WorldWideScience

Sample records for range 60-400 hz

  1. Syllabic (~2-5 Hz) and fluctuation (~1-10 Hz) ranges in speech and auditory processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Erik; Chang, Edward F.

    2013-01-01

    Given recent interest in syllabic rates (~2-5 Hz) for speech processing, we review the perception of “fluctuation” range (~1-10 Hz) modulations during listening to speech and technical auditory stimuli (AM and FM tones and noises, and ripple sounds). We find evidence that the temporal modulation transfer function (TMTF) of human auditory perception is not simply low-pass in nature, but rather exhibits a peak in sensitivity in the syllabic range (~2-5 Hz). We also address human and animal neurophysiological evidence, and argue that this bandpass tuning arises at the thalamocortical level and is more associated with non-primary regions than primary regions of cortex. The bandpass rather than low-pass TMTF has implications for modeling auditory central physiology and speech processing: this implicates temporal contrast rather than simple temporal integration, with contrast enhancement for dynamic stimuli in the fluctuation range. PMID:24035819

  2. Primary Calibration of Hydrophones in the Frequency Range of 250 Hz to 500 kHz Using Three-Transducer Spherical Wave Reciprocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    LIST OF MATHEMATICAL SYMBOLS AND UNITS ................................................. iii 1 INTRODUCTION ...HYDROPHONES IN THE FREQUENCY RANGE 250 HZ TO 500 KHZ USING THREE-TRANSDUCER SPHERICAL WAVE RECIPROCITY 1. INTRODUCTION This document describes the...for algae , there is little aquatic vegetation. Calibration measurements were performed on 22 June 2016. Environmental conditions during the

  3. Syllabic (∼2-5 Hz) and fluctuation (∼1-10 Hz) ranges in speech and auditory processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Erik; Chang, Edward F

    2013-11-01

    Given recent interest in syllabic rates (∼2-5 Hz) for speech processing, we review the perception of "fluctuation" range (∼1-10 Hz) modulations during listening to speech and technical auditory stimuli (AM and FM tones and noises, and ripple sounds). We find evidence that the temporal modulation transfer function (TMTF) of human auditory perception is not simply low-pass in nature, but rather exhibits a peak in sensitivity in the syllabic range (∼2-5 Hz). We also address human and animal neurophysiological evidence, and argue that this bandpass tuning arises at the thalamocortical level and is more associated with non-primary regions than primary regions of cortex. The bandpass rather than low-pass TMTF has implications for modeling auditory central physiology and speech processing: this implicates temporal contrast rather than simple temporal integration, with contrast enhancement for dynamic stimuli in the fluctuation range. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Communication Sounds and the Brain: New Directions and Perspectives". Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. In vitro host range of the Hz-1 nonoccluded virus in insect cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Arthur H; Grasela, James J; Ignoffo, Carlo M

    2007-01-01

    A total of 13 insect cell lines spanning 4 orders (Lepidoptera, Coleoptera, Diptera, and Homoptera) were tested for their ability to replicate the nonoccluded virus Hz-1. Only the Lepidopteran cell lines supported replication of the virus with TN-CL1 and BCIRL-HZ-AM1 producing the highest titers of 2.4 x 10(8) tissue culture infective dose (TCID)50/ml and 2.0 x 10(8) TCID50/ml, respectively. A codling moth cell line (CP-169) was the only Lepidopteran cell line that did not replicate the virus and transfection of this cell line with Hz-1 DNA failed to replicate the virus. Also, transfection with DNA from a recombinant baculovirus carrying the red fluorescent protein gene (AcMNPVhsp70 Red) was not expressed in CP-169 cells. The replication cycle of Hz-1 in BCIRL-HZ-AM1 cells showed that this virus replicated rapidly starting at 16 h postinoculation (p.i.) and reaching a peak titer of 1.0 x 10(8) TCID50/ml 56 h postinoculation. Hz-1 when compared with several other baculoviruses has the widest in vitro host spectrum.

  5. Equivalent threshold sound pressure levels (ETSPL) for Sennheiser HDA 280 supra-aural audiometric earphones in the frequency range 125 Hz to 8000 Hz

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Torben; Oakley, Sebastian

    2009-01-01

    Hearing threshold sound pressure levels were measured for the Sennheiser HDA 280 audiometric earphone. Hearing thresholds were measured for 25 normal hearing test subjects at the 11 audiometric test frequencies from 125 Hz to 8000 Hz. Sennheiser HDA 280 is a supra-aural earphone that may be seen ...

  6. Human exposure standards in the frequency range 1 Hz To 100 kHz: the case for adoption of the IEEE standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick Reilly, J

    2014-10-01

    Differences between IEEE C95 Standards (C95.6-2002 and C95.1-2005) in the low-frequency (1 Hz-100 kHz) and the ICNIRP-2010 guidelines appear across the frequency spectrum. Factors accounting for lack of convergence include: differences between the IEEE standards and the ICNIRP guidelines with respect to biological induction models, stated objectives, data trail from experimentally derived thresholds through physical and biological principles, selection and justification of safety/reduction factors, use of probability models, compliance standards for the limbs as distinct from the whole body, defined population categories, strategies for central nervous system protection below 20 Hz, and correspondence of environmental electric field limits with contact currents. This paper discusses these factors and makes the case for adoption of the limits in the IEEE standards.

  7. Mutual relationship of oscillations in the frequency range 3.6 mHz to 22 mHz in the solar chromosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anđić A.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available High frequency acoustic oscillations were suggested as the source of mechanical heating in the chromosphere. In this work the radial component of the oscillations in the frequency interval 3 mHz to 22 mHz are investigated. The observations were performed using "D spectrometry on the Fe I neutral spectral line at 543:45 nm. The high frequency oscillations of different frequencies appear to be associated with different spatial scales. It seems that different sources produce high and low frequency acoustic oscillations.

  8. Upper limit on a stochastic background of gravitational waves from seismic measurements in the range 0.05-1 Hz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlin, Michael; Harms, Jan

    2014-03-14

    In this Letter, we present an upper limit of ΩGWgravitational-wave (GW) background integrated over a year in the frequency range 0.05-1 Hz, which improves current upper limits from high-precision laboratory experiments by about 9 orders of magnitude. The limit is obtained using the response of Earth itself to GWs via a free-surface effect described more than 40 years ago by Dyson. The response was measured by a global network of broadband seismometers selected to maximize the sensitivity.

  9. High-sensitivity operation of single-beam optically pumped magnetometer in a kHz frequency range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savukov, I.; Kim, Y. J.; Shah, V.; Boshier, M. G.

    2017-03-01

    Optically pumped magnetometers (OPM) can be used in various applications, from magnetoencephalography to magnetic resonance imaging and nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR). OPMs provide high sensitivity and have the significant advantage of non-cryogenic operation. To date, many magnetometers have been demonstrated with sensitivity close to 1 fT, but most devices are not commercialized. Most recently, QuSpin developed a model of OPM that is low cost, high sensitivity, and convenient for users, which operates in a single-beam configuration. Here we developed a theory of single-beam (or parallel two-beam) magnetometers and showed that it is possible to achieve good sensitivity beyond their usual frequency range by tuning the magnetic field. Experimentally we have tested and optimized a QuSpin OPM for operation in the frequency range from DC to 1.7 kHz, and found that the performance was only slightly inferior despite the expected decrease due to deviation from the spin-exchange relaxation-free regime.

  10. Electric properties of biodiesel in the range from 20 Hz to 20 MHz. Comparison with diesel fossil fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Prieto, L.E. [Grupo de Energias Renovables, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Av. Paseo Colon 850, Buenos Aires, 1063 (Argentina); Sorichetti, P.A. [Laboratorio de Sistemas Liquidos, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Romano, S.D. [Grupo de Energias Renovables, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Av. Paseo Colon 850, Buenos Aires, 1063 (Argentina); CONICET: Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas, Av. Rivadavia 1917, Buenos Aires, 1033 (Argentina)

    2008-07-15

    Determination of electric properties at the different steps of biodiesel (BD) production contributes to a better understanding of the influence of the variables. Measurements of complex permittivity and conductivity make possible to survey efficiently the diverse steps of the industrial-scale production process, from the conditioning of the raw material to the quality control of the final product. Moreover, electrical measurements are 'non-destructive' and require relatively small sample volumes. In this work, complex permittivity spectra of BD and DF from 20 Hz to 20 MHz are presented. Experimental data were taken in a range of temperatures from 25 to 75 C, measured with an accuracy of {+-}0.1 C. The measuring system used in this work requires a sample volume of 25cm{sup 3} and gives the real part of permittivity ({epsilon}{sup '}) with an accuracy better than 1%. Dielectric loss (tg{delta}) can be measured between 10{sup -2} and 10{sup 2}. (author)

  11. Effective conductivity and permittivity of unsaturated porous materials in the frequency range 1 mHz-1GHz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revil, A

    2013-01-01

    A model combining low-frequency complex conductivity and high-frequency permittivity is developed in the frequency range from 1 mHz to 1 GHz. The low-frequency conductivity depends on pore water and surface conductivities. Surface conductivity is controlled by the electrical diffuse layer, the outer component of the electrical double layer coating the surface of the minerals. The frequency dependence of the effective quadrature conductivity shows three domains. Below a critical frequency fp , which depends on the dynamic pore throat size Λ, the quadrature conductivity is frequency dependent. Between fp and a second critical frequency fd , the quadrature conductivity is generally well described by a plateau when clay minerals are present in the material. Clay-free porous materials with a narrow grain size distribution are described by a Cole-Cole model. The characteristic frequency fd controls the transition between double layer polarization and the effect of the high-frequency permittivity of the material. The Maxwell-Wagner polarization is found to be relatively negligible. For a broad range of frequencies below 1 MHz, the effective permittivity exhibits a strong dependence with the cation exchange capacity and the specific surface area. At high frequency, above the critical frequency fd , the effective permittivity reaches a high-frequency asymptotic limit that is controlled by the two Archie's exponents m and n like the low-frequency electrical conductivity. The unified model is compared with various data sets from the literature and is able to explain fairly well a broad number of observations with a very small number of textural and electrochemical parameters. It could be therefore used to interpret induced polarization, induction-based electromagnetic methods, and ground penetrating radar data to characterize the vadose zone.

  12. Neurone bioelectric activity under magnetic fields of variable frequency in the range of 0.1-80 Hz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Bruzón, R. N.; Azanza, María. J.; Calvo, Ana C.; del Moral, A.

    2004-05-01

    Intracellular recordings from single unit molluscan neurones under exposure to ELF-MF (1 mT, 0.1-80 Hz), show that neurone frequency activity, f, decreases with the applied magnetic field frequency, fM, a phenomenon which indicates a frequency-window effect for the neurone membrane response. The HMHW of the window amounts between 2-10 Hz. An explanation of this phenomenon is proposed.

  13. Neurone bioelectric activity under magnetic fields of variable frequency in the range of 0.1-80 Hz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez Bruzon, R.N.; Azanza, M.J. E-mail: mjazanza@posta.unizar.es; Calvo, Ana C.; Moral, A. del

    2004-05-01

    Intracellular recordings from single unit molluscan neurones under exposure to ELF-MF (1 mT, 0.1-80 Hz), show that neurone frequency activity, f, decreases with the applied magnetic field frequency, f{sub M}, a phenomenon which indicates a frequency-window effect for the neurone membrane response. The HMHW of the window amounts between 2-10 Hz. An explanation of this phenomenon is proposed.

  14. Final report of key comparison AFRIMETS.AUV.A-K5: primary pressure calibration of LS1P microphones according to IEC 61094-2, over the frequency range 2 Hz to 10 kHz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nel, R.; Avison, J.; Harris, P.; Blabla, M.; Hämäläinen, J.

    2017-01-01

    The degrees of equivalence of the AFRIMETS.AUV.A-K5 regional key comparison are reported here as the final report. The scope of the comparison covered the complex pressure sensitivities of two LS1P microphones over the frequency range 2 Hz to 10 kHz in accordance with IEC 61094-2: 2009. Four national metrology institutes from two different regional metrology organisations participated in the comparison. Two LS1P microphones were circulated simultaneously to all the participants in a circular configuration. One of the microphones sensitivity shifted and all results associated with this microphone were subsequently excluded from further analysis and linking. The AFRIMETS.AUV.A-K5 comparison results were linked to the CCAUV.A-K5 comparison results via dual participation in the CCAUV.A-K5 and AFRIMETS.AUV.A-K5 comparisons. The degrees of equivalence, linked to the CCAUV.A-K5 comparison, were calculated for all participants of this comparison. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCAUV, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  15. Extending the frequency range of free-field reciprocity calibration of measurement microphones to frequencies up to 150 kHz

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barrera Figueroa, Salvador; Torras Rosell, Antoni; Jacobsen, Finn

    2013-01-01

    Measurement microphones are typically calibrated in a free field at frequencies up to 50 kHz. This is a sufficiently high frequency for the most sound measurement applications related with noise assessment. However, other applications such as the measurement of noise emitted by ultrasound cleaning...... machines and failure detection in aeronautic structures require that the sensitivity of the microphone is known at frequencies up to 150 kHz. Another area of particular interest is the investigation of the perception mechanisms of ultrasound. In any of these applications, it is of fundamental importance...... to establish a well-defined traceability chain to support the measurement results. In order to extend the frequency range of free-field calibration the measurement system and measurement methods must undergo a series of changes and adaptations including the type of excitation signal, techniques for eliminating...

  16. Dielectric spectroscopy of SiO2, ZnO - nanoparticle loaded epoxy resin in the frequency range of 20 Hz to 2 MHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakor, Sanketsinh; Rana, V. A.; Vankar, H. P.

    2017-05-01

    In present work, Bisphenol A-(epichlorhydrin); epoxy resin with hardener N(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-1,3-propylenediamine were used to determine the dielectric properties. Sample of the neat epoxy resin and nanoparticle loaded epoxy resin in the form of disc were prepared of different weight fraction. SiO2 and ZnO nanoparticles were taken as filler in the epoxy resin. Complex permittivity of the prepared samples was measured in the frequency range of 20 Hz to 2 MHz using precision LCR meter at room temperature. The charismatic change in dielectric behavior based on type and concentration of nanoparticle are discussed in detail.

  17. Characterization of Different Cable Ferrite Materials to Reduce the Electromagnetic Noise in the 2-150 kHz Frequency Range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez, Adrian; Victoria, Jorge; Alcarria, Antonio; Torres, Jose; Martinez, Pedro A; Martos, Julio; Soret, Jesus; Garcia-Olcina, Raimundo; Muetsch, Steffen

    2018-01-23

    The gap of standardization for conducted and field coupled electromagnetic interferences (EMI) in the 2-150 kHz frequency range can lead to Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC) problems. This is caused by power systems such as Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) controlled rectifiers, photovoltaic inverters or charging battery units in electric vehicles. This is a very important frequency spectral due to interferences generated in a wide range of devices and, specifically, communication problems in the new technologies and devices incorporated to the traditional grid to convert it into a Smart Grid. Consequently, it is necessary to provide new solutions to attenuate this kind of interference, which involves finding new materials that are able to filter the electromagnetic noise. This contribution is focused on characterizing the performance of a novel material based on nanocrystalline and comparing it to most common material compositions such as MnZn and NiZn. This research is carried out from the point of view of the manufacturing process, magnetic properties and EMI suppression ability. This last item is carried out through two analysis procedures: a theoretical method by determining the attenuation ratio by measuring impedance parameter and proposing a new empirical technique based on measuring directly the insertion loss parameter. Therefore, the main aim of this characterization process is to determine the performance of nanocrystalline compared to traditional cable ferrite compositions to reduce the interferences in this controversial frequency range. From the results obtained, it is possible to deduce that nanocrystalline cable ferrite provides the best performance to filter the electromagnetic noise in the 2-150 kHz frequency range.

  18. Extension of non-invasive EEG into the kHz range for evoked thalamocortical activity by means of very low noise amplifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheer, H J; Fedele, T; Curio, G; Burghoff, M

    2011-12-01

    Ultrafast electroencephalographic signals, having frequencies above 500 Hz, can be observed in somatosensory evoked potential measurements. Usually, these recordings have a poor signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) because weak signals are overlaid by intrinsic noise of much higher amplitude like that generated by biological sources and the amplifier. As an example, recordings at the scalp taken during electrical stimulation of the median nerve show a 600 Hz burst with submicro-volt amplitudes which can be extracted from noise by the use of massive averaging and digital signal processing only. We have investigated this signal by means of a very low noise amplifier made in-house (minimal voltage noise 2.7 nV Hz(-1/2), FET inputs). We examined how the SNR of the data is altered by the bandwidth and the use of amplifiers with different intrinsic amplifier noise levels of 12 and 4.8 nV Hz(-1/2), respectively. By analyzing different frequency contributions of the signal, we found an extremely weak 1 kHz component superimposed onto the well-known 600 Hz burst. Previously such high-frequency electroencephalogram responses around 1 kHz have only been observed by deep brain electrodes implanted for tremor therapy of Parkinson patients. For the non-invasive measurement of such signals, we recommend that amplifier noise should not exceed 4 nV Hz(-1/2).

  19. 4 Kelvin Cryogenic Characterization of Commercial pHEMT Transistors at 9 kHz to 8.5 GHz Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibarra-Medel, E.; Velázquez, M.; Ventura, S.; Ferrusca, D.; Gómez-Rivera, V.

    2016-07-01

    Nowadays, the technology innovations in large format array detectors at low temperature for millimetric observational astronomy demand the development of electronics capable to keep their functionality at cryogenic temperatures. In kinetic inductance detectors, the first stage of electronics readout requires high-bandwidth low-noise amplifiers (LNAs). These devices are commonly fabricated in monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) processes which commercially achieve a noise temperature level of 5 K. An alternative approach to the MMIC are the hybrid microwave circuit which mixes RF lumped elements and discrete electronic components. This paper describes the characterization of six commercial pHEMT transistors tested at cryogenic temperatures. DC properties such as I-V curves and transconductance (g_m) were measured for each transistor; these measurements allow us to calculate the best bias point versus gain, with the lowest noise figure and power consumption within the range of 9 kHz to 8.5 GHz at the operating temperature of 4 K. Experimental results suggest that the characterized pHEMTs have a noise figure that allow them to be used in hybrid LNAs arranges with a comparable MMIC performance.

  20. Morphology of the spectral resonance structure of the electromagnetic background noise in the range of 0.1–4 Hz at L = 5.2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Yahnin

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Continuous observations of fluctuations of the geomagnetic field at Sodankylä Geophysical Observatory (L = 5.2 were used for a comprehensive morphological study of the spectral resonance structure (SRS seen in the background electromagnetic noise in the frequency range of 0.1–4.0 Hz. It is shown that the occurrence rate of SRS is higher in the nighttime than in the daytime. The occurrence rate is higher in winter than in summer. The SRS frequencies and the difference between neighbouring eigenfrequencies (the frequency scale increase towards nighttime and decrease towards daytime. Both frequency scale and occurrence rate exhibit a clear tendency to decrease from minimum to maximum of the solar activity cycle. It is found that the occurrence rate of SRS decreases when geomagnetic activity increases. The SRS is believed to be a consequence of a resonator for Alfvén waves, which is suggested to exist in the upper ionosphere. According to the theory of the ionospheric Alfvén resonator (IAR, characteristics of SRS crucially depend on electron density in the F-layer maximum, as well as on the altitudinal scale of the density decay above the maximum.We compared the SRS morphological properties with predictions of the IAR theory. The ionospheric parameters needed for calculation were obtained from the ionosphere model (IRI-95, as well as from measurements made with the ionosonde in Sodankylä. We conclude that, indeed, the main morphological properties of SRS are explained on the basis of the IAR theory. The measured parameters of SRS can be used for improving the ionospheric models.Key words. Ionosphere (auroral ionosphere; wave propagation – Radio Science (electromagnetic noise and interference

  1. Morphology of the spectral resonance structure of the electromagnetic background noise in the range of 0.1–4 Hz at L = 5.2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Manninen

    Full Text Available Continuous observations of fluctuations of the geomagnetic field at Sodankylä Geophysical Observatory (L = 5.2 were used for a comprehensive morphological study of the spectral resonance structure (SRS seen in the background electromagnetic noise in the frequency range of 0.1–4.0 Hz. It is shown that the occurrence rate of SRS is higher in the nighttime than in the daytime. The occurrence rate is higher in winter than in summer. The SRS frequencies and the difference between neighbouring eigenfrequencies (the frequency scale increase towards nighttime and decrease towards daytime. Both frequency scale and occurrence rate exhibit a clear tendency to decrease from minimum to maximum of the solar activity cycle. It is found that the occurrence rate of SRS decreases when geomagnetic activity increases. The SRS is believed to be a consequence of a resonator for Alfvén waves, which is suggested to exist in the upper ionosphere. According to the theory of the ionospheric Alfvén resonator (IAR, characteristics of SRS crucially depend on electron density in the F-layer maximum, as well as on the altitudinal scale of the density decay above the maximum.We compared the SRS morphological properties with predictions of the IAR theory. The ionospheric parameters needed for calculation were obtained from the ionosphere model (IRI-95, as well as from measurements made with the ionosonde in Sodankylä. We conclude that, indeed, the main morphological properties of SRS are explained on the basis of the IAR theory. The measured parameters of SRS can be used for improving the ionospheric models.Key words. Ionosphere (auroral ionosphere; wave propagation – Radio Science (electromagnetic noise and interference

  2. Effect of wind-generated bubbles on fixed range acoustic attenuation in shallow water at 1-4 kHz

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ainslie, M.A.

    2005-01-01

    Long-range acoustic propagation in isothermal conditions is considered, involving multiple reflections from the sea surface. If the sea is calm there is almost perfect reflection and hence little loss of acoustic energy or coherence. The effect of wind is to increase propagation loss due to rough

  3. Development and numerical characterization of a new standing wave ultrasonic motor operating in the 30-40kHz frequency range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Xiaoyan; Lee, Heow Pueh; Ong, Chong Jin; Lim, Siak Piang

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this research is to present a new design of standing-wave ultrasonic motor. This motor uses three piezoelectric actuating blocks which deform appropriately when powered up. The deformations of the blocks in ultrasonic range are internally amplified via the design of the motor by about 80 times and collectively yield an elliptical trajectory for the driving head of the motor. Finite Element Analysis using ANSYS was performed for both dynamic analysis and optimization of a prototype motor. The numerical results verified that at steady state, the motor can achieve vibrations in micro-meter level and the velocity can reach decimeter scale, satisfying the fast speed requirement as a positioning actuator. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. 120 Hz Gun Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colby, E.

    2005-01-31

    The review was held at SLAC on September 11 and 12, 2001. Presentations concerning the thermal analysis, mechanical design, integration with the laser and accelerator, general beam dynamics considerations, a load lock mechanism, and symmetric power feed options comprised the review. Slides from these presentations are available elsewhere. The review committee was charged with evaluating the 120 Hz gun design including proposed load lock and power feed options and recommending improvements. Broader evaluation of the injector as a whole (including focusing and diagnostic systems that do no impact the envelope of the gun itself) is expected to be covered in a future review and will not be commented on here. In general, the long operational experience with four generations of s-band RF guns at numerous labs worldwide has led to considerable experience in design, fabrication, and operation aspects, and provides an excellent base on which to design the higher duty factor LCLS injector. While open questions remain on obtaining the design performance from these injectors, the microwave design of the gun has reached a state of relative maturity.

  5. Study of interaction of ELF-ULF range (0.1-200 Hz) electromagnetic waves with the earth's crust and the ionosphere in the field of industrial power transmission lines (FENICS experiment)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhamaletdinov, A. A.; Shevtsov, A. N.; Velikhov, E. P.; Skorokhodov, A. A.; Kolesnikov, V. E.; Korotkova, T. G.; Ryazantsev, P. A.; Efimov, B. V.; Kolobov, V. V.; Barannik, M. B.; Prokopchuk, P. I.; Selivanov, V. N.; Kopytenko, Yu. A.; Kopytenko, E. A.; Ismagilov, V. S.; Petrishchev, M. S.; Sergushin, P. A.; Tereshchenko, P. E.; Samsonov, B. V.; Birulya, M. A.; Smirnov, M. Yu.; Korja, T.; Yampolski, Yu. M.; Koloskov, A. V.; Baru, N. A.; Poljakov, S. V.; Shchennikov, A. V.; Druzhin, G. I.; Jozwiak, W.; Reda, J.; Shchors, Yu. G.

    2015-12-01

    This article is devoted to describing the theory, technique, and first experimental results of a control source electromagnetic (CSEM) study of the Earth's crust and ionosphere with the use of two mutually orthogonal industrial transmission lines 109 and 120 km in length in the frame of FENICS (Fennoscandian Electrical Conductivity from Natural and Induction Control Source Soundings) experiment. The main part of the measurements is executed on the territory of the Fennoscandian shield at distances from the first hundreds kilometers up to 856 km from the source with the purpose of the deep electromagnetic sounding of the Earth's crust and upper mantle. According to the results of these studies clarifying the parameters of "normal" (standard) geoelectric section of the lithosphere to a depth of 60-70 km, the anisotropy parameters are evaluated and a geothermal and rheological interpretation in conjunction with the analysis of the seismic data is executed. Furthermore, to study the propagation of ELF-LLF waves (0.1-200 Hz) in an "Earth-Ionosphere" waveguide, the measurements are carried out apart from Fennoscandian shield at distances up to 5600 km from the source (in Ukraine, Spitsbergen, Poland, Kamchatka, and other areas). According to the results of these studies, the experimental estimates of the influence of the ionosphere and of the displacement currents on the propagation of ELF-ULF waves in the upper half-space at the different azimuths generation of the primary field are obtained.

  6. Budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) do not hear infrasound: the audiogram from 8 Hz to 10 kHz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heffner, Henry E; Koay, Gimseong; Heffner, Rickye S

    2016-12-01

    The pure-tone thresholds of three budgerigars were determined from 8 Hz to 10 kHz. At a level of 60 dB sound pressure level (re 20 μN/m2), their hearing range extends 6.6 octaves from 77 Hz to 7.6 kHz, with a best sensitivity of 1.1 dB at 3 kHz. Unlike pigeons and chickens, budgerigars do not have better low-frequency hearing than humans. This difference implies anatomical, physiological, and ecological differences between birds that hear infrasound (so far, pigeons and chickens) and those that do not (budgerigars).

  7. Electric Stimulation at 448 kHz Promotes Proliferation of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hernández-Bule, María Luisa; Paíno, Carlos Luis; Trillo, María Ángeles; Úbeda, Alejandro

    2014-01-01

    Capacitive-resistive electric transfer (CRET) is a non invasive electrothermal therapy that applies electric currents within the 400 kHz - 450 kHz frequency range to the treatment of musculoskeletal lesions...

  8. Design of an Acoustic Probe to Measure Otoacoustic Emissions Below 0.5 kHz

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anders Tornvig; Ordoñez, Rodrigo; Hammershøi, Dorte

    2015-01-01

    of commercial probe systems allow for detailed studies of OAEs emitted between 0.5 and 6-8 kHz. Few studies report OAE measurements below 0.5 kHz. This paper is a preliminary report of an OAE probe aimed at making OAE measurements from 0.03 to 3 kHz. The range 0.5-3 kHz was included to study lower...

  9. Effects of 10 Hz and 20 Hz Transcranial Alternating Current Stimulation on Automatic Motor Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappon, Davide; D'Ostilio, Kevin; Garraux, Gaëtan; Rothwell, John; Bisiacchi, Patrizia

    2016-01-01

    In a masked prime choice reaction task, presentation of a compatible prime increases the reaction time to the following imperative stimulus if the interval between mask and prime is around 80-250 ms. This is thought to be due to automatic suppression of the motor plan evoked by the prime, which delays reaction to the imperative stimulus. Oscillatory activity in motor networks around the beta frequency range of 20 Hz is important in suppression of movement. Transcranial alternating current at 20 Hz may be able to drive oscillations in the beta range. To investigate whether transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) at 20 Hz would increase automatic inhibition in a masked prime task. As a control we used 10 Hz tACS. Stimulation was delivered at alpha (10 Hz) and beta (20 Hz) frequency over the supplementary motor area and the primary motor cortex (simultaneous tACS of SMA-M1), which are part of the BG-cortical motor loop, during the execution of the subliminal masked prime left/right choice reaction task. We measured the effects on reaction times. Corticospinal excitability was assessed by measuring the amplitude of motor evoked potentials (MEPs) evoked in the first dorsal interosseous muscle by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over M1. The 10 and 20-Hz tACS over SMA-M1 had different effects on automatic inhibition. The 20 Hz tACS increased the duration of automatic inhibition whereas it was decreased by 10 Hz tACS. Neurophysiologically, 20 Hz tACS reduced the amplitude of MEPs evoked from M1, whereas there was no change after 10 Hz tACS. Automatic mechanisms of motor inhibition can be modulated by tACS over motor areas of cortex. tACS may be a useful additional tool to investigate the causal links between endogenous brain oscillations and specific cognitive processes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of contralateral noise on the 20-Hz auditory steady state response--magnetoencephalography study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajime Usubuchi

    Full Text Available The auditory steady state response (ASSR is an oscillatory brain response, which is phase locked to the rhythm of an auditory stimulus. ASSRs have been recorded in response to a wide frequency range of modulation and/or repetition, but the physiological features of the ASSRs are somewhat different depending on the modulation frequency. Recently, the 20-Hz ASSR has been emphasized in clinical examinations, especially in the area of psychiatry. However, little is known about the physiological properties of the 20-Hz ASSR, compared to those of the 40-Hz and 80-Hz ASSRs. The effects of contralateral noise on the ASSR are known to depend on the modulation frequency to evoke ASSR. However, the effects of contralateral noise on the 20-Hz ASSR are not known. Here we assessed the effects of contralateral white noise at a level of 70 dB SPL on the 20-Hz and 40-Hz ASSRs using a helmet-shaped magnetoencephalography system in 9 healthy volunteers (8 males and 1 female, mean age 31.2 years. The ASSRs were elicited by monaural 1000-Hz 5-s tone bursts amplitude-modulated at 20 and 39 Hz and presented at 80 dB SPL. Contralateral noise caused significant suppression of both the 20-Hz and 40-Hz ASSRs, although suppression was significantly smaller for the 20-Hz ASSRs than the 40-Hz ASSRs. Moreover, the greatest suppression of both 20-Hz and 40-Hz ASSRs occurred in the right hemisphere when stimuli were presented to the right ear with contralateral noise. The present study newly showed that 20-Hz ASSRs are suppressed by contralateral noise, which may be important both for characterization of the 20-Hz ASSR and for interpretation in clinical situations. Physicians must be aware that the 20-Hz ASSR is significantly suppressed by sound (e.g. masking noise or binaural stimulation applied to the contralateral ear.

  11. The binaural free field hearing threshold for pure tones from 125 Hz to 16 kHz

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Torben; Han, Loc A

    2000-01-01

    The binaural free field hearing threshold for pure tones has been measured for thirty-one otologically normal test subjects in the age range 18 to 25 years. The frequencies were 0.125, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1, 1.5, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 9, 10, 11.2, 12.5, 14 and 16 kHz. The signal duration was 1 s measured b...

  12. Hz. Peygamber'in Cariyesi Mariye

    OpenAIRE

    Peköz, Emine

    2015-01-01

    Hz. Peygamber’in İslâm’a davet amacıyla Mısır’a elçi olarak gönderdiği Hatib b. Ebi Belteâ beraberinde kıymetli hediyelerle döndü. Bu hediyeler arasında yer alan Mâriye’yi Hz. Peygamber cariye olarak seçti. Mâriye bt. Şem’un, Hz. Peygamber’in cariyeleri arasında farklı bir konuma sahiptir. Mâriye’nin Hz. Peygamber’in oğlu İbrahim’in annesi olması onun ümmü veled statüsüyle azat olmasını sağlamıştır. Onun bu durumu anne olan câriyenin kölelikten azat edilmesi yönünde bir örnek teşkil etmiştir....

  13. 100-Hz Electroacupuncture but not 2-Hz Electroacupuncture is Preemptive Against Postincision Pain in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Lourenço Silva

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Preemptive analgesia involves introducing an analgesic before noxious stimulation. Electroacupuncture (EA activates descending mechanisms that modulate nociceptive inputs into the spinal dorsal horn. This study evaluated whether preoperative EA is more effective than postoperative EA in reducing incision pain in rats. The nociceptive threshold to mechanical stimulation was utilized to examine the effects of an intraperitoneal injection of saline (0.1 mL/kg or naloxone (1 mg/kg on antinociception induced by a 20-minute period of 2-Hz or 100-Hz EA applied to the Zusanli (ST36 and Sanyinjiao (SP6 acupoints before surgical incision, or 10 minutes after or 100 minutes after surgical incision of the hind paw. The extent of mechanical hyperalgesia after the incision was significantly attenuated by the application of 100-Hz EA preoperatively, but not by its application at 10 minutes or 100 minutes postoperatively. By contrast, 2-Hz EA was effective against postoperative hyperalgesia when applied 10 minutes or 100 minutes after surgery but not when it was applied preoperatively. Only the effect of 2-Hz EA applied 10 minutes after surgery was sensitive to naloxone. The present study showed for the first time that 100-Hz EA, but not 2-Hz EA, exerts a nonopioidergic preemptive effect against postincision pain in rats.

  14. A Retrospective Chart Review of 10 Hz Versus 20 Hz Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation for Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristie L. DeBlasio

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We performed a retrospective chart review to examine the progress of patients with depression who received different frequencies of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS delivered to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC. rTMS is a safe and effective alternative treatment for patients with various psychological and medical conditions. During treatment, a coil delivering a time-varying magnetic pulse placed over the scalp penetrates the skull, resulting in clinical improvement. There were 47 patients and three distinct treatment groups found: 10 Hz, 20 Hz, and a separate group who received both frequencies (10/20 Hz. The primary outcome indicator was the difference in Beck Depression Inventory–II (BDI-II scores. Secondary outcomes included categorical indicators of remission, response, and partial response rates as assessed with the BDI-II. In all 3 groups, the majority of patients had depression that remitted, with the highest rate occurring in the 20 Hz group. There were similar response rates in the 10 Hz and 20 Hz groups. There were no patients in the 10/20 Hz group whose depression responded and the highest partial response and nonresponse rates occurred in this group. Although within-group differences were significant from baseline to end of treatment, there were no between-group differences.

  15. Polypyrrole Actuators Working at 2 to 30 Hz

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skaarup, Steen; Bay, Lasse; West, Keld

    2007-01-01

    “Soft actuators” based on the conducting polymer polypyrrole (PPy) may be especially suitable for use in combination with human limbs. A research project under the European Union Quality of Life program (DRIFTS, Dynamically Responsive Intervention for Tremor Suppression, http://www.gerontech.org.......“Soft actuators” based on the conducting polymer polypyrrole (PPy) may be especially suitable for use in combination with human limbs. A research project under the European Union Quality of Life program (DRIFTS, Dynamically Responsive Intervention for Tremor Suppression, http......://www.gerontech.org.il/drifts/) focuses on the development of practical tremor suppression orthoses prototypes [1]. One of the choices of actuation mechanism is to use conducting polymers. The main challenge is to provide significant forces at the frequencies relevant to tremor in upper limbs: 2-16 Hz. Forces in the range of 0.1-1 kg......, and 0.32 mm at 15 Hz for the 1 kg limit. The required mass of the actuator itself at 15 Hz is ~100 mg. The results indicate the feasibility of using PPy actuators for tremor suppression....

  16. Discovery of decaHz flaring in SAX J1808.4-3658

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bult P.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We report on the discovery of strong decaHz flaring in the early decay of two out of five outbursts of the accreting millisecond X-ray pulsar SAX J1808.4-3658. The decaHz flaring switches on and, after ~3 days, off again, on a time scale of 1-2 hours. When the flaring is present, the total 0.05-10 Hz variability has a fractional rms amplitude of 20 to 30 percent, well in excess of the 8 to 12 percent rms broad-band noise usually seen in power spectra of SAX J1808 in this frequency range. Coherent 401 Hz pulsations are seen throughout the observations in which the decaHz flaring is detected. We find that the absolute amplitude of the pulsations varies with the flux modulation of the decaHz flaring, indicating that the flaring is caused by an accretion rate modulation already present in the accretion flow prior to matter entering the accretion funnel. We suggest that the decaHz flaring is the result of the Spruit-Taam instability [1]. This instability arises when the inner accretion disk approaches co-rotation. The rotation of the stellar magnetosphere then acts as a propeller, suppressing accretion onto the neutron star. A matter reservoir forms in the inner accretion disk, which episodically empties onto the neutron star, causing flares at a decaHz timescale. A similar explanation was proposed earlier for 1 Hz flaring occurring late in three of five outbursts, mutually exclusive with the decaHz flaring. The 1 Hz flaring was observed at luminosities a factor 5 to 10 below where we see the decaHz flaring. That a different branch of the Spruit-Taam instability could also act at the much higher luminosity levels of the decaHz flaring had recently been predicted by D’Angelo & Spruit [2, 3]. We discuss these findings in the context of the parameters of the Spruit-Taam-d’Angelo model of the instability. If confirmed, after millisecond pulsations, 1 Hz and decaHz flaring would be another diagnostic of the presence of a magnetosphere in accreting low

  17. 10 Hz flicker improves recognition memory in older people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramaswamy Deepa

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background 10 Hz electroencephalographic (EEG alpha rhythms correlate with memory performance. Alpha and memory decline in older people. We wished to test if alpha-like EEG activity contributes to memory formation. Flicker can elicit alpha-like EEG activity. We tested if alpha-frequency flicker enhances memory in older people. Pariticpants aged 67–92 identified short words that followed 1 s of flicker at 9.0 Hz, 9.5 Hz, 10.0 Hz, 10.2 Hz, 10.5 Hz, 11.0 Hz, 11.5 Hz or 500 Hz. A few minutes later, we tested participants' recognition of the words (without flicker. Results Flicker frequencies close to 10 Hz (9.5–11.0 Hz facilitated the identification of the test words in older participants. The same flicker frequencies increased recognition of the words more than other frequencies (9.0 Hz, 11.5 Hz and 500 Hz, irrespective of age. Conclusion The frequency-specificity of flicker's effects in our participants paralleled the power spectrum of EEG alpha in the general population. This indicates that alpha-like EEG activity may subserve memory processes. Flicker may be able to help memory problems in older people.

  18. 1000Hz- versus 226Hz-Tympanometrie - Welche Methode ist hilfreicher?

    OpenAIRE

    Schade, G; Fauser, HA; Fleischer, S; Breitfuss, A; Schiller, R; Müller, F; Bubenheim, M; Hess, M

    2005-01-01

    Einleitung: In der pädaudiologischen Diagnostik kann die Mittelohrinspektion insbesondere bei Säuglingen in einigen Fällen zu Schwierigkeiten führen, die durch enge Gehörgänge und Gegenwehr der kleinen Patienten bedingt sein können. Die verlässliche Überprüfung der Mittelohrdruckverhältnisse durch die Tympanometrie ist deshalb für den Pädaudiologen von großer Bedeutung. In der vorliegenden Studie wurde überprüft, ob die Verwendung eines 226Hz- oder eines 1000Hz-Sondentons die tatsächlich vorl...

  19. Evaluation of welding performance of 20 kHz and 40 kHz ultrasonic metal welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, W. H.; Kang, E. J.; Park, D. S.

    2017-10-01

    In this study, ultrasonic horns are designed by using vibration equations, vibration modal analysis and harmonic response analysis in order to compare welding performance when ultrasonic welding is performed at resonance frequencies of 20 kHz and 40 kHz. For the weldability evaluation of the manufactured horn for 20 kHz and 40 kHz, welding strength between Ni specimens with a thickness of 0.1 mm using tensile test are compared and analyzed. The lengths of horns with resonance frequencies of 20kHz and 40kHz were calculated as 130mm and 68mm respectively. As a result of vibration modal analysis, the optimum longitudinal vibration modes of 19,584Hz and 39,794Hz are obtained in 10th mode, and the frequency response of the two horns are 19,600 Hz and 39,800 Hz respectively. As the welding conditions are changed to welding pressure 2 bar, 3 bar and 4 bar, vibration amplitude of horn 60%, 80% and 100%, tensile strengths of welded specimens are observed. The welding strength was smaller at 40 kHz than at 20 kHz even at the same amplitude. This is because diffusion action of Ni in the weld interface is facilitated at 20 kHz than at 40 kHz.

  20. Electric Stimulation at 448 kHz Promotes Proliferation of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    OpenAIRE

    María Luisa Hernández-Bule; Carlos Luis Paíno; María Ángeles Trillo; Alejandro Úbeda

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims: Capacitive-resistive electric transfer (CRET) is a non invasive electrothermal therapy that applies electric currents within the 400 kHz - 450 kHz frequency range to the treatment of musculoskeletal lesions. Evidence exists that electric currents and electric or magnetic fields can influence proliferative and/or differentiating processes involved in tissue regeneration. This work investigates proliferative responses potentially underlying CRET effects on tissue repair. Method...

  1. High frequency tympanometry (1000Hz) in young infants and its comparison with otoacoustic emissions, otomicroscopy and 226Hz tympanometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mena-Domínguez, Eduardo A; Benito-Orejas, José I; Ramírez-Cano, Beatriz; Morais-Pérez, Darío; Muñoz-Moreno, M Fe

    In the first 6 months of life, 226Hz tympanometry is considered an ineffective procedure for the diagnosis of otitis media with effusion. With the introduction of universal hearing screening, the use of high frequency 1000Hz (1kHz) tympanometry has been recommended. To optimise the diagnosis of neonatal hearing loss, we present this comparison, from the clinical point of view, of the results of 226Hz and 1kHz tympanometry in infants. We designed a prospective study of 100 children under 9 months of age proceeding from our hearing screening program. We compare the result of tympanometry with binocular microscopy and transient evoked otoacoustic emissions. The application of transient otoacoustic emissions, otomicroscopy and 226Hz and 1kHz tympanometry has shown its usefulness in the management of otitis media with effusion of young infants, with a similar effectiveness between the 4 tests. The joint use of otomicroscopy, transient otoacoustic emissions and 226Hz and 1kHz tympanometry, has allowed us to diagnose otitis media with effusion in young infants more accurately than each test separately. We recommend initial use of 1kHz tympanometry, at least in children younger than 7 months, but in the presence of hearing loss or an unclear result, 226Hz tympanometry is a good diagnostic complement. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Otorrinolaringología y Cirugía de Cabeza y Cuello. All rights reserved.

  2. High Sensitivity Optomechanical Reference Accelerometer over 10 kHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-05

    Supplementary Note © 2014 . Published in Applied Physics Letters, Vol. Ed. 0 104, (22) (2014), ( (22). DoD Components reserve a royalty-free, nonexclusive and...lgn= Hz p ð1 gn ¼ 9:80665 m=s2Þ over several kHz. In experimental gravitational physics , remarkably high acceleration resolutions at levels of fgn...approximately 10 pm= Hz p .1,2 In geodesy and geophysics, superconducting gravimeters reach accelera- tion resolutions of the order of pgn= Hz p over

  3. Plasma antennas driven by 5–20 kHz AC power supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiansen Zhao

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The experiments described in this work were performed with the aim of introducing a new plasma antenna that was excited by a 5–20 kHz alternating current (AC power supply, where the antenna was transformed into a U-shape. The results show that the impedance, voltage standing-wave ratio (VSWR, radiation pattern and gain characteristics of the antenna can be controlled rapidly by varying not only the discharge power, but also by varying the discharge frequency in the range from 5 to 20 kHz. When the discharge frequency is adjusted from 10 to 12 kHz, the gain is higher within a relatively broad frequency band and the switch-on time is less than 1 ms when the discharge power is less than 5 W, meaning that the plasma antenna can be turned on and off rapidly.

  4. Vaccine profile of herpes zoster (HZ/su) subunit vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Anthony L; Heineman, Thomas

    2017-07-01

    Herpes zoster (HZ) causes an often severe and painful rash in older people and may be complicated by prolonged pain (postherpetic neuralgia; PHN) and by dissemination in immune-compromised patients. HZ results from reactivation of latent varicella-zoster virus (VZV) infection, often associated with age-related or other causes of decreased T cell immunity. A live attenuated vaccine boosts this immunity and provides partial protection against HZ, but this decreases with age and declines over 8 years. Areas covered: A new HZ subunit (HZ/su) vaccine combines a key surface VZV glycoprotein (E) with a T cell-boosting adjuvant system (AS01 B ) and is administered by two intramuscular injections two months apart. Expert commentary: HZ/su showed excellent efficacy of ~90% in immunocompetent adults ≥50 and ≥70 years of age, respectively, in the ZOE-50 and ZOE-70 phase III controlled trials. Efficacy was unaffected by advancing age and persisted for >3 years. Approximately 9.5% of subjects had severe, but transient (1-2 days) injection site pain, swelling or redness. Compliance with both vaccine doses was high (95%). The vaccine will have a major impact on HZ management. Phase I-II trials showed safety and immunogenicity in severely immunocompromised patients. Phase III trial results are expected soon.

  5. NICER Discovers mHz Oscillations and Marginally Stable Burning in GS 1826-24

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strohmayer, Tod E.; Gendreau, Keith C.; Keek, Laurens; Bult, Peter; Mahmoodifar, Simin; Chakrabarty, Deepto; Arzoumanian, Zaven; NICER Science Team

    2018-01-01

    To date, marginally stable thermonuclear burning, evidenced as mHz X-ray flux oscillations, has been observed in only five accreting neutron star binaries, 4U 1636-536, 4U 1608-52, Aql X-1, 4U 1323-619 and Terzan 5 X-2. Here we report the discovery with NASA's Neutron Star Interior Composition Explorer (NICER) of such oscillations from the well-known X-ray burster GS 1826-24. NICER observed GS 1826-24 on 9 September, 2017 for a total exposure of about 4 ksec. Timing analysis revealed highly significant oscillations at a frequency of 8.2 mHz in two successive pointings. The oscillations have a fractional modulation amplitude of approximately 3% for photon energies less than 6 keV. The observed frequency is consistent with the range observed in the other mHz QPO systems, and indeed is slightly higher than the frequency measured in 4U 1636-536 below which mHz oscillations ceased and unstable burning (X-ray bursts) resumed. We discuss the mass accretion rate dependence of the oscillations as well as the X-ray spectrum as a function of pulsation phase. We place the observations in the context of the current theory of marginally stable burning and briefly discuss the potential for constraining neutron star properties using mHz oscillations.

  6. Psychophysical tuning curves for frequences below 100 Hz

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orellana, Carlos Andrés Jurado; Pedersen, Christian Sejer; Moore, Brian C.J.

    2011-01-01

    Psychophysical tuning curves (PTCs) were measured for sinusoidal signals with frequency /f_s / = 31.5, 40, 50, 63, and 80 Hz, using sinusoidal and narrowband-noise maskers. For the former, conditions were included where a pair of beating tones were added to reduce the use of cues related to beats....... Estimates of each subject's middle-ear transfer function (METF) were obtained from equal-loudness contours measured from 20 to 160 Hz. With decreasing /f_s /, the PTCs progressively broadened and became markedly asymmetrical, with shallow upper skirts and steep lower skirts. For the sinusoidal maskers......, the tips were more irregular than for narrowband noise maskers or when beating tones were added. For /f_s / = 31.5 and 40 Hz, the tips of the PTCs always fell above /f_s /. Allowing for the METF so as to infer underlying filter shapes resulted in flatter lower skirts, especially below 40 Hz, and reduced...

  7. Detection of modulation of a 4-kHz carrier

    OpenAIRE

    Viemeister, Neal F.; Stellmack, Mark A.; Byrne, Andrew J.

    2010-01-01

    To better understand the processing of complex high-frequency sounds, modulation-detection thresholds were measured for sinusoidal frequency modulation (SFM), quasi-frequency modulation (QFM), sinusoidal amplitude modulation (SAM), and random-phase FM (RPFM). At the lowest modulation frequency (5 Hz) modulation thresholds expressed as AM depth were similar for RPFM, SAM and QFM suggesting the predominance of envelope cues. At the higher modulation frequencies (20 and 40 Hz) thresholds express...

  8. Underwater acoustic channel characteristics and communication performance at 85 kHz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yuehai; Song, Aijun; Tong, Feng

    2017-10-01

    A high frequency acoustic experiment was conducted in the northern portion of the Gulf of Mexico in August 2016 to examine the operating range, data rates, and performance of acoustic communication systems at the carrier frequency of 85 kHz. The received signal-to-noise ratios, channel coherence, and impulse responses were reported between two 85 kHz transducers and a five-element hydrophone array over multiple ranges up to 1500 m. Channel estimation based decision feedback equalizers (DFEs) were applied to process the communication measurements. A data rate of 27.2 kb/s was achieved for four tested ranges with a uniform set of receiver parameters.

  9. Differential effects of 10-Hz and 40-Hz transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) on endogenous versus exogenous attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopfinger, Joseph B; Parsons, Jonathan; Fröhlich, Flavio

    2017-04-01

    Previous electrophysiological studies implicate both alpha (8-12 Hz) and gamma (>30 Hz) neural oscillations in the mechanisms of selective attention. Here, participants preformed two separate visual attention tasks, one endogenous and one exogenous, while transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS), at 10 Hz, 40 Hz, or sham, was applied to the right parietal lobe. Our results provide new evidence for the roles of gamma and alpha oscillations in voluntary versus involuntary shifts of attention. Gamma (40 Hz) stimulation resulted in improved disengagement from invalidly cued targets in the endogenous attention task, whereas alpha stimulation (10 Hz) had no effect on endogenous attention, but increased the exogenous cuing effect. These findings agree with previous studies suggesting that right inferior parietal regions may be especially important for the disengagement of attention, and go further to provide details about the specific type of oscillatory neural activity within that brain region that is differentially involved in endogenous versus exogenous attention. Our results also have potential implications for the plasticity and training of attention systems.

  10. Six Degree of Freedom Active Vibration Isolation at 1 HZ and above

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell, David Bryan

    One possible addition to future ground-based gravitational wave observatories is a low frequency detector operating in the frequency range of about 1-100 Hz. Such a detector would extend the mass range of black holes from which bursts due to inspiral events or initial formation could be searched for. The increase in seismic noise in this frequency range, however, requires an isolation system of unconventional design. A group at JILA has proposed a local vibration isolation system which demonstrates the principles that could be used in a low frequency laser interferometric detector. Such a system would be used to isolate the support point of each final pendulum that carries one of the end mirrors from ground motion. It is a three-stage system with each stage consisting of a spring mounted platform that provides both active and passive isolation in all six degrees of freedom. Active isolation is achieved by six quasi-independent single input, single output control loops, based on displacement sensors. The second and third stages are expected to be capable of isolating by about a factor of 100 in all six degrees of freedom for frequencies from 1 to 100 Hz. The internal noise level for the last stage, including thermal noise and all other sources of noise, is expected to be [ 1times 10^{-13} (1 Hz/f)^{2.5}+3times 10^{-15 }] m/sqrt{Hz} or less for both horizontal and vertical displacements. The first stage has been completed and is the main topic of this thesis. The platform consists of an equilateral triangular table, 1.1 meter on a side, with a total weight of 462 kg, including the vacuum system and the expected mass of the other two stages. The current reduced vibrational noise of the first stage is about 10 ^{-10} m/sqrt{Hz} for vertical displacements and rm 3times 10^{-10} m/sqrt{Hz} for horizontal displacement from 1 to about 100 Hz.

  11. A possible link between kHz quasi-periodic oscillations and the magnetospheric boundary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Erkut M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs observed with a 200-1300 Hz frequency range in the X-ray power spectra of low mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs might be considered as one of the observational clues to the physics at the innermost regions of accretion disks around neutron stars. In a neutron star LMXB, the magnetospheric boundary is likely to be close to the surface of the neutron star because of its presumably weak magnetic dipole field. The kHz QPOs can therefore be interpreted as the modulation of X-ray emission with smallest timescales associated with the dynamics of accreting disk matter at the magnetospheric boundary. As a result of magnetosphere-disk interaction we expect the rotational dynamics of the disk matter in the boundary region to be characterized by either sub-Keplerian or super-Keplerian flow depending on the fastness of the neutron star. We summarize our current understanding of the kHz QPO frequency correlations in terms of the oscillatory modes amplified in the magnetic boundary region and discuss the future prospects related to the possible link between kHz QPOs and the rotational dynamics at the magnetospheric boundary.

  12. Schoolchildren and noise. The 4 kHz dip-tone screening in 14391 Schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rytzner, B; Rytzner, C

    1981-01-01

    Tone screening was performed in 14391 schoolchildren at three different age-levels, 7, 10, 13 years in grades 1, 4 and 7, and was carried out in 1977, 1978 and 1979. A 4 kHz dip greater than 20 dB was found in 331 (2.3%) of the children; 241 (1.7%) were boys and 98 (0.6%) were girls. The 4 kHz dip was unilateral in 230 (1.6%) and bilateral in 109 children (0.7%). The number of children with the 4 kHz dip increased with age. At the 13-year level it was found in 125 (4.7%) boys and 37 (1.5%) girls. The magnitude of the dip increased with age both in frequency range and intensity. At the 13-year level two and more frequencies were affected in 27 (0.5%) and hearing thresholds of 40 dB and worse were found in 47 (0.9%) of the children. Causes of noise could be established in 210 (63%) of 331 children. Most important noise causes were in the following order: motor vehicles, including tractors, fire-arms and crackers. In a small number, loud music could have been the cause of the 4 kHz dip. A hearing conservation program against noise has been instituted for children, parents, teachers and school nurses. Further studies will show if this program is effective.

  13. Are rats predisposed to learn 22 kHz calls as danger-predicting signals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endres, Thomas; Widmann, Katrin; Fendt, Markus

    2007-12-28

    Alarm calls are widely used in mammals. Their biological function is to deter predators and warn relatives of danger. Despite this important function of alarm calls, the development of alarm call recognition is poorly understood. Using laboratory rats, the present study investigated in a first experiment whether alarm calls are recognized innately. In experimentally naive animals, we found significantly increased freezing if stimuli in the 22 kHz range were presented but this response was not specific to conspecific 22 kHz calls. Therefore, a second experiment addressed the hypothesis whether recognition of conspecific 22 kHz calls can be learned and whether this learning is facilitated by a preparedness to acquire defensive responses to alarm calls. Our data show that rats learned quickly to associate the 22 kHz calls with aversive stimuli. Interestingly, the animals were more reluctant to extinguish this memory, and this information retained longer in memory than in the case of other types of calls and ultrasonic stimuli. We, therefore, conclude that rats are predisposed to acquire adaptive defensive behaviour in response to alarm calls. In particular, our data indicate that better encoding of such learning in rats leads to a stable memory which better resists extinction.

  14. 60 Hz electric field changes the membrane potential during burst phase in pancreatic β-cells: in silico analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Gesilda F; Silva, José R F; Moraes, Renato B; Fernandes, Thiago S; Tenorio, Bruno M; Nogueira, Romildo A

    2014-06-01

    The production, distribution and use of electricity can generate low frequency electric and magnetic fields (50-60 Hz). Considering that some studies showed adverse effects on pancreatic β-cells exposed to these fields; the present study aimed to analyze the effects of 60 Hz electric fields on membrane potential during the silent and burst phases in pancreatic β-cells using a mathematical model. Sinusoidal 60 Hz electric fields with amplitude ranging from 0.5 to 4 mV were applied on pancreatic β-cells model. The sinusoidal electric field changed burst duration, inter-burst intervals (silent phase) and spike sizes. The parameters above presented dose-dependent response with the voltage amplitude applied. In conclusion, theoretical analyses showed that a 60 Hz electric field with low amplitudes changes the membrane potential in pancreatic β-cells.

  15. The Adaptive Range of 1/f Isometric Force Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosnoff, Jacob J.; Valantine, Andrew D.; Newell, Karl M.

    2009-01-01

    The adaptive range of 1/f dynamics in isometric force output was investigated. Participants produced isometric force to targets with predictable demands (constant and sinusoidal) and 1/f noise waveforms (white, pink, brown, and black) that also varied in the frequency bandwidth represented in the force signal (0-4 Hz, 0-8 Hz, and 0-12 Hz). The…

  16. Detection of modulation of a 4-kHz carrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viemeister, Neal F; Stellmack, Mark A; Byrne, Andrew J

    2010-10-01

    To better understand the processing of complex high-frequency sounds, modulation-detection thresholds were measured for sinusoidal frequency modulation (SFM), quasi-frequency modulation (QFM), sinusoidal amplitude modulation (SAM), and random-phase FM (RPFM). At the lowest modulation frequency (5 Hz) modulation thresholds expressed as AM depth were similar for RPFM, SAM and QFM suggesting the predominance of envelope cues. At the higher modulation frequencies (20 and 40 Hz) thresholds expressed as total frequency excursions were similar for SFM and QFM suggesting a common mechanism, one perhaps based on single-channel FM-to-AM conversion or on a multi-channel place mechanism. The fact that the nominal envelopes of SFM and QFM are different (SFM has a flat envelope), seems to preclude processing based on the envelope of the external stimulus. Also, given the 4-kHz carrier and the similarity to previously published results obtained with a 1-kHz carrier, processing based on temporally-coded fine structure for all four types of modulation appears unlikely.

  17. Assessment of impact noise at 31.5Hz

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lentzen, S.S.K.; Koopman, A.; Salomons, E.M.

    2011-01-01

    Due to the increasing popularity of lightweight building methods, vibrations and low frequency noise have become a greater challenge. This work deals with the assessment of impact noise at the 31.5 Hz octave band. Three possible impact sound sources to determine the sound insulation have been tested

  18. Tympanometry in Infants: A Study of the Sensitivity and Specificity of 226-Hz and 1,000-Hz Probe Tones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmo, Michele Picanço; Costa, Nayara Thais de Oliveira; Momensohn-Santos, Teresa Maria

    2013-01-01

    Introduction For infants under 6 months, the literature recommends 1,000-Hz tympanometry, which has a greater sensitivity for the correct identification of middle ear disorders in this population. Objective To systematically analyze national and international publications found in electronic databases that used tympanometry with 226-Hz and 1,000-Hz probe tones. Data Synthesis Initially, we identified 36 articles in the SciELO database, 11 in the Latin American and Caribbean Literature on the Health Sciences (LILACS) database, 199 in MEDLINE, 0 in the Cochrane database, 16 in ISI Web of Knowledge, and 185 in the Scopus database. We excluded 433 articles because they did not fit the selection criteria, leaving 14 publications that were analyzed in their entirety. Conclusions The 1,000-Hz tone test has greater sensitivity and specificity for the correct identification of tympanometric curve changes. However, it is necessary to clarify the doubts that still exist regarding the use of this test frequency. Improved methods for rating curves, standardization of normality criteria, and the types of curves found in infants should be addressed. PMID:25992044

  19. High-rate (1 Hz to 20 Hz GPS coseismic dynamic displacements carried out during the Emilia 2012 seismic sequence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Avallone

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In May-July 2012, Emilia Romagna (northern Italy was struck by a significant seismic sequence, which was characterized by two moderate-magnitude earthquakes: a Ml 5.9 event on May 20, 2012, at 02:03:53 UTC, and a Ml 5.8 event on May 29, 2012, at 07:00:03 UTC, about 12 km to the west of the first mainshock. The earthquake sequence produced a total of 20 casualties and severe and widespread damage, mainly to historical and commercial buildings. A detailed description of the seismic sequence can be found in Sco-gnamiglio et al. [2012, this volume]. The largest of the earthquake static displacements were recorded by tens of continuous global positioning system (cGPS stations, as described in Serpelloni et al. [2012, this volume]. Most of these stations were operating with a sampling frequency of 1 Hz, and they belonged to scientific or commercial networks: RING (http://ring.gm.ingv.it; ITALPOS (http://smartnet.leica-geosystems.it; GeoTop (http://www.netgeo.it; Fondazione Geometri Emilia Romagna (http://www.gpsemiliaromagna.it; Lombardia [http://www.gpslombardia.it; and Veneto (http://147.162.229.63. Some hours after the first mainshock, the sampling frequency of the near-field RING stations (SBPO and MODE were switched to 20 Hz, thus recording the coseismic displacements produced by the May 29, 2012, earthquake at higher frequency. This sampling frequency was previously used for the detection of coseismic dynamic displacements only for the Mw 9 Tohoku-Oki 2011 event [Colosimo et al. 2011b]. Thus, the 20-Hz-sampling displacements for the Tohoku-Oki 2011 earthquake and the May 29, 2012, Emilia event might represent important recordings to investigate coseismic contributions at frequencies higher than 1 Hz with GPS. In the present study, after the description of the high-rate GPS (HRGPS data analysis, we will show and compare the preliminary results. Then, for the two mainshocks, we will compare the displacements recorded by the HRGPS (1 Hz up to 20 Hz

  20. Equivalent threshold sound pressure levels for Sennheiser HDA 200 earphone and Etymotic Research ER-2 insert earphone in the frequency range 125 Hz to 16 kHz

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Han, Loc A; Poulsen, Torben

    1998-01-01

    Equivalent Threshold Sound Pressure Levels (ETSPLs) have been determined for the Sennheiser HDA 200 earphone and the Etymotic Research ER-2insert earphone. Thirty-one young normal-hearing test subjects participated and the thresholds were determined for all recommended frequencies in thefrequency...

  1. Sounds in the ocean at 1-100 Hz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcock, William S D; Stafford, Kathleen M; Andrew, Rex K; Odom, Robert I

    2014-01-01

    Very-low-frequency sounds between 1 and 100 Hz propagate large distances in the ocean sound channel. Weather conditions, earthquakes, marine mammals, and anthropogenic activities influence sound levels in this band. Weather-related sounds result from interactions between waves, bubbles entrained by breaking waves, and the deformation of sea ice. Earthquakes generate sound in geologically active regions, and earthquake T waves propagate throughout the oceans. Blue and fin whales generate long bouts of sounds near 20 Hz that can dominate regional ambient noise levels seasonally. Anthropogenic sound sources include ship propellers, energy extraction, and seismic air guns and have been growing steadily. The increasing availability of long-term records of ocean sound will provide new opportunities for a deeper understanding of natural and anthropogenic sound sources and potential interactions between them.

  2. Electric Stimulation at 448 kHz Promotes Proliferation of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Luisa Hernández-Bule

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Capacitive-resistive electric transfer (CRET is a non invasive electrothermal therapy that applies electric currents within the 400 kHz - 450 kHz frequency range to the treatment of musculoskeletal lesions. Evidence exists that electric currents and electric or magnetic fields can influence proliferative and/or differentiating processes involved in tissue regeneration. This work investigates proliferative responses potentially underlying CRET effects on tissue repair. Methods: XTT assay, flow cytometry, immunofluorescence and Western Blot analyses were conducted to asses viability, proliferation and differentiation of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSC from healthy donors, after short, repeated (5 m On/4 h Off in vitro stimulation with a 448-kHz electric signal currently used in CRET therapy, applied at a subthermal dose of 50 μA/mm2Results: The treatment induced PCNA and ERK1/2 upregulation, together with significant increases in the fractions of ADSC undergoing cycle phases S, G2 and M, and enhanced cell proliferation rate. This proliferative effect did not compromise the multipotential ability of ADSC for subsequent adipogenic, chondrogenic or osteogenic differentiation. Conclusions: These data identify cellular and molecular phenomena potentially underlying the response to CRET and indicate that CRET-induced lesion repair could be mediated by stimulation of the proliferation of stem cells present in the injured tissues.

  3. Electric stimulation at 448 kHz promotes proliferation of human mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Bule, María Luisa; Paíno, Carlos Luis; Trillo, María Ángeles; Úbeda, Alejandro

    2014-01-01

    Capacitive-resistive electric transfer (CRET) is a non invasive electrothermal therapy that applies electric currents within the 400 kHz - 450 kHz frequency range to the treatment of musculoskeletal lesions. Evidence exists that electric currents and electric or magnetic fields can influence proliferative and/or differentiating processes involved in tissue regeneration. This work investigates proliferative responses potentially underlying CRET effects on tissue repair. XTT assay, flow cytometry, immunofluorescence and Western Blot analyses were conducted to asses viability, proliferation and differentiation of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSC) from healthy donors, after short, repeated (5 m On/4 h Off) in vitro stimulation with a 448-kHz electric signal currently used in CRET therapy, applied at a subthermal dose of 50 μA/mm(2) RESULTS: The treatment induced PCNA and ERK1/2 upregulation, together with significant increases in the fractions of ADSC undergoing cycle phases S, G2 and M, and enhanced cell proliferation rate. This proliferative effect did not compromise the multipotential ability of ADSC for subsequent adipogenic, chondrogenic or osteogenic differentiation. These data identify cellular and molecular phenomena potentially underlying the response to CRET and indicate that CRET-induced lesion repair could be mediated by stimulation of the proliferation of stem cells present in the injured tissues. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. INFLUENCES OF 50HZ ELECTRIC FIELDS ON GROWTH AND MULTIPLICATION OF SOME MICROORGANISMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VOINA A.

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available By dielectric spectroscopy and specific microbiological techniques have been studied the development (cell multiplication of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Aspergillus niger growing and multiplication - both on culture media with sucrose and on those with starch. The experimental results have been revealed that the biochemical processes of the studied biomasses have significant changes in certain frequencies in the range 1 - 160Hz, characteristic of the different species/metabolized carbon source, respectively species/ metabolized carbon source/ development phase. It has also been found that in the case of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the electric field of 50 Hz up to 20V/cm reduces the length of the LAG time and increases the growth rate of intensive increasing phase. Cultures of Aspergillus niger on culture medium with sucrose are stimulated (increasing the spores production by approx. 50% and reducing the maturity time of 50Hz signals up to 15V/cm. Electric fields higher than 30 V/cm in all media and investigated cultures carry on to the growth reduction / multiplication - up to a complete inhibition of growth at approx. 50V/cm

  5. Beyond-Born-Oppenheimer effects in sub-kHz-precision photoassociation spectroscopy of ytterbium atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borkowski, Mateusz; Buchachenko, Alexei A.; Ciuryło, Roman; Julienne, Paul S.; Yamada, Hirotaka; Kikuchi, Yuu; Takahashi, Kakeru; Takasu, Yosuke; Takahashi, Yoshiro

    2017-12-01

    We present high-resolution two-color photoassociation spectroscopy of Bose-Einstein condensates of ytterbium atoms. The use of narrow Raman resonances and careful examination of systematic shifts enabled us to measure 13 bound-state energies for three isotopologues of the ground-state ytterbium molecule with standard uncertainties of the order of 500 Hz. The atomic interactions are modeled using an ab initio based mass-scaled Born-Oppenheimer potential whose long-range van der Waals parameters and total WKB phase are fitted to experimental data. We find that the quality of the fit of this model, of about 112.9 kHz (rms) can be significantly improved by adding the recently calculated beyond-Born-Oppenheimer (BBO) adiabatic corrections [J. J. Lutz and J. M. Hutson, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 330, 43 (2016), 10.1016/j.jms.2016.08.007] and by partially treating the nonadiabatic effects using distance-dependent reduced masses. Our BBO interaction model represents the experimental data to within about 30.2 kHz on average, which is 3.7 times better than the "reference" Born-Oppenheimer model. We calculate the s -wave scattering lengths for bosonic isotopic pairs of ytterbium atoms with error bars over two orders of magnitude smaller than previous determinations. For example, the s -wave scattering length for 174Yb is +5.55812 (50 ) nm.

  6. Effects of 60 Hz electric fields on operant and social stress behaviors of nonhuman primates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, W.R.; Coelho, A.M. Jr.; Easley, S.P.; Lucas, J.H.; Moore, G.T.; Orr, J.L.; Smith, H.D.; Taylor, L.L.; Tuttle, M.L.

    1987-10-24

    The objective of this program is to investigate, using the baboon as a nonhuman primate surrogate for the human, possible behavioral effects associated with exposure to high intensity 60 Hz electric fields. Results from this program, along with information from experiments conducted elsewhere, will be used by the Department of Energy (DOE) to estimate and evaluate the likelihood of deleterious consequences resulting from exposure of humans to the electric fields associated with power transmission over high voltage lines. This research program consists of four major research projects, all of which have been successfully completed. The first project evaluated the potentially aversive character of exposure to 60 Hz electric fields by determining the threshold intensity that produces escape or avoidance responses. The second project estimated the threshold intensity for detection threshold was 12 kV/m; the range of means was 6 to 16 kV/m. The third project assessed, in separate experiments conducted at 30 and 60 kV/m, effects of chronic exposure to electric fields on the performance of two operant conditioning tasks, fixed ratio (FR), and differential reinforcement of low rate (DRL). In the same two experiments, the fourth project investigated, using the systematic quantitative observational sampling methods of primatology, the possible stress-inducing effects of chronic exposure to 60 Hz electric fields on the behavior of baboons living in small social groups. 131 refs., 87 figs., 123 tabs.

  7. Reference Values for 50 kHz Electrical Impedance Myography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkove, Seward B.; Fogerson, Patricia M.; Garmirian, Lindsay P.; Tarulli, Andrew W.

    2008-01-01

    Electrical impedance myography (EIM) is a method for non-invasively and quantitatively assessing muscle health, in which the major outcome parameter, phase (θ), decreases in diseased states. In order to create a set of normal reference values, we performed 50 kHz EIM in 5 muscles of 87 healthy individuals, using θ as the major outcome variable. Since the distributions of data were mostly skewed, logarithmic transformations were performed, and the resulting data were fitted to quadratic functions. The lower limit of normal was set by plotting the lower 95% confidence interval of this curve for each muscle and then identifying age-specific reference values. We found that the distribution of data was similar to that for other neurophysiologic parameters. The lower limit of normal was easily defined, and relatively few values fell below the proposed lower limit. By using commercially available bioimpedance devices, these values will allow other investigators to explore the application of 50 kHz EIM in clinical neuromuscular disease research. PMID:18642375

  8. Reference values for 50-kHZ electrical impedance myography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkove, Seward B; Fogerson, Patricia M; Garmirian, Lindsay P; Tarulli, Andrew W

    2008-09-01

    Electrical impedance myography (EIM) is a method for non-invasively and quantitatively assessing muscle health, in which the major outcome parameter, phase (theta), decreases in diseased states. In order to create a set of normal reference values, we performed 50-kHZ EIM in 5 muscles of 87 healthy individuals, using theta as the major outcome variable. Because the distributions of data were mostly skewed, logarithmic transformations were performed, and the resulting data were fitted to quadratic functions. The lower limit of normal was set by plotting the lower 95% confidence interval of the curve for each muscle and then identifying age-specific reference values. We found that the distribution of data was similar to that for other neurophysiologic parameters. The lower limit of normal was easily defined, and relatively few values fell below the proposed lower limit. By using commercially available bioimpedance devices, these values will allow other investigators to explore the application of 50-kHZ EIM in clinical neuromuscular disease research.

  9. Slip-stacking Dynamics and the 20 Hz Booster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eldred, Jeffery; Zwaska, Robert

    2015-03-01

    Slip-stacking is an accumulation technique used at Fermilab since 2004 which nearly doubles the proton intensity. The Proton Improvement Plan II intensity upgrades require a reduction in slip-stacking losses by approximately a factor of 2. We study the single-particle dynamics that determine the stability of slip-stacking particles. We introduce universal area factors to calculate the available phase space area for any set of beam parameters without individual simulation. We show the particle loss as a function of time. We calculate the injection efficiency as a function of longitudinal emittance and aspect-ratio. We demonstrate that the losses from RF single particle dynamics can be reduced by a factor of 4-10 (depending on beam parameters) by upgrading the Fermilab Booster from a 15-Hz cycle-rate to a 20-Hz cycle-rate. We recommend a change in injection scheme to eliminate the need for a greater momentum aperture in the Fermilab Recycler.

  10. Influence of 60-Hz magnetic fields on sea urchin development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmerman, S.; Zimmerman, A.M.; Winters, W.D.; Cameron, I.L. (York Univ., Toronto, Ontario (Canada))

    1990-01-01

    Continuous exposure of sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus) embryos at 18 degrees C to a cyclic 60-Hz magnetic field at 0.1 mT rms beginning 4 min after insemination caused a significant developmental delay during the subsequent 23 hours. No delay in development was recorded for periods up to 18 hours after fertilization. At 18 h, most embryos were in the mesenchyme blastula stage. At 23 h, most control embryos were in mid-gastrula whereas most magnetic-field-exposed embryos were in the early gastrula stage. Thus an estimated 1-h delay occurred between these developmental stages. The results are discussed in terms of possible magnetic-field modification of transcription as well as interference with cell migration during gastrulation. The present study extends and supports the growing body of information about potential effects of exposures to extremely-low-frequency (ELF) magnetic fields on developing organisms.

  11. LF-lähetin 137 kHz:lle

    OpenAIRE

    Heikura, Ilkka

    2007-01-01

    Tämän insinöörityön aiheena oli suunnitella ja rakentaa ra diolähetin taajuusvälille 135,7–137,8 kHz. Tämä taajuusalue on varattu radioamatöörikäyttöön ja sitä käytetään sähkötykseen. Lähettimen vähimmäislähetysteho täytyi olla 50 W 50 W:n kuormaan. Insinöörityön tilaajana toimi Kajaanin ammattikorkeakoulu. Laitteisto koostuu pääosiltaan oskillaattorista, kahdesta taajuusjakajasta, avainnuksesta, pääteasteesta ja LCsuodattimesta. Oskillaattorissa muodostetaan taajuus, joka syötetä...

  12. EV drivetrain inverter with V/HZ optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gritter, David J.; O'Neil, Walter K.

    1986-01-01

    An inverter (34) which provides power to an A.C. machine (28) is controlled by a circuit (36) employing PWM control strategy whereby A.C. power is supplied to the machine at a preselectable frequency and preselectable voltage. This is accomplished by the technique of waveform notching in which the shapes of the notches are varied to determine the average energy content of the overall waveform. Through this arrangement, the operational efficiency of the A.C. machine is optimized. The control circuit includes a micro-computer which calculates optimized machine control data signals from various parametric inputs and during steady state load conditions, seeks a best V/HZ ratio to minimize battery current drawn (system losses) from a D.C. power source (32). In the preferred embodiment, the present invention is incorporated within an electric vehicle (10) employing a 144 VDC battery pack and a three-phase induction motor (18).

  13. Analysing H(z) data using two-point diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaf, Kyle; Melia, Fulvio

    2017-09-01

    Measurements of the Hubble constant H(z) are increasingly being used to test the expansion rate predicted by various cosmological models. But the recent application of two-point diagnostics, such as Om(zI, zj) and Omh2(zI, zj), has produced considerable tension between ΛCDM's predictions and several observations, with other models faring even worse. Part of this problem is attributable to the continued mixing of truly model-independent measurements using the cosmic-chronometer approach, and model-dependent data extracted from baryon acoustic oscillations. In this paper, we advance the use of two-point diagnostics beyond their current status, and introduce new variations, which we call Δh(zI, zj), that are more useful for model comparisons. But we restrict our analysis exclusively to cosmic-chronometer data, which are truly model independent. Even for these measurements, however, we confirm the conclusions drawn by earlier workers that the data have strongly non-Gaussian uncertainties, requiring the use of both 'median' and 'mean' statistical approaches. Our results reveal that previous analyses using two-point diagnostics greatly underestimated the errors, thereby misinterpreting the level of tension between theoretical predictions and H(z) data. Instead, we demonstrate that as of today, only Einstein-de Sitter is ruled out by the two-point diagnostics at a level of significance exceeding ˜3σ. The Rh = ct universe is slightly favoured over the remaining models, including Lambda cold dark matter and Chevalier-Polarski-Linder, though all of them (other than Einstein-de Sitter) are consistent to within 1σ with the measured mean of the Δh(zI, zj) diagnostics.

  14. Epilepsy provoked by television and video games: safety of 100-Hz screens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, S; Vigevano, F; Manfredi, M; Kasteleijn-Nolst Trenité, D G

    1998-03-01

    Television (TV) and video games (VG) can provoke seizures in patients with photosensitive epilepsies. Flicker frequency is the most important factor in screen activation. We tested conventional 50-Hz versus 100-Hz monitors during TV viewing and VG playing in 30 photosensitive subjects, 23 of whom had a history of TV or VG seizures or both. Fifteen subjects' discharges were activated by 50-Hz TV; 17 by 50-Hz VG; and one by a 100-Hz screen. Thus, 100-Hz screens protect against screen activation.

  15. Superficial Velocity Effects on HZ-PAN and AgZ-PAN for Kr/Xe Capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welty, Amy Keil [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Garn, Troy Gerry [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Greenhalgh, Mitchell Randy [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-04-01

    Nearly all previous testing of HZ-PAN and AgZ-PAN was conducted at the same flow rate in order to maintain consistency among tests. This testing was sufficient for sorbent capacity determinations, but did not ensure that sorbents were capable of functioning under a range of flow regimes. Tests were conducted on both HZ-PAN and AgZ-PAN at superficial velocities between 20 and 700 cm/min. For HZ-PAN, Kr capacity increased from 60 mmol/kg to 110 mmol/kg as superficial velocity increased from 21 to 679 cm/min. Results for AgZ-PAN were similar, with capacity ranging from 72 to 124 mmol/kg over the same range of superficial. These results are promising for scaling up to process flows, demonstrating flexibility to operate in a broad range of superficial velocities while maintaining sorbent capacity. While preparing for superficial velocity testing it was also discovered that AgZ-PAN Xe capacity, previously observed to diminish over time, could be recovered with increased desorption temperature. Further, a substantial Xe capacity increase was observed. Previous room temperature capacities in the range of 22-25 mmol Xe/kg AgZ-PAN were increased to over 60 mmol Xe/kg AgZ-PAN. While this finding has not yet been fully explored to optimize activation and desorption temperatures, it is encouraging.

  16. A simple model for calculating residential 60-Hz magnetic fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mader, D L; Barrow, D A; Donnelly, K E; Scheer, R R; Sherar, M D

    1990-01-01

    A model is presented that permits the calculation of densities of 60-Hz magnetic fields throughout a residence from only a few measurements. We assume that residential magnetic fields are produced by sources external to the house and by the residential grounding circuit. The field from external sources is measured with a single probe. The field produced by the grounding circuit is calculated from the current flowing in the circuit and its geometry. The two fields are combined to give a prediction of the total field at any point in the house. A data-acquisition system was built to record the magnitude and phase of the grounding current and the field from external sources. The model's predictions were compared with measurements of the total magnetic field at a single location in 23 houses; a correlation coefficient of .87 was obtained, indicating that the model has good predictive capability. A more detailed study that was carried out in one house permitted comparisons of measurements with the model's predictions at locations throughout the house. Again, quite reasonable agreement was found. We also investigated the temporal variability of field readings in this house. Daily magnetic field averages were found to be considerably more stable than hourly averages. Finally, we demonstrate the use of the model in creating a profile of the magnetic fields in a home.

  17. Interferometric readout of a monolithic accelerometer, towards the fm/√Hz resolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Heijningen, J. V.; Bertolini, A.; Van Den Brand, J. F J

    2016-01-01

    The European Gravitational wave Observatory Virgo is undergoing an upgrade to increase its strain sensitivity to about 3×10-241/√Hz in the detection band of 10 Hz-10 kHz. The upgrade for this detector necessitates seismically isolating sensing optics in a vacuum environment that were on an optical

  18. MEDICAL ASPECTS AND HARMFUL EFFECTS OF 50HZ ELECTROMAGNETIC FILED ON BIOLOGICAL SISTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dušan Sokolović

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to electromagnetic field (EMF with extremely low frequency (ELF of 50Hz is very frequent nowadays. All frequency range of these fields are called electromagnetic smog.The aim of this experimental investigation was determination of ELF EMP influence on animals behavior, reproductive ability and oxidative stress as possible biological marker for EMP exposition.Wistar rats 4 months old were divided in experimental (4 female and 6 male animal and control group (4 female and 5 male. The experimental group was 45 days exposed to an electromagnetic field frequency 50 Hz, magnetic induction B=48 mT and intensity of electric field of E=50 V/m. Fertility is measured by number of newborn and biological effects were determined by observation of individual and collective behavior. Determination of increased oxidative stress was measured by quantity of malondialdehyde in brain homogenate.Aggresive behavior and visible panic reaction, disorientation and anxiosity were registered in experimental group. Increased oxydative stress was measured by significantly higher concentration of malondialdehyde in brain homogenate of experimental animals (4,89±0,65 nmol/mg prot. vs. control 2,72±0,42 nmol/mg prot., p<0.01. Impaired fertility was manifested through unsuccessful pregnancy of experimental animals. Exposition to ELF EMF induces disorders of central nervous sistem functions, increasing oxydative stress and impaired reproductive functions.

  19. Acoustic emission spectra and sonochemical activity in a 36 kHz sonoreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Younggyu; Lim, Myunghee; Khim, Jeehyeong; Ashokkumar, Muthupandian

    2012-01-01

    During ultrasound-induced cavitation in liquids, acoustic emissions at fundamental and harmonic frequencies can be detected. The effect of acoustic emissions at harmonic frequencies on the sonochemical and sonophysical activities has not been explored, especially in large-scale sonoreactors. In this study, the acoustic emissions in the range, 0-250 kHz in a 36 kHz sonoreactor with varying liquid heights were studied and compared with the sonochemical activities. The acoustic pressures at both fundamental and harmonics decreased drastically as the liquid height was increased due to the attenuation of sound energy. It was observed that the increase in input power resulted in only an increase in the acoustic emissions at derivative frequencies such as, harmonics and subharmonics. The sonochemical activity, evaluated in terms of sonochemiluminescence and H2O2 yield, was not significantly enhanced at higher input power levels. This suggests that at higher power levels, the "extra" acoustic energy is not effectively used to generate primary cavitation activity; rather it is converted to generate acoustic emissions at harmonic and subharmonic frequencies. This is an important observation for the design of energy efficiency large-scale sonochemical reactors. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Discovery of a 7 mHz X-Ray Quasi-Periodic Oscillation from the Most Massive Stellar-Mass Black Hole IC 10 X-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasham, Dheeraj R.; Strohmayer, Tod E.; Mushotzky, Richard F.

    2013-01-01

    We report the discovery with XMM-Newton of an approx.. = 7 mHz X-ray (0.3-10.0 keV) quasi-periodic oscillation (QPO) from the eclipsing, high-inclination black hole binary IC 10 X-1. The QPO is significant at >4.33 sigma confidence level and has a fractional amplitude (% rms) and a quality factor, Q is identical with nu/delta nu, of approx. = 11 and 4, respectively. The overall X-ray (0.3-10.0 keV) power spectrum in the frequency range 0.0001-0.1 Hz can be described by a power-law with an index of approx. = -2, and a QPO at 7 mHz. At frequencies approx. > 0.02 Hz there is no evidence for significant variability. The fractional amplitude (rms) of the QPO is roughly energy-independent in the energy range of 0.3-1.5 keV. Above 1.5 keV the low signal-to-noise ratio of the data does not allow us to detect the QPO. By directly comparing these properties with the wide range of QPOs currently known from accreting black hole and neutron stars, we suggest that the 7 mHz QPO of IC 10 X-1 may be linked to one of the following three categories of QPOs: (1) the "heartbeat" mHz QPOs of the black hole sources GRS 1915+105 and IGR J17091-3624, or (2) the 0.6-2.4 Hz "dipper QPOs" of high-inclination neutron star systems, or (3) the mHz QPOs of Cygnus X-3.

  1. A Wavelet-Modified ESPRIT Hybrid Method for Assessment of Spectral Components from 0 to 150 kHz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Alfieri

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Waveform distortions are an important issue in distribution systems. In particular, the assessment of very wide spectra, that include also components in the 2–150 kHz range, has recently become an issue of great interest. This is due to the increasing presence of high-spectral emission devices like end-user devices and distributed generation systems. This study proposed a new sliding-window wavelet-modified estimation of signal parameters by rotational invariance technique (ESPRIT method, particularly suitable for the spectral analysis of waveforms that have very wide spectra. The method is very accurate and requires reduced computational effort. It can be applied successfully to detect spectral components in the range of 0–150 kHz introduced both by distributed power plants, such as wind and photovoltaic generation systems, and by end-user equipment connected to grids through static converters, such as fluorescent lamps.

  2. LOW-FREQUENCY QUASI-PERIODIC OSCILLATION FROM THE 11 Hz ACCRETING PULSAR IN TERZAN 5: NOT FRAME DRAGGING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altamirano, D.; Van der Klis, M.; Wijnands, R. [Astronomical Institute, ' Anton Pannekoek' , University of Amsterdam, Science Park 904, 1098XH Amsterdam (Netherlands); Ingram, A. [Department of Physics, University of Durham, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Linares, M.; Homan, J., E-mail: d.altamirano@uva.nl [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2012-11-01

    We report on six RXTE observations taken during the 2010 outburst of the 11 Hz accreting pulsar IGR J17480-2446 located in the globular cluster Terzan 5. During these observations we find power spectra which resemble those seen in Z-type high-luminosity neutron star low-mass X-ray binaries, with a quasi-periodic oscillation (QPO) in the 35-50 Hz range simultaneous with a kHz QPO and broadband noise. Using well-known frequency-frequency correlations, we identify the 35-50 Hz QPOs as the horizontal branch oscillations, which were previously suggested to be due to Lense-Thirring (LT) precession. As IGR J17480-2446 spins more than an order of magnitude more slowly than any of the other neutron stars where these QPOs were found, this QPO cannot be explained by frame dragging. By extension, this casts doubt on the LT precession model for other low-frequency QPOs in neutron stars and perhaps even black hole systems.

  3. The 2 Hz and 15 Hz electroacupuncture induced reverse effect on autonomic function in healthy adult using a heart rate variability analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bor-An Jia

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to investigate effect of electro-acupuncture (EA at different frequencies on autonomic function. Twenty healthy adult volunteers were studied, and underwent 4 sessions of EA (sham, 2 Hz, 15 Hz, and 50 Hz. Sham, 2 Hz, 15 Hz, and 50 Hz EA was applied to the bilateral Leg Three Li (足三里 zú sān lǐ, ST-36 and Upper Great Hollow (上巨虛 shàng jù xū, ST-37 acupoints. The intensity of electrical stimulation was adjusted to obtain visible twitching of the anterior tibial muscle about 2.0-2.5 mA except sham without electrical stimulation. The components of heart rate variability (HRV and blood pressure were measured before EA (BLP, EA (EAP, and post-EA periods (PEP. The results indicated that the natural logarithmic high frequency power (lnHF of HRV was greater during PEP than during the BLP in the 2 Hz EA sessions. The natural logarithmic low frequency power (lnLF of HRV was greater during the PEP than during the BLP in 15 Hz EA sessions, suggesting that 2 Hz EA apply to Leg Three Li (足三里 zú sān lǐ, ST-36 and Upper Great Hollow (上巨虛 shàng jù xū, ST-37 acupoints increased vagal activity, whereas 15 Hz EA increased sympathetic activity.

  4. Odor input generates approximately 1.5 Hz and approximately 3 Hz spectral peaks in the helix pedal ganglion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schütt, A; Bullock, T H; Başar, E

    2000-10-06

    In 1999 we reported that odorants evoke in the Helix pedal ganglion (PG) activity patterns which are largely odorant-specific and related to the nature of odor and its behavioral output. Notably, some activities (for example, approximately 1.5 and approximately 3 Hz), nonspecific to odorants, were consistently evoked in PG. The present contribution goes farther in a deeper survey of the intrinsic and odorant-evoked activities of PG with special weight on the nonspecific fluctuations. We address the following questions. (i) What are the features of the activities? (ii) Are they comparable to the activities found in the motor systems of the other invertebrates? (iii) To what functions can they be related? Three main frequency components represented by power peaks at cerebro-buccal or -procerebro-cerebro-pedal circuit. Our approach differs from most others reported so far in the following aspects: (i) use of gross steel electrodes for recording population activities; (ii) lengthy stimulation (10 min); (iii) long observation during and after stimulation; (iv) power spectral presentation of temporal evolution of activity patterns; (v) estimation of peak power frequency by Frequency-Amplitude Plot (FAP) (obtained from signals averaged in the frequency domain; a method based on systems theory).

  5. Behavioral responses of herring (Clupea harengus) to 1–2 and 6–7 kHz sonar signals and killer whale feeding sounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doksæter, L.; Godø, O.R.; Handegard, N.O.; Kvadsheim, P.H.; Lam, F.P.A.; Donovan, C.; Miller, P.J.O.

    2009-01-01

    Military antisubmarine sonars produce intense sounds within the hearing range of most clupeid fish. The behavioral reactions of overwintering herring (Clupea harengus) to sonar signals of two different frequency ranges (1–2 and 6–7 kHz), and to playback of killer whale feeding sounds, were tested in

  6. A 10-Hz Terawatt Class Ti:Sapphire Laser System: Development and Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, A.K.; Smedley, J.; Tsang, T.; Rao, T.

    2010-01-12

    We developed a two stage Ti:Sapphire laser system to generate 16 mJ/80fs laser pulses at the pulse repetition rate of 10 Hz. The key deriver for the present design is implementing a highly efficient symmetric confocal pre-amplifier and employing a simple, inexpensive synchronization scheme relying only on a commercial digital delay-generator. We characterized the amplified pulses in spatial-, spectral-, and temporal-domains. The laser system was used to investigate various nonlinear optical processes, and to modify the optical properties of metal- and semiconductor-surfaces. We are currently building a third amplifier to boost the laser power to the multi-terawatt range.

  7. Changes in acoustic startle reflex in rats induced by playback of 22-kHz calls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inagaki, Hideaki; Ushida, Takahiro

    2017-02-01

    In aversive or dangerous situations, adult rats emit long characteristic ultrasonic calls, often termed "22-kHz calls," which have been suggested to play a role of alarm calls. Although the playback experiment is one of the most effective ways to investigate the alarming properties of 22-kHz calls, clear behavioral evidence showing the anxiogenic effects of these playback stimuli has not been directly obtained to date. In this study, we investigated whether playback of 22-kHz calls or synthesized sine tones could change the acoustic startle reflex (ASR), enhancement of which is widely considered to be a reliable index of anxiety-related negative affective states in rats. Playback of 22-kHz calls significantly enhanced the ASR in rats. Enhancement effects caused by playback of 22-kHz calls from young rats were relatively weak compared to those after calls from adult rats. Playback of synthesized 25-kHz sine tones enhanced ASR in subjects, but not synthesized 60-kHz tones. Further, shortening the individual call duration of synthesized 25-kHz sine tones also enhanced the ASR. Accordingly, it is suggested that 22-kHz calls induce anxiety by socially communicated alarming signals in rats. The results also demonstrated that call frequency, i.e., of 22kHz, appears important for ultrasonic alarm-signal communication in rats. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The 50 Hz power supply and the cabling systems in the Gotthard base tunnel; Die Stromversorgung 50 Hz und die Kabelanlagen im Gotthard-Basistunnel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zbinden, P. [AlpTransit Gotthard AG, Bern (Switzerland); Trezzini, P.C.; Angermayr, A. [INGE IM-FMNi, IM Ingegneria Maggia SA, Locarno (Switzerland); Prebandier, G. [INGE IM-FMNi, FMN Ingenieurs SA, Corcelles (Switzerland)

    2005-07-01

    The technical installation in the 57 km long Gotthard base tunnel have to meet very high standards. This is true inter alia of the 50 Hz power supply being installed in the tunnel independently of the 16.7 Hz traction power supply. The 50 Hz power supply concept exploits the opportunities provided by the two independent tunnel tubes and the various feeder points. The requisite high level of safety and availability is achieved by connecting the 50 Hz power supply to three largely independent high-voltage grids north and south of the Alps. In addition, redundancy and the requisite degree of independence are systematically built in to the supply to all power consumers. (orig.)

  9. Comparison and design of power electronics transformers in 25 kHz–400 kHz range

    OpenAIRE

    Valchev, Vencislav C.; Todorova, Teodora P.; Van den Bossche, Alex

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents a finite element modeling based study of various heat sink designs. The main aim of the study is to determine and evaluate solutions with improved heat dissipation by utilization of natural convection. Seventeen different cases both classical and proposed by the authors are studied, where each case is examined under three different heat source (in the case with the proposed study a transistor) powers. Results for temperature of the power source and velo...

  10. A fully integrated continuous-time 1Hz low-pass filter with high dynamic range and low distortion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shah, Peter Jivan

    1993-01-01

    . This furthermore makes the filter cutoff frequency electrically adjustable. The distortion is very low, less than 0.1% at 4Vpp input voltage. Also the signal-to-noise ratio is good, more than 80dB at 0.1% distortion. This is remarkable because the well-known high 1/f-noise level of MOS transistors is particularly...

  11. Wavefront Intensity Statistics for 284-Hz Broadband Transmissions to 107-km Range in the Philippine Sea: Observations and Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    a fixed block size of 400, using the sample variance of the bootstrap sample (Cojbasic and Tomovic , 2007). The standard error was then scaled...Technical Report WHOI-93- 10 (Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, MA). Cojbasic, V., and Tomovic , A. (2007). “Nonparametric confidence

  12. International key comparison of free-field hydrophone calibrations in the frequency range 1 to 500 kHz

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Robinson, SP

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available hydrophones. These uncertainties were then used to evaluate the covariances associated with the measurements H20849and, hence, to derive the off-diagonal el- ements of covariance matrix ViH20850. Figure 4 shows the combined DOEs for 8 selected fre- quencies...

  13. Characterization of the MEMS Directional Sound Sensor in the High Frequency (15-20 kHz) Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    These membranes connect to a pair of auditory sensory organs, the bulbae acusticae , which are located within a common, air-filled chamber. The...bulbae acusticae attach to the membranes via a ridge-like in-growth of the exoskeleton (apodeme), which resembles a stiff rod. In effect, the PTM...receives the signal and transfers the sound energy through the rod activating the bulbae acusticae . Each bulba acustica contains 70–75 auditory receptor

  14. Increasing the resolution of marine gravity from CryoSat-2 using 20 and 80Hz altimetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abulaitijiang, Adili; Andersen, Ole Baltazar

    slopes (gradients). The accuracy of the recovered gravity signal is dominated by the accuracy of range precision. Therefore, an optimum retracker for the derivation of accurate sea surface height (SSH) estimate should be identified at the first step.In this paper, we will first wok on adapting the SAMOSA...... retracker to optimally fit to the SAR waveforms in the Arctic by additional amplitude fitting. Then, we use the 20 Hz L1c release of the CryoSat-2 products to estimate the SSH and further derive the sea surface height variations to recover the marine gravity. Precision analysis will also carried out...... the 80 Hz date from the ESA-GPOD service to investigate fine scale regional marine gravity signals. We expect that by more dense along track sampling, the along track SSH variations can be well represented and the along track oceanic surface slopes can be refined when downsampled....

  15. Effects on atmospherics at 6 kHz and 9 kHz recorded at Tripura during the India-Pakistan Border earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. De

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The outcome of the results of some analyses of electromagnetic emissions recorded by VLF receivers at 6 kHz and 9 kHz over Agartala, Tripura, the North-Eastern state of India (Lat. 23° N, Long. 91.4° E during the large earthquake at Muzaffarabad (Lat. 34.53° N, Long. 73.58° E at Kashmir under Pakistan have been presented here. Spiky variations in integrated field intensity of atmospherics (IFIA at 6 and 9 kHz have been observed 10 days prior (from midnight of 28 September 2005 to the day of occurrence of the earthquake on 8 October 2005 and the effect continued, decayed gradually and eventually ceased on 16 October 2005. The spikes distinctly superimposed on the ambient level with mutual separation of 2–5 min. Occurrence number of spikes per hour and total duration of their occurrence have been found remarkably high on the day of occurrence of the earthquake. The spike heights are higher at 6 kHz than at 9 kHz. The results have been explained on the basis of generation of electromagnetic radiation associated with fracture of rocks, their subsequent penetration into the Earth's atmosphere and finally their propagation between Earth-ionosphere waveguide. The present observation shows that VLF anomaly is well-confined between 6 and 9 kHz.

  16. Hearing thresholds of a harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) for sweeps (1-2 kHz and 6-7 kHz bands) mimicking naval sonar signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastelein, Ronald A; Hoek, Lean; de Jong, Christ A F

    2011-05-01

    The distance at which active naval sonar signals can be heard by harbor porpoises depends, among other factors, on the hearing thresholds of the species for those signals. Therefore the hearing sensitivity of a harbor porpoise was determined for 1 s up-sweep and down-sweep signals, mimicking mid-frequency and low-frequency active sonar sweeps (MFAS, 6-7 kHz band; LFAS, 1-2 kHz band). The 1-2 kHz sweeps were also tested with harmonics, as sonars sometimes produce these as byproducts of the fundamental signal. The hearing thresholds for up-sweeps and down-sweeps within each sweep pair were similar. The 50% detection threshold sound pressure levels (broadband, averaged over the signal duration) of the 1-2 kHz and 6-7 kHz sweeps were 75 and 67 dB re 1 μPa(2), respectively. Harmonic deformation of the 1-2 kHz sweeps reduced the threshold to 59 dB re 1 μPa(2). This study shows that the presence of harmonics in sonar signals can increase the detectability of a signal by harbor porpoises, and that tonal audiograms may not accurately predict the audibility of sweeps. LFAS systems, when designed to produce signals without harmonics, can operate at higher source levels than MFAS systems, at similar audibility distances for porpoises.

  17. Accelerating proton spin diffusion in perdeuterated proteins at 100 kHz MAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wittmann, Johannes J.; Agarwal, Vipin; Hellwagner, Johannes; Lends, Alons; Cadalbert, Riccardo; Meier, Beat H., E-mail: beme@ethz.ch; Ernst, Matthias, E-mail: maer@ethz.ch [ETH Zurich, Physical Chemistry (Switzerland)

    2016-12-15

    Fast magic-angle spinning (>60 kHz) has many advantages but makes spin-diffusion-type proton–proton long-range polarization transfer inefficient and highly dependent on chemical-shift offset. Using 100%-HN-[{sup 2}H,{sup 13}C,{sup 15}N]-ubiquitin as a model substance, we quantify the influence of the chemical-shift difference on the spin diffusion between proton spins and compare two experiments which lead to an improved chemical-shift compensation of the transfer: rotating-frame spin diffusion and a new experiment, reverse amplitude-modulated MIRROR. Both approaches enable broadband spin diffusion, but the application of the first variant is limited due to fast spin relaxation in the rotating frame. The reverse MIRROR experiment, in contrast, is a promising candidate for the determination of structurally relevant distance restraints. The applied tailored rf-irradiation schemes allow full control over the range of recoupled chemical shifts and efficiently drive spin diffusion. Here, the relevant relaxation time is the larger longitudinal relaxation time, which leads to a higher signal-to-noise ratio in the spectra.

  18. Review of Studies Concerning Electromagnetic Field (EMF) Exposure Assessment in Europe: Low Frequency Fields (50 Hz-100 kHz).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajšek, Peter; Ravazzani, Paolo; Grellier, James; Samaras, Theodoros; Bakos, József; Thuróczy, György

    2016-09-01

    We aimed to review the findings of exposure assessment studies done in European countries on the exposure of the general public to low frequency electric and magnetic fields (EMFs) of various frequencies. The study shows that outdoor average extremely low frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MF) in public areas in urban environments range between 0.05 and 0.2 µT in terms of flux densities, but stronger values (of the order of a few µT) may occur directly beneath high-voltage power lines, at the walls of transformer buildings, and at the boundary fences of substations. In the indoor environment, high values have been measured close to several domestic appliances (up to the mT range), some of which are held close to the body, e.g., hair dryers, electric shavers. Common sources of exposure to intermediate frequencies (IF) include induction cookers, compact fluorescent lamps, inductive charging systems for electric cars and security or anti-theft devices. No systematic measurement surveys or personal exposimetry data for the IF range have been carried out and only a few reports on measurements of EMFs around such devices are mentioned. According to the available European exposure assessment studies, three population exposure categories were classified by the authors regarding the possible future risk analysis. This classification should be considered a crucial advancement for exposure assessment, which is a mandatory step in any future health risk assessment of EMFs exposure.

  19. The amplitude and phase precision of 40 Hz auditory steady-state response depend on the level of arousal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Griskova, Inga; Mørup, Morten; Parnas, Josef

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate, in healthy subjects, the modulation of amplitude and phase precision of the auditory steady-state response (ASSR) to 40 Hz stimulation in two resting conditions varying in the level of arousal. Previously, ASSR measures have shown to be affected by the le......The aim of this study was to investigate, in healthy subjects, the modulation of amplitude and phase precision of the auditory steady-state response (ASSR) to 40 Hz stimulation in two resting conditions varying in the level of arousal. Previously, ASSR measures have shown to be affected...... by the level of arousal, but the findings are somewhat controversial. Generally, ASSR is diminished in sleep but it may be increased in drowsiness. Besides, ASSR reduction has been observed in schizophrenia. However, schizophrenic patients are known to have a disturbance of arousal level, what makes...... it pertinent to know the effects of fluctuations in arousal on passive response to gamma-range stimulation. In nine healthy volunteers trains of 40 Hz click stimuli were applied during two conditions: in the "high arousal" condition subjects were sitting upright silently reading a book of interest; in the "low...

  20. Vowel recognition at fundamental frequencies up to 1 kHz reveals point vowels as acoustic landmarks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrichs, Daniel; Maurer, Dieter; Rosen, Stuart; Dellwo, Volker

    2017-08-01

    The phonological function of vowels can be maintained at fundamental frequencies (f o ) up to 880 Hz [Friedrichs, Maurer, and Dellwo (2015). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 138, EL36-EL42]. Here, the influence of talker variability and multiple response options on vowel recognition at high f o s is assessed. The stimuli (n = 264) consisted of eight isolated vowels (/i y e ø ε a o u/) produced by three female native German talkers at 11 f o s within a range of 220-1046 Hz. In a closed-set identification task, 21 listeners were presented excised 700-ms vowel nuclei with quasi-flat f o contours and resonance trajectories. The results show that listeners can identify the point vowels /i a u/ at f o s up to almost 1 kHz, with a significant decrease for the vowels /y ε/ and a drop to chance level for the vowels /e ø o/ toward the upper f o s. Auditory excitation patterns reveal highly differentiable representations for /i a u/ that can be used as landmarks for vowel category perception at high f o s. These results suggest that theories of vowel perception based on overall spectral shape will provide a fuller account of vowel perception than those based solely on formant frequency patterns.

  1. Synthetic aperture acoustic imaging of canonical targets with a 2-15 kHz linear FM chirp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vignola, Joseph F.; Judge, John A.; Good, Chelsea E.; Bishop, Steven S.; Gugino, Peter M.; Soumekh, Mehrdad

    2011-06-01

    Synthetic aperture image reconstruction applied to outdoor acoustic recordings is presented. Acoustic imaging is an alternate method having several military relevant advantages such as being immune to RF jamming, superior spatial resolution, capable of standoff side and forward-looking scanning, and relatively low cost, weight and size when compared to 0.5 - 3 GHz ground penetrating radar technologies. Synthetic aperture acoustic imaging is similar to synthetic aperture radar, but more akin to synthetic aperture sonar technologies owing to the nature of longitudinal or compressive wave propagation in the surrounding acoustic medium. The system's transceiver is a quasi mono-static microphone and audio speaker pair mounted on a rail 5meters in length. Received data sampling rate is 80 kHz with a 2- 15 kHz Linear Frequency Modulated (LFM) chirp, with a pulse repetition frequency (PRF) of 10 Hz and an inter-pulse period (IPP) of 50 milliseconds. Targets are positioned within the acoustic scene at slant range of two to ten meters on grass, dirt or gravel surfaces, and with and without intervening metallic chain link fencing. Acoustic image reconstruction results in means for literal interpretation and quantifiable analyses. A rudimentary technique characterizes acoustic scatter at the ground surfaces. Targets within the acoustic scene are first digitally spotlighted and further processed, providing frequency and aspect angle dependent signature information.

  2. 2 kHz high power smart transducer for acoustic sub-bottom profiling applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathishkumar, R.

    2013-09-01

    In this study, a 2 kHz Tonpilz projector was designed using a Terfenol-D and modeled in ATILA. For the purpose of modeling studies, it has been determined that a radiating head mass exhibits better transmitting current response (TCR) at 136 mm diameter, where the resonance occurs at 2.4 kHz and the peak value of 118 dB re 1 μPa/A at 1 m occurs at 12 kHz. Also bolt at a 46 mm distance from the center of the head mass offers resonance at 2.4 kHz, and the peak value of 115.3 dB re 1 μPa/A at 1m occurs at 11.5 kHz. This optimized design is fabricated and molded with polyurethane of 3 mm thickness. The prototype was tested at the Acoustic Test Facility (ATF) of National Institute of Ocean Technology (NIOT) for its underwater performances. Based on the result, the fundamental resonance was determined to be 2.18 kHz and the peak value of TCR of 182 dB re 1 μPa/A at 1m occurs at 14 kHz. The maximum value of the RS was found to be -190 dB re 1V/μPa at 1m at a frequency of 2.1 kHz.

  3. International comparison of 50/60 Hz power (1996-1999)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oldham, N

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available An international comparison of 50/60 Hz power is described. The travelling standard was an electronic power transducer that was tested at 120 V, 5 A, 53 Hz, at five power factors (1.0, 0.5, and 0.0). Fifteen National Metrology Institutes (NMIs) from...

  4. Reliability and Accuracy of 10 Hz GPS Devices for Short-Distance Exercise

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Castellano, Julen; Casamichana, David; Calleja-González, Julio; Román, Jaime San; Ostojic, Sergej M

    2011-01-01

    ... and accuracy of GPS devices using a sampling frequency of 10 Hz. Thus, the aim of the present research was to determine the reliability and accuracy of GPS devices operating at a sampling frequency of 10 Hz, in relation here to sprints of 15 m and 30 m and using both video and photoelectric cells. Nine trained male athletes participated in the study....

  5. US Army Research Laboratory (ARL) Standard for Characterization of Electric-Field Sensors, 10 Hz to 10 kHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    linearity , total harmonic distortion, and noise across a 60-dB frequency range of an electric-field sensor in less than 10 min. The instrumentation...Figures iv 1. Introduction 1 2. Hardware Used for Autonomous Operation 4 2.1 Data Acquisition Chassis 4 2.2 Analog-to-Digital Converter ( ADC ) 5 2.3...for Electric-field Sensors 6 3.1 Frequency Response 6 3.2 Phase Response 8 3.3 Noise Spectral Density 9 3.4 Linearity 11 3.5 Total Harmonic

  6. Review of Studies Concerning Electromagnetic Field (EMF) Exposure Assessment in Europe: Low Frequency Fields (50 Hz?100 kHz)

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Gajšek; Paolo Ravazzani; James Grellier; Theodoros Samaras; József Bakos; György Thuróczy

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to review the findings of exposure assessment studies done in European countries on the exposure of the general public to low frequency electric and magnetic fields (EMFs) of various frequencies. The study shows that outdoor average extremely low frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MF) in public areas in urban environments range between 0.05 and 0.2 µT in terms of flux densities, but stronger values (of the order of a few µT) may occur directly beneath high-voltage power lines, at the wal...

  7. Recovery of distortion product otoacoustic emissions after a 2-kHz monaural sound-exposure in humans: effects on fine structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Toro, Miguel Angel Aranda; Ordoñez, Rodrigo Pizarro; Reuter, Karen

    2010-01-01

    measurements with high time and frequency resolution in a 1/3-octave band centered at 3 kHz. On average, DPOAE levels were reduced approximately 5 dB in the entire measured frequency-range. Statistically significant differences in pre- and post-exposure DPOAE levels were observed up to 70 min after the end...

  8. Experimental simulation of satellite observations of 100 kHz radio waves from relativistic electron beams above thunderclouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Füllekrug

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Relativistic electron beams above thunderclouds emit 100 kHz radio waves which illuminate the Earth's atmosphere and near-Earth space. This contribution aims to clarify the physical processes which are relevant for the spatial spreading of the radio wave energy below and above the ionosphere and thereby enables an experimental simulation of satellite observations of 100 kHz radio waves from relativistic electron beams above thunderclouds. The simulation uses the DEMETER satellite which observes 100 kHz radio waves from fifty terrestrial Long Range Aid to Navigation (LORAN transmitters. Their mean luminosity patch in the plasmasphere is a circular area with a radius of 300 km and a power density of 22 μW/Hz as observed at 660 km height above the ground. The luminosity patches exhibit a southward displacement of 450 km with respect to the locations of the LORAN transmitters. The displacement is reduced to 150 km when an upward propagation of the radio waves along the geomagnetic field line is assumed. This residual displacement indicates that the radio waves undergo 150 km sub-ionospheric propagation prior to entering a magnetospheric duct and escaping into near-Earth space. The residual displacement at low (L < 2.14 and high (L > 2.14 geomagnetic latitudes ranges from 100 km to 200 km which suggests that the smaller inclination of the geomagnetic field lines at low latitudes helps to trap the radio waves and to keep them in the magnetospheric duct. Diffuse luminosity areas are observed northward of the magnetic conjugate locations of LORAN transmitters at extremely low geomagnetic latitudes (L < 1.36 in Southeast Asia. This result suggests that the propagation along the geomagnetic field lines results in a spatial spreading of the radio wave energy over distances of 1 Mm. The summative assessment of the electric field intensities measured in space show that nadir observations of terrestrial 100 kHz radio waves, e.g., from

  9. Power line emission 50/60 Hz and Schumann resonances observed by microsatellite Chibis-M in the Earth's ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudkin, Denys; Pilipenko, Vyacheslav; Dudkin, Fedir; Pronenko, Vira; Klimov, Stanislav

    2015-04-01

    The overhead power lines are the sources of intense wideband electromagnetic (EM) emission, especially in ELF-VLF range, because of significant length (up to a few thousand kilometers) and strong 50/60 Hz currents with noticeable distortion. The radiation efficiency of the power line emission (PLE) increases with the harmonic order, so they are well observed by ground-based EM sensors. However their observations by low orbiting satellites (LEO) are very rare, particularly at basic harmonic 50/60 Hz, because of the ionospheric plasma opacity in ELF band. The Schumann resonance (SR) is the narrow-band EM noise that occurs due to the global thunderstorm activity in the Earth-ionosphere cavity. The first five eigenmodes of the SR are 7.8, 14.3, 20.8, 27.3 and 33.8 Hz and, thus, SR harmonics are also strongly absorbed by the Earth ionosphere. The published numerical simulations show that the penetration depth of such an ELF emission into the Earth's ionosphere is limited to 50-70 km for electric field and 120-240 km for magnetic field. From this follows, that PLE and SR can hardly ever be detected by LEO satellites, i.e. above the F-layer of ionosphere. In spite of this fact, these emissions were recently observed with use of the electric field antennas placed on the satellites C/NOFS (USA) and Chibis-M (Russia). Microsatellite Chibis-M was launched on January 24, 2012, at 23:18:30 UTC from the cargo ship "Progress M-13M" to circular orbit with altitude ~500 km and inclination ~52° . Chibis-M mass is about 40 kg where one third is a scientific instrumentation. The dimensions of the microsatellite case are 0.26x0.26x0.54 m with the outside mounted solar panels, service and scientific instrumentation. The main scientific objective of Chibis-M is the theoretical model verification for the atmospheric gamma-ray bursts. It requires the study of the accompanying EM processes such as the plasma waves produced by the lightning discharges in the VLF band. Chibis-M decayed on 15

  10. Spatiotemporal analysis of turbulent jets enabled by 100-kHz, 100-ms burst-mode particle image velocimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Joseph D.; Jiang, Naibo; Slipchenko, Mikhail N.; Mance, Jason G.; Meyer, Terrence R.; Roy, Sukesh; Gord, James R.

    2016-12-01

    100-kHz particle image velocimetry (PIV) is demonstrated using a double-pulsed, burst-mode laser with a burst duration up to 100 ms. This enables up to 10,000 time-sequential vector fields for capturing a temporal dynamic range spanning over three orders of magnitude in high-speed turbulent flows. Pulse doublets with inter-pulse spacing of 2 µs and repetition rate of 100 kHz are generated using a fiber-based oscillator and amplified through an all-diode-pumped, burst-mode amplifier. A physics-based model of pulse doublet amplification in the burst-mode amplifier is developed and used to accurately predict oscillator pulse width and pulse intensity inputs required to generate equal-energy pulse doublets at 532 nm for velocity measurements. The effect of PIV particle response and high-speed-detector limitations on the spatial and temporal resolution are estimated in subsonic turbulent jets. An effective spatial resolution of 266-275 µm and temporal resolution of 10 µs are estimated from the 8 × 8 pixel correlation window and inter-doublet time spacing, respectively. This spatiotemporal resolution is sufficient for quantitative assessment of integral time and length scales in highly turbulent jets with Reynolds numbers in the range 15,000-50,000. The temporal dynamic range of the burst-mode PIV measurement is 1200, limited by the 85-ms high-energy portion of the burst and 30-kHz high-frequency noise limit.

  11. 200 kHz commercial sonar systems generate lower frequency side lobes audible to some marine mammals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Daniel Deng

    Full Text Available The spectral properties of pulses transmitted by three commercially available 200 kHz echo sounders were measured to assess the possibility that marine mammals might hear sound energy below the center (carrier frequency that may be generated by transmitting short rectangular pulses. All three sounders were found to generate sound at frequencies below the center frequency and within the hearing range of some marine mammals, e.g. killer whales, false killer whales, beluga whales, Atlantic bottlenose dolphins, harbor porpoises, and others. The frequencies of these sub-harmonic sounds ranged from 90 to 130 kHz. These sounds were likely detectable by the animals over distances up to several hundred meters but were well below potentially harmful levels. The sounds generated by the sounders could potentially affect the behavior of marine mammals within fairly close proximity to the sources and therefore the exclusion of echo sounders from environmental impact analysis based solely on the center frequency output in relation to the range of marine mammal hearing should be reconsidered.

  12. Relationship between 22-kHz calls and testosterone in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inagaki, Hideaki; Mori, Yuji

    2014-01-01

    Ultrasonic calls in rats induced by the presence of a predator, referred to as "22-kHz calls," are mainly emitted by socially dominant male rats. Testosterone levels are closely related to social dominance in male rats. In the present study, we investigated the relationship between the emission of stress-induced 22-kHz calls and circulating testosterone levels in male rats, using a combination of surgery (castration or sham operation) and chronic steroid administration (testosterone or cholesterol) to modify circulating testosterone levels. We also assessed the effects of androgen and/or estrogen receptor antagonists on the emission of 22-kHz calls in male rats. An air puff stimulus, known to reliably induce 22-kHz calls in rats, was used as a stressor. Castrated rats with cholesterol implants exhibited significantly fewer 22-kHz calls than rats that had received a sham operation and cholesterol implants, and there was no significant difference between castrated rats with testosterone implants and rats that had received a sham operation and cholesterol implants. Only male rats pretreated with a binary mixture of androgen and estrogen antagonists exhibited significantly fewer 22-kHz calls than controls. These results show that testosterone in male rats has a positive effect on the emission of stress-induced 22-kHz calls, and the calls may be regulated by the activation of both androgen and estrogen receptors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. 200 kHz Commercial Sonar Systems Generate Lower Frequency Side Lobes Audible to Some Marine Mammals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Zhiqun; Southall, Brandon; Carlson, Thomas J.; Xu, Jinshan; Martinez, Jayson J.; Weiland, Mark A.; Ingraham, John M.

    2014-04-15

    The spectral properties of pulses transmitted by three commercially available 200 kHz echo sounders were measured to assess the possibility that sound energy in below the center (carrier) frequency might be heard by marine mammals. The study found that all three sounders generated sound at frequencies below the center frequency and within the hearing range of some marine mammals and that this sound was likely detectable by the animals over limited ranges. However, at standard operating source levels for the sounders, the sound below the center frequency was well below potentially harmful levels. It was concluded that the sounds generated by the sounders could affect the behavior of marine mammals within fairly close proximity to the sources and that that the blanket exclusion of echo sounders from environmental impact analysis based solely on the center frequency output in relation to the range of marine mammal hearing should be reconsidered.

  14. Topological defects and nano-Hz gravitational waves in aligned axion models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higaki, Tetsutaro [Department of Physics, Keio University,Kanagawa 223-8522 (Japan); Jeong, Kwang Sik [Department of Physics, Pusan National University,Busan 46241 (Korea, Republic of); Kitajima, Naoya [Asia Pacific Center for Theoretical Physics,Pohang 37673 (Korea, Republic of); Sekiguchi, Toyokazu [Center for Theoretical Physics of the Universe, Institute for Basic Science,Daejeon 34051 (Korea, Republic of); Takahashi, Fuminobu [Department of Physics, Tohoku University,Sendai, Miyagi 980-8578 (Japan); Kavli IPMU (WPI), UTIAS, The University of Tokyo,Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan)

    2016-08-05

    We study the formation and evolution of topological defects in an aligned axion model with multiple Peccei-Quinn scalars, where the QCD axion is realized by a certain combination of the axions with decay constants much smaller than the conventional Peccei-Quinn breaking scale. When the underlying U(1) symmetries are spontaneously broken, the aligned structure in the axion field space exhibits itself as a complicated string-wall network in the real space. We find that the string-wall network likely survives until the QCD phase transition if the number of the Peccei-Quinn scalars is greater than two. The string-wall system collapses during the QCD phase transition, producing a significant amount of gravitational waves in the nano-Hz range at present. The typical decay constant is constrained to be below O(100) TeV by the pulsar timing observations, and the constraint will be improved by a factor of 2 in the future SKA observations.

  15. Femtosecond Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering Gas Phase Thermometry at 5 kHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fineman, Claresta; Lucht, Robert

    2014-05-01

    Understanding the thermal instabilities occurring in turbulent combustion, such as in modern gas turbine combustors, is critical for more reliable and fuel-efficient operation. Non-intrusive laser based spectroscopy methods have been documented as the techniques of choice for turbulent combustion diagnostics. Specifically, femtosecond coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (fs-CARS) thermometry has been established for temporal resolution of turbulent fluctuations in flame structure and provides accurate measurements across a wide range of temperatures. Experiments performed to date include 5 kHz pure vibrational N2 chirped probe-pulse fs-CARS thermometry on non-premixed hydrogen jet diffusion flames, methane jet diffusion flames, and the DLR gas turbine model combustor (GTMC). The fs-CARS signal generation process requires precise spatial and temporal overlap of tightly focused pulsed laser beams of less than 100 fs pulse duration. Here, signal loss due to beam steering, pressure fluctuations, or shear layer density gradients can become a problem. The effect of such interferences has been investigated using high velocity flow of compressed nitrogen gas from a converging-diverging nozzle. Resulting changes in fs-CARS spectra have been studied. Funding for this work was provided by the U.S. Department of Energy, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences and Biosciences.

  16. Use of 24 kHz ultrasound to improve sulfate precipitation from wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Lisa A; Dargue, Andrew; Dean, John R; Deary, Michael E

    2015-03-01

    Elevated sulfate concentrations in industrial effluent can lead to a number of significant problems, the most serious of which is the corrosion of concrete sewers as a result of hydrogen sulfide induced biogenic sulfuric acid attack; hydrogen sulfide can also create odor nuisance problems. The most common treatment process for sulfate removal from wastewaters is to precipitate it as gypsum using lime addition. Nevertheless, meeting discharge consent limits for sulfate can often present practical challenges due to the solubility of gypsum and so there is a need to investigate technological solutions that might provide for more consistent sulfate removal. This paper reports on the application of ultrasound during the sulfate precipitation process. We show that with as little as 10 s sonication at 24 kHz, significant increases in the rate of sulfate precipitation are observed. Particle size analysis, pH profiles and SEM micrographs, suggest that the likely mode of action is disaggregation of the calcium hydroxide particles, giving a greater solid-liquid interface, thus resulting in a faster dissolution rate and more readily available calcium ions. A range of experimental variables are studied, including the duration and power of sonication, as well as initial sulfate concentration and the effect of changing the time at which sonication is applied. For both sonicated and non-sonicated samples, precipitation commences almost immediately that the lime is added and so induction time is not an issue in this system. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Frequency-specific objective audiometry: tone-evoked brainstem responses and steady-state responses to 40 Hz and 90 Hz amplitude modulated stimuli.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijden, C.S. van der; Mens, L.H.M.; Snik, A.F.M.

    2006-01-01

    Tone-evoked Auditory Brainstem Responses (tone-burst ABRs) and Auditory Steady-State Responses (ASSRs) with 40 or 90 Hz amplitude modulation (AM) were compared, using the same equipment and recording parameters, to determine which of these three methods most accurately approached the behavioural

  18. Emergency operation of a 3AC 50Hz power grid in the Loetschberg base tunnel; Notbetrieb der Energieversorgung 3AC 50Hz im Loetschberg-Basistunnel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stadelmann, M. [BLS AG, Ressort Bahnstrom, Bern (Switzerland); Boss, J. [BKW FMB Energie AG, Spiez (Switzerland)

    2007-11-15

    At latest after 90 min after tripping of the normal supply a special isle grid energized from the power plant of Kandergrund feeds the numerous users in the base tunnel with 3 AC 50 hz. This prevents them from damages and train operation can be assured immediately after return of normal grid voltage. (orig.)

  19. Converters in 50 Hz traction power supply. From Europe to the world; Umrichter in der 50-Hz-Bahnenergieversorgung. Von Europa in die Welt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuette, Thorsten [Atkins Sverige AB, Vaesteraas (Sweden); Behmann, Uwe

    2012-05-15

    The advantageous use of static converters for 50 Hz traction power supply, which is technically, operationally and economically undisputable, appears to be attractive also under financial aspects. First concrete applications are offered by the newly structured Trans European Transport Network in which several thousand kilometres of railway track are planned to be upgraded or newly built by 2030. (orig.)

  20. DAMPAK KEBISINGAN FREKUENSI 6000 DAN 8000 Hz TERHADAP KETULIAN KARYAWAN KE-3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukar Sukar

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The Ministry of Health Regulation No. 986/1992 regarding environmental health conditions in hospitals determines that noise levels in every room, depending on its function, must fulfil the health requirements. Rooms such as the laundry and kitchen, as well as hot and cold water supply rooms should have a maximum noise level of 78 dBA. Yet, the measurement of noise levels in those rooms showed that noise levels ranged between 80-88 dBA, thus exceeding the threshold limit. Consequently, some form of study needs to be conducted. The objectives of the study is to determine wheter there is any difference in hearing losses experienced between employees exposed to high noise levels and those who are not exposed. Result: The noise level of boiler water (exposed 81-82 dBA was exceeded the regulation but level of unexposed was 56-58 dBA. The hearing losses on 6000 Hz frequencies based on exposed location 76,2% and 33,3% on unexposed location. Based on time exposure hearing losses exceeded of 10 years on exposed location 47,6% and 42,9% on unexposed location, however less than 10 years on exposed location 14,3% and 9,5% on unexposed location. Based on age hearing losses more than 40 years on exposed location 47,6% and 28,6% on unexposed location, but less than age 40 years on exposed location 23,8% and 14,3% on unexposed location. The frequencies of 8000Hz based location on exposed location 76,2% and 66,7% on unexposed location. Based on time exposure hearing losses exceeded of 10 years on exposed location 52,4% and 38,1% on unexposed location, howeverless than 10 years on exposed location 14,3% and 9,5% on unexposed location. Based on age hearing losses more than 40 years on exposed location 42,8% and 33,3% on unexposed location, but less than age 40 years on exposed location 28,6% and 14,3% on unexposed location. Conclusion: There were a significant difference of hearing losses between the exposed and unexposed group on high frequencies and time exposure.

  1. Behavioral Hearing Thresholds Between 0.125 and 20 kHz Using Depth-Compensated Ear Simulator Calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jungmee; Dhar, Sumitrajit; Abel, Rebekah; Banakis, Renee; Grolley, Evan; Lee, Jungwha; Zecker, Steven; Siegel, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to obtain behavioral hearing thresholds for frequencies between 0.125 and 20 kHz from a large population between 10 and 65 years old using a clinically feasible calibration method expected to compensate well for variations in the distance between the eardrum and an insert-type sound source. Previous reports of hearing thresholds in the extended high frequencies (> 8 kHz) have either used calibration techniques known to be inaccurate or specialized equipment not suitable for clinical use. Design Hearing thresholds were measured from 352 human subjects between 10 to 65 years old having clinically normal hearing thresholds (simulator. Threshold values were obtained for 21 frequencies between 0.125 and 20 kHz using a modified Békésy technique. Forty six of the subjects returned for a second measurement months later from the initial evaluation. Results In agreement with previous reports hearing thresholds at extended high frequencies were found to be sensitive to age related changes in auditory function. In contrast with previous reports, no gender differences were found in average hearing thresholds at most evaluated frequencies. Two aging processes, one faster than the other in time scale, appear to influence hearing thresholds in different frequency ranges. The standard deviation of test-retest threshold difference for all evaluated frequencies was 5~10 dB, comparable to that reported in the literature for similar measurement techniques, but smaller than that observed for data obtained using the standard clinical procedure. Conclusions The depth-compensated ear-simulator-based calibration method and the modified Békésy technique allow reliable measurement of hearing thresholds over the entire frequency range of human hearing. Hearing thresholds at the extended high frequencies are sensitive to aging and reveal subtle differences, which are not evident in the frequency range evaluated regularly (8 kHz and below). Previously

  2. Behavioral hearing thresholds between 0.125 and 20 kHz using depth-compensated ear simulator calibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jungmee; Dhar, Sumitrajit; Abel, Rebekah; Banakis, Renee; Grolley, Evan; Lee, Jungwha; Zecker, Steven; Siegel, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to obtain behavioral hearing thresholds for frequencies between 0.125 and 20 kHz from a large population between 10 and 65 yr old using a clinically feasible calibration method expected to compensate well for variations in the distance between the eardrum and an insert-type sound source. Previous reports of hearing thresholds in the extended high frequencies (>8 kHz) have either used calibration techniques known to be inaccurate or specialized equipment not suitable for clinical use. Hearing thresholds were measured from 352 human subjects between 10 and 65 yr old having clinically normal-hearing thresholds (simulator. Threshold values were obtained for 21 frequencies between 0.125 and 20 kHz using a modified Békésy technique. Forty-six of the subjects returned for a second measurement months later from the initial evaluation. In agreement with previous reports, hearing thresholds at extended high frequencies were found to be sensitive to age-related changes in auditory function. In contrast with previous reports, no gender differences were found in average hearing thresholds at most evaluated frequencies. Two aging processes, one faster than the other in time scale, seem to influence hearing thresholds in different frequency ranges. The standard deviation (SD) of test-retest threshold difference for all evaluated frequencies was 5 to 10 dB, comparable to that reported in the literature for similar measurement techniques but smaller than that observed for data obtained using the standard clinical procedure. The depth-compensated ear simulator-based calibration method and the modified Békésy technique allow reliable measurement of hearing thresholds over the entire frequency range of human hearing. Hearing thresholds at the extended high frequencies are sensitive to aging and reveal subtle differences, which are not evident in the frequency range evaluated regularly (≤8 kHz). Previously reported gender-related differences in

  3. Parametric Modeling of Nerve Cell under the Sinusoidal Environmental 50 Hz Extremely Low Frequency Magnetic Fields

    OpenAIRE

    Homayoun Ebrahimian; Seyied Mohammad Firoozabadi; Mahyar Janahmadi; Mehri Kaviani Moghadam

    2013-01-01

    Background & Objectives: The development of technology has naturally given rise to an increase in environmental low-frequency electromagnetic fields and consequently has attracted scholars' attention. Most of the studies have focused on transmission lines and power system distribution with 50 Hz. This research is an attempt to show the effect of 50 Hz magnetic fields on bioelectric parameters and indicates the possible influence of this change in F1 cells of Helix aspersa .   Methods: The pre...

  4. The Modified HZ Conjugate Gradient Algorithm for Large-Scale Nonsmooth Optimization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonglin Yuan

    Full Text Available In this paper, the Hager and Zhang (HZ conjugate gradient (CG method and the modified HZ (MHZ CG method are presented for large-scale nonsmooth convex minimization. Under some mild conditions, convergent results of the proposed methods are established. Numerical results show that the presented methods can be better efficiency for large-scale nonsmooth problems, and several problems are tested (with the maximum dimensions to 100,000 variables.

  5. The Modified HZ Conjugate Gradient Algorithm for Large-Scale Nonsmooth Optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Gonglin; Sheng, Zhou; Liu, Wenjie

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the Hager and Zhang (HZ) conjugate gradient (CG) method and the modified HZ (MHZ) CG method are presented for large-scale nonsmooth convex minimization. Under some mild conditions, convergent results of the proposed methods are established. Numerical results show that the presented methods can be better efficiency for large-scale nonsmooth problems, and several problems are tested (with the maximum dimensions to 100,000 variables).

  6. Discovery of decaHz flaring in SAX J1808.4-3658

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bult, P.

    2014-01-01

    We report on the discovery of strong decaHz flaring in the early decay of two out of five outbursts of the accreting millisecond X-ray pulsar SAX J1808.4-3658. The decaHz flaring switches on and, after ~3 days, off again, on a time scale of 1-2 hours. When the flaring is present, the total 0.05-10

  7. A dumbbell-shaped hybrid magnetometer operating in DC-10 kHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Hongyu; Wang, Yanzhang; Chen, Siyu; Lin, Jun

    2017-12-01

    This study is motivated by the need to design a hybrid magnetometer operating in a wide-frequency band from DC to 10 kHz. To achieve this objective, a residence times difference fluxgate magnetometer (RTDFM) and an induction magnetometer (IM) have been integrated into a compact form. The hybrid magnetometer has a dumbbell-shaped structure in which the RTDFM transducer is partially inserted into the tube cores of the IM. Thus, the sensitivity of the RTDFM is significantly improved due to the flux amplification. The optimal structure, which has maximum sensitivity enhancement, was obtained through FEM analysis. To validate the theoretical analysis, the optimal hybrid magnetometer was manufactured, and its performance was evaluated. The device has a sensitivity of 45 mV/nT at 1 kHz in IM mode and 0.38 μs/nT in RTDFM mode, which is approximately 3.45 times as large as that of the single RTDFM structure. Furthermore, to obtain a lower noise performance in the entire frequency band, two operation modes switch at the cross frequency (0.16 Hz) of their noise levels. The noise level is 30 pT/√Hz in RTDFM mode and 0.07 pT/√Hz at 1 kHz in IM mode.

  8. Anticipatory 50 kHz ultrasonic vocalizations are associated with escalated alcohol intake in dependent rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Cara L; Malavar, Jordan C; George, Olivier; Koob, George F; Vendruscolo, Leandro F

    2014-09-01

    Rats emit 50kHz ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) in situations of increased motivation, such as during the anticipation of palatable food or drugs of abuse. Whether the same holds true for the anticipation of alcohol intake remains unknown. Alcohol drinking in a nondependent state is thought to be mediated by its rewarding effects (positive reinforcement), whereas drinking in the dependent state is motivated by alcohol's stress-relieving effects (negative reinforcement). Here, we measured context-elicited 50kHz USVs in alcohol-dependent (alcohol vapor-exposed) and nondependent rats immediately before operant alcohol self-administration sessions. Dependent rats showed escalated levels of alcohol intake compared with nondependent rats. Overall, dependent and nondependent rats showed similar levels of anticipatory 50kHz USVs. However, the number of anticipatory USVs was positively correlated with alcohol intake in dependent rats but not nondependent rats. Additionally, dependent rats with higher alcohol intake displayed increased anticipatory 50kHz USVs compared with rats that had lower alcohol intake, whereas no difference was observed between rats with high and low alcohol intake in the nondependent group. Increased 50kHz USVs were specific for the anticipation of alcohol self-administration and did not generalize to a novel environment. These findings suggest that anticipatory 50kHz USVs may be an indicator of context-elicited negative reinforcement learning. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. On the Nature of the mHz X-Ray QPOs from ULX M82 X-1: Evidence for Timing-Spectral (anti) Correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasham, Dheeraj R.; Strohmayer, Tod E.

    2013-01-01

    Using all the archival XMM-Newton X-ray (3-10 keV) observations of the ultraluminous X-ray source (ULX) M82 X-1 we searched for a correlation between its variable mHz quasi-periodic oscillation (QPO) frequency and its energy spectral power-law index. These quantities are known to correlate in stellar mass black holes (StMBHs) exhibiting Type-C QPOs (approx 0.2-15 Hz). The detection of such a correlation would strengthen the identification of its mHz QPOs as Type-C and enable a more reliable mass estimate by scaling its QPO frequencies to those of Type-C QPOs in StMBHs of known mass. We resolved the count rates of M82 X-1 and a nearby bright ULX (source 5/X42.3+59) through surface brightness modeling and identify observations in which M82 X-1 was at least as bright as source 5. Using only those observations, we detect QPOs in the frequency range of 36-210 mHz during which the energy spectral power-law index varied from 1.7-2.2. Interestingly, we find evidence for an anti-correlation (Pearsons correlation coefficient = -0.95) between the power-law index and the QPO centroid frequency. While such an anti-correlation is observed in StMBHs at high Type-C QPO frequencies (approx 5-15 Hz), the frequency range over which it holds in StMBHs is significantly smaller (factor of approx 1.5-3) than the QPO range reported here from M82 X-1 (factor of 6). However, it remains possible that contamination from source 5 can bias our result. Joint Chandra/XMM-Newton observations in the future can resolve this problem and confirm the timing-spectral anti-correlation reported here.

  10. Effects of the India–Pakistan border earthquake on the atmospherics at 6 kHz and 9 kHz recorded at Tripura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudarsan Barui

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The unusual variations observed in the records of the integrated field intensity of the atmospherics (IFIA at 6 kHz and 9 kHz at Agartala, Tripura, in the north-eastern state of India (latitude, 23˚ N; longitude, 91.4˚ E during the large earthquake on October 8, 2005 at Muzaffarabad (latitude, 34.53˚ N; longitude, 73.58˚ E in Kashmir in Pakistan are here analyzed. Spiky variations in the IFIA at 6 kHz and 9 kHz were observed several days previous to the day of the earthquake (from midnight, September 28, 2005. The effects persisted for some days, decayed gradually, and eventually ceased on October 31, 2005. The spikes are distinctly superimposed on the ambient level

  11. Binaural Interaction Effects of 30-50 Hz Auditory Steady State Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gransier, Robin; van Wieringen, Astrid; Wouters, Jan

    Auditory stimuli modulated by modulation frequencies within the 30 to 50 Hz region evoke auditory steady state responses (ASSRs) with high signal to noise ratios in adults, and can be used to determine the frequency-specific hearing thresholds of adults who are unable to give behavioral feedback reliably. To measure ASSRs as efficiently as possible a multiple stimulus paradigm can be used, stimulating both ears simultaneously. The response strength of 30 to 50Hz ASSRs is, however, affected when both ears are stimulated simultaneously. The aim of the present study is to gain insight in the measurement efficiency of 30 to 50 Hz ASSRs evoked with a 2-ear stimulation paradigm, by systematically investigating the binaural interaction effects of 30 to 50 Hz ASSRs in normal-hearing adults. ASSRs were obtained with a 64-channel EEG system in 23 normal-hearing adults. All participants participated in one diotic, multiple dichotic, and multiple monaural conditions. Stimuli consisted of a modulated one-octave noise band, centered at 1 kHz, and presented at 70 dB SPL. The diotic condition contained 40 Hz modulated stimuli presented to both ears. In the dichotic conditions, the modulation frequency of the left ear stimulus was kept constant at 40 Hz, while the stimulus at the right ear was either the unmodulated or modulated carrier. In case of the modulated carrier, the modulation frequency varied between 30 and 50 Hz in steps of 2 Hz across conditions. The monaural conditions consisted of all stimuli included in the diotic and dichotic conditions. Modulation frequencies ≥36 Hz resulted in prominent ASSRs in all participants for the monaural conditions. A significant enhancement effect was observed (average: ~3 dB) in the diotic condition, whereas a significant reduction effect was observed in the dichotic conditions. There was no distinct effect of the temporal characteristics of the stimuli on the amount of reduction. The attenuation was in 33% of the cases >3 dB for

  12. Development and pharmacologic characterization of the rat 6 Hz model of partial seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalf, Cameron S; West, Peter J; Thomson, Kyle E; Edwards, Sharon F; Smith, Misty D; White, H Steve; Wilcox, Karen S

    2017-06-01

    The mouse 6 Hz model of psychomotor seizures is a well-established and commonly used preclinical model for antiseizure drug (ASD) discovery. Despite its widespread use both in the identification and differentiation of novel ASDs in mice, a corresponding assay in rats has not been developed. We established a method for 6 Hz seizure induction in rats, with seizure behaviors similar to those observed in mice including head nod, jaw clonus, and forelimb clonus. A convulsive current that elicits these seizure behaviors in 97% of rats (CC97 ) was determined using a Probit analysis. Numerous prototype ASDs were evaluated in this model using stimulus intensities of 1.5× and 2× the CC97 , which is comparable to the approach used in the mouse 6 Hz seizure model (e.g., 32 and 44 mA stimulus intensities). The ASDs evaluated include carbamazepine, clobazam, clonazepam, eslicarbazepine, ethosuximide, ezogabine, gabapentin, lacosamide, lamotrigine, levetiracetam, phenobarbital, phenytoin, rufinamide, tiagabine, topiramate, and sodium valproate. Median effective dose (ED50 ) and median toxic (motor impairment) dose (TD50 ) values were obtained for each compound. Compounds that were effective at the 1.5 × CC97 stimulus intensity at protective index (PI) values >1 included clobazam, ethosuximide, ezogabine, levetiracetam, phenobarbital, and sodium valproate. Compounds that were effective at the 2 × CC97 stimulus intensity at PI values >1 included ezogabine, phenobarbital, and sodium valproate. In a manner similar to the use of the mouse 6 Hz model, development of a rat 6 Hz test will aid in the differentiation of ASDs, as well as in study design and dose selection for chronic rat models of pharmacoresistant epilepsy. The limited number of established ASDs with demonstrable efficacy at the higher stimulus intensity suggests that, like the mouse 6 Hz 44 mA model, the rat 6 Hz seizure model may be a useful screening tool for pharmacoresistant seizures. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Fault Detection based on MCSA for a 400Hz Asynchronous Motor for Airborne Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffen Haus

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Future health monitoring concepts in different fields of engineering require reliable fault detection to avoid unscheduled machine downtime. Diagnosis of electrical induction machines for industrial applications is widely discussed in literature. In aviation industry, this topic is still only rarely discussed.A common approach to health monitoring for electrical induction machines is to use Motor Current Signature Analysis (MCSA based on a Fast Fourier Transform (FFT. Research results on this topic are available for comparatively large motors, where the power supply is typically based on 50Hz alternating current, which is the general power supply frequency for industrial applications.In this paper, transferability to airborne applications, where the power supply is 400Hz, is assessed. Three phase asynchronous motors are used to analyse detectability of different motor faults. The possibility to transfer fault detection results from 50Hz to 400Hz induction machines is the main question answered in this research work. 400Hz power supply frequency requires adjusted motor design, causing increased motor speed compared to 50Hz supply frequency. The motor used for experiments in this work is a 800W motor with 200V phase to phase power supply, powering an avionic fan. The fault cases to be examined are a bearing fault, a rotor unbalance, a stator winding fault, a broken rotor bar and a static air gap eccentricity. These are the most common faults in electrical induction machines which can cause machine downtime. The focus of the research work is the feasibility of the application of MCSA for small scale, high speed motor design, using the Fourier spectra of the current signal.Detectability is given for all but the bearing fault, although rotor unbalance can only be detected in case of severe damage level. Results obtained in the experiments are interpreted with respect to the motor design. Physical interpretation are given in case the results differ

  14. Acoustic effects of the ATOC signal (75 Hz, 195 dB) on dolphins and whales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Au, W.W.; Nachtigall, P.E.; Pawloski, J.L. [Marine Mammal Research Program, Hawaii Institute of Marine Biology, University of Hawaii, P.O. Box 1106, Kailua, Hawaii 96734 (United States)

    1997-05-01

    The Acoustic Thermometry of Ocean Climate (ATOC) program of Scripps Institution of Oceanography and the Applied Physics Laboratory, University of Washington, will broadcast a low-frequency 75-Hz phase modulated acoustic signal over ocean basins in order to study ocean temperatures on a global scale and examine the effects of global warming. One of the major concerns is the possible effect of the ATOC signal on marine life, especially on dolphins and whales. In order to address this issue, the hearing sensitivity of a false killer whale ({ital Pseudorca crassidens}) and a Risso{close_quote}s dolphin ({ital Grampus griseus}) to the ATOC sound was measured behaviorally. A staircase procedure with the signal levels being changed in 1-dB steps was used to measure the animals{close_quote} threshold to the actual ATOC coded signal. The results indicate that small odontocetes such as the {ital Pseudorca} and {ital Grampus} swimming directly above the ATOC source will not hear the signal unless they dive to a depth of approximately 400 m. A sound propagation analysis suggests that the sound-pressure level at ranges greater than 0.5 km will be less than 130 dB for depths down to about 500 m. Several species of baleen whales produce sounds much greater than 170{endash}180 dB. With the ATOC source on the axis of the deep sound channel (greater than 800 m), the ATOC signal will probably have minimal physical and physiological effects on cetaceans. {copyright} {ital 1997 Acoustical Society of America.}

  15. Exposure to power frequency electromagnetic fields; Eksponering for elektromagnetiske 50 Hz felter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skotte, J.

    1993-10-01

    The purpose was to asses personal exposure to power frequency electromagnetic fields in Denmark. Exposure to electrical and magnetic 50 Hz fields were measured with personal dosimeters in periods of 24 hours covering both occupational and residential environments. The study included both highly exposed and `normal` exposed jobs. Measurements were carried out with dosimeters, which sample electrical and magnetic fields every 5 sec. Participants also wore the dosimeter during transportation. The dynamic range of the dosimeters was 0.01-200 {mu}T and 0.6-10000 V/m. The highest average exposure in homes near high power lines was 2.24 {mu}T. In most homes without nearby high power lines the average exposure was below 0.05 {mu}T. Average values of `24-hour-dose` ({mu}T times hours) for the generator facility, transmission line and substation workers were approximately the same as for the people living near high power lines (5 {mu}T x hours). Electric field measurements with personal dosimeters involve several factors of uncertainty, as the body, posture, position of dosimeter etc. influence the results. The highest exposed groups were transmission line workers (GM: 44 V/m) and substation workers (GM: 23 V/m) but there were large variations (GSD: 4.7-4.8). In the work time the exposure level was the same for office workers and workers in the industry groups (GM: 12-13 V/m). In homes near high power lines (GM: 23 V/m) there was a non-significant tendency to higher exposure compared to homes without nearby high power lines. (AB) (11 refs.).

  16. Transitions of an atmospheric-pressure diffuse dielectric barrier discharge in helium for frequencies increasing from kHz to MHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boisvert, J.-S.; Margot, J.; Massines, F.

    2017-03-01

    Recent studies have shown that tuning a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) in the medium-frequency range (MF: from 0.3 to 3 MHz) allows a low-power and a high-power mode to be sustained. In the present article the effect of the driving frequency on a DBD is studied from the low-frequency range (LF: from 30 to 300 kHz) to the high-frequency range (HF: from 3 to 30 MHz). This is achieved using fast imaging together with electrical and spectroscopic diagnostics. At every frequency, a diffuse discharge is sustained. It is observed that at 25 kHz the discharge is an atmospheric-pressure glow discharge (APGD) while at 15 MHz the discharge behaves as a capacitive discharge in the RF-α mode. The usual LF APGD behavior is observed up to 100 kHz. Above 200 kHz, the positive column remains during the whole cycle so that the hybrid mode is sustained. At 5 MHz, the hybrid mode finally turns into the RF-α mode. In addition to the LF APGD, RF-α and hybrid modes obtained when the applied voltage is significantly higher than the ignition value, two other modes can be reached at low applied voltage. A Townsend-like mode is achieved from 50 to 100 kHz while in the medium-frequency range, the Ω mode is sustained. Moreover, only from 1.0 to 2.7 MHz there is a large hysteresis occurring when the discharge transits back and forth from the Ω to the hybrid mode. It is also found that when the frequency increases from 25 kHz to 15 MHz, the rms current increases over two orders of magnitudes while the rms voltage decreases by about 60%. The gas temperature estimated from N2 rotational spectra is always close to room temperature but the discharge is more energy efficient (in the HF range) as a lower fraction of energy turns into gas heating.

  17. Individual Alpha Peak Frequency Predicts 10 Hz Flicker Effects on Selective Attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulbinaite, Rasa; van Viegen, Tara; Wieling, Martijn; Cohen, Michael X; VanRullen, Rufin

    2017-10-18

    Rhythmic visual stimulation ("flicker") is primarily used to "tag" processing of low-level visual and high-level cognitive phenomena. However, preliminary evidence suggests that flicker may also entrain endogenous brain oscillations, thereby modulating cognitive processes supported by those brain rhythms. Here we tested the interaction between 10 Hz flicker and endogenous alpha-band (∼10 Hz) oscillations during a selective visuospatial attention task. We recorded EEG from human participants (both genders) while they performed a modified Eriksen flanker task in which distractors and targets flickered within (10 Hz) or outside (7.5 or 15 Hz) the alpha band. By using a combination of EEG source separation, time-frequency, and single-trial linear mixed-effects modeling, we demonstrate that 10 Hz flicker interfered with stimulus processing more on incongruent than congruent trials (high vs low selective attention demands). Crucially, the effect of 10 Hz flicker on task performance was predicted by the distance between 10 Hz and individual alpha peak frequency (estimated during the task). Finally, the flicker effect on task performance was more strongly predicted by EEG flicker responses during stimulus processing than during preparation for the upcoming stimulus, suggesting that 10 Hz flicker interfered more with reactive than proactive selective attention. These findings are consistent with our hypothesis that visual flicker entrained endogenous alpha-band networks, which in turn impaired task performance. Our findings also provide novel evidence for frequency-dependent exogenous modulation of cognition that is determined by the correspondence between the exogenous flicker frequency and the endogenous brain rhythms.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Here we provide novel evidence that the interaction between exogenous rhythmic visual stimulation and endogenous brain rhythms can have frequency-specific behavioral effects. We show that alpha-band (10 Hz) flicker impairs stimulus

  18. Effects of rhythmical muscle tension at 0.1Hz on cardiovascular resonance and the baroreflex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehrer, Paul; Vaschillo, Evgeny; Trost, Zina; France, Christopher R

    2009-04-01

    This paper reports analysis of data from a previous study examining cardiovascular effects of rhythmical skeletal muscle tension (RSMT) at 0.1Hz. Our analysis examined whether 0.1Hz RSMT stimulates resonance properties of the cardiovascular system provided by baroreflex (BR) activity. Thirty-seven study participants tensed their large skeletal muscles, with and without crossing their legs, for 3-min periods at a rate of six tension/relaxation cycles/min. Tensing periods were preceded and followed by 3-min rest periods. RSMT elicited high-amplitude 0.1Hz oscillations in the cardiovascular system. We found increases in spectral power of ECG R-R interbeat interval (RRI), systolic blood pressure (SBP) and pulse transit time (PTT) at this frequency. The increases in SBP and PTT oscillations were greater than those in RRI. Only in SBP and PTT did total variability (standard deviation) increase. The phase angle between RRI and SBP oscillations was approximately 45 degrees . Although alpha low-frequency baroreflex gain was attenuated by RSMT, it was not significantly changed at 0.1Hz, consistent with BR-induced resonance effects. Our results are consistent with previous observations that 0.1Hz RSMT is effective in treating vasovagal reactions and indicate that the pathway is through resonance characteristics of the BR system. Implications for resonance applications for resonance in the sympathetically mediated vascular tone baroreflex closed loop are discussed.

  19. HZ-6d targeted HERC5 to regulate p53 ISGylation in human hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Ding, Qi; Xu, Tao; Li, Chang-Yao; Zhou, Dan-Dan; Zhang, Lei

    2017-11-01

    Manipulating the posttranslational modulator of p53 is central in the regulation of its activity and function. ISGylated p53 can be degraded by the 20S proteasome. During this process, HERC5/Ceb1, an IFN-induced HECT-type E3 ligase, mediated p53 ISGylation. In this study, we indicated that HERC5 was over-expressed in both HCC tissue samples and cell lines. Knockdown of HERC5 significantly induced the expression of p53, p21 and Bax/Bcl-2 in HCC cells, resulting in apoptosis augment. Whereas, opposite results were obtained by using HERC5 over-expression. On this basis, we screened a 7, 11-disubstituted quinazoline derivative HZ-6d that could bind to the HERC5 G-rich sequence in vitro. Interestingly, HZ-6d injection effectively delayed the growth of xenografts in nude mice. In vitro, HZ-6d significantly inhibited cell growth, suppressed cell migration, induced apoptosis in HCC cells. Further studies demonstrated the anti-cancer effect of HZ-6d was associated with down-regulation of HERC5 and accumulation of p53. Collectively, we demonstrated that HZ6d is a HERC5 G-quadruplex ligand with anti-tumor properties, an action that may offer an attractive idea for restoration of p53 function in cancers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Discovery of a 34 Hz quasi-periodic oscillation in the X-ray emission of GRS 1915+105

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belloni, T.M.; Altamirano, D.

    2013-01-01

    We report the discovery in the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer data of GRS 1915+105 of a second quasi-periodic oscillation at 34 Hz, simultaneous with that observed at 68 Hz in the same observation. The data corresponded to those observations from 2003 where the 68 Hz oscillation was very strong. The

  1. Adsorption Isotherms for Xenon and Krypton using INL HZ-PAN and AgZ-PAN Sorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garn, Troy G. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Greenhalgh, Mitchell [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Rutledge, Veronica J. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Law, Jack D. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-08-01

    The generation of adsorption isotherms compliments the scale-up of off-gas processes used to control the emission of encapsulated radioactive volatile fission and activation products released during Used Nuclear Fuel (UNF) reprocessing activities. A series of experiments were conducted to obtain capacity results for varying Kr and Xe gas concentrations using HZ-PAN and AgZ-PAN engineered form sorbents. Gas compositions for Kr ranged from 150-40,000 ppmv and 250-5020 ppmv for Xe in a helium balance. The experiments were all performed at 220 K at a flowrate of 50 sccm. Acquired capacities were then respectively fit to the Langmuir equation using the Langmuir linear regression method to obtain the equilibrium parameters Qmax and Keq. Generated experimental adsorption isotherms were then plotted with the Langmuir predicted isotherms to illustrate agreement between the two. The Langmuir parameters were provided for input into the OSPREY model to predict breakthrough of single component adsorption of Kr and Xe on HZ-PAN and AgZ-PAN sorbents at the experimental conditions tested. Kr and Xe capacities resulting from model breakthrough predictions were then compared to experimental capacities for model validation.

  2. Communication: Molecular near-infrared transitions determined with sub-kHz accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin; Sun, Yu R.; Tao, Lei-Gang; Liu, An-Wen; Hu, Shui-Ming

    2017-09-01

    Precise molecular transition frequencies are needed in various studies including the test of fundamental physics. Two well isolated ro-vibrational transitions of 12C16O at 1.57 μ m, R(9) and R(10) in the second overtone band, were measured by a comb-locked cavity ring-down spectrometer. Despite the weakness of the lines (Einstein coefficient A ≃0.008 s-1), Lamb-dip spectra were recorded with a signal-to-noise ratio over 1000, and the line positions were determined to be 191 360 212 761.1 and 191 440 612 662.2 kHz, respectively, with an uncertainty of 0.5 kHz (δ ν /ν =2.6 ×1 0-12). The present work demonstrates the possibility to explore extensive molecular lines in the near-infrared with sub-kHz accuracy.

  3. Low frequency, ca. 40 Hz, pulse trains recorded in the humpback whale assembly in Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darling, James D

    2015-11-01

    During studies of humpback whale song and social sounds in Hawaii, bouts of low frequency (ca. 40 Hz) pulses were periodically recorded. One example was made near an active group of eight adults (included 22 bouts, 2-13 s long, over 90 min); another close to an adult male-female pair (12 bouts, 9-93 s long, over 22 min). The mean peak and center frequencies (39 to 40 Hz) and bandwidth (13 Hz) were similar in both, but the organization of the pulses differed. Song components, social sounds, bubble trains, or other species do not provide a ready explanation for this sound.

  4. Development of LD pumped 10 J x 10 Hz Nd: Glass slab laser system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamanaka, Masanobu; Kanabe, Tadashi; Matsui, Hideki [Osaka Univ., Suita (Japan). Inst. of Laser Engineering] (and others)

    2000-03-01

    As a first step of a driver development for the inertial fusion energy, we are developing a diode-pumped zig-zag Nd: glass slab laser amplifier system which can generate an output of 10 J per pulse at 1053 nm in 10 Hz operation. The water-cooled zig-zag Nd: glass slab is pumped from both sides by 803-nm AlGaAs laser-diode (LD) module; each LD module has an emitting area of 420 mm x 10 mm and two LD modules generated in total 200 kW peak power with 2.5 kW/cm{sup 2} peak intensity at 10 Hz repetition rate. We have obtained in a preliminary experiment a 8.5 J output energy at 0.5 Hz with beam quality of 2 times diffraction limited far-field pattern. (author)

  5. Capacitive Proximity Sensor Has Longer Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vranish, John M.

    1992-01-01

    Capacitive proximity sensor on robot arm detects nearby object via capacitive effect of object on frequency of oscillator. Sensing element part of oscillator circuit operating at about 20 kHz. Total capacitance between sensing element and ground constitutes tuning capacitance of oscillator. Sensor circuit includes shield driven by replica of alternating voltage applied to sensing element. Driven shield concentrates sensing electrostatic field in exterior region to enhance sensitivity to object. Sensitivity and dynamic range has corresponding 12-to-1 improvement.

  6. Perancangan Prototipe Transmitter Beacon Black Box Locator Acoustic 37.5 kHz Pingers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RUSTAMAJI RUSTAMAJI

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Pingers transmitter berfungsi untuk memancarkan sinyal atau getaran pulsa akustik pada black box. Frekuensi sinyal yang dipancarkan sebesar 37,5 kHz yang dimodulasikan oleh pulsa dengan durasi 10 ms setiap interval 1 second. Modulasi yang digunakan adalah modulasi on off keying. Dalam penelitian ini dibuat perancangan pingers transmitter yang tersusun atas rangkaian osilator, timer, inverter, switch dan rangkaian amplifier. Frekuensi 37,5 kHz tersebut dibangkitkan oleh rangkaian osilator colpitts, sedangkan lebar pulsa dengan durasi 10 ms dan pengulangan pulsa setiap interval 1 second dibangkitkan oleh rangkaian timer. Berdasarkan perancangan yang telah dibuat, output sinyal yang dihasilkan oleh prototipe pingers transmitter tersebut sebesar 37,69 kHz dengan lebar pulsa 9,8 ms setiap interval 1 second. Kata kunci: Black box, pingers transmitter, on off keying. ABSTRACT Pingers transmitter is used to emits a signal or pulse of acoustic vibrations  in black box. The frequency of the transmitted signal is 37.5 kHz which is modulated by pulses with a duration of 10 ms every interval 1 second. The modulation that used this research is on off keying modulation. In this research, made the design of pingers transmitter which arrange of the oscillator circuit,timer, inverter, switch, and amplifier circuit. The 37.5 kHz frequency is generated by the colpitts oscillator circuit, while the pulse width with a duration of 10 ms,and each pulse repetition interval of 1 second generated by timer circuit. Based on the design that have made, signal output from the pingers transmitter prototype is 37.69 kHz, with the pulse width 9.8 ms every 1 second interval. Keywords: Black box, pingers transmitter, on off keying.

  7. Theta-associated high-frequency oscillations (110–160 Hz) in the hippocampus and neocortex

    OpenAIRE

    Tort, Adriano B. L.; Scheffer-Teixeira, Robson; Souza, Bryan C.; Draguhn, Andreas; Brankacˇk, Jurij

    2013-01-01

    TORT, A. B. L. ; SCHEFFER-TEIXEIRA, R ; Souza, B.C. ; DRAGUHN, A. ; BRANKACK, J. . Theta-associated high-frequency oscillations (110-160 Hz) in the hippocampus and neocortex. Progress in Neurobiology , v. 100, p. 1-14, 2013. We review recent evidence for a novel type of fast cortical oscillatory activity that occurs circumscribed between 110 and 160 Hz, which we refer to as high-frequency oscillations (HFOs). HFOs characteristically occur modulated by theta phase in the hippocampus a...

  8. A phase-equalized digital multirate filter for 50 Hz signal processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vainio, O. [Tampere University of Technology, Signal Processing Laboratory, Tampere (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    A new multistage digital filter is proposed for 50 Hz line frequency signal processing in zero-crossing detectors and synchronous power systems. The purpose of the filter is to extract the fundamental sinusoidal signal from noise and impulsive disturbances so that the output is accurately in phase with the primary input signal. This is accomplished with a cascade of a median filter, a linear-phase FIR filter, and a phase corrector. A 10 kHz output timing resolution is achieved by up-sampling with a customized interpolation filter. (orig.) 15 refs.

  9. Perancangan Prototipe Receiver Beacon Black Box Locator Acoustic 37,5 kHz Pingers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RUSTAMAJI RUSTAMAJI

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Ketika suatu pesawat terbang mengalami kecelakaan terjatuh ke dalam air, maka lokasi keberadaannya dapat dideteksi oleh alat yang disebut receiver beacon black box locator acoustic (pingers receiver. Pingers receiver berfungsi untuk menerima sinyal dengan frekuensi 37,5 kHz ± 1 kHz dari pingers transmitter atau Underwater Locator Beacon (ULB yang berada pada black box pesawat. Dalam penelitian ini dibuat perancangan pingers receiver yang tersusun dari rangkaian Band Pass Filter (BPF, detektor selubung, penguat audio, dan loud speaker. Frekuensi sinyal 37,5 kHz ± 1 kHz yang dikirim oleh pingers transmitter akan diterima oleh pingers receiver, dimana tahap pertama melewati rangkaian Band Pass Filter (BPF selanjutnya sinyal akan dideteksi oleh detektor selubung untuk mengambil kembali sinyal informasi yang berupa sinyal pulsa dengan lebar pulsa 10 milidetik dan interval 1 detik sebagai sinyal pingers yang nantinya mampu didengar oleh telinga manusia. Berdasarkan perancangan yang telah dibuat, output sinyal yang dihasilkan oleh prototipe pingers receiver tersebut memiliki lebar pulsa 14 milidetik dengan interval 1 detik. Kata kunci: pingers receiver, band pass filter (BPF, detektor selubung, loud speaker. ABSTRACT When an aircraft caught in an accident and crashes into the water, its location can be detected using a device called a receiver beacon black box locator acoustic (pingers receiver. The pingers receiver functioned as a reciever signal with 37,5 kHz ± 1 kHz frequency from trnasmitter pingers or Underwater Locator Beacon (ULB which is on air plane black blox. In this research made design pingers receiver composed of a series of  Band Pass Filter (BPF, envelope detector, audio amplifier, and loud speaker. The signal of 37,5 kHz ± 1 kHz  frequency sent by pingers transmitter will bereceived by pingers receiver, after which the signal will be processed by the Band Pass Filter (BPF circuit before being detected by envelope detector

  10. Frequency peaks of tremor, muscle vibration and electromyographic activity at 10 Hz, 20 Hz and 40 Hz during human finger muscle contraction may reflect rhythmicities of central neural firing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAuley, J H; Rothwell, J C; Marsden, C D

    1997-05-01

    The output from the central nervous system to muscles may be rhythmic in nature. Previous recordings investigating peripheral manifestations of such rhythmic activity are conflicting. This study attempts to resolve these conflicts by employing a novel arrangement to measure and correlate rhythms in tremor, electromyographic (EMG) activity and muscle vibration sounds during steady index finger abduction. An elastic attachment of the index finger to a strain gauge allowed a strong but relatively unfixed abducting contraction of the first dorsal interosseous (1DI). An accelerometer attached to the end of the finger recorded tremor, surface electrodes over 1DI recorded EMG signals and a heart-sounds monitor placed over 1DI recorded vibration. This arrangement enabled maintenance of a constant overall muscle contraction strength while still allowing measurement of the occurrence of tremulous movements of the finger. Ten normal subjects were studied with the index finger first extended at rest and then contracting 1DI to abduct the index finger against three different steady forces up to 50% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC). Power spectral analysis of tremor, EMG activity and muscle vibration signals each revealed three frequency peaks occurring together at around 10 Hz, 20 Hz and 40 Hz. Coherence analysis showed that the same three peaks were present in the three signals. Phase analysis indicated a fixed time lag of tremor behind EMG of around 6.5 ms. This is compared with previous measurements of electromechanical delay. Other experiments indicated that the three peaks were of central nervous origin. Introducing mechanical perturbations or extra loading to the finger and making recordings under partial anaesthesia of the hand and forearm demonstrated preservation of all the peaks, suggesting that they did not originate from mechanical resonances or peripheral feedback loop resonances. It is concluded that, at least for a small hand muscle, there exist not one but

  11. Two discrete components of the 20 Hz steady-state response are distinguished through the modulation of activation level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Griskova, Inga; Mørup, Morten; Parnas, Josef

    2009-01-01

    of interest (high activation level) and while subjects were sitting in a reclined position with eyes closed and the lights turned off (low activation level). Sixty-one channel EEG data was wavelet transformed, the amplitude and phase precision measures extracted and decomposed by the multi-subject non......Objective: To investigate the modulation of amplitude and phase precision of the auditory steady-state response (SSR) to 20 Hz stimulation in two conditions varying in the level of activation. Methods: Click stimuli (20 Hz) were applied while subjects were sitting upright silently reading a book...... by the activation level was observed only for 20 Hz SSR-related 40 Hz activity as increased amplitude and phase precision during low activation level. No such effects were observed for 20 Hz SSR. Conclusion: The discrete components of the 20 Hz SSR are distinguished through modulation of activation level, 20 Hz SSR...

  12. The History of the Naval Torpedo Tracking Ranges at Keyport

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-08-01

    1961, negotiations were begun with Canada for the installation and joint operation of an acoustic range near Ballenas Island, in the Strait of Georgia...After several exploratory trips were made to Ballenas and Winchelsea Islands, construction of the range, based on the low frequency 75 kHz tracking...The array cables were temporarily terminated at a trailer on South Ballenas Island that contained the range tracking computer and served as a range

  13. 1 kHz vibration increases proteoglycan production in ATDC5 chondrocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argadine, Heather M.; Kinnick, Randall R.; Greenleaf, James F.; Bolander, Mark E.

    2005-04-01

    In vitro studies have shown that treatment with 1.5 MHz ultrasound signal (160 mW/cm2) at a 200 μs tone burst repeating at 1 kHz increases proteoglycan synthesis in chondrocytes [J. Parvisi et al., J. Orthop. Res. 17, 488-494 (1999)]. It was hypothesized that a continuous 1 kHz signal would be similar to the pulsed 1.5 MHz signal in stimulating chondrocytes to produce proteoglycan, which may cause accelerated fracture healing. In vitro experiments were performed with ATDC5 cells, a chondrogenic clonal cell line, plated in 6-well plates for 3 to 7 days before receiving ultrasound treatments. Cells were treated with either 1.5 MHz pulsed signal or 1 kHz signal for 20 minutes per day for 9 to 11 days. The signals were calibrated so that the bottom of the 6-well plate moved 10 nm for each condition. After the final treatment, cell layers were stained with Alcian blue, which stains cartilage nodules providing a measure of chondrogenesis. Both 1.5 MHz and 1 kHz led to a highly significant increase in chondrogenesis compared to control. Quantitative image analysis of stained wells showed that treatments with either signal increased number of nodules 2.3-fold (p<0.02) and total area of nodules 3-fold (p<0.02) compared to controls.

  14. 1 Hz flaring in SAX J1808.4-3658: flow instabilities near the propeller stage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patruno, A.; Watts, A.; Klein Wolt, M.; Wijnands, R.; van der Klis, M.

    2009-01-01

    We present a simultaneous periodic and aperiodic timing study of the accreting millisecond X-ray pulsar SAX J1808.4-3658. We analyze five outbursts of the source and for the first time provide a full and systematic investigation of the enigmatic phenomenon of the 1 Hz flares observed during the

  15. Development of a 50-60 Hz thermally switched superconducting rectifier

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chevtchenko, O.A.; ten Kate, Herman H.J.; Krooshoop, Hendrikus J.G.; Markovsky, N.V.; Mulder, G.B.J.; Mulder, G.B.J.

    1993-01-01

    A full-wave thermally switched superconducting rectifier, able to operate directly from the mains at the 50-60-Hz frequency, has been developed. Typical design output values of this device are a current of 300 A, a voltage of up to 1 V, an average power of up to 100 VA, and an efficiency better than

  16. Development of a 16 kHz repetition rate, 110 W average power ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper presents the design and performance analysis of an indigenously developed 110 W average output power copper HyBrID laser operating at 16 kHz pulse repetition rate. The laser active medium .... ing a 75 MHz high voltage probe (Tektronix-P6015A) and a fast current transformer. (Pearson 110 A) respectively.

  17. Interpersonal synchrony enhanced through 20 Hz phase-coupled dual brain stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novembre, Giacomo; Knoblich, Günther; Dunne, Laura; Keller, Peter E

    2017-01-24

    Synchronous movement is a key component of social behaviour in several species including humans. Recent theories have suggested a link between interpersonal synchrony of brain oscillations and interpersonal movement synchrony. The present study investigated this link. Using transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) applied over the left motor cortex, we induced beta band (20 Hz) oscillations in pairs of individuals who both performed a finger-tapping task with the right hand. In-phase or anti-phase oscillations were delivered during a preparatory period prior to movement and while the tapping task was performed. In-phase 20 Hz stimulation enhanced interpersonal movement synchrony, compared to anti-phase or sham stimulation, particularly for the initial taps following the preparatory period. This was confirmed in an analysis comparing real vs. pseudo pair surrogate data. No enhancement was observed for stimulation frequencies of 2 Hz (matching the target movement frequency) or 10 Hz (alpha band). Thus, phase-coupling of beta band neural oscillations across two individuals' (resting) motor cortices supports the interpersonal alignment of sensorimotor processes that regulate rhythmic action initiation, thereby facilitating the establishment of synchronous movement. Phase-locked dual brain stimulation provides a promising method to study causal effects of interpersonal brain synchrony on social, sensorimotor and cognitive processes. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press.

  18. Distortion-Product Otoacoustic Emission Measured Below 300 Hz in Normal-Hearing Human Subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anders Tornvig; Ordoñez Pizarro, Rodrigo Eduardo; Hammershøi, Dorte

    2017-01-01

    Physiological noise levels in the human ear canal often exceed naturally low levels of otoacoustic emissions (OAEs) near the threshold of hearing. Low-frequency noise, and electronic filtering to cope with it, has effectively limited the study of OAE to frequencies above about 500 Hz. Presently, ...

  19. A 10-Hz terawatt class Ti:sapphire laser system: Development and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    875–881. A 10-Hz terawatt class Ti:sapphire laser system: Development and applications ... petawatt class CPA laser systems using different gain media have been realized. In particular, Ti:sapphire CPA laser .... video cameras to monitor the input and amplified output beams at different loca- tions and to correct their spatial ...

  20. Loss optimizing low power 50 Hz transformers intended for AC/DC standby power supplies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Nils

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the measured efficiency on selected low power conventional 50 Hz/230 V-AC transformers. The small transformers are intended for use in 1 W@5 V-DC series- or buck-regulated power supplies for standby purposes. The measured efficiency is compared for cheap off-the-self transformer...

  1. Effect of a short period whole body vibration with 10 Hz on blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of a short period whole body vibration with 10 Hz on blood biomarkers in Wistar rats. Milena de Oliveira Bravo Monteiro, Danúbia da Cunha de Sá-Caputo, Eloá Moreira-Marconi, Éric Heleno Freire Ferreira Frederico, Cintia Renata de Sousa-Gonçalves, Luciana Camargo Bernardo, Carlos Alberto Sampaio ...

  2. Monitoring audiometry for occupational hearing loss: A case for eliminating 500 Hz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Mark

    2003-04-01

    Audiometric monitoring is an important element in hearing conservation programs. Nearly every existing hearing conservation standard dictate that hearing thresholds should be measured at specific frequencies, and that 500 Hz be among those frequencies tested. Actual and estimated noise-induced permanent threshold shifts were evaluated as a function of exposure duration and exposure level. The results demonstrate 500 Hz to be of little value in assessing noise-induced hearing loss for typical industrial noise exposures of up to 40 years, at least for time-weighted average exposures of up to 100 dBA. Furthermore, few hearing conservation programs currently require audiometric monitoring to be performed in an environment that meets ANSI standards for maximum permissible background noise levels. This is particularly likely to compromise hearing testing at 500 Hz. As a result, this paper argues against the need for testing at 500 Hz, and recommends it be eliminated as a required test frequency in audiometric monitoring for noise-induced occupational hearing loss.

  3. Strain-and context-based 50 kHz ultrasonic vocalizations and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Re-exposure induced strain-specific differences in behaviour and total calling time. Sonographic patterns indicated that the predominant USV subtype were flat 50 kHz USVs. EPMexposure induced a reduction in peak amplitude in WKY USVs and in USV length in both strains. USV peak frequency and amplitude, ...

  4. A 0.5 MW/10 Hz option of the spallation source AUSTRON

    CERN Document Server

    Bryant, P J; Jericha, E; Rauch, H; Regler, Meinhard; Schönauer, Horst Otto

    1999-01-01

    In 1993-94 a feasibility study for AUSTRON, a neutron spallation source, was made on behalf of the Austrian Ministry of Science and Research. At that time, the machine was synchrotron cycling at 25 Hz and delivering an average beam power of 205 kW at 1.6 GeV. An option to double the power by doubling the frequency was foreseen. Now a more ambitious development of the original concept is proposed that aims at 0.5 MW at 1.6 GeV, pulsed at either 50 Hz or 10 Hz. The slow repetition rate is achieved by the addition of a storage ring holding four consecutive (single bunch) pulses from the 50 Hz synchrotron until a fifth pulse is accelerated and transferred to the target with the four stored ones. In this way, an energy per pulse of 50 kJ (one half of the pulse energy of the 5 MW ESS) is obtained, yielding about 3.5*10/sup 16/ thermal neutrons/(s cm/sup 2/). This peak flux matches well a number of innovative instruments and allows unprecedented resolution for some more conventional ones. On August 20, 1998, the Aus...

  5. Probing the gravitational field around neutron stars with Fe lines and kHz QPOs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mendez, Mariano

    2010-01-01

    Broad Fe lines have been detected in 10 neutron-star LMXBs. In two sources the Fe line and kHz QPOs give consistent values for the inner radius of the accretion disc, but measurements were not simultaneous. Using XMM-Newton/RXTE and Chandra/RXTE simultaneously, we have recently shown that in the

  6. New 50 Hz Superconducting Power Supply for a 2 kA DC Magnet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chevtchenko, O.A.; ten Kate, Herman H.J.; Krooshoop, Hendrikus J.G.

    1994-01-01

    A new superconducting power supply able to operate directly from the mains voltage at a frequency of 50-60 Hz is under development in our institutes. It will be applied to power a separator magnet for iron ore recycling. The supply consists of a full wave superconducting converter, a `cold'

  7. Ultrasound enhanced 50 Hz plasma treatment of glass-fiber-reinforced polyester at atmospheric pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusano, Yukihiro; Norrman, Kion; Singh, Shailendra Vikram

    2013-01-01

    Glass-fiber-reinforced polyester (GFRP) plates are treated using a 50Hz dielectric barrier discharge at a peak-to-peak voltage of 30 kV in helium at atmospheric pressure with and without ultrasonic irradiation to study adhesion improvement. The ultrasonic waves at the fundamental frequency of aro...

  8. Development of a 16 kHz repetition rate, 110 W average power ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-11-27

    Nov 27, 2015 ... This paper presents the design and performance analysis of an indigenously developed 110 W average output power copper HyBrID laser operating at 16 kHz pulse repetition rate. The laser active medium was confined within a fused silica tube of ∼ 6 cm diameter and ∼ 200 cm active length. An in-house ...

  9. Genome Sequencing Reveals the Potential of Achromobacter sp. HZ01 for Bioremediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue-Hui Hong

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Petroleum pollution is a severe environmental issue. Comprehensively revealing the genetic backgrounds of hydrocarbon-degrading microorganisms contributes to developing effective methods for bioremediation of crude oil-polluted environments. Marine bacterium Achromobacter sp. HZ01 is capable of degrading hydrocarbons and producing biosurfactants. In this study, the draft genome (5.5 Mbp of strain HZ01 has been obtained by Illumina sequencing, containing 5,162 predicted genes. Genome annotation shows that “amino acid metabolism” is the most abundant metabolic pathway. Strain HZ01 is not capable of using some common carbohydrates as the sole carbon sources, which is due to that it contains few genes associated with carbohydrate transport and lacks some important enzymes related to glycometabolism. It contains abundant proteins directly related to petroleum hydrocarbon degradation. AlkB hydroxylase and its homologs were not identified. It harbors a complete enzyme system of terminal oxidation pathway for n-alkane degradation, which may be initiated by cytochrome P450. The enzymes involved in the catechol pathway are relatively complete for the degradation of aromatic compounds. This bacterium lacks several essential enzymes for methane oxidation, and Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenase involved in the subterminal oxidation pathway and cycloalkane degradation was not identified. These results suggest that strain HZ01 degrades n-alkanes via the terminal oxidation pathway, degrades aromatic compounds primarily via the catechol pathway and cannot perform methane oxidation or cycloalkane degradation. Additionally, strain HZ01 possesses abundant genes related to the metabolism of secondary metabolites, including some genes involved in biosurfactant (such as glycolipids and lipopeptides synthesis. The genome analysis also reveals its genetic basis for nitrogen metabolism, antibiotic resistance, regulatory responses to environmental changes, cell motility

  10. Determination of ETSPLs for the Sennheiser HDA 200 headphone and the Etymotic Research ER-2 insertphone and MAF in the frequency range 125 Hz to 16 kHz

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Han, Loc A.; Poulsen, Torben

    1997-01-01

    The binaural free field hearing threshold for pure tones (the minimum audible field, MAF) and Equivalent Threshold Sound Pressure Levels (ETSPL) for the Sennheiser HDA 200 earphone and the Etymotic Research ER-2 insert earphone have been determined for thirty-one otologically normal test subjects...

  11. Erratum: Correction to Table 3, in: Equivalent threshold sound pressure levels (ETSPL) for Sennheiser HDA 280 supra-aural audiometric earphones in the frequency range 125 Hz to 8000 Hz (International Journal of Audiology (2009) 48 (271-276))

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Torben

    2014-01-01

    The main results in Poulsen & Oakley (2009) are given as the equivalent threshold sound pressure level, ETSPL, measured in an acoustic coupler specifi ed in IEC 60318-3. These results are all correct. The ETSPL values for the ear simulator specifi ed in IEC 60318-1 were calculated from acoustic l...

  12. Development of a single-phase harmonic power flow program to study the 20 kHz AC power system for large spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, L. Alan; Kankam, M. David

    1991-01-01

    The development of software is described to aid in design and analysis of AC power systems for large spacecraft. The algorithm is an important version of harmonic power flow program, HARMFLO, used for the study of AC power quality. The new program is applicable to three-phase systems typified by terrestrial power systems, and single-phase systems characteristic of space power systems. The modified HARMFLO accommodates system operating frequencies ranging from terrestrial 60 Hz to and beyond aerospace 20 kHz, and can handle both source and load-end harmonic distortions. Comparison of simulation and test results of a representative spacecraft power system shows a satisfactory correlation. Recommendations are made for the direction of future improvements to the software, to enhance its usefulness to power system designer and analysts.

  13. 10 kHz detection of CO2 at 4.5 microm by using tunable diode-laser-based difference-frequency generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Terrence R; Roy, Sukesh; Anderson, Thomas N; Lucht, Robert P; Barron-Jimenez, Rodolfo; Gord, James R

    2005-11-15

    A compact, high-speed tunable, diode-laser-based mid-infrared (MIR) laser source has been developed for absorption spectroscopy of CO2 at rates up to 10 kHz. Radiation at 4.5 microm with a mode-hop-free tuning range of 80 GHz is generated by difference-frequency mixing the 860 nm output of a distributed-feedback diode laser with the 1064 nm output of a diode-pumped Nd:YAG laser in a periodically poled lithium niobate crystal. MIR absorption spectroscopy of CO2 with a detection limit of 44 ppm m at 10 kHz is demonstrated in a C2H4-air laminar diffusion flame and in the exhaust of a liquid-fueled model gas-turbine combustor.

  14. Compact x-ray source based on burst-mode inverse Compton scattering at 100 kHz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. S. Graves

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A design for a compact x-ray light source (CXLS with flux and brilliance orders of magnitude beyond existing laboratory scale sources is presented. The source is based on inverse Compton scattering of a high brightness electron bunch on a picosecond laser pulse. The accelerator is a novel high-efficiency standing-wave linac and rf photoinjector powered by a single ultrastable rf transmitter at X-band rf frequency. The high efficiency permits operation at repetition rates up to 1 kHz, which is further boosted to 100 kHz by operating with trains of 100 bunches of 100 pC charge, each separated by 5 ns. The entire accelerator is approximately 1 meter long and produces hard x rays tunable over a wide range of photon energies. The colliding laser is a Yb∶YAG solid-state amplifier producing 1030 nm, 100 mJ pulses at the same 1 kHz repetition rate as the accelerator. The laser pulse is frequency-doubled and stored for many passes in a ringdown cavity to match the linac pulse structure. At a photon energy of 12.4 keV, the predicted x-ray flux is 5×10^{11}  photons/second in a 5% bandwidth and the brilliance is 2×10^{12}  photons/(sec mm^{2} mrad^{2}  0.1% in pulses with rms pulse length of 490 fs. The nominal electron beam parameters are 18 MeV kinetic energy, 10 microamp average current, 0.5 microsecond macropulse length, resulting in average electron beam power of 180 W. Optimization of the x-ray output is presented along with design of the accelerator, laser, and x-ray optic components that are specific to the particular characteristics of the Compton scattered x-ray pulses.

  15. Subtraction of 16.67 Hz railroad net interference from the electrocardiogram: application for automatic external defibrillators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jekova, Irena; Krasteva, Vessela

    2005-12-01

    The widespread application of automatic external defibrillators (AEDs) for treating out-of-hospital cardiac arrest incidents and their particular use at railway stations defines the task for 16.67 Hz power line interference elimination from the electrocardiogram (ECG). Although this problem exists only in five European countries, it has to be solved in all AEDs, which must comply with the European standard for medical equipment requirements for interchangeability and compatibility between rail systems. The elimination of the railroad interference requires a specific approach, since its frequency band overlaps with a significant part of the frequencies in the QRS spectra. We present a method based only on one channel ECG signal processing, which effectively subtracts the interference components. The computation procedure is based on simple signal processing tools, which include: (i) bi-directional band-pass filtering (13-23 Hz) of the analyzed ECG segment; (ii) estimation of adequate linearity thresholds; (iii) frequency measurement and calculation of dynamic interference buffer in linear segments and (iv) phase synchronization and subtraction technique in nonlinear segments. The developed method has proved advantageous in providing sufficient quality of the output interference free ECG signal for seven defined arrhythmia types (normal sinus rhythm, normal rhythm, supraventricular tachicardia, slow/rapid ventricular tachycardia, and coarse/fine ventricular fibrillation), and simulated interferences with constant or variable frequencies and amplitudes, which cover the entire amplitude range of the input channel. The procedure is suitable to be embedded in AEDs as a preprocessing branch, which proves reliable for analysis of ECG signals, thus guaranteeing the specified accuracy of the AED automatic rhythm analysis algorithms.

  16. Investigating the effects of 217 Hz frequency of cell phone on learning and spatial memory in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohzad S

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Extremely low frequency (0-300 Hz fields from power lines, electronic equipment and medical devices, have been reported to produce various biological effects. Global system for mobile (GSM is most largely used in everybody's life. This system utilizes a low frequency band as well as a high frequency range of electromagnetic field. This study investigated the effects of 217 Hz electromagnetic field (the modulating signal in GSM on spatial learning and memory in rat.Methods: Twenty four male Wistar rat (200- 250 g were randomly divided in to three groups as: test, sham and control. Using a Helmholtz coil system, the test group was exposed to a uniform pulsed EMF of 200 µT (micro Tesla intensity for 4 h/day for 21 days (2 time in a day. This procedure was repeated for the sham group but with no field. All groups were trained prior to the day 21 on the 15th day for five days four trial per day in Morris Water-Maze system. Then the probe test was carried out for 60 seconds with no platform.Results: The ANOVA test revealed that no significant differences were found between control and exposed rats in all day of learning acquisition. Also, in probe test for investigating the memory, no significant differences observed. (P≤0.05 is accepted for significant level.Conclusion: This finding is in consistent with previous studies and indicates low frequency band of electromagnetic fields (EMF (200 µT intensity in cell phone may not have any effect on the learning acquisition and spatial memory in rat.

  17. Performance of a 30-kV, 1-kHz, nanosecond source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cravey, W.R.; Freytag, K.; Goerz, D.

    1992-06-01

    An existing pulser at LLNL was modified to increase its repetition rate to 1000 Hz. Spark gap recovery measurements were made for both the Marx and the Blumlein output switches. Recovery times of less than 1 ms were recorded without gas flow in the switch chambers. Low pressure synthetic air was used as the switch dielectric. Longer recovery times were necessary to over-voltage the switch. The output of the pulser was used to drive a log-periodic-dipole-array. Measurements were made on the transmitted pulses in an anechoic chamber and yielded a center frequency of 80 MHz. This paper describes the modifications made on the pulse generator, discusses the spark gap recovery data, and summarizes the performance of the pulser at 1 kHz. In addition, a brief description of the antenna is given along with the field measurements that were made in the EMPEROR facility.

  18. An efficient miniature 120 Hz pulse tube cryocooler using high porosity regenerator material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Huiqin; Wu, Yinong; Ding, Lei; Jiang, Zhenhua; Liu, Shaoshuai

    2017-12-01

    A 1.22 kg coaxial miniature pulse tube cryocooler (MPTC) has been fabricated and tested in our laboratory to provide cooling for cryogenic applications demanding compactness, low mass and rapid cooling rate. The geometrical parameters of regenerator, pulse tube and phase shifter are optimized. The investigation demonstrates that using higher mesh number and thinner wire diameter of stainless steel screen (SSS) can promote the coefficient of performance (COP) when the MPTC operates at 120 Hz. In this study, the 604 mesh SSS with 17 μm diameter of mesh wire is constructed as filler of regenerator. The experimental results show the MPTC operating at 120 Hz achieves a no-load temperature of 53.5 K with 3.8 MPa charging pressure, and gets a cooling power of 2 W at 80 K with 55 W input electric power which has a relative Carnot efficiency of 9.68%.

  19. A Model for Cortical 40 Hz oscillations invokes inter-area interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cotterill, Rodney M J; Helix Nielsen, Claus

    1991-01-01

    COMPUTER simulation of the dynamics of neuronal assemblies within minicolumns, and of the interactions between minicolumns in different cortical areas, has produced a quantitative explanation of the 35-60 Hz oscillations recently observed in adult cat striate cortices. The observed behavior sugge...... suggests an association mechanism that exploits the NMDA receptor's properties. Detectable oscillations are predicted in cortical areas not directly stimulated, provided these are associatively linked with areas receiving sensory input.......COMPUTER simulation of the dynamics of neuronal assemblies within minicolumns, and of the interactions between minicolumns in different cortical areas, has produced a quantitative explanation of the 35-60 Hz oscillations recently observed in adult cat striate cortices. The observed behavior...

  20. 5 Hz repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation over the ipsilesional sensory cortex enhances motor learning after stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia M Brodie

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Sensory feedback is critical for motor learning, and thus to neurorehabilitation after stroke. Whether enhancing sensory feedback by applying excitatory repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS over the ipsilesional primary sensory cortex (IL-S1 might enhance motor learning in chronic stroke has yet to be investigated. The present study investigated the effects of 5 Hz rTMS over IL-S1 paired with skilled motor practice on motor learning, hemiparetic cutaneous somatosensation, and motor function. Individuals with unilateral chronic stroke were pseudo-randomly divided into either Active or Sham 5 Hz rTMS groups (n=11/group. Following stimulation, both groups practiced a Serial Tracking Task (STT with the hemiparetic arm; this was repeated for 5 days. Performance on the STT was quantified by response time, peak velocity, and cumulative distance tracked at baseline, during the 5 days of practice, and at a no-rTMS retention test. Cutaneous somatosensation was measured using two-point discrimination. Standardized sensorimotor tests were performed to assess whether the effects might generalize to impact hemiparetic arm function. The active 5Hz rTMS + training group demonstrated significantly greater improvements in STT performance [response time (F1,286.04=13.016, p< 0.0005, peak velocity (F1,285.95=4.111, p=0.044, and cumulative distance (F1,285.92=4.076, p=0.044] and cutaneous somatosensation (F1,21.15=8.793, p=0.007 across all sessions compared to the sham rTMS + training group. Measures of upper extremity motor function were not significantly different for either group. Our preliminary results suggest that, when paired with motor practice, 5Hz rTMS over IL-S1 enhances motor learning related change in individuals with chronic stroke, potentially as a consequence of improved cutaneous somatosensation, however no improvement in general upper extremity function was observed.

  1. On the Feasibility of Multi-kHz Acquisition Rate Tomographic-PIV in Turbulent Flames

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    wherein high frequency (kHz- framerate ) stereoscopic-PIV is applied in a plane perpendicular to the axial flow direction of a gaseous jet, and...particle distributions was accomplished using the multiplicative algebraic reconstruction technique. The results indicate that high quality tomographic...indicate that high quality tomographic-PIV measurements in a turbulent flame are possible with laser pulse energies of 25mJ, which is well within the

  2. 16QAM transmission with 5.2 bits/s/Hz spectral efficiency over transoceanic distance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H; Cai, J-X; Batshon, H G; Davidson, C R; Sun, Y; Mazurczyk, M; Foursa, D G; Pilipetskii, A; Mohs, G; Bergano, Neal S

    2012-05-21

    We transmit 160 x 100 G PDM RZ 16 QAM channels with 5.2 bits/s/Hz spectral efficiency over 6,860 km. There are more than 3 billion 16 QAM symbols, i.e., 12 billion bits, processed in total. Using coded modulation and iterative decoding between a MAP decoder and an LDPC based FEC all channels are decoded with no remaining errors.

  3. Discovery of a Neutron Star with Spin Frequency 530 Hz in A1744-361

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharyya, Sudip; Strohmayer, Tod E.; Markwardt, Craig B.; Swank, Jean H.; Bhattacharyya, Sudip

    2005-01-01

    We report the detection with the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) Proportional Counter Array (PCA) of 530 Hz burst oscillations in a thermonuclear (Type I) burst from the transient X-ray source A1744-361. This is only the second burst ever observed from this source, and the first to be seen in any detail. Our results confirm that A1744-361 is a low mass X-ray binary (LMXB) system harboring a rapidly rotating neutron star. The oscillations are first detected along the rising edge of the burst, and show evidence for frequency evolution of a magnitude similar to that seen in other burst sources. The modulation amplitude and its increase with photon energy are also typical of burst oscillations. The lack of any strong indication of photospheric radius expansion during the burst suggests a 9 kpc upper limit of the source distance. We also find energy dependent dips, establishing A1744-361 as a high inclination, dipping LMXB. The timescale between the two episodes of observed dips suggests an orbital period of approx. 97 min. We have also detected a 2 - 4 Hz quasi-periodic-oscillation (QPO) for the first time from this source. This QPO appears consistent with approx. 1 Hz QPOs seen from other high inclination systems. We searched for kilohertz QPOs, and found a suggestive 2.3 sigma feature at 800 Hz in one observation. The frequency, strength and quality factor are consistent with that of a lower frequency kilohertz QPO, but the relatively low significance argues for caution, so we consider this a tentative detection requiring confirmation.

  4. Time dependence of 50 Hz magnetic fields in apartment buildings with indoor transformer stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yitzhak, Nir-Mordechay; Hareuveny, Ronen; Kandel, Shaiela; Ruppin, Raphael

    2012-04-01

    Twenty-four hour measurements of 50 Hz magnetic fields (MFs) in apartment buildings containing transformer stations have been performed. The apartments were classified into four types, according to their location relative to the transformer room. Temporal correlation coefficients between the MF in various apartments, as well as between MF and transformer load curves, were calculated. It was found that, in addition to their high average MF, the apartments located right above the transformer room also exhibit unique temporal correlation properties.

  5. Inductive-detection electron-spin resonance spectroscopy with 65 spins/ √{Hz } sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Probst, S.; Bienfait, A.; Campagne-Ibarcq, P.; Pla, J. J.; Albanese, B.; Da Silva Barbosa, J. F.; Schenkel, T.; Vion, D.; Esteve, D.; Mølmer, K.; Morton, J. J. L.; Heeres, R.; Bertet, P.

    2017-11-01

    We report electron spin resonance spectroscopy measurements performed at millikelvin temperatures in a custom-built spectrometer comprising a superconducting micro-resonator at 7 GHz and a Josephson parametric amplifier. Owing to the small ( ˜10-12λ3 ) magnetic resonator mode volume and to the low noise of the parametric amplifier, the spectrometer's single shot sensitivity reaches 260 ± 40 spins/echo translating into 65 ±10 spins/√{Hz } for repeated acquisition.

  6. Fifty years of 50Hz traction energy supply in France - development and solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Courtois, C. [SNCF, Direction de l' Ingenerie, Saint Denis (France). Dept. des Installations fixes de Traction Electrique

    2007-07-01

    In the beginning of the 20th century, electrification started in France with DC and on the Midi network with AC 12 kV 16,7 Hz. Then, due to technical and strategic reasons, French government obliged French railway companies to adopt DC 1500 V. This system, although easy to implement, is nevertheless costly and has technical limits. AC 50 Hz railway electrification trials in Hungary and Germany inspired French engineers to move from DC to AC. This was completely successful in terms of economy, performance and technology. For more than 50 years AC 25 kV has been a worldwide accepted voltage which has proven its ability to supply all types of lines. Also, the world speed record achieving 574,8 km/h on the TGV East line in April 2007 gives evidence of its performance. The industrial advantages and the economic gains justify the choice of AC 25 kV 50 Hz power supply compared with DC electrification. (orig.)

  7. The late results of 4000 Hz frequency bone conduction after tympanoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janiak-Kiszka, Joanna; Kaźmierczak, Wojciech

    2017-10-30

    Surgical treatment of conductive hearing loss runs the risk of damage to the inner ear in the mechanism of acoustic trauma. The aim of this study was to evaluate the function of the organ of Corti, expressed as bone conduction threshold at the frequency of 4000 Hz for selected operations: mastoidectomy and canal-wall-down procedure. The material was collected from patients with chronic otitis media in the Department of Otolaryngology and ENT Oncology, Collegium Medicum of Nicolaus Copernicus University in Bydgoszcz in 2004-2009. All patients were examined with pure tone audiometry threshold before surgery and at least three years after surgery. The analyzed group of patients was divided into subgroups depending on the type of operation according to To classification and procedures for resection: mastoidectomy and canal-wall-down procedure. The results were statistically analyzed. In the analyzed period of three years after surgery there was no statistically significant difference between groups, although there were higher values for tympanoplasty type 1 with mastoidectomy compared with tympanoplasty type 1 without mastoidectomy - respectively 25.67 dB and 18.53 dB. In the study, there was no statistically significant the difference in bone conduction threshold for frequency 4000 Hz within the type 2 tympanoplasty according to Tosa comparing canal wall-up and canal-wall-down procedure. Mastoidectomy or canal-wall-down procedure do not affect the bone conduction threshold for a frequency of 4000 Hz after tympanoplasty in long-term observation.

  8. A microrod-resonator Brillouin laser with 240 Hz absolute linewidth

    CERN Document Server

    Loh, William; Cole, Daniel C; Coillet, Aurelien; Baynes, Fred N; Papp, Scott B; Diddams, Scott A

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate an ultralow-noise microrod-resonator based laser that oscillates on the gain supplied by the stimulated Brillouin scattering optical nonlinearity. Microresonator Brillouin lasers are known to offer an outstanding frequency noise floor, which is limited by fundamental thermal fluctuations. Here, we show experimental evidence that thermal effects also dominate the close-to-carrier frequency fluctuations. The 6-mm diameter microrod resonator used in our experiments has a large optical mode area of ~100 {\\mu}m$^2$, and hence its 10 ms thermal time constant filters the close-to-carrier optical frequency noise. The result is an absolute laser linewidth of 240 Hz with a corresponding white-frequency noise floor of 0.1 Hz$^2$/Hz. We explain the steady-state performance of this laser by measurements of its operation state and of its mode detuning and lineshape. Our results highlight a mechanism for noise that is common to many microresonator devices due to the inherent coupling between intracavity power...

  9. Enhancement of the hydrolysis activity of F0F1-ATPases using 60 Hz magnetic fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chuanfang; Cui, Yuanbo; Yue, Jiachang; Huo, Xiaolin; Song, Tao

    2009-12-01

    The effects of extremely low frequency (ELF) magnetic fields on membrane F(0)F(1)-ATPase activity have been studied. When the F(0)F(1)-ATPase was exposed to 60 Hz magnetic fields of different magnetic intensities, 0.3 and 0.5 mT magnetic fields enhanced the hydrolysis activity, whereas 0.1 mT exposure caused no significant changes. Even if the F(0)F(1)-ATPase was inhibited by N,N-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide, its hydrolysis activity was enhanced by a 0.5 mT 60 Hz magnetic field. Moreover, when the chromatophores which were labeled with F-DHPE were exposed to a 0.5 mT, 60 Hz magnetic field, it was found that the pH of the outer membrane of the chromatophore was unchanged, which suggested that the magnetic fields used in this work did not affect the activity of F0. Taken together, our results show that the effects of magnetic fields on the hydrolysis activity of the membrane F(0)F(1)-ATPases were dependent on magnetic intensity and the threshold intensity is between 0.1 and 0.3 mT, and suggested that the F1 part of F(0)F(1)-ATPase may be an end-point affected by magnetic fields.

  10. PULSE AMPLITUDE DEPENDS ON kHz QPO FREQUENCY IN THE ACCRETING MILLISECOND PULSAR SAX J1808.4-3658

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bult, Peter; Van der Klis, Michiel, E-mail: p.m.bult@uva.nl [Anton Pannekoek Institute, University of Amsterdam, Postbus 94249, 1090 GE Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2015-01-10

    We study the relation between the 300-700 Hz upper kHz quasi-periodic oscillation (QPO) and the 401 Hz coherent pulsations across all outbursts of the accreting millisecond X-ray pulsar SAX J1808.4-3658 observed with the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer. We find that the pulse amplitude systematically changes by a factor of ∼2 when the upper kHz QPO frequency passes through 401 Hz: it halves when the QPO moves to above the spin frequency and doubles again on the way back. This establishes for the first time the existence of a direct effect of kHz QPOs on the millisecond pulsations and provides a new clue to the origin of the upper kHz QPO. We discuss several scenarios and conclude that while more complex explanations can not formally be excluded, our result strongly suggests that the QPO is produced by azimuthal motion at the inner edge of the accretion disk, most likely orbital motion. Depending on whether this azimuthal motion is faster or slower than the spin, the plasma then interacts differently with the neutron-star magnetic field. The most straightforward interpretation involves magnetospheric centrifugal inhibition of the accretion flow that sets in when the upper kHz QPO becomes slower than the spin.

  11. Design, Modelling and Fabrication of a 40-330 Hz Dual-Mass MEMS Gyroscope on Thick-SOI Technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rajaraman, V.; Sabageh, I.; French, P.; Pansraud, G.; Cretu, E.

    2011-01-01

    This work reports the design, modelling, fabrication and preliminary functionality testing of a dual-mass MEMS vibratory gyroscope for application in medical instrumentation, among others. The two-framed gyro has drive and sense mode resonance frequencies of 2500Hz and 2830Hz, with its bandwidth

  12. An Evaluation of an LCD Display With 240 Hz Frame Rate for Visual Psychophysics Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lin

    2017-01-01

    Recently, a few LCD displays with 240 Hz frame rate have appeared on the market. I evaluated a LCD display with 240 Hz frame rate in terms of its temporal characteristics, progression between frames, and chromatic characteristics. The display showed (a) accurate frame durations at millisecond level, (b) gradual transition between adjacent frames, and (c) acceptable chromatic characteristics.

  13. Effects of A 60 Hz Magnetic Field of Up to 50 milliTesla on Human Tremor and EEG: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirin Davarpanah Jazi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Humans are surrounded by sources of daily exposure to power-frequency (60 Hz in North America magnetic fields (MFs. Such time-varying MFs induce electric fields and currents in living structures which possibly lead to biological effects. The present pilot study examined possible extremely low frequency (ELF MF effects on human neuromotor control in general, and physiological postural tremor and electroencephalography (EEG in particular. Since the EEG cortical mu-rhythm (8–12 Hz from the primary motor cortex and physiological tremor are related, it was hypothesized that a 60 Hz MF exposure focused on this cortical region could acutely modulate human physiological tremor. Ten healthy volunteers (age: 23.8 ± 4 SD were fitted with a MRI-compatible EEG cap while exposed to 11 MF conditions (60 Hz, 0 to 50 mTrms, 5 mTrms increments. Simultaneously, physiological tremor (recorded from the contralateral index finger and EEG (from associated motor and somatosensory brain regions were measured. Results showed no significant main effect of MF exposure conditions on any of the analyzed physiological tremor characteristics. In terms of EEG, no significant effects of the MF were observed for C1, C3, C5 and CP1 electrodes. However, a significant main effect was found for CP3 and CP5 electrodes, both suggesting a decreased mu-rhythm spectral power with increasing MF flux density. This is however not confirmed by Bonferroni corrected pairwise comparisons. Considering both EEG and tremor findings, no effect of the MF exposure on human motor control was observed. However, MF exposure had a subtle effect on the mu-rhythm amplitude in the brain region involved in tactile perception. Current findings are to be considered with caution due to the small size of this pilot work, but they provide preliminary insights to international agencies establishing guidelines regarding electromagnetic field exposure with new experimental data acquired in humans exposed to high mT-range

  14. X-ray spectrometry and spectrum image mapping at output count rates above 100 kHz with a silicon drift detector on a scanning electron microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newbury, Dale E

    2005-01-01

    A third-generation silicon drift detector (SDD) in the form of a silicon multicathode detector (SMCD) was tested as an analytical x-ray spectrometer on a scanning electron microscope. Resolution, output count rate, and spectral quality were examined as a function of the detector peaking time from 8 micros to 250 ns and over a range of input count rate (dead time). The SDD-SMCD (50 mm2 active area) produced a resolution of 134 eV with a peaking time of 8 micros. The peak width and peak channel were nearly independent of the input count rate (at 8 micros peaking time, the peak width degradation was 0.003 eV/percent dead time and peak position change was -0.7 eV over the dead time range tested). Maximum output count rates as high as 280 kHz were obtained with a 500 ns peaking time (188 eV resolution) and 500 kHz with a 250 ns peaking time (217 eV resolution). X-ray spectrum imaging was achieved with a pixel dwell time as short as 10 ms (with 1.3 ms overhead) in which a 2048 channel (10 eV/channel) spectrum with 2-byte intensity range was recorded at each pixel (scanned at 128 x 128). With a 220 kHz output count rate, a minor constituent of iron (present at a concentration of 0.04 mass fraction or 4 weight %) in an aluminum-nickel alloy could be readily detected in the x-ray maps derived from the x-ray spectrum image database accumulated in 185 s.

  15. Bulk Current Injection Testing of Cable Noise Reduction Techniques, 50 kHz to 400 MHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Arthur T.; Hare, Richard J.; Singh, Manisha

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents empirical results of cable noise reduction techniques as demonstrated using bulk current injection (BCI) techniques with radiated fields from 50 kHz - 400 MHz. It is a follow up to the two-part paper series presented at the Asia Pacific EMC Conference that focused on TEM cell signal injection. This paper discusses the effects of cable types, shield connections, and chassis connections on cable noise. For each topic, well established theories are compared with data from a real-world physical system.

  16. Improvement of 200 kHz optical beam scanner performance with multiple internal reflection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seiji Toyoda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors have realised a KTa(xNb(1−(xO(3-based optical beam scanner that has three- and five-pass configurations with internal reflection whose scanning angle is exactly proportional to the optical path length. They successfully increased the scanning angle to about 140 mrad with a 200 kHz modulation using a five-pass configuration. This beam scanner will provide an optical coherence tomography (OCT system with a spatial resolution of 7 μm and advantages over other OCT systems.

  17. Upgrading a high-throughput spectrometer for high-frequency (<400 kHz) measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishizawa, T., E-mail: nishizawa@wisc.edu; Nornberg, M. D.; Den Hartog, D. J. [University of Wisconsin–Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Craig, D. [Wheaton College, Wheaton, Illinois 60187 (United States)

    2016-11-15

    The upgraded spectrometer used for charge exchange recombination spectroscopy on the Madison Symmetric Torus resolves emission fluctuations up to 400 kHz. The transimpedance amplifier’s cutoff frequency was increased based upon simulations comparing the change in the measured photon counts for time-dynamic signals. We modeled each signal-processing stage of the diagnostic and scanned the filtering frequency to quantify the uncertainty in the photon counting rate. This modeling showed that uncertainties can be calculated based on assuming each amplification stage is a Poisson process and by calibrating the photon counting rate with a DC light source to address additional variation.

  18. Divan Şiirinde Hz. Musa / The Prophet Moses In Divan Poetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan UZUN

    2016-01-01

    Divan Şiiri, İslam Medeniyetinin şekillendirdiği Müslüman Doğu toplumlarının ortak kültüründen ve çeşitli milletlerle paylaştığı coğrafyanın değerlerinden etkilenerek oluşan, devrin sanat anlayışıyla yoğrulmuş bir birikimdir.  Hz. Musa, Firavun tarafından yeni doğan bütün erkek çocukların öldürüldüğü bir dönemde dünyaya gelmesi, İsrail oğullarına zulmeden ve tanrılık iddiasında bulunan Firavun’un sarayında yetişmesi, gençliğinde yaşadığı olaylar nedeniyle Mısır’ı terketmek zorunda kalması, peygamber oluşu, mücadelesi ve halkına karşı gösterdiği sabır gibi özelliklerinin yanında başta Yahudilik olmak üzere bütün semavi dinlerde en önemli peygamberler arasında yer alması gibi nitelikleriyle İslam Dini ve diğer ilahi dinlerin inanç ve kültür değerlerinde önemli bir yer tutmaktadır. Divan şairleri Hz. Musa’yı, Firavun’a karşı duruşu, Tûr Dağı’nda Allah ile tekellümü, Şecer-i Tûr, mucizevi asası, yed-i beyza sahibi oluşu gibi yönleri ve göstermiş olduğu mucizeleriyle şiirlerine konu etmişlerdir. Hz. Musa, Klasik Türk edebiyatı şairleri için tasavvufî duygu, düşünce ve heyecanların ifadesinde ilham kaynağı olmuştur. Bu makalede, Hz. Musa ve onun mucizeleri ile ilgili Divan şiirinde yer alan ifade ve anlatımlar incelenmiştir.

  19. A technique for estimating the occlusion effect for frequencies below 125 Hz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Michael A; Paul, Anna M; Axon, Patrick; Moore, Brian C J

    2014-01-01

    The level of bone-conducted sound in the auditory meatus is increased at low frequencies by occlusion of the meatus, for example, by the earmold of a hearing aid (HA). Physical measures of this "occlusion effect" (OE) require vibration of the skull. In previous research, either self-voicing or audiometric bone conduction vibrators were used to produce this vibration, with the result that the OE could not be measured for frequencies below 125 Hz. However, frequencies below this can be important for music perception by HA users. The objective was to develop and evaluate a method that gives a lower-bound estimate of the OE for frequencies below 125 Hz. A low-noise amplifier with extended low-frequency response was used to record the output of a miniature microphone inserted into the meatus of participants. The signal came from sounds of the heartbeat and blood flow of the participant, transmitted via bone conduction through the walls of the meatus. A simultaneous recording was made of the carotid pulse to permit time-locked averaging (and hence noise reduction) of the microphone signal. Recordings were made from 7 otologically and audiometrically normal participants, using clinical probe tips to produce the occlusion. Recordings were also made from an overlapping group of 9 participants, using fast-setting impression material to provide a more consistent degree of occlusion. The difference in level of the recorded signal for unoccluded and occluded conditions provided a lower bound for the magnitude of the OE. The mean OE increased with decreasing frequency, reaching a plateau of about 40 dB for frequencies below 40 Hz. For some individual recordings, the OE reached 50 dB for frequencies below 20 Hz. With occlusion, the heartbeat became audible for most participants. The OE can be very large at low frequencies. The use of HAs with closed fittings, which may be used either to prevent acoustic feedback or to allow amplification of low frequencies, may lead to an

  20. 50-Hz plasma treatment of glass fibre reinforced polyester at atmospheric pressure enhanced by ultrasonic irradiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusano, Yukihiro; Norrman, Kion; Singh, Shailendra Vikram

    2011-01-01

    30 kHz with the sound pressure level of approximately 155 dB were introduced vertically to the GFRP surface through a cylindrical waveguide. The polar component of the surface energy was almost unchanged after the plasma treatment without ultrasonic irradiation, but drastically increased...... approximately from 20 mJ m-2 up to 80 mJ m-2 with ultrasonic irradiation. The plasma treatment with ultrasonic irradiation also introduced oxygen and nitrogen containing functional groups at the GFRP surface. These changes would improve the adhesion properties of the GFRP plates....

  1. Validity and reliability of 5 Hz GPS devices on short career with change of direction

    OpenAIRE

    David Casamichana Gómez, Julen Castellano Paulis

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the validity and reliability of a MinimaxX GPS device (Team Sport 2.5, Catapult Innovations) operating with a sampling frequency of 5 Hz. Were measured distances made for 10 football players (age, 22.5 ±2.9 years, height 174 ±7 cm. and weight 72.6 ±3.4 kg) in the specific Yo-Yo Endurance Test level 1. The test ended when the players completed the first 10 levels of speed test (from 2.22 to 3.48 m·s-1). Four of the 10 participants took two simultaneously GPS...

  2. A 0.2V, 7.5 μW, 20 kHz ΣΔ modulator with 69 dB SNR in 90 nm CMOS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wismar, Ulrik Sørensen; Wisland, D; Andreani, Pietro

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a frequency-to-digital SigmaDelta modulator designed in a digital 90nm CMOS process, operating with a supply voltage of 0.2 V. For a 7.5 muW power consumption, the SNR is 68.9 dB and the SNDR is 60.3 dB over a 20Hz-20kHz bandwidth. This work shows that the SNR/SNDR performance...... of this kind of SigmaDelta converter can be adjusted over a wide range, while maintaining a state-of-the-art flgure-of-merit of 82 fJ/conversion....

  3. Testing social acoustic memory in rats: effects of stimulus configuration and long-term memory on the induction of social approach behavior by appetitive 50-kHz ultrasonic vocalizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wöhr, Markus; Schwarting, Rainer K W

    2012-09-01

    Rats emit distinct types of ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs), which serve as situation-dependent affective signals. In appetitive situations, such as rough-and-tumble-play, high-frequency 50-kHz USVs occur, whereas low-frequency 22-kHz USVs can be observed in aversive situations, such as social defeat. USVs serve distinct communicative functions and induce call-specific behavioral responses in the receiver. While aversive 22-kHz USVs serve as alarm calls and induce behavioral inhibition, appetitive 50-kHz USVs have a pro-social communicative function and elicit social approach behavior, supporting the notion that they serve as social contact calls to (re)establish or maintain contact among conspecifics. The aim of the present study was to use the rat's ability to communicate in the ultrasonic range via high-frequency 50-kHz USVs in order to develop a test for social acoustic memory in rats with relevance for human verbal memory. Verbal learning and memory is among the seven cognitive domains identified as commonly deficient in human schizophrenia patients, but particularly difficult to model. We therefore tested whether the induction of social approach behavior by playback of appetitive 50-kHz USVs is dependent on (1) acoustic stimulus configuration and (2) social long-term memory, and whether (3) social long-term memory effects can be blocked by the administration of scopolamine, a muscarinic acetylcholine antagonist producing amnesia. Results show that social approach behavior in response to playback of natural 50-kHz USVs depends on acoustic stimulus configuration and occurs only when sound energy is concentrated to a critical frequency band in the ultrasonic range. Social approach behavior was detected during the first exposure to playback of 50-kHz USVs, whereas no such response was observed during the second exposure 1week later, indicating a stable memory trace. In contrast, when memory formation was blocked by i.p. administration of scopolamine (0.5mg/kg or

  4. Effect of infrasound on cochlear damage from exposure to a 4 kHz octave band of noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Gary W; Bohne, Barbara A; Lee, Steve C; Salt, Alec N

    2007-03-01

    Infrasound (i.e., <20 Hz for humans; <100 Hz for chinchillas) is not audible, but exposure to high-levels of infrasound will produce large movements of cochlear fluids. We speculated that high-level infrasound might bias the basilar membrane and perhaps be able to minimize noise-induced hearing loss. Chinchillas were simultaneously exposed to a 30 Hz tone at 100 dB SPL and a 4 kHz OBN at either 108 dB SPL for 1.75 h or 86 dB SPL for 24h. For each animal, the tympanic membrane (TM) in one ear was perforated ( approximately 1 mm(2)) prior to exposure to attenuate infrasound transmission to that cochlea by about 50 dB SPL. Controls included animals that were exposed to the infrasound only or the 4 kHz OBN only. ABR threshold shifts (TSs) and DPOAE level shifts (LSs) were determined pre- and post-TM-perforation and immediately post-exposure, just before cochlear fixation. The cochleae were dehydrated, embedded in plastic, and dissected into flat preparations of the organ of Corti (OC). Each dissected segment was evaluated for losses of inner hair cells (IHCs) and outer hair cells (OHCs). For each chinchilla, the magnitude and pattern of functional and hair cell losses were compared between their right and left cochleae. The TM perforation produced no ABR TS across frequency but did produce a 10-21 dB DPOAE LS from 0.6 to 2 kHz. The infrasound exposure alone resulted in a 10-20 dB ABR TS at and below 2 kHz, no DPOAE LS and no IHC or OHC losses. Exposure to the 4 kHz OBN alone at 108 dB produced a 10-50 dB ABR TS for 0.5-12 kHz, a 10-60 dB DPOAE LS for 0.6-16 kHz and severe OHC loss in the middle of the first turn. When infrasound was present during exposure to the 4 kHz OBN at 108 dB, the functional losses and OHC losses extended much further toward the apical and basal tips of the OC than in cochleae exposed to the 4 kHz OBN alone. Exposure to only the 4 kHz OBN at 86 dB produces a 10-40 dB ABR TS for 3-12 kHz and 10-30 dB DPOAE LS for 3-8 kHz but little or no OHC loss

  5. Effect of infrasound on cochlear damage from exposure to a 4-kHz octave band of noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Gary W.; Bohne, Barbara A.; Lee, Steve C.; Salt, Alec N.

    2008-01-01

    Infrasound (i.e., < 20 Hz for humans; < 100 Hz for chinchillas) is not audible, but exposure to high levels of infrasound will produce large movements of cochlear fluids. We speculated that high-level infrasound might bias the basilar membrane and perhaps be able to minimize noise-induced hearing loss. Chinchillas were simultaneously exposed to a 30 Hz tone at 100 dB SPL and a 4-kHz OBN at either 108 dB SPL for 1.75 h or 86 dB SPL for 24 h. For each animal, the tympanic membrane (TM) in one ear was perforated (~1 mm2) prior to exposure to attenuate infrasound transmission to that cochlea by about 50 dB SPL. Controls included animals that were exposed to the infrasound only or the 4-kHz OBN only. ABR threshold shifts (TSs) and DPOAE level shifts (LSs) were determined pre- and post-TM-perforation and immediately post-exposure, just before cochlear fixation. The cochleae were dehydrated, embedded in plastic, and dissected into flat preparations of the organ of Corti (OC). Each dissected segment was evaluated for losses of inner hair cells (IHCs) and outer hair cells (OHCs). For each chinchilla, the magnitude and pattern of functional and hair cell losses were compared between their right and left cochleae. The TM perforation produced no ABR TS across frequency but did produce a 10–21 dB DPOAE LS from 0.6–2 kHz. The infrasound exposure alone resulted in a 10–20 dB ABR TS at and below 2 kHz, no DPOAE LS and no IHC or OHC losses. Exposure to the 4-kHz OBN alone at 108 dB produced a 10–50 dB ABR TS for 0.5–12 kHz, a 10–60 dB DPOAE LS for 0.6–16 kHz and severe OHC loss in the middle of the first turn. When infrasound was present during exposure to the 4-kHz OBN at 108 dB, the functional losses and OHC losses extended much further toward the apical and basal tips of the OC than in cochleae exposed to the 4-kHz OBN alone. Exposure to only the 4-kHz OBN at 86 dB produces a 10–40 dB ABR TS for 3–12 kHz and 10–30 dB DPOAE LS for 3–8 kHz but little or no

  6. Phase coherence of 0.1 Hz microvascular tone oscillations during the local heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizeva, I. A.

    2017-06-01

    The origin of the mechanisms of blood flow oscillations at low frequencies is discussed. It is known that even isolated arteriole demonstrates oscillations with the frequency close to 0.1 Hz, which is caused by the synchronous activity of myocyte cells. On the other hand, oscillations with close frequency are found in the heart rate, which are associated with quite different mechanism. The main purpose of this work is to study phase coherence of the blood flow oscillations in the peripheral vessels under basal and perturbed conditions. Local heating which locally influences the microvascular tone, as one of currently elucidated in sufficient detail physiological test, was chosen. During such provocation blood flow though the small vessels significantly increases because of vasodilation induced by the local synthesis of nitric oxide. In the first part of the paper microvascular response to the local test is quantified in healthy and pathological conditions of diabetes mellitus type 1. It is obtained that regardless of the pathology, subjects with high basal perfusion had lower reserve for vasodilation, which can be caused by the low elasticity of microvascular structure. Further synchronization of pulsations of the heated and undisturbed skin was evaluated on the base of wavelet phase coherency analysis. Being highly synchronised in basal conditions 0.1 Hz pulsations became more independent during heating, especially during NO-mediated vasodilation.

  7. Brain responses to 40-Hz binaural beat and effects on emotion and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jirakittayakorn, Nantawachara; Wongsawat, Yodchanan

    2017-10-01

    Gamma oscillation plays a role in binding process or sensory integration, a process by which several brain areas beside primary cortex are activated for higher perception of the received stimulus. Beta oscillation is also involved in interpreting received stimulus and occurs following gamma oscillation, and this process is known as gamma-to-beta transition, a process for neglecting unnecessary stimuli in surrounding environment. Gamma oscillation also associates with cognitive functions, memory and emotion. Therefore, modulation of the brain activity can lead to manipulation of cognitive functions. The stimulus used in this study was 40-Hz binaural beat because binaural beat induces frequency following response. This study aimed to investigate the neural oscillation responding to the 40-Hz binaural beat and to evaluate working memory function and emotional states after listening to that stimulus. Two experiments were developed based on the study aims. In the first experiment, electroencephalograms were recorded while participants listened to the stimulus for 30min. The results suggested that frontal, temporal, and central regions were activated within 15min. In the second experiment, word list recall task was conducted before and after listening to the stimulus for 20min. The results showed that, after listening, the recalled words were increase in the working memory portion of the list. Brunel Mood Scale, a questionnaire to evaluate emotional states, revealed changes in emotional states after listening to the stimulus. The emotional results suggested that these changes were consistent with the induced neural oscillations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Extended high-frequency audiometry (9,000-20,000 Hz). Usefulness in audiological diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Valiente, Antonio; Roldán Fidalgo, Amaya; Villarreal, Ithzel M; García Berrocal, José R

    2016-01-01

    Early detection and appropriate treatment of hearing loss are essential to minimise the consequences of hearing loss. In addition to conventional audiometry (125-8,000 Hz), extended high-frequency audiometry (9,000-20,000 Hz) is available. This type of audiometry may be useful in early diagnosis of hearing loss in certain conditions, such as the ototoxic effect of cisplatin-based treatment, noise exposure or oral misunderstanding, especially in noisy environments. Eleven examples are shown in which extended high-frequency audiometry has been useful in early detection of hearing loss, despite the subject having a normal conventional audiometry. The goal of the present paper was to highlight the importance of the extended high-frequency audiometry examination for it to become a standard tool in routine audiological examinations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Otorrinolaringología y Patología Cérvico-Facial. All rights reserved.

  9. Possíveis efeitos adversos dos campos eletromagnéticos (50/60 Hz em humanos e em animais Potential adverse effects of electromagnetic fields (50/60 Hz on humans and animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Wanderley Souto Ferreira Anselmo

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Os avanços tecnológicos têm aumentado o número de equipamentos elétricos e eletrônicos, seja nas residências ou mesmo no ambiente de trabalho, fazendo com que a população conviva com grande número de fontes de irradiação eletromagnética, com os mais diversos níveis de potência e freqüência. Por muitos anos, alguns cientistas e engenheiros acreditaram que o campo eletromagnético (CEM com freqüência extremamente baixa não pudesse causar efeitos e alterações significantes no material biológico. O objetivo deste trabalho é verificar os possíveis efeitos adversos dos CEMs em humanos e animais, que foram publicados nos últimos anos, através de uma revisão da literatura disponível em Medline, revistas nacionais e internacionais e catálogos de obras de referência na área dos CEM (50/60 Hz. Como resultado foi observado que o CEM (50/60 Hz é capaz de produzir diversos efeitos adversos em humanos e animais, como por exemplo: distúrbios na reprodução, doenças degenerativas, efeitos psiquiátricos e psicológicos, alterações citogenéticas, alterações no sistema cardiovascular, nervoso e neuroendócrino, bem como nos parâmetros biológicos e bioquímicos. Apesar de todas estas constatações e devido a muitas controvérsias entre vários autores, faz-se necessário um estudo mais específico e aprofundado sobre o assunto.The technologic development has increased the number of electric and electronic devices for household and work environment applications. In this way, we have to cope with a diverse quantity of electromagnetic irradiation sources, with different power and frequency ranges. For many years, some scientists and engineers believed that low-frequencies electromagnetic field (EMF could not cause any bad effect or substantial alterations on the biologic livings. This work has the objective to perform a literature review of the possible effects of EMF in human beings and animals, that was published in the

  10. Doubly Fed Induction Generator in an Offshore Wind Power Plant Operated at Rated V/Hz: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muljadi, E.; Singh, M.; Gevorgian, V.

    2012-06-01

    This paper introduces the concept of constant Volt/Hz operation of offshore wind power plants. The deployment of offshore WPPs requires power transmission from the plant to the load center inland. Since this power transmission requires submarine cables, there is a need to use High-Voltage Direct Current transmission, which is economical for transmission distances longer than 50 kilometers. In the concept presented here, the onshore substation is operated at 60 Hz synced with the grid, and the offshore substation is operated at variable frequency and voltage, thus allowing the WPP to be operated at constant Volt/Hz.

  11. RELIABILITY AND ACCURACY OF 10 HZ GPS DEVICES FOR SHORT-DISTANCE EXERCISE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julen Castellano

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of GPS technology for training and research purposes requires a study of the reliability, validity and accuracy of the data generated (Petersen et al., 2009. To date, studies have focused on devices with a logging rate of 1 Hz and 5 Hz (Coutts and Duffield, 2010; Duffield et al., 2010; Jennings et al., 2010; MacLeod et al., 2009; Petersen et al., 2009; Portas et al., 2010, although it seems that more frequent sampling can increase the accuracy of the information provided by these devices (Jennings et al., 2010; MacLeod et al., 2009, Portas et al., 2010. However, we are unaware of any study of the reliability and accuracy of GPS devices using a sampling frequency of 10 Hz. Thus, the aim of the present research was to determine the reliability and accuracy of GPS devices operating at a sampling frequency of 10 Hz, in relation here to sprints of 15 m and 30 m and using both video and photoelectric cells.Nine trained male athletes participated in the study. Each participant completed 7 and 6 linear runs of 15 m and 30 m, respectively (n = 117, with only one GPS device being used per participant. Each repetition required them to complete the route as quickly as possible, with 1 min recovery between sets. Distance was monitored through the use of GPS devices (MinimaxX v4.0, Catapult Innovations, Melbourne, Australia operating at the above mentioned sampling frequency of 10 Hz. In addition, all tests were filmed with a video camera operating at a sampling frequency of 25 frames. Data were collected during what were considered to be good GPS conditions in terms of the weather and satellite conditions (number of satellites = 10.0 ± 0.2 and 10.3 ± 0.4 for sprints of 15 m and 30 m, respectively.Distance was measured using a tape measure. Electronic timing gates (TAG- Heuer, CP 520 Training model, Switzerland were used to obtain a criterion sprint time accurate to 0.01 s, with gates being placed at the beginning and end of the route (Petersen et

  12. Parametric Modeling of Nerve Cell under the Sinusoidal Environmental 50 Hz Extremely Low Frequency Magnetic Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Homayoun Ebrahimian

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives: The development of technology has naturally given rise to an increase in environmental low-frequency electromagnetic fields and consequently has attracted scholars' attention. Most of the studies have focused on transmission lines and power system distribution with 50 Hz. This research is an attempt to show the effect of 50 Hz magnetic fields on bioelectric parameters and indicates the possible influence of this change in F1 cells of Helix aspersa .   Methods: The present research used Helix aspersa neuron F1 to identify the location of magnetic fields as well as the rate of effects of environmental magnetic fields on nervous system. Control group was used to study the effect of elapsed time, electrode entering and the cell membrane rupture. Intuition group and environmental group were considered in order to study the potential impact of interfering environmental factors and identify the effectiveness rate of magnetic fields, respectively. For the purpose of producing uniform magnetic field Helmholtz coil was used. Electrophysiological recording was realized under the requirements of current clamp. And, in order to show the impacts from magnetic fields on ion channels Hodgkin-Huxley cell model was applied. All data were analyzed taking the advantage of SPSS 16 software and two-way ANOVA statistical test. P < 0.05 was considered as significance level. And MATLAB software environment and PSO were used in order for applying the algorithm and estimating the parameters.   Result: No statistically significant difference was found between control and sham groups in different time intervals. Once the 45.87 microtesla was applied significant differences were observed 12 minutes after the application. The highest amount of change happened 14 minutes after the application of more fields. With the application of the field, the amplitude of the sodium action potential shows decreasing trend . No significant changes were observed in

  13. Range management visual impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce R. Brown; David Kissel

    1979-01-01

    Historical overgrazing of western public rangelands has resulted in the passage of the Public Rangeland Improvement Act of 1978. The main purpose of this Act is to improve unsatisfactory range conditions. A contributing factor to unfavorable range conditions is adverse visual impacts. These visual impacts can be identified in three categories of range management: range...

  14. Operation of low-noise single-gap RPC modules exposed to ionisation rates up to 1 kHz/cm$^2$

    CERN Document Server

    Cwiok, M; Dominik, Wojciech; Górski, M; Królikowski, J; 10.1016/j.nima.2004.06.123

    2004-01-01

    Two single gap medium-size RPC modules, made of bakelite plates of very good mechanical quality of the surface and having initial volume resistivity of 1 multiplied by 10**1**0 omegacm, were tested in the Gamma Irradiation Facility at CERN at ionisation rates up to 1 kHz/cm **3. The internal surfaces facing the gas volume of one RPC module were cladded with a thin layer of linseed oil varnish for comparison of oiled and non-oiled RPC operation. The results refer to the gas mixture of C//2H//2F //4/isobutane (97:3) with SF//6 addition below 1%. The single gap modules exhibited full detection efficiency plateau for the high voltage range of about 1 kV at full intensity of gamma rays. Good timing characteristics allowed to reach 95% efficiency at fully opened irradiation source with time window of 20 ns. The intrinsic noise rate for a non-oiled and an oiled RPC gap was, respectively, below 5 and 1 Hz/cm**2 at full efficiency over 1 k V voltage range.

  15. Direct welding of glass and metal by 1  kHz femtosecond laser pulses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guodong; Cheng, Guanghua

    2015-10-20

    In the welding process between similar or dissimilar materials, inserting an intermediate layer and pressure assistance are usually thought to be necessary. In this paper, the direct welding between alumina-silicate glass and metal (aluminum, copper, and steel), under exposure from 1 kHz femtosecond laser pulses without any auxiliary processes, is demonstrated. The micron/nanometer-sized metal particles induced by laser ablation were considered to act as the adhesive in the welding process. The welding parameters were optimized by varying the pulse energy and the translation velocity of the sample. The shear joining strength characterized by a shear force testing equipment was as high as 2.34 MPa. This direct bonding technology has potential for applications in medical devices, sensors, and photovoltaic devices.

  16. Correlated Detection of sub-mHz Gravitational Waves by Two Optical-Fiber Interferometers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cahill R. T.

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Results from two optical-fiber gravitational-wave interferometric detectors are reported. The detector design is very small, cheap and simple to build and operate. Using two de- tectors has permitted various tests of the design principles as well as demonstrating the first simultaneous detection of correlated gravitational waves from detectors spatially separated by 1.1 km. The frequency spectrum of the detected gravitational waves is sub-mHz with a strain spectral index alpha = -1.4 +-0.1. As well as characterising the wave effects the detectors also show, from data collected over some 80 days in the latter part of 2007, the dominant earth rotation e ect and the earth orbit effect. The detectors op- erate by exploiting light speed anisotropy in optical-fibers. The data confirms previous observations of light speed anisotropy, earth rotation and orbit eff ects, and gravitational waves.

  17. Three-dimensional magnetic cloak working from d.c. to 250 kHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jianfei; Jiang, Wei; Liu, Yichao; Yin, Ge; Yuan, Jun; He, Sailing; Ma, Yungui

    2015-11-01

    Invisible cloaking is one of the major outcomes of the metamaterial research, but the practical potential, in particular for high frequencies (for example, microwave to visible light), is fatally challenged by the complex material properties they usually demand. On the other hand, it will be advantageous and also technologically instrumental to design cloaking devices for applications at low frequencies where electromagnetic components are favourably uncoupled. In this work, we vastly develop the bilayer approach to create a three-dimensional magnetic cloak able to work in both static and dynamic fields. Under the quasi-static approximation, we demonstrate a perfect magnetic cloaking device with a large frequency band from 0 to 250 kHz. The practical potential of our device is experimentally verified by using a commercial metal detector, which may lead us to having a real cloaking application where the dynamic magnetic field can be manipulated in desired ways.

  18. Three-dimensional magnetic cloak working from d.c. to 250 kHz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jianfei; Jiang, Wei; Liu, Yichao; Yin, Ge; Yuan, Jun; He, Sailing; Ma, Yungui

    2015-11-24

    Invisible cloaking is one of the major outcomes of the metamaterial research, but the practical potential, in particular for high frequencies (for example, microwave to visible light), is fatally challenged by the complex material properties they usually demand. On the other hand, it will be advantageous and also technologically instrumental to design cloaking devices for applications at low frequencies where electromagnetic components are favourably uncoupled. In this work, we vastly develop the bilayer approach to create a three-dimensional magnetic cloak able to work in both static and dynamic fields. Under the quasi-static approximation, we demonstrate a perfect magnetic cloaking device with a large frequency band from 0 to 250 kHz. The practical potential of our device is experimentally verified by using a commercial metal detector, which may lead us to having a real cloaking application where the dynamic magnetic field can be manipulated in desired ways.

  19. Distortion-Product Otoacoustic Emission Measured Below 300 Hz in Normal-Hearing Human Subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anders Tornvig; Ordoñez Pizarro, Rodrigo Eduardo; Hammershøi, Dorte

    2017-01-01

    Physiological noise levels in the human ear canal often exceed naturally low levels of otoacoustic emissions (OAEs) near the threshold of hearing. Low-frequency noise, and electronic filtering to cope with it, has effectively limited the study of OAE to frequencies above about 500 Hz. Presently......, a custom-built low-frequency acoustic probe was put to use in 21 normal-hearing human subjects (of 34 recruited). Distortion-product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) was measured in the enclosed ear canal volume as the response to two simultaneously presented tones with frequencies f1 and f2. The stimulus...... known from higher frequencies. Toward low frequencies, however, the bell broadens and the optimal ratio increases proportionally to the bandwidth of an auditory filter as defined by the equivalent rectangular bandwidth. The DPOAE phase rotates monotonously as a function of the stimulus ratio, and its...

  20. An area efficient low noise 100 Hz low-pass filter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ølgaard, Christian; Sassene, Haoues; Perch-Nielsen, Ivan R.

    1996-01-01

    A technique based on scaling a filter's capacitor currents to improve the noise performance of low frequency continuous-time filters is presented. Two 100 Hz low-pass filters have been implemented: a traditional low pass filter (as reference), and a filter utilizing the above mentioned current...... scaling technique. The two filters utilize approximately the same silicon area. The scaled filter implements the scaling by use of a MOS based current conveyor type CCII. Measurements indicate that the current scaled filter results in a noise improvement of approximately 5.5 dB over the reference filter...... when a class A/B biasing scheme is used in the current divider. Obtaining identical noise performance from the reference filter would require a 3.6 times larger filter capacitor. This would increase the reference filter's die area by 100%. Therefore, the current scaling technique allows filters...

  1. A High-Energy, 100 Hz, Picosecond Laser for OPCPA Pumping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongpeng Su

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A high-energy diode-pumped picosecond laser system centered at 1064 nm for optical parametric chirped pulse amplifier (OPCPA pumping was demonstrated. The laser system was based on a master oscillator power amplifier configuration, which contained an Nd:YVO4 mode-locked seed laser, an LD-pumped Nd:YAG regenerative amplifier, and two double-pass amplifiers. A reflecting volume Bragg grating with a 0.1 nm reflective bandwidth was used in the regenerative amplifier for spectrum narrowing and pulse broadening to suit the pulse duration of the optical parametric amplifier (OPA process. Laser pulses with an energy of 316.5 mJ and a pulse duration of 50 ps were obtained at a 100 Hz repetition rate. A top-hat beam distribution and a 0.53% energy stability (RMS were achieved in this system.

  2. Probing insect backscatter cross-section and melanization using kHz optical remote detection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebru, Alem K.; Brydegaard, Mikkel; Rohwer, Erich; Neethling, Pieter

    2016-09-01

    kHz optical remote sensing system is implemented to determine melanization and backscatter cross-section in the near infrared (NIR) and shortwave infrared (SWIR) in situ. It is shown that backscatter cross-section in the SWIR is insensitive to melanization and absolute melanization can be derived from the ratio of backscatter cross-section in two bands (SWIR/NIR). We have shown that insects reflect more strongly in the SWIR as compared to NIR and Visible (VIS) in accordance with previous findings. This is illustrated using three different insects (Snow white moth (spilosoma genus), Fox moth (Macrothylacia) and Leather beetle (Odontotaenius genus)) and it is shown that the reflectance of the Leather beetle in the VIS and NIR is more affected by melanization as compared with snow white moth.

  3. Multi-wavelength lasers with suppressed spectral linewidth of 10 kHz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tianhe; Yang, Tianxin; Jia, Dongfang; Wang, Zhaoying; Ge, Chunfeng

    2014-11-03

    High coherent multi-wavelength or multi-tone light source are in high demand for optical density wavelength division multiplexed (DWDM) networks as the telecommunication capacity expands exponentially. However the linewidths of commercial multi-wavelength semiconductor lasers are typically a few MHz which is not acceptable when the frequency spacing of the multi-tones is 10 GHz. In this paper, a novel and simple method to suppress the linewidths of the multi-wavelength from ~6 MHz to ~10 kHz using an all-optical approach is proposed and demonstrated. The linewidths of the multi-wavelength are suppressed by a factor of 600 and the noise level of the multi-wavelength is decreased by nearly 20 dB. Each wavelength of the multi-wavelength operates in single longitudinal mode. Finally, more than 8 wavelengths over 10 nm are suppressed simultaneously through the approach and scheme presented in this work.

  4. Transmission line design for a power distribution system at 20 kHz for aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelby, L. W.; Mathes, J. B.; Shawver, J. W.

    1986-01-01

    A low inductance, low characteristic impedance transmission line was designed for a 20 kHz power distribution system. Several different conductor configurations were considered: strip lines, interdigitated metal ribbons, and standard insulated wires in multiwire configurations (circular and rectangular cylindrical arrangements). The final design was a rectangular arrangement of multiple wires of the same gauge with alternating polarities from wire to wire. This offered the lowest inductance per unit length (on the order of several nanohenries/meter) and the lowest characteristic impedance (on the order of one Ohm). Standard multipin connectors with gold-plated elements were recommended with this transmission line, the junction boxes to be internally connected with flat metal ribbons for low inductance, and the line to be constructed in sections of suitable length. Computer programs for the calculation of inductance of multiwire lines and of capacitances of strip lines were developed.

  5. Note: Suppression of kHz-frequency switching noise in digital micro-mirror devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hueck, Klaus; Mazurenko, Anton; Luick, Niclas; Lompe, Thomas; Moritz, Henning

    2017-01-01

    High resolution digital micro-mirror devices (DMDs) make it possible to produce nearly arbitrary light fields with high accuracy, reproducibility, and low optical aberrations. However, using these devices to trap and manipulate ultracold atomic systems for, e.g., quantum simulation is often complicated by the presence of kHz-frequency switching noise. Here we demonstrate a simple hardware extension that solves this problem and makes it possible to produce truly static light fields. This modification leads to a 47 fold increase in the time that we can hold ultracold 6Li atoms in a dipole potential created with the DMD. Finally, we provide reliable and user friendly APIs written in Matlab and Python to control the DMD.

  6. 1.5 μ m Lasers with Sub-10 mHz Linewidth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matei, D. G.; Legero, T.; Häfner, S.; Grebing, C.; Weyrich, R.; Zhang, W.; Sonderhouse, L.; Robinson, J. M.; Ye, J.; Riehle, F.; Sterr, U.

    2017-06-01

    We report on two ultrastable lasers each stabilized to independent silicon Fabry-Pérot cavities operated at 124 K. The fractional frequency instability of each laser is completely determined by the fundamental thermal Brownian noise of the mirror coatings with a flicker noise floor of 4 ×10-17 for integration times between 0.8 s and a few tens of seconds. We rigorously treat the notorious divergences encountered with the associated flicker frequency noise and derive methods to relate this noise to observable and practically relevant linewidths and coherence times. The individual laser linewidth obtained from the phase noise spectrum or the direct beat note between the two lasers can be as small as 5 mHz at 194 THz. From the measured phase evolution between the two laser fields we derive usable phase coherence times for different applications of 11 to 55 s.

  7. Instantaneous geodetic positioning with 10-50 Hz GPS measurements: Noise characteristics and implications for monitoring networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genrich, Joachim F.; Bock, Yehuda

    2006-03-01

    Recent earthquake recordings from high-rate (1 Hz) continuous GPS stations in California indicate that even higher temporal resolution provided by modern GPS receivers is desirable. We measured seven baselines during time intervals devoid of detectable transient signals at sampling rates of 1-50 Hz with geodetic receivers from four manufacturers to investigate the noise characteristics of these data. Our tests over short distances (meters) to typical station spacing (tens of kilometers) of regional GPS networks show no loss of spatial resolution compared to 1-Hz samples. Measurement noise is red with the typical ramp profile of log-log spectra below about 0.5 Hz. Above this frequency, noise is essentially white. Low-pass filtering of high-rate positions achieves improved spatial resolution compared to decimated raw samples. Averaging 20-Hz measurements to 2-Hz samples on a 40-km baseline, for example, yields about 0.5 mm horizontal and about 3-4 mm vertical accuracy at high frequencies. These estimates are a factor of 2-2.5 better than for 2-Hz raw samples. The improvements in spatial resolution due to averaging at high frequencies are substantial and approach the theoretical "square-root-of-n" expectation for independent samples. However, since noise spectral densities rise rapidly below about 0.5-Hz, low-pass filtering is only effective above this frequency. These results have important implications for the design of continuous GPS networks for crustal deformation and structural monitoring and for positioning and attitude determination of dynamic platforms.

  8. Experimental investigation of photoresist etching by kHz AC atmospheric pressure plasma jet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Lijun, E-mail: lijunwang@mail.xjtu.edu.cn; Zheng, Yashuang; Wu, Chen; Jia, Shenli

    2016-11-01

    Graphical abstract: Pin-ring electrode, double-ring electrode and multi-electrode kHz AC atmospheric pressure plasma jet were used to etch PR on Si wafer, and a corresponding parametric study was carefully investigated. Display Omitted - Highlights: • The surface roughness increases dramatically after APPJ treatment. • The etch rate of the pin-ring electrode APPJ is the highest than that of the multi-electrode APPJ and the double-ring electrode APPJ. • Ar APPJ has a much higher etch rate and more irregular etch trace than He APPJ. • The effective etching initially increases and then decreases with the increment of plasma jet outlet to PR surface distance. - Abstract: In this study, the mechanism of the photoresist (PR) etching by means of a kHz AC atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) is investigated. The scanning electron (SEM) and the polarizing microscope are used to perform the surface analysis, and the mechanical profilometry is applied to diagnose the etch rate. The results show that granulated structure with numerous microparticles appears at the substrate surface after APPJ treatment, and the etch rate in the etch center is the fastest and gradually slows down to the edge of etch region. In addition, the pin-ring electrode APPJ has the highest etch rate at but easy to damage the Si wafer, the double-ring APPJ is the most stable but requires long time to achieve the ideal etch result, and the etch rate and the etch result of the multi-electrode APPJ fall in between. Ar APPJ had much higher PR etch rate and more irregular etch trace than He APPJ. It is speculated that Ar APPJ is more energetic and effective in transferring reactive species to the PR surface. It is also observed that the effective etch area initially increases and then decreases as plasma jet outlet to the PR surface distance increases.

  9. Multi-Column Xe/Kr Separation with AgZ-PAN and HZ-PAN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenhalgh, Mitchell Randy [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Garn, Troy Gerry [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Welty, Amy Keil [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Watson, Tony Leroy [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Previous multi-column xenon/krypton separation tests have demonstrated the capability of separating xenon from krypton in a mixed gas feed stream. The results of this initial testing with AgZ-PAN and HZ-PAN indicated that an excellent separation of xenon from krypton could be achieved. Building upon these initial results, a series of additional multi-column testing were performed in FY-16. The purpose of this testing was to scale up the sorbent beds, test a different composition of feed gas and attempt to improve the accuracy of the analysis of the individual capture columns’ compositions. Two Stirling coolers were installed in series to perform this testing. The use of the coolers instead of the cryostat provided two desired improvements, 1) removal of the large dilution due to the internal volume of the cryostat adsorption chamber, and 2) ability to increase the sorbent bed size for scale-up. The AgZ-PAN sorbent, due to its xenon selectivity, was loaded in the first column to capture the xenon while allowing the krypton to flow through and be routed to a second column containing the HZ-PAN for capture and analysis. The gases captured on both columns were sampled with evacuated sample bombs and subsequently analyzed via GC-MS for both krypton and xenon. The results of these tests can be used to develop the scope of future testing and analysis using this test bed for demonstrating the capture and separation of xenon and krypton using sorbents, for demonstrating desorption and regeneration of the sorbents, and for determining compositions of the desorbed gases. They indicate a need for future desorption studies in order to better quantify co-adsorbed species and final krypton purity.

  10. Contralateral white noise attenuates 40-Hz auditory steady-state fields but not N100m in auditory evoked fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawase, Tetsuaki; Maki, Atsuko; Kanno, Akitake; Nakasato, Nobukazu; Sato, Mika; Kobayashi, Toshimitsu

    2012-01-16

    The different response characteristics of the different auditory cortical responses under conventional central masking conditions were examined by comparing the effects of contralateral white noise on the cortical component of 40-Hz auditory steady state fields (ASSFs) and the N100 m component in auditory evoked fields (AEFs) for tone bursts using a helmet-shaped magnetoencephalography system in 8 healthy volunteers (7 males, mean age 32.6 years). The ASSFs were elicited by monaural 1000 Hz amplitude modulation tones at 80 dB SPL, with the amplitude modulated at 39 Hz. The AEFs were elicited by monaural 1000 Hz tone bursts of 60 ms duration (rise and fall times of 10 ms, plateau time of 40 ms) at 80 dB SPL. The results indicated that continuous white noise at 70 dB SPL presented to the contralateral ear did not suppress the N100 m response in either hemisphere, but significantly reduced the amplitude of the 40-Hz ASSF in both hemispheres with asymmetry in that suppression of the 40-Hz ASSF was greater in the right hemisphere. Different effects of contralateral white noise on these two responses may reflect different functional auditory processes in the cortices. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. DYNAMIC CONCRETE BEAM DEFORMATION MEASUREMNET WITH 3D RANGE CAMERAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Qi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Concrete beams are used to construct bridges and other structures. Due to the traffic overloading or the decaying state of structures, deformation of bridges or other structures occurs frequently. Therefore, the requirement to measure concrete beam deformation, as integral components of structures, is well recognized. Many imaging techniques such as digital cameras, laser scanners and range cameras have been proven to be accurate and cost-effective methods for large-area measurement of deformation under static loading conditions. However, for obtaining useful information about the behaviour of the beams or monitoring real-time bridge deformation, the ability to measurement deformation under dynamic loading conditions is also necessary. This paper presents a relatively low-cost and high accuracy imaging technique to measure the deformation of concrete beams in response to dynamic loading with range cameras. However, due to the range camera measurement principle, target movement could lead to motion artefacts that degrade range measurement accuracy. The results of simulated and real-data investigation into the motion artefacts show that the lower sampling frequency leads to the more significant motion artefact. The results from real data experiments have indicated that periodic deformation can be recovered with sub-millimetre accuracy when the 3 Hz and 4 mm amplitude target motion is sampled at a rate of least 20 Hz and with 31 MHz range camera modulation frequency. When the modulation frequency is 29 MHz, the best sampling frequency is 20 Hz to keep the error under sub-millimetre.

  12. Minnesota Pheasant Range

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This dataset delineates the spatial range of wild pheasant populations in Minnesota as of 2002 by dividing the MN state boundary into 2 units: pheasant range and...

  13. Substring Range Reporting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li

    2014-01-01

    We revisit various string indexing problems with range reporting features, namely, position-restricted substring searching, indexing substrings with gaps, and indexing substrings with intervals. We obtain the following main results. We give efficient reductions for each of the above problems...... to a new problem, which we call substring range reporting. Hence, we unify the previous work by showing that we may restrict our attention to a single problem rather than studying each of the above problems individually. We show how to solve substring range reporting with optimal query time and little...... for substring range reporting generalize to substring range counting and substring range emptiness variants. We also obtain non-trivial time-space trade-offs for these problems. Our bounds for substring range reporting are based on a novel combination of suffix trees and range reporting data structures...

  14. Public access defibrillation: Suppression of 16.7 Hz interference generated by the power supply of the railway systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iliev Georgi L

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A specific problem using the public access defibrillators (PADs arises at the railway stations. Some countries as Germany, Austria, Switzerland, Norway and Sweden are using AC railroad net power-supply system with rated 16.7 Hz frequency modulated from 15.69 Hz to 17.36 Hz. The power supply frequency contaminates the electrocardiogram (ECG. It is difficult to be suppressed or eliminated due to the fact that it considerably overlaps the frequency spectra of the ECG. The interference impedes the automated decision of the PADs whether a patient should be (or should not be shocked. The aim of this study is the suppression of the 16.7 Hz interference generated by the power supply of the railway systems. Methods Software solution using adaptive filtering method was proposed for 16.7 Hz interference suppression. The optimal performance of the filter is achieved, embedding a reference channel in the PADs to record the interference. The method was tested with ECGs from AHA database. Results The method was tested with patients of normal sinus rhythms, symptoms of tachycardia and ventricular fibrillation. Simulated interference with frequency modulation from 15.69 Hz to 17.36 Hz changing at a rate of 2% per second was added to the ECGs, and then processed by the suggested adaptive filtering. The method totally suppresses the noise with no visible distortions of the original signals. Conclusion The proposed adaptive filter for noise suppression generated by the power supply of the railway systems has a simple structure requiring a low level of computational resources, but a good reference signal as well.

  15. Subchronic Toxicities of HZ1006, a Hydroxamate-Based Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor, in Beagle Dogs and Sprague-Dawley Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofang Zhang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs, such as vorinostat and panobinostat, have been shown to have active effects on many hematologic malignancies, including multiple myeloma and cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. Hydroxamate-based (Hb HDACIs have very good toxicity profiles and are currently being tested in phases I and II clinical trials with promising results in selected neoplasms, such as bladder carcinoma. One of the Hb-HDACIs, HZ1006, has been demonstrated to be a promising drug for clinical use. The aim of our study was to determine the possible target of toxicity and to identify a non-toxic dose of HZ1006 for clinical use. In our studies, the repeated dosage toxicity of HZ1006 in Beagle dogs and Sprague Dawley (SD rats was identified. Dogs and rats received HZ1006 orally (0–80 and 0–120 mg/kg/day, respectively on a continuous daily dosing agenda for 28 days following a 14-day dosage-free period. HZ1006’s NOAEL (No Observed Adverse Effect Level by daily oral administration for dogs and rats was 5 mg/kg and 60 mg/kg, respectively, and the minimum toxic dose was 20 and 120 mg/kg, respectively. All the side effects indicated that the digestive tract, the male reproductive tract, the respiratory tract and the hematological systems might be HZ1006 toxic targets in humans. HZ1006 could be a good candidate or a safe succedaneum to other existing HDACIs for the treatment of some solid tumor and hematologic malignancies.

  16. Three-phase 16.7 Hz system for the transmission of offshore wind power. Pt. 1. System and components; Dreiphasiges 16,7-Hz-System fuer die Uebertragung von Offshore-Windenergie. T. 1. System und Komponenten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braun, Rainer [DB Energie GmbH, Frankfurt am Main (Germany). Anlagen- und Projektmanagement; Erlich, Istvan [Duisburg-Essen Univ., Duisburg (Germany). Fachgebiet Elektrische Anlagen und Netze; Brakelmann, Heinrich [CCB Cable Consulting, Rheinberg (Germany); Meng, Xing [Duisburg-Essen Univ., Duisburg (Germany); Fischer, Wilfried

    2013-11-01

    The current transmission in a three-phase power cable is limited to a frequency of 50 Hz due to the length of the charging current. If the frequency is reduced, then the cable may be longer. In the first part of this contribution the system and components are presented for the use of 16.7 Hz technology in offshore wind farms. In the second part, to be published in the next issue, the authors examine the technical opportunities of a 16.7 Hz system on the basis of load flow calculations for a hypothetical wind grid system in the North Sea. The results demonstrate the technical feasibility. It is shown that a three-phase 245 kV submarine cable may transfer nearly 600 MW - with cable lengths of more than 500 km.

  17. A randomized lot-to-lot immunogenicity consistency study of the candidate zoster vaccine HZ/su.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strezova, Ana; Godeaux, Olivier; Aggarwal, Naresh; Leroux-Roels, Geert; Lopez-Fauqued, Marta; Van Damme, Pierre; Vanden Abeele, Carline; Vastiau, Ilse; Heineman, Thomas C; Lal, Himal

    2017-12-04

    The risk of developing herpes zoster (HZ) increases with age and is thought to be associated with a decrease in cell-mediated immunity in older adults. The adjuvanted varicella-zoster virus (VZV) glycoprotein E (gE) recombinant subunit vaccine (HZ/su) showed >90% efficacy in the prevention of HZ when administered in adults ≥50 years of age. Here we aim to evaluate immunogenicity consistency of 3 different HZ/su vaccine lots and to assess safety of these lots. This multicenter, phase III, double-blind, randomized study (NCT02075515), assessed lot-to-lot consistency in terms of immunogenicity of HZ/su and also assessed safety of these lots. Participants aged 50 years or older were randomized (1:1:1) to receive 2 doses of HZ/su, 2 months apart, from 1 out of 3 randomized HZ/su lots (Lots A, B and C). Humoral immunogenicity was assessed pre-vaccination and 1 month post-second vaccination by anti-gE antibody enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Lot-to-lot consistency was demonstrated if the 2-sided 95% confidence intervals of the anti-gE geometric mean concentration ratio between all lot pairs were within 0.67 and 1.5. Solicited symptoms were recorded within 7 days and unsolicited adverse events (AEs) within 30 days after each vaccination. Serious AEs (SAEs) and potential immune-mediated diseases (pIMDs) were reported until study end (12 months post-second vaccination). Of 651 participants enrolled in the study, 638 received both doses of the HZ/su vaccine and 634 completed the study. Humoral immune responses were robust and consistency between 3 manufacturing lots was demonstrated. The incidence of solicited symptoms, unsolicited AEs and SAEs was comparable between all lots. Three fatal SAEs, 1 in each lot, were reported, none of which were considered vaccine-related by investigator assessment. Two out of the 8 reported pIMDs were considered vaccine-related by the investigator. The three HZ/su manufacturing lots demonstrated consistent immunogenicity. No safety

  18. On the Nature of the mHz X-ray Quasi-Periodic Oscillations from Ultraluminous X-ray source M82 X-1: Search for Timing-Spectral Correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasham, Dheeraj R.; Strohmayer, Tod E.

    2013-01-01

    Using all the archival XMM-Newton X-ray (3-10 keV) observations of the ultraluminous X-ray source (ULX) M82 X-1, we searched for a correlation between its variable mHz quasi-periodic oscillation (QPO) frequency and its hardness ratio (5-10 keV/3-5 keV), an indicator of the energy spectral power-law index. When stellar-mass black holes (StMBHs) exhibit type-C low-frequency QPOs (0.2-15 Hz), the centroid frequency of the QPO is known to correlate with the energy spectral index. The detection of such a correlation would strengthen the identification of M82 X-1's mHz QPOs as type-C and enable a more reliable mass estimate by scaling its QPO frequencies to those of type-C QPOs in StMBHs of known mass.We resolved the count rates and the hardness ratios of M82 X-1 and a nearby bright ULX (source 5/X42.3+59) through surface brightness modeling.We detected QPOs in the frequency range of 36-210 mHz during which M82 X-1's hardness ratio varied from 0.42 to 0.47. Our primary results are (1) that we do not detect any correlation between the mHz QPO frequency and the hardness ratio (a substitute for the energy spectral power-law index) and (2) similar to some accreting X-ray binaries, we find that M82 X-1's mHz QPO frequency increases with its X-ray count rate (Pearson's correlation coefficient = +0.97). The apparent lack of a correlation between the QPO centroid frequency and the hardness ratio poses a challenge to the earlier claims that the mHz QPOs of M82 X-1 are the analogs of the type-C low-frequency QPOs of StMBHs. On the other hand, it is possible that the observed relation between the hardness ratio and the QPO frequency represents the saturated portion of the correlation seen in type-C QPOs of StMBHs-in which case M82 X-1's mHz QPOs can still be analogous to type-C QPOs.

  19. 20-Hz pulses and other vocalizations of fin whales, Balaenoptera physalus, in the Gulf of California, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, P O; Findley, L T; Vidal, O

    1992-12-01

    Low-frequency vocalizations were recorded from fin whales, Balaenoptera physalus, in the Gulf of California, Mexico, during three cruises. In March 1985, recorded 20-Hz pulses were in sequences of regular 9-s interpulse intervals. In August 1987, nearly all were in sequences of doublets with alternating 5- and 18-s interpulse intervals. No 20-Hz pulse sequences of any kind were detected in February 1987. The typical pulse modulated from 42 to 20 Hz and its median duration was 0.7 s (1985 data). Most other fin whale sounds were also short tonal pulses averaging 82, 56, and 68 Hz, respectively, for the three cruises; 89% were modulated in frequency, mostly downward. Compared to Atlantic and Pacific Ocean regions, Gulf of California 20-Hz pulses were unique in terms of frequency modulation, interpulse sound levels, and temporal patterns. Fin whales in the Gulf may represent a regional stock revealed by their sound characteristics, a phenomenon previously shown for humpback whales, birds, and fish. Regional differences in fin whale sounds were found in comparisons of Atlantic and Pacific locations.

  20. 20 kHz ultrasound assisted treatment of chronic wounds with concurrent optic monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bawiec, Christopher R.; Sunny, Youhan; Diaz, David; Nadkarni, Sumati; Weingarten, Michael S.; Neidrauer, Michael; Margolis, David J.; Zubkov, Leonid; Lewin, Peter A.

    2015-05-01

    This paper describes a novel, wearable, battery powered ultrasound applicator that was evaluated as a therapeutic tool for healing of chronic wounds, such as venous ulcers. The low frequency and low intensity (~100mW/cm2) applicator works by generating ultrasound waves with peak-to-peak pressure amplitudes of 55 kPa at 20 kHz. The device was used in a pilot human study (n=25) concurrently with remote optical (diffuse correlation spectroscopy - DCS) monitoring to assess the healing outcome. More specifically, the ulcers' healing status was determined by measuring tissue oxygenation and blood flow in the capillary network. This procedure facilitated an early prognosis of the treatment outcome and - once verified - may eventually enable customization of wound management. The outcome of the study shows that the healing patients of the ultrasound treated group had a statistically improved (pulcers accelerates healing when combined with the current standard clinical care. The ultrasound applicator described here provides a user-friendly, fully wearable system that has the potential for becoming the first device suitable for treatment of chronic wounds in patient's homes, which - in turn - would increase patients' compliance and improve quality of life.

  1. Physiological tremor (8-12Hz component) in isometric force control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Thomas; Newell, Karl M

    2017-02-22

    The experiment investigated the influence of physiological tremor (8-12Hz band) on the variability of isometric force control as a function of force level and hand dominance. Subjects were instructed to match a constant force level target line on a computer screen and minimize error in a uni-manual isometric finger abduction task at 5%, 25%, 45%, 65%, and 85% of their maximal voluntary contraction (MVC). The experimental protocol was performed independently with the left and right hands in separate blocks of performance. Tremor amplitude was enhanced at an increasing rate with increments of force level and was correlated with both performance outcome (Root mean square error - RMSE) and time-dependent regularity (Sample Entropy) of the force signal. No significant findings in force variability (dispersion or irregularity) were found between the dominant and non-dominant hands. Physiological tremor has a small but direct influence on the dispersion and time dependent structure of the variability of isometric force control but its relative influence on force amplitude decreases with increments of force level. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Noiseless imaging detector for adaptive optics with kHz frame rates

    CERN Document Server

    Vallerga, J V; Mikulec, Bettina; Tremsin, A; Clark, Allan G; Siegmund, O H W; CERN. Geneva

    2004-01-01

    A new hybrid optical detector is described that has many of the attributes desired for the next generation AO wavefront sensors. The detector consists of a proximity focused MCP read out by four multi-pixel application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) chips developed at CERN (â€ワMedipix2”) with individual pixels that amplify, discriminate and count input events. The detector has 512 x 512 pixels, zero readout noise (photon counting) and can be read out at 1 kHz frame rates. The Medipix2 readout chips can be electronically shuttered down to a temporal window of a few microseconds with an accuracy of 10 nanoseconds. When used in a Shack-Hartman style wavefront sensor, it should be able to centroid approximately 5000 spots using 7 x 7 pixel sub-apertures resulting in very linear, off-null error correction terms. The quantum efficiency depends on the optical photocathode chosen for the bandpass of interest. A three year development effort for this detector technology has just been funded as part of the...

  3. Test-retest reliability of the 40 Hz EEG auditory steady-state response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina L McFadden

    Full Text Available Auditory evoked steady-state responses are increasingly being used as a marker of brain function and dysfunction in various neuropsychiatric disorders, but research investigating the test-retest reliability of this response is lacking. The purpose of this study was to assess the consistency of the auditory steady-state response (ASSR across sessions. Furthermore, the current study aimed to investigate how the reliability of the ASSR is impacted by stimulus parameters and analysis method employed. The consistency of this response across two sessions spaced approximately 1 week apart was measured in nineteen healthy adults using electroencephalography (EEG. The ASSR was entrained by both 40 Hz amplitude-modulated white noise and click train stimuli. Correlations between sessions were assessed with two separate analytical techniques: a channel-level analysis across the whole-head array and b signal-space projection from auditory dipoles. Overall, the ASSR was significantly correlated between sessions 1 and 2 (p<0.05, multiple comparison corrected, suggesting adequate test-retest reliability of this response. The current study also suggests that measures of inter-trial phase coherence may be more reliable between sessions than measures of evoked power. Results were similar between the two analysis methods, but reliability varied depending on the presented stimulus, with click train stimuli producing more consistent responses than white noise stimuli.

  4. Validity and reliability of 5 Hz GPS devices on short career with change of direction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Casamichana Gómez, Julen Castellano Paulis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the validity and reliability of a MinimaxX GPS device (Team Sport 2.5, Catapult Innovations operating with a sampling frequency of 5 Hz. Were measured distances made for 10 football players (age, 22.5 ±2.9 years, height 174 ±7 cm. and weight 72.6 ±3.4 kg in the specific Yo-Yo Endurance Test level 1. The test ended when the players completed the first 10 levels of speed test (from 2.22 to 3.48 m·s-1. Four of the 10 participants took two simultaneously GPS, what allowed to value the reliability of the devices. In the validity study comparing the values obtained by the GPS with the actual values obtained by tape before performing the test. Statistical analysis were: coefficient of variation (1 – 17 %, standard error (2.3 – 136 m, standard error estimated, (5 – 11 % and means difference (-0.7 – 89.2 m. The results indicate that although the reliability and validity showed satisfactory results at moderate intensities, almost all levels and for the total distance, although the distance was overestimated

  5. Probing insect backscatter cross section and melanization using kHz optical remote detection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebru, Alem; Brydegaard, Mikkel; Rohwer, Erich; Neethling, Pieter

    2017-01-01

    A kHz optical remote sensing system is implemented to determine insect melanization features. This is done by measuring the backscatter signal in the visible and near-infrared (VIS-NIR) and short-wave infrared (SWIR) in situ. It is shown that backscatter cross section in the SWIR is insensitive to melanization and absolute melanization can be derived from the ratio of backscatter cross section of different bands (SWIR/VIS-NIR). We have shown that reflectance from insect is stronger in the SWIR as compared to NIR and VIS. This reveals that melanization plays a big role to determine backscatter cross section. One can use this feature as a tool to improve insect species and age classification. To support the findings, we illustrated melanization feature using three different insects [dead, dried specimens of snow white moth (Spilosoma genus), fox moth (Macrothylacia), and leather beetle (Odontotaenius genus)]. It is shown that reflectance from the leather beetle in the VIS and NIR is more affected by melanization as compared with snow white moth.

  6. Hippocampal theta (3-8Hz) activity during classical eyeblink conditioning in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nokia, Miriam S; Penttonen, Markku; Korhonen, Tapani; Wikgren, Jan

    2008-07-01

    In 1978, Berry and Thompson showed that the amount of theta (3-8Hz) activity in the spontaneous hippocampal EEG predicted learning rate in subsequent eyeblink conditioning in rabbits. More recently, the absence of theta activity during the training trial has been shown to have a detrimental effect on learning rate. Here, we aimed to further explore the relationship between theta activity and classical eyeblink conditioning by determining how the relative power of hippocampal theta activity [theta/(theta+delta) ratio] changes during both unpaired control and paired training phases. We found that animals with a higher hippocampal theta ratio immediately before conditioning learned faster and also that in these animals the theta ratio was higher throughout both experimental phases. In fact, while the hippocampal theta ratio remained stable in the fast learners as a function of training, it decreased in the slow learners already during unpaired training. In addition, the presence of hippocampal theta activity enhanced the hippocampal model of the conditioned response (CR) and seemed to be beneficial for CR performance in terms of peak latency during conditioning, but did not have any effect when the animals showed asymptotic learning. Together with earlier findings, these results imply that the behavioral state in which hippocampal theta activity is absent is detrimental for learning, and that the behavioral state in which hippocampal theta activity dominates is beneficial for learning, at least before a well-learned state is achieved.

  7. Application of longitudinal and transversal bioimpedance measurements in peritoneal dialysis at 50 kHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nescolarde, L.; Doñate, T.; Casañas, R.; Rosell-Ferrer, J.

    2010-04-01

    More relevant information of the fluid changes in peritoneal dialysis (PD) might be obtained with segmental bioimpedance measurements rather than whole-body measurement, who hidden information of body composition. Whole-body and segmental bioimpedance measurements were obtained using 5 configurations (whole-body or right-side (RS), longitudinal-leg (L-LEG), longitudinal-abdomen (L-AB), transversal-abdomen (T-AB), and transversal-leg (T-LEG)) in 20 patients: 15 males (56.5 ± 9.4 yr, 24.2 ± 4.2 kg/m2) and 5 females (58.4 ± 7.1 yr, 28.2 ± 5.9 kg/m2) in peritoneal dialysis (PD). The aim of this study is to analyze the relationship between whole-body, longitudinal-segmental (L-LEG and L-AB) and transversal-segmental (TAB and TLEG) bioimpedance measurement at 50 kHz, with clinical parameters of cardiovascular risk, dyslipidemia, nutrition and hydration. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was used for the normality test of all variables. Longitudinal bioimpedance parameters were normalized by the height of the patients. The Spearman correlation was used to analyze the correlation between bioimpedance and clinical parameters. The statistical significance was considered with P clinical parameters than longitudinal measurements.

  8. Measurement of the acoustic reflectivity of sirenia (Florida manatees) at 171 kHz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, Jules S; Simonet, Fernando; Roberts, Paul L D; Bowles, Ann E

    2007-01-01

    The Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus latirostris) is an endangered sirenian. At present, its adult population (approximately 2200) seems stable, but tenuous. Manatee-boat collisions are a significant proportion (approximately 25%) of mortalities. Here, the potential use of active sonar for detecting manatees by quantifying sonic reflectivity is explored. In order to estimate reflectivity two methods were used. One method measured live reflections from captive animals using a carefully calibrated acoustic and co-registered optical system. The other method consisted of the analysis of animal tissue in order to obtain estimates of the sound speed and density and to predict reflectivity. The impedance measurement predicts that for a lateral view, the tissue reflectivity is close to 0.13, with a critical grazing angle of 28 degrees. Data measured from live animals indicate that substantial reflections can be recorded, however in many instances observed "empirical target strengths" were less than an experimentally dependent -48-dB threshold. Conclusions favor the hypothesis that the animals reflect substantial amounts of sound; however, the reflections can often be specular, and therefore impractical for observation by a manatee detection sonar operating at 171 kHz.

  9. Substring Range Reporting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li

    2011-01-01

    We revisit various string indexing problems with range reporting features, namely, position-restricted substring searching, indexing substrings with gaps, and indexing substrings with intervals. We obtain the following main results. – We give efficient reductions for each of the above problems...... to a new problem, which we call substring range reporting. Hence, we unify the previous work by showing that we may restrict our attention to a single problem rather than studying each of the above problems individually. – We show how to solve substring range reporting with optimal query time and little...... range reporting are based on a novel combination of suffix trees and range reporting data structures. The reductions are simple and general and may apply to other combinations of string indexing with range reporting....

  10. Compact Antenna Range

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Facility consists of a folded compact antenna range including a computer controlled three axis position table, parabolic reflector and RF sources for the measurement...

  11. Dryden Aeronautical Test Range

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Recently redesignated to honor Dr. Hugh L. Dryden, NASA's Dryden Aeronautical Test Range (DATR) supports aerospace flight research and technology integration, space...

  12. Topography-guided hyperopic and hyperopic astigmatism femtosecond laser-assisted LASIK: long-term experience with the 400 Hz eye-Q excimer platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanellopoulos AJ

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Anastasios John KanellopoulosDepartment of Ophthalmology, New York University Medical School, New York, NY, and LaserVision.gr Eye Institute, Athens, GreeceBackground: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of topography-guided ablation using the WaveLight 400 Hz excimer laser in laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis (LASIK for hyperopia and/or hyperopic astigmatism.Methods: We prospectively evaluated 208 consecutive LASIK cases for hyperopia with or without astigmatism using the topography-guided platform of the 400 Hz Eye-Q excimer system. The mean preoperative sphere value was +3.04 ± 1.75 (range 0.75–7.25 diopters (D and the mean cylinder value was –1.24 ± 1.41 (–4.75–0 D. Flaps were created either with Intralase FS60 (AMO, Irvine, CA or FS200 (Alcon, Fort Worth, TX femtosecond lasers. Parameters evaluated included age, preoperative and postoperative refractive error, uncorrected distance visual acuity, corrected distance visual acuity, flap diameter and thickness, topographic changes, higher order aberration changes, and low contrast sensitivity. These measurements were repeated postoperatively at regular intervals for at least 24 months.Results: Two hundred and two eyes were available for follow-up at 24 months. Uncorrected distance visual acuity improved from 5.5/10 to 9.2/10. At 24 (8–37 months, 75.5% of the eyes were in the ±0.50 D range and 94.4% were in the ±1.00 D range of the refractive goal. Postoperatively, the mean sphere value was –0.39 ± 0.3 and the cylinder value was –0.35 ± 0.25. Topographic evidence showed that ablation was made in the visual axis and not in the center of the cornea, thus correlating with the angle kappa. No significant complications were encountered in this small group of patients.Conclusion: Hyperopic LASIK utilizing the topography-guided platform of the 400 Hz Eye-Q Allegretto excimer and a femtosecond laser flap appears to be safe and effective for

  13. EFFECT OF A SHORT PERIOD WHOLE BODY VIBRATION WITH 10 HZ ON BLOOD BIOMARKERS IN WISTAR RATS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Milena de Oliveira Bravo; de Sá-Caputo, Danúbia da Cunha; Moreira-Marconi, Eloá; Frederico, Éric Heleno Freire Ferreira; de Sousa-Gonçalves, Cintia Renata; Bernardo, Luciana Camargo; Guimarães, Carlos Alberto Sampaio; Bernardo-Filho, Mario

    2017-01-01

    Exposure to whole body vibration exercises (WBVE), besides some biological effects, causes alterations in the concentration of some blood biomarkers. The aim of this study is to evaluate the action of vibration (10 Hz) of WBVE on the concentration of blood biomarkers in Wistar rats. Wistar rats were divided in 2 groups. The experimental group (EG) was subjected to vibrations of 10Hz (one min per day, one week, total time of seven min), while the control group (CG) has not experienced vibration. Samples of whole blood were drawn for biochemical analysis of the concentration of total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL, LDL, VLDL, glucose, CPK, albumin, alkaline phosphates, TGP, TGO, γGT, lipase, amylase, urea and creatinine. White blood cell count and a platelet-hemogram were also performed. Significant (pvibration. Although these findings were obtained with rats, they might contribute to try to understand better these mechanisms that occur following exposure to a frequency of 10Hz.

  14. On Range of Skill

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas Dueholm; Miltersen, Peter Bro; Sørensen, Troels Bjerre

    2008-01-01

    size (and doubly exponential in its depth). We also provide techniques that yield concrete bounds for unbalanced game trees and apply these to estimate the Range of Skill of Tic-Tac-Toe and Heads-Up Limit Texas Hold'em Poker. In particular, we show that the Range of Skill of Tic-Tac-Toe is more than...

  15. Range Scheduling Aid (RSA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, J. R.; Pulvermacher, M. K.

    1991-01-01

    Range Scheduling Aid (RSA) is presented in the form of the viewgraphs. The following subject areas are covered: satellite control network; current and new approaches to range scheduling; MITRE tasking; RSA features; RSA display; constraint based analytic capability; RSA architecture; and RSA benefits.

  16. Immunogenicity and Safety of the HZ/su Adjuvanted Herpes Zoster Subunit Vaccine in Adults Previously Vaccinated With a Live Attenuated Herpes Zoster Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grupping, Katrijn; Campora, Laura; Douha, Martine; Heineman, Thomas C; Klein, Nicola P; Lal, Himal; Peterson, James; Vastiau, Ilse; Oostvogels, Lidia

    2017-12-12

    Protection against herpes zoster (HZ) induced by the live attenuated zoster vaccine Zostavax (ZVL) wanes within 3-7 years. Revaccination may renew protection. We assessed whether (re)vaccination with the adjuvanted HZ subunit vaccine candidate (HZ/su) induced comparable immune responses in previous ZVL recipients and ZVL-naive individuals (HZ-NonVac). In an open-label, multicenter study, adults ≥65 years of age, vaccinated with ZVL ≥5 years previously (HZ-PreVac), were matched to ZVL-naive adults (HZ-NonVac). Participants received 2 doses of HZ/su 2 months apart. The primary objective of noninferiority of the humoral immune response 1 month post-dose 2 was considered demonstrated if the upper limit of the 95% confidence interval (CI) of the adjusted anti-glycoprotein E geometric mean concentration (GMC) ratio of HZ-NonVac over HZ-PreVac was <1.5. HZ/su cellular immunogenicity, reactogenicity, and safety were also assessed. In 430 participants, humoral immune response to HZ/su was noninferior in HZ-PreVac compared with HZ-NonVac (adjusted GMC ratio, 1.04 [95% CI, .92-1.17]). Cellular immunogenicity, reactogenicity, and safety appeared to be comparable between groups. HZ/su was well-tolerated, with no safety concerns raised within 1 month post-dose 2. HZ/su induces a strong immune response irrespective of prior vaccination with ZVL, and may be an attractive option to revaccinate prior ZVL recipients. NCT02581410.

  17. Home range and travels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickel, L.F.; King, John A.

    1968-01-01

    The concept of home range was expressed by Seton (1909) in the term 'home region,' which Burr (1940, 1943) clarified with a definition of home range and exemplified in a definitive study of Peromyscus in the field. Burt pointed out the ever-changing characteristics of home-range area and the consequent absence of boundaries in the usual sense--a finding verified by investigators thereafter. In the studies summarized in this paper, sizes of home ranges of Peromyscus varied within two magnitudes, approximately from 0.1 acre to ten acres, in 34 studies conducted in a variety of habitats from the seaside dunes of Florida to the Alaskan forests. Variation in sizes of home ranges was correlated with both environmental and physiological factors; with habitat it was conspicuous, both in the same and different regions. Food supply also was related to size of home range, both seasonally and in relation to habitat. Home ranges generally were smallest in winter and largest in spring, at the onset of the breeding season. Activity and size also were affected by changes in weather. Activity was least when temperatures were low and nights were bright. Effects of rainfall were variable. Sizes varied according to sex and age; young mice remained in the parents' range until they approached maturity, when they began to travel more widely. Adult males commonly had larger home ranges than females, although there were a number of exceptions. An inverse relationship between population density and size of home range was shown in several studies and probably is the usual relationship. A basic need for activity and exploration also appeared to influence size of home range. Behavior within the home range was discussed in terms of travel patterns, travels in relation to home sites and refuges, territory, and stability of size of home range. Travels within the home range consisted of repeated use of well-worn trails to sites of food, shelter, and refuge, plus more random exploratory travels

  18. Low Frequency (11 mHz) Oscillations in H1743-322: A New Class of Black Hole QPOs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altamirano, D.; Strohmayer, T.

    2012-01-01

    We report the discovery of quasi-periodic oscillations (QPO) at approx 11 mHz in two RXTE observations and one Chandra observation of the black hole candidate HI743-322. The QPO is observed only at the beginning of the 2010 and 2011 outbursts at similar hard color and intensity, suggestive of an accretion state dependence for the QPO. Although its frequency appears to be correlated with Xray intensity on timescales of a day, in successive outbursts eight months apart we measure a QPO frequency that differs by less than approximately equals 0.0015 Hz while the intensity had changed significantly. We show that this 11 mHz QPO is different from the so-called Type-C QPOs seen in black holes and that the mechanisms that produce the two flavors of variability are most probably independent. We compare the 11 mHz QPO with other variability phenomena seen in accreting black holes and neutron stars and conclude that although at 1-2 orders of magnitude lower in frequency, they best resemble the so-called "1 Hz" QPOs seen in dipping neutron star systems. If confirmed, H1743-322 is the first black hole showing this type of variability. Given the unusual characteristics and the hard-state dependence of the 11 mHz QPO, we speculate that these oscillations might instead be related to the radio jets observed in HI743-322. It remains unexplained, however, why similar QPOs have not yet been identified in other black holes and why they have only been seen in the last two outbursts of HI743-322.

  19. Individual differences in the conditioned and unconditioned rat 50-kHz ultrasonic vocalizations elicited by repeated amphetamine exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobile, Cameron W.; Page, Lindsay E.; Maier, Esther Y.; Duvauchelle, Christine L.; Schallert, Timothy

    2013-01-01

    Rationale Adult rats often produce 50-kHz ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs), particularly the frequency-modulated varieties, in appetitive situations. These calls are thought by some to reflect positive affective states and the reinforcing value of drugs such as amphetamine and cocaine. Objective The objective of this study was to determine whether the number of unconditioned 50-kHz USVs elicited by amphetamine predicts the development and/or magnitude of drug-conditioned motivation. Methods In three experiments, we recorded USVs before and after injections of 1 mg/kg amphetamine (i.v. or i.p.) administered once per session. Rats were categorized as “high callers” or “low callers” according to individual differences in the number of 50-kHz USVs elicited by their first amphetamine injection. We examined the conditioned appetitive behavior and conditioned place preference (CPP) that emerged in high and low callers after repeated pairings of amphetamine with specific contexts. We also examined whether amphetamine-induced calling was affected by treatment within an unfamiliar (test chamber) versus familiar (home cage) context. Results Within an unfamiliar environment, the high callers consistently produced more amphetamine-induced 50-kHz USVs than the low callers. Compared to the low callers, high callers showed significantly greater amphetamine CPP as well as enhanced conditioned 50-kHz USVs and locomotor activity during anticipation of amphetamine. Individual differences were stable when amphetamine was administered in test chambers, but when it was administered in home cages, low callers showed an increase in 50-kHz calling that matched the high callers. Conclusions These findings suggest that individual differences in drug-induced USVs can reveal environment-sensitive traits involved in drug-related appetitive motivation. PMID:23700082

  20. Fully Integrated 1.7GHz, 188dBc/Hz FoM, 0.8V, 320uW LC-tank VCO and Frequency Divider

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Midtgaard, Jesper Stolpe; Jeppesen, Thomas; Christensen, Kåre Tais

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a 0.13μm CMOS 1.7GHz VCO with frequency divider, suitable for ultra-low-power hearing-aid applications. The circuit has a 16% tuning range, a minimum power consumption of 320μW from a 0.8V power supply, power-supply and temperature compensation, an excellent 188dBc/Hz figure...

  1. Antiadipogenic effects of subthermal electric stimulation at 448 kHz on differentiating human mesenchymal stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    HERN?NDEZ-BULE, MAR?A LUISA; MART?NEZ-BOTAS, JAVIER; TRILLO, MAR?A ?NGELES; PA?NO, CARLOS L; ?BEDA, ALEJANDRO

    2016-01-01

    The 448 kHz capacitive-resistive electric transfer (CRET) is an electrothermal therapy currently applied in anticellulite and antiobesity treatments. The aim of the present study was to determine whether exposure to the CRET electric signal at subthermal doses affected early adipogenic processes in adipose-derived stem cells (ADSC) from human donors. ADSC were incubated for 2 or 9 days in the presence of adipogenic medium, and exposed or sham-exposed to 5 min pulses of 448 kHz electric signal...

  2. Intracranial inertial cavitation threshold and thermal ablation lesion creation using MRI-guided 220-kHz focused ultrasound surgery: preclinical investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhiyuan; Carlson, Carissa; Snell, John; Eames, Matt; Hananel, Arik; Lopes, M Beatriz; Raghavan, Prashant; Lee, Cheng-Chia; Yen, Chun-Po; Schlesinger, David; Kassell, Neal F; Aubry, Jean-Francois; Sheehan, Jason

    2015-01-01

    In biological tissues, it is known that the creation of gas bubbles (cavitation) during ultrasound exposure is more likely to occur at lower rather than higher frequencies. Upon collapsing, such bubbles can induce hemorrhage. Thus, acoustic inertial cavitation secondary to a 220-kHz MRI-guided focused ultrasound (MRgFUS) surgery is a serious safety issue, and animal studies are mandatory for laying the groundwork for the use of low-frequency systems in future clinical trials. The authors investigate here the in vivo potential thresholds of MRgFUS-induced inertial cavitation and MRgFUS-induced thermal coagulation using MRI, acoustic spectroscopy, and histology. Ten female piglets that had undergone a craniectomy were sonicated using a 220-kHz transcranial MRgFUS system over an acoustic energy range of 5600-14,000 J. For each piglet, a long-duration sonication (40-second duration) was performed on the right thalamus, and a short sonication (20-second duration) was performed on the left thalamus. An acoustic power range of 140-300 W was used for long-duration sonications and 300-700 W for short-duration sonications. Signals collected by 2 passive cavitation detectors were stored in memory during each sonication, and any subsequent cavitation activity was integrated within the bandwidth of the detectors. Real-time 2D MR thermometry was performed during the sonications. T1-weighted, T2-weighted, gradient-recalled echo, and diffusion-weighted imaging MRI was performed after treatment to assess the lesions. The piglets were killed immediately after the last series of posttreatment MR images were obtained. Their brains were harvested, and histological examinations were then performed to further evaluate the lesions. Two types of lesions were induced: thermal ablation lesions, as evidenced by an acute ischemic infarction on MRI and histology, and hemorrhagic lesions, associated with inertial cavitation. Passive cavitation signals exhibited 3 main patterns identified as

  3. Developmental studies of Hanford miniature swine exposed to 60-Hz electric fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikov, M.R.; Rommereim, D.N.; Beamer, J.L.; Buschbom, R.L.; Kaune, W.T.; Phillips, R.D.

    1987-01-01

    Evaluations of reproductive and developmental toxicology, including teratology, were included as part of a broad screening study in Hanford Miniature swine (HMS) to detect effects of exposure to electric fields. One group (E) was exposed to a uniform, vertical, 60-Hz, 30-kV/m electric field for 20 h/day, 7 days/week; sham-exposed (SE) swine were housed in a separate, environmentally equivalent building. The first generation (F0) gilts were bred after 4 months of study; some were killed for teratologic assays at 100 days of gestation (dg), and the others produced an F1 generation of offspring. The pooled incidence of terata in these litters (teratologic assays and live births) was similar in the E and SE groups. The F0 females, which produced the F1 generation, were bred again after 18 months of exposure and were killed at 100 dg. Malformation incidence in E litters (75%) was significantly greater than in SE litters (29%). No consistent differences in litter size, fetal mass, or mass of fetal organs were detected. The F1 gilts were bred at 18 months of age; defective offspring were found in significantly more of the E litters (71%) than in SE litters (33%). These F1 females were bred again 10 months later and teratologic assays were performed on their second litters at 100 dg. The percentage of litters with malformed fetuses was essentially identical in the E and SE groups (70% and 73%, respectively). There appears to be an association between chronic exposure to a strong electric field and developmental effects in swine, although the change in incidence of malformations between generations and between the first and second breedings makes it impossible to conclude unequivocally that there is a cause-and-effect relation.

  4. Relationship between field strength and arousal response in mice exposed to 60-Hz electric fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenberg, R.S.; Duffy, P.H.; Sacher, G.A.; Ehret, C.F.

    1983-01-01

    White-footed mice, Peromyscus leucopus, were exposed to 60-Hz electric fields to study the relationship between field strength and three measures of the transient arousal response previously reported to occur with exposures at 100 kV/m. Five groups of 12 mice each were given a series of four 1-h exposures, separated by an hour, with each group exposed at one of the following field strengths: 75, 50, 35, 25, and 10 kV/m; 8 additional mice were sham-exposed with no voltage applied to the field generator. All mice were experimentally naive before the start of the experiment, and all exposures occurred during the inactive (lights-on) phase of the circadian cycle. The first exposure produced immediate increases in arousal measures, but subsequent exposures had no significant effect on any measure. These arousal responses were defined by significant increases of gross motor activity, carbon dioxide production, and oxygen consumption, and were frequently recorded with field strengths of 50 kV/m or higher. Significant arousal responses rarely occurred with exposures at lower field strengths. Responses of mice exposed at 75 and 50 kV/m were similar to previously described transient arousal responses in mice exposed to 100-kV/m electric fields. Less than half of the mice in each of the field strength groups below 50 kV/m showed arousal response based on Z (standard) scores, but the arousals of the mice that did respond were similar to those of mice exposed at higher field strengths. Polynomial regression was used to calculate the field strength producing the greatest increases for each of the arousal measures. The results show that the amplitude of the transient arousal response is related to the strength of the electric field, but different measures of arousal may have different relationships to field strength.

  5. Long range image enhancement

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Duvenhage, B

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available and Vision Computing, Auckland, New Zealand, 23-24 November 2015 Long Range Image Enhancement Bernardt Duvenhage Council for Scientific and Industrial Research South Africa Email: bduvenhage@csir.co.za Abstract Turbulent pockets of air...

  6. SNOWY RANGE WILDERNESS, WYOMING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, Robert S.; Bigsby, Philip R.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral survey of the Snowy Range Wilderness in Wyoming was undertaken and was followed up with more detailed geologic and geochemical surveys, culminating in diamond drilling of one hole in the Snowy Range Wilderness. No mineral deposits were identified in the Snowy Range Wilderness, but inasmuch as low-grade uranium and associated gold resources were identified in rocks similar to those of the northern Snowy Range Wilderness in an area about 5 mi northeast of the wilderness boundary, the authors conclude that the northern half of the wilderness has a probable-resource potential for uranium and gold. Closely spaced drilling would be required to completely evaluate this mineral potential. The geologic terrane precludes the occurrence of fossil fuels.

  7. Atlantic Test Range (ATR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — ATR controls fully-instrumented and integrated test ranges that provide full-service support for cradle-to-grave testing. Airspace and surface target areas are used...

  8. Light Detection And Ranging

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) discrete-return point cloud data are available in the American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (ASPRS) LAS format....

  9. On Range of Skill

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas Dueholm; Miltersen, Peter Bro; Sørensen, Troels Bjerre

    2008-01-01

    is a small number, but only gave heuristic arguments for this. In this paper, we provide the first methods for rigorously estimating the Range of Skill of a given game. We provide some general, asymptotic bounds that imply that the Range of Skill of a perfectly balanced game tree is almost exponential in its......At AAAI'07, Zinkevich, Bowling and Burch introduced the Range of Skill measure of a two-player game and used it as a parameter in the analysis of the running time of an algorithm for finding approximate solutions to such games. They suggested that the Range of Skill of a typical natural game...... size (and doubly exponential in its depth). We also provide techniques that yield concrete bounds for unbalanced game trees and apply these to estimate the Range of Skill of Tic-Tac-Toe and Heads-Up Limit Texas Hold'em Poker. In particular, we show that the Range of Skill of Tic-Tac-Toe is more than...

  10. Laser Doppler vibrometer: unique use of DOE/Taguchi methodologies in the arena of pyroshock (10 to 100,000 HZ) response spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litz, C. J., Jr.

    1994-09-01

    Discussed is the unique application of design of experiment (DOE) to structure and test a Taguchi L9 (32) factorial experimental matrix (nine tests to study two factors, each factor at three levels), utilizing an HeNe laser Doppler vibrometer and piezocrystal accelerometers to monitor the explosively induced vibrations through the frequency range of 10 to 105 Hz on a flat steel plate (96 X 48 X 0.25 in.). An initial discussion is presented of pyrotechnic shock, or pyroshock, which is a short-duration, high-amplitude, high-frequency transient structural response in aerospace vehicle structures following firing of an ordnance item to separate, sever missile skin, or release a structural member. The development of the shock response spectra (SRS) is detailed. The use of a laser doppler for generating velocity- acceleration-time histories near and at a separation distance from the explosive and the resulting generated shock response spectra plots is detailed together with the laser doppler vibrometer setup as used. The use of DOE/Taguchi as a means of generating performance metrics, prediction equations, and response surface plots is presented as a means to statistically compare and rate the performance of the NeHe laser Doppler vibrometer with respect to two different piezoelectric crystal accelerometers of the contact type mounted directly to the test plate at the frequencies in the 300, 3000, and 10,000 Hz range. Specific constructive conclusions and recommendations are presented on the totally new dimension of understanding the pyroshock phenomenon with respect to the effects and interrelationships of explosive charge weight, location, and the laser Doppler recording system. The use of these valuable statistical tools on other experiments can be cost-effective and provide valuable insight to aid understanding of testing or process control by the engineering community. The superiority of the HeNe laser Doppler vibrometer performance is demonstrated.

  11. EFFECT OF A SHORT PERIOD WHOLE BODY VIBRATION WITH 10 HZ ON BLOOD BIOMARKERS IN WISTAR RATS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Milena de Oliveira Bravo; de Sá-Caputo, Danúbia da Cunha; Moreira-Marconi, Eloá; Frederico, Éric Heleno Freire Ferreira; de Sousa-Gonçalves, Cintia Renata; Bernardo, Luciana Camargo; Guimarães, Carlos Alberto Sampaio; Bernardo-Filho, Mario

    2017-01-01

    Background: Exposure to whole body vibration exercises (WBVE), besides some biological effects, causes alterations in the concentration of some blood biomarkers. The aim of this study is to evaluate the action of vibration (10 Hz) of WBVE on the concentration of blood biomarkers in Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Wistar rats were divided in 2 groups. The experimental group (EG) was subjected to vibrations of 10Hz (one min per day, one week, total time of seven min), while the control group (CG) has not experienced vibration. Samples of whole blood were drawn for biochemical analysis of the concentration of total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL, LDL, VLDL, glucose, CPK, albumin, alkaline phosphates, TGP, TGO, γGT, lipase, amylase, urea and creatinine. Results: White blood cell count and a platelet-hemogram were also performed. Significant (p<0.05) increase in TGP, TGO and white blood cells and decrease in LDL concentration was found after exposure of 10Hz mechanical vibration. Conclusion: Although these findings were obtained with rats, they might contribute to try to understand better these mechanisms that occur following exposure to a frequency of 10Hz. PMID:28740939

  12. Brain Responses to a 6-Hz Binaural Beat: Effects on General Theta Rhythm and Frontal Midline Theta Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jirakittayakorn, Nantawachara; Wongsawat, Yodchanan

    2017-01-01

    A binaural beat is a beat phenomenon that is generated by the dichotic presentation of two almost equivalent pure tones but with slightly different frequencies. The brain responses to binaural beats remain controversial; therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate theta activity responses to a binaural beat by controlling factors affecting localization, including beat frequency, carrier tone frequency, exposure duration, and recording procedure. Exposure to a 6-Hz binaural beat on a 250 Hz carrier tone for 30 min was utilized in this study. Quantitative electroencephalography (QEEG) was utilized as the recording modality. Twenty-eight participants were divided into experimental and control groups. Emotional states were evaluated by Brunel Mood Scale (BRMUS) before and after exposing to the stimulus. The results showed that theta activity was induced in the entire cortex within 10 min of exposure to the stimulus in the experimental group. Compared to the control group, theta activity was also induced at the frontal and parietal-central regions, which included the Fz position, and left hemisphere dominance was presented for other exposure durations. The pattern recorded for 10 min of exposure appeared to be brain functions of a meditative state. Moreover, tension factor of BRUMS was decreased in experimental group compared to control group which resembled the meditation effect. Thus, a 6-Hz binaural beat on a 250 Hz carrier tone was suggested as a stimulus for inducing a meditative state.

  13. Value of electrical stimulation and high frequency oscillations (80–500 Hz) in identifying epileptogenic areas during intracranial EEG recordings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Julia; Zijlmans, Maeike; Zelmann, Rina; Olivier, André; Hall, Jeffery; Gotman, Jean; Dubeau, François

    2013-01-01

    Summary Purpose Electrical stimulation (ES) is used during intracranial electroencephalography (EEG) investigations to delineate epileptogenic areas and seizure-onset zones (SOZs) by provoking afterdischarges (ADs) or patients’ typical seizure. High frequency oscillations (HFOs—ripples, 80–250 Hz; fast ripples, 250–500 Hz) are linked to seizure onset. This study investigates whether interictal HFOs are more frequent in areas with a low threshold to provoke ADs or seizures. Methods Intracranial EEG studies were filtered at 500 Hz and sampled at 2,000 Hz. HFOs were visually identified. Twenty patients underwent ES, with gradually increasing currents. Results were interpreted as agreeing or disagreeing with the intracranial study (clinical-EEG seizure onset defined the SOZ). Current thresholds provoking an AD or seizure were correlated with the rate of HFOs of each channel. Results ES provoked a seizure in 12 and ADs in 19 patients. Sixteen patients showed an ES response inside the SOZ, and 10 had additional areas with ADs. The response was more specific for mesiotemporal than for neocortical channels. HFO rates were negatively correlated with thresholds for ES responses; especially in neo-cortical regions; areas with low threshold and high HFO rate were colocalized even outside the SOZ. Discussion Areas showing epileptic HFOs colocalize with those reacting to ES. HFOs may represent a pathologic correlate of regions showing an ES response; both phenomena suggest a more widespread epileptogenicity. PMID:19845730

  14. 8-13 Hz fluctuations in rectal pressure are an objective marker of clitorally-induced orgasm in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Netten, Jaap J; Georgiadis, Janniko R; Nieuwenburg, Arie; Kortekaas, Rudie

    2008-04-01

    Orgasm is a subjective experience accompanied by involuntary muscle contractions. We hypothesized that orgasm in women would be distinguishable by frequency analysis of a perineal muscle-derived signal. Rectal pressure, an index of perineal muscle activity, was measured continuously in 23 healthy women during different sexual tasks: receiving clitoral stimulation, imitation of orgasm, and attempt to reach orgasm, in which case the women were asked to report whether orgasm had been reached ("orgasm") or not ("failed orgasm attempt"). We performed spectral analysis on the rectal pressure data and calculated the spectral power in the frequency bands delta (0.5-4 Hz), theta (4-8 Hz), alpha (8-13 Hz), and beta (13-25 Hz). The most significant and most important difference in spectral power between orgasm and both control motor tasks (imitation of orgasm and failed orgasm attempt) was found in the alpha band. An objective rule based on spectral power in the alpha band recognized 94% (29/31) of orgasms and correctly labeled 69% (44/64) of all orgasm attempts as either successful or failed. Because outbursts of alpha fluctuations in rectal pressure only occurred during orgasm and not during voluntary imitation of orgasm or failed attempts, we propose that they represent involuntary contractions of muscles in the rectal vicinity. This is the first objective and quantitative measure that has a strong correspondence with the subjective experience of orgasm.

  15. VCSEL-Based DWDM PON With 4 BIT/S/HZ Spectral Efficiency Using Carrierless Amplitude Phase Modulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodes Lopez, Roberto; Wieckowski, Marcin; Pham, Tien Thang

    2011-01-01

    We experimental demonstrate successful performance of VCSEL-based WDM link supporting advanced 16-level carrierless amplitude/phase modulation up to 1.25 Gbps, over 26 km SSMF with spectral efficiency of 4 bit/s/Hz for application in high capacity PONs....

  16. Brain Responses to a 6-Hz Binaural Beat: Effects on General Theta Rhythm and Frontal Midline Theta Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nantawachara Jirakittayakorn

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A binaural beat is a beat phenomenon that is generated by the dichotic presentation of two almost equivalent pure tones but with slightly different frequencies. The brain responses to binaural beats remain controversial; therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate theta activity responses to a binaural beat by controlling factors affecting localization, including beat frequency, carrier tone frequency, exposure duration, and recording procedure. Exposure to a 6-Hz binaural beat on a 250 Hz carrier tone for 30 min was utilized in this study. Quantitative electroencephalography (QEEG was utilized as the recording modality. Twenty-eight participants were divided into experimental and control groups. Emotional states were evaluated by Brunel Mood Scale (BRMUS before and after exposing to the stimulus. The results showed that theta activity was induced in the entire cortex within 10 min of exposure to the stimulus in the experimental group. Compared to the control group, theta activity was also induced at the frontal and parietal-central regions, which included the Fz position, and left hemisphere dominance was presented for other exposure durations. The pattern recorded for 10 min of exposure appeared to be brain functions of a meditative state. Moreover, tension factor of BRUMS was decreased in experimental group compared to control group which resembled the meditation effect. Thus, a 6-Hz binaural beat on a 250 Hz carrier tone was suggested as a stimulus for inducing a meditative state.

  17. Deterring effects of 8-45 kHz tone pulses on harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) in a large pool

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kastelein, R.A.; Heul, S. van der; Terhune, J.M.; Verboom, W.C.; Triesscheijn, R.J.V.

    2006-01-01

    The marine aquaculture industry suffers losses due to pinniped attacks which damage net enclosures and fish stocks. Acoustic harassment devices (AHDs) emit loud sounds which are intended to deter pinnipeds from approaching aquaculture enclosures. At present, many AHDs emit sounds in the 8-20 kHz

  18. Behavioral avoidance threshold level of a harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) for a continuous 50 kHz pure tone (L)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kastelein, R.A.; Verboom, W.C.; Jennings, N.; Haan, D. de

    2008-01-01

    The use of ultrasonic sounds in alarms for gillnets may be advantageous, but the deterring effects of ultrasound on porpoises are not well understood. Therefore a harbor porpoise in a large floating pen was subjected to a continuous 50 kHz pure tone with a source level of 122 +/- 3dB (re 1uPa, rms).

  19. Behavioral avoidance threshold level of a harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) for a continuous 50 kHz pure tone (L)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kastelein, R.A.; Verboom, W.C.; Jennings, N.; Haan, de D.

    2008-01-01

    The use of ultrasonic sounds in alarms for gillnets may be advantageous, but the deterring effects of ultrasound on porpoises are not well understood. Therefore a harbor porpoise in a large floating pen was subjected to a continuous 50 kHz pure tone with a source level of 122±3 dB (re 1 ¿Pa, rms).

  20. 50 Hz-Sinusoidal magnetic field induced effects on the bioelectric activity of single unit neurone cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azanza, María. J.; Calvo, Ana C.; del Moral, A.

    2001-05-01

    Neurones recruiting and synchronized bioelectric activity recorded from Helix aspersa brain ganglia, under exposure to 50 Hz sinusoidal magnetic fields of 1-15 mT intensity, is reported. We show recruiting responses from single neurones and the synchronization of pairs of neurones activity. Experimental evidence and model theoretical explanation for the spreading of synchronization are presented.

  1. Carrierless amplitude phase modulation of VCSEL with 4 bit/s/Hz spectral efficiency for use in WDM-PON

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodes Lopez, Roberto; Wieckowski, Marcin; Pham, Tien Thang

    2011-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate successful performance of VCSEL-based WDM link supporting advanced 16-level carrierless amplitude/phase modulation up to 1.25 Gbps, over 26 km SSMF with spectral efficiency of 4 bit/s/Hz for application in high capacity PONs. © 2011 Optical Society of America....

  2. Carrierless amplitude phase modulation of VCSEL with 4 bit/s/Hz spectral efficiency for use in WDM-PON.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodes, Roberto; Wieckowski, Marcin; Pham, Thang Tien; Jensen, Jesper Bevensee; Turkiewicz, Jarek; Siuzdak, Jerzy; Monroy, Idelfonso Tafur

    2011-12-19

    We experimentally demonstrate successful performance of VCSEL-based WDM link supporting advanced 16-level carrierless amplitude/phase modulation up to 1.25 Gbps, over 26 km SSMF with spectral efficiency of 4 bit/s/Hz for application in high capacity PONs.

  3. Overexposure effects of a 1-kHz tone on the distortion product otoacoustic emission in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reuter, Karen; Ordoñez, Rodrigo Pizarro; Hammershøi, Dorte

    2007-01-01

    The effects of overexposure on the properties of distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) are investigated. In total, 39 normal-hearing humans were monaurally exposed to a 1-kHz tone lasting for 3 min at an equivalent threshold sound-pressure level of 105.5 dB. The effects of overexposur...

  4. Areas V1 and V2 show microsaccade-related 3-4-Hz covariation in gamma power and frequency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lowet, E.; Roberts, M.J.; Bosman, C.A.; Fries, P.; de Weerd, P.

    2016-01-01

    Neuronal gamma-band synchronization (25-80 Hz) in visual cortex appears sustained and stable during prolonged visual stimulation when investigated with conventional averages across trials. However, recent studies in macaque visual cortex have used single-trial analyses to show that both power and

  5. Earth's normal mode spectrum below 1mHz observed with a superconducting gravimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raja-Halli, A.; Virtanen, H.; Ruotsalainen, H.

    2012-04-01

    We present new observations of the normal modes 0S2, 0T2, 2S1 and 0S3 observed with the GWR T020 superconducting gravimeter at Metsähovi, Finland. Superconducting gravimeter is well suited for observing the normal mode spectrum of the Earth, primarily due to the low noise levels at seismic bands. Especially in the frequencies below 1mHz, superconducting gravimeters can provide valuable information on the behavior of the modes and further about the Earth's internal structure. The superconducting gravimeter GWR no.T020 has been operating continuously at Metsähovi, since August 1994. We have studied the gravimeter data after larger than magnitude M=8.0 earthquakes, which have occurred between August 1994 and December 2011. A total of 20 M>8.0 earthquakes occurred during this time. In this study we will show the observational threshold level of the GWR T020 gravimeter for the modes 0S2, 2S1, 0S3 and 0T2, and examine the behaviour of these modes. The properties of these gravest normal modes are of great interest as they are a direct result of the Earth's density profile and hence help to constrain the Earth models. The mode 0S2 can be observed in all studied spectra. However, the amplitude of the mode is only slightly above the noise level of 0.01nm/s2 after the weakest earthquakes studied. After earthquakes with magnitudes M>8.4 the splitting of the mode 0S2 into five separate peaks can be clearly seen in the 240 hour spectrum as well as the splitting of the mode 0S3. Modes 2S1 and 0T2 are detected just above the noise level after M>8.8 earthquakes. The toroidal mode 0T2 is observable with gravimeters only due to coupling effects created by rotating Earth and hence is observable only after the most powerful earthquakes studied. In addition we will present a comparison of the observed normal mode frequencies to the theoretical frequencies of the Earth's models PREM and 1066A. The comparison shows slight differences between the theoretical and observed frequency.

  6. Tune in on 11.57 µHz and listen to primary production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Tom J. S.; van Beusekom, Justus E. E.; Soetaert, Karline

    2017-11-01

    In this paper we present an elegant approach to reconstruct slowly varying gross primary production (GPP) as a function of time, based on O2 time series. The approach, called complex demodulation, is based on a direct analogy with amplitude-modulated (AM) radio signals. The O2 concentrations oscillating at the diel frequency (or 11.57 µHz) can be seen as a carrier wave, while the time variation in the amplitude of this carrier wave is related to the time-varying GPP. The relation follows from an analysis in the frequency domain of the governing equations of O2 dynamics. After the theoretical derivation, we assess the performance of the approach by applying it to three artificial O2 time series, generated with models representative of a well-mixed vertical water column, a river and an estuary. These models are forced with hourly observed incident irradiance, resulting in a variability of GPP on scales from hours to months. The dynamic build-up of algal biomass further increases the seasonality. Complex demodulation allows for reconstruction, with great precision, of time-varying GPP of the vertical water column and the river model. Surprisingly, it is possible to derive daily averaged GPP - complex demodulation thus reconstructs the amplitude of every single diel cycle. Also, in estuaries time-varying GPP can be reconstructed to a great extent. But there, the influence of the tides prevent achieving the same temporal resolution. In particular, the combination of horizontal O2 gradients with quasi-diurnal harmonics in the tides interferes with the complex demodulation procedure and introduces spurious amplitude variation that can not be attributed to GPP. We demonstrate that these spurious effects also occur in real-world time series (Hörnum Tief, Germany). The spurious effects due to K1 and P1 quasi-diurnals can not be distinguished from GPP. However, the spurious fluctuations introduced by O1 and Q1 can be removed to a large extent by increasing the averaging

  7. Tune in on 11.57 µHz and listen to primary production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. J. S. Cox

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present an elegant approach to reconstruct slowly varying gross primary production (GPP as a function of time, based on O2 time series. The approach, called complex demodulation, is based on a direct analogy with amplitude-modulated (AM radio signals. The O2 concentrations oscillating at the diel frequency (or 11.57 µHz can be seen as a carrier wave, while the time variation in the amplitude of this carrier wave is related to the time-varying GPP. The relation follows from an analysis in the frequency domain of the governing equations of O2 dynamics. After the theoretical derivation, we assess the performance of the approach by applying it to three artificial O2 time series, generated with models representative of a well-mixed vertical water column, a river and an estuary. These models are forced with hourly observed incident irradiance, resulting in a variability of GPP on scales from hours to months. The dynamic build-up of algal biomass further increases the seasonality. Complex demodulation allows for reconstruction, with great precision, of time-varying GPP of the vertical water column and the river model. Surprisingly, it is possible to derive daily averaged GPP – complex demodulation thus reconstructs the amplitude of every single diel cycle. Also, in estuaries time-varying GPP can be reconstructed to a great extent. But there, the influence of the tides prevent achieving the same temporal resolution. In particular, the combination of horizontal O2 gradients with quasi-diurnal harmonics in the tides interferes with the complex demodulation procedure and introduces spurious amplitude variation that can not be attributed to GPP. We demonstrate that these spurious effects also occur in real-world time series (Hörnum Tief, Germany. The spurious effects due to K1 and P1 quasi-diurnals can not be distinguished from GPP. However, the spurious fluctuations introduced by O1 and Q1 can be removed to a large extent by

  8. Growth of etiolated barley plants in weak static and 50 Hz electromagnetic fields tuned to calcium ion cyclotron resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazur, Alexander; Rassadina, Valentina; Dandler, Jörg; Zoller, Jutta

    2006-01-01

    Background The effects of weak magnetic and electromagnetic fields in biology have been intensively studied on animals, microorganisms and humans, but comparably less on plants. Perception mechanisms were attributed originally to ferrimagnetism, but later discoveries required additional explanations like the "radical pair mechanism" and the "Ion cyclotron resonance" (ICR), primarily considered by Liboff. The latter predicts effects by small ions involved in biological processes, that occur in definite frequency- and intensity ranges ("windows") of simultaneously impacting magnetic and electromagnetic fields related by a linear equation, which meanwhile is proven by a number of in vivo and in vitro experiments. Methods Barley seedlings (Hordeum vulgare, L. var. Steffi) were grown in the dark for 5 and 6 days under static magnetic and 50 Hz electromagnetic fields matching the ICR conditions of Ca2+. Control cultures were grown under normal geomagnetic conditions, not matching this ICR. Morphology, pigmentation and long-term development of the adult plants were subsequently investigated. Results The shoots of plants exposed to Ca2+-ICR exposed grew 15–20% shorter compared to the controls, the plant weight was 10–12% lower, and they had longer coleoptiles that were adhering stronger to the primary leaf tissue. The total pigment contents of protochlorophyllide (PChlide) and carotenoids were significantly decreased. The rate of PChlide regeneration after light irradiation was reduced for the Ca2+-ICR exposed plants, also the Shibata shift was slightly delayed. Even a longer subsequent natural growing phase without any additional fields could only partially eliminate these effects: the plants initially exposed to Ca2+-ICR were still significantly shorter and had a lower chlorophyll (a+b) content compared to the controls. A continued cultivation and observation of the adult plants under natural conditions without any artificial electromagnetic fields showed a

  9. On the Origin of the 1,000 Hz Peak in the Spectrum of the Human Tympanic Electrical Noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javiera Pardo-Jadue

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The spectral analysis of the spontaneous activity recorded with an electrode positioned near the round window of the guinea pig cochlea shows a broad energy peak between 800 and 1,000 Hz. This spontaneous electric activity is called round window noise or ensemble background activity. In guinea pigs, the proposed origin of this peak is the random sum of the extracellular field potentials generated by action potentials of auditory nerve neurons. In this study, we used a non-invasive method to record the tympanic electric noise (TEN in humans by means of a tympanic wick electrode. We recorded a total of 24 volunteers, under silent conditions or in response to stimuli of different modalities, including auditory, vestibular, and motor activity. Our results show a reliable peak of spontaneous activity at ~1,000 Hz in all studied subjects. In addition, we found stimulus-driven responses with broad-band noise that in most subjects produced an increase in the magnitude of the energy band around 1,000 Hz (between 650 and 1,200 Hz. Our results with the vestibular stimulation were not conclusive, as we found responses with all caloric stimuli, including 37°C. No responses were observed with motor tasks, like eye movements or blinking. We demonstrate the feasibility of recording neural activity from the electric noise of the tympanic membrane with a non-invasive method. From our results, we suggest that the 1,000 Hz component of the TEN has a mixed origin including peripheral and central auditory pathways. This research opens up the possibility of future clinical non-invasive techniques for the functional study of auditory and vestibular nerves in humans.

  10. Rhythmic 3–4 Hz discharge is insufficient to produce cortical BOLD fMRI decreases in generalized seizures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youngblood, Mark W.; Chen, William C.; Mishra, Asht M.; Enamandram, Sheila; Sanganahalli, Basavaraju G.; Motelow, Joshua E.; Bai, Harrison X.; Frohlich, Flavio; Gribizis, Alexandra; Lighten, Alexis; Hyder, Fahmeed; Blumenfeld, Hal

    2015-01-01

    Absence seizures are transient episodes of impaired consciousness accompanied by 3–4 Hz spike-wave discharge on electroencephalography (EEG). Human functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have demonstrated widespread cortical decreases in the blood oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) signal that may play an important role in the pathophysiology of these seizures. Animal models could provide an opportunity to investigate the fundamental mechanisms of these changes, however they have so far failed to consistently replicate the cortical fMRI decreases observed in human patients. This may be due to important differences between human seizures and animal models, including a lack of cortical development in rodents or differences in the frequency of rodent (7–8 Hz) and human (3–4 Hz) spike-wave discharge. To examine the possible contributions of these differences, we developed a ferret model that exhibits 3–4 Hz spike-wave seizures in the presence of a sulcated cortex. Measurements of BOLD fMRI and simultaneous EEG demonstrated cortical fMRI increases during and following spike-wave seizures in ferrets. However unlike human patients, significant fMRI decreases were not observed. The lack of fMRI decreases was consistent across seizures of different durations, discharge frequencies, and anesthetic regimes, and using fMRI analysis models similar to human patients. In contrast, generalized tonic-clonic seizures under the same conditions elicited sustained postictal fMRI decreases, verifying that the lack of fMRI decreases with spike-wave was not due to technical factors. These findings demonstrate that 3–4 Hz spike-wave discharge in a sulcated animal model does not necessarily produce fMRI decreases, leaving the mechanism for this phenomenon open for further investigation. PMID:25562830

  11. Range Selection and Median

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Allan Grønlund; Larsen, Kasper Green

    2011-01-01

    that supports queries in constant time, needs n1+ (1) space. For data structures that uses n logO(1) n space this matches the best known upper bound. Additionally, we present a linear space data structure that supports range selection queries in O(log k= log log n + log log n) time. Finally, we prove that any...

  12. Electric vehicles: Driving range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempton, Willett

    2016-09-01

    For uptake of electric vehicles to increase, consumers' driving-range needs must be fulfilled. Analysis of the driving patterns of personal vehicles in the US now shows that today's electric vehicles can meet all travel needs on almost 90% of days from a single overnight charge.

  13. Effects of dynamic-range compression on temporal acuity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiinberg, Alan; Jepsen, Morten Løve; Epp, Bastian

    2016-01-01

    processing, temporal modulation transfer functions (TMTFs) and “supra-threshold” modulation-depth discrimination (MDD) thresholds were obtained in normal-hearing (NH) and hearing-impaired (HI) listeners with and without wide-dynamic range compression (WDRC). The TMTFs were obtained using tonal carriers of 1......Some of the challenges that hearing-aid listeners experience with speech perception in complex acoustic environments may originate from limitations in the temporal processing of sounds. To systematically investigate the influence of hearing impairment and hearing-aid signal processing on temporal...... and 5 kHz and modulation frequencies from 8 to 256 Hz. MDD thresholds were obtained using a reference modulation depth of -15 dB. A compression ratio of 2:1 was chosen. The attack and release time constants were 10 and 60 ms, respectively. For both carrier frequencies the TMTF thresholds decreased...

  14. 10 Hz Amplitude Modulated Sounds Induce Short-Term Tinnitus Suppression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Neff

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Acoustic stimulation or sound therapy is proposed as a main treatment option for chronic subjective tinnitus. To further probe the field of acoustic stimulations for tinnitus therapy, this exploratory study compared 10 Hz amplitude modulated (AM sounds (two pure tones, noise, music, and frequency modulated (FM sounds and unmodulated sounds (pure tone, noise regarding their temporary suppression of tinnitus loudness. First, it was hypothesized that modulated sounds elicit larger temporary loudness suppression (residual inhibition than unmodulated sounds. Second, with manipulation of stimulus loudness and duration of the modulated sounds weaker or stronger effects of loudness suppression were expected, respectively.Methods: We recruited 29 participants with chronic tonal tinnitus from the multidisciplinary Tinnitus Clinic of the University of Regensburg. Participants underwent audiometric, psychometric and tinnitus pitch matching assessments followed by an acoustic stimulation experiment with a tinnitus loudness growth paradigm. In a first block participants were stimulated with all of the sounds for 3 min each and rated their subjective tinnitus loudness to the pre-stimulus loudness every 30 s after stimulus offset. The same procedure was deployed in the second block with the pure tone AM stimuli matched to the tinnitus frequency, manipulated in length (6 min, and loudness (reduced by 30 dB and linear fade out. Repeated measures mixed model analyses of variance (ANOVA were calculated to assess differences in loudness growth between the stimuli for each block separately.Results: First, we found that all sounds elicit a short-term suppression of tinnitus loudness (seconds to minutes with strongest suppression right after stimulus offset [F(6, 1331 = 3.74, p < 0.01]. Second, similar to previous findings we found that AM sounds near the tinnitus frequency produce significantly stronger tinnitus loudness suppression than noise [vs. Pink

  15. Human exposure to a 60 Hz, 1800 micro tesla magnetic field: a neuro behavioral study; Exposition humaine a un champ magnetique de 1 800 microtesla a 60 Hz: une etude neurocomportementale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Legros, A.; Corbacio, M.; Prato, F.S.; Thomas, A.W. [Lawson Health Research Institute and University of Western Ontario, St Joseph Health' s Care (Canada); Beuter, A. [Laboratoire IMS Institut de Polytechnique de Bordeaux, Universite de Bordeaux, 33 (France); Goulet, D. [Hydro-Quebec TransEnergie, Montreal (Canada); Lambrozo, J.; Souques, M. [Electricite de France, Service des Etudes Medicales, 75 - Paris (France); Plante, M. [Hydro-Quebec, Direction Sante et securite, Montreal (Canada)

    2010-05-15

    The effects of time-varying magnetic fields (MF) on humans have been actively investigated for the past three decades. One important unanswered question that scientists continue to investigate is the potential for MF exposure to have acute effects on human biology. Different strategies have been used to tackle this question using various physiological, neuro-physiological and behavioral indicators. For example, researchers investigating electro-encephalography (EEG) have reported that Extremely Low Frequency (ELF, < 300 Hz) MF can increase the resting occipital alpha rhythm (8-12 Hz) [1, 2]. Interestingly, other studies have demonstrated that human motor behavior can be modulated by ELF MF exposure, reporting that such an exposure can reduce anteroposterior standing balance oscillations [3, 4] or decrease physiological tremor intensity [5]. However, the main limitation in this domain is the difficulty of reproducing the results. A possible reason for this is the large variety of experimental approaches employed. Therefore, the aim of this project is to investigate the effects of a 60 Hz, 1800 muT MF exposure on physiological (i.e. heart rate and peripheral blood perfusion), neuro-physiological (brain electrical activity), and behavioral (postural oscillations, voluntary motor functions, and physiological tremor) aspects in humans using a single experimental procedure.Though the results from this study suggest a subtle reduction of human standing balance as well as a subtle increase of physiological tremor amplitude with MF exposure, no effect appeared on other investigated parameters, suggesting that one hour of 60 Hz, 1800 muT MF exposure may modulate human involuntary motor control without being detected in the electrical activity of the brain. (authors)

  16. Exfoliation of oxide in bar: estimation of the geometry of HZ{sub r} blister; Exfoliacion de oxido en barra: estimacion de la geometria de la ampolla de HZ{sub r}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos Calvo, A.; Munoz-Reja, C.; Nicolas Garcia, E.

    2013-07-01

    This paper presents a method to model the formation of a blister of HZ{sub r}. The method consists of two distinct parts. First is a study of the temperature distribution in the pod different configurations of loss of thickness of oxide fuel to define the likely distribution of hydrides geometry. Second is an engineering approach to solving the equation of precipitation of hydrides in the sheath.

  17. 200 kHz Sonication of Mixed-Algae Suspension from a Eutrophic Lake: The Effect on the Caution vs. Outbreak Bloom Alert Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andinet Tekile

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available For effective ultrasonic algae removal, several studies have considered the ultrasound equipment linked factors, such as power and frequency. However, studies on the response of mixed algal cultures and associated water quality parameters to ultrasound are limited. In this lab-scale sonication, the removal of cyanobacteria at a pre-set frequency of 200 kHz on mixed algae suspensions collected from a eutrophic lake was investigated. The caution (17.5 µg/L and outbreak (1450 µg/L alert levels in terms of chlorophyll-a (Chl-a concentrations of the initial samples were each sonicated for 10, 15, and 20 min, and then kept in an incubator. Fifteen minutes of sonication resulted in best removal efficiency of 0.94 and 0.77, at an ultrasonic dose of 30 kWh/m3 at the outbreak and caution level concentrations, respectively. Immediately after 15 min sonication, and after standing in the incubator for a day, chlorophyll-a removal efficiencies of 0.28 and 0.90 were achieved in the outbreak level, respectively, and the matching removal efficiencies for the caution level were 0.23 and 0.64. Even though the removal was substantial in both cases, the final 147 µg/L chlorophyll-a concentration of the outbreak, which is itself still in the outbreak level range, shows that ultrasonication is not effective to satisfactorily remove algae from a concentrated suspension. Total dissolved nitrogen and chemical oxygen demand were reduced, overall, due to sonication. However, total dissolved phosphorus of the concentrated level was increased during the treatment. Although sonication needs further replicated experimental testing in whole-lake systems, our results show that 200 kHz sonication was able to reduce chlorophyll-a concentrations in small-scale laboratory tests.

  18. The new X-ray mapping: X-ray spectrum imaging above 100 kHz output count rate with the silicon drift detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newbury, Dale E

    2006-02-01

    Electron-excited X-ray mapping is a key operational mode of the scanning electron microscope (SEM) equipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS). The popularity of X-ray mapping persists despite the significant time penalty due to the relatively low output count rates, typically less than 25 kHz, that can be processed with the conventional EDS. The silicon drift detector (SDD) uses the same measurement physics, but modifications to the detector structure permit operation at a factor of 5-10 times higher than conventional EDS for the same resolution. Output count rates as high as 500 kHz can be achieved with 217 eV energy resolution (at MnKalpha). Such extraordinarily high count rates make possible X-ray mapping through the method of X-ray spectrum imaging, in which a complete spectrum is captured at each pixel of the scan. Useful compositional data can be captured in less than 200 s with a pixel density of 160 x 120. Applications to alloy and rock microstructures, ultrapure materials with rare inclusions, and aggregate particles with complex chemistry illustrate new approaches to characterization made practical by high-speed X-ray mapping with the SDD.Note: The Siegbahn notation for characteristic X-rays is commonly used in the field of electron beam X-ray spectrometry and will be used in this article. The equivalent IUPAC notation is indicated in parentheses at the first use. In this article, the following arbitrary definitions will be used when referring to concentration (C) ranges: major: C > 0.1 (10 wt%), minor: 0.01

  19. Contextual Modulation of Vocal Behavior in Mouse: Newly Identified 12 kHz “Mid-Frequency” Vocalization Emitted during Restraint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimsley, Jasmine M. S.; Sheth, Saloni; Vallabh, Neil; Grimsley, Calum A.; Bhattal, Jyoti; Latsko, Maeson; Jasnow, Aaron; Wenstrup, Jeffrey J.

    2016-01-01

    While several studies have investigated mouse ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) emitted by isolated pups or by males in mating contexts, studies of behavioral contexts other than mating and vocalization categories other than USVs have been limited. By improving our understanding of the vocalizations emitted by mice across behavioral contexts, we will better understand the natural vocal behavior of mice and better interpret vocalizations from mouse models of disease. Hypothesizing that mouse vocal behavior would differ depending on behavioral context, we recorded vocalizations from male CBA/CaJ mice across three behavioral contexts including mating, isolation, and restraint. We found that brief restraint elevated blood corticosterone levels of mice, indicating increased stress relative to isolation. Further, after 3 days of brief restraint, mice displayed behavioral changes indicative of stress. These persisted for at least 2 days after restraint. Contextual differences in mouse vocal behavior were striking and robust across animals. Thus, while USVs were the most common vocalization type across contexts, the spectrotemporal features of USVs were context-dependent. Compared to the mating context, vocalizations during isolation and restraint displayed a broader frequency range, with a greater emphasis on frequencies below 50 kHz. These contexts also included more non-USV vocal categories and different vocal patterns. We identified a new Mid-Frequency Vocalization, a tonal vocalization with fundamental frequencies below 18 kHz, which was almost exclusively emitted by mice undergoing restraint stress. These differences combine to form vocal behavior that is grossly different among behavioral contexts and may reflect the level of anxiety in these contexts. PMID:27014000

  20. Immunosuppressive medication use and risk of herpes zoster (HZ) in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE): A nationwide case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Stephen Chu-Sung; Yen, Feng-Lin; Wang, Tsu-Nai; Lin, Yu-Chih; Lin, Chi-Ling; Chen, Gwo-Shing

    2016-07-01

    The association between immunosuppressive medication use and herpes zoster (HZ) in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) has not been clearly defined. We evaluated the risk of HZ in patients with SLE treated with different immunosuppressants. A nationwide population-based case-control study was conducted using the Taiwanese National Health Insurance Research Database. Cases (1555 patients with SLE who developed HZ) and controls (3049 age- and sex-matched patients with SLE but without HZ) were analyzed for use of various immunosuppressive medications in the preceding 3-month period, and dose-response relationships were determined. Logistic regression was performed to estimate the adjusted odds ratio for HZ development. Medications associated with greater HZ risk in patients with SLE included oral corticosteroids, intravenous methylprednisolone, hydroxychloroquine, oral cyclophosphamide, intravenous cyclophosphamide, azathioprine, methotrexate, and mycophenolate mofetil. Combination immunosuppressive therapy was common in patients with SLE and was associated with greatly increased HZ risk. For oral corticosteroids and hydroxychloroquine, the risk of HZ was strongly dependent on the medication dose. This study is retrospective in nature. Recent immunosuppressive medication use is associated with increased HZ risk in patients with SLE, particularly those receiving high-dose oral corticosteroids and multiagent immunosuppressive therapy. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. An optical fiber infrasound sensor: a new lower limit on atmospheric pressure noise between 1 and 10 Hz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zumberge, Mark A; Berger, Jonathan; Hedlin, Michael A H; Husmann, Eric; Nooner, Scott; Hilt, Richard; Widmer-Schnidrig, Rudolf

    2003-05-01

    A new distributed sensor for detecting pressure variations caused by distant sources has been developed. The instrument reduces noise due to air turbulence in the infrasound band by averaging pressure along a line by means of monitoring strain in a long tubular diaphragm with an optical fiber interferometer. Above 1 Hz, the optical fiber infrasound sensor (OFIS) is less noisy than sensors relying on mechanical filters. Records collected from an 89-m-long OFS indicate a new low noise limit in the band from 1 to 10 Hz. Because the OFIS integrates pressure variations at light-speed rather than the speed of sound, phase delays of the acoustical signals caused by the sensor are negligible. Very long fiber-optic sensors are feasible and hold the promise of better wind-noise reduction than can be achieved with acoustical-mechanical systems.

  2. A tunable CW UV laser with <35 kHz absolute frequency instability for precision spectroscopy of Sr Rydberg states

    CERN Document Server

    Bridge, Elizabeth M; Bounds, Alistair D; Boddy, Danielle; Sadler, Daniel P; Jones, Matthew P A

    2015-01-01

    We present a solid-state laser system that generates over 200 mW of continuous-wave, narrowband light, tunable between 316.3 nm and 319.3 nm. The laser is based on commercially available fiber amplifiers and optical frequency doubling technology, along with sum frequency generation in a periodically poled stoichiometric lithium tantalate crystal. The laser frequency is stabilized to an atomic-referenced high finesse optical transfer cavity. Using a GPS-referenced optical frequency comb we measure a long term frequency instability of <35 kHz. As an application we perform spectroscopy of Sr Rydberg states from n = 37 - 81, demonstrating mode-hop-free scans of 24 GHz. In a cold atomic sample we measure Doppler-limited linewidths of 350 kHz.

  3. Operation and beam profiling of an up to 200 kHz pulse-burst laser for Thomson scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, W. C., E-mail: wcyoung2@wisc.edu; Den Hartog, D. J. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Center for Magnetic Self-Organization in Laboratory and Astrophysical Plasmas, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)

    2014-11-15

    A new, high-repetition rate laser is in development for use on the Thomson scattering diagnostic on the Madison Symmetric Torus. The laser has been tested at a rate of 200 kHz in a pulse-burst operation, producing bursts of 5 pulses above 1.5 J each, while capable of bursts of 17 pulses at 100 kHz. A master oscillator-power amplifier architecture is used with a Nd:YVO{sub 4} oscillator, four Nd:YAG amplifiers, and a Nd:glass amplifier. A radial profile over the pulse sequence is measured by using a set of graphite apertures and an energy meter, showing a change in beam quality over a pulsing sequence.

  4. Chronic variable stress prevents amphetamine-elicited 50-kHz calls in rats with low positive affectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kõiv, Kadri; Metelitsa, Mait; Vares, Marten; Tiitsaar, Kai; Raudkivi, Karita; Jaako, Külli; Vulla, Kaspar; Shimmo, Ruth; Harro, Jaanus

    2016-04-01

    The relationship between stress response and positive affective states is thought to be bidirectional: whilst stress can lead to a blunted hedonic response, positive affect reduces the negative effects of stress. We have previously shown that persistently high positive affectivity as measured by 50-kHz ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) is protective against chronic variable stress (CVS). The present study examined the effect of CVS on 50-kHz USVs elicited by amphetamine administration, simultaneously considering the stable inter-individual differences in positive affectivity. Forty juvenile male Wistar rats were categorised as of high (HC) or low (LC) positive affectivity based on their 50-kHz USV response to imitation of rough-and-tumble play ('tickling'). As adults, the rats were subjected to four weeks of CVS, after which D-amphetamine was administered in five daily doses followed by a challenge dose (all 1mg/kg IP) nine days later. CVS reduced sucrose preference in LC-rats only. After CVS, amphetamine-elicited 50-kHz USVs were significantly reduced in LC-rats, the effect of stress in HC-rats being smaller and less consistent. In previously stressed and amphetamine-treated LC-rats, locomotor response to amphetamine was attenuated. In stressed LC-rats, DOPAC levels and dopamine turnover were increased in striatum after amphetamine treatment, and dopamine D1 receptor levels were upregulated in nucleus accumbens. LC-rats had lower isoleucine levels in frontal cortex. These results show that stress-related changes in response to amphetamine are dependent on inter-individual differences in positive affectivity both at neurochemical and behavioural levels, and further support the notion of higher vulnerability of animals with low positive affect. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  5. Gyromagnetic nonlinear transmission line generator of high voltage pulses modulated at 4 GHz frequency with 1000 Hz pulse repetition rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulmasculov, M. R.; Sharypov, K. A.; Shunailov, S. A.; Shpak, V. G.; Yalandin, M. I.; Pedos, M. S.; Rukin, S. N.

    2017-05-01

    Results of testing of a generator based on a solid-state drive and the parallel gyromagnetic nonlinear transmission lines with external bias are presented. Stable rf-modulated high-voltage nanosecond pulses were shaped in each of the four channels in 1 s packets with 1000 Hz repetition frequencies. Pulse amplitude reaches -175 kV, at a modulation depth of rf-oscillations to 50 % and the effective frequency ∼4 GHz.

  6. Low-frequency (f less than about 1 Hz) stratospheric electrical noise measured by balloon-borne sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iversen, I. B.; Mohl Madsen, M.; Dangelo, N.

    1983-01-01

    Low-frequency (f less than about 1 Hz) stratospheric electrical noise is occasionally observed by balloon-borne sensors. The phenomenon occurs 1-3 percent of the time, with maximum incidence during the morning hours. It appears to be related to fluctuations of the electrical conductivity of the medium around the balloons, produced by air turbulence due to the wind shear and/or gravity waves.

  7. Quartz Resonator Based, 0.12 μW, 32768 Hz Oscillator with ±100 ppm Frequency Accuracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazusuke Maenaka

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A 0.12 μW power dissipation quartz oscillator with 32,768 Hz frequency was designed and fabricated. Stability of the oscillator versus power supply and temperature variations was measured. The design is suitable for the role of the RTC (real-time clock or main system clock in low-power, battery-powered and energy harvesting systems.

  8. Ultrafast optical breakdown of multilayer thin-films at kHz and MHz repetition rates: a direct comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelov, I. B.; Trubetskov, M. K.; Yakovlev, V. S.; Razskazovskaya, O.; Gorjan, M.; Barros, H. G.; Krausz, F.; Pervak, V.

    2014-10-01

    We report on the experimental study of optical breakdown induced in multilayer thin-films by ultrashort pulses at kHz and MHz repetition rates, while keeping all other parameters similar. The investigated samples were coatings composed of TiO2, Ta2O5, HfO2, or Al2O3 as high-index material and SiO2 as low-index material. We compared the distinct band gap dependencies obtained in the two regimes.

  9. [Effect of 50 Hz 1.8 mT sinusoidal electromagnetic fields on bone mineral density in growing rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yu-Hai; Zhou, Yan-Feng; Li, Shao-Feng; Li, Wen-Yuan; Xi, Hui-Rong; Yang, Fang-Fang; Chen, Ke-Ming

    2017-12-25

    To study effects of 50 Hz 1.8 mT sinusoidal electromagnetic fields (SEMFs) on bone mineral density (BMD) in SD rats. Thirty SD rats weighted(110±10) and aged 1 month were randomly divided into control group and electromagnetic field group, 15 in each group. Normal control group of 50 Hz 0 mT density and sinusoidal electromagnetic field group of 50 Hz 1.8 mT were performed respectively with 1.5 h/d and weighted weight once a week, and observed food-intake. Rats were anesthesia by intraperitoneal injection and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry were used to detect bone density of whole body, and detected bone density of femur and vertebral body. Osteocalcin and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b were detected by ELSA; weighted liver, kidney and uterus to calculate purtenance index, then detected pathologic results by HE. Compared with control group, there was no significant change in weight every week, food-intake every day; no obvious change of bone density of whole body at 2 and 4 weeks, however bone density of whole body, bone density of excised femur and vertebra were increased at 6 weeks. Expression of OC was increased, and TRACP 5b expression was decreased. No change of HE has been observed in liver, kidney and uterus and organic index. 50 Hz 1.8 mT sinusoidal electromagnetic fields could improve bone formation to decrease relevant factors of bone absorbs, to improve peak bone density of young rats, in further provide a basis for clinical research electromagnetic fields preventing osteoporosis foundation.

  10. Long-range antigravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macrae, K.I.; Riegert, R.J. (Maryland Univ., College Park (USA). Center for Theoretical Physics)

    1984-10-01

    We consider a theory in which fermionic matter interacts via long-range scalar, vector and tensor fields. In order not to be in conflict with experiment, the scalar and vector couplings for a given fermion must be equal, as is natural in a dimensionally reduced model. Assuming that the Sun is not approximately neutral with respect to these new scalar-vector charges, and if the couplings saturate the experimental bounds, then their strength can be comparable to that of gravity. Scalar-vector fields of this strength can compensate for a solar quadrupole moment contribution to Mercury's anomalous perihelion precession.

  11. Extended high-frequency (9-20 kHz) audiometry reference thresholds in 645 healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Valiente, A; Trinidad, A; García Berrocal, J R; Górriz, C; Ramírez Camacho, R

    2014-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to study patterns in the extended spectrum of the human hearing (0.125 to 20 kHz) in order to obtain reference thresholds. Then, we compare our values with existing results at extended high-frequencies (8 to 20 kHz) in an attempt to establish new standards for potential international adoption. A prospective study in a group of otologically healthy subjects. A total of 645 subjects aged between 5 and 90 years were recruited. Pure-tone thresholds were determined for conventional and extended high-frequencies. There was an increase in the hearing thresholds as a function of frequency and age. For the 20 to 69 years old group, thresholds were lower in females than in males, especially at 12.5 and 16 kHz. Our threshold values are comparable to those presented in previous studies that used different instrumentation and populations. When comparing different studies the hearing thresholds were found to be similar. Therefore, it would be possible to establish international standard thresholds.

  12. Non-Pulse-Leakage 100-kHz Level, High Beam Quality Industrial Grade Nd:YVO4 Picosecond Amplifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenao Bai

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A non-pulse-leakage optical fiber pumped 100-kHz level high beam quality Nd:YVO4 picosecond amplifier has been developed. An 80 MHz, 11.5 ps mode-locked picosecond laser is used as the seed with single pulse energy of 1 nJ. By harnessing the double β-BaB2O4 (BBO crystal Pockels cells in both the pulse picker and regenerative amplifier, the seed pulse leakage of the output is suppressed effectively with an adjustable repetition rate from 200 to 500 kHz. Through one stage traveling-wave amplifier, a maximum output power of 24.5 W is generated corresponding to the injected regenerative amplified power of 9.73 W at 500 kHz. The output pulse duration is 16.9 ps, and the beam quality factor M2 is measured to be 1.25 with near-field roundness higher than 99% at the full output power.

  13. Efficient light source based on an inductive ferrite-free discharge at frequencies of 300 3000 kHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, O. A.

    2007-06-01

    Glass cylindrical tubes from 30 to 50 cm long and from 5 to 7 cm in diameter are used to initiate an inductive discharge in electrodeless luminescent lamps at frequencies of 300 3000 kHz with a power of 50 300 W. The tubes are filled with mercury vapor and an inert gas (argon at a pressure of 0.1 mm Hg), and their inner surface is covered by a phosphor and protective coating. An induction coil (from 5 to 14 turns) made of a low-resistivity multiple-conductor cable embraces the discharge tube in the longitudinal direction, forming a discharge-initiating loop. Because of a high Q factor of the coil, Q c = 400, the power losses in it are 4 5 W at frequencies higher than 400 kHz; the energy efficiency of the lamp is η = 0.95 0.96. Luminous efficiency ɛ of the lamp grows with discharge excitation frequency, reaching ɛ = 83 84 lm/W at a frequency of 530 kHz and a power of 150 W.

  14. Studies of minute quantities of natural abundance molecules using 2D heteronuclear correlation spectroscopy under 100 kHz MAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiyama, Y; Kobayashi, T; Malon, M; Singappuli-Arachchige, D; Slowing, I I; Pruski, M

    2015-01-01

    Two-dimensional (1)H{(13)C} heteronuclear correlation solid-state NMR spectra of naturally abundant solid materials are presented, acquired using the 0.75-mm magic angle spinning (MAS) probe at spinning rates up to 100 kHz. In spite of the miniscule sample volume (290 nL), high-quality HSQC-type spectra of bulk samples as well as surface-bound molecules can be obtained within hours of experimental time. The experiments are compared with those carried out at 40 kHz MAS using a 1.6-mm probe, which offered higher overall sensitivity due to a larger rotor volume. The benefits of ultrafast MAS in such experiments include superior resolution in (1)H dimension without resorting to (1)H-(1)H homonuclear RF decoupling, easy optimization, and applicability to mass-limited samples. The HMQC spectra of surface-bound species can be also acquired under 100 kHz MAS, although the dephasing of transverse magnetization has significant effect on the efficiency transfer under MAS alone. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Online Sorted Range Reporting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Fagerberg, Rolf; Greve, Mark

    2009-01-01

    We study the following one-dimensional range reporting problem: On an arrayA of n elements, support queries that given two indices i ≤ j and an integerk report the k smallest elements in the subarray A[i..j] in sorted order. We present a data structure in the RAM model supporting such queries...... in optimal O(k) time. The structure uses O(n) words of space and can be constructed in O(n logn) time. The data structure can be extended to solve the online version of the problem, where the elements in A[i..j] are reported one-by-one in sorted order, in O(1) worst-case time per element. The problem...... is motivated by (and is a generalization of) a problem with applications in search engines: On a tree where leaves have associated rank values, report the highest ranked leaves in a given subtree. Finally, the problem studied generalizes the classic range minimum query (RMQ) problem on arrays....

  16. Using 1-Hz GPS data to measure deformations caused by the Denali fault earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Kristine M; Bodin, Paul; Gomberg, Joan

    2003-05-30

    The 3 November 2002 moment magnitude 7.9 Denali fault earthquake generated large, permanent surface displacements in Alaska and large-amplitude surface waves throughout western North America. We find good agreement between strong ground-motion records integrated to displacement and 1-hertz Global Positioning System (GPS) position estimates collected approximately 140 kilometers from the earthquake epicenter. One-hertz GPS receivers also detected seismic surface waves 750 to 3800 kilometers from the epicenter, whereas these waves saturated many of the seismic instruments in the same region. High-frequency GPS increases the dynamic range and frequency bandwidth of ground-motion observations, providing another tool for studying earthquake processes.

  17. Lightning detection and ranging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennon, C. L.; Poehler, H. A.

    1982-01-01

    A lightning detector and ranging (LDAR) system developed at the Kennedy Space Center and recently transferred to Wallops Island is described. The system detects pulsed VHF signals due to electrical discharges occurring in a thunderstorm by means of 56-75 MHz receivers located at the hub and at the tips of 8 km radial lines. Incoming signals are transmitted by wideband links to a central computing facility which processes the times of arrival, using two independent calculations to determine position in order to guard against false data. The results are plotted on a CRT display, and an example of a thunderstorm lightning strike detection near Kennedy Space Center is outlined. The LDAR correctly identified potential ground strike zones and additionally provided a high correlation between updrafts and ground strikes.

  18. 5 kHz thermometry in a swirl-stabilized gas turbine model combustor using chirped probe pulse femtosecond CARS. Part 1: Temporally resolved swirl-flame thermometry

    KAUST Repository

    Dennis, Claresta N.

    2016-06-20

    Single-laser-shot temperature measurements at 5 kHz were performed in a gas turbine model combustor using femtosecond (fs) coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS). The combustor was operated at two conditions; one exhibiting a low level of thermoacoustic instability and the other a high level of instability. Measurements were performed at 73 locations within each flame in order to resolve the spatial flame structure and compare to previously published studies. The measurement procedures, including the procedure for calibrating the laser system parameters, are discussed in detail. Despite the high turbulence levels in the combustor, signals were obtained on virtually every laser shot, and these signals were strong enough for spectral fitting analysis for determination of flames temperatures. The spatial resolution of the single-laser shot temperature measurements was approximately 600 µm, the precision was approximately ±2%, and the estimated accuracy was approximately ±3%. The dynamic range was sufficient for temperature measurements ranging from 300 K to 2200 K, although some detector saturation was observed for low temperature spectra. These results demonstrate the usefulness of fs-CARS for the investigation of highly turbulent combustion phenomena. In a companion paper, the time-resolved fs CARS data are analyzed to provide insight into the temporal dynamics of the gas turbine model combustor flow field.

  19. Range of motion and cervical myofascial pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilke, J; Niederer, D; Fleckenstein, J; Vogt, L; Banzer, W

    2016-01-01

    Several studies investigating myofascial pain syndrome include assessments of range of motion (ROM) as a diagnostic criterion. However, the value of ROM in this context has not yet been evaluated in controlled clinical studies. We aimed to examine whether patients with myofascial pain syndrome display alterations of ROM when compared to healthy subjects. Twenty-two individuals (13 females, 9 males; aged 33.4 ± 13.9 yrs) afflicted with active myofascial trigger points in the upper trapezius muscle as well as 22 age and sex matched healthy controls were included. All subjects underwent an examination of maximal active cervical ROM in flexion/extension assessed by means of a 3D ultrasonic movement analysis system (30 Hz; Zebris CMS 70). In the patients group, pressure pain threshold (PPT) of the trigger points was determined using a pressure algometer. Maximum range of motion in the sagittal plane did not differ between individuals with MTrP (125.9 ± 23.2°, 95% CI: 116.2-135.6°) and asymptomatic subjects (128.2 ± 20.4°, 95% CI: 119.7-136.7°; p > .05). In patients, PPT (1.7 ± .6, 95% CI: 1.5-1.9) was not correlated with cervical mobility (r = -.13; p > .05). Based on these pilot data, range of motion in flexion/extension is not a valid criterion for the detection of myofascial trigger points. Additional research incorporating movement amplitudes in other anatomical planes and additional afflicted muscles should be conducted in order to further delineate the relative impact of MTrP on range of motion. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Steep gradient operation by 25 kV 50 Hz on Ruebeland line in the Harz; Betrieb mit 25 kV 50 Hz auf den Steilstrecken der Ruebelandbahn im Harz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werner, Rolf [Balfour Beatty Rail Signal GmbH, Stassfurt (Germany); Lauschmann, Susanne [Balfour Beatty Rail GmbH, Leipzig (Germany). Baubuero Ost; Ehms, Holger [Balfour Beatty Rail GmbH, Leipzig (Germany)

    2009-10-15

    From 1963 to 1966, Deutsche Reichsbahn electrified the then remaining 23 km long Ruebeland line north-eastern of the Harz mountains, which line included track sections with gradients of up to 60%, in order to increase the track capacity for heavy ore, coal and limestone transports. In 2005, Deutsche Bahn AG discontinued this isolated electric (AC 25 kV 50 Hz) operation, but the subsequent diesel operation met with quite some political and public resistance. The remaining main user took the section over and revived it also for electric operation. (orig.)

  1. Thermal build-up, decay and retention responses to local therapeutic application of 448 kHz capacitive resistive monopolar radiofrequency: A prospective randomised crossover study in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumaran, Binoy; Watson, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Radiofrequency-based electrophysical agents are widely used in therapy-related clinical practice for their thermal effects, mainly relieving pain and inflammation and improving tissue extensibility. The most commonly used and researched are shortwave therapies that operate at 27.12 MHz. Although relatively new, electrophysical agents employing much lower frequencies have also emerged. Capacitive resistive monopolar radiofrequency employing 448 kHz is one such therapy. This laboratory-based study was aimed to investigate the skin thermal responses to 448 kHz radiofrequency-based therapy in healthy adults. In a two-group randomised crossover study, 15 volunteers attended two modes (capacitive and resistive) of 448 kHz radiofrequency-based therapy (using 'Indiba Activ 902') administered locally to the lower thigh region. Starting at minimum, the intensity was increased incrementally until thermal discomfort was felt. Participants reported three time points: thermal onset, definite thermal sensation, and onset of thermal discomfort. Local skin temperature was measured before, immediately post-treatment and up to 45 min post-treatment. Both capacitive and resistive modes of therapy significantly increased the skin temperature and sustained it over the 45-min follow-up. There was statistically significant difference between the thermal response patterns produced by the two modes. Peak post-treatment temperatures attained were not significantly different between the two; however, the retention rate at follow-up was significantly higher for the resistive mode. This study confirms that radiofrequency-based therapy at 448 kHz can significantly increase and sustain skin temperature. The study also provides useful baseline data for further research in the low frequency ranges of radiofrequency-based therapy that remain largely unexplored.

  2. EEG transients in the sigma range during non-REM sleep predict learning in dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iotchev, I.B.; Kis, A.; Bodizs, R.; Luijtelaar, E.L.J.M. van; Kubinyi, E.

    2017-01-01

    Sleep spindles are phasic bursts of thalamo-cortical activity, visible in the cortex as transient oscillations in the sigma range (usually defined in humans as 12-14 or 9-16 Hz). They have been associated with sleep-dependent memory consolidation and sleep stability in humans and rodents.

  3. Complex magnetic susceptibility setup for spectroscopy in the extremely low-frequency range

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, B.W.M.; Bakelaar, I.A.; Klokkenburg, M.; Erne, B.H.

    2008-01-01

    A sensitive balanced differential transformer was built to measure complex initial parallel magnetic susceptibility spectra in the 0.01–1000 Hz range. The alternating magnetic field can be chosen sufficiently weak that the magnetic structure of the samples is only slightly perturbed and the low

  4. Effects of 60 Hz electric fields on operant and social stress behaviors of nonhuman primates. Project technical status report, November 23, 1985-January 17, 1986. [Papio cynocephalus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-01-24

    The objective was to investigate, using baboons (superspecies Papio cynocephalus) as surrogates, possible behavioral effects associated with exposure to high intensity 60 Hz electric fields. This program consists of four major projects. The first will evaluate the potential aversive character of exposure to 60 Hz electric fields by determining the threshold intensity which produces avoidance or escape responses. The second project will estimate the threshold intensity for detection of 60 Hz electric fields. The third will assess effects of chronic exposure to 60 Hz electric fields on the performance of two operant conditioning tasks, fixed ratio (FR) and differential reinforcement of low rate responding (DRL). The fourth will investigate the possible stress-inducing effects of chronic exposure to 60 Hz electric fields on the behavior of baboons living in small social groups.

  5. Effects of 60 Hz electric fields on operant and social stress behavior of nonhuman primates. Quarterly technical progress report No. 20, September 28-December 20, 1985

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, W.R.

    1986-01-03

    This research program will evaluate the aversive character of exposure to 60 Hz electric fields by determining the threshold intensity which produces avoidance or escape responses, will estimate the threshold intensity for detection of 60 Hz electric fields, will assess effects of chronic exposure to 60 Hz electric fields on the performance of two operant conditioning tasks, fixed ratio and differential reinforcement of low rate responding, will investigate, using the systematic quantitative observational sampling methods of primatology, the possible stress-inducing effects of chronic exposure to 60 Hz electric fields on the behavior of baboons living in small social groups. In all experiments, the electric fields will be described, characterized, and controlled to account for recognized artifacts associated with high intensity 60 Hz electric fields and the health of all subjects will be described using the methods of primate veterinary medicine.

  6. Alterations of hematological variations in rats exposed to extremely low frequency magnetic fields (50 Hz).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakir, Dilek Ulker; Yokus, Beran; Akdag, Mehmet Zulkuf; Sert, Cemil; Mete, Nuriye

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible effects of in vivo exposure to extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF) on whole blood parameters (hematological parameters) in rats. Forty eight female Wistar rats, obtained from the Medical Science Application and Research Center, Dicle University, Turkey in 2004 were divided into four separate groups: two exposed groups (0.97 mT, 50 and 100 days, 3h/day) and two controls (sham). Eosinophil, hemoglobin and MPV levels significantly decreased in rats that were exposed to EMF for 50 days. When the data for rats exposed for 50 days and 100 days were compared, it was found that MPV levels in rats exposed for 100 days were significantly lower. There was no significant difference in total leukocyte, neutrofil, lymphocyte, monocyte, eosinophil and basophil counts, or in erythrocyte, Hct, MCH, MCHC, RDW, PLT and PDW levels between the exposed and sham-exposed groups. ELF-EMF exposure had no effect on body weight. Also, liver weight did not show any significant difference between groups. Our results indicate that the applied ELF-EMF exposure may induce slight but statistically significant alterations in some hematological parameters of rats, within the physiological range.

  7. A method for scintillation characterization using geodetic receivers operating at 1 Hz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juan, J. M.; Aragon-Angel, A.; Sanz, J.; González-Casado, G.; Rovira-Garcia, A.

    2017-11-01

    Ionospheric scintillation produces strong disruptive effects on global navigation satellite system (GNSS) signals, ranging from degrading performances to rendering these signals useless for accurate navigation. The current paper presents a novel approach to detect scintillation on the GNSS signals based on its effect on the ionospheric-free combination of carrier phases, i.e. the standard combination of measurements used in precise point positioning (PPP). The method is implemented using actual data, thereby having both its feasibility and its usefulness assessed at the same time. The results identify the main effects of scintillation, which consist of an increased level of noise in the ionospheric-free combination of measurements and the introduction of cycle-slips into the signals. Also discussed is how mis-detected cycle-slips contaminate the rate of change of the total electron content index (ROTI) values, which is especially important for low-latitude receivers. By considering the effect of single jumps in the individual frequencies, the proposed method is able to isolate, over the combined signal, the frequency experiencing the cycle-slip. Moreover, because of the use of the ionospheric-free combination, the method captures the diffractive nature of the scintillation phenomena that, in the end, is the relevant effect on PPP. Finally, a new scintillation index is introduced that is associated with the degradation of the performance in navigation.

  8. Relativistic electron beams driven by kHz single-cycle light pulses

    CERN Document Server

    Guénot, D; Vernier, A; Beaurepaire, B; Böhle, F; Bocoum, M; Lozano, M; Jullien, A; Lopez-Martens, R; Lifschitz, A; Faure, J

    2016-01-01

    Laser-plasma acceleration is an emerging technique for accelerating electrons to high energies over very short distances. The accelerated electron bunches have femtosecond duration, making them particularly relevant for applications such as ultrafast imaging or femtosecond X-ray generation. Current laser-plasma accelerators are typically driven by Joule-class laser systems that have two main drawbacks: their relatively large scale and their low repetition-rate, with a few shots per second at best. The accelerated electron beams have energies ranging from 100 MeV to multi-GeV, however a MeV electron source would be more suited to many societal and scientific applications. Here, we demonstrate a compact and reliable laser-plasma accelerator producing high-quality few-MeV electron beams at kilohertz repetition rate. This breakthrough was made possible by using near-single-cycle light pulses, which lowered the required laser energy for driving the accelerator by three orders of magnitude, thus enabling high repet...

  9. Effects of 940 Hz EMF on luciferase solution: structure, function, and dielectric studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sefidbakht, Yahya; Hosseinkhani, Saman; Mortazavi, Mojtaba; Tavakkolnia, Iman; Khellat, Mohammad R; Shakiba-Herfeh, Mahdi; Saviz, Mehrdad; Faraji-Dana, Reza; Saboury, Ali A; Sheibani, Nader; Moosavi-Movahedi, Ali A

    2013-09-01

    We designed a rectangular waveguide exposure system to study the effects of mobile phone frequency (940 MHz) electromagnetic fields (EMF) on luciferase structure and activity. The luciferase activity of exposed samples was significantly higher than that of unexposed samples. Dynamic light scattering of the exposed samples showed smaller hydrodynamic radii compared to unexposed samples (20 nm vs. 47 nm ± 5%). The exposed samples also showed less tendency to form aggregates, monitored by turbidity measurements at l = 360 nm. A microwave dielectric measurement was performed to study the hydration properties of luciferase solutions with a precision network analyzer over frequency ranges from 0.2 to 20 GHz before and after exposure. The change in the dielectric properties of the exposed luciferase solution was related to the disaggregation potency of the applied field. Together, our results suggested that direct interactions with luciferase molecules and its dipole moment were responsible for the reduced aggregation and enhanced luciferase activity upon exposure to the EMF. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Relativistic electron acceleration by mJ-class kHz lasers normally incident on liquid targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feister, Scott; Austin, Drake R; Morrison, John T; Frische, Kyle D; Orban, Chris; Ngirmang, Gregory; Handler, Abraham; Smith, Joseph R H; Schillaci, Mark; LaVerne, Jay A; Chowdhury, Enam A; Freeman, R R; Roquemore, W M

    2017-08-07

    We report observation of kHz-pulsed-laser-accelerated electron energies up to 3 MeV in the -klaser (backward) direction from a 3 mJ laser interacting at normal incidence with a solid density, flowing-liquid target. The electrons/MeV/s.r. >1 MeV recorded here using a mJ-class laser exceeds or equals that of prior super-ponderomotive electron studies employing lasers at lower repetition-rates and oblique incidence. Focal intensity of the 40-fs-duration laser is 1.5 · 1018 W cm-2, corresponding to only ∼80 keV electron ponderomotive energy. Varying laser intensity confirms electron energies in the laser-reflection direction well above what might be expected from ponderomotive scaling in normal-incidence laser-target geometry. This direct, normal-incidence energy spectrum measurement is made possible by modifying the final focusing off-axis-paraboloid (OAP) mirror with a central hole that allows electrons to pass, and restoring laser intensity through adaptive optics. A Lanex-based, optics-free high-acquisition rate (>100 Hz) magnetic electron-spectrometer was developed for this study to enable shot-to-shot statistical analysis and real-time feedback, which was leveraged in finding optimal pre-plasma conditions. 3D Particle-in-cell simulations of the interaction show qualitative super-ponderomotive spectral agreement with experiment. The demonstration of a high-repetition-rate, high-flux source containing >MeV electrons from a few-mJ, 40 fs laser and a simple liquid target encourages development of future ≥kHz-repetition, fs-duration electron-beam applications.

  11. 1-Hz rTMS in the treatment of tinnitus: A sham-controlled, randomized multicenter trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landgrebe, Michael; Hajak, Göran; Wolf, Stefan; Padberg, Frank; Klupp, Philipp; Fallgatter, Andreas J; Polak, Thomas; Höppner, Jacqueline; Haker, Rene; Cordes, Joachim; Klenzner, Thomas; Schönfeldt-Lecuona, Carlos; Kammer, Thomas; Graf, Erika; Koller, Michael; Kleinjung, Tobias; Lehner, Astrid; Schecklmann, Martin; Pöppl, Timm B; Kreuzer, Peter; Frank, Elmar; Langguth, Berthold

    Chronic tinnitus is a frequent, difficult to treat disease with high morbidity. This multicenter randomized, sham-controlled trial investigated the efficacy and safety of 1-Hz repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) applied to the left temporal cortex in patients with chronic tinnitus. Tinnitus patients were randomized to receive 10 sessions of either real or sham 1-Hz-rTMS (2000 stimuli, 110% motor threshold) to the left temporal cortex. The primary outcome was the change in the sum score of the tinnitus questionnaire (TQ) of Goebel and Hiller from baseline to end of treatment. A total of 163 patients were enrolled in the study (real rTMS: 75; sham rTMS: 78). At day 12, the baseline mean of 43.1 TQ points in 71 patients assigned to real rTMS changed by -0.5 points; it changed by 0.5 points from a baseline of 42.1 in 75 patients randomized to sham rTMS (adjusted mean difference between groups: -1.0; 95.19% confidence interval: -3.2 to 1.2; p = 0.36). All secondary outcome measures including measures of depression and quality of life showed no significant differences either (p > 0.11). The number of participants with side-effects or adverse events did not differ between groups. Real 1-Hz-rTMS over the left temporal cortex was well tolerated but not superior compared with sham rTMS in improving tinnitus severity. These findings are in contrast to results from studies with smaller sample sizes and put the efficacy of this rTMS protocol for treatment of chronic tinnitus into question. Controlled Trials: http://www.isrctn.com/ISRCTN89848288. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Wide-range dynamic strain measurements based on K-BOTDA and frequency-agile technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Dengwang; Dong, Yongkang; Wang, Benzhang; Zhang, Hongying; Lu, Zhiwei

    2017-04-01

    We propose and demonstrate a novel fast Brillouin optical time-domain analysis system using the coefficient K spectrum which is defined as the ratio of phase-shift and gain of Brillouin amplification, where K features linear response, immune to the variation of pump power and a wide measure range. For a 30ns-square pump pulse, the frequency span of K spectrum can reach up to 200MHz. In dynamic strain experiment, a multi-slope assisted K-BOTDA with the measured strain of 5358.3μɛ and the vibration frequency of 6.01Hz and 12.05Hz are demonstrated.

  13. An atomic magnetometer with autonomous frequency stabilization and large dynamic range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pradhan, S., E-mail: spradhan@barc.gov.in, E-mail: pradhans75@gmail.com; Poornima,; Dasgupta, K. [Laser and Plasma Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 85 (India); Homi Bhabha National Institute, Department of Atomic Energy, Mumbai 85 (India); Mishra, S.; Behera, R. [Laser and Plasma Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 85 (India)

    2015-06-15

    The operation of a highly sensitive atomic magnetometer using elliptically polarized resonant light is demonstrated. It is based on measurement of zero magnetic field resonance in degenerate two level systems using polarimetric detection. The transmitted light through the polarimeter is used for laser frequency stabilization, whereas reflected light is used for magnetic field measurement. Thus, the experimental geometry allows autonomous frequency stabilization of the laser frequency leading to compact operation of the overall device and has a preliminary sensitivity of <10 pT/Hz{sup 1/2} @ 1 Hz. Additionally, the dynamic range of the device is improved by feedback controlling the bias magnetic field without compromising on its sensitivity.

  14. New Dielectric Measurement Data to Determine the Permittivity of Seawater at 1.4313 Hz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, R.; Zhou, Y.; Utku, C.; Levine, D.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the new measurements - made in 2010-2011 - of the dielectric constant of seawater at 1.413 GHz using a resonant cavity technique. The purpose of these measurements is to develop an accurate relationship concerning the dependence of the dielectric constant of seawater on temperature and salinity for use by the Aquarius inversion algorithm. Aquarius is a NASA/CONAE satellite mission launched in June of 2011 with the primary mission of measuring global sea surface salinity with a 1.413 GHz radiometer to an accuracy of 0.2 psu. A brass microwave cavity resonant at 1.413 GHz has been used to measure the dielectric constant of seawater. The seawater is introduced into the cavity through a capillary glass tube having an inner diameter of 0.1 mm. The change of resonant frequency and the cavity Q value are used to determine the real and imaginary parts of the dielectric constant of seawater. Measurements are automated with Visual Basic software developed at the George Washington University. In this paper, new results from measurements made since September 2010 will be presented for salinities of 30, 35 and 38 psu with a temperature range of 0 C to 35 C in intervals of 5 C. These measurements are more accurate than earlier measurements made in 2008. The new results will be compared to the Klein-Swift (KS) and Meissner-Wentz (MW) model functions. The importance of an accurate model function will be illustrated by using these model functions to invert the Aquarius brightness temperature to retrieve the salinity values. The salinity values will be compared to co-located in situ data collected by Argo buoys.

  15. The effects of body posture, anatomy, age and pregnancy on the calculation of induced current densities at 50 Hz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimbylow, Peter; Findlay, Richard

    2010-06-01

    This paper presents calculations of the induced current density in the body at 50 Hz from applied electric and magnetic fields. An extensive ensemble of 25 voxel models has been used to investigate the effects of body posture, anatomy, age and pregnancy. This set includes six adult models, eight child models and seven pregnant female models at various stages of gestation. The four postures investigated in the HPA adult model, NORMAN, were the standard position with the arms at the side, with the arms vertically above the head, the arms horizontally to the side and sitting.

  16. Efficient 1 kHz femtosecond optical parametric amplification in BiB(3)O(6) pumped at 800 nm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghotbi, Masood; Ebrahim-Zadeh, Majid; Petrov, Valentin; Tzankov, Pancho; Noack, Frank

    2006-10-30

    We demonstrate efficient operation of a tunable femtosecond optical parametric amplifier based on BiB(3)O(6) pumped at 800 nm by a 1 kHz Ti:sapphire regenerative amplifier. The idler wavelength coverage extends to beyond 3 mum and the pulse duration at this wavelength is of the order of 110 fs. This new nonlinear borate crystal offers exceptionally high nonlinearity, making it a very promising candidate for power scaling of such frequency converters in the near-IR.

  17. One bit/s/Hz Spectrally Efficient Transmission for an Eight-Channel NRZ-Modulated DWDM System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vij, Robin; Sharma, Neeraj

    2016-03-01

    The core of the global telecommunication network consists of wavelength-division multiplexed (WDM) optical transmission systems. WDM is the technology of choice as it allows for a high spectral efficiency. We propose an effective way to counter the nonlinearities like four-wave mixing and cross-phase modulation to achieve the spectral efficiency of 1 bit/s/Hz using non-return-to-zero (NRZ) modulation format. We use the concept of non-uniform channel spacing and non-uniform power assignment between adjacent channels of the WDM system. We have simulated an eight-channel WDM lightwave system with bit rates of 10 and 25 Gbit/s.

  18. Determining probability distribution of coherent integration time near 133 Hz and 1346 km in the Pacific Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiesberger, John L

    2013-02-01

    The hypothesis tested is that internal gravity waves limit the coherent integration time of sound at 1346 km in the Pacific ocean at 133 Hz and a pulse resolution of 0.06 s. Six months of continuous transmissions at about 18 min intervals are examined. The source and receiver are mounted on the bottom of the ocean with timing governed by atomic clocks. Measured variability is only due to fluctuations in the ocean. A model for the propagation of sound through fluctuating internal waves is run without any tuning with data. Excellent resemblance is found between the model and data's probability distributions of integration time up to five hours.

  19. Beta- and gamma-range human lower limb corticomuscular coherence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph T Gwin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Coherence between electroencephalography (EEG recorded on the scalp above the motor cortex and electromyography (EMG recorded on the skin of the limbs is thought to reflect corticospinal coupling between motor cortex and muscle motor units. Beta-range (13-30 Hz corticomuscular coherence has been extensively documented during static force output while gamma-range (31-45 Hz coherence has been linked to dynamic force output. However, the explanation for this beta-to-gamma coherence shift remains unclear. We recorded 264-channel EEG and 8-channel lower limb electromyography (EMG while 8 healthy subjects performed isometric and isotonic, knee and ankle exercises. Adaptive mixture independent component analysis (AMICA parsed EEG into models of underlying source signals. We computed magnitude squared coherence between electrocortical source signals and EMG. Significant coherence between contralateral motor cortex electrocortical signals and lower limb EMG was observed in the beta- and gamma-range for all exercise types. Gamma-range coherence was significantly greater for isotonic exercises than for isometric exercises. We conclude that active muscle movement modulates the speed of corticospinal oscillations. Specifically, isotonic contractions shift corticospinal oscillations towards the gamma-range while isometric contractions favor beta-range oscillations. Prior research has suggested that tasks requiring increased integration of visual and somatosensory information may shift corticomuscular coherence to the gamma-range. The isometric and isotonic tasks studied here likely required similar amounts of visual and somatosensory integration. This suggests that muscle dynamics, including the amount and type of proprioception, may play a role in the beta-to-gamma shift.

  20. Experimental Limits on Gravitational Waves in the MHz frequency Range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanza, Robert Jr. [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States)

    2015-03-01

    This thesis presents the results of a search for gravitational waves in the 1-11MHz frequency range using dual power-recycled Michelson laser interferometers at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. An unprecedented level of sensitivity to gravitational waves in this frequency range has been achieved by cross-correlating the output fluctuations of two identical and colocated 40m long interferometers. This technique produces sensitivities better than two orders of magnitude below the quantum shot-noise limit, within integration times of less than 1 hour. 95% confidence level upper limits are placed on the strain amplitude of MHz frequency gravitational waves at the 10-21 Hz-1/2 level, constituting the best direct limits to date at these frequencies. For gravitational wave power distributed over this frequency range, a broadband upper limit of 2.4 x 10-21Hz-1/2 at 95% confidence level is also obtained. This thesis covers the detector technology, the commissioning and calibration of the instrument, the statistical data analysis, and the gravitational wave limit results. Particular attention is paid to the end-to-end calibration of the instrument’s sensitivity to differential arm length motion, and so to gravitational wave strain. A detailed statistical analysis of the data is presented as well.

  1. Reference ranges for Mexican preschool-aged children using the forced oscillation technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shackleton, Claire; Barraza-Villarreal, Albino; Chen, Linping; Gangell, Catherine L; Romieu, Isabelle; Sly, Peter D

    2013-08-01

    Recently, multi-ethnic reference ranges for spirometry have been created for use worldwide. In comparison, forced oscillation technique (FOT) reference values are limited to specific equipment and study populations, with current FOT reference ranges created in a Caucasian population. We aimed to develop FOT reference ranges for preschool-aged Mexican children and to compare these with current FOT reference ranges. Respiratory resistance (Rrs) and reactance (Xrs) was measured in healthy Mexican children three to five years of age using commercial FOT equipment. The relationship between height and Rrs and Xrs was determined using regression analyses, taking into account age, weight, sex, and exposure to tobacco smoke. Reference equations were calculated for the Mexican children and Z-scores determined for Rrs and Xrs at 6 and 8Hz. A paired t-test assessed the difference in Z-scores between the Australian reference values and those created for the Mexican cohort. FOT was successfully measured in 584 children. Height was a significant predictor of Rrs and Xrs at 6 and 8Hz (Pchildren for both Rrs and Xrs at 6 and 8Hz (Pdevelopment of FOT reference ranges specific to Mexican preschool-aged children will allow for the correct interpretation of FOT measurements. This study also showed that current FOT reference ranges overestimate lung function in Mexican children. Highlighting, the importance of using ethnic appropriate reference ranges for interpreting lung function. Copyright © 2012 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  2. Comparison of hearing and voicing ranges in singing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Eric J.; Titze, Ingo R.

    2003-04-01

    The spectral and dynamic ranges of the human voice of professional and nonprofessional vocalists were compared to the auditory hearing and feeling thresholds at a distance of one meter. In order to compare these, an analysis was done in true dB SPL, not just relative dB as is usually done in speech analysis. The methodology of converting the recorded acoustic signal to absolute pressure units was described. The human voice range of a professional vocalist appeared to match the dynamic range of the auditory system at some frequencies. In particular, it was demonstrated that professional vocalists were able to make use of the most sensitive part of the hearing thresholds (around 4 kHz) through the use of a learned vocal ring or singer's formant. [Work sponsored by NIDCD.

  3. Ferrite-free high power electrodeless fluorescent lamp operated at a frequency of 160-1000 kHz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popov, Oleg A; Chandler, Robert [Matsushita Electric Works R and D Laboratory, 216 West Cummings Park, Woburn, MA 01801 (United States)

    2002-05-01

    An electrodeless ferrite-free fluorescent lamp of a closed-loop type ('tokamak') was studied at a driving frequency, f = 160-1000 kHz, and power of 100-250 W. The inductive discharge was ignited in the mercury-argon mixture with the help of an induction coil of several (7-15) turns made from multiple-strand (Litz) wire. The discharge parameters - current, resistance, and electric field - were calculated using the transformer model of an RF inductive discharge. They were found to be close to those measured in a plasma of a 'tokamak'-type lamp operated at the same frequency and RF power but with the use of the ferrite cores. The ferrite-free lamp had high luminous efficacy as high as 85 LPW at a frequency, f>200 kHz, and power of 100-200 W. Such a high efficacy is attributed to low coil power losses (<15 W) and hence to high lamp power efficiency, {eta}>90%.

  4. About the stability of phase shifts between slow oscillations around 0.1 Hz in cardiovascular and cerebral systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfurtscheller, Gert; Klobassa, Daniela S; Altstätter, Christof; Bauernfeind, Günther; Neuper, Christa

    2011-07-01

    One important feature of the baroreflex loop is its strong preference for oscillations around 0.1 Hz. In this study, we investigated heart rate intervals, arterial blood pressure (BP), and prefrontal oxyhemoglobin changes during 5 min rest and during brisk finger movements in 19 healthy subjects. We analyzed the phase coupling around 0.1 Hz between cardiovascular and (de)oxyhemoglobin oscillations, using the cross-spectral method. The analyses revealed phase shifts for slow oscillations in BP and heart rate intervals between -10° and -118° (BP always leading). These phase shifts increased significantly (poxyhemoglobin oscillations was less clear. Only 12 subjects demonstrated a phase coupling (COH(2) ≥ 0.5) between oxyhemoglobin and BP oscillations. This may be explained by an overwhelming proportion of nonlinearity in cardiovascular and hemodynamic systems. The phase shifts between slow cardiovascular and hemodynamic oscillations are relatively stable subject-specific biometric features and could be of interest for person identification in addition to other biometric data. Slow BP-coupled oscillations in prefrontal oxyhemoglobin changes can seriously impair the detection of mentally induced hemodynamic changes in an optical brain-computer interface, a novel nonmuscular communication system. © 2011 IEEE

  5. Importance of addressing National Electrical Code violations that result in unusual exposure to 60 Hz magnetic fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Jack; Samuel Bitler, J; Riley, Karl

    2004-02-01

    We evaluated wiring in multifamily developments containing National Electrical Code(R) (NEC(R)) violations as a source of unusual exposure to 60 Hz magnetic fields. Two methods were used in this evaluation: measurement and modeling. We measured the building wiring as a source of magnetic fields in six multifamily developments in Michigan. In this small sample, building wiring proved to be an important source of exposure in four of the six cases. In all four cases with exposure from building wiring, one or more NEC violations were involved. To supplement our measurement efforts, we used computer modeling to compare magnetic field exposure due to building wiring with magnetic field exposure from external power lines. Our calculations showed that where the building wiring has a NEC violation leading to net current loops, the exposure due to wiring is likely to be more important than that from external power lines. Our results support the results obtained in a recent study of the exposure of Californian K-12 students to magnetic fields, where building wiring with one or more NEC violation was found to be the single most important exposure source. If 60 Hz magnetic fields are important to avoid, then improved enforcement of the NEC, as required by law, is perhaps the single most important mitigation policy to adopt. Bioelectromagnetics 25:102-106, 2004. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. MEG and EEG demonstrate similar test-retest reliability of the 40Hz auditory steady-state response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legget, Kristina T; Hild, Allison K; Steinmetz, Sarah E; Simon, Steven T; Rojas, Donald C

    2017-04-01

    The auditory steady-state response (ASSR) is increasingly being used as a biomarker in neuropsychiatric disorders, but research investigating the test-retest reliability of this measure is needed. We previously reported ASSR reliability, measured by electroencephalography (EEG), to 40Hz amplitude-modulated white noise and click train stimuli. The purpose of the current study was to (a) assess the reliability of the MEG-measured ASSR to 40Hz amplitude-modulated white noise and click train stimuli, and (b) compare test-retest reliability between MEG and EEG measures of ASSR, which has not previously been investigated. Additionally, impact of stimulus parameter choice on reliability was assessed, by comparing responses to white noise and click train stimuli. Test-retest reliability, across sessions approximately one week apart, was assessed in 17 healthy adults. On each study day, participants completed two passive listening tasks (white noise and click train stimuli) during separate MEG and EEG recordings. Between-session correlations for evoked power and inter-trial phase coherence (ITPC) were assessed following source-space projection. Overall, the MEG-measured ASSR was significantly correlated between sessions (pnoise stimuli, although further study is warranted. No significant differences in reliability were observed between MEG and EEG measures, suggesting they are similarly reliable. This work supports use of the ASSR as a biomarker in clinical interventions with repeated measures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Antiadipogenic effects of subthermal electric stimulation at 448 kHz on differentiating human mesenchymal stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    HERNÁNDEZ-BULE, MARÍA LUISA; MARTÍNEZ-BOTAS, JAVIER; TRILLO, MARÍA ÁNGELES; PAÍNO, CARLOS L; ÚBEDA, ALEJANDRO

    2016-01-01

    The 448 kHz capacitive-resistive electric transfer (CRET) is an electrothermal therapy currently applied in anticellulite and antiobesity treatments. The aim of the present study was to determine whether exposure to the CRET electric signal at subthermal doses affected early adipogenic processes in adipose-derived stem cells (ADSC) from human donors. ADSC were incubated for 2 or 9 days in the presence of adipogenic medium, and exposed or sham-exposed to 5 min pulses of 448 kHz electric signal at 50 µA/mm2 during the last 48 h of the incubation. Colorimetric, immunofluorescence, western blotting and reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction assays were performed to assess adipogenic differentiation of the ADSC. Electric stimulation significantly decreased cytoplasmic lipid content, after both 2 and 9 days of differentiation. The antiadipogenic response in the 9 day samples was accompanied by activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1/2, decreased expression and partial inactivation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) γ, which was translocated from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, together with a significant decrease in the expression levels of the PPARG1 gene, perilipin, angiopoietin-like protein 4 and fatty acid synthase. These results demonstrated that subthermal stimulation with CRET interferes with the early adipogenic differentiation in ADSC, indicating that the electric stimulus itself can modulate processes controlling the synthesis and mobilization of fat, even in the absence of the concomitant thermal and mechanical components of the thermoelectric therapy CRET. PMID:27035334

  8. Accuracy of a 10 Hz GPS Unit in Measuring Shuttle Velocity Performed at Different Speeds and Distances (5 - 20 M).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beato, Marco; Bartolini, Davide; Ghia, Gianluigi; Zamparo, Paola

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to validate the accuracy of a 10 Hz GPS device (STATSports, Ireland) by comparing the instantaneous values of velocity determined with this device with those determined by kinematic (video) analysis (25 Hz). Ten male soccer players were required to perform shuttle runs (with 180° change of direction) at three velocities (slow: 2.2 m·s(-1); moderate: 3.2 m·s(-1); high: maximal) over four distances: 5, 10, 15 and 20 m. The experiments were video-recorded; the "point by point" values of speed recorded by the GPS device were manually downloaded and analysed in the same way as the "frame by frame" values of horizontal speed as obtained by video analysis. The obtained results indicated that shuttle distance was smaller in GPS than video analysis (p GPS than in video analysis (p GPS data underestimated criterion distance (0.31 ± 0.55 m). In conclusion, the inaccuracy of this GPS unit in determining shuttle speed can be attributed to inaccuracy in determining the shuttle distance.

  9. Effects of 50 Hz rotating magnetic field on the viability of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawrotek, Paweł; Fijałkowski, Karol; Struk, Magdalena; Kordas, Marian; Rakoczy, Rafał

    2014-01-01

    This study presents results of research on the influence of rotating magnetic field (RMF) of the induction of 30 mT and the frequency of 50 Hz on the growth dynamics and cell metabolic activity of E. coli and S. aureus, depending on the exposure time. The studies showed that the RMF caused an increase in the growth and cell metabolic activity of all the analyzed bacterial strains, especially in the time interval t = 30 to 150 min. However, it was also found that the optical density and cell metabolic activity after exposition to RMF were significantly higher in S. aureus cultures. In turn, the study of growth dynamics, revealed a rapid and a significant decrease in these values from t = 90 min) in the case of E. coli samples. The obtained results prove that RMF (B = 30 mT, f = 50 Hz) has a stimulatory effect on the growth and metabolic activity of E. coli and S. aureus. Furthermore, taking into account the time of exposure, stronger influence of RMF on the viability was observed in S. aureus cultures, which may indicate that this effect depends on the shape of the exposed cells.

  10. Juvenile stress potentiates aversive 22-kHz ultrasonic vocalizations and freezing during auditory fear conditioning in adult male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Nicole; Schwarting, Rainer K W; Fuchs, Eberhard; Wöhr, Markus

    2012-09-01

    Traumatic experiences that occur during adolescence can render individuals vulnerable to mood and anxiety disorders. A model in juvenile rats (age: 27-29 days) was developed previously to study the long-term effects of adolescent stress exposure on behaviour and physiology. This paradigm, termed juvenile stress, involves subjecting juvenile rats to different stressors on consecutive days over a 3-day period. Here, we investigated the effects of the juvenile stress paradigm on freezing behaviour and aversive 22-kHz ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) during auditory fear conditioning in adult male rats (age: 68-90 days). We found that rats previously subjected to juvenile stress increased aversive 22-kHz USVs (total calls and time spent calling) compared with controls during fear-conditioning training. The acoustic USV parameters between control and juvenile stress rats were largely equivalent, including duration, peak frequency and amplitude. While rats did not differ in freezing behaviour during fear conditioning, juvenile stress rats exhibited greater cue-conditioned freezing upon testing 24 h later. Our results show that juvenile stress elicited different long-term changes in freezing and aversive USVs during fear conditioning. Furthermore, they highlight the importance of assessing USVs to detect experience-dependent differences between control and stress-exposed animals which are not detectable by measuring visible behaviour.

  11. Multi-channel beam-scanning imaging at kHz frame rates by Lissajous trajectory microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Justin A; Sullivan, Shane Z; Muir, Ryan D; Sreehari, Suhas; Bouman, Charles A; Simpson, Garth J

    2015-03-09

    A beam-scanning microscope based on Lissajous trajectory imaging is described for achieving streaming 2D imaging with continuous frame rates up to 1.4 kHz. The microscope utilizes two fast-scan resonant mirrors to direct the optical beam on a circuitous trajectory through the field of view. By separating the full Lissajous trajectory time-domain data into sub-trajectories (partial, undersampled trajectories) effective frame-rates much higher than the repeat time of the Lissajous trajectory are achieved with many unsampled pixels present. A model-based image reconstruction (MBIR) 3D in-painting algorithm is then used to interpolate the missing data for the unsampled pixels to recover full images. The MBIR algorithm uses a maximum a posteriori estimation with a generalized Gaussian Markov random field prior model for image interpolation. Because images are acquired using photomultiplier tubes or photodiodes, parallelization for multi-channel imaging is straightforward. Preliminary results show that when combined with the MBIR in-painting algorithm, this technique has the ability to generate kHz frame rate images across 6 total dimensions of space, time, and polarization for SHG, TPEF, and confocal reflective birefringence data on a multimodal imaging platform for biomedical imaging. The use of a multi-channel data acquisition card allows for multimodal imaging with perfect image overlay. Image blur due to sample motion was also reduced by using higher frame rates.

  12. Increase in radiation-induced HPRT gene mutation frequency after nonthermal exposure to nonionizing 60 Hz electromagnetic fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walleczek, J; Shiu, E C; Hahn, G M

    1999-04-01

    It is widely accepted that moderate levels of nonionizing electric or magnetic fields, for example 50/60 Hz magnetic fields of about 1 mT, are not mutagenic. However, it is not known whether such fields can enhance the action of known mutagens. To explore this question, a stringent experimental protocol, which included blinding and systematic negative controls, was implemented, minimizing the possibility of observer bias or experimental artifacts. As a model system, we chose to measure mutation frequencies induced by 2 Gy gamma rays in the redox-sensitive hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (HPRT) gene in Chinese hamster ovary cells. We tested whether a 12-h exposure to a 60 Hz sinusoidally oscillating magnetic-flux density (Brms = 0.7 mT) could affect the mutagenic effects of ionizing radiation on the HPRT gene locus. We determined that the magnetic-field exposure induced an approximate 1.8-fold increase in HPRT mutation frequency. Additional experiments at Brms = 0.23 and 0.47 mT revealed that the effect was reduced at lower flux densities. The field exposure did not enhance radiation-induced cytotoxicity or mutation frequencies in cells not exposed to ionizing radiation. These results suggest that moderate-strength, oscillating magnetic fields may act as an enhancer of mutagenesis in mammalian cells.

  13. Effects of exposure to 50 Hz, 1 Gauss magnetic field on reproductive traits in male albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Islam M. Saadeldin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of extremely low frequency magnetic field ELF-MF (50 Hz/1 Gauss on male fertility were studied in rats. Twenty eight adult male Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups, 2 experimental groups exposed to magnetic field for 21 days and 2 control groups (sham exposed. The first exposed group was sacrificed at the end of the exposure period, and the second exposed group was kept for extra 48 days post exposure to assess the delayed effects of exposure. Significant decrease in the testes weights, sperm motility, sperm count, normal sperms and live sperms was detected in the exposed groups compared to control. Serum testosterone concentrations were significantly increased after 21 days of exposure, and then these changes were corrected after 48 days post exposure. Superoxide dismutase, catalase activities and α-tocopherol concentration were significantly decreased after 21 days of exposure, while the later became non-significant after 48 days post exposure. L-ascorbate concentration was significantly increased after 21 days of exposure, and returned to normal 48 days post exposure. Histopathological examination of the testis from the exposed rats showed a disruption in its architecture with an increase in Leydig cell number and activity, whereas 48 days post exposure, the testicular germ cell layers increased with presence of high apoptotic rates. In conclusion, prolonged exposure to 50 Hz, 1 Gauss MF is biologically toxic to the testicular functions with oxidative stress on spermatogenesis that subsequently may affect male fertility and his sexual efficiency.

  14. 1 kHz 2D Visual Motion Sensor Using 20 × 20 Silicon Retina Optical Sensor and DSP Microcontroller.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shih-Chii; Yang, MinHao; Steiner, Andreas; Moeckel, Rico; Delbruck, Tobi

    2015-04-01

    Optical flow sensors have been a long running theme in neuromorphic vision sensors which include circuits that implement the local background intensity adaptation mechanism seen in biological retinas. This paper reports a bio-inspired optical motion sensor aimed towards miniature robotic and aerial platforms. It combines a 20 × 20 continuous-time CMOS silicon retina vision sensor with a DSP microcontroller. The retina sensor has pixels that have local gain control and adapt to background lighting. The system allows the user to validate various motion algorithms without building dedicated custom solutions. Measurements are presented to show that the system can compute global 2D translational motion from complex natural scenes using one particular algorithm: the image interpolation algorithm (I2A). With this algorithm, the system can compute global translational motion vectors at a sample rate of 1 kHz, for speeds up to ±1000 pixels/s, using less than 5 k instruction cycles (12 instructions per pixel) per frame. At 1 kHz sample rate the DSP is 12% occupied with motion computation. The sensor is implemented as a 6 g PCB consuming 170 mW of power.

  15. The Hd, Hj, and Hz66 flagella variants of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi modify host responses and cellular interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, Fernanda; Kay, Sally; Frankel, Gad; Clare, Simon; Goulding, David; van de Vosse, Esther; van Dissel, Jaap T; Strugnell, Richard; Thwaites, Guy; Kingsley, Robert A; Dougan, Gordon; Baker, Stephen

    2015-01-22

    Salmonella Typhi, the causative agent of typhoid fever, is a monophyletic, human-restricted bacterium that exhibits limited phenotypic variation. S. Typhi from Indonesia are a notable exception, with circulating strains expressing diverse flagella antigens including Hj, Hd and Hz66. Hypothesizing that S. Typhi flagella plays a key role during infection, we constructed an S. Typhi fliC mutant and otherwise isogenic S. Typhi strains expressing the Hj, Hd, Hz66 flagella antigens. Phenotyping revealed differences in flagellum structure, strain motility and immunogenicity, but not in the ability of flagellated isolates to induce TLR5 activity. Invasion assays using epithelial and macrophage cell lines revealed differences in the ability of these S. Typhi derivatives to invade cells or induce cellular restructuring in the form of ruffles. Notably, the Hj variant induced substantial ruffles that were not fully dependent on the GTPases that contribute to this process. These data highlight important differences in the phenotypic properties of S. Typhi flagella variation and how they impact on the pathogenesis of S. Typhi.

  16. 50Hz Extremely Low Frequency Electromagnetic Fields Enhance Protein Carbonyl Groups Content in Cancer Cells: Effects on Proteasomal Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Eleuteri

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Electromagnetic fields are an assessed cause of prolonging free radicals lifespan. This study was carried out to investigate the influence of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields on protein oxidation and on the 20S proteasome functionality, the complex responsible for the degradation of oxidized proteins. Caco 2 cells were exposed, for 24–72 hours, to 1 mT, 50 Hz electromagnetic fields. The treatment induced a time-dependent increase both in cell growth and in protein oxidation, more evident in the presence of TPA, while no changes in cell viability were detected. Exposing the cells to 50 Hz electromagnetic fields caused a global activation of the 20S proteasome catalytic components, particularly evident at 72 hours exposure and in the presence of TPA. The finding that EGCG, a natural antioxidant compound, counteracted the field-related pro-oxidant effects demonstrates that the increased proteasome activity was due to an enhancement in intracellular free radicals.

  17. Apoptosis selectively induced in BEL-7402 cells by folic acid-modified magnetic nanoparticles combined with 100 Hz magnetic field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Jian; Jiang, Shulian; Chen, Zhiqiang; Zhao, Wei; Yi, Yongxiang; Yang, Ruili; Chen, Baoan

    2014-01-01

    To explore the effect of folic acid-modified magnetic nanoparticles (FA-MNPs) combined with a 100 Hz extremely low-frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF) on the apoptosis of liver cancer BEL-7402 cells. MNPs (20 nm) were prepared by coprecipitation, and then folic acid was coated onto MNPs to prepare FA-MNPs. BEL-7402 cells and HL7702 cells were selected as liver cancer cells and normal liver cells, respectively. The ELF-EMF was generated from a solenoid coil. Cellular uptake of NPs was determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. A 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay was used to evaluate cell inhibition. Apoptosis was analyzed by flow cytometry. Statistical analyses were performed using two-way analysis of variance. FA-MNPs combined with a 100 Hz magnetic field significantly inhibited cell proliferation and induced higher apoptosis compared to either the ELF-EMF alone or FA-MNPs alone. FA-MNPs showed a better apoptosis effect and higher iron uptake in BEL-7402 cells compared to in HL7702 cells. On the basis of the ELF-EMF, higher doses of FA-MNPs brought higher apoptosis and higher iron uptake in either BEL-7402 cells or HL7702 cells. These results suggest that FA-MNPs may induce apoptosis in a cellular iron uptake-dependent manner when combined with an ELF-EMF in BEL-7402 cells.

  18. Effects of 60 Hz electric fields on operant and social stress behaviors of nonhuman primates: Projects 3 and 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, W.R.; Coelho, A.M. Jr.; Easley, S.P.; Orr, J.L.; Smith, H.D.; Taylor, L.L.; Tuttle, M.L.

    1987-01-01

    The objective of this program is to investigate, using the baboon as a nonhuman primate surrogate for the human, possible hehavioral effects associated with exposure to high intensity 60 Hz electric fields. Results from this program, along with information from experiments conducted elsewhere, will be used by the Department of Energy (DOE) to estimate and evaluate the likelihood of deleterious consequences resulting from exposure of humans to the electric fields associated with power transmission over high voltage lines. This research program consists of four major research projects, all of which have been successfully completed. The third project assessed, in separate experiments conducted at 30 and 60 kV/m, effects of chronic exposure to electric fields on the performance of two operant conditioning tasks, fixed ratio (FR), and differential reinforcement of low rate (DRL). In the same two experiments, the fourth project investigated, using the systematic quantitative observational sampling methods of primatology, the possible stress-inducing effects of chronic exposure to 60 Hz electric fields on the behavior of baboons living in small social groups. This volume contains only appendices for projects 3 and 4. 81 figs., 67 tabs.

  19. Effect of 50 Hz Extremely Low-Frequency Electromagnetic Fields on the DNA Methylation and DNA Methyltransferases in Mouse Spermatocyte-Derived Cell Line GC-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yong; Liu, Wen-bin; Liu, Kai-jun; Ao, Lin; Zhong, Julia Li; Cao, Jia; Liu, Jin-yi

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that the male reproductive system is one of the most sensitive organs to electromagnetic radiation. However, the biological effects and molecular mechanism are largely unclear. Our study was designed to elucidate the epigenetic effects of 50 Hz ELF-EMF in vitro. Mouse spermatocyte-derived GC-2 cell line was exposed to 50 Hz ELF-EMF (5 min on and 10 min off) at magnetic field intensity of 1 mT, 2 mT, and 3 mT with an intermittent exposure for 72 h. We found that 50 Hz ELF-EMF exposure decreased genome-wide methylation at 1 mT, but global methylation was higher at 3 mT compared with the controls. The expression of DNMT1 and DNMT3b was decreased at 1 mT, and 50 Hz ELF-EMF can increase the expression of DNMT1 and DNMT3b of GC-2 cells at 3 mT. However, 50 Hz ELF-EMF had little influence on the expression of DNMT3a. Then, we established DNA methylation and gene expression profiling and validated some genes with aberrant DNA methylation and expression at different intensity of 50 Hz ELF-EMF. These results suggest that the alterations of genome-wide methylation and DNMTs expression may play an important role in the biological effects of 50 Hz ELF-EMF exposure.

  20. EEG Transients in the Sigma Range During non-REM Sleep Predict Learning in Dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iotchev, Ivaylo Borislavov; Kis, Anna; Bódizs, Róbert; van Luijtelaar, Gilles; Kubinyi, Enikő

    2017-10-11

    Sleep spindles are phasic bursts of thalamo-cortical activity, visible in the cortex as transient oscillations in the sigma range (usually defined in humans as 12-14 or 9-16 Hz). They have been associated with sleep-dependent memory consolidation and sleep stability in humans and rodents. Occurrence, frequency, amplitude and duration of sleep spindles co-vary with age, sex and psychiatric conditions. Spindle analogue activity in dogs has been qualitatively described, but never quantified and related to function. In the present study we used an adjusted version of a detection method previously validated in children to test whether detections in the dogs show equivalent functional correlates as described in the human literature. We found that the density of EEG transients in the 9-16 Hz range during non-REM sleep relates to memory and is characterized by sexual dimorphism similarly as in humans. The number of transients/minute was larger in the learning condition and for female dogs, and correlated with the increase of performance during recall. It can be concluded that in dogs, automatic detections in the 9-16 Hz range, in particular the slow variant (<13 Hz), are functional analogues of human spindles.

  1. Ex-Vivo Characterization of Bioimpedance Spectroscopy of Normal, Ischemic and Hemorrhagic Rabbit Brain Tissue at Frequencies from 10 Hz to 1 MHz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Yang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Stroke is a severe cerebrovascular disease and is the second greatest cause of death worldwide. Because diagnostic tools (CT and MRI to detect acute stroke cannot be used until the patient reaches the hospital setting, a portable diagnostic tool is urgently needed. Because biological tissues have different impedance spectra under normal physiological conditions and different pathological states, multi-frequency electrical impedance tomography (MFEIT can potentially detect stroke. Accurate impedance spectra of normal brain tissue (gray and white matter and stroke lesions (ischemic and hemorrhagic tissue are important elements when studying stroke detection with MFEIT. To our knowledge, no study has comprehensively measured the impedance spectra of normal brain tissue and stroke lesions for the whole frequency range of 1 MHz within as short as possible an ex vivo time and using the same animal model. In this study, we established intracerebral hemorrhage and ischemic models in rabbits, then measured and analyzed the impedance spectra of normal brain tissue and stroke lesions ex vivo within 15 min after animal death at 10 Hz to 1 MHz. The results showed that the impedance spectra of stroke lesions significantly differed from those of normal brain tissue; the ratio of change in impedance of ischemic and hemorrhagic tissue with regard to frequency was distinct; and tissue type could be discriminated according to its impedance spectra. These findings further confirm the feasibility of detecting stroke with MFEIT and provide data supporting further study of MFEIT to detect stroke.

  2. Discovery of a 270 Hz X-Ray Burst Oscillation in the X-Ray Dipper 4U 1916-053

    OpenAIRE

    Galloway, Duncan K.; Chakrabarty, Deepto; Muno, Michael P.; Savov, Pavlin

    2000-01-01

    We report the discovery of a highly coherent oscillation in a type-I X-ray burst observed from 4U 1916-053 by the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE). The oscillation was most strongly detected approx. 1 s after the burst onset at a frequency of 269.3 Hz, and it increased in frequency over the following 4 seconds of the burst decay to a maximum of around 272 Hz. The total measured drift of 3.58 +/- 0.41 Hz (1 sigma) represents the largest fractional change in frequency (1.32 +/- 0.15 %) yet ob...

  3. Effects of 10 Hz Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation of the Left Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex in Disorders of Consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyu Xia

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundWhile repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS has been applied in treatment of patients with disorders of consciousness (DOC, a standardized stimulation protocol has not been proposed, and its therapeutic effects are inconsistently documented.ObjectivesTo assess the efficacy of rTMS in improving consciousness in patients with persistent minimally conscious state (MCS or unresponsive wakefulness syndrome (UWS, previously known as vegetative state (VS.MethodA prospective single-blinded study, with selected subjects, was carried out. In total, 16 patients (5 MCS and 11 VS/UWS with chronic DOC were included. All patients received active 10 Hz rTMS at the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC, at one session per day, for 20 consecutive days. A single daily session of stimulation consisted of 1,000 pulses (10 s of 10 Hz trains; repeated 10 times with an inter-train interval of 60 s; and 11 min and 40 s for total session. The main outcome measures were changes in the total score on the JFK Coma Recovery Scale-Revised (CRS-R scale. Additional measures were the impressions of caregivers after the conclusion of the interventions, which were assessed using the Clinical Global Impression-Improvement (CGI-I scale.ResultsThe CRS-R scores were increased in all 5 MCS patients and 4 of 11 VS/UWS patients, while a significant enhancement of CRS-R scores was observed compared to the baseline in all participants (p = 0.007. However, the improvement was more notable in MCS patients (p = 0.042 than their VS/UWS counterparts (p = 0.066. Based on the CGI-I scores, two patients improved considerably, two improved, six minimally improved, six experienced no change, and none deteriorated. Good concordance was seen between the CGI-I result and the increases in CRS-R scores.ConclusionTreatment of 10 Hz multisession rTMS applied to the left DLPFC is promising for the rehabilitation of DOC patients, especially those in MCS

  4. Ozone generation in a kHz-pulsed He-O2 capillary dielectric barrier discharge operated in ambient air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sands, Brian L.; Ganguly, Biswa N.

    2013-12-01

    The generation of reactive oxygen species using nonequilibrium atmospheric pressure plasma jet devices has been a subject of recent interest due to their ability to generate localized concentrations from a compact source. To date, such studies with plasma jet devices have primarily utilized radio-frequency excitation. In this work, we characterize ozone generation in a kHz-pulsed capillary dielectric barrier discharge configuration comprised of an active discharge plasma jet operating in ambient air that is externally grounded. The plasma jet flow gas was composed of helium with an admixture of up to 5% oxygen. A unipolar voltage pulse train with a 20 ns pulse risetime was used to drive the discharge at repetition rates between 2-25 kHz. Using UVLED absorption spectroscopy centered at 255 nm near the Hartley-band absorption peak, ozone was detected over 1 cm from the capillary axis. We observed roughly linear scaling of ozone production with increasing pulse repetition rate up to a "turnover frequency," beyond which ozone production steadily dropped and discharge current and 777 nm O(5P→5S°) emission sharply increased. The turnover in ozone production occurred at higher pulse frequencies with increasing flow rate and decreasing applied voltage with a common energy density of 55 mJ/cm3 supplied to the discharge. The limiting energy density and peak ozone production both increased with increasing O2 admixture. The power dissipated in the discharge was obtained from circuit current and voltage measurements using a modified parallel plate dielectric barrier discharge circuit model and the volume-averaged ozone concentration was derived from a 2D ozone absorption measurement. From these measurements, the volume-averaged efficiency of ozone production was calculated to be 23 g/kWh at conditions for peak ozone production of 41 mg/h at 11 kV applied voltage, 3% O2, 2 l/min flow rate, and 13 kHz pulse repetition rate, with 1.79 W dissipated in the discharge.

  5. Sperm whales reduce foraging effort during exposure to 1-2 kHz sonar and killer whale sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isojunno, Saana; Cure, Charlotte; Kvadsheim, Petter Helgevold; Lam, Frans-Peter Alexander; Tyack, Peter Lloyd; Wensveen, Paul Jacobus; Miller, Patrick James O'Malley

    2016-01-01

    The time and energetic costs of behavioral responses to incidental and experimental sonar exposures, as well as control stimuli, were quantified using hidden state analysis of time series of acoustic and movement data recorded by tags (DTAG) attached to 12 sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus) using suction cups. Behavioral state transition modeling showed that tagged whales switched to a non-foraging, non-resting state during both experimental transmissions of low-frequency active sonar from an approaching vessel (LFAS; 1-2 kHz, source level 214 dB re 1 µPa m, four tag records) and playbacks of potential predator (killer whale, Orcinus orca) sounds broadcast at naturally occurring sound levels as a positive control from a drifting boat (five tag records). Time spent in foraging states and the probability of prey capture attempts were reduced during these two types of exposures with little change in overall locomotion activity, suggesting an effect on energy intake with no immediate compensation. Whales switched to the active non-foraging state over received sound pressure levels of 131-165 dB re 1 µPa during LFAS exposure. In contrast, no changes in foraging behavior were detected in response to experimental negative controls (no-sonar ship approach or noise control playback) or to experimental medium-frequency active sonar exposures (MFAS; 6-7 kHz, source level 199 re 1 µPa m, received sound pressure level [SPL] = 73-158 dB re 1 µPa). Similarly, there was no reduction in foraging effort for three whales exposed to incidental, unidentified 4.7-5.1 kHz sonar signals received at lower levels (SPL = 89-133 dB re 1 µPa). These results demonstrate that similar to predation risk, exposure to sonar can affect functional behaviors, and indicate that increased perception of risk with higher source level or lower frequency may modulate how sperm whales respond to anthropogenic sound.

  6. Effects of 10 Hz Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation of the Left Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex in Disorders of Consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Xiaoyu; Bai, Yang; Zhou, Yangzhong; Yang, Yi; Xu, Ruxiang; Gao, Xiaorong; Li, Xiaoli; He, Jianghong

    2017-01-01

    While repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has been applied in treatment of patients with disorders of consciousness (DOC), a standardized stimulation protocol has not been proposed, and its therapeutic effects are inconsistently documented. To assess the efficacy of rTMS in improving consciousness in patients with persistent minimally conscious state (MCS) or unresponsive wakefulness syndrome (UWS), previously known as vegetative state (VS). A prospective single-blinded study, with selected subjects, was carried out. In total, 16 patients (5 MCS and 11 VS/UWS) with chronic DOC were included. All patients received active 10 Hz rTMS at the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), at one session per day, for 20 consecutive days. A single daily session of stimulation consisted of 1,000 pulses (10 s of 10 Hz trains; repeated 10 times with an inter-train interval of 60 s; and 11 min and 40 s for total session). The main outcome measures were changes in the total score on the JFK Coma Recovery Scale-Revised (CRS-R) scale. Additional measures were the impressions of caregivers after the conclusion of the interventions, which were assessed using the Clinical Global Impression-Improvement (CGI-I) scale. The CRS-R scores were increased in all 5 MCS patients and 4 of 11 VS/UWS patients, while a significant enhancement of CRS-R scores was observed compared to the baseline in all participants (p = 0.007). However, the improvement was more notable in MCS patients (p = 0.042) than their VS/UWS counterparts (p = 0.066). Based on the CGI-I scores, two patients improved considerably, two improved, six minimally improved, six experienced no change, and none deteriorated. Good concordance was seen between the CGI-I result and the increases in CRS-R scores. Treatment of 10 Hz multisession rTMS applied to the left DLPFC is promising for the rehabilitation of DOC patients, especially those in MCS. Further validation with a cohort of a larger

  7. Enhancing effect of 50 Hz rotating magnetic field on induction of Shiga toxin-converting lambdoid prophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struk, M; Grygorcewicz, B; Nawrotek, P; Augustyniak, A; Konopacki, M; Kordas, M; Rakoczy, R

    2017-08-01

    Studies aimed at investigating factors and mechanism of induction of prophages, a major pathogenesis factor of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC), are considered important to develop an effective treatment for STEC infections. In this study, we demonstrated the synergistic effect of the rotating magnetic field (RMF) of induction B = 34 mT and frequency ƒ = 50 Hz at a constant temperature of 37 °C and mitomycin C (MMC), that resulted in a higher level of induction of stx-carrying lambdoid Stx prophages. This is a first report on the induction of lambdoid Stx prophages in response to the enhancing effect of popular inductor (mitomycin C) under the influence of RMF. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Nitriding molybdenum: Effects of duration and fill gas pressure when using 100-Hz pulse DC discharge technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikhlaq, U.; R., Ahmad; Shafiq, M.; Saleem, S.; S. Shah, M.; Hussain, T.; A. Khan, I.; K., Abbas; S. Abbas, M.

    2014-10-01

    Molybdenum is nitrided by a 100-Hz pulsed DC glow discharge technique for various time durations and fill gas pressures to study the effects on the surface properties of molybdenum. X-ray diffractometry (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM) are used for the structural and morphological analysis of the nitrided layers. Vickers' microhardness tester is utilized to investigate surface microhardness. Phase analysis shows the formation of more molybdenum nitride molecules for longer nitriding durations at fill gas pressures of 2 mbar and 3 mbar (1 bar = 105 Pa). A considerable increase in surface microhardness (approximately by a factor of 2) is observed for longer duration (10 h) and 2-mbar pressure. Longer duration (10 h) and 2-mbar fill gas pressure favors the formation of homogeneous, smooth, hard layers by the incorporation of more nitrogen.

  9. Influence of 50 Hz magnetic field on growth of mushroom species: Shitake (Lentinus edodes) and Oyster (Pleurotus astreatus)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bambang Anggoro; Pakpahan, P.M.; Fajar Dwi Kusnoaji; Sirait, K.T. [Bandung Institute of Technology (Indonesia). Faculty of Industrial Technology

    1999-07-01

    Investigation on effects of electromagnetic fields on different aspects of biological systems has been done by much research. Our present study, which has been carried out under the joint research between the laboratory of High voltage and High current Engineering and the Laboratory of Microbiology of Institut Teknologi Bandung, investigates the influence of 50 Hz magnetic field on the growth of several species of mushroom. In this study, we observed growth of mushroom, from spora up to fully ripped stages, under magnetic field exposure of different intensity from 0,1 mT to 1,7 mT. During exposure the room condition was held constant at a temperature of 20{sup o}C and 95% humidity. We noted that some parameters such as: mushroom growth velocity, shape, dimension, quantity, color and period of mushroom ovary are significantly influenced by magnetic energy absorbed. (author)

  10. The effect of rise/fall time of 500 Hz short tone bursts on cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Niraj Kumar; Apeksha, Kumari

    2014-01-01

    Cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potential (cVEMP) is a biphasic potential recorded from the Sternocleidomastoid muscle in response to loud acoustic stimulation and assesses the intactness of the Sacculocolic pathway. The literature on clinical utility of cVEMP has been growing rapidly, though not without inconsistencies despite involving alike population. A close scrutiny of the methods across such studies revealed an inconsistent use of stimulus parameters; especially rise/fall times (RFTs). However the effect of RFTs on cVEMP has been largely unexplored. The study aimed at exploring the effect of varying RFTs on cVEMP and obtaining optimum RFT to enable reliable recording of cVEMPs. The cVEMPs were recorded from both ears of 30 healthy individuals with normal audio-vestibular system using 500 Hz short tone-bursts (STBs) at 95 dB nHL and varying the RFTs from 1 to 8 ms at all integer values. There was significant prolongation of latencies with increasing RFTs (p< 0.05). The largest amplitudes were obtained for 2 to 3 ms RFTs, though significantly smaller amplitude was obtained only for 8 ms RFT (p< 0.05), thereby rendering 8 ms RFT unfit for cVEMP recording. The 1 ms RFT produced smallest variability across individuals and would also result in lesser duration of exposure to loud sound. The RFT of 1 ms of 500 Hz STBs are optimum for recording cVEMPs. This is owing to large amplitudes and least variability demonstrated for this RFT.

  11. Antiadipogenic effects of subthermal electric stimulation at 448 kHz on differentiating human mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Bule, María Luisa; Martínez-Botas, Javier; Trillo, María Ángeles; Paíno, Carlos L; Úbeda, Alejandro

    2016-05-01

    The 448 kHz capacitive‑resistive electric transfer (CRET) is an electrothermal therapy currently applied in anticellulite and antiobesity treatments. The aim of the present study was to determine whether exposure to the CRET electric signal at subthermal doses affected early adipogenic processes in adipose‑derived stem cells (ADSC) from human donors. ADSC were incubated for 2 or 9 days in the presence of adipogenic medium, and exposed or sham‑exposed to 5 min pulses of 448 kHz electric signal at 50 µA/mm2 during the last 48 h of the incubation. Colorimetric, immunofluorescence, western blotting and reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction assays were performed to assess adipogenic differentiation of the ADSC. Electric stimulation significantly decreased cytoplasmic lipid content, after both 2 and 9 days of differentiation. The antiadipogenic response in the 9 day samples was accompanied by activation of mitogen‑activated protein kinase kinase 1/2, decreased expression and partial inactivation of peroxisome proliferator‑activated receptor (PPAR) γ, which was translocated from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, together with a significant decrease in the expression levels of the PPARG1 gene, perilipin, angiopoietin‑like protein 4 and fatty acid synthase. These results demonstrated that subthermal stimulation with CRET interferes with the early adipogenic differentiation in ADSC, indicating that the electric stimulus itself can modulate processes controlling the synthesis and mobilization of fat, even in the absence of the concomitant thermal and mechanical components of the thermoelectric therapy CRET.

  12. Multi-component testing using HZ-PAN and AgZ-PAN Sorbents for OSPREY Model validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garn, Troy G. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Greenhalgh, Mitchell [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Lyon, Kevin L. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Law, Jack D. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-04-01

    In efforts to further develop the capability of the Off-gas SeParation and RecoverY (OSPREY) model, multi-component tests were completed using both HZ-PAN and AgZ-PAN sorbents. The primary purpose of this effort was to obtain multi-component xenon and krypton capacities for comparison to future OSPREY predicted multi-component capacities using previously acquired Langmuir equilibrium parameters determined from single component isotherms. Experimental capacities were determined for each sorbent using two feed gas compositions of 1000 ppmv xenon and 150 ppmv krypton in either a helium or air balance. Test temperatures were consistently held at 220 K and the gas flowrate was 50 sccm. Capacities were calculated from breakthrough curves using TableCurve® 2D software by Jandel Scientific. The HZ-PAN sorbent was tested in the custom designed cryostat while the AgZ-PAN was tested in a newly installed cooling apparatus. Previous modeling validation efforts indicated the OSPREY model can be used to effectively predict single component xenon and krypton capacities for both engineered form sorbents. Results indicated good agreement with the experimental and predicted capacity values for both krypton and xenon on the sorbents. Overall, the model predicted slightly elevated capacities for both gases which can be partially attributed to the estimation of the parameters and the uncertainty associated with the experimental measurements. Currently, OSPREY is configured such that one species adsorbs and one does not (i.e. krypton in helium). Modification of OSPREY code is currently being performed to incorporate multiple adsorbing species and non-ideal interactions of gas phase species with the sorbent and adsorbed phases. Once these modifications are complete, the sorbent capacities determined in the present work will be used to validate OSPREY multicomponent adsorption predictions.

  13. Multimodal swept-source spectrally encoded scanning laser ophthalmoscopy and optical coherence tomography at 400 kHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Haddad, Mohamed T.; Joos, Karen M.; Patel, Shriji N.; Tao, Yuankai K.

    2017-02-01

    Multimodal imaging systems that combine scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (SLO) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) have demonstrated the utility of concurrent en face and volumetric imaging for aiming, eye tracking, bulk motion compensation, mosaicking, and contrast enhancement. However, this additional functionality trades off with increased system complexity and cost because both SLO and OCT generally require dedicated light sources, galvanometer scanners, relay and imaging optics, detectors, and control and digitization electronics. We previously demonstrated multimodal ophthalmic imaging using swept-source spectrally encoded SLO and OCT (SS-SESLO-OCT). Here, we present system enhancements and a new optical design that increase our SS-SESLO-OCT data throughput by >7x and field-of-view (FOV) by >4x. A 200 kHz 1060 nm Axsun swept-source was optically buffered to 400 kHz sweep-rate, and SESLO and OCT were simultaneously digitized on dual input channels of a 4 GS/s digitizer at 1.2 GS/s per channel using a custom k-clock. We show in vivo human imaging of the anterior segment out to the limbus and retinal fundus over a >40° FOV. In addition, nine overlapping volumetric SS-SESLO-OCT volumes were acquired under video-rate SESLO preview and guidance. In post-processing, all nine SESLO images and en face projections of the corresponding OCT volumes were mosaicked to show widefield multimodal fundus imaging with a >80° FOV. Concurrent multimodal SS-SESLO-OCT may have applications in clinical diagnostic imaging by enabling aiming, image registration, and multi-field mosaicking and benefit intraoperative imaging by allowing for real-time surgical feedback, instrument tracking, and overlays of computationally extracted image-based surrogate biomarkers of disease.

  14. Demonstrator study for micro-ranging-laser device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henkel, Hartmut; Bernhardt, Bodo; Pereira do Carmo, J.

    2017-11-01

    Within ESA's Innovation Triangle Initiative (ITI) a demonstrator breadboard for a micro-ranging-laser device "MYLRAD" has been developed. Its working principle is the measurement of the round-trip delay time of a laser beam as a phase shift. The demonstrator consists of the laser diode (30 mW, square wave AM), optics, APD detector, narrowband preamplifier, limiter, and a phase digitiser based on a novel noise-shaping synchroniser (NSS) circuit; this works without ADCs and can be built from rad-hard components for space. The system timing and the digitiser algorithm are performed by an FPGA. The demonstrator has been tested at ranges from 1 m to 30 m. With a static non-cooperative target an RMS noise of 1 mm at a result rate of 60 Hz was reached. The demonstrator needs less than 2.5 W power.

  15. Infrared optical element mounting techniques for wide temperature ranges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saggin, Bortolino; Tarabini, Marco; Scaccabarozzi, Diego

    2010-01-20

    We describe the optimization of a mounting system for the infrared (IR) optics of a spaceborne interferometer working in the temperature range between -120 degrees C and +150 degrees C. The concept is based on an aluminum alloy frame with designed mechanical compliance, which allows for compensation of the different coefficient of thermal expansion between the optics and the holder; at the same time, the system provides for the high stiffness required to reach natural frequencies above 200 Hz, which are mandatory in most space missions. Thermal adapters with properly chosen thermomechanical characteristics are interposed between the metallic structure and the lens, so as to reduce the interface stresses on the mechanically weak IR material, due to both the thermoelastic and acceleration loads. With the proposed mount, the competitive requirements of stiffness and stress-free mounting can be matched in wide temperature ranges. The case study of the interferometer of a miniaturized Fourier transform IR spectrometer is presented.

  16. Normative voice range profiles in vocally trained and untrained children aged between 7 and 10 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Berit; Zumtobel, Michaela; Prettenhofer, Walter; Aichstill, Birgitta; Jocher, Werner

    2010-03-01

    Only limited data on normal vocal constitution and vocal capabilities in school-aged children are available. To take better care of children's voices, it might be helpful to know voice ranges and limits of not only vocally trained but also vocally untrained children. Goal of this study was the evaluation of singing voice capabilities of vocally healthy children with different social and vocal/musical backgrounds using voice range profile measurements (VRP). VRP percentiles that reflect constitutional aspects were suggested. In this cross-sectional study, 186 children (aged between seven and 10 years), attending five schools, were included. VRP measurements were performed under field conditions. Interviews and questionnaires regarding vocal strain and vocal training were applied; the answers were used for classification of singing activity and vocal training (KLASAK). All children reached a mean singing voice range of at least two octaves. By using the answers of interviews and questionnaires, the children could be classified according to vocal strain and vocal training. The groups showed no significant differences regarding VRP measurements. In the following step, percentiles were calculated. Twenty-five percent of all children (P25) reached a minimum voice range of almost two octaves, namely, 22 semitones (ST) from 220 to 784 Hz with soft and loud singing. Half of the children (P50) had a voice range of 24 ST (2 octaves), while soft singing and a larger voice range of 26 ST while loud singing. The measurements of third quartile (P75) revealed that 25% of children have even a larger voice range than 29 dB (from 196 Hz/g to 1047 Hz/c3) and can sing at most frequencies louder than 90 dB. P90 demonstrated that 10% of the children can sing even lower or higher than the frequency range between 196 Hz/g and 1319 Hz/e3 analyzed. The voice range seems not to be constrained by social but by voice/musical background: children of vocally/musically encouraged schools had wider

  17. Testing the relativistic precession model using low-frequency and kHz quasi-periodic oscillations in neutron star low-mass X-ray binaries with known spin

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Doesburgh, Marieke; van der Klis, Michiel

    2017-03-01

    We analyse all available RXTE data on a sample of 13 low-mass X-ray binaries with known neutron star spin that are not persistent pulsars. We carefully measure the correlations between the centroid frequencies of the quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs). We compare these correlations to the prediction of the relativistic precession model that, due to frame dragging, a QPO will occur at the Lense-Thirring precession frequency νLT of a test-particle orbit whose orbital frequency is the upper kHz QPO frequency νu. Contrary to the most prominent previous studies, we find two different oscillations in the range predicted for νLT that are simultaneously present over a wide range of νu. Additionally, one of the low-frequency noise components evolves into a (third) QPO in the νLT range when νu exceeds 600 Hz. The frequencies of these QPOs all correlate to νu following power laws with indices between 0.4 and 3.3, significantly exceeding the predicted value of 2.0 in 80 per cent of the cases (at 3 to >20σ). Also, there is no evidence that the neutron star spin frequency affects any of these three QPO frequencies, as would be expected for frame dragging. Finally, the observed QPO frequencies tend to be higher than the νLT predicted for reasonable neutron star specific moment of inertia. In the light of recent successes of precession models in black holes, we briefly discuss ways in which such precession can occur in neutron stars at frequencies different from test-particle values and consistent with those observed. A precessing torus geometry and other torques than frame dragging may allow precession to produce the observed frequency correlations, but can only explain one of the three QPOs in the νLT range.

  18. The influence of 70 and 120 kHz tonal signals on the behavior of harbor porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) in a floating pen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastelein, Ronald A; Verboom, Willem C; Jennings, Nancy; de Haan, Dick; van der Heul, Sander

    2008-09-01

    Two harbor porpoises in a floating pen were subjected to five pure tone underwater signals of 70 or 120 kHz with different signal durations, amplitudes and duty cycles (% of time sound is produced). Some signals were continuous, others were intermittent (duty cycles varied between 8% and 100%). The effect of each signal was judged by comparing the animals' surfacing locations and number of surfacings (i.e. number of respirations) during test periods with those during baseline periods. In all cases, both porpoises moved away from the sound source, but the effect of the signals on respiration rates was negligible. Pulsed 70 kHz signals with a source level (SL) of 137 dB had a similar effect as a continuous 70 kHz signal with an SL of 148 dB (re 1 microPa, rms). Also, a pulsed 70 kHz signal with an SL of 147 dB had a much stronger deterring effect than a continuous 70 kHz signal with a similar SL. For pulsed 70 kHz signals (2 s pulse duration, 4s pulse interval, SL 147 dB re 1 microPa, rms), the avoidance threshold sound pressure level (SPL), in the context of the present study, was estimated to be around 130 dB (re 1 microPa, rms) for porpoise 064 and around 124 dB (re 1 microPa, rms) for porpoise 047. This study shows that ultrasonic pingers (70 kHz) can deter harbor porpoises. Such ultrasonic pingers have the advantage that they do not have a "dinner bell" effect on pinnipeds, and probably have no, or less, effect on other marine fauna, which are often sensitive to low frequency sounds.

  19. Effect of 50 Hz Extremely Low-Frequency Electromagnetic Fields on the DNA Methylation and DNA Methyltransferases in Mouse Spermatocyte-Derived Cell Line GC-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yong; Liu, Wen-bin; Liu, Kai-jun; Ao, Lin; Zhong, Julia Li; Cao, Jia; Liu, Jin-yi

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that the male reproductive system is one of the most sensitive organs to electromagnetic radiation. However, the biological effects and molecular mechanism are largely unclear. Our study was designed to elucidate the epigenetic effects of 50 Hz ELF-EMF in vitro. Mouse spermatocyte-derived GC-2 cell line was exposed to 50 Hz ELF-EMF (5 min on and 10 min off) at magnetic field intensity of 1 mT, 2 mT, and 3 mT with an intermittent exposure for 72 h. We found that 50 Hz ELF-EMF exposure decreased genome-wide methylation at 1 mT, but global methylation was higher at 3 mT compared with the controls. The expression of DNMT1 and DNMT3b was decreased at 1 mT, and 50 Hz ELF-EMF can increase the expression of DNMT1 and DNMT3b of GC-2 cells at 3 mT. However, 50 Hz ELF-EMF had little influence on the expression of DNMT3a. Then, we established DNA methylation and gene expression profiling and validated some genes with aberrant DNA methylation and expression at different intensity of 50 Hz ELF-EMF. These results suggest that the alterations of genome-wide methylation and DNMTs expression may play an important role in the biological effects of 50 Hz ELF-EMF exposure. PMID:26339596

  20. Effect of 50 Hz Extremely Low-Frequency Electromagnetic Fields on the DNA Methylation and DNA Methyltransferases in Mouse Spermatocyte-Derived Cell Line GC-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that the male reproductive system is one of the most sensitive organs to electromagnetic radiation. However, the biological effects and molecular mechanism are largely unclear. Our study was designed to elucidate the epigenetic effects of 50 Hz ELF-EMF in vitro. Mouse spermatocyte-derived GC-2 cell line was exposed to 50 Hz ELF-EMF (5 min on and 10 min off at magnetic field intensity of 1 mT, 2 mT, and 3 mT with an intermittent exposure for 72 h. We found that 50 Hz ELF-EMF exposure decreased genome-wide methylation at 1 mT, but global methylation was higher at 3 mT compared with the controls. The expression of DNMT1 and DNMT3b was decreased at 1 mT, and 50 Hz ELF-EMF can increase the expression of DNMT1 and DNMT3b of GC-2 cells at 3 mT. However, 50 Hz ELF-EMF had little influence on the expression of DNMT3a. Then, we established DNA methylation and gene expression profiling and validated some genes with aberrant DNA methylation and expression at different intensity of 50 Hz ELF-EMF. These results suggest that the alterations of genome-wide methylation and DNMTs expression may play an important role in the biological effects of 50 Hz ELF-EMF exposure.

  1. Hearing threshold shifts and recovery in harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) after octave-band noise exposure at 4 kHz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastelein, Ronald A; Gransier, Robin; Hoek, Lean; Macleod, Amy; Terhune, John M

    2012-10-01

    Safety criteria for underwater sounds from offshore pile driving are needed to protect marine mammals. As a first step toward understanding effects of impulsive sounds, two harbor seals were exposed to octave-band white noise centered at 4 kHz at three mean received sound pressure levels (SPLs; 124, 136, and 148 dB re 1 μPa) at up to six durations (7.5, 15, 30, 60, 120, and 240 min); mean received sound exposure level (SEL) range was 166-190 dB re 1 μPa(2) s. Hearing thresholds were determined before and after exposure. Temporary hearing threshold shifts (TTS) and subsequent recovery were quantified as changes in hearing thresholds at 1-4, 4-8, 8-12, 48, and 96 min after noise exposure in seal 01, and at 12-16, 16-20, 20-24, 60, and 108 min after exposure in seal 02. Maximum TTS (1-4 min after 120 min exposure to 148 dB re 1 μPa; 187 dB SEL) was 10 dB. Recovery occurred within ~60 min. Statistically significant TTSs (>2.5 dB) began to occur at SELs of ~170 (136 SPL, 60 min) and 178 dB re 1 μPa(2) s (148 SPL, 15 min). However, SEL is not an optimal predictor of TTS for long duration, low SPL continuous noise, as duration and SPL play unequal roles in determining induced TTS.

  2. Wide Stiffness Range Cavity Optomechanical Sensors for Atomic Force Microscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Yuxiang; Aksyuk, Vladimir; Srinivasan, Kartik

    2012-01-01

    We report on progress in developing compact sensors for atomic force microscopy (AFM), in which the mechanical transducer is integrated with near-field optical readout on a single chip. The motion of a nanoscale, doubly-clamped cantilever was transduced by an adjacent high quality factor silicon microdisk cavity. In particular, we show that displacement sensitivity on the order of 1 fm/(Hz)^(1/2) can be achieved while the cantilever stiffness is varied over four orders of magnitude (\\approx 0.01 N/m to \\approx 290 N/m). The ability to transduce both very soft and very stiff cantilevers extends the domain of applicability of this technique, potentially ranging from interrogation of microbiological samples (soft cantilevers) to imaging with high resolution (stiff cantilevers). Along with mechanical frequencies (> 250 kHz) that are much higher than those used in conventional AFM probes of similar stiffness, these results suggest that our cavity optomechanical sensors may have application in a wide variety of hig...

  3. Broadband 2D electronic spectrometer using white light and pulse shaping: noise and signal evaluation at 1 and 100 kHz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearns, Nicholas M; Mehlenbacher, Randy D; Jones, Andrew C; Zanni, Martin T

    2017-04-03

    We have developed a broad bandwidth two-dimensional electronic spectrometer that operates shot-to-shot at repetition rates up to 100 kHz using an acousto-optic pulse shaper. It is called a two-dimensional white-light (2D-WL) spectrometer because the input is white-light supercontinuum. Methods for 100 kHz data collection are studied to understand how laser noise is incorporated into 2D spectra during measurement. At 100 kHz, shot-to-shot scanning of the delays and phases of the pulses in the pulse sequence produces a 2D spectrum 13-times faster and with the same signal-to-noise as using mechanical stages and a chopper. Comparing 100 to 1 kHz repetition rates, data acquisition time is decreased by a factor of 200, which is beyond the improvement expected by the repetition rates alone due to reduction in 1/f noise. These improvements arise because shot-to-shot readout and modulation of the pulse train at 100 kHz enables the electronic coherences to be measured faster than the decay in correlation between laser intensities. Using white light supercontinuum for the pump and probe pulses produces high signal-to-noise spectra on samples with optical densities 200 nm bandwidth.

  4. Ranging Behaviour of Commercial Free-Range Laying Hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonard Ikenna Chielo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the range use and behaviour of laying hens in commercial free-range flocks was explored. Six flocks were each visited on four separate days and data collected from their outdoor area (divided into zones based on distance from shed and available resources. These were: apron (0–10 m from shed normally without cover or other enrichments; enriched belt (10–50 m from shed where resources such as manmade cover, saplings and dust baths were provided; and outer range (beyond 50 m from shed with no cover and mainly grass pasture. Data collection consisted of counting the number of hens in each zone and recording behaviour, feather condition and nearest neighbour distance (NND of 20 birds per zone on each visit day. In addition, we used techniques derived from ecological surveys to establish four transects perpendicular to the shed, running through the apron, enriched belt and outer range. Number of hens in each 10 m × 10 m quadrat was recorded four times per day as was the temperature and relative humidity of the outer range. On average, 12.5% of hens were found outside. Of these, 5.4% were found in the apron; 4.3% in the enriched zone; and 2.8% were in the outer range. This pattern was supported by data from quadrats, where the density of hens sharply dropped with increasing distance from shed. Consequently, NND was greatest in the outer range, least in the apron and intermediate in the enriched belt. Hens sampled in outer range and enriched belts had better feather condition than those from the apron. Standing, ground pecking, walking and foraging were the most commonly recorded activities with standing and pecking most likely to occur in the apron, and walking and foraging more common in the outer range. Use of the outer range declined with lower temperatures and increasing relative humidity, though use of apron and enriched belt was not affected by variation in these measures. These data support previous findings that outer range

  5. Ranging Behaviour of Commercial Free-Range Laying Hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chielo, Leonard Ikenna; Pike, Tom; Cooper, Jonathan

    2016-04-26

    In this study, the range use and behaviour of laying hens in commercial free-range flocks was explored. Six flocks were each visited on four separate days and data collected from their outdoor area (divided into zones based on distance from shed and available resources). These were: apron (0-10 m from shed normally without cover or other enrichments); enriched belt (10-50 m from shed where resources such as manmade cover, saplings and dust baths were provided); and outer range (beyond 50 m from shed with no cover and mainly grass pasture). Data collection consisted of counting the number of hens in each zone and recording behaviour, feather condition and nearest neighbour distance (NND) of 20 birds per zone on each visit day. In addition, we used techniques derived from ecological surveys to establish four transects perpendicular to the shed, running through the apron, enriched belt and outer range. Number of hens in each 10 m × 10 m quadrat was recorded four times per day as was the temperature and relative humidity of the outer range. On average, 12.5% of hens were found outside. Of these, 5.4% were found in the apron; 4.3% in the enriched zone; and 2.8% were in the outer range. This pattern was supported by data from quadrats, where the density of hens sharply dropped with increasing distance from shed. Consequently, NND was greatest in the outer range, least in the apron and intermediate in the enriched belt. Hens sampled in outer range and enriched belts had better feather condition than those from the apron. Standing, ground pecking, walking and foraging were the most commonly recorded activities with standing and pecking most likely to occur in the apron, and walking and foraging more common in the outer range. Use of the outer range declined with lower temperatures and increasing relative humidity, though use of apron and enriched belt was not affected by variation in these measures. These data support previous findings that outer range areas tend to be

  6. 500 MW peak power degenerated optical parametric amplifier delivering 52 fs pulses at 97 kHz repetition rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothhardt, J; Hädrich, S; Röser, F; Limpert, J; Tünnermann, A

    2008-06-09

    We present a high peak power degenerated parametric amplifier operating at 1030 nm and 97 kHz repetition rate. Pulses of a state-of-the art fiber chirped-pulse amplification (FCPA) system with 840 fs pulse duration and 410 microJ pulse energy are used as pump and seed source for a two stage optical parametric amplifier. Additional spectral broadening of the seed signal in a photonic crystal fiber creates enough bandwidth for ultrashort pulse generation. Subsequent amplification of the broadband seed signal in two 1 mm BBO crystals results in 41 microJ output pulse energy. Compression in a SF 11 prism compressor yields 37 microJ pulses as short as 52 fs. Thus, pulse shortening of more than one order of magnitude is achieved. Further scaling in terms of average power and pulse energy seems possible and will be discussed, since both concepts involved, the fiber laser and the parametric amplifier have the reputation to be immune against thermo-optical effects.

  7. Saccades during visual exploration align hippocampal 3-8 Hz rhythms in human and non-human primates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kari L Hoffman

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Visual exploration in primates depends on saccadic eye movements that cause alternations of neural suppression and enhancement. This modulation extends beyond retinotopic areas, and is thought to facilitate perception; yet saccades may also influence brain regions critical for forming memories of these exploratory episodes. The hippocampus, for example, shows oscillatory activity that is generally associated with encoding of information. Whether or how hippocampal oscillations are influenced by eye movements is unknown. We recorded the neural activity in the human and macaque hippocampus during visual scene search. Across species, saccadic eye movements were associated with a time-limited alignment of a low-frequency (3-8 Hz rhythm. The phase alignment depended on the task and not only on eye movements per se, and the frequency band was not a direct consequence of saccade rate. Hippocampal theta-frequency oscillations are produced by other mammals during repetitive exploratory behaviors, including whisking, sniffing, echolocation and locomotion. The present results may reflect a similar yet distinct primate homologue supporting active perception during exploration.

  8. [Infantile leukemia and exposure to 50/60 Hz magnetic fields: review of epidemiologic evidence in 2000].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagorio, S; Salvan, A

    2001-01-01

    We review the epidemiological evidence on childhood leukemia and residential exposure to 50/60 Hz magnetic fields. The possibility of carcinogenic effects of power frequency magnetic fields (ELF-EMF), at levels below units of micro tesla (microT), was first raised in 1979 by a case-control study on childhood cancer carried out in Denver, USA. In that study, excess risks of total cancer and leukemia were observed among children living in homes with "high or very high current configuration", as categorised on the basis of proximity to electric lines and transformers. Many other epidemiological studies have been published since then, characterised by improved--although still not optimal--methods of exposure assessment. At the end of 2000, the epidemiological evidence to support the association between exposure to extremely-low-frequency magnetic fields and the risk of childhood leukemia is less consistent than what was observed in the mid 90s. At the same time, a growing body of experimental evidence has accumulated against both a direct and a promoting carcinogenic effect of ELF-EMF. Such "negative" experimental evidence hampers a causal interpretation of the "positive" epidemiological studies.

  9. En face Doppler total retinal blood flow measurement with 70 kHz spectral optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Ou; Liu, Gangjun; Liang, Liu; Gao, Simon S.; Pechauer, Alex D.; Jia, Yali; Huang, David

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. An automated algorithm was developed for total retinal blood flow (TRBF) using 70-kHz spectral optical coherence tomography (OCT). The OCT was calibrated for the transformation from Doppler shift to speed based on a flow phantom. The TRBF scan pattern contained five repeated volume scans (2×2  mm) obtained in 3 s and centered on central retinal vessels in the optic disc. The TRBF was calculated using an en face Doppler technique. For each retinal vein, blood flow was measured at an optimal plane where the calculated flow was maximized. The TRBF was calculated by summing flow in all veins. The algorithm tracked vascular branching so that either root or branch veins are summed, but never both. The TRBF in five repeated volumes were averaged to reduce variation due to cardiac cycle pulsation. Finally, the TRBF was corrected for eye length variation. Twelve healthy eyes and 12 glaucomatous eyes were enrolled to test the algorithm. The TRBF was 45.4±6.7  μl/min for healthy control and 34.7±7.6  μl/min for glaucomatous participants (p-value=0.01). The intravisit repeatability was 8.6% for healthy controls and 8.4% for glaucoma participants. The proposed automated method provided repeatable TRBF measurement. PMID:26062663

  10. Electron acceleration observed by the FAST satellite within the IAR during a 3 Hz modulated EISCAT heater experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. R. Cash

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available A quantitative analysis is presented of the FAST satellite electric field and particle flux data during an EISCAT heating experiment run on 8 October 1998. Radio frequency heating, modulated at 3 Hz, launched ULF waves from the ionosphere into the lower magnetosphere. The ULF waves were observed in FAST data and constituted the first satellite detection of artificially excited Alfvénic ULF waves. The downward electron flux data for this event contain the first observations of electrons undergoing acceleration within the Ionospheric Alfvén Resonator (IAR due to parallel electric fields associated with an artificially stimulated Alfvén wave. The time history and spectral content of the observed down-ward electron fluxes is investigated by considering the effects of a localised parallel electric field. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that a power law electron energy distribution describes the time-variable observed fluxes better than a Maxwellian distribution.Key words. Ionosphere (active experiments; particle acceleration – Magnetospheric physics (electric fields

  11. Real-Time Magnitude Characterization of Large Earthquakes Using the Predominant Period Derived From 1 Hz GPS Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psimoulis, Panos A.; Houlié, Nicolas; Behr, Yannik

    2018-01-01

    Earthquake early warning (EEW) systems' performance is driven by the trade-off between the need for a rapid alert and the accuracy of each solution. A challenge for many EEW systems has been the magnitude saturation for large events (MW > 7) and the resulting underestimation of seismic moment magnitude. In this study, we test the performance of high-rate (1 Hz) GPS, based on seven seismic events, to evaluate whether long-period ground motions can be measured well enough to infer reliably earthquake predominant periods. We show that high-rate GPS data allow the computation of a GPS-based predominant period (τg) to estimate lower bounds for the magnitude of earthquakes and distinguish between large (MW > 7) and great (MW > 8) events and thus extend the capability of EEW systems for larger events. It has also identified the impact of the different values of the smoothing factor α on the τg results and how the sampling rate and the computation process differentiate τg from the commonly used τp.

  12. Near-field surface deformation during the April 20, 2013, Ms7. 0 Lushan earthquake measured by 1-Hz GNSS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Gang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The April 20, 2013, Ms7. 0 Lushan earthquake was successfully recorded by closely spaced Continuous Global Positioning System (CGPS stations owned by the Crustal Movement Observation Network of China (CMONC. The 1-Hz GNSS data from eight CGPS stations, which are located between 30 km and 200 km from the hypocenter, were processed within quasi-real-time. The near-field surface deformation indicated the following characteristics: the near-field movements were limited to several centimeters; the peak of the deformation wave was significantly larger than the static permanent offset; at the beginning of the event, the north wall of the fault moved to the southeast as the south wall moved to the southwest; station SCTQ, which was the closest station to the hypocenter at 30 km, had the largest static permanent displacement of 2 cm; the peaks of the deformation waves were 1. 5 cm, 5 cm and 3 cm, to the east, the south and vertically upward, respectively ; and the peaks of velocity and acceleration, derived from the deformation, were 3. 4 cm/s and 5. 3 cm/s2, respectively.

  13. Counter-evidence against multiple frequency nature of 0.75 mHz oscillation in V4743 Sgr

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrotka, A.; Ness, J.-U.

    2017-06-01

    All X-ray light curves of nova V4743 Sgr (2002), taken during and after outburst, contain a 0.75 mHz periodic signal that can most plausibly be interpreted as being excited by the rotation of the white dwarf in an intermediate polar system. This interpretation faces the challenge of an apparent multifrequency nature of this signal in the light curves taken days 180 and 196 after outburst. We show that the multisine fit method, based on a superposition of two sine functions, yields two inherently indistinguishable solutions, i.e. the presence of two close frequencies, or a single signal with constant frequency but variable modulation amplitude. Using a power spectrum time map, we show that on day 180, a reduction of the modulation amplitude of the signal coincides with a substantial overall flux decline, while on day 196, the signal is present only during the first half of the observation. Supported by simulations, we show that such variations in amplitude can lead to false beating, which manifests itself as a multiple signal if computing a periodogram over the full light curve. Therefore, the previously proposed double-frequency nature of both light curves was probably an artefact, while we consider a single signal with frequency equal to the white dwarf rotation as more plausible.

  14. Interstellar Deuterium, Nitrogen and Oxygen Towards HZ43A: Results from the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruk, J. W.; Howk, J. C.; Andre, M.; Moos, H. W.; Oegerle, William R.; Oliveira, C.; Sembach, K. R.; Chayer, P.; Linsky, J. L.; Wood, B. E.

    2002-01-01

    We present an analysis of interstellar absorption along the line of sight to the nearby white dwarf star HZ43A. The distance to this star is 68+/-13 pc, and the line of sight extends toward the north Galactic pole. Column densities of O(I), N(I), and N(II) were derived from spectra obtained by the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE), the column density of D(I) was derived from a combination of our FUSE spectra and an archival HST GARDENS spectrum, and the column density of H(I) was derived from a combination of the GARDENS spectrum and values derived from EUVE data obtained from the literature. We find the following abundance ratios (with 2 sigma uncertainties): D(I)/H(I)=(1.66+/-0.28)x10(exp -5), O(I)/H(I)=(3.63+/-0.84)x10(exp -4), and N(I)/H(I)=(3.80+/-0.74)x10(exp -5). The N(II) column density was slightly greater than that of N(I), indicating that ionization corrections are important when deriving nitrogen abundances. Other interstellar species detected along the line of sight were C(II), C(III), O(VI), Si(II), Ar(I), Mg(II) and Fe(II); an upper limit was determined for N(III). No elements other than H(I) were detected in the stellar photosphere.

  15. High-power, highly stable KrF laser with a 4-kHz pulse repetition rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borisov, V M; El' tsov, A V; Khristoforov, O B [State Research Center of Russian Federation ' Troitsk Institute for Innovation and Fusion Research' , Troitsk, Moscow Region (Russian Federation)

    2015-08-31

    An electric-discharge KrF laser (248 nm) with an average output power of 300 W is developed and studied. A number of new design features are related to the use of a laser chamber based on an Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} ceramic tube. A high power and pulse repetition rate are achieved by using a volume discharge with lateral preionisation by the UV radiation of a creeping discharge in the form of a homogeneous plasma sheet on the surface of a plane sapphire plate. Various generators for pumping the laser are studied. The maximum laser efficiency is 3.1%, the maximum laser energy is 160 mJ pulse{sup -1}, and the pulse duration at half maximum is 7.5 ns. In the case of long-term operation at a pulse repetition rate of 4 kHz and an output power of 300 W, high stability of laser output energy (σ ≤ 0.7%) is achieved using an all-solid-state pump system. (lasers)

  16. High-power, highly stable KrF laser with a 4-kHz pulse repetition rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisov, V. M.; El'tsov, A. V.; Khristoforov, O. B.

    2015-08-01

    An electric-discharge KrF laser (248 nm) with an average output power of 300 W is developed and studied. A number of new design features are related to the use of a laser chamber based on an Al2O3 ceramic tube. A high power and pulse repetition rate are achieved by using a volume discharge with lateral preionisation by the UV radiation of a creeping discharge in the form of a homogeneous plasma sheet on the surface of a plane sapphire plate. Various generators for pumping the laser are studied. The maximum laser efficiency is 3.1%, the maximum laser energy is 160 mJ pulse-1, and the pulse duration at half maximum is 7.5 ns. In the case of long-term operation at a pulse repetition rate of 4 kHz and an output power of 300 W, high stability of laser output energy (σ <= 0.7%) is achieved using an all-solid-state pump system.

  17. Green's function approximation from cross-correlations of 20-100 Hz noise during a tropical storm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Laura A; Gerstoft, Peter

    2009-02-01

    Approximation of Green's functions through cross-correlation of acoustic signals in the ocean, a method referred to as ocean acoustic interferometry, is potentially useful for estimating parameters in the ocean environment. Travel times of the main propagation paths between hydrophone pairs were estimated from interferometry of ocean noise data that were collected on three L-shaped arrays off the New Jersey coast while Tropical Storm Ernesto passed nearby. Examination of the individual noise spectra and their mutual coherence reveals that the coherently propagating noise is dominated by signals of less than 100 Hz. Several time and frequency noise normalization techniques were applied to the low frequency data in order to determine the effectiveness of each technique for ocean acoustic applications. Travel times corresponding to the envelope peaks of the noise cross-correlation time derivatives of data were extracted from all three arrays, and are shown to be in agreement with the expected direct, surface-reflected, and surface-bottom-reflected interarray hydrophone travel times. The extracted Green's function depends on the propagating noise. The Green's function paths that propagate horizontally are extracted from long distance shipping noise, and during the storm the more vertical paths are extracted from breaking waves.

  18. Faradaic and capacitive current estimation by means of Independent Components Analysis and 1kHz sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciepiela, Filip; Jakubowska, Małgorzata

    2017-08-01

    In this work it was demonstrated for the first time that Independent Components Analysis non-deterministic multivariate strategy enables estimation of the Faradic and double layer charging current components in differential pulse and anodic stripping voltammetry. The signals separation can be realized based on the different shapes of the capacitive and Faradaic current functions. The set of calibration voltammograms measured with the 1kHz sampling frequency is the sufficient data to retrieve signals compatible with the theoretical shapes, with r2 greater than 0.987 for Faradaic component and greater than 0.994 for capacitive component. In the effect, DP voltammograms of Pb(II) and Cd(II) recorded on silver annular band electrode were constructed using only Faradaic component. Quantitative analysis was performed and calibration models were calculated by different waiting time and sampling time, what demonstrated the possibility of significant improvement of sensitivity in considered experiments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Electric and magnetic fields with a frequency of 50-60 Hz: assessment of 20 years of research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lambrozo, J. [Electricite de France - Gaz de France, Paris (France)

    2001-07-01

    Since electricity is used everywhere, exposure to electromagnetic fields of extremely low frequency (50-60 Hz) is unavoidable in our daily life. The question of whether these electromagnetic fields could possibly have any biological or health effects has been a major environmental issue for more than 20 years. At high field strengths, biological effects such as nerve and cardio-stimulation through the induction of currents in the body have been noted. These biological effects have been used in the drafting of standards for public and professional exposure. However, it is the search for effects at low field levels that has been the focus of much research. The main results of this research can be summarised as follows: in vivo studies on whole animals have shown that there is no convincing evidence that electromagnetic fields cause cancer or birth defects, and despite some reduction in pineal and blood melatonin in rodents, studies on lambs, baboons and humans do not support such an effect of electromagnetic fields, while in vitro studies have shown that exposure to electromagnetic fields at usual residential levels (<100 {mu}T) does not produce any significant in vitro effects that could be replicated in independent studies. These results, correlated with the data provided by more recent epidemiological studies, do not show that exposure to electromagnetic fields at the usual residential exposure levels presents a human health hazard. (author)

  20. Proprioceptive drift in the rubber hand illusion is intensified following 1 Hz TMS of the left EBA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew eWold

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The rubber hand illusion (RHI is a paradigm used to induce an illusory feeling of owning a dummy hand through congruent multisensory stimulation. Thus, it can grant insights into how our brain represents our body as our own. Recent research has demonstrated an involvement of the extrastriate body area (EBA, an area of the brain that is typically implicated in the perception of non-face body parts, in illusory body ownership. In this experiment we sought causal evidence for the involvement of the EBA in the RHI. 16 participants took part in a sham controlled, 1 Hz repetitive TMS (1200 pulse experiment where they received synchronous (RHI condition or asynchronous (control stroking and were asked to report the perceived location of their real hand as well as the intensity and the temporal onset of experienced ownership of the dummy hand. Following TMS of the left EBA, participants misjudged their real hand's location significantly more towards the rubber hand during synchronous stroking than after sham stimulation. This difference in proprioceptive drift provides the first causal evidence that the EBA is involved in the RHI and subsequently in body representation and further supports the view that the EBA is necessary for multimodal integration.

  1. Study of the Influence of the Orientation of a 50-Hz Magnetic Field on Fetal Exposure Using Polynomial Chaos Decomposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilaria Liorni

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Human exposure modelling is a complex topic, because in a realistic exposure scenario, several parameters (e.g., the source, the orientation of incident fields, the morphology of subjects vary and influence the dose. Deterministic dosimetry, so far used to analyze human exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF, is highly time consuming if the previously-mentioned variations are considered. Stochastic dosimetry is an alternative method to build analytical approximations of exposure at a lower computational cost. In this study, it was used to assess the influence of magnetic flux density (B orientation on fetal exposure at 50 Hz by polynomial chaos (PC. A PC expansion of induced electric field (E in each fetal tissue at different gestational ages (GA was built as a function of B orientation. Maximum E in each fetal tissue and at each GA was estimated for different exposure configurations and compared with the limits of the International Commission of Non-Ionising Radiation Protection (ICNIRP Guidelines 2010. PC theory resulted in an efficient tool to build accurate approximations of E in each fetal tissue. B orientation strongly influenced E, with a variability across tissues from 10% to 43% with respect to the mean value. However, varying B orientation, maximum E in each fetal tissue was below the limits of ICNIRP 2010 at all GAs.

  2. Thin liquid sheet target capabilities for ultra-intense laser acceleration of ions at a kHz repetition rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klim, Adam; Morrison, J. T.; Orban, C.; Feister, S.; Ngirmang, G. K.; Smith, J.; Frische, K.; Peterson, A. C.; Chowdhury, E. A.; Freeman, R. R.; Roquemore, W. M.

    2016-10-01

    The success of laser-accelerated ion experiments depends crucially on a number of factors including how thin the targets can be created. We present experimental results demonstrating extremely thin (under 200 nm) water sheet targets that can be used for ultra-intense laser-accelerated ion experiments conducted at the Air Force Research Laboratory at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base. Importantly, these experiments operate at a kHz repetition rate and the recovery time of the liquid targets is fast enough to allow the laser to interact with a refreshed, thin target on every shot. We present results from liquid water targets which are useful for proton acceleration experiments via the mechanism of Target Normal Sheath Acceleration (TNSA). In future work, we will create thin sheets from deuterated water in order to perform laser-accelerated deuteron experiments. This research was sponsored by the Quantum and Non-Equilibrium Processes Division of the AFOSR, under the management of Dr. Enrique Parra, and support from the DOD HPCMP Internship Program.

  3. Interaction of electromagnetic field (10 kHz with ferritin nanoparticles and antioxidant system of wheat at reproductive phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Behmanesh

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Effects of magnetic and electromagnetic fields on the living organisms have drawn attention in the recent years, but their exact mechanisms are still unclear. In the present study, the effects of 10 kHz electromagnetic magnetic field on some physiological parameters of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. were evaluated. The plants in their reproductive phase were treated for 4 days, each 5 h. Then the iron content, ratio of Fe-bound proteins to total proteins, content, size and secondary structure of ferritin nanoparticles as well as activity of antioxidant system were evaluated. The results showed that in comparison with the control plants, treatment with electromagnetic field significantly increased the iron contents of all organs except seeds and ratio of Fe-bound proteins to total proteins of seeds. The content and secondary structure of ferritin nanoparticles in edible parts of magnetic field treated plants were decreased significantly, but the hydrodynamic diameter was increased significantly compared to the control plants. This treatment also caused the significant increase of catalase activity and remarkably decreased peroxidase activity of wheat seeds, which in turn led to maintenance of membrane lipid peroxidation. These results suggested that electromagnetic field with applied frequency affected wheat plants by changing the content of total iron, Fe-bound proteins special ferritin and its characteristics and activation of antioxidant system.

  4. Low-noise behavior of InGaAs quantum-well-structured modulation-doped FET's from 10 to the -2nd to 10 to the 8 Hz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shih-Ming J.; Das, Mukunda B.; Peng, Chin-Kun; Klem, John; Henderson, Timothy S.

    1986-01-01

    Equivalent gate noise voltage spectra of 1-micron gate-length modulation-doped FET's with pseudomorphic InGaAs quantum-well structure have been measured for the frequency range of 0.01 Hz to 100 MHz and commpared with the noise spectra of conventional AlGaAs/GaAs MODFET's and GaAs MESFET's. The prominent generation-recombination (g-r) noise bulge commonly observed in the vicinity of 10 kHz in conventional MODFET's at 300 K does not appear in the case of the new InGaAs quantum-well MODFET. Instead, its noise spectra indicate the presence of low-intensity multiple g-r noise components superimposed on a reduced 1/f noise. The LF noise intensity in the new device appears to be the lowest among those observed in any MODFET or MESFET. The noise spectra at 82 K in the new device represent nearly true 1/f noise. This unusual low-noise behavior of the new structure suggests the effectiveness of electron confinement in the quantum well that significantaly reduces electron trapping in the n-AlGaAs, and thus eliminates the g-r noise bulge observed in conventional MODFET's.

  5. Osprey Range - CWHR [ds601

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Vector datasets of CWHR range maps are one component of California Wildlife Habitat Relationships (CWHR), a comprehensive information system and predictive model for...

  6. Short-range fundamental forces

    CERN Document Server

    Antoniadis, I; Buchner, M; Fedorov, V V; Hoedl, S; Lambrecht, A; Nesvizhevsky, V V; Pignol, G; Protasov, K V; Reynaud, S; Sobolev, Yu

    2011-01-01

    We consider theoretical motivations to search for extra short-range fundamental forces as well as experiments constraining their parameters. The forces could be of two types: 1) spin-independent forces, 2) spin-dependent axion-like forces. Differe nt experimental techniques are sensitive in respective ranges of characteristic distances. The techniques include measurements of gravity at short distances, searches for extra interactions on top of the Casimir force, precision atomic and neutron experim ents. We focus on neutron constraints, thus the range of characteristic distances considered here corresponds to the range accessible for neutron experiments.

  7. Cascade Mountain Range in Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrod, David R.

    2016-01-01

    The Cascade mountain system extends from northern California to central British Columbia. In Oregon, it comprises the Cascade Range, which is 260 miles long and, at greatest breadth, 90 miles wide (fig. 1). Oregon’s Cascade Range covers roughly 17,000 square miles, or about 17 percent of the state, an area larger than each of the smallest nine of the fifty United States. The range is bounded on the east by U.S. Highways 97 and 197. On the west it reaches nearly to Interstate 5, forming the eastern margin of the Willamette Valley and, farther south, abutting the Coast Ranges

  8. Ranging Behaviour of Commercial Free-Range Laying Hens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chielo, Leonard Ikenna; Pike, Tom; Cooper, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Simple Summary Commercial free-range production has become a significant sector of the fresh egg market due to legislation banning conventional cages and consumer preference for products perceived as welfare friendly, as access to outdoor range can lead to welfare benefits such as greater freedom of movement and enhanced behavioural opportunities. This study investigated dispersal patterns, feather condition and activity of laying hens in three distinct zones of the range area; the apron area near shed; enriched zone 10–50 m from shed; and outer range beyond 50 m, in six flocks of laying hens under commercial free-range conditions varying in size between 4000 and 24,000 hens. Each flock was visited for four days to record number of hens in each zone, their behaviour, feather condition and nearest neighbour distances (NND), as well as record temperature and relative humidity during the visit. Temperature and relative humidity varied across the study period in line with seasonal variations and influenced the use of range with fewer hens out of shed as temperature fell or relative humidity rose. On average, 12.5% of the hens were observed on the range and most of these hens were recorded in the apron zone as hen density decreased rapidly with increasing distance from the shed. Larger flocks appeared to have a lower proportion of hens on range. The hens used the range more in the early morning followed by a progressive decrease through to early afternoon. The NND was greatest in the outer range and decreased towards the shed. Feather condition was generally good and hens observed in the outer range had the best overall feather condition. Standing, pecking, walking and foraging were the most commonly recorded behaviours and of these, standing occurred most in the apron whereas walking and foraging behaviours were recorded most in the outer range. This study supported the findings of previous studies that reported few hens in the range and greater use of areas closer

  9. An operational evaluation of an Ametek Straza DCP-4400 300 kHz Doppler current profiler aboard Dawson

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cochrane, N.A

    .... System performance is discussed primarily in the context of effective range for profiling and bottom track, statistical properties of Doppler estimates, and ground truth comparisons for both bottom...

  10. 84 dB amplification, 0.46 J in a 10 Hz output diode-pumped Nd:YLF ring amplifier with phase-conjugated wavefront corrector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekine, Takashi; Matsuoka, Shin-ichi; Yasuhara, Ryo; Kurita, Takashi; Katai, Ryuji; Kawashima, Toshiyuki; Kan, Hirofumi; Kawanaka, Junji; Tsubakimoto, Koji; Norimatsu, Takayoshi; Miyanaga, Noriaki; Izawa, Yasukazu; Nakatsuka, Masahiro; Kanabe, Tadashi

    2010-06-21

    A diode-pumped joule class in a 10 Hz output Nd:YLF ring amplifier has been developed. A phase conjugate plate was developed as a wavefront corrector for the residual wavefront distortion of an Nd:YLF rod. We have demonstrated a 0.46 J output of 10 ns pulse duration at 10 Hz repetition rate with 1.5 nJ of input energy. The effective gain of the ring amplifier system was 84.8 dB. To our knowledge, this is the highest magnification with joule-level output energy in a single-stage amplifier system that has ever been built. As a preamplifier system, this system contributed a demonstration of 21.3 J in a 10 Hz output diode-pumped Nd:glass zigzag slab laser system with a stimulated Brillouin scattering- phase conjugation mirror. We describe a robust and effective method of wavefront correction for high-energy laser systems.

  11. Timing jitter characterization of mode-locked lasers with <1 zs/√Hz resolution using a simple optical heterodyne technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, D; Lee, C-C; Yang, Z; Schibli, T R

    2015-07-01

    Timing jitter characterization of free-running mode-locked lasers with an unprecedented resolution is demonstrated using an optical heterodyne technique. A highly sensitive timing jitter phase-discrimination signal with low-parasitic-amplitude sensitivity is achieved. Analytical and numerical methods are used to analyze the properties of the discrimination signal. For an experimental demonstration, we measure the timing jitter between two loosely synchronized mode-locked Er:Yb:glass lasers with 500-MHz fundamental repetition rates. The timing jitter-detection noise floor for a single mode-locked laser reaches 2.8×10(-13)  fs(2)/Hz (∼530  ys/√Hz), and the integrated timing jitter is 16.3 as from 10 kHz to the Nyquist frequency (250 MHz). These results show that this approach can be a simpler alternative to the well-established balanced optical cross-correlation technique.

  12. Desert Experimental Range: Annotated bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    E. Durant McArthur; Stanley G. Kitchen

    2013-01-01

    Entries qualify for inclusion if they were conducted in whole or part at the Desert Experimental Range (DER, also known as the Desert Range Experiment Station) or were based on DER research in whole or part. They do not qualify merely by the author having worked at the DER when the research was performed or prepared. Entries were drawn from the original abstracts or...

  13. Involvement of Glutamate NMDA Receptors in the Acute, Long-Term, and Conditioned Effects of Amphetamine on Rat 50kHz Ultrasonic Vocalizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Giulia; Morelli, Micaela

    2015-01-01

    Background: Rats emit 50kHz ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) in response to either natural or pharmacological pleasurable stimuli, and these USVs have emerged as a new behavioral measure for investigating the motivational properties of drugs. Earlier studies have indicated that activation of the dopaminergic system is critically involved in 50kHz USV emissions. However, evidence also exists that non-dopaminergic neurotransmitters participate in this behavioral response. Methods: To ascertain whether glutamate transmission plays a role in 50kHz USV emissions stimulated by amphetamine, rats received five amphetamine (1–2mg/kg, i.p.) administrations on alternate days in a test cage, either alone or combined with the glutamate N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist MK-801 (0.1–0.5mg/kg, i.p.). Seven days after treatment discontinuation, rats were re-exposed to the test cage to assess drug conditioning, and afterwards received a drug challenge. USVs and locomotor activity were evaluated, along with immunofluorescence for Zif-268 in various brain regions and spontaneous alternation in a Y maze. Results: Amphetamine-treated rats displayed higher 50kHz USV emissions and locomotor activity than vehicle-treated rats, and emitted conditioned vocalizations on test cage re-exposure. Rats co-administered amphetamine and MK-801 displayed lower and dose-dependent 50kHz USV emissions, but not lower locomotor activity, during repeated treatment and challenge, and scarce conditioned vocalization compared with amphetamine-treated rats. These effects were associated with lower levels of Zif-268 after amphetamine challenge and spontaneous alternation deficits. Conclusions: These results indicate that glutamate transmission participates in the acute, long-term, and conditioned effects of amphetamine on 50kHz USVs, possibly by influencing amphetamine-induced long-term neuronal changes and/or amphetamine-associated memories. PMID:25991653

  14. Is it reasonable to use 1 and 8 kHz anchor points in the medico-legal diagnosis and estimation of noise-induced hearing loss?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, S; Morgan, M; Ali, U I

    2015-06-01

    In the United Kingdom, use of 1 and 8 kHz as anchor point frequencies has been recommended for the medico-legal diagnosis and estimation of noise-induced hearing loss. There appear to be four assumptions behind the use of 1 and 8 kHz anchor point approach: (i) The frequencies of 1 and 8 kHz are not damaged by noise; therefore, the measured hearing thresholds at the said frequencies solely reflect age-related hearing loss, even in the noise-exposed; (ii) The hearing thresholds at 1 and 8 kHz are a valid predictor of the likely age-related hearing loss thresholds at the other frequencies; (iii) Age and noise damage are always completely additive; (iv) Individual's susceptibility to age and noise damage is not proportionate. Doubts have been expressed in the medical circles about the legitimacy and validity of their use as anchor points. Is it reasonable to use 1 and 8 kHz anchor points in the medico-legal diagnosis and estimation of noise-induced hearing loss? Medico-legal. Literature search; Medline, Embase, Internet, and medico-legal records. Equating and comparing the assumptions in the anchor point approach with the information in medical literature. Based upon the information in medical literature, technical reports, and professional statements, the assumptions behind the use of anchor point approach cannot be reliably substantiated. 'Carte Blanche' use of 1 and 8 kHz anchor points is probably unreasonable and may well be unsafe in the medico-legal diagnosis and estimation of noise-induced hearing loss. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Foraging optimally for home ranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Michael S.; Powell, Roger A.

    2012-01-01

    Economic models predict behavior of animals based on the presumption that natural selection has shaped behaviors important to an animal's fitness to maximize benefits over costs. Economic analyses have shown that territories of animals are structured by trade-offs between benefits gained from resources and costs of defending them. Intuitively, home ranges should be similarly structured, but trade-offs are difficult to assess because there are no costs of defense, thus economic models of home-range behavior are rare. We present economic models that predict how home ranges can be efficient with respect to spatially distributed resources, discounted for travel costs, under 2 strategies of optimization, resource maximization and area minimization. We show how constraints such as competitors can influence structure of homes ranges through resource depression, ultimately structuring density of animals within a population and their distribution on a landscape. We present simulations based on these models to show how they can be generally predictive of home-range behavior and the mechanisms that structure the spatial distribution of animals. We also show how contiguous home ranges estimated statistically from location data can be misleading for animals that optimize home ranges on landscapes with patchily distributed resources. We conclude with a summary of how we applied our models to nonterritorial black bears (Ursus americanus) living in the mountains of North Carolina, where we found their home ranges were best predicted by an area-minimization strategy constrained by intraspecific competition within a social hierarchy. Economic models can provide strong inference about home-range behavior and the resources that structure home ranges by offering falsifiable, a priori hypotheses that can be tested with field observations.

  16. Electrically Elicited Muscle Torque: Comparison Between 2500-Hz Burst-Modulated Alternating Current and Monophasic Pulsed Current.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Wayne; Adams, Cheryl; Cyr, Shantelle; Hanscom, Brianna; Hill, Kevin; Lawson, Jeffrey; Ziegenbein, Colin

    2015-12-01

    Single-blind, block-randomization crossover design. To compare the knee extensor muscle torque production elicited with 2500-Hz burst-modulated alternating current (BMAC) and with a monophasic pulsed current (MPC) at the maximum tolerated stimulation intensity. Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) is often used for strengthening the quadriceps following knee surgery. Strength gains are dependent on muscle torque production, which is primarily limited by discomfort. Burst-modulated alternating current stimulation is a clinically popular waveform for NMES. Prior research has established that MPC with a relatively long pulse duration is effective for high muscle torque production. Participants in this study were 20 adults with no history of knee injury. A crossover design was used to randomize the order in which each participant's dominant or nondominant lower extremity received NMES and the waveform (MPC or BMAC) this limb received. Stimulation intensity was incrementally increased until participants reached their maximum tolerance. The torque produced was converted to a percentage of each participant's maximum volitional isometric contraction of the respective limb. A general linear model for a 2-treatment, 2-period crossover design was utilized to analyze the results. The mean ± SD electrically induced percent maximum volitional isometric contraction at maximal participant tolerance was 49.5% ± 19.6% for MPC and 29.8% ± 12.4% for BMAC. This difference was statistically significant (P = .002) after accounting for treatment order and limb, which had no effect on torque production. Neuromuscular stimulation using MPC may be more efficacious than using BMAC to achieve a high torque output in patients with quadriceps weakness.

  17. Improvement of tactile discrimination performance and enlargement of cortical somatosensory maps after 5 Hz rTMS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Tegenthoff

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS is increasingly used to investigate mechanisms of brain functions and plasticity, but also as a promising new therapeutic tool. The effects of rTMS depend on the intensity and frequency of stimulation and consist of changes of cortical excitability, which often persists several minutes after termination of rTMS. While these findings imply that cortical processing can be altered by applying current pulses from outside the brain, little is known about how rTMS persistently affects learning and perception. Here we demonstrate in humans, through a combination of psychophysical assessment of two-point discrimination thresholds and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI, that brief periods of 5 Hz rTMS evoke lasting perceptual and cortical changes. rTMS was applied over the cortical representation of the right index finger of primary somatosensory cortex, resulting in a lowering of discrimination thresholds of the right index finger. fMRI revealed an enlargement of the right index finger representation in primary somatosensory cortex that was linearly correlated with the individual rTMS-induced perceptual improvement indicative of a close link between cortical and perceptual changes. The results demonstrate that repetitive, unattended stimulation from outside the brain, combined with a lack of behavioral information, are effective in driving persistent improvement of the perception of touch. The underlying properties and processes that allow cortical networks, after being modified through TMS pulses, to reach new organized stable states that mediate better performance remain to be clarified.

  18. Effects of 60 Hz electromagnetic fields on early growth in three plant species and a replication of previous results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, M S

    1996-01-01

    In an attempt to replicate the findings of Smith et al., seeds of Raphanus sativus L. (radish), Sinapsis alba L. (mustard), and Hordeum vulgare L. (barley) were grown for between 9 and 21 days in continuous electromagnetic fields (EMFs) at "ion-cyclotron resonance" conditions for stimulation of Ca(2+) (B(H) = 78.3 mu T, B(HAC) = 40 mu T peak-peak at 60 Hz, B(V) = 0). On harvesting, radish showed results similar to those of Smith et al. Dry stem weight and plant height were both significantly greater (Mann-Whitney tests, Ps < 0.05) in EMF-exposed plants than in control plants in each EMF experiment. Wet root weight was significantly greater in EMF-exposed plants in two out of three experiments, as were dry leaf weight, dry whole weight, and stem diameter. Dry root weight, wet leaf weight, and wet whole weight were significantly greater in EMF-exposed plants in one of three experiments. All significant differences indicated an increase in weight or size in the EMF-exposed plants. In each of the sham experiments, no differences between exposed and control plants were evident. Mustard plants failed to respond to the EMFs in any of the plant parameters measured. In one experiment, barley similarly failed to respond; but in another showed significantly greater wet root weight and significantly smaller stem diameter and dry seed weight at the end of the experiment in exposed plants compared to control plants. Although these results give no clue about the underlying bioelectromagnetic mechanism, they demonstrate that, at least for one EMF-sensitive biosystem, results can be independently replicated in another laboratory. Such replication is crucial in establishing the validity of bioelectromagnetic science.

  19. Effects of 60 Hz electromagnetic fields on early growth in three plant species and a replication of previous results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, M.S. [Univ. of Sunderland (United Kingdom). Ecology Centre

    1996-05-01

    In an attempt to replicate the findings of Smith et al., seeds of Raphanus sativus L. (radish), Sinapsis alba L. (mustard), and Hordeum vulgare L. (barley) were grown for between 9 and 21 days in continuous electromagnetic fields (EMFs) at ion-cyclotron resonance conditions for stimulation of Ca{sup 2+} (B{sub H} = 78.3 {micro}T, B{sub HAC} = 40 {micro}T peak-peak at 60 Hz, B{sub v} = 0). On harvesting, radish showed results similar to those of Smith et al. Dry stem weight and plant height were both significantly greater (Mann-Whitney tests, Ps < 0.05) in EMF-exposed plants than in control plants in each EMF experiment. Wet root weight was significantly greater in EMF-exposed plants in two out of three experiments, as were dry leaf weight, dry whole weight, and stem diameter. Dry root weight, wet leaf weight, and wet whole weight were significantly greater in EMF-exposed plants in one of three experiments. All significant differences indicated an increase in weight or size in the EMF-exposed plants. In each of the sham experiments, no differences between exposed and control plants were evident. Mustard plants failed to respond to the EMFs in any of the plant parameters measured. In one experiment, barley similarly failed to respond; but in another showed significantly greater wet root weight and significantly smaller stem diameter and dry seed weight at the end of the experiment in exposed plants compared to control plants. Although these results give no clue about the underlying bioelectromagnetic mechanism, they demonstrate that, at least for one EMF-sensitive biosystem, results can be independently replicated in another laboratory. Such replication is crucial in establishing the validity of bioelectromagnetic science.

  20. Biological studies of swine exposed to 60-Hz electric fields. Volume 4: growth, reproduction, and development. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-12-01

    Swine were exposed to uniform, vertical, 60-Hz, 30-kV/m electric fields for 20 hours/day, 7 days/week. The parental generation (F/sub 0/ gilts) was bred after 4 months on study; some were killed for teratologic study at 100 days of gestation (dg), and the others produced a first-generation (F/sub 1/) of offspring. The pooled incidence of terata in these litters was similar in the exposed and sham-exposed groups. The F/sub 0/ females, which produced the F/sub 1/ generation, were rebred after 18 months of exposure and were killed at 100 dg: malformation incidence in exposed litters (75%) was significantly greater than in sham-exposed litters (29%). Types of malformations were not dissimilar between the two groups. The F/sub 1/ gilts were bred at 18 months of age; there were indications of impaired copulatory behavior and decreased fertility in the exposed animals. Defective offspring were found in significantly more of the exposed litters (71%) than in sham-exposed litters (33%). The F/sub 1/ sows were bred again 10 months later, and teratologic evaluations were performed on their second litters at 100 dg. The percentage of litters with malformed fetuses was essentially identical in the exposed and sham-exposed groups (70 and 73%, respectively). The change in malformation incidences between generations and between the first and second breedings makes it difficult to unequivocally conclude that chronic exposure to a strong electric field caused developmental effects in swine, although it appears there may be an association. It is also possible that other factors, such as housing, inbreeding, disease or its treatment may have contributed to the results. 22 refs., 9 figs., 28 tabs.

  1. The effects of percutaneous ethanol injection followed by 20-kHz ultrasound and microbubbles on rabbit hepatic tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Zhi Yong; Xia, Gan Lin; Wu, Ming Feng; Ji, Lei Yan; Li, Yong Jun

    2016-02-01

    Low-frequency ultrasound (US) in combination with microbubbles (MBs) is able to inhibit the growth of VX2 rabbit liver tumors. In this study, we investigated the feasibility of using percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI) followed by low-frequency ultrasound and microbubbles (USMB) to inhibit VX2 tumor growth. Eighteen New Zealand rabbits with hepatic VX2 tumors were divided into three groups: PEI, low-frequency ultrasound and MBs followed by PEI (USMB + PEI), and PEI followed by USMB (PEI + USMB). PEI was performed by ultrasound-guided injection of 95% anhydrous alcohol into internal liver tumors in rabbits twice a week for 2 weeks. The US parameters were 20 kHz, 2 W/cm(2), 40% duty cycle, 5 min, and once every other day for 2 weeks. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to observe tumors before and after treatment, to examine changes in the tumors, and to measure the diameters of the tumors. All animals were followed up for 180 days after tumor implantation. Autopsy was performed at the end of the scheduled follow-up or immediately after death. Anatomically observed metastatic sites included the liver, lung, abdomen, and pelvic cavity. The survival time of all rabbits was recorded. After 4 weeks of treatment, on MRI, the tumor diameters in the PEI, USMB + PEI, and PEI + USMB groups were 8.33 ± 1.83, 19 ± 2.61, and 4.5 ± 1.22 mm, respectively. There was a significant difference in tumor size indicated by MRI in the three groups. Tumor size was smaller in the PEI + USMB group than in the PEI and USMB + PEI groups, with t = 4.54, p = 0.0062, and t = 16.38, p ethanol injection followed by low-frequency ultrasound and microbubbles can be effective in inhibiting rabbit liver tumors and prolonging survival time.

  2. Regulations on the limitation of exposure to electrical, magnetic and eletromagneticos fields in the radiofrequencies range between 9 kHz and 300 GHz; Regulamentacao da limitacao de exposicao a campos eletricos, magneticos e eletromagneticos na faixa de radiofrequencias entre 9 kHz e 300 GHz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinhao, Maximiliano Salvadori; Silva, Maria Aparecida Muniz Fidelis da; Gontijo, Jose Gustavo Sampaio [ANATEL - Agencia Nacional de Telecomunicacoes, Brasilia, DF (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    The work refers to the known and scientifically proven effects, arising from radiofrequency electromagnetic fields. Accordingly, the regulations on the matter of national telecommunications Agency ANATEL - and the 'state of the art', worldwide, more specifically with regard to the treatment of the issue by the International Telecommunications Union (UIT) and the World Health Organization - OMS. The present work presents the initiatives of ANATEL, for the provision of telecommunications services, using transmitting stations of radiocommunication is performed safely and not detrimental to the population.

  3. Reference Ranges & What They Mean

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Chains Sex Hormone Binding Globulin (SHBG) Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli Sickle Cell Tests Sirolimus Smooth Muscle ... If you're trying to follow a healthy lifestyle, take test results that are within range as ...

  4. Kenai National Moose Range Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This book presents a summary of the history, wildlife, recreational opportunities, economic uses, and future plans for Kenai National Moose Range.

  5. Sensing mode coupling analysis for dual-mass MEMS gyroscope and bandwidth expansion within wide-temperature range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Huiliang; Li, Hongsheng; Shao, Xingling; Liu, Zhiyu; Kou, Zhiwei; Shan, Yanhu; Shi, Yunbo; Shen, Chong; Liu, Jun

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents the bandwidth expanding method with wide-temperature range for sense mode coupling dual-mass MEMS gyro. The real sensing mode of the gyroscope is analyzed to be the superposition of in-phase and anti-phase sensing modes. The mechanical sensitivity and bandwidth of the gyroscope structure are conflicted with each other and both governed by the frequency difference between sensing and drive modes (min {Δω1, Δω2}). The sensing mode force rebalancing combs stimulation method (FRCSM) is presented to simulate the Coriolis force, and based on this method, the gyro's dynamic characteristics are tested. The sensing closed- loop controller is achieved by operational amplifier based on phase lead method, which enable the magnitude margin and phase margin of the system to reach 7.21 dB and 34.6° respectively, and the closed-loop system also expands gyro bandwidth from 13 Hz (sensing open-loop) to 102 Hz (sensing closed-loop). What's more, the turntable test results show that the sensing closed-loop works stably in wide-temperature range (from -40 °C to 60 °C) and the bandwidth values are 107 Hz @-40 °C and 97 Hz @60 °C. The results indicate that the higher temperature causes lower bandwidth, and verify the simulation results are 103 Hz @-40 °C and 98.2 Hz @60 °C. The new bottleneck of the closed loop bandwidth is the valley generated by conjugate zeros, which is formed by superposition of sensing modes.

  6. A simple electrical lumped-element model simulates intra-cochlear sound pressures and cochlear impedance below 2 kHz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquardt, Torsten; Hensel, Johannes

    2013-11-01

    Low-frequency sounds displace large parts of the basilar membrane (BM) and can have a modulating and possibly disturbing effect on hearing at other frequencies. A better understanding of the transfer of such sounds onto the BM is therefore desirable. Lumped-element models have previously been employed to determine the low-frequency acoustic properties of the cochlea. Although helpful in illustrating schematically the role of the helicotrema, BM compliance, and the round window on low-frequency hearing, these models, when applied quantitatively, have not been able to explain experimental data in detail. Building on these models, an extended electrical analog requires just 13 lumped elements to capture, in surprising detail, the physiologically determined frequency-dependence of intra-cochlear pressure and cochlear impedance between 10 Hz and 2 kHz. The model's verification is based on data from cat, guinea pig, and humans, who differ principally in their low-frequency cochlear acoustics. The modeling data suggest that damping within the helicotrema plays a less prominent role than previously assumed. A resonance feature, which is often observed experimentally near 150 Hz in these animals and near 50 Hz in humans, is presumably a phenomenon local to the apex and not the result of a standing wave between stapes and helicotrema.

  7. The influence of 70 and 120 kHz tonal signals on the behavior of harbor porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) in a floating pen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kastelein, R.A.; Verboom, W.C.; Jennings, N.; Haan, de D.; Heul, van der S.

    2008-01-01

    Two harbor porpoises in a floating pen were subjected to five pure tone underwater signals of 70 or 120 kHz with different signal durations, amplitudes and duty cycles (% of time sound is produced). Some signals were continuous, others were intermittent (duty cycles varied between 8% and 100%). The

  8. The influence of 70 and 120 kHz tonal signals on the behavior of harbor porpoises () in a floating pen

    OpenAIRE

    Kastelein, Ronald A.; Verboom, Willem C.; Jennings, Nancy; De Haan, Dick; Van Der Heul, Sander

    2008-01-01

    The influence of 70 and 120 kHz tonal signals on the behavior of harbor porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) in a floating pen correspondance: Corresponding author. (Kastelein, Ronald A.) (Kastelein, Ronald A.) Sea Mammal Research Company (SEAMARCO)--> , Julianalaan 46--> , 3843 CC Harderwijk--> - NETHERLANDS (Kastelein, Ronald A.) NETHERLANDS (Kastelein, Ronald A.) Acoustic consultancy--> ...

  9. Effects of 60 Hz Magnetic Field Exposure on the Pineal and Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Gonadal Axis in the Siberian Hamster (Phodopus Sungorus)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Bary W.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Matt, Kathleen S.(Arizona State University); Morris, James E.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Sasser, Lyle B.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Miller, Douglas L.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Anderson, Larry E.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB))

    1999-11-15

    Experiments using the dwarf Siberian hamster Phodopus sungorus were carried out to determine possible neuroendocrine consequences of one-time and repeated exposures to 60 Hz magnetic fields (MF). Animals were maintained in either a short-light (SL, 8 h light:16 h dar) or long-light (LL, 16 h light:8h dark) photoperiod.

  10. A one-step molecular biology method for simple and rapid detection of grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella reovirus (GCRV) HZ08 strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Six reverse-transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) primers designed against conserved regions of segment 6 (s6) gene were used for the detection of grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella reovirus (GCRV) HZ08 subtype. The entire amplification could be completed within 40 min at 62...

  11. Protein resonance assignment at MAS frequencies approaching 100 kHz: a quantitative comparison of J-coupling and dipolar-coupling-based transfer methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penzel, Susanne; Smith, Albert A.; Agarwal, Vipin; Hunkeler, Andreas [ETH Zürich, Physical Chemistry (Switzerland); Org, Mai-Liis; Samoson, Ago, E-mail: ago.samoson@ttu.ee [Tallinn University of Technology, NMR Instituut, Tartu Teadus, Tehnomeedikum (Estonia); Böckmann, Anja, E-mail: a.bockmann@ibcp.fr [UMR 5086 CNRS/Université de Lyon 1, Institut de Biologie et Chimie des Protéines (France); Ernst, Matthias, E-mail: maer@ethz.ch; Meier, Beat H., E-mail: beme@ethz.ch [ETH Zürich, Physical Chemistry (Switzerland)

    2015-10-15

    We discuss the optimum experimental conditions to obtain assignment spectra for solid proteins at magic-angle spinning (MAS) frequencies around 100 kHz. We present a systematic examination of the MAS dependence of the amide proton T{sub 2}′ times and a site-specific comparison of T{sub 2}′ at 93 kHz versus 60 kHz MAS frequency. A quantitative analysis of transfer efficiencies of building blocks, as they are used for typical 3D experiments, was performed. To do this, we compared dipolar-coupling and J-coupling based transfer steps. The building blocks were then combined into 3D experiments for sequential resonance assignment, where we evaluated signal-to-noise ratio and information content of the different 3D spectra in order to identify the best assignment strategy. Based on this comparison, six experiments were selected to optimally assign the model protein ubiquitin, solely using spectra acquired at 93 kHz MAS. Within 3 days of instrument time, the required spectra were recorded from which the backbone resonances have been assigned to over 96 %.

  12. Intracellular Ca Mobilization and Beta-hexosaminidase Release Are Not Influenced by 60 Hz-electromagnetic Fields (EMF) in RBL 2H3 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Yeon Hee; Song, Ho Sun; Kim, Hee Rae; Ko, Myoung Soo; Jeong, Jae Min; Kim, Yong Ho; Ryu, Jeong Soo; Sohn, Uy Dong; Gimm, Yoon-Myoung; Myung, Sung Ho; Sim, Sang Soo

    2011-10-01

    The effects of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (EMF) on intracellular Ca(2+) mobilization and cellular function in RBL 2H3 cells were investigated. Exposure to EMF (60 Hz, 0.1 or 1 mT) for 4 or 16 h did not produce any cytotoxic effects in RBL 2H3 cells. Melittin, ionomycin and thapsigargin each dose-dependently increased the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration. The increase of intracellular Ca(2+) induced by these three agents was not affected by exposure to EMF (60 Hz, 1 mT) for 4 or 16 h in RBL 2H3 cells. To investigate the effect of EMF on exocytosis, we measured beta-hexosaminidase release in RBL 2H3 cells. Basal release of beta-hexosaminidase was 12.3±2.3% in RBL 2H3 cells. Exposure to EMF (60 Hz, 0.1 or 1 mT) for 4 or 16 h did not affect the basal or 1 µM melittin-induced beta-hexosaminidase release in RBL 2H3 cells. This study suggests that exposure to EMF (60 Hz, 0.1 or 1 mT), which is the limit of occupational exposure, has no influence on intracellular Ca(2+) mobilization and cellular function in RBL 2H3 cells.

  13. Intracellular Ca2+ Mobilization and Beta-hexosaminidase Release Are Not Influenced by 60 Hz-electromagnetic Fields (EMF) in RBL 2H3 Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Yeon Hee; Song, Ho Sun; Kim, Hee Rae; Ko, Myoung Soo; Jeong, Jae Min; Kim, Yong Ho; Ryu, Jeong Soo; Sohn, Uy Dong; Gimm, Yoon-Myoung; Myung, Sung Ho

    2011-01-01

    The effects of extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (EMF) on intracellular Ca2+ mobilization and cellular function in RBL 2H3 cells were investigated. Exposure to EMF (60 Hz, 0.1 or 1 mT) for 4 or 16 h did not produce any cytotoxic effects in RBL 2H3 cells. Melittin, ionomycin and thapsigargin each dose-dependently increased the intracellular Ca2+ concentration. The increase of intracellular Ca2+ induced by these three agents was not affected by exposure to EMF (60 Hz, 1 mT) for 4 or 16 h in RBL 2H3 cells. To investigate the effect of EMF on exocytosis, we measured beta-hexosaminidase release in RBL 2H3 cells. Basal release of beta-hexosaminidase was 12.3±2.3% in RBL 2H3 cells. Exposure to EMF (60 Hz, 0.1 or 1 mT) for 4 or 16 h did not affect the basal or 1 µM melittin-induced beta-hexosaminidase release in RBL 2H3 cells. This study suggests that exposure to EMF (60 Hz, 0.1 or 1 mT), which is the limit of occupational exposure, has no influence on intracellular Ca2+ mobilization and cellular function in RBL 2H3 cells. PMID:22128265

  14. In vitro developmental neurotoxicity following chronic exposure to 50 Hz extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF) in primary rat cortical cultures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, Martje W G D M; van Kleef, Regina G D M; de Groot, Aart; Westerink, Remco H S

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to 50-60 Hz extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMFs) has increased considerably over the last decades. Several epidemiological studies suggested that ELF-EMF exposure is associated with adverse health effects, including neurotoxicity. However, these studies are debated as

  15. Use of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens HZ-12 for High-Level Production of the Blood Glucose Lowering Compound, 1-Deoxynojirimycin (DNJ), and Nutraceutical Enriched Soybeans via Fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Dongbo; Liu, Mengjie; Wei, Xuetuan; Li, Xinmiao; Wang, Qin; Nomura, Christopher T; Chen, Shouwen

    2017-03-01

    1-Deoxynojirimycin (DNJ) is an efficient α-glucosidase inhibitor (α-GI) with potential applications in the prevention and treatment of diabetes. In this study, 16 Bacillus strains were screened for α-GI rate, and the strain HZ-12 with the highest α-GI rate was identified as Bacillus amyloliquefaciens through the analysis of physiological biochemical characteristics and 16S rDNA sequence. By LC-MS/Q-TOF analysis, the α-GI component produced by B. amyloliquefaciens HZ-12 was identified as DNJ. Soybean was used as the substrate for the solid-state fermentation; 870 mg/kg DNJ was produced by B. amyloliquefaciens HZ-12 after optimizing the fermentation conditions and media, which was 3.83-fold higher than the initial yield. Also, evaluations of nutraceutical enrichment in the form of anticoagulant activity, antioxidant activity, total nitrogen (TN), and total reducing sugars (TRS) of the B. amyloliquefaciens HZ-12 fermented soybeans were substantially higher than unfermented soybeans. This study provided a promising strain for high-level production of DNJ and produced nutraceutical enriched soybeans by fermentation.

  16. Development of A model of B acute lymphoblastic leukemia for the investigation of the potential leukemogenic effects of 50 Hz magnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernard, N.; Alberdi, A.; Corona, A.; Guillosson, J.J.; Nafziger, J. [Universite Rene Descartes, Lab. d' Hematologie Cellulaire et Moleculaire, CNRS UMR 8147, Faculte de Pharmacie, 75 - Paris (France)

    2006-07-01

    Over the past 25 years, a possible association between exposure to extremely low frequency magnetic fields (50 Hz M.F.) and cancer has be en extensively studied. The most consistent data were found for B acute lymphoblastic leukaemia in children that represents the most common type of cancer encountered in childhood. However, controversial results were reported in epidemiologic studies about this potential adverse effect of 50 Hz M.F.. Therefore, we developed an animal model of B acute lymphoblastic leukaemia to investigate the possible co-initiating or promoting effects of 50 Hz M.F. on the incidence of leukaemia in children. In this model leukaemia was chemically induced in male W.K.A.H./H km rats by a nitrosourea derivative, N-butyl nitrosourea (B.N.U.) administered 5 days a week for 24 weeks. Development of leukaemia was monitored by clinical observation, follow-up of blood parameters and appearance of blasts cells in serially repeated peripheral blood samples. The phenotype of the leukaemia in the affected rats was determined by cytological examination and cytochemical reactions on blood and bone marrow cells and, by immuno phenotyping of bone marrow cells using various markers. Leukaemia occurred in 60% of B.N.U. treated rats. Among the leukemic rats, 65% developed B acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. The maximum of leukaemia development was observed between the 5. to the 8. month following the beginning of B.N.U. treatment. Using this model, we decided to investigate the potential co-initiating or promoting effects of 50 Hz M.F.. The possible effects of harmonics (150, 250 and 350 Hz) that pollute the electrical network are also studied. The total number of leukaemia and the phenotype of leukaemia obtained will be compared between the B.N.U. treated animals exposed to 50 Hz M.F. with or without harmonics and the animals treat ed with B.N.U. alone. We believe that the results of this experiment might be helpful to answer the question of whether or not 50 Hz M

  17. Laser beam welding quality monitoring system based in high-speed (10 kHz) uncooled MWIR imaging sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linares, Rodrigo; Vergara, German; Gutiérrez, Raúl; Fernández, Carlos; Villamayor, Víctor; Gómez, Luis; González-Camino, Maria; Baldasano, Arturo; Castro, G.; Arias, R.; Lapido, Y.; Rodríguez, J.; Romero, Pablo

    2015-05-01

    The combination of flexibility, productivity, precision and zero-defect manufacturing in future laser-based equipment are a major challenge that faces this enabling technology. New sensors for online monitoring and real-time control of laserbased processes are necessary for improving products quality and increasing manufacture yields. New approaches to fully automate processes towards zero-defect manufacturing demand smarter heads where lasers, optics, actuators, sensors and electronics will be integrated in a unique compact and affordable device. Many defects arising in laser-based manufacturing processes come from instabilities in the dynamics of the laser process. Temperature and heat dynamics are key parameters to be monitored. Low cost infrared imagers with high-speed of response will constitute the next generation of sensors to be implemented in future monitoring and control systems for laser-based processes, capable to provide simultaneous information about heat dynamics and spatial distribution. This work describes the result of using an innovative low-cost high-speed infrared imager based on the first quantum infrared imager monolithically integrated with Si-CMOS ROIC of the market. The sensor is able to provide low resolution images at frame rates up to 10 KHz in uncooled operation at the same cost as traditional infrared spot detectors. In order to demonstrate the capabilities of the new sensor technology, a low-cost camera was assembled on a standard production laser welding head, allowing to register melting pool images at frame rates of 10 kHz. In addition, a specific software was developed for defect detection and classification. Multiple laser welding processes were recorded with the aim to study the performance of the system and its application to the real-time monitoring of laser welding processes. During the experiments, different types of defects were produced and monitored. The classifier was fed with the experimental images obtained. Self

  18. Development and Validation of a Novel Gas Analyzer for Simultaneous Measurements of Methane, Carbon Dioxide and Water Vapor in Ambient Air at 20 Hz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, M.; Owano, T.; Fellers, R.; Dong, F.; Baer, D.

    2008-12-01

    Methane has increased significantly with human population levels. Pre-1750 ice core data indicates that pre- industrialization levels were about 700 ppbv, while current levels are over 1750 ppbv. In current budget estimates of atmospheric methane, major contributors include both natural (wetlands) and anthropogenic sources (energy, landfills, ruminants, biomass burning, rice agriculture). The strengths of these sources vary spatially and temporally. Estimates of emissions from wetlands are also uncertain due to the extreme variability of these ecosystems. Because methane lifetime is relatively long (8.4 years), atmospheric variations in concentration are small and accuracy in measurement is important for understanding spatial and temporal variability. Atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide and methane rose sharply in 2007. Global CO2 climbed by 0.6 percent, or 19 billion tons, in 2007. Methane increased by 27 million tons after nearly a decade with little or no increase. Atmospheric CO2 levels currently stand at 385 ppmv, or about 38 percent higher than pre- industrial levels and the rise in CO2 concentrations has been accelerating since the 1980s when annual increases were around 1.5 ppm per year. Last year the increase was 2.4 ppm. We report on the development, application and independent performance characterization of a novel gas analyzer based on cavity-enhanced laser absorption spectroscopy. The Analyzer provides simultaneous measurements of methane, carbon dioxide and water vapor in ambient air in the field for applications that require high data rates (eddy correlation flux), wide dynamic range (e.g., chamber flux and other applications with concentrations that are ten times typical ambient levels or higher) and highest accuracy (atmospheric monitoring stations). The Analyzer provides continuous measurements at data rates up to 20 Hz and with replicate precision of 1 ppbv for methane (1 second measurement time), 0.2 ppmv for carbon dioxide (1 second

  19. LOW-FREQUENCY (11 mHz) OSCILLATIONS IN H1743-322: A NEW CLASS OF BLACK HOLE QUASI-PERIODIC OSCILLATIONS?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altamirano, D. [Astronomical Institute, ' Anton Pannekoek' , University of Amsterdam, Science Park 904, 1098XH, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Strohmayer, T., E-mail: d.altamirano@uva.nl [Astrophysics Science Division, Mail Code 662, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2012-08-01

    We report the discovery of quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) at {approx}11 mHz in two RXTE and one Chandra observations of the black hole candidate H1743-322. The QPO is observed only at the beginning of the 2010 and 2011 outbursts at similar hard color and intensity, suggestive of an accretion state dependence for the QPO. Although its frequency appears to be correlated with X-ray intensity on timescales of a day, in successive outbursts eight months apart, we measure a QPO frequency that differs by less than Almost-Equal-To 2.2 mHz while the intensity had changed significantly. We show that this {approx}11 mHz QPO is different from the so-called Type C QPOs seen in black holes and that the mechanisms that produce the two flavors of variability are most probably independent. After comparing this QPO with other variability phenomena seen in accreting black holes and neutron stars, we conclude that it best resembles the so-called 1 Hz QPOs seen in dipping neutron star systems, although having a significantly lower (1-2 orders of magnitude) frequency. If confirmed, H1743-322 is the first black hole showing this type of variability. Given the unusual characteristics and the hard-state dependence of the {approx}11 mHz QPO, we also speculate whether these oscillations could instead be related to the radio jets observed in H1743-322. A systematic search for this type of low-frequency QPOs in similar systems is needed to test this speculation. In any case, it remains unexplained why these QPOs have only been seen in the last two outbursts of H1743-322.

  20. HZ166, a novel GABAA receptor subtype-selective benzodiazepine site ligand, is antihyperalgesic in mouse models of inflammatory and neuropathic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Lio, Alessandra; Benke, Dietmar; Besson, Marie; Desmeules, Jules; Daali, Youssef; Wang, Zhi-jian; Edwankar, Rahul; Cook, James M; Zeilhofer, Hanns Ulrich

    2011-03-01

    Diminished GABAergic and glycinergic inhibition in the spinal dorsal horn contributes significantly to chronic pain of different origins. Accordingly, pharmacological facilitation of GABAergic inhibition by spinal benzodiazepines (BDZs) has been shown to reverse pathological pain in animals as well as in human patients. Previous studies in GABA(A) receptor point-mutated mice have demonstrated that the spinal anti-hyperalgesic effect of classical BDZs is mainly mediated by GABA(A) receptors containing the α2 subunit (α2-GABA(A) receptors), while α1-GABA(A) receptors, which mediate the sedative effects, do not contribute. Here, we investigated the potential analgesic profile of HZ166, a new partial BDZ-site agonist with preferential activity at α2- and α3-GABA(A) receptors. HZ166 showed a dose-dependent anti-hyperalgesic effect in mouse models of neuropathic and inflammatory pain, triggered by chronic constriction injury (CCI) of the sciatic nerve and by subcutaneous injection of the yeast extract zymosan A, respectively. This antihyperalgesic activity was antagonized by flumazenil and hence mediated via the BDZ-binding site of GABA(A) receptors. A central site of action of HZ166 was consistent with its pharmacokinetics in the CNS. When non-sedative doses of HZ166 and gabapentin, a drug widely used in the clinical management of neuropathic pain, were compared, the efficacies of both drugs against CCI-induced pain were similar. At doses producing already maximal antihyperalgesia, HZ166 was devoid of sedation and motor impairment, and showed no loss of analgesic activity during a 9-day chronic treatment period (i.e. no tolerance development). These findings provide further evidence that compounds selective for α2- and α3-GABA(A) receptors might constitute a novel class of analgesics suitable for the treatment of chronic pain. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Passive exposure of adult cats to moderate-level tone pip ensembles differentially decreases AI and AII responsiveness in the exposure frequency range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pienkowski, Martin; Eggermont, Jos J

    2010-09-01

    Passive exposure of adult animals to a random ensemble of tone pips band limited between 4 and 20 kHz has been shown to suppress neural activity in primary auditory cortex (AI) to sounds in the exposure frequency range. In the long-term (>3 months), the suppressed neurons can be reactivated by frequencies above and below the exposure range, i.e., tonotopic map reorganization occurs. The suppression can be at least partially reversed after a long period of quiet recovery, as the moderate-level exposure does not impair peripheral hearing. Here we exposed adult cats, for 7-13 weeks without interruption, to two different moderate-level tone pip ensembles, in separate experiments. One exposure stimulus consisted of an octave-wide 2-4 kHz band, which overlaps substantially with the cat vocalization range; the other consisted of a pair of third-octave bands centered at 4 and 16 kHz. We again report a decrease in AI responsiveness in the exposure frequency range, irrespective of the exposure stimulus bandwidth or center frequency, and a slow, partial recovery over a 12-week post-exposure window. In contrast to our previous studies, the suppression in both of the present experiments extended well beyond the exposure frequency range. In particular, following the 4 and 16 kHz experimental acoustic environment, AI activity was strongly suppressed not only in response to frequencies close to the two exposure bands, but also in response to frequencies between the bands, i.e., the results resembled those to a single broadband stimulus spanning the 3-18 kHz range. On the other hand, responses in secondary auditory cortex (AII) were suppressed predominantly around 4 and 16 kHz, with little or no suppression in between. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Wide Operational Range Thermal Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goebel, John H. (Inventor); McMurray, Robert E., Jr. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    Bolometer system and method for detecting, at BLIP levels, presence of radiation over a broad range of wavelengths in an infrared spectrum and in a temperature range from 20 K to as high as room temperature. The radiation is received by a Si crystal having a region that is doped with one or more of In, Ga, S, Se, Te, B, Al, P, As and Sb in a concentration ratio in a range such as 5 x 10(exp -11) to 5 x 10(exp -6). Change in electrical resistance delta R due to receipt of the radiation is measured through a change in voltage difference or current within the crystal, and the quantity delta R is converted to an estimate of the amount of radiation received. Optionally, incident radiation having an energy high enough to promote photoconductivity is removed before detection.

  3. GEA CRDA Range Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-07-28

    E1, July-August 1998 18 3.3. Example 3: SatMex, Solidaridad 2, May-June 1998 27 3.4. Example 4: PanAmSat, Galaxy IV, May-June 1998 33 3.5...17 Millstone measurements residuals for Telstar 401 on Days 181-263. 26 3-18 Millstone measurement residuals for Solidaridad 1 on Days 141-153...with 29 SatMex range data. 3-19 Hermosillo B-- Solidaridad 1 range residuals through Days 135-144 with bias 30 removed. 3-20 Iztapalapa D

  4. Radio pill antenna range test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummins, W. F.; Kane, R. J.

    1992-05-01

    In order to investigate the potential of a proposed 'radio pill' beacon transmitter, a range test experiment was devised and carried out in the VHF frequency range. Calculations and previous work indicated that optimum sensitivity and, thus, distance would be obtained in this frequency range provided body radio-frequency (RF) absorption was not too great. A ferrite-core loop antenna is compatible with a pill geometry and has better radiation efficiency than an air core loop. The ferrite core may be a hollow cylinder with the electronics and batteries placed inside. However, this range test was only concerned with experimentally developing test range data on the ferrite core antenna itself. A one turn strap loop was placed around a 9.5 mm diameter by 18.3 mm long stack of ferrite cores. This was coupled to a 50 Omega transmission line by 76 mm of twisted pair line and a capacitive matching section. This assembly was excited by a signal generator at output levels of -10 to +10 dBm. Signals were received on a VHF receiver and tape recorder coupled to a 14 element, circularly polarized Yagi antenna at a height of 2.5 m. Field strength measurements taken at ranges of 440, 1100, and 1714 m. Maximum field strengths referenced to 0 dBm transmitter level were -107 to -110 dB at 440 m, -124 to -127 dBm at 1100 m, and -116 to -119 dBm at 1714 m when the antenna cylinder was horizontal. Field strengths with a vertical antenna were about 6 dB below these values. The latter transmit site was elevated and had a clear line-of-site path to the receiving site. The performance of this test antenna was better than that expected from method-of-moment field calculations. When this performance data is scaled to a narrow bandwidth receiving system, ground level receiving ranges of a few to 10 km can be expected. Clear line-of-sight ranges where either or both the transmitter and receiver are elevated could vary from several km to 100 km.

  5. Improved Range Searching Lower Bounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kasper Green; Nguyen, Huy L.

    2012-01-01

    by constructing a hard input set and query set, and then invoking Chazelle and Rosenberg's [CGTA'96] general theorem on the complexity of navigation in the pointer machine. For the group model, we show that input sets and query sets that are hard for range reporting in the pointer machine (i.e. by Chazelle...

  6. Anatomy of a Mountain Range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, Berkeley

    1993-01-01

    Provides written tour of Colorado Rockies along San Juan Skyway in which the geological features and formation of the mountain range is explored. Discusses evidence of geologic forces and products such as plate tectonic movement and the Ancestral Rockies; subduction and the Laramide Orogeny; volcanism and calderas; erosion, faulting, land…

  7. Mobile Lunar Laser Ranging Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intellect, 1977

    1977-01-01

    Harlan Smith, chairman of the University of Texas's Astronomy Department, discusses a mobile lunar laser ranging station which could help determine the exact rates of movement between continents and help geophysicists understand earthquakes. He also discusses its application for studying fundamental concepts of cosmology and physics. (Editor/RK)

  8. Range Compressed Holographic Aperture Ladar

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    step 1. This image can be obtained through any digital holography processing technique and contains no range information. Since the penny has a... digital holography, laser, active imaging , remote sensing, laser imaging 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT: SAR 8...30 15. Digital Hologram Image

  9. Mandibular movement range in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Barbara Cristina Zanandréa; Medeiros, Ana Paula Magalhães; Felício, Cláudia Maria de

    2009-01-01

    identification of the mandibular movement range is an important procedure in the evaluation of the stomatognathic system. However, there are few studies in children that focus on normal parameters or abnormalities. to determine the average range of mandibular movements in Brazilian children aged 6 to 12 years; to verify the difference between genders, in each age group, and between the different age groups: 6-8 years; 8.1-10 years; and 10.1-12 years. participants of the study were 240 healthy children selected among regular students from local schools of São Paulo State. The maximum mandibular opening, lateral excursion and protrusive movements, and deviation of the medium line, if present, were measured using a digital caliper. Student T test, Analysis of variance and Tukey test were considered significant for p mandibular opening; 7.71mm for lateral excursion to the right; 7.92mm for lateral excursion to the left; 7.45mm for protrusive movements. No statistical difference was observed between genders. There was a gradual increase in the range of mandibular movements, with significant differences mainly between the ages of 6-8 years and 10.1-12 years. during childhood the range of mandibular movements increases. Age should be considered in this analysis for a greater precision in the diagnosis.

  10. An Optimized Control for LLC Resonant Converter with Wide Load Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Xia; Qian, Qinsong

    2017-05-01

    This paper presents an optimized control which makes LLC resonant converters operate with a wider load range and provides good closed-loop performance. The proposed control employs two paralleled digital compensations to guarantee the good closed-loop performance in a wide load range during the steady state, an optimized trajectory control will take over to change the gate-driving signals immediately at the load transients. Finally, the proposed control has been implemented and tested on a 150W 200kHz 400V/24V LLC resonant converter and the result validates the proposed method.

  11. A High Power Boost Converter for PV Systems Operating up to 300 kHz using SiC Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anthon, Alexander; Zhang, Zhe; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a 3kW boost converter for PV applications using SiC devices is introduced. Main focus is to operate the converter over a wide range of switching frequency and to analyze the main loss distributors as well as the efficiency. The switching element is a recently introduced normally...

  12. Synchronous 20 Hz rhythmic activity in hippocampal networks induced by activation of metabotropic glutamate receptors in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boddeke, HWGM; Best, R; Boeijinga, PH

    High frequency synchronized neuronal activity plays an important role in spatiotemporal processing of sensory inputs and possibly cognitive function.(5,6) This activity, in the so called beta and gamma electroencephalographic frequency range is found in cortical areas and in the hippocampus, Here we

  13. A fully integrated CMOS VCXO-IC with low phase noise, wide tuning range and high tuning linearity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanjun, Yang; Yun, Zeng

    2015-06-01

    This paper describes a low phase noise, wide tuning range and high tuning linearity CMOS voltage controlled crystal oscillator IC (VCXO-IC) with LVCMOS and LVPECL output. A differential coupled frequency doubling Colpitts oscillator is adopted to obtain low noise 2× frequency output. Wide tuning range and high linearity are simultaneously achieved by using MOS varactor arrays. The measurement results show that the designed VCXO-IC achieves -134 dBc/Hz phase noise at 1 kHz offset frequency and ± 135 ppm output frequency tuning range within 3% linearity by using 40 MHz fundamental AT-cut crystal. The VCXO-IC is fabricated in the chartered 0.35 μm standard CMOS process and occupies a total silicon area of 2.4 mm2. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 61350007).

  14. Short-range communication system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhorn, Dean C. (Inventor); Howard, David E. (Inventor); Smith, Dennis A. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A short-range communication system includes an antenna, a transmitter, and a receiver. The antenna is an electrical conductor formed as a planar coil with rings thereof being uniformly spaced. The transmitter is spaced apart from the plane of the coil by a gap. An amplitude-modulated and asynchronous signal indicative of a data stream of known peak amplitude is transmitted into the gap. The receiver detects the coil's resonance and decodes same to recover the data stream.

  15. Countering short range ballistic missiles

    OpenAIRE

    Conner, George W.; Ehiers, Mark A.; Marshall, Kneale T.

    1993-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Concepts commonly found in ASW search are used to model the flow and detection of mobile launchers for short range ballistic missiles. Emphasis is on detection and destruction of the launcher before launch. The benefit of pre-hostility intelligence and pre-missile-launch prosecution, the backbone of successful ASW, is revealed through the analysis of a circulation model which reflects the standard operations of a third world mobile mi...

  16. Analysis and modeling of low voltage electrical network at power line carrier frequencies (3-148.5 kHz); Analyse et modelisation du reseau basse tension aux frequences courants porteurs (3 KHZ-148,5 KHZ)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duval, G.

    1998-07-01

    Electricite de France (EdF) wishes to establish a physical communication link between his clients and the EdF centres. The final link, i.e. between the high/low voltage transformation substation and the residential clients, being ensured by carrier currents. With this aim, an analysis and a modeling of the low voltage network at the carrier frequencies (3 kHz - 148.5 kHz) has been performed. This work has been carried out in parallel with an experiment involving 3500 apparatuses that use carrier currents. The diversity of the French low voltage networks and the limitations imposed by the EN50065-1 standard about the use of carrier currents in Europe do not favour the development of such carrier current systems. Disturbing voltages and localized impedances represent the main difficulties to get round. Inside accommodations, domotic carrier currents have a reduced range but a higher disturbance amplitude because of the proximity of appliances. A differential mode to common mode conversion phenomenon has been evidenced which generates network couplings and important electromagnetic fields. Energy lines and cables have been analyzed using numerical models. Load peaks have been analyzed using statistical tools in order to take into account the daily fluctuations. The modeling of the network is made in two steps: a double-wire model is considered first. Then a three-phase model is developed which analyzes the inter-phases coupling and the effect of the distribution of clients' loads on each phase. The results of this model are conformable with measurements except for underground networks. As perspectives of future works and beyond todays standard framework, the techniques that allow a sensible increase of communication flow rates have been reviewed. (J.S.)

  17. Local Optogenetic Induction of Fast (20-40 Hz Pyramidal-Interneuron Network Oscillations in the In Vitro and In Vivo CA1 Hippocampus: Modulation by CRF and Enforcement of Perirhinal Theta Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien eDine

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The neurophysiological processes that can cause theta-to-gamma frequency range (4-80 Hz network oscillations in the rhinal cortical-hippocampal system and the potential connectivity-based interactions of such forebrain rhythms are a topic of intensive investigation. Here, using selective Channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2 expression in mouse forebrain glutamatergic cells, we were able to locally, temporally precisely, and reliably induce fast (20-40 Hz field potential oscillations in hippocampal area CA1 in vitro (at 25°C and in vivo (i.e., slightly anaesthetized NEX-Cre-ChR2 mice. As revealed by pharmacological analyses and patch-clamp recordings from pyramidal cells and GABAergic interneurons in vitro, these light-triggered oscillations can exclusively arise from sustained suprathreshold depolarization (~200 ms or longer and feedback inhibition of CA1 pyramidal neurons, as being mandatory for prototypic pyramidal-interneuron network (P-I oscillations. Consistently, the oscillations comprised rhythmically occurring population spikes (generated by pyramidal cells and their frequency increased with increasing spectral power. We further demonstrate that the optogenetically driven CA1 oscillations, which remain stable over repeated evocations, are impaired by the stress hormone corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF, 125 nM in vitro and, even more remarkably, found that they are accompanied by concurrent states of enforced theta activity in the memory-associated perirhinal cortex (PrC in vivo. The latter phenomenon most likely derives from neurotransmission via a known, but poorly studied excitatory CA1PrC pathway. Collectively, our data provide evidence for the existence of a prototypic (CRF-sensitive P-I gamma rhythm generator in area CA1 and suggest that CA1 P-I oscillations can rapidly up-regulate theta activity strength in hippocampus-innervated rhinal networks, at least in the PrC.

  18. Medium Range Forecasts Representation (and Long Range Forecasts?)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincendon, J.-C.

    2009-09-01

    The progress of the numerical forecasts urges us to interest us in more and more distant ranges. We thus supply more and more forecasts with term of some days. Nevertheless, precautions of use are necessary to give the most reliable and the most relevant possible information. Available in a TV bulletin or on quite other support (Internet, mobile phone), the interpretation and the representation of a medium range forecast (5 - 15 days) must be different from those of a short range forecast. Indeed, the "foresee-ability” of a meteorological phenomenon decreases gradually in the course of the ranges, it decreases all the more quickly that the phenomenon is of small scale. So, at the end of some days, the probability character of a forecast becomes very widely dominating. That is why in Meteo-France the forecasts of D+4 to D+7 are accompanied with a confidence index since around ten years. It is a figure between 1 and 5: the more we approach 5, the more the confidence in the supplied forecast is good. In the practice, an indication is supplied for period D+4 / D+5, the other one for period D+6 / D+7, every day being able to benefit from a different forecast, that is be represented in a independent way. We thus supply a global tendency over 24 hours with less and less precise symbols as the range goes away. Concrete examples will be presented. From now on two years, we also publish forecasts to D+8 / J+9, accompanied with a sign of confidence (" good reliability " or " to confirm "). These two days are grouped together on a single map because for us, the described tendency to this term is relevant on a duration about 48 hours with a spatial scale slightly superior to the synoptic scale. So, we avoid producing more than two zones of types of weather over France and we content with giving an evolution for the temperatures (still, in increase or in decline). Newspapers began to publish this information, it should soon be the case of televisions. It is particularly

  19. Short- and long-range neural synchrony in grapheme-color synesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volberg, Gregor; Karmann, Anna; Birkner, Stefanie; Greenlee, Mark W

    2013-07-01

    Grapheme-color synesthesia is a perceptual phenomenon where single graphemes (e.g., the letter "E") induce simultaneous sensations of colors (e.g., the color green) that were not objectively shown. Current models disagree as to whether the color sensations arise from increased short-range connectivity between anatomically adjacent grapheme- and color-processing brain structures or from decreased effectiveness of inhibitory long-range connections feeding back into visual cortex. We addressed this issue by examining neural synchrony obtained from EEG activity, in a sample of grapheme-color synesthetes that were presented with color-inducing versus non-color-inducing graphemes. For color-inducing graphemes, the results showed a decrease in the number of long-range couplings in the theta frequency band (4-7 Hz, 280-540 msec) and a concurrent increase of short-range phase-locking within lower beta band (13-20 Hz, 380-420 msec at occipital electrodes). Because the effects were both found in long-range synchrony and later within the visual processing stream, the results support the idea that reduced inhibition is an important factor for the emergence of synesthetic colors.

  20. "Conflicting" motion cues to the visual and vestibular self-motion systems around 0.06 Hz evoke simulator sickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duh, Henry Been-Lirn; Parker, Donald E; Philips, James O; Furness, Thomas A

    2004-01-01

    The basic question this research addressed was, how does simulator sickness vary with simulated motion frequency? Participants were 11 women and 19 men, 20 to 63 years of age. A visual self-motion frequency response curve was determined using a Chattecx posture platform with a VR4 head-mounted display (HMD) or a back-projected dome. That curve and one for vestibular self-motion specify a frequency range in which vestibular and visual motion stimuli could produce conflicting self-motion cues. Using a rotating chair and the HMD, a third experiment supported (p virtual reality sickness; for simulators intended to operate in this frequency range, appropriate simulator sickness interventions should be considered during the design process.

  1. Review of Studies Concerning Electromagnetic Field (EMF Exposure Assessment in Europe: Low Frequency Fields (50 Hz–100 kHz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Gajšek

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to review the findings of exposure assessment studies done in European countries on the exposure of the general public to low frequency electric and magnetic fields (EMFs of various frequencies. The study shows that outdoor average extremely low frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MF in public areas in urban environments range between 0.05 and 0.2 µT in terms of flux densities, but stronger values (of the order of a few µT may occur directly beneath high-voltage power lines, at the walls of transformer buildings, and at the boundary fences of substations. In the indoor environment, high values have been measured close to several domestic appliances (up to the mT range, some of which are held close to the body, e.g., hair dryers, electric shavers. Common sources of exposure to intermediate frequencies (IF include induction cookers, compact fluorescent lamps, inductive charging systems for electric cars and security or anti-theft devices. No systematic measurement surveys or personal exposimetry data for the IF range have been carried out and only a few reports on measurements of EMFs around such devices are mentioned. According to the available European exposure assessment studies, three population exposure categories were classified by the authors regarding the possible future risk analysis. This classification should be considered a crucial advancement for exposure assessment, which is a mandatory step in any future health risk assessment of EMFs exposure.

  2. Review of Studies Concerning Electromagnetic Field (EMF) Exposure Assessment in Europe: Low Frequency Fields (50 Hz–100 kHz)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajšek, Peter; Ravazzani, Paolo; Grellier, James; Samaras, Theodoros; Bakos, József; Thuróczy, György

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to review the findings of exposure assessment studies done in European countries on the exposure of the general public to low frequency electric and magnetic fields (EMFs) of various frequencies. The study shows that outdoor average extremely low frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MF) in public areas in urban environments range between 0.05 and 0.2 µT in terms of flux densities, but stronger values (of the order of a few µT) may occur directly beneath high-voltage power lines, at the walls of transformer buildings, and at the boundary fences of substations. In the indoor environment, high values have been measured close to several domestic appliances (up to the mT range), some of which are held close to the body, e.g., hair dryers, electric shavers. Common sources of exposure to intermediate frequencies (IF) include induction cookers, compact fluorescent lamps, inductive charging systems for electric cars and security or anti-theft devices. No systematic measurement surveys or personal exposimetry data for the IF range have been carried out and only a few reports on measurements of EMFs around such devices are mentioned. According to the available European exposure assessment studies, three population exposure categories were classified by the authors regarding the possible future risk analysis. This classification should be considered a crucial advancement for exposure assessment, which is a mandatory step in any future health risk assessment of EMFs exposure. PMID:27598182

  3. Change of physical activity of the grey seal when exposed to the magnetic field with frequencies of 2, 18 and 36 Hz for 1–4 hours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yakovlev A. P.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The results of studies of motor activity of the grey seal when exposed to magnetic fields with frequencies equal to 2, 18 and 36 Hz for 1–4 hours have been presented. The data have been obtained using the methods of continuous logging and registration of certain behavioral manifestations. As the evaluation parameter of motor activity of seals the estimated ratio of emersions per minute has been selected. It has been shown that depending on the frequency of the generated magnetic fields and duration of exposure in this animal, the motor activity of the seal can both be oppressed and increased significantly. The influence of the magnetic field with the frequency of 2 Hz on grey seal for 1–4 hours causes an increase in motor activity of the animal during the period of its exposure; before and after the exposure to MP the number of acts of emersions has been much lower. The effect of MP with the frequency of 18 Hz depends on its duration on the animal: exposure for 1–2 hours causes an increase in motor activity of the seal as during the impact, and at its termination; more prolonged exposure (3–4 hours causes a decrease in motor activity in the period of MP impact and a sharp increase in acts of emersions after the termination of MP generation. The influence of the magnetic field with the frequency of 36 Hz depends on the duration of its effects on the animal: the exposure over 1 hour causes a reduction in motor activity during the MP exposure and after the cessation of its effects; longer exposure (2–4 hours causes a rise in the number of acts of emersions as during the MP generation and after termination of its impact on the animal. Experiments with the "imaginary effect" confirm the validity of the obtained data as during all four experiences some significant fluctuation of animal motor activity has been observed.

  4. High-speed 4D intrasurgical OCT at 800 kHz line rate using temporal spectral splitting and spiral scanning (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco-Zevallos, Oscar; Viehland, Christian; Keller, Brenton; Kuo, Anthony N.; Toth, Cynthia A.; Izatt, Joseph A.

    2017-02-01

    The en face operating stereomicroscope offers limited depth perception and ophthalmic surgeons must often rely on stereopsis and instrument shadowing to estimate motion in the axial dimension. Recent research and commercial microscope-integrated optical coherence tomography (MIOCT) systems have allowed OCT of live surgery, but these were restricted to real-time cross-sectional (B-scan) imaging which captures limited information about maneuvers that extend over 3D space. We recently reported on a four dimensional (4D: 3D imaging over time) MIOCT and HUD system with real-time volumetric rendering for human ophthalmic surgery, but this 100 kHz OCT system was restricted to 3.3 volumes/sec to achieve sufficient lateral sampling over a 5x5 mm field of view (FOV). In this work, we present a high-speed 4D MIOCT (HS 4D MIOCT) system for volumetric imaging at 800 kHz A-scan rate. The proposed system employs a temporal spectral splitting (TSS) technique in which the spectrum of a buffered 400 kHz OCT system is windowed into sub-spectra to yield A-scans with reduced axial resolution but at a doubled A-scan rate of 800 kHz. The trade-offs of TSS for B-scan and volumetric retinal imaging were characterized in healthy adult volunteers. In addition, porcine eye surgical manipulations were imaged with HS 4D MIOCT imaging at 10.85 volumes/sec with 400x96x340 (X,Y,Z) usable voxels over a 5x5 mm lateral FOV. HS 4D MIOCT was capable of imaging subtle volumetric tissue manipulations with high temporal and spatial resolution using ANSI-limited optical power and is readily translatable to the human operating suite.

  5. Development of high energy, sub-15 fs OPCPA system operating at 1 kHz repetition rate for ELI-Beamlines facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakule, Pavel; Antipenkov, Roman; Green, Jonathan T.; Novák, Jakub; Batysta, František; Rus, Bedřich; Boge, Robert; Hubka, Zbyněk.; Naylon, Jack A.; Horáček, Martin; Horáček, Jakub; Strkula, Petr; Snopek, David; Indra, Lukaš; Tykalewicz, Boguslaw

    2017-05-01

    We report on the status of the high repetition rate, high energy, L1 laser beamline at the ELI-Beamlines facility. The beamline is based on picosecond optical parametric chirped pulse amplification (OPCPA) of pulses from a mode-locked Ti:Sapphire oscillator and has a target energy/repetition rate of 100 mJ/1 kHz with architecture design considerations to achieve our goals of long term stability are discussed.

  6. Effect of exposure to extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (50 Hz, 0.5 mT during incubation on hematological indices in newly-hatched chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R Lotfi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of present study was to investigation on hematopoietic activity of chicken embryo in exposure to extremely low frequency (ELF-EMF. In present study, the effect of exposure to 50 Hz, 0.5 mT EMF during different periods of incubation on hematological parameters (erythrocytes, hematocrit, hemoglobin and WBC, lymphocyte, eosinophil, monocyte and heterophil count was investigated. Experimental groups included group1 or control was under normal incubation process and without any exposing to EMFs, group2; includes eggs exposed to 50Hz, 0.5 mT, 2h daily for 0-7 days of incubation, group3; includes eggs exposed for 2h daily from day-8 to -14 of incubation, group4; includes eggs exposed from days-15 to -21 of incubation and group5; includes eggs exposed from days-1 to -21 of incubation (entire incubation period. Incubation condition (with exception to EMF exposing was similar for all groups. At time of EMF exposing eggs were transferred to EMF emitter set and after exposing period, eggs were transferred to their rows (setter. exposing to 50 Hz, 0.5 mT EMF during different periods of embryonic life (first, second or third week and entire incubation period didn’t has any significant effect on erythrocyte counts, hemoglobin (Hb, hematocrit and relative measures, whereas WBC counts (with exception of minor increases eosinophil for group 3 didn’t have change in any period of EMF exposure, too. It was concluded that embryonic or pre-hatch exposure to EMFs: 50 Hz, 0.5 mT during different periods of incubation didn’t has significant effect on hematological parameters  includes erythrocytes, hematocrit, hemoglobin, total leukocyte, lymphocyte, eosinophil, monocyte and heterophil count.

  7. Truthful approximations to range voting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Filos-Ratsika, Aris; Miltersen, Peter Bro

    We consider the fundamental mechanism design problem of approximate social welfare maximization under general cardinal preferences on a finite number of alternatives and without money. The well-known range voting scheme can be thought of as a non-truthful mechanism for exact social welfare......-unilateral has an approximation ratio between 0.610 and 0.611, the best ordinal mechanism has an approximation ratio between 0.616 and 0.641, while the best mixed-unilateral mechanism has an approximation ratio bigger than 0.660. In particular, the best mixed-unilateral non-ordinal (i.e., cardinal) mechanism...

  8. Nonlinear dynamic range compression deconvolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haji-Saeed, Bahareh; Sengupta, Sandip K.; Goodhue, William; Khoury, Jed; Woods, Charles L.; Kierstead, John

    2006-07-01

    We introduce a dynamic range image compression technique for nonlinear deconvolution; the impulse response of the distortion function and the noisy distorted image are jointly transformed to pump a clean reference beam in a two-beam coupling arrangement. The Fourier transform of the pumped reference beam contains the deconvolved image and its conjugate. In contrast to standard deconvolution approaches, for which noise can be a limiting factor in the performance, this approach allows the retrieval of distorted signals embedded in a very high-noise environment.

  9. Brain-heart communication: Evidence for "central pacemaker" oscillations with a dominant frequency at 0.1Hz in the cingulum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfurtscheller, Gert; Schwerdtfeger, Andreas R; Seither-Preisler, Annemarie; Brunner, Clemens; Stefan Aigner, Christoph; Brito, Joana; Carmo, Marciano P; Andrade, Alexandre

    2017-01-01

    In the brain and heart, oscillations at about 0.1Hz are conspicuous. It is therefore worthwhile to study the interaction between intrinsic BOLD oscillations (0.1Hz) and slow oscillations in heart rate interval (RRI) signals and differentiate between their neural and vascular origin. We studied the phase-coupling with a 3T scanner with high scanning rate between BOLD signals in 22 regions and simultaneously recorded RRI oscillations in 23 individuals in two resting states. By applying a hierarchical cluster analysis, it was possible to separate two clusters of phase-coupling between slow BOLD and RRI oscillations in the midcingulum, one representative for neural and the other for vascular BOLD oscillations. About half of the participants revealed positive time delays characteristic for neural BOLD oscillations and neurally-driven RRI oscillations. The results suggest that slow vascular and neural BOLD oscillations can be differentiated and that intrinsic oscillations (0.1Hz) originate in the cingulum or its close vicinity and contribute to heart rate variability (HRV). The study provides new insights into the dynamics of resting state activities, helps to explain HRV, and offers the possibility to investigate slow rhythmic neural activity changes in different brain regions without EEG recording. Copyright © 2016 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Critical ratios in harbor porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) for tonal signals between 0.315 and 150 kHz in random Gaussian white noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastelein, Ronald A; Wensveen, Paul J; Hoek, Lean; Au, Whitlow W L; Terhune, John M; de Jong, Christ A F

    2009-09-01

    A psychoacoustic behavioral technique was used to determine the critical ratios (CRs) of two harbor porpoises for tonal signals with frequencies between 0.315 and 150 kHz, in random Gaussian white noise. The masked 50% detection hearing thresholds were measured using a "go/no-go" response paradigm and an up-down staircase psychometric method. CRs were determined at one masking noise level for each test frequency and were similar in both animals. For signals between 0.315 and 4 kHz, the CRs were relatively constant at around 18 dB. Between 4 and 150 kHz the CR increased gradually from 18 to 39 dB ( approximately 3.3 dB/octave). Generally harbor porpoises can detect tonal signals in Gaussian white noise slightly better than most odontocetes tested so far. By combining the mean CRs found in the present study with the spectrum level of the background noise levels at sea, the basic audiogram, and the directivity index, the detection threshold levels of harbor porpoises for tonal signals in various sea states can be calculated.

  11. Repeated 6-Hz Corneal Stimulation Progressively Increases FosB/ΔFosB Levels in the Lateral Amygdala and Induces Seizure Generalization to the Hippocampus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmela Giordano

    Full Text Available Exposure to repetitive seizures is known to promote convulsions which depend on specific patterns of network activity. We aimed at evaluating the changes in seizure phenotype and neuronal network activation caused by a modified 6-Hz corneal stimulation model of psychomotor seizures. Mice received up to 4 sessions of 6-Hz corneal stimulation with fixed current amplitude of 32 mA and inter-stimulation interval of 72 h. Video-electroencephalography showed that evoked seizures were characterized by a motor component and a non-motor component. Seizures always appeared in frontal cortex, but only at the fourth stimulation they involved the hippocampus, suggesting the establishment of an epileptogenic process. Duration of seizure non-motor component progressively decreased after the second session, whereas convulsive seizures remained unchanged. In addition, a more severe seizure phenotype, consisting of tonic-clonic generalized convulsions, was predominant after the second session. Immunohistochemistry and double immunofluorescence experiments revealed a significant increase in neuronal activity occurring in the lateral amygdala after the fourth session, most likely due to activity of principal cells. These findings indicate a predominant role of amygdala in promoting progressively more severe convulsions as well as the late recruitment of the hippocampus in the seizure spread. We propose that the repeated 6-Hz corneal stimulation model may be used to investigate some mechanisms of epileptogenesis and to test putative antiepileptogenic drugs.

  12. Behavioral Correlates of 50-kHz Ultrasonic Vocalizations in Rats: Progressive Operant Discrimination Learning Reduces Frequency Modulation and Increases Overall Amplitude

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoko Yuki

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs in rats are thought to contain ecological signals reflecting emotional states. These USVs are centered on 50-kHz, and frequency modulation (FM is hypothesized to indicate positive emotion; however, results from recent studies are inconsistent with this hypothesis. We suspected that such inconsistencies might result from ambiguity in defining frequency modulation, and problems with acoustic analyses and behavioral protocols. We addressed these problems by applying quantitative methods for USV analyses and using a food reward operant paradigm. Our results revealed that frequency modulation varied according to the degree of positive outcomes, but the direction of change was opposite to what had been observed in previous studies. The FM in 50-kHz USVs decreased as animals learned the task and obtained more reinforcement, while USV amplitude increased as learning progressed. To reconcile these results with those from prior studies, we suggest that FM in 50-kHz USVs should be taken as an index of reward prediction errors, and USV amplitude should be considered as an index of positive emotion.

  13. The 1-Hz fluorometer: A new approach to fast and sensitive long-term studies of active chlorophyll and environmental influences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moldaenke, C.; Vanselow, K. H.; Hansen, U.-P.

    1995-03-01

    A new instrument for environmental monitoring, called at 1-Hz fluorometer, provides two modes of application. First, it enables a quantitative determination of algal concentrations down to 20 ng/l. Second, it can be used as a biosensor for changes in environmental conditions. The distinction between the signals from living chlorophyll-containing algae and other fluorescent material is achieved by using two modulated light-sources resulting in a mean fluence rate of 200 μE. The measuring light induces changes in chlorophyll fluorescence (yield) with a frequency of 1 kHz, and the actinic light modulates the redox state of the quenchers of PS II with a frequency of 1 Hz. This leads to a modulation of the yield which is detected by two phase-sensitive rectifiers (double correlation). Measurements from different sites in a river, and in the Baltic and North Seas, show that correction by the built-in simultaneously-measured attenuation is necessary in order to obtain values which are identical with those determined by a photometric analysis (Uvikon 860). This applies if the transmission becomes less than about 95%. Suspensions of Dunaliella salina exposed to ammonia and phosphate were used for illustrating the usage for environmental monitoring. It is shown that this system can measure changes in the chlorophyll fluorescence of living algae caused by changes in concentration of ammonia down to 1 μg/l and of phosphate down to 10 μg/l.

  14. 40-Hz square-wave stimulation requires less energy to produce muscle contraction: compared with the TASER® X26 conducted energy weapon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comeaux, James A; Jauchem, James R; Cox, D Duane; Crane, Carrie C; D'Andrea, John A

    2013-07-01

    Conducted energy weapons (CEWs) (including the Advanced TASER(®) X26 model produced by TASER International, Inc.) incapacitate individuals by causing muscle contractions. In this study using anesthetized swine, the potential incapacitating effect of primarily monophasic, 19-Hz voltage imposed by the commercial CEW was compared with the effect of voltages imposed by a laboratory device that created 40-Hz square waves. Forces of muscle contraction were measured with the use of strain gauges. Stimulation with 40-Hz square waves required less pulse energy than stimulation with the commercial CEW to produce similar muscle contraction. The square-pulse stimulation, at the higher repetition rate, caused a more complete tetanus at a lower energy. Use of such a simple shape of waveform may be used to make future nonlethal weapon devices more efficient. © 2013 American Academy of Forensic Sciences Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the U.S.A.

  15. Effects of 60 Hz magnetic field exposure on the pineal and hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in the Siberian hamster (Phodopus sungorus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, B W; Matt, K S; Morris, J E; Sasser, L B; Miller, D L; Anderson, L E

    1999-01-01

    Experiments using the dwarf Siberian hamster Phodopus sungorus were carried out to determine possible neuroendocrine consequences of one-time and repeated exposures to 60 Hz magnetic fields (MF). Animals were maintained in either a short-light (SL, 8 h light:16 h dark) or long-light (LL, 16 h light:8 h dark) photoperiod. Acute (one-time, 15 min) exposure of male SL animals to a linearly polarized, horizontally oriented, 60 Hz MF (0.1 mT) gave rise to a statistically significant (P darkness. In LL animals, acute exposure to 0.10 mT resulted in a significant decrease in pineal melatonin as measured 4 h after onset of darkness, whereas acute exposure to 50 microT showed no effect compared with sham exposure. In SL animals, an increase in norepinephrine was observed in the medial basal hypothalamus (including the suprachiasmatic nucleus) after acute exposure (P darkness and an increase in blood prolactin concentrations (P .05), compared with sham-exposed SL animals. At 42 days, however, no significant changes in overnight melatonin or prolactin levels were detected. In both repeated exposure experiments, gonadal weights were lowest in the MF-exposed groups. This difference was statistically significant (P < .05) after 42 days of exposure. These data indicate that both one-time and repeated exposure to a 0.1 mT, 60 Hz MF can give rise to neuroendocrine responses in Phodopus.

  16. Live Fire Range Environmental Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1993-08-01

    The Central Training Academy (CTA) is a DOE Headquarters Organization located in Albuquerque, New Mexico, with the mission to effectively and efficiently educate and train personnel involved in the protection of vital national security interests of DOE. The CTA Live Fire Range (LFR), where most of the firearms and tactical training occurs, is a complex separate from the main campus. The purpose of the proposed action is to expand the LFR to allow more options of implementing required training. The Department of Energy has prepared this Environmental Assessment (EA) for the proposed construction and operation of an expanded Live Fire Range Facility at the Central Training Academy in Albuquerque, New Mexico. Based on the analysis in the EA, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement is not required and DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

  17. A range of different stretch reflex responses in the human thumb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, T I; Rack, P M; Ross, H F

    1982-11-01

    1. Imposed sinusoids were used to assess the resistance to movement at the thumb interphalangeal joint.2. The resistance to high-frequency movements (> 12 Hz) increased when the subject exerted a large voluntary flexing force; this increase was attributable to a greater non-reflex resistance of the contracting flexor muscles. This resistance was essentially ;visco-elastic', and the force was phase-advanced on joint position. At moderately large forces (up to half maximal), however, the resistance changed with changing frequency, and over a range 4-12 Hz the vectors which represented joint stiffness described the wide path that is characteristic of an active stretch reflex (Brown, Rack & Ross, 1982a). At frequencies between about 4 and 6 Hz the force was sometimes phase-delayed on position, and the joint exhibited a negative viscous stiffness. When the voluntary flexing force was very large the reflex contributed less to the resisting force, which was then phase-advanced on position at all frequencies of movement.3. Large amplitude movements did not generate correspondingly large reflex responses; as the amplitude of movement was increased, the reflex component of the resisting force became relatively smaller and the total resisting force was then phase-advanced on joint position at all frequencies.4. The reflex component of the resisting force (as indicated by the excursion of the joint stiffness vectors) varied from subject to subject and from time to time; the reflex usually became more active late in an experiment when the subject had exerted flexing forces against the imposed movement for some minutes. Extreme fatigue, however, diminished the amount of reflex force.5. In some subjects the joint-stiffness records indicated a particularly vigorous reflex response at 8-11 Hz, in contrast to a rather feeble response at 6 or 7 Hz. It is suggested that the reflex pathways then had a relatively low impedance to afferent signals that were modulated at 8-11 Hz, related

  18. Profile Monitors for Wide Multiplicity Range Electron Beams

    CERN Document Server

    Buonomo, B; Quintieri, L

    2005-01-01

    The DAFNE Beam Test Facility (BTF) provides electron and positron beams in a wide range of intensity, from single particle up to 1010 particles per pulse, and energy, from a few tens of MeV up to 800 MeV. The pulse time width can be adjusted between 1 and 10 ns and the maximum repetition rate is 50 Hz. The large range of operation of the facility requires the implementation of different beam profile and multiplicity monitors. In the single particle operation mode the beam spot profile and position are measured by a x-y scintillating fiber system with millimetric resolution and multi-anode PMT readout. From a few tens up to 106-107 particles per pulse, a silicon chamber made of two 9.5x9.5 cm2 wide 400μm thick silicon strip detectors organized in a x-y configuration with a pitch of 121μm has been developed. Once calibrated, the system can be used also as an intensity monitor. The description of the devices and the results obtained during the data taking periods of several experiments at the...

  19. Ultra-low-noise EEG/MEG systems enable bimodal non-invasive detection of spike-like human somatosensory evoked responses at 1 kHz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedele, T; Scheer, H J; Burghoff, M; Curio, G; Körber, R

    2015-02-01

    Non-invasive EEG detection of very high frequency somatosensory evoked potentials featuring frequencies up to and above 1 kHz has been recently reported. Here, we establish the detectability of such components by combined low-noise EEG/MEG. We recorded SEP/SEF simultaneously using median nerve stimulation in five healthy human subjects inside an electromagnetically shielded room, combining a low-noise EEG custom-made amplifier (4.7 nV/√Hz) and a custom-made single-channel low-noise MEG (0.5 fT/√Hz @ 1 kHz). Both, low-noise EEG and MEG revealed three spectrally distinct and temporally overlapping evoked components: N20 (EEG [10 nV] ≅ MEG [1 fT]). Pronounced waveform (peak-by-peak) overlap of EEG and MEG signals is observed in the sigma band, whereas in the kappa band overlap was only partial. A decreasing signal-to-noise ratio (SNR; calculated for n = 12.000 averages) from sigma to kappa components characterizes both, electric and magnetic field recordings: Sigma-band SNR was 12.9  ±  5.5/19.8  ±  12.6 for EEG/MEG, and kappa-band SNR at 3.77  ±  0.8/4.5  ±  2.9. High-frequency performance of a tailor-made MEG matches closely with simultaneously recorded low-noise EEG for the non-invasive detection of somatosensory evoked activity at and above 1 kHz. Thus, future multi-channel dual-mode low-noise technology could offer complementary views for source reconstruction of the neural generators underlying such high-frequency responses, and render neural high-frequency processes related to multi-unit spike discharges accessible in non-invasive recordings.

  20. Adaptive Optics for Satellite Imaging and Space Debris Ranging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennet, F.; D'Orgeville, C.; Price, I.; Rigaut, F.; Ritchie, I.; Smith, C.

    Earth's space environment is becoming crowded and at risk of a Kessler syndrome, and will require careful management for the future. Modern low noise high speed detectors allow for wavefront sensing and adaptive optics (AO) in extreme circumstances such as imaging small orbiting bodies in Low Earth Orbit (LEO). The Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics (RSAA) at the Australian National University have been developing AO systems for telescopes between 1 and 2.5m diameter to image and range orbiting satellites and space debris. Strehl ratios in excess of 30% can be achieved for targets in LEO with an AO loop running at 2kHz, allowing the resolution of small features (system developed at RSAA consists of a high speed EMCCD Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor, a deformable mirror (DM), and realtime computer (RTC), and an imaging camera. The system works best as a laser guide star system but will also function as a natural guide star AO system, with the target itself being the guide star. In both circumstances tip-tilt is provided by the target on the imaging camera. The fast tip-tilt modes are not corrected optically, and are instead removed by taking images at a moderate speed (>30Hz) and using a shift and add algorithm. This algorithm can also incorporate lucky imaging to further improve the final image quality. A similar AO system for space debris ranging is also in development in collaboration with Electro Optic Systems (EOS) and the Space Environment Management Cooperative Research Centre (SERC), at the Mount Stromlo Observatory in Canberra, Australia. The system is designed for an AO corrected upward propagated 1064nm pulsed laser beam, from which time of flight information is used to precisely range the target. A 1.8m telescope is used for both propagation and collection of laser light. A laser guide star, Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor, and DM are used for high order correction, and tip-tilt correction provided by reflected sunlight from the target. The

  1. Dynamic range majority data structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmasry, Amr Ahmed Abd Elmoneim; He, Meng; Munro, J. Ian

    2011-01-01

    data structure for answering range α-majority queries on a dynamic set of points, where α ε (0,1). Our data structure uses O(n) space, supports queries in O((lg n)/α) time, and updates in O((lg n)/α) amortized time. If the coordinates of the points are integers, then the query time can be improved to O......((lg n/(α lglg n)). For constant values of α, this improved query time matches an existing lower bound, for any data structure with polylogarithmic update time. We also generalize our data structure to handle sets of points in d-dimensions, for d ≥ 2, as well as dynamic arrays, in which each entry...

  2. An Ultrasonic Multiple-Access Ranging Core Based on Frequency Shift Keying Towards Indoor Localization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Segers

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a new approach and implementation methodology for indoor ranging based on the time difference of arrival using code division multiple access with ultrasound signals. A novel implementation based on a field programmable gate array using finite impulse response filters and an optimized correlation demodulator implementation for ultrasound orthogonal signals is developed. Orthogonal codes are modulated onto ultrasound signals using frequency shift keying with carrier frequencies of 24.5 kHz and 26 kHz. This implementation enhances the possibilities for real-time, embedded and low-power tracking of several simultaneous transmitters. Due to the high degree of parallelism offered by field programmable gate arrays, up to four transmitters can be tracked simultaneously. The implementation requires at most 30% of the available logic gates of a Spartan-6 XC6SLX45 device and is evaluated on accuracy and precision through several ranging topologies. In the first topology, the distance between one transmitter and one receiver is evaluated. Afterwards, ranging analyses are applied between two simultaneous transmitters and one receiver. Ultimately, the position of the receiver against four transmitters using trilateration is also demonstrated. Results show enhanced distance measurements with distances ranging from a few centimeters up to 17 m, while keeping a centimeter-level accuracy.

  3. An Ultrasonic Multiple-Access Ranging Core Based on Frequency Shift Keying Towards Indoor Localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segers, Laurent; Van Bavegem, David; De Winne, Sam; Braeken, An; Touhafi, Abdellah; Steenhaut, Kris

    2015-07-30

    This paper describes a new approach and implementation methodology for indoor ranging based on the time difference of arrival using code division multiple access with ultrasound signals. A novel implementation based on a field programmable gate array using finite impulse response filters and an optimized correlation demodulator implementation for ultrasound orthogonal signals is developed. Orthogonal codes are modulated onto ultrasound signals using frequency shift keying with carrier frequencies of 24.5 kHz and 26 kHz. This implementation enhances the possibilities for real-time, embedded and low-power tracking of several simultaneous transmitters. Due to the high degree of parallelism offered by field programmable gate arrays, up to four transmitters can be tracked simultaneously. The implementation requires at most 30% of the available logic gates of a Spartan-6 XC6SLX45 device and is evaluated on accuracy and precision through several ranging topologies. In the first topology, the distance between one transmitter and one receiver is evaluated. Afterwards, ranging analyses are applied between two simultaneous transmitters and one receiver. Ultimately, the position of the receiver against four transmitters using trilateration is also demonstrated. Results show enhanced distance measurements with distances ranging from a few centimeters up to 17 m, while keeping a centimeter-level accuracy.

  4. Update on ESTCP Project ER-0918: Field Sampling and Sample Processing for Metals on DoD Ranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-30

    recovery of antimony is evident with conventional analysis; new digestion process needed 22 ...applicable to both metals and energetics Experimental Design –Task 1 ● Multi-increment versus grab samples ● Number of increments per decision unit...for digestate preparation 4 Experimental Design –Task 1 5 Single DU Grab Sample FP MI Sample Berm Sample Type 5 10 20 30 50 100 50 50 Pb &#60 400

  5. 2Kx2K resolution element photon counting MCP sensor with >200 kHz event rate capability

    CERN Document Server

    Vallerga, J V

    2000-01-01

    Siegmund Scientific undertook a NASA Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) contract to develop a versatile, high-performance photon (or particle) counting detector combining recent technical advances in all aspects of Microchannel Plate (MCP) detector development in a low cost, commercially viable package that can support a variety of applications. The detector concept consists of a set of MCPs whose output electron pulses are read out with a crossed delay line (XDL) anode and associated high-speed event encoding electronics. The delay line anode allows high-resolution photon event centroiding at very high event rates and can be scaled to large formats (>40 mm) while maintaining good linearity and high temporal stability. The optimal sensitivity wavelength range is determined by the choice of opaque photocathodes. Specific achievements included: spatial resolution of 200 000 events s sup - sup 1; local rates of >100 events s sup - sup 1 per resolution element; event timing of <1 ns; and low background ...

  6. New Power Quality Indices for the Assessment of Waveform Distortions from 0 to 150 kHz in Power Systems with Renewable Generation and Modern Non-Linear Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Alfieri

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The widespread use of power electronics converters, e.g., to interface renewable generation systems with the grid or to supply some high-efficiency loads, has caused increased levels of waveform distortions in the modern distribution system. Voltage and current waveforms include spectral components from 0 kHz to 150 kHz, characterized by a non-uniform time-frequency behavior. This wide interval of frequencies is currently divided into “low-frequency” (from 0 kHz to 2 kHz and “high-frequency” (from 2 kHz to 150 kHz. While the low-frequencies have been exhaustively investigated in the relevant literature and are covered by adequate standardization, studies for the high-frequencies have been addressed only in the last decade to fill current regulatory gaps. In this paper, new power quality (PQ indices for the assessment of waveform distortions from 0 kHz to 150 kHz are proposed. Specifically, some currently available indices have been properly modified in order to extend their application also to wide-spectrum waveforms. In the particular case of waveform distortions due to renewable generation, numerical applications prove that the proposed indices are useful tools for the characterization of problems (e.g., overheating, equipment malfunctioning, losses due to skin effects, hysteresis losses or eddy current losses in cases of both low-frequency and high-frequency distortions.

  7. Listening for bats: the hearing range of the bushcricket Phaneroptera falcata for bat echolocation calls measured in the field.

    OpenAIRE

    Schul, J.; Matt, F; von Helversen, O

    2000-01-01

    The hearing range of the tettigoniid Phaneropterafalcata for the echolocation calls of freely flying mouseeared bats (Myotis myotis) was determined in the field. The hearing of the insect was monitored using hook electrode recordings from an auditory interneuron, which is as sensitive as the hearing organ for frequencies above 16 kHz. The flight path of the bat relative to the insect's position was tracked by recording the echolocation calls with two microphone arrays, and calculating the bat...

  8. Echolocation signals of free-ranging killer whales (Orcinus orca) and modeling of foraging for chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au, Whitlow W. L.; Ford, John K. B.; Horne, John K.; Allman, Kelly A. Newman

    2004-02-01

    Fish-eating ``resident''-type killer whales (Orcinus orca) that frequent the coastal waters off northeastern Vancouver Island, Canada have a strong preference for chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). The whales in this region often forage along steep cliffs that extend into the water, echolocating their prey. Echolocation signals of resident killer whales were measured with a four-hydrophone symmetrical star array and the signals were simultaneously digitized at a sample rate of 500 kHz using a lunch-box PC. A portable VCR recorded the images from an underwater camera located adjacent to the array center. Only signals emanating from close to the beam axis (1185 total) were chosen for a detailed analysis. Killer whales project very broadband echolocation signals (Q equal 0.9 to 1.4) that tend to have bimodal frequency structure. Ninety-seven percent of the signals had center frequencies between 45 and 80 kHz with bandwidths between 35 and 50 kHz. The peak-to-peak source level of the echolocation signals decreased as a function of the one-way transmission loss to the array. Source levels varied between 195 and 224 dB re:1 μPa. Using a model of target strength for chinook salmon, the echo levels from the echolocation signals are estimated for different horizontal ranges between a whale and a salmon. At a horizontal range of 100 m, the echo level should exceed an Orcinus hearing threshold at 50 kHz by over 29 dB and should be greater than sea state 4 noise by at least 9 dB. In moderately heavy rain conditions, the detection range will be reduced substantially and the echo level at a horizontal range of 40 m would be close to the level of the rain noise.

  9. Ranging and Correlating Sensor Development Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-11-01

    left and the RPY97 is on the right. The RPY97 has nearly identical construction 3-160 Fiue33.RY6(et n P9 Rgt 3-16 𔃾.,Z and operational characteristics...reduced about 50% using the 1 Hz cut- off. For a fast moving target (i.e., brisk walk or run as opposed to crawling or creeping ) however, the signal level...cancel. There remains however, a 3-183 A *Kc*- * ~. *~ *~ g -. * p9 hi UJ 0 *~ 0 *, *o .~0 0) ~ 0) Es 0. - 0) SI CO 6 55flL1~.U,-., -1 0) *~ .. *, 𔃾

  10. pH and temperature dual-sensitive liposome gel based on novel cleavable mPEG-Hz-CHEMS polymeric vaginal delivery system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Daquan; Sun, Kaoxiang; Mu, Hongjie; Tang, Mingtan; Liang, Rongcai; Wang, Aiping; Zhou, Shasha; Sun, Haijun; Zhao, Feng; Yao, Jianwen; Liu, Wanhui

    2012-01-01

    Background In this study, a pH and temperature dual-sensitive liposome gel based on a novel cleavable hydrazone-based pH-sensitive methoxy polyethylene glycol 2000-hydrazone-cholesteryl hemisuccinate (mPEG-Hz-CHEMS) polymer was used for vaginal administration. Methods The pH-sensitive, cleavable mPEG-Hz-CHEMS was designed as a modified pH-sensitive liposome that would selectively degrade under locally acidic vaginal conditions. The novel pH-sensitive liposome was engineered to form a thermogel at body temperature and to degrade in an acidic environment. Results A dual-sensitive liposome gel with a high encapsulation efficiency of arctigenin was formed and improved the solubility of arctigenin characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry. The dual-sensitive liposome gel with a sol-gel transition at body temperature was degraded in a pH-dependent manner, and was stable for a long period of time at neutral and basic pH, but cleavable under acidic conditions (pH 5.0). Arctigenin encapsulated in a dual-sensitive liposome gel was more stable and less toxic than arctigenin loaded into pH-sensitive liposomes. In vitro drug release results indicated that dual-sensitive liposome gels showed constant release of arctigenin over 3 days, but showed sustained release of arctigenin in buffers at pH 7.4 and pH 9.0. Conclusion This research has shed some light on a pH and temperature dual-sensitive liposome gel using a cleavable mPEG-Hz-CHEMS polymer for vaginal delivery. PMID:22679372

  11. The Effect of 217 Hz Magnetic Field of Cell Phone with Different Intensities on Apoptosis of Normal and Cancerous Cells Treated with Chemotherapy Drug

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahsa Mansourian

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: According to the increasing development of home and business electronic equipment in today's world, the biological effects of ELF magnetic fields have been studied at two molecular-cellular and animal- human levels. Considering the therapeutic viewpoint of this study regarding the effects of low-frequency fields of mobile phone, the effect of acute exposure to this field on chemotherapy will be studied.Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, based on measurement of the intensity of the magnetic fields from mobile phones in another research, flux densities of magnetic field of 159.44, 93.25 and 120µ tesla with frequency of 217Hz was generated in magnetic field generator system, and the apoptosis level in K562 cancer cells and healthy cells of lymphocytes was assessed after exposure to field using flow cytometry method. This evaluation method was also performed for the cells treated with bleomycin after exposure to this field.Results: 217 Hz magnetic field exposure significantly increases the rate of apoptosis percentage (p > 0.05 in K562 cancer cells and in two intensities of 120 and 159.44µ tesla compared to the control group, but such effect is not observed in lymphocyte cells. Bleomycin-induced apoptosis percentage following exposure to the mentioned magnetic field shows no significant difference compared to the group of treatment with drug and without field exposure. This lack of significant difference is observed between the groups of drug after field exposure and field alone as well as between groups exposed to field and groups treated with bleomycin.Conclusion: Study results showed that 217 Hz magnetic field of mobile phone can induce apoptosis on cancer cells, but it has no effect on healthy cells. Thus, in order to use mobile phone as an effective factor in their treatment, some studies should be conducted at animal-human level.

  12. Physiological Ripples (± 100 Hz) in Spike-Free Scalp EEGs of Children With and Without Epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooij, Anne H; Raijmann, Renee C M A; Jansen, Floor E; Braun, Kees P J; Zijlmans, Maeike

    2017-11-01

    Pathological high frequency oscillations (HFOs, >80 Hz) are considered new biomarkers for epilepsy. They have mostly been recorded invasively, but pathological ripples (80-250 Hz) can also be found in scalp EEGs with frequent epileptiform spikes. Physiological HFOs also exist. They have been recorded invasively in hippocampus and neocortex. There are no reports of spontaneously occurring physiological HFOs recorded with scalp EEG. We aimed to study ripples in spike-free scalp EEGs. We included 23 children (6 with, 17 without epilepsy) who had an EEG without interictal epileptiform spikes recorded during sleep. We differentiated true ripples from spurious ripples such as filtering effects of sharp artifacts and high frequency components of muscle artifacts by viewing ripples simultaneously in bipolar and average montage and double-checking the unfiltered signal. We calculated mean frequency, duration and root mean square amplitude of the ripples, and studied their shape and distribution. We found ripples in EEGs of 20 out of 23 children (4 with, 16 without epilepsy). Ripples had a regular shape and occurred mostly on central and midline channels. Mean frequency was 102 Hz, mean duration 70 ms, mean root mean square amplitude 0.95 µV. Ripples occurring in normal EEGs of children without epilepsy were considered physiological; the similarity in appearance suggested that the ripples occurring in normal EEGs of children with epilepsy were also physiological. The finding that it is possible to study physiological neocortical ripples in scalp EEG paves the way for investigating their occurrence during brain development and their relation with cognitive functioning.

  13. Spectral-timing Analysis of the Lower kHz QPO in the Low-mass X-Ray Binary Aquila X-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troyer, Jon S.; Cackett, Edward M.

    2017-01-01

    Spectral-timing products of kilohertz quasi-periodic oscillations (kHz QPOs) in low-mass X-ray binary (LMXB) systems, including energy- and frequency-dependent lags, have been analyzed previously in 4U 1608-52, 4U 1636-53, and 4U 1728-34. Here, we study the spectral-timing properties of the lower kHz QPO of the neutron star LMXB Aquila X-1 for the first time. We compute broadband energy lags as well as energy-dependent lags and the covariance spectrum using data from the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer. We find characteristics similar to those of previously studied systems, including soft lags of ˜30 μs between the 3.0-8.0 keV and 8.0-20.0 keV energy bands at the average QPO frequency. We also find lags that show a nearly monotonic trend with energy, with the highest-energy photons arriving first. The covariance spectrum of the lower kHz QPO is well fit by a thermal Comptonization model, though we find a seed photon temperature higher than that of the mean spectrum, which was also seen in Peille et al. and indicates the possibility of a composite boundary layer emitting region. Lastly, we see in one set of observations an Fe K component in the covariance spectrum at 2.4-σ confidence, which may raise questions about the role of reverberation in the production of lags.

  14. Effects of the Electromagnetic field, 60 Hz, 3 µT, on the hormonal and metabolic regulation of undernourished pregnant rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CWSF. Anselmo

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies have implicated maternal protein-calorie deficiency as an important public health problem in developing countries. Over the last decades, a remarkable diffusion of electricity and an increased level of the electromagnetic field (EMF in the environment have characterized modern societies. Therefore, researchers are concerned with the biological effects of 50-60 Hz, EMF. The aim of this paper is to show the effects of EMF of 60 Hz, 3 μT, exposure for two hours per day in the regulation of the hormonal and metabolic concentrations in pregnant rats, which were fed by Regional Basic Diet (RBD during their pregnancy as compared with pregnant rats fed a standard diet. Pregnant rats exposed to EMF of 60 Hz, 3 μT, over the pregnancy and fed with RBD presented an increase in glucose release when compared with the Group subjected only to the RBD ration. Rats fed RBD presented a decrease in their insulin and cortisol serum levels when compared with the Group fed with casein. The T3 and T4 concentrations presented the greatest variation among the Groups. The relation T4:T3 was much exaggerated in the Group subjected to RDB and exposed to EMF when compared to the others. In conclusion, the group subjected to the association of EMF and undernutrition suffered a decrease in its serum concentration of T4 and T3 when compared to the well-nourished group and the relationship T4:T3 in the former group was almost eighteen-fold the later one.

  15. Optical coherence elastography based on high speed imaging of single-hot laser-induced acoustic waves at 16 kHz frame rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Shaozhen; Hsieh, Bao-Yu; Wei, Wei; Shen, Tueng; Pelivanov, Ivan; O'Donnell, Matthew; Wang, Ruikang K.

    2016-03-01

    Shear wave OCE (SW-OCE) is a novel technique that relies on the detection of the localized shear wave speed to map tissue elasticity. In this study, we demonstrate high speed imaging to capture single-shot transient shear wave propagation for SW-OCE. The fast imaging speed is achieved using a Fourier domain mode-locked (FDML) high-speed swept-source OCT (SS-OCT) system. The frame rate of shear wave imaging is 16 kHz, at an A-line rate of ~1.62 MHz, enabling the detection of high-frequency shear waves up to 8 kHz in bandwidth. Several measures are taken to improve the phase-stability of the SS-OCT system, and the measured displacement sensitivity is ~10 nanometers. To facilitate non-contact elastography, shear waves are generated with the photo-thermal effect using an ultra-violet pulsed laser. High frequency shear waves launched by the pulsed laser contain shorter wavelengths and carry rich localized elasticity information. Benefiting from single-shot acquisition, each SWI scan only takes 2.5 milliseconds, and the reconstruction of the elastogram can be performed in real-time with ~20 Hz refresh rate. SW-OCE measurements are demonstrated on porcine cornea ex vivo. This study is the first demonstration of an all-optical method to perform real-time 3D SW-OCE. It is hoped that this technique will be applicable in the clinic to obtain high-resolution localized quantitative measurements of tissue biomechanical properties.

  16. In vitro T lymphocyte adherence capabilities under the influence of lower induction values (0.1 - 0.01 mT) of 50 Hz external magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čoček, A.; Jandová, A.; Hahn, A.; Mártonová, J.; Ambruš, M.; Dohnalová, A.; Nedbalová, M.; Pokorný, J.

    2011-12-01

    Our research thus far has concerned the impact of external magnetic fields (50 Hz) and low (0.01-10 mT) induction on adherence capabilities of T lymphocytes obtained from the blood of patients with head and neck tumors. We know that the in vitro adherence capability of T lymphocytes towards surfaces in cancer patients is less than that of control. Previously, we have found that exposure to magnetic fields (50 Hz / 0.01-10 mT) increases the capability of T lymphocytes, in larynx/pharynx cancer patients, to adhere in vitro to surfaces, achieving almost physiological values, in not only pre-treatment patients but also those receiving treatment in the course of follow-up. The capability of T lymphocytes in controls (voluntary blood donors) to adhere to surfaces was also increased (50 Hz / 0.01-0.5 mT). The present study concentrates on the significance of the level of magnetic field induction in order to determine whether low induction values can restore T lymphocytes adherence capabilities. Testing a set of 20 patients showed a statistically significant difference (p < 0.05) in the in vitro adherence capacity of T lymphocytes between both 0.01 and 0.05, and 0.1 mT induction levels. In the control group (patients diagnosed with chronic sensorineural hearing loss) there was even a statistically significant difference between induction values of 0.05 and 0.01 mT. Therefore, we concluded that lower induction values resulted in a more biologically significant response.

  17. High-average-power 2 μm few-cycle optical parametric chirped pulse amplifier at 100 kHz repetition rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamir, Yariv; Rothhardt, Jan; Hädrich, Steffen; Demmler, Stefan; Tschernajew, Maxim; Limpert, Jens; Tünnermann, Andreas

    2015-12-01

    Sources of long wavelengths few-cycle high repetition rate pulses are becoming increasingly important for a plethora of applications, e.g., in high-field physics. Here, we report on the realization of a tunable optical parametric chirped pulse amplifier at 100 kHz repetition rate. At a central wavelength of 2 μm, the system delivered 33 fs pulses and a 6 W average power corresponding to 60 μJ pulse energy with gigawatt-level peak powers. Idler absorption and its crystal heating is experimentally investigated for a BBO. Strategies for further power scaling to several tens of watts of average power are discussed.

  18. TO A QUESTION OF FEASIBILITY OF APPLICATION OF 100 HZ VIBRATION IN TREATMENT AND REHABILITATION OF THE PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. N. Zaripova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is study of feasibility of application of instrumental 100 Hz vibration of the thorax for rehabilitation of COPD patients.Materials and methods. This aim is achieved by clinical observation of 43 COPD patients of 1st and 2nd severity, 77.4 % from which were patients with low risk of exacerbations. Research has been carried out during the stable period of disease. The following parameters have been analyzed: dynamics of the clinical state, spirometry data, clinical - biochemical indicators of blood reflecting presence of the inflammatory process activity, a number of indicators of immune system. Two groups of patients, which were equivalent in an initial state on age, disease severity, expressiveness of functional violations, have been isolated. The 1st group contained 20 persons was the main one. It received 100 Hz vibration impact on the thorax on the background of exercises with physical therapy and inhalations of physiological solution. The 2nd group contained 23 persons obtained in addition sea-buckthorn paste.Results. It has been revealed that the course of 100 Hz vibration impact on the thorax is accompanied, mainly, with positive subjective dynamics in the form of decrease of frequency and expressiveness of complaints. At that it has been noted improvement of bronchial passability due to improved drainage of bronchial tubes, but only at the patients with initial violations of ventilation. Only additional reception of sea-buckthorn paste on the background of vibrotherapy contributes to decrease of subclinical inflammation activity and strengthening of immunological protection. Essential positive results of treatment have been reached only for a half of the surveyed patients that allows to speak about non-expediency or low expediency of use of 100 Hz vibration for CODT patients even 1st and 2nd severity in the stable period of course of the disease.

  19. Occupational exposure to 50 Hz magnetic fields does not alter responses of inflammatory genes and activation of splenic lymphocytes in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Luo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The objective of the present study was to observe the effects of 50 Hz magnetic fields (MFs on the immune function of splenic lymphocytes in mice. Material and Methods: Twenty male Kunming mice (6 weeks old, weighing 18– 25 g, were randomly divided into sham exposure (N = 10 and 500 μT MFs (N = 10 groups. The mice in the MFs group were exposed to 500 μT MFs for 8 h daily (5 days/week for up to 60 days. In vitro study was carried out to examine the effects of 50 Hz MFs on the expression of inflammatory factor genes and a cluster of differentiation 69 (CD69 in mouse prime splenic lymphocytes activated by para-Methoxyamphetamine (PMA and ionomycin. In the in vitro experiments, lymphocytes were isolated from the spleen of 10 healthy Kunming mice, the cells were cultured in the Roswell Park Memorial Institute 1640 medium (RPMI-1640 and exposed to 0 μT, 250 μT, 500 μT, or 1 mT MFs in an incubator under 5% carbon dioxide (CO2 at 37°C for 6 h. The levels of interleukin-2 (IL-2, IL-4, interferon-gamma (IFN-γ, GATA binding protein 3 (GATA-3 and T cell-specific T-box transcription factor (T-bet were assessed by the real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR, respectively. The expression of CD69 was checked using the flow cytometry. Results: Under our experimental conditions, body weight of the mice exposed to occupational, extremely low frequency- electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMFs significantly decreased on day 20 and day 30. There were no significant changes observed in vivo in spleen weight, splenic coefficient, splenic histology profile and cytokine production in spleen tissues. Our in vitro experiments showed that 50 Hz MFs had no effect on the expression of these genes and CD69 to primary splenic cells. Conclusions: In conclusion, under the applied experimental conditions, occupational exposure to 50 Hz magnetic field did not alter responses of inflammatory genes and activation of splenic

  20. Laser-induced backside wet etching of silica glass with ns-pulsed DPSS UV laser at the repetition rate of 40 kHz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niino, Hiroyuki; Kawaguchi, Yoshizo; Sato, Tadatake; Narazaki, Aiko; Gumpenberger, Thomas; Kurosaki, Ryozo [Photonics Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba Central 5, Higashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8565 (Japan)

    2007-04-15

    Surface micro-structuring of silica glass plates was performed by using laser- induced backside wet etching (LIBWE) upon irradiation with a single-mode laser beam from a diode-pumped solid-state (DPSS) UV laser with 40 kHz repetition rate at 266 nm. We have succeeded in a well-defined micro-pattern formation without debris and microcrack generation around the etched area on the basis of a galvanometer scanning system for the laser beam. Bubble dynamics after liquid ablation was monitored by impulse pressure detection with a fast- response piezoelectric pressure gauge.