic nicotine and non-nicotine delivery systems (ENDS/ENNDS) may present a risk of harm to those with cardiovascular disease and the fetuses of pregnant women. We assessed the extent to which adult users of ENDS/ENNDS used these products with nicotine. We obtained data for this study from a national probability survey of 6051 US adults that was conducted in August and September 2015. Of 399 adult ENDS/ENNDS users who were current smokers, 337 (80.7%) used ENDS/ENNDS containing nicotine, whereas only 29 of 71 (36.9%) ENDS/ENNDS users who were never smokers used ENDS/ENNDS containing nicotine. Assessments of the population health impact of ENDS/ENNDS use among never smokers should take into account the extent to which use involves nicotine.

  19. Assessment of nicotine concentration in electronic nicotine delivery system (ENDS) liquids and precision of dosing to aerosol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosmider, Leon; Sobczak, Andrzej; Szołtysek-Bołdys, Izabela; Prokopowicz, Adam; Skórka, Agnieszka; Abdulafeez, Oluyadi; Koszowski, Bartosz

    2015-01-01

    Global use of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS; also called electronic cigarettes, e-cigarettes) has increased dramatically in recent years. However, due to the limited safety studies and growing concerns on the potential toxicity from long term use of ENDS, many national and international governments have employed regulatory measures to curtail its use. One of the most significant challenges regulators of ENDS encounter is the lack of quality standards to assess ENDS, e-liquid (solution used with ENDS which contain nicotine--a highly toxic and addictive substance), and amount of nicotine delivery to aerosol during ENDS use. Aims of the study were to (1) measure and compare nicotine concentration in e-liquids to values reported by manufacturers on packaging labels; (2) assess the precision of nicotine delivery from tank during aerosol formation. Methods: Nine popular Polish e-liquids (based on the market share data from October 2014) were purchased for the study. The labelled nicotine concentration for the selected e-liquids ranged between 11-25 mg/mL. All e-liquids were aerosolized in the laboratory using a smoking simulation machine (Palaczbot). Each e-liquid was aerosolized in a series of 6 consecutive bouts. A single bout consisted of 15 puffs with the following puff topography: 65 mL puff volume, 2.8 sec. puff duration, and 19 sec. interpuff interval. A total of 90 puffs were generated from each e-liquid. Nicotine content in the e-liquids and the aerosol generated were determined by gas chromatography with thermionic sensitive detection (GC-TSD). For seven of nine analyzed e-liquids, the difference between measured and manufacturer labeled nicotine concentration was less than 10%. Nicotine dose in aerosol per bout ranged between 0.77-1.49 mg (equivalent to one-half the nicotine a smoker inhales from a single combustible cigarette). Our analysis showed the high consistency between the labeled and measured nicotine concentration for popular on the

  20. Santa Rosa Island Final Range Environmental Assessment, Revision 1. Eglin Air Force Base, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    nvironmenfal Assessment. Santa Rosa island Reconslitution Tesi Capabilities. Apri11998. 37 U.S. Air Force. 1998c. Environmemal AssessmenT ji:Jr...Coastal Tesiing of 1he Shallow Water Assaul1 Breaching 38 {SABRE) and Dislributed Explosive Technology (DEl) s:vsrems. September 1998. 39 USAF. 1998d

  1. Long range transport of air pollutants in Europe and acid precipitation in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack Nordo

    1976-01-01

    Observations show that pollutants from large emission sources may cause significant air concentrations 500 to 1000 miles away. Very acid precipitation occurs in such periods. The scavenging is often intensified by the topography. Case studies will be presented, with special emphasis on acid precipitation in Scandinavia. Large scale dispersion models have been developed...

  2. The nicotinic cholinergic system function in the human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nees, Frauke

    2015-09-01

    Research on the nicotinic cholinergic system function in the brain was previously mainly derived from animal studies, yet, research in humans is growing. Up to date, findings allow significant advances on the understanding of nicotinic cholinergic effects on human cognition, emotion and behavior using a range of functional brain imaging approaches such as pharmacological functional magnetic resonance imaging or positron emission tomography. Studies provided insights across various mechanistic psychological domains using different tasks as well as at rest in both healthy individuals and patient populations, with so far partly mixed results reporting both enhancements and decrements of neural activity related to the nicotinic cholinergic system. Moreover, studies on the relation between brain structure and the nicotinic cholinergic system add important information in this context. The present review summarizes the current status of human brain imaging studies and presents the findings within a theoretical and clinical perspective as they may be useful not only for an advancement of the understanding of basic nicotinic cholinergic-related mechanisms, but also for the development and integration of psychological and pharmacological treatment approaches. Patterns of functional neuroanatomy and neural circuitry across various cognitive and emotional domains may be used as neuropsychological markers of mental disorders such as addiction, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson disease or schizophrenia, where nicotinic cholinergic system changes are characteristic. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'The Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor: From Molecular Biology to Cognition'. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Nicotine delivery from the refill liquid to the aerosol via high-power e-cigarette device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prévôt, Nathalie; de Oliveira, Fabien; Perinel-Ragey, Sophie; Basset, Thierry; Vergnon, Jean-Michel; Pourchez, Jérémie

    2017-06-01

    To offer an enhanced and well-controlled nicotine delivery from the refill liquid to the aerosol is a key point to adequately satisfy nicotine cravings using electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS). A recent high-power ENDS, exhibiting higher aerosol nicotine delivery than older technologies, was used. The particle size distribution was measured using a cascade impactor. The effects of the refill liquid composition on the nicotine content of each size-fraction in the submicron range were investigated. Nicotine was quantified by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. Particle size distribution of the airborne refill liquid and the aerosol nicotine demonstrated that the nicotine is equally distributed in droplets regardless of their size. Results also proved that the nicotine concentration in aerosol was significantly lower compared to un-puffed refill liquid. A part of the nicotine may be left in the ENDS upon depletion, and consequently a portion of the nicotine may not be transferred to the user. Thus, new generation high-power ENDS associated with propylene glycol/vegetable glycerin (PG/VG) based solvent were very efficient to generate carrier-droplets containing nicotine molecules with a constant concentration. Findings highlighted that a portion of the nicotine in the refill liquid may not be transferred to the user.

  4. Test Area C-62 Final Range Environmental Assessment at Eglin Air Force Base, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-05

    limiedAcoessArea r-, L-_J Ml ary Test Area 0 Cantonment Area c:.] Egltn AFB Reservation UrbaniZed Area Blast Noise - 62dB - 70dB Gulf of Mexico Affected...2013. Red-Cockaded Woodpecker Programmatic Biological Opinion, Eglin Air Force Base, NE Gulf of Mexico . Walton, Okaloosa, Santa Rosa Counties, Florida...Recreation The Proposed Action would not affect tourism and/or outdoor recreation. Addresses public ownership of natural areas for purposes of

  5. Environmental Assessment: Employment of the 2.75-Inch Rocket at Saylor Creek Air Force Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-01

    project would meet seven key objectives: • Improve and increase realistic combat training for A-10 attack pilots. • Satisfy an Air Combat Command (ACC...spp.) and kangaroo rats ( Dipodomys spp.) were also observed. Mountain cottontail (Sylvilagus nuttallii), black-tail jackrabbits (Lepus californicus...G5 S5 Ord’s Kangaroo Rat ( Dipodomys ordii ) 84 Heteromyidae G5 S5 Desert Woodrat (Neotoma lepida ) 17 Muridae G5 S4 Coyote (Canis latrans ) 39

  6. Chronic electronic cigarette exposure in mice induces features of COPD in a nicotine-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Arcos, Itsaso; Geraghty, Patrick; Baumlin, Nathalie; Campos, Michael; Dabo, Abdoulaye Jules; Jundi, Bakr; Cummins, Neville; Eden, Edward; Grosche, Astrid; Salathe, Matthias; Foronjy, Robert

    2016-12-01

    The use of electronic (e)-cigarettes is increasing rapidly, but their lung health effects are not established. Clinical studies examining the potential long-term impact of e-cigarette use on lung health will take decades. To address this gap in knowledge, this study investigated the effects of exposure to aerosolised nicotine-free and nicotine-containing e-cigarette fluid on mouse lungs and normal human airway epithelial cells. Mice were exposed to aerosolised phosphate-buffered saline, nicotine-free or nicotine-containing e-cigarette solution, 1-hour daily for 4 months. Normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells cultured at an air-liquid interface were exposed to e-cigarette vapours or nicotine solutions using a Vitrocell smoke exposure robot. Inhalation of nicotine-containing e-cigarettes increased airway hyper-reactivity, distal airspace enlargement, mucin production, cytokine and protease expression. Exposure to nicotine-free e-cigarettes did not affect these lung parameters. NHBE cells exposed to nicotine-containing e-cigarette vapour showed impaired ciliary beat frequency, airway surface liquid volume, cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator and ATP-stimulated K+ ion conductance and decreased expression of FOXJ1 and KCNMA1. Exposure of NHBE cells to nicotine for 5 days increased interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8 secretion. Exposure to inhaled nicotine-containing e-cigarette fluids triggered effects normally associated with the development of COPD including cytokine expression, airway hyper-reactivity and lung tissue destruction. These effects were nicotine-dependent both in the mouse lung and in human airway cells, suggesting that inhaled nicotine contributes to airway and lung disease in addition to its addictive properties. Thus, these findings highlight the potential dangers of nicotine inhalation during e-cigarette use. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  7. Nicotine and periodontal tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malhotra Ranjan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco use has been recognized to be a significant risk factor for the development and progression of periodontal disease. Its use is associated with increased pocket depths, loss of periodontal attachment, alveolar bone and a higher rate of tooth loss. Nicotine, a major component and most pharmacologically active agent in tobacco is likely to be a significant contributing factor for the exacerbation of periodontal diseases. Available literature suggests that nicotine affects gingival blood flow, cytokine production, neutrophil and other immune cell function; connective tissue turnover, which can be the possible mechanisms responsible for overall effects of tobacco on periodontal tissues. Inclusion of tobacco cessation as a part of periodontal therapy encourages dental professionals to become more active in tobacco cessation counseling. This will have far reaching positive effects on our patients′ oral and general health.

  8. Physical activity profile of 2014 FIFA World Cup players, with regard to different ranges of air temperature and relative humidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmura, Paweł; Konefał, Marek; Andrzejewski, Marcin; Kosowski, Jakub; Rokita, Andrzej; Chmura, Jan

    2017-04-01

    The present study attempts to assess changes in soccer players' physical activity profiles under the simultaneous influence of the different combinations of ambient temperature and relative humidity characterising matches of the 2014 FIFA World Cup hosted by Brazil. The study material consisted of observations of 340 players representing 32 national teams taking part in the tournament. The measured indices included total distances covered; distances covered with low, moderate, or high intensity; numbers of sprints performed, and peak running speeds achieved. The analysis was carried out using FIFA official match data from the Castrol Performance Index system. Ultimately, consideration was given to a combination of three air temperature ranges, i.e. below 22 °C, 22-28 °C, and above 28 °C; and two relative humidity ranges below 60 % and above 60 %. The greatest average distance recorded (10.54 ± 0.91 km) covered by players at an air temperature below 22 °C and a relative humidity below 60 %, while the shortest (9.83 ± 1.08 km) characterised the same air temperature range, but conditions of relative humidity above 60 % (p ≤ 0.001). Two-way ANOVA revealed significant differences (p ≤ 0.001) in numbers of sprints performed by players, depending on whether the air temperature range was below 22 °C (40.48 ± 11.17) or above 28 °C (30.72 ± 9.40), but only where the relative humidity was at the same time below 60 %. Results presented indicate that the conditions most comfortable for physical activity on the part of players occur at 22 °C, and with relative humidity under 60 %.

  9. Geothermal Potential of Marine Corps Air Station, Yuma, Arizona, and the Western Portion of Luke-Williams Gunnery Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    Domes in the Northern Part of the Gulf of California," in Symposia on the Cerro Prieto Geothermal Field, Baja California, Mexico, Comision Federal de...Laboratory, August 1979. LA-7953-MS. 22 pp. 10. J. de Boer. "Paleomagnetism of the Quaternary Cerro Prieto , Crater Elegante, and Salton Buttes Volcanic...NWC TP 6827 S Geothermal Potential of Marine Corps Air Station, Yuma, Arizona, and the Western Portion of Luke-Williams Gunnery Range by Steven C

  10. Physical activity profile of 2014 FIFA World Cup players, with regard to different ranges of air temperature and relative humidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmura, Paweł; Konefał, Marek; Andrzejewski, Marcin; Kosowski, Jakub; Rokita, Andrzej; Chmura, Jan

    2017-04-01

    The present study attempts to assess changes in soccer players' physical activity profiles under the simultaneous influence of the different combinations of ambient temperature and relative humidity characterising matches of the 2014 FIFA World Cup hosted by Brazil. The study material consisted of observations of 340 players representing 32 national teams taking part in the tournament. The measured indices included total distances covered; distances covered with low, moderate, or high intensity; numbers of sprints performed, and peak running speeds achieved. The analysis was carried out using FIFA official match data from the Castrol Performance Index system. Ultimately, consideration was given to a combination of three air temperature ranges, i.e. below 22 °C, 22-28 °C, and above 28 °C; and two relative humidity ranges below 60 % and above 60 %. The greatest average distance recorded (10.54 ± 0.91 km) covered by players at an air temperature below 22 °C and a relative humidity below 60 %, while the shortest (9.83 ± 1.08 km) characterised the same air temperature range, but conditions of relative humidity above 60 % ( p ≤ 0.001). Two-way ANOVA revealed significant differences ( p ≤ 0.001) in numbers of sprints performed by players, depending on whether the air temperature range was below 22 °C (40.48 ± 11.17) or above 28 °C (30.72 ± 9.40), but only where the relative humidity was at the same time below 60 %. Results presented indicate that the conditions most comfortable for physical activity on the part of players occur at 22 °C, and with relative humidity under 60 %.

  11. High resolution kilometric range optical telemetry in air by radio frequency phase measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillory, Joffray; García-Márquez, Jorge; Truong, Daniel; Wallerand, Jean-Pierre [Laboratoire Commun de Métrologie LNE-Cnam (LCM), LNE, 1 rue Gaston Boissier, 75015 Paris (France); Šmíd, Radek [Laboratoire Commun de Métrologie LNE-Cnam (LCM), LNE, 1 rue Gaston Boissier, 75015 Paris (France); Institute of Scientific Instruments of the CAS, Kralovopolska 147, 612 64 Brno (Czech Republic); Alexandre, Christophe [Centre d’Études et de Recherche en Informatique et Communications (CEDRIC), Cnam, 292 rue St-Martin, 75003 Paris (France)

    2016-07-15

    We have developed an optical Absolute Distance Meter (ADM) based on the measurement of the phase accumulated by a Radio Frequency wave during its propagation in the air by a laser beam. In this article, the ADM principle will be described and the main results will be presented. In particular, we will emphasize how the choice of an appropriate photodetector can significantly improve the telemeter performances by minimizing the amplitude to phase conversion. Our prototype, tested in the field, has proven its efficiency with a resolution better than 15 μm for a measurement time of 10 ms and distances up to 1.2 km.

  12. Nicotinic receptors, memory, and hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutlu, Munir Gunes; Gould, Thomas J

    2015-01-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) modulate the neurobiological processes underlying hippocampal learning and memory. In addition, nicotine's ability to desensitize and upregulate certain nAChRs may alter hippocampus-dependent memory processes. Numerous studies have examined the effects of nicotine on hippocampus-dependent learning, as well as the roles of low- and high-affinity nAChRs in mediating nicotine's effects on hippocampus-dependent learning and memory. These studies suggested that while acute nicotine generally acts as a cognitive enhancer for hippocampus-dependent learning, withdrawal from chronic nicotine results in deficits in hippocampus-dependent memory. Furthermore, these studies demonstrated that low- and high-affinity nAChRs functionally differ in their involvement in nicotine's effects on hippocampus-dependent learning. In the present chapter, we reviewed studies using systemic or local injections of acute or chronic nicotine, nAChR subunit agonists or antagonists; genetically modified mice; and molecular biological techniques to characterize the effects of nicotine on hippocampus-dependent learning.

  13. Sex differences in nicotine preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogun, Sakire; Yararbas, Gorkem; Nesil, Tanseli; Kanit, Lutfiye

    2017-01-02

    Smoking is the major cause of preventable deaths worldwide, and although there is a decline in overall smoking prevalence in developed countries, the decline in women is less pronounced than in men. Women become dependent faster and experience greater difficulties in quitting. Similar trends have been observed in animal models of nicotine/tobacco addiction. Individual differences in vulnerability to drug abuse are also observed in nicotine/tobacco addiction and point to the importance of sex differences. This Review, summarizes findings from three experimental approaches used to depict nicotine preference in animal models, intravenous and oral nicotine self-administration and nicotine-induced conditioned place preference. Nicotine preference is considered to be reflected in the animal's motivation to administer the drug (intravenously or orally) or to prefer an environment paired with the presence of the drug (conditioned place preference). These approaches all point to the importance of sex and age of the subjects; the preference of females and adolescents appear to be more pronounced than that of males and adults, respectively. A closer look at these factors will help us understand the mechanisms that underlie nicotine addiction and develop strategies to cope. Ignoring sex differences and reaching conclusions based only on studies using male subjects has resulted in erroneous generalizations in the past. Sex differences in nicotine preference have been clearly documented, and awareness on this aspect of nicotine dependence will significantly impact our success in translational research. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Exhaled air analysis using wideband wave number tuning range infrared laser photoacoustic spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kistenev, Yury V; Borisov, Alexey V; Kuzmin, Dmitry A; Penkova, Olga V; Kostyukova, Nadezhda Y; Karapuzikov, Alexey A

    2017-01-01

    The infrared laser photoacoustic spectroscopy (LPAS) and the pattern-recognition-based approach for noninvasive express diagnostics of pulmonary diseases on the basis of absorption spectra analysis of the patient’s exhaled air are presented. The study involved lung cancer patients ( N = 9 ), patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease ( N = 12 ), and a control group of healthy, nonsmoking volunteers ( N = 11 ). The analysis of the measured absorption spectra was based at first on reduction of the dimension of the feature space using principal component analysis; thereafter, the dichotomous classification was carried out using the support vector machine. The gas chromatography–mass spectrometry method (GC–MS) was used as the reference. The estimated mean value of the sensitivity of exhaled air sample analysis by the LPAS in dichotomous classification was not less than 90% and specificity was not less than 69%; the analogous results of analysis by GC–MS were 68% and 60%, respectively. Also, the approach to differential diagnostics based on the set of SVM classifiers usage is presented.

  15. Nicotine Dependence, Nicotine Metabolism, and the Extent of Compensation in Response to Reduced Nicotine Content Cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandiera, Frank C; Ross, Kathryn C; Taghavi, Seyedehtaraneh; Delucchi, Kevin; Tyndale, Rachel F; Benowitz, Neal L

    2015-09-01

    The Food and Drug Administration has the authority to regulate tobacco product constituents, including nicotine, to promote public health. Reducing the nicotine content in cigarettes may lead to lower levels of addiction. Smokers however may compensate by smoking more cigarettes and/or smoking more intensely. The objective of this study was to test whether individual differences in the level of nicotine dependence (as measured by the Fagerstrom Test of Cigarette Dependence [FTCD]) and/or the rate of nicotine metabolism influence smoking behavior and exposure to tobacco toxicants when smokers are switched to reduced nicotine content cigarettes (RNC). Data from 51 participants from a previously published clinical trial of RNC were analyzed. Nicotine content of cigarettes was progressively reduced over 6 months and measures of smoking behavior, as well as nicotine metabolites and tobacco smoke toxicant exposure, CYP2A6 and nicotinic CHRNA5-A3-B4 (rs1051730) genotype were measured. Higher baseline FTCD predicted smoking more cigarettes per day (CPD), higher cotinine and smoke toxicant levels while smoking RNC throughout the study, with no interaction by RNC level. Time to first cigarette (TFC) was associated with differences in compensation. TFC within 10 min was associated with a greater increase in CPD compared to TFC greater than 10 min. Neither rate of nicotine metabolism, nor CYP2A6 or nicotinic receptor genotype, had an effect on the outcome variables of interest. FTCD is associated with overall exposure to nicotine and other constituents of tobacco smoke, while a short TFC is associated with an increased compensatory response after switching to RNC. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Nicotine Analysis in Several Non-Tobacco Plant Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moldoveanu Serban C.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Present study describes the determination of nicotine in various plant samples with a low content of this compound. Nicotine is found naturally in plants from the Solanaceae family. The plants from Nicotiana genus contain large levels of nicotine. However, only low levels are present in plants from Solanum genus including potato, tomato, eggplant, and from Capsicum genus, which are used as food. Because the levels of nicotine in these materials are in the range of parts per billion, the measurements are difficult and the results are very different from study to study. The present study evaluated the level of nicotine in a number of plants (fruits, roots, leaves, tubers from Solanaceae family (not including Nicotiana genus and from several other vegetables commonly used as food. The analysis consisted of the treatment of plant material with an aqueous solution 5% NaOH at 70°C for 30 min, followed by extraction with TBME containing d3-nicotine as an internal standard. The TBME organic layer was analyzed on a 7890B/7000C GC-MS/MS system with a 30 m × 0.25 mm, 0.25 μm film CAM column. The MS/MS system worked in MRM positive ionization mode monitoring the transition 162 - 84 for nicotine and 165 - 87 for d3-nicotine. Particular attention was given to the preservation of the intact levels of nicotine in the plant material. The plant material was analyzed as is, without drying and with minimal exposure to contaminations. Separately, the moisture of the plant material was measured in order to report the nicotine level on a dry-basis. Levels of nicotine around 180 ng/g dry material were obtained for tomatoes and eggplant (fruit and lower levels were obtained for green pepper and potato. Similar levels to that in the tomato fruit were detected in tomato leaves. Materials from other plant families also showed traces of nicotine. [Beitr. Tabakforsch. Int. 27 (2016 54-59

  17. Late Paleozoic transpression in Buenos Aires and northeast Patagonia ranges, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossello, E. A.; Massabie, A. C.; López-Gamundí, O. R.; Cobbold, P. R.; Gapais, D.

    1997-12-01

    Paleozoic sediments are present in three regions in eastern central Argentina: (1) the Sierras Australes of Buenos Aires, (2) Sierras Septentrionales of Buenos Aires and (3) Northeast Patagonia. All of these deposits share a common deformational imprint imparted by late Paleozoic Gondwanan deformation. Exposures of these rocks are scattered, variably deformed, and isolated by younger sediments deposited in basins related to the Mesozoic through Tertiary opening of the South Atlantic such as the offshore Colorado Basin. The Sierras Australes of Buenos Aires outcrops are the best preserved. They are mostly located along the Sierras Australes foldbelt, with minor outliers distributed in the adjacent Claromec-basin. The Tunas Formation (early-early late? Permian) is the uppermost unit of the Pillahuincó Group (late Carboniferous-Permian) and is crucial to the understanding of the tectono-sedimentary evolution of the region during the late Paleozoic. The underlying units of the Pillahuincó Group (Sauce Grande, Piedra Azul and Bonete Formations) exhibit a depositional and compositional history characterized by glaciomarine sedimentation and postglacial transgression. They are also characterized by rather uniform quartz-rich compositions indicative of a cratonic provenance from the La Plata craton to the NE. In contrast, the sandstone-rich Tunas Formation has low quartz contents, and abundant volcanic and metasedimentary fragments; paleocurrents are consistently from the SW. Glassrich tuffs are interbedded with sandstone in the upper half of the Tunas Formation. The age of the deformation in the Sierras Australes is Permian and early-middle Triassic. This is based on metamorphic events indicated by formation of illite at 282 ± 3 Ma, 273 ± 8 Ma, 265 ± 3 Ma, and 260 ± 3 Ma ( {K}/{Ar} illite) in the Silurian Curamalal Group. Evidence of syntectonic magmatism is provided by a radiometric date of 245 ± 12 Ma ( {K}/{Ar} hornblende) for the López Lecube Granite

  18. Detection of regional air pollution episodes utilizing satellite data in the visual range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowley, C. J.; Burke, H. K.; Barnes, J. C.

    1981-01-01

    A comparative analysis of satellite-observed haze patterns and ground-based aerosol measurements is carried out for July 20-23, 1978. During this period, a significant regional air pollution episode existed across the northeastern United States, accompanied by widespread haze, reduced surface visibility, and elevated sulfate levels measured by the Sulfate Regional Experiment (SURE) network. The results show that the satellite-observed haze patterns correlate closely with the area of reported low surface visibility (less than 4 mi) and high sulfate levels. Quantitative information on total aerosol loading derived from the satellite-digitized data, using an atmospheric radiative transfer model, agrees well with the results obtained from the ground-based measurements.

  19. Air-suspended TiO2-based HCG reflectors for visible spectral range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, Ehsan; Bengtsson, Jörgen; Gustavsson, Johan; Carlsson, Stefan; Rossbach, Georg; Haglund, Åsa

    2015-02-01

    For GaN-based microcavity light emitters, such as vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) and resonant cavity light emitting diodes (RCLEDs) in the blue-green wavelength regime, achieving a high reflectivity wide bandwidth feedback mirror is truly challenging. The material properties of the III-nitride alloys are hardly compatible with the conventional distributed Bragg reflectors (DBRs) and the newly proposed high-contrast gratings (HCGs). Alternatively, at least for the top outcoupling mirror, dielectric materials offer more suitable material combinations not only for the DBRs but also for the HCGs. HCGs may offer advantages such as transverse mode and polarization control, a broader reflectivity spectrum than epitaxially grown DBRs, and the possibility to set the resonance wavelength after epitaxial growth by the grating parameters. In this work we have realized an air-suspended TiO2 grating with the help of a SiO2 sacrificial layer. The deposition processes for the dielectric layers were fine-tuned to minimize the residual stress. To achieve an accurate control of the grating duty cycle, a newly developed lift-off process, using hydrogen silesquioxan (HSQ) and sacrificial polymethyl-methacrylate (PMMA) resists, was applied to deposit the hard mask, providing sub-10 nm resolution. The finally obtained TiO2/air HCGs were characterized in a micro-reflectance measurement setup. A peak power reflectivity in excess of 95% was achieved for TM polarization at the center wavelength of 435 nm, with a reflectivity stopband width of about 80 nm (FWHM). The measured HCG reflectance spectra were compared to corresponding simulations obtained from rigorous coupled-wave analysis and very good agreement was found.

  20. Conditioned Place Preference and Self-Administration Induced by Nicotine in Adolescent and Adult Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Ahsan, Hafiz Muhammad; de la Peña, June Bryan I.; Botanas, Chrislean Jun; Kim, Hee Jin; Yu, Gu Yong; Cheong, Jae Hoon

    2014-01-01

    Nicotine addiction is a worldwide problem. However, previous studies characterizing the rewarding and reinforcing effects of nicotine in animal models have reported inconsistent findings. It was observed that the addictive effects are variable on different factors (e.g. route, dose, and age). Here, we evaluated the rewarding and reinforcing effects of nicotine in different routes of administration, across a wide dose range, and in different age groups. Two of the most widely used animal model...

  1. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 486: Double Tracks RADSAFE Area, Nellis Air Force Range, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ITLV

    1999-07-12

    This Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 486, Double Tracks Radiological Safety (RADSAFE) Area (DTRSA) in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) of 1996 that was agreed to by the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV); the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP); and the U.S Department of Defense (FFACO, 1996). The CADD provides or references the specific information necessary to recommend a preferred corrective action for the single Corrective Action Site (CAS), 71-23-001-71DT, within CAU 486. Corrective Action Unit 486 is located on the Nellis Air Force Range 71 North, west of the Tonopah Test Range (TTR), Nevada. The TTR, located in the Nellis Air Force Range, is approximately 140 miles (mi) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada (Figure 1-1). The DTRSA is located on the west side of the Cactus Range approximately 5 mi southwest of the Cactus Spring gate at the intersection of the Cactus Spring Road and the Double Tracks Control Point Road (Figure 1-2).

  2. Aerosol optical extinction during the Front Range Air Pollution and Photochemistry Éxperiment (FRAPPÉ) 2014 summertime field campaign, Colorado, USA

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Justin H Dingle; Eric C Apel; Teresa L Campos; Alan J Hills; Rebecca S Hornbrook; Denise D Montzka; John B Nowak; Joseph R Roscioli

    2016-01-01

      Summertime aerosol optical extinction (βext) was measured in the Colorado Front Range and Denver metropolitan area as part of the Front Range Air Pollution and Photochemistry Éxperiment (FRAPPÉ...

  3. Final Environmental Assessment for the Joint Integrated Fires Exercise at Avon Park Air Force Range, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-04-01

    for condition using Range Sites of Florida (Mullahey et.al. 2002). FP9 entails a marsh to the south of it. It is in good condition. FPs 11 and 12...encompassed by the FP9 -11. This species exist in fire driven ecosystems and are not adversely impacted by mission-created fires. 4.9.2 Pigeonwing

  4. Relationship Between Mainstream Cigarette Smoke “Tar” and Nicotine Yields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morton MJ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to examine the relationship between mainstream “tar” and nicotine yields and refine the commonly used linear model with a positive intercept to incorporate non-linearity and product-toproduct differences in filler nicotine content. “Tar” and nicotine yields are examined for a wide range of cigarettes (U.S. and international using the Cambridge filter (CF, ISO, and the more intense MDPH, and HC smoking methods. Particularly at very low machine yields, a nonlinearity is observed that can be more accurately modeled by a power law relationship, and can be further improved by incorporating the concentration of nicotine in the cigarette filler into the equation. The resultant power law relationship is the better statistical fit to the available data, avoids the physical implausibility of positive nicotine yield at zero “tar” yield and lack of dependence on filler nicotine that are inherent in the simple linear model relating nicotine yield to “tar” yield alone, and explains the nonconstancy of the “tar”-to-nicotine ratio. The relationship between “tar” and nicotine can be affected by the use of very long or very short puff intervals, and, with the same tobacco blend and the same “tar” yield, longer cigarettes tend to have a slightly higher nicotine yield than shorter cigarettes.

  5. Assessment of nicotine for second hand smoke exposure in some public places in Romania by UPLC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratan, Alina; Mincea, Manuela Maria; Lupşa, Ioana-Rodica; Pirtea, Marilen-Gabriel; Ostafe, Vasile

    2014-01-01

    Air nicotine monitoring is a well-known procedure for estimation of exposure to second hand smoke. Few research studies were realized in Romania to evaluate environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure of humans in different public places. The levels of airborne nicotine from environmental tobacco smoke and urinary cotinine and nicotine levels of some subjects were analyzed. In order to better implement/enforce the European legislation regarding the interdiction of smoking in the public places the national authorities need a rapid and reliable analytical method to quickly asses the state of the pollution with cigarette smoke of these populated areas. The nicotine concentration in the air from different types of public buildings was determined. The median concentration of nicotine in the air from 32 pubs where the smoking was allowed was 590 ng · L(-1), comparing with the pubs where the smoking was not permitted (22 locations) where the median concentration of nicotine was only 32 ng · L(-1). Similarly, the median concentration of nicotine in restaurants where the smoking was allowed (23 locations) was 510 ng · L(-1), in comparison with the restaurants where the smoking was prohibited (11 places) where the median value was 19 ng · L(-1). The lowest concentrations of nicotine were found in high schools (8 locations, median concentration 7.4 ng · L(-1)), universities (5 locations, 23 ng · L(-1)) and hospitals (6 locations, 16 ng · L(-1)). The method was validated and gave good linearity, precision, accuracy and limit of detection. The buildings included hospitals, high schools, universities, pubs and restaurants. The presence of air nicotine was recorded in all buildings studied. The highest median levels of air nicotine were found in pubs and restaurants. The presence of air nicotine in indoor public buildings indicates weak implementation of the smoke free law in Romania.

  6. Integrated arrays of air-dielectric graphene transistors as transparent active-matrix pressure sensors for wide pressure ranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sung-Ho; Ji, Sangyoon; Choi, Seiho; Pyo, Kyoung-Hee; Wan An, Byeong; Park, Jihun; Kim, Joohee; Kim, Ju-Young; Lee, Ki-Suk; Kwon, Soon-Yong; Heo, Jaeyeong; Park, Byong-Guk; Park, Jang-Ung

    2017-03-01

    Integrated electronic circuitries with pressure sensors have been extensively researched as a key component for emerging electronics applications such as electronic skins and health-monitoring devices. Although existing pressure sensors display high sensitivities, they can only be used for specific purposes due to the narrow range of detectable pressure (under tens of kPa) and the difficulty of forming highly integrated arrays. However, it is essential to develop tactile pressure sensors with a wide pressure range in order to use them for diverse application areas including medical diagnosis, robotics or automotive electronics. Here we report an unconventional approach for fabricating fully integrated active-matrix arrays of pressure-sensitive graphene transistors with air-dielectric layers simply formed by folding two opposing panels. Furthermore, this realizes a wide tactile pressure sensing range from 250 Pa to ~3 MPa. Additionally, fabrication of pressure sensor arrays and transparent pressure sensors are demonstrated, suggesting their substantial promise as next-generation electronics.

  7. Statistical Short-Range Guidance for Peak Wind Speed Forecasts at Edwards Air Force Base, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreher, Joseph G.; Crawford, Winifred; Lafosse, Richard; Hoeth, Brian; Burns, Kerry

    2009-01-01

    The peak winds near the surface are an important forecast element for space shuttle landings. As defined in the Flight Rules (FR), there are peak wind thresholds that cannot be exceeded in order to ensure the safety of the shuttle during landing operations. The National Weather Service Spaceflight Meteorology Group (SMG) is responsible for weather forecasts for all shuttle landings, and is required to issue surface average and 10-minute peak wind speed forecasts. They indicate peak winds are a challenging parameter to forecast. To alleviate the difficulty in making such wind forecasts, the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) developed a PC-based graphical user interface (GUI) for displaying peak wind climatology and probabilities of exceeding peak wind thresholds for the Shuttle Landing Facility (SLF) at Kennedy Space Center (KSC; Lambert 2003). However, the shuttle occasionally may land at Edwards Air Force Base (EAFB) in southern California when weather conditions at KSC in Florida are not acceptable, so SMG forecasters requested a similar tool be developed for EAFB.

  8. 33 CFR 334.680 - Gulf of Mexico, southeast of St. Andrew Bay East Entrance, small-arms firing range, Tyndall Air...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Gulf of Mexico, southeast of St. Andrew Bay East Entrance, small-arms firing range, Tyndall Air Force Base, Fla. 334.680 Section 334.680..., small-arms firing range, Tyndall Air Force Base, Fla. (a) The danger zones—(1) Area No. 1. The waters of...

  9. Final Environmental Assessment for Utilization Enhancements at Melrose Air Force Range, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    the range (USAF 2011). The semi - arid climate of the region contributes to the development of alluvium and thin topsoils with low organic content...the Effects of Climate Change and Greenhouse Gas Emissions, which suggests that 25,000 metric tpy of CO2-equivalent is a meaningful reference point...facilities to take into account soil limitations, employing construction and stabilization techniques appropriate for the soils and climate , and

  10. The psychobiology of nicotine dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. J. K. Balfour

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available There is abundant evidence to show that nicotine is the principal addictive component of tobacco smoke. The results of laboratory studies have shown that nicotine has many of the behavioural and neurobiological properties of a drug of dependence. This article focuses on the evidence that nicotine has the rewarding and reinforcing properties typical of an addictive drug and that these properties are mediated, in part, by its effects on mesolimbic dopamine neurones. However, in many experimental models of dependence, nicotine has relatively weak reinforcing properties that do not appear to explain adequately the powerful addiction to tobacco smoke experienced by many habitual smokers. Some of the reasons for this conundrum will be covered herein. This article focuses on the hypothesis that sensory stimuli and other pharmacologically active components in tobacco smoke play a pivotal role in the addiction to nicotine when it is inhaled in tobacco smoke. The article will discuss the evidence that dependence upon tobacco smoke reflects a complex interaction between nicotine and the components of the smoke, which are mediated by complementary effects of nicotine on the dopamine projections to the shell and core subdivisions of the accumbens. It will also discuss the extent to which the complexity of the dependence explains why nicotine replacement therapy does not provide a completely satisfying aid to smoking cessation and speculate on the properties treatments should exhibit if they are to provide a better treatment for tobacco dependence than those currently available.

  11. Hydrologic transport of depleted uranium associated with open air dynamic range testing at Los Alamos National Laboratory, New Mexico, and Eglin Air Force Base, Florida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, N.M. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Vanta, E.B. [Wright Laboratory Armament Directorate, Eglin Air Force Base, FL (United States)

    1995-05-01

    Hydrologic investigations on depleted uranium fate and transport associated with dynamic testing activities were instituted in the 1980`s at Los Alamos National Laboratory and Eglin Air Force Base. At Los Alamos, extensive field watershed investigations of soil, sediment, and especially runoff water were conducted. Eglin conducted field investigations and runoff studies similar to those at Los Alamos at former and active test ranges. Laboratory experiments complemented the field investigations at both installations. Mass balance calculations were performed to quantify the mass of expended uranium which had transported away from firing sites. At Los Alamos, it is estimated that more than 90 percent of the uranium still remains in close proximity to firing sites, which has been corroborated by independent calculations. At Eglin, we estimate that 90 to 95 percent of the uranium remains at test ranges. These data demonstrate that uranium moves slowly via surface water, in both semi-arid (Los Alamos) and humid (Eglin) environments.

  12. Determination of nicotine and nicotine metabolites in urine by hydrophilic interaction chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry: Potential use of smokeless tobacco products by ice hockey players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marclay, François; Saugy, Martial

    2010-11-26

    Consumption of nicotine in the form of smokeless tobacco (snus, snuff, chewing tobacco) or nicotine-containing medication (gum, patch) may benefit sport practice. Indeed, use of snus seems to be a growing trend and investigating nicotine consumption amongst professional athletes is of major interest to sport authorities. Thus, a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for the detection and quantification of nicotine and its principal metabolites cotinine, trans-3-hydroxycotinine, nicotine-N'-oxide and cotinine-N-oxide in urine was developed. Sample preparation was performed by liquid-liquid extraction followed by hydrophilic interaction chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HILIC-MS/MS) operated in electrospray positive ionization (ESI) mode with selective reaction monitoring (SRM) data acquisition. The method was validated and calibration curves were linear over the selected concentration ranges of 10-10,000 ng/mL for nicotine, cotinine, trans-3-hydroxycotinine and 10-5000 ng/mL for nicotine-N'-oxide and cotinine-N-oxide, with calculated coefficients of determination (R(2)) greater than 0.95. The total extraction efficiency (%) was concentration dependent and ranged between 70.4 and 100.4%. The lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) for all analytes was 10 ng/mL. Repeatability and intermediate precision were ≤9.4 and ≤9.9%, respectively. In order to measure the prevalence of nicotine exposure during the 2009 Ice Hockey World Championships, 72 samples were collected and analyzed after the minimum of 3 months storage period and complete removal of identification means as required by the 2009 International Standards for Laboratories (ISL). Nicotine and/or metabolites were detected in every urine sample, while concentration measurements indicated an exposure within the last 3 days for eight specimens out of ten. Concentrations of nicotine, cotinine, trans-3-hydroxycotinine, nicotine-N'-oxide and cotinine-N-oxide were found to range

  13. First Results of Using a UVTron Flame Sensor to Detect Alpha-Induced Air Fluorescence in the UVC Wavelength Range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita J. Crompton

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a robust stand-off alpha detection method using the secondary effects of alpha radiation has been sought. Alpha particles ionise the surrounding atmosphere as they travel. Fluorescence photons produced as a consequence of this can be used to detect the source of the alpha emissions. This paper details experiments carried out to detect this fluorescence, with the focus on photons in the ultraviolet C (UVC wavelength range (180–280 nm. A detector, UVTron R9533 (Hamamatsu, 325-6, Sunayama-cho, Naka-ku, Hamamatsu City, Shizuoka Pref., 430-8587, Japan, designed to detect the UVC emissions from flames for fire alarm purposes, was tested in various gas atmospheres with a 210Po alpha source to determine if this could provide an avenue for stand-off alpha detection. The results of the experiments show that this detector is capable of detecting alpha-induced air fluorescence in normal indoor lighting conditions, as the interference from daylight and artificial lighting is less influential on this detection system which operates below the UVA and UVB wavelength ranges (280–315 nm and 315–380 nm respectively. Assuming a standard 1 r 2 drop off in signal, the limit of detection in this configuration can be calculated to be approximately 240 mm, well beyond the range of alpha-particles in air, which indicates that this approach could have potential for stand-off alpha detection. The gas atmospheres tested produced an increase in the detector count, with xenon having the greatest effect with a measured 52% increase in the detector response in comparison to the detector response in an air atmosphere. This type of alpha detection system could be operated at a distance, where it would potentially provide a more cost effective, safer, and faster solution in comparison with traditional alpha detection methods to detect and characterise alpha contamination in nuclear decommissioning and security applications.

  14. Air Monitoring Network at Tonopah Test Range: Network Description, Capabilities, and Analytical Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartwell, William T.; Daniels, Jeffrey; Nikolich, George; Shadel, Craig; Giles, Ken; Karr, Lynn; Kluesner, Tammy

    2012-01-01

    During the period April to June 2008, at the behest of the Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration, Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO); the Desert Research Institute (DRI) constructed and deployed two portable environmental monitoring stations at the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) as part of the Environmental Restoration Project Soils Activity. DRI has operated these stations since that time. A third station was deployed in the period May to September 2011. The TTR is located within the northwest corner of the Nevada Test and Training Range (NTTR), and covers an area of approximately 725.20 km2 (280 mi2). The primary objective of the monitoring stations is to evaluate whether and under what conditions there is wind transport of radiological contaminants from Soils Corrective Action Units (CAUs) associated with Operation Roller Coaster on TTR. Operation Roller Coaster was a series of tests, conducted in 1963, designed to examine the stability and dispersal of plutonium in storage and transportation accidents. These tests did not result in any nuclear explosive yield. However, the tests did result in the dispersal of plutonium and contamination of surface soils in the surrounding area.

  15. Nicotine content of electronic cigarettes, its release in vapour and its consistency across batches: regulatory implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goniewicz, Maciej L; Hajek, Peter; McRobbie, Hayden

    2014-03-01

    Electronic cigarettes (EC) may have a potential for public health benefit as a safer alternative to smoking, but questions have been raised about whether EC should be licensed as a medicine, with accurate labelling of nicotine content. This study determined the nicotine content of the cartridges of the most popular EC brands in the United Kingdom and the nicotine levels they deliver in the vapour, and estimated the safety and consistency of nicotine delivery across batches of the same product as a proxy for quality control for individual brands and within the industry. We studied five UK brands (six products) with high internet popularity. Two samples of each brand were purchased 4 weeks apart, and analysed for nicotine content in the cartridges and nicotine delivery in vapour. The nicotine content of cartridges within the same batch varied by up to 12% relative standard deviation (RSD) and the mean difference between different batches of the same brand ranged from 1% [95% confidence interval (CI) = -5 to 7%] to 20% (95% CI=14-25%) for five brands and 31% (95% CI=21-39%) for the sixth. The puffing schedule used in this study vaporized 10-81% of the nicotine present in the cartridges. The nicotine delivery from 300 puffs ranged from ∼2 mg to ∼15 mg and was not related significantly to the variation of nicotine content in e-liquid (r=0.06, P=0.92). None of the tested products allowed access to e-liquid or produced vapour nicotine concentrations as high as conventional cigarettes. There is very little risk of nicotine toxicity from major electronic cigarette (EC) brands in the United Kingdom. Variation in nicotine concentration in the vapour from a given brand is low. Nicotine concentration in e-liquid is not well related to nicotine in vapour. Other EC brands may be of lower quality and consumer protection regulation needs to be implemented, but in terms of accuracy of labelling of nicotine content and risks of nicotine overdose, regulation over and above

  16. Basis to demonstrate compliance with the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for the Stand-off Experiments Range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Sandvig

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide the basis and the documentation to demonstrate general compliance with the National Emission Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPS) 40 CFR 61 Subpart H, “National Emission Standards for Emissions of Radionuclides Other Than Radon from Department of Energy Facilities,” (the Standard) for outdoor linear accelerator operations at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Stand-off Experiments Range (SOX). The intent of this report is to inform and gain acceptance of this methodology from the governmental bodies regulating the INL.

  17. Nicotine quantity and packaging disclosure in smoked and smokeless tobacco products in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Priyamvada; Murthy, Pratima; Shivhare, Parul

    2015-01-01

    A variety of smoked and smokeless tobacco products with varying nicotine content are accessible in India. Nicotine quantity in tobacco products has direct bearing on tobacco dependence. Our objective was to estimate nicotine content in various types of smoked and smokeless products. Disclosure for essential health warning was also checked. Liquid-liquid extraction was used for nicotine extraction and high-performance thin layer chromatography technique was applied for quantification of nicotine in seventy-one smoked and smokeless tobacco products. Significant variation in nicotine content was observed across products. In smoked tobacco, nicotine content varied from 1.01 to 13.0 mg/rod, while in smokeless tobacco products it ranged from 0.8 mg/g to 50.0 mg/g. Moisture content varied from 9% to 21%. This work lists a range of smoked and smokeless tobacco products available in this region. We report a wide variability in nicotine quantity across smoked and smokeless tobacco products. Such variation in nicotine content may have important implications for tobacco cessation interventions and policies.

  18. Reactive nitrogen in Rocky Mountain National Park during the Front Range Air Pollution and Photochemistry Experiment (FRAPPÉ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prenni, A. J.; Benedict, K. B.; Evanoski-Cole, A. R.; Zhou, Y.; Sullivan, A.; Day, D.; Sive, B. C.; Zondlo, M. A.; Schichtel, B. A.; Vimont, J.; Collett, J. L., Jr.

    2014-12-01

    The Front Range Air Pollution and Photochemistry Éxperiment (FRAPPÉ) took place in July-August 2014. This collaborative study was aimed at characterizing those processes which control air quality along Colorado's Front Range. Although the study was largely focused on ozone, an additional goal of the study included characterizing contributions from Front Range sources and long-range transport to total reactive nitrogen in Rocky Mountain National Park (ROMO). Import of reactive nitrogen into ROMO and other pristine, high elevation areas has the potential to negatively impact terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. We present measurements of reactive nitrogen species measured within ROMO during FRAPPÉ, and compare these data to measurements made in the surrounding areas. At our monitoring site in ROMO, co-located with IMPROVE and CASTNet monitoring, measurements of NO, NO2, NOx, NOy, NH3, and total reactive nitrogen (TNx) were made at high time resolution. Additional measurements of NH3, HNO3 and PM2.5 ions were made at hourly resolution using a MARGA and also at 24-hour time resolution using URG denuder-filter pack sampling. Precipitation samples also were collected to quantify wet deposition of ammonium, nitrate, and organic nitrogen. Finally, measurements of organic gases were made using online gas chromatography and proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry. Preliminary results for ammonia show both a diel pattern, with concentrations increasing each morning, and a strong dependence on wind direction, implicating the importance of transport. Higher concentrations of NOx and NOy also were observed in the daytime, but in general these patterns differed from that of ammonia. Several upslope events were observed during the measurement period during which NOx, NH3, 2-propylnitrate, 2-butylnitrate, ethane, butane, and pentane were observed to increase in concentration along with ozone.

  19. Nicotine and the adolescent brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Menglu; Cross, Sarah J; Loughlin, Sandra E; Leslie, Frances M

    2015-01-01

    Adolescence encompasses a sensitive developmental period of enhanced clinical vulnerability to nicotine, tobacco, and e-cigarettes. While there are sociocultural influences, data at preclinical and clinical levels indicate that this adolescent sensitivity has strong neurobiological underpinnings. Although definitions of adolescence vary, the hallmark of this period is a profound reorganization of brain regions necessary for mature cognitive and executive function, working memory, reward processing, emotional regulation, and motivated behavior. Regulating critical facets of brain maturation are nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). However, perturbations of cholinergic systems during this time with nicotine, via tobacco or e-cigarettes, have unique consequences on adolescent development. In this review, we highlight recent clinical and preclinical data examining the adolescent brain's distinct neurobiology and unique sensitivity to nicotine. First, we discuss what defines adolescence before reviewing normative structural and neurochemical alterations that persist until early adulthood, with an emphasis on dopaminergic systems. We review how acute exposure to nicotine impacts brain development and how drug responses differ from those seen in adults. Finally, we discuss the persistent alterations in neuronal signaling and cognitive function that result from chronic nicotine exposure, while highlighting a low dose, semi-chronic exposure paradigm that may better model adolescent tobacco use. We argue that nicotine exposure, increasingly occurring as a result of e-cigarette use, may induce epigenetic changes that sensitize the brain to other drugs and prime it for future substance abuse. PMID:26018031

  20. Nicotine and the adolescent brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Menglu; Cross, Sarah J; Loughlin, Sandra E; Leslie, Frances M

    2015-08-15

    Adolescence encompasses a sensitive developmental period of enhanced clinical vulnerability to nicotine, tobacco, and e-cigarettes. While there are sociocultural influences, data at preclinical and clinical levels indicate that this adolescent sensitivity has strong neurobiological underpinnings. Although definitions of adolescence vary, the hallmark of this period is a profound reorganization of brain regions necessary for mature cognitive and executive function, working memory, reward processing, emotional regulation, and motivated behavior. Regulating critical facets of brain maturation are nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). However, perturbations of cholinergic systems during this time with nicotine, via tobacco or e-cigarettes, have unique consequences on adolescent development. In this review, we highlight recent clinical and preclinical data examining the adolescent brain's distinct neurobiology and unique sensitivity to nicotine. First, we discuss what defines adolescence before reviewing normative structural and neurochemical alterations that persist until early adulthood, with an emphasis on dopaminergic systems. We review how acute exposure to nicotine impacts brain development and how drug responses differ from those seen in adults. Finally, we discuss the persistent alterations in neuronal signaling and cognitive function that result from chronic nicotine exposure, while highlighting a low dose, semi-chronic exposure paradigm that may better model adolescent tobacco use. We argue that nicotine exposure, increasingly occurring as a result of e-cigarette use, may induce epigenetic changes that sensitize the brain to other drugs and prime it for future substance abuse. © 2015 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2015 The Physiological Society.

  1. Effect of Nicotine on Cognitive Performance in Non-smokers in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of nicotine on cognition are still elusive. The aim of the present study is to determine how exposure to nicotine affects specific cognitive domains in a random population of non-smokers in the age range 18-35 years. Ninety-nine non-smokers (80 males and 19 females), with no clinically classified blood pressure ...

  2. Spatial Variability in Ozone and CO2 Flux during the Front Range Air Pollution and Photochemistry Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almand-Hunter, B.; Piedrahita, R.; Kaushik, A.; Noone, D. C.; Walker, J. T.; Hannigan, M.

    2014-12-01

    Air quality problems persist in the Northern Front-Range Metropolitan Area (NFRMA) of Colorado despite efforts to reduce emissions, and summertime ozone concentrations frequently exceed the NAAQS. Atmospheric modeling in the NFRMA is challenging due to the complex topography of the area, as well as diversity of pollutant sources (urban NOx and VOCs, power plants, oil and gas, agricultural emissions, biogenic emissions, and wildfires). An improved understanding of the local atmospheric chemistry will enable researchers to advance atmospheric models, which will subsequently be used to develop and test more effective air quality management strategies. The Front Range Air Pollution and Photochemistry Experiment (FRAPPE) investigates this problem through detailed examination of atmospheric chemistry in the NFRMA. Our project specifically explores the spatial variability in ozone (O3) concentration and dry deposition within the FRAPPE study area. One source of uncertainty in atmospheric models is O3 flux, which varies spatially due to local meteorology and variation in ambient concentration and deposition velocity. Model grid cells typically range in size from 10-100 km and 100-500 km, for regional and global models, respectively, and accurate representations of an entire grid cell cannot always be achieved. Large spatial variability within a model grid cell can lead to poor estimates of trace-gas flux and concentration. Our research addresses this issue by measuring spatial variability in O3 flux using low-cost dry-deposition flux chambers. We are measuring O3 and CO2 flux with 5 low-cost flux chambers and one eddy-covariance tower. The eddy-covariance tower is located at the Boulder Atmospheric Observatory in Erie, CO. All 5 chambers are within a 8.3 x 6 km square, with one chamber collocated with the eddy-covariance tower, and the other 4 chambers at distances of 0.33, 1.14, 3.22, and 7.55 km from the tower. The largest distance between any two chambers is 8.5 km. All

  3. Nicotinic Receptors in the Habenulo-Interpeduncular System Are Necessary for Nicotine Withdrawal in Mice

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Salas, Ramiro; Sturm, Renea; Boulter, Jim; De Biasi, Mariella

    2009-01-01

    .... Nicotine withdrawal symptoms can also be observed in rodents. A major standing question is which nicotinic receptor subtypes and which areas of the brain are necessary for nicotine withdrawal to occur...

  4. Delivery of nicotine aerosol to mice via a modified electronic cigarette device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefever, Timothy W; Lee, Youn O K; Kovach, Alexander L; Silinski, Melanie A R; Marusich, Julie A; Thomas, Brian F; Wiley, Jenny L

    2017-03-01

    Although both men and women use e-cigarettes, most preclinical nicotine research has focused on its effects in male rodents following injection. The goals of the present study were to develop an effective e-cigarette nicotine delivery system, to compare results to those obtained after subcutaneous (s.c.) injection, and to examine sex differences in the model. Hypothermia and locomotor suppression were assessed following aerosol exposure or s.c. injection with nicotine in female and male mice. Subsequently, plasma and brain concentrations of nicotine and cotinine were measured. Passive exposure to nicotine aerosol produced concentration-dependent and mecamylamine reversible hypothermic and locomotor suppressant effects in female and male mice, as did s.c. nicotine injection. In plasma and brain, nicotine and cotinine concentrations showed dose/concentration-dependent increases in both sexes following each route of administration. Sex differences in nicotine-induced hypothermia were dependent upon route of administration, with females showing greater hypothermia following aerosol exposure and males showing greater hypothermia following injection. In contrast, when they occurred, sex differences in nicotine and cotinine levels in brain and plasma consistently showed greater concentrations in females than males, regardless of route of administration. In summary, the e-cigarette exposure device described herein was used successfully to deliver pharmacologically active doses of nicotine to female and male mice. Further, plasma nicotine concentrations following exposure were similar to those after s.c. injection with nicotine and within the range observed in human smokers. Future research on vaped products can be strengthened by inclusion of translationally relevant routes of administration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and your health: Green living Sun Water Air Health effects of air pollution How to protect yourself from air pollution Chemicals Noise Quizzes Links to more information girlshealth glossary girlshealth. ...

  6. Nicotine-induced place conditioning and locomotor activity in an adolescent animal model of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watterson, Elizabeth; Daniels, Carter W; Watterson, Lucas R; Mazur, Gabriel J; Brackney, Ryan J; Olive, M Foster; Sanabria, Federico

    2015-09-15

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a risk factor for tobacco use and dependence. This study examines the responsiveness to nicotine of an adolescent model of ADHD, the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR). The conditioned place preference (CPP) procedure was used to assess nicotine-induced locomotion and conditioned reward in SHR and the Wistar Kyoto (WKY) control strain over a range of nicotine doses (0.0, 0.1, 0.3 and 0.6 mg/kg). Prior to conditioning, SHRs were more active and less biased toward one side of the CPP chamber than WKY rats. Following conditioning, SHRs developed CPP to the highest dose of nicotine (0.6 mg/kg), whereas WKYs did not develop CPP to any nicotine dose tested. During conditioning, SHRs displayed greater locomotor activity in the nicotine-paired compartment than in the saline-paired compartment across conditioning trials. SHRs that received nicotine (0.1, 0.3, 0.6 mg/kg) in the nicotine-paired compartment showed an increase in locomotor activity between conditioning trials. Nicotine did not significantly affect WKY locomotor activity. These findings suggest that the SHR strain is a suitable model for studying ADHD-related nicotine use and dependence, but highlights potential limitations of the WKY control strain and the CPP procedure for modeling ADHD-related nicotine reward. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Building a QC Database of Meteorological Data from NASA KSC and the United States Air Force's Eastern Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenton, J. C.; Barbre, R. E.; Decker, R. K.; Orcutt, J. M.

    2018-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Natural Environments Branch (EV44) provides atmospheric databases and analysis in support of space vehicle design and day-of-launch operations for NASA and commercial launch vehicle programs launching from the NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC), co-located on the United States Air Force's Eastern Range (ER) at the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. The ER complex is one of the most heavily instrumented sites in the United States with over 31 towers measuring various atmospheric parameters on a continuous basis. An inherent challenge with large datasets consists of ensuring erroneous data are removed from databases, and thus excluded from launch vehicle design analyses. EV44 has put forth great effort in developing quality control (QC) procedures for individual meteorological instruments, however no standard QC procedures for all databases currently exists resulting in QC databases that have inconsistencies in variables, development methodologies, and periods of record. The goal of this activity is to use the previous efforts to develop a standardized set of QC procedures from which to build meteorological databases from KSC and the ER, while maintaining open communication with end users from the launch community to develop ways to improve, adapt and grow the QC database. Details of the QC procedures will be described. As the rate of launches increases with additional launch vehicle programs, It is becoming more important that weather databases are continually updated and checked for data quality before use in launch vehicle design and certification analyses.

  8. Incorporation of planetary boundary layer dynamics in a numerical model of long-range air-pollutant transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syrakov, D.; Djolov, G.; Yordanov, D.

    1983-05-01

    A numerical model of long-range air-pollutant transport is developed, in which a simple planetary boundary layer (PBL) is incorporated. The pollution field results from the superposition of discrete ‘puffs’ of pollutants which are emitted periodically in different regions. The instantaneous sources in the different cells are approximated by rotational ellipsoids with Gaussian concentration distributions. The puff movement due to the external flow is followed by the displacement of the centroid. The expansion of the puff is modelled by nonisotropic Fickian diffusion. A simple barotropic PBL model is used to study the PBL influence. This model gives the flow velocity and the vertical turbulent exchange coefficient, which depend on the external parameters Ro and S — Rossby number and stratification parameter. The model performance is investigated by special test runs. The dependence of the pollution field on source height, stability conditions and vertical motions is shown.

  9. Distinct synoptic patterns and air masses responsible for long-range desert dust transport and sea spray in Palermo, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitriou, K.; Paschalidou, A. K.; Kassomenos, P. A.

    2017-11-01

    Undoubtedly, anthropogenic emissions carry a large share of the risk posed on public health by particles exposure in urban areas. However, natural emissions, in the form of desert dust and sea spray, are well known to contribute significantly to the PM load recorded in many Mediterranean environments, posing an extra risk burden on public health. In the present paper, we examine the synoptic climatology in a background station in Palermo, Italy, through K-means clustering of the mean sea-level pressure (MSLP) maps, in an attempt to associate distinct synoptic patterns with increased PM10 levels. Four-day backward trajectory analysis is then applied, in order to study the origins and pathways of air masses susceptible of PM10 episodes. It is concluded that a number of atmospheric patterns result in several kind of flows, namely south, west, and slow-moving/stagnant flows, associated with long-range dust transport and sea spray.

  10. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 486: Double Tracks RADSAFE Area Nellis Air Force Range, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    IT Las Vegas

    1998-10-15

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) has been developed in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) that was agreed to by the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV); the State of Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP); and the US Department of Defense (FFACO, 1996). The CAIP is a document that provides or references all of the specific information for investigation activities associated with Corrective Action Units (CAUs) or Corrective Action Sites (CASs). According to the FFACO, CASs are sites potentially requiring corrective action(s) and may include solid waste management units or individual disposal or release sites (FFACO, 1996). Corrective Action Units consist of one or more CASs grouped together based on geography, technical similarity, or agency responsibility for the purpose of determining corrective actions. This CAIP contains the environmental sample collection objectives and the criteria for conducting site investigation activities at CAU 486, the Double Tracks Radiological Safety (RADSAFE) Area (DTRSA) which is located on the Nellis Air Force Range 71North (N), west of the Tonopah Test Range (TTR). The TTR, included in the Nellis Air Force Range Complex, is approximately 255 kilometers (km) (140 miles [mi]) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada (Figure 1-1). Corrective Action Unit 486 is comprised of CAS 71-23-001-71DT consisting of two areas of concern referred to as the vehicle decontamination area and the animal burial pit. The DTRSA is located on the west side of the Cactus Range approximately 8 km (5 mi) southwest of the Cactus Spring gate at the intersection of the Cactus Spring Road and the Double Tracks Control Point Road (Figure 1-2). The DTRSA was used during May 1963 to decontaminate vehicles, equipment, personnel, and animals from the Double Tracks test. The DTRSA is one of three areas identified as a potential location for the disposal of radioactively contaminated

  11. Nicotine delivery to rats via lung alveolar region-targeted aerosol technology produces blood pharmacokinetics resembling human smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Xuesi M; Xu, Bin; Liang, Jing; Xie, Xinmin Simon; Zhu, Yifang; Feldman, Jack L

    2013-07-01

    Nicotine is a heavily used addictive drug acquired through smoking tobacco. Nicotine in cigarette smoke is deposited and absorbed in the lungs, which results in a rapidly peaked slowly declining arterial concentration. This pattern plays an important role in initiation of nicotine addiction. A method and device were developed for delivering nicotine to rodents with lung alveolar region-targeted aerosol technology. The dose of delivery can be controlled by the nicotine aerosol concentration and duration of exposure. Our data showed that, in the breathing zone of the nose-only exposure chamber, the aerosol droplet size distribution was within the respirable diameter range. Rats were exposed to nicotine aerosol for 2 min. The arterial blood nicotine concentration reached 43.2 ± 15.7 ng/ml (mean ± SD) within 1-4 min and declined over the next 20 min, closely resembling the magnitude and early pharmacokinetics of a human smoking a cigarette. The acute inhalation toxicity of nicotine: LC50 = 2.3mg/L was determined; it was affected by pH, suggesting that acidification decreases nicotine absorption and/or bioavailability. A noninvasive method and toolkit were developed for delivering nicotine to rodents that enable rapid delivery of a controllable amount of nicotine into the systemic circulation and brain-inducing dose-dependent pharmacological effects, even a lethal dose. Aerosol inhalation can produce nicotine kinetics in both arterial and venous blood resembling human smoking. This method can be applied to studies of the effects of chronic intermittent nicotine exposure, nicotine addiction, toxicology, tobacco-related diseases, teratogenicity, and for discovery of pharmacological therapeutics.

  12. Coordination Driven Capture of Nicotine Inside a Mesoporous MOF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Balestri

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Metal organic frameworks (MOFs are a wide class of crystalline porous polymers studied in many fields, ranging from catalysis to gas storage. In the past few years, MOFs have been studied for the encapsulation of organic or organometallic molecules and for the development of potential drug carriers. Here, we report on the study of two structurally-related mesoporous Cu-MOFs, namely PCN-6 and PCN-6′ (PCN stands for Porous Coordination Network, for nicotine trapping. Nicotine is a well-known alkaloid liquid molecule at room temperature, whose crystalline structure is still unknown. In this work, the loading process was monitored by electron ionization mass spectrometry by using a direct insertion probe (DIP-EI/MS, infrared (IR, and ultraviolet/visible (UV/VIS analysis. Both nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectroscopy and thermogravimetric (TGA analysis showed evidence that nicotine trapping reaches remarkable uptakes up to 40 wt %. In the case of PCN-6@nicotine, X-ray structural resolution revealed that the guest uptake is triggered by coordination of the pyridine ring of nicotine to the copper nuclei of the paddle-wheel units composing the framework of PCN-6.

  13. Conditioned place preference and self-administration induced by nicotine in adolescent and adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahsan, Hafiz Muhammad; de la Peña, June Bryan I; Botanas, Chrislean Jun; Kim, Hee Jin; Yu, Gu Yong; Cheong, Jae Hoon

    2014-09-01

    Nicotine addiction is a worldwide problem. However, previous studies characterizing the rewarding and reinforcing effects of nicotine in animal models have reported inconsistent findings. It was observed that the addictive effects are variable on different factors (e.g. route, dose, and age). Here, we evaluated the rewarding and reinforcing effects of nicotine in different routes of administration, across a wide dose range, and in different age groups. Two of the most widely used animal models of drug addiction were employed: the conditioned place preference (CPP) and self-administration (SA) tests. Nicotine CPP was evaluated in different routes [intraperitoneal (i.p.) and subcutaneous (s.c.)], doses (0.05 to 1.0 mg/kg) and age [adolescent and adult rats]. Similarly, intravenous nicotine SA was assessed in different doses (0.01 to 0.06 mg/kg/infusion) and age (adolescent and adult rats). In the CPP test, s.c. nicotine produced greater response than i.p. The 0.2 mg/kg dose produced highest CPP response in adolescent, while 0.6 mg/kg in adult rats; which were also confirmed in 7 days pretreated rats. In the SA test, adolescent rats readily self-administer 0.03 mg/kg/infusion of nicotine. Doses that produced nicotine CPP and SA induced blood nicotine levels that corresponded well with human smokers. In conclusion, we have demonstrated that nicotine produces reliable CPP [0.2 mg/kg dose (s.c.)] in adolescents and [0.6 mg/kg dose (s.c.)] in adults, and SA [0.03 mg/kg/infusion] in adolescent rats. Both tests indicate that adolescent rats are more sensitive to the rewarding and reinforcing effects of nicotine.

  14. 20th annual report 2011. Convention on long-range transboundary air pollution. International cooperative programme on integrated monitoring of air pollution effects on ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleemola, S.; Forsius, M. (eds.)

    2011-07-01

    The Integrated Monitoring Programme (ICP IM) is part of the effect-oriented activities under the 1979 Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution, which covers the region of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE). The main aim of ICP IM is to provide a framework to observe and understand the complex changes occurring in natural/semi natural ecosystems. This report summarizes the work carried out by the ICP IM Programme Centre and several collaborating institutes. The emphasis of the report is in the work done during the programme year 2010/2011 including: A short summary of previous data assessments, a status report of the ICP IM activities, content of the IM database, and geographical coverage of the monitoring network, a review of published vegetation results from ICP IM and preliminary analyses of collected vegetation data, a report on updated heavy metal budgets and critical loads at ICP IM sites, report on benefits of LTER collaboration (Long Term Ecological Research network, www.lter-europe.net), National Reports on ICP IM activities are presented as annexes. (orig.)

  15. 22nd annual report 2013. Convention on long-range transboundary air pollution. International cooperative programme on integrated monitoring of air pollution effects on ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleemola, S.; Forsius, M. (eds.)

    2013-09-01

    The Integrated Monitoring Programme (ICP IM) is part of the effect-oriented activities under the 1979 Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution, which covers the region of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE). The main aim of ICP IM is to provide a framework to observe and understand the complex changes occurring in natural/semi natural ecosystems. This report summarizes the work carried out by the ICP IM Programme Centre and several collaborating institutes. The emphasis of the report is in the work done during the programme year 2012/2013 including: A short summary of previous data assessments; A status report of the ICP IM activities, content of the IM database, and geographical coverage of the monitoring network; A final report on relations between vegetation changes and nitrogen Critical Load exceedance; A progress report on base line heavy metal approach, estimation of the extent of metal turnover in European forest catchments over the last decades; A final report on sulphur and nitrogen input-output budgets at ICP IM sites in Europe; National Reports on ICP IM activities are presented as annexes.

  16. 6th Annual Report 1997. UN ECE convention on long-range transboundary air pollution. International cooperative programme on integrated monitoring of air pollution effects on ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleemola, S.; Forsius, M. [eds.

    1997-12-31

    The Integrated Monitoring Programme (IC P IM) is part of the Effects Monitoring Strategy under the UN ECE Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution. The main aim of ICP IM is to provide a framework to observe and understand the complex changes occurring in the external environment. The monitoring and prediction of complex ecosystem effects on undisturbed reference areas require a continuous effort to improve the collection and assessment of data on the international scale. This report presents results from assessment activities carried out by the ICP IM Programme Centre and collaborating institutes during the programme year 1996/97 including (1) a summary of the present monitoring activities and the content of the ICP IM database as well as a description of the development of a GIS database, (2) comparison and assessment of the use of steady-state techniques vs. dynamic modelling for the calculation of critical loads, (3) results from a trend analysis of ICP IM data on bulk and throughfall deposition ant runoff water chemistry, (4) demonstration of the use of ICP IM data for advanced hydrological modelling (SVAT model). (orig.) 10 refs.

  17. Actions of snake neurotoxins on an insect nicotinic cholinergic synapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hue, Bernard; Buckingham, Steven D; Buckingham, David; Sattelle, David B

    2007-09-01

    Here we examine the actions of six snake neurotoxins (alpha-cobratoxin from Naja naja siamensis, erabutoxin-a and b from Laticauda semifasciata; CM12 from N. haje annulifera, toxin III 4 from Notechis scutatus and a long toxin from N. haje) on nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the cercal afferent, giant interneuron 2 synapse of the cockroach, Periplaneta americana. All toxins tested reduced responses to directly-applied ACh as well as EPSPs evoked by electrical stimulation of nerve XI with similar time courses, suggesting that their action is postsynaptic. Thus, these nicotinic receptors in a well-characterized insect synapse are sensitive to both long and short chain neurotoxins. This considerably expands the range of snake toxins that block insect nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and may enable further pharmacological distinctions between nAChR subtypes.

  18. Consumption and foraging behaviors for common stimulants (nicotine, caffeine).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, James G; Currie, Jonathan; Ogeil, Rowan P

    2016-01-01

    Models are needed to understand the emerging capability to track consumers' movements. Therefore, we examined the use of legal and readily available stimulants that vary in their addictive potential (nicotine, caffeine). One hundred sixty-six participants answered the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K10), the Severity of Dependence Scale for nicotine and caffeine, and reported the number of times and locations stimulants were purchased and used. On average, nicotine dependent individuals made their purchases from 2 locations, while caffeine dependent individuals consumed caffeine at 2 locations, but some people exhibited a greater range and intensity of use. Stimulant foraging behavior could be described by power laws, and is exacerbated by dependency. The finding has implications for attempts to control substance use.

  19. Electronic nicotine delivery systems: a research agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etter, Jean-François; Bullen, Chris; Flouris, Andreas D; Laugesen, Murray; Eissenberg, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS, also called electronic cigarettes or e-cigarettes) are marketed to deliver nicotine and sometimes other substances by inhalation. Some tobacco smokers report that they used ENDS as a smoking cessation aid. Whether sold as tobacco products or drug delivery devices, these products need to be regulated, and thus far, across countries and states, there has been a wide range of regulatory responses ranging from no regulation to complete bans. The empirical basis for these regulatory decisions is uncertain, and more research on ENDS must be conducted in order to ensure that the decisions of regulators, health care providers and consumers are based on science. However, there is a dearth of scientific research on these products, including safety, abuse liability and efficacy for smoking cessation. The authors, who cover a broad range of scientific expertise, from basic science to public health, suggest research priorities for non-clinical, clinical and public health studies. They conclude that the first priority is to characterize the safety profile of these products, including in long-term users. If these products are demonstrated to be safe, their efficacy as smoking cessation aids should then be tested in appropriately designed trials. Until these studies are conducted, continued marketing constitutes an uncontrolled experiment and the primary outcome measure, poorly assessed, is user health. Potentially, this research effort, contributing to the safety and efficacy of new smoking cessation devices and to the withdrawal of dangerous products, could save many lives. PMID:21415064

  20. Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems Key Facts Infographic

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Explore the Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems Key Facts Infographic which outlines key facts related to electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS), including...

  1. Sensations from initial exposure to nicotine predicting adolescent smoking in China: a potential measure of vulnerability to nicotine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xinguang; Stacy, Alan; Zheng, Hong; Shan, Jianguo; Spruijt-Metz, Donna; Unger, Jennifer; Gong, Jie; Gallaher, Peggy; Liu, Chunhong; Azen, Stanley; Shakib, Sohaila; Ph D, Anderson Johnson C

    2003-08-01

    Sensations derived from initial exposure to nicotine are a potential indicator of an individual's vulnerability to nicotine. This study assessed whether sensations experienced during the first lifetime exposure to nicotine could predict current and established cigarette smoking. Data from 210 respondents who reported having ever tried cigarette smoking in Wuhan, China, were obtained for this study from 610 students in 10th grade at two schools. Subjects were participants in a multipurpose pilot survey for an adolescent smoking prevention trial. The survey was administered in a classroom setting using a paper-and-pencil questionnaire. Sensations reported were cigarette smell (59.2%), coughing (54.1%), dizziness (52.1%), nausea (42.5%), relaxation (19.1%), and pleasurable buzz/rush (9.0%). After controlling for confounders, multiple logistic regression analyses identified three sensations significantly associated with smoking: (a) Cigarette smell (OR for days smoked in the past 30 days=2.93, psmoked per day=2.69, psmoking=5.40, psmoking=11.09, psmoking measures ranged from 3.69 to 4.48, psmoking=4.12, prelationship was observed between the sensations and cigarette smoking. Self-reported sensations from initial exposure to nicotine may be a useful indicator of an individual's vulnerability to nicotine. This information can be used for adolescent smoking prevention and cessation interventions.

  2. Aerosol optical extinction during the Front Range Air Pollution and Photochemistry Éxperiment (FRAPPÉ) 2014 summertime field campaign, Colorado, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingle, Justin H.; Vu, Kennedy; Bahreini, Roya; Apel, Eric C.; Campos, Teresa L.; Flocke, Frank; Fried, Alan; Herndon, Scott; Hills, Alan J.; Hornbrook, Rebecca S.; Huey, Greg; Kaser, Lisa; Montzka, Denise D.; Nowak, John B.; Reeves, Mike; Richter, Dirk; Roscioli, Joseph R.; Shertz, Stephen; Stell, Meghan; Tanner, David; Tyndall, Geoff; Walega, James; Weibring, Petter; Weinheimer, Andrew

    2016-09-01

    Summertime aerosol optical extinction (βext) was measured in the Colorado Front Range and Denver metropolitan area as part of the Front Range Air Pollution and Photochemistry Éxperiment (FRAPPÉ) campaign during July-August 2014. An Aerodyne cavity attenuated phase shift particle light extinction monitor (CAPS-PMex) was deployed to measure βext (at average relative humidity of 20 ± 7 %) of submicron aerosols at λ = 632 nm at 1 Hz. Data from a suite of gas-phase instrumentation were used to interpret βext behavior in various categories of air masses and sources. Extinction enhancement ratios relative to CO (Δβext / ΔCO) were higher in aged urban air masses compared to fresh air masses by ˜ 50 %. The resulting increase in Δβext / ΔCO for highly aged air masses was accompanied by formation of secondary organic aerosols (SOAs). In addition, the impacts of aerosol composition on βext in air masses under the influence of urban, natural oil and gas operations (O&G), and agriculture and livestock operations were evaluated. Estimated non-refractory mass extinction efficiency (MEE) values for different air mass types ranged from 1.51 to 2.27 m2 g-1, with the minimum and maximum values observed in urban and agriculture-influenced air masses, respectively. The mass distribution for organic, nitrate, and sulfate aerosols presented distinct profiles in different air mass types. During 11-12 August, regional influence of a biomass burning event was observed, increasing the background βext and estimated MEE values in the Front Range.

  3. Aerosol optical extinction during the Front Range Air Pollution and Photochemistry Éxperiment (FRAPPÉ 2014 summertime field campaign, Colorado, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. H. Dingle

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Summertime aerosol optical extinction (βext was measured in the Colorado Front Range and Denver metropolitan area as part of the Front Range Air Pollution and Photochemistry Éxperiment (FRAPPÉ campaign during July–August 2014. An Aerodyne cavity attenuated phase shift particle light extinction monitor (CAPS-PMex was deployed to measure βext (at average relative humidity of 20 ± 7 % of submicron aerosols at λ = 632 nm at 1 Hz. Data from a suite of gas-phase instrumentation were used to interpret βext behavior in various categories of air masses and sources. Extinction enhancement ratios relative to CO (Δβext ∕ ΔCO were higher in aged urban air masses compared to fresh air masses by  ∼  50 %. The resulting increase in Δβext ∕ ΔCO for highly aged air masses was accompanied by formation of secondary organic aerosols (SOAs. In addition, the impacts of aerosol composition on βext in air masses under the influence of urban, natural oil and gas operations (O&G, and agriculture and livestock operations were evaluated. Estimated non-refractory mass extinction efficiency (MEE values for different air mass types ranged from 1.51 to 2.27 m2 g−1, with the minimum and maximum values observed in urban and agriculture-influenced air masses, respectively. The mass distribution for organic, nitrate, and sulfate aerosols presented distinct profiles in different air mass types. During 11–12 August, regional influence of a biomass burning event was observed, increasing the background βext and estimated MEE values in the Front Range.

  4. Nicotine's defensive function in nature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anke Steppuhn

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Plants produce metabolites that directly decrease herbivore performance, and as a consequence, herbivores are selected for resistance to these metabolites. To determine whether these metabolites actually function as defenses requires measuring the performance of plants that are altered only in the production of a certain metabolite. To date, the defensive value of most plant resistance traits has not been demonstrated in nature. We transformed native tobacco(Nicotiana attenuata with a consensus fragment of its two putrescine N-methyl transferase (pmt genes in either antisense or inverted-repeat (IRpmt orientations. Only the latter reduced (by greater than 95% constitutive and inducible nicotine. With D(4-nicotinic acid (NA, we demonstrate that silencing pmt inhibits nicotine production, while the excess NA dimerizes to form anatabine. Larvae of the nicotine-adapted herbivore Manduca sexta (tobacco hornworm grew faster and, like the beetle Diabrotica undecimpunctata, preferred IRpmt plants in choice tests. When planted in their native habitat, IRpmt plants were attacked more frequently and, compared to wild-type plants, lost 3-fold more leaf area from a variety of native herbivores, of which the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua, and Trimerotropis spp. grasshoppers caused the most damage. These results provide strong evidence that nicotine functions as an efficient defense in nature and highlights the value of transgenic techniques for ecological research.

  5. Nicotine reinforcement in never-smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, Angela N; Johnson, Matthew W; Reissig, Chad J; Griffiths, Roland R

    2015-12-01

    Global tobacco-related mortality dwarfs that of all other drugs. Nicotine is believed to be the primary agent responsible for tobacco use and addiction. However, nicotine is a relatively weak and inconsistent reinforcer in nonhumans and nicotine reinforcement has not been demonstrated in never-smokers. This study investigated the discriminative, subjective, and reinforcing effects of nicotine in never-smokers. Eighteen never-smokers (never-smokers.

  6. Relationships between nicotine and cotinine concentrations in maternal milk and saliva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Nelly; Golmard, Jean-Louis; Berlin, Ivan

    2015-08-01

    Breastfeeding may be impaired due to nicotine excreted into the milk of smoking mothers. We investigated the relationships between nicotine and cotinine concentrations in maternal milk and saliva among breastfeeding smokers. The 41 mothers reported their cigarette consumption between waking up and milk and saliva sampling. The median sampling time took place four days after delivery. Nicotine and cotinine concentrations were determined by liquid chromatography and UV detection, after a single-step saliva or three-step milk liquid-to-liquid extraction. The median (interquartile range) concentrations in milk and saliva were 7 (6-22) and 27 (4-207) μg/L for nicotine and 24 (5-111) and 22 (4-120) μg/L for cotinine, respectively. Milk cotinine was positively associated with saliva cotinine (p saliva nicotine concentration (p = 0.0017) and cigarette consumption (p = 0.0023, model R(2) = 0.63). Saliva nicotine concentration was not a very good estimate of milk nicotine concentration in breastfeeding mothers. Saliva cotinine concentration may be used instead of milk cotinine concentration to estimate tobacco or nicotine exposure among breastfed neonates or infants. ©2015 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Chronic nicotine activates stress/reward-related brain regions and facilitates the transition to compulsive alcohol drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leão, Rodrigo M; Cruz, Fábio C; Vendruscolo, Leandro F; de Guglielmo, Giordano; Logrip, Marian L; Planeta, Cleopatra S; Hope, Bruce T; Koob, George F; George, Olivier

    2015-04-15

    Alcohol and nicotine are the two most co-abused drugs in the world. Previous studies have shown that nicotine can increase alcohol drinking in nondependent rats, yet it is unknown whether nicotine facilitates the transition to alcohol dependence. We tested the hypothesis that chronic nicotine will speed up the escalation of alcohol drinking in rats and that this effect will be accompanied by activation of sparsely distributed neurons (neuronal ensembles) throughout the brain that are specifically recruited by the combination of nicotine and alcohol. Rats were trained to respond for alcohol and made dependent using chronic, intermittent exposure to alcohol vapor, while receiving daily nicotine (0.8 mg/kg) injections. Identification of neuronal ensembles was performed after the last operant session, using immunohistochemistry. Nicotine produced an early escalation of alcohol drinking associated with compulsive alcohol drinking in dependent, but not in nondependent rats (air exposed), as measured by increased progressive-ratio responding and increased responding despite adverse consequences. The combination of nicotine and alcohol produced the recruitment of discrete and phenotype-specific neuronal ensembles (∼4-13% of total neuronal population) in the nucleus accumbens core, dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, central nucleus of the amygdala, bed nucleus of stria terminalis, and posterior ventral tegmental area. Blockade of nicotinic receptors using mecamylamine (1 mg/kg) prevented both the behavioral and neuronal effects of nicotine in dependent rats. These results demonstrate that nicotine and activation of nicotinic receptors are critical factors in the development of alcohol dependence through the dysregulation of a set of interconnected neuronal ensembles throughout the brain. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/356241-13$15.00/0.

  8. Genetic Variation in Nicotine Metabolism Predicts the Efficacy of Extended-Duration Transdermal Nicotine Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Lerman, C.; Jepson, C.; Wileyto, EP; Patterson, F.; Schnoll, R; Mroziewicz, M; Benowitz, N; Tyndale, RF

    2010-01-01

    In a placebo-controlled trial, we examined the efficacy of a 6-month (“extended”) transdermal nicotine therapy vs. the 8-week (“standard”) therapy in 471 Caucasian smokers with either normal or reduced rates of nicotine metabolism as determined at pretreatment. Extended therapy was superior to standard therapy in genotypic or phenotypic reduced metabolizers (RMs) of nicotine but not in normal metabolizers (NMs). RMs of nicotine are candidates for extended transdermal nicotine therapy, whereas...

  9. Electronic cigarettes and nicotine clinical pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Megan J; Hoffman, Allison C

    2014-05-01

    To review the available literature evaluating electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) nicotine clinical pharmacology in order to understand the potential impact of e-cigarettes on individual users, nicotine dependence and public health. Literature searches were conducted between 1 October 2012 and 30 September 2013 using key terms in five electronic databases. Studies were included in the review if they were in English and publicly available; non-clinical studies, conference abstracts and studies exclusively measuring nicotine content in e-cigarette cartridges were excluded from the review. Nicotine yields from automated smoking machines suggest that e-cigarettes deliver less nicotine per puff than traditional cigarettes, and clinical studies indicate that e-cigarettes deliver only modest nicotine concentrations to the inexperienced e-cigarette user. However, current e-cigarette smokers are able to achieve systemic nicotine and/or cotinine concentrations similar to those produced from traditional cigarettes. Therefore, user experience is critically important for nicotine exposure, and may contribute to the products' ability to support and maintain nicotine dependence. Knowledge about e-cigarette nicotine pharmacology remains limited. Because a user's e-cigarette experience may significantly impact nicotine delivery, future nicotine pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies should be conducted in experienced users to accurately assess the products' impact on public health.

  10. Influence of Methionine Supplementation on Nicotine Teratogenicity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were treated from day 9 through 12 of gestation with either nicotine alone (6 mg/kg/day nicotine osmotic minipump or nicotine plus methionine (200 mg/kg) by gavage. Fetuses and embryos were recovered on gestational day-20 or day-12, respectively and were quantitatively and qualitatively ...

  11. Cellular and synaptic mechanisms of nicotine addiction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mansvelder, H.D.; McGehee, D.S.

    2002-01-01

    The tragic health effects of nicotine addiction highlight the importance of investigating the cellular mechanisms of this complex behavioral phenomenon. The chain of cause and effect of nicotine addiction starts with the interaction of this tobacco alkaloid with nicotinic acetylcholine receptors

  12. Tobacco, nicotine and harm reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Houezec, Jacques; McNeill, Ann; Britton, John

    2011-03-01

    Tobacco smoking, sustained by nicotine dependence, is a chronic relapsing disorder, which in many cases results in lifelong cigarette use and consequent death of one out of two lifelong smokers from a disease caused by their smoking. Most toxicity due to cigarette smoking is related to the burning process. Models of harm reduction applied to tobacco suggest that use of non-combustible, less toxic, nicotine-containing products as a substitute for cigarette smoking would reduce the death toll arising from tobacco use. Available options include medicinal nicotine and smokeless tobacco products. The potential role of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) products in a harm reduction strategy is currently severely restricted by strict regulations on dose, safety and potential addictiveness. As a result, NRT products are designed to provide much less nicotine, and deliver it to the brain more slowly, than cigarettes, which are widely accessible and poorly regulated. Smokeless tobacco (snus) has proved to be an acceptable reduced hazard alternative to smoking in Sweden, but supply of snus is illegal elsewhere in the European Union. To increase accessibility and reach more smokers, barriers to the use of NRT use need to be removed and more effective NRTs need urgently to be developed. Smokeless tobacco could also play an important role in harm reduction, but current European Union regulations and concerns over exploitation by tobacco companies currently preclude wider use. To improve public health there is an urgent need for an appropriate regulatory framework and regulatory authority at the European level, controlling both tobacco and nicotine products to ensure that the least harmful products are the most accessible. © 2011 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  13. Using background air pollutants levels correlation analysis to identify periods of long-range transport of anthropogenic pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konkova, Elizaveta S.; Burtseva, Larisa V.; Gromov, Sergey A.; Gromov, Sergey S.

    2017-04-01

    Increasing trends of airborne lead and cadmium at background station within the central region of European Russia have been identified previously (e.g., Gromov & Konkova, 2016). In order to reveal the possible drivers of these trends, a deeper investigation of correlation among these heavy metals (HM) and other co-measured pollutants is done in this study. Based on the data for the 2001-2012 period, calculations have been carried out for the period from 2006 onwards, when the growth of HM concentrations is observed. Pairwise correlations of individual species abundances were derived for the entire time series and subsets for each calendar year, including warm (April to September) and cold seasons (October to March). The calculated values for the seasons and the whole years vary substantially, suggesting that that variable ratios of atmospheric HM emission sources could affect the final air concentrations at measurement site in these periods. To distinguish the events of predominant influence of natural and anthropogenic sources, we assume that correlation between lead and cadmium levels must be greater in the case of natural sources being in effect. High values of the correlation coefficient are expected in cases when HM air abundances are induced by the long-range transport from the regions of anthropogenic sources (co-emission of these metals results from a number of same sources, and both of them are also present on same matrix aerosols). The results demonstrate a substantial correlation between Pb and Cd, with higher values for individual seasons (70% of 0.5 and higher) than for whole years. Higher mass concentrations of airborne dust (TSP) in remote areas are to large extent promoted by large particles blown away from the surface at local surroundings. Captured better by filters, such events could be a particular indicator of local (mostly natural) sources. Low or insignificant correlation with HM indicates prevalence of long-range transport of them and could

  14. National implementation of the UNECE convention on long-range transboundary air pollution (effects). Pt. 1. Deposition loads: methods, modelling and mapping results, trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gauger, Thomas [Federal Agricultural Research Centre, Braunschweig (DE). Inst. of Agroecology (FAL-AOE); Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Navigation; Haenel, Hans-Dieter; Roesemann, Claus [Federal Agricultural Research Centre, Braunschweig (DE). Inst. of Agroecology (FAL-AOE)] (and others)

    2008-09-15

    The report on the implementation of the UNECE convention on long-range transboundary air pollution Pt.1, deposition loads (methods, modeling and mapping results, trends) includes the following chapters: Introduction, deposition on air pollutants used for the input for critical loads in exceeding calculations, methods applied for mapping total deposition loads, mapping wet deposition, wet deposition mapping results, mapping dry deposition, dry deposition mapping results, cloud and fog mapping results, total deposition mapping results, modeling the air concentration of acidifying components and heavy metals, agricultural emissions of acidifying and eutrophying species.

  15. Nicotine Exposure during Adolescence Enhances Behavioral Sensitivity to Nicotine during Adulthood in Wistar Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracken, Amy L.; Chambers, R. Andrew; Berg, Sarah A.; Rodd, Zachary A.; McBride, William J.

    2011-01-01

    Rationale Drug use during adolescence is associated with an increased propensity for drug dependency during adulthood. Therefore, the effects of adolescent exposure to nicotine on adult behavioral responsiveness to nicotine are of particular importance. Objectives The objective of the current study was to determine if adolescent nicotine exposure would enhance behavioral sensitivity and development of sensitization to nicotine during adulthood. Materials and Methods Male Wistar rats were assigned to one of three groups that received subcutaneous (s.c.) injections of nicotine (0, 0.25, or 0.5 mg/kg) in the home cage for 12 consecutive days during adolescence, PD 31–42. Starting on PD 80, distance traveled, rearing, and stereotypy were recorded in locomotor activity chambers each day for 10 days, following s.c. injections of 0, 0.25, or 0.5 mg/kg nicotine. One week later, a final challenge session took place during which rats were injected with 0.5 mg/kg nicotine. Results Rats exposed to nicotine during adolescence displayed a greater locomotor response to a novel environment than saline-treated rats. Adolescent nicotine treatment also resulted in context-independent sensitization to the acute locomotor activating properties of nicotine, including distance traveled and stereotypy, as measured on the first day of adulthood nicotine exposure. Adolescent nicotine-treated rats displayed increased sensitivity to repeated nicotine exposures during adulthood, compared to adolescent saline-treated rats, as measured by distance traveled, rearing, and stereotypic behaviors. Finally, rats treated with nicotine only during adolescence were more sensitive to a final nicotine challenge during adulthood than rats treated with nicotine only previously during adulthood. Conclusions Overall, the results suggest that adolescent nicotine treatment predisposes adult rats to develop increased behavioral sensitivity to chronic nicotine treatment and to be more sensitive to the initial

  16. Chronic Nicotine Treatment During Adolescence Attenuates the Effects of Acute Nicotine in Adult Contextual Fear Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holliday, Erica D; Gould, Thomas J

    2017-01-01

    Adolescent onset of nicotine abuse is correlated with worse chances at successful abstinence in adulthood. One reason for this may be due to enduring learning deficits resulting from nicotine use during adolescence. Previous work has indicated that chronic nicotine administration beginning in late adolescence (PND38) caused learning deficits in contextual fear when tested in adulthood. The purpose of this study was to determine if chronic nicotine treatment during adolescence would alter sensitivity to nicotine's cognitive enhancing properties in adulthood. C57BL/6J mice received saline or chronic nicotine (12.6mg/kg/day) during adolescence (postnatal day 38) or adulthood (postnatal day 54) for a period of 12 days. Following a 30-day protracted abstinence, mice received either an acute injection of saline or nicotine (0.045, 0.18, and 0.36mg/kg) prior to training and testing a mouse model of contextual fear. It was found that chronic nicotine administration in adult mice did not alter sensitivity to acute nicotine following a protracted abstinence. In adolescent mice, chronic nicotine administration disrupted adult learning and decreased sensitivity to acute nicotine in adulthood as only the highest dose tested (0.36mg/kg) was able to enhance contextual fear learning. These results suggest that adolescent nicotine exposure impairs learning in adulthood, which could increase the risk for continued nicotine use in adulthood by requiring administration of higher doses of nicotine to reverse learning impairments caused by adolescent nicotine exposure. Results from this study add to the growing body of literature suggesting chronic nicotine exposure during adolescence leads to impaired learning in adulthood and demonstrates that nicotine exposure during adolescence attenuates the cognitive enhancing effects of acute nicotine in adulthood, which suggests altered cholinergic function. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for

  17. Empirical modeling of spatial and temporal variation in warm season nocturnal air temperatures in two North Idaho mountain ranges, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachery A. Holden; Michael A. Crimmins; Samuel A. Cushman; Jeremy S. Littell

    2010-01-01

    Accurate, fine spatial resolution predictions of surface air temperatures are critical for understanding many hydrologic and ecological processes. This study examines the spatial and temporal variability in nocturnal air temperatures across a mountainous region of Northern Idaho. Principal components analysis (PCA) was applied to a network of 70 Hobo temperature...

  18. Nicotine adsorption on single wall carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girao, Eduardo C. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Ceara, Caixa Postal 6030, Campus do Pici, 60455-900 Fortaleza, Ceara (Brazil); Fagan, Solange B.; Zanella, Ivana [Area de Ciencias Tecnologicas, Centro Universitario Franciscano - UNIFRA, 97010-032 Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Filho, Antonio G. Souza, E-mail: agsf@fisica.ufc.br [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Ceara, Caixa Postal 6030, Campus do Pici, 60455-900 Fortaleza, Ceara (Brazil)

    2010-12-15

    This work reports a theoretical study of nicotine molecules interacting with single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) through ab initio calculations within the framework of density functional theory (DFT). Different adsorption sites for nicotine on the surface of pristine and defective (8,0) SWCNTs were analyzed and the total energy curves, as a function of molecular position relative to the SWCNT surface, were evaluated. The nicotine adsorption process is found to be energetically favorable and the molecule-nanotube interaction is intermediated by the tri-coordinated nitrogen atom from the nicotine. It is also predicted the possibility of a chemical bonding between nicotine and SWCNT through the di-coordinated nitrogen.

  19. Reduction in delay discounting due to nicotine and its attenuation by cholinergic antagonists in Lewis and Fischer 344 rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozga, Jenny E; Anderson, Karen G

    2018-01-01

    Nicotine acts as an agonist for nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), and mecamylamine, a nonselective nAChR antagonist, attenuates effects of nicotine on delay discounting in some rat strains; whether nicotine's attenuation is specific to nAChR antagonism is unknown. During experiment 1, we evaluated dose-dependent effects of nicotine on delay discounting of pair-housed Lewis (LEW) and Fischer 344 (F344) rats. During experiment 2, we examined the sensitivity of nicotine's effects on delay discounting to pharmacological antagonism of nAChRs or muscarinic AChRs (mAChRs). Male LEW and F344 were trained to choose between one food pellet delivered immediately and three food pellets delivered after an increasing delay. During experiment 1, saline and nicotine (0.1-1.0 mg/kg) were tested acutely. During experiment 2, mecamylamine (0.25-1.0 mg/kg) or a nonselective mAChR antagonist, scopolamine (0.01-0.056 mg/kg), was administered prior to nicotine administration. Nicotine dose dependently reduced delay discounting for both rat strains, and no strain differences were observed (ΔAUC = + 107% for 1.0 mg/kg and + 69.6% for 0.3 mg/kg relative to saline). At some doses, pretreatment with mecamylamine (range ΔAUC = - 27.6 to - 7.3%) or scopolamine (range ΔAUC = - 0.74 to - 51.6%) significantly attenuated the nicotine-induced reduction in some measures of delay discounting for both strains. Results from experiment 1 suggest that when LEW and F344 are pair housed, there are no strain differences in delay discounting in response to nicotine. Results from experiment 2 suggest that attenuation of nicotine's effects on delay discounting may not be specific to nAChR antagonism.

  20. Prenatal nicotine exposure increases hyperventilation in α4-knock-out mice during mild asphyxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avraam, Joanne; Cohen, Gary; Drago, John; Frappell, Peter B

    2015-03-01

    Prenatal nicotine exposure alters breathing and ventilatory responses to stress through stimulation of nicotine acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). We tested the hypothesis that α4-containing nAChRs are involved in mediating the effects of prenatal nicotine exposure on ventilatory and metabolic responses to intermittent mild asphyxia (MA). Using open-flow plethysmography, we measured ventilation (V̇(E)) and rate of O2 consumption ( V̇(O2)) of wild-type (WT) and α4-knock-out (KO) mice, at postnatal (P) days 1-2 and 7-8, with and without prenatal nicotine exposure (6 mg kg(-1) day(-1) beginning on embryonic day 14). Mice were exposed to seven 2 min cycles of mild asphyxia (10% O2 and 5% CO2), each interspersed with 2 min of air. Compared to WT, α4 KO mice had increased air V̇(E) and V̇(O2) at P7-8, but not P1-2. Irrespective of age, genotype had no effect on the hyperventilatory response (increase in V̇(E)/V̇(O2)) to MA. At P1-2, nicotine suppressed air V̇(E) and V̇(O2) in both genotypes but did not affect the hyperventilatory response to MA. At P7-8 nicotine suppressed air V̇(E) and V̇(O2) of only α4 KO's but also significantly enhanced V̇(E) during MA (nearly double that of WT; p<0.001). This study has revealed complex effects of α4 nAChR deficiency and prenatal nicotine exposure on ventilatory and metabolic interactions and responses to stress. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Tobacco, Nicotine, and Headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Frederick R

    2015-01-01

    Migraineurs variably attribute the cause of their headache to tobacco exposure, whereas tobacco is often stated to cause headache-related disability worldwide. Given tobacco's physiological and emotional addictiveness and migraine's substantial economic impact, improved functionality can be difficult for those with migraine exposed to tobacco products. Environmental tobacco exposure in indoor spaces and workplaces is associated with exacerbation of headache. Avoidance of headache triggers is included in most comprehensive migraine treatment programs, yet tobacco awareness, avoidance, or coping is rarely emphasized as part of that regimen. The aims of this study were to examine the various types of tobacco products to which headache sufferers are exposed and the known basic mechanisms by which tobacco (nicotine) exposure promotes headache pain, and to review the extensive literature on tobacco related to headache with a detailed descriptive narrative providing the basis for conclusions regarding association of noncluster headache-related tobacco exposure. Tobacco-related recommendations are offered. MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Google Scholar databases were searched without yearly restriction through the date of submission (May 2015), using the MeSH terms "tobacco," "tobacco products," "smoking," "tobacco use," "headache," and "headache disorders." The selection of articles was not limited to English studies or to humans. Articles were excluded when "headache" and "tobacco" were not both mentioned with data provided. Case series were included. Bibliographies of all articles were screened for additional relevant articles. Although migraineurs worldwide report tobacco smoke among triggers, it is rarely among the highest in frequency, and biases abound with predominantly noncontrolled retrospective data. Prospective population-based diary data are extremely limited, and no controlled trials exist to confirm a cause and effect for headache of any type. Although some studies are

  2. Evaluation of long-range transport potential of selected brominated flame retardants with measured 1-octanol-air partition coefficients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hyun Jeong; Kwon, Jung Hwan [Div. of Environmental Science and Ecological Engineering, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Various alternative flame retardants are used in many countries since polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were classified as persistent organic pollutants (POPs). However, difficulties in the evaluation of the long-range transport potential (LRTP) of the alternatives are related to the lack of information on their physicochemical properties, which govern their environmental fates and transport. Based on the simulation of LRTP using OECD P{sub OV} and LRTP Screening Tool, five alternative brominated flame retardants (BFRs) (hexabromobenzene [HBB], 2,3,4,5,6-pentabromotoluene [PBT], 2,3,4,5,6-pentabromoethylbenzene [PBEB], 2-ethylhexyl 2,3,4,5-tetrabromobenzoate [TBB], and 1,2,4,5-tetrabromo-3,6-dimethylbenzene [TBX]), and 3 PBDEs (BDE-28, BDE-47, and BDE-99) were chosen to perform a refined assessment. This was done using an experimentally measured 1-octanol–air partition coefficient (K{sub OA}) for the calculation of the air–water partition coefficient (K{sub AW}) required for the model. The four selected alternative BFRs (HBB, PBT, PBEB, TBX) have K{sub OA} values close to the in silico estimation used in the screening evaluation. On the other hand, the measured K{sub OA} value for TBB was two orders of magnitude lower than the estimated value used in the screening simulation. The refined simulation showed that characteristic travel distance (CTD) and transfer efficiency (TE) for HBB, PBT, PBEB, and TBX were greater than those for BDE-28, whereas CTD and TE for TBB were lower than those for BDE-28. This suggested that TBB has a lower LRTP than BDE-28, considering the refined partition coefficients.

  3. Researching Complex Heat, Air and Moisture Interactions for a Wide-Range of Building Envelope Systems and Environmental Loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karagiozis, A.N.

    2007-05-15

    This document serves as the final report documenting work completed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the Fraunhofer Institute in Building Physics (Holzkirchen, Germany) under an international CRADA No. 0575 with Fraunhofer Institute of Bauphysics of the Federal Republic of Germany for Researching Complex Heat, Air and Moisture Interactions for a Wide Range of Building Envelope Systems and Environmental Loads. This CRADA required a multi-faceted approach to building envelope research that included a moisture engineering approach by blending extensive material property analysis, laboratory system and sub-system thermal and moisture testing, and advanced moisture analysis prediction performance. The Participant's Institute for Building physics (IBP) and the Contractor's Buildings Technology Center (BTC) identified potential research projects and activities capable of accelerating and advancing the development of innovative, low energy and durable building envelope systems in diverse climates. This allowed a major leverage of the limited resources available to ORNL to execute the required Department of Energy (DOE) directives in the area of moisture engineering. A joint working group (ORNL and Fraunhofer IBP) was assembled and a research plan was executed from May 2000 to May 2005. A number of key deliverables were produced such as adoption of North American loading into the WUFI-software. in addition the ORNL Weather File Analyzer was created and this has been used to address environmental loading for a variety of US climates. At least 4 papers have been co-written with the CRADA partners, and a chapter in the ASTM Manual 40 on Moisture Analysis and Condensation Control. All deliverables and goals were met and exceeded making this collaboration a success to all parties involves.

  4. Effects of Nicotine on the Neurophysiological and Behavioral Effects of Ketamine in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel H Mathalon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA receptor hypofunction has been implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and its associated neurocognitive impairments. The high rate of cigarette smoking in schizophrenia raises questions about how nicotine modulates putative NMDA receptor hypofunction in the illness. Accordingly, we examined the modulatory effects of brain nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR stimulation on NMDA receptor hypofunction by examining the interactive effects of nicotine, a nAChR agonist, and ketamine, a noncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonist, on behavioral and neurophysiological measures in healthy human volunteers.Methods: From an initial sample of 17 subjects (age range 18 - 55 years, 8 subjects successfully completed 4 test sessions, each separated by at least 3 days, during which they received ketamine or placebo and two injections of nicotine or placebo in a double-blind, counterbalanced manner. Schizophrenia-like effects (PANSS, perceptual alterations (CADSS, subjective effects (VAS and auditory event-related brain potentials (mismatch negativity, P300 were assessed during each test session.Results: Consistent with existing studies, ketamine induced transient schizophrenia-like behavioral effects. P300 was reduced and delayed by ketamine regardless of whether it was elicited by a target or novel stimulus, while nicotine only reduced the amplitude of P3a. Nicotine did not rescue P300 from the effects of ketamine; the interactions of ketamine and nicotine were not significant. While nicotine significantly reduced MMN amplitude, ketamine did not. Conclusion: Nicotine failed to modulate ketamine-induced schizophrenia-like effects in this preliminary study. Interestingly, ketamine reduced P3b amplitude and nicotine reduced P3a amplitude, suggesting independent roles of NMDA receptor and nAChR in the generation of P3b and P3a, respectively.

  5. Baseline impulsive choice predicts the effects of nicotine and nicotine withdrawal on impulsivity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayir, Hakan; Semenova, Svetlana; Markou, Athina

    2014-01-03

    Impulsive choice, a form of impulsivity, is associated with tobacco smoking in humans. Trait impulsivity may be a vulnerability factor for smoking, or smoking may lead to impulsive behaviors. We investigated the effects of 14-day nicotine exposure (6.32mg/kg/day base, subcutaneous minipumps) and spontaneous nicotine withdrawal on impulsive choice in low impulsive (LI) and high impulsive (HI) rats. Impulsive choice was measured in the delayed reward task in which rats choose between a small immediate reward and a large delayed reward. HI and LI rats were selected from the highest and lowest quartiles of the group before exposure to nicotine. In non-selected rats, nicotine or nicotine withdrawal had no effect on impulsive choice. In LI rats, chronic nicotine exposure decreased preference for the large reward with larger effects at longer delays, indicating increased impulsive choice. Impulsive choices for the smaller immediate rewards continued to increase during nicotine withdrawal in LI rats. In HI rats, nicotine exposure and nicotine withdrawal had no effect on impulsive choice, although there was a tendency for decreased preference for the large reward at short delays. These results indicate that nicotine- and nicotine withdrawal-induced increases in impulsive choice depend on trait impulsivity with more pronounced increases in impulsive choice in LI compared to HI subjects. Increased impulsivity during nicotine exposure may strengthen the addictive properties of nicotine and contribute to compulsive nicotine use. © 2013.

  6. 7th annual report 1998. UN ECE convention on long-range transboundary air pollution. International cooperative programme on integrated monitoring of air pollution effects on ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleemola, S.; Forsius, M. [eds.

    1998-11-01

    The Integrated Monitoring Programme (ICP IM) is part of the Effects Monitoring Strategy under the UN ECE Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution Convention. The main aim of ICP IM is to provide a framework to observe and understand the complex changes occurring in the external environment. The monitoring and prediction of complex ecosystem effects on undisturbed reference areas require a continuous effort to improve the collection and assessment of data on the international scale. At the 1997 Task Force meeting it was decided that future annual reports from ICP IM would have a more technical character. The report could include some scientific material but also short technical descriptions of recent national activities and publications. Scientific articles should preferably be published in recognised scientific journals. The responsibility for producing annual reports would still lie on the Programme Centre, but more contributions from National Focal Points were welcomed. The content of the present Annual Report reflects the decisions of the Task Force meeting. The report gives a general overview of the ICP IM activities, the present content of the ICP IM database, and presents results from assessment activities carried out by several collaborating institutes and the ICP IM Programme Centre during the programme year 1997/98. The resources of the Programme Centre have been targeted to the revision of the Programme Manual and the EU/LIFE-project `Development of Assessment and Monitoring Techniques at Integrated Monitoring Sites in Europe`, which has limited the possibilities to carry out additional evaluations of ICP IM data. Section 1 is a short status report of the ICP IM activities, content of the IM database, including the contents of the GIS database, and the present geographical coverage of the monitoring network. Section 2 contains a report on multivariate gradient analysis applied to relate chemical and biological observations (prepared by D. de Zwart, RIVM

  7. Chronic nicotine modifies skeletal muscle Na,K-ATPase activity through its interaction with the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor and phospholemman.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander V Chibalin

    Full Text Available Our previous finding that the muscle nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR and the Na,K-ATPase interact as a regulatory complex to modulate Na,K-ATPase activity suggested that chronic, circulating nicotine may alter this interaction, with long-term changes in the membrane potential. To test this hypothesis, we chronically exposed rats to nicotine delivered orally for 21-31 days. Chronic nicotine produced a steady membrane depolarization of ∼3 mV in the diaphragm muscle, which resulted from a net change in electrogenic transport by the Na,K-ATPase α2 and α1 isoforms. Electrogenic transport by the α2 isoform increased (+1.8 mV while the activity of the α1 isoform decreased (-4.4 mV. Protein expression of Na,K-ATPase α1 or α2 isoforms and the nAChR did not change; however, the content of α2 subunit in the plasma membrane decreased by 25%, indicating that its stimulated electrogenic transport is due to an increase in specific activity. The physical association between the nAChR, the Na,K-ATPase α1 or α2 subunits, and the regulatory subunit of the Na,K-ATPase, phospholemman (PLM, measured by co-immuno precipitation, was stable and unchanged. Chronic nicotine treatment activated PKCα/β2 and PKCδ and was accompanied by parallel increases in PLM phosphorylation at Ser(63 and Ser(68. Collectively, these results demonstrate that nicotine at chronic doses, acting through the nAChR-Na,K-ATPase complex, is able to modulate Na,K-ATPase activity in an isoform-specific manner and that the regulatory range includes both stimulation and inhibition of enzyme activity. Cholinergic modulation of Na,K-ATPase activity is achieved, in part, through activation of PKC and phosphorylation of PLM.

  8. Racial differences in the relationship between rate of nicotine metabolism and nicotine intake from cigarette smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Kathryn C; Gubner, Noah R; Tyndale, Rachel F; Hawk, Larry W; Lerman, Caryn; George, Tony P; Cinciripini, Paul; Schnoll, Robert A; Benowitz, Neal L

    2016-09-01

    Rate of nicotine metabolism has been identified as an important factor influencing nicotine intake and can be estimated using the nicotine metabolite ratio (NMR), a validated biomarker of CYP2A6 enzyme activity. Individuals who metabolize nicotine faster (higher NMR) may alter their smoking behavior to titrate their nicotine intake in order to maintain similar levels of nicotine in the body compared to slower nicotine metabolizers. There are known racial differences in the rate of nicotine metabolism with African Americans on average having a slower rate of nicotine metabolism compared to Whites. The goal of this study was to determine if there are racial differences in the relationship between rate of nicotine metabolism and measures of nicotine intake assessed using multiple biomarkers of nicotine and tobacco smoke exposure. Using secondary analyses of the screening data collected in a recently completed clinical trial, treatment-seeking African American and White daily smokers (10 or more cigarettes per day) were grouped into NMR quartiles so that the races could be compared at the same NMR, even though the distribution of NMR within race differed. The results indicated that rate of nicotine metabolism was a more important factor influencing nicotine intake in White smokers. Specifically, Whites were more likely to titrate their nicotine intake based on the rate at which they metabolize nicotine. However, this relationship was not found in African Americans. Overall there was a greater step-down, linear type relationship between NMR groups and cotinine or cotinine/cigarette in African Americans, which is consistent with the idea that differences in blood cotinine levels between the African American NMR groups were primarily due to differences in CYP2A6 enzyme activity without titration of nicotine intake among faster nicotine metabolizers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Vaccination against nicotine alters the distribution of nicotine delivered via cigarette smoke inhalation to rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pravetoni, M; Keyler, DE; Raleigh, MD; Harris, AC; LeSage, MG; Mattson, CK; Pettersson, S; Pentel, PR

    2011-01-01

    Preclinical models of nicotine vaccine pharmacology have relied on i.v. or s.c. administration of nicotine. Models using cigarette smoke inhalation might more accurately simulate nicotine exposure in smokers. Nicotine vaccine effects were examined in rats using two cigarette smoke exposure models: a 10 minute nose-only exposure (NSE) producing serum nicotine levels equivalent to the nicotine boost from 1 cigarette in a smoker, and a two hour whole-body exposure (WBE) producing serum nicotine levels similar to those associated with regular midday smoking. Vaccination prior to 10 min smoke NSE reduced nicotine distribution to brain by 90%, comparable to its effect on nicotine administered i.v. Vaccination prior to 2 hr smoke WBE reduced nicotine distribution to brain by 35%. The nicotine concentration in broncheoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid obtained after 2 hr WBE was increased by 230% in vaccinated rats but was also increased in rats passively immunized with a nicotine-specific monoclonal antibody, and so was likely due to transfer of antibody from serum rather than local production at the pulmonary mucosa. Nicotine-specific IgA was not detectable in BAL fluid, but titers in serum were appreciable at 21–25% of the IgG titer and could contribute to vaccine efficacy. Both vaccination and passive immunization are effective in reducing nicotine distribution to brain in rats when nicotine is delivered via inhaled cigarette smoke. These data validate results previously obtained in rodents for nicotine vaccines using i.v. or s.c. nicotine dosing and provide a quantitative method for studying aspects of nicotine exposure which are unique to cigarette smoke inhalation. PMID:21333633

  10. Anti-sense expression of putrescine N-methyltransferase confirms defensive role of nicotine in Nicotiana sylvestris against Manduca sexta

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voelckel, C.; Krugel, T.; Gase, K.; Heidrich, N.; Van Dam, N.M.; Winz, R.; Baldwin, I.T.

    2001-01-01

    Several lines of evidence support the defensive function of nicotine production in the Nicotiana genus against a range of herbivores, but the evidence is largely correlative. To suppress nicotine production in planta and to test its defensive function, we expressed DNA of putrescine N-methyl

  11. Drug-dependent behaviors and nicotinic acetylcholine receptor expressions in Caenorhabditis elegans following chronic nicotine exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polli, Joseph R; Dobbins, Dorothy L; Kobet, Robert A; Farwell, Mary A; Zhang, Baohong; Lee, Myon-Hee; Pan, Xiaoping

    2015-03-01

    Nicotine, the major psychoactive compound in tobacco, targets nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) and results in drug dependence. The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans' (C. elegans) genome encodes conserved and extensive nicotinic receptor subunits, representing a useful system to investigate nicotine-induced nAChR expressions in the context of drug dependence. However, the in vivo expression pattern of nAChR genes under chronic nicotine exposure has not been fully investigated. To define the role of nAChR genes involved in nicotine-induced locomotion changes and the development of tolerance to these effects, we characterized the locomotion behavior combining the use of two systems: the Worm Tracker hardware and the WormLab software. Our results indicate that the combined system is an advantageous alternative to define drug-dependent locomotion behavior in C. elegans. Chronic (24-h dosing) nicotine exposure at 6.17 and 61.7μM induced nicotine-dependent behaviors, including drug stimulation, tolerance/adaption, and withdrawal responses. Specifically, the movement speed of naïve worms on nicotine-containing environments was significantly higher than on nicotine-free environments, suggesting locomotion stimulation by nicotine. In contrast, the 24-h 6.17μM nicotine-treated worms exhibited significantly higher speeds on nicotine-free plates than on nicotine-containing plates. Furthermore significantly increased locomotion behavior during nicotine cessation was observed in worms treated with a higher nicotine concentration of 61.7μM. The relatively low locomotion speed of nicotine-treated worms on nicotine-containing environments also indicates adaption/tolerance of worms to nicotine following chronic nicotine exposure. In addition, this study provides useful information regarding the comprehensive in vivo expression profile of the 28 "core" nAChRs following different dosages of chronic nicotine treatments. Eleven genes (lev-1, acr-6, acr-7, acr-11, lev-8, acr

  12. Genetic variation in nicotine metabolism predicts the efficacy of extended-duration transdermal nicotine therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerman, C; Jepson, C; Wileyto, E P; Patterson, F; Schnoll, R; Mroziewicz, M; Benowitz, N; Tyndale, R F

    2010-05-01

    In a placebo-controlled trial, we examined the efficacy of a 6-month ("extended") transdermal nicotine therapy vs. the 8-week ("standard") therapy in 471 Caucasian smokers with either normal or reduced rates of nicotine metabolism as determined at pretreatment. Extended therapy was superior to standard therapy in genotypic or phenotypic reduced metabolizers (RMs) of nicotine but not in normal metabolizers (NMs). RMs of nicotine are candidates for extended transdermal nicotine therapy, whereas an alternative therapeutic approach may be needed for those with normal rates of nicotine metabolism.

  13. Combination rapid-acting nicotine mouth spray and nicotine patch therapy in smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Brent O; Adamson, Simon J; Crane, Julian

    2014-10-01

    Improved smoking cessation rates are urgently required if New Zealand is to reach its target of a smokefree nation by 2025, during which some 600,000 smokers will need to quit. Nicotine replacement therapy remains a core part of the pharmacological approach to smoking cessation. Oral nicotine solutions with rapid onset have recently become available. We have examined the effect of a nicotine spray and a nicotine patch on smoking cessation for 12 months. We enrolled potential participants-smokers wanting to quit aged 18-70 years, who smoked ≥9 cigarettes per day-with Fagerström Test of Nicotine Dependence score ≥3 in a double-blind trial in 3 trial sites. Smokers were randomized to a nicotine or placebo spray for 6 months, and all received nicotine patches daily for 5 months. They were followed at regular intervals for 12 months. A total of 1,423 subjects were randomized to nicotine oral spray (1mg of nicotine free base per spray) plus nicotine patch or a placebo spray and nicotine patch. The nicotine mouth spray plus nicotine patch showed significant improvements in prolonged abstinence for all measures to 6 months (7 consecutive days at each visit for 6 months: 15.5% vs. 10.6%; p = .006) for the combination versus placebo and nicotine patch. Thereafter, the differences were not significant. The addition of a nicotine mouth spray to a nicotine replacement patch in a population of smokers receiving a low level of behavioral support improved early quitting, but the effects were not sustained. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Nicotine behavioral pharmacology: clues from planarians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawls, Scott M.; Patil, Tanvi; Tallarida, Christopher S.; Baron, Steven; Kim, Myongji; Song, Kevin; Ward, Sara; Raffa, Robert B.

    2011-01-01

    Background Nicotine is one of the world’s most addictive substances and the primary reason that humans inhale tobacco smoke. The pharmacological effects of nicotine can be investigated in planarians, aquatic flatworms that possess an integrated neural network including cephalic ganglia that some consider the earliest “brain” and spinal cord. Here, we tested the hypothesis that nicotine exposure elicits mammalian-like behaviors in planarians. Methods Planarian motility and stereotypy (C-shape hyperkinesias) were quantified following acute nicotine exposure. During repeated nicotine exposure, we investigated the presence of withdrawal, tolerance, behavioral sensitization, and environmental place conditioning. Results Acute nicotine exposure increased stereotypical activity and elicited biphasic effects on motility. A low concentration (0.01 mM) increased motility whereas higher concentrations (0.3 – 10 mM) elicited the opposite effect. Planarians exposed to nicotine (0.03 mM) for 60 min and then tested in water displayed reduced motility that was not observed during exposure to water, acute nicotine, or continuous nicotine. Nicotine-treated planarians withdrawn from the drug for 3 days before being challenged with nicotine displayed behavioral sensitization at low concentrations (0.1, 0.3 mM) but tolerance at higher concentrations (1, 3 mM). Planarians conditioned with nicotine in the ambient light (non-preferred environment) displayed a reduction in their natural preference for a dark environment. Conclusions The present results suggest nicotine elicits mammalian-like effects in planarians, including decreased motility and increased stereotypy following acute administration and abstinence-induced withdrawal, behavioral sensitization, tolerance, and place conditioning during repeated exposure. PMID:21530106

  15. Nicotine delivery to users from cigarettes and from different types of e-cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajek, Peter; Przulj, Dunja; Phillips, Anna; Anderson, Rebecca; McRobbie, Hayden

    2017-03-01

    Delivering nicotine in the way smokers seek is likely to be the key factor in e-cigarette (EC) success in replacing cigarettes. We examined to what degree different types of EC mimic nicotine intake from cigarettes. Twelve participants ('dual users' of EC and cigarettes) used their own brand cigarette and nine different EC brands. Blood samples were taken at baseline and at 2-min intervals for 10 min and again at 30 min. Eleven smokers provided usable data. None of the EC matched cigarettes in nicotine delivery (C max = 17.9 ng/ml, T max = 4 min and AUC0->30 = 315 ng/ml/min). The EC with 48 mg/ml nicotine generated the closest PK profile (C max = 13.6 ng/ml, T max = 4 min, AUC0->30 = 245 ng/ml/min), followed by a third generation EC using 20 mg/ml nicotine (C max = 11.9 ng/ml, T max = 6 min, AUC0->30 = 232 ng/ml/min), followed by the tank system using 20 mg/ml nicotine (C max = 9.9 ng/ml, T max = 6 min, AUC0->30 = 201 ng/ml/min). Cig-a-like PK values were similar, ranging from C max 7.5 to 9.7 ng/ml, T max 4-6 min, and AUC0->30 144 to 173 ng/ml/min. Moderate differences in e-liquid nicotine concentrations had little effect on nicotine delivery, e.g. the EC with 24 mg/ml cartridge had the same PK profile as ECs with 16 mg/ml cartridges. Using similar strength e-liquid, the tank EC provided significantly more nicotine than cig-a-like ECs. EC brands we tested do not deliver nicotine as efficiently as cigarettes, but newer EC products deliver nicotine more efficiently than cig-a-like brands. Moderate variations in nicotine content of e-liquid have little effect on nicotine delivery. Smokers who are finding cig-a-like EC unsatisfactory should be advised to try more advanced systems.

  16. Development of a rectal nicotine delivery system for the treatment of ulcerative colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, A K; Gong, Z; Miller, D W; Huai-Yan, H; Laforet, J

    1999-11-10

    The aims of this investigation were: i. to develop a rectal nicotine delivery system with bioadhesives for the treatment of ulcerative colitis and ii. to evaluate nicotine transport and cytotoxicity of the delivery system using Caco-2 cell culture systems. Rectal nicotine suppository formulations were prepared in semi-synthetic glyceride bases (Suppocire AM and AI, Gattefosse Inc.) by fusion method. The in vitro release of nicotine was carried out in modified USP dissolution apparatus 1. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and powder X-ray diffraction were used to study the polymorphic changes if any in the formulations. An LC method was used for the assay of nicotine. The effect of bioadhesives (glyceryl monooleate (GMO), and Carbopol) on the nicotine flux was evaluated using Caco-2 cell permeability studies and Caco-2 cell viability was determined using the MTT toxicity assay. In vitro release studies indicated that the low melting AI base was superior to that of the AM base. Presence of GMO in the formulation enhanced the release of nicotine whereas Carbopol showed an opposite effect. The enhanced release of nicotine in the presence of GMO was found to be partly due to the melting point lowering effect of this compound. Caco-2 cell absorption studies showed that there was a decrease in the flux of nicotine in the presence of both the bioadhesives. The flux of the fluorescein marker which is used to study the integrity of the cell monolayers was found to be slightly higher only in the presence of 10% (w/w) Carbopol. Nicotine, Carbopol, and GMO do not have any cytotoxic effect on these cell monolayers within the concentration range used in the formulations. Rectal nicotine formulations containing bioadhesives were developed and characterized. Both in vitro release and cell culture studies have indicated that one can manipulate the nicotine release from these rectal delivery systems by incorporation of various bioadhesives or the use of different bases in the

  17. Spectroscopic Studies on Nicotine and Nornicotine in the UV Region†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, Peter M; Vas, Carl A; Bui, Tam TT; Drake, Alex F; McAdam, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    The UV absorption and electronic circular dichroism (ECD) spectra of (R)- and (S)-nicotine and (S)-nornicotine in aqueous solution were measured to a significantly lower wavelength range than previously reported, allowing the identification of four previously unobserved electronic transitions. The ECD spectra of the two enantiomers of nicotine were equal in magnitude and opposite in sign, while the UV absorption spectra were coincidental. In line with previous observations, (S)-nicotine exhibited a negative cotton effect centered on 263 nm with vibronic structure (π–π1* transition) and a broad, positive ECD signal at around 240 nm associated with the n–π1* transition. As expected this band disappeared when the pyridyl aromatic moiety was protonated. Four further electronic transitions are reported between 215 and 180 nm; it is proposed the negative maxima around 206 nm is either an n–σ* transition or a charge transfer band resulting from the movement of charge from the pyrrolidyl N lone pair to the pyridyl π* orbital. The pyridyl π–π2* transition may be contained within the negative ECD signal envelope at around 200 nm. Another negative maximum at 188 nm is thought to be the pyridyl π–π3* transition, while the lowest wavelength end-absorption and positive ECD may be associated with the π–π4* transition. The UV absorption spectra of (S)-nornicotine was similar to that of (S)-nicotine in the range 280–220 nm and acidification of the aqueous solution enhanced the absorption. The ECD signals of (S)-nornicotine were considerably less intense compared to (S)-nicotine and declined further on acidification; in the far UV region the ECD spectra diverge considerably. Chirality 25:288–293, 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:23494810

  18. Spectroscopic studies on nicotine and nornicotine in the UV region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, Peter M; Vas, Carl A; Bui, Tam T T; Drake, Alex F; McAdam, Kevin

    2013-05-01

    The UV absorption and electronic circular dichroism (ECD) spectra of (R)- and (S)-nicotine and (S)-nornicotine in aqueous solution were measured to a significantly lower wavelength range than previously reported, allowing the identification of four previously unobserved electronic transitions. The ECD spectra of the two enantiomers of nicotine were equal in magnitude and opposite in sign, while the UV absorption spectra were coincidental. In line with previous observations, (S)-nicotine exhibited a negative cotton effect centered on 263 nm with vibronic structure (π-π1 * transition) and a broad, positive ECD signal at around 240 nm associated with the n-π1 * transition. As expected this band disappeared when the pyridyl aromatic moiety was protonated. Four further electronic transitions are reported between 215 and 180 nm; it is proposed the negative maxima around 206 nm is either an n-σ* transition or a charge transfer band resulting from the movement of charge from the pyrrolidyl N lone pair to the pyridyl π* orbital. The pyridyl π-π2* transition may be contained within the negative ECD signal envelope at around 200 nm. Another negative maximum at 188 nm is thought to be the pyridyl π-π3 * transition, while the lowest wavelength end-absorption and positive ECD may be associated with the π-π4 * transition. The UV absorption spectra of (S)-nornicotine was similar to that of (S)-nicotine in the range 280-220 nm and acidification of the aqueous solution enhanced the absorption. The ECD signals of (S)-nornicotine were considerably less intense compared to (S)-nicotine and declined further on acidification; in the far UV region the ECD spectra diverge considerably. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Replicated Risk Nicotinic Cholinergic Receptor Genes for Nicotine Dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Lingjun; Garcia-Milian, Rolando; Guo, Xiaoyun; Zhong, Chunlong; Tan, Yunlong; Wang, Zhiren; Wang, Jijun; Wang, Xiaoping; Kang, Longli; Lu, Lu; Chen, Xiangning; Li, Chiang-Shan R; Luo, Xingguang

    2016-11-07

    It has been hypothesized that the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) play important roles in nicotine dependence (ND) and influence the number of cigarettes smoked per day (CPD) in smokers. We compiled the associations between nicotinic cholinergic receptor genes (CHRNs) and ND/CPD that were replicated across different studies, reviewed the expression of these risk genes in human/mouse brains, and verified their expression using independent samples of both human and mouse brains. The potential functions of the replicated risk variants were examined using cis-eQTL analysis or predicted using a series of bioinformatics analyses. We found replicated and significant associations for ND/CPD at 19 SNPs in six genes in three genomic regions (CHRNB3-A6, CHRNA5-A3-B4 and CHRNA4). These six risk genes are expressed in at least 18 distinct areas of the human/mouse brain, with verification in our independent human and mouse brain samples. The risk variants might influence the transcription, expression and splicing of the risk genes, alter RNA secondary or protein structure. We conclude that the replicated associations between CHRNB3-A6, CHRNA5-A3-B4,CHRNA4 and ND/CPD are very robust. More research is needed to examine how these genetic variants contribute to the risk for ND/CPD.

  20. Nicotine increases stress-induced serotonin release by stimulating nicotinic acetylcholine receptor in rat striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, H; Takada, Y; Nagai, N; Urano, T; Takada, A

    1998-03-01

    We used a microdialysis technique to analyze the effects of footshock stress on the release of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine: 5-HT) in the striatum or prefrontal cortex (PFC) in rats that were pretreated with nicotine. Neither nicotine administration alone nor stress application alone changed 5-HT release. During stress application, however, both chronic nicotine administration and local infusion of nicotine to the striatum significantly increased 5-HT release in the striatum, though not in the PFC. These increases in 5-HT release were eradicated by a local infusion of mecamylamine. Release of 5-HT increased in the striatum during stress application when nicotine was injected to the striatum, while nicotinic injection to the dorsal raphe nucleus did not increase 5-HT release in the striatum. The present study demonstrates that nicotine induced a release of 5-HT upon stress application by stimulating presynaptic nicotinic receptors in the striatum.

  1. Effect of Selective Inhibition of Reactivated Nicotine-Associated Memories With Propranolol on Nicotine Craving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Yan-Xue; Deng, Jia-Hui; Chen, Ya-Yun; Zhang, Li-Bo; Wu, Ping; Huang, Geng-Di; Luo, Yi-Xiao; Bao, Yan-Ping; Wang, Yu-Mei; Shaham, Yavin; Shi, Jie; Lu, Lin

    2017-03-01

    A relapse into nicotine addiction during abstinence often occurs after the reactivation of nicotine reward memories, either by acute exposure to nicotine (a smoking episode) or by smoking-associated conditioned stimuli (CS). Preclinical studies suggest that drug reward memories can undergo memory reconsolidation after being reactivated, during which they can be weakened or erased by pharmacological or behavioral manipulations. However, translational clinical studies using CS-induced memory retrieval-reconsolidation procedures to decrease drug craving reported inconsistent results. To develop and test an unconditioned stimulus (UCS)-induced retrieval-reconsolidation procedure to decrease nicotine craving among people who smoke. A translational rat study and human study in an academic outpatient medical center among 96 male smokers (aged 18- 45 years) to determine the association of propranolol administration within the time window of memory reconsolidation (after retrieval of the nicotine-associated memories by nicotine UCS exposure) with relapse to nicotine-conditioned place preference (CPP) and operant nicotine seeking in rats, and measures of preference to nicotine-associated CS and nicotine craving among people who smoke. The study rats were injected noncontingently with the UCS (nicotine 0.15 mg/kg, subcutaneous) in their home cage, and the human study participants administered a dose of propranolol (40 mg, per os; Zhongnuo Pharma). Nicotine CPP and operant nicotine seeking in rats, and preference and craving ratings for newly learned and preexisting real-life nicotine-associated CS among people who smoke. Sixty-nine male smokers completed the experiment and were included for statistical analysis: 24 in the group that received placebo plus 1 hour plus UCS, 23 who received propranolol plus 1 hour plus UCS, and 22 who received UCS plus 6 hours plus propranolol. In rat relapse models, propranolol injections administered immediately after nicotine UCS

  2. Environmental Assessment: Western Range Instrumentation Modernization Program Vandenberg Air Force Base, Santa Barbara County, and Pillar Point Air Force Station, San Mateo County California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-03

    emissions due to the use of fossil fuel-powered equipment and (2) fugitive dust emissions (PM10 and PM2.5) during earth- moving activities, and materials...Wildlife Resources Wildlife, including mammals , amphibians, reptiles, and birds, present in the vicinity of the construction activities could be...entire Holocene and may extend back to late Pleistocene times. Excavations on Vandenberg Air Force Base (VAFB) reveal occupations dating back 9,000

  3. European Union emission inventory report 1990-2008 : under the UNECE Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution (LRTAP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    This report describes the EU27 emission trends for : a number of air pollutants for the period 19902008. : An improved gap-filling methodology used in : compiling this year's EU27 emission inventory : means that for the first time a complete...

  4. Conditional Knockout of NMDA Receptors in Dopamine Neurons Prevents Nicotine-Conditioned Place Preference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillip Wang, Lei; Li, Fei; Shen, Xiaoming; Tsien, Joe Z.

    2010-01-01

    Nicotine from smoking tobacco produces one of the most common forms of addictive behavior and has major societal and health consequences. It is known that nicotine triggers tobacco addiction by activating nicotine acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in the midbrain dopaminergic reward system, primarily via the ventral tegmental area. Heterogeneity of cell populations in the region has made it difficult for pharmacology-based analyses to precisely assess the functional significance of glutamatergic inputs to dopamine neurons in nicotine addiction. By generating dopamine neuron-specific NR1 knockout mice using cre/loxP-mediated method, we demonstrate that genetic inactivation of the NMDA receptors in ventral tegmental area dopamine neurons selectively prevents nicotine-conditioned place preference. Interestingly, the mutant mice exhibit normal performances in the conditioned place aversion induced by aversive air puffs. Therefore, this selective effect on addictive drug-induced reinforcement behavior suggests that NMDA receptors in the dopamine neurons are critical for the development of nicotine addiction. PMID:20062537

  5. Reducing the nicotine content to make cigarettes less addictive

    OpenAIRE

    Benowitz, Neal; Benowitz, NL; Henningfield, JE

    2013-01-01

    Nicotine is highly addictive and is primarily responsible for the maintenance of cigarette smoking. In 1994, Benowitz and Henningfield proposed the idea of federal regulation of the nicotine content of cigarettes such that the nicotine content of cigarette

  6. Tobacco Use and Nicotine Dependence among Conflict-Affected Men in the Republic of Georgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikram Patel

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is very little evidence globally on tobacco use and nicotine dependence among civilian populations affected by armed conflict, despite key vulnerability factors related to elevated mental disorders and socio-economic stressors. The study aim was to describe patterns of smoking and nicotine dependence among conflict-affected civilian men in the Republic of Georgia and associations with mental disorders. Methods: A cross-sectional household survey using multistage random sampling was conducted in late 2011 among conflict-affected populations in Georgia. Respondents included in this paper were 1,248 men aged ≥18 years who were internally displaced persons (IDPs and former IDPs who had returned in their home areas. Outcomes of current tobacco use, heavy use (≥20 cigarettes per day, and nicotine dependence (using the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence were used. PTSD, depression, anxiety and hazardous alcohol use were also measured, along with exposure to traumatic events and a range of demographic and socio-economic characteristics. Results: Of 1,248 men, 592 (47.4% smoked and 70.9% of current smokers were heavy smokers. The mean nicotine dependence score was 5.0 and the proportion with high nicotine dependence (≥6 was 41.4%. In multivariate regression analyses, nicotine dependence was significantly associated with PTSD (β 0.74 and depression (β 0.85, along with older age (except 65+ years, and being a returnee (compared to IDPs. Conclusions: The study reveals very high levels of heavy smoking and nicotine dependence among conflict-affected persons in Georgia. The associations between nicotine dependence, PTSD and depression suggest interventions could yield synergistic benefits.

  7. Nicotine Impairs Macrophage Control of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Xiyuan; Stitzel, Jerry A; Bai, An; Zambrano, Cristian A; Phillips, Matthew; Marrack, Philippa; Chan, Edward D

    2017-09-01

    Pure nicotine impairs macrophage killing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB), but it is not known whether the nicotine component in cigarette smoke (CS) plays a role. Moreover, the mechanisms by which nicotine impairs macrophage immunity against MTB have not been explored. To neutralize the effects of nicotine in CS extract, we used a competitive inhibitor to the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR)-mecamylamine-as well as macrophages derived from mice with genetic disruption of specific subunits of nAChR. We also determined whether nicotine impaired macrophage autophagy and whether nicotine-exposed T regulatory cells (Tregs) could subvert macrophage anti-MTB immunity. Mecamylamine reduced the CS extract increase in MTB burden by 43%. CS extract increase in MTB was also significantly attenuated in macrophages from mice with genetic disruption of either the α7, β2, or β4 subunit of nAChR. Nicotine inhibited autophagosome formation in MTB-infected THP-1 cells and primary murine alveolar macrophages, as well as increased the intracellular MTB burden. Nicotine increased migration of THP-1 cells, consistent with the increased number of macrophages found in the lungs of smokers. Nicotine induced Tregs to produce transforming growth factor-β. Naive mouse macrophages co-cultured with nicotine-exposed Tregs had significantly greater numbers of viable MTB recovered with increased IL-10 production and urea production, but no difference in secreted nitric oxide as compared with macrophages cocultured with unexposed Tregs. We conclude that nicotine in CS plays an important role in subverting macrophage control of MTB infection.

  8. The α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Morten Skøtt; Mikkelsen, Jens D

    2012-01-01

    The α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) is a promising drug target for a number of diseases ranging from schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease to chronic pain and inflammatory diseases. Focusing on the central nervous system, we describe how endogenous and experimental compounds...... in diseases such as schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease. Furthermore, α7 nAChR agonists and allosteric modulators differentially alter expression and functionality of the α7 nAChR with repeated administration, which suggests that there may be fundamentally different outcomes of long-term administration...... with these different types of compounds. Finally, we describe the special case of Aβ1-42 binding to the α7 nAChR, which may pose a unique challenge to drug development of α7 nAChR-specific ligands for Alzheimer's disease. Hopefully, a greater knowledge of the many factors influencing α7 nAChR function as well...

  9. In vivo human buccal permeability of nicotine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adrian, Charlotte L; Olin, Helle B D; Dalhoff, Kim

    2006-01-01

    -smokers using a buccal perfusion cell. The disappearance of nicotine from perfusion solutions with pH 6.0, 7.4, and 8.1 was studied for 3h. The apparent permeability of nicotine (P(app)) was determined at each pH value. Parotid saliva was collected in an attempt to assess systemic levels of nicotine......(app) values and non-ionised nicotine, which indicates that the nicotine transfer occurred by means of passive diffusion. P(app) values of 0.60 x 10(-4) and 6.18 x 10(-4)cms(-1) were obtained for the mono-protonated and non-ionised species of nicotine, respectively. The analysis of the parotid saliva samples...... indicated that these samples might be useful in the assessment of systemic absorption of nicotine. Previous buccal in vitro models underestimated the in vivo human permeability of nicotine. However, the in vitro models were capable of predicting the effect of pH on the nicotine permeability....

  10. Final Environmental Assessment: Proposed Laser-Firing Tank Range and Artillery Maneuver Area Arnold Air Force Base Tullahoma Tennessee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-03-01

    National Guard (TNARNG) has received funding and approval from the National Guard Bureau for the preparation of an EA to document the environmental effects...34increments" and area classifications that effectively define "significant deterioration" for individual pollutants. The Clean Air Act’s area classification...Melilotus alba white sweet clover Significant Melilotus officinalis yellow sweet clover Significant Rorippa nasturtium-aquaticum watercress

  11. Environmental Assessment for Changes to Reveille Airspace at Nevada Test and Training Range Nellis Air Force Base, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-03-01

    golden eagle, great- horned owl, spotted owl, burrowing owl, peregrine falcons, prairie falcons, and aplomado falcon. Peregrine and prairie...overflights at Naval Air Station Fallon in northern Nevada, that nesting raptors ( golden eagle, bald eagle, prairie falcon, Swainson’s hawk, and...presumed 10 occut elsewhere, on NAFR. Currant milkverch AslragalrJS mrcialu soc G2S I Nonheastem Nyc County, unconfirmed on NAFR or MOA airspace

  12. Nicotine alkaloid levels, and nicotine to nornicotine conversion, in Australian Nicotiana species used as chewing tobacco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahid Moghbel

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A range of endemic Nicotiana species are chewed as a smokeless tobacco by several Aboriginal populations of Australia. In tobacco research, nicotine to nornicotine conversion is important because nornicotine lowers tobacco quality and is detrimental to health. A diverse group of cytochrome P450 genes with different transcriptional regulations are involved in this conversion. The primary aims of this study were to quantify the pyridine alkaloids and investigate nicotine to nornicotine conversion in laboratory-grown Australian Nicotiana spp. Nicotine, nornicotine, anatabine, anabasine, myosmine and cotinine were quantified in fresh leaves of 24 out of the 26 recognised Australian Nicotiana taxa. Conserved regions of CYP82E related genes were PCR amplified in all studied taxa. The conversion process in fresh leaves was compared with that in leaves that underwent a simulated curing process for species that we identified as being high converters (N. cavicola, N. goodspeedii, N. velutina and low converters (N. benthamiana, N. excelsior, N. gossei. Agarose gel electrophoretic analysis of CYP82E related genes obtained from the PCR amplification of the cDNA in fresh versus leaves with simulated curing showed about a 3-fold increase in transcript accumulation levels in cured leaves of the high converter species, while the transcript accumulation in N. gossei and N. excelsior maintained a steady basal level and increased by a small amount in N. benthamiana. This suggests the presence of functional loci that are triggered by curing in only high converter species and indicates a potential risk for chewers of high converter species. Keywords: Natural product chemistry, Pharmaceutical science, Pharmaceutical chemistry, Toxicology, Plant biology, Biochemistry, Genetics

  13. Nicotine-related alkaloids and metabolites as inhibitors of human cytochrome P-450 2A6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denton, Travis T; Zhang, Xiaodong; Cashman, John R

    2004-02-15

    S-(-)-Nicotine and 13 of the most prevalent nicotine-related alkaloids and metabolites (i.e., S-(-)-nornicotine, myosmine, beta-nicotyrine, S-cotinine, S-norcotinine, S-(-)-nicotine N-1'-oxide, S-(-)-nicotine Delta1'-5'-iminium ion, S-(-)-anabasine, S-(-)-N-methylanabasine, anabaseine, S-(-)-anatabine, nicotelline, and 2,3'-bipyridyl) were evaluated as inhibitors of human cDNA-expressed cytochrome P-450 2A6 (CYP2A6) mediated coumarin 7-hydroxylation. Tobacco alkaloids myosmine, S-(-)-nornicotine, S-cotinine, S-norcotinine, S-(-)-nicotine N-1'-oxide, S-(-)-nicotine Delta1'-5'-iminium ion, S-(-)-N-methylanabasine, anabaseine, and nicotelline had Ki values for inhibition of coumarin 7-hydroxylation ranging from 20 microM to more than 300 microM whereas nicotine and S-(-)-anatabine were much more potent (i.e. 4.4 and 3.8 microM, respectively). The tobacco alkaloids 2,3'-bipyridyl (7.7 microM) and S-(-)-anabasine (5.4 microM), were somewhat less potent compared with S-(-)-nicotine or S-(-)-anatabine in inhibition of human CYP2A6. beta-Nicotyrine, in which the N-methylpyrrolidino moiety of nicotine was replaced by the aromatic N-methylpyrrole ring, was shown to inhibit human CYP2A6 with much greater potency (Ki=0.37 microM) compared with S-(-)-nicotine. Among the compounds examined, only nicotine and beta-nicotyrine were mechanism-based inhibitors of human CYP2A6. The potency of the mechanism-based CYP2A6 inhibitors suggests that, for smokers, modulation of CYP2A6 may be greater than that predicted on the basis of serum concentration of these alkaloids. Our results indicate that the prominent nicotine-related alkaloid beta-nicotyrine present after smoking potently inhibits human CYP2A6.

  14. Nicotine dependence and role of pharmacist in nicotine addiction control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fathi M. Sherif

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: There are about one billion smokers in the world and death toll is almost six million people in a year. By 2020, death will increase to more than 70% in some developing countries. The tobacco use is high and is varied from one country to another. Tobacco addiction inhibits any decrease in morbidity and mortality and nicotine dependence is assumed to be present if tolerance, withdrawal and compulsive desire to consume tobacco measures are satisfied. It is well-documented that environmental and genetic factors influence the possibility of nicotine addiction. Thus, action is needed to be taken to avoid this from happening.      Governments and administrators have to play a vital role in smoking control. People at large needs to be involved in the fight against tobacco.      Within society, health professionals as physicians and pharmacists have a leading role to play because they practice their profession in particular health-sector. Community pharmacists are in an ideal position as one of the most accessible health care professionals to fulfill fundamental role in public health as key providers of tobacco cessation support and prevention services. Pharmacists have a considerable knowledge of nicotine withdrawal symptoms, dosage and formulation of drugs used in smoking cessation therapy. Pharmacists have the opportunity to advice smokers to stop and some pharmacists with special training will be able to provide them with treatment. Media campaigns (pharmacy and non-pharmacy groups to encourage smoking cessation and discourage smoking initiation can be useful and effective. With any tobacco-use prevention program, it should always be remembered that long time is needed before success becomes effective and apparent.   .

  15. The 1979 convention on long range transfrontier air pollution; La convention sur la pollution atmospherique transfrontiere a longue distance de 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jagusiewicz, A. [UNECE, Palais des Nations, Geneve (Switzerland)

    1997-12-31

    Applied in March 1983, the 1979 international Convention have induced five protocols related to sulfur, nitrogen oxide and VOC emissions. After 1994, three new protocols are under study, concerning the reduction of nitrogenous and related compounds, heavy metals and long-lasting organic pollutants. Works and organization of the European EMEP program for the continuous monitoring and evaluation of the long range air pollution transport in Europe, are presented

  16. An Overview of the 2013 Las Vegas Ozone Study (LVOS): Impact of stratospheric intrusions and long-range transport on surface air quality

    OpenAIRE

    A. O. Langford; C. J. Senff; R.J., Alvarez; Brioude, J.; Cooper, O. R.; J. S. Holloway; M. Lin; R. D. Marchbanks; Pierce, R. B.; Sandberg, S.P.; Weickmann, A.M.; Williams, E. J.

    2014-01-01

    International audience; The 2013 Las Vegas Ozone Study (LVOS) was conducted in the late spring and early summer of 2013 to assess the seasonal contribution of stratosphere-to-troposphere transport (STT) and long-range transport to surface ozone in Clark County, Nevada and determine if these processes directly contribute to exceedances of the National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) in this area. Secondary goals included the characterization of local ozone production, regional transport f...

  17. Predictors of the nicotine reinforcement threshold, compensation, and elasticity of demand in a rodent model of nicotine reduction policy*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grebenstein, Patricia E.; Burroughs, Danielle; Roiko, Samuel A.; Pentel, Paul R.; LeSage, Mark G.

    2015-01-01

    Background The FDA is considering reducing the nicotine content in tobacco products as a population-based strategy to reduce tobacco addiction. Research is needed to determine the threshold level of nicotine needed to maintain smoking and the extent of compensatory smoking that could occur during nicotine reduction. Sources of variability in these measures across sub-populations also need to be identified so that policies can take into account the risks and benefits of nicotine reduction in vulnerable populations. Methods The present study examined these issues in a rodent nicotine self- administration model of nicotine reduction policy to characterize individual differences in nicotine reinforcement thresholds, degree of compensation, and elasticity of demand during progressive reduction of the unit nicotine dose. The ability of individual differences in baseline nicotine intake and nicotine pharmacokinetics to predict responses to dose reduction was also examined. Results Considerable variability in the reinforcement threshold, compensation, and elasticity of demand was evident. High baseline nicotine intake was not correlated with the reinforcement threshold, but predicted less compensation and less elastic demand. Higher nicotine clearance predicted low reinforcement thresholds, greater compensation, and less elastic demand. Less elastic demand also predicted lower reinforcement thresholds. Conclusions These findings suggest that baseline nicotine intake, nicotine clearance, and the essential value of nicotine (i.e. elasticity of demand) moderate the effects of progressive nicotine reduction in rats and warrant further study in humans. They also suggest that smokers with fast nicotine metabolism may be more vulnerable to the risks of nicotine reduction. PMID:25891231

  18. The effect of nicotine on the lung following chronic tobacco use ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The reduced PEFR is an indication of air flow obstruction and may explain deterioration to emphysema seen in chronic chain smokers. Nicotine is known to produce an initial stimulant phase at autonomic ganglia and neuromuscular junction followed rapidly by neuromuscular blockade and receptor desensitization.

  19. Impact of e-liquid flavors on nicotine intake and pharmacology of e-cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Helen, Gideon; Dempsey, Delia A; Havel, Christopher M; Jacob, Peyton; Benowitz, Neal L

    2017-09-01

    To describe the effect of e-liquid flavors on nicotine intake and pharmacology of e-cigarettes. 11 males and 3 females participated in a 3-day inpatient crossover study with strawberry, tobacco, and their usual flavor e-liquid. Nicotine levels were nominally 18mg/mL in the strawberry (pH 8.29) and tobacco (pH 9.10) e-liquids and ranged between 3-18mg/mL in the usual brands (mean pH 6.80). Each day consisted of a 15-puff session followed by 4h of abstinence, then 90min of ad libitum use. Subjects used a KangerTech mini ProTank 3. After 15 puffs, the amount of nicotine inhaled and systemically retained were not significantly different between the strawberry and tobacco e-liquids but plasma AUC(0→180) was significantly higher with the strawberry e-liquid. While not significantly different, Cmax was 22% higher and various early time point AUCs to measure rate of rise of nicotine in blood ranged between 17 and 23% higher with the strawberry e-liquid compared to the tobacco e-liquid. During ad libitum use, systemic exposure to nicotine (AUC(0→90)) was the same for the tobacco and usual brand e-liquids but were both significantly lower than after using the strawberry e-liquid. The usual flavors were more liked and satisfying than the strawberry and tobacco e-liquids. Flavors influence nicotine exposure through flavor liking, may affect rate of nicotine absorption possibly through pH effects, and contribute to heart rate acceleration and subjective effects of e-cigarettes. E-cigarette users titrate their nicotine exposure but the extent of titration may vary across flavors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Modelling the Contribution of Long-range Transport of Ammonium Nitrates to Urban Air Pollution and Human Exposure in the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, S.; Vieno, M.; Beck, R.; Ots, R.; Moring, A.; Steinle, S.; Heal, M. R.; Doherty, R. M.

    2014-12-01

    Urban air pollution and its effects on human health remain to be a challenge in spite of substantial reductions in the emissions of air pollutants (e.g. sulphur dioxide, nitrogen oxides) over the past decades in Europe. While primary pollutants play a vital role in urban air pollution, recent model studies highlight and quantify the relevance of long-range transport of secondary pollution (e.g. secondary inorganic aerosols such as ammonium sulphates and nitrates, or ground level ozone) for the exceedance of local air quality limit values in urban areas across Europe. This contribution can be seen in recurring episodes, for instance in spring 2014, with very high levels of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in Paris, London and other European cities, as well as in elevated background levels throughout the year. While we will focus on the contribution to exceedances of PM2.5 limit values here, this transboundary transport has wider implications for the deposition of reactive nitrogen far from the source as well. As local authorities are tasked with ensuring the attainment of air quality limit values, exceedances caused by long-range transport, with emissions originating from sources outside of their jurisdiction present substantial challenges. Furthermore, while policy measures have successfully addressed emissions from large point sources in the past, and made progress towards reducing pollution from road vehicles, emissions of ammonia from agricultural sources - a key component for the long-range transport of secondary inorganic aerosols - have remained relatively stable in Europe. Using the example of Europe and the UK, we demonstrate in our presentation how atmospheric chemistry transport modelling across different scales (from regional to local) can provide vital insight in the mechanisms of and relative contributions to the formation of secondary inorganic aerosols. In addition, we illustrate how this modelling capability can inform the design of efficient control

  1. The effect of ozone on nicotine desorption from model surfaces:evidence for heterogeneous chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Destaillats, Hugo; Singer, Brett C.; Lee, Sharon K.; Gundel, LaraA.

    2005-05-01

    Assessment of secondhand tobacco smoke exposure using nicotine as a tracer or biomarker is affected by sorption of the alkaloid to indoor surfaces and by its long-term re-emission into the gas phase. However, surface chemical interactions of nicotine have not been sufficiently characterized. Here, the reaction of ozone with nicotine sorbed to Teflon and cotton surfaces was investigated in an environmental chamber by monitoring nicotine desorption over a week following equilibration in dry or humid air (65-70 % RH). The Teflon and cotton surfaces had N{sub 2}-BET surface areas of 0.19 and 1.17 m{sup 2} g{sup -1}, and water mass uptakes (at 70 % RH) of 0 and 7.1 % respectively. Compared with dry air baseline levels in the absence of O{sub 3}, gas phase nicotine concentrations decrease, by 2 orders of magnitude for Teflon after 50 h at 20-45 ppb O{sub 3}, and by a factor of 10 for cotton after 100 h with 13-15 ppb O{sub 3}. The ratios of pseudo first-order rate constants for surface reaction (r) to long-term desorption (k) were r/k = 3.5 and 2.0 for Teflon and cotton surfaces, respectively. These results show that surface oxidation was competitive with desorption. Hence, oxidative losses could significantly reduce long-term re-emissions of nicotine from indoor surfaces. Formaldehyde, N-methylformamide, nicotinaldehyde and cotinine were identified as oxidation products, indicating that the pyrrolidinic N was the site of electrophilic attack by O{sub 3}. The presence of water vapor had no effect on the nicotine-O{sub 3} reaction on Teflon surfaces. By contrast, nicotine desorption from cotton in humid air was unaffected by the presence of ozone. These observations are consistent with complete inhibition of ozone-nicotine surface reactions in an aqueous surface film present in cotton but not in Teflon surfaces.

  2. Pharmacology of nicotine: addiction, smoking-induced disease, and therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benowitz, Neal L

    2009-01-01

    Nicotine sustains tobacco addiction, a major cause of disability and premature death. Nicotine binds to nicotinic cholinergic receptors, facilitating neurotransmitter release and thereby mediating the complex actions of nicotine in tobacco users. Dopamine, glutamate, and gamma aminobutyric acid release are particularly important in the development of nicotine dependence, and corticotropin-releasing factor appears to contribute to nicotine withdrawal. Nicotine dependence is highly heritable. Genetic studies indicate roles for nicotinic receptor subtypes, as well as genes involved in neuroplasticity and learning, in development of dependence. Nicotine is primarily metabolized by CYP 2A6, and variability in rate of metabolism contributes to vulnerability to tobacco dependence, response to smoking cessation treatment, and lung cancer risk. Tobacco addiction is much more common in persons with mental illness and substance abuse disorders, representing a high proportion of current smokers. Pharmacotherapeutic approaches to tobacco addiction include nicotine replacement, bupropion, and varenicline, the latter a selective nicotine receptor partial agonist.

  3. Canadian Forest Fires and the Effects of Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution on Hospitalizations among the Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George E. Le

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In July 2002, lightning strikes ignited over 250 fires in Quebec, Canada, destroying over one million hectares of forest. The smoke plume generated from the fires had a major impact on air quality across the east coast of the U.S. Using data from the Medicare National Claims History File and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA National air pollution monitoring network, we evaluated the health impact of smoke exposure on 5.9 million elderly people (ages 65+ in the Medicare population in 81 counties in 11 northeastern and Mid-Atlantic States of the US. We estimated differences in the exposure to ambient PM2.5—airborne particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter of ≤2.5 µm—concentrations and hospitalizations for cardiovascular, pulmonary and injury outcomes, before and during the smoke episode. We found that there was an associated 49.6% (95% confidence interval (CI, 29.8, 72.3 and 64.9% (95% CI, 44.3–88.5 increase rate of hospitalization for respiratory and cardiovascular diagnoses, respectively, when the smoke plume was present compared to before the smoke plume had arrived. Our study suggests that rapid increases in PM2.5 concentrations resulting from wildfire smoke can impact the health of elderly populations thousands of kilometers removed from the fires.

  4. Range Scheduling Automation for the Air Force Satellite Control Network: A Case Study in Computer System Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-09-01

    ECP Engineering Change Proposal FQT Functional Qualification Test GPS Globil Positioning System GTS Guam Tracking Station HTS Hawaii Tracking Station...operational environment for which the two range scheduling automation projects were developed, it is important to understand the AFSCN range scheduling...of the two efforts? The literature review in Chapter II discusses the software acquisition problem in the Department of Defense (DOD) environment and

  5. Maternal nicotine exposure during pregnancy and developtnent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and development. Maritz6 found that maternal nicotine. Departlllent ofPhysiological Sciences, University ofthe. Western Cape, Bellville, CP. G.S. MARITZ, PH.D., M.B.A.. K.M. WOOLWARD ..... Furthermore, these results imply that the chewing of nicotine-containing gum during pregnancy in an effort to quit smoking may also ...

  6. VOLTAMMETRIC DETERMINATION OF NICOTINE IN CIGARETTE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    determination of nicotine in two brands of commercial cigarettes and acceptable recovery values of 97-108% were found. KEY WORDS: ... most commons are; carbon, platinum, and gold [1-3]. Carbon-based .... recovery measurements, previously analyzed cigarette samples were spiked with standard nicotine at three ...

  7. Dispelling Myths about Nicotine Replacement Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... L, Mant D, Fowler G. 2004. Nicotine replacement therapy for smoking cessation. Cochrane Database Syst Rev :CD000146 2. Luty ... A, Fanelli C, et al. Effect of cigarette smoking and of a transdermal nicotine delivery system on glucoregulation ... Cardiol. 1999;22:357-360. 18. Working ...

  8. Nicotinic alteration of decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naudé, Jérémie; Dongelmans, Malou; Faure, Philippe

    2015-09-01

    Addiction to nicotine is characterized by impulses, urges and lack of self-control towards cigarettes. A key element in the process of addiction is the development of habits oriented towards nicotine consumption that surpass flexible systems as a consequence of a gradual adaptation to chronic drug exposure. However, the long-term effects of nicotine on brain circuits also induce wide changes in decision-making processes, affecting behaviors unrelated to cigarettes. This review aims at providing an update on the implications of nicotine on general decision-making processes, with an emphasis on impulsivity and risk-taking. As impulsivity is a rather ambiguous behavioral trait, we build on economic and normative theories to better characterize these nicotine-induced alterations in decision-making. Nonetheless, experimental data are sparse and often contradictory. We will discuss how the latest findings on the neurobiological basis of choice behavior may help disentangling these issues. We focus on the role of nicotine acetylcholine receptors and their different subunits, and on the spatio-temporal dynamics (i.e. diversity of the neural circuits, short- and long-term effects) of both endogenous acetylcholine and nicotine action. Finally, we try to link these neurobiological results with neuro-computational models of attention, valuation and action, and of the role of acetylcholine in these decision processes. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'The Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor: From Molecular Biology to Cognition'. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Nicotine reduces distraction under low perceptual load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behler, Oliver; Breckel, Thomas P K; Thiel, Christiane M

    2015-04-01

    Several studies provide evidence that nicotine alleviates the detrimental effects of distracting sensory stimuli. It is been suggested that nicotine may either act as a stimulus filter that prevents irrelevant stimuli entering awareness or by enhancing the attentional focus to relevant stimuli via a boost in processing capacity. To differentiate between these two accounts, we administered nicotine to healthy non-smokers and investigated distractor interference in a visual search task with low and high perceptual load to tax processing capacity. Thirty healthy non-smokers received either 7 mg transdermal nicotine or a matched placebo in a double blind within subject design 1 h prior to performing the visual search task with different fixation distractors. Nicotine reduced interference of incongruent distractors, but only under low-load conditions, where distractor effects were large. No effects of nicotine were observed under high-load conditions. Highly distractible subjects showed the largest effects of nicotine. The findings suggest that nicotine acts primarily as a stimulus filter that prevents irrelevant stimuli from entering awareness in situations of high distractor interference.

  10. Chemical Composition and Evaluation of Nicotine, Tobacco Alkaloids, pH, and Selected Flavors in E-Cigarette Cartridges and Refill Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisko, Joseph G; Tran, Hang; Stanfill, Stephen B; Blount, Benjamin C; Watson, Clifford H

    2015-10-01

    Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use is increasing dramatically in developed countries, but little is known about these rapidly evolving products. This study analyzed and evaluated the chemical composition including nicotine, tobacco alkaloids, pH, and flavors in 36 e-liquids brands from 4 manufacturers. We determined the concentrations of nicotine, alkaloids, and select flavors and measured pH in solutions used in e-cigarettes. E-cigarette products were chosen based upon favorable consumer approval ratings from online review websites. Quantitative analyses were performed using strict quality assurance/quality control validated methods previously established by our lab for the measurement of nicotine, alkaloids, pH, and flavors. Three-quarters of the products contained lower measured nicotine levels than the stated label values (6%-42% by concentration). The pH for e-liquids ranged from 5.1-9.1. Minor tobacco alkaloids were found in all samples containing nicotine, and their relative concentrations varied widely among manufacturers. A number of common flavor compounds were analyzed in all e-liquids. Free nicotine levels calculated from the measurement of pH correlated with total nicotine content. The direct correlation between the total nicotine concentration and pH suggests that the alkalinity of nicotine drives the pH of e-cigarette solutions. A higher percentage of nicotine exists in the more absorbable free form as total nicotine concentration increases. A number of products contained tobacco alkaloids at concentrations that exceed U.S. pharmacopeia limits for impurities in nicotine used in pharmaceutical and food products. © Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco 2015. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  11. Final Environmental Assessment for the Integrated Natural Resources Management Plan for Nellis Air Force Base, Creech Air Force Base, and the Nevada Test And Training Range, NV

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    are considered invasive species. The three most promi- nent annual invasives are tumbleweed or Russian thistle (Sa/so/a tragus) , red brome (Bromus...rubens), and cheat-grass (8. tectorum) . Red brome is desert-adapted and has become com- mon on the South Range, while cheat-grass is adapted to cooler...unaffected by EuroAmerican activities. Russian thistle, red brome , and cheat-grass are aggressive colonizers on disturbed soils, and they have

  12. Nicotine Contamination in Particulate Matter Sampling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Garshick

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available We have addressed potential contamination of PM2.5 filter samples by nicotine from cigarette smoke. We collected two nicotine samples – one nicotine sampling filter was placed in-line after the collection of PM2.5 and the other stood alone. The overall correlation between the two nicotine filter levels was 0.99. The nicotine collected on the “stand-alone” filter was slightly greater than that on the “in-line” filter (mean difference = 1.10 μg/m3, but the difference was statistically significant only when PM2.5 was low (≤ 50 μg/m3. It is therefore important to account for personal and secondhand smoke exposure while assessing occupational and environmental PM.

  13. Assessment of indoor air quality at an electronic cigarette (Vaping) convention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rui; Aherrera, Angela; Isichei, Chineye; Olmedo, Pablo; Jarmul, Stephanie; Cohen, Joanna E; Navas-Acien, Ana; Rule, Ana M

    2017-12-29

    E-cigarette (vaping) conventions are public events promoting electronic cigarettes, in which indoor use of e-cigarettes is allowed. The large concentration of people using e-cigarettes and poor air ventilation can result in indoor air pollution. In order to estimate this worst-case exposure to e-cigarettes, we evaluated indoor air quality in a vaping convention in Maryland (MD), USA. Real-time concentrations of particulate matter (PM 10 ) and real-time total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs), CO 2 and NO 2 concentrations were measured. Integrated samples of air nicotine and PM 10 concentrations were also collected. The number of attendees was estimated to range from 75 to 600 at any single observation time. The estimated 24-h time-weighted average (TWA) PM 10 was 1800 μg/m 3 , 12-fold higher than the EPA 24-h regulation (150 μg/m 3 ). Median (range) indoor TVOCs concentration was 0.13 (0.04-0.3) ppm. PM 10 and TVOC concentrations were highly correlated with CO 2 concentrations, indicating the high number of people using e-cigarettes and poor indoor air quality. Air nicotine concentration was 125 μg/m 3 , equivalent to concentrations measured in bars and nightclubs. E-cigarette aerosol in a vaping convention that congregates many e-cigarette users is a major source of PM 10 , air nicotine and VOCs, impairing indoor air quality. These findings also raise occupational concerns for e-cigarette vendors and other venue staff workers.

  14. The μ-opioid receptor gene and smoking initiation and nicotine dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kendler Kenneth S

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The gene encoding the mu-opioid receptor (OPRM1 is reported to be associated with a range of substance dependence. Experiments in knockout mice indicate that the mu-opioid receptor may mediate reinforcing effects of nicotine. In humans, opioid antagonist naltrexone may reduce the reinforcing effects of tobacco smoking. Additionally, the OPRM1 gene is located in a region showing linkage to nicotine dependence. The OPRM1 is thus a plausible candidate gene for smoking behavior. To investigate whether OPRM1 contributes to the susceptibility of smoking initiation and nicotine dependence, we genotyped 11 SNPs in the gene for 688 Caucasian subjects of lifetime smokers and nonsmokers. Three SNPs showed nominal significance for smoking initiation and one reached significance for nicotine dependence. The global test for three-marker (rs9479757-rs2075572-rs10485057 haplotypes was significant for smoking initiation (p = 0.0022. The same three-marker haplotype test was marginal (p = 0.0514 for nicotine dependence. These results suggest that OPRM1 may be involved in smoking initiation and nicotine dependence.

  15. Linkage scan of nicotine dependence in the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF) Family Alcoholism Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gizer, I R; Ehlers, C L; Vieten, C; Seaton-Smith, K L; Feiler, H S; Lee, J V; Segall, S K; Gilder, D A; Wilhelmsen, K C

    2011-04-01

    Nicotine dependence has been shown to represent a heritable condition, and several research groups have performed linkage analysis to identify genomic regions influencing this disorder though only a limited number of the findings have been replicated. In the present study, a genome-wide linkage scan for nicotine dependence was conducted in a community sample of 950 probands and 1204 relatives recruited through the University of California, San Francisco (UCSF) Family Alcoholism Study. A modified version of the Semi-Structured Assessment for the Genetics of Alcoholism (SSAGA) with additional questions that probe nicotine use was used to derive DSM-IV nicotine dependence diagnoses. A locus on chromosome 2q31.1 at 184 centiMorgans nearest to marker D2S2188 yielded a logarithm (base 10) of odds (LOD) score of 3.54 (point-wise empirical p=0.000012). Additional peaks of interest were identified on chromosomes 2q13, 4p15.33-31, 11q25 and 12p11.23-21. Follow-up analyses were conducted examining the contributions of individual nicotine dependence symptoms to the chromosome 2q31.1 linkage peak as well as examining the relationship of this chromosomal region to alcohol dependence. The present report suggests that chromosome 2q31.1 confers risk to the development of nicotine dependence and that this region influences a broad range of nicotine dependence symptoms rather than a specific facet of the disorder. Further, the results show that this region is not linked to alcohol dependence in this population, and thus may influence nicotine dependence specifically.

  16. Using nicotine in scalp hair to assess maternal passive exposure to tobacco smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhenjiang; Li, Zhiwen; Zhang, Jingxu; Huo, Wenhua; Zhu, Yibing; Xie, Jing; Lu, Qun; Wang, Bin

    2017-03-01

    Quantifying population exposure level to tobacco smoke is important for investigating its adverse effects on human health. We aimed to investigate the feasibility and application of using population hair concentrations of nicotine and cotinine to indicate their exposure level to tobacco smoke among pregnant women. Our study recruited 256 mothers who delivered healthy babies and collected their hair samples from scalp, of which 172 mothers were self-reported non-passive smokers and the other 84 mothers were self-reported passive smokers. We analyzed nicotine and cotinine concentrations of the hair section grown during the early pregnancy. The linear relationship between cotinine and nicotine was developed and validated by internal cross-validation method. Our results revealed that self-reported passive smokers had higher concentrations of nicotine [2.08 (1.00-4.46) ng/mg hair, i.e. median value (inter-quartile range)] and cotinine [0.063 (0.041-0.148) ng/mg hair] than non-passive smokers [1.35 (0.58-2.59) ng/mg hair of nicotine and 0.049 (0.022-0.087) ng/mg hair of cotinine, respectively]. There existed a linear regression model between hair cotinine and nicotine concentrations, i.e. [cotinine] = 0.024 × [nicotine]+0.0184 (R2 = 0.756) for this population. The internal cross-validation squared correlation coefficient slightly increased from 0.689 to 0.734 with the training subjects varying from 20% to 90%, suggesting that this regression model had high robustness and predictive accuracy. It was concluded that nicotine in maternal hair can evaluate the hair cotinine level and reflect maternal passive exposure level to ambient tobacco smoke with high sensitivity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Estimation of Nicotine Dose after Low Level Exposure Using Plasma and Urine Nicotine Metabolites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benowitz, Neal L.; Dains, Katherine M.; Dempsey, Delia; Yu, Lisa; Jacob, Peyton

    2010-01-01

    Background We sought to determine the optimal plasma and urine nicotine metabolites, alone or in combination, to estimate the systemic dose of nicotine after low level exposure. Methods We dosed 36 nonsmokers with 100, 200 or 400 μg deuterium-labeled nicotine (doses similar to exposure to secondhand smoke, SHS) by mouth daily for 5 days and then measured plasma and urine nicotine metabolites at various intervals over 24 hours. Results The strongest correlations with nicotine dose were seen for the sum of four [cotinine + cotinine-glucuronide + trans-3′-hydroxycotinine + 3HC-glucuronide] or six [ including also nicotine + nicotine-glucuronide] of the major nicotine metabolites in 24 hour urine collection (r = 0.96), with lesser correlations for these metabolites using spot urines corrected for creatinine at various times of day (r = 0.72 – 0.80). Plasma [cotinine + trans 3′ hydroxycotine] was more highly correlated with nicotine dose than plasma cotinine alone (r = 0.82 vs 0.75). Conclusions Our results provide guidance for selection of biomarkers to estimate the dose of nicotine taken in low level (SHS) tobacco exposure. Impact This is probably relevant to active smoking as well. PMID:20447913

  18. Diagnosis and treatment of nicotine dependence with emphasis on nicotine replacement therapy. A status report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balfour, D; Benowitz, N; Fagerström, K; Kunze, M; Keil, U

    2000-03-01

    Tobacco use is a global health care problem. Repetitive exposure to nicotine produces neuroadaptation resulting in nicotine dependence. Cigarette smoking is particularly addictive due to the repeated delivery of bolus doses of nicotine to the bloodstream. Although compulsive tobacco use is sustained by nicotine addiction, it is the toxic combustion products in tobacco smoke such as carbon monoxide and oxidant gases that adversely affect the cardiovascular system. Smoking cessation produces significant health benefits and is a very cost-effective intervention. Evidence that nicotine is the addictive component of tobacco provides the rationale for using nicotine replacement therapy to aid cessation. Nicotine replacement therapy doubles successful smoking cessation rates and evidence-based guidelines for the treatment of tobacco addiction recommend routine use of nicotine replacement therapy, particularly in heavily dependent smokers. Success rates of up to 40% can be achieved in specialist clinics. Despite early concerns regarding the safety of nicotine replacement therapy in smokers with heart disease, it is now clear that the health risks of using nicotine replacement therapy to assist such patients to stop, or significantly reduce, smoking far outweigh any treatment-related risks. Copyright 2000 The European Society of Cardiology.

  19. Cholinergic modulation of dopamine pathways through nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Kloet, S.F.; Mansvelder, H.D.; de Vries, T.J.

    2015-01-01

    Nicotine addiction is highly prevalent in current society and is often comorbid with other diseases. In the central nervous system, nicotine acts as an agonist for nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) and its effects depend on location and receptor composition. Although nicotinic receptors are

  20. CD-1 mice Show Individual Differences in Nicotine Preference in a Modified Two-Bottle Oral Self-Administration Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Junran; Gautier, Nicole M; Li, Ming D

    2012-01-01

    Although both animal and human studies reveal significant contributions of genetics to smoking addiction, many human studies were underpowered or biased by potential confounding variables, and animal genetic studies are challenged by limited genetic variations and lack of convincing phenotypes. To address these concerns, we used non-sibling outbred CD-1 mice to evaluate individual differences in nicotine preference with a modified two-bottle oral self-administration model. Animals were first given free access to two bottles, one filled with nicotine dissolved in 2% saccharin and the other with saccharin only. Under this regular two-bottle choice condition, the majority of animals avoided the nicotine solution with limited individual differences. However, when we modified the model by introducing 4 days of exposure to 5% saccharin in the drinking water, the animals significantly increased nicotine consumption in the two-bottle choice test, with about 30% animals showing a nicotine preference. Nicotine preference after 5% saccharin treatment remained elevated throughout the 28 days of the experiment. Further, we found there existed striking individual differences in nicotine consumption after exposure to 5% saccharin, with a range of 0-100% of total liquid consumption. The enhanced individual differences and the ratio of nicotine consumption were observed at different concentrations of nicotine (10-80 μg/ml) and in both adolescents and adults. Further examination on the induction mechanism showed that the long-lasting nicotine preference was not correlated with nicotine consumption before the induction, 5% saccharin consumption, or weight gain during the induction. Although liquid consumption during the 4 days of 5% saccharin exposure was decreased by about 30%, comparable liquid restriction alone for 4 days did not induce nicotine preference. Together, this study showed a strong and stable nicotine preference in CD-1 mice, which was induced by a short

  1. Towards numerical forecasting of long-range air transport of birch pollen: theoretical considerations and a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofiev, M; Siljamo, P; Ranta, H; Rantio-Lehtimäki, A

    2006-07-01

    This paper considers the feasibility of numerical simulation of large-scale atmospheric transport of allergenic pollen. It is shown that at least small grains, such as birch pollen, can stay in the air for a few days, which leads to a characteristic scale for their transport of approximately 10(3) km. The analytical consideration confirmed the applicability of existing dispersion models to the pollen transport task and provided some reference parameterizations of the key processes, including dry and wet deposition. The results were applied to the Finnish Emergency Dispersion Modelling System (SILAM), which was then used to analyze pollen transport to Finland during spring time in 2002-2004. Solutions of the inverse problems (source apportionment) showed that the main source areas, from which the birch flowering can affect Finnish territory, are the Baltic States, Russia, Germany, Poland, and Sweden-depending on the particular meteorological situation. Actual forecasting of pollen dispersion required a birch forest map of Europe and a unified European model for birch flowering, both of which were nonexistent before this study. A map was compiled from the national forest inventories of Western Europe and satellite images of broadleaf forests. The flowering model was based on the mean climatological dates for the onset of birch forests rather than conditions of any specific year. Utilization of probability forecasting somewhat alleviated the problem, but the development of a European-wide flowering model remains the main obstacle for real-time forecasting of large-scale pollen distribution.

  2. Air quality at a snowmobile staging area and snow chemistry on and off trail in a Rocky Mountain subalpine forest, Snowy Range, Wyoming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musselman, Robert C; Korfmacher, John L

    2007-10-01

    A study was begun in the winter of 2000-2001 and continued through the winter of 2001-2002 to examine air quality at the Green Rock snowmobile staging area at 2,985 m elevation in the Snowy Range of Wyoming. The study was designed to evaluate the effects of winter recreation snowmobile activity on air quality at this high elevation site by measuring levels of nitrogen oxides (NO( x ), NO), carbon monoxide (CO), ozone (O(3)) and particulate matter (PM(10) mass). Snowmobile numbers were higher weekends than weekdays, but numbers were difficult to quantify with an infrared sensor. Nitrogen oxides and carbon monoxide were significantly higher weekends than weekdays. Ozone and particulate matter were not significantly different during the weekend compared to weekdays. Air quality data during the summer was also compared to the winter data. Carbon monoxide levels at the site were significantly higher during the winter than during the summer. Nitrogen oxides and particulates were significantly higher during the summer compared to winter. Nevertheless, air pollutants were well dispersed and diluted by strong winds common at the site, and it appears that snowmobile emissions did not have a significant impact on air quality at this high elevation ecosystem. Pollutant concentrations were generally low both winter and summer. In a separate study, water chemistry and snow density were measured from snow samples collected on and adjacent to a snowmobile trail. Snow on the trail was significantly denser and significantly more acidic with significantly higher concentrations of sodium, ammonium, calcium, magnesium, fluoride, and sulfate than in snow off the trail. Snowmobile activity had no effect on nitrate levels in snow.

  3. Guidance to employers on integrating e-cigarettes/electronic nicotine delivery systems into tobacco worksite policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitsel, Laurie P; Benowitz, Neal; Bhatnagar, Aruni; Bullen, Chris; Goldstein, Fred; Matthias-Gray, Lena; Grossmeier, Jessica; Harris, John; Isaac, Fikry; Loeppke, Ron; Manley, Marc; Moseley, Karen; Niemiec, Ted; OʼBrien, Vince; Palma-Davis, LaVaughn; Pronk, Nico; Pshock, Jim; Stave, Gregg M; Terry, Paul

    2015-03-01

    In recent years, new products have entered the marketplace that complicate decisions about tobacco control policies and prevention in the workplace. These products, called electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) or electronic nicotine delivery systems, most often deliver nicotine as an aerosol for inhalation, without combustion of tobacco. This new mode of nicotine delivery raises several questions about the safety of the product for the user, the effects of secondhand exposure, how the public use of these products should be handled within tobacco-free and smoke-free air policies, and how their use affects tobacco cessation programs, wellness incentives, and other initiatives to prevent and control tobacco use. In this article, we provide a background on e-cigarettes and then outline key policy recommendations for employers on how the use of these new devices should be managed within worksite tobacco prevention programs and control policies.

  4. Pollution, nicotinism and the general public; Pollution, tabagisme et grand public

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonnaud, F. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, 87 - Limoges (France). Hopital du Cluzeau

    1999-06-01

    The population perception of its own health, is complementary to the study on the industrialized countries public health. In 1997, 89% of the questioned people consider themselves in good health. On the other hand the future perception is more reserved; the main responsible being the environmental pollution effects. On the other hand the nicotinism is not considered as a part of the air pollution. Meanwhile the scientific studies don't confirm this opinion. The over-mortality in connection with the atmospheric pollution is weak. By way of compensation the deaths directly in connection with the nicotinism continuously increase. The nicotinism is henceforth in France, the main problem of public health. (A.L.B.)

  5. Variations in label information and nicotine levels in electronic cigarette refill liquids in South Korea: regulation challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sungroul; Goniewicz, Maciej L; Yu, Sol; Kim, Bokyeong; Gupta, Ribhav

    2015-05-05

    In South Korea, the consumption of liquid nicotine used in electronic cigarettes has dramatically increased from 4310 L in 2012 to 7220 L in 2013. This study aimed to examine the level of heterogeneity of contents of the labels and discrepancy of the nicotine content between that indicated on the label and the actual values for electronic cigarette liquid refill products in South Korea. We purchased 32 electronic cigarette liquid refill products (17 Korean domestic, 15 imported ones) and one pure nicotine product at six different electronic cigarette retail stores in Seoul between May and June 2014. The actual nicotine concentrations of each product were measured by a blinded analyst at Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY, USA. Three out of 15 imported liquid refill products provided manufacturing dates, while expiration dates were available on eight products. The range of nicotine concentration was from "not detected" to 17.5 mg/mL. Labeling discrepancies of the concentrations ranged from -32.2% to 3.3% among electronic cigarette liquid refill products. The highest concentration (150.3 ± 7.9 mg/mL) was found in a sample labeled as "pure nicotine". There is no standardization of labelling among electronic cigarette liquids sampled from retail stores and the labels did not accurately reflect the content. One product labeled "pure nicotine" raises concerns, since it may be poisonous to consumers, especially to children. This study revealed the urgent need for the development of product regulations in South Korea.

  6. Nicotine Reduction Revisited: Science and Future Directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatsukami, Dorothy K.; Perkins, Kenneth A.; LeSage, Mark G.; Ashley, David L.; Henningfield, Jack E.; Benowitz, Neal L.; Backinger, Cathy; Zeller, Mitch

    2015-01-01

    Regulation of nicotine levels in cigarettes and other tobacco products is now possible with the passage of the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act (FSPTCA) in 2009 giving the U.S. Food and Drug Administration authority to regulate tobacco products, and with Articles 9-11 of the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control.[1-2] Both regulatory approaches allow establishing product standards for tobacco constituents, including nicotine. The FSPTCA does not allow nicotine levels to be decreased to zero, although FDA has the authority to reduce nicotine yields to very low, presumably non-addicting levels. The proposal to reduce levels of nicotine to a level that is non-addicting was originally suggested in 1994.[3] Reduction of nicotine in tobacco products could potentially have a profound impact on reducing tobacco-related morbidity and mortality. To examine this issue, two meetings were convened in the United States with non-tobacco-industry scientists of varied disciplines, tobacco control policy-makers and representatives of government agencies. This article provides an overview of the current science in the area of reduced nicotine content cigarettes and key conclusions and recommendations for research and policy that emerged from the deliberations of the meeting members. PMID:20876072

  7. The role of distress intolerance for panic and nicotine withdrawal symptoms during a biological challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farris, Samantha G; Zvolensky, Michael J; Otto, Michael W; Leyro, Teresa M

    2015-07-01

    Distress intolerance is linked to the maintenance of panic disorder and cigarette smoking, and may underlie both problems. Smokers (n = 54; 40.7% panic disorder) were recruited for an experimental study; half were randomly assigned to 12-hour nicotine deprivation and half smoked as usual. The current investigation consisted of secondary, exploratory analyses from this larger experimental study. Four distress intolerance indices were examined as predictors of anxious responding to an emotional elicitation task (10% carbon dioxide (CO2)-enriched air challenge); anxious responding was in turn examined as a predictor of post-challenge panic and nicotine withdrawal symptoms. The Distress Tolerance Scale (DTS) was significantly negatively associated with anxious responding to the challenge (β = -0.41, p = 0.017). The DTS was negatively associated with post-challenge increases nicotine withdrawal symptoms indirectly through the effect of anxious responding to the challenge (b = -0.485, CI95% (-1.095, -0.033)). This same indirect effect was found for post-challenge severity of panic symptoms (b = -0.515, CI95% (-0.888, -0.208)). The DTS was directly predictive of post-challenge increases nicotine withdrawal symptoms, in the opposite direction (β = 0.37, p = 0.009), but not panic symptom severity. Anxious responding in response to stressful experiences may explain the impact of perceived distress intolerance on panic and nicotine withdrawal symptom expression. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. Compound list: nicotinic acid [Open TG-GATEs

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available nicotinic acid NIC 00081 ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Human/in_vitro/nicotinic_aci...d.Human.in_vitro.Liver.zip ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Rat/in_vitro/nicotinic_aci.../in_vivo/Liver/Single/nicotinic_acid.Rat.in_vivo.Liver.Single.zip ftp://ftp.biosc...iencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Rat/in_vivo/Liver/Repeat/nicotinic_acid.Rat.in_vivo.Liver.Repeat.zip ...

  9. Large-scale generic test stand for testing of multiple configurations of air filters utilizing a range of particle size distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giffin, Paxton K.; Parsons, Michael S.; Unz, Ronald J.; Waggoner, Charles A.

    2012-05-01

    The Institute for Clean Energy Technology (ICET) at Mississippi State University has developed a test stand capable of lifecycle testing of high efficiency particulate air filters and other filters specified in American Society of Mechanical Engineers Code on Nuclear Air and Gas Treatment (AG-1) filters. The test stand is currently equipped to test AG-1 Section FK radial flow filters, and expansion is currently underway to increase testing capabilities for other types of AG-1 filters. The test stand is capable of producing differential pressures of 12.45 kPa (50 in. w.c.) at volumetric air flow rates up to 113.3 m3/min (4000 CFM). Testing is performed at elevated and ambient conditions for temperature and relative humidity. Current testing utilizes three challenge aerosols: carbon black, alumina, and Arizona road dust (A1-Ultrafine). Each aerosol has a different mass median diameter to test loading over a wide range of particles sizes. The test stand is designed to monitor and maintain relative humidity and temperature to required specifications. Instrumentation is implemented on the upstream and downstream sections of the test stand as well as on the filter housing itself. Representative data are presented herein illustrating the test stand's capabilities. Digital images of the filter pack collected during and after testing is displayed after the representative data are discussed. In conclusion, the ICET test stand with AG-1 filter testing capabilities has been developed and hurdles such as test parameter stability and design flexibility overcome.

  10. Affective temperaments in nicotine-dependent and non-nicotine-dependent individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Włodzimierz Oniszczenko

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background One of the smoking risk factors influencing nicotine dependency may be human personality; however, few studies have examined the association between Akiskal’s affective temperaments and smoking in adults. Our study aims to evaluate the associations between nicotine dependence and affective temperaments using the TEMPS-A. Participants and procedure The sample in this study consisted of 678 healthy Caucasian adults aged from 17 to 69 years, including 134 self-declared nicotine-dependent subjects (89 females and 45 males and 544 self-declared non-nicotine-dependent subjects (352 females and 192 males. The Polish version of the Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris and San Diego Autoquestionnaire (TEMPS-A was used to assess affective temperaments (depressive, cyclothymic, hyperthymic, irritable and anxious. Results Nicotine-dependent individuals scored higher on cyclothymic, irritable and anxious temperaments than non-nicotine-dependents (no significant differences with regard to depressive and hyperthymic temperaments. Among the nicotine-dependent individuals, females scored higher on anxious temperaments than males (no differences with regard to the other affective temperaments, and among the non-nicotine-dependent individuals, females exhibited more depressive, cyclothymic and anxious temperaments than males, while males exhibited more hyperthymic temperaments than females. Conclusions The results suggest that affective, cyclothymic and irritable temperaments in both genders and anxious temperaments in females may be predictors of nicotine dependence in adults.

  11. Chemical Composition and Evaluation of Nicotine, Tobacco Alkaloids, pH and Selected Flavors in e-Cigarette Cartridges and Refill Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisko, Joseph G.; Tran, Hang; Stanfill, Stephen B.; Blount, Benjamin C.; Watson, Clifford H.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use is increasing dramatically in developed countries, but little is known about these rapidly evolving products. This study analyzed and evaluated the chemical composition including nicotine, tobacco alkaloids, pH and flavors in 36 e-liquids brands from four manufacturers. Methods We determined the concentrations of nicotine, alkaloids, and select flavors and measured pH in solutions used in e-cigarettes. E-cigarette products were chosen based upon favorable consumer approval ratings from online review websites. Quantitative analyses were performed using strict quality assurance/quality control (QC) validated methods previously established by our lab for the measurement of nicotine, alkaloids, pH and flavors. Results Three-quarters of the products contained lower measured nicotine levels than the stated label values (6% - 42% by concentration). The pH for e-liquids ranged from 5.1 – 9.1. Minor tobacco alkaloids were found in all samples containing nicotine, and their relative concentrations varied widely among manufacturers. A number of common flavor compounds were analyzed in all e-liquids. Conclusions Free nicotine levels calculated from the measurement of pH correlated with total nicotine content. The direct correlation between the total nicotine concentration and pH suggests that the alkalinity of nicotine drives the pH of e-cigarette solutions. A higher percentage of nicotine exists in the more absorbable free form as total nicotine concentration increases. A number of products contained tobacco alkaloids at concentrations that exceed U.S. Pharmacopeia limits for impurities in nicotine used in pharmaceutical and food products. PMID:25636907

  12. Assessing the effect of long-range pollutant transportation on air quality in Seoul using the conditional potential source contribution function method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Ukkyo; Kim, Jhoon; Lee, Hanlim; Lee, Yun Gon

    2017-02-01

    It is important to estimate the effects of the long-range transport of atmospheric pollutants for efficient and effective strategies to control air quality. In this study, the contributions of trans-boundary transport to the mean concentrations of SO2, NO2, CO, and PM10 in Seoul, Korea from 2001 to 2014 were estimated based on the conditional potential source contribution function (CPSCF) method. Eastern China was found to be the major source of trans-boundary pollution in Seoul, but moderate sources were also located in northeastern China. The contribution of long-range transport from Japan was negligible. The spatial distributions of the potential source contribution function (PSCF) values of each pollutant showed reasonable consistency with their emission inventory and satellite products. The PSCF values of SO2 and PM10 from eastern China were higher than those of NO2 and CO. The mean concentrations of SO2, NO2, CO, and PM10 in Seoul for the period from 2001 to 2014 were 5.34, 37.0, and 619.1 ppb, and 57.4 4 μg/m3, respectively. The contributions of long-range transport to the mean concentrations of SO2, NO2, CO, and PM10 in Seoul were 0.74, 3.4, and 39.0 ppb, and 12.1 μg/m3, respectively, which are 14%, 9%, 6%, and 21% of the mean concentrations, respectively. The annual mean concentrations of SO2 and NO2 followed statistically significant increasing linear trends (0.5 and 1.6 ppb per decade, respectively), whereas the trends in the annual mean concentrations of CO and PM10 were statistically insignificant. The trends in the ratio of the increased concentrations associated with long-range transport to the annual mean concentrations of the pollutants were statistically insignificant. However, the results indicate that the trans-boundary transport of SO2, NO2, CO, and PM10 from eastern China consistently affected air quality in Seoul over the study period (2001-2014). Regionally, the effects of the long-range transport of pollutants from Beijing and Harbin

  13. Urban air quality in a mid-size city - PM2.5 composition, sources and identification of impact areas: From local to long range contributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squizzato, Stefania; Cazzaro, Marta; Innocente, Elena; Visin, Flavia; Hopke, Philip K.; Rampazzo, Giancarlo

    2017-04-01

    Urban air quality represents a major public health burden and is a long-standing concern to European citizens. Combustion processes and traffic-related emissions represent the main primary particulate matter (PM) sources in urban areas. Other sources can also affect air quality (e.g., secondary aerosol, industrial) depending on the characteristics of the study area. Thus, the identification and the apportionment of all sources is of crucial importance to make effective corrective decisions within environmental policies. The aim of this study is to evaluate the impacts of different emissions sources on PM2.5 concentrations and compositions in a mid-size city in the Po Valley (Treviso, Italy). Data have been analyzed to highlight compositional differences (elements and major inorganic ions), to determine PM2.5 sources and their contributions, and to evaluate the influence of air mass movements. Non-parametric tests, positive matrix factorization (PMF), conditional bivariate probability function (CBPF), and concentration weighted trajectory (CWT) have been used in a multi-chemometrics approach to understand the areal-scale (proximate, local, long-range) where different sources act on PM2.5 levels and composition. Results identified three levels of scale from which the pollution arose: (i) a proximate local scale (close to the sampling site) for traffic non-exhaust and resuspended dust sources; (ii) a local urban scale (including both sampling site and areas close to them) for combustion and industrial; and (iii) a regional scale characterized by ammonium nitrate and ammonium sulfate. This approach and results can help to develop and adopt better air quality policy action.

  14. Impacts of long-range transport of global pollutants and precursor gases on U.S. air quality under future climatic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ho-Chun; Lin, Jintai; Tao, Zhining; Choi, Hyun; Patten, Kenneth; Kunkel, Kenneth; Xu, Min; Zhu, Jinhong; Liang, Xin-Zhong; Williams, Allen; Caughey, Michael; Wuebbles, Donald J.; Wang, Julian

    2008-10-01

    The U.S. air quality is impacted by emissions both within and outside the United States. The latter impact is manifested as long-range transport (LRT) of pollutants across the U.S. borders, which can be simulated by lateral boundary conditions (LBC) into a regional modeling system. This system consists of a regional air quality model (RAQM) that integrates local-regional source emissions and chemical processes with remote forcing from the LBC predicted by a nesting global chemical transport model (model for ozone and related chemical tracers (MOZART)). The present-day simulations revealed important LRT effects, varying among the five major regions with ozone problems, i.e., northeast United States, midwest United States, Texas, California, and southeast United States. To determine the responses of the LRT impacts to projected global climate and emissions changes, the MOZART and RAQM simulations were repeated for future periods (2048-2052 and 2095-2099) under two emissions scenarios (IPCC A1Fi and B1). The future U.S. air quality projected by the MOZART is less sensitive to the emissions scenarios than that simulated by the RAQM with or without incorporating the LRT effects via the LBC from the MOZART. The result of RAQM with the LRT effects showed that the southeast United States has the largest sensitivity of surface ozone mixing ratio to the emissions changes in the 2095-2099 climate (-24% to +25%) followed by the northeast and midwest United States. The net increase due to the LRT effects in 2095-2099 ranges from +4% to +13% in daily mean surface ozone mixing ratio and +4% to +11% in mean daily maximum 8-h average ozone mixing ratios. Correspondingly, the LRT effects in 2095-2099 cause total column O3 mixing ratio increases, ranging from +7% to +16%, and also 2 to 3 more days with the surface ozone exceeding the national standard. The results indicate that future U.S. air quality changes will be substantially affected by global emissions.

  15. The role of nicotine in tobacco use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, J H; Pritchard, W S

    1992-01-01

    The 1988 US Surgeon General's Report titled "Nicotine Addiction", is cited frequently in the literature as having established the "fact" that nicotine derived from cigarette smoke is addictive in the same sense as "classic" addicting drugs such as heroin and cocaine. This manuscripts critically evaluates key research findings used in support of this claim and identifies shortcomings in the data that seriously question the logic of labeling nicotine as "addictive". In addition, the manuscript argues that the role of nicotine in tobacco use is not like the role of cocaine in coca leaf use as argued by the 1988 Surgeon General's Report, but is, in fact, more like the role of caffeine in coffee drinking as concluded in the 1964 US Surgeon General's Report.

  16. Nicotinic activation of laterodorsal tegmental neurons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ishibashi, Masaru; Leonard, Christopher S; Kohlmeier, Kristi A

    2009-01-01

    ). However, recent data suggest that neurons of the laterodorsal tegmental (LDT) nucleus, which sends cholinergic, GABAergic, and glutamatergic-containing projections to DA-containing neurons of the VTA, are critical to gating normal functioning of this nucleus. The actions of nicotine on LDT neurons...... depolarization that often induced firing and TTX-resistant inward currents. Nicotine also enhanced sensitivity to injected current; and, baseline changes in intracellular calcium were elicited in the dendrites of some cholinergic LDT cells. In addition, activity-dependent calcium transients were increased......, suggesting that nicotine exposure sufficient to induce firing may lead to enhancement of levels of intracellular calcium. Nicotine also had strong actions on glutamate and GABA-releasing presynaptic terminals, as it greatly increased the frequency of miniature EPSCs and IPSCs to both cholinergic and non...

  17. Electronic cigarettes and nicotine clinical pharmacology

    OpenAIRE

    Schroeder, Megan J.; Hoffman, Allison C

    2014-01-01

    Objective To review the available literature evaluating electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) nicotine clinical pharmacology in order to understand the potential impact of e-cigarettes on individual users, nicotine dependence and public health. Methods Literature searches were conducted between 1 October 2012 and 30 September 2013 using key terms in five electronic databases. Studies were included in the review if they were in English and publicly available; non-clinical studies, conference abst...

  18. Nicotine Effects on the Impact of Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Projected to warfighters, this suggests that self-administered nicotine is producing some anti- anxiety (beneficial) effects under these specific...could influence warfighter behavior and fitness: anti- anxiety (anxiolytic) effects that can have calming actions, and increases in alertness and...increases in hallmark signs of PTSD, such as elevated responsiveness to a startle stimulus (white noise bursts). It should be emphasized that nicotine

  19. The Effect of Inhalation Volume and Breath-Hold Duration on the Retention of Nicotine and Solanesol in the Human Respiratory Tract and on Subsequent Plasma Nicotine Concentrations During Cigarette Smoking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armitage AK

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of inhalation depth and breath-hold duration on the retention of nicotine and solanesol in the human respiratory tract and on nicotine uptake was studied in ten cigarette smokers. In a first series of experiments, the subjects took seven puffs from a 10 mg ‘tar’ yield, test cigarette and a fixed volume of air (0, 75, 250, 500 or 1000 mL, as required by the protocol was inhaled after each puff in order to give a controlled ‘depth’ of inhalation. The inhalation was drawn from a bag containing the required volume of air. Following a 2 s breath-hold, subjects exhaled normally, with the first exhalation after each puff passing through a single acidified filter pad for collection of the non-retained nicotine and solanesol. Blood samples were taken before and at intervals during and after smoking for the sessions with 0, 75 and 500 mL inhalation volumes for determination of plasma nicotine and carboxyhaemoglobin levels. Another series of experiments was conducted with a fixed inhalation volume (500 mL and two further breath-hold durations (0 and 10 s in addition to 2 s from above. Nicotine and solanesol retentions were measured for each breath-hold condition. The amounts of nicotine retained within the respiratory system, expressed as a percentage of the amount taken into the mouth, were consistently higher than the corresponding values for solanesol in all five inhalation conditions (0-1000 mL, 2 s breath-hold. Nicotine retention increased from 46.5% at zero inhalation to 99.5% at 1000 mL inhalation (2 s breath-hold and from 98.0% at zero breath-hold to 99.9% at 10 s breath-hold (500 mL inhalation. Solanesol retention increased from 34.2% at zero inhalation volume to 71.9% at 1000 mL inhalation (2 s breath-hold and from 51.8% at zero breath-hold to 87.6% at 10 s breath-hold (500 mL inhalation. Plasma nicotine decreased from pre-smoking levels after zero inhalation indicating that the nicotine retained within the mouth was poorly

  20. Differential modulation of nicotine-induced gemcitabine resistance by GABA receptor agonists in pancreatic cancer cell xenografts and in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Banerjee, Jheelam; Al-Wadei, Hussein AN; Al-Wadei, Mohammed H.; Dagnon, Koami; Schuller, Hildegard M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Pancreatic cancer is frequently resistant to cancer therapeutics. Smoking and alcoholism are risk factors and pancreatic cancer patients often undergo nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) and treatment for alcohol dependence. Based on our report that low dose nicotine within the range of NRT causes gemcitabine resistance in pancreatic cancer, our current study has tested the hypothesis that GABA or the selective GABA-B-R agonist baclofen used to treat alcohol dependence reverse nicot...

  1. Inside-out neuropharmacology of nicotinic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Brandon J; Lester, Henry A

    2015-09-01

    Upregulation of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) is a venerable result of chronic exposure to nicotine; but it is one of several consequences of pharmacological chaperoning by nicotine and by some other nicotinic ligands, especially agonists. Nicotinic ligands permeate through cell membranes, bind to immature AChR oligomers, elicit incompletely understood conformational reorganizations, increase the interaction between adjacent AChR subunits, and enhance the maturation process toward stable AChR pentamers. These changes and stabilizations in turn lead to increases in both anterograde and retrograde traffic within the early secretory pathway. In addition to the eventual upregulation of AChRs at the plasma membrane, other effects of pharmacological chaperoning include modifications to endoplasmic reticulum stress and to the unfolded protein response. Because these processes depend on pharmacological chaperoning within intracellular organelles, we group them as "inside-out pharmacology". This term contrasts with the better-known, acute, "outside-in" effects of activating and desensitizing plasma membrane AChRs. We review current knowledge concerning the mechanisms and consequences of inside-out pharmacology. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'The Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor: From Molecular Biology to Cognition'. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Layer-specific interference with cholinergic signaling in the prefrontal cortex by smoking concentrations of nicotine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poorthuis, R.B.; Bloem, B.; Verhoog, M.B.; Mansvelder, H.D.

    2013-01-01

    Adolescence is a period in which the developing prefrontal cortex (PFC) is sensitive to maladaptive changes when exposed to nicotine. Nicotine affects PFC function and repeated exposure to nicotine during adolescence impairs attention performance and impulse control during adulthood. Nicotine

  3. Menthol decreases oral nicotine aversion in C57BL/6 mice through a TRPM8-dependent mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Lu; Balakrishna, Shrilatha; Jabba, Sairam V; Bonner, Pamela E; Taylor, Seth R; Picciotto, Marina R; Jordt, Sven-Eric

    2016-11-01

    Nicotine is a major oral irritant in smokeless tobacco products and has an aversive taste. Mentholated smokeless tobacco products are highly popular, suggesting that menthol increases their palatability and may facilitate initiation of product use. While menthol is known to reduce respiratory irritation by tobacco smoke irritants, it is not known whether this activity extends to oral nicotine and its aversive effects. The two-bottle choice drinking assay was used to characterise aversion and preference in C57BL/6 mice to a range of menthol concentrations (10-200 µg/mL). Then, effects of menthol on oral nicotine aversion were determined. Responses were compared with those in mice deficient in the cold/menthol receptor, TRPM8, expressed in trigeminal sensory neurons innervating the oral cavity. Mice showed aversion to menthol concentrations of 100 µg/mL and above. When presented with a highly aversive concentration of nicotine (200 µg/mL), mice preferred solutions with 50 or 100 µg/mL menthol added over nicotine alone. In contrast to wild-type mice, Trpm8-/- showed a strong aversion to mentholated (100 µg/mL) nicotine (200 µg/mL) and preferred nicotine alone. Trpm8-/- mice show aversion to lower concentrations of menthol than wild-type mice. Oral menthol can reduce the aversive effects of oral nicotine and, at higher concentrations, acts as an irritant by itself. Menthol's effects in relation to nicotine require TRPM8, the cool temperature sensing ion channel that activates analgesic and counterirritant mechanisms. These mechanisms may underlie preference for menthol-containing smokeless tobacco products and may facilitate initiation of product use. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  4. Opname van nicotine door kippen en overdracht naar eieren bij toepassing van nicotine tegen bloedluis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Traag, W.A.; Rijk, de T.C.; Zomer, P.; Vos Van Avezathe, A.; Kan, C.A.; Zeilmaker, M.; Hoogenboom, L.A.P.

    2005-01-01

    Uit onderzoek van de AID blijkt nicotine gebruikt te worden voor de bestrijding van bloedluis bij kippen. Dit levert mogelijk gezondheidsrisico's op voor de consument van het kippenvlees of de eieren. Omdat niet duidelijk is of het nicotine na de bestrijding van bloedluis in het vlees of eieren

  5. NICOTINE EFFECTS ON THE ACTIVITY OF MICE EXPOSED PRENATALLY TO THE NICOTINIC AGONIST ANATOXIN-A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Considerable research has shown long-lasting effects of early exposure in experimental animals to nicotine. Anatoxin-a is produced by cyanobacteria and has been shown to be a potent nicotinic agonist. This experiment evaluated the motor activity of adult mice, and their respons...

  6. TC299423, a Novel Agonist for Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teagan R. Wall

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available (E-5-(Pyrimidin-5-yl-1,2,3,4,7,8-hexahydroazocine (TC299423 is a novel agonist for nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs. We examined its efficacy, affinity, and potency for α6β2∗ (α6β2-containing, α4β2∗, and α3β4∗ nAChRs, using [125I]-epibatidine binding, whole-cell patch-clamp recordings, synaptosomal 86Rb+ efflux, [3H]-dopamine release, and [3H]-acetylcholine release. TC299423 displayed an EC50 of 30–60 nM for α6β2∗ nAChRs in patch-clamp recordings and [3H]-dopamine release assays. Its potency for α6β2∗ in these assays was 2.5-fold greater than that for α4β2∗, and much greater than that for α3β4∗-mediated [3H]-acetylcholine release. We observed no major off-target binding on 70 diverse molecular targets. TC299423 was bioavailable after intraperitoneal or oral administration. Locomotor assays, measured with gain-of-function, mutant α6 (α6L9′S nAChR mice, show that TC299423 elicits α6β2∗ nAChR-mediated responses at low doses. Conditioned place preference assays show that low-dose TC299423 also produces significant reward in α6L9′S mice, and modest reward in WT mice, through a mechanism that probably involves α6(non-α4β2∗ nAChRs. However, TC299423 did not suppress nicotine self-administration in rats, indicating that it did not block nicotine reinforcement in the dosage range that was tested. In a hot-plate test, TC299423 evoked antinociceptive responses in mice similar to those of nicotine. TC299423 and nicotine similarly inhibited mouse marble burying as a measure of anxiolytic effects. Taken together, our data suggest that TC299423 will be a useful small-molecule agonist for future in vitro and in vivo studies of nAChR function and physiology.

  7. Nicotine induces fibrogenic changes in human liver via nicotinic acetylcholine receptors expressed on hepatic stellate cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soeda, Junpei; Morgan, Maelle; McKee, Chad; Mouralidarane, Angelina; Lin, ChingI [University College London, Centre for Hepatology, Royal Free Hospital, London NW3 2PF (United Kingdom); Roskams, Tania [Department of Morphology and Molecular Pathology, University of Leuven (Belgium); Oben, Jude A., E-mail: j.oben@ucl.ac.uk [University College London, Centre for Hepatology, Royal Free Hospital, London NW3 2PF (United Kingdom); Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Guy' s and St Thomas' Hospital, London SE1 7EH (United Kingdom)

    2012-01-06

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cigarette smoke may induce liver fibrosis via nicotine receptors. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nicotine induces proliferation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nicotine activates hepatic fibrogenic pathways. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nicotine receptor antagonists attenuate HSC proliferation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nicotinic receptor antagonists may have utility as novel anti-fibrotic agents. -- Abstract: Background and aims: Cigarette smoke (CS) may cause liver fibrosis but possible involved mechanisms are unclear. Among the many chemicals in CS is nicotine - which affects cells through nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR). We studied the effects of nicotine, and involved pathways, on human primary hepatic stellate cells (hHSCs), the principal fibrogenic cells in the liver. We then determined possible disease relevance by assaying nAChR in liver samples from human non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Methods: hHSC were isolated from healthy human livers and nAChR expression analyzed - RT-PCR and Western blotting. Nicotine induction of hHSC proliferation, upregulation of collagen1-{alpha}2 and the pro-fibrogenic cytokine transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-{beta}1) was determined along with involved intracellular signaling pathways. nAChR mRNA expression was finally analyzed in whole liver biopsies obtained from patients diagnosed with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Results: hHSCs express muscle type ({alpha}1, {beta}1, delta and epsilon) and neuronal type ({alpha}3, {alpha}6, {alpha}7, {beta}2 and {beta}4) nAChR subunits at the mRNA level. Among these subunits, {alpha}3, {alpha}7, {beta}1 and {epsilon} were predominantly expressed as confirmed by Western blotting. Nicotine induced hHSC proliferation was attenuated by mecamylamine (p < 0.05). Additionally, collagen1-{alpha}2 and TGF-{beta}1 mRNA expression were significantly upregulated by nicotine and inhibited by

  8. Predictors of the nicotine reinforcement threshold, compensation, and elasticity of demand in a rodent model of nicotine reduction policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grebenstein, Patricia E; Burroughs, Danielle; Roiko, Samuel A; Pentel, Paul R; LeSage, Mark G

    2015-06-01

    The FDA is considering reducing the nicotine content in tobacco products as a population-based strategy to reduce tobacco addiction. Research is needed to determine the threshold level of nicotine needed to maintain smoking and the extent of compensatory smoking that could occur during nicotine reduction. Sources of variability in these measures across sub-populations also need to be identified so that policies can take into account the risks and benefits of nicotine reduction in vulnerable populations. The present study examined these issues in a rodent nicotine self-administration model of nicotine reduction policy to characterize individual differences in nicotine reinforcement thresholds, degree of compensation, and elasticity of demand during progressive reduction of the unit nicotine dose. The ability of individual differences in baseline nicotine intake and nicotine pharmacokinetics to predict responses to dose reduction was also examined. Considerable variability in the reinforcement threshold, compensation, and elasticity of demand was evident. High baseline nicotine intake was not correlated with the reinforcement threshold, but predicted less compensation and less elastic demand. Higher nicotine clearance predicted low reinforcement thresholds, greater compensation, and less elastic demand. Less elastic demand also predicted lower reinforcement thresholds. These findings suggest that baseline nicotine intake, nicotine clearance, and the essential value of nicotine (i.e. elasticity of demand) moderate the effects of progressive nicotine reduction in rats and warrant further study in humans. They also suggest that smokers with fast nicotine metabolism may be more vulnerable to the risks of nicotine reduction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The 2006 Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Range Reference Atmosphere Model Validation Study and Sensitivity Analysis to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Space Shuttle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, Ryan; Burns, Lee; Merry, Carl; Harrington, Brian

    2008-01-01

    NASA's Space Shuttle utilizes atmospheric thermodynamic properties to evaluate structural dynamics and vehicle flight performance impacts by the atmosphere during ascent. Statistical characteristics of atmospheric thermodynamic properties at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) used in Space. Shuttle Vehicle assessments are contained in the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) Range Reference Atmosphere (RRA) Database. Database contains tabulations for monthly and annual means (mu), standard deviations (sigma) and skewness of wind and thermodynamic variables. Wind, Thermodynamic, Humidity and Hydrostatic parameters 1 km resolution interval from 0-30 km 2 km resolution interval 30-70 km Multiple revisions of the CCAFS RRA database have been developed since initial RRA published in 1963. 1971, 1983, 2006 Space Shuttle program utilized 1983 version for use in deriving "hot" and "cold" atmospheres, atmospheric density dispersions for use in vehicle certification analyses and selection of atmospheric thermodynamic profiles for use in vehicle ascent design and certification analyses. During STS-114 launch preparations in July 2005 atmospheric density observations between 50-80 kft exceeded density limits used for aerodynamic ascent heating constraints in vehicle certification analyses. Mission specific analyses were conducted and concluded that the density bias resulted in small changes to heating rates and integrated heat loading on the vehicle. In 2001, the Air Force Combat Climatology Center began developing an updated RRA for CCAFS.

  10. The Pyrolysis of (?)-(S)-Nicotine: Racemization and Decomposition

    OpenAIRE

    Clayton, Peter; Lu, Annhelen; Bishop, Louise

    2009-01-01

    The pyrolytic behaviour of (?)-(S)-nicotine in methanol was investigated using on-line pyrolysis GC/MS to establish whether racemization to the R(+) antipode occurs and to identify other products of pyrolysis. The conditions used included pyrolysing the sample for 15 seconds in an atmosphere of 9% oxygen in nitrogen (275ml/min total flow) across the temperature range of 200?C?1000?C. A chiral Cyclodex-B analytical column (30m ? 0.25mm i.d. ? 0.25 ?m film thickness) was used to separate the en...

  11. Sympathomimetic Effects of Acute E-Cigarette Use: Role of Nicotine and Non-Nicotine Constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moheimani, Roya S; Bhetraratana, May; Peters, Kacey M; Yang, Benjamin K; Yin, Fen; Gornbein, Jeffrey; Araujo, Jesus A; Middlekauff, Holly R

    2017-09-20

    Chronic electronic (e) cigarette users have increased resting cardiac sympathetic nerve activity and increased susceptibility to oxidative stress. The purpose of the present study is to determine the role of nicotine versus non-nicotine constituents in e-cigarette emissions in causing these pathologies in otherwise healthy humans. Thirty-three healthy volunteers who were not current e-cigarette or tobacco cigarette smokers were studied. On different days, each participant used an e-cigarette with nicotine, an e-cigarette without nicotine, or a sham control. Cardiac sympathetic nerve activity was determined by heart rate variability, and susceptibility to oxidative stress was determined by plasma paraoxonase activity. Following exposure to the e-cigarette with nicotine, but not to the e-cigarette without nicotine or the sham control, there was a significant and marked shift in cardiac sympathovagal balance towards sympathetic predominance. The decrease in high-frequency component and the increases in the low-frequency component and the low-frequency to high-frequency ratio were significantly greater following exposure to the e-cigarette with nicotine compared with exposure to the e-cigarette without nicotine or to sham control. Oxidative stress, as estimated by plasma paraoxonase, did not increase following any of the 3 exposures. The acute sympathomimetic effect of e-cigarettes is attributable to the inhaled nicotine, not to non-nicotine constituents in e-cigarette aerosol, recapitulating the same heart rate variability pattern associated with increased cardiac risk in multiple populations with and without known cardiac disease. Evidence of oxidative stress, as estimated by plasma paraoxonase activity, was not uncovered following acute e-cigarette exposure. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  12. Nicotine deprivation attenuates panic reactivity in smokers: Findings from a placebo-controlled nicotine patch study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Kenneth; Krimmel, Sam; Johnson, Stacey; Cieslowski, Kate; Strnad, Helen; Melum, Arielle; Kryder, Caroline

    2017-11-01

    Prospective studies consistently find that smoking is a risk factor for the development of panic disorder (PD). A possible explanation is that nicotine deprivation promotes heightened sensitivity to bodily sensations and/or arterial carbon dioxide (CO 2 ). Abrams et al. (2011) previously found that, in response to a CO 2 rebreathing challenge, smokers experiencing more (vs. less) intense nicotine withdrawal had more severe panic symptoms and a stronger urge to escape. However, participants were aware of the last time they smoked, leaving unclear the extent to which fear reactivity was influenced by the pharmacologic effects of nicotine deprivation versus beliefs regarding when nicotine was most recently used. The present study aimed to ascertain whether nicotine deprivation, independent of beliefs regarding recent nicotine use, promotes fear reactivity among smokers. Moderate to heavy smokers without PD (N = 25) participated in a placebo-controlled, double-blind study consisting of two sessions spaced 1 week apart. Participants abstained from nicotine for 2 hr prior to sessions. During one session participants were given a 21 mg nicotine replacement patch and, during the other, a placebo patch, with the order counterbalanced. For both sessions, after a 3-hr absorption period, participants underwent a 10-min CO 2 rebreathing challenge. Wearing a nicotine (vs. placebo) patch increased self-reported panic reactivity among participants, but did not significantly affect physiological and behavioral measures of reactivity. In smokers without a history of PD, nicotine deprivation attenuates subjective panic reactivity. Possible explanations for the contrast between theory and laboratory findings as well as clinical implications are discussed. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Donepezil, an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, attenuates nicotine self-administration and reinstatement of nicotine seeking in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimmey, Blake A; Rupprecht, Laura E; Hayes, Matthew R; Schmidt, Heath D

    2014-07-01

    Nicotine craving and cognitive impairments represent core symptoms of nicotine withdrawal and predict relapse in abstinent smokers. Current smoking cessation pharmacotherapies have limited efficacy in preventing relapse and maintaining abstinence during withdrawal. Donepezil is an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor that has been shown previously to improve cognition in healthy non-treatment-seeking smokers. However, there are no studies examining the effects of donepezil on nicotine self-administration and/or the reinstatement of nicotine-seeking behavior in rodents. The present experiments were designed to determine the effects of acute donepezil administration on nicotine taking and the reinstatement of nicotine-seeking behavior, an animal model of relapse in abstinent human smokers. Moreover, the effects of acute donepezil administration on sucrose self-administration and sucrose seeking were also investigated in order to determine whether donepezil's effects generalized to other reinforced behaviors. Acute donepezil administration (1.0 or 3.0 mg/kg, i.p.) attenuated nicotine, but not sucrose self-administration maintained on a fixed-ratio 5 schedule of reinforcement. Donepezil administration also dose-dependently attenuated the reinstatement of both nicotine- and sucrose-seeking behaviors. Commonly reported adverse effects of donepezil treatment in humans are nausea and vomiting. However, at doses required to attenuate nicotine self-administration in rodents, no effects of donepezil on nausea/malaise as measured by pica were observed. Collectively, these results indicate that increased extracellular acetylcholine levels are sufficient to attenuate nicotine taking and seeking in rats and that these effects are not due to adverse malaise symptoms such as nausea. © 2012 The Authors, Addiction Biology © 2012 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  14. The 2006 Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Range Reference Atmosphere Model Validation Study and Sensitivity Analysis to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Space Shuttle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Lee; Merry, Carl; Decker, Ryan; Harrington, Brian

    2008-01-01

    The 2006 Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) Range Reference Atmosphere (RRA) is a statistical model summarizing the wind and thermodynamic atmospheric variability from surface to 70 kin. Launches of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Space Shuttle from Kennedy Space Center utilize CCAFS RRA data to evaluate environmental constraints on various aspects of the vehicle during ascent. An update to the CCAFS RRA was recently completed. As part of the update, a validation study on the 2006 version was conducted as well as a comparison analysis of the 2006 version to the existing CCAFS RRA database version 1983. Assessments to the Space Shuttle vehicle ascent profile characteristics were performed to determine impacts of the updated model to the vehicle performance. Details on the model updates and the vehicle sensitivity analyses with the update model are presented.

  15. Determination of Nicotine in Tobacco: Collaborative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franke JE

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available An international collaborative study was performed to compare several analytical methods for the determination of nicotine in tobacco that are in current use around the world. Five nicotine methods were evaluated and compared, specifically methyl-t-butyl ether (MTBE extraction with capillary-column gas chromatography (GC, n-hexane extraction with capillary-column GC, n-hexane extraction with packed-column GC, methanol/ammonia extraction with capillary-column GC, and aqueous extraction with continuous flow analyzer (CFA colorimetry. A total of 37 laboratories participated in the study, with between 9 and 18 laboratories submitting data per nicotine method. Repeatability, reproducibility, and mean nicotine statistics were calculated and compared for each method. Results for reproducibility (% and mean nicotine difference (%, relative to the mean of the three capillary-GC methods, respectively, for each method are as follows: MTBE method (2.5%, -1.40%, hexane-capillary (4.5%, +0.06%, methanol/ammonia (3.7%, +1.34%, CFA (4.4%, +4.08%, and hexane-packed (5.8%, +4.14%. Pair-wise group comparison tests with simultaneous 95% confidence intervals were used to compare the sample nicotine values between any two given methods. Eight of the ten pair-wise comparisons were statistically different at 95% confidence, the two statistically indistinguishable pair-wise comparisons being CFA vs. hexane-packed and hexane-capillary vs. methanol/ammonia. The results of this collaborative study will be useful toward the goal of standardizing on a reference method for nicotine analysis in tobacco and tobacco products.

  16. On-Line Chemical Composition Analysis of Refillable Electronic Cigarette Aerosol-Measurement of Nicotine and Nicotyrine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Raul E; Dhawan, Steven; Sumner, Walton; Williams, Brent J

    2015-10-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigs) generate aerosols that users inhale. Analyses of e-liquids inconsistently report nicotyrine, a nicotine analog that could impede nicotine metabolism, raising questions about nicotyrine formation. E-cig aerosols were analyzed on-line using a Thermal Desorption Aerosol Gas Chromatograph. Three e-liquids were tested: an unflavored solution in propylene glycol (PG); an unflavored solution in PG and vegetable glycerin (VG), and a flavored solution in PG and VG. A heating duration experiment determined the nicotyrine to nicotine ratio (NNR) in particle phase as a function of the duration of e-cig activation. An aging experiment determined the NNR in e-liquids and aerosols as a function of time since initial exposure to air and storage condition. Nicotine and nicotyrine were quantified in all 3 e-liquids and aerosols. Duration of e-cig activation was inversely related to NNR (NNR = 0.04 with 3-s activation, 0.26 with 0.5 s). Aging influenced both e-liquid NNR and aerosol NNR. On average, the e-liquid NNR increased from 0.03 at 11 days after opening to 0.08 after 60 days. For similar heating durations, aerosol NNR increased from 0.05 at 11 days to 0.23 after 60 days. Storage conditions had little effect on NNR. E-cig aerosols have variable nicotyrine quantities. Aerosol NNR depends on vaping technique and time elapsed since the e-liquid was exposed to air. It is hypothesized that aerosolized nicotyrine could facilitate nicotine absorption, inhibit the metabolism of nicotine, and reduce a user's urge to smoke. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. A low nicotine concentration augments vesicle motion and exocytosis triggered by K(+) depolarisation of chromaffin cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Diego, Antonio M G; Tapia, Laura; Alvarez, Rocío M; Mosquera, Marta; Cortés, Lorena; López, Inmaculada; Gutiérrez, Luis M; Gandía, Luis; García, Antonio G

    2008-11-19

    Tobacco smokers have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease; this is likely associated to an enhanced catecholamine release by circulating nicotine. Here, we have explored how low concentrations of nicotine in the range of those found in the blood of tobacco smokers, might affect the release of catecholamines in bovine chromaffin cells. We have combined patch-clamp and Ca(2+) imaging techniques to study cell excitability, cytosolic Ca(2+) transients, vesicle movement, and secretory responses. We found that low concentrations of nicotine (1.5-3 microM) did not enhance catecholamine release by themselves. However, they drastically augmented the catecholamine release response triggered by a supramaximal K(+) depolarising pulse. Furthermore, low nicotine concentrations caused slight depolarisation with superimposed action potentials, a transient elevation of [Ca(2+)](c) and augmented Ca(2+)-dependent vesicle motion underneath the plasmalemma. We suggest that low nicotine concentrations overload the secretory machinery with secretory vesicles, which cause chromaffin cells to respond with an exaggerated adrenaline release into the circulation during stress. This might contribute to the higher cardiovascular risk of tobacco smokers.

  18. Limitations in the Statistical Analysis of Normalised Cigarette Smoke Analyte Yield per Milligram of Nicotine Yield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cahours X

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Yields of selected mainstream smoke analytes expressed per milligram of nicotine yield (nicotine ratio and ceilings on these ratios have been proposed by WHO as part of future cigarette product regulation. This paper describes the different approaches required for precision assessment, depending on whether yields or nicotine ratios are being studied. The widely used approach of assessment of yield precision is to perform a collaborative study using a standardised method. However, for assessment of ratio precision the measurement of smoke analyte and smoke nicotine yields are often not carried out on the same set of cigarettes (unpaired due to analytical constraints and therefore the statistical approach described in ISO 5725 is inappropriate due to the various replicate combinations. In this paper, the precision of ratios was computed with unpaired measurements for NNN and nicotine yield data for the CM6 monitor test piece and the Kentucky Reference 1R5F cigarette carried out during a collaborative study in 2011 (1. A sampling technique, based on the draw of the most representative ratios, has been used to evaluate the range of both estimated repeatability and reproducibility under the ISO smoking regime that might be expected when comparing data between different laboratories. This statistical evaluation highlighted that a robust estimate of repeatability and reproducibility could not be determined for ratios obtained with unpaired measurements, using the method defined by ISO5725-2.

  19. Chemical Characterization of Mainstream Smoke from SPECTRUM Variable Nicotine Research Cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yan S; Richter, Patricia; Hearn, Bryan; Zhang, Liqin; Bravo, Roberto; Yan, Xizheng; Perez, Jose J; Chan, Michele; Hughes, Jared; Chen, Patrick; Chen, Wayne; Wong, Joshua; Holmberg, Sydney; Smith, Shakia; Larango, Morgan; Valentín-Blasini, Liza; Watson, Clifford H

    2017-12-01

    Our objective was to characterize mainstream smoke constituent deliveries from SPECTRUM variable nicotine research cigarettes under 2 machine smoking regimens. SPECTRUM cigarettes are manufactured by the 22nd Century company for the National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health to contain varying (including reduced) levels of nicotine. Mainstream smoke constituent deliveries of "tar," nicotine, carbon monoxide, tobacco-specific nitrosamines (N'-nitrosonornicotine (NNN) and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK)), benzo[a]pyrene, aromatic amines, and carbonyls were analyzed in 23 varieties of SPECTRUM cigarettes using ISO 17025 accredited methods. Data are presented as means and standard deviations of 5 replicates for all analytes. Under the ISO smoking regimen, mean levels of many smoke emissions for SPECTRUM varieties were comparable to the 3R4F research cigarette. Calculated SPECTRUM elasticity ranged from 1.6 to 4.0. Accordingly, under intense machine smoking conditions differences in emissions of SPECTRUM cigarettes were apparent. In addition, NNN increased with smoke nicotine while the same rate of change was not seen for NNK. It is important to monitor levels of chemicals of public health concern and regulatory interest as technologies emerge to reduce levels of nicotine or other targeted chemicals in tobacco products.

  20. Belief about nicotine selectively modulates value and reward prediction error signals in smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Xiaosi; Lohrenz, Terry; Salas, Ramiro; Baldwin, Philip R.; Soltani, Alireza; Kirk, Ulrich; Cinciripini, Paul M.; Montague, P. Read

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about how prior beliefs impact biophysically described processes in the presence of neuroactive drugs, which presents a profound challenge to the understanding of the mechanisms and treatments of addiction. We engineered smokers’ prior beliefs about the presence of nicotine in a cigarette smoked before a functional magnetic resonance imaging session where subjects carried out a sequential choice task. Using a model-based approach, we show that smokers’ beliefs about nicotine specifically modulated learning signals (value and reward prediction error) defined by a computational model of mesolimbic dopamine systems. Belief of “no nicotine in cigarette” (compared with “nicotine in cigarette”) strongly diminished neural responses in the striatum to value and reward prediction errors and reduced the impact of both on smokers’ choices. These effects of belief could not be explained by global changes in visual attention and were specific to value and reward prediction errors. Thus, by modulating the expression of computationally explicit signals important for valuation and choice, beliefs can override the physical presence of a potent neuroactive compound like nicotine. These selective effects of belief demonstrate that belief can modulate model-based parameters important for learning. The implications of these findings may be far ranging because belief-dependent effects on learning signals could impact a host of other behaviors in addiction as well as in other mental health problems. PMID:25605923

  1. Adsorption of nicotine from aqueous solution onto hydrophobic zeolite type USY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarevic, Natasa; Adnadjevic, Borivoj; Jovanovic, Jelena

    2011-07-01

    The isothermal adsorption of nicotine from an aqueous solution onto zeolite type USY was investigated. The adsorption isotherms of nicotine onto the zeolite at different temperatures ranging from 298 to 322 K were determined. It was found that the adsorption isotherms can be described by the model of Freundlich adsorption isotherm. Based on the adsorption isotherms the changes of adsorption heat, free energy and entropy with adsorption degree were determined. The determined decrease of adsorption heat with adsorption degree can be explained by the presence of the adsorption centers of different energy and concentration on interface of zeolite-nicotine solution. It was found that the probability function of density distribution of the heat of adsorption (DDF) has exponential form. It was concluded that the possibility of fitting the adsorption isotherms of nicotine onto the zeolite by Freundlich adsorption isotherm was a direct consequence of that. The determined increase in entropy with the increase in adsorption degree can be explained with the change of phase state of adsorbed nicotine.

  2. Hydrothermal synthesis and processing of hydrogen titanate nanotubes for nicotine electrochemical sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mersal, Gaber A. M.; Mostafa, Nasser Y.; Omar, Abd-Elkader H.

    2017-08-01

    Hydrogen titanate nanotubes (HTNT) were prepared via acid washing of hydrothermally synthesized sodium titantate nanotube. HTNTs with diameters in the range 7-9 nm and length of several hundred nanometers were annealed at different temperatures and used to modify carbon paste electrode (CPE). Cyclic and square wave voltammetric techniques were used to investigate the behavior of nicotine at HTNT modified carbon paste electrode (HTNTCPE). The nicotine-oxidation reaction over HTNTCPE was irreversible and adsorption process is the rate determining step. HTNTs annealed at 500 °C showed the best response to nicotine. The nicotine concentration was determined at the ideal conditions by square wave voltammetry (SWV). The calibration was linear from 0.1 to 500.0 µmol l-1 with a correlation coefficient of 0.995. The detection limits were found to be 0.005 µmol l-1. The present HTNTCPE was used to the determination of nicotine in two cigarette brands and it showed outstanding performance with respect to detection limit and sensitivity.

  3. Fetal and neonatal exposure to nicotine leads to augmented hepatic and circulating triglycerides in adult male offspring due to increased expression of fatty acid synthase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Noelle [Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, The University of Western Ontario (Canada); Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, The University of Western Ontario (Canada); The Lawson Health Research Institute, The University of Western Ontario (Canada); Nicholson, Catherine J. [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, McMaster University (Canada); Wong, Michael [Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, The University of Western Ontario (Canada); Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, The University of Western Ontario (Canada); The Lawson Health Research Institute, The University of Western Ontario (Canada); Holloway, Alison C. [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, McMaster University (Canada); Hardy, Daniel B., E-mail: Daniel.Hardy@schulich.uwo.ca [Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, The University of Western Ontario (Canada); Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, The University of Western Ontario (Canada); The Children' s Health Research Institute, The University of Western Ontario (Canada); The Lawson Health Research Institute, The University of Western Ontario (Canada)

    2014-02-15

    While nicotine replacement therapy is assumed to be a safer alternative to smoking during pregnancy, the long-term consequences for the offspring remain elusive. Animal studies now suggest that maternal nicotine exposure during perinatal life leads to a wide range of adverse outcomes for the offspring including increased adiposity. The focus of this study was to investigate if nicotine exposure during pregnancy and lactation leads to alterations in hepatic triglyceride synthesis. Female Wistar rats were randomly assigned to receive daily subcutaneous injections of saline (vehicle) or nicotine bitartrate (1 mg/kg/day) for two weeks prior to mating until weaning. At postnatal day 180 (PND 180), nicotine exposed offspring exhibited significantly elevated levels of circulating and hepatic triglycerides in the male offspring. This was concomitant with increased expression of fatty acid synthase (FAS), the critical hepatic enzyme in de novo triglyceride synthesis. Given that FAS is regulated by the nuclear receptor Liver X receptor (LXRα), we measured LXRα expression in both control and nicotine-exposed offspring. Nicotine exposure during pregnancy and lactation led to an increase in hepatic LXRα protein expression and enriched binding to the putative LXRE element on the FAS promoter in PND 180 male offspring. This was also associated with significantly enhanced acetylation of histone H3 [K9,14] surrounding the FAS promoter, a hallmark of chromatin activation. Collectively, these findings suggest that nicotine exposure during pregnancy and lactation leads to an increase in circulating and hepatic triglycerides long-term via changes in the transcriptional and epigenetic regulation of the hepatic lipogenic pathway. - Highlights: • Our data reveals the links nicotine exposure in utero and long-term hypertriglyceridemia. • It is due to nicotine-induced augmented expression of hepatic FAS and LXRα activity. • Moreover, this involves nicotine-induced enhanced

  4. Tobacco and Nicotine Product Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biener, Lois; Leischow, Scott J.; Zeller, Mitch R.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Tobacco product testing is a critical component of the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act (FSPTCA), which grants the Food and Drug Administration the authority to regulate tobacco products. The availability of methods and measures that can provide accurate data on the relative health risks across types of tobacco products, brands, and subbrands of tobacco products on the validity of any health claims associated with a product, and on how consumers perceive information on products toxicity or risks is crucial for making decisions on the product's potential impact on public health. These tools are also necessary for making assessments of the impact of new indications for medicinal products (other than cessation) but more importantly of tobacco products that may in the future be marketed as cessation tools. Objective: To identify research opportunities to develop empirically based and comprehensive methods and measures for testing tobacco and other nicotine-containing products so that the best science is available when decisions are made about products or policies. Methods: Literature was reviewed to address sections of the FSPTCA relevant to tobacco product evaluation; research questions were generated and then reviewed by a committee of research experts. Results: A research agenda was developed for tobacco product evaluation in the general areas of toxicity and health risks, abuse liability, consumer perception, and population effects. Conclusion: A cohesive, systematic, and comprehensive assessment of tobacco products is important and will require building consensus and addressing some crucial research questions. PMID:21460383

  5. Tobacco and nicotine product testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatsukami, Dorothy K; Biener, Lois; Leischow, Scott J; Zeller, Mitch R

    2012-01-01

    Tobacco product testing is a critical component of the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act (FSPTCA), which grants the Food and Drug Administration the authority to regulate tobacco products. The availability of methods and measures that can provide accurate data on the relative health risks across types of tobacco products, brands, and subbrands of tobacco products on the validity of any health claims associated with a product, and on how consumers perceive information on products toxicity or risks is crucial for making decisions on the product's potential impact on public health. These tools are also necessary for making assessments of the impact of new indications for medicinal products (other than cessation) but more importantly of tobacco products that may in the future be marketed as cessation tools. To identify research opportunities to develop empirically based and comprehensive methods and measures for testing tobacco and other nicotine-containing products so that the best science is available when decisions are made about products or policies. Literature was reviewed to address sections of the FSPTCA relevant to tobacco product evaluation; research questions were generated and then reviewed by a committee of research experts. A research agenda was developed for tobacco product evaluation in the general areas of toxicity and health risks, abuse liability, consumer perception, and population effects. A cohesive, systematic, and comprehensive assessment of tobacco products is important and will require building consensus and addressing some crucial research questions.

  6. Growth and characterization of nonlinear optical single crystal: Nicotinic L-tartaric

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheelarani, V.; Shanthi, J., E-mail: shanthinelson@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Avinashilingam Institute for Home Science and Higher Education for Women, Coimbatore-641043 (India)

    2015-06-24

    Nonlinear optical single crystals were grown from Nicotinic and L-Tartaric acid by slow evaporation technique at room temperature. Structure of the grown crystal was confirmed by single crystal X-ray diffraction studies, The crystallinity of the Nicotinic L-Tartaric (NLT) crystals was confirmed from the powder XRD pattern. The transparent range and cut off wavelength of the grown crystal was studied by the UV–Vis spectroscopic analysis.The thermal stability of the crystal was studied by TG-DTA. The second harmonic generation (SHG) efficiency of NLT was confirmed by Kurtz Perry technique.

  7. An overview of the 2013 Las Vegas Ozone Study (LVOS): Impact of stratospheric intrusions and long-range transport on surface air quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langford, A. O.; Senff, C. J.; Alvarez, R. J.; Brioude, J.; Cooper, O. R.; Holloway, J. S.; Lin, M. Y.; Marchbanks, R. D.; Pierce, R. B.; Sandberg, S. P.; Weickmann, A. M.; Williams, E. J.

    2015-05-01

    The 2013 Las Vegas Ozone Study (LVOS) was conducted in the late spring and early summer of 2013 to assess the seasonal contribution of stratosphere-to-troposphere transport (STT) and long-range transport to surface ozone in Clark County, Nevada and determine if these processes directly contribute to exceedances of the National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) in this area. Secondary goals included the characterization of local ozone production, regional transport from the Los Angeles Basin, and impacts from wildfires. The LVOS measurement campaign took place at a former U.S. Air Force radar station ∼45 km northwest of Las Vegas on Angel Peak (∼2.7 km above mean sea level, asl) in the Spring Mountains. The study consisted of two extended periods (May 19-June 4 and June 22-28, 2013) with near daily 5-min averaged lidar measurements of ozone and backscatter profiles from the surface to ∼2.5 km above ground level (∼5.2 km asl), and continuous in situ measurements (May 20-June 28) of O3, CO, (1-min) and meteorological parameters (5-min) at the surface. These activities were guided by forecasts and analyses from the FLEXPART (FLEXible PARTticle) dispersion model and the Real Time Air Quality Modeling System (RAQMS), and the NOAA Geophysical Research Laboratory (NOAA GFDL) AM3 chemistry-climate model. In this paper, we describe the LVOS measurements and present an overview of the results. The combined measurements and model analyses show that STT directly contributed to each of the three O3 exceedances that occurred in Clark County during LVOS, with contributions to 8-h surface concentrations in excess of 30 ppbv on each of these days. The analyses show that long-range transport from Asia made smaller contributions (<10 ppbv) to surface O3 during two of those exceedances. The contribution of regional wildfires to surface O3 during the three LVOS exceedance events was found to be negligible, but wildfires were found to be a major factor during exceedance events

  8. Design, formulation and evaluation of nicotine chewing gum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolfazl Aslani

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: Taste enhancement of nicotine gums was achieved where formulations comprised aspartame as the sweetener and cherry and eucalyptus as the flavoring agents. Nicotine gums of pleasant taste may, therefore, be used as NRT to assist smokers quit smoking.

  9. Nicotine increases brain functional network efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wylie, Korey P; Rojas, Donald C; Tanabe, Jody; Martin, Laura F; Tregellas, Jason R

    2012-10-15

    Despite the use of cholinergic therapies in Alzheimer's disease and the development of cholinergic strategies for schizophrenia, relatively little is known about how the system modulates the connectivity and structure of large-scale brain networks. To better understand how nicotinic cholinergic systems alter these networks, this study examined the effects of nicotine on measures of whole-brain network communication efficiency. Resting state fMRI was acquired from fifteen healthy subjects before and after the application of nicotine or placebo transdermal patches in a single blind, crossover design. Data, which were previously examined for default network activity, were analyzed with network topology techniques to measure changes in the communication efficiency of whole-brain networks. Nicotine significantly increased local efficiency, a parameter that estimates the network's tolerance to local errors in communication. Nicotine also significantly enhanced the regional efficiency of limbic and paralimbic areas of the brain, areas which are especially altered in diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and schizophrenia. These changes in network topology may be one mechanism by which cholinergic therapies improve brain function. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Nicotine transport in lung and non-lung epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takano, Mikihisa; Kamei, Hidetaka; Nagahiro, Machi; Kawami, Masashi; Yumoto, Ryoko

    2017-11-01

    Nicotine is rapidly absorbed from the lung alveoli into systemic circulation during cigarette smoking. However, mechanism underlying nicotine transport in alveolar epithelial cells is not well understood to date. In the present study, we characterized nicotine uptake in lung epithelial cell lines A549 and NCI-H441 and in non-lung epithelial cell lines HepG2 and MCF-7. Characteristics of [3H]nicotine uptake was studied using these cell lines. Nicotine uptake in A549 cells occurred in a time- and temperature-dependent manner and showed saturation kinetics, with a Km value of 0.31mM. Treatment with some organic cations such as diphenhydramine and pyrilamine inhibited nicotine uptake, whereas treatment with organic cations such as carnitine and tetraethylammonium did not affect nicotine uptake. Extracellular pH markedly affected nicotine uptake, with high nicotine uptake being observed at high pH up to 11.0. Modulation of intracellular pH with ammonium chloride also affected nicotine uptake. Treatment with valinomycin, a potassium ionophore, did not significantly affect nicotine uptake, indicating that nicotine uptake is an electroneutral process. For comparison, we assessed the characteristics of nicotine uptake in another lung epithelial cell line NCI-H441 and in non-lung epithelial cell lines HepG2 and MCF-7. Interestingly, these cell lines showed similar characteristics of nicotine uptake with respect to pH dependency and inhibition by various organic cations. The present findings suggest that a similar or the same pH-dependent transport system is involved in nicotine uptake in these cell lines. A novel molecular mechanism of nicotine transport is proposed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. A one-year monitoring of nicotine use in sport: frontier between potential performance enhancement and addiction issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marclay, François; Grata, Elia; Perrenoud, Laurent; Saugy, Martial

    2011-12-10

    Tobacco consumption is a global epidemic responsible for a vast burden of disease. With pharmacological properties sought-after by consumers and responsible for addiction issues, nicotine is the main reason of this phenomenon. Accordingly, smokeless tobacco products are of growing popularity in sport owing to potential performance enhancing properties and absence of adverse effects on the respiratory system. Nevertheless, nicotine does not appear on the 2011 World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) Prohibited List or Monitoring Program by lack of a comprehensive large-scale prevalence survey. Thus, this work describes a one-year monitoring study on urine specimens from professional athletes of different disciplines covering 2010 and 2011. A method for the detection and quantification of nicotine, its major metabolites (cotinine, trans-3-hydroxycotinine, nicotine-N'-oxide and cotinine-N-oxide) and minor tobacco alkaloids (anabasine, anatabine and nornicotine) was developed, relying on ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography coupled to triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (UHPLC-TQ-MS/MS). A simple and fast dilute-and-shoot sample treatment was performed, followed by hydrophilic interaction chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HILIC-MS/MS) operated in positive electrospray ionization (ESI) mode with multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) data acquisition. After method validation, assessing the prevalence of nicotine consumption in sport involved analysis of 2185 urine samples, accounting for 43 different sports. Concentrations distribution of major nicotine metabolites, minor nicotine metabolites and tobacco alkaloids ranged from 10 (LLOQ) to 32,223, 6670 and 538 ng/mL, respectively. Compounds of interest were detected in trace levels in 23.0% of urine specimens, with concentration levels corresponding to an exposure within the last three days for 18.3% of samples. Likewise, hypothesizing conservative concentration limits for active nicotine consumption prior and/or during

  12. Stability of the nicotine metabolite ratio in smokers of progressively reduced nicotine content cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Helen, Gideon; Jacob, Peyton; Benowitz, Neal L

    2013-11-01

    The nicotine metabolite ratio (NMR), the ratio of trans-3'-hydroxycotinine (3-HC) to cotinine, has been used as a biomarker of the rate of CYP2A6-mediated nicotine metabolism. While stable in smokers who maintain constant smoking consumption, since smoking has been shown to inhibit nicotine metabolism and this inhibition could be mediated by the nicotine in the smoke, NMR could change during nicotine reduction. The objective of this study was to determine the reproducibility (or stability) of plasma NMR in smokers of progressively reduced nicotine content (RNC) cigarettes. We analyzed data from subjects in a clinical trial of smoking progressively RNC cigarettes. Plasma NMR in 30 smokers whose plasma cotinine levels had decreased by at least 50% from the use of the first test cigarette (12mg nicotine content) to the final test cigarette (1mg nicotine content) was measured on 4 occasions over a period of 24 weeks. Plasma cotinine and 3-HC decreased by an average of 85% and 84%, respectively, following the use of the first type of RNC cigarette to the last type. Plasma NMR had an average absolute change of 28.5% over the same period. Using repeated measures analysis, changes in plasma NMR over time were not significant with or without controlling for the effects of age, body mass index, gender, and race (p = .24 and p = .23, respectively). The reliability coefficient for repeated measurements of plasma NMR was .72. The average within-subject coefficient of variation for plasma NMR was 21.6% (SD = 12.0%). The plasma NMR is relatively stable over time as nicotine levels decline in smokers of progressively RNC cigarettes.

  13. Application of a Diffusion-denuder Method for the Investigation of the Effects of ‘Smoke pH’ on Vapor-phase Nicotine Yields from Different Types of Cigarettes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cochran EW

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The potential effects of smoke pH on vapor-phase nicotine, or unprotonated nicotine, were investigated using a diffusion denuder method selected for its ability to quantitatively monitor vapor-phase nicotine in the presence of smoke particulate. For the purpose of this paper, the pH of the water-soluble fraction of mainstream cigarette smoke will be referred to as ‘smoke pH'. In this study, samples with different construction parameters affecting smoke pH were analyzed for percent vapor-phase nicotine. The smoke pH values ranged from 5.87 to 7.79. Percent initial vapor-phase nicotine values ranged from 0.4% to 1.5%. The range of the vapor-phase nicotine values for this study was (a independent of smoke pH and (b potentially dependent upon cigarette construction. In a second experiment, cigarettes with the same construction were used to repeat the analysis, thus eliminating construction as a variable. The tobacco was treated with varying levels of urea to give a range in smoke pH from 6.47 to 7.15. The determined initial vapor-phase nicotine values ranged from 0.4% to 2.1% of the total mainstream smoke nicotine. This variation was independent of smoke pH. It was determined in this study that (a the maximum initial vapor-phase nicotine delivered to mainstream smoke was 2.1% of the total nicotine delivered for our cigarette samples and (b the delivery of the unprotonated nicotine to mainstream smoke was not meaningfully affected by changes in smoke pH within the range studied.

  14. Addiction to the nicotine gum in never smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etter Jean-François

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Addiction to nicotine gum has never been described in never smokers or in never users of tobacco. Methods Internet questionnaire in 2004–2006 in a self-selected sample of 434 daily users of nicotine gum. To assess dependence on nicotine gum, we used modified versions of the Nicotine Dependence Syndrome Scale (NDSS, the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence and the Cigarette Dependence Scale. Results Five never smokers used the nicotine gum daily. They had been using the nicotine gum for longer than the 429 ever smokers (median = 6 years vs 0.8 years, p = 0.004, and they had higher NDSS-gum Tolerance scores (median = 0.73 vs = -1.0, p = 0.03, a difference of 1.5 standard deviation units. Two never smokers had never used smokeless tobacco, both answered "extremely true" to: "I use nicotine gums because I am addicted to them", both "fully agreed" with: "after a few hours without chewing a nicotine gum, I feel an irresistible urge to chew one" and: "I am a prisoner of nicotine gum". Conclusion This is to our knowledge the first report of addiction to nicotine gum in never users of tobacco. However, this phenomenon is rare, and although the long-term effect of nicotine gum is unknown, this product is significantly less harmful than tobacco.

  15. Synthesis and antinociceptive activity of methyl nicotinate | Erharuyi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methyl nicotinate (methyl-3-pyridinecarboxylate) is a methyl ester of nicotinic acid – a type of B vitamin called niacin. It was prepared by esterification of nicotinic acid by refluxing with methanol in the presence of concentrated sulphuric acid, esterification product obtained was extracted into organic solvent (chloroform) after ...

  16. Honey Attenuates the Detrimental Effects of Nicotine on Testicular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olayemitoyin

    Summary: Effect of honey on reproductive functions of male rats exposed to nicotine was examined in this study. Thirty- two adult male wistar rats ... absorbed quickly through the respiratory tract, oral mucosa and skin. Cotinine is a ... structure and testosterone secretion in nicotine treated rats. Since nicotine is one of the ...

  17. Effects of long-range transported air pollution from vegetation fires on daily mortality and hospital admissions in the Helsinki metropolitan area, Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollanus, Virpi; Tiittanen, Pekka; Niemi, Jarkko V; Lanki, Timo

    2016-11-01

    Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) emissions from vegetation fires can be transported over long distances and may cause significant air pollution episodes far from the fires. However, epidemiological evidence on health effects of vegetation-fire originated air pollution is limited, particularly for mortality and cardiovascular outcomes. We examined association between short-term exposure to long-range transported PM2.5 from vegetation fires and daily mortality due to non-accidental, cardiovascular, and respiratory causes and daily hospital admissions due to cardiovascular and respiratory causes in the Helsinki metropolitan area, Finland. Days significantly affected by smoke from vegetation fires between 2001 and 2010 were identified using air quality measurements at an urban background and a regional background monitoring station, and modelled data on surface concentrations of vegetation-fire smoke. Associations between daily PM2.5 concentration and health outcomes on i) smoke-affected days and ii) all other days (i.e. non-smoke days) were analysed using Poisson time series regression. All statistical models were adjusted for daily temperature and relative humidity, influenza, pollen, and public holidays. On smoke-affected days, 10µg/m3 increase in PM2.5 was associated with a borderline statistically significant increase in cardiovascular mortality among total population at a lag of three days (12.4%, 95% CI -0.2% to 26.5%), and among the elderly (≥65 years) following same-day exposure (13.8%, 95% CI -0.6% to 30.4%) and at a lag of three days (11.8%, 95% CI -2.2% to 27.7%). Smoke day PM2.5 was not associated with non-accidental mortality or hospital admissions due to cardiovascular causes. However, there was an indication of a positive association with hospital admissions due to respiratory causes among the elderly, and admissions due to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or asthma among the total population. In contrast, on non-smoke days PM2.5 was generally

  18. Hormones, Nicotine and Cocaine: Clinical Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mello, Nancy K.

    2009-01-01

    Nicotine and cocaine each stimulate hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal and -gonadal axis hormones, and there is increasing evidence that the hormonal milieu may modulate the abuse-related effects of these drugs. This review summarizes some clinical studies of the acute effects of cigarette smoking or IV cocaine on plasma drug and hormone levels, and subjective effects ratings. The temporal covariance between these dependent measures was assessed with a rapid (two min) sampling procedure in nicotine-dependent volunteers or current cocaine users. Cigarette smoking and IV cocaine each stimulated a rapid increase in LH and ACTH, followed by gradual increases in cortisol and DHEA. Positive subjective effects ratings increased immediately after initiation of cigarette smoking or IV cocaine administration. However, in contrast to cocaine’s sustained positive effects (hormones on nicotine dependence and cocaine abuse, and implications for treatment of these addictive disorders is discussed. PMID:19835877

  19. Waterpipe cafes in Baltimore, Maryland: Carbon monoxide, particulate matter, and nicotine exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrey, Christine M; Moon, Katherine A; Williams, D' Ann L; Green, Tim; Cohen, Joanna E; Navas-Acien, Ana; Breysse, Patrick N

    2015-01-01

    Waterpipe smoking has been growing in popularity in the United States and worldwide. Most tobacco control regulations remain limited to cigarettes. Few studies have investigated waterpipe tobacco smoke exposures in a real world setting. We measured carbon monoxide (CO), particulate matter (PM)2.5, and airborne nicotine concentrations in seven waterpipe cafes in the greater Baltimore area. Area air samples were collected between two and five hours, with an average sampling duration of three hours. Waterpipe smoking behaviors were observed at each venue. Indoor air samplers for CO, PM2.5, and airborne nicotine were placed in the main seating area 1-2 m above the floor. Indoor airborne concentrations of PM2.5 and CO were markedly elevated in waterpipe cafes and exceeded concentrations that were observed in cigarette smoking bars. Air nicotine concentrations, although not as high as in venues that allow cigarette smoking, were markedly higher than in smoke-free bars and restaurants. Concentrations of PM approached occupational exposure limits and CO exceeded occupational exposure guidelines suggesting that worker protection measures need to be considered. This study adds to the literature indicating that both employees and patrons of waterpipe venues are at increased risk from complex exposures to secondhand waterpipe smoke.

  20. Adolescent nicotine or cigarette smoke exposure changes subsequent response to nicotine conditioned place preference and self-administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Peña, June Bryan; Ahsan, Hafiz Muhammad; Botanas, Chrislean Jun; Sohn, Aeree; Yu, Gu Young; Cheong, Jae Hoon

    2014-10-01

    Nicotine/cigarette addiction starts young. Indeed, most smokers started when they were adolescents. Adolescence has been implicated to be a critical period for nicotine/cigarette addiction, thus it is important to understand the consequences of such early exposure. In the present study, we sought to characterize the effects of adolescent nicotine or cigarette smoke pre-exposure on the subsequent addictive effects of nicotine. The rewarding and reinforcing effects of nicotine were evaluated in drug-naïve, nicotine pre-exposed, or cigarette smoke pre-exposed adolescent and adult rats, through the conditioned place preference (CPP) and the self-administration (SA) tests. In the CPP test, drug-naïve adolescent rats demonstrated CPP for the 0.2mg/kg dose of nicotine, while drug-naïve adult rats showed CPP for the relatively higher dose of 0.6mg/kg. Pre-exposed adolescent rats showed diminished response for the 0.2mg/kg, instead significant CPP was observed for the higher dose (0.6mg/kg) of nicotine. No significant change was observed in pre-exposed adult rats. Interestingly, cigarette smoke pre-exposed adolescent rats showed substantially higher nicotine CPP (0.6mg/kg) than to its nicotine-pre-exposed or adult counterpart. In the SA test, drug-naïve adolescent rats reliably produced stable nicotine (0.03mg/kg/infusion) self-administration, but drug-naïve adult rats did not. Surprisingly, however, nicotine or cigarette smoke pre-exposed adolescent and adult rats showed decreased nicotine self-administration. These results conform with the growing notion that adolescents are more sensitive to the addictive effects of nicotine and that nicotine or cigarette smoke exposure during this period produces complex behavioral changes which may influence subsequent response to nicotine. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of caffeine on persistence and reinstatement of nicotine-seeking behavior in rats: interaction with nicotine-associated cues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jernigan, Courtney

    2013-01-01

    Rationale Caffeine and nicotine are the most commonly co-used psychostimulants. However, it is still unclear whether caffeine exposure enhances nicotine-seeking behavior. Objective The present study examined the effects of caffeine on nicotine-seeking in rats trained to self-administer nicotine with and without presession administration of caffeine. Methods Male Sprague–Dawley rats were trained to intravenously self-administer nicotine (0.03 mg/kg/infusion, freebase) on a fixed ratio 5 schedule of reinforcement and associate a stimulus cue with each nicotine administration. Five minutes before the sessions, the rats received an intraperitoneal administration of caffeine (5 mg/kg). Extinction tests were conducted under four conditions: presession caffeine administration, response-contingent presentation of nicotine cues, neither condition, or both conditions. Reinstatement tests were conducted after responding was extinguished by withholding presession caffeine, nicotine, and its cues. A separate group of rats trained without presession caffeine exposure was also subjected to the reinstatement tests. Results In the rats trained with presession caffeine exposure, continued caffeine administration sustained nicotine-seeking responses and interacted with nicotine cues to significantly delay the extinction of nicotine-seeking behavior. Readministration of caffeine after extinction effectively reinstated nicotine-seeking behavior. In caffeine-naive rats, caffeine administration did not reinstate extinguished nicotine-seeking behavior but significantly potentiated the cue-induced reinstatement of nicotine-seeking. Conclusion These data demonstrate that caffeine administration sustained and reinstated nicotine-seeking behavior, possibly via its acquired discriminative-stimulus properties predictive of nicotine availability. These findings suggest that smokers who attempt to quit may benefit from stopping caffeine consumption. PMID:21947355

  2. Nicotine metabolism and addiction among adolescent smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubinstein, Mark L; Shiffman, Saul; Moscicki, Anna-Barbara; Rait, Michelle A; Sen, Saunak; Benowitz, Neal L

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the association between the nicotine metabolic rate and smoking behavior, including addiction, in adolescent smokers. Baseline data from a prospective study of adolescent smoking behaviors and nicotine metabolism. The setting was an out-patient university hospital in San Francisco. Adolescent smokers (n = 164) aged 13-17 years old. Participants completed self-report measures of smoking behavior and nicotine dependence (modified Fagerström Tolerance Questionnaire: mFTQ). The nicotine metabolite ratio (NMR), a phenotypic marker of the rate of nicotine metabolism, was calculated using the ratio of concentrations of deuterium-labeled 3'-hydroxycotinine to cotinine-d(4) . Participants reported smoking a mean of 2.86 cigarettes per day (CPD) [median = 1.78, standard deviation (SD) = 3.35] for 1.37 years (median = 1.0, SD = 1.36). Results from multivariate analyses accounting for age, race/ethnicity, gender and duration of smoking indicated that slower metabolizers smoked more CPD than faster metabolizers (the NMR was inversely related to CPD; P = 0.02). Slower metabolizers also showed greater dependence on the mFTQ (NMR was negatively associated with the mFTQ; P = 0.02). In adolescence, slower clearance of nicotine may be associated with greater levels of addiction, perhaps mediated by a greater number of cigarettes smoked. © 2012 The Authors, Addiction © 2012 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  3. Particle size distribution of selected electronic nicotine delivery system products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldham, Michael J; Zhang, Jingjie; Rusyniak, Mark J; Kane, David B; Gardner, William P

    2018-01-31

    Dosimetry models can be used to predict the dose of inhaled material, but they require several parameters including particle size distribution. The reported particle size distributions for aerosols from electronic nicotine delivery system (ENDS) products vary widely and don't always identify a specific product. A low-flow cascade impactor was used to determine the particle size distribution [mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD); geometric standard deviation (GSD)] from 20 different cartridge based ENDS products. To assess losses and vapor phase amount, collection efficiency of the system was measured by comparing the collected mass in the impactor to the difference in ENDS product mass. The levels of nicotine, glycerin, propylene glycol, water, and menthol in the formulations of each product were also measured. Regardless of the ENDS product formulation, the MMAD of all tested products was similar and ranged from 0.9 to 1.2 μm with a GSD ranging from 1.7 to 2.2. There was no consistent pattern of change in the MMAD and GSD as a function of number of puffs (cartridge life). The collection efficiency indicated that 9%-26% of the generated mass was deposited in the collection system or was in the vapor phase. The particle size distribution data are suitable for use in aerosol dosimetry programs. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Kinetics of brain nicotine accumulation in dependent and nondependent smokers assessed with PET and cigarettes containing 11C-nicotine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Jed E.; Mukhin, Alexey G.; Lokitz, Stephen J.; Turkington, Timothy G.; Herskovic, Joseph; Behm, Frederique M.; Garg, Sudha; Garg, Pradeep K.

    2010-01-01

    Tobacco smoking is a chronic, relapsing disorder that constitutes one of the primary preventable causes of death in developed countries. Two of the popular hypotheses to explain the development and maintenance of strong nicotine dependence in cigarette smokers posit (i) a rapid brain nicotine accumulation during cigarette smoking and/or (ii) puff-associated spikes in brain nicotine concentration. To address these hypotheses, we investigated the dynamics of nicotine accumulation in the smoker's brain during actual cigarette smoking using PET with 3-s temporal resolution and 11C-nicotine loaded into cigarettes. The results of the study, performed in 13 dependent smokers (DS) and 10 nondependent smokers (NDS), suggest that puff-associated spikes in the brain nicotine concentration do not occur during habitual cigarette smoking. Despite the presence of a puff-associated oscillation in the rate of nicotine accumulation, brain nicotine concentration gradually increases during cigarette smoking. The results further suggest that DS have a slower process of brain nicotine accumulation than NDS because they have slower nicotine washout from the lungs and that DS have a tendency to compensate for their slower rate of brain nicotine accumulation compared with NDS by inhaling a larger volume of smoke. For these reasons, smokers’ dependence on cigarette smoking, or the resistance of NDS to becoming dependent, cannot be explained solely by a faster brain nicotine accumulation. PMID:20212132

  5. NICOTINE EFFECTS ON THE MOTOR ACTIVITY OF MICE EXPOSED PRENATALLY TO THE NICOTINIC AGONIST ANATOXIN-A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several studies in the literature have shown that exposure of mice and rats to nicotine early in development alters its effects when the rodents are subsequently challenged with nicotine. Anatoxin-a is a nicotinic agonist produced by several genera of cyanobacteria, and has caus...

  6. Long-term patterns of air temperatures, daily temperature range, precipitation, grass-reference evapotranspiration and aridity index in the USA Great Plains: Part I. Spatial trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukal, M.; Irmak, S.

    2016-11-01

    Due to their substantial spatio-temporal behavior, long-term quantification and analyses of important hydrological variables are essential for practical applications in water resources planning, evaluating the water use of agricultural crop production and quantifying crop evapotranspiration patterns and irrigation management vs. hydrologic balance relationships. Observed data at over 800 sites across the Great Plains of USA, comprising of 9 states and 2,307,410 km2 of surface area, which is about 30% of the terrestrial area of the USA, were used to quantify and map large-scale and long-term (1968-2013) spatial trends of air temperatures, daily temperature range (DTR), precipitation, grass-reference evapotranspiration (ETo) and aridity index (AI) at monthly, growing season and annual time steps. Air temperatures had a strong north to south increasing trend, with annual average varying from -1 to 24 °C, and growing season average temperature varying from 8 to 30 °C. DTR gradually decreased from western to eastern parts of the region, with a regional annual and growing season averages of 14.25 °C and 14.79 °C, respectively. Precipitation had a gradual shift towards higher magnitudes from west to east, with the average annual and growing season (May-September) precipitation ranging from 163 to 1486 mm and from 98 to 746 mm, respectively. ETo had a southwest-northeast decreasing trend, with regional annual and growing season averages of 1297 mm and 823 mm, respectively. AI increased from west to east, indicating higher humidity (less arid) towards the east, with regional annual and growing season averages of 0.49 and 0.44, respectively. The spatial datasets and maps for these important climate variables can serve as valuable background for climate change and hydrologic studies in the Great Plains region. Through identification of priority areas from the developed maps, efforts of the concerned personnel and agencies and resources can be diverted towards development

  7. Aerosol Optical Properties at the Lulin Atmospheric Background Station in Taiwan and the Influences of Long-Range Transport of Air Pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Ta-Chih; Chen, Wei-Nai; Ye, Wei-Cheng; Lin, Neng-Huei; Tsay, Si-Chee; Lin, Tang-Huang; Lee, Chung-Te; Chuang, Ming-Tung; Pantina, Peter; Wang, Sheng-Hsiang

    2016-01-01

    The Lulin Atmospheric Background Station (LABS, 23.47 deg. N 120.87 deg. E, 2862 m ASL) in Central Taiwan was constructed in 2006 and is the only high-altitude background station in the western Pacific region for studying the influence of continental outflow. In this study, extensive optical properties of aerosols, including the aerosol light scattering coefficient [Sigma(sub s)] and light absorption coefficient [Sigma(sub a)], were collected from 2013 to 2014. The intensive optical properties, including mass scattering efficiency [Sigma(sub s)], mass absorption efficiency [Sigma(sub a)] single scattering albedo (Omega), scattering Angstrom exponent (A), and backscattering fraction (b), were determined and investigated, and the distinct seasonal cycle was observed. The value of [Alpha(sub a)] began to increase in January and reached a maximum in April; the mean in spring was 5.89 m(exp. 2) g(exp. -1) with a standard deviation (SD) of 4.54 m(exp. 2) g(exp. -1) and a 4.48 m(exp. 2) g(exp. -1) interquartile range (IQR: 2.95-7.43 m(exp. 2) g(exp. -1). The trend was similar in [Sigma(sub a)], with a maximum in March and a monthly mean of 0.84 m(exp. 2) g(exp. -1). The peak values of Omega (Mean = 0.92, SD = 0.03, IQR: 0.90 - 0.93) and A (Mean = 2.22, SD = 0.61, IQR: 2.12 = 2.47) occurred in autumn. These annual patterns of optical properties were associated with different long-range transport patterns of air pollutants such as biomass burning (BB) aerosol in spring and potential anthropogenic emissions in autumn. The optical measurements performed at LABS during spring in 2013 were compared with those simultaneously performed at the Doi Ang Kang Meteorology Station, Chiang Mai Province, Thailand (DAK, 19.93 deg. N, 99.05 deg. E, 1536 m a.s.l.), which is located in the Southeast Asia BB source region. Furthermore, the relationships among [Sigma(sub s)], [Sigma(sub a)], and (b) were used to characterize the potential aerosol types transported to LABS during different

  8. Binding, uptake, and release of nicotine by human gingival fibroblasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanes, P.J.; Schuster, G.S.; Lubas, S. (Medical College of Georgia, Augusta (USA))

    1991-02-01

    Previous studies of the effects of nicotine on fibroblasts have reported an altered morphology and attachment of fibroblasts to substrates and disturbances in protein synthesis and secretion. This altered functional and attachment response may be associated with changes in the cell membrane resulting from binding of the nicotine, or to disturbances in cell metabolism as a result of high intracellular levels of nicotine. The purpose of the present study, therefore, was to (1) determine whether gingival fibroblasts bound nicotine and if any binding observed was specific or non-specific in nature; (2) determine whether gingival fibroblasts internalized nicotine, and if so, at what rate; (3) determine whether gingival fibroblasts also released nicotine back into the extracellular environment; and (4) if gingival fibroblasts release nicotine intact or as a metabolite. Cultures of gingival fibroblasts were prepared from gingival connective tissue biopsies. Binding was evaluated at 4{degree}C using a mixture of {sup 3}H-nicotine and unlabeled nicotine. Specific binding was calculated as the difference between {sup 3}H-nicotine bound in the presence and absence of unlabeled nicotine. The cells bound 1.44 (+/- 0.42) pmols/10(6) cells in the presence of unlabeled nicotine and 1.66 (+/- 0.55) pmols/10(6) cells in the absence of unlabeled nicotine. The difference was not significant. Uptake of nicotine was measured at 37{degree}C after treating cells with {sup 3}H-nicotine for time periods up to 4 hours. Uptake in pmols/10(6) cells was 4.90 (+/- 0.34) at 15 minutes, 8.30 (+/- 0.75) at 30 minutes, 12.28 (+/- 2.62) at 1 hour and 26.31 (+/- 1.15) at 4 hours.

  9. Adolescent nicotine induces persisting changes in development of neural connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Robert F; McDonald, Craig G; Bergstrom, Hadley C; Ehlinger, Daniel G; Brielmaier, Jennifer M

    2015-08-01

    Adolescent nicotine induces persisting changes in development of neural connectivity. A large number of brain changes occur during adolescence as the CNS matures. These changes suggest that the adolescent brain may still be susceptible to developmental alterations by substances which impact its growth. Here we review recent studies on adolescent nicotine which show that the adolescent brain is differentially sensitive to nicotine-induced alterations in dendritic elaboration, in several brain areas associated with processing reinforcement and emotion, specifically including nucleus accumbens, medial prefrontal cortex, basolateral amygdala, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, and dentate gyrus. Both sensitivity to nicotine, and specific areas responding to nicotine, differ between adolescent and adult rats, and dendritic changes in response to adolescent nicotine persist into adulthood. Areas sensitive to, and not sensitive to, structural remodeling induced by adolescent nicotine suggest that the remodeling generally corresponds to the extended amygdala. Evidence suggests that dendritic remodeling is accompanied by persisting changes in synaptic connectivity. Modeling, electrophysiological, neurochemical, and behavioral data are consistent with the implication of our anatomical studies showing that adolescent nicotine induces persisting changes in neural connectivity. Emerging data thus suggest that early adolescence is a period when nicotine consumption, presumably mediated by nicotine-elicited changes in patterns of synaptic activity, can sculpt late brain development, with consequent effects on synaptic interconnection patterns and behavior regulation. Adolescent nicotine may induce a more addiction-prone phenotype, and the structures altered by nicotine also subserve some emotional and cognitive functions, which may also be altered. We suggest that dendritic elaboration and associated changes are mediated by activity-dependent synaptogenesis, acting in part

  10. Cardiovascular toxicity of nicotine: Implications for electronic cigarette use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benowitz, Neal L; Burbank, Andrea D

    2016-08-01

    The cardiovascular safety of nicotine is an important question in the current debate on the benefits vs. risks of electronic cigarettes and related public health policy. Nicotine exerts pharmacologic effects that could contribute to acute cardiovascular events and accelerated atherogenesis experienced by cigarette smokers. Studies of nicotine medications and smokeless tobacco indicate that the risks of nicotine without tobacco combustion products (cigarette smoke) are low compared to cigarette smoking, but are still of concern in people with cardiovascular disease. Electronic cigarettes deliver nicotine without combustion of tobacco and appear to pose low-cardiovascular risk, at least with short-term use, in healthy users. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Chronic oral nicotine increases brain [3H]epibatidine binding and responsiveness to antidepressant drugs, but not nicotine, in the mouse forced swim test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen T., Jesper; Nielsen, Elsebet O; Redrobe, John P

    2009-01-01

    Smoking rates among depressed individuals is higher than among healthy subjects, and nicotine alleviates depressive symptoms. Nicotine increases serotonergic and noradrenergic neuronal activity and facilitates serotonin and noradrenaline release. In mice, acute nicotine administration enhances th...

  12. Sympathomimetic Effects of Acute E‐Cigarette Use: Role of Nicotine and Non‐Nicotine Constituents

    OpenAIRE

    Moheimani, Roya S.; Bhetraratana, May; Peters, Kacey M.; Yang, Benjamin K.; Yin, Fen; Gornbein, Jeffrey; Araujo, Jesus A.; Middlekauff, Holly R.

    2017-01-01

    Background Chronic electronic (e) cigarette users have increased resting cardiac sympathetic nerve activity and increased susceptibility to oxidative stress. The purpose of the present study is to determine the role of nicotine versus non‐nicotine constituents in e‐cigarette emissions in causing these pathologies in otherwise healthy humans. Methods and Results Thirty‐three healthy volunteers who were not current e‐cigarette or tobacco cigarette smokers were studied. On different days, each p...

  13. Statistical Short-Range Guidance for Peak Wind Forecasts on Kennedy Space Center/Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Phase III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Winifred

    2010-01-01

    This final report describes the development of a peak wind forecast tool to assist forecasters in determining the probability of violating launch commit criteria (LCC) at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS). The peak winds are an important forecast element for both the Space Shuttle and Expendable Launch Vehicle (ELV) programs. The LCC define specific peak wind thresholds for each launch operation that cannot be exceeded in order to ensure the safety of the vehicle. The 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) has found that peak winds are a challenging parameter to forecast, particularly in the cool season months of October through April. Based on the importance of forecasting peak winds, the 45 WS tasked the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) to develop a short-range peak-wind forecast tool to assist in forecasting LCC violations.The tool includes climatologies of the 5-minute mean and peak winds by month, hour, and direction, and probability distributions of the peak winds as a function of the 5-minute mean wind speeds.

  14. Flavourings significantly affect inhalation toxicity of aerosol generated from electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leigh, Noel J; Lawton, Ralph I; Hershberger, Pamela A; Goniewicz, Maciej L

    2016-11-01

    E-cigarettes or electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) are designed to deliver nicotine-containing aerosol via inhalation. Little is known about the health effects of flavoured ENDS aerosol when inhaled. Aerosol from ENDS was generated using a smoking machine. Various types of ENDS devices or a tank system prefilled with liquids of different flavours, nicotine carrier, variable nicotine concentrations and with modified battery output voltage were tested. A convenience sample of commercial fluids with flavour names of tobacco, piña colada, menthol, coffee and strawberry were used. Flavouring chemicals were identified using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. H292 human bronchial epithelial cells were directly exposed to 55 puffs of freshly generated ENDS aerosol, tobacco smoke or air (controls) using an air-liquid interface system and the Health Canada intense smoking protocol. The following in vitro toxicological effects were assessed: (1) cell viability, (2) metabolic activity and (3) release of inflammatory mediators (cytokines). Exposure to ENDS aerosol resulted in decreased metabolic activity and cell viability and increased release of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-10, CXCL1, CXCL2 and CXCL10 compared to air controls. Cell viability and metabolic activity were more adversely affected by conventional cigarettes than most tested ENDS products. Product type, battery output voltage and flavours significantly affected toxicity of ENDS aerosol, with a strawberry-flavoured product being the most cytotoxic. Our data suggest that characteristics of ENDS products, including flavours, may induce inhalation toxicity. Therefore, ENDS users should use the products with caution until more comprehensive studies are performed. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  15. Characterization of a dose-response curve for nicotine-induced conditioned taste aversion in rats: relationship to elevation of plasma beta-endorphin concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, R A; Gilbert, D G; Meliska, C J; Landrum, T A; Szary, A B

    1990-05-01

    In the first experiment a conditioned taste aversion paradigm was used to characterize a dose-response curve for the aversive properties of nicotine in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Doses of nicotine ranging from 0.01 to 0.46 mg/kg, 2.0 ml of 0.47 M lithium chloride, or saline were injected, ip, 10 min after exposure to a novel saccharin solution. Amount of saccharin consumed in a two-bottle test was assessed 72 h later. Nicotine doses of 0.046 mg/kg and above produced a significant degree of conditioned taste aversion. In a second experiment, four groups of 10 rats each were injected with saline, 0.022 mg/kg nicotine, 0.46 mg/kg nicotine, or 2.0 ml 0.47 of M LiCl. Doses of 0.46 mg/kg nicotine and 0.47 M LiCl elevated plasma beta-endorphin concentrations significantly above saline control values. The 0.022 mg/kg dose, the highest dose that did not produce conditioned taste aversion in Experiment 1, did not significantly increase plasma beta-endorphin concentrations. This finding suggests that doses of nicotine that produce conditioned taste aversion also promote the release of pituitary stress hormones. Taken together these data suggest that some of the pharmacological and behavioral effects attributed to nicotine, including the release of endogenous neuromodulators, may be dose-dependent concomitants of the aversive effects of nicotine in nicotine-naive animals.

  16. Neurobiology of nicotine addiction: implications for smoking cessation treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benowitz, Neal L

    2008-04-01

    Nicotine sustains addictive tobacco use, which in turn causes much premature disability and death. The essence of drug addiction is loss of control of drug use. Molecular biology studies suggest that the alpha(4)beta(2) nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subtype is the main receptor mediating nicotine dependence. Nicotine acts on these brain nicotinic cholinergic receptors to facilitate neurotransmitter release (dopamine and others), producing pleasure, stimulation, and mood modulation. Neuroadaptation develops with repeated exposure to nicotine, resulting in tolerance to many of the effects of nicotine. When a smoker stops smoking, a nicotine withdrawal syndrome ensues, characterized by irritability, anxiety, increased eating, dysphoria, and hedonic dysregulation, among other symptoms. Smoking is also reinforced by conditioning, such that specific stimuli that are psychologically associated with smoking become cues for an urge to smoke. These include the taste and smell of tobacco, as well as particular moods, situations, and environmental cues. Pharmacotherapies to aid smoking cessation should ideally reduce nicotine withdrawal symptoms and block the reinforcing effects of nicotine obtained from smoking without causing excessive adverse effects. Further, given the important role of sensory effects of smoking and psychoactive effects of nicotine, counseling and behavioral therapies are important adjuncts to and substantially augment the benefits of pharmacotherapy.

  17. Detection of nicotine as an indicator of tobacco smoke by direct analysis in real time (DART) tandem mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuki, Ákos; Nagy, Lajos; Nagy, Tibor; Zsuga, Miklós; Kéki, Sándor

    2015-01-01

    The residual tobacco smoke contamination (thirdhand smoke, THS) on the clothes of a smoker was examined by direct analysis in real time (DART) mass spectrometry. DART-MS enabled sensitive and selective analysis of nicotine as the indicator of tobacco smoke pollution. Tandem mass spectrometric (MS/MS) experiments were also performed to confirm the identification of nicotine. Transferred thirdhand smoke originated from the fingers of a smoker onto other objects was also detected by DART mass spectrometry. DART-MS/MS was utilized for monitoring the secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS) in the air of the laboratory using nicotine as an indicator. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the application of DART-MS and DART-MS/MS to the detection of thirdhand smoke and to the monitoring of secondhand smoke.

  18. Cholinergic modulation of dopamine pathways through nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Kloet, Sybren F; Mansvelder, Huibert D; De Vries, Taco J

    2015-10-15

    Nicotine addiction is highly prevalent in current society and is often comorbid with other diseases. In the central nervous system, nicotine acts as an agonist for nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) and its effects depend on location and receptor composition. Although nicotinic receptors are found in most brain regions, many studies on addiction have focused on the mesolimbic system and its reported behavioral correlates such as reward processing and reinforcement learning. Profound modulatory cholinergic input from the pedunculopontine and laterodorsal tegmentum to dopaminergic midbrain nuclei as well as local cholinergic interneuron projections to dopamine neuron axons in the striatum may play a major role in the effects of nicotine. Moreover, an indirect mesocorticolimbic feedback loop involving the medial prefrontal cortex may be involved in behavioral characteristics of nicotine addiction. Therefore, this review will highlight current understanding of the effects of nicotine on the function of mesolimbic and mesocortical dopamine projections in the mesocorticolimbic circuit. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Minimization of Temperature Ranges between the Top and Bottom of an Air Flow Controlling Device through Hybrid Control in a Plant Factory

    OpenAIRE

    Seung-Mi Moon; Sook-Youn Kwon; Jae-Hyun Lim

    2014-01-01

    To maintain the production timing, productivity, and product quality of plant factories, it is necessary to keep the growth environment uniform. A vertical multistage type of plant factory involves different levels of growing trays, which results in the problem of difference in temperature among vertically different locations. To address it, it is necessary to install air flow devices such as air flow fan and cooling/heating device at the proper locations in order to facilitate air circulatio...

  20. Nicotine Induces Podocyte Apoptosis through Increasing Oxidative Stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiqian Lan

    Full Text Available Cigarette smoking plays an important role in the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD. Nicotine, one of the major components of cigarette smoking, has been demonstrated to increase proliferation of renal mesangial cells. In this study, we examined the effect of nicotine on podocyte injury.To determine the expression of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR subunits in podocytes, cDNAs and cell lysate of cultured human podocytes were used for the expression of nAChR mRNAs and proteins, respectively; and mouse renal cortical sections were subjected to immunofluorescant staining. We also studied the effect of nicotine on podocyte nephrin expression, reactive oxygen species (ROS generation (via DCFDA loading followed by fluorometric analysis, proliferation, and apoptosis (morphologic assays. We evaluated the effect of nicotine on podocyte downstream signaling including phosphorylation of ERK1/2, JNK, and p38 and established causal relationships by using respective inhibitors. We used nAChR antagonists to confirm the role of nicotine on podocyte injury.Human podocytes displayed robust mRNA and protein expression of nAChR in vitro studies. In vivo studies, mice renal cortical sections revealed co-localization of nAChRs along with synaptopodin. In vitro studies, nephrin expression in podocyte was decreased by nicotine. Nicotine stimulated podocyte ROS generation; nonetheless, antioxidants such as N-acetyl cysteine (NAC and TEMPOL (superoxide dismutase mimetic agent inhibited this effect of nicotine. Nicotine did not modulate proliferation but promoted apoptosis in podocytes. Nicotine enhanced podocyte phosphorylation of ERK1/2, JNK, and p38, and their specific inhibitors attenuated nicotine-induced apoptosis. nAChR antagonists significantly suppressed the effects of nicotine on podocyte.Nicotine induces podocyte apoptosis through ROS generation and associated downstream MAPKs signaling. The present study provides insight into molecular

  1. REINFORCEMENT ENHANCING EFFECTS OF ACUTE NICOTINE VIA ELECTRONIC CIGARETTES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Kenneth A.; Karelitz, Joshua L.; Michael, Valerie C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Recent human studies confirm animal research showing that nicotine enhances reinforcement from rewards unrelated to nicotine. These effects of acute nicotine via tobacco smoking may also occur when consumed from non-tobacco products. Methods We assessed acute effects of nicotine via electronic cigarettes (“e-cigarettes”) on responding reinforced by music, video, or monetary rewards, or for no reward (control). In a fully within-subjects design, adult dependent smokers (N=28) participated in three similar experimental sessions, each following overnight abstinence (verified by CO≤10 ppm). Varying only in e-cigarette condition, sessions involved controlled exposure to a nicotine (labeled “36 mg/ml”) or placebo (“0”) e-cigarette, or no e-cigarette use. A fourth session involved smoking one’s own tobacco cigarette brand after no abstinence, specifically to compare responses under typical nicotine satiation with these acute e-cigarette conditions after abstinence. Results Reinforced responding for video reward, but not the other rewards, was greater due to use of the nicotine versus placebo e-cigarette (i.e., nicotine per se), while no differences were found between the placebo e-cigarette and no e-cigarette conditions (i.e., e-cigarette use per se). For nicotine via tobacco smoking, responding compared to the nicotine e-cigarette was similar for video but greater for music, while both video and music reward were enhanced relative to the non-nicotine conditions (placebo and no e-cigarette). Conclusions Acute nicotine from a non-tobacco product has some reinforcement enhancing effects in humans, in a manner partly consistent with nicotine via tobacco smoking and perhaps contributing to the rising popularity of nicotine e-cigarette use. PMID:26070455

  2. Reinforcement enhancing effects of acute nicotine via electronic cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Kenneth A; Karelitz, Joshua L; Michael, Valerie C

    2015-08-01

    Recent human studies confirm animal research showing that nicotine enhances reinforcement from rewards unrelated to nicotine. These effects of acute nicotine via tobacco smoking may also occur when consumed from non-tobacco products. We assessed acute effects of nicotine via electronic cigarettes ("e-cigarettes") on responding reinforced by music, video, or monetary rewards, or for no reward (control). In a fully within-subjects design, adult dependent smokers (N=28) participated in three similar experimental sessions, each following overnight abstinence (verified by CO≤10ppm). Varying only in e-cigarette condition, sessions involved controlled exposure to a nicotine (labeled "36mg/ml") or placebo ("0″) e-cigarette, or no e-cigarette use. A fourth session involved smoking one's own tobacco cigarette brand after no abstinence, specifically to compare responses under typical nicotine satiation with these acute e-cigarette conditions after abstinence. Reinforced responding for video reward, but not the other rewards, was greater due to use of the nicotine versus placebo e-cigarette (i.e., nicotine per se), while no differences were found between the placebo e-cigarette and no e-cigarette conditions (i.e., e-cigarette use per se). For nicotine via tobacco smoking, responding compared to the nicotine e-cigarette was similar for video but greater for music, while both video and music reward were enhanced relative to the non-nicotine conditions (placebo and no e-cigarette). Acute nicotine from a non-tobacco product has some reinforcement enhancing effects in humans, in a manner partly consistent with nicotine via tobacco smoking and perhaps contributing to the rising popularity of nicotine e-cigarette use. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Nicotine aversion: Neurobiological mechanisms and relevance to tobacco dependence vulnerability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Christie D.; Kenny, Paul J.

    2013-01-01

    Nicotine stimulates brain reward circuitries, most prominently the mesocorticolimbic dopamine system, and this action is considered critical in establishing and maintaining the tobacco smoking habit. Compounds that attenuate nicotine reward are considered promising therapeutic candidates for tobacco dependence, but many of these agents have other actions that limit their potential utility. Nicotine is also highly noxious, particularly at higher doses, and aversive reactions to nicotine after initial exposure can decrease the likelihood of developing a tobacco habit in many first time smokers. Nevertheless, relatively little is known about the mechanisms of nicotine aversion. The purpose of this review is to present recent new insights into the neurobiological mechanisms that regulate avoidance of nicotine. First, the role of the mesocorticolimbic system, so often associated with nicotine reward, in regulating nicotine aversion is highlighted. Second, genetic variation that modifies noxious responses to nicotine and thereby influences vulnerability to tobacco dependence, in particular variation in the CHRNA5-CHRNA3-CHRNB4 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subunit gene cluster, will be discussed. Third, the role of the habenular complex in nicotine aversion, primarily medial habenular projections to the interpeduncular nucleus (IPN) but also lateral habenular projections to rostromedial tegmental nucleus (RMTg) and ventral tegmental area (VTA) are reviewed. Forth, brain circuits that are enriched in nAChRs, but whose role in nicotine avoidance has not yet been assessed, will be proposed. Finally, the feasibility of developing novel therapeutic agents for tobacco dependence that act not by blocking nicotine reward but by enhancing nicotine avoidance will be considered. PMID:24055497

  4. Detoxification and elimination of nicotine by nectar-feeding birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerch-Henning, S; Du Rand, E E; Nicolson, S W

    2017-05-01

    Many dilute nectars consumed by bird pollinators contain secondary metabolites, potentially toxic chemicals produced by plants as defences against herbivores. Consequently, nectar-feeding birds are challenged not only by frequent water excess, but also by the toxin content of their diet. High water turnover, however, could be advantageous to nectar consumers by enabling them to excrete secondary metabolites or their transformation products more easily. We investigated how the alkaloid nicotine, naturally present in nectar of Nicotiana species, influences osmoregulation in white-bellied sunbirds Cinnyris talatala and Cape white-eyes Zosterops virens. We also examined the metabolic fate of nicotine in these two species to shed more light on the post-ingestive mechanisms that allow nectar-feeding birds to tolerate nectar nicotine. A high concentration of nicotine (50 µM) decreased cloacal fluid output and increased its osmolality in both species, due to reduced food intake that led to dehydration. White-eyes excreted a higher proportion of the ingested nicotine-containing diet than sunbirds. However, sugar concentration did not affect nicotine detoxification and elimination. Both species metabolised nicotine, excreting very little unchanged nicotine. Cape white-eyes mainly metabolised nicotine through the cotinine metabolic pathway, with norcotinine being the most abundant metabolite in the excreta, while white-bellied sunbirds excreted mainly nornicotine. Both species also utilized phase II conjugation reactions to detoxify nicotine, with Cape white-eyes depending more on the mercapturic acid pathway to detoxify nicotine than white-bellied sunbirds. We found that sunbirds and white-eyes, despite having a similar nicotine tolerance, responded differently and used different nicotine-derived metabolites to excrete nicotine.

  5. A fully validated LC-MS/MS method for simultaneous determination of nicotine and its metabolite cotinine in human serum and its application to a pharmacokinetic study after using nicotine transdermal delivery systems with standard heat application in adult smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdallah, Inas A; Hammell, Dana C; Stinchcomb, Audra L; Hassan, Hazem E

    2016-05-01

    A sensitive and simple liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for simultaneous determination of nicotine and its main metabolite cotinine in human serum samples. Liquid-liquid extraction using ethyl acetate was employed for serum sample extractions. Chromatographic separation was achieved on Phenomenex Luna(®) HILIC column (150 mm x 3.0mm, 5 μm). Isocratic elution was performed using acetonitrile:100mM ammonium formate buffer (pH=3.2) (90:10, v/v) as the mobile phase, at a flow rate of 0.4 mL/min. Tandem mass spectrometric detection was employed at positive electrospray ionization in MRM mode for the determination of both nicotine and cotinine and their stable isotope labeled internal standards. Analysis was carried out in 8 min over a concentration range of 0.26-52.5 ng/mL and 7.0-1500 ng/mL for nicotine and cotinine, respectively. The assay was validated according to FDA guidelines for bioanalytical method validation and satisfactory results were obtained; the accuracy ranged between 93.39% and 105.73% for nicotine and between 93.04% and 107.26% for cotinine. No significant matrix effect was observed. Stability assays indicated both nicotine and cotinine were stable during sample storage, preparation and analytical procedures. The method was successfully applied to biological samples obtained from a pharmacokinetic study conducted in adult smokers to investigate heat effect on nicotine and cotinine serum levels after nicotine transdermal delivery system (TDS) application. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Nicotine Accelerates Atherosclerosis in Apolipoprotein E-Deficient Mice by Activating α7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor on Mast Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chen; Chen, Han; Zhu, Wei; Xu, Yinchuan; Liu, Mingfei; Zhu, Lianlian; Yang, Fan; Zhang, Ling; Liu, Xianbao; Zhong, Zhiwei; Zhao, Jing; Jiang, Jun; Xiang, Meixiang; Yu, Hong; Hu, Xinyang; Lu, Hong; Wang, Jian'an

    2017-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is an independent risk factor for atherosclerosis. Nicotine, the addictive component of cigarettes, induces mast cell (MC) release and contributes to atherogenesis. The purpose of this study was to determine whether nicotine accelerates atherosclerosis through MC-mediated mechanisms and whether MC stabilizer prevents this pathological process. Nicotine administration increased the size of atherosclerotic lesions in apolipoprotein E-deficient (Apoe-/-) mice fed a fat-enriched diet. This was accompanied by enhanced intraplaque macrophage content and lipid deposition but reduced collagen and smooth muscle cell contents. MC deficiency in Apoe-/- mice (Apoe-/-KitW-sh/W-sh) diminished nicotine-induced atherosclerosis. Nicotine activated bone marrow-derived MCs in vitro, which was inhibited by a MC stabilizer disodium cromoglycate or a nonselective nicotinic acetylcholine receptor blocker mecamylamine. Further investigation revealed that α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor was a target for nicotine activation in MCs. Nicotine did not change atherosclerotic lesion size of Apoe-/-KitW-sh/W-sh mice reconstituted with MCs from Apoe-/-α7nAChR-/- animals. Activation of α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor on MCs is a mechanism by which nicotine enhances atherosclerosis. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  7. Nicotine, adolescence, and stress: A review of how stress can modulate the negative consequences of adolescent nicotine abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holliday, Erica; Gould, Thomas J

    2016-06-01

    In order to continue the decline of smoking prevalence, it is imperative to identify factors that contribute to the development of nicotine and tobacco addiction, such as adolescent initiation of nicotine use, adolescent stress, and their interaction. This review highlights the biological differences between adolescent and adults in nicotine use and resulting effects, and examines the enduring consequences of adolescent nicotine administration. A review of both clinical and preclinical literature indicates that adolescent, but not adult, nicotine administration leads to increased susceptibility for development of long-lasting impairments in learning and affect. Finally, the role stress plays in normal adolescent development, the deleterious effects stress has on learning and memory, and the negative consequences resulting from the interaction of stress and nicotine during adolescence is reviewed. The review concludes with ways in which future policies could benefit by addressing adolescent stress as a means of reducing adolescent nicotine abuse. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Action of ethanol on responses to nicotine from cerebellar Purkinje neurons: relationship to methyllycaconitine (MLA) inhibition of nicotine responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, X; Criswell, H E; Breese, G R

    1999-08-01

    The effect of ethanol on responses to nicotine from rat cerebellar Purkinje neurons was investigated using extracellular single-unit recording. Systemic administration of ethanol initially enhanced the nicotine-induced inhibition from 50% of the Purkinje neurons. However, irrespective of whether there was an initial enhancement, systemic administration of ethanol antagonized the response to nicotine from the majority of Purkinje neurons. When varying ethanol concentrations were electro-osmotically applied to this neuronal cell type, the responses to nicotine (6/8) were enhanced when a low concentration of ethanol (40 mM) was in the pipette, whereas the majority of nicotine responses (10/11) were antagonized when a higher concentration of ethanol (160 mM) was applied to Purkinje neurons. Thus, the concentration of ethanol presented to the neuron seemed to explain the biphasic consequence of systemically administered ethanol on responses to nicotine. In order to determine whether ethanol affected a specific nACh receptor subtype containing the alpha-7 subunit, it was initially established that the nicotinic antagonists, alpha-bungarotoxin (alpha-BTX) and methyllycaconitine (MLA), which are associated with this subunit, had identical actions on responses to nicotine from Purkinje neurons. When MLA was tested against responses to nicotine from this cell type, MLA antagonized the response to nicotine from 45% (9/20) of the neurons tested. In a direct comparison of the action of ethanol to inhibit responses to nicotine with the action of MLA on the same Purkinje neuron, ethanol inhibited responses to nicotine on all neurons sensitive to MLA. However, ethanol also affected nicotine-induced neural changes from some Purkinje neurons not sensitive to MLA antagonism of nicotine. These data support the supposition that ethanol affects a nACh receptor subtype which has an alpha-7 subunit as well as other nACh receptor subtypes without this specific subunit.

  9. The Norwegian Emission Inventory 2011. Documentation of methodologies for estimating emissions of greenhouse gases and long-range transboundary air pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandmo, Trond

    2012-07-01

    The Norwegian emission inventory is a joint undertaking between the Climate and Pollution Agency1 and Statistics Norway. Statistics Norway is responsible for the collection and development of activity data, and emission figures are derived from models operated by Statistics Norway. The Climate and Pollution Agency is responsible for the emission factors, for providing data from specific industries and sources and for considering the quality, and assuring necessary updating, of emission models like, e.g., the road traffic model and calculation of methane emissions from landfills. Emission data are used for a range of national applications and for international reporting. The Climate and Pollution Agency is responsible for the Norwegian reporting to United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and to United Nations Economic Commission Europe (UN-ECE). This report documents the methodologies used in the Norwegian emission inventory of greenhouse gases (GHG), acidifying pollutants, heavy metals (HM) and persistent organic pollutants (POPs). The documentation will also serve as a part of the National Inventory Report submitted by Norway to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), and as documentation of the reported emissions to UNECE for the pollutants restricted by CLRTAP (Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution). LULUCF is not considered in this report, see the National Inventory Report (Climate and Pollution Agency 2011b) for documentation on this topic. This report replaces the previous documentation of the emission model (Sandmo 2010), and is the latest annually updated version of a report edited by Britta Hoem in 2005. The most important changes since last year's documentation are: To define the different economic sectors in the Norwegian emission model, the standard industrial classification SIC2007 has replaced the previous SIC2002 (Appendix F) A new model for calculating emissions to air (HBEFA

  10. Effect of NOx emission controls from world regions on the long-range transport of ozone air pollution and human mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, J.; Naik, V.; Horowitz, L. W.

    2007-12-01

    We model the influences of 10% reductions in anthropogenic nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from each of nine world regions on surface ozone air quality in that region and all other regions, using the MOZART-2 model of tropospheric chemistry and transport. In doing so, we quantify the relative importance of long-range transport between different world regions for ozone. We find that the strongest inter-regional influences are for Europe to the Former Soviet Union (FSU), East Asia to Southeast Asia, and Europe to Africa. The largest influences per unit of NOx reduced, however, are seen for tropical source regions, due to greater sensitivity of ozone production to NOx emissions. Results show, for example, that NOx reductions in North America are about 20% as effective per ton at reducing ozone in Europe, as NOx reductions from Europe itself. In estimating the changes in cases of premature mortality associated with ozone, we find that NOx reductions in North America, Europe, and FSU reduce more mortalities outside of the source regions than within. Among world regions, an average ton of NOx reduced in India causes the greatest number of avoided mortalities (mainly in India itself). We also assess the long-term increases in global ozone resulting from methane increases due to the regional NOx reductions. For many of the more distant source-receptor pairs, the long-term increase in ozone roughly negates the direct short-term ozone decrease. The increase in methane and long-term ozone per unit of NOx reduced is greatest in tropical source regions and varies among different regions by a factor of ten.

  11. Leptin and calorie intake among different nicotine dependent groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhaimi, Muhammad Zulhusni; Sanip, Zulkefli; Jan, Hamid Jan; Yusoff, Harmy Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to nicotine via tobacco smoking may influence leptin release and decrease food intake among smokers. However, the effect of nicotine exposure on leptin and food intake among different nicotine dependent groups is unclear. We aimed to measure leptin and calorie intake among different nicotine dependent groups. Cross-sectional study. Research department in school of medical sciences. Subjects were selected by purposive (non-probability) sampling and categorized as having low, moderate and high nicotine dependency based on the Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND) score. Diet was recorded by interview. Anthropometry, blood pressure, body composition, lipid profile, and physical activity level were measured accordingly. Fasting serum leptin was measured using a commercial ELISA kit. Nicotine dependency, 24-hour diet, clinical anthropometric and clinical measurements. In 107 Malay male smokers leptin concentration was inversely correlated with nicotine dependence. However, body weight, smoking period, blood pressure, body composition, lipid profile and physical activity level were not significantly different among low, moderately and highly dependent smoking groups. Leptin concentration and total calorie intake were also not significantly different among these groups. Leptin concentration was inversely correlated with nicotine dependence, but leptin concentration and total calorie intake status were not significantly different among our different nicotine dependency subjects. Purposive sampling for subject recruitment and inaccurate information in the self-administered questionnaire.

  12. Opioid Analgesics and Nicotine: More Than Blowing Smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jin H; Lane, Scott D; Weaver, Michael F

    2015-09-01

    Practitioners are highly likely to encounter patients with concurrent use of nicotine products and opioid analgesics. Smokers present with more severe and extended chronic pain outcomes and have a higher frequency of prescription opioid use. Current tobacco smoking is a strong predictor of risk for nonmedical use of prescription opioids. Opioid and nicotinic-cholinergic neurotransmitter systems interact in important ways to modulate opioid and nicotine effects: dopamine release induced by nicotine is dependent on facilitation by the opioid system, and the nicotinic-acetylcholine system modulates self-administration of several classes of abused drugs-including opioids. Nicotine can serve as a prime for the use of other drugs, which in the case of the opioid system may be bidirectional. Opioids and compounds in tobacco, including nicotine, are metabolized by the cytochrome P450 enzyme system, but the metabolism of opioids and tobacco products can be complicated. Accordingly, drug interactions are possible but not always clear. Because of these issues, asking about nicotine use in patients taking opioids for pain is recommended. When assessing patient tobacco use, practitioners should also obtain information on products other than cigarettes, such as cigars, pipes, smokeless tobacco, and electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS, or e-cigarettes). There are multiple forms of behavioral therapy and pharmacotherapy available to assist patients with smoking cessation, and opioid agonist maintenance and pain clinics represent underutilized opportunities for nicotine intervention programs.

  13. Reducing the nicotine content to make cigarettes less addictive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benowitz, Neal L; Henningfield, Jack E

    2013-05-01

    Nicotine is highly addictive and is primarily responsible for the maintenance of cigarette smoking. In 1994, Benowitz and Henningfield proposed the idea of federal regulation of the nicotine content of cigarettes such that the nicotine content of cigarettes would be reduced over time, resulting in lower intake of nicotine and a lower level of nicotine dependence. When nicotine levels get very low, cigarettes would be much less addictive. As a result, fewer young people who experiment with cigarettes would become addicted adult smokers and previously addicted smokers would find it easier to quit smoking when they attempt to do so. The regulatory authority to promulgate such a public health strategy was provided by the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act. Although it precludes 'reducing nicotine to zero', the act does not prohibit the Food and Drug Administration from setting standards for cigarette nicotine content that would prevent them from being capable of causing addiction. This paper reviews the assumptions implicit in a nicotine reduction strategy, examines the available data on the feasibility and safety of nicotine reduction, and discusses the public education, surveillance and support services that would be needed for the implementation of such a policy.

  14. Transport Mechanism of Nicotine in Primary Cultured Alveolar Epithelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takano, Mikihisa; Nagahiro, Machi; Yumoto, Ryoko

    2016-02-01

    Nicotine is absorbed from the lungs into the systemic circulation during cigarette smoking. However, there is little information concerning the transport mechanism of nicotine in alveolar epithelial cells. In this study, we characterized the uptake of nicotine in rat primary cultured type II (TII) and transdifferentiated type I-like (TIL) epithelial cells. In both TIL and TII cells, [(3)H]nicotine uptake was time and temperature-dependent, and showed saturation kinetics. [(3)H]Nicotine uptake in these cells was not affected by Na(+), but was sensitive to extracellular and intracellular pH, suggesting the involvement of a nicotine/proton antiport system. The uptake of [(3)H]nicotine in these cells was potently inhibited by organic cations such as clonidine, diphenhydramine, and pyrilamine, but was not affected by substrates and/or inhibitors of known organic cation transporters such as carnitine, 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium, and tetraethylammonium. In addition, the uptake of [(3)H]nicotine in TIL cells was stimulated by preloading the cells with unlabeled nicotine, pyrilamine, and diphenhydramine, but not with tetraethylammonium. These results suggest that a novel proton-coupled antiporter is involved in the uptake of nicotine in alveolar epithelial cells and its absorption from the lungs into the systemic circulation. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. The Norwegian Emission Inventory 2012. Documentation of methodologies for estimating emissions of greenhouse gases and long-range transboundary air pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandmo, Trond (ed.)

    2012-07-01

    The Norwegian emission inventory is a joint undertaking between the Climate and Pollution Agency1 and Statistics Norway. Statistics Norway is responsible for the collection and development of activity data, and emission figures are derived from models operated by Statistics Norway. The Climate and Pollution Agency is responsible for the emission factors, for providing data from specific industries and sources and for considering the quality, and assuring necessary updating, of emission models like, e.g., the road traffic model and calculation of methane emissions from landfills. Emission data are used for a range of national applications and for international reporting. The Climate and Pollution Agency is responsible for the Norwegian reporting to United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and to United Nations Economic Commission Europe (UN-ECE). This report documents the methodologies used in the Norwegian emission inventory of greenhouse gases (GHG), acidifying pollutants, heavy metals (HM) and persistent organic pollutants (POPs). The documentation will also serve as a part of the National Inventory Report submitted by Norway to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), and as documentation of the reported emissions to UNECE for the pollutants restricted by CLRTAP (Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution). LULUCF (land use, land-use change and forestry) is not considered in this report, see the National Inventory Report (Climate and Pollution Agency 2012) for documentation on this topic.This report replaces the previous documentation of the emission model (Sandmo 2011), and is the latest annually updated version of a report edited by Britta Hoem in 2005. The most important changes since last year's documentation are: Minor NOx emissions from production of rock wool, which previously not have been estimated, have been included, Some factors for estimation of N2O from agriculture have been altered

  16. Reconstruction of extensive air showers and measurement of the cosmic ray energy spectrum in the range of 1 - 80 PeV at the South Pole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klepser, Stefan

    2008-06-24

    IceTop is a km{sup 2} scale detector array for highly energetic cosmic radiation. It is a part of the IceCube Observatory that is presently being built at the geographic South Pole. It aims for the detection of huge particle cascades induced by PeV cosmic rays in the atmosphere. These extensive air showers are detected by cylindrical ice tanks that collect the Cherenkov light produced by penetrating particles. The main goal of IceTop is the investigation of the energy distribution and chemical composition of PeV to EeV cosmic rays. This thesis presents the first analysis of highly energetic cosmic ray data taken with IceTop. First, the light response of the IceTop tanks is parametrised as a function of energy and particle type. An expectation function for the distribution of shower signals in the detector plane is developed. The likelihood fit based on that can reconstruct the recorded shower events with resolutions of 1.5 in direction, 9m in location of the shower center, and 12% in energy. This is well competitive with other experiments. The resulting energy response of the array is studied to set up response matrices for different primary nuclei and inclinations. These allow for a deconvolution of the distribution of reconstructed energies to derive the real energy spectrum. Two unfolding algorithms are implemented and studied, and response matrices are modeled for four different composition assumptions. With each assumption, energy spectra are unfolded for three different bins in inclination, using a data sample with an exposure of 3.86.10{sup 11} m{sup 2} s sr, taken in August 2007. The range of the spectrum is 1-80 PeV. Finally, a new analysis method is developed that uses the fact that cosmic rays in the PeV range are expected to be isotropic. It is shown that this requirement can be used for a likelihood estimation that is sensitive to composition without using additional information from other detector components. The analysis shows a clear preference of

  17. Nicotinic receptor partial agonists alter catecholamine homeostasis and response to nicotine in PC12 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turcanu, D S; Kirtok, N; Eibl, C; Guendisch, D; LaGamma, E F; Nankova, B B

    2012-05-16

    Repeated stress is a major public health concern where many stress responses are mediated by neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. In the present study we evaluated the effects of the nicotinic receptor partial agonists, cytisine and its derivative 3-(pyridin-3'-yl)-cytisine (3-pyr-Cyt) on two main biological outputs associated with activation of nAChR-release of neurotransmitters and increase in catecholamine biosynthesis to replenish the releasable pool. We compared these substances to the maximal response triggered by nicotine (full agonist) in PC12 cells. Cytisine, 3-pyr-Cyt or nicotine induced time-, dose- and Ca(2+)-dependent significant release of norepinephrine (NE) into the culture media. These effects were completely inhibited by mecamylamine but not by α-bungarotoxin, and only partially affected by α-conotoxin AulB, consistent with the involvement of α3β4 receptors. Co-application of cytisine (or 3-pyr-Cyt) and nicotine resulted in attenuated nicotine-induced NE release. Cytisine or 3-pyr-Cyt alone induced a modest rise in tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) mRNA levels (index of the cell's catecholamine biosynthetic capacity). We conclude that both, cytisine and 3-pyr-Cyt (i) display typical partial agonist properties at naturally existing ganglionic nAChR (α3β4 and α7 nAChR) with regard to catecholamine homeostasis (i.e. NE release and re-synthesis) and (ii) modulated the effect of nicotine during combined treatment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Nicotine increases GABAergic input on rat dorsal raphe serotonergic neurons through alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Vázquez, F; Chavarría, K; Garduño, J; Hernández-López, S; Mihailescu, S P

    2014-12-15

    The dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) contains large populations of serotonergic (5-HT) neurons. This nucleus receives GABAergic inhibitory afferents from many brain areas and from DRN interneurons. Both GABAergic and 5-HT DRN neurons express functional nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). Previous studies have demonstrated that nicotine increases 5-HT release and 5-HT DRN neuron discharge rate by stimulating postsynaptic nAChRs and by increasing glutamate and norepinephrine release inside DRN. However, the influence of nicotine on the GABAergic input to 5-HT DRN neurons was poorly investigated. Therefore, the aim of this work was to determine the effect of nicotine on GABAergic spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents (sIPSCs) of 5-HT DRN neurons and the subtype of nAChR(s) involved in this response. Experiments were performed in coronal slices obtained from young Wistar rats. GABAergic sIPSCs were recorded from post hoc-identified 5-HT DRN neurons with the whole cell voltage patch-clamp technique. Administration of nicotine (1 μM) increased sIPSC frequency in 72% of identified 5-HT DRN neurons. This effect was not reproduced by the α4β2 nAChR agonist RJR-2403 and was not influenced by TTX (1 μM). It was mimicked by the selective agonist for α7 nAChR, PNU-282987, and exacerbated by the positive allosteric modulator of the same receptor, PNU-120596. The nicotine-induced increase in sIPSC frequency was independent on voltage-gated calcium channels and dependent on Ca(2+)-induced Ca(2+) release (CICR). These results demonstrate that nicotine increases the GABAergic input to most 5-HT DRN neurons, by activating α7 nAChRs and producing CICR in DRN GABAergic terminals. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  19. Reduced nicotine content cigarettes and use of alternative nicotine products: exploratory trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatsukami, Dorothy K; Luo, Xianghua; Dick, Laura; Kangkum, Margarita; Allen, Sharon S; Murphy, Sharon E; Hecht, Stephen S; Shields, Peter G; al'Absi, Mustafa

    2017-01-01

    To compare the use of alternative nicotine products, smoking behavior and tobacco biomarker exposure in smokers unwilling to quit who were assigned randomly to normal nicotine content (NNC) cigarettes or very low nicotine content (VLNC) cigarettes. Randomized, parallel-arm 8-week study with assignment to VLNC (VLNC 1, n = 53) or NNC (NNC, n = 27) with access to non-cigarette combusted and non-combusted tobacco/nicotine products or to VLNC with access to only non-combusted products (VLNC2, n = 56). Clinics in Minnesota, USA. Smokers uninterested in quitting smoking with a mean [± standard deviation (SD)] age of 44 (± 14) years and smoking 16 (± seven) cigarettes/day; 51% female, 72% white. During the experimental period, the measures taken included: rate of alternative products used, amount of and abstinence from combusted tobacco used and tobacco exposure biomarkers. There were higher rates of non-combusted alternative tobacco/nicotine product use in both VLNC conditions versus the NNC condition [rate ratio (RR) = 2.18, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.94, 2.46 and RR = 1.64, 95% CI = 1.46, 1.85, respectively] and in VLNC1 versus VLNC2 condition (RR = 1.33, 95% CI = 1.23, 1.44), accompanied by reduced biomarkers of exposure primarily in VLNC2 condition compared to NNC condition (Ps cigarettes during an 8-week period led to greater use of alternative tobacco/nicotine products compared with continued use of normal nicotine cigarettes and also reductions in smoking rates. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  20. Association between nicotine replacement therapy use in pregnancy and smoking cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brose, Leonie S; McEwen, Andy; West, Robert

    2013-10-01

    There is an urgent need to find better ways of helping pregnant smokers to stop. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have not detected an effect of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) for smoking cessation in pregnancy. This may be because of inadequate dosing because of faster nicotine metabolism in this group. In England, many pregnant smokers use single form and combination NRT (patch plus a faster acting form). This correlational study examined whether the latter is associated with higher quit rates. Routinely collected data from 3880 pregnant smokers attempting to stop in one of 44 Stop Smoking Services in England. The outcome measure was 4-week quit rates, verified by expired-air carbon monoxide levelsmoking cessation during pregnancy. While this conclusion is based on correlational data, it lends support to continuing this treatment option pending confirmation by an RCT. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Adsorption of nicotine on different zeolite types, from aqueous solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stošić Dušan K.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The plant alkaloid, nicotine, is a strongly toxic heterocyclic compound: the lethal dose for an adult human being (40-60 mg is importantly lower in comparison with the other known poisons such as arsenic or strychni­ne. Cigarettes represent "the most toxic and addictive form of nicotine". Besides the negative effects of nicotine on public health produced by self-administration, recently another potentially very dangerous effect has been recognized: because of its miscibility with water, nicotine can be found in industrial wastewaters, and consequently, in groundwater. Therefore, the problem of nicotine removal from aqueous solutions has became an interesting topic. In this work, the removal of nicotine has been probed by adsorption on solid materials. Adsorption of nicotine on different zeolites (clinoptilolite, ZSM-5 and β zeolite and on activated carbon was investigated from aqueous solutions, at 298 K. The obtained results are presented as adsorption isotherms: the amount of adsorbed nicotine as a function of equilibrium concentration. These data were obtained from the residual amount of nicotine in the aqueous phase, by the use of UV spectroscopy. The highest amounts of adsorbed nicotine was found for activated carbon and p zeolite (~ mmol·g-1. The attempt to modify the adsorption properties of ZSM-5 zeolite has been also done: ZSM-5 was modified by ion-exchange with VIII group metal (Cu2+ and Fe3+. In addition, the adsorption of nicotine on ZSM-5 zeolite with different Si/Al ratios has been done. It has been noticed that ion-exchange did not improve the adsorption possibilities, while the adsorption was importantly lower in the case of higher silicon content in ZMS-5 structure. 13C NMR spectra were collected for suspensions formed of solid adsorbent and aqueous solution of nicotine; in this way, the part of nicotine molecule which is most probably connected with the adsorbent was recognized.

  2. Minimization of temperature ranges between the top and bottom of an air flow controlling device through hybrid control in a plant factory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Seung-Mi; Kwon, Sook-Youn; Lim, Jae-Hyun

    2014-01-01

    To maintain the production timing, productivity, and product quality of plant factories, it is necessary to keep the growth environment uniform. A vertical multistage type of plant factory involves different levels of growing trays, which results in the problem of difference in temperature among vertically different locations. To address it, it is necessary to install air flow devices such as air flow fan and cooling/heating device at the proper locations in order to facilitate air circulation in the facility as well as develop a controlling technology for efficient operation. Accordingly, this study compares the temperature and air distribution within the space of a vertical multistage closed-type plant factory by controlling cooling/heating devices and air flow fans harmoniously by means of the specially designed testbed. The experiment results indicate that in the hybrid control of cooling and heating devices and air flow fans, the difference in temperature decreased by as much as 78.9% compared to that when only cooling and heating devices were operated; the air distribution was improved by as much as 63.4%.

  3. Minimization of Temperature Ranges between the Top and Bottom of an Air Flow Controlling Device through Hybrid Control in a Plant Factory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Mi Moon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To maintain the production timing, productivity, and product quality of plant factories, it is necessary to keep the growth environment uniform. A vertical multistage type of plant factory involves different levels of growing trays, which results in the problem of difference in temperature among vertically different locations. To address it, it is necessary to install air flow devices such as air flow fan and cooling/heating device at the proper locations in order to facilitate air circulation in the facility as well as develop a controlling technology for efficient operation. Accordingly, this study compares the temperature and air distribution within the space of a vertical multistage closed-type plant factory by controlling cooling/heating devices and air flow fans harmoniously by means of the specially designed testbed. The experiment results indicate that in the hybrid control of cooling and heating devices and air flow fans, the difference in temperature decreased by as much as 78.9% compared to that when only cooling and heating devices were operated; the air distribution was improved by as much as 63.4%.

  4. On the deposition of volatiles and semivolatiles from cigarette smoke aerosols: relative rates of transfer of nicotine and ammonia from particles to the gas phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeman, Jeffrey I; Lipowicz, Peter J; Piadé, Jean-Jacques; Poget, Laurent; Sanders, Edward B; Snyder, James P; Trowbridge, Clarence G

    2004-08-01

    The hypothesis that elevated levels of ammonia-releasing compounds in tobacco and ammonia in mainstream (MS) smoke increase the rate and amount of nicotine evaporation from the particles of MS smoke aerosol was examined by kinetic modeling and experiments with MS cigarette smoke. Computational simulation of a kinetic mechanism describing volatile loss of nicotine, ammonia, and acetic acid from an aqueous solution was used to compute the time-dependent concentration of all species in the model. Because of the high volatility of ammonia relative to that of nicotine, variation over a wide range of initial ammonia concentration had no significant effect upon the rate of loss of nicotine from the model system. The effects of a variation in the volatile loss rate constant for ammonia and for the acid were examined. The simulations show that ammonia is lost from the model solution at a greater rate than nicotine and acid, and the loss of volatile acid has a significant role in the rate and amount of nicotine loss. Simulations with a model system undergoing a continuous steady addition of ammonia showed that high rates of ammonia addition could significantly increase the rate of nicotine volatile loss from the model solution. A series of smoking experiments was performed using blended cigarettes connected to a denuder tube. Deposition of smoke constituents can occur directly from the gas phase and by the deposition of smoke aerosol particles themselves. As nicotine exists >99% in the particle phase of MS smoke, in the absence of particle deposition, denuder tube deposition of nicotine occurs via the evaporation-deposition pathway. Solanesol, a nonvolatile tobacco and smoke terpene, was used to quantify the amount of particle deposition onto the denuder tube. The amount of ammonia deposited on the denuder tube was an order of magnitude greater than that of nicotine, showing that ammonia evaporates from the MS smoke particles much faster than does nicotine. The experimental

  5. Monitoring of long-range transported air pollutants, Annual report for 2011; Overvaaking av langtransportert forurenset luft og nedboer. Atmosfaeriske tilfoersler, 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aas, Wenche; Solberg, Sverre; Manoe, Stein; Yttri, Karl Espen

    2012-07-01

    This report presents the 2011 monitoring results from the rural air- and precipitation chemistry monitoring network in Norway. In 2011, main components in precipitation were measured at 15 sites. Trace elements were determined at four sites. Air concentrations of sulphur and nitrogen compounds were measured at six sites, and ozone concentrations at eight sites. Persistent organic pollutants and heavy metals in air are determined at three sites. Measurements of PM10 and PM2.5 mass are also determined at three sites, including measurements of organic and elemental carbon (OC and EC). An overview of the measurement programme is given in Appendix B2. (Author)

  6. PASS assisted prediction and pharmacological evaluation of novel nicotinic analogs for nootropic activity in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khurana, Navneet; Ishar, Mohan Pal Singh; Gajbhiye, Asmita; Goel, Rajesh Kumar

    2011-07-15

    The aim of present study is to predict the probable nootropic activity of novel nicotine analogues with the help of computer program, PASS (prediction of activity spectra for substances) and evaluate the same. Two compounds from differently substituted pyridines were selected for synthesis and evaluation of nootropic activity based on their high probable activity (Pa) value predicted by PASS computer program. Evaluation of nootropic activity of compounds after acute and chronic treatment was done with transfer latency (TL) and step down latency (SDL) methods which showed significant nootropic activity. The effect on scopolamine induced amnesia was also observed along with their acetylcholine esterase inhibitory activity which also showed positive results which strengthened their efficacy as nootropic agents through involvement of cholinergic system. This nootropic effect was similar to the effect of nicotine and donepezil used as standard drugs. Muscle coordination and locomotor activity along with their addiction liability, safety and tolerability studies were also evaluated. These studies showed that these compounds are well tolerable and safe over a wide range of doses tested along with the absence of withdrawal effect which is present in nicotine due to its addiction liability. The study showed that these compounds are true nicotine analogs with desirable efficacy and safety profile for their use as effective nootropic agents. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Electronic cigarettes induce DNA strand breaks and cell death independently of nicotine in cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Vicky; Rahimy, Mehran; Korrapati, Avinaash; Xuan, Yinan; Zou, Angela E; Krishnan, Aswini R; Tsui, Tzuhan; Aguilera, Joseph A; Advani, Sunil; Crotty Alexander, Laura E; Brumund, Kevin T; Wang-Rodriguez, Jessica; Ongkeko, Weg M

    2016-01-01

    Evaluate the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of short- and long-term e-cigarette vapor exposure on a panel of normal epithelial and head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) cell lines. HaCaT, UMSCC10B, and HN30 were treated with nicotine-containing and nicotine-free vapor extract from two popular e-cigarette brands for periods ranging from 48 h to 8 weeks. Cytotoxicity was assessed using Annexin V flow cytometric analysis, trypan blue exclusion, and clonogenic assays. Genotoxicity in the form of DNA strand breaks was quantified using the neutral comet assay and γ-H2AX immunostaining. E-cigarette-exposed cells showed significantly reduced cell viability and clonogenic survival, along with increased rates of apoptosis and necrosis, regardless of e-cigarette vapor nicotine content. They also exhibited significantly increased comet tail length and accumulation of γ-H2AX foci, demonstrating increased DNA strand breaks. E-cigarette vapor, both with and without nicotine, is cytotoxic to epithelial cell lines and is a DNA strand break-inducing agent. Further assessment of the potential carcinogenic effects of e-cigarette vapor is urgently needed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Influence of relative humidity and gaseous ammonia on the nicotine sorption to indoor materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ongwandee, M; Sawanyapanich, P

    2012-02-01

    Sorption of nitrogen-containing organic constituents of environmental tobacco smoke may be influenced by ammonia, a common indoor gas, and relative humidity (RH). We quantified sorption kinetics and equilibria of nicotine with stainless steel, cotton-polyester curtain, and polypropylene carpet at 0%, 50%, and 90% RH and in the presence of ammonia using a 10-l stainless steel chamber. Nicotine was introduced into the chamber by flash evaporating 50 μl of pure liquid. Kinetic sorption parameters were determined by fitting a mass balance model to experimental results using a nonlinear regression. Results show that an equilibrium partition coefficient, k(e) , of nicotine tended to increase as the RH increased for the curtain and carpet. Adsorbed water may contribute to an increase in available sites for nicotine sorption on the surface. In the presence of 20- and 40-ppm NH(3) , the values of k(e) for carpet were decreased by 14-40% at 50% and 90% RH, but the effect of NH(3) was not observed at 0% RH. The values of k(e) ranged from 54 to 152 m. Our findings indicate the relative importance of nicotine sorption to surfaces is dependent on the relative humidity and the presence of ammonia. This research demonstrates that relative humidity and gaseous ammonia can influence nicotine sorption to common indoor surfaces, i.e., curtains and carpets. Increasing the relative humidity from dry to modest appears to enhance the sorptive capacity. Presence of the typical range of gaseous ammonia concentrations can reduce the nicotine sorption in a humid environment but does not affect the sorptive capacity in the absence of added water. Thus, studies on the dynamic sorption of other alkaloids or amine constituents of environmental tobacco smoke to indoor surfaces should consider the impact of water vapor concentration because of the interaction of water with the surface and sorbates. Furthermore, the mixture of gaseous amines may participate in adsorption site competition. © 2011

  9. Nicotinic Mechanisms Modulate Ethanol Withdrawal and Modify Time Course and Symptoms Severity of Simultaneous Withdrawal from Alcohol and Nicotine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Erika; Quijano-Cardé, Natalia; De Biasi, Mariella

    2015-09-01

    Alcohol and nicotine are among the top causes of preventable death in the United States. Unfortunately, people who are dependent on alcohol are more likely to smoke than individuals in the general population. Similarly, smokers are more likely to abuse alcohol. Alcohol and nicotine codependence affects health in many ways and leads to poorer treatment outcomes in subjects who want to quit. This study examined the interaction of alcohol and nicotine during withdrawal and compared abstinence symptoms during withdrawal from one of the two drugs only vs both. Our results indicate that simultaneous withdrawal from alcohol and nicotine produces physical symptoms that are more severe and last longer than those experienced during withdrawal from one of the two drugs alone. In animals experiencing withdrawal after chronic ethanol treatment, acute nicotine exposure was sufficient to prevent abstinence symptoms. Similarly, symptoms were prevented when alcohol was injected acutely in mice undergoing nicotine withdrawal. These experiments provide evidence for the involvement of the nicotinic cholinergic system in alcohol withdrawal. Furthermore, the outcomes of intracranial microinfusions of mecamylamine, a nonselective nicotinic receptor antagonist, highlight a major role for the nicotinic receptors expressed in medial habenula and interpeduncular nucleus during withdrawal. Overall, the data support the notion that modulating the nicotinic cholinergic system might help to maintain long-term abstinence from alcohol.

  10. Effects of simultaneous exposure to stress and nicotine on nicotine-induced locomotor activation in adolescent and adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zago, A; Leão, R M; Carneiro-de-Oliveira, P E; Marin, M T; Cruz, F C; Planeta, C S

    2012-01-01

    Preclinical studies have shown that repeated stress experiences can result in an increase in the locomotor response to the subsequent administration of drugs of abuse, a phenomenon that has been termed behavioral cross-sensitization. Behavioral sensitization reflects neuroadaptive processes associated with drug addiction and drug-induced psychosis. Although cross-sensitization between stress- and drug-induced locomotor activity has been clearly demonstrated in adult rats, few studies have evaluated this phenomenon in adolescent rats. In the present study, we determined if the simultaneous exposure to stress and nicotine was capable of inducing behavioral sensitization to nicotine in adolescent and adult rats. To this end, adolescent (postnatal day (P) 28-37) and adult (P60-67) rats received nicotine (0.4 mg/kg, sc) or saline (0.9% NaCl, sc) and were immediately subjected to restraint stress for 2 h once a day for 7 days. The control group for stress was undisturbed following nicotine or saline injections. Three days after the last exposure to stress and nicotine, rats were challenged with a single dose of nicotine (0.4 mg/kg, sc) or saline and nicotine-induced locomotion was then recorded for 30 min. In adolescent rats, nicotine caused behavioral sensitization only in animals that were simultaneously exposed to stress, while in adult rats nicotine promoted sensitization independently of stress exposure. These findings demonstrate that adolescent rats are more vulnerable to the effects of stress on behavioral sensitization to nicotine than adult rats.

  11. Effects of simultaneous exposure to stress and nicotine on nicotine-induced locomotor activation in adolescent and adult rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zago, A. [Laboratório de Farmacologia, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Leão, R.M.; Carneiro-de-Oliveira, P.E. [Laboratório de Farmacologia, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Programa Interinstitucional de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Fisiológicas, Universidade Federal de São Carlos/Universidade Estadual de São Paulo, Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Marin, M.T.; Cruz, F.C. [Laboratório de Farmacologia, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Planeta, C.S. [Laboratório de Farmacologia, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Programa Interinstitucional de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Fisiológicas, Universidade Federal de São Carlos/Universidade Estadual de São Paulo, Araraquara, SP (Brazil)

    2011-11-18

    Preclinical studies have shown that repeated stress experiences can result in an increase in the locomotor response to the subsequent administration of drugs of abuse, a phenomenon that has been termed behavioral cross-sensitization. Behavioral sensitization reflects neuroadaptive processes associated with drug addiction and drug-induced psychosis. Although crosssensitization between stress- and drug-induced locomotor activity has been clearly demonstrated in adult rats, few studies have evaluated this phenomenon in adolescent rats. In the present study, we determined if the simultaneous exposure to stress and nicotine was capable of inducing behavioral sensitization to nicotine in adolescent and adult rats. To this end, adolescent (postnatal day (P) 28-37) and adult (P60-67) rats received nicotine (0.4 mg/kg, sc) or saline (0.9% NaCl, sc) and were immediately subjected to restraint stress for 2 h once a day for 7 days. The control group for stress was undisturbed following nicotine or saline injections. Three days after the last exposure to stress and nicotine, rats were challenged with a single dose of nicotine (0.4 mg/kg, sc) or saline and nicotine-induced locomotion was then recorded for 30 min. In adolescent rats, nicotine caused behavioral sensitization only in animals that were simultaneously exposed to stress, while in adult rats nicotine promoted sensitization independently of stress exposure. These findings demonstrate that adolescent rats are more vulnerable to the effects of stress on behavioral sensitization to nicotine than adult rats.

  12. A Multi-Route Model of Nicotine-Cotinine Pharmacokinetics, Pharmacodynamics and Brain Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Binding in Humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teeguarden, Justin G.; Housand, Conrad; Smith, Jordan N.; Hinderliter, Paul M.; Gunawan, Rudy; Timchalk, Charles

    2013-02-01

    The pharmacokinetics of nicotine, the pharmacologically active alkaloid in tobacco responsible for addiction, are well characterized in humans. We developed a physiologically based pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic model of nicotine pharmacokinetics, brain dosimetry and brain nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChRs) occupancy. A Bayesian framework was applied to optimize model parameters against multiple human data sets. The resulting model was consistent with both calibration and test data sets, but in general underestimated variability. A pharmacodynamic model relating nicotine levels to increases in heart rate as a proxy for the pharmacological effects of nicotine accurately described the nicotine related changes in heart rate and the development and decay of tolerance to nicotine. The PBPK model was utilized to quantitatively capture the combined impact of variation in physiological and metabolic parameters, nicotine availability and smoking compensation on the change in number of cigarettes smoked and toxicant exposure in a population of 10,000 people presented with a reduced toxicant (50%), reduced nicotine (50%) cigarette Across the population, toxicant exposure is reduced in some but not all smokers. Reductions are not in proportion to reductions in toxicant yields, largely due to partial compensation in response to reduced nicotine yields. This framework can be used as a key element of a dosimetry-driven risk assessment strategy for cigarette smoke constituents.

  13. La medición de la nicotina como marcador aéreo del humo ambiental de tabaco Nicotine measurement as an airborne marker of environmental tobacco smoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nebot

    2003-01-01

    , measurement of ETS was highly inaccurate until a few years ago. The objective of this study was to review different studies using nicotine as an ETS airborne marker. Methods: We reviewed the various methods used in ETS measurement, especially the use of nicotine as an airborne marker. Nicotine was compared with other markers, and data from different studies measuring airborne nicotine concentration in public places and workplaces were collected. Results: Nicotine has all the desirable characteristics of an ETS marker. Several studies using nicotine as an airborne marker of ETS reported a wide range of values. In cafeterias and restaurants the concentration varied from 0.52 to 47.86 µg/m3. In workplaces without smoking regulations the concentration ranged from 3.4 to 14 µg/m3, whereas in places with smoking bans the concentration ranged from 0.09 to 0.7 µg/m3. Pubs and nightclubs had the highest concentrations, with values higher than 65 µg/m3. Discussion: The use of nicotine as an airborne marker provides an objective measurement of ETS exposure. The values obtained in studies using this marker show that in places with smoking restrictions or bans, ETS exposure is much lower than in places without smoking restrictions.

  14. Nicotine acts on growth plate chondrocytes to delay skeletal growth through the alpha7 neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsuo Kawakita

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cigarette smoking adversely affects endochondral ossification during the course of skeletal growth. Among a plethora of cigarette chemicals, nicotine is one of the primary candidate compounds responsible for the cause of smoking-induced delayed skeletal growth. However, the possible mechanism of delayed skeletal growth caused by nicotine remains unclarified. In the last decade, localization of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR, a specific receptor of nicotine, has been widely detected in non-excitable cells. Therefore, we hypothesized that nicotine affect growth plate chondrocytes directly and specifically through nAChR to delay skeletal growth. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We investigated the effect of nicotine on human growth plate chondrocytes, a major component of endochondral ossification. The chondrocytes were derived from extra human fingers. Nicotine inhibited matrix synthesis and hypertrophic differentiation in human growth plate chondrocytes in suspension culture in a concentration-dependent manner. Both human and murine growth plate chondrocytes expressed alpha7 nAChR, which constitutes functional homopentameric receptors. Methyllycaconitine (MLA, a specific antagonist of alpha7 nAChR, reversed the inhibition of matrix synthesis and functional calcium signal by nicotine in human growth plate chondrocytes in vitro. To study the effect of nicotine on growth plate in vivo, ovulation-controlled pregnant alpha7 nAChR +/- mice were given drinking water with or without nicotine during pregnancy, and skeletal growth of their fetuses was observed. Maternal nicotine exposure resulted in delayed skeletal growth of alpha7 nAChR +/+ fetuses but not in alpha7 nAChR -/- fetuses, implying that skeletal growth retardation by nicotine is specifically mediated via fetal alpha7 nAChR. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results suggest that nicotine, from cigarette smoking, acts directly on growth plate chondrocytes to decrease

  15. The effects of nicotine stimulus and response expectancies on male and female smokers' responses to nicotine-free electronic cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copp, Sebastian R; Collins, Jamie L; Dar, Reuven; Barrett, Sean P

    2015-01-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) have been reported to reduce tobacco craving and withdrawal; however, the mechanisms underlying these effects have not been elucidated. This study examined the contributions of nicotine stimulus and response expectancies to responses to nicotine-free e-cigarettes in 21 e-cigarette naïve smokers (12 male). Participants completed two randomized experimental sessions in which they administered a nicotine-free e-cigarette. During one session they were informed that the e-cigarette contained nicotine and during the other session they were informed that the e-cigarette was nicotine-free. Participants completed subjective assessments before and immediately after sampling ten puffs from the e-cigarette and were then invited to earn additional puffs using a computerized progressive ratio task. Prior to their enrolment in the study, participants provided an estimate of the relative importance of the nicotine content of e-cigarettes for craving relief. Instructions that the e-cigarette contained nicotine were found to reduce both intention to smoke (p=0.017) and withdrawal-related (p=0.018) craving, regardless of a-priori reported beliefs regarding the relative importance of nicotine. Nicotine content instructions were also found to be associated with a shorter latency to self-administration (p=0.005); however, a Sex×Instructions×Response Expectancy interaction (p=0.008) revealed that this effect was specific to women who had strong a-priori nicotine content craving relief expectations. Neither nicotine content instructions nor response expectancies impacted the number of puffs self-administered. Findings suggest that nicotine content expectations contribute to smokers' responses to e-cigarettes, and that a-priori beliefs about nicotine effects may be especially important in women. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Nicotine reward and affective nicotine withdrawal signs are attenuated in calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV knockout mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kia J Jackson

    Full Text Available The influx of Ca(2+ through calcium-permeable nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs leads to activation of various downstream processes that may be relevant to nicotine-mediated behaviors. The calcium activated protein, calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV (CaMKIV phosphorylates the downstream transcription factor cyclic AMP response element binding protein (CREB, which mediates nicotine responses; however the role of CaMKIV in nicotine dependence is unknown. Given the proposed role of CaMKIV in CREB activation, we hypothesized that CaMKIV might be a crucial molecular component in the development of nicotine dependence. Using male CaMKIV genetically modified mice, we found that nicotine reward is attenuated in CaMKIV knockout (-/- mice, but cocaine reward is enhanced in these mice. CaMKIV protein levels were also increased in the nucleus accumbens of C57Bl/6 mice after nicotine reward. In a nicotine withdrawal assessment, anxiety-related behavior, but not somatic signs or the hyperalgesia response are attenuated in CaMKIV -/- mice. To complement our animal studies, we also conducted a human genetic association analysis and found that variants in the CaMKIV gene are associated with a protective effect against nicotine dependence. Taken together, our results support an important role for CaMKIV in nicotine reward, and suggest that CaMKIV has opposing roles in nicotine and cocaine reward. Further, CaMKIV mediates affective, but not physical nicotine withdrawal signs, and has a protective effect against nicotine dependence in human genetic association studies. These findings further indicate the importance of calcium-dependent mechanisms in mediating behaviors associated with drugs of abuse.

  17. Neonatal Nicotine Exposure Increases Excitatory Synaptic Transmission and Attenuates Nicotine-stimulated GABA release in the Adult Rat Hippocampus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damborsky, Joanne C.; Griffith, William H.; Winzer-Serhan, Ursula H.

    2014-01-01

    Developmental exposure to nicotine has been linked to long-lasting changes in synaptic transmission which may contribute to behavioral abnormalities seen in offspring of women who smoke during pregnancy. Here, we examined the long-lasting effects of developmental nicotine exposure on glutamatergic and GABAergic neurotransmission, and on acute nicotine-induced glutamate and GABA release in the adult hippocampus, a structure important in cognitive and emotional behaviors. We utilized a chronic neonatal nicotine treatment model to administer nicotine (6 mg/kg/day) to rat pups from postnatal day (P) 1–7, a period that falls developmentally into the third human trimester. Using whole-cell voltage clamp recordings from CA1 pyramidal neurons in hippocampal slices, we measured excitatory and inhibitory postsynaptic currents in neonatally control- and nicotine-treated young adult males. Neonatal nicotine exposure significantly increased AMPA receptor-mediated spontaneous and evoked excitatory signaling, with no change in glutamate release probability in adults. Conversely, there was no increase in spontaneous GABAergic neurotransmission in nicotine-males. Chronic neonatal nicotine treatment had no effect on acute nicotine-stimulated glutamate release in adults, but acute nicotine-stimulated GABA release was significantly attenuated. Thus, neonatal nicotine exposure results in a persistent net increase in excitation and a concurrent loss of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR)-mediated regulation of presynaptic GABA but not glutamate release, which would exacerbate excitation following endogenous or exogenous nAChR activation. Our data underscore an important role for nAChRs in hippocampal excitatory synapse development, and suggest selective long-term changes at specific presynaptic nAChRs which together could explain some of the behavioral abnormalities associated with maternal smoking. PMID:24950455

  18. Nicotine-induced upregulation of native neuronal nicotinic receptors is caused by multiple mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govind, Anitha P.; Walsh, Heather; Green, William N.

    2012-01-01

    Nicotine causes changes in brain nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) during smoking that initiate addiction. Nicotine-induced upregulation is the long-lasting increase in nAChR radio-ligand binding sites in brain resulting from exposure. The mechanisms causing upregulation are not established. Many different mechanisms have been reported with the assumption that there is a single, underlying cause. Using live cortical neurons, we examined for the first time how exposure and withdrawal of nicotine shape the kinetics of native α4β2-containing nAChR upregulation in real time. Upregulation kinetics demonstrate that at least two different mechanisms underlie this phenomenon. First, a transient upregulation occurs that rapidly reverses, faster than nAChR degradation, and corresponds to nAChR conformational changes as assayed by conformational-dependent, subunit-specific antibodies. Second, a long-lasting process occurs correlating with increases in nAChR numbers caused by decreased proteasomal subunit degradation. Previous radio-ligand binding measurements to brain tissue have measured the second process and largely missed the first. We conclude that nicotine-induced upregulation is composed of multiple processes occurring at different rates with different underlying causes. PMID:22323734

  19. Decomposing the profile of PM in two low polluted German cities--mapping of air mass residence time, focusing on potential long range transport impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitriou, Konstantinos; Kassomenos, Pavlos

    2014-07-01

    This paper aims to decompose the profile of particulates in Karlsruhe and Potsdam (Germany), focusing on the localization of PM potential transboundary sources. An air mass cluster analysis was implemented, followed by a study of air mass residence time on a grid of a 0.5° × 0.5° resolution. Particulate/gaseous daily air pollution and meteorological data were used to indicate PM local sources. Four Principal Component Analysis (PCA) components were produced: traffic, photochemical, industrial/domestic and particulate. PM2.5/PM10 ratio seasonal trends, indicated production of PMCOARSE (PM10-PM2.5) from secondary sources in Potsdam during warm period (WP). The residing areas of incoming slow moving air masses are potential transboundary PM sources. For Karlsruhe those areas were mainly around the city. An air mass residence time secondary peak was observed over Stuttgart. For Potsdam, areas with increased dwelling time of the arriving air parcels were detected particularly above E/SE Germany. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Substance use, trait measures, and subjective response to nicotine in never-smokers stratified on parental smoking history and sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomerleau, Ovide F; Pomerleau, Cynthia S; Snedecor, Sandy M; Finkenauer, Raphaela; Mehringer, Ann M; Langenecker, Scott A; Sirevaag, Erik J

    2009-09-01

    Male and female never-smokers stratified on parental history of smoking were tested for possible differences in susceptibility to the hedonic effects of nicotine. We recruited nicotine-exposed never-smokers with two never-smoking biological parents (PH-) or two ever-smoking biological parents (PH+). After completing a baseline assessment battery focusing on conditions or behaviors associated with smoking, participants were tested for subjective and hedonic effects in response to administration of three different nicotine doses (0.0, 0.5, and 1.0 mg) via nasal spray. Physiological and biochemical reactivity also was monitored. PH+ were significantly more likely to report having experienced a "buzz" upon early smoking experimentation and to have histories of alcohol abuse and alcoholism; they also scored higher on disordered eating. In response to nicotine dosing, PH+ reported an increase in depressed mood, compared with a minimal response in PH-, in keeping with our expectation that nicotine would have more pronounced effects in PH+. Regardless of parental history, women reported experiencing greater anxiety in response to the highest nicotine dose, compared with men. Further exploration in larger samples, using more stringent selection criteria, a wider range of measures, and a less aversive dosing method, may provide a full test of the possible utility of the parental history model for illuminating biobehavioral mechanisms underlying response to nicotine. Also important would be broadening the scope of inquiry to include comparisons with ever-smokers to determine what protected PH+ from becoming smokers, despite the presence of factors that might be expected to decrease resilience and increase susceptibility.

  1. Complex suicide with homemade nicotine patches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lardi, C; Vogt, S; Pollak, S; Thierauf, A

    2014-03-01

    Suicide by self-poisoning is rather common around the world. This paper presents an exceptional complex suicide in which nicotine was applied in the form of self-made patches soaked with an extraction from fine-cut tobacco. In addition, the 51-year-old suicide victim took a lethal dose of diphenhydramine. Toxicological analysis also revealed the presence of tetrazepam in subtherapeutic concentrations. The scene of death suggested an autoerotic accident at first, as the body was tied with tapes, cables and handcuffs. As a result of the entire investigations, the fatality had to be classified as a suicidal intoxication by nicotine and diphenhydramine. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of maternal nicotine on breastfeeding infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cândida Caniçali Primo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To assess scientific evidence about the effects of maternal nicotine on infant by an integrative review. DATA SOURCES Studies published in Portuguese, English and Spanish, from 1990 to 2009, with abstracts available in the Latin American Health Sciences Literature (Lilacs and Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System On-Line (Medline databases. The descriptors were: "breastfeeding", "lactation" and "smoking". DATA SYNTHESIS The main identified effects of nicotine on infants were: changes in sleep and wakefulness patterns; reduction of iodine supply; hystopathological damage on liver and lung; intracellular oxidative damage; reduction of pancreatic ß cells; and decreased glucose tolerance. CONCLUSIONS It is recommended to inform mothers about harmful chemicals contained in cigarettes that can be secreted into breast milk. They should be strongly encouraged to stop smoking during lactation.

  3. Accumulation-mode aerosol number concentrations in the Arctic during the ARCTAS aircraft campaign: Long-range transport of polluted and clean air from the Asian continent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, H.; Kondo, Y.; Moteki, N.; Takegawa, N.; Sahu, L. K.; Koike, M.; Zhao, Y.; Fuelberg, H. E.; Sessions, W. R.; Diskin, G.; Anderson, B. E.; Blake, D. R.; Wisthaler, A.; Cubison, M. J.; Jimenez, J. L.

    2011-10-01

    We evaluate the impact of transport from midlatitudes on aerosol number concentrations in the accumulation mode (light-scattering particles (LSP) with diameters >180 nm) in the Arctic during the Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS) campaign. We focus on transport from the Asian continent. We find marked contrasts in the number concentration (NLSP), transport efficiency (TEN_LSP, the fraction transported from sources to the Arctic), size distribution, and the chemical composition of aerosols between air parcels from anthropogenic sources in East Asia (Asian AN) and biomass burning sources in Russia and Kazakhstan (Russian BB). Asian AN air had lower NLSP and TEN_LSP (25 cm-3 and 18% in spring and 6.2 cm-3 and 3.0% in summer) than Russian BB air (280 cm-3 and 97% in spring and 36 cm-3 and 7.6% in summer) due to more efficient wet scavenging during transport from East Asia. Russian BB in this spring is the most important source of accumulation-mode aerosols over the Arctic, and BB emissions are found to be the primary source of aerosols within all the data in spring during ARCTAS. On the other hand, the contribution of Asian AN transport had a negligible effect on the accumulation-mode aerosol number concentration in the Arctic during ARCTAS. Compared with background air, NLSP was 2.3-4.7 times greater for Russian BB air but 2.4-2.6 times less for Asian AN air in both spring and summer. This result shows that the transport of Asian AN air decreases aerosol number concentrations in the Arctic, despite the large emissions of aerosols in East Asia. The very low aerosol number concentrations in Asian AN air were caused by wet removal during vertical transport in association with warm conveyor belts (WCBs). Therefore, this cleansing effect will be prominent for air transported via WCBs from other midlatitude regions and seasons. The inflow of clean midlatitude air can potentially have an important impact on

  4. Cholinergic modulation of dopaminergic reward areas: upstream and downstream targets of nicotine addiction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mansvelder, H.D.; de Rover, M.; McGehee, D.S.; Brussaard, A.B.

    2003-01-01

    Nicotine reinforces smoking behaviour by activating nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the midbrain dopaminergic reward centres. Upstream of the dopaminergic neurons nicotine induces long-term potentiation of the excitatory input to dopamine cells in the ventral tegmental area, and depresses

  5. Does nicotinic acid (niacin) lower blood pressure?

    OpenAIRE

    Bays, H E; Rader, D.J.

    2009-01-01

    Nicotinic acid (niacin) is a well-established treatment for dyslipidaemia ? an important cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factor. However, niacin may also reduce blood pressure (BP), which is another important CVD risk factor. This review examines the limited publicly available data on niacin?s BP effects. Acute administration of immediate-release niacin may lower BP because of niacin?s acute vasodilatory effects. Although not always supported by clinical trial data, the package insert of a ...

  6. Long-term patterns of air temperatures, daily temperature range, precipitation, grass-reference evapotranspiration and aridity index in the USA great plains: Part II. Temporal trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukal, M.; Irmak, S.

    2016-11-01

    Detection of long-term changes in climate variables over large spatial scales is a very important prerequisite to the development of effective mitigation and adaptation measures for the future potential climate change and for developing strategies for future hydrologic balance analyses under changing climate. Moreover, there is a need for effective approaches of providing information about these changes to decision makers, water managers and stakeholders to aid in efficient implementation of the developed strategies. This study involves computation, mapping and analyses of long-term (1968-2013) county-specific trends in annual, growing-season (1st May-30th September) and monthly air temperatures [(maximum (Tmax), minimum (Tmin) and average (Tavg)], daily temperature range (DTR), precipitation, grass reference evapotranspiration (ETo) and aridity index (AI) over the USA Great Plains region using datasets from over 800 weather station sites. Positive trends in annual Tavg, Tmax and Tmin, DTR, precipitation, ETo and AI were observed in 71%, 89%, 85%, 31%, 61%, 38% and 66% of the counties in the region, respectively, whereas these proportions were 48%, 89%, 62%, 20%, 57%, 28%, and 63%, respectively, for the growing-season averages of the same variables. On a regional average basis, the positive trends in growing-season Tavg, Tmax and Tmin, DTR, precipitation, ETo and AI were 0.18 °C decade-1, 0.19 °C decade-1, 0.17 °C decade-1, 0.09 °C decade-1, 1.12 mm yr-1, 0.4 mm yr-1 and 0.02 decade-1, respectively, and the negative trends were 0.21 °C decade-1, 0.06 °C decade-1, 0.09 °C decade-1, 0.22 °C decade-1, 1.16 mm yr-1, 0.76 mm yr-1 and 0.02 decade-1, respectively. The temporal trends were highly variable in space and were appropriately represented using monthly, annual and growing-season maps developed using Geographic Information System (GIS) techniques. The long-term and spatial and temporal information and data for a large region provided in this study can be

  7. Effect of regional precursor emission controls on long-range ozone transport – Part 2: Steady-state changes in ozone air quality and impacts on human mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. West

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Large-scale changes in ozone precursor emissions affect ozone directly in the short term, and also affect methane, which in turn causes long-term changes in ozone that affect surface ozone air quality. Here we assess the effects of changes in ozone precursor emissions on the long-term change in surface ozone via methane, as a function of the emission region, by modeling 10% reductions in anthropogenic nitrogen oxide (NOx emissions from each of nine world regions. Reductions in NOx emissions from all world regions increase methane and long-term surface ozone. While this long-term increase is small compared to the intra-regional short-term ozone decrease, it is comparable to or larger than the short-term inter-continental ozone decrease for some source-receptor pairs. The increase in methane and long-term surface ozone per ton of NOx reduced is greatest in tropical and Southern Hemisphere regions, exceeding that from temperate Northern Hemisphere regions by roughly a factor of ten. We also assess changes in premature ozone-related human mortality associated with regional precursor reductions and long-range transport, showing that for 10% regional NOx reductions, the strongest inter-regional influence is for emissions from Europe affecting mortalities in Africa. Reductions of NOx in North America, Europe, the Former Soviet Union, and Australia are shown to reduce more mortalities outside of the source regions than within. Among world regions, NOx reductions in India cause the greatest number of avoided mortalities per ton, mainly in India itself. Finally, by increasing global methane, NOx reductions in one hemisphere tend to cause long-term increases in ozone concentration and mortalities in the opposite hemisphere. Reducing emissions of methane, and to a lesser extent carbon monoxide and non-methane volatile organic compounds, alongside NOx reductions would

  8. Views and Preferences for Nicotine Products as an Alternative to Smoking: A Focus Group Study of People Living with Mental Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meurk, Carla; Ford, Pauline; Sharma, Ratika; Fitzgerald, Lisa; Gartner, Coral

    2016-01-01

    Aims and Background: People living with mental disorders experience a disproportionately higher burden of tobacco-related disease than the general population. Long-term substitution with less harmful nicotine products could reduce the tobacco-related harm among this population. This study investigated the views and preferences of people with mental health disorders about different nicotine products and their use as long-term substitutes for cigarettes. Methods: Semi-structured focus group discussion followed by a brief questionnaire. The discussion transcripts were analysed for content and themes and quantitative data summarised with descriptive statistics. Results: Twenty-nine participants took part in four focus groups. Vaping devices were the most acceptable nicotine products discussed; however preferences for nicotine products were individual and varied along aesthetic, pragmatic, sensory and symbolic dimensions. The concept of tobacco harm reduction was unfamiliar to participants, however they generally agreed with the logic of replacing cigarettes with less harmful nicotine products. Barriers to activating tobacco harm reduction included the symbolism of smoking and quitting; the importance placed on health; the consumer appeal of alternatives; and cost implications. Discussion and Conclusions: Engaging this population in tobacco harm reduction options will require communication that challenges black and white thinking (a conceptual framework in which smoking cigarettes or quitting all nicotine are the only legitimate options) as in practice this serves to support the continuance of smoking. Consumers should be encouraged to trial a range of nicotine products to find the most acceptable alternative to smoking that reduces health harms. Providing incentives to switch to nicotine products could help overcome barriers to using less harmful nicotine products among mental health consumers. PMID:27886046

  9. Views and Preferences for Nicotine Products as an Alternative to Smoking: A Focus Group Study of People Living with Mental Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Meurk

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Aims and Background: People living with mental disorders experience a disproportionately higher burden of tobacco-related disease than the general population. Long-term substitution with less harmful nicotine products could reduce the tobacco-related harm among this population. This study investigated the views and preferences of people with mental health disorders about different nicotine products and their use as long-term substitutes for cigarettes. Methods: Semi-structured focus group discussion followed by a brief questionnaire. The discussion transcripts were analysed for content and themes and quantitative data summarised with descriptive statistics. Results: Twenty-nine participants took part in four focus groups. Vaping devices were the most acceptable nicotine products discussed; however preferences for nicotine products were individual and varied along aesthetic, pragmatic, sensory and symbolic dimensions. The concept of tobacco harm reduction was unfamiliar to participants, however they generally agreed with the logic of replacing cigarettes with less harmful nicotine products. Barriers to activating tobacco harm reduction included the symbolism of smoking and quitting; the importance placed on health; the consumer appeal of alternatives; and cost implications. Discussion and Conclusions: Engaging this population in tobacco harm reduction options will require communication that challenges black and white thinking (a conceptual framework in which smoking cigarettes or quitting all nicotine are the only legitimate options as in practice this serves to support the continuance of smoking. Consumers should be encouraged to trial a range of nicotine products to find the most acceptable alternative to smoking that reduces health harms. Providing incentives to switch to nicotine products could help overcome barriers to using less harmful nicotine products among mental health consumers.

  10. Views and Preferences for Nicotine Products as an Alternative to Smoking: A Focus Group Study of People Living with Mental Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meurk, Carla; Ford, Pauline; Sharma, Ratika; Fitzgerald, Lisa; Gartner, Coral

    2016-11-23

    Aims and Background: People living with mental disorders experience a disproportionately higher burden of tobacco-related disease than the general population. Long-term substitution with less harmful nicotine products could reduce the tobacco-related harm among this population. This study investigated the views and preferences of people with mental health disorders about different nicotine products and their use as long-term substitutes for cigarettes. Methods: Semi-structured focus group discussion followed by a brief questionnaire. The discussion transcripts were analysed for content and themes and quantitative data summarised with descriptive statistics. Results: Twenty-nine participants took part in four focus groups. Vaping devices were the most acceptable nicotine products discussed; however preferences for nicotine products were individual and varied along aesthetic, pragmatic, sensory and symbolic dimensions. The concept of tobacco harm reduction was unfamiliar to participants, however they generally agreed with the logic of replacing cigarettes with less harmful nicotine products. Barriers to activating tobacco harm reduction included the symbolism of smoking and quitting; the importance placed on health; the consumer appeal of alternatives; and cost implications. Discussion and Conclusions: Engaging this population in tobacco harm reduction options will require communication that challenges black and white thinking (a conceptual framework in which smoking cigarettes or quitting all nicotine are the only legitimate options) as in practice this serves to support the continuance of smoking. Consumers should be encouraged to trial a range of nicotine products to find the most acceptable alternative to smoking that reduces health harms. Providing incentives to switch to nicotine products could help overcome barriers to using less harmful nicotine products among mental health consumers.

  11. Combination Treatment for Nicotine Dependence: State of the Science

    OpenAIRE

    INGERSOLL, KAREN S.; COHEN, JESSYE

    2005-01-01

    Both nicotine replacement and sustained-release buproprion double the odds of achieving short- and moderate-term abstinence from nicotine. However, questions remain about the efficacy of combining pharmacotherapies. Our purposes were to review the evidence for (1) combined pharmacotherapy and (2) multimodal treatment combining pharmacotherapy and behavioral treatment and to recommend combinations of treatments to reduce nicotine dependence. Combining first-line pharmacotherapies with each oth...

  12. Multidimensional assessment of nicotine dependence in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Duncan B; Wood, D Scott; Martin, Christopher S; Cornelius, Jack R; Lynch, Kevin G; Shiffman, Saul

    2005-03-07

    Despite the critical importance of adolescent smoking, the assessment of nicotine dependence during this developmental period has been the subject of relatively little research. In this study, 301 adolescents (ages 12 through 18 years) reporting daily smoking were recruited for a project on alcohol use disorders (AUDs). The sample included 140 females and 161 males, 251 subjects from clinical and 50 from community sources, and 176 subjects with AUDs at the baseline assessment. Subjects were evaluated with the Nicotine Dependence Syndrome Scale (NDSS), the Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND) and a determination of average number of cigarettes per day (cigarettes/day). A varimax factor analysis of 27 NDSS items revealed four factors: (1) Drive/Tolerance (13 items; Cronbach alpha = 0.91); (2) Continuity (five items; Cronbach alpha = 0.67); (3) Priority (three items; Cronbach alpha = 0.64); (4) Stereotypy (five items; Cronbach alpha = 0.66). The NDSS total score, refined by the removal of four items, was also examined (23 items; Cronbach alpha = 0.90). Predicting cigarettes/day at follow-up, initial smoking rate was the best predictor, with the FTND and NDSS Total score showing significant and similar predictive validity. The NDSS Total showed incremental validity in the prediction of smoking progression in a model including demographic characteristics, initial smoking rate and FTND. The findings suggest that the NDSS has acceptable psychometric properties when applied to adolescents, complementing smoking rate and FTND in a multidimensional smoking assessment.

  13. Nicotine addiction and smoking cessation strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Kourakos

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of tobacco was first reported in the 6th century BC, but the 20th century has been marked by the widespread use of tobacco and the establishment and expansion of large tobacco companies. The public health community did not address initially smoking as harmful and addictive, despite the fact that many other observers of human behavior (authors, psychologists, religious leaders had stressed out its addictive characteristics. In the late 1980s, the acceptance of the addictive nature of tobacco resulted in development of healthcare services aiming at supporting people quit smoking and legislation regarding sale, distribution and advertising of tobacco products. Nicotine dependence is a chronic condition for which effective therapeutic interventions are required. Smokers, unlike other substances addicts, do not recognize their addiction and the nicotine withdrawal syndrome that they experience. For establishing the degree of dependence various tools can be used, such as the method of the 4 Cs (compulsion, control, cutting down, consequences or validated questionnaires (CAGE, Fagerström Test for Nicotine. The main smoking cessation strategies use replacement therapy with various products (patch, gum, etc, medications (bupropion, varenicline and/or counseling. These interventions are clinically efficient but also cost-effective, compared to prevention and treatment of diseases associated with smoking. Smoking cessation interventions should be offered to every smoker and provided by their health insurance.

  14. Nicotinic modulation of serotonergic activity in the dorsal raphe nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Lopez, Salvador; Garduño, Julieta; Mihailescu, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Cholinergic signaling mediated by nicotinic receptors has been associated to a large number of physiological and behavioral processes such as learning, memory, attention, food-intake and mood disorders. Although it is well established that many nicotinic actions are mediated through an increase in serotonin (5-HT) release, the physiological mechanisms by which nicotine produces these effects are still unclear. The dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) contains the major amount of 5-HT neurons projecting to different parts of the brain. DRN also contains nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) located at somatic and presynaptic elements. Nicotine produces both inhibitory and excitatory effects on different subpopulations of 5-HT DRN neurons. In this review, we describe the presynaptic and postsynaptic mechanisms by which nicotine increases the excitability of DRN neurons as well as the subtypes of nAChRs involved. We also describe the inhibitory effects of nicotine and the role of 5-HT1A receptors in this effect. These nicotinic actions modulate the activity of different neuronal subpopulations in the DRN, changing the 5-HT tone in the brain areas where these groups of neurons project. Some of the physiological implications of nicotine-induced 5-HT release are discussed.

  15. Genetic Influences on Individual Differences in Nicotine Glucuronidation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lessov-Schlaggar, Christina N; Benowitz, Neal L; Jacob, Peyton; Swan, Gary E

    2009-01-01

    .... The relative contribution of genetic and environmental sources to individual differences in the rate of glucuronidation of nicotine, cotinine, and trans-32- hydroxycotinine was estimated in a twin...

  16. Nicotine vaccines for smoking cessation-present and future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Worldwide tobacco is the leading cause of preventable death. Anew treatment in smoking cessation and relapse prevention is nicotine vaccination which is based on active immunization against the nicotine molecule. This article aimed to review the mechanism of action, current status of research and future aspects for the development of vaccines against nicotine. Materials & Method: The literature search of publications indexed was carried out in PubMed, Medline, Google scholar databases. Total 25 animal trials, human trials under various phases of clinical trials, unpublished document and cross-sectional survey were reviewed. Results: This immunization will act on immune system to produce nicotine-specific antibodies that sequester nicotine in the blood stream, after inhaling tobacco products. Nicotine vaccines are irreversible, provide protection over years and need booster injections. Efficiency of the vaccines is directly related to the antibody levels which help to optimize the vaccine effect. Nicotine vaccines are today in an advanced stage of clinical evaluation trials. Conclusions: Though, nicotine vaccine has considerable therapeutic potential, they do not target the non pharmacological factors that maintain tobacco dependence. So combination of nicotine vaccine with behavioral interventions would be effective mode to motivate abstinence from tobacco use.

  17. Stable isotope studies of nicotine kinetics and bioavailability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benowitz, N.L.; Jacob, P. 3d.; Denaro, C.; Jenkins, R. (Univ. of California, San Francisco (USA))

    1991-03-01

    The stable isotope-labeled compound 3',3'-dideuteronicotine was used to investigate the disposition kinetics of nicotine in smokers, the systemic absorption of nicotine from cigarette smoke, and the bioavailability of nicotine ingested as oral capsules. Blood levels of labeled nicotine could be measured for 9 hours after a 30-minute intravenous infusion. Analysis of disposition kinetics in 10 healthy men revealed a multiexponential decline after the end of an infusion, with an elimination half-life averaging 203 minutes. This half-life was longer than that previously reported, indicating the presence of a shallow elimination phase. Plasma clearance averaged 14.6 ml/min/kg. The average intake of nicotine per cigarette was 2.29 mg. A cigarette smoke-monitoring system that directly measured particulate matter in smoke was evaluated in these subjects. Total particulate matter, number of puffs on the cigarette, total puff volume, and time of puffing correlated with the intake of nicotine from smoking. The oral bioavailability of nicotine averaged 44%. This bioavailability is higher than expected based on the systemic clearance of nicotine and suggests that there may be significant extrahepatic metabolism of nicotine.

  18. Determinants of Nicotine Dependence in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Yun Su; Lee, Jin Hwa; Kim, Ki Uk; Ra, Seung Won; Park, Hye Yun; Lee, Chang-Hoon; Kim, Deog Kyeom; Shin, Kyeong-Cheol; Lee, Sang Haak; Hwang, Hun Gyu; Ahn, Joong Hyun; Park, Yong Bum; Kim, Yu-Il; Yoo, Kwang Ha; Jeong, Ina; Oh, Yeon-Mok; Lee, Sang-Do

    2017-07-01

    Smoking cessation is the most powerful intervention to modify progress of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and nicotine dependence is one of the most important determinants of success or failure in smoking cessation. We evaluated nicotine dependence status and investigated factors associated with moderate to high nicotine dependence in patients with COPD. We included 53 current smokers with COPD in the Korean Obstructive Lung Disease II cohort enrolled between January 2014 and March 2016. Nicotine dependence was measured by using Fagerstrom test for nicotine dependence (FTND). Cognitive function was assessed by Korean version of Montreal Cognitive Assessment. The median FTND score was 3, and 32 patients (60%) had moderate to high nicotine dependence. The median smoking amount was 44 pack-years, which was not related to nicotine dependence. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that high education status (odds ratio, 1.286; 95% confidence interval, 1.036-1.596; p=0.023), age <70 (odds ratio, 6.407; 95% confidence interval, 1.376-29.830; p=0.018), and mild to moderate airflow obstruction (odds ratio, 6.969; 95% confidence interval, 1.388-34.998; p=0.018) were related to moderate to high nicotine dependence. Nicotine dependence does not correlate with smoking amount, but with education level, age, and severity of airflow obstruction. Physicians should provide different strategies of smoking cessation intervention for current smokers with COPD according to their education levels, age, and severity of airflow obstruction.

  19. Unraveling the neurobiology of nicotine dependence using genetically engineered mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoker, Astrid K; Markou, Athina

    2013-08-01

    This review article provides an overview of recent studies of nicotine dependence and withdrawal that used genetically engineered mice. Major progress has been made in recent years with mutant mice that have knockout and gain-of-function of specific neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subunit genes. Nicotine exerts its actions by binding to neuronal nAChRs that consist of five subunits. The different nAChR subunits that combine to compose a receptor determine the distinct pharmacological and kinetic properties of the specific nAChR. Recent findings in genetically engineered mice have indicated that while α4-containing and β2-containing nAChRs are involved in the acquisition of nicotine self-administration and initial stages of nicotine dependence, α7 homomeric nAChRs appear to be involved in the later stages of nicotine dependence. In the medial habenula, α5-containing, α3-containing, and β4-containing nAChRs were shown to be crucially important in the regulation of the aversive aspects of nicotine. Studies of the involvement of α6 nAChR subunits in nicotine dependence have only recently emerged. The use of genetically engineered mice continues to vastly improve our understanding of the neurobiology of nicotine dependence and withdrawal. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. CRF neurons in the ventral tegmental area control the aversive effects of nicotine withdrawal and promote escalation of nicotine intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieder, Taryn E.; Herman, Melissa A.; Contet, Candice; Tan, Laura A.; Vargas-Perez, Hector; Cohen, Ami; Chwalek, Michal; Maal-Bared, Geith; Freiling, John; Schlosburg, Joel E; Clarke, Laura; Crawford, Elena; Koebel, Pascale; Canonigo, Vez; Sanna, Pietro; Tapper, Andrew; Roberto, Marisa; Kieffer, Brigitte L.; Sawchenko, Paul E.; Koob, George F.; van der Kooy, Derek; George, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Dopaminergic neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) are well known for their role in mediating the positive reinforcing effects of drugs of abuse. Here, we identify in rodents and humans a population of VTA dopamine neurons co-expressing corticotropin releasing factor (CRF). We provide further evidence in rodents that chronic nicotine exposure upregulates CRF mRNA in dopaminergic neurons of the posterior VTA, activates local CRF1 receptors, and blocks nicotine-induced activation of transient GABAergic input to dopaminergic neurons. Local downregulation of CRF mRNA and specific pharmacological blockade of CRF1 receptors in the VTA reversed the effect of nicotine on GABAergic input to dopaminergic neurons, prevented the aversive effects of nicotine withdrawal, and limited the escalation of nicotine intake. These results link the brain reward and stress systems within the same brain region in signaling the negative motivational effects of nicotine withdrawal. PMID:25402857

  1. The Effect of Air Density on Sand Transport Structures and the Adobe Abrasion Profile: A Field Wind-Tunnel Experiment Over a Wide Range of Altitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Qingjie; Qu, Jianjun; Dong, Zhibao; Zu, Ruiping; Zhang, Kecun; Wang, Hongtao; Xie, Shengbo

    2013-11-01

    Aeolian sand transport results from interactions between the surface and the airflow above. Air density strongly constrains airflow characteristics and the resulting flow of sand, and therefore should not be neglected in sand transport models. In the present study, we quantify the influence of air density on the sand flow structure, sand transport rate, adobe abrasion profiles, and abrasion rate using a portable wind-tunnel in the field. For a given wind speed, the flow's ability to transport sand decreases at low air density, so total sand transport decreases, but the saltation height increases. Thus, the damage to human structures increases compared with what occurs at lower altitudes. The adobe abrasion rate by the cloud of blowing sand decreases exponentially with increasing height above the surface, while the wind erosion and dust emission intensity both increase with increasing air density. Long-term feedback processes between air density and wind erosion suggest that the development of low-altitude areas due to long-term deflation plays a key role in dust emission, and will have a profound significance for surface Aeolian processes and geomorphology.

  2. Variation in trans-3'-hydroxycotinine glucuronidation does not alter the nicotine metabolite ratio or nicotine intake.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy Z X Zhu

    Full Text Available CYP2A6 metabolizes nicotine to its primary metabolite cotinine and also mediates the metabolism of cotinine to trans-3'-hydroxycotinine (3HC. The ratio of 3HC to cotinine (the "nicotine metabolite ratio", NMR is an in vivo marker for the rate of CYP2A6 mediated nicotine metabolism, and total nicotine clearance, and has been associated with differences in numerous smoking behaviors. The clearance of 3HC, which affects the NMR, occurs via renal excretion and metabolism by UGT2B17, and possibly UGT2B10, to 3HC-glucuronide. We investigated whether slower 3HC glucuronidation alters NMR, altering its ability to predict CYP2A6 activity and reducing its clinical utility.Plasma NMR, three urinary NMRs, three urinary 3HC glucuronidation phenotypes and total nicotine equivalents were examined in 540 African American smokers. The UGT2B17 gene deletion and UGT2B10*2 were genotyped.The UGT2B17 gene deletion, but not UGT2B10*2 genotype, was associated with slower 3HC glucuronidation (indicated by three 3HC-glucuronidation phenotypes, indicating its role in this glucuronidation pathway. However, neither lower rates of 3HC glucuronidation, nor the presence of a UGT2B17 and UGT2B10 reduced function allele, altered plasma or urinary NMRs or levels of smoking.Variation in 3HC glucuronidation activity, including these caused by UGT2B17 gene deletions, did not significantly alter NMR and is therefore unlikely to affect the clinical utility of NMR in smoking behavior and cessation studies. This study demonstrates that NMR is not altered by differences in the rate of 3HC glucuronidation, providing further support that NMR is a reliable indicator of CYP2A6 mediated nicotine metabolism.

  3. Laser filamentation in air via Mathieu modulation: ranging from trajectory-predesigned curved filament to quasi-soliton and ring light bullet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yuze; Nie, Jinsong

    2017-06-26

    We propose theoretically various kinds of filaments via the Mathieu modulation. Our results indicate curved filaments, in-phase and out-of-phase quasi-solitons and nonlinear light bullets can be formed successfully in air. Through calculated initial Mathieu accelerating beam (MAB), curved filament is able to propagate along a predesigned elliptical trajectory. By transforming the MAB into an axial symmetrical structure with in-phase and out-of-phase modulations, we obtain two kinds of quasi-solitons in air, respectively. The latter case can even propagate in a breathing fashion. With a ring structure of MAB, we successfully form a light bullet in air that generates a chain of intensity peaks over extended distances. These unique filaments can offer significant advantages for numerous applications, such as micro engineering of materials, THz radiation generation and attosecond physics.

  4. Effects of a selective cannabinoid CB2 agonist and antagonist on intravenous nicotine self administration and reinstatement of nicotine seeking.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Islam Gamaleddin

    Full Text Available Over the last decade there have been significant advances in the discovery and understanding of the cannabinoid system along with the development of pharmacologic tools that modulate its function. Characterization of the crosstalk between nicotine addiction and the cannabinoid system may have significant implications on our understanding of the neurobiological mechanisms underlying nicotine dependence. Two types of cannabinoid receptors (CB1 and CB2 have been identified. CB1 receptors are expressed in the brain and modulate drug taking and drug seeking for various drugs of abuse, including nicotine. CB2 receptors have been recently identified in the brain and have been proposed to play a functional role in mental disorders and drug addiction. Our objective was to explore the role of CB2 receptors on intravenous nicotine self administration under two schedules of reinforcement (fixed and progressive ratio and on nicotine seeking induced by nicotine priming or by nicotine associated cues. For this, we evaluated the effects of various doses of the selective CB2 antagonist AM630 (1.25 to 5 mg/kg and CB2 agonist AM1241 (1 to 10 mg/kg on these behavioral responses in rats. Different groups of male Long Evans rats were trained to lever press for nicotine at a unit dose of 30 µg/kg/infusion. Subsequently, animals were randomized using a Latin-square design and injected with either AM1241 or AM630 using a counterbalanced within subject design. Administration of the CB2 ligands did not affect either nicotine-taking nicotine-seeking behavior. Our results do not support the involvement of CB2 receptors in nicotine-taking or nicotine-seeking behavior.

  5. Novel genes identified in a high-density genome wide association study for nicotine dependence

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bierut, Laura Jean; Madden, Pamela A.F; Breslau, Naomi; Johnson, Eric O; Hatsukami, Dorothy; Pomerleau, Ovide F; Swan, Gary E; Rutter, Joni; Bertelsen, Sarah; Fox, Louis; Fugman, Douglas; Goate, Alison M; Hinrichs, Anthony L; Konvicka, Karel; Martin, Nicholas G; Montgomery, Grant W; Saccone, Nancy L; Saccone, Scott F; Wang, Jen C; Chase, Gary A; Rice, John P; Ballinger, Dennis G

    .... To identify novel genes for which natural variation contributes to the development of nicotine dependence, we performed a comprehensive genome wide association study using nicotine dependent smokers...

  6. Menthol Enhances Nicotine Reward-Related Behavior by Potentiating Nicotine-Induced Changes in nAChR Function, nAChR Upregulation, and DA Neuron Excitability

    OpenAIRE

    Henderson, Brandon J.; Wall, Teagan R.; Henley, Beverley M.; Kim, Charlene H.; McKinney, Sheri; Lester, Henry A.

    2017-01-01

    Understanding why the quit rate among smokers of menthol cigarettes is lower than non-menthol smokers requires identifying the neurons that are altered by nicotine, menthol, and acetylcholine. Dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) mediate the positive reinforcing effects of nicotine. Using mouse models, we show that menthol enhances nicotine-induced changes in nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) expressed on midbrain DA neurons. Menthol plus nicotine upregulates...

  7. CRF-CRF₁ System Activation Mediates Withdrawal-Induced Increases in Nicotine Self-Administration in Nicotine-Dependent Rats

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Olivier George; Sandy Ghozland; Marc R. Azar; Pietro Cottone; Eric P. Zorrilla; Loren H. Parsons; Laura E. O'Dell; Heather N. Richardson; George F. Koob

    2007-01-01

    .... We demonstrate one mechanism for both the anxiety-like symptoms of withdrawal and excessive nicotine intake observed after abstinence, through recruitment of the extrahypothalamic stress peptide...

  8. Activation of Peripheral κ-Opioid Receptors Normalizes Caffeine Effects Modified in Nicotine-Dependent Rats during Nicotine Withdrawal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudakov, S K; Bogdanova, N G

    2016-10-01

    The study examined the effect of peripheral (intragastric) ICI-204,448, an agonist of gastric κ-opioid receptors, on the psychostimulating and anxiolytic effects of caffeine in nicotinedependent rats at the stage of nicotine withdrawal. In these rats, the effects of caffeine (10 mg/kg) were perverted. In nicotine-dependent rats, caffeine produced an anxiolytic effect accompanied by pronounced stimulation of motor activity, in contrast to anxiogenic effect induced by caffeine in intact rats without nicotine dependence. During nicotine withdrawal, nicotine-dependent rats demonstrated enhanced sensitivity to nicotine. Intragastric administration of κ-opioid receptor agonist ICI-204,448 normalized the effect of caffeine in nicotinedependent rats. We have previously demonstrated that activation of peripheral κ-opioid receptors inhibited central κ-opioid activity and eliminated manifestations of nicotine withdrawal syndrome in nicotine-dependent rats, e.g. metabolism activation, stimulation of motor activity, and enhancement of food consumption. In its turn, inhibition of central κ-opioid structures activates the brain adenosine system, which can attenuate the caffeine-induced effects in nicotine-dependent rats.

  9. Selected constituents in the smokes of U. S. commercial cigaretts: tar, nicotine, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkins, R.A.; Quincy, R.B.; Guerin, M.R.

    1979-05-01

    One hundred twenty-one brands of United States commercial cigarettes were analyzed for their deliveries of tar, nicotine, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide under standard analytical smoking conditions. The sample included both filter and nonfilter cigarettes. Comparisons of carbon monoxide deliveries over the range of observed tar deliveries indicated a very high correlation between CO and tar for filter cigarettes, but nonfilter cigarettes tended to produce much less CO than would have been predicted from their tar deliveries. Comparison of ORNL nicotine values for specific brands with those determined by the Federal Trade Commission yield no statistically significant differences between laboratories. 4 figures, 6 tables.

  10. Long range image enhancement

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Duvenhage, B

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available and Vision Computing, Auckland, New Zealand, 23-24 November 2015 Long Range Image Enhancement Bernardt Duvenhage Council for Scientific and Industrial Research South Africa Email: bduvenhage@csir.co.za Abstract Turbulent pockets of air...

  11. Response of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis to nicotine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matta, S G; Fu, Y; Valentine, J D; Sharp, B M

    1998-02-01

    Nicotine has been shown to be a potent stimulus for the secretion of the stress-responsive hormones, adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) and prolactin. This paper reviews the findings by our laboratory and others that demonstrate the polysynaptic pathways involved in the neuroendocrine responses to systemic nicotine. It will focus primarily on the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the effect of nicotine on ACTH secretion, with supplementary information on prolactin secretion, where relevant. Data are presented demonstrating that nicotine acts via a central mechanism to stimulate indirectly the release of ACTH from the anterior pituitary corticotropes. Nicotine does not appear to act directly at the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN), the site of the corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) neurons crucial to the regulation of ACTH. However, brainstem catecholaminergic regions projecting to the PVN showed a regionally selective and dose-dependent sensitivity to nicotine, particularly the noradrenergic/adrenergic nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS). A reduction in the modulatory effect of these catecholamines (by neurotoxic lesion, synthetic enzyme inhibitors or adrenergic receptor antagonists) resulted in an inhibition of nicotine-stimulated ACTH secretion. In addition, blockade of nicotinic cholinergic receptors (NAchRs) in the brainstem by the antagonist, mecamylamine, resulted in a dose-dependent reduction in norepinephrine (NE) release from terminals in the PVN, and a concomitant reduction in plasma ACTH. The differential sensitivity of these receptors to the nicotinic agonists, cytisine and nicotine, reflects the heterogeneity of the NAchR subtypes involved. The desensitization characteristics of the neuroendocrine responses to both acute and chronic nicotine exposure are indicative of an alteration in these NAchRs.

  12. Effect of galantamine on the human α7 neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, the Torpedo nicotinic acetylcholine receptor and spontaneous cholinergic synaptic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texidó, Laura; Ros, Esteve; Martín-Satué, Mireia; López, Susana; Aleu, Jordi; Marsal, Jordi; Solsona, Carles

    2005-01-01

    Various types of anticholinesterasic agents have been used to improve the daily activities of Alzheimer's disease patients. It was recently demonstrated that Galantamine, described as a molecule with anticholinesterasic properties, is also an allosteric enhancer of human α4β2 neuronal nicotinic receptor activity. We explored its effect on the human α7 neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Galantamine, at a concentration of 0.1 μM, increased the amplitude of acetylcholine (ACh)-induced ion currents in the human α7 nAChR expressed in Xenopus oocytes, but caused inhibition at higher concentrations. The maximum effect of galantamine, an increase of 22% in the amplitude of ACh-induced currents, was observed at a concentration of 250 μM Ach. The same enhancing effect was obtained in oocytes transplanted with Torpedo nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (AChR) isolated from the electric organ, but in this case the optimal concentration of galantamine was 1 μM. In this case, the maximum effect of galantamine, an increase of 35% in the amplitude of ACh-induced currents, occurred at a concentration of 50 μM ACh. Galantamine affects not only the activity of post-synaptic receptors but also the activity of nerve terminals. At a concentration of 1 μM, quantal spontaneous events, recorded in a cholinergic synapse, increased their amplitude, an effect which was independent of the anticholinesterasic activity associated with this compound. The anticholinesterasic effect was recorded in preparations treated with a galantamine concentration of 10 μM. In conclusion, our results show that galantamine enhances human α7 neuronal nicotinic ACh receptor activity. It also enhances muscular AChRs and the size of spontaneous cholinergic synaptic events. However, only a very narrow range of galantamine concentrations can be used for enhancing effects. PMID:15834443

  13. Associations between selected allergens, phthalates, nicotine, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and bedroom ventilation and clinically confirmed asthma, rhinoconjunctivitis, and atopic dermatitis in preschool children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Callesen, M.; Bekö, Gabriel; Weschler, Charles J.

    2014-01-01

    . For most children, specific IgE's against various allergens were determined. In parallel, dust samples were collected and air change rates were measured in the children's bedrooms. The dust samples were analyzed for phthalate esters, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), nicotine, and various allergens...

  14. The effects of nicotine on neural pathways implicated in depression: a factor in nicotine addiction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balfour, D J; Ridley, D L

    2000-05-01

    The prevalence of tobacco smoking varies considerably between different groups within the community, tobacco smoking being particularly prevalent in patients with depressive disorder. This review will focus on results, derived from animal studies, which suggest that, in addition to its primary reinforcing properties, nicotine also exerts effects in stressful environments, which may account for its enhanced addictive potential in depressed patients. It focuses on the evidence that depression sensitises patients to the adverse effects of stressful stimuli, and that this can be relieved by drugs that stimulate dopamine release in the forebrain. This mechanism, it is proposed, contributes to the increased craving to smoke in abstinent smokers exposed to such stimuli, because they become conditioned to use this property of nicotine to produce rapid alleviation of the adverse effects of the stress. The review also explores the possibility that chronic exposure to nicotine elicits changes in 5-HT formation and release in the hippocampus which are depressogenic. It is postulated that smokers are protected from the consequences of these changes, while they continue to smoke, by the antidepressant properties of nicotine. However, they contribute to the symptoms of depression experienced by many smokers when they first quit the habit.

  15. The effect of potential electronic nicotine delivery system regulations on nicotine product selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesko, Michael F; Kenkel, Donald S; Wang, Hua; Hughes, Jenna M

    2016-04-01

    To estimate the effect of potential regulations of electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) among adult smokers, including increasing taxes, reducing flavor availability and adding warning labels communicating various levels of risk. We performed a discrete choice experiment (DCE) among a national sample of 1200 adult smokers. We examined heterogeneity in policy responses by age, cigarette quitting interest and current ENDS use. Our experiment overlapped January 2015 by design, providing exogenous variation in cigarette quitting interest from New Year resolutions. KnowledgePanel, an online panel of recruited respondents. A total of 1200 adult smokers from the United States. Hypothetical purchase choice of cigarettes, nicotine replacement therapy and a disposable ENDS. Increasing ENDS prices from $3 to $6 was associated with a 13.6 percentage point reduction in ENDS selection (P Food and Drug Administration (FDA) warning label was associated with a 1.1 percentage point reduction in ENDS selection (P Food and Drug Administration warning label for electronic nicotine delivery systems and a more severe warning label may discourage adult smokers from switching to electronic nicotine delivery systems. Reducing the availability of flavors may reduce ENDS use by young adult smokers. © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  16. Discriminating nicotine and non-nicotine containing e-liquids using infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deconinck, E; Bothy, J L; Barhdadi, S; Courselle, P

    2016-02-20

    In a few countries, including Belgium, nicotine-containing e-cigarettes and e-liquids are considered medicines, and therefore cannot freely be sold, but should be distributed in a pharmacy. The fact that in the neighbouring countries these products are freely available, poses a problem for custom personnel, the more the nicotine content of the products is not always labelled, especially when they are bought through internet. Therefore there is a need for easy-to-use equipment and methods to perform a first on site screening of intercepted samples, both for border control as to check label compliance of the sample. The use of attenuated total reflectance-infrared spectroscopy (ATR-IR) and near infrared spectroscopy (NIR), combined with chemometrics was evaluated for the discrimination between nicotine containing and non-nicotine containing samples. It could be concluded that both ATR-IR and NIR could be used for the discrimination when combined with the appropriate chemometric techniques. The presented techniques do not need sample preparation and result in models with a minimum of false negative samples. If a large enough training set can be established the interpretation can be fully automated, making the presented approach suitable for on-site screening of e-liquid samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Neuronal Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors: Neuroplastic Changes underlying Alcohol and Nicotine Addictions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison Anne Feduccia

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Addictive drugs can activate systems involved in normal reward-related learning, creating long-lasting memories of the drug’s reinforcing effects and the environmental cues surrounding the experience. These memories significantly contribute to the maintenance of compulsive drug use as well as cue-induced relapse which can occur even after long periods of abstinence. Synaptic plasticity is thought to be a prominent molecular mechanism underlying drug-induced learning and memories. Ethanol and nicotine are both widely abused drugs that share a common molecular target in the brain, the neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs. The nAChRs are ligand-gated ion channels that are vastly distributed throughout the brain and play a key role in synaptic neurotransmission. In this review, we will delineate the role of nAChRs in the development of ethanol and nicotine addiction. We will characterize both ethanol and nicotine’s effects on nAChR-mediated synaptic transmission and plasticity in several key brain areas that are important for addiction. Finally, we will discuss some of the behavioral outcomes of drug-induced synaptic plasticity in animal models. An understanding of the molecular and cellular changes that occur following administration of ethanol and nicotine will lead to better therapeutic strategies.

  18. Naturalistic assessment of demand for cigarettes, snus, and nicotine gum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Jeffrey S; Wilson, A George; Koffarnus, Mikhail N; Judd, Michael C; Bickel, Warren K

    2017-01-01

    Behavioral economic measures of demand provide estimates of tobacco product abuse liability and may predict effects of policy-related price regulation on consumption of existing and emerging tobacco products. In the present study, we examined demand for snus, a smokeless tobacco product, in comparison to both cigarettes and medicinal nicotine. We used both a naturalistic method in which participants purchased these products for use outside the laboratory, as well as laboratory-based self-administration procedures. Cigarette smokers (N = 42) used an experimental income to purchase their usual brand of cigarettes and either snus or gum (only one product available per session) across a range of prices, while receiving all products they purchased from one randomly selected price. In a separate portion of the study, participants self-administered these products during laboratory-based, progressive ratio sessions. Demand elasticity (sensitivity of purchasing to price) was significantly greater for snus than cigarettes. Elasticity for gum was intermediate between snus and cigarettes but was not significantly different than either. Demand intensity (purchasing unconstrained by price) was significantly lower for gum compared to cigarettes, with no significant difference observed between snus and cigarettes. Results of the laboratory-based, progressive ratio sessions were generally discordant with measures of demand elasticity, with significantly higher "breakpoints" for cigarettes compared to gum and no significant differences between other study products. Moreover, breakpoints and product purchasing were generally uncorrelated across tasks. Under naturalistic conditions, snus appears more sensitive to price manipulation than either cigarettes or nicotine gum in existing smokers.

  19. Knowledge and Perceptions about Nicotine, Nicotine Replacement Therapies and Electronic Cigarettes among Healthcare Professionals in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia Moysidou

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the knowledge and perceptions of Greek healthcare professionals about nicotine, nicotine replacement therapies and electronic cigarettes. Methods. An online survey was performed, in which physicians and nurses working in private and public healthcare sectors in Athens-Greece were asked to participate through email invitations. A knowledge score was calculated by scoring the correct answers to specific questions with 1 point. Results. A total of 262 healthcare professionals were included to the analysis. Most had daily contact with smokers in their working environment. About half of them considered that nicotine has an extremely or very important contribution to smoking-related disease. More than 30% considered nicotine replacement therapies equally or more addictive than smoking, 76.7% overestimated their smoking cessation efficacy and only 21.0% would recommend them as long-term smoking substitutes. For electronic cigarettes, 45.0% considered them equally or more addictive than smoking and 24.4% equally or more harmful than tobacco cigarettes. Additionally, 35.5% thought they involve combustion while the majority responded that nicotine in electronic cigarettes is synthetically produced. Only 14.5% knew about the pending European regulation, but 33.2% have recommended them to smokers in the past. Still, more than 40% would not recommend electronic cigarettes to smokers unwilling or unable to quit smoking with currently approved medications. Cardiologists and respiratory physicians, who are responsible for smoking cessation therapy in Greece, were even more reluctant to recommend electronic cigarettes to this subpopulation of smokers compared to all other participants. The knowledge score of the whole study sample was 7.7 (SD: 2.4 out of a maximum score of 16. Higher score was associated with specific physician specialties. Conclusions. Greek healthcare professionals appear to overestimate

  20. Melatonin protects uterus and oviduct exposed to nicotine in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Saadat Seyedeh Nazanin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Smoking is associated with higher infertility risk. The aim of this study was to evaluate protective effects of melatonin on the uterus and oviduct in mice exposed to nicotine. Adult female mice (n=32 were divided into four groups. Group A: control animals received normal saline, Group B: injected with nicotine 40 μg/kg, Group C: injected with melatonin 10 μg, Group D: injected with nicotine 40 μg/kg and melatonin 10 μg. All animals were treated over 15 days intraperitoneally. On the 16th day, animals in the estrus phase were dissected and their uterus and oviducts were removed. Immunohistochemistry was recruited for studying apoptosis and for detection of estrogen receptor (ER alpha in luminal epithelium of the uterus and oviduct. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used for serum estradiol level determination. Nicotine in group B decreased estradiol level and ERalpha numbers both in the uterus and oviduct (p<0.05. Co-administration of melatonin-nicotine in Group D ameliorated the histology of the uterus and oviduct, increased ERalpha numbers and reduced apoptosis in the uterus and oviduct compared with the nicotine Group B (p<0.05. This study indicates that nicotine impairs the histology of the uterus and oviduct and co-administration of melatonin-nicotine ameliorates these findings, partly through alteration in ERalpha numbers and reduction of apoptosis

  1. Effect of chronic (-)-nicotine treatment on rat cerebral benzodiazepine receptors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magata, Yasuhiro E-mail: magata@kuhp.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Kitano, Haruhiro; Shiozaki, Toshiki; Iida, Yasuhiko; Nishizawa, Sadahiko; Saji, Hideo; Konishi, Junji

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the effect of (-)-nicotine on cerebral benzodiazepine receptors (BzR) with radiotracer methods. The effect of (-)-nicotine on BzR was examined in in vitro studies using chronic (-)-nicotine-treated rats using {sup 3}H-diazepam. The in vitro radioreceptor assay showed a 14% increase in the maximum number of binding sites of BzR in chronic (-)-nicotine-treated rats in comparison with the control rats. Moreover, a convenient in vivo uptake index of {sup 125}I-iomazenil was calculated and a higher uptake of the radioactivity was observed in the chronic (-)-nicotine-treated group than in the control group. Although further studies of the mechanism of (-)-nicotine on such BzR changes are required, an increase in the amount of BzR in the cerebral cortex was found in rats that underwent chronic (-)-nicotine treatment, and this result contributed to the understanding of the effects of (-)-nicotine and smoking on neural functions.

  2. Effect Of Nicotine And Tobacco Consumption On Brain Acetyl ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of nicotine and tobacco consumption on brain acetyl cholinesterase and serum alkaline phosphatase in rats was studied. Rats were divided into three groups and the first group was fed rat chow and water ad libitum and an oral administration of 2ml of 0.1%(v/v) nicotine per 100g body weight of rats per day.

  3. Protective Effect of Vitamin E on Nicotine Induced Reproductive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (p<0.05) in serum testosterone, follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone levels. There was impairment in testicular .... Table 2: Effect of Vitamin E on FSH, LH and Testosterone in Nicotine Induced Reproductive Toxicity in Male Rats. Groups. FSH (miu/ml) .... Absorption and metabolism of nicotine from cigarettes.

  4. The role of adrenergic receptors in nicotine-induced hyperglycemia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The role of adrenergic receptors in nicotine-induced hyperglycaemia has not been well studied in amphibians. Thus, this study investigates the effects of alpha and beta adrenergic receptor blockers in nicotine-induced hyperglycaemia in the common African toad Bufo regularis. Toads fasted for 24 h were anaesthetized with ...

  5. Maternal nicotine exposure during pregnancy and developtnent of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results show that maternal nicotine exposure interferes with elastic tissue formation. It also interferes with alveoli formation and causes the development of emphysema- like lesions. It is therefore suggested that maternal nicotine intake frolll smoking during pregnancy and lactation may interfere with lung developlllent ...

  6. Voltammetric determination of nicotine in cigarette tobacco at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The electrochemical behavior of nicotine was investigated using cyclic and square wave voltammetric techniques. Electrochemical activation of glassy carbon electrode significantly increased the oxidation peak current of nicotine compared to the bare glassy carbon. At the activated glassy carbon electrode, the square ...

  7. Protective Effect of Vitamin E on Nicotine Induced Reproductive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT: The current study assessed the protective role of vitamin E in alleviating the detrimental effect of nicotine on reproductive functions in male rats. Twenty four male albino rats were divided into four groups of six rats. Control group was treated orally with 1.1 ml/kg body weight normal saline, nicotine treated group ...

  8. Epidemiology, radiology, and genetics of nicotine dependence in COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hokanson John E

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cigarette smoking is the principal environmental risk factor for developing COPD, and nicotine dependence strongly influences smoking behavior. This study was performed to elucidate the relationship between nicotine dependence, genetic susceptibility to nicotine dependence, and volumetric CT findings in smokers. Methods Current smokers with COPD (GOLD stage ≥ 2 or normal spirometry were analyzed from the COPDGene Study, a prospective observational study. Nicotine dependence was determined by the Fagerstrom test for nicotine dependence (FTND. Volumetric CT acquisitions measuring the percent of emphysema on inspiratory CT (% of lung Results Among 842 currently smoking subjects (335 COPD cases and 507 controls, 329 subjects (39.1% showed high nicotine dependence. Subjects with high nicotine dependence had greater cumulative and current amounts of smoking. However, emphysema severity was negatively correlated with the FTND score in controls (ρ = -0.19, p Conclusions Nicotine dependence was a negative predictor for emphysema on CT in COPD and control smokers. Increased inflammation in more highly addicted current smokers could influence the CT lung density distribution, which may influence genetic association studies of emphysema phenotypes. Trial registration ClinicalTrials (NCT: NCT00608764

  9. Effect of Nicotine Administration on Estrous Cycle in Female Albino ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although it has been emphasized that cigarette smoking is not always synonymous with nicotine administration, the toxic effect of cigarette has often been associated with the nicotine content in cigarette. Cigarette is known to contain toxic, carcinogenic, mutagenic, growth retardative and immunosuppressive compounds.

  10. A Critical Evaluation of Nicotine Replacement Therapy for Teenage Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patten, Christi A.

    2000-01-01

    Evaluates the appropriateness and feasibility of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) in teenage smokers. Available forms of NRT, theoretical rationale and efficacy of NRT, ethical considerations, and the feasibility of NRT in teenage smokers are addressed. Several characteristics similar to adult nicotine dependent smokers have been found in teen…

  11. Educating Smokers about Their Cigarettes and Nicotine Medications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Cummings, K. Michael; Hyland, Andrew; Brown, Anthony; Celestino, Paula

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to test the efficacy of specially designed educational materials to correct misperceptions held by smokers about nicotine, nicotine medications, low tar cigarettes, filters and product ingredients. To accomplish this, 682 New York State Smokers' Quitline callers were randomized to one of two groups: control group…

  12. Adrenergic Component of Nicotine Antinociception in Rats | Ibironke ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It has been widely established that nicotine , the active pharmacological agent in tobacco has antinociceptive effects , but the mechanism of this activity is yet to be fully investigated . The present study examined the effects of two adrenergic receptor antagonists , propranolol and prazosin .on nicotine antinociception using ...

  13. Construction of an enantiopure bivalent nicotine vaccine using synthetic peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeigler, David F; Roque, Richard; Clegg, Christopher H

    2017-01-01

    Clinical outcomes of anti-nicotine vaccines may be improved through enhancements in serum antibody affinity and concentration. Two strategies were explored to improve vaccine efficacy in outbred mice: the use of enantiopure haptens and formulation of a bivalent vaccine. Vaccines incorporating natural (-) nicotine haptens improved relative antibody affinities >10-fold over (+) haptens, stimulated a two-fold boost in nicotine serum binding capacity, and following injection with 3 cigarette equivalents of nicotine, prevented a larger proportion of nicotine (>85%) from reaching the brain. The activity of a bivalent vaccine containing (-) 3'AmNic and (-) 1'SNic haptens was then compared to dose-matched monovalent groups. It was confirmed that antisera generated by these structurally distinct haptens have minimal cross-reactivity and stimulate different B cell populations. Equivalent antibody affinities were detected between the three groups, but the bivalent group showed two-fold higher titers and an additive increase in nicotine serum binding capacity as compared to the monovalent groups. Mice immunized with the bivalent formulation also performed better in a nicotine challenge experiment, and prevented >85% of a nicotine dose equivalent to 12 cigarettes from reaching the brain. Overall, enantiopure conjugate vaccines appear to improve serum antibody affinity, while multivalent formulations increase total antibody concentration. These findings may help improve the performance of future clinical candidate vaccines.

  14. Protective Effect of Vitamin E on Nicotine Induced Reproductive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The current study assessed the protective role of vitamin E in alleviating the detrimental effect of nicotine on reproductive functions in male rats. Twenty four male albino rats were divided into four groups of six rats. Control group was treated orally with 1.1 ml/kg body weight normal saline, nicotine treated group received 1.0 ...

  15. Neurotensin Agonist Attenuates Nicotine Potentiation to Cocaine Sensitization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Fredrickson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco usage typically precedes illicit drug use in adolescent and young adult populations. Several animal studies suggest nicotine increases the risk for subsequent cocaine abuse, and may be a negative prognostic factor for treatment of cocaine addiction; i.e., a “gateway drug”. Neurotensin (NT is a 13-amino acid neuropeptide that modulates dopamine, acetylcholine, glutamate, and GABA neurotransmission in brain reward pathways. NT69L, a NT(8-13 analog, blocks behavioral sensitization (an animal model for psychostimulant addiction to nicotine, and nicotine self-administration in rats. The present study tested the effect of NT69L on the potentiating effects of nicotine on cocaine-induced locomotor sensitization. Male Wistar rats were injected daily for seven days with nicotine or saline (control followed by four daily injections of cocaine. NT69L was administered 30 min prior to the last cocaine injection. Behavior was recorded with the use of activity chambers. Subchronic administration of nicotine enhanced cocaine-induced behavioral sensitization in Wistar rats, consistent with an hypothesized gateway effect. These behavioral effects of cocaine were attenuated by pretreatment with NT69L. The effect of the neurotensin agonist on cocaine sensitization in the nicotine treated group indicated a possible therapeutic effect for cocaine addiction, even in the presence of enhanced behavioral sensitization induced by nicotine.

  16. Effect of crude garlic extract on nicotine induced hyperglycaemia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of curde garlic extract on nicotine induced hyperglycaemia and hyperlipidaemia has been studied in albino rats. Four groups of 6 rats each were used. A control group received saline, a second group received 1mg/kg nicotine i.p., the third group received 305 per kg body weight o acqueous garlic extract orally ...

  17. Changes in orexinergic immunoreactivity of the piglet hypothalamus and pons after exposure to chronic postnatal nicotine and intermittent hypercapnic hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Nicholas J; Russell, Benjamin; Du, Man K; Waters, Karen A; Machaalani, Rita

    2016-06-01

    We recently showed that orexin expression in sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) infants was reduced by 21% in the hypothalamus and by 40-50% in the pons as compared with controls. Orexin maintains wakefulness/sleeping states, arousal, and rapid eye movement sleep, abnormalities of which have been reported in SIDS. This study examined the effects of two prominent risk factors for SIDS, intermittent hypercapnic hypoxia (IHH) (prone-sleeping) and chronic nicotine exposure (cigarette-smoking), on orexin A (OxA) and orexin B (OxB) expression in piglets. Piglets were randomly assigned to five groups: saline control (n = 7), air control (n = 7), nicotine [2 mg/kg per day (14 days)] (n = 7), IHH (6 min of 7% O2 /8% CO2 alternating with 6-min periods of breathing air, for four cycles) (n = 7), and the combination of nicotine and IHH (N + IHH) (n = 7). OxA/OxB expression was quantified in the central tuberal hypothalamus [dorsal medial hypothalamus (DMH), perifornical area (PeF), and lateral hypothalamus], and the dorsal raphe, locus coeruleus of the pons. Nicotine and N + IHH exposures significantly increased: (i) orexin expression in the hypothalamus and pons; and (ii) the total number of neurons in the DMH and PeF. IHH decreased orexin expression in the hypothalamus and pons without changing neuronal numbers. Linear relationships existed between the percentage of orexin-positive neurons and the area of pontine orexin immunoreactivity of control and exposure piglets. These results demonstrate that postnatal nicotine exposure increases the proportion of orexin-positive neurons in the hypothalamus and fibre expression in the pons, and that IHH exposure does not prevent the nicotine-induced increase. Thus, although both nicotine and IHH are risk factors for SIDS, it appears they have opposing effects on OxA and OxB expression, with the IHH exposure closely mimicking what we recently found in SIDS. © 2016 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John

  18. E-cigarette versus nicotine inhaler: comparing the perceptions and experiences of inhaled nicotine devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Michael B; Zimmermann, Mia Hanos; Delnevo, Cristine D; Lewis, M Jane; Shukla, Parth; Coups, Elliot J; Foulds, Jonathan

    2014-11-01

    Novel nicotine delivery products, such as electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), have dramatically grown in popularity despite limited data on safety and benefit. In contrast, the similar U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved nicotine inhaler is rarely utilized by smokers. Understanding this paradox could be helpful to determine the potential for e-cigarettes as an alternative to tobacco smoking. To compare the e-cigarette with the nicotine inhaler in terms of perceived benefits, harms, appeal, and role in assisting with smoking cessation. A cross-over trial was conducted from 2012 to 2013 PARTICIPANTS/INTERVENTIONS: Forty-one current smokers age 18 and older used the e-cigarette and nicotine inhaler each for 3 days, in random order, with a washout period in between. Thirty-eight participants provided data on product use, perceptions, and experiences. The Modified Cigarette Evaluation Questionnaire (mCEQ) measured satisfaction, reward, and aversion. Subjects were also asked about each product's helpfulness, similarity to cigarettes, acceptability, image, and effectiveness in quitting smoking. Cigarette use was also recorded during the product-use periods. The e-cigarette had a higher total satisfaction score (13.9 vs. 6.8 [p e-cigarette received higher ratings for helpfulness, acceptability, and "coolness." More subjects would use the e-cigarette to make a quit attempt (76 %) than the inhaler (24 %) (p e-cigarette vs. 10 % (4/38) using the inhaler (p = 0.18). The e-cigarette was more acceptable, provided more satisfaction, and had higher perceived benefit than the inhaler during this trial. E-cigarettes have the potential to be important nicotine delivery products owing to their high acceptance and perceived benefit, but more data are needed to evaluate their actual efficacy and safety. Providers should be aware of these issues, as patients will increasingly inquire about them.

  19. The interaction of nicotine withdrawal and panic disorder in the prediction of panic-relevant responding to a biological challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyro, Teresa M; Zvolensky, Michael J

    2013-03-01

    The current investigation evaluated nicotine withdrawal symptoms elicited by 12 hours of smoking deprivation on anxious and fearful responding to bodily sensations among daily smokers with and without panic disorder (PD). It was hypothesized that smokers with PD who were experiencing greater levels of nicotine withdrawal would experience the greatest levels of fearful responding to, and delayed recovery from, a 10% carbon dioxide-enriched air (CO₂) biological challenge procedure. Participants were 58 adults who reported smoking 19.72 cigarettes daily (SD = 7.99). Results indicated that nicotine withdrawal and PD status interacted to predict greater postchallenge panic attack symptoms. Also, individuals with PD initially evidenced a quicker decrease in subjective anxiety following the challenge, but their rate of recovery decelerated over time as compared to those without PD. There was, however, no significant interaction for change in subjective anxiety pre- to postchallenge. Results are discussed in relation to the role of nicotine withdrawal in anxious and fearful responding for smokers with PD. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Historical and current perspective on tobacco use and nicotine addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dani, John A; Balfour, David J K

    2011-07-01

    Although the addictive influence of tobacco was recognized very early, the modern concepts of nicotine addiction have relied on knowledge of cholinergic neurotransmission and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). The discovery of the 'receptive substance' by Langley, that would turn out to be nAChRs, and 'Vagusstoff' (acetylcholine) by Loewi, coincided with an exciting time when the concept of chemical synaptic transmission was being formulated. More recently, the application of more powerful techniques and the study of animal models that replicate key features of nicotine dependence have led to important advancements in our understanding of molecular, cellular and systems mechanisms of nicotine addiction. In this review, we present a historical perspective and overview of the research that has led to our present understanding of nicotine addiction. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Expression and function of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herman S. Cheung

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors are prototypical ligand gated ion channels typically found in muscular and neuronal tissues. Functional nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, however, have also recently been identified on other cell types, including stem cells. Activation of these receptors by the binding of agonists like choline, acetylcholine, or nicotine has been implicated in many cellular changes. In regards to stem cell function, nicotinic acetylcholine receptor activation leads to changes in stem cell proliferation, migration and differentiation potential. In this review we summarize the expression and function of known nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in different classes of stem cells including: pluripotent stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells, periodontal ligament derived stem cells, and neural progenitor cells and discuss the potential downstream effects of receptor activation on stem cell function.

  2. Genetic influences on individual differences in nicotine glucuronidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessov-Schlaggar, Christina N; Benowitz, Neal L; Jacob, Peyton; Swan, Gary E

    2009-10-01

    Nicotine and its primary oxidative metabolites are metabolized in part by glucuronidation. Genetic variation in UGT isoenzymes that catalyze glucuronidation activity suggests that variation in glucuronidation rate is in part genetically determined. The relative contribution of genetic and environmental sources to individual differences in the rate of glucuronidation of nicotine, cotinine, and trans-3'-hydroxycotinine was estimated in a twin study of nicotine pharmacokinetics. Glucuronidation rate was defined using measures that either accounted for variability in renal clearance or assumed the same relative renal clearance of parent drug and glucuronide conjugate across individuals. The former definition resulted in highly correlated nicotine and cotinine glucuronidation measures that were substantially influenced by the combined effect of additive (heritable) and non-additive (dominant and epistatic) genetic effects. These findings suggest that genetic variation in UGT isoenzymes that act in additive and interactive ways is an important determinant of individual variability in nicotine and cotinine metabolism via glucuronidation pathways.

  3. The impact of nicotine on bone healing and osseointegration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balatsouka, Dimitra; Gotfredsen, Klaus; Lindh, Christian H

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To examine the short-term effect of nicotine on bone healing and osseointegration. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Sixteen female rabbits were divided into two groups. The test group was exposed to nicotine tartrate for 8 weeks and the control group was exposed to placebo. Nicotine or placebo...... was administered via a miniosmotic pump and plasma cotinine levels were measured weekly. The pump delivered 15 mg of nicotine/day for the animals in the test group. All rabbits had three tibial bone preparations. In the proximal and distal bone bed, implants were placed after 4 weeks (right tibia) and after 6...... and the control group. CONCLUSION: Nicotine exposure in a short period of time did not have a significant impact on bone healing or implant osseointegration in rabbits....

  4. Docking to flexible nicotinic acetylcholine receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sander, Tommy; Bruun, Anne T; Balle, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Computational docking to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) and other members of the Cys-loop receptor family is complicated by the flexibility of the so-called C-loop. As observed in the large number of published crystal structures of the acetylcholine binding protein (AChBP), a structural...... surrogate and homology modeling template for the nAChRs, the conformation of this loop is controlled by the ligand present in the binding pocket. As part of the development of a protocol for unbiased docking to the nAChRs, we here present the results of docking of ligands with known binding modes to an ACh...

  5. Epidemiology, radiology, and genetics of nicotine dependence in COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Deog Kyeom; Hersh, Craig P; Washko, George R; Hokanson, John E; Lynch, David A; Newell, John D; Murphy, James R; Crapo, James D; Silverman, Edwin K

    2011-01-13

    Cigarette smoking is the principal environmental risk factor for developing COPD, and nicotine dependence strongly influences smoking behavior. This study was performed to elucidate the relationship between nicotine dependence, genetic susceptibility to nicotine dependence, and volumetric CT findings in smokers. Current smokers with COPD (GOLD stage ≥ 2) or normal spirometry were analyzed from the COPDGene Study, a prospective observational study. Nicotine dependence was determined by the Fagerstrom test for nicotine dependence (FTND). Volumetric CT acquisitions measuring the percent of emphysema on inspiratory CT (% of lung <-950 HU) and gas trapping on expiratory CT (% of lung <-856 HU) were obtained. Genotypes for two SNPs in the CHRNA3/5 region (rs8034191, rs1051730) previously associated with nicotine dependence and COPD were analyzed for association to COPD and nicotine dependence phenotypes. Among 842 currently smoking subjects (335 COPD cases and 507 controls), 329 subjects (39.1%) showed high nicotine dependence. Subjects with high nicotine dependence had greater cumulative and current amounts of smoking. However, emphysema severity was negatively correlated with the FTND score in controls (ρ = -0.19, p < .0001) as well as in COPD cases (ρ = -0.18, p = 0.0008). Lower FTND score, male gender, lower body mass index, and lower FEV1 were independent risk factors for emphysema severity in COPD cases. Both CHRNA3/5 SNPs were associated with FTND in current smokers. An association of genetic variants in CHRNA3/5 with severity of emphysema was only found in former smokers, but not in current smokers. Nicotine dependence was a negative predictor for emphysema on CT in COPD and control smokers. Increased inflammation in more highly addicted current smokers could influence the CT lung density distribution, which may influence genetic association studies of emphysema phenotypes.

  6. Transdermal nicotine absorption handling e-cigarette refill liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maina, Giovanni; Castagnoli, Carlotta; Passini, Valter; Crosera, Matteo; Adami, Gianpiero; Mauro, Marcella; Filon, Francesca Larese

    2016-02-01

    The concentrated nicotine in e-cigarette refill liquids can be toxic if inadvertently ingested or absorbed through the skin. Reports of poisonings due to accidental ingestion of nicotine on refill liquids are rapidly increasing, while the evaluation of nicotine dermally absorbed still lacks. For that reason we studied transdermal nicotine absorption after the skin contamination with e-liquid. Donor chambers of eight Franz diffusion cells were filled with 1 mL of 0.8 mg/mL nicotine e-liquid for 24 h. The concentration of nicotine in the receiving phase was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (LOD:0.1 μg/mL). Nicotine was detectable in receiving solution 2 h after the start of exposure and increased progressively. The medium flux calculated was 4.82 ± 1.05 μg/cm(2)/h with a lag time of 3.9 ± 0.1 h. After 24 h, the nicotine concentration in the receiving compartment was 101.02 ± 22.35 μg/cm(2) corresponding to 3.04 mg of absorbed nicotine after contamination of a skin surface of 100 cm(2). Skin contamination with e-liquid can cause nicotine skin absorption: caution must be paid when handling refill e-liquids. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Serotonergic modulation of nicotine-induced kinetic tremor in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunisawa, Naofumi; Iha, Higor A; Nomura, Yuji; Onishi, Misaki; Matsubara, Nami; Shimizu, Saki; Ohno, Yukihiro

    2017-06-01

    We previously demonstrated that nicotine elicited kinetic tremor by elevating the neural activity of the inferior olive via α7 nicotinic acetylcholine (nACh) receptors. Since α7 nACh receptors reportedly facilitate synaptic monoamine release, we explored the role of 5-HT receptors in induction and/or modulation of nicotine tremor. Treatment of mice with nicotine induced kinetic tremor that normally appeared during movement. The 5-HT 1A agonist, 8-hydroxydipropylaminotetraline (8-OH-DPAT), significantly enhanced nicotine-induced tremor and the action of 8-OH-DPAT was antagonized by WAY-100135 (5-HT 1A antagonist). In addition, the cerebral 5-HT depletion by repeated treatment with p-chlorophenylalanine did not reduce, but rather potentiated the facilitatory effects of 8-OH-DPAT. In contrast, the 5-HT 2 agonist, 2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine (DOI), significantly attenuated nicotine tremor, which was antagonized by ritanserin (5-HT 2 antagonist). The 5-HT 3 agonist SR-57227 did not affect nicotine-induced tremor. Furthermore, when testing the direct actions of 5-HT antagonists, nicotine tremor was inhibited by WAY-100135, but was unaffected by ritanserin, ondansetron (5-HT 3 antagonist) or SB-258585 (5-HT 6 antagonist). These results suggest that postsynaptic 5-HT 1A receptors are involved in induction of nicotine tremor mediated by α7 nACh receptors. In addition, 5-HT 2 receptors have an inhibitory modulatory role in induction of nicotine tremor. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Characterization and Genome Analysis of a Nicotine and Nicotinic Acid-Degrading Strain Pseudomonas putida JQ581 Isolated from Marine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiwen Li

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The presence of nicotine and nicotinic acid (NA in the marine environment has caused great harm to human health and the natural environment. Therefore, there is an urgent need to use efficient and economical methods to remove such pollutants from the environment. In this study, a nicotine and NA-degrading bacterium—strain JQ581—was isolated from sediment from the East China Sea and identified as a member of Pseudomonas putida based on morphology, physio-biochemical characteristics, and 16S rDNA gene analysis. The relationship between growth and nicotine/NA degradation suggested that strain JQ581 was a good candidate for applications in the bioaugmentation treatment of nicotine/NA contamination. The degradation intermediates of nicotine are pseudooxynicotine (PN and 3-succinoyl-pyridine (SP based on UV, high performance liquid chromatography, and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses. However, 6-hydroxy-3-succinoyl-pyridine (HSP was not detected. NA degradation intermediates were identified as 6-hydroxynicotinic acid (6HNA. The whole genome of strain JQ581 was sequenced and analyzed. Genome sequence analysis revealed that strain JQ581 contained the gene clusters for nicotine and NA degradation. This is the first report where a marine-derived Pseudomonas strain had the ability to degrade nicotine and NA simultaneously.

  9. Schizotypy and nicotine, alcohol, and cannabis use in a non-psychiatric sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esterberg, Michelle L; Goulding, Sandra M; McClure-Tone, Erin B; Compton, Michael T

    2009-04-01

    Schizotypy is a multidimensional personality construct that is characterized by perceptual abnormalities, social withdrawal, mild suspiciousness, and odd thinking patterns. This study examined the relationship between four dimensions of self-reported schizotypy and substance use involving nicotine, alcohol, and cannabis, in undergraduate students. Results showed that higher levels of disorganized schizotypy, or odd thinking and behavior, were associated with greater indices of use of all three substances. Furthermore, higher cognitive-perceptual schizotypy was selectively associated with cannabis use. Results confirm findings of recent research that has discovered associations among schizotypy and substance use, highlighting links between behavioral traits and use of nicotine, alcohol, and cannabis. This study is one of the first to examine a wide range of schizotypy domains, and to show selective effects of the disorganized domain of schizotypy.

  10. From Occasional Choices to Inevitable Musts: A Computational Model of Nicotine Addiction

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    Selin Metin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Although, there are considerable works on the neural mechanisms of reward-based learning and decision making, and most of them mention that addiction can be explained by malfunctioning in these cognitive processes, there are very few computational models. This paper focuses on nicotine addiction, and a computational model for nicotine addiction is proposed based on the neurophysiological basis of addiction. The model compromises different levels ranging from molecular basis to systems level, and it demonstrates three different possible behavioral patterns which are addict, nonaddict, and indecisive. The dynamical behavior of the proposed model is investigated with tools used in analyzing nonlinear dynamical systems, and the relation between the behavioral patterns and the dynamics of the system is discussed.

  11. From occasional choices to inevitable musts: a computational model of nicotine addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metin, Selin; Sengor, N Serap

    2012-01-01

    Although, there are considerable works on the neural mechanisms of reward-based learning and decision making, and most of them mention that addiction can be explained by malfunctioning in these cognitive processes, there are very few computational models. This paper focuses on nicotine addiction, and a computational model for nicotine addiction is proposed based on the neurophysiological basis of addiction. The model compromises different levels ranging from molecular basis to systems level, and it demonstrates three different possible behavioral patterns which are addict, nonaddict, and indecisive. The dynamical behavior of the proposed model is investigated with tools used in analyzing nonlinear dynamical systems, and the relation between the behavioral patterns and the dynamics of the system is discussed.

  12. 33 CFR 334.540 - Banana River at the Eastern Range, 45th Space Wing, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, FL...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Banana River at the Eastern Range... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.540 Banana River at the Eastern Range, 45th Space Wing, Cape... navigable waters of the United States, as defined at 33 CFR part 329, within the Banana River contiguous to...

  13. Nicotine effects on muscarinic receptor-mediated free Ca[Formula: see text] level changes in the facial nucleus following facial nerve injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Dawei; Zhou, Rui; Dong, Anbing; Sun, Wenhai; Zhang, Hongmei; Tang, Limin

    2016-06-01

    It was suggested that muscarinic, and nicotinic receptors increase free Ca[Formula: see text] levels in the facial nerve nucleus via various channels following facial nerve injury. However, intracellular Ca[Formula: see text] overload can trigger either necrotic or apoptotic cell death. It is assumed that, following facial nerve injury, the interactions of nicotinic and muscarinic acetylcholine receptors in facial nerve nucleus may negatively regulate free Ca[Formula: see text] concentrations in the facial nerve nucleus, which provide important information for the repair and regeneration of the facial nerve. The present study investigated the regulatory effects of nicotine on muscarinic receptor-mediated free calcium ion level changes in the facial nucleus in a rat model of facial nerve injury at 7, 30, and 90 days following facial nerve injury using laser confocal microscopy. The dose-dependent regulation of nicotine on muscarinic receptor-mediated free calcium ion level changes in the facial nucleus may decrease the range of free Ca[Formula: see text] increases following facial nerve injury, which is important for nerve cell regeneration. It is concluded that the negative effects of nicotine on muscarinic receptors are related to the [Formula: see text] subtype of nicotinic receptors.

  14. Fetal and neonatal exposure to nicotine leads to augmented hepatic and circulating triglycerides in adult male offspring due to increased expression of fatty acid synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Noelle; Nicholson, Catherine J; Wong, Michael; Holloway, Alison C; Hardy, Daniel B

    2014-02-15

    While nicotine replacement therapy is assumed to be a safer alternative to smoking during pregnancy, the long-term consequences for the offspring remain elusive. Animal studies now suggest that maternal nicotine exposure during perinatal life leads to a wide range of adverse outcomes for the offspring including increased adiposity. The focus of this study was to investigate if nicotine exposure during pregnancy and lactation leads to alterations in hepatic triglyceride synthesis. Female Wistar rats were randomly assigned to receive daily subcutaneous injections of saline (vehicle) or nicotine bitartrate (1mg/kg/day) for two weeks prior to mating until weaning. At postnatal day 180 (PND 180), nicotine exposed offspring exhibited significantly elevated levels of circulating and hepatic triglycerides in the male offspring. This was concomitant with increased expression of fatty acid synthase (FAS), the critical hepatic enzyme in de novo triglyceride synthesis. Given that FAS is regulated by the nuclear receptor Liver X receptor (LXRα), we measured LXRα expression in both control and nicotine-exposed offspring. Nicotine exposure during pregnancy and lactation led to an increase in hepatic LXRα protein expression and enriched binding to the putative LXRE element on the FAS promoter in PND 180 male offspring. This was also associated with significantly enhanced acetylation of histone H3 [K9,14] surrounding the FAS promoter, a hallmark of chromatin activation. Collectively, these findings suggest that nicotine exposure during pregnancy and lactation leads to an increase in circulating and hepatic triglycerides long-term via changes in the transcriptional and epigenetic regulation of the hepatic lipogenic pathway. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Environmental Assessment for the Proposed Expeditionary Training at Gila Bend Air Force Auxiliary Field and the Barry M. Goldwater Range East

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-12-01

    administered by the U.S. Air Force on the BMGR and its effects on the Sonoran pronghorn (Antilocapra americana sonoriensis). AESO /SE 2-21-96-F- 094-R2. 6...Leptonycteris curasoae yerbabuenae). AESO /SE 02-21-95-F-0114R4. 6 August. _____. 2003d. Army National Guard: Revised biological opinion based on review of...sonoriensis). AESO /SE 2-21-93-F-389R2. 6 August. _____. 2002. Vol. 67, No. 229, Pages 71032 – 71064. Part V, Department of the Interior, Fish and

  16. Effects of nicotine on zebrafish: A comparative response between a newly established gill cell line and whole gills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathiga Nambi, K S; Abdul Majeed, S; Taju, G; Sivasubbu, Sridhar; Sarath Babu, V; Sahul Hameed, A S

    2017-05-01

    A novel cell line, Danio rerio gill (DrG), derived from the gill tissue of zebrafish, was established and characterized. The cells were able to grow at a wide range of temperatures from 25°C to 32°C in Leibovitz's L-15 medium. The DrG cell line consists of epithelial-like cells with a diameter of 18-22μm. The cell line was characterized by mitochondrial 12S rRNA gene. Acute toxicity tests were conducted on D. rerio by exposing them to nicotine for 96h under static conditions. In vitro cytotoxicity of nicotine was assessed in DrG cell line using multiple endpoints such as 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT), Neutral Red assay, Alamar Blue assay and Coomassie Blue protein assay. Linear correlations between each in vitro cytotoxicity assay and the in vivo mortality data were highly significant. Nicotine induced intracellular reactive oxygen species generation in DrG cell line in a concentration dependent manner. DrG cell line and zebrafish exposed to nicotine significantly increased the elevation of lipid peroxidation (LPO) while depletion of reduced glutathione (GSH), manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and glutathione peroxidise(GPx1a) was observed. In nicotine treated fish and cells a negative correlation between reduced glutathione and LPO was observed. In addition, the production of ROS and the resulting oxidative stress resulted in increased expression of apoptosis related genes p53 and cas3.Collectively, our result suggests that nicotine has the potential to induce reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, oxidative stress and apoptosis in DrG cell line and zebrafish. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Permissive nicotine regulation as a complement to traditional tobacco control

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    Sumner Walton

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cigarette smoking takes a staggering toll on human health and attracts considerable public health attention, yet real solutions seem distant. The 2004 Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act (US Senate bill S2461 would have given the US Food and Drug Administration limited authority to regulate cigarettes to "protect the public health." However, such legislation is unlikely to substantially reduce smoking or related deaths. Discussion The past 500 years of tobacco control efforts demonstrate that nicotine prohibition is a practical impossibility for numerous reasons, state revenue being one of the most ominous. The FDA already has regulatory authority over pharmaceutical grade nicotine products, and requires pharmacists to dispense the most addictive of these only with prescriptions. Meanwhile, every corner store can sell far more addictive and dangerous cigarettes to any adult. The FDA could immediately increase competition between cigarettes and clean nicotine products by approving available nicotine products for over-the-counter sales to adults. Similarly permissive regulation of cigarettes and addictive nicotine products will reduce tobacco use and improve smokers' health, but increase nicotine use in the population. Fortunately, restricted youth access and accurate labeling of nicotine's absolute risks will dissuade many non-smokers from experimenting with it, while accurate depiction of its risks relative to cigarette smoking will encourage many smokers to switch. The FDA could take a series of small steps that might ultimately replace a large proportion of cigarette smoking with equally addictive nicotine products, without risking serious public health setbacks. Vaccine, methadone, and injury prevention policies establish relevant public health precedents. Summary Cigarettes, or an equally addictive alternative, will be a permanent and common product in most societies. Regulations restricting only the safest

  18. Parazoanthoxanthin A blocks Torpedo nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozman, Klara Bulc; Araoz, Romulo; Sepcić, Kristina; Molgo, Jordi; Suput, Dusan

    2010-09-06

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors are implicated in different nervous system-related disorders, and their modulation could improve existing therapy of these diseases. Parazoanthoxanthin A (ParaA) is a fluorescent pigment of the group of zoanthoxanthins. Since it is a potent acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, it may also bind to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). For this reason its effect on Torpedo nAChR (alpha1(2)betagammadelta) transplanted to Xenopus laevis oocytes was evaluated, using the voltage-clamp technique. ParaA dose-dependently reduced the acetylcholine-induced currents. This effect was fully reversible only at lower concentrations. ParaA also reduced the Hill coefficient and the time to peak current, indicating a channel blocking mode of action. On the other hand, the combined effect of ParaA and d-tubocurarine (d-TC) on acetylcholine-induced currents exhibited only partial additivity, assuming a competitive mode of action of ParaA on nAChR. These results indicate a dual mode of action of ParaA on the Torpedo AChR. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Virtual reality exposure on nicotine craving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamito, Pedro; Oliveira, Jorge; Baptista, André; Pereira, Edgar; Morais, Diogo; Saraiva, Tomaz; Santos, Nuno; Soares, Fábio

    2011-01-01

    Several forms of treatment for nicotine dependence that combine the classical smoking cessation strategies with new Virtual Reality (VR) exposure techniques to smoking-related cues are in development. In this line, the main goal of our study was to develop a virtual platform in order to induce cravings in smokers. Sixty undergraduate students were randomly assigned to two different virtual environments (high-arousal cues and low-arousal cues). Both environments were based on a three-room apartment with commercial music playing and virtual characters interacting in a social event. The assessment was carried out before and after exposure through psychophysiological activation and self-report data for craving and nicotine dependence levels. No statistical differences were observed between smokers and non-smokers in psychophysiological activation. As far as self-report data is concerned, smokers revealed a significant increase in craving after the VR exposure to high arousal environments. Overall results were in line with previous studies suggesting the use of virtual environments as a tool for the existing smoking cessation programs.

  20. Effects of simultaneous exposure to stress and nicotine on nicotine-induced locomotor activation in adolescent and adult rats

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    A. Zago

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Preclinical studies have shown that repeated stress experiences can result in an increase in the locomotor response to the subsequent administration of drugs of abuse, a phenomenon that has been termed behavioral cross-sensitization. Behavioral sensitization reflects neuroadaptive processes associated with drug addiction and drug-induced psychosis. Although cross-sensitization between stress- and drug-induced locomotor activity has been clearly demonstrated in adult rats, few studies have evaluated this phenomenon in adolescent rats. In the present study, we determined if the simultaneous exposure to stress and nicotine was capable of inducing behavioral sensitization to nicotine in adolescent and adult rats. To this end, adolescent (postnatal day (P 28-37 and adult (P60-67 rats received nicotine (0.4 mg/kg, sc or saline (0.9% NaCl, sc and were immediately subjected to restraint stress for 2 h once a day for 7 days. The control group for stress was undisturbed following nicotine or saline injections. Three days after the last exposure to stress and nicotine, rats were challenged with a single dose of nicotine (0.4 mg/kg, sc or saline and nicotine-induced locomotion was then recorded for 30 min. In adolescent rats, nicotine caused behavioral sensitization only in animals that were simultaneously exposed to stress, while in adult rats nicotine promoted sensitization independently of stress exposure. These findings demonstrate that adolescent rats are more vulnerable to the effects of stress on behavioral sensitization to nicotine than adult rats.

  1. Analysis of Nicotine and Nicotine-Related Compounds in Electronic Cigarette Liquids and Aerosols by Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry

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    Liu Xinyu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to develop and validate an analytical method for determining nicotine and nicotine related compounds (i.e., nicotine-N-oxide, cotinine, nornicotine, anatabine, myosmine, anabasine, and β-nicotyrine in e-cigarette aerosols and e-liquids. Aerosol collection was achieved using a Cambridge collection pad. The sample preparation consisted of adding deuterated internal standards to the collection pad and extracting with 100 mM ammonium acetate solution using a wrist-action shaker. The filtrate was then analyzed by LC-MS/MS using a Gemini NX C18 column (3 μm, 150 × 3 mm with a mobile phase gradient system consisting of acetonitrile and 10% acetonitrile in 10 mM ammonium bicarbonate (pH = 8.0 and electrospray ionization (ESI in the positive mode. The e-liquid was analyzed using the same instrumental parameters, but simplifying the sample preparation procedure by adding deuterated internal standards directly to the 100-mg sample. The sample was then extracted with 100 mM ammonium acetate solution, sonicated, and filtered. In this study, the method’s accuracy, robustness, and reliability were enhanced by using deuterated analogues of each compound as internal standards and by applying two ion-transition pairs for each compound for the confirmation and quantification. Validation experiments demonstrated good sensitivity, specificity and reproducibility. All the target compound calibrations exhibited satisfactory linearity from 0.050 to 5.0 mg/mL (r2 > 0.995. The average recoveries for e-liquids varied from 85.2% (nicotine-N-oxide to 110% (β-nicotyrine with recoveries for all compounds exhibiting a coefficient of variation (CV < 5.0%. Similarly, the average recoveries for e-cigarette aerosols varied from 87.8% (for nicotine-N-oxide to 111% (for myosmine with all CV < 8.8%. The LOD and LOQ for e-liquids for all target compounds ranged from 0.234 and 0.781 μg/g (cotinine to 1.66 and 5.48 μg/g (nicotine-Noxide. For e

  2. 76 FR 70695 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals: U.S. Navy Training in 12 Range Complexes and U.S. Air Force...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-15

    ... mailing of paper, disk, or CD-ROM comments should be addressed to Michael Payne, Chief, Permits... Cherry Point (CHPT) Range Complex, the Naval Surface Warfare Center Panama City Division (NSWC PCD), the...

  3. A study of a new TSM bio-mimetic sensor using a molecularly imprinted polymer coating and its application for the determination of nicotine in human serum and urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Y; Yin, J; Liang, C; Peng, H; Nie, L; Yao, S

    2001-03-01

    A new bio-mimetic quartz crystal thickness-shear-mode (TSM) sensor, using an imprinted polymer coating as the sensitive material, has been fabricated and applied to the determination of nicotine (NIC) in human serum and urine. The molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) was synthesized using NIC as the template molecule and methacrylic acid (MAA) as the functional monomer. The sensor showed high selectivity and a sensitive response to NIC in aqueous system. The linear response range of the sensor was between 5.0 x 10(-8) and 1.0 x 10(-4) M with a detection limit of 2.5 x 10(-8) M. The viscoelasticity of the coating in the air and in liquid has been studied by the impedance spectrum. The MIP sensor was stable and exhibited effective reproducibility. Satisfactory results were achieved in the detection of the real samples.

  4. Cholinergic transmission during nicotine withdrawal is influenced by age and pre-exposure to nicotine: implications for teenage smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carcoba, Luis M; Orfila, James E; Natividad, Luis A; Torres, Oscar V; Pipkin, Joseph A; Ferree, Patrick L; Castañeda, Eddie; Moss, Donald E; O'Dell, Laura E

    2014-01-01

    Adolescence is a unique period of development characterized by enhanced tobacco use and long-term vulnerability to neurochemical changes produced by adolescent nicotine exposure. In order to understand the underlying mechanisms that contribute to developmental differences in tobacco use, this study compared changes in cholinergic transmission during nicotine exposure and withdrawal in naïve adult rats compared to (1) adolescent rats and (2) adult rats that were pre-exposed to nicotine during adolescence. The first study compared extracellular levels of acetylcholine (ACh) in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) during nicotine exposure and precipitated withdrawal using microdialysis procedures. Adolescent (postnatal day, PND, 28-42) and adult rats (PND60-74) were prepared with osmotic pumps that delivered nicotine for 14 days (adolescents 4.7 mg/kg/day; adults 3.2 mg/kg/day; expressed as base). Another group of adults was exposed to nicotine during adolescence and then again in adulthood (pre-exposed adults) using similar methods. Control rats received a sham surgery. Following 13 days of nicotine exposure, the rats were implanted with microdialysis probes in the NAc. The following day, dialysis samples were collected during baseline and following systemic administration of the nicotinic receptor antagonist mecamylamine (1.5 and 3.0 mg/kg, i.p.) to precipitate withdrawal. A second study compared various metabolic differences in cholinergic transmission using the same treatment procedures as the first study. Following 14 days of nicotine exposure, the NAc was dissected and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity was compared across groups. In order to examine potential group differences in nicotine metabolism, blood plasma levels of cotinine (a nicotine metabolite) were also compared following 14 days of nicotine exposure. The results from the first study revealed that nicotine exposure increased baseline ACh levels to a greater extent in adolescent versus adult rats. During

  5. Menthol's potential effects on nicotine dependence: a tobacco industry perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Objective To examine what the tobacco industry knows about the potential effects menthol may have on nicotine dependence. Methods A snowball strategy was used to systematically search the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library (http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/) between 22 February and 29 April, 2010. Of the approximately 11 million documents available in the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library, the iterative searches returned tens of thousands of results. We qualitatively analysed a final collection of 309 documents relevant the effects of menthol on nicotine dependence. Results The tobacco industry knows that menthol overrides the harsh taste of tobacco and alleviates nicotine's irritating effects, synergistically interacts with nicotine, stimulates the trigeminal nerve to elicit a ‘liking’ response for a tobacco product, and makes low tar, low nicotine tobacco products more acceptable to smokers than non-mentholated low delivery products. Conclusion Menthol is not only used in cigarettes as a flavour additive; tobacco companies know that menthol also has sensory effects and interacts with nicotine to produce tobacco products that are easier to smoke, thereby making it easier to expose smokers, especially those who are new and uninitiated, to the addictive power of nicotine. PMID:21504929

  6. Evaluating nicotine dependence levels in e-cigarette users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Roz, Alba; Secades Villa, Roberto; Weidberg, Sara

    2017-01-11

    Despite the fact that electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are rapidly growing in popularity and use worldwide, there is scarce scientific data on abuse liability among e-cigarette users, and about whether e-cigarette use is related to nicotine dependence or not. The aim of this study is to explore nicotine dependence levels in a sample of experienced e-cigarette users (n= 39) and to compare them with current tobacco cigarette smokers (n=42). We conducted several face-to-face interviews in order to assess sociodemographic and dependence related characteristics in both e-cigarette users and in smokers. Adapted versions of both the Fagerström test for nicotine dependence (FTND) and the nicotine dependence syndrome scale (NDSS) were used to analyze nicotine dependence in each of the groups. Biochemical markers of carbon monoxide and urinary cotinine analysis were also collected. Results showed that e-cigarette users scored lower than cigarette smokers in both FTND and all NDSS subscales. Our findings extend previous research on e-cigarette use and nicotine addiction and suggest that e-cigarette users are less dependent on nicotine than current tobacco cigarette smokers. Further prospective studies are needed to better ascertain their addictiveness potential, comparing those smokers who switched to e-cigarettes from smoking cigarettes, and those who had never been tobacco cigarette smokers.

  7. Nicotine Enhances Interspecies Relationship between Streptococcus mutans and Candida albicans

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    Shiyu Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus mutans and Candida albicans are common microorganisms in the human oral cavity. The synergistic relationship between these two species has been deeply explored in many studies. In the present study, the effect of alkaloid nicotine on the interspecies between S. mutans and C. albicans is explored. We developed a dual-species biofilm model and studied biofilm biomass, biofilm structure, synthesis of extracellular polysaccharides (EPS, and expression of glucosyltransferases (Gtfs. Biofilm formation and bacterial and fungal cell numbers in dual-species biofilms increased in the presence of nicotine. More C. albicans cells were present in the dual-species biofilms in the nicotine-treated groups as determined by scanning electron microscopy. The synthesis of EPS was increased by 1 mg/ml of nicotine as detected by confocal laser scanning microscopy. The result of qRT-PCR showed gtfs expression was upregulated when 1 mg/ml of nicotine was used. We speculate that nicotine promoted the growth of S. mutans, and more S. mutans cells attracted more C. albicans cells due to the interaction between two species. Since S. mutans and C. albicans are putative pathogens for dental caries, the enhancement of the synergistic relationship by nicotine may contribute to caries development in smokers.

  8. Nicotine plus a high-fat diet triggers cardiomyocyte apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha-Hikim, Indrani; Friedman, Theodore C; Falz, Mark; Chalfant, Victor; Hasan, Mohammad Kamrul; Espinoza-Derout, Jorge; Lee, Desean L; Sims, Carl; Tran, Peter; Mahata, Sushil K; Sinha-Hikim, Amiya P

    2017-04-01

    Cigarette smoking is an important risk factor for diabetes, cardiovascular disease and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. The health risk associated with smoking can be aggravated by obesity. Smoking might also trigger cardiomyocyte (CM) apoptosis. Given that CM apoptosis has been implicated as a potential mechanism in the development of cardiomyopathy and heart failure, we characterize the key signaling pathways in nicotine plus high-fat diet (HFD)-induced CM apoptosis. Adult C57BL6 male mice were fed a normal diet (ND) or HFD and received twice-daily intraperitoneal (IP) injections of nicotine (0.75 mg/kg body weight [BW]) or saline for 16 weeks. An additional group of nicotine-treated mice on HFD received twice-daily IP injections of mecamylamine (1 mg/kg BW), a non-selective nicotinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist, for 16 weeks. Nicotine when combined with HFD led to a massive increase in CM apoptosis that was fully prevented by mecamylamine treatment. Induction of CM apoptosis was associated with increased oxidative stress and activation of caspase-2-mediated intrinsic pathway signaling coupled with inactivation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Furthermore, nicotine treatment significantly (P nicotine, when combined with HFD, triggers CM apoptosis through the generation of oxidative stress and inactivation of AMPK together with the activation of caspase-2-mediated intrinsic apoptotic signaling independently of FGF21 and SIRT1.

  9. Multigenerational epigenetic effects of nicotine on lung function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie Frances M

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A recent preclinical study has shown that not only maternal smoking but also grandmaternal smoking is associated with elevated pediatric asthma risk. Using a well-established rat model of in utero nicotine exposure, Rehan et al. have now demonstrated multigenerational effects of nicotine that could explain this 'grandmother effect'. F1 offspring of nicotine-treated pregnant rats exhibited asthma-like changes to lung function and associated epigenetic changes to DNA and histones in both lungs and gonads. These alterations were blocked by co-administration of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ agonist, rosiglitazone, implicating downregulation of this receptor in the nicotine effects. F2 offspring of F1 mated animals exhibited similar changes in lung function to that of their parents, even though they had never been exposed to nicotine. Thus epigenetic mechanisms appear to underlie the multigenerational transmission of a nicotine-induced asthma-like phenotype. These findings emphasize the need for more effective smoking cessation strategies during pregnancy, and cast further doubt on the safety of using nicotine replacement therapy to reduce tobacco use in pregnant women. Please see related article: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7015/10/129

  10. Nicotine Enhances Interspecies Relationship between Streptococcus mutans and Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shiyu; Qiu, Wei; Zhang, Keke; Zhou, Xuedong; Ren, Biao; He, Jinzhi; Xu, Xin; Cheng, Lei; Li, Mingyun

    2017-01-01

    Streptococcus mutans and Candida albicans are common microorganisms in the human oral cavity. The synergistic relationship between these two species has been deeply explored in many studies. In the present study, the effect of alkaloid nicotine on the interspecies between S. mutans and C. albicans is explored. We developed a dual-species biofilm model and studied biofilm biomass, biofilm structure, synthesis of extracellular polysaccharides (EPS), and expression of glucosyltransferases (Gtfs). Biofilm formation and bacterial and fungal cell numbers in dual-species biofilms increased in the presence of nicotine. More C. albicans cells were present in the dual-species biofilms in the nicotine-treated groups as determined by scanning electron microscopy. The synthesis of EPS was increased by 1 mg/ml of nicotine as detected by confocal laser scanning microscopy. The result of qRT-PCR showed gtfs expression was upregulated when 1 mg/ml of nicotine was used. We speculate that nicotine promoted the growth of S. mutans, and more S. mutans cells attracted more C. albicans cells due to the interaction between two species. Since S. mutans and C. albicans are putative pathogens for dental caries, the enhancement of the synergistic relationship by nicotine may contribute to caries development in smokers.

  11. A pilot study on nicotine residues in houses of electronic cigarette users, tobacco smokers, and non-users of nicotine-containing products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Derek; Goniewicz, Maciej L

    2015-06-01

    Nicotine deposited on the surfaces has been shown to react with airborne chemicals leading to formation of carcinogens and contributing to thirdhand exposure. While prior studies revealed nicotine residues in tobacco smokers' homes, none have examined the nicotine residue in electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) users' homes. We measured nicotine on the surfaces in households of 8 e-cigarette users, 6 cigarette smokers, and 8 non-users of nicotine-containing products in Western New York, USA. Three surface wipe samples were taken from the floor, wall and window. Nicotine was extracted from the wipes and analyzed using gas chromatography. Half of the e-cigarette users' homes had detectable levels of nicotine on surfaces whereas nicotine was found in all of the tobacco cigarette smokers' homes. Trace amounts of nicotine were also detected in half of the homes of non-users of nicotine-containing products. Nicotine levels in e-cigarette users homes was significantly lower than that found in cigarette smokers homes (average concentration 7.7±17.2 vs. 1303±2676 μg/m2; p0.05). Nicotine is a common contaminant found on indoor surfaces. Using e-cigarettes indoors leads to significantly less thirdhand exposure to nicotine compared to smoking tobacco cigarettes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Design, formulation and evaluation of nicotine chewing gum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslani, Abolfazl; Rafiei, Sahar

    2012-01-01

    Background: Nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) can help smokers to quit smoking. Nicotine chewing gum has attracted the attention from pharmaceutical industries to offer it to consumers as an easily accessible NRT product. However, the bitter taste of such gums may compromise their acceptability by patients. This study was, therefore, designed to develop 2 and 4 mg nicotine chewing gums of pleasant taste, which satisfy the consumers the most. Materials and Methods: Nicotine, sugar, liquid glucose, glycerin, different sweetening and taste-masking agents, and a flavoring agent were added to the gum bases at appropriate temperature. The medicated gums were cut into pieces of suitable size and coated by acacia aqueous solution (2% w/v), sugar dusting, followed by acacia–sugar–calcium carbonate until a smooth surface was produced. The gums’ weight variation and content uniformity were determined. The release of nicotine was studied in pH 6.8 phosphate buffer using a mastication device which simulated the mastication of chewing gum in human. The Latin Square design was used for the evaluation of organoleptic characteristics of the formulations at different stages of development. Results: Most formulations released 79–83% of their nicotine content within 20 min. Nicotine-containing sugar-coated gums in which aspartame as sweetener and cherry and eucalyptus as flavoring agents were incorporated (i.e. formulations F19-SC and F20-SC, respectively) had optimal chewing hardness, adhering to teeth, and plumpness characteristics, as well as the most pleasant taste and highest acceptability to smokers. Conclusion: Taste enhancement of nicotine gums was achieved where formulations comprised aspartame as the sweetener and cherry and eucalyptus as the flavoring agents. Nicotine gums of pleasant taste may, therefore, be used as NRT to assist smokers quit smoking. PMID:23326788

  13. Receptor systems participating in nicotine-specific effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sziráki, I; Sershen, H; Benuck, M; Hashim, A; Lajtha, A

    1998-11-01

    It is generally accepted that self-administration of drugs is prompted primarily by a reward system driven by an increase in extracellular dopamine in the nucleus accumbens. Recent findings that dopamine increase in the accumbens can be caused by many other factors, among them stress, suggest a more complex mechanism, and possibly differences in the reward system for different compounds. In the present paper we compare the effects of receptor-specific antagonists on the increase of dopamine induced by nicotine with that induced by cocaine in the nucleus accumbens in conscious rats. The compounds alone or together were injected intravenously, and dopamine level changes were measured via microdialysis. When administered together the effect of nicotine and cocaine on the level of dopamine in the accumbens was additive. Apparently there is some interaction between the two compounds, since nicotine had no effect after combined nicotine and cocaine administration. Perhaps the available dopamine pool was exhausted by the prior administration. The nicotinic antagonist mecamylamine, the muscarinic antagonist atropine, and the NMDA glutamate receptor antagonist MK-801 each blocked nicotine-induced dopamine release in the accumbens, indicating the participation of more than a single receptor system in the nicotine-induced effect. These three antagonists did not inhibit cocaine-induced dopamine increase in the accumbens, indicating the lack of a role of these receptors in the cocaine effect under our experimental conditions. SCH-23390, a dopamine D1 receptor antagonist, blocked both nicotine- and cocaine-induced effects, indicating the possible role of this receptor in these reward effects. The results indicate that there are differences in some of the receptors mediating the central effects of the two compounds examined, nicotine and cocaine, although each influences dopamine levels, and that the two compounds interact.

  14. Nicotine and Cotinine Levels With Electronic Cigarette: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsot, A; Simon, N

    2016-01-01

    Since their introduction in 2004, electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) have gained popularity worldwide. E-cigarettes are marketed as nicotine delivery devices. Commonly reported reasons for use include to quit smoking, to reduce urge to smoke, or the perceived lower risk alternative to smoking. But what are the actual amounts of nicotine delivered? This review summarizes all the published studies concerning nicotine or cotinine levels following e-cigarette use. A literature search was conducted from the PubMed database, from 1985 to January 2014, using the following terms: electronic cigarette(s), e-cigarette(s), electronic nicotine delivery system, cotinine, and nicotine. Articles were excluded if they were not pertinent according to our criteria. References of all relevant articles were also evaluated. Eight studies were included in this review. The following information was extracted from the articles: population size, age of participants, recruitment, inclusion and exclusion criteria, concentration of nicotine in refills liquids, study sample design, and observed concentrations. Following design of studies, plasma nicotine Cmax was observed between 0 and 5 ng/mL (no significant changes) or between 13.9 and 16.3 ng/mL (similar to a tobacco cigarette) with a Tmax between 70 and 75 minutes. Cotinine levels after "vaping" an e-cigarette are similar to a tobacco cigarette. This review summarizes e-cigarette studies that contain information on nicotine or cotinine levels. The peak concentration of nicotine appears to be dependent on the use and dose level of e-cigarette cartridge. The value of this peak concentration is similar to the value found with a tobacco cigarette. However, the time corresponding to the peak concentration is delayed compared to a tobacco cigarette. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. Nicotine and cotinine exposure from electronic cigarettes: a population approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vélez de Mendizábal, Nieves; Jones, David R; Jahn, Andy; Bies, Robert R; Brown, Joshua W

    2015-06-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are a recent technology that has gained rapid acceptance. Still, little is known about them in terms of safety and effectiveness. A basic question is how effectively they deliver nicotine; however, the literature is surprisingly unclear on this point. Here, a population pharmacokinetic model was developed for nicotine and its major metabolite cotinine with the aim to provide a reliable framework for the simulation of nicotine and cotinine concentrations over time, based solely on inhalation airflow recordings and individual covariates [i.e., weight and breath carbon monoxide (CO) levels]. This study included ten adults self-identified as heavy smokers (at least one pack of cigarettes per day). Plasma nicotine and cotinine concentrations were measured at regular 10-min intervals for 90 min while human subjects inhaled nicotine vapor from a modified e-cigarette. Airflow measurements were recorded every 200 ms throughout the session. A population pharmacokinetic model for nicotine and cotinine was developed based on previously published pharmacokinetic parameters and the airflow recordings. All of the analyses were performed with the non-linear mixed-effect modeling software NONMEM(®) version 7.2. The results show that e-cigarettes deliver nicotine effectively, although the pharmacokinetic profiles are lower than those achieved with regular cigarettes. Our pharmacokinetic model effectively predicts plasma nicotine and cotinine concentrations from the inhalation volume, and initial breath CO. E-cigarettes are effective at delivering nicotine. This new pharmacokinetic model of e-cigarette usage might be used for pharmacodynamic analysis where the pharmacokinetic profiles are not available.

  16. Zebrafish for the Study of the Biological Effects of Nicotine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klee, Eric W.; Schneider, Henning; Hurt, Richard D.; Ekker, Stephen C.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Zebrafish are emerging as a powerful animal model for studying the molecular and physiological effects of nicotine exposure. The zebrafish have many advantageous physical characteristics, including small size, high fecundity rates, and externally developing transparent embryos. When combined with a battery of molecular–genetic tools and behavioral assays, these attributes enable studies to be conducted that are not practical using traditional animal models. Methods: We reviewed the literature on the application of the zebrafish model as a preclinical model to study the biological effects of nicotine exposure. Results: The identified studies used zebrafish to examine the effects of nicotine exposure on early development, addiction, anxiety, and learning. The methods used included green fluorescent protein–labeled proteins to track in vivo nicotine-altered neuron development, nicotine-conditioned place preference, and locomotive sensitization linked with high-throughput molecular and genetic screens and behavioral models of learning and stress response to nicotine. Data are presented on the complete homology of all known human neural nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in zebrafish and on the biological similarity of human and zebrafish dopaminergic signaling. Conclusions: Tobacco dependence remains a major health problem worldwide. Further understanding of the molecular effects of nicotine exposure and genetic contributions to dependence may lead to improvement in patient treatment strategies. While there are limitations to the use of zebrafish as a preclinical model, it should provide a valuable tool to complement existing model systems. The reviewed studies demonstrate the enormous opportunity zebrafish have to advance the science of nicotine and tobacco research. PMID:21385906

  17. Biogenic amines--a possible source for nicotine in mushrooms? A discussion of published literature data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, B K; Bruns, S; Lach, G

    2015-03-15

    Mushrooms have, repeatedly, been shown to contain nicotine. Speculation about the source of contamination has been widespread, however the source of nicotine remains unknown. Previous studies indicate that putrescine, an intermediate in nicotine biosynthesis, can be formed in mushrooms, which might be metabolised to form nicotine. Thus, endogenous formation may be a possible cause for elevated nicotine levels in mushrooms. We present evidence from the literature that may support this hypothesis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. New Product Marketing Blurs the Line Between Nicotine Replacement Therapy and Smokeless Tobacco Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostygina, Ganna; England, Lucinda; Ling, Pamela

    2016-07-01

    Tobacco companies have begun to acquire pharmaceutical subsidiaries and recently started to market nicotine replacement therapies, such as Zonnic nicotine gum, in convenience stores. Conversely, tobacco companies are producing tobacco products such as tobacco chewing gum and lozenges that resemble pharmaceutical nicotine replacement products, including a nicotine pouch product that resembles snus pouches. This convergence of nicotine and tobacco product marketing has implications for regulation and tobacco cessation.

  19. Addiction Potential of Cigarettes With Reduced Nicotine Content in Populations With Psychiatric Disorders and Other Vulnerabilities to Tobacco Addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Stephen T; Heil, Sarah H; Sigmon, Stacey C; Tidey, Jennifer W; Gaalema, Diann E; Hughes, John R; Stitzer, Maxine L; Durand, Hanna; Bunn, Janice Y; Priest, Jeff S; Arger, Christopher A; Miller, Mollie E; Bergeria, Cecilia L; Davis, Danielle R; Streck, Joanna M; Reed, Derek D; Skelly, Joan M; Tursi, Lauren

    2017-10-01

    A national policy is under consideration to reduce the nicotine content of cigarettes to lower nicotine addiction potential in the United States. To examine how smokers with psychiatric disorders and other vulnerabilities to tobacco addiction respond to cigarettes with reduced nicotine content. A multisite, double-blind, within-participant assessment of acute response to research cigarettes with nicotine content ranging from levels below a hypothesized addiction threshold to those representative of commercial cigarettes (0.4, 2.3, 5.2, and 15.8 mg/g of tobacco) at 3 academic sites included 169 daily smokers from the following 3 vulnerable populations: individuals with affective disorders (n = 56) or opioid dependence (n = 60) and socioeconomically disadvantaged women (n = 53). Data were collected from March 23, 2015, through April 25, 2016. After a brief smoking abstinence, participants were exposed to the cigarettes with varying nicotine doses across fourteen 2- to 4-hour outpatient sessions. Addiction potential of the cigarettes was assessed using concurrent choice testing, the Cigarette Purchase Task (CPT), and validated measures of subjective effects, such as the Minnesota Nicotine Withdrawal Scale. Among the 169 daily smokers included in the analysis (120 women [71.0%] and 49 men [29.0%]; mean [SD] age, 35.6 [11.4] years), reducing the nicotine content of cigarettes decreased the relative reinforcing effects of smoking in all 3 populations. Across populations, the 0.4-mg/g dose was chosen significantly less than the 15.8-mg/g dose in concurrent choice testing (mean [SEM] 30% [0.04%] vs 70% [0.04%]; Cohen d = 0.40; P addiction potential in populations that are highly vulnerable to tobacco addiction. Smokers with psychiatric conditions and socioeconomic disadvantage are more addicted and less likely to quit and experience greater adverse health impacts. Policies to reduce these disparities are needed; reducing the nicotine content in

  20. A comparison between electric field strengths similarly generated and measured in the open air, in a shielded enclosure and in a large aircraft hangar, over frequency range 10 to 110 MHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dew, M.; Harrison, F.

    1980-02-01

    Field strength measurements over 10 to 110 MHz were made using a tracking generator counter, a spectrum analyzer, and a biconal antenna. The dimensions of the shielded enclosure were 6.1 x 3.66 x 3.0 m, and the concrete floored, metal hangar 80 x 40 x 10 m. It was found that in each polarization the hangar performance deviated much less from that in the open air than did the shielded enclosure performance. The latter shows deviations with modulus as great as 38 dB (certical pol) and 26 dB (horizontal pol). For any electric field strength measured in the shielded enclosure (in 10 kHz bandwidth in the range 10 to 110 MHz) the probability that the result would be at least 6 dB different from that similary obtained in the open air was 38% or 43.5% according to polarization and that when similarly measured in the hangar the corresponding probabilities were 0% and 1%. Hangar results were shown to lie much closer to the open air results than do the shielded enclosure results. This is further demonstrated by the rms deviations of the shielded enclosure and hangar readings from those of the open air.

  1. Study of the chemical interaction between the beryllium powders of different particles size and the air in the temperature range 500-1000degC form the viewpoint of ITER safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davydov, D.A. [State Scientific Center of Russian Federation, Moscow (Russian Federation); Konovalov, Y.V.; Gorokhov, V.A.; Levin, V.B.; Chekhlatov, G.M.; Khomutov, A.M.

    1998-01-01

    Under an effect of some factors characteristic for the ITER- operating condition a dense beryllium facing plasma can transit into various forms, changing its structural states. As a result of the bombardment of beryllium plasma facing components by ion fluxes, the production of a dust including the particles from a few micrometers to a few millimeters in size is possible. The specific features in the behaviour of various beryllium forms under emergency conditions are of an essential interest from the viewpoint of ITER safety. Some grades of powders of different average particles size (14-31 micron) have been produced in a given study, and their chemical interaction at high temperatures with air (500-1100degC), test duration effects simulating the emergency situation at ITER in the first approximation have been studied. The temperature dependence of beryllium powders (different particles size after disc abrased) interaction with air in the temperature range 500-1000degC at the exposure of 5 hours long for each temperature and kinetic dependence of interaction of these powders with air at 800degC for the exposure from half an hour to 7 hours long were studied. An analysis of granulometric weight fraction in the metallic and oxidized beryllium powders with different particles size has been done by the photosedimentational technique with the instrument `Analysette-20`. Construction of a mathematical model for the chemical interaction of beryllium powders with air at high temperatures have been carried out. (author)

  2. Functional interaction between Lypd6 and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arvaniti, Maria; Jensen, Majbrit M; Soni, Neeraj

    2016-01-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) affect multiple physiological functions in the brain and their functions are modulated by regulatory proteins of the Lynx family. Here, we report for the first time a direct interaction of the Lynx protein LY6/PLAUR domain-containing 6 (Lypd6) with n...... findings suggest that Lypd6 is a versatile inhibitor of cholinergic signaling in the brain, and that Lypd6 is dysregulated by nicotine exposure during early development. Regulatory proteins of the Lynx family modulate the function of nicotinic receptors (nAChRs). We report for the first time that the Lynx...

  3. Relationships between trait urgency, smoking reinforcement expectancies, and nicotine dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Raina D.; Hom, Marianne S.; Geary, Bree A.; Doran, Neal; Spillane, Nichea S.; Guillot, Casey R.; Leventhal, Adam M.

    2014-01-01

    Urgency (i.e. the tendency to act rashly during negative/positive affect) may increase vulnerability to a variety of risky behaviors. This cross-sectional study of non-treatment-seeking smokers examined the relationship between urgency, level of nicotine dependence, and smoking reinforcement expectancies. Both positive and negative urgency were associated with nicotine dependence. Mediational analyses illustrated that smoking reinforcement expectancies significantly accounted for urgency-dependence relations, with negative reinforcement expectancies displaying incremental mediational effects. If replicated and extended, these findings may support the use of treatments that modify beliefs regarding smoking reinforcement outcomes as a means of buffering the risk of nicotine dependence carried by urgency. PMID:24784229

  4. Counteractive effects of cannabinoid and nicotine-addictive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jing; Liu, Zhiqiang; Ren, Wei; Zhang, Xia

    2011-03-09

    Our recent results suggest that cannabinoid exposure induces conditioned place preference (CPP) through facilitated induction of synaptic long-term depression at dopamine circuitry of the midbrain ventral tegmental area (VTA). Here, we show that chronic nicotine exposure also induces CPP, but facilitates the induction of synaptic long-term potentiation in the VTA. Coadministration of cannabinoid and nicotine leads to a blockade of facilitated long-term depression and long-term potentiation induction in these neurons and elimination of CPP. These findings point to counteractive effects of cannabinoid and nicotine-addictive behavior through opposite changes in synaptic plasticity of dopamine circuitry of the VTA.

  5. Impacts of long-range transports of PM10 on air quality in Gwangju, South Korea using satellite and in-situ measured data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, R.; Han, K.; Song, C.; Kang, Y.; Jung, W.; Ahan, S.

    2013-12-01

    To investigate the impact of long-range transported particular matter on the city of Gwangju which is one of metropolitan cities in the South Korea and is located in the southwestern part of the Korean peninsula, the PM10 concentrations measured at six measurement sites in Gwangju area were used. A decadal trend (2002-2011) of PM10 was analyzed and then the monthly and daily variations of PM10 for the years of 2002, 2003, 2006, and 2011 were investigated. The events of long-range transport were selected from peaks of daily PM10 and were evaluated through 72-hours backward trajectory analysis using NOAA HYbrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model. In addition, the events were evaluated using Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS)-retrieved AI (Aerosol Index), Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) and Geostationary Ocean Color Imager (GOCI)-retrieved Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD). Then the daily PM10 influenced by the long-range transport was filtered and the monthly variations calculated from the filtered daily PM10 and the daily PM10 influenced by the long-range transport were compared. For the year of 2002, up to ~50% of the PM10 concentration was influenced by Asian dust in March and April, respectively. In contrast, for the year of 2003, the impact of LRT on the PM10 concentrations were relatively small in the Gwangju areas. The monthly variations and annual mean values for 2002, 2003, 2006, and 2011, calculated from the filtered daily PM10, were similar and therefore, the annual variations of PM10 in Gwangju could be mainly affected by the long-range transport.

  6. Structural model of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor isotypes bound to acetylcholine and nicotine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abagyan Ruben

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nicotine is a psychoactive drug presenting a diverse array of biological activities, some positive, such as enhancement of cognitive performances, others negative, such as addiction liability. Ligands that discriminate between the different isotypes of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs could present improved pharmacology and toxicity profile. Results Based on the recent crystal structure of a soluble acetylcholine binding protein from snails, we have built atomic models of acetylcholine and nicotine bound to the pocket of four different human nAChR subtypes. The structures of the docked ligands correlate with available biochemical data, and reveal that the determinants for isotype selectivity are relying essentially on four residues, providing diversity of the ligand binding pocket both in terms of Van der Waals boundary, and electrostatic potential. We used our models to screen in silico a large compound database and identify a new ligand candidate that could display subtype selectivity. Conclusion The nAChR-agonist models should be useful for the design of nAChR agonists with diverse specificity profiles.

  7. An Assessment of Indoor Air Quality before, during and after Unrestricted Use of E-Cigarettes in a Small Room

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    O'Connell, Grant; Colard, Stéphane; Cahours, Xavier; Pritchard, John D

    2015-01-01

    ... (including nicotine and low molecular weight carbonyls), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, tobacco-specific nitrosamines and trace metal levels in the air before, during and after e-cigarette use in a typical small office meeting room...

  8. Impulsive behavior and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohmura, Yu; Tsutsui-Kimura, Iku; Yoshioka, Mitsuhiro

    2012-01-01

    Higher impulsivity is thought to be a risk factor for drug addiction, criminal involvement, and suicide. Excessive levels of impulsivity are often observed in several psychiatric disorders including attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and schizophrenia. Previous studies have demonstrated that nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are involved in impulsive behavior. Here, we introduce recent advances in this field and describe the role of the following nAChR-related brain mechanisms in modulating impulsive behavior: dopamine release in the ventral striatum; α4β2 nAChRs in the infralimbic cortex, which is a ventral part of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC); and dopamine release in the mPFC. We also suggest several potential therapeutic drugs to address these mechanisms in impulsivity-related disorders and explore future directions to further elucidate the roles of central nAChRs in impulsive behavior.

  9. Final Environmental Assessment Eglin Gulf Test and Training Range (EGTTR) Precision Strike Weapons (PSW) Test (5-Year Plan) Eglin Air Force Base, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-11-01

    Rachycentridae Cobia Sciaenidae Drums Sphymidae Hammerhead sharks Tropical Sphyraenidae Barracudas Fishes of the eastern Gulf can be characterized by...Dusky shark Carcharinus obscurus C One of the larger shark species of continental shelf waters; occurs in Atlantic and Pacific. Feeds on fish...other sharks , rays, squid, octopus, and starfish. Sand tiger shark Odontaspis taurus C In North America, the sand tiger ranges from the Gulf of

  10. Final Environmental Assessment of the Joint Air-to-Surface Stand-Off Missile (JASSM) Development and Evaluation Testing, White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-12-01

    Pip ito fuscus) ; white- crowned (Zonotrichia feucophrys) and vesper sparrows (Pooecetes gramineus); and house finch (Carpodacus mexicanus). Other...Organ Mtns. Colorado chipmunk (Tamias quadrivittatus australis,) lucifer hummingbird (Calothorax lucifer) Violet- crowned hummingbird (Amazi lia...servants and contractor staff. t N I Legend Las Crue <!!s NORTriERN CAU.-UP AREA (FIX) Stallion Range Center ~ 30, 50. 70. & 90 M;le Impact

  11. Effects of nicotine-specific antibodies, Nic311 and Nic-IgG, on the transfer of nicotine across the human placenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nekhayeva, Ilona A; Nanovskaya, Tatiana N; Pentel, Paul R; Keyler, Dan E; Hankins, Gary D V; Ahmed, Mahmoud S

    2005-11-25

    The adverse effects of smoking during pregnancy on fetal development are, in part, due to nicotine. These effects may be due to the actions of nicotine in fetal circulation or on placental functions. In pregnant rats, vaccination with a nicotine immunogen reduces the transfer of nicotine from the maternal to fetal circulation. However, extrapolation of these results to pregnant women might not be valid due to the well-recognized differences between human and rat placentas. In the current investigation, the effects of nicotine-specific antibodies on the transfer of nicotine from the maternal to fetal circuit of the dually perfused human placental lobule were determined. Two types of nicotine-specific antibodies were investigated; nicotine-specific mouse monoclonal antibody (Nic311, K(d) for nicotine 60nM) and IgG from rabbits vaccinated with a nicotine immunogen (Nic-IgG, K(d) 1.6nM). Transfer of the antibodies from maternal to fetal circuits was negligible. Both rabbit Nic-IgG and, to a lesser extent, mouse monoclonal Nic311 significantly reduced nicotine transfer from the maternal to fetal circuit as well as the retention of the drug by placental tissue. These effects were mediated by a substantial increase in the protein binding of nicotine and a reduction in the unbound nicotine concentration. Therefore, the data cited in this report suggest that the use of nicotine-specific antibodies might reduce fetal exposure to the drug, and that antibody affinity for nicotine is a key determinant of the extent of nicotine transfer.

  12. Targeting nicotinic acetylcholine receptor to treat smoking-related periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying-Feng; Ge, Xin; Wen, Ling-Ying; Wang, Xiao-Jing

    2011-02-01

    Tobacco smoking is considered to be one of the major risk factors for periodontitis. Nicotine, the major component in tobacco smoke, has been considered playing an important role in tobacco-related morbidity by acting through the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) expressed by non-neuronal cells. Recently studies found that nAChRs could be expressed on oral gingival and periodontal tissues. We hypothesize that nicotine may act on periodontal tissues directly and specifically through nAChRs to affect periodontitis activity, and that nicotine-induced periodontitis could be prevented by tissue-selective nAChR inhibitors targeting periodontal nAChRs. Thus, periodontal nAChRs may provide to be novel molecular targets to treat smoking-related periodontitis, effectively blocking of periodontal nAChRs may offer an optimistic outlook for the therapy of smoking- related periodontitis. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Nicotine addiction: studies about vulnerability, epigenesis and animal models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernabeu, Ramon

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This article is a summary about the current research of nicotine effects on the nervous system and its relationship to the generation of an addictive behavior. Like other drugs of abuse, nicotine activates the reward pathway, which in turn is involved in certain psychiatric diseases. There are individuals who have a high vulnerability to nicotine addiction. This may be due to genetic and epigenetic factors and/or the environment. In this review, we described some epigenetic factors that may be involved in those phenomena. The two animal models most widely used for studying the reinforcing effects of nicotine are: self-administration and conditioning place preference (CPP. Here, we emphasized the CPP, due to its potential application in humans. In addition, we described the locomotor activity model (as a measure of psychostimulant effects to study vulnerability to drugs of abuse

  14. Brain imaging and the effects of caffeine and nicotine.