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Sample records for randomly selected women

  1. Randomized Controlled Trial of Acupuncture for Women with Fibromyalgia: Group Acupuncture with Traditional Chinese Medicine Diagnosis-Based Point Selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mist, Scott D; Jones, Kim Dupree

    2018-02-13

    Group acupuncture is a growing and cost-effective method for delivering acupuncture in the United States and is the practice model in China. However, group acupuncture has not been tested in a research setting. To test the treatment effect of group acupuncture vs group education in persons with fibromyalgia. Random allocation two-group study with repeated measures. Group clinic in an academic health center in Portland, Oregon. Women with confirmed diagnosis of fibromyalgia (American College of Radiology 1990 criteria) and moderate to severe pain levels. Twenty treatments of a manualized acupuncture treatment based on Traditional Chinese Medicine diagnosis or group education over 10 weeks (both 900 minutes total). Weekly Revised Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQR) and Global Fatigue Index at baseline, five weeks, and 10 weeks and a four-week follow-up were assessed. Thirty women were recruited, with 78% reporting symptoms for longer than 10 years. The mean attendance was 810 minutes for acupuncture and 861 minutes for education. FIQR total, FIQR pain, and Global Fatigue Index all had clinically and statistically significant improvement in the group receiving acupuncture at end of treatment and four weeks post-treatment but not in participants receiving group education between groups. Compared with education, group acupuncture improved global symptom impact, pain, and fatigue. Furthermore, it was a safe and well-tolerated treatment option, improving a broader proportion of patients than current pharmaceutical options.

  2. Rural Women\\'s Response To Selected Crop Production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study centered on rural women's response to selected crop production technologies in Imo State with a view to making policy recommendations. Structured questionnaire and interview schedule were administered through the assistance of extension agents to 258 randomly sampled rural women farmers from the three ...

  3. Blocked Randomization with Randomly Selected Block Sizes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimmy Efird

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available When planning a randomized clinical trial, careful consideration must be given to how participants are selected for various arms of a study. Selection and accidental bias may occur when participants are not assigned to study groups with equal probability. A simple random allocation scheme is a process by which each participant has equal likelihood of being assigned to treatment versus referent groups. However, by chance an unequal number of individuals may be assigned to each arm of the study and thus decrease the power to detect statistically significant differences between groups. Block randomization is a commonly used technique in clinical trial design to reduce bias and achieve balance in the allocation of participants to treatment arms, especially when the sample size is small. This method increases the probability that each arm will contain an equal number of individuals by sequencing participant assignments by block. Yet still, the allocation process may be predictable, for example, when the investigator is not blind and the block size is fixed. This paper provides an overview of blocked randomization and illustrates how to avoid selection bias by using random block sizes.

  4. Blocked randomization with randomly selected block sizes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efird, Jimmy

    2011-01-01

    When planning a randomized clinical trial, careful consideration must be given to how participants are selected for various arms of a study. Selection and accidental bias may occur when participants are not assigned to study groups with equal probability. A simple random allocation scheme is a process by which each participant has equal likelihood of being assigned to treatment versus referent groups. However, by chance an unequal number of individuals may be assigned to each arm of the study and thus decrease the power to detect statistically significant differences between groups. Block randomization is a commonly used technique in clinical trial design to reduce bias and achieve balance in the allocation of participants to treatment arms, especially when the sample size is small. This method increases the probability that each arm will contain an equal number of individuals by sequencing participant assignments by block. Yet still, the allocation process may be predictable, for example, when the investigator is not blind and the block size is fixed. This paper provides an overview of blocked randomization and illustrates how to avoid selection bias by using random block sizes.

  5. Malaria parasitemia amongst pregnant women attending selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A cross-sectional study to determine malaria parasitemia amongst 300 randomly selected pregnant women attending government and private healthcare facilities in Rivers State was carried out. Blood samples were obtained through venous procedure and the presence or absence of Plasmodium was determined ...

  6. Women Have to Enter the Leadership Race to Win: Using Random Selection to Increase the Supply of Women into Senior Positions

    OpenAIRE

    Goodall, Amanda H.; Osterloh, Margit

    2015-01-01

    The supply of women into senior management has changed little despite well-intentioned efforts. We argue that the biggest effect is from supply-side factors that inhibit females' decision to enter competitions: Women are under-confident about winning, men are over-confident; women are more risk averse than men in some settings; and, most importantly, women shy away from competition. In order to change the conditions under which this is the case, this paper proposes a radical idea. It is to us...

  7. Randomized selection on the GPU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monroe, Laura Marie [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wendelberger, Joanne R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Michalak, Sarah E [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2011-01-13

    We implement here a fast and memory-sparing probabilistic top N selection algorithm on the GPU. To our knowledge, this is the first direct selection in the literature for the GPU. The algorithm proceeds via a probabilistic-guess-and-chcck process searching for the Nth element. It always gives a correct result and always terminates. The use of randomization reduces the amount of data that needs heavy processing, and so reduces the average time required for the algorithm. Probabilistic Las Vegas algorithms of this kind are a form of stochastic optimization and can be well suited to more general parallel processors with limited amounts of fast memory.

  8. Information seeking behaviour of pregnant women in selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study sought to ascertain the information seeking behaviour of pregnant women in selected hospitals of Ibadan Metropolis. The study adopted the survey design. The study's population encompassed of 1900 pregnant women in selected hospitals. Proportional random sampling technique was used to draw samples ...

  9. Random selection of Borel sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernd Günther

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available A theory of random Borel sets is presented, based on dyadic resolutions of compact metric spaces. The conditional expectation of the intersection of two independent random Borel sets is investigated. An example based on an embedding of Sierpinski’s universal curve into the space of Borel sets is given.

  10. Factors influencing waist/hip ratio in randomly selected pre- and post-menopausal women in the dom-project (preliminary results)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Tonkelaar, I.; Seidell, J C; van Noord, P.A.H.; Baanders-van Halewijn, E A; Jacobus, J H; Bruning, P.F.

    1989-01-01

    In 452 pre- and post-menopausal women aged 41-75, participating in a breast cancer screening programme, we studied the associations between several factors and waist/hip ratio. Differences in waist/hip ratio between pre- and post-menopausal women could be accounted for by age and degree of obesity.

  11. Genital chlamydia, genital herpes, Trichomonas vaginalis and gonorrhea prevalence, and risk factors among nearly 70,000 randomly selected women in 4 Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, Mette Tuxen; Nielsen, Ann; Nygård, Mari

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of women reporting ever having genital chlamydia, genital herpes, Trichomonas vaginalis, and gonorrhea, and to identify factors associated with each of these sexually transmitted infections (STIs).......The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of women reporting ever having genital chlamydia, genital herpes, Trichomonas vaginalis, and gonorrhea, and to identify factors associated with each of these sexually transmitted infections (STIs)....

  12. Microstructural Parameters of Bone Evaluated Using HR-pQCT Correlate with the DXA-Derived Cortical Index and the Trabecular Bone Score in a Cohort of Randomly Selected Premenopausal Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popp, Albrecht W.; Buffat, Helene; Eberli, Ursula; Lippuner, Kurt; Ernst, Manuela; Richards, R. Geoff; Stadelmann, Vincent A.; Windolf, Markus

    2014-01-01

    Background Areal bone mineral density is predictive for fracture risk. Microstructural bone parameters evaluated at the appendicular skeleton by high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT) display differences between healthy patients and fracture patients. With the simple geometry of the cortex at the distal tibial diaphysis, a cortical index of the tibia combining material and mechanical properties correlated highly with bone strength ex vivo. The trabecular bone score derived from the scan of the lumbar spine by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) correlated ex vivo with the micro architectural parameters. It is unknown if these microstructural correlations could be made in healthy premenopausal women. Methods Randomly selected women between 20–40 years of age were examined by DXA and HR-pQCT at the standard regions of interest and at customized sub regions to focus on cortical and trabecular parameters of strength separately. For cortical strength, at the distal tibia the volumetric cortical index was calculated directly from HR-pQCT and the areal cortical index was derived from the DXA scan using a Canny threshold-based tool. For trabecular strength, the trabecular bone score was calculated based on the DXA scan of the lumbar spine and was compared with the corresponding parameters derived from the HR-pQCT measurements at radius and tibia. Results Seventy-two healthy women were included (average age 33.8 years, average BMI 23.2 kg/m2). The areal cortical index correlated highly with the volumetric cortical index at the distal tibia (R  =  0.798). The trabecular bone score correlated moderately with the microstructural parameters of the trabecular bone. Conclusion This study in randomly selected premenopausal women demonstrated that microstructural parameters of the bone evaluated by HR-pQCT correlated with the DXA derived parameters of skeletal regions containing predominantly cortical or cancellous bone. Whether these indexes

  13. Microstructural parameters of bone evaluated using HR-pQCT correlate with the DXA-derived cortical index and the trabecular bone score in a cohort of randomly selected premenopausal women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albrecht W Popp

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Areal bone mineral density is predictive for fracture risk. Microstructural bone parameters evaluated at the appendicular skeleton by high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT display differences between healthy patients and fracture patients. With the simple geometry of the cortex at the distal tibial diaphysis, a cortical index of the tibia combining material and mechanical properties correlated highly with bone strength ex vivo. The trabecular bone score derived from the scan of the lumbar spine by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA correlated ex vivo with the micro architectural parameters. It is unknown if these microstructural correlations could be made in healthy premenopausal women. METHODS: Randomly selected women between 20-40 years of age were examined by DXA and HR-pQCT at the standard regions of interest and at customized sub regions to focus on cortical and trabecular parameters of strength separately. For cortical strength, at the distal tibia the volumetric cortical index was calculated directly from HR-pQCT and the areal cortical index was derived from the DXA scan using a Canny threshold-based tool. For trabecular strength, the trabecular bone score was calculated based on the DXA scan of the lumbar spine and was compared with the corresponding parameters derived from the HR-pQCT measurements at radius and tibia. RESULTS: Seventy-two healthy women were included (average age 33.8 years, average BMI 23.2 kg/m(2. The areal cortical index correlated highly with the volumetric cortical index at the distal tibia (R  =  0.798. The trabecular bone score correlated moderately with the microstructural parameters of the trabecular bone. CONCLUSION: This study in randomly selected premenopausal women demonstrated that microstructural parameters of the bone evaluated by HR-pQCT correlated with the DXA derived parameters of skeletal regions containing predominantly cortical or cancellous bone

  14. Species selection and random drift in macroevolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevin, Luis-Miguel

    2016-03-01

    Species selection resulting from trait-dependent speciation and extinction is increasingly recognized as an important mechanism of phenotypic macroevolution. However, the recent bloom in statistical methods quantifying this process faces a scarcity of dynamical theory for their interpretation, notably regarding the relative contributions of deterministic versus stochastic evolutionary forces. I use simple diffusion approximations of birth-death processes to investigate how the expected and random components of macroevolutionary change depend on phenotype-dependent speciation and extinction rates, as can be estimated empirically. I show that the species selection coefficient for a binary trait, and selection differential for a quantitative trait, depend not only on differences in net diversification rates (speciation minus extinction), but also on differences in species turnover rates (speciation plus extinction), especially in small clades. The randomness in speciation and extinction events also produces a species-level equivalent to random genetic drift, which is stronger for higher turnover rates. I then show how microevolutionary processes including mutation, organismic selection, and random genetic drift cause state transitions at the species level, allowing comparison of evolutionary forces across levels. A key parameter that would be needed to apply this theory is the distribution and rate of origination of new optimum phenotypes along a phylogeny. © 2016 The Author(s). Evolution © 2016 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  15. A Randomized, Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Trial of Oral Creatine Monohydrate Augmentation for Enhanced Response to a Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor in Women With Major Depressive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae-Suk; Hwang, Jaeuk; Kim, Jieun E.; Won, Wangyoun; Bae, Sujin; Renshaw, Perry F.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Antidepressants targeting monoaminergic neurotransmitter systems, despite their immediate effects at the synaptic level, usually require several weeks of administration to achieve clinical efficacy. The authors propose a strategy of adding creatine monohydrate (creatine) to a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) in the treatment of patients with major depressive disorder. Such augmentation may lead to a more rapid onset of antidepressant effects and a greater treatment response, potentially by restoring brain bioenergetics at the cellular level. Method Fifty-two women with major depressive disorder were enrolled in an 8-week double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial and randomly assigned to receive escitalopram in addition to either creatine (5 g/day, N=25) or placebo (N=27). Efficacy was primarily assessed by changes in the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D) score. Results In comparison to the placebo augmentation group, patients receiving creatine augmentation showed significantly greater improvements in HAM-D score, as early as week 2 of treatment. This differential improvement favoring creatine was maintained at weeks 4 and 8. There were no differences between treatment groups in the proportion of patients who discontinued treatment prematurely (creatine: N=8, 32.0%; placebo: N=5, 18.5%) or in the overall frequency of all reported adverse events (creatine: 36 events; placebo: 45 events). Conclusions The current study suggests that creatine augmentation of SSRI treatment may be a promising therapeutic approach that exhibits more rapid and efficacious responses in women with major depressive disorder. PMID:22864465

  16. Improving randomness characterization through Bayesian model selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz Hernández Rojas, Rafael; Solís, Aldo; Angulo Martínez, Alí M; U'Ren, Alfred B; Hirsch, Jorge G; Marsili, Matteo; Pérez Castillo, Isaac

    2017-06-08

    Random number generation plays an essential role in technology with important applications in areas ranging from cryptography to Monte Carlo methods, and other probabilistic algorithms. All such applications require high-quality sources of random numbers, yet effective methods for assessing whether a source produce truly random sequences are still missing. Current methods either do not rely on a formal description of randomness (NIST test suite) on the one hand, or are inapplicable in principle (the characterization derived from the Algorithmic Theory of Information), on the other, for they require testing all the possible computer programs that could produce the sequence to be analysed. Here we present a rigorous method that overcomes these problems based on Bayesian model selection. We derive analytic expressions for a model's likelihood which is then used to compute its posterior distribution. Our method proves to be more rigorous than NIST's suite and Borel-Normality criterion and its implementation is straightforward. We applied our method to an experimental device based on the process of spontaneous parametric downconversion to confirm it behaves as a genuine quantum random number generator. As our approach relies on Bayesian inference our scheme transcends individual sequence analysis, leading to a characterization of the source itself.

  17. 32 CFR 1624.1 - Random selection procedures for induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Random selection procedures for induction. 1624... SYSTEM INDUCTIONS § 1624.1 Random selection procedures for induction. (a) The Director of Selective Service shall from time to time establish a random selection sequence for induction by a drawing to be...

  18. Randomized Trial of a Lifestyle Program in Obese Infertile Women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mutsaerts, Meike A. Q.; van Oers, Anne M.; Groen, Henk; Burggraaff, Jan M.; Kuchenbecker, Walter K. H.; Perquin, Denise A. M.; Koks, Carolien A. M.; van Golde, Ron; Kaaijk, Eugenie M.; Schierbeek, Jaap M.; Oosterhuis, Gerrit J. E.; Broekmans, Frank J.; Bemelmans, Wanda J. E.; Lambalk, Cornelis B.; Verberg, Marieke F. G.; van der Veen, Fulco; Klijn, Nicole F.; Mercelina, Patricia E. A. M.; van Kasteren, Yvonne M.; Nap, Annemiek W.; Brinkhuis, Egbert A.; Vogel, Niels E. A.; Mulder, Robert J. A. B.; Gondrie, Ed T. C. M.; de Bruin, Jan P.; Sikkema, J. Marko; de Greef, Mathieu H. G.; ter Bogt, Nancy C. W.; Land, Jolande A.; Mol, Ben W. J.; Hoek, Annemieke

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Small lifestyle-intervention studies suggest that modest weight loss increases the chance of conception and may improve perinatal outcomes, but large randomized, controlled trials are lacking. METHODS We randomly assigned infertile women with a body-mass index (the weight in kilograms

  19. In-Place Randomized Slope Selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blunck, Henrik; Vahrenhold, Jan

    2006-01-01

    Slope selection is a well-known algorithmic tool used in the context of computing robust estimators for fitting a line to a collection P of n points in the plane. We demonstrate that it is possible to perform slope selection in expected O(nlogn) time using only constant extra space in addition to...

  20. Random effect selection in generalised linear models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Denwood, Matt; Houe, Hans; Forkman, Björn

    We analysed abattoir recordings of meat inspection codes with possible relevance to onfarm animal welfare in cattle. Random effects logistic regression models were used to describe individual-level data obtained from 461,406 cattle slaughtered in Denmark. Our results demonstrate that the largest ...

  1. Sequential selection of random vectors under a sum constraint

    OpenAIRE

    Stanke, Mario

    2004-01-01

    We observe a sequence X1,X2,...,Xn of independent and identically distributed coordinatewise nonnegative d-dimensional random vectors. When a vector is observed it can either be selected or rejected but once made this decision is final. In each coordinate the sum of the selected vectors must not exceed a given constant. The problem is to find a selection policy that maximizes the expected number of selected vectors. For a general absolutely continuous distribution of t...

  2. Women in the Army: A Selected Bibliography,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-02-01

    44. (Army orders all comianders to deal swiftly and fairly with cases of sexual harrassment .) 21. Halverson, Guy. "Women Invade Military Bastions...women in combat.) 3. Adams, Virginia. "Jane Crow in the Army: Obstacles to Sexual Inte- gration." Psychology Today, Vol. 14, October 1980, pp. 50-64... Sexual tension still exists in the Army, caused by frequent pregnancies, discrepencies in strength, and male prejudice.) 4. Bailey, Mildred. "Army

  3. Selective termination of pregnancy and women's reproductive autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overall, C

    1990-01-01

    The debate over abortion has another dimension that acts as an issue to clarify and expand many of the justifications for abortion. Selective reduction of multiple gestations is a procedure that many women involved in fertility programs have had to undergo. Selective reduction serves as an example of abortion that more clearly establishes a woman's right to reproductive freedom. In order to understand selective reduction, and thus abortion, it is necessary to examine the social context in which women exist. Infertility is perceived as a serious problem for a women because children, genetically related children are seen as necessity for women. To this end women are pressured to do whatever it takes emotionally, psychologically, or economically to have a child. Therefore women turn to infertility programs that use fertility enhancing drugs or in vitro fertilization. This is a medical intervention that women choose because of social pressure to have children. It often results in multiple gestations. Such a situation not only decreases the chances for a successful outcome for the fetuses, but more importantly it puts a greater strain on the body of the woman. This point is most critical since it is the women's body that must gestate the multiple fetuses and the physical toll increases with each additional fetus. Seen in this context, selective reduction is simply a medical solution to a problem caused by another medical solution. Yet to most, including physicians, women who seek selective reduction are seen as immoral. What this view fails to realize is that when a woman is faced with this decision, she has been put in this situation by social pressure in the 1st place. There are some that advocate a limit on the number of fetuses that can be present before selective reduction is allowed. 3 is the most often cited number, but is women are allowed to abort singletons, then why couldn't they reduce 3 to 1? In a society where abortion is legal, selective reduction should

  4. Raloxifene for women with Alzheimer disease: A randomized controlled pilot trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Victor W; Ala, Tom; Sainani, Kristin L; Bernstein, Allan L; Stephenson, B Sue; Rosen, Allyson C; Farlow, Martin R

    2015-12-01

    To determine whether raloxifene, a selective estrogen receptor modulator, improves cognitive function compared with placebo in women with Alzheimer disease (AD) and to provide an estimate of cognitive effect. This pilot study was conducted as a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, with a planned treatment of 12 months. Women with late-onset AD of mild to moderate severity were randomly allocated to high-dose (120 mg) oral raloxifene or identical placebo provided once daily. The primary outcome compared between treatment groups at 12 months was change in the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale, cognitive subscale (ADAS-cog). Forty-two women randomized to raloxifene or placebo were included in intent-to-treat analyses (mean age 76 years, range 68-84), and 39 women contributed 12-month outcomes. ADAS-cog change scores at 12 months did not differ significantly between treatment groups (standardized difference 0.03, 95% confidence interval -0.39 to 0.44, 2-tailed p = 0.89). Raloxifene and placebo groups did not differ significantly on secondary analyses of dementia rating, activities of daily living, behavior, or a global cognition composite score. Caregiver burden and caregiver distress were similar in both groups. Results on the primary outcome showed no cognitive benefits in the raloxifene-treated group. This study provides Class I evidence that for women with AD, raloxifene does not have a significant cognitive effect. The study lacked the precision to exclude a small effect. © 2015 American Academy of Neurology.

  5. Characteristics And Role Of Women In Artisanal Fishery In Selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Characteristics And Role Of Women In Artisanal Fishery In Selected Riverine Communities In Southwestern Nigeria. ... Dissemination of improved processing methods, provision of electricity and upgrading existing road network were l recommended. Keywords: Women, artisanal fishery. Global Approaches to Extension ...

  6. A Selected List of Women's Biographies for the Social Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Styer, Sandra

    1984-01-01

    The women's biographies cited can provide models for personal and career development and can acquaint secondary students with the roles and accomplishments of women representing various cultural and racial-ethnic groups throughout history. Criteria for selecting cited items, which address issues of sexism and discrimination, are listed. (RM)

  7. Selectivity and sparseness in randomly connected balanced networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cengiz Pehlevan

    Full Text Available Neurons in sensory cortex show stimulus selectivity and sparse population response, even in cases where no strong functionally specific structure in connectivity can be detected. This raises the question whether selectivity and sparseness can be generated and maintained in randomly connected networks. We consider a recurrent network of excitatory and inhibitory spiking neurons with random connectivity, driven by random projections from an input layer of stimulus selective neurons. In this architecture, the stimulus-to-stimulus and neuron-to-neuron modulation of total synaptic input is weak compared to the mean input. Surprisingly, we show that in the balanced state the network can still support high stimulus selectivity and sparse population response. In the balanced state, strong synapses amplify the variation in synaptic input and recurrent inhibition cancels the mean. Functional specificity in connectivity emerges due to the inhomogeneity caused by the generative statistical rule used to build the network. We further elucidate the mechanism behind and evaluate the effects of model parameters on population sparseness and stimulus selectivity. Network response to mixtures of stimuli is investigated. It is shown that a balanced state with unselective inhibition can be achieved with densely connected input to inhibitory population. Balanced networks exhibit the "paradoxical" effect: an increase in excitatory drive to inhibition leads to decreased inhibitory population firing rate. We compare and contrast selectivity and sparseness generated by the balanced network to randomly connected unbalanced networks. Finally, we discuss our results in light of experiments.

  8. Online psychoeducational support for infertile women: a randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cousineau, Tara M.; Green, Traci C.; Corsini, Evelyn; Seibring, A; Showstack, Marianne T.; Applegarth, Linda; Davidson, Marie; Perloe, Mark

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND The study goal was to develop and test the effectiveness of a brief online education and support program for female infertility patients. METHODS A randomized-controlled trial was conducted. Using a Solomon-four group design, 190 female patients were recruited from three US fertility centers and were randomized into two experimental and two no-treatment control groups. The psychological outcomes assessed included infertility distress, infertility self-efficacy, decisional conflict, marital cohesion and coping style. Program dosage and satisfaction were also assessed at four weeks follow-up. RESULTS Women exposed to the online program significantly improved in the area of social concerns (P = 0.038) related to infertility distress, and felt more informed about a medical decision with which they were contending (P = 0.037). Trends were observed for decreased global stress (P = 0.10), sexual concerns (P = 0.059), distress related to child-free living (P = 0.063), increased infertility self-efficacy (P = 0.067) and decision making clarity (P = 0.079). A dosage response was observed in the experimental groups for women who spent >60 min online for decreased global stress (P = 0.028) and increased self efficacy (P = 0.024). CONCLUSIONS This evidence-based eHealth program for women experiencing infertility suggests that a web-based patient education intervention can have beneficial effects in several psychological domains and may be a cost effective resource for fertility practices. PMID:18089552

  9. Fast, Randomized Join-Order Selection - Why Use Transformations?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.A. Galindo-Legaria; A.J. Pellenkoft (Jan); M.L. Kersten (Martin)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractWe study the effectiveness of probabilistic selection of join-query evaluation plans, without reliance on tree transformation rules. Instead, each candidate plan is chosen uniformly at random from the space of valid evaluation orders. This leads to a transformation-free strategy where a

  10. The reliability of randomly selected final year pharmacy students in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Employing ANOVA, factorial experimental analysis, and the theory of error, reliability studies were conducted on the assessment of the drug product chloroquine phosphate tablets. The G–Study employed equal numbers of the factors for uniform control, and involved three analysts (randomly selected final year Pharmacy ...

  11. Local randomization in neighbor selection improves PRM roadmap quality

    KAUST Repository

    McMahon, Troy

    2012-10-01

    Probabilistic Roadmap Methods (PRMs) are one of the most used classes of motion planning methods. These sampling-based methods generate robot configurations (nodes) and then connect them to form a graph (roadmap) containing representative feasible pathways. A key step in PRM roadmap construction involves identifying a set of candidate neighbors for each node. Traditionally, these candidates are chosen to be the k-closest nodes based on a given distance metric. In this paper, we propose a new neighbor selection policy called LocalRand(k,K\\'), that first computes the K\\' closest nodes to a specified node and then selects k of those nodes at random. Intuitively, LocalRand attempts to benefit from random sampling while maintaining the higher levels of local planner success inherent to selecting more local neighbors. We provide a methodology for selecting the parameters k and K\\'. We perform an experimental comparison which shows that for both rigid and articulated robots, LocalRand results in roadmaps that are better connected than the traditional k-closest policy or a purely random neighbor selection policy. The cost required to achieve these results is shown to be comparable to k-closest. © 2012 IEEE.

  12. Yoga decreases insomnia in postmenopausal women: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afonso, Rui Ferreira; Hachul, Helena; Kozasa, Elisa Harumi; Oliveira, Denise de Souza; Goto, Viviane; Rodrigues, Dinah; Tufik, Sérgio; Leite, José Roberto

    2012-02-01

    The practice of yoga has been proven to have positive effects on reducing insomnia. Studies have also shown its effects on reducing climacteric symptoms. To date, however, no studies that evaluate the effects of yoga on postmenopausal women with a diagnosis of insomnia in a randomized clinical trial have been conducted. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of yoga practice on the physical and mental health and climacteric symptoms of postmenopausal women with a diagnosis of insomnia. Postmenopausal women not undergoing hormone therapy, who were 50 to 65 years old, who had an apnea-hypopnea index less than 15, and who had a diagnosis of insomnia were randomly assigned to one of three groups, as follows: control, passive stretching, and yoga. Questionnaires were administered before and 4 months after the intervention to evaluate quality of life, anxiety and depression symptoms, climacteric symptoms, insomnia severity, daytime sleepiness, and stress. The volunteers also underwent polysomnography. The study lasted 4 months. There were 44 volunteers at the end of the study. When compared with the control group, the yoga group had significantly lower posttreatment scores for climacteric symptoms and insomnia severity and higher scores for quality of life and resistance phase of stress. The reduction in insomnia severity in the yoga group was significantly higher than that in the control and passive-stretching groups. This study showed that a specific sequence of yoga might be effective in reducing insomnia and menopausal symptoms as well as improving quality of life in postmenopausal women with insomnia.

  13. The effectiveness of critical time intervention for abused women leaving women's shelters: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lako, Danielle A M; Beijersbergen, Mariëlle D; Jonker, Irene E; de Vet, Renée; Herman, Daniel B; van Hemert, Albert M; Wolf, Judith R L M

    2018-01-03

    To examine the effectiveness of critical time intervention (CTI)-an evidence-based intervention-for abused women transitioning from women's shelters to community living. A randomized controlled trial was conducted in nine women's shelters across the Netherlands. 136 women were assigned to CTI (n = 70) or care-as-usual (n = 66). Data were analyzed using intention-to-treat three-level mixed-effects models. Women in the CTI group had significant fewer symptoms of post-traumatic stress (secondary outcome) (adjusted mean difference - 7.27, 95% CI - 14.31 to - 0.22) and a significant fourfold reduction in unmet care needs (intermediate outcome) (95% CI 0.06-0.94) compared to women in the care-as-usual group. No differences were found for quality of life (primary outcome), re-abuse, symptoms of depression, psychological distress, self-esteem (secondary outcomes), family support, and social support (intermediate outcomes). This study shows that CTI is effective in a population of abused women in terms of a reduction of post-traumatic stress symptoms and unmet care needs. Because follow-up ended after the prescribed intervention period, further research is needed to determine the full long-term effects of CTI in this population.

  14. Women's Health and Mindfulness (WHAM): A Randomized Intervention Among Older Lesbian/Bisexual Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingraham, Natalie; Harbatkin, Dawn; Lorvick, Jennifer; Plumb, Marj; Minnis, Alexandra M

    2017-05-01

    Lesbian and bisexual (LB) women have higher body weight than heterosexual women. Interventions focused on health and well-being versus weight loss may be more likely to succeed among LB women. This article describes effects of Women's Health and Mindfulness, a 12-week pilot intervention addressing mindfulness, healthy eating, and physical activity, on outcomes associated with chronic disease risk among overweight and obese LB women older than 40 years. Eighty women were randomized, using a stepped-wedge design, to either an immediate- or a delayed-start intervention group; the delayed-start group served as the control. Eligible participants were aged 40 years or older, identified as LB, and had a body mass index of 27 or greater. We compared differences in biological markers of chronic disease, mindfulness, nutrition, and physical activity between immediate- and delayed-start intervention groups. We observed clinically significant improvements in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol but no change in hemoglobin A1c. We found evidence of intervention effects on improved mindfulness and mindful eating scores and on nutrition (improved vegetable intake). The Women's Health and Mindfulness pilot intervention appears to have initiated positive behavioral and physical health changes in this population. Refinements to the intervention model, such as extended intervention duration, and longer term follow-up are warranted to determine sustained effects.

  15. Music therapy to relieve anxiety in pregnant women on bedrest: a randomized, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Min; Li, Lingjiang; Zhu, Haili; Alexander, Ivy M; Liu, Shan; Zhou, Wei; Ren, Xiaohong

    2009-01-01

    To explore the effect of music therapy on anxiety alleviation for antepartal women on bedrest in China. One hundred and twenty patients recruited from one tertiary hospital in Changsha city, China were enrolled in a randomized controlled trial. Women in the experimental group received music therapy for 30 minutes on 3 consecutive days. Usual care participants had a 30-minute rest on 3 consecutive days. Variables included anxiety (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory), and physiological responses (vital signs, fetal heart rate). Descriptive statistics, t tests, chi tests, Wilcoxon rank sum tests, and Pearson correlation analyses were used to analyze the data. Anxiety levels decreased and physiological responses improved significantly in the intervention group, which was provided with music therapy while on bedrest. Carefully selected music that incorporates a patient's own preferences may offer an inexpensive and effective method to reduce anxiety for antepartal women with high risk pregnancies who are on bedrest.

  16. Selecting a phoneme-to-grapheme mapping: Random or weighted selection?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binna Lee

    2015-05-01

    Our findings demonstrate that random selection underestimates MOA’s PG correspondences whereas weighted selection predicts higher PG correspondences than he produces. To explain his intermediate spelling performance on PPEs, we will test additional approaches to weighing the relative probability of PG mappings, including using log frequencies, separating consonant and vowel status, and considering the number of grapheme options in each phoneme.

  17. Selection for altruism through random drift in variable size populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houchmandzadeh, Bahram; Vallade, Marcel

    2012-05-10

    Altruistic behavior is defined as helping others at a cost to oneself and a lowered fitness. The lower fitness implies that altruists should be selected against, which is in contradiction with their widespread presence is nature. Present models of selection for altruism (kin or multilevel) show that altruistic behaviors can have 'hidden' advantages if the 'common good' produced by altruists is restricted to some related or unrelated groups. These models are mostly deterministic, or assume a frequency dependent fitness. Evolutionary dynamics is a competition between deterministic selection pressure and stochastic events due to random sampling from one generation to the next. We show here that an altruistic allele extending the carrying capacity of the habitat can win by increasing the random drift of "selfish" alleles. In other terms, the fixation probability of altruistic genes can be higher than those of a selfish ones, even though altruists have a smaller fitness. Moreover when populations are geographically structured, the altruists advantage can be highly amplified and the fixation probability of selfish genes can tend toward zero. The above results are obtained both by numerical and analytical calculations. Analytical results are obtained in the limit of large populations. The theory we present does not involve kin or multilevel selection, but is based on the existence of random drift in variable size populations. The model is a generalization of the original Fisher-Wright and Moran models where the carrying capacity depends on the number of altruists.

  18. Selection for altruism through random drift in variable size populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houchmandzadeh Bahram

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Altruistic behavior is defined as helping others at a cost to oneself and a lowered fitness. The lower fitness implies that altruists should be selected against, which is in contradiction with their widespread presence is nature. Present models of selection for altruism (kin or multilevel show that altruistic behaviors can have ‘hidden’ advantages if the ‘common good’ produced by altruists is restricted to some related or unrelated groups. These models are mostly deterministic, or assume a frequency dependent fitness. Results Evolutionary dynamics is a competition between deterministic selection pressure and stochastic events due to random sampling from one generation to the next. We show here that an altruistic allele extending the carrying capacity of the habitat can win by increasing the random drift of “selfish” alleles. In other terms, the fixation probability of altruistic genes can be higher than those of a selfish ones, even though altruists have a smaller fitness. Moreover when populations are geographically structured, the altruists advantage can be highly amplified and the fixation probability of selfish genes can tend toward zero. The above results are obtained both by numerical and analytical calculations. Analytical results are obtained in the limit of large populations. Conclusions The theory we present does not involve kin or multilevel selection, but is based on the existence of random drift in variable size populations. The model is a generalization of the original Fisher-Wright and Moran models where the carrying capacity depends on the number of altruists.

  19. Women's participation in parliament: 'Glass ceiling' syndrome and party selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čičkarić Lilijana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact of 'glass ceiling' syndrome and party selection on participation of women in parliament and other political institutions are examined in this article. 'Glass ceiling' syndrome, which means invisible, but almost impenetrable border that women face in professional life, keeping them away from positions of influence and progress in career, is the main reason for the small number of women involved in politics. According to the focus of the research, there are three groups of barriers to women's political participation. Most researchers examine the influence of the political system, institutional and legal mechanisms, the question of their transparency and functional improvement. Significantly less frequent approach came from authors who are concentrated on the social and economic barriers, financial conditions and the broader social context. The third group consists of those who are considering the ideological and psychological barriers, patriarchal cultural patterns, traditional gender roles, self-confidence, ambition and women's desire to be involved in politics. Political parties are key actors in the process of discrimination against women, because they do not allow them to be selected in a number of political functions. There are many factors that determine that the issue of gender equality is variously interpreted in political parties. The most present are contextual and ideological factors, referring to a different definition of the status of women on the political agenda, the social climate in terms of gender equality and respect for human rights, the level of social development and political freedom. Then come organizational factors pertaining to the structure of parties, the manner in which the leadership is elected, whether there are internal women's pressure groups and lobbying, and are women leaders are visible on high positions in decision-making process. Finally, there are institutional-legal factors, which include the type

  20. Women in the Labor Force. A Selected Bibliography,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-12-01

    1976. 408 pp. (HD6093 .A45) (Selections bring the reader to the center of history, to the housekeepers, factory workers, secretaries, waitresses and...society. Based on a survey of 2400 women, this book shows we’ve only seen the tip of the iceberg.) 8 48. Rand Corporation. Why Participation Rates

  1. Pelvic floor assessment after delivery: how should women be selected?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soligo, Marco; Livio, Stefania; De Ponti, Elena; Scebba, Ileana; Carpentieri, Federica; Serati, Maurizio; Ferrazzi, Enrico

    2016-11-01

    Pelvic floor dysfunction after delivery is quite common. New mothers deserve to receive targeted care for pelvic floor dysfunction, but how should women who are at risk be identified and selected for treatment? This study investigated risk factors and puerperal health-seeking behaviours to develop a restrictive patient selection model for postpartum pelvic floor dysfunction assessment. This prospective observational study involved women who were at ≥32 weeks gestational age when they delivered in a tertiary referral maternity hospital in Milan, Italy, between July and December 2014. Eligible women were scheduled for a 3-month postnatal pelvic floor clinic. The adherence rate to the pelvic floor clinic and the prevalence of pelvic floor dysfunctions at 3 months postpartum were recorded. Univariable and logistic multivariable analyses were performed to select risk factors for pelvic floor dysfunctions. Risk factors were then tested for sensitivity and specificity for 3-month postpartum pelvic floor dysfunctions. Of 1606 eligible women, 1293 (80.5%) were included in the analysis; 685 puerperal women (53.0%) adhered to the 3-month postnatal pelvic floor clinic; pelvic floor dysfunctions were detected in 238 women (34.7%). Four elements emerged as risk factors: symptoms before pregnancy (OR 1.72, 95% CI 1.15-2.56; p=0.008), symptoms during pregnancy (OR 2.13, 95% CI 1.49-3.06; p<0.0001), vacuum extractor use (OR 1.62, 95% CI 1.04-2.54; p=0.034), and severe perineal tears (OR 19.45, 95% CI 2.42-156.15; p=0.005). The combined sensitivity and specificity for the 4 risk factors were 82% and 39%, respectively. Internal risk factors analysis offers the potential to efficiently restrict patient selection for follow-up. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Can an Educational Intervention Improve Iodine Nutrition Status in Pregnant Women? A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiri, Parisa; Hamzavi Zarghani, Najmeh; Nazeri, Pantea; Ghofranipour, Fazlollah; Karimi, Mehrdad; Amouzegar, Atieh; Mirmiran, Parvin; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2017-03-01

    Because of their increased need for iodine, pregnant women are among the high-risk groups for iodine deficiency. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an educational program on the iodine nutrition status of pregnant women. In this randomized controlled trial, 100 pregnant women were randomly selected from five healthcare centers in the southern region of Tehran, the capital of Iran. In the intervention group, pregnant women received a four-month educational program, which included two face-to-face educational sessions, using a researcher-designed educational pamphlet in the second and third trimesters, and two follow-up telephone calls. Knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) scores, urinary iodine concentration (UIC), and salt iodine content were assessed at baseline and four months after the intervention. At baseline, there were significant associations between knowledge and attitude (r = 0.38, p = 0.03) between practice and UIC (r = 0.28, p = 0.01) and between UIC and iodine content of salt (r = 0.24, p = 0.009). Although a significant difference was found in mean KAP scores between the two groups after the educational intervention, scores were significantly higher in the intervention group compared with controls (p educational intervention increasing KAP among women regarding the importance of iodine and iodized salt consumption during pregnancy, their iodine status did not improve. Considering the main socio-environmental determinants of iodine deficiency, in particular, the monitoring of salt fortification, prescribing iodine containing supplements as well as improving health literacy in pregnant women seem essential strategies.

  3. Interference-aware random beam selection for spectrum sharing systems

    KAUST Repository

    Abdallah, Mohamed M.

    2012-09-01

    Spectrum sharing systems have been introduced to alleviate the problem of spectrum scarcity by allowing secondary unlicensed networks to share the spectrum with primary licensed networks under acceptable interference levels to the primary users. In this paper, we develop interference-aware random beam selection schemes that provide enhanced throughput for the secondary link under the condition that the interference observed at the primary link is within a predetermined acceptable value. For a secondary transmitter equipped with multiple antennas, our schemes select a random beam, among a set of power- optimized orthogonal random beams, that maximizes the capacity of the secondary link while satisfying the interference constraint at the primary receiver for different levels of feedback information describing the interference level at the primary receiver. For the proposed schemes, we develop a statistical analysis for the signal-to-noise and interference ratio (SINR) statistics as well as the capacity of the secondary link. Finally, we present numerical results that study the effect of system parameters including number of beams and the maximum transmission power on the capacity of the secondary link attained using the proposed schemes. © 2012 IEEE.

  4. Restaurant and food shopping selections among Latino women in Southern California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala, Guadalupe X; Mueller, Kristin; Lopez-Madurga, Eva; Campbell, Nadia R; Elder, John P

    2005-01-01

    This study describes and examines determinants of restaurant and food store selections in a sample of Latino women. Data were collected at the baseline home-based interview from women involved in a randomized community trial to improve dietary behaviors. The interview consisted of both a structured interview and the measurements of height, weight, and waist-to-hip ratio. Participants included 357 Latino women recruited via random-digit dial in the Southern and Central areas of San Diego County, California. Women were included if they were between 18 and 67 years of age, not currently pregnant, and Spanish-language dominant; women were excluded if a family member was on a special diet or was planning to leave the area during the study. Means and frequencies were used to describe preference for various types of restaurants and food stores based on the North American Industry Classification System (NAICS). Independent samples t tests examined differences in levels of importance for preferring fast-food vs other restaurants and supermarkets/produce markets vs other grocery stores. Logistic regression models examined correlates of preferring fast-food restaurants vs all other restaurants and preferring supermarkets/produce markets vs all other grocery stores. More women reported eating at fast-food restaurants, followed by full-service restaurants and cafeterias. Younger women, employed women, women living in higher income households, and women living in the United States for a greater number of years preferred fast food. Supermarkets; grocery stores; and discount, bulk-purchase stores were equally represented as the primary food store. Women who lived in smaller households, had a smaller measured body mass, were married, and were more acculturated to the Anglo culture were more likely to shop at supermarkets compared with women who shopped at other grocery stores. Our findings suggest specific recommendations for targeting dietary interventions for the growing Latino

  5. Unbiased split variable selection for random survival forests using maximally selected rank statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Marvin N; Dankowski, Theresa; Ziegler, Andreas

    2017-04-15

    The most popular approach for analyzing survival data is the Cox regression model. The Cox model may, however, be misspecified, and its proportionality assumption may not always be fulfilled. An alternative approach for survival prediction is random forests for survival outcomes. The standard split criterion for random survival forests is the log-rank test statistic, which favors splitting variables with many possible split points. Conditional inference forests avoid this split variable selection bias. However, linear rank statistics are utilized by default in conditional inference forests to select the optimal splitting variable, which cannot detect non-linear effects in the independent variables. An alternative is to use maximally selected rank statistics for the split point selection. As in conditional inference forests, splitting variables are compared on the p-value scale. However, instead of the conditional Monte-Carlo approach used in conditional inference forests, p-value approximations are employed. We describe several p-value approximations and the implementation of the proposed random forest approach. A simulation study demonstrates that unbiased split variable selection is possible. However, there is a trade-off between unbiased split variable selection and runtime. In benchmark studies of prediction performance on simulated and real datasets, the new method performs better than random survival forests if informative dichotomous variables are combined with uninformative variables with more categories and better than conditional inference forests if non-linear covariate effects are included. In a runtime comparison, the method proves to be computationally faster than both alternatives, if a simple p-value approximation is used. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. The signature of positive selection at randomly chosen loci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przeworski, Molly

    2002-03-01

    In Drosophila and humans, there are accumulating examples of loci with a significant excess of high-frequency-derived alleles or high levels of linkage disequilibrium, relative to a neutral model of a random-mating population of constant size. These are features expected after a recent selective sweep. Their prevalence suggests that positive directional selection may be widespread in both species. However, as I show here, these features do not persist long after the sweep ends: The high-frequency alleles drift to fixation and no longer contribute to polymorphism, while linkage disequilibrium is broken down by recombination. As a result, loci chosen without independent evidence of recent selection are not expected to exhibit either of these features, even if they have been affected by numerous sweeps in their genealogical history. How then can we explain the patterns in the data? One possibility is population structure, with unequal sampling from different subpopulations. Alternatively, positive selection may not operate as is commonly modeled. In particular, the rate of fixation of advantageous mutations may have increased in the recent past.

  7. Effects of a Randomized Controlled Trial to Increase Repeat Mammography Screening in Iranian Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taymoori, Parvaneh; Molina, Yamile; Roshani, Daem

    2015-01-01

    Although mammography use has increased in developed countries, regular screening in developing countries including Iran remains low. Multiple frameworks, including the Health Belief Model (HBM) and the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB), have been used to understand screening practices among Iranians. The HBM includes intrapersonal constructs such as perceptions of breast cancer and mammography. The TPB includes interpersonal and environmental constructs, such as perceived control and subjective norms. The current study had 2 objectives: (1) to examine changes in the HBM and TPB constructs and repeat mammography screening in women receiving either intervention and women in the control group and (2) to compare changes in the HBM and TPB constructs and repeat mammography screening across the 2 interventions. One hundred eight-four women from 3 randomly selected health centers in Sanandaj, Iran, participated. Eligibility criteria were being 50 years or older, having received a mammogram in the past 2 to 3 years, and no intention to obtain a mammogram within the next year. The TPB and HBM participants exhibited greater changes in the HBM and TPB constructs and were more likely to have a mammogram relative to control participants. The TPB and HBM participants exhibited comparable changes in constructs and repeat mammography. Findings suggest both interventions equally improved mammography screening. Additional studies are furthermore warranted to address nonadherent Iranian women's needs in line with these conceptual models. Use of the HBM and TPB constructs in clinical practice may be helpful to promote continued screening among this population.

  8. Blind Measurement Selection: A Random Matrix Theory Approach

    KAUST Repository

    Elkhalil, Khalil

    2016-12-14

    This paper considers the problem of selecting a set of $k$ measurements from $n$ available sensor observations. The selected measurements should minimize a certain error function assessing the error in estimating a certain $m$ dimensional parameter vector. The exhaustive search inspecting each of the $n\\\\choose k$ possible choices would require a very high computational complexity and as such is not practical for large $n$ and $k$. Alternative methods with low complexity have recently been investigated but their main drawbacks are that 1) they require perfect knowledge of the measurement matrix and 2) they need to be applied at the pace of change of the measurement matrix. To overcome these issues, we consider the asymptotic regime in which $k$, $n$ and $m$ grow large at the same pace. Tools from random matrix theory are then used to approximate in closed-form the most important error measures that are commonly used. The asymptotic approximations are then leveraged to select properly $k$ measurements exhibiting low values for the asymptotic error measures. Two heuristic algorithms are proposed: the first one merely consists in applying the convex optimization artifice to the asymptotic error measure. The second algorithm is a low-complexity greedy algorithm that attempts to look for a sufficiently good solution for the original minimization problem. The greedy algorithm can be applied to both the exact and the asymptotic error measures and can be thus implemented in blind and channel-aware fashions. We present two potential applications where the proposed algorithms can be used, namely antenna selection for uplink transmissions in large scale multi-user systems and sensor selection for wireless sensor networks. Numerical results are also presented and sustain the efficiency of the proposed blind methods in reaching the performances of channel-aware algorithms.

  9. Cancer Screening Knowledge Changes: Results from a Randomized Control Trial of Women with Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parish, Susan L.; Rose, Roderick A.; Luken, Karen; Swaine, Jamie G.; O'Hare, Lindsey

    2012-01-01

    Background: Women with developmental disabilities are much less likely than nondisabled women to receive cervical and breast cancer screening according to clinical guidelines. One barrier to receipt of screenings is a lack of knowledge about preventive screenings. Method: To address this barrier, we used a randomized control trial (n = 175 women)…

  10. Randomized, Controlled Trial to Examine the Impact of Providing Yogurt to Women Enrolled in WIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Ellen B.; Ritchie, Lorrene D.; Walker, Brent H.; Gildengorin, Ginny; Crawford, Patricia B.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Examine the impact of providing yogurt to women enrolled in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC). Design: Randomized, controlled intervention trial. Setting: Two California WIC local agency sites. Participants: 511 pregnant, breast-feeding, or postpartum women. Intervention: Substitution of…

  11. Pediatric selective mutism therapy: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Maria; Gimigliano, Francesca; Barillari, Maria R; Precenzano, Francesco; Ruberto, Maria; Sepe, Joseph; Barillari, Umberto; Gimigliano, Raffaele; Militerni, Roberto; Messina, Giovanni; Carotenuto, Marco

    2017-10-01

    Selective mutism (SM) is a rare disease in children coded by DSM-5 as an anxiety disorder. Despite the disabling nature of the disease, there is still no specific treatment. The aims of this study were to verify the efficacy of six-month standard psychomotor treatment and the positive changes in lifestyle, in a population of children affected by SM. Randomized controlled trial registered in the European Clinical Trials Registry (EuDract 2015-001161-36). University third level Centre (Child and Adolescent Neuropsychiatry Clinic). Study population was composed by 67 children in group A (psychomotricity treatment) (35 M, mean age 7.84±1.15) and 71 children in group B (behavioral and educational counseling) (37 M, mean age 7.75±1.36). Psychomotor treatment was administered by trained child therapists in residential settings three times per week. Each child was treated for the whole period by the same therapist and all the therapists shared the same protocol. The standard psychomotor session length is of 45 minutes. At T0 and after 6 months (T1) of treatments, patients underwent a behavioral and SM severity assessment. To verify the effects of the psychomotor management, the Child Behavior Checklist questionnaire (CBCL) and Selective Mutism Questionnaire (SMQ) were administered to the parents. After 6 months of psychomotor treatment SM children showed a significant reduction among CBCL scores such as in social relations, anxious/depressed, social problems and total problems (Ppsychomotricity a safe and efficacy therapy for pediatric selective mutism.

  12. Physical and psychologic effects of aromatherapy inhalation on pregnant women: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igarashi, Toshiko

    2013-10-01

    Stress reduction care is important for pregnant women to decrease obstetric complications and children's health problems after birth. The aim of this study is to clarify the physical and psychologic effects of inhalation aromatherapy on pregnant women. Essential oils with high linalool and linalyl acetate content that may be used during pregnancy were selected and among these, and the one preferred by the participant was used. This was a prospective, randomized, controlled trial. This trial was performed at a gynecology outpatient department in a hospital in Kyoto, Japan. The study included pregnant women in week 28 of a single pregnancy with a normal course. Participants were randomly assigned into an aromatherapy group and a control group. They were seated in the resting, seated position for 10 minutes. During the latter 5 minutes of each 10-minute session, aromatherapy inhalation was performed for the aromatherapy group. Before and after the intervention, the Profile of Mood States (POMS) was measured. During the trial, the heart-rate fluctuations were measured for the autonomic nervous system regulation. A total of 13 pregnant women participated in the trial. Seven (7) participants were assigned to the aromatherapy group and 6 participants to the control group. The results of the POMS were such that based on an intragroup comparison, significant differences were observed in the Tension-Anxiety score (paromatherapy. The results of the autonomic nervous system regulation were such that based on an intragroup comparison within the aromatherapy group, the parasympathetic nerve activity increased significantly (pAromatherapy inhalation using essential oils containing linalyl acetate and linalool was found to be effective for the POMS and parasympathetic nerve activity, based on an intragroup comparison. However, based on a comparison between the groups, no substantial difference was observed; hence, further study is necessary in the future.

  13. Efficacy of escitalopram for hot flashes in healthy menopausal women: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Ellen W; Guthrie, Katherine A; Caan, Bette; Sternfeld, Barbara; Cohen, Lee S; Joffe, Hadine; Carpenter, Janet S; Anderson, Garnet L; Larson, Joseph C; Ensrud, Kristine E; Reed, Susan D; Newton, Katherine M; Sherman, Sheryl; Sammel, Mary D; LaCroix, Andrea Z

    2011-01-19

    Concerns regarding the risks associated with estrogen and progesterone to manage menopausal symptoms have resulted in its declining use and increased interest in nonhormonal treatments with demonstrated efficacy for hot flashes. To determine the efficacy and tolerability of 10 to 20 mg/d escitalopram, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, in alleviating the frequency, severity, and bother of menopausal hot flashes. A multicenter, 8-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group trial that enrolled 205 women (95 African American; 102 white; 8 other) between July 2009 and June 2010. Women received 10 to 20 mg/d of escitalopram or a matching placebo for 8 weeks. Primary outcomes were the frequency and severity of hot flashes assessed by prospective daily diaries at weeks 4 and 8. Secondary outcomes were hot flash bother, recorded on daily diaries, and clinical improvement (defined as hot flash frequency ≥50% decrease from baseline). Mean (SD) daily hot flash frequency was 9.78 (5.60) at baseline. In a modified intent-to-treat analysis that included all randomized participants who provided hot flash diary data, the mean difference in hot flash frequency reduction was 1.41 (95% CI, 0.13-2.69) fewer hot flashes per day at week 8 among women taking escitalopram (P hot flashes per day in the escitalopram and placebo groups, respectively. Fifty-five percent of women in the escitalopram group vs 36% in the placebo group reported a decrease of at least 50% in hot flash frequency (P = .009) at the 8-week follow-up. Reductions in hot flash severity scores were significantly greater in the escitalopram group (-0.52; 95% CI, -0.64 to -0.40 vs -0.30; 95% CI, -0.42 to -0.17 for placebo; P women in the escitalopram group reported a mean 1.59 (95% CI, 0.55-2.63; P = .02) more hot flashes per day than women in the placebo group. Among healthy women, the use of escitalopram (10-20 mg/d) compared with placebo resulted in fewer and less severe menopausal hot

  14. Optimizing Event Selection with the Random Grid Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhat, Pushpalatha C. [Fermilab; Prosper, Harrison B. [Florida State U.; Sekmen, Sezen [Kyungpook Natl. U.; Stewart, Chip [Broad Inst., Cambridge

    2017-06-29

    The random grid search (RGS) is a simple, but efficient, stochastic algorithm to find optimal cuts that was developed in the context of the search for the top quark at Fermilab in the mid-1990s. The algorithm, and associated code, have been enhanced recently with the introduction of two new cut types, one of which has been successfully used in searches for supersymmetry at the Large Hadron Collider. The RGS optimization algorithm is described along with the recent developments, which are illustrated with two examples from particle physics. One explores the optimization of the selection of vector boson fusion events in the four-lepton decay mode of the Higgs boson and the other optimizes SUSY searches using boosted objects and the razor variables.

  15. Hand-in-Hand. Psychological Intervention for Women Newly Diagnosed with Cancer and their Partners. A Randomized Controlled Trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicolaisen, Anne; Gilså Hansen, Dorte; Mariet, Hagedoorn,

    Hand-in-Hand. Psychological Intervention for Women Newly Diagnosed with Cancer and their Partners. A Randomized Controlled Trial.......Hand-in-Hand. Psychological Intervention for Women Newly Diagnosed with Cancer and their Partners. A Randomized Controlled Trial....

  16. Hand-in-Hand. Psychological Intervention for Women Newly Diagnosed with Cancer and their Partners. A Randomized Controlled Trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicolaisen, Anne; Gilså Hansen, Dorte; Hariet, Hagedoorn,

    Hand-in-Hand. Psychological Intervention for Women Newly Diagnosed with Cancer and their Partners. A Randomized Controlled Trial......Hand-in-Hand. Psychological Intervention for Women Newly Diagnosed with Cancer and their Partners. A Randomized Controlled Trial...

  17. A psychological profile of women selected for augmentation mammaplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlebusch, L; Levin, A

    1983-09-24

    Augmentation mammaplasty (AM) is a cosmetic surgical procedure increasingly being sought by women preoccupied with the size of their breasts. There is a divergence of opinion as to the reasons for and the morbidity associated with this. The present study attempts to clarify the reasons for requests for AM and to determine the presence of psychopathology in patients selected for this procedure compared with hospital controls. It was found that these patients generally experienced low self-esteem, depression, self-consciousness and anxiety, and had a poor body-image and psychosexual problems. AM was often sought to alleviate marital, psychosexual and interpersonal problems.

  18. Mindful Yoga for women with metastatic breast cancer: design of a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, James W; Carson, Kimberly M; Olsen, Maren K; Sanders, Linda; Porter, Laura S

    2017-03-13

    Women with metastatic breast cancer (MBC) have average life expectancies of about 2 years, and report high levels of disease-related symptoms including pain, fatigue, sleep disturbance, psychological distress, and functional impairment. There is growing recognition of the limitations of medical approaches to managing such symptoms. Yoga is a mind-body discipline that has demonstrated a positive impact on psychological and functional health in early stage breast cancer patients and survivors, but has not been rigorously studied in advanced cancer samples. This randomized controlled trial examines the feasibility and initial efficacy of a Mindful Yoga program, compared with a social support condition that controls for attention, on measures of disease-related symptoms such as pain and fatigue. The study will be completed by December 2017. Sixty-five women with MBC age ≥ 18 are being identified and randomized with a 2:1 allocation to Mindful Yoga or a support group control intervention. The 120-min intervention sessions take place weekly for 8 weeks. The study is conducted at an urban tertiary care academic medical center located in Durham, North Carolina. The primary feasibility outcome is attendance at intervention sessions. Efficacy outcomes include pain, fatigue, sleep quality, psychological distress, mindfulness and functional capacity at post-intervention, 3-month follow-up, and 6-month follow-up. In this article, we present the challenges of designing a randomized controlled trial with long-term follow-up among women with MBC. These challenges include ensuring adequate recruitment including of minorities, limiting and controlling for selection bias, tailoring of the yoga intervention to address special needs, and maximizing adherence and retention. This project will provide important information regarding yoga as an intervention for women with advanced cancer, including preliminary data on the psychological and functional effects of yoga for MBC

  19. Effect of Adjunctive Raloxifene Therapy on Severity of Refractory Schizophrenia in Women: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Jayashri; Gavrilidis, Emorfia; Gwini, Stella M; Worsley, Roisin; Grigg, Jasmin; Warren, Annabelle; Gurvich, Caroline; Gilbert, Heather; Berk, Michael; Davis, Susan R

    2016-09-01

    A substantial proportion of women with schizophrenia experience debilitating treatment-refractory symptoms. The efficacy of estrogen in modulating brain function in schizophrenia has to be balanced against excess exposure of peripheral tissue. Raloxifene hydrochloride is a selective estrogen receptor modulator (mixed estrogen agonist/antagonist) with potential psychoprotective effects and fewer estrogenic adverse effects. To determine whether adjunctive raloxifene therapy reduces illness severity in women with refractory schizophrenia. This 12-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial with fortnightly assessments was performed at an urban tertiary referral center and a regional center from January 1, 2006, to December 31, 2014. Participants included 56 women with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and marked symptom severity despite substantial and stable antipsychotic doses. Data were analyzed using intention to treat as the basis. Adjunctive raloxifene hydrochloride, 120 mg/d, or placebo for 12 weeks. The primary outcome was the change in the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) total score. Clinical response (defined as a ≥20% decrease in PANSS total score from baseline) and change in PANSS subscale scores, mood, cognition, reproductive hormone levels, and adverse events were also assessed. Of the 56 participants (mean [SD] age, 53 [7.7] years; age range, 40-70 years; mean [SD] duration of psychotic illness, 24 [11] years), 26 were randomized to raloxifene and 30 were randomized to placebo. Raloxifene produced a greater reduction in the PANSS total score relative to placebo (β = -6.37; 95% CI, -11.64 to -1.10; P = .02) and resulted in an increased probability of a clinical response (hazard ratio, 5.79; 95% CI, 1.46 to 22.97; P = .01). A significant reduction was found in the PANSS general symptom scores for the raloxifene compared with the placebo (β = -3.72; 95% CI, -6.83 to -0.61; P = .02) groups

  20. A behavioral strategy to minimize air pollution exposure in pregnant women: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araban, Marzieh; Tavafian, Sedigheh Sadat; Zarandi, Saeed Motesaddi; Hidarnia, Ali Reza; Burri, Andrea; Montazeri, Ali

    2017-04-04

    Pregnant women and their fetus belong to a sensitive group in response to air pollution hazards. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a theory-based educational program to change pollution exposure behavior in pregnant women. In this randomized controlled trial, pregnant women attending a prenatal clinic in Tehran, Iran were selected and randomized into the experimental and control groups. The inclusion criteria were age between 18 and 35 years, having a history of pregnancies without adverse outcomes and not suffering from chronic diseases. Data collected at baseline and 2-month follow-up. At baseline face-to-face interviews were conducted using a valid and reliable questionnaire including items on demographic characteristics, stages of change, self-efficacy, decisional balance and practice regarding air pollution preventive behaviors. The intervention composed of three parts: motivational interviewing, a booklet and daily small message service (SMS). The control group received no intervention except receiving usual care. Follow-up data were collected after the intervention. Data were analyzed performing t-test, Mann-Whitney U test, and chi-squared. In all the data for 104 pregnant women (53 in the intervention and 51 in the control group) were analyzed. The mean age of participants was 27.2 (SD = 4.11) years and it was 22.89 (SD = 8.75) weeks for gestational age. At baseline there were no significant statistical differences between intervention and control groups on the study measures while we found significant group differences in terms of stages of change, self-efficacy, perceived benefits and practice regarding air pollution preventive behaviors at follow-up assessment (P pollution preventive behaviors among pregnant women. This study provided a framework to modify some psychosocial determinants of air pollution preventive behavior other than knowledge using constructs of Transtheoretical model of behavior change, additionally

  1. Effects of health education tool on select epidemiological factors associated with adult obese urban slum women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vora, Deepika Pradeep; Shelke, Pallavi S

    2017-01-01

    National Family Health Survey-3 (2005-2006) India, found that 14.8% of Ever-Married Adults (age 15-49 years) had Body Mass Index (BMI) in the ranges of overweight and obese; compared to 10.6% in the National Family Health Survey-2. These figures highlighted the fact that India already faces a dual burden of chronic malnutrition, i.e., obesity, besides undernutrition. Higher BMI, especially, increased abdominal fat is an important determinant of the development of diabetes. This study aims to understand the effect of health education on obesity status of adult women above the age of 20 years in an urban slum area. Community-based, interventional study, to assess select epidemiological factors associated with obesity-including measurement of anthropometry and assessing random blood sugar level; followed by an intervention (health education to only obese women by means of flip-chart); followed by a follow-up 6 months later. About 22.6% women were found to be obese. Almost, all dietary and physical activity parameters as well as weight improved for the better after the intervention, and the change was statistically significant. This community based interventional study was able to understand certain factors associated with pathophysiology of obesity in slum dwelling adult women, and effectively documented a reduction in weight along with a change in their obesogenic practices postintervention.

  2. A Body Image and Disordered Eating Intervention for Women in Midlife: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Sian A.; Paxton, Susan J.; Wertheim, Eleanor H.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the outcome of a body image and disordered eating intervention for midlife women. The intervention was specifically designed to address risk factors that are pertinent in midlife. Method: Participants were 61 women aged 30 to 60 years (M = 43.92, SD = 8.22) randomly assigned to intervention (n = 32) or (delayed…

  3. Misoprostol versus curettage in women with early pregnancy failure after initial expectant management : a randomized trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graziosi, GCM; Mol, BWJ; Reuwer, PJH; Drogtrop, A; Bruinse, HW

    BACKGROUND: Little is known about the effectiveness of misoprostol treatment in women with early pregnancy failure who have been managed expectantly. We therefore performed a randomized trial on this subject. METHODS: Women with early pregnancy failure, who had been managed expectantly for at least

  4. Event selection with a Random Forest in IceCube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruhe, Tim [TU, Dortmund (Germany); Collaboration: IceCube-Collaboration

    2011-07-01

    The Random Forest method is a multivariate algorithm that can be used for classification and regression respectively. The Random Forest implemented in the RapidMiner learning environment has been used for training and validation on data and Monte Carlo simulations of the IceCube neutrino telescope. Latest results are presented.

  5. Multivitamin and iron supplementation to prevent periconceptional anemia in rural tanzanian women: a randomized, controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilupa S Gunaratna

    Full Text Available Women's nutritional status during conception and early pregnancy can influence maternal and infant outcomes. This study examined the efficacy of pre-pregnancy supplementation with iron and multivitamins to reduce the prevalence of anemia during the periconceptional period among rural Tanzanian women and adolescent girls.A double-blind, randomized controlled trial was conducted in which participants were individually randomized to receive daily oral supplements of folic acid alone, folic acid and iron, or folic acid, iron, and vitamins A, B-complex, C, and E at approximately single recommended dietary allowance (RDA doses for six months.Rural Rufiji District, Tanzania.Non-pregnant women and adolescent girls aged 15-29 years (n = 802.The study arms were comparable in demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, food security, nutritional status, pregnancy history, and compliance with the regimen (p>0.05. In total, 561 participants (70% completed the study and were included in the intention-to-treat analysis. Hemoglobin levels were not different across treatments (median: 11.1 g/dL, Q1-Q3: 10.0-12.4 g/dL, p = 0.65. However, compared with the folic acid arm (28%, there was a significant reduction in the risk of hypochromic microcytic anemia in the folic acid and iron arm (17%, RR: 0.61, 95% CI: 0.42-0.90, p = 0.01 and the folic acid, iron, and multivitamin arm (19%, RR: 0.66, 95% CI: 0.45-0.96, p = 0.03. Inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW to adjust for potential selection bias due to loss to follow-up did not materially change these results. The effect of the regimens was not modified by frequency of household meat consumption, baseline underweight status, parity, breastfeeding status, or level of compliance (in all cases, p for interaction>0.2.Daily oral supplementation with iron and folic acid among women and adolescents prior to pregnancy reduces risk of anemia. The potential benefits of supplementation on the risk of

  6. The Oppressions On Women As Portrayed In Beryonce’s Selected Songs

    OpenAIRE

    Kris, Indri Hariyanti

    2016-01-01

    This thesis entitled The Oppressions On Women As Portrayed In Beyonce Selected Songs. In those selected songs, Beyonce portrays the social phenomenon of the women who often get bad treatment of social and family. This thesis covers the analysis of oppressions or the pressures experienced by women either physically or emotionally. This thesis also covers the analysis of the solutions that Beyonce given to the oppressions that are experienced by women. The conclusion of this thes...

  7. Management of women with human papillomavirus persistence: long-term follow-up of a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elfgren, Kristina; Elfström, K Miriam; Naucler, Pontus; Arnheim-Dahlström, Lisen; Dillner, Joakim

    2017-03-01

    Introduction of human papillomavirus-based screening is ongoing in many countries, given its higher sensitivity and longer-lasting protection compared with cytology-based screening. However, optimal clinical management of human papillomavirus-positive but cytology-negative women is unclear, and additional studies with clinical follow-up are warranted. The aim of the current study was to investigate the long-term outcomes of the clinical management used in a double-blind, randomized clinical trial of human papillomavirus screening conducted in the context of the routine, organized screening program in Sweden. Among 12,527 women aged 32-38 years enrolled in the trial, we followed up the 195 women who attended the colposcopy screening who were cytologically normal but persistently human papillomavirus positive (at least 12 months later; median, 19 months) in the human papillomavirus testing arm (n = 100) or were randomly selected from the control arm (n = 95). Women in the human papillomavirus testing arm were followed up with repeated human papillomavirus testing, cytologies, and colposcopies if persistently human papillomavirus-positive without cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or worse. A similar number of random colposcopies and tests were carried out in the control arm. Women were followed up over 13 years for the main outcome measures: cumulative incidence of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or worse and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 or worse. Among women who continued to attend and had continuous human papillomavirus persistence, all (40 of 40, 100% [95% confidence interval, 91-100%]) developed cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or worse. There were no cases among women who cleared their human papillomavirus persistence (0 of 35, 0% (95% confidence interval, 0-10%) (P < .001). Among women who had had human papillomavirus persistence but did not continue with repeated human papillomavirus tests (unknown persistence

  8. A Randomized Trial of Progesterone in Women with Recurrent Miscarriages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coomarasamy, Arri; Williams, Helen; Truchanowicz, Ewa; Seed, Paul T; Small, Rachel; Quenby, Siobhan; Gupta, Pratima; Dawood, Feroza; Koot, Yvonne E M; Bender Atik, Ruth; Bloemenkamp, Kitty W M; Brady, Rebecca; Briley, Annette L; Cavallaro, Rebecca; Cheong, Ying C; Chu, Justin J; Eapen, Abey; Ewies, Ayman; Hoek, Annemieke; Kaaijk, Eugenie M; Koks, Carolien A M; Li, Tin-Chiu; MacLean, Marjory; Mol, Ben W; Moore, Judith; Ross, Jackie A; Sharpe, Lisa; Stewart, Jane; Vaithilingam, Nirmala; Farquharson, Roy G; Kilby, Mark D; Khalaf, Yacoub; Goddijn, Mariette; Regan, Lesley; Rai, Rajendra

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Progesterone is essential for the maintenance of pregnancy. However, whether progesterone supplementation in the first trimester of pregnancy would increase the rate of live births among women with a history of unexplained recurrent miscarriages is uncertain. METHODS: We conducted a

  9. Study on MAX-MIN Ant System with Random Selection in Quadratic Assignment Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iimura, Ichiro; Yoshida, Kenji; Ishibashi, Ken; Nakayama, Shigeru

    Ant Colony Optimization (ACO), which is a type of swarm intelligence inspired by ants' foraging behavior, has been studied extensively and its effectiveness has been shown by many researchers. The previous studies have reported that MAX-MIN Ant System (MMAS) is one of effective ACO algorithms. The MMAS maintains the balance of intensification and diversification concerning pheromone by limiting the quantity of pheromone to the range of minimum and maximum values. In this paper, we propose MAX-MIN Ant System with Random Selection (MMASRS) for improving the search performance even further. The MMASRS is a new ACO algorithm that is MMAS into which random selection was newly introduced. The random selection is one of the edgechoosing methods by agents (ants). In our experimental evaluation using ten quadratic assignment problems, we have proved that the proposed MMASRS with the random selection is superior to the conventional MMAS without the random selection in the viewpoint of the search performance.

  10. Women in American Agriculture, a Selected Bibliography. Library List 103.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Agricultural Library (USDA), Washington, DC.

    More than 250 citations of materials about women in agriculture in the U.S. are contained in this partially annotated bibliography. It covers women engaged as landowners, farm managers, agricultural laborers and working in such agricultural industries as beekeeping, silk culture, and butter production. Other references concern women in…

  11. Multivitamin and Iron Supplementation to Prevent Periconceptional Anemia in Rural Tanzanian Women: A Randomized, Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunaratna, Nilupa S.; Masanja, Honorati; Mrema, Sigilbert; Levira, Francis; Spiegelman, Donna; Hertzmark, Ellen; Saronga, Naomi; Irema, Kahema; Shuma, Mary; Elisaria, Ester; Fawzi, Wafaie

    2015-01-01

    Objective Women’s nutritional status during conception and early pregnancy can influence maternal and infant outcomes. This study examined the efficacy of pre-pregnancy supplementation with iron and multivitamins to reduce the prevalence of anemia during the periconceptional period among rural Tanzanian women and adolescent girls. Design A double-blind, randomized controlled trial was conducted in which participants were individually randomized to receive daily oral supplements of folic acid alone, folic acid and iron, or folic acid, iron, and vitamins A, B-complex, C, and E at approximately single recommended dietary allowance (RDA) doses for six months. Setting Rural Rufiji District, Tanzania. Subjects Non-pregnant women and adolescent girls aged 15–29 years (n = 802). Results The study arms were comparable in demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, food security, nutritional status, pregnancy history, and compliance with the regimen (p>0.05). In total, 561 participants (70%) completed the study and were included in the intention-to-treat analysis. Hemoglobin levels were not different across treatments (median: 11.1 g/dL, Q1-Q3: 10.0–12.4 g/dL, p = 0.65). However, compared with the folic acid arm (28%), there was a significant reduction in the risk of hypochromic microcytic anemia in the folic acid and iron arm (17%, RR: 0.61, 95% CI: 0.42–0.90, p = 0.01) and the folic acid, iron, and multivitamin arm (19%, RR: 0.66, 95% CI: 0.45–0.96, p = 0.03). Inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW) to adjust for potential selection bias due to loss to follow-up did not materially change these results. The effect of the regimens was not modified by frequency of household meat consumption, baseline underweight status, parity, breastfeeding status, or level of compliance (in all cases, p for interaction>0.2). Conclusions Daily oral supplementation with iron and folic acid among women and adolescents prior to pregnancy reduces risk of anemia. The

  12. Effects of raloxifene on cognition in postmenopausal women with schizophrenia: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerta-Ramos, Elena; Iniesta, Raquel; Ochoa, Susana; Cobo, Jesús; Miquel, Eva; Roca, Mercedes; Serrano-Blanco, Antoni; Teba, Fernando; Usall, Judith

    2014-02-01

    Studies of estrogen therapy in postmenopausal women provide evidence of an effect of sex hormones on cognitive function. Estrogen has demonstrated some utility in the prevention of normal, age-related decline in cognitive functions, especially in memory. The potential therapeutic utility of estrogens in schizophrenia is increasingly being recognized. Raloxifene, a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM), appears to act similarly to conjugated estrogens on dopamine and serotonin brain systems, and may be a better option since it lacks the possible negative effects of estrogen on breast and uterine tissue. We assessed the utility of raloxifene as an adjuvant treatment for cognitive symptoms in postmenopausal women with schizophrenia in a 12-week, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study. Patients were recruited from both the inpatient and outpatient departments. Thirty-three postmenopausal women with schizophrenia (DSM-IV) were randomized to receive either adjuvant raloxifene (16 women) or adjuvant placebo (17 women) for three months. The main outcome measures were: Memory, attention and executive functions. Assessment was conducted at baseline and week 12. The total sample is homogenous with respect to: age, years of schooling, illness duration, baseline symptomatology and pharmacological treatment. The addition of raloxifene (60 mg) to regular antipsychotic treatment showed: we found significant differences in some aspects of memory and executive function in patients treated with raloxifene. This improvement does not correlate with clinical improvement. The use of raloxifene as an adjuvant treatment in postmenopausal women with schizophrenia seems to be useful in improving cognitive symptoms. © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V. and ECNP.

  13. Random-start ovarian stimulation in women desiring elective cryopreservation of oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Nigel; Voskuilen-Gonzalez, Anna; Hancock, Kolbe; Lekovich, Jovana P; Schattman, Glenn L; Rosenwaks, Zev

    2017-10-01

    The current study investigates the utility of random-start ovarian stimulation in women desiring elective oocyte cryopreservation. Women in the study cohort underwent random-start ovarian stimulation, and were subdivided based on the phase of the menstrual cycle that ovarian stimulation began, i.e. early follicular, late follicular or luteal phase. Women undergoing conventional cycle day (CD) 2/3 ovarian stimulation start were controls. A total of 1302 women were included - 859 (66.0%) conventional CD 2/3, 342 (26.3%) early follicular, 42 (3.2%) late follicular and 59 (4.5%) luteal ovarian stimulation starts. There was no difference in the demographics or baseline ovarian stimulation characteristics. The duration of ovarian stimulation (11 versus 9 days; P start group. The number of total and MII oocytes in the control and random-start groups was similar. A non-significant trend towards increased cycle cancellation was noted in the late follicular start group (7.1%). Study findings indicate the number of total and MII oocytes derived from random-start protocols initiated during any phase of the menstrual cycle is similar to conventional CD 2/3 ovarian stimulation start protocols in women desiring elective oocyte cryopreservation. Copyright © 2017 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Resistance training for hot flushes in postmenopausal women: Randomized controlled trial protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berin, Emilia; Hammar, Mats L; Lindblom, Hanna; Lindh-Åstrand, Lotta; Spetz Holm, Anna-Clara E

    2016-03-01

    Hot flushes and night sweats affect 75% of all women after menopause and is a common reason for decreased quality of life in mid-aged women. Hormone therapy is effective in ameliorating symptoms but cannot be used by all women due to contraindications and side effects. Engagement in regular exercise is associated with fewer hot flushes in observational studies, but aerobic exercise has not proven effective in randomized controlled trials. It remains to be determined whether resistance training is effective in reducing hot flushes and improves quality of life in symptomatic postmenopausal women. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of standardized resistance training on hot flushes and other health parameters in postmenopausal women. This is an open, parallel-group, randomized controlled intervention study conducted in Linköping, Sweden. Sixty symptomatic and sedentary postmenopausal women with a mean of at least four moderate to severe hot flushes per day or 28 per week will be randomized to an exercise intervention or unchanged physical activity (control group). The intervention consists of 15 weeks of standardized resistance training performed three times a week under supervision of a physiotherapist. The primary outcome is hot flush frequency assessed by self-reported hot flush diaries, and the difference in change from baseline to week 15 will be compared between the intervention group and the control group. The intention is that this trial will contribute to the evidence base regarding effective treatment for hot flushes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of prenatal yoga on women's stress and immune function across pregnancy: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Pao-Ju; Yang, Luke; Chou, Cheng-Chen; Li, Chia-Chi; Chang, Yu-Cune; Liaw, Jen-Jiuan

    2017-04-01

    The effects of prenatal yoga on biological indicators have not been widely studied. Thus, we compared changes in stress and immunity salivary biomarkers from 16 to 36 weeks' gestation between women receiving prenatal yoga and those receiving routine prenatal care. For this longitudinal, prospective, randomized controlled trial, we recruited 94 healthy pregnant women at 16 weeks' gestation through convenience sampling from a prenatal clinic in Taipei. Participants were randomly assigned to intervention (n=48) or control (n=46) groups using Clinstat block randomization. The 20-week intervention comprised two weekly 70-min yoga sessions led by a midwife certified as a yoga instructor; the control group received only routine prenatal care. In both groups, participants' salivary cortisol and immunoglobulin A levels were collected before and after yoga every 4 weeks from 16 to 36 weeks' gestation. The intervention group had lower salivary cortisol (pyoga than the control group. Specifically, the intervention group had significantly higher long-term salivary immunoglobulin A levels than the control group (p=0.018), and infants born to women in the intervention group weighed more than those born to the control group (pyoga significantly reduced pregnant women's stress and enhanced their immune function. Clinicians should learn the mechanisms of yoga and its effects on pregnant women. Our findings can guide clinicians to help pregnant women alleviate their stress and enhance their immune function. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Attitude of Women towards Family Planning in Selected Rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The immediate need to control the high fertility rates among women in the rural part of Nigeria has attracted the interest of scholars in the academic world. Lots have been done by international agencies and other stakeholders to encourage the use of family planning methods among women both in rural and urban areas of ...

  17. [Selected sexuality features among married women--research results].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wróbel, Beata

    2008-02-01

    Analysis of features describing sexuality and sexual behavior of married women, deeming their sexual life 'successful' or 'unsuccessful'. 217 women have been interviewed with the help of our original questionnaire about sexual life. All women in question had been married at the time of the interview. The results have been submitted for statistical analysis. Among 217 married women that had been interviewed, 190 (87.6%) described their sexual life as 'successful', while 25 (11.5%) as 'unsuccessful'. Two women were not sexually active and thus have been excluded from the study. 1. Women in failed marriages discuss the causes of their problems with their husbands less frequently, and more often have unrevealed sexual expectations and dreams, in comparison to the group of women in successful marriages. 2. Women who deemed their sexual life 'unsuccessful' have problems with accepting nudity, both theirs and their husbands. 3. Women describing their sexual life as 'unsuccessful' do not perceive sex as pleasure. 4. The belief that one has a 'successful' or 'unsuccessful' sexual life does not have influence on the attempts of undertaking sexual contacts, with or without the consent of a woman. 5. Almost a half of married women giving consent for intercourse against their will, both in 'happy' or 'failed' marriages, are of the opinion that a husband has the right to rape his wife. 6. 'Successful' sexual life in a marriage is not a guarantee of woman's faithfulness. 7. The type of contraceptive used does not have an influence on perceiving one's sexual life as 'successful' or 'unsuccessful'.

  18. Treating depression in predominantly low-income young minority women: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Jeanne; Chung, Joyce Y; Green, Bonnie L; Krupnick, Janice; Siddique, Juned; Revicki, Dennis A; Belin, Tom

    2003-07-02

    Impoverished minority women experience a higher burden from depression than do white women because they are less likely to receive appropriate care. Little is known about the effectiveness of guideline-based care for depression with impoverished minority women, most of whom do not seek care. To determine the impact of an intervention to deliver guideline-based care for depression compared with referral to community care with low-income and minority women. A randomized controlled trial conducted in the Washington, DC, suburban area from March 1997 through May 2002 of 267 women with current major depression, who attended county-run Women, Infants, and Children food subsidy programs and Title X family planning clinics. Outcomes Hamilton Depression Rating Scale measured monthly from baseline through 6 months; instrumental role functioning (Social Adjustment Scale) and social functioning (Short Form 36-Item Health Survey) measured at baseline and 3 and 6 months. Participants were randomly assigned to an antidepressant medication intervention (trial of paroxetine switched to buproprion, if lack of response) (n = 88), a psychotherapy intervention (8 weeks of manual-guided cognitive behavior therapy) (n = 90), or referral to community mental health services (n = 89). Both the medication intervention (P<.001) and the psychotherapy intervention (P =.006) reduced depressive symptoms more than the community referral did. The medication intervention also resulted in improved instrumental role (P =.006) and social (P =.001) functioning. The psychotherapy intervention resulted in improved social functioning (P =.02). Women randomly assigned to receive medications were twice as likely (odds ratio, 2.04; 95% confidence interval, 0.98-4.27; P =.057) to achieve a Hamilton Depression Rating Scale score of 7 or less by month 6 as were those referred to community care. Guideline-concordant care for major depression is effective for these ethnically diverse and impoverished patients

  19. In vivo selection of randomly mutated retroviral genomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhout, B.; Klaver, B.

    1993-01-01

    Darwinian evolution, that is the outgrowth of the fittest variants in a population, usually applies to living organisms over long periods of time. Recently, in vitro selection/amplification techniques have been developed that allow for the rapid evolution of functionally active nucleic acids from a

  20. Effects of two exercise protocols on postural balance of elderly women: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesquita, Laiana Sepúlveda de Andrade; de Carvalho, Fabiana Texeira; Freire, Lara Sepúlveda de Andrade; Neto, Osmar Pinto; Zângaro, Renato Amaro

    2015-06-02

    The aging process reduces both sensory capabilities and the capabilities of the motor systems responsible for postural control, resulting in a high number of falls among the elderly. Some therapeutic interventions can directly interrupt this process, including physical exercise. This study compares and examines the effects of two exercise protocols on the balance of elderly women. Elderly women who participated in a local church project (n = 63) were randomly divided into three groups: the proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation group (PNFG), Pilates group (PG), and control group (CG). Of the 63 women, 58 completed the program. A training program involving 50-min sessions was performed in the PNFG and PG three times a week for 4 weeks. The elderly women in the CG received no intervention and continued with their daily activities. Stabilometric parameters, the Berg Balance Scale score, functional reach test, and timed up and go test (TUG test) were assessed before and 1 month after participation. In the comparison among groups, the women in the PNFG showed a significant reduction in most of the stabilometric parameters evaluated and better Berg Balance Scale score, functional reach test result, and TUG test result than did women in the CG (p < 0.05). Women in the PG showed significantly better performance on the functional reach test and TUG test than did women in the CG (p < 0.05). Women in the PNFG showed significantly better static and dynamic balance than did women in the CG. Women in the PG also showed better dynamic balance than did women in the CG. However, no significant differences were observed in any of the balance variables assessed between the PNFG and PG. clinicaltrials.gov, number NCT02278731.

  1. Vaginal electrical stimulation of the pelvic floor: a randomized feasibility study in urinary incontinent elderly women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spruijt, Johan; Vierhout, Mark; Verstraeten, Rob; Janssens, Jannes; Burger, Curt

    2003-11-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of intravaginal electrical stimulation (ES) of the pelvic floor for urinary incontinence in elderly women, and to determine whether ES of the pelvic floor is a preferable treatment for urinary incontinence in elderly women. Postmenopausal women (age 65 years or older) were enrolled in a randomized clinical trial and underwent every-other-day ES of the pelvic floor, or a daily Kegel exercise (KE) program. Objective outcome variables were: (1) Urinary leakage (during a standardized PAD test), (2) pelvic muscle strength (measured by a perineometer), and (3) detrusor instability (on ambulant urodynamic registration). Subjective outcome variables were women's subjective assessment of change in urinary symptoms based on the PRAFAB score. Twenty-four women treated with ES and 11 women treated with Kegel exercises completed the 8-week study program. The Chi-square test was used for statistical analysis. No significant improvement in objective outcome variables was observed in the population treated with ES compared with the population treated with KE (with 29.2% vs. 36.4% of the women showing objective improvement in measured urinary leakage). Neither was subjective improvement significant, with 29.2% vs. 27.3% of the women reporting improvement in the amount of urinary leakage. Although the number of enrolled women was very small this study shows that: 1. Treating elderly women with vaginal ES of the pelvic floor has a high physical and emotional cost for the individual. 2. The effectiveness of ES of the pelvic floor in urinary incontinent elderly women is low. 3. There is no great discrepancy between objective amelioration (PAD test) and subjective amelioration (PRAFAB score/quantity of urinary leakage), if the objective improvement is adequately defined. 4. It is not reasonable to advise elderly women with urinary incontinence to undertake this treatment procedure. The effectiveness of treatment does not compensate for the long-lasting and

  2. A Randomized Trial of Probation Case Management for Drug-Involved Women Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guydish, Joseph; Chan, Monica; Bostrom, Alan; Jessup, Martha A.; Davis, Thomas B.; Marsh, Cheryl

    2011-01-01

    This article reports findings from a clinical trial of a probation case management (PCM) intervention for drug-involved women offenders. Participants were randomly assigned to PCM (n = 92) or standard probation (n = 91) and followed for 12 months using measures of substance abuse, psychiatric symptoms, social support, and service utilization.…

  3. Medical Students' Comfort with Pregnant Women with Substance-Use Disorders: A Randomized Educational Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albright, Brittany; Skipper, Betty; Riley, Shawne; Wilhelm, Peggy; Rayburn, William F.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The study objective was to determine whether medical students' attendance at a rehabilitation residence for pregnant women with substance-use disorders yielded changes in their attitudes and comfort levels in providing care to this population. Methods: This randomized educational trial involved 96 consecutive medical students during…

  4. Assessing the accuracy and stability of variable selection methods for random forest modeling in ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Random forest (RF) modeling has emerged as an important statistical learning method in ecology due to its exceptional predictive performance. However, for large and complex ecological datasets there is limited guidance on variable selection methods for RF modeling. Typically, e...

  5. The frequency of drugs in randomly selected drivers in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Kirsten Wiese; Steentoft, Anni; Hels, Tove

    Introduction Driving under the influence of alcohol and drugs is a global problem. In Denmark as well as in other countries there is an increasing focus on impaired driving. Little is known about the occurrence of psychoactive drugs in the general traffic. Therefore the European commission...... initiated the DRUID project. This roadside study is the Danish part of the EU-project DRUID (Driving under the Influence of Drugs, Alcohol, and Medicines) and included three representative regions in Denmark. Methods Oral fluid samples (n = 3002) were collected randomly from drivers using a sampling scheme...... stratified by time, season, and road type. The oral fluid samples were screened for 29 illegal and legal psychoactive substances and metabolites as well as ethanol. Results Fourteen (0.5%) drivers were positive for ethanol (alone or in combination with drugs) at concentrations above 0.53 g/l, which...

  6. Sample Selection in Randomized Experiments: A New Method Using Propensity Score Stratified Sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipton, Elizabeth; Hedges, Larry; Vaden-Kiernan, Michael; Borman, Geoffrey; Sullivan, Kate; Caverly, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Randomized experiments are often seen as the "gold standard" for causal research. Despite the fact that experiments use random assignment to treatment conditions, units are seldom selected into the experiment using probability sampling. Very little research on experimental design has focused on how to make generalizations to well-defined…

  7. Pseudo cluster randomization dealt with selection bias and contamination in clinical trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teerenstra, S.; Melis, R.J.F.; Peer, P.G.M.; Borm, G.F.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: When contamination is present, randomization on a patient level leads to dilution of the treatment effect. The usual solution is to randomize on a cluster level, but at the cost of efficiency and more importantly, this may introduce selection bias. Furthermore, it may slow

  8. Evaluation of the effects of cabergoline (Dostinex) on women with symptomatic myomatous uterus: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahdat, Mansureh; Kashanian, Maryam; Ghaziani, Negar; Sheikhansari, Narges

    2016-11-01

    Myoma is one of the most common benign tumors of uterus and one of the most common causes of vaginal bleeding in women. The purpose of the present study is to evaluate the effect of dopamine receptor agonist cabergoline on the size of myoma and the amount of bleeding in the women with myoma of the uterus. The study was performed as a single blind randomized clinical trial on the women with symptomatic myoma. The women were randomly assigned in 2 groups. In the case group, 0.5mg cabergoline was prescribed weekly for three months, and in the control group, nothing was prescribed and the women only had close observation for symptoms. The reduction in symptoms including pelvic pain and duration and amount of uterine bleeding, and the size of myoma, were compared between the 2 groups. 51 women finished the study (26 women in the case group and 25 women in the control group). There was no significant difference between the 2 groups according to age, gravidity, parity, history of abortion, having living children, pretreatment hemoglobin, pain and amount of uterine bleeding, uterine size, and the size of myoma. After treatment, hemoglobin levels had dropped in the control group but not in the case group (p=0.004). On the other hand, pain had also decreased significantly in the case group in comparison with the control group (p=0.001). Also, the amount of menstrual bleeding (p=0.004), uterine size (p=0.001) and the size of the largest myoma (p=0.013) showed significant reduction in the case group. Cabergoline can decrease the amount of bleeding and pain in the cases of myomatous uterus and can be used for the symptomatic women who want to preserve uterus for a certain period of time. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Women's preferences for cardiac rehabilitation program model: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andraos, Christine; Arthur, Heather M; Oh, Paul; Chessex, Caroline; Brister, Stephanie; Grace, Sherry L

    2015-12-01

    Although cardiac rehabilitation (CR) is effective, women often report programs do not meet their needs. Innovative models have been developed that may better suit women. The objectives of the study were to describe: (1) adherence to CR model allocation; (2) satisfaction by model attended; and (3) CR preferences. Tertiary objectives from a randomized controlled trial of female patients randomized to mixed-sex, women-only, or home-based CR were tested. Patients were recruited from six hospitals. Consenting participants were asked to complete a survey and undertook a CR intake assessment. Eligible patients were randomized. Participants were mailed a follow-up survey six months later. Adherence to model allocation was ascertained from CR charts. Overall 169 (18.6%) patients were randomized, of which 116 (68.6%) completed the post-test survey. Forty-five (26.6%) participants did not receive the allocated model, with those referred to home-based CR least likely to attend the allocated model (n = 25; 45.4%). Semi-structured interviews revealed participants also often switched from women-only to mixed-sex CR due to time conflicts. Satisfaction was high across all models (mean = 4.23 ± 1.16/5; p = 0.85) but participants in the women-only program felt significantly more comfortable in their workout attire (p = 0.003) and perceived the environment as less competitive (p = 0.02). Patients equally preferred mixed-sex (n = 44, 41.9%) and women-only (n = 44, 41.9%) CR, over home-based (n = 17, 16.2%), with patients preferring the model they attended. Females were highly satisfied regardless of CR model attended but preferred supervised programs most. Patient preference and session timing should be considered in program model allocation decisions. © The European Society of Cardiology 2014.

  10. Counselling on and women's awareness of pregnancy danger signs in selected rural health facilities in Burkina Faso, Ghana and Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duysburgh, Els; Ye, Maurice; Williams, Afua; Massawe, Siriel; Sié, Ali; Williams, John; Mpembeni, Rose; Loukanova, Svetla; Temmerman, Marleen

    2013-12-01

    The aims of this study were to (i) assess healthcare workers' counselling practices concerning danger signs during antenatal consultations in rural primary healthcare (PHC) facilities in Burkina Faso, Ghana and Tanzania; to (ii) assess pregnant women's awareness of these danger signs; and (iii) to identify factors affecting counselling practices and women's awareness. Cross-sectional study in rural PHC facilities in Burkina Faso, Ghana and Tanzania. In each country, 12 facilities were randomly selected. WHO guidelines were used as standard for good counselling. We assessed providers' counselling practice on seven danger signs through direct observation study (35 observations/facility). Exit interviews (63 interviews/facility) were used to assess women's awareness of the same seven danger signs. We used negative binomial regression to assess associations with health services' and socio-demographic characteristics and to estimate per study site the average number of danger signs on which counselling was provided and the average number of danger signs mentioned by women. About one in three women was not informed of any danger sign. For most danger signs, fewer than half of the women were counselled. Vaginal bleeding and severe abdominal pain were the signs most counselled on (between 52% and 66%). At study facilities in Burkina Faso, 58% of the pregnant women were not able to mention a danger sign, in Ghana this was 22% and in Tanzania 30%. Fever, vaginal bleeding and severe abdominal pain were the danger signs most frequently mentioned. The type of health worker (depending on the training they received) was significantly associated with counselling practices. Depending on the study site, characteristics significantly associated with awareness of signs were women's age, gestational age, gravidity and educational level. Counselling practice is poor and not very efficient. A new approach of informing pregnant women on danger signs is needed. However, as effects of

  11. Acceptance sampling using judgmental and randomly selected samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sego, Landon H.; Shulman, Stanley A.; Anderson, Kevin K.; Wilson, John E.; Pulsipher, Brent A.; Sieber, W. Karl

    2010-09-01

    We present a Bayesian model for acceptance sampling where the population consists of two groups, each with different levels of risk of containing unacceptable items. Expert opinion, or judgment, may be required to distinguish between the high and low-risk groups. Hence, high-risk items are likely to be identifed (and sampled) using expert judgment, while the remaining low-risk items are sampled randomly. We focus on the situation where all observed samples must be acceptable. Consequently, the objective of the statistical inference is to quantify the probability that a large percentage of the unsampled items in the population are also acceptable. We demonstrate that traditional (frequentist) acceptance sampling and simpler Bayesian formulations of the problem are essentially special cases of the proposed model. We explore the properties of the model in detail, and discuss the conditions necessary to ensure that required samples sizes are non-decreasing function of the population size. The method is applicable to a variety of acceptance sampling problems, and, in particular, to environmental sampling where the objective is to demonstrate the safety of reoccupying a remediated facility that has been contaminated with a lethal agent.

  12. Violence Against Women in Selected Areas of the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Brooke E E; Rompalo, Anne; Hughes, James; Wang, Jing; Haley, Danielle; Soto-Torres, Lydia; Chege, Wairimu; Justman, Jessica; Kuo, Irene; Golin, Carol; Frew, Paula; Mannheimer, Sharon; Hodder, Sally

    2015-10-01

    We determined the prevalence of recent emotional, physical, and sexual violence against women and their associations with HIV-related risk factors in women living in the United States. We performed an assessment of women ages 18 to 44 years with a history of unprotected sex and 1 or more personal or partner HIV risk factors in the past 6 months from 2009 to 2010. We used multivariable logistic regression to examine the association of experiencing violence. Among 2099 women, the prevalence of emotional abuse, physical violence, and sexual violence in the previous 6 months was 31%, 19%, and 7%, respectively. Nonmarried status, food insecurity, childhood abuse, depression symptomology, and posttraumatic stress disorder were significantly associated with multiple types of violence. All types of violence were associated with at least 3 different partner or personal HIV risk behaviors, including unprotected anal sex, previous sexually transmitted infection diagnosis, sex work, or partner substance abuse. Our data suggested that personal and partner HIV risk behaviors, mental illness, and specific forms of violence frequently co-occurred in the lives of impoverished women. We shed light on factors purported to contribute to a syndemic in this population. HIV prevention programs in similar populations should address these co-occurring issues in a comprehensive manner.

  13. The Effect of Acupressure on Sleep Quality in Menopausal Women: A Randomized Control Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Abedian

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: One of the common problems in menopausal women is sleep disorder. Traditional Chinese acupressure is a noninvasive and safe technique. Menopausal women can easily learn the technique and a self-care method to manage their sleep disorder. This study was carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of acupressure on sleep quality of postmenopausal women in Mashhad during 2009. Methods: This double blind, randomized clinical trial was performed on 120 qualified menopausal women at the age of 41-65 years. Their sleep quality was measured according to the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI. Participants were randomly assigned to an acupressure group (n=37, a sham acupressure group (n=36 and a control group (n=32 by two time randomized method (systematic and simple randomized. These interventions were carried out for four consecutive weeks. The participants in the acupressure and sham acupressure groups learned to carry out the acupressure technique as a self-care at home with simultaneous massage techniques that were to be performed 2 hours before sleep, whereas only conversation was used in the control group. The data were analyzed by the SPSS software version 17. Results: The results indicated significant differences in total PSQI scores among the three groups (P<0.001. Tukey’s test revealed that there were significant differences between the acupressure group and the control group (P<0.001, the acupressure group and sham acupressure group (P<0.001, and the sham acupressure and the control group (P<0.001. Conclusion: Acupressure can be used as a complementary treatment to relieve sleep disorders in menopausal women; and is offered as an efficient method to manage sleep quality. Trial Registration Number: IRCT2013100614910N1.

  14. RANDOM FORESTS-BASED FEATURE SELECTION FOR LAND-USE CLASSIFICATION USING LIDAR DATA AND ORTHOIMAGERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Guan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The development of lidar system, especially incorporated with high-resolution camera components, has shown great potential for urban classification. However, how to automatically select the best features for land-use classification is challenging. Random Forests, a newly developed machine learning algorithm, is receiving considerable attention in the field of image classification and pattern recognition. Especially, it can provide the measure of variable importance. Thus, in this study the performance of the Random Forests-based feature selection for urban areas was explored. First, we extract features from lidar data, including height-based, intensity-based GLCM measures; other spectral features can be obtained from imagery, such as Red, Blue and Green three bands, and GLCM-based measures. Finally, Random Forests is used to automatically select the optimal and uncorrelated features for landuse classification. 0.5-meter resolution lidar data and aerial imagery are used to assess the feature selection performance of Random Forests in the study area located in Mannheim, Germany. The results clearly demonstrate that the use of Random Forests-based feature selection can improve the classification performance by the selected features.

  15. Major Selection and Persistence for Women in STEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Casey A.; Sax, Linda J.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. federal government identifies many science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) majors as "areas of national need" that are "crucial to national innovation, competitiveness, and well-being and in which not enough students complete degrees." Underrepresentation of women in STEM in the United States has economic…

  16. Select toxic metals status of pregnant women with history of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toxic metals are part of the most important groups of environmental pollutants that can bind to vital cellular components and interfere with their functions via inhalation, foods, water etc. The serum levels of toxic metals (lead, mercury, cadmium and arsenic) in pregnant women with history of pregnancy complications, ...

  17. Portrayal of Women Characters in Selected Contemporary Yoruba ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    sister, prostitute, harsh and malicious, who always keep malice against others. ... necessarily have equal rights and privileges so that their responsibility will be the same. ... happening to us. She asserts that women are facing some challenges that men are not facing in the society. For instance, rape, polygamy without due.

  18. The effect of raloxifene on left ventricular hypertrophy in postmenopausal women: A prospective, randomized, and controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bal, Uğur Abbas; Atar, İlyas; Öktem, Mesut; Zeyneloğlu, Hulusi B; Yıldırır, Aylin; Kuşcu, Esra; Müderrisoğlu, Haldun

    2015-06-01

    In healthy women, there is a progressive age-related increase in myocardial mass that is not seen in their male counterparts and occurs primarily in postmenopausal women. Raloxifene is a selective estrogen receptor modulator that has estrogenic actions on bone and the cardiovascular system. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of raloxifene on myocardial hypertrophy in postmenopausal patients. A total of 22 postmenopausal osteoporotic women were included in this open-label, randomized, prospective, controlled study. Patients were randomized into two groups: 11 of the patients (group 1) were treated with raloxifene 60 mg/day, and the other 11 patients
(group 2) were defined as the control group. Quantitative 2-dimensional and M-mode echocardiographic examination was performed in all patients at the beginning and repeated at the end of the 6-month follow-up period. Left ventricle mass (LVM) and left ventricle mass index (LVMI) were calculated for all patients. The mean age of the patients was 57.2±3.9 years, and baseline clinical characteristics and echocardiographic parameters were similar between the two groups. After 6 months of raloxifene treatment, there was no difference in echocardiographic parameters of LVM and LVMI compared with the control group (201.2±25.9 gr vs. 169.7±46.2 gr, p=0.14 and 120.4±25.9 gr/m2 vs. 105.5±26.3 gr/m2, p=0.195, respectively). There was also no significant difference in LVM and LVMI in the within-group analysis of both groups. Raloxifene therapy does not affect myocardial hypertrophy in postmenopausal women after 6 months of treatment.

  19. Recent use of condoms and emergency contraception by women who selected condoms as their contraceptive method

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nelson, Anita L

    2006-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine how consistently indigent, predominantly Hispanic women who had previously selected male condoms as their contraceptive method had used condoms and emergency contraception (EC...

  20. A Comparison of Lesbian, Bisexual, and Heterosexual College Undergraduate Women on Selected Mental Health Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Dianne L.; Santurri, Laura; Peters, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate selected mental health characteristics of lesbians and bisexual undergraduate college women as compared with heterosexual college women. Participants: Self-identified lesbians and bisexual and heterosexual female college students who took part in the American College Health Association National College Health Assessment…

  1. Estrogen for Alzheimer's disease in women: randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, V W; Paganini-Hill, A; Miller, B L; Elble, R J; Reyes, P F; Shoupe, D; McCleary, C A; Klein, R A; Hake, A M; Farlow, M R

    2000-01-25

    AD, the most prevalent cause of dementia, affects twice as many women as men. Therapeutic options are limited, but results of prior studies support the hypothesis that estrogen treatment may improve symptoms of women with this disorder. Forty-two women with mild-to-moderate dementia due to AD were enrolled into a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group trial of unopposed conjugated equine estrogens (1.25 mg/day) for 16 weeks. Outcome data were available for 40 women at 4 weeks and 36 women at 16 weeks. At both 4 and 16 weeks, there were no significant differences or statistical trends between treatment groups on the primary outcome measure (the cognitive subscale of the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale), clinician-rated global impression of change, or caregiver-rated functional status. Exploratory analyses of mood and specific aspects of cognitive performance also failed to demonstrate substantial group differences. Although conclusions are limited by small sample size and the possibility of a type II error, results suggest that short-term estrogen therapy does not improve symptoms of most women with AD. These findings do not address possible long-term effects of estrogen in AD, possible interactions between estrogen and other treatment modalities, or putative effects of estrogen in preventing or delaying onset of this disorder.

  2. Effectiveness of hand hygiene education among a random sample of women from the community

    OpenAIRE

    Ubheeram, J.; Biranjia-Hurdoyal, S.D.

    2017-01-01

    Summary Objective. The effectiveness of hand hygiene education was investigated by studying the hand hygiene awareness and bacterial hand contamination among a random sample of 170 women in the community. Methods. Questionnaire was used to assess the hand hygiene awareness score, followed by swabbing of the dominant hand. Bacterial identification was done by conventional biochemical tests. Results. Better hand hygiene awareness score was significantly associated with age, scarce bacterial gro...

  3. Balance training program is highly effective in improving functional status and reducing the risk of falls in elderly women with osteoporosis: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madureira, M M; Takayama, L; Gallinaro, A L; Caparbo, V F; Costa, R A; Pereira, R M R

    2007-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of a 12-month Balance Training Program on balance, mobility and falling frequency in women with osteoporosis. Sixty-six consecutive elderly women were selected from the Osteometabolic Disease Outpatient Clinic and randomized into 2 groups: the 'Intervention', submitted for balance training; and the 'Control', without intervention. Balance, mobility and falling frequency were evaluated before and at the end of the trial, using the Berg Balance Scale (BBS), the Clinical Test Sensory Interaction Balance (CTSIB) and the Timed "Up & Go" Test (TUGT). Intervention used techniques to improve balance consisting of a 1-hour session each week and a home-based exercise program. Sixty women completed the study and were analyzed. The BBS difference was significant higher in the Intervention group compared to Control (5.5 +/- 5.67 vs -0.5 +/- 4.88 score, pmobility and falling frequency in elderly women with osteoporosis.

  4. Impact of probiotics in women with gestational diabetes mellitus on metabolic health: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Karen L; Brennan, Lorraine; Kennelly, Maria A; Maguire, Orla C; Smith, Thomas; Curran, Sinead; Coffey, Mary; Foley, Michael E; Hatunic, Mensud; Shanahan, Fergus; McAuliffe, Fionnuala M

    2015-04-01

    Probiotics are live microorganisms that may confer health benefits on the host. Recent trials of probiotic use among healthy pregnant women demonstrate potential for improved glycemic control. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a probiotic capsule intervention on maternal metabolic parameters and pregnancy outcome among women with gestational diabetes. This double-blind placebo-controlled randomized trial recruited pregnant women with a new diagnosis of gestational diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance following a 3-hour 100-g glucose tolerance test. Women were randomized to a daily probiotic (Lactobacillus salivarius UCC118) or placebo capsule from diagnosis until delivery. Fasting blood samples were collected at baseline and 4-6 weeks after capsule commencement for analysis of glucose, insulin, c-peptide, and lipids. The primary outcome was difference in fasting glucose postintervention, first analyzed on an intention-to-treat basis and followed by per-protocol analysis that excluded women commenced on pharmacological therapy (insulin or metformin). Secondary outcomes were changes in insulin, c-peptide, homeostasis model assessment and lipids, requirement for pharmacological therapy, and neonatal anthropometry. Of 149 women recruited and randomized, there were no differences between the probiotic and placebo groups in postintervention fasting glucose (4.65 ± 0.49 vs 4.65 ± 0.53 mmol/L; P = 373), requirement for pharmacological therapy (17% vs 14%; P = .643), or birthweight (3.57 ± 0.64 vs 3.60 ± 0.57 kg; P = .845). Among 100 women managed with diet and exercise alone, fasting plasma glucose decreased significantly within both the probiotic (4.76 ± 0.45 to 4.57 ± 0.42 mmol/L; P probiotic vs the placebo group (+0.27 ± 0.48 vs +0.50 ± 0.52 mmol/L total cholesterol, P = .031; +0.08 ± 0.51 vs +0.31 ± 0.45 mmol/L LDL cholesterol, P = .011). No differences were noted between groups in other metabolic parameters or pregnancy

  5. Efficacy of kinesiotape on functional disability of women with postnatal back pain: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Eman A; El-Shamy, Fayiz F; Hamed, Hany

    2017-09-22

    Postpartum low back pain harmfully affects all parts of women's life. To investigate the effect of kinesiotape on women with postnatal backache. Thirty participants were randomly allocated to either group (A; n= 15), treated by kinesiotape with exercise program, or the group (B; n= 15), treated by exercise program. Visual analogue scale (VAS) and Back Pain Function Scale (BPFS) were evaluated.at baseline and after 2 weeks of intervention. There were no statistically significant changes between group A and group B for baseline characteristics (p> 0.05). After two-week intervention, within group analyses revealed that VAS decreased (p 0.05) in the two groups. Between group analyses showed that there was significant reduction of VAS (pKinesiotape and postural correction exercises can be recommended as effective treatment methods for women's postnatal back pain with better effect of kinesiotape and postural correction exercises than exercise alone.

  6. A randomized controlled trial of yoga for pregnant women with symptoms of depression and anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Kyle; Goodman, Sherryl H; Leiferman, Jenn; Taylor, Mary; Dimidjian, Sona

    2015-08-01

    Yoga may be well suited for depressed and anxious pregnant women, given reported benefits of meditation and physical activity and pregnant women's preference for nonpharmacological treatments. We randomly assigned 46 pregnant women with symptoms of depression and anxiety to an 8-week yoga intervention or treatment-as-usual (TAU) in order to examine feasibility and preliminary outcomes. Yoga was associated with high levels of credibility and satisfaction as an intervention for depression and anxiety during pregnancy. Participants in both conditions reported significant improvement in symptoms of depression and anxiety over time; and yoga was associated with significantly greater reduction in negative affect as compared to TAU (β = -0.53, SE = 0.20, p = .011). Prenatal yoga was found to be a feasible and acceptable intervention and was associated with reductions in symptoms of anxiety and depression; however, prenatal yoga only significantly outperformed TAU on reduction of negative affect. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Effects of Yoga on Heart Rate Variability and Depressive Symptoms in Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, I-Hua; Wu, Wen-Lan; Lin, I-Mei; Chang, Yu-Kai; Lin, Yuh-Jen; Yang, Pin-Chen

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of a 12-week yoga program on heart rate variability (HRV) and depressive symptoms in depressed women. This was a randomized controlled trial. Twenty-six sedentary women scoring ≥14 on the Beck Depression Inventory-II were randomized to either the yoga or the control group. The yoga group completed a 12-week yoga program, which took place twice a week for 60 min per session and consisted of breathing exercises, yoga pose practice, and supine meditation/relaxation. The control group was instructed not to engage in any yoga practice and to maintain their usual level of physical activity during the course of the study. Participants' HRV, depressive symptoms, and perceived stress were assessed at baseline and post-test. The yoga group had a significant increase in high-frequency HRV and decreases in low-frequency HRV and low frequency/high frequency ratio after the intervention. The yoga group also reported significantly reduced depressive symptoms and perceived stress. No change was found in the control group. A 12-week yoga program was effective in increasing parasympathetic tone and reducing depressive symptoms and perceived stress in women with elevated depressive symptoms. Regular yoga practice may be recommended for women to cope with their depressive symptoms and stress and to improve their HRV.

  8. Effects of Yoga on Heart Rate Variability and Mood in Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, I-Hua; Lin, Yuh-Jen; Wu, Wen-Lan; Chang, Yu-Kai; Lin, I-Mei

    2015-12-01

    To examine the effects of an 8-week yoga program on heart rate variability and mood in generally healthy women. Randomized controlled trial. Fifty-two healthy women were randomly assigned to a yoga group or a control group. Participants in the yoga group completed an 8-week yoga program, which comprised a 60-minute session twice a week. Each session consisted of breathing exercises, yoga pose practice, and supine meditation/relaxation. The control group was instructed not to engage in any yoga practice and to maintain their usual level of physical activity during the study. Participants' heart rate variability, perceived stress, depressive symptoms, and state and trait anxiety were assessed at baseline (week 0) and after the intervention (week 9). No measures of heart rate variability changed significantly in either the yoga or control group after intervention. State anxiety was reduced significantly in the yoga group but not in the control group. No significant changes were noted in perceived stress, depression, or trait anxiety in either group. An 8-week yoga program was not sufficient to improve heart rate variability. However, such a program appears to be effective in reducing state anxiety in generally healthy women. Future research should involve longer periods of yoga training, include heart rate variability measures both at rest and during yoga practice, and enroll women with higher levels of stress and trait anxiety.

  9. Preventing excessive gestational weight gain among African American women: A randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, Sharon J; Cruice, Jane F; Bennett, Gary G; Rose, Marisa Z; Davey, Adam; Foster, Gary D

    2016-01-01

    Evidence is lacking regarding effective weight control treatments in pregnancy for ethnic minority women with obesity. This study evaluated whether a technology-based behavioral intervention could decrease the proportion of African American women with overweight or obesity who exceeded Institute of Medicine (IOM) guidelines for gestational weight gain. We conducted a two-arm pilot randomized clinical trial. Participants were 66 socioeconomically disadvantaged African American pregnant women (12.5 ± 3.7 weeks' gestation; 36% overweight, 64% obesity) recruited from two outpatient obstetric practices at Temple University between 2013 and 2014. We randomized participants to usual care (n = 33) or a behavioral intervention (n = 33) that promoted weight control in pregnancy. The intervention included: (1) empirically supported behavior change goals; (2) interactive self-monitoring text messages; (3) biweekly health coach calls; and (4) skills training and support through Facebook. The intervention reduced the proportion of women who exceeded IOM guidelines compared to usual care (37% vs. 66%, P = 0.033). Intervention participants gained less weight during pregnancy (8.7 vs. 12.3 kg, adjusted mean difference: -3.1 kg, 95% CI: -6.2 to -0.1). No group differences in neonatal or obstetric outcomes were found. The intervention resulted in lower prevalence of excessive gestational weight gain. © 2015 The Obesity Society.

  10. Interpersonal psychotherapy versus brief supportive therapy for depressed infertile women: first pilot randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koszycki, Diana; Bisserbe, Jean-Claude; Blier, Pierre; Bradwejn, Jacques; Markowitz, John

    2012-06-01

    Infertility is strongly associated with depression, yet treatment research for depressed infertile women is sparse. This study tested for the first time the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT), the evidence-based antidepressant intervention with the greatest peripartum research support, as treatment for depressed women facing fertility problems. Patients who met DSM-IV criteria for major depressive disorder of at least moderate severity were randomized to either 12 sessions of IPT (n = 15) or brief supportive psychotherapy (BSP; n = 16), our control intervention. Eighty percent of IPT and 63 % of BSP patients completed the 12 sessions of therapy. Patients in both treatments improved. IPT produced a greater response rate than BSP, with more than two-thirds of women achieving a >50 % reduction in scores on the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS). IPT also tended to have lower posttreatment scores on the Beck Depression Inventory, Clinical Global Impression-Severity Scale, and anxiety subscale of the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, with between-group effect sizes ranging from 0.61 to 0.76. Gains persisted at 6-month follow-up. This pilot trial suggests that IPT is a promising treatment for depression in the context of infertility and that it may fare better than a rigorous active control condition. Should subsequent randomized controlled trials support these findings, this will inform clinical practice and take an important step in assuring optimal care for depressed women struggling with infertility.

  11. Thai traditional massage increases biochemical markers of bone formation in postmenopausal women: a randomized crossover trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saetung, Sunee; Chailurkit, La-Or; Ongphiphadhanakul, Boonsong

    2013-03-25

    The effect of massage therapy on bone metabolism in adults has only scarcely been explored. In a randomized crossover trial, we investigated the skeletal effect of Thai traditional massage by examining the changes in biochemical markers of bone turnover. Forty-eight postmenopausal women participated in the study. All volunteers were randomized to a 2-hour session of Thai traditional massage twice a week for 4 weeks and a 4-week control period after a 2-week washout, or vice versa. Twenty-one subjects were allocated to receiving Thai traditional massage first, followed by the control period, while 27 were initially allocated to the control period. Serum P1NP increased significantly after Thai traditional massage (P women whose ages were in the middle and higher tertiles and whose heights were in the lower and middle tertiles (n = 22) had a 14.8 ± 3.3% increase in P1NP after massage (P women (n = 26). Thai traditional massage results in an increase in bone formation as assessed by serum P1NP, particularly in postmenopausal women who are older and have a smaller body build. Future studies with larger samples and additional design features are warranted. ClinicalTrials.gov : NCT01627028.

  12. Hormone therapy in menopausal women with cognitive complaints: a randomized, double-blind trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maki, P M; Gast, M J; Vieweg, A J; Burriss, S W; Yaffe, K

    2007-09-25

    To evaluate the effects of hormone therapy (HT) on cognition and subjective quality of life (QoL) in recently postmenopausal women with cognitive complaints. Cognitive Complaints in Early Menopause Trial (COGENT) was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter, pilot study of 180 healthy postmenopausal women aged 45 to 55 years, randomly assigned to receive either placebo or conjugated equine estrogen 0.625 mg/medroxyprogesterone acetate 2.5 mg for 4 months. Outcome measures included memory, subjective cognition, QoL, sexuality, and sleep, which were assessed at baseline and month 4. The study was terminated before the expected final sample size of 275 due to a decrease in enrollment coinciding with the publication of findings from the Women's Health Initiative. There were no differences between groups on any cognitive or QoL measures, except for an increase in sexual interest and thoughts with HT. Modest negative effects on short- and long-term verbal memory approached significance (p or=0.45, this study suggests potential modest negative effects on verbal memory that are consistent with previous hormone therapy trials in older women.

  13. Misoprostol versus curettage in women with early pregnancy failure: impact on women's health-related quality of life. A randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graziosi, G. C. M.; Bruinse, H. W.; Reuwer, P. J. H.; van Kessel, P. H.; Westerweel, P. E.; Mol, B. W.

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We aimed to compare patients' health-related quality of life after a misoprostol strategy to a curettage in women with early pregnancy failure after failed expectant management. METHODS: A multicentre randomized clinical trial was performed in The Netherlands. In all, 154 women with

  14. SNP selection and classification of genome-wide SNP data using stratified sampling random forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qingyao; Ye, Yunming; Liu, Yang; Ng, Michael K

    2012-09-01

    For high dimensional genome-wide association (GWA) case-control data of complex disease, there are usually a large portion of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are irrelevant with the disease. A simple random sampling method in random forest using default mtry parameter to choose feature subspace, will select too many subspaces without informative SNPs. Exhaustive searching an optimal mtry is often required in order to include useful and relevant SNPs and get rid of vast of non-informative SNPs. However, it is too time-consuming and not favorable in GWA for high-dimensional data. The main aim of this paper is to propose a stratified sampling method for feature subspace selection to generate decision trees in a random forest for GWA high-dimensional data. Our idea is to design an equal-width discretization scheme for informativeness to divide SNPs into multiple groups. In feature subspace selection, we randomly select the same number of SNPs from each group and combine them to form a subspace to generate a decision tree. The advantage of this stratified sampling procedure can make sure each subspace contains enough useful SNPs, but can avoid a very high computational cost of exhaustive search of an optimal mtry, and maintain the randomness of a random forest. We employ two genome-wide SNP data sets (Parkinson case-control data comprised of 408 803 SNPs and Alzheimer case-control data comprised of 380 157 SNPs) to demonstrate that the proposed stratified sampling method is effective, and it can generate better random forest with higher accuracy and lower error bound than those by Breiman's random forest generation method. For Parkinson data, we also show some interesting genes identified by the method, which may be associated with neurological disorders for further biological investigations.

  15. The Effect of Mindfulness-integrated Cognitive Behavior Therapy on Depression and Anxiety among Pregnant Women: a Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Yazdanimehr

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Pregnancy can be associated with different psychological problems such as depression and anxiety. These problems are often neglected and left untreated. This study aimed to examine the effect of mindfulness-integrated cognitive behavior therapy on depression and anxiety among pregnant women. Methods: A convenient sample of 80 pregnant women were selected. Participants were randomly allocated to either the experimental or the control groups. Participants in the experimental group received mindfulness-integrated cognitive behavior therapy while women in the control group only received routine prenatal care services. A demographic questionnaire, the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale, and the Beck Anxiety Inventory were used for data collection. Descriptive statistics measures such as frequency, mean, and standard deviation as well as the repeated-measures analysis of variance test were used for data analysis. Results: After the study intervention, the mean scores of anxiety and depression in the experimental group were significantly lower than the control group. Conclusion: Mindfulness-integrated cognitive behavior therapy can significantly alleviate pregnant women’s depression and anxiety. So implementation of this method alongside with other prenatal care services is recommended.

  16. Acupuncture to Treat Primary Dysmenorrhea in Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline A. Smith

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined the effectiveness of acupuncture to reduce the severity and intensity of primary dysmenorrhea. A randomized controlled trial compared acupuncture with control acupuncture using a placebo needle. Eligible women were aged 14–25 years with a diagnosis of primary dysmenorrhea. Women received nine sessions of the study treatment over 3 months. The primary outcomes were menstrual pain intensity and duration, overall improvement in dysmenorrhea symptoms and reduced need for additional analgesia, measured at 3, 6 and 12 months from trial entry. A total of 92 women were randomly assigned to the intervention (acupuncture =46 and control =46. At 3 months although pain outcomes were lower for women in the acupuncture group compared with the control group, there was no significant difference between groups. Women receiving acupuncture reported a small reduction in mood changes compared with the control group, relative risk (RR 0.72, 95% confidence interval (CI 0.53–1.00, =.05. Follow-up at 6 months found a significant reduction in the duration of menstrual pain in the acupuncture group compared with the control group, mean difference –9.6, 95% CI –18.9 to –0.3, =.04, and the need for additional analgesia was significantly lower in the acupuncture group compared with the control group, RR 0.69, 95% CI 0.49–0.96, =.03, but the follow-up at 12 months found lack of treatment effect. To conclude, although acupuncture improved menstrual mood symptoms in women with primary dysmenorrhea during the treatment phase, the trend in the improvement of symptoms during the active phase of treatment, and at 6 and 12 months was non-significant, indicating that a small treatment effect from acupuncture on dysmenorrhea may exist. In the study, acupuncture was acceptable and safe, but further appropriately powered trials are needed before recommendations for clinical practice can be made.

  17. An efficient method of wavelength interval selection based on random frog for multivariate spectral calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Yong-Huan; Li, Hong-Dong; Wood, Leslie R. E.; Fan, Wei; Wang, Jia-Jun; Cao, Dong-Sheng; Xu, Qing-Song; Liang, Yi-Zeng

    2013-07-01

    Wavelength selection is a critical step for producing better prediction performance when applied to spectral data. Considering the fact that the vibrational and rotational spectra have continuous features of spectral bands, we propose a novel method of wavelength interval selection based on random frog, called interval random frog (iRF). To obtain all the possible continuous intervals, spectra are first divided into intervals by moving window of a fix width over the whole spectra. These overlapping intervals are ranked applying random frog coupled with PLS and the optimal ones are chosen. This method has been applied to two near-infrared spectral datasets displaying higher efficiency in wavelength interval selection than others. The source code of iRF can be freely downloaded for academy research at the website: http://code.google.com/p/multivariate-calibration/downloads/list.

  18. Delay line length selection in generating fast random numbers with a chaotic laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianzhong; Wang, Yuncai; Xue, Lugang; Hou, Jiayin; Zhang, Beibei; Wang, Anbang; Zhang, Mingjiang

    2012-04-10

    The chaotic light signals generated by an external cavity semiconductor laser have been experimentally demonstrated to extract fast random numbers. However, the photon round-trip time in the external cavity can cause the occurrence of the periodicity in random sequences. To overcome it, the exclusive-or operation on corresponding random bits in samples of the chaotic signal and its time-delay signal from a chaotic laser is required. In this scheme, the proper selection of delay length is a key issue. By doing a large number of experiments and theoretically analyzing the interplay between the Runs test and the threshold value of the autocorrelation function, we find when the corresponding delay time of autocorrelation trace with the correlation coefficient of less than 0.007 is considered as the delay time between the chaotic signal and its time-delay signal, streams of random numbers can be generated with verified randomness.

  19. Evaluation of two intervention models on contraceptive attitudes and behaviors among nulliparous women in Shanghai, China: a clustered randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yuan; Zhang, Ning; Wang, Jue; He, Na; Du, Yan; Ding, Jing-Xin; Zhang, Ying; Li, Xiao-Tian; Huang, Jian; Hua, Ke-Qin

    2017-06-15

    With increasing acceptance of premarital sex among young Chinese women, the rates of unintended pregnancies and induced abortions are becoming alarmingly high, suggesting the needs of educating women with adequate contraceptive knowledge and providing them with accessible contraceptive services. Previous studies have shown that knowledge and attitudes towards contraception could be modified through intervention strategies. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of two community intervention models on modifying contraceptive attitudes and behaviors among nulliparous women. In this clustered randomized controlled trial, nulliparous women aged 18-40 years from 18 communities were enrolled and randomized to either the traditional community intervention model (TC model) or the more comprehensive new community-based intervention model (NC model) with a ratio of 1:2. Contraceptive attitudes and behaviors were assessed before and after the interventions. A total of 901 nulliparous women were followed. The most common contraceptive method in both groups was condom (approximately 80%) before or after interventions. The rates of using effective contraceptive methods were very low (women held negative attitudes and behaviors towards effective contraceptive methods. The NC model, integrating existing health resources, had more positive influence than the TC model on the favorable contraceptive attitudes and behaviors towards the use of any contraceptive methods, but had limited impact on the use of effective contraceptive methods. Our study suggested the feasibility of applying the NC model in Shanghai. Interventions on contraceptive attitudes and behaviors should base on the existing health service system, synthesize resources and selectively apply to populations with distinct characteristics.

  20. Selective nerve root blocks vs. caudal epidural injection for single level prolapsed lumbar intervertebral disc - A prospective randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sudhir; Kumar, Sanjiv; Chahal, Gaurav; Verma, Reetu

    2017-01-01

    Chronic lumbar radiculopathy has a lifetime prevalence of 5.3% in men and 3.7% in women. It usually resolves spontaneously, but up to 30% cases will have pronounced symptoms even after one year. A prospective randomized single-blind study was conducted to compare the efficacy of caudal epidural steroid injection and selective nerve root block in management of pain and disability in cases of lumbar disc herniation. Eighty patients with confirmed single-level lumbar disc herniation were equally divided in two groups: (a) caudal epidural and (b) selective nerve root block group, by a computer-generated random allocation method. The caudal group received three injections of steroid mixed with local anesthetics while selective nerve root block group received single injection of steroid mixed with local anesthetic agent. Patients were assessed for pain relief and reduction in disability. In SNRB group, pain reduced by more than 50% up till 6 months, while in caudal group more than 50% reduction of pain was maintained till 1 year. The reduction in ODI in SNRB group was 52.8% till 3 months, 48.6% till 6 months, and 46.7% at 1 year, while in caudal group the improvement was 59.6%, 64.6%, 65.1%, and 65.4% at corresponding follow-up periods, respectively. Caudal epidural block is an easy and safe method with better pain relief and improvement in functional disability than selective nerve root block. Selective nerve root block injection is technically more demanding and has to be given by a skilled anesthetist.

  1. Auricular acupuncture for chemically dependent pregnant women: a randomized controlled trial of the NADA protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janssen Patricia A

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of maternal drug use during pregnancy in North America has been estimated to be as high as 6-10%. The consequences for the newborn include increased risk for perinatal mortality and ongoing physical, neurobehavioral, and psychosocial problems. Methadone is frequently used to wean women off street drugs but is implicated as a cause of adverse fetal/neonatal outcomes itself. The purpose of our study was to test the ability of maternal acupuncture treatment among mothers who use illicit drugs to reduce the frequency and severity of withdrawal symptoms among their newborns. Methods We randomly assigned chemically dependent pregnant women at BC Women’s Hospital in Vancouver, British Columbia to daily acupuncture treatments versus usual care. By necessity, neither our participants nor acupuncturists were blinded as to treatment allocation. Our primary outcome was days of neonatal morphine treatment for symptoms of neonatal withdrawal. Secondary neonatal outcomes included admission to a neonatal ICU and transfer to foster care. Results We randomized 50 women to acupuncture and 39 to standard care. When analyzed by randomized groups, we did not find benefit of acupuncture; the average length of treatment with morphine for newborns in the acupuncture group was 2.7 (6.3 compared to 2.8 (7.0 in the control group. Among newborns of women who were compliant with the acupuncture regime, we observed a reduction of 2.1 and 1.5 days in length of treatment for neonatal abstinence syndrome compared to the non-compliant and control groups, respectively. These differences were not statistically significant. Conclusions Acupuncture may be a safe and feasible treatment to assist mothers to reduce their dosage of methadone. Our results should encourage ongoing studies to test the ability of acupuncture to mitigate the severity of neonatal abstinence syndrome among their newborns. Clinical Trial Registration http

  2. Effect of Trospium Chloride on Cognitive Function in Women Aged 50 and Older: A Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, Elizabeth J; Dumond, Julie B; Bowling, J Michael; Khandelwal, Christine M; Wu, Jennifer M; Busby-Whitehead, Jan; Kaufer, Daniel I

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of trospium chloride on cognitive function in postmenopausal women treated for overactive bladder (OAB). Randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial conducted from April 2013 to April 2015. Women aged 50 years or older seeking treatment for OAB were randomized to either trospium chloride XR 60 mg daily or placebo. Baseline cognitive function was assessed via Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised (HVLT-R), Mini Mental Status Exam, Mini Mental Status X, Digit Span, Trails A, Trails B, and Epworth Sleepiness Scale. Cognitive function was reassessed at week 1 and week 4. A priori power analysis determined that 21 subjects were needed per group. Although 59 women were enrolled and randomized (28 trospium and 31 placebo), 45 completed assessment (21 trospium and 24 placebo). Mean age was 68 years, 78% were white, and 44% had previously taken OAB medication. For the primary outcome, there was no difference in HVLT-R total score between trospium and placebo groups at week 4 (P = 0.29). There were also no differences based on the other cognitive tests. There was a correlation between age and the following week-4 tests: HVLT-R total score (r = -0.3, P = 0.02), HVLT-R total recall subscale (r = -0.4, P = 0.007), Trails A (r = 0.4, P = 0.002), and Trails B (r = 0.4, P = 0.004). A linear regression model found that HVLT-R total score decreased by 0.372 points for each increased year of age. In women aged 50 years and older, there were no changes in cognitive function between those taking trospium and placebo. Cognitive function was correlated with age.

  3. Two-year Randomized Clinical Trial Of Self-etching Adhesives And Selective Enamel Etching

    OpenAIRE

    Pena, MR; Rodrigues CE; JA; Ely; Giannini, C.; Reis, M; AF

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this randomized, controlled prospective clinical trial was to evaluate the clinical effectiveness of restoring noncarious cervical lesions with two self-etching adhesive systems applied with or without selective enamel etching. Methods: A one-step self-etching adhesive (Xeno V+) and a two-step self-etching system (Clearfil SE Bond) were used. The effectiveness of phosphoric acid selective etching of enamel margins was also evaluated. Fifty-six cavities were restored with...

  4. A Group-Based Yoga Therapy Intervention for Urinary Incontinence in Women: A Pilot Randomized Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Alison J.; Jenny, Hillary E.; Chesney, Margaret A.; Schembri, Michael; Subak, Leslee L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the feasibility, efficacy, and safety of a group-based yoga therapy intervention for middle-aged and older women with urinary incontinence. Methods We conducted a pilot randomized trial of ambulatory women aged 40 years and older with stress, urgency, or mixed-type incontinence. Women were randomized to a 6-week yoga therapy program (N=10) consisting of twice weekly group classes and once weekly home practice or a waitlist control group (N=9). All participants also received written pamphlets about standard behavioral self-management strategies for incontinence. Changes in incontinence were assessed by 7-day voiding diaries. Results Mean (±SD) age was 61.4 (±8.2) years, and mean baseline frequency of incontinence was 2.5 (±1.3) episodes/day. After 6 weeks, total incontinence frequency decreased by 66% (1.8 [±0.9] fewer episodes/day) in the yoga therapy versus 13% (0.3 [±1.7] fewer episodes/day) in the control group (P=0.049). Participants in the yoga therapy group also reported an average 85% decrease in stress incontinence frequency (0.7 [±0.8] fewer episodes/day) compared to a 25% increase in controls (0.2 [± 1.1] more episodes/day) (P=0.039). No significant differences in reduction in urgency incontinence were detected between the yoga therapy versus control groups (1.0 [±1.0] versus 0.5 [±0.5] fewer episodes/day, P=0.20). All women starting the yoga therapy program completed at least 90% of group classes and practice sessions. Two participants in each group reported adverse events unrelated to the intervention. Conclusions Findings provide preliminary evidence to support the feasibility, efficacy, and safety of a group-based yoga therapy intervention to improve urinary incontinence in women. PMID:24763156

  5. Local endometrial injury in women with failed IVF undergoing a repeat cycle: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tk, Aleyamma; Singhal, Himanshu; S Premkumar, Prasanna; Acharya, Mousumi; S Kamath, Mohan; George, Korula

    2017-07-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of local endometrial injury in women undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) with at least one previous unsuccessful attempt. Randomized controlled trial. Recruited women were randomized into two groups. In group A (pipelle group), women underwent pipelle biopsy twice in the luteal phase in the cycle prior to IVF. In group B (control), women did not undergo any intervention prior to IVF. The primary outcome was clinical pregnancy rate. The secondary outcomes included live birth, miscarriage, multiple pregnancy and preterm delivery rates. One hundred and eleven women were included in the study with 55 in the pipelle group and 56 in the control arm. The baseline clinical characteristics were similar in both groups. The clinical pregnancy rates were not significantly different between pipelle and control group (34.09% vs. 27.65%; Odds ratio, OR 1.35, 95% confidence interval, CI 0.55-3.30). The live birth (31.81% vs. 25.53%; OR 1.36, 95% CI 0.55-3.39), multiple pregnancy (33.33% vs. 61.54%; OR 0.31, 95% CI 0.07-1.47), miscarriage (6.66% vs. 7.69%; OR 0.86, 95% CI 0.05-15.23) and preterm delivery rates (35.71% vs. 66.66%; OR 0.28, 95% CI 0.05-1.4) were also not significantly different between the two groups. Current study did not find any improvement in IVF success rates following endometrial injury in woman undergoing IVF after previous failed attempt. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Dental Attendance Among Low-Income Women and Their Children Following a Brief Motivational Counseling Intervention: A Community Randomized Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Riedy, Christine A; Weinstein, Philip; Mancl, Lloyd; Garson, Gayle; Huebner, Colleen E.; Milgrom, Peter; Grembowski, David; Shepherd-Banigan, Megan; Smolen, Darlene; Sutherland, Marilynn

    2015-01-01

    This study tested a behavioral intervention to increase dental attendance among rural Oregonian low-income women and their children. It utilized a multi-site, single-blind, randomized trial design. Four hundred women were randomized into one of four conditions to receive prenatal or postpartum motivational interviewing/counseling (MI) or prenatal or postpartum health education (HE). Counselors also functioned as patient navigators. Primary outcomes were dental attendance during pregnancy for ...

  7. Effects of a community-based healthy heart program on increasing healthy women's physical activity: a randomized controlled trial guided by Community-based Participatory Research (CBPR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazoki, Raha; Nabipour, Iraj; Seyednezami, Nasrin; Imami, Seyed Reza

    2007-08-23

    Cardiovascular disease remains the leading killer of women in most developed areas of the world. Rates of physical inactivity and poor nutrition, which are two of the most important modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular disease in women, are substantial. This study sought to examine the effectiveness of a community-based lifestyle-modification program on increasing women's physical activity in a randomized trial guided by community-based participatory research (CBPR) methods. A total of 335 healthy, 25-64 years old women who had been selected by a multiple-stage stratified cluster random sampling method in Bushehr Port/I.R. Iran, were randomized into control and intervention groups. The intervention group completed an 8-week lifestyle modification program for increasing their physical activity, based on a revised form of Choose to Move program; an American Heart Association Physical Activity Program for Women. Audio-taped activity instructions with music and practical usage of the educational package were given to the intervention group in weekly home-visits by 53 volunteers from local non-governmental and community-based organizations. Among the participants, the percentage who reported being active (at lease 30 minutes of moderate intensity physical activity for at least 5 days a week, or at least 20 minutes of vigorous physical activity for at least three days a week) increased from 3% and 2.7% at baseline to 13.4% and 3% (p physical activity per week (mean = 139.81, SE = 23.35) than women in the control group (mean = 40.14, SE = 12.65) at week 8 (p effective for the short-term adoption of physical activity behavior among women. The development of participatory process to support the adequate delivery of lifestyle-modification programs is feasible and an effective healthcare delivery strategy for cardiovascular community health promotion. ACTRNO12606000521527.

  8. Computer-based brief intervention a randomized trial with postpartum women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ondersma, Steven J; Svikis, Dace S; Schuster, Charles R

    2007-03-01

    Drug use among parenting women is a significant risk factor for a range of negative child outcomes, including exposure to violence, child maltreatment, and child behavior problems. Implementation of brief interventions with this population may be greatly facilitated by computer-based interventions. Randomized clinical trial with 4-month follow-up. Participants were 107 postpartum women recruited from an urban obstetric hospital primarily serving a low-income population. Women were randomized into assessment only versus assessment plus brief intervention conditions; 76 (71%) returned for follow-up evaluation. A 20-minute, single-session, computer-based motivational intervention (based on motivational interviewing methods), combined with two nontailored mailings and voucher-based reinforcement of attendance at an initial intake/treatment session. Illicit drug use as measured by qualitative urinalysis and self-report. Frequency of illicit drug use other than marijuana increased slightly for the control group, but declined among intervention group participants (pmarijuana use frequency was similar, but did not reach statistical significance. Point-prevalence analysis at follow-up did not show significant group differences in drug use. However, trends under a range of assumptions regarding participants lost to follow-up all favored the intervention group, with most effect sizes in the moderate range (odds ratios 1.4 to 4.7). Results tentatively support the efficacy of this high-reach, replicable brief intervention. Further research should seek to replicate these findings and to further develop the computer as a platform for validated brief interventions.

  9. Hebbian Learning in a Random Network Captures Selectivity Properties of the Prefrontal Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Grace W; Rigotti, Mattia; Warden, Melissa R; Miller, Earl K; Fusi, Stefano

    2017-11-08

    Complex cognitive behaviors, such as context-switching and rule-following, are thought to be supported by the prefrontal cortex (PFC). Neural activity in the PFC must thus be specialized to specific tasks while retaining flexibility. Nonlinear "mixed" selectivity is an important neurophysiological trait for enabling complex and context-dependent behaviors. Here we investigate (1) the extent to which the PFC exhibits computationally relevant properties, such as mixed selectivity, and (2) how such properties could arise via circuit mechanisms. We show that PFC cells recorded from male and female rhesus macaques during a complex task show a moderate level of specialization and structure that is not replicated by a model wherein cells receive random feedforward inputs. While random connectivity can be effective at generating mixed selectivity, the data show significantly more mixed selectivity than predicted by a model with otherwise matched parameters. A simple Hebbian learning rule applied to the random connectivity, however, increases mixed selectivity and enables the model to match the data more accurately. To explain how learning achieves this, we provide analysis along with a clear geometric interpretation of the impact of learning on selectivity. After learning, the model also matches the data on measures of noise, response density, clustering, and the distribution of selectivities. Of two styles of Hebbian learning tested, the simpler and more biologically plausible option better matches the data. These modeling results provide clues about how neural properties important for cognition can arise in a circuit and make clear experimental predictions regarding how various measures of selectivity would evolve during animal training. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The prefrontal cortex is a brain region believed to support the ability of animals to engage in complex behavior. How neurons in this area respond to stimuli-and in particular, to combinations of stimuli ("mixed

  10. Selecting Optimal Parameters of Random Linear Network Coding for Wireless Sensor Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heide, Janus; Zhang, Qi; Fitzek, Frank

    2013-01-01

    This work studies how to select optimal code parameters of Random Linear Network Coding (RLNC) in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). With Rateless Deluge [1] the authors proposed to apply Network Coding (NC) for Over-the-Air Programming (OAP) in WSNs, and demonstrated that with NC a significant...

  11. Effect of Motivational Interviewing on Weight Efficacy Lifestyle among Women with Overweight and Obesity: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal Mirkarimi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Obesity and overweight have become increasingly a major public health problem across the world. This study aimed at exploring the effects of motivational interviewing on weight efficacy lifestyle among women with obesity and overweight. A single-blind randomized clinical trial study was conducted on 100 overweight and obese women who attended a nutrition clinic. The samples were selected based on the clinical records and assigned into two groups, namely motivational interviewing arm (50 samples and nutrition education arm (50 samples. Data were collected using a standard validated questionnaire entitled “weight efficacy lifestyle”. The intervention was designed according to five motivation sessions and four nutrition education programs, such that the participants of the nutrition education arm were also provided with the nutrition pamphlets related to weight control. Data were finally analyzed using the SPSS statistical software by performing the independent t-test, chi-square, LSD and repeated measures ANOVA tests. P<0.05 were considered statistically significant. The mean age of women was 39.9±9.1 and 36.3±8.9 years in the control and motivational interviewing arms, respectively. Compared with the control group, the score of the motivational interviewing group was statistically significant in terms of weight efficacy lifestyle P=0.0001 and all subscales including social pressure (P=0.0001, physical discomfort (P=0.005, food accessibility (P=0.0001, positive and entertainment activities (P=0.0001, as well as negative emotions (P=0.003. Motivational interviewing appeared to be effective in increasing weight efficacy lifestyle among women with overweight and obesity. Trial Registration Number: IRCT2014051817736N1

  12. Raloxifene hydrochloride is an adjuvant antiviral treatment of postmenopausal women with chronic hepatitis C: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furusyo, Norihiro; Ogawa, Eiichi; Sudoh, Masayuki; Murata, Masayuki; Ihara, Takeshi; Hayashi, Takeo; Ikezaki, Hiroaki; Hiramine, Satoshi; Mukae, Haru; Toyoda, Kazuhiro; Taniai, Hiroaki; Okada, Kyoko; Kainuma, Mosaburo; Kajiwara, Eiji; Hayashi, Jun

    2012-12-01

    Early menopause in women with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is associated with a low likelihood of a sustained virological response (SVR) in conjunction with their antiviral treatment. This is potentially related to their reduced estrogen secretion. The study was done to determine whether selective estrogen receptor modulator administration might improve the efficacy of the current standard of care (SOC) treatment, pegylated interferon (PegIFN) α2a plus ribavirin (RBV), for postmenopausal women. One hundred and twenty-three postmenopausal women with genotype 1b chronic hepatitis C were randomly assigned to one of two treatment groups: raloxifene hydrochloride (RLX) (60 mg/day) plus SOC (PegIFNα2a 180 μg/week and RBV 600-1,000 mg/day) (n=62) or SOC only (n=61). Genotyping was performed of the polymorphism in the interleukin-28B (IL28B) gene region (rs8099917) of DNA collected from each patient. One RLX-treated patient discontinued RLX because of a systemic rash following 2 weeks of treatment. Twenty-four weeks after treatment, the SVR rate was significantly higher for RLX plus SOC patients (61.3%) than for SOC only patients (34.4%) (p=0.0051). Further, the SVR rate was significantly higher for RLX plus SOC patients with IL28B TT (72.5%) than for SOC only patients with IL28B TT (39.2%) (p=0.0014), but no such relationship was observed in patients carrying the minor IL28B allele. RLX improved the efficacy of SOC in the treatment of postmenopausal women with chronic hepatitis C. RLX shows promise as an adjuvant to the standard antiviral treatment of such patients. Copyright © 2012 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of Acupuncture and Clomiphene in Chinese Women With Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiao-Ke; Stener-Victorin, Elisabet; Kuang, Hong-Ying; Ma, Hong-Li; Gao, Jing-Shu; Xie, Liang-Zhen; Hou, Li-Hui; Hu, Zhen-Xing; Shao, Xiao-Guang; Ge, Jun; Zhang, Jin-Feng; Xue, Hui-Ying; Xu, Xiao-Feng; Liang, Rui-Ning; Ma, Hong-Xia; Yang, Hong-Wei; Li, Wei-Li; Huang, Dong-Mei; Sun, Yun; Hao, Cui-Fang; Du, Shao-Min; Yang, Zheng-Wang; Wang, Xin; Yan, Ying; Chen, Xiu-Hua; Fu, Ping; Ding, Cai-Fei; Gao, Ya-Qin; Zhou, Zhong-Ming; Wang, Chi Chiu; Wu, Tai-Xiang; Liu, Jian-Ping; Ng, Ernest H Y; Legro, Richard S; Zhang, Heping

    2017-06-27

    Acupuncture is used to induce ovulation in some women with polycystic ovary syndrome, without supporting clinical evidence. To assess whether active acupuncture, either alone or combined with clomiphene, increases the likelihood of live births among women with polycystic ovary syndrome. A double-blind (clomiphene vs placebo), single-blind (active vs control acupuncture) factorial trial was conducted at 21 sites (27 hospitals) in mainland China between July 6, 2012, and November 18, 2014, with 10 months of pregnancy follow-up until October 7, 2015. Chinese women with polycystic ovary syndrome were randomized in a 1:1:1:1 ratio to 4 groups. Active or control acupuncture administered twice a week for 30 minutes per treatment and clomiphene or placebo administered for 5 days per cycle, for up to 4 cycles. The active acupuncture group received deep needle insertion with combined manual and low-frequency electrical stimulation; the control acupuncture group received superficial needle insertion, no manual stimulation, and mock electricity. The primary outcome was live birth. Secondary outcomes included adverse events. Among the 1000 randomized women (mean [SD] age, 27.9 [3.3] years; mean [SD] body mass index, 24.2 [4.3]), 250 were randomized to each group; a total of 926 women (92.6%) completed the trial. Live births occurred in 69 of 235 women (29.4%) in the active acupuncture plus clomiphene group, 66 of 236 (28.0%) in the control acupuncture plus clomiphene group, 31 of 223 (13.9%) in the active acupuncture plus placebo group, and 39 of 232 (16.8%) in the control acupuncture plus placebo group. There was no significant interaction between active acupuncture and clomiphene (P = .39), so main effects were evaluated. The live birth rate was significantly higher in the women treated with clomiphene than with placebo (135 of 471 [28.7%] vs 70 of 455 [15.4%], respectively; difference, 13.3%; 95% CI, 8.0% to 18.5%) and not significantly different between women treated

  14. Stress Management-Augmented Behavioral Weight Loss Intervention for African American Women: A Pilot, Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Tiffany L.; Krukowski, Rebecca; Love, ShaRhonda J.; Eddings, Kenya; DiCarlo, Marisha; Chang, Jason Y.; Prewitt, T. Elaine; West, Delia Smith

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between chronic stress and weight management efforts may be a concern for African American (AA) women, who have a high prevalence of obesity, high stress levels, and modest response to obesity treatment. This pilot study randomly assigned 44 overweight/obese AA women with moderate to high stress levels to either a 12-week…

  15. A Medically Supervised Pregnancy Exercise Intervention in Obese Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Niamh; Farren, Maria; McKeating, Aoife; OʼKelly, Ruth; Stapleton, Mary; Turner, Michael J

    2017-11-01

    To evaluate whether an intensive, medically supervised exercise intervention improved maternal glycemia and gestational weight gain in obese pregnant women when compared with routine prenatal care. This randomized controlled trial compared a medically supervised exercise intervention with routine prenatal care. The primary outcome was a reduction in mean maternal fasting plasma glucose in the intervention group by 6.9 mg/dL at the time of a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test at 24-28 weeks of gestation. Secondary outcomes included excessive gestational weight gain. The intervention consisted of 50-60 minutes of exercise: warm-up, resistance or weights, aerobic exercises, and cool-down. All women received routine prenatal care. Power calculation determined that 24 women were required per group to detect a difference of 6.9 mg/dL in fasting plasma glucose between groups based on an independent-sample t test for statistical power of 80% at a type I error rate of 0.05. A sample size of 44 per group was planned to allow a dropout rate of 33%. From November 2013 through August 2015, 88 women were randomized: 44 each to the exercise and control groups. Eight women in the control group and 11 in the intervention group did not complete the trial at 6 weeks postpartum (P=.61), but 43 in each group attended the 24- to 28-week glucose screen. There were no baseline maternal differences between groups. Classes commenced at a mean of 13 4/7±1 2/7 weeks of gestation. In early pregnancy, 51.1% (n=45/88) had an elevated fasting plasma glucose (92-125 mg/dL). There was no difference in the mean fasting plasma glucose at 24-28 weeks of gestation: 90.0±9.0 mg/dL (n=43) compared with 93.6±7.2 mg/dL (n=43) (P=.13) or in the incidence of gestational diabetes mellitus at 24-28 weeks of gestation: 48.8% (n=21/43) compared with 58.1% (n=25/43) (P=.51) in the control and exercise groups, respectively. At 36 weeks of gestation, excessive gestational weight gain greater than 9.1 kg was lower

  16. The effect of acupuncture on psychosocial outcomes for women experiencing infertility: a pilot randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Caroline A; Ussher, Jane M; Perz, Janette; Carmady, Bridget; de Lacey, Sheryl

    2011-10-01

    The study objectives were to examine the effectiveness of acupuncture for reducing infertility-related stress. The study design was a randomized controlled trial of acupuncture compared with a wait-list control. The study was conducted at The University of Western Sydney. Thirty-two (32) women aged 20-45 years, with a diagnosis of infertility, or a history of unsuccessfully trying to conceive for 12 months or more, were the subjects of the study. Women received six sessions of acupuncture over 8 weeks. The primary outcomes were infertility self-efficacy, anxiety, and infertility-related stress. The women's experience of infertility and acupuncture is also reported. At the end of the 8-week intervention, women in the acupuncture group reported significant changes on two domains on the Fertility Problem Inventory with less social concern (mean difference [MD] -3.75, 95% confidence interval [CI] -7.58 to 0.84, p=0.05), and less relationship concern (MD -3.66, 95% CI -6.80 to -0.052, p=0.02). There were also trends toward a reduction of infertility stress on other domains, and a trend toward improved self-efficacy (MD 11.9, 95% CI -2.20 to 26.0, p=0.09) and less anxiety (MD -2.54, 95% CI -5.95 to 0.86, p=0.08) in the acupuncture group compared with the wait-list control. Women described the experience and impact of acupuncture as positive relating to a sense of relaxation and time out, the engagement with the practitioner, and an intervention that had very few negative side-effects. Changes were also perceived after treatment with women describing a physical and psychologic sense of relaxation and calmness, and a changed perspective in relation to coping. Acupuncture may be a useful intervention to assist with the reduction of infertility-related stress. Further research is justified.

  17. Randomized Intervention Trial to Decrease Bisphenol A Urine Concentrations in Women: Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagobian, Todd; Smouse, Allison; Streeter, Mikaela; Wurst, Chloe; Schaffner, Andrew; Phelan, Suzanne

    2017-02-01

    Previous studies have shown that women have higher concentrations of the endocrine disruptor bisphenol A (BPA), but an intervention to reduce BPA is lacking in women. To test the hypothesis that an intervention to reduce BPA would decrease urinary BPA concentrations over 3 weeks, 24 women (mean ± standard deviation [SD]; 22.1 ± 2.8 kg/m2 body mass index, 20.9 ± 1.5 years) were randomly assigned to an intervention or control. The intervention included weekly face-to-face meetings to reduce BPA exposures from food, cosmetics, and other packaged products. Women were provided with BPA-free cosmetics, hygiene, glass food/water containers, and daily self-monitored major sources of BPA. Fasting urine BPA and creatinine concentrations, and weight were assessed at study entry and after 3 weeks. A significant (p = 0.04) treatment × time interaction effect was observed on creatinine-adjusted BPA concentrations. From study entry to 3 weeks, women in the intervention significantly decreased geometric mean creatinine-adjusted urinary BPA by -0.71 ng/m, whereas women in the control significantly increased urinary BPA by 0.32 ng/mL (p = 0.04). Additionally, from study entry to 3 weeks, women in the intervention significantly lost weight -0.28 ± 0.44 kg, whereas women in the control significantly gained weight +1.65 ± 0.74 kg (p = 0.03). Changes in creatinine-adjusted BPA concentrations and weight were not significantly related (p = 0.67). In this pilot study, a 3-week intervention decreased urinary BPA concentrations in women. Future clinical trials are needed to confirm these results and to examine whether a similar BPA intervention positively impacts risk markers in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease and diabetes.

  18. Effects of Inositol(s in Women with PCOS: A Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vittorio Unfer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is a common endocrine disorder, with complex etiology and pathophysiology, which remains poorly understood. It affects about 5–10% of women of reproductive age who typically suffer from obesity, hyperandrogenism, ovarian dysfunction, and menstrual irregularity. Indeed, PCOS is the most common cause of anovulatory infertility in industrialized nations, and it is associated with insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and increased cardiovascular risk. Although insulin resistance is not included as a criterion for diagnosis, it is a critical pathological condition of PCOS. The purpose of this systematic review is the analysis of recent randomized clinical trials of inositol(s in PCOS, in particular myo- and D-chiro-inositol, in order to better elucidate their physiological involvement in PCOS and potential therapeutic use, alone and in conjunction with assisted reproductive technologies, in the clinical treatment of women with PCOS.

  19. Tehran Air Pollutants Prediction Based on Random Forest Feature Selection Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamsoddini, A.; Aboodi, M. R.; Karami, J.

    2017-09-01

    Air pollution as one of the most serious forms of environmental pollutions poses huge threat to human life. Air pollution leads to environmental instability, and has harmful and undesirable effects on the environment. Modern prediction methods of the pollutant concentration are able to improve decision making and provide appropriate solutions. This study examines the performance of the Random Forest feature selection in combination with multiple-linear regression and Multilayer Perceptron Artificial Neural Networks methods, in order to achieve an efficient model to estimate carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide and PM2.5 contents in the air. The results indicated that Artificial Neural Networks fed by the attributes selected by Random Forest feature selection method performed more accurate than other models for the modeling of all pollutants. The estimation accuracy of sulfur dioxide emissions was lower than the other air contaminants whereas the nitrogen dioxide was predicted more accurate than the other pollutants.

  20. TEHRAN AIR POLLUTANTS PREDICTION BASED ON RANDOM FOREST FEATURE SELECTION METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Shamsoddini

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution as one of the most serious forms of environmental pollutions poses huge threat to human life. Air pollution leads to environmental instability, and has harmful and undesirable effects on the environment. Modern prediction methods of the pollutant concentration are able to improve decision making and provide appropriate solutions. This study examines the performance of the Random Forest feature selection in combination with multiple-linear regression and Multilayer Perceptron Artificial Neural Networks methods, in order to achieve an efficient model to estimate carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide and PM2.5 contents in the air. The results indicated that Artificial Neural Networks fed by the attributes selected by Random Forest feature selection method performed more accurate than other models for the modeling of all pollutants. The estimation accuracy of sulfur dioxide emissions was lower than the other air contaminants whereas the nitrogen dioxide was predicted more accurate than the other pollutants.

  1. Black Feminism: What Women of Color Went Through in Toni Morrison’s Selected Novels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayda Rahmani

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This article examines two of Toni Morrison’s novels, The Bluest Eye and Beloved in the lights of black feminism, racism, realism and naturalism. It is an attempt to reflect the powerlessness, inhumanity, and pains that women of color went through.  By using a feminist racist and naturalist filter,  a descriptive-analytical method of study and by analyzing the situations, the characters and themes, the status of women of color  in Literature based on Morrison’s selected  novels are revealed and represented. Morrison very well describes how different women characters react and respond differently to the injustice and the inhumanity imposed on them through for example the contrasting nature of Sethe in Beloved and Pauline in The Bluest Eye. She depicts the bravery and courage in Sethe , the self-absorbedness in Pauline and the passiveness in Pecola all of which raise powerful questions regarding black-women’s self-identity, self-concept, and  struggles to achieve freedom as a living being if not a human being: a path which will deepen our understanding of  women issues in general. The researcher believes that a womanish and racist study of the selected novels would contribute to broaden our views of humanity. The researcher selected women of color because she thinks the sorrows of black women, and the pains and toils they went through have always been deeper than those of the white ones.

  2. Women's Preferences for Penis Size: A New Research Method Using Selection among 3D Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prause, Nicole; Park, Jaymie; Leung, Shannon; Miller, Geoffrey

    2015-01-01

    Women's preferences for penis size may affect men's comfort with their own bodies and may have implications for sexual health. Studies of women's penis size preferences typically have relied on their abstract ratings or selecting amongst 2D, flaccid images. This study used haptic stimuli to allow assessment of women's size recall accuracy for the first time, as well as examine their preferences for erect penis sizes in different relationship contexts. Women (N = 75) selected amongst 33, 3D models. Women recalled model size accurately using this method, although they made more errors with respect to penis length than circumference. Women preferred a penis of slightly larger circumference and length for one-time (length = 6.4 inches/16.3 cm, circumference = 5.0 inches/12.7 cm) versus long-term (length = 6.3 inches/16.0 cm, circumference = 4.8 inches/12.2 cm) sexual partners. These first estimates of erect penis size preferences using 3D models suggest women accurately recall size and prefer penises only slightly larger than average.

  3. Women's Preferences for Penis Size: A New Research Method Using Selection among 3D Models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Prause

    Full Text Available Women's preferences for penis size may affect men's comfort with their own bodies and may have implications for sexual health. Studies of women's penis size preferences typically have relied on their abstract ratings or selecting amongst 2D, flaccid images. This study used haptic stimuli to allow assessment of women's size recall accuracy for the first time, as well as examine their preferences for erect penis sizes in different relationship contexts. Women (N = 75 selected amongst 33, 3D models. Women recalled model size accurately using this method, although they made more errors with respect to penis length than circumference. Women preferred a penis of slightly larger circumference and length for one-time (length = 6.4 inches/16.3 cm, circumference = 5.0 inches/12.7 cm versus long-term (length = 6.3 inches/16.0 cm, circumference = 4.8 inches/12.2 cm sexual partners. These first estimates of erect penis size preferences using 3D models suggest women accurately recall size and prefer penises only slightly larger than average.

  4. FLOW (finding lasting options for women): multicentre randomized controlled trial comparing tampons with menstrual cups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Courtney; Rose, Caren Lee; Trouton, Konia; Stamm, Holly; Marentette, Danielle; Kirkpatrick, Nicole; Karalic, Sanja; Fernandez, Renee; Paget, Julie

    2011-06-01

    To determine whether menstrual cups are a viable alternative to tampons. Randomized controlled trial. Prince George, Victoria, and Vancouver, BC. A total of 110 women aged 19 to 40 years who had previously used tampons as their main method of menstrual management. Participants were randomized into 2 groups, a tampon group and a menstrual cup group. Using online diaries, participants tracked 1 menstrual cycle using their regular method and 3 menstrual cycles using the method of their allocated group. Overall satisfaction; secondary outcomes included discomfort, urovaginal infection, cost, and waste. Forty-seven women in each group completed the final survey, 5 of whom were subsequently excluded from analysis (3 from the tampon group and 2 from the menstrual cup group). Overall satisfaction on a 7-point Likert scale was higher for the menstrual cup group than for the tampon group (mean [standard deviation] score 5.4 [1.5] vs 5.0 [1.0], respectively; P=.04). Approximately 91% of women in the menstrual cup group said they would continue to use the cup and recommend it to others. Women used a median of 13 menstrual products per cycle, or 169 products per year, which corresponds to approximately 771,248,400 products used annually in Canada. Estimated cost for tampon use was $37.44 a year (similar to the retail cost of 1 menstrual cup). Subjective vaginal discomfort was initially higher in the menstrual cup group, but the discomfort decreased with continued use. There was no significant difference in physician-diagnosed urovaginal symptoms between the 2 groups. Both of the menstrual management methods evaluated were well tolerated by subjects. Menstrual cups are a satisfactory alternative to tampons and have the potential to be a sustainable solution to menstrual management, with moderate cost savings and much-reduced environmental effects compared with tampons. Trial registration number C06-0478 (ClinicalTrials.gov).

  5. Hydrotherapy improves pain and function in older women with knee osteoarthritis: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, João Marcos; Cisneros, Lígia; Dias, Rosângela; Fritsch, Carolina; Gomes, Wellington; Pereira, Leani; Santos, Mary Luci; Ferreira, Paulo Henrique

    Currently, there is poor evidence of the effect of hydrotherapy alone on patients with hip or knee osteoarthritis. The study aimed to assess the impact of hydrotherapy on pain, function, and muscle function in older women with knee osteoarthritis. A randomized controlled trial was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of hydrotherapy in women with knee osteoarthritis. Seventy-three women aged 65 and older were randomized to hydrotherapy (n=36) or a control group (n=37). The hydrotherapy group received the intervention program in a heated pool (twice per week for six weeks) and an educational protocol while the control group received an educational protocol only. Primary outcomes (before and post-treatment) were pain intensity (0-100) and function (0-100), assessed with the WOMAC questionnaire. Secondary outcomes (before and post-treatment) were knee extensor and knee flexor muscle performance (strength, power, and endurance), assessed by an isokinetic dynamometer. The magnitude of change between the groups for the outcomes was calculated using linear regression models adjusted by baseline outcome values. The hydrotherapy group had better outcomes for pain (adjusted mean difference=11 points, 95% CI: 3-18) and function (adjusted mean difference=12 points, 95% CI: 5-18). Patients receiving hydrotherapy had better performance for knee flexor and extensor strength, knee flexor power, and knee extensor endurance. Older women with knee osteoarthritis are likely to have benefits from a course of hydrotherapy exercises. Registry of clinical trials (Trial number RBR-8F57KR) - http://www.ensaiosclinicos.gov.br/rg/RBR-8f57kr/. Copyright © 2017 Associação Brasileira de Pesquisa e Pós-Graduação em Fisioterapia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  6. Sleep quality and aerobic training among menopausal women--a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansikkamäki, Kirsi; Raitanen, Jani; Nygård, Clas-Håkan; Heinonen, Reetta; Mikkola, Tomi; EijaTomás; Luoto, Riitta

    2012-08-01

    Menopause is associated with poor sleep quality and daytime sleepiness, which may lead to impaired quality of life and impaired functioning in daily activities. To study whether exercise training improves sleep quality or decreases the amount of night time hot flushes among menopausal women with vasomotor symptoms. A randomized controlled trial. Sedentary women (N=176) aged 43-63 years with menopausal symptoms were randomized to a six-month unsupervised aerobic training intervention (50 min 4 times per week) or a control group. Both groups attended lectures on physical activity and health once a month. Sleep quality and the amount of hot flushes disturbing sleep. The women reported daily via mobile phone whether hot flushes had disturbed their sleep and how they had slept (scale 1-5). Responses received by mobile phone over the 6-month period totaled on average 125 (5.2 per week) responses per participant. At baseline there was no difference between the groups in the demographic variables. Sleep quality improved significantly more in the intervention group than in the control group (OR 1.02; 95% CI=1.0-1.05, p=0.043). The odds for sleep improvement were 2% per week in the intervention group and a decrease of 0.5% per week in the control group. The amount of hot flushes related to sleep diminished (p=0.004) by the end of the intervention. Aerobic training for 6 months may improve sleep quality and reduce hot flushes among symptomatic menopausal women. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Exercise Training and Weight Gain in Obese Pregnant Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial (ETIP Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsti Krohn Garnæs

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of exercise training for preventing excessive gestational weight gain (GWG and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM is still uncertain. As maternal obesity is associated with both GWG and GDM, there is a special need to assess whether prenatal exercise training programs provided to obese women reduce the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. Our primary aim was to assess whether regular supervised exercise training in pregnancy could reduce GWG in women with prepregnancy overweight/obesity. Secondary aims were to examine the effects of exercise in pregnancy on 30 outcomes including GDM incidence, blood pressure, blood measurements, skinfold thickness, and body composition.This was a single-center study where we randomized (1:1 91 pregnant women with a prepregnancy body mass index (BMI ≥ 28 kg/m2 to exercise training (n = 46 or control (standard maternity care (n = 45. Assessments were done at baseline (pregnancy week 12-18 and in late pregnancy (week 34-37, as well as at delivery. The exercise group was offered thrice weekly supervised sessions of 35 min of moderate intensity endurance exercise and 25 min of strength training. Seventeen women were lost to follow-up (eight in the exercise group and nine in the control group. Our primary endpoint was GWG from baseline testing to delivery. The principal analyses were done as intention-to-treat analyses, with supplementary per protocol analyses where we assessed outcomes in the women who adhered to the exercise program (n = 19 compared to the control group. Mean GWG from baseline to delivery was 10.5 kg in the exercise group and 9.2 kg in the control group, with a mean difference of 0.92 kg (95% CI -1.35, 3.18; p = 0.43. Among the 30 secondary outcomes in late pregnancy, an apparent reduction was recorded in the incidence of GDM (2009 WHO definition in the exercise group (2 cases; 6.1% compared to the control group (9 cases; 27.3%, with an odds ratio of 0.1 (95% CI 0.02, 0.95; p = 0

  8. Exercise Training and Weight Gain in Obese Pregnant Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial (ETIP Trial).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnæs, Kirsti Krohn; Mørkved, Siv; Salvesen, Øyvind; Moholdt, Trine

    2016-07-01

    The effectiveness of exercise training for preventing excessive gestational weight gain (GWG) and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is still uncertain. As maternal obesity is associated with both GWG and GDM, there is a special need to assess whether prenatal exercise training programs provided to obese women reduce the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. Our primary aim was to assess whether regular supervised exercise training in pregnancy could reduce GWG in women with prepregnancy overweight/obesity. Secondary aims were to examine the effects of exercise in pregnancy on 30 outcomes including GDM incidence, blood pressure, blood measurements, skinfold thickness, and body composition. This was a single-center study where we randomized (1:1) 91 pregnant women with a prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) ≥ 28 kg/m2 to exercise training (n = 46) or control (standard maternity care) (n = 45). Assessments were done at baseline (pregnancy week 12-18) and in late pregnancy (week 34-37), as well as at delivery. The exercise group was offered thrice weekly supervised sessions of 35 min of moderate intensity endurance exercise and 25 min of strength training. Seventeen women were lost to follow-up (eight in the exercise group and nine in the control group). Our primary endpoint was GWG from baseline testing to delivery. The principal analyses were done as intention-to-treat analyses, with supplementary per protocol analyses where we assessed outcomes in the women who adhered to the exercise program (n = 19) compared to the control group. Mean GWG from baseline to delivery was 10.5 kg in the exercise group and 9.2 kg in the control group, with a mean difference of 0.92 kg (95% CI -1.35, 3.18; p = 0.43). Among the 30 secondary outcomes in late pregnancy, an apparent reduction was recorded in the incidence of GDM (2009 WHO definition) in the exercise group (2 cases; 6.1%) compared to the control group (9 cases; 27.3%), with an odds ratio of 0.1 (95% CI 0.02, 0.95; p = 0

  9. Theory-based Osteoporosis Prevention Education and Counseling Program for Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Aslı Kalkım, RN, PhD; Şafak Dağhan, RN, PhD

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this research was to investigate the effect of an osteoporosis prevention program based on the Health Belief Model for women between the ages of 30 years and 45 years at risk of osteoporosis. Methods: This study was conducted with randomized control group pretest, post-test and follow-up trial. Intervention group (n = 37) and control group (n = 36) participated in the research. Data were collected using a sociodemographic data questionnaire, the Osteoporosis Knowled...

  10. Classification of epileptic EEG signals based on simple random sampling and sequential feature selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghayab, Hadi Ratham Al; Li, Yan; Abdulla, Shahab; Diykh, Mohammed; Wan, Xiangkui

    2016-06-01

    Electroencephalogram (EEG) signals are used broadly in the medical fields. The main applications of EEG signals are the diagnosis and treatment of diseases such as epilepsy, Alzheimer, sleep problems and so on. This paper presents a new method which extracts and selects features from multi-channel EEG signals. This research focuses on three main points. Firstly, simple random sampling (SRS) technique is used to extract features from the time domain of EEG signals. Secondly, the sequential feature selection (SFS) algorithm is applied to select the key features and to reduce the dimensionality of the data. Finally, the selected features are forwarded to a least square support vector machine (LS_SVM) classifier to classify the EEG signals. The LS_SVM classifier classified the features which are extracted and selected from the SRS and the SFS. The experimental results show that the method achieves 99.90, 99.80 and 100 % for classification accuracy, sensitivity and specificity, respectively.

  11. Personal name in Igbo Culture: A dataset on randomly selected personal names and their statistical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okagbue, Hilary I; Opanuga, Abiodun A; Adamu, Muminu O; Ugwoke, Paulinus O; Obasi, Emmanuela C M; Eze, Grace A

    2017-12-01

    This data article contains the statistical analysis of Igbo personal names and a sample of randomly selected of such names. This was presented as the following: 1). A simple random sampling of some Igbo personal names and their respective gender associated with each name. 2). The distribution of the vowels, consonants and letters of alphabets of the personal names. 3). The distribution of name length. 4). The distribution of initial and terminal letters of Igbo personal names. The significance of the data was discussed.

  12. Effects of a community-based healthy heart program on increasing healthy women's physical activity: a randomized controlled trial guided by Community-based Participatory Research (CBPR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyednezami Nasrin

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiovascular disease remains the leading killer of women in most developed areas of the world. Rates of physical inactivity and poor nutrition, which are two of the most important modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular disease in women, are substantial. This study sought to examine the effectiveness of a community-based lifestyle-modification program on increasing women's physical activity in a randomized trial guided by community-based participatory research (CBPR methods. Methods A total of 335 healthy, 25–64 years old women who had been selected by a multiple-stage stratified cluster random sampling method in Bushehr Port/I.R. Iran, were randomized into control and intervention groups. The intervention group completed an 8-week lifestyle modification program for increasing their physical activity, based on a revised form of Choose to Move program; an American Heart Association Physical Activity Program for Women. Audio-taped activity instructions with music and practical usage of the educational package were given to the intervention group in weekly home-visits by 53 volunteers from local non-governmental and community-based organizations. Results Among the participants, the percentage who reported being active (at lease 30 minutes of moderate intensity physical activity for at least 5 days a week, or at least 20 minutes of vigorous physical activity for at least three days a week increased from 3% and 2.7% at baseline to 13.4% and 3% (p Conclusion An intervention based on CBPR methods can be effective for the short-term adoption of physical activity behavior among women. The development of participatory process to support the adequate delivery of lifestyle-modification programs is feasible and an effective healthcare delivery strategy for cardiovascular community health promotion. Trial Registration ACTRNO12606000521527

  13. Effects of Combined Selective Aerobic Moderate Intensity Exercises and Soya Intake on Serum Lipids and Obesity in Obese Postmenopausal Women

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    A Zarneshan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aim: Today, the percentage of deaths due to heart diseases has increased and along with the exercise training role in reducing obesity and cardiovascular disease, soy is a useful source of food in reducing blood lipid and obesity. The present study investigated the effect of combined selective short aerobic moderate intensity exercise and soya intake on serum lipids and obesity in obese postmenopausal women. Methods: In the present quasi-experimental study conducted in 2006 on women of Urmia, Iran, 56 obese postmenopausal women were selected and randomly divided into four groups of 14 subjects as follow: exercise-soya, exercise, soya, and control group. Pre- and post protocol blood samples were collected and the level of TG (Triglyceride, tCho (Total Cholesterol, LDL-C (Low density lipoprotein, HDL-C (high density lipoprotein were measured. Exercise training within the range of 60-70% maximum heart rate (MHR was performed for 60 minutes, 3 sessions per week. The subjects of soya group and exercise-soya group had a 100 gram soya nut intake daily for 10 weeks. After The training course, blood samples were taken from the subjects. The collected data was analyzed using Two-way ANOVA and paired t-test. Results: Having soya along with exercise had significant impact on reduction of TG, tCho, LDL-C means (p<0.05. Body mass index and waist to hip ratio decreased significantly in exercise-soya group after 10 weeks (p<0.05. Conclusion: Based on the findings of this study, aerobic moderate intensity exercise along with soya intake, decrease obesity and serum lipids in obese postmenopausal women.

  14. The Acupuncture on Hot Flushes Among Menopausal Women (ACUFLASH) study, a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borud, Einar Kristian; Alraek, Terje; White, Adrian; Fonnebo, Vinjar; Eggen, Anne Elise; Hammar, Mats; Astrand, Lotta Lindh; Theodorsson, Elvar; Grimsgaard, Sameline

    2009-01-01

    This study compared the effectiveness of individualized acupuncture plus self-care versus self-care alone on hot flashes and health-related quality of life in postmenopausal women. This study involved a multicenter, pragmatic, randomized, controlled trial with two parallel arms. Participants were postmenopausal women experiencing, on average, seven or more hot flashes per 24 hours during seven consecutive days. The acupuncture group received 10 acupuncture treatment sessions and advice on self-care, and the control group received advice on self-care only. The frequency and severity (0-10 scale) of hot flashes were registered in a diary. Urine excretion of calcitonin gene-related peptide was assessed at baseline and after 12 weeks. The primary endpoint was change in mean hot flash frequency from baseline to 12 weeks. The secondary endpoint was change in health-related quality of life measured by the Women's Health Questionnaire. Hot flash frequency decreased by 5.8 per 24 hours in the acupuncture group (n = 134) and 3.7 per 24 hours in the control group (n = 133), a difference of 2.1 (P acupuncture group and 1.8 units in the control group, a difference of 1.4 (P acupuncture group experienced statistically significant improvements in the vasomotor, sleep, and somatic symptoms dimensions of the Women's Health Questionnaire compared with the control group. Urine calcitonin gene-related peptide excretion remained unchanged from baseline to week 12. Acupuncture plus self-care can contribute to a clinically relevant reduction in hot flashes and increased health-related quality of life in postmenopausal women.

  15. Informed Cytology for Triaging HPV-Positive Women: Substudy Nested in the NTCC Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergeron, Christine; Giorgi-Rossi, Paolo; Cas, Frederic; Schiboni, Maria Luisa; Ghiringhello, Bruno; Dalla Palma, Paolo; Minucci, Daria; Rosso, Stefano; Zorzi, Manuel; Naldoni, Carlo; Segnan, Nereo; Confortini, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Background: Human papillomavirus (HPV)–based screening needs triage. In most randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on HPV testing with cytological triage, cytology interpretation has been blind to HPV status. Methods: Women age 25 to 60 years enrolled in the New Technology in Cervical Cancer (NTCC) RCT comparing HPV testing with cytology were referred to colposcopy if HPV positive and, if no cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) was detected, followed up until HPV negativity. Cytological slides taken at the first colposcopy were retrieved and independently interpreted by an external laboratory, which was only aware of patients’ HPV positivity. Sensitivity, specificity, and positive (PPV) and negative (NPV) predictive values were computed for histologically proven CIN2+ with HPV status–informed cytology for women with a determination of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) or more severe. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results: Among HPV-positive women, informed cytology had cross-sectional sensitivity, specificity, PPV and 1-NPV for CIN2+ of 85.6% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 76.6 to 92.1), 65.9% (95% CI = 63.1 to 68.6), 16.2% (95% CI = 13.0 to 19.8), and 1.7 (95% CI = 0.9 to 2.8), respectively. Cytology was also associated with subsequent risk of newly diagnosed CIN2+ and CIN3+. The cross-sectional relative sensitivity for CIN2+ vs blind cytology obtained by referring to colposcopy and following up only HPV positive women who had HPV status–informed cytology greater than or equal to ASCUS was 1.58 (95% CI = 1.22 to 2.01), while the corresponding relative referral to colposcopy was 0.95 (95% CI = 0.86 to 1.04). Conclusions: Cytology informed of HPV positivity is more sensitive than blind cytology and could allow longer intervals before retesting HPV-positive, cytology-negative women. PMID:25568167

  16. The effect of counseling on anxiety after traumatic childbirth in nulliparous women; a single blind randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahnaz Azizi

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Traumatic birthing mothers may expose more susceptible to experiences posttraumatic mental disorder such as anxiety. This study aimed to determine the effect of midwifery counseling intervention on the anxiety level after traumatic childbirth of primiparous women.Methods: In a randomized control trial 180 woman who had experienced traumatic childbirth based on DSM-IV criteria have been selected. The subjects were randomly divided into an intervention (n=90 and control (n=90 groups. The intervention group received midwifery counseling during two sessions and control group just received routin health care after childbirth. Both groups were followed up with partial – blind technique and compared 4-6 weeks and 3 months post partum. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics by SPSS software. Results: Demographic characteristics, pregnancy complications and social support level were the same in both groups. In addition, there was no significant difference between two groups according to stress, depression and anxiety level before intervention (P>0.05. There was significant difference between two groups in anxiety level after 4-6 weeks and 3 months followup (P<0.001.Conclusion: Findings of this research shows that performing midwifery-counseling program may have significant effect on decreasing of anxiety level after traumatic childbirth.

  17. Lower limb muscle strengthening does not change frontal plane moments in women with knee osteoarthritis: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foroughi, Nasim; Smith, Richard M; Lange, Angela K; Baker, Michael K; Fiatarone Singh, Maria A; Vanwanseele, Benedicte

    2011-02-01

    Osteoarthritis is a common musculo-skeletal problem accompanied with muscle weakness. Muscle weakness may be readily improved by resistance training. Greater muscle strength has been associated with a lower knee joint loading rate. We conducted a single-blind randomized controlled trial of 54 female patients with osteoarthritis in at least one knee, according to the American College of Rheumatology clinical criteria. Patients were randomized into a 6-month high intensity progressive resistance training or a sham-exercise program. The primary outcomes were first peak knee and hip adduction moment measured using three-dimensional gait analysis at self-selected habitual and maximal speeds. Secondary outcomes were sagittal plane knee and hip moments, peak muscle strength, gait speed, and self-reported knee osteoarthritis symptoms measured by the Western Ontario and McMaster Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC). Six months of high intensity resistance training did not change the first peak knee or hip adduction moment at either habitual or maximum walking speeds (P>0.413) compared to the sham-exercise. However, the second peak hip adduction moment (P=0.025) and WOMAC pain score (PMuscle strength training in women with osteoarthritis, while effective for reducing osteoarthritis symptoms, appeared to operate through mechanisms other than improved knee or hip joint loading, as paradoxically, improved symptoms were related to decreases of hip adduction moment in late stance. Crown Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of entonox in comparison of lidocaine on pain severity during episiotomy incision in nulliparous women: A randomized control trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azam Honarmandpour

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aim: Episiotomy is one of the most common surgical procedures in obstetrics, which requires analgesia. Entonox gas is known to have analgesic and sedative properties. However, no studies have been found on the analgesic effects of Entonox on episiotomy incision. Therefore, this study aimed to compare the effects of Entonox and lidocaine on pain intensity during episiotomy incision in nulliparous women. Materials and Methods: This randomized controlled trial was conducted on 120 term nulliparous women, who met the inclusion criteria. Subjects were selected by randomized sampling and equally divided into two groups of intervention and control (n=60. In the intervention group, Entonox gas was applied two minutes before episiotomy incision until the end of the procedure. On the other hand, the control group received 5 ml of lidocaine 2% as routine care before episiotomy incision. Data were collected using visual analogue scale to compare the study groups in terms of pain intensity. In addition, patient satisfaction with pain management technique during episiotomy and side effects of Entonox were assessed. Data analysis was performed in SPSS version 22 using Mann-Whitney U and Chi-square tests, and P value of less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: In this study, no significant difference was observed between the intervention and control groups regarding pain intensity (P=0.52. Moreover, no significant difference was observed in the satisfaction level of the two groups (P=0.70. Conclusion: According to the results of this study, Entonox could be used as an effective and noninvasive alternative to lidocaine to reduce pain during episiotomy incision without significant side effects.

  19. Prospective randomized trial to assess effects of continuing hormone therapy on cerebral function in postmenopausal women at risk for dementia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie L Rasgon

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to examine the effects of estrogen-based hormone therapy (HT on regional cerebral metabolism in postmenopausal women (mean age = 58, SD = 5 at risk for development of dementia. The prospective clinical trial design included pre- and post-intervention neuroimaging of women randomized to continue (HT+ or discontinue (HT- therapy following an average of 10 years of use. The primary outcome measure was change in brain metabolism during the subsequent two years, as assessed with fluorodeoxyglucose-18 positron emission tomography (FDG-PET. Longitudinal FDG-PET data were available for 45 study completers. Results showed that women randomized to continue HT experienced relative preservation of frontal and parietal cortical metabolism, compared with women randomized to discontinue HT. Women who discontinued 17-β estradiol (17βE-based HT, as well as women who continued conjugated equine estrogen (CEE-based HT, exhibited significant decline in metabolism of the precuneus/posterior cingulate cortical (PCC area. Significant decline in PCC metabolism was additionally seen in women taking concurrent progestins (with either 17βE or CEE. Together, these findings suggest that among postmenopausal subjects at risk for developing dementia, regional cerebral cortical metabolism is relatively preserved for at least two years in women randomized to continue HT, compared with women randomized to discontinue HT. In addition, continuing unopposed 17βE therapy is associated specifically with preservation of metabolism in PCC, known to undergo the most significant decline in the earliest stages of Alzheimer's disease.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00097058.

  20. The effect of video information on anxiety levels in women attending colposcopy: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketelaars, Pleun J W; Buskes, M H M; Bosgraaf, R P; van Hamont, D; Prins, Judith B; Massuger, L F A G; Melchers, Willem J G; Bekkers, Ruud L M

    2017-08-01

    The aim was to investigate whether additional information, in video form, reduces anxiety, depression and pain levels in women referred for colposcopy. Between September 2012 and March 2015, 136 patients referred for colposcopy were randomized into two study arms. Group A received video information in addition to the regular information leaflet, and group B (control group) received only the regular information leaflet. The patients were requested to complete standardized online questionnaires. The first online questionnaire (T1) was pre-randomization, and was completed at home, 5 days prior to the appointment. The second online questionnaire (T2) was completed directly before the colposcopy appointment, and the last online questionnaire (T3) was completed directly following colposcopy at the out-patient clinic. The questionnaires included the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), and the Numeric Rating Scale (NRS) to assess pain. The STAI state anxiety score was high (44.6), but there was no significant difference in STAI, HADS and NRS between the two groups at the three measuring points. A post hoc analysis showed that women with a generally higher baseline anxiety trait had significantly lower HADS anxiety levels following video information. Additional information (video) before colposcopy did not significantly reduce anxiety, depression, and expected or experienced pain, as measured by the STAI, HADS and NRS in patients attending their first colposcopy appointment. However, most patients positively appreciated the video information, which may reduce the anxiety of extremely anxious patients.

  1. Oral antioxidants supplementation for women with unexplained infertility undergoing ICSI/IVF: randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, Mohamed A F M; Abdelmoty, Hatem I; Elashmwi, Hazem A; Abduljawad, Esaad M; Elghamary, Nevin; Magdy, Ahmed; Mohesen, Mohamed N; Abdella, Rana M A; Bar, Mostafa Abdel; Gouda, Hisham M; Ali, Ahmed Mahmoud Sayed; Raslan, Ayman N; Youssef, Dalia; Sherif, Nadin A; Ismail, Aboulfoutouh I

    2015-03-01

    Good oocyte quality and maturity are important prerequisites for high fertilization and implantation rates in IVF/ICSI treatment cycles. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are produced within ovarian follicles, especially during the ovulation process, and increased ROS activity may be a cause of impaired oocyte maturation and higher rate of failure of IVF/ICSI cycles. RCT evaluating the effect of antioxidant supplementation on ICSI/IVF outcomes. Two hundred and eighteen women with unexplained subfertility undergoing IVF/ICSI were randomized into two groups. The study group (n = 112) received daily oral antioxidants in the form of multivitamins and minerals (amino acid chelated) while the control group (n = 106) did not. Main outcomes were number of mature metaphase II (MII) oocytes and clinical pregnancy rate. There were no significant changes between the groups as regards age, BMI, basal FSH, number of mature (MII) oocytes (12.7 ± 9.4 vs. 13.2 ± 8.6, P = 0.7) and clinical pregnancy rate per woman randomized (38% vs. 34%; [OR = 1.2; 95% CI, 0.70-2.11]. Oral antioxidants in the form of a combination of multivitamins and minerals (amino acid chelated) did not improve oocyte quality and pregnancy rates in women with unexplained infertility undergoing IVF/ICSI treatment.

  2. Low-educated women with chronic pain were less often selected to multidisciplinary rehabilitation programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammarström, Anne; Haukenes, Inger; Fjellman Wiklund, Anncristine; Lehti, Arja; Wiklund, Maria; Evengård, Birgitta; Stålnacke, Britt-Marie

    2014-01-01

    There is a lack of research about a potential education-related bias in assessment of patients with chronic pain. The aim of this study was to analyze whether low-educated men and women with chronic pain were less often selected to multidisciplinary rehabilitation than those with high education. The population consisted of consecutive patients (n = 595 women, 266 men) referred during a three-year period from mainly primary health care centers for a multidisciplinary team assessment at a pain rehabilitation clinic at a university hospital in Northern Sweden. Patient data were collected from the Swedish Quality Registry for Pain Rehabilitation National Pain Register. The outcome variable was being selected by the multidisciplinary team assessment to a multidisciplinary rehabilitation program. The independent variables were: sex, age, born outside Sweden, education, pain severity as well as the hospital, anxiety and depression scale (HADS). Low-educated women were less often selected to multidisciplinary rehabilitation programs than high-educated women (OR 0.55, CI 0.30-0.98), even after control for age, being born outside Sweden, pain intensity and HADS. No significant findings were found when comparing the results between high- and low-educated men. Our findings can be interpreted as possible discrimination against low-educated women with chronic pain in hospital referrals to pain rehabilitation. There is a need for more gender-theoretical research emphasizing the importance of taking several power dimensions into account when analyzing possible bias in health care.

  3. Tai Chi for osteopenic women: design and rationale of a pragmatic randomized controlled trial

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    Fischer Mary

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Post-menopausal osteopenic women are at increased risk for skeletal fractures. Current osteopenia treatment guidelines include exercise, however, optimal exercise regimens for attenuating bone mineral density (BMD loss, or for addressing other fracture-related risk factors (e.g. poor balance, decreased muscle strength are not well-defined. Tai Chi is an increasingly popular weight bearing mind-body exercise that has been reported to positively impact BMD dynamics and improve postural control, however, current evidence is inconclusive. This study will determine the effectiveness of Tai Chi in reducing rates of bone turnover in post-menopausal osteopenic women, compared with standard care, and will preliminarily explore biomechanical processes that might inform how Tai Chi impacts BMD and associated fracture risks. Methods/Design A total of 86 post-menopausal women, aged 45-70y, T-score of the hip and/or spine -1.0 and -2.5, have been recruited from primary care clinics of a large healthcare system based in Boston. They have been randomized to a group-based 9-month Tai Chi program plus standard care or to standard care only. A unique aspect of this trial is its pragmatic design, which allows participants randomized to Tai Chi to choose from a pre-screened list of community-based Tai Chi programs. Interviewers masked to participants' treatment group assess outcomes at baseline and 3 and 9 months after randomization. Primary outcomes are serum markers of bone resorption (C-terminal cross linking telopeptide of type I collagen, bone formation (osteocalcin, and BMD of the lumbar spine and proximal femur (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Secondary outcomes include health-related quality-of-life, exercise behavior, and psychological well-being. In addition, kinetic and kinematic characterization of gait, standing, and rising from a chair are assessed in subset of participants (n = 16 to explore the feasibility of modeling skeletal

  4. Prevalence, Risk Factors, and Clinical Findings of Candidiasis and Trichomoniasis in Women Supported by Selected Health Centers of Tabriz, Iran

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    Sehhatie-Shafaie Fahimeh

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Vulvovaginitis candidiasis and trichomoniasis constitute at least 50% of infectious vaginitis cases. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence, risk factors, and clinical findings of candidiasis and trichomoniasis in women supported by selected health centers of Tabriz, Iran. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study, in which 1000 women who had the study criteria were selected by random sampling. In addition, 12 health centers of Tabriz were selected for this study. A questionnaire was used to obtain their personal and reproductive information, checklist for clinical observations, and culture methods (sabouraud dextrose agar and diamond for diagnose vaginal infections. Results: The prevalence of candidiasis and trichomoniasis were 25.2 and 9.2%, respectively. Findings showed that candidiasis infection, history of diseases, vaginal pH, number of coitus, number of delivery, and number of vaginal delivery, breast feeding status, method of last delivery, and contraceptive methods are risk factors for candidacies. Moreover, age at marriage, personal health, sexual hygiene, and vaginal pH are risk factors for trichomoniasis. A statistically significant relationship was observed between candidiasis and clinical findings, such as pruritus, pruritus during coitus, burning sensation with coitus, dysuria in woman and her husband, dyspareunia, low abdominal pain, urinal symptoms, vaginal status, amount of discharge, consistency appearance, and color of discharges. Furthermore, a significant relationship was observed between trichomoniasis and dysuria, and appearance and color of vaginal discharge. Conclusion: Due to the high prevalence of candidiasis, trichomoniasis infections, and infected women as asymptomatic carriers, it seems necessary to pay more attention to these infections and make efforts for their prevention.

  5. Weight reduction intervention for obese infertile women prior to IVF: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einarsson, Snorri; Bergh, Christina; Friberg, Britt; Pinborg, Anja; Klajnbard, Anna; Karlström, Per-Olof; Kluge, Linda; Larsson, Ingrid; Loft, Anne; Mikkelsen-Englund, Anne-Lis; Stenlöf, Kaj; Wistrand, Anna; Thurin-Kjellberg, Ann

    2017-08-01

    Does an intensive weight reduction programme prior to IVF increase live birth rates for infertile obese women? An intensive weight reduction programme resulted in a large weight loss but did not substantially affect live birth rates in obese women scheduled for IVF. Among obese women, fertility and obstetric outcomes are influenced negatively with increased risk of miscarriage and a higher risk of maternal and neonatal complications. A recent large randomized controlled trial found no effect of lifestyle intervention on live birth in infertile obese women. A prospective, multicentre, randomized controlled trial was performed between 2010 and 2016 in the Nordic countries. In total, 962 women were assessed for eligibility and 317 women were randomized. Computerized randomization with concealed allocation was performed in the proportions 1:1 to one of two groups: weight reduction intervention followed by IVF-treatment or IVF-treatment only. One cycle per patient was included. Nine infertility clinics in Sweden, Denmark and Iceland participated. Women under 38 years of age planning IVF, and having a BMI ≥30 and IVF, starting with 12 weeks of a low calorie liquid formula diet (LCD) of 880 kcal/day and thereafter weight stabilization for 2-5 weeks, or a control group (157 patients) with IVF only. In the full analysis set (FAS), the live birth rate was 29.6% (45/152) in the weight reduction and IVF group and 27.5% (42/153) in the IVF only group. The difference was not statistically significant (difference 2.2%, 95% CI: 12.9 to -8.6, P = 0.77). The mean weight change was -9.44 (6.57) kg in the weight reduction and IVF group as compared to +1.19 (1.95) kg in the IVF only group, being highly significant (P IVF group, 10.5% (16) as compared to the IVF only group 2.6% (4) (P = 0.009). Miscarriage rates and gonadotropin dose used for IVF stimulation did not differ between groups. Two subgroup analyses were performed. The first compared women with PCOS in the two randomized

  6. Sexual function in women on estradiol or venlafaxine for hot flushes: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Susan D; Mitchell, Caroline M; Joffe, Hadine; Cohen, Lee; Shifren, Jan L; Newton, Katherine M; Freeman, Ellen W; Larson, Joseph C; Manson, JoAnn E; LaCroix, Andrea Z; Guthrie, Katherine A

    2014-08-01

    To evaluate sexual function in midlife women taking low-dose oral estradiol or venlafaxine for hot flushes. In an 8-week randomized controlled trial among women aged 40-62 years, sexual function was compared between 0.5 mg oral estradiol per day or 75 mg venlafaxine per day (both compared with a placebo). Measures included composite and six domain scores from the Female Sexual Function Index and sexually related personal distress. Participants were aged 54.6 years (standard deviation [SD] 3.8) years, 59% white, with 8.1 (SD 5.3) daily hot flushes. Median composite baseline Female Sexual Function Index score was 16.3 (SD 11.9, n=256) for all women and 21.7 (SD 9.3, n=198) among sexually active women. Composite mean Female Sexual Function Index change from baseline to week 8 was 1.4 (95% confidence interval [CI] -0.4 to 3.2) for estradiol, 1.1 (95% CI -0.5 to 2.7) for venlafaxine, and -0.3 (95% CI -1.6 to 1.0) for placebo. Composite Female Sexual Function Index and sexually related distress change from baseline did not differ between estradiol and placebo (P=.38, P=.30) or venlafaxine and placebo (P=.79, P=.48). Among sexually active women, Female Sexual Function Index domain score change from baseline differences (active compared with placebo) in desire was 0.3 (95% CI 0.0-0.6) for estradiol, -0.6 (95% CI -1.2 to 0.0) in orgasm for venlafaxine, and 0.9 (95% CI 0.2-1.6) in penetration pain for venlafaxine. No women reported adverse events related to sexual dysfunction. Overall sexual function among nondepressed midlife women experiencing hot flushes did not change over 8 weeks with low-dose oral estradiol or venlafaxine (compared with placebo), although a subtle increase in desire (estradiol) and decreases in orgasm and pain (venlafaxine) may exist. ClinicalTrials.gov, www.clinicaltrials.gov, NCT01418209. I.

  7. Sexual Function in Women on Estradiol or Venlafaxine for Hot Flushes: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Susan D.; Mitchell, Caroline M.; Joffe, Hadine; Cohen, Lee; Shifren, Jan L.; Newton, Katherine M.; Freeman, Ellen W.; Larson, Joseph C.; Manson, JoAnn E.; LaCroix, Andrea Z.; Guthrie, Katherine A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate sexual function in midlife women taking low-dose oral estradiol or venlafaxine for hot flushes. Methods In an 8-week randomized controlled trial among women aged 40-62 years, sexual function was compared between oral estradiol 0.5 mg/day or venlafaxine 75 mg/day (both compared with placebo). Measures included composite and 6 domain scores from the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) and sexually related personal distress. Results Participants were aged 54.6 (standard deviation [SD] 3.8) years, 59% Caucasian, with 8.1 (SD 5.3) daily hot flushes. Median composite baseline FSFI score was 16.3 (SD 11.9, n=256) for all women and 21.7 (SD 9.3, n=198) among sexually active women. Composite mean FSFI change from baseline to week-8 was 1.4 (95% Confidence Interval [CI] -0.4, 3.2) for estradiol, 1.1 (95% CI -0.5, 2.7) for venlafaxine and -0.3 (95% CI -1.6, 1.0) for placebo. Composite FSFI and sexually-related distress change from baseline did not differ between estradiol and placebo (p= 0.38, p=0.30) or venlafaxine and placebo (p=0.79, p=0.48). Among sexually active women, FSFI domain score change from baseline differences (active compared with placebo) in desire was 0.3 (95% CI 0.0, 0.6) for estradiol; -0.6 (95% CI -1.2, 0.0) in orgasm for venlafaxine, and 0.9 (95% CI 0.2, 1.6) in penetration pain for venlafaxine. No women reported adverse events related to sexual dysfunction. Conclusions Overall sexual function among nondepressed midlife women experiencing hot flushes did not change over 8-weeks with low-dose oral estradiol or venlafaxine (compared with placebo), although subtle increase in desire (estradiol), and decreases in orgasm and pain (venlafaxine) may exist. PMID:25004335

  8. Effect of yoga and aerobics exercise on sleep quality in women with Type 2 diabetes: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Mohsen; Guilan-Nejad, Tayebe Nazari; Pordanjani, Abbas Foroughi

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was investigating the effect of 12 weeks of yoga and aerobic exercise (running on a treadmill) on the sleep quality in women with Type 2 diabetes. 39 diabetic women were selected from Semnan city with the mean age of 46.85±3.35 years, weight of 69.79±17.18 kg, height of 155.03±5.00, BMI of 29.64±5.00 kg/m2 who had a background of diabetes for 6.46±2.69 years. They were then randomly divided into yoga exercise (n=15), aerobic exercise (n=13), and control group (n=11). The exercise program was performed for 12 weeks, three sessions per each week. In order to measure the sleep quality, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) was used. The data were analyzed by non-parametric wilcoxon and Kruskal-Wallis Test at significance level of psleep quality improved after six (p=0.001) and 12 (p=0.001) weeks of yoga exercise. Also, significant effect was observed after 6 weeks of aerobic exercise (p=0.039). However, the positive effect was diminished to under significant levels after 12 weeks of aerobic exercise (p=0.154). Kruskal-Wallis Test showed significant differences between yoga and aerobic groups after 12 weeks of exercise (p=0.002). No significant differences were observed in control groups in all situation. It can be concluded that yoga exercise is more effective in improving the sleep quality in comparison with the same course of aerobic exercise in women suffering from diabetes Type 2. Thus, yoga exercise can be suggested to these patients.

  9. A randomized trial of acupuncture for vasomotor symptoms in post-menopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venzke, Liane; Calvert, James F; Gilbertson, Barbara

    2010-04-01

    The goal of this study was to determine whether acupuncture would relieve the vasomotor symptoms of post-menopausal women. A randomized, single-blind trial. A small city in a rural area of Eastern Oregon. Women were recruited into the study from the community by advertising or physician referral. All study subjects were in non-surgical menopause and medically stable. Study subjects were randomly assigned to receive 12 weeks of treatment with either Chinese Traditional Medicine (TCM) acupuncture (n=27) or shallow needle (sham) acupuncture (n=24). Study participants kept a diary recording their hot flashes each day. At baseline, study participants filled out Greene Climacteric Scales and the Beck Depression and Anxiety Inventories. These same outcomes were also measured at week 4 of treatment and at 1 week and 12 weeks after treatment. The number of hot flashes and the numeric scores on the Climacteric Scales and the Beck inventories were compared between the verum and shallow needling groups using two-way repeated measures. Both groups of women showed statistically significant improvement on all study parameters. However, there was no difference between the improvement in the shallow needle and verum acupuncture groups. Study subjects were not able to guess which group they had been assigned to. This study showed that both shallow needling and verum acupuncture were effective treatments of post-menopausal vasomotor symptoms. Study subjects were not able to distinguish shallow needling from real TCM acupuncture. Shallow needling may have therapeutic effects in itself reducing its utility as a "placebo" control for verum acupuncture. This result is consistent with other published studies. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Emotionally Expressive Writing for Women With Metastatic Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low, Carissa A.; Stanton, Annette L.; Bower, Julienne E.; Gyllenhammer, Lauren

    2011-01-01

    Objective To test the effects of emotionally expressive writing in a randomized controlled trial of metastatic breast cancer patients and to determine whether effects of the intervention varied as a function of perceived social support or time since metastatic diagnosis. Design Women (N = 62) living with Stage IV breast cancer were randomly assigned to write about cancer-related emotions (EMO; n = 31) or the facts of their diagnosis and treatment (CTL; n = 31). Participants wrote at home for four 20-min sessions within a 3-week interval. Main Outcome Measures Depressive symptoms, cancer-related intrusive thoughts, somatic symptoms, and sleep quality at 3 months postintervention. Results No significant main effects of experimental condition were observed. A significant condition × social support interaction emerged on intrusive thoughts; EMO writing was associated with reduced intrusive thoughts for women reporting low emotional support (η2 = .15). Significant condition × time since metastatic diagnosis interactions were also observed for somatic symptoms and sleep disturbances. Relative to CTL, EMO participants who were more recently diagnosed had fewer somatic symptoms (η2 = .10), whereas EMO participants with longer diagnosis duration exhibited increases in sleep disturbances (η2 = .09). Conclusion Although there was no main effect of expressive writing on health among the current metastatic breast cancer sample, expressive writing may be beneficial for a subset of metastatic patients (including women with low levels of emotional support or who have been recently diagnosed) and contraindicated for others (i.e., those who have been living with the diagnosis for years). PMID:20658835

  11. Postpartum pelvic floor muscle training and pelvic organ prolapse--a randomized trial of primiparous women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bø, Kari; Hilde, Gunvor; Stær-Jensen, Jette; Siafarikas, Franziska; Tennfjord, Merete Kolberg; Engh, Marie Ellstrøm

    2015-01-01

    Pelvic organ prolapse (POP) is a common and distressing condition. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT) on prevention and treatment of symptoms and signs of POP in primiparous postpartum women. This was a parallel group assessor blind randomized controlled trial. One hundred seventy-five primiparous postpartum women, mean age 29.8 years (standard deviation 4.1), stratified on major levator ani defects or no defect diagnosed by 3-/4-dimensional ultrasound, participated in a 4-month PFMT starting at 6-8 weeks' postpartum or control. All participants had thorough individual instruction and assessment of ability to perform correct pelvic floor muscle contractions. The PFMT group followed a supervised, weekly group training program and performed 3 sets of 8-12 daily maximal contractions at home. Main outcome was POP stage II or greater assessed by POP quantification and bladder neck position assessed by 3-/4- dimensional transperineal ultrasonography. Secondary outcome was symptoms of vaginal bulge using International Consultation on Incontinence Vaginal Symptoms questionnaire. Ninety-six percent of the intervention group adhered to ≥80% of both group and home training sessions. At postintervention, there was no significant risk difference in POP (rational ratio, 1.62; 95% confidence interval, 0.55-4.75), bladder neck position or symptoms of vaginal bulging. No effect was found of postpartum PFMT on POP in primiparous women. More randomized controlled trials are needed before strong conclusions can be drawn on the effect of PFMT on POP in the particular population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Resistance exercise improves physical fatigue in women with fibromyalgia: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ericsson, Anna; Palstam, Annie; Larsson, Anette; Löfgren, Monika; Bileviciute-Ljungar, Indre; Bjersing, Jan; Gerdle, Björn; Kosek, Eva; Mannerkorpi, Kaisa

    2016-07-30

    Fibromyalgia (FM) affects approximately 1-3 % of the general population. Fatigue limits the work ability and social life of patients with FM. A few studies of physical exercise have included measures of fatigue in FM, indicating that exercise can decrease fatigue levels. There is limited knowledge about the effects of resistance exercise on multiple dimensions of fatigue in FM. The present study is a sub-study of a multicenter randomized controlled trial in women with FM. The purpose of the present sub-study was to examine the effects of a person-centered progressive resistance exercise program on multiple dimensions of fatigue in women with FM, and to investigate predictors of the potential change in fatigue. A total of 130 women with FM (age 22-64 years) were included in this assessor-blinded randomized controlled multicenter trial examining the effects of person-centered progressive resistance exercise compared with an active control group. The intervention was performed twice a week for 15 weeks. Outcomes were five dimensions of fatigue measured with the Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory (MFI-20). Information about background was collected and the women also completed several health-related questionnaires. Multiple linear stepwise regression was used to analyze predictors of change in fatigue in the total population. A higher improvement was found at the post-treatment examination for change in the resistance exercise group, as compared to change in the active control group in the MFI-20 subscale of physical fatigue (resistance group Δ -1.7, SD 4.3, controls Δ 0.0, SD 2.7, p = 0.013), with an effect size of 0.33. Sleep efficiency was the strongest predictor of change in the MFI-20 subscale general fatigue (beta = -0.54, p = 0.031, R (2) = 0.05). Participating in resistance exercise (beta = 1.90, p = 0.010) and working fewer hours per week (beta = 0.84, p = 0.005) were independent significant predictors of change in physical

  13. A Pilot Randomized Placebo Controlled Trial of Electroacupuncture for Women with Pure Stress Urinary Incontinence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huanfang Xu

    Full Text Available Acupuncture is a potential conservative therapy for women with stress urinary incontinence (SUI. There is limited evidence to support its effectiveness due to the poor quality of existing studies.We performed a pilot randomized, controlled trial to preliminarily assess the efficacy of electroacupuncture (EA in women with pure SUI. A total of 80 women with pure SUI were randomly assigned to receive EA with deep needling at BL33 and BL35 (n = 40 or sham EA with non-penetrating needling at sham acupoints (n = 40 three sessions per week for 6 weeks. The women were followed for 24 weeks. The primary outcome was the change from baseline in the amount of urine leakage measured by a 1-hour pad test after 6 weeks. The secondary outcomes included the 72-hour incontinence episode frequency (IEF, International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-Short Form (ICIQ-SF score, and patient self-evaluation of therapeutic effect. Adverse events (AEs were monitored throughout the trial.The median decrease from baseline of urine leakage measured by the 1-hour pad test was 2.5 g [interquartile range (IQR: 1.80-14.6 in the EA group, which was greater than the median decrease of 0.05 g (IQR: -2.80-+0.50 in the sham EA group after 6 weeks (p<0.01. The differences between groups in the decrease from baseline of 72-hour IEF became statistically significant at week 30 with a median decrease of 3.25 g (IQR: 1.25-5.69 in the EA group, and a median decrease of 1.00 g (IQR: -0.69-+2.88 in the sham EA group (p = 0.01. The participants in the EA group showed greater decreases in ICIQ-SF score and higher ratings in the help they received from the treatment than those in the sham EA group at weeks 6,18 and 30 (all p<0.05. No obvious AEs were observed in either group.EA may effectively and safely relieve urinary incontinence symptoms and improve quality of life in women with pure SUI. EA demonstrated more than a placebo effect. Since this is a pilot study, results should be

  14. Posterior tibial nerve stimulation for treating neurologic bladder in women: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eftekhar, Tahereh; Teimoory, Nastaran; Miri, Elahe; Nikfallah, Abolghasem; Naeimi, Mahsa; Ghajarzadeh, Mahsa

    2014-01-01

    Overactive bladder (OAB) is a disabling disorder. Treatment of cases with OAB includes behavioral, pharmacological, surgical interventions and peripheral electrical stimulation. The goal of this study was to determine effects of posterior tibial nerve stimulation on sexual function and pelvic disorders in women with Overactive bladder (OAB). Fifty women were randomly assigned to PTNS (posterior tibial nerve stimulation) plus tolterodine or tolterodine alone treatment. Tolterodine group received 4 mg tolterodine daily for three months while the other group received this treatment plus percutaneous tibial nerve stimulation for 12 consequence weeks. Two in PTNS group and 8 in the control group withdrew from the study. Age, education level, and occupation status were not significantly different between two groups. Mean total FSFI and its subscales were not significantly different before and after treatment between two groups. Urine leakage associated with a feeling of urgency and loss of stool or gas from the rectum beyond patient's control became significantly different after treatment between two groups. Posterior tibial nerve stimulation could help urinary problems in women with a neurologic bladder.

  15. Posterior tibial nerve stimulation for treating neurologic bladder in women: a randomized clinical trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahereh Eftekhar

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Overactive bladder (OAB is a disabling disorder. Treatment of cases with OAB includes behavioral, pharmacological, surgical interventions and peripheral electrical stimulation. The goal of this study was to determine effects of posterior tibial nerve stimulation on sexual function and pelvic disorders in women with Overactive bladder (OAB. Fifty women were randomly assigned to PTNS (posterior tibial nerve stimulation plus tolterodine or tolterodine alone treatment. Tolterodine group received 4 mg tolterodine daily for three months while the other group received this treatment plus percutaneous tibial nerve stimulation for 12 consequence weeks. Two in PTNS group and 8 in the control group withdrew from the study. Age, education level, and occupation status were not significantly different between two groups. Mean total FSFI and its subscales were not significantly different before and after treatment between two groups. Urine leakage associated with a feeling of urgency and loss of stool or gas from the rectum beyond patient's control became significantly different after treatment between two groups. Posterior tibial nerve stimulation could help urinary problems in women with a neurologic bladder.

  16. Exercise and self-esteem in menopausal women: a randomized controlled trial involving walking and yoga.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elavsky, Steriani; McAuley, Edward

    2007-01-01

    To examine the effects of walking and yoga on multidimensional self-esteem and roles played by self-efficacy, body composition, and physical activity (PA) in changes in esteem. Four-month randomized controlled exercise trial with three arms: walking, yoga, and control. Previously low-active middle-aged women (n=164; M age = 49.9; SD = 3.6). Structured and supervised walking program meeting three times per week for I hour and supervised yoga program meeting twice per week for 90 minutes. Body composition, fitness assessment, and battery of psychologic measures. Panel analysis within a structural equation modeling framework using Mplus 3.0. The walking and yoga interventions failed to enhance global or physical self-esteem but improved subdomain esteem relative to physical condition and strength (for walking) and body attractiveness (for both walking and yoga). Over time the effects of PA, self-efficacy, and body fat on changes in physical self-esteem and global esteem were mediated by changes in physical condition and body attractiveness subdomain esteem. Women reporting greater levels of self-efficacy and PA with lower body fat also reported greater enhancements in subdomain esteem. These results provide support for the hierarchic and multidimensional nature of self-esteem and indicate that middle-aged women may enhance certain aspects of physical self-esteem by participating in PA.

  17. African-American Women's Long-term Maintenance of Physical Activity Following a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilbur, JoEllen; Miller, Arlene M; Buchholz, Susan W; Fogg, Louis F; Braun, Lynne T; Halloway, Shannon; Schoeny, Michael E

    2017-07-01

    Our purpose was to determine long-term maintenance of physical activity (PA) following the 48-week Women's Lifestyle PA program, targeted/tailored for African-American women. The parent study consisted of a 3-arm randomized clinical trial with 3 assessment points: baseline (pre-intervention); 24 weeks post-baseline (end active intervention); and 48 weeks post-baseline (end maintenance intervention). Present analyses supplement the original results by adding a long-term maintenance assessment that occurred 2 to 4 years post-baseline. Participants were 288 African-American women aged 40 to 65 without major signs/symptoms of pulmonary/cardiovascular disease. The active intervention included 5 group meetings, with 9 personal motivational calls, 9 automated motivational calls, or no calls between meetings. The maintenance intervention included one group meeting and either 2 calls or no calls. PA was assessed with the Community Healthy Activities Model Program for Seniors. Retention was 90%. Over long-term maintenance, there was a decline in PA, but levels remained significantly higher than baseline for moderate/vigorous PA (p maintenance of PA increases resulting from group meetings in an active intervention occur when followed by a maintenance intervention.

  18. Mindfulness‐Based Stress Reduction in Women with Overweight or Obesity: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agito, Katrina; Shah, Julie; Stetter, Christy M.; Gustafson, Theresa S.; Socolow, Holly; Kunselman, Allen R.; Reibel, Diane K.; Legro, Richard S.

    2017-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the feasibility and cardiometabolic effects of mindfulness‐based stress reduction (MBSR) in women with overweight or obesity. Methods Eighty‐six women with BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 were randomized to 8 weeks of MBSR or health education and followed for 16 weeks. The primary outcome was the Toronto Mindfulness Scale. Secondary outcomes included the Perceived Stress Scale‐10, fasting glucose, and blood pressure. Results Compared to health education, the MBSR group demonstrated significantly improved mindfulness at 8 weeks (mean change from baseline, 4.5 vs. −1.0; P = 0.03) and significantly decreased perceived stress at 16 weeks (−3.6 vs. −1.3, P = 0.01). In the MBSR group, there were significant reductions in fasting glucose at 8 weeks (−8.9 mg/dL, P = 0.02) and at 16 weeks (−9.3 mg/dL, P = 0.02) compared to baseline. Fasting glucose did not significantly improve in the health education group. There were no significant changes in blood pressure, weight, or insulin resistance in the MBSR group. Conclusions In women with overweight or obesity, MBSR significantly reduces stress and may have beneficial effects on glucose. Future studies demonstrating long‐term cardiometabolic benefits of MBSR will be key for establishing MBSR as an effective tool in the management of obesity. PMID:28686006

  19. Immediate compared with delayed oxytocin after amniotomy labor induction in parous women: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Peng Chiong; Soe, May Zaw; Sulaiman, Sofiah; Omar, Siti Zawiah

    2013-02-01

    To compare immediate with delayed (4 hours) oxytocin infusion after amniotomy on vaginal delivery within 12 hours and patient satisfaction with the birth process. Parous women with favorable cervixes after amniotomy for labor induction were randomized to immediate titrated oxytocin or placebo intravenous infusion in a double-blind noninferiority trial. After 4 hours, study infusions were stopped, the women were assessed, and open-label oxytocin was started if required. Maternal satisfaction with the birth process was assessed with a 10-point visual numerical rating scale (lower score, greater satisfaction). Vaginal delivery rates at 12 hours were 91 of 96 (94.8%) compared with 91 of 94 (96.8%) (relative risk 0.98, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.92-1.04, P=.72), and maternal satisfaction on a visual numerical rating scale (median [interquartile range]) was 3 [3-4] compared with 3 [3-5], P=.36 for immediate compared with delayed arm, respectively). Cesarean delivery, maternal fever, postpartum hemorrhage, uterine hyperactivity, and adverse neonatal outcome rates were similar between arms. The immediate oxytocin arm had a shorter amniotomy-to-delivery interval of 5.3±3.1 compared with 6.9±2.9 hours (Poxytocin infusion was avoided by 35.6%. Immediate or delayed oxytocin infusions are reasonable options after amniotomy for labor induction in parous women with favorable cervixes. The choice should take into account local resources and the woman's wish. ISRCTN Register, http://isrctn.org, ISRCTN51476259. I.

  20. Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction in Women with Overweight or Obesity: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raja-Khan, Nazia; Agito, Katrina; Shah, Julie; Stetter, Christy M; Gustafson, Theresa S; Socolow, Holly; Kunselman, Allen R; Reibel, Diane K; Legro, Richard S

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate the feasibility and cardiometabolic effects of mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) in women with overweight or obesity. Eighty-six women with BMI ≥ 25 kg/m 2 were randomized to 8 weeks of MBSR or health education and followed for 16 weeks. The primary outcome was the Toronto Mindfulness Scale. Secondary outcomes included the Perceived Stress Scale-10, fasting glucose, and blood pressure. Compared to health education, the MBSR group demonstrated significantly improved mindfulness at 8 weeks (mean change from baseline, 4.5 vs. -1.0; P = 0.03) and significantly decreased perceived stress at 16 weeks (-3.6 vs. -1.3, P = 0.01). In the MBSR group, there were significant reductions in fasting glucose at 8 weeks (-8.9 mg/dL, P = 0.02) and at 16 weeks (-9.3 mg/dL, P = 0.02) compared to baseline. Fasting glucose did not significantly improve in the health education group. There were no significant changes in blood pressure, weight, or insulin resistance in the MBSR group. In women with overweight or obesity, MBSR significantly reduces stress and may have beneficial effects on glucose. Future studies demonstrating long-term cardiometabolic benefits of MBSR will be key for establishing MBSR as an effective tool in the management of obesity. © 2017 The Authors. Obesity published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Obesity Society (TOS).

  1. Effect of different types of exercise on postural balance in elderly women: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Marcio R; da Silva, Rubens A; Dascal, Juliana B; Teixeira, Denilson C

    2014-01-01

    Different types of exercise are indicated for the elderly to prevent functional capacity limitations due to aging and reduce the risk of falls. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of three different exercises (mini-trampoline, MT; aquatic gymnastics, AG and general floor gymnastics, GG) on postural balance in elderly women. Seventy-four physically independent elderly women, mean age 69±4 years, were randomly assigned to three intervention groups: (1) MT (n=23), (2) AG (n=28), and (3) GG (n=23). Each group performed physical training, including cardiorespiratory, muscular strength and endurance, flexibility and sensory-motor exercises for 12 weeks. To determine the effects on each intervention group, five postural balance tasks were performed on a force platform (BIOMEC 400): the two-legged stand with eyes open (TLEO) and two-legged stand with eyes closed (TLEC); the semi-tandem stand with eyes open (STEO) and semi-tandem stand with eyes closed (STEC) and the one-legged stand. Three trials were performed for each task (with 30s of rest between them) and the mean was used to compute balance parameters such as center of pressure (COP) sway movements. All modalities investigated such as the MT, AG and GG were significantly (Pexercise and balance for promoting health in elderly women. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Gender and Self-Selection Into a Competitive Environment: Are Women More Overconfident Than Men?

    OpenAIRE

    Nekby, Lena; Skogman Thoursie, Peter; Vahtrik, Lars

    2007-01-01

    Using a large running race in Sweden, this study shows that there are male-dominated environments in which the selection of women who participate are more likely to be confident/competitive and that, within this group, performance improves equally for both genders.

  3. Simulated Performance Evaluation of a Selective Tracker Through Random Scenario Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hussain, Dil Muhammad Akbar

    2006-01-01

      The paper presents a simulation study on the performance of a target tracker using selective track splitting filter algorithm through a random scenario implemented on a digital signal processor.  In a typical track splitting filter all the observation which fall inside a likelihood ellipse...... are used for update, however, in our proposed selective track splitting filter less number of observations are used for track update.  Much of the previous performance work [1] has been done on specific (deterministic) scenarios. One of the reasons for considering the specific scenarios, which were...

  4. Information Seeking Behavior & Information Resources Management:Mental Process Selecting Subjects & Identifying Information Needs Case study: Graduate Students in Women seminaries of Shiraz of Academic year 1393- 1394(

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohre Eftekhar

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is Information Resources Management: Mental Process Selecting Subjects &  Identifying Information Needs. The research method used in this study is a Quantitative method. Sampling is purposeful. This means that it includes graduate Students in Women seminaries of Shiraz who have information-seeking experience and are able to express their views and information needs. The sample was selected according to the random sampling method with Cochran formula from 710 students. According to this sampling method there is 241 Graduate Students included in 1392-1393 seminaries year of  Women seminaries of Shiraz. This is a survey research Which has been carried out by employing a questionnaire and SPSS for windows to analyze data. The results showed that students for selecting subjects,  identifying information needs used methods and media such as Prying Mind, reviewing of information resources, Consulting with subject specialists.

  5. Classification of epileptic EEG signals based on simple random sampling and sequential feature selection

    OpenAIRE

    Ghayab, Hadi Ratham Al; Li, Yan; Abdulla, Shahab; Diykh, Mohammed; Wan, Xiangkui

    2016-01-01

    Electroencephalogram (EEG) signals are used broadly in the medical fields. The main applications of EEG signals are the diagnosis and treatment of diseases such as epilepsy, Alzheimer, sleep problems and so on. This paper presents a new method which extracts and selects features from multi-channel EEG signals. This research focuses on three main points. Firstly, simple random sampling (SRS) technique is used to extract features from the time domain of EEG signals. Secondly, the sequential fea...

  6. Randomized Trial Comparing Two Algorithms for Levothyroxine Dose Adjustment in Pregnant Women With Primary Hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Shannon D; Downs, Erin; Popoveniuc, Geanina; Zeymo, Alexander; Jonklaas, Jacqueline; Burman, Kenneth D

    2017-09-01

    Regulation of maternal thyroid hormones during pregnancy is crucial for optimal maternal and fetal outcomes. There are no specific guidelines addressing maternal levothyroxine (LT4) dose adjustments throughout pregnancy. To compare two LT4 dose-adjustment algorithms in hypothyroid pregnant women. Thirty-three women on stable LT4 doses were recruited at pregnancies and randomized to one of two dose-adjustment groups. Group 1 (G1) used an empiric two-pill/week dose increase followed by subsequent pill-per-week dose adjustments. In group 2 (G2), LT4 dose was adjusted in an ongoing approach in micrograms per day based on current thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) level and LT4 dose. TSH was monitored every 2 weeks in trimesters 1 and 2 and every 4 weeks in trimester 3. Academic endocrinology clinics in Washington, DC. Proportion of TSH values within trimester-specific goal ranges. Mean gestational age at study entry was 6.4 ± 2.1 weeks. Seventy-five percent of TSH values were within trimester-specific goal ranges in G1 compared with 81% in G2 (P = 0.09). Similar numbers of LT4 dose adjustments per pregnancy were required in both groups (G1, 3.1 ± 2.0 vs G2, 4.1 ± 3.2; P = 0.27). Women in G1 were more likely to have suppressed TSH hypothyroidism, but not thyroid antibody status, was associated with proportion of goal TSH values. We compared two options for LT4 dose adjustment and showed that an ongoing adjustment approach is as effective as empiric dose increase for maintaining goal TSH in hypothyroid women during pregnancy.

  7. A pelvic floor muscle training program in postmenopausal women: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Fabíola K; Riccetto, Cássio; Adami, Délcia B V; Marques, Joseane; Pereira, Larissa C; Palma, Paulo; Botelho, Simone

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate if a specific pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT) program effectively increases pelvic floor muscle (PFM) contractility and decreases anterior pelvic organ prolapse (POP) as well as urogynecological symptoms, in postmenopausal women. The mean outcome measure of this study was the pelvic floor surface electromyography (sEMG) activity. A clinical, randomized, blinded-assessor and controlled study was conducted with 46 postmenopausal women. Thirty women completed this study (mean age of 65.93 years), divided into two groups: Treatment Group - TG (n=18) and Control Group - CG (n=12). The evaluation was carried out using digital palpation, sEMG, pelvic organ prolapse quantification (POP-Q) as well as validated questionnaires by the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaires to investigate urogynecological symptoms. The treatment protocol consisted of 12 group sessions, twice a week, with 30 min of duration each. These data were then submitted to statistical analyses by the Statistical Analysis System for Windows software, with a significance level of 5%. The pelvic floor muscle contractility increased after PFMT, evaluated by sEMG (p=0.003) and digital palpation (p=0.001), accompanied by a decrease in urinary symptoms (p<0.001 for ICIQ-OAB scores e 0.036 for ICIQ UI-SF) as well as anterior pelvic organ prolapse (p=0.03). This preliminary study suggests that the applied PFMT program could be an effective way to increase PFM contractility, as well as to decrease both anterior pelvic organ prolapse and urinary symptoms, in postmenopausal women. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Yoga in Women With Abdominal Obesityߞa Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Holger; Thoms, Meral Sushila; Anheyer, Dennis; Lauche, Romy; Dobos, Gustav

    2016-09-30

    Abdominal obesity is a major risk factor for morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of yoga on waist circumference and other anthropometric and self-reported variables in women with abdominal obesity. 60 women with abdominal obesity (waist circumference ≥ 88 cm; body-mass index [BMI] ≥ 25) were randomly allocated in a 2:1 ratio to either a 12-week yoga intervention (n = 40) or a waiting list (n = 20). The waist circumference was the primary endpoint. Secondary (exploratory) endpoints included the waist/hip ratio, body weight, BMI, body fat percentage, body muscle mass percentage, blood pressure, health-related quality of life, self-esteem, subjective stress, body awareness, and body responsiveness, and the safety of the intervention. The persons assessing the outcomes were blinded to the group to which the patients belonged. The patients in the yoga group participated in a mean of 30.2±9.2 (maximum, 42) hours of supervised yoga practice. Their abdominal circum - ference was significantly reduced in comparison to the participants on the waiting list, with an intergroup difference of -3.8 cm (95% confidence interval [-6.1; -1,.5]; p = 0.001). There were further, moderate intergroup differences in the waist/hip ratio, body weight, BMI, body fat percentage, body muscle mass percentage, mental and physical well-being, self-esteem, subjective stress, body awareness, and trust in bodily sensations (all peffects on anthropometric and self-reported variables in women with abdominal obesity. Yoga is safe in this population and can be recommended as a technique for combating abdominal obesity in women.

  9. Statistical inference of selection and divergence from a time-dependent Poisson random field model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amei Amei

    Full Text Available We apply a recently developed time-dependent Poisson random field model to aligned DNA sequences from two related biological species to estimate selection coefficients and divergence time. We use Markov chain Monte Carlo methods to estimate species divergence time and selection coefficients for each locus. The model assumes that the selective effects of non-synonymous mutations are normally distributed across genetic loci but constant within loci, and synonymous mutations are selectively neutral. In contrast with previous models, we do not assume that the individual species are at population equilibrium after divergence. Using a data set of 91 genes in two Drosophila species, D. melanogaster and D. simulans, we estimate the species divergence time t(div = 2.16 N(e (or 1.68 million years, assuming the haploid effective population size N(e = 6.45 x 10(5 years and a mean selection coefficient per generation μ(γ = 1.98/N(e. Although the average selection coefficient is positive, the magnitude of the selection is quite small. Results from numerical simulations are also presented as an accuracy check for the time-dependent model.

  10. Evaluation of Selected Atherosclerosis Risk Factors in Women with Subclinical Hypothyroidism Treated with L-Thyroxine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamarczuk-Janczyszyn, Maria; Zdrojowy-Wełna, Aleksandra; Rogala, Natalia; Zatońska, Katarzyna; Bednarek-Tupikowska, Grażyna

    2016-01-01

    Subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) is a common endocrine disorder, probably increasing cardiovascular (CV) risk. However, the relation between SCH and atherosclerosis risk factors remains unclear. The aim of the study was to evaluate selected atherosclerosis risk factors in women with SCH in comparison to a group of healthy women and women with overt hypothyroidism, as well as to investigate the influence of L-thyroxine replacement on those risk factors. The study group consisted of 187 obese women aged between 50 and 70 years: 100 women with SCH, 45 women with overt hypothyroidism and 42 women with TSH level in reference ranges. Anthropometric parameters were evaluated. Laboratory tests included thyroid hormones concentrations, lipid profile with apolipoproteins, CRP, homocysteine. Atherosclerotic indexes were calculated: LDL C/HDL C ratio, apoA1/apoB ratio and Castelli risk index. Women with hypothyroidism were given L-thyroxine treatment and after 6 months in euthyroidism the evaluation was repeated. Total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and triglycerides concentrations as well as LDL-C/HDL-C ratio and Castelli index were higher in SCH than in controls and decreased after L-thyroxin substitution. All of the calculated atherosclerosis indexes showed significant positive correlations with TSH concentration in SCH group. Also in this group the systolic and diastolic blood pressure decreased significantly after treatment. Dyslipidemia in obese SCH women is not severe, but if untreated for many years, it may lead to atherosclerosis. Substitution therapy improves the lipid profile, changing the relations between protective and proatherogenic fractions of serum lipids, and optimises blood pressure.

  11. Selection bias and subject refusal in a cluster-randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rochelle Yang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Selection bias and non-participation bias are major methodological concerns which impact external validity. Cluster-randomized controlled trials are especially prone to selection bias as it is impractical to blind clusters to their allocation into intervention or control. This study assessed the impact of selection bias in a large cluster-randomized controlled trial. Methods The Improved Cardiovascular Risk Reduction to Enhance Rural Primary Care (ICARE study examined the impact of a remote pharmacist-led intervention in twelve medical offices. To assess eligibility, a standardized form containing patient demographics and medical information was completed for each screened patient. Eligible patients were approached by the study coordinator for recruitment. Both the study coordinator and the patient were aware of the site’s allocation prior to consent. Patients who consented or declined to participate were compared across control and intervention arms for differing characteristics. Statistical significance was determined using a two-tailed, equal variance t-test and a chi-square test with adjusted Bonferroni p-values. Results were adjusted for random cluster variation. Results There were 2749 completed screening forms returned to research staff with 461 subjects who had either consented or declined participation. Patients with poorly controlled diabetes were found to be significantly more likely to decline participation in intervention sites compared to those in control sites. A higher mean diastolic blood pressure was seen in patients with uncontrolled hypertension who declined in the control sites compared to those who declined in the intervention sites. However, these findings were no longer significant after adjustment for random variation among the sites. After this adjustment, females were now found to be significantly more likely to consent than males (odds ratio = 1.41; 95% confidence interval = 1.03, 1

  12. Subtle persistent working memory and selective attention deficits in women with premenstrual syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slyepchenko, Anastasiya; Lokuge, Sonali; Nicholls, Brianne; Steiner, Meir; Hall, Geoffrey B C; Soares, Claudio N; Frey, Benicio N

    2017-03-01

    As a recurrent, cyclical phenomenon, premenstrual syndrome (PMS) affects a significant proportion of women of the reproductive age, and leads to regular monthly days of functional impairment. Symptoms of PMS include somatic and psychological symptoms, such as headaches, sleep disturbances, social withdrawal and mood changes, during the late luteal phase of the menstrual cycle, which alleviate during the follicular phase. This study investigated neurocognitive functioning in women with moderate to severe PMS symptoms (n=13) compared to women with mild/no PMS (n=27) through administration of a battery of neuropsychological tests during the asymptomatic follicular phase of the menstrual cycle. Relative to women with mild/no PMS symptoms, women with moderate to severe PMS showed significantly poorer accuracy and more errors of omission on the N-0-back, as well as more errors of omission on the N-2-back task, indicating the presence of impairment in selective attention and working memory. This study provides evidence of persistent, subtle working memory and selective attention difficulties in those with moderate to severe PMS during the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Estrogen alone and health outcomes in black women by African ancestry: a secondary analyses of a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chlebowski, Rowan T; Barrington, Wendy; Aragaki, Aaron K; Manson, JoAnn E; Sarto, Gloria; OʼSullivan, Mary J; Wu, Daniel; Cauley, Jane A; Qi, Lihong; Wallace, Robert L; Prentice, Ross L

    2017-02-01

    In postmenopausal black women in the Women's Health Initiative randomized trial, estrogen alone reduced breast cancers but its comprehensive influence on health outcomes in black women is unknown. Therefore, we examined this issue in the Women's Health Initiative overall and by African ancestry. A total of 1,616 black women with prior hysterectomy, including 1,061 with percent African ancestry determination, at 40 US centers were randomly assigned to conjugated equine estrogen (0.625 mg/d) or placebo for 7.2 years' (median) intervention with 13 years' cumulative follow-up. Coronary heart disease (CHD) and breast cancer were primary efficacy and safety outcomes, respectively. A global index also included stroke, colorectal cancer, hip fracture, pulmonary embolism, and death. Black women in the estrogen-alone group compared with black women in the placebo group had fewer breast cancers (17 vs 40, hazard ratio [HR] 0.47, 95% CI 0.26-0.82). In women with more than 80% African ancestry, breast cancer HR was lower (0.32, 95% CI 0.12-0.86, trend P = 0.04 for ancestry effect). Most other outcomes including CHD, stroke, hip fracture, and the global index were null with estrogen use in black women; a global index effect was more favorable in younger black women (HR 0.65, 95% CI 0.43-0.98). In black postmenopausal women with prior hysterectomy, estrogen alone significantly reduced breast cancer incidence with no adverse influence on CHD, venous thromboembolism, or all-cause mortality. Favorable estrogen-alone global index effects in younger black women warrant further study.

  14. Baseline characteristics of study sites and women enrolled in a three-arm cluster randomized controlled trial: PMTCT uptake and retention (pure) Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Lettow, Monique; Tweya, Hannock; Rosenberg, Nora E; Trapence, Clement; Kayoyo, Virginia; Kasende, Florence; Kaunda, Blessings; Hosseinipour, Mina C; Eliya, Michael; Cataldo, Fabian; Gugsa, Salem; Phiri, Sam

    2017-07-11

    Malawi introduced an ambitious public health program known as "Option B+" which provides all HIV-infected pregnant and breastfeeding women with lifelong combination antiretroviral therapy, regardless of WHO clinical stage or CD4 cell count. The PMTCT Uptake and REtention (PURE) study aimed at evaluating the effect of peer-support on care-seeking and retention in care. PURE Malawi was a three-arm cluster randomized controlled trial that compared facility-based and community-based models of peer support to standard of care under Option B+ strategy. Each arm was expected to enroll a minimum of 360 women with a total minimum sample size of 1080 participants. 21 sites (clusters) were selected for inclusion in the study. This paper describes the site selection, recruitment, enrollment process and baseline characteristics of study sites and women enrolled in the trial. Study implementation was managed by 3 partner organizations; each responsible for 7 study sites. The trial was conducted in the South East, South West, and Central West zones of Malawi, the zones where the implementing partners operate. Study sites included 2 district hospitals, 2 mission hospitals, 2 rural hospitals, 13 health centers and 1 private clinic. Enrollment occurred from November 2013 to November 2014, over a median period of 31 weeks (range 17-51) by site. A total of 1269 HIV-infected pregnant (1094) and breastfeeding (175) women, who were eligible to initiate ART under Option B+, were enrolled. Each site reached or surpassed the minimum sample size. Comparing the number of women enrolled versus antenatal cohort reports, sites recruited a median of 90% (IQR 75-100) of eligible reported women. In the majority of sites the ratio of pregnant and lactating women enrolled in the study was similar to the ratio of reported pregnant and lactating women starting ART in the same sites. The median age of all women was 27 (IQR 22-31) years. All women have ≥20 months of possible follow-up time; 96%

  15. [Effect of milk product with soy isoflavones on quality of life and bone metabolism in postmenopausal Spanish women: randomized trial].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Martín, Antonia; Quesada Charneco, Miguel; Alvárez Guisado, Alejandro; Jiménez Moleón, José Juan; Fonollá Joya, Juristo; Muñoz-Torres, Manuel

    2012-02-04

    To analyze the effects of nutritional intervention with a milk product enriched with soy isoflavones on quality of life and bone metabolism in postmenopausal Spanish women. We performed a double-blind controlled randomized trial in ninety-nine postmenopausal women. Group S women (n=48) were randomized to consume milk product enriched with soy isoflavone (50 mg/day) while group C (n=51) consumed product control for 12 months. Parameters of quality of life (Cervantes scale), markers of bone metabolism and bone mass estimated by ultrasound of the calcaneus (QUS) were evaluated. Overall, there was an improvement in the domains menopause (P=.015) and vasomotor symptoms (Pmilk products increases levels of 25-OH-vitamin D and decreases bone metabolism markers. Additional supplementation with soy isoflavones seems to improve quality of life and bone mass in Spanish postmenopausal women. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  16. Raloxifene as an Adjunctive Treatment for Postmenopausal Women With Schizophrenia: A 24-Week Double-Blind, Randomized, Parallel, Placebo-Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usall, Judith; Huerta-Ramos, Elena; Labad, Javier; Cobo, Jesús; Núñez, Christian; Creus, Marta; Parés, Gemma García; Cuadras, Daniel; Franco, José; Miquel, Eva; Reyes, Julio César; Roca, Mercedes

    2016-03-01

    The potential therapeutic utility of estrogens in schizophrenia is increasingly being recognized. Raloxifene, a selective estrogen receptor modulator, appears to act similarly to estrogens on dopamine and serotonin brain systems. One previous trial by our team found that raloxifene was useful to improve negative, positive, and general psychopathological symptoms, without having the negative side effects of estrogens. In this study, we assess the utility of raloxifene in treating negative and other psychotic symptoms in postmenopausal women with schizophrenia exhibiting prominent negative symptoms. This was a 24-week, randomized, parallel, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Patients were recruited from the inpatient and outpatient departments of Parc Sanitari Sant Joan de Déu, Hospital Universitari Institut Pere Mata, and Corporació Sanitària Parc Taulí. Seventy postmenopausal women with schizophrenia (DSM-IV) were randomized to either adjunctive raloxifene (38 women) or adjunctive placebo (32 women). Psychopathological symptoms were assessed at baseline and at weeks 4, 12, and 24 with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and the Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS). The addition of raloxifene (60 mg/d) to regular antipsychotic treatment significantly reduced negative (P = .027), general (P = .003), and total symptomatology (P = .005) measured with the PANSS during the 24-week trial, as compared to women receiving placebo. Also Alogia SANSS subscale improved more in the raloxifene (P = .048) than the placebo group. In conclusion, raloxifene improved negative and general psychopathological symptoms, compared with antipsychotic medication alone, in postmenopausal women with schizophrenia. These data replicate our previous results with a larger sample and a longer follow-up. NCT01573637. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For

  17. The effect of conjugated estrogens/bazedoxifene therapy on body weight of postmenopausal women: pooled analysis of five randomized, placebo-controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Denise; Messig, Michael; Yu, Ching-Ray; Assaf, Annlouise R; Komm, Barry S; Mirkin, Sebastian; Boucher, Matthieu

    2016-04-01

    This post hoc analysis compared body weight, body mass index (BMI), and BMI category changes in postmenopausal women treated with conjugated estrogens/bazedoxifene (CE/BZA) versus placebo in the Selective Estrogens, Menopause, and Response to Therapy (SMART) trials. Data were pooled from five randomized, double-blind, placebo- and active-controlled studies in postmenopausal women aged 40 to 75 years with a uterus given CE 0.45 mg/BZA 20 mg (n = 1,607), CE 0.625 mg/BZA 20 mg (n = 1,598), or placebo (n = 1,256) for at least 12 weeks and up to 2 years. Changes from baseline in body weight, BMI (kg/m(2)), and World Health Organization BMI category (underweight placebo versus CE 0.625 mg/BZA 20 mg at month 12. Approximately, 10% of women in the CE/BZA groups and 11% in the placebo group had increases in body weight greater than 7% of baseline. The majority of BMI changes were within ±7%, and there were no statistically significant between-group differences in BMI category distributions during treatment. Significant increases in body weight or BMI were not observed in postmenopausal women receiving CE 0.45 mg/BZA 20 mg or CE 0.625 mg/BZA 20 mg for up to 2 years in the Selective Estrogens, Menopause, and Response to Therapy trials.

  18. Cranberry or trimethoprim for the prevention of recurrent urinary tract infections? A randomized controlled trial in older women

    OpenAIRE

    McMurdo, Marion E. T.; Argo, Ishbel; Phillips, Gabby; Daly, Fergus; Davey, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Objectives To compare the effectiveness of cranberry extract with low-dose trimethoprim in the prevention of recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs) in older women. Patients and methods One hundred and thirty-seven women with two or more antibiotic-treated UTIs in the previous 12 months were randomized to receive either 500 mg of cranberry extract or 100 mg of trimethoprim for 6 months. Trial registration: ISRCTN80031108. Results Thirty-nine of 137 participants (28%) had an antibiotic-treat...

  19. Effect of non-random mating on genomic and BLUP selection schemes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirea Kahsay G

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The risk of long-term unequal contribution of mating pairs to the gene pool is that deleterious recessive genes can be expressed. Such consequences could be alleviated by appropriately designing and optimizing breeding schemes i.e. by improving selection and mating procedures. Methods We studied the effect of mating designs, random, minimum coancestry and minimum covariance of ancestral contributions on rate of inbreeding and genetic gain for schemes with different information sources, i.e. sib test or own performance records, different genetic evaluation methods, i.e. BLUP or genomic selection, and different family structures, i.e. factorial or pair-wise. Results Results showed that substantial differences in rates of inbreeding due to mating design were present under schemes with a pair-wise family structure, for which minimum coancestry turned out to be more effective to generate lower rates of inbreeding. Specifically, substantial reductions in rates of inbreeding were observed in schemes using sib test records and BLUP evaluation. However, with a factorial family structure, differences in rates of inbreeding due mating designs were minor. Moreover, non-random mating had only a small effect in breeding schemes that used genomic evaluation, regardless of the information source. Conclusions It was concluded that minimum coancestry remains an efficient mating design when BLUP is used for genetic evaluation or when the size of the population is small, whereas the effect of non-random mating is smaller in schemes using genomic evaluation.

  20. Long-term Persistence with Mirabegron versus Solifenacin in Women with Overactive Bladder: Prospective, Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinjo, Manami; Sekiguchi, Yuki; Yoshimura, Yasukuni; Nutahara, Kikuo

    2016-12-02

    To compare persistence with medication and the reasons for discontinuation of mirabegron or solifenacin therapy up to12 months in women with overactive bladder (OAB). Female OAB patients who presented to women's urology clinics were enrolled in a prospective, randomized, two-arm study. Patients were randomized to receive mirabegron at 25-50 mg (n = 76) or solifenacin at 2.5-5 mg (n = 72). The persistence rate and the reasons for discontinuation were investigated up to 12 months. The 12-month persistence rate was 12.2% in the mirabegron group versus 20.1% in the solifenacin group and there were no significant differences of the persistence rates during the study (n.s). Patients discontinued treatment because of lack of efficacy (21.6%), spontaneous improvement (18.2%), and side-effects (17.6%), while 19.6% were lost to follow up. Discontinuation due to side-effects was significantly more frequent in the solifenacin group than the mirabegron group (27.3 vs. 7.9%, P < 0.05). In contrast, discontinuation due to lack of efficacy was significantly more frequent in the mirabegron group than the solifenacin group (36.8 vs. 5.6%, P < 0.05). This study demonstrated low persistence rates over 12 months for both mirabegron and solifenacin, although the reasons for discontinuation were somewhat different. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  1. The Effect of Chamomile Cream on Episiotomy Pain in Primiparous Women: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aradmehr, Maryam; Azhari, Sedigheh; Ahmadi, Sedigheh; Azmoude, Elham

    2017-03-01

    Introduction: Episiotomy is a surgical incision made in the perineum to enlarge it. Perineal pain is the most common complaint of mothers after episiotomy. Chamomile extract has been proposed as a sedative in traditional medicine. This study was conducted to assess the effect of chamomile cream on the pain after episiotomy. Methods: This triple blind clinical trial was performed on 114 eligible women at Ommolbanin Hospital in Mashhad, Iran in 2014.They were randomly assigned to two groups using random blocks. After delivery, mothers in the intervention group used 0.5 g of prescribed chamomile while the control group used placebo cream on the stitch twice a day lasting ten days. Episiotomy pain was evaluated before intervention and 12 hours after episiotomy repair and also on the first, seventh, tenth and fourteenth day after delivery by McGill pain questionnaire. Data was analyzed by SPSS ver.13. Results: There was no significant difference between the two groups before the intervention, 12 hours and the first day after delivery. However, a significant difference was found on the seventh, tenth and fourteenth day after delivery. McGill mean (SD) score on the seventh, tenth and fourteenth in experimental group was 11.36 (5.04), 4.44 (3.43) and 7.16 (4.10) respectively. It was reported 14.88 (7.34), 7.41(4.92) and 9.96 (4.81) in placebo group, respectively. Conclusion: Chamomile cream can be used to reduce episiotomy pain in Primiparous us women.

  2. Engaging women with an embodied conversational agent to deliver mindfulness and lifestyle recommendations: A feasibility randomized control trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardiner, Paula M; McCue, Kelly D; Negash, Lily M; Cheng, Teresa; White, Laura F; Yinusa-Nyahkoon, Leanne; Jack, Brian W; Bickmore, Timothy W

    2017-09-01

    This randomized controlled trial evaluates the feasibility of using an Embodied Conversational Agent (ECA) to teach lifestyle modifications to urban women. Women were randomized to either 1) an ECA (content included: mindfulness, stress management, physical activity, and healthy eating) or 2) patient education sheets mirroring same content plus a meditation CD/MP3 once a day for one month. General outcome measures included: number of stress management techniques used, physical activity levels, and eating patterns. Sixty-one women ages 18 to 50 were enrolled. On average, 51% identified as white, 26% as black, 23% as other races; and 20% as Hispanic. The major stress management techniques reported at baseline were: exercise (69%), listening to music (70%), and social support (66%). After one month, women randomized to the ECA significantly decreased alcohol consumption to reduce stress (p=0.03) and increased daily fruit consumption by an average of 2 servings compared to the control (p=0.04). It is feasible to use an ECA to promote health behaviors on stress management and healthy eating among diverse urban women. Compared to patient information sheets, ECAs provide promise as a way to teach healthy lifestyle behaviors to diverse urban women. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Randomized controlled trial: effects of acupuncture on pregnancy rates in women undergoing in vitro fertilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moy, Irene; Milad, Magdy P; Barnes, Randall; Confino, Edmond; Kazer, Ralph R; Zhang, Xingqi

    2011-02-01

    To evaluate the influence of "true" versus "sham" acupuncture on pregnancy rates (PRs) in women undergoing IVF. Randomized controlled trial, double-blinded with independent observer. Academic infertility clinic. One hundred sixty patients acupuncture 25 minutes before and after ET. Subjects completed a McGill Pain Questionnaire regarding their clinical symptoms during ET. Clinical PR and clinical symptoms during ET. While the overall clinical PR was 51.25%, there was no significant difference between the arms of the study (true = 45.3% vs. sham = 52.7%); 33.1% of the patients had ultrasound-documented singleton pregnancy, and 15% of patients had twin gestations, while one patient in the true arm had a triplet gestation. There were significant differences in the subjective, affective, and total pain experience between both arms. The subjects in the true arm described their acupuncture session as being more "tiring" and "fearful" and experienced more "achiness" compared with their sham counterparts. There was no statistically significant difference in the clinical or chemical PRs between both groups. Patients undergoing true acupuncture had differing sensory experiences compared with patients in the sham arm. There were no significant adverse effects observed during the study, suggesting that acupuncture is safe for women undergoing ET. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Effectiveness of hand hygiene education among a random sample of women from the community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubheeram, J; Biranjia-Hurdoyal, S D

    2017-03-01

    The effectiveness of hand hygiene education was investigated by studying the hand hygiene awareness and bacterial hand contamination among a random sample of 170 women in the community. Questionnaire was used to assess the hand hygiene awareness score, followed by swabbing of the dominant hand. Bacterial identification was done by conventional biochemical tests. Better hand hygiene awareness score was significantly associated with age, scarce bacterial growth and absence of potential pathogen (p hand samples, bacterial growth was noted in 155 (91.2%), which included 91 (53.5%) heavy growth, 53 (31.2%) moderate growth and 11 (6.47%) scanty growth. The presence of enteric bacteria was associated with long nails (49.4% vs 29.2%; p = 0.007; OR = 2.3; 95% CI: 1.25-4.44) while finger rings were associated with higher bacterial load (p = 0.003). Coliforms was significantly higher among women who had a lower hand hygiene awareness score, washed their hands at lower frequency (59.0% vs 32.8%; p = 0.003; OR = 2.9; 95% CI: 1.41-6.13) and used common soap as compared to antiseptic soaps (69.7% vs 30.3%, p = 0.000; OR = 4.11; 95% CI: 1.67-10.12). Level of hand hygiene awareness among the participants was satisfactory but not the compliance of hand washing practice, especially among the elders.

  5. Randomized trial of a secondhand smoke exposure reduction intervention among hospital-based pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Ying-Chen; Wu, Chen-Long; Chen, Cheng-Yu; Lyu, Shu-Yu; Lo, Feng-En; Morisky, Donald E

    2015-02-01

    This study sought to assess the effectiveness of a secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS) prevention program based on an expanded Health Belief Model (HBM) incorporating self-efficacy among pregnant women in a hospital setting in Taiwan. This study utilized a two-group longitudinal randomized controlled trial design. Participants in the intervention group (n=50) enrolled in a SHS prevention program based on the HBM, while participants in the comparison group (n=50) received standard government-mandated counseling care. Both groups were given questionnaires as a pre-test, two weeks into the intervention, and one month following the conclusion of the intervention. The questionnaire and intervention were developed based on the understanding gained through a series of in-depth interviews and a focus-group conducted among pregnant women. Exhaled carbon monoxide was also measured and used as a proxy for SHS exposure. Intervention group scores were all significantly higher than comparison group scores (pwomen regarding the harms of SHS while both empowering and equipping them with the tools to confront their family members and effectively reduce their SHS exposure while promoting smoke-free social norms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Art therapy as an adjuvant treatment for depression in elderly women: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciasca, Eliana C; Ferreira, Rita C; Santana, Carmen L A; Forlenza, Orestes V; Dos Santos, Glenda D; Brum, Paula S; Nunes, Paula V

    2018-02-01

    There are few quantitative studies on art therapy for the treatment of depression. The objective of this study was to evaluate if art therapy is beneficial as an adjuvant treatment for depression in the elderly. A randomized, controlled, single-blind study was carried out in a sample of elderly women with major depressive disorder (MDD) stable on pharmacotherapy. The experimental group (EG) was assigned to 20 weekly art therapy sessions (90 min/session). The control group (CG) was not subjected to any adjuvant intervention. Patients were evaluated at baseline and after 20 weeks, using the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), and cognitive measures. Logistic regression analysis adjusted for age revealed that women in EG (n=31) had significant improvement in GDS (p = 0.007), BDI (p = 0.025), and BAI (p = 0.032) scores as compared with controls (n=25). No difference was found in the cognitive measures. Art therapy as an adjunctive treatment for MDD in the elderly can improve depressive and anxiety symptoms. RBR-2YXY7Z.

  7. Art therapy as an adjuvant treatment for depression in elderly women: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana C. Ciasca

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: There are few quantitative studies on art therapy for the treatment of depression. The objective of this study was to evaluate if art therapy is beneficial as an adjuvant treatment for depression in the elderly. Methods: A randomized, controlled, single-blind study was carried out in a sample of elderly women with major depressive disorder (MDD stable on pharmacotherapy. The experimental group (EG was assigned to 20 weekly art therapy sessions (90 min/session. The control group (CG was not subjected to any adjuvant intervention. Patients were evaluated at baseline and after 20 weeks, using the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI, Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI, and cognitive measures. Results: Logistic regression analysis adjusted for age revealed that women in EG (n=31 had significant improvement in GDS (p = 0.007, BDI (p = 0.025, and BAI (p = 0.032 scores as compared with controls (n=25. No difference was found in the cognitive measures. Conclusion: Art therapy as an adjunctive treatment for MDD in the elderly can improve depressive and anxiety symptoms. Clinical trial registration: RBR-2YXY7Z

  8. Postexercise Hypotension After Aquatic Exercise in Older Women With Hypertension: A Randomized Crossover Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Raphael M; Costa, Andressa Moura; Silva, Christoffer Novais F; Póvoa, Thais Inácio R; Pescatello, Linda S; Lehnen, Alexandre Machado

    2018-01-12

    Hypertension can be prevented and modified with lifestyle interventions that include regular exercise. Aquatic exercise is widely recommended for older adults for a variety of health benefits, but few studies have assessed the immediate ambulatory blood pressure (BP) response to aquatic exercise, a response termed postexercise hypotension (PEH). Thus, we assessed PEH after a session of aquatic exercise in physically active, older women with hypertension. Twenty-four women 70.0 ± 3.9 years with a resting systolic (SBP)/diastolic (DBP) BP of 124.0/72.3 mm Hg and body mass index of 29.8 ± 4.1 kg/m2 were randomly assigned to participate in a 45-minute session of moderate intensity, water-based exercise (WATER) and a 45-minute land control session (CONTROL). All experimental sessions started at 9 am sharply with 7 days between them. Subjects left the experiments wearing an ambulatory BP monitor for the next 21 hours. SBP was lower by 5.1 ± 1.0 mm Hg after WATER than CONTROL over 21 hours (P Aquatic exercise elicited PEH (~5 mm Hg) over 21 hours, BP reductions that are comparable in magnitude to land aerobic exercise. The immediate antihypertensive benefits of acute aquatic exercise should continue to be explored in future studies.

  9. Effects of inspiratory muscle training in professional women football players: a randomized sham-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archiza, Bruno; Andaku, Daniela Kuguimoto; Caruso, Flávia Cristina Rossi; Bonjorno, José Carlos; Oliveira, Cláudio Ricardo de; Ricci, Paula Angélica; Amaral, André Capaldo do; Mattiello, Stela Márcia; Libardi, Cleiton Augusto; Phillips, Shane A; Arena, Ross; Borghi-Silva, Audrey

    2017-06-16

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of inspiratory muscle training (IMT) on respiratory and peripheral muscles oxygenation during a maximal exercise tolerance test and on repeated-sprint ability (RSA) performance in professional women football players. Eighteen athletes were randomly assigned to one of the following groups: SHAM (n = 8) or IMT (n = 10). After a maximal incremental exercise test, all participants performed (on a different day) a time-to-exhaustion (Tlim) test. Peripheral and respiratory muscles oxygenation by near-infrared spectroscopy, breath-by-breath ventilatory and metabolic variables, and blood lactate concentration were measured. The RSA test was performed on a grass field. After a 6 week intervention, all athletes were reevaluated. Both groups showed increases in inspiratory muscles strength, exercise tolerance and RSA performance, however only the IMT group presented lower deoxyhemoglobin and total hemoglobin blood concentrations on intercostal muscles concomitantly to an increased oxyhemoglobin and total hemoglobin blood concentrations on vastus lateralis muscle during Tlim. In conclusion, these results may indicate the potential role of IMT to attenuate inspiratory muscles metaboreflex and consequently improve oxygen and blood supply to limb muscles during high-intensity exercise, with a potential impact on inspiratory muscle strength, exercise tolerance and sprints performance in professional women football players.

  10. Effect of Cervical Pessary on Spontaneous Preterm Birth in Women With Singleton Pregnancies and Short Cervical Length: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saccone, Gabriele; Maruotti, Giuseppe Maria; Giudicepietro, Antonia; Martinelli, Pasquale

    2017-12-19

    Spontaneous preterm birth is a major cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality. It is unclear if a cervical pessary can reduce the risk of spontaneous preterm delivery. To test whether in asymptomatic women with singleton pregnancies and no prior spontaneous preterm birth but with short cervical length on transvaginal ultrasound, use of a cervical pessary would reduce the rate of spontaneous preterm birth at less than 34 weeks of gestation. Parallel-group, nonblinded, randomized clinical trial conducted from March 1, 2016, to May 25, 2017, at a single center in Italy. Asymptomatic women with singleton gestations, no previous spontaneous preterm births, and cervical lengths of 25 mm or less at 18 weeks 0 days to 23 weeks 6 days of gestation were eligible. Patients were randomized 1:1 to receive either cervical pessary (n = 150) or no pessary (n = 150). The pessary was removed between 37 weeks 0 days and 37 weeks 6 days of gestation or earlier if clinically indicated. The control group received standard care. For cervical length of 20 mm or shorter, women in both groups were prescribed vaginal progesterone, 200 mg/d, until 36 weeks 6 days of gestation. No bed rest or activity restriction was recommended. The primary end point was spontaneous preterm birth at less than 34 weeks of gestation. Secondary outcomes were adverse events. Among 300 women who were randomized (mean age, 29 [SD, 6.3] years; mean gestational age, 22 [SD, 1.3] weeks), 100% completed the trial. The primary end point occurred in 11 women (7.3%) in the pessary group and 23 women (15.3%) in the control group (between-group difference, -8.0% [95% CI, -15.7% to -0.4]; relative risk, 0.48 [95% CI, 0.24-0.95]). During follow-up, the pessary group had a higher rate of increased or new vaginal discharge (86.7% vs 46.0%; between-group difference, +40.7% [95% CI, +30.1%-+50.3%]; relative risk, 1.88 [95% CI, 1.57-2.27]). Among women without prior spontaneous preterm birth who had asymptomatic

  11. Dietary weight-loss and exercise effects on serum biomarkers of angiogenesis in overweight postmenopausal women: a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Duggan, Catherine; de Dieu Tapsoba, Jean; Wang, Ching-Yun; McTiernan, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Obese and sedentary persons have an increased risk for cancer, but underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Angiogenesis is common to adipose tissue formation and remodeling, and to tumor vascularization. 439 overweight/obese, healthy, postmenopausal women (body mass index (BMI)>25 kg/m2) aged 50-75 years, recruited between 2005-2008 were randomized to a 4-arm 12-month randomized controlled trial, comparing a caloric restriction diet arm (goal: 10% weight-loss, N=118), aerobic exercise ar...

  12. Effects of a community-based healthy heart program on increasing healthy women\\'s physical activity: a randomized controlled trial guided by Community-based Participatory Research (CBPR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iraj Nabipour

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cardiovascular disease remains the leading killer of women in most areas of the world. Rates of physical inactivity and poor nutrition, which are two of the most important modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular disease in women, are substantial. This study sought to examine the effectiveness of a community-based lifestyle-modification program on increasing women's physical activity in a randomized trial guided by community-based participatory research (CBPR methods. Methods: A total of 335 healthy, 25-64 years old women who had been selected by a multiple-stage stratified cluster random sampling method in Bushehr Port/I.R.Iran, were randomized into control and intervention groups. The intervention group completed an 8-week lifestyle modification program for increasing their physical activity, based on a revised form of Choose to Move program an American Heart Association Physical Activity Program for Women. Audio-taped activity instructions with music and practical usage of the educational package were given to the intervention group in weekly home-visits by 53 volunteers from local non-governmental and community-based organizations. Results: Among the participants, the percentage of those who reported being active (practicing at lease 30 minutes of moderate intensity physical activity for at least 5 days a week, or at least 20 minutes of vigorous physical activity for at least three days a week increased from 3% and 2.7% at baseline to 13.4% and 3% (P<0.0001 at the ending of the program in the intervention and control groups, respectively. The participants in the intervention group reported more minutes of physical activity per week (mean=139.81, SE=23.35 than women in the control group (mean=40.14, SE=12.65 at week 8 (P<0.0001.The intervention group subjects exhibited a significantly greater decrease in systolic blood pressure (-10.0 mmHg than the control group women (+2.0. mmHg. The mean ranks for posttest healthy heart

  13. Randomized trial - oxybutynin for treatment of persistent plantar hyperhidrosis in women after sympathectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altair da Silva Costa Jr

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Hyperhidrosis is a common disease, and thoracoscopic sympathectomy improves its symptoms in up to 95% of cases. Unfortunately, after surgery, plantar hyperhidrosis may remain in 50% of patients, and compensatory sweating may be observed in 70%. This clinical scenario remains a challenge. Our objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of oxybutynin in the treatment of persistent plantar hyperhidrosis and compensatory sweating and its effects on quality of life in women after thoracoscopic sympathectomy. METHOD: We conducted a prospective, randomized study to compare the effects of oxybutynin at 10 mg daily and placebo in women with persistent plantar hyperhidrosis. The assessment was performed using a quality-of-life questionnaire for hyperhidrosis and sweating measurement with a device for quantifying transepidermal water loss. Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01328015. RESULTS: Sixteen patients were included in each group (placebo and oxybutynin. There were no significant differences between the groups prior to treatment. After oxybutynin treatment, there was a decrease in symptoms and clinical improvement based on the quality-of-life questionnaire (before treatment, 40.4 vs. after treatment, 17.5; p = 0.001. The placebo group showed modest improvement (p = 0.09. The outcomes of the transepidermal water loss measurements in the placebo group showed no differences (p = 0.95, whereas the oxybutynin group revealed a significant decrease (p = 0.001. The most common side effect was dry mouth (100% in the oxybutynin group vs. 43.8% in the placebo group; p = 0.001. CONCLUSION: Oxybutynin was effective in the treatment of persistent plantar hyperhidrosis, resulting in a better quality of life in women who had undergone thoracoscopic sympathectomy.

  14. Pilates Method for Women's Health: Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzarino, Melissa; Kerr, Debra; Wajswelner, Henry; Morris, Meg E

    2015-12-01

    To critically analyze the benefits of Pilates on health outcomes in women. CINAHL, MEDLINE, PubMed, Science Direct, SPORTDiscus, Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and Web of Science. Databases were searched using the terms Pilates and Pilates Method. Published randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were included if they comprised female participants with a health condition and a health outcome was measured, Pilates needed to be administered, and the article was published in English in a peer-reviewed journal from 1980 to July 2014. Two authors independently applied the inclusion criteria to potential studies. Methodological quality was assessed using the PEDro scale. A best-evidence grading system was used to determine the strength of the evidence. Thirteen studies met the inclusion criteria. PEDro scale values ranged from 3 to 7 (mean, 4.5; median, 4.0), indicating a relatively low quality overall. In this sample, Pilates for breast cancer was most often trialed (n=2). The most frequent health outcomes investigated were pain (n=4), quality of life (n=4), and lower extremity endurance (n=2), with mixed results. Emerging evidence was found for reducing pain and improving quality of life and lower extremity endurance. There is a paucity of evidence on Pilates for improving women's health during pregnancy or for conditions including breast cancer, obesity, or low back pain. Further high-quality RCTs are warranted to determine the effectiveness of Pilates for improving women's health outcomes. Copyright © 2015 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Dynamic lumbopelvic stabilization for treatment of stress urinary incontinence in women: Controlled and randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza Abreu, Nathalia; de Castro Villas Boas, Bia; Netto, José Murilo Bastos; Figueiredo, André Avarese

    2017-11-01

    To compare the results of the dynamic lumbopelvic stabilization (DLS) exercises with exercises for the pelvic floor muscles (PFM) in women with stress urinary incontinence. Randomized controlled clinical trial comparing 17 women submitted to the DLS with 16 women submitted to the exercises for the PFM. The evaluated outcomes were incontinence severity, quality of life (QoL), and impression of improvement in three moments. Significance was set at 5%. For socio-demographic and clinical variables, only climacteric was more prevalent in the DLS group (82% vs. 44%, P = 0.02). Soon after the intervention, there was no difference between the groups in relation to the outcomes evaluated. In the evaluation after 90 days, the DLS group presented better values for the severity of the losses (4.1 ± 2.6 vs. 5.7 ± 2.4, P = 0.006, d = 0.64), daytime frequency (4.6 ± 0.4 vs. 6.2 ± 0.6, P < 0.001, d = 2.67), and nighttime frequency (0.4 ± 0.3 vs. 1.4 ± 0.5, P < 0.001, d = 2.50), QoL and impression of improvement (P < 0.001). After treatment, the DLS plus PFM exercise patients had results similar to those performing PFM exercises alone. However, the DLS plus PFM exercises were superior in the outcomes of incontinence severity, QoL, and impression of improvement in the post-90-day evaluation, showing longer lasting effect. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Emulsion PCR: a high efficient way of PCR amplification of random DNA libraries in aptamer selection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keke Shao

    Full Text Available Aptamers are short RNA or DNA oligonucleotides which can bind with different targets. Typically, they are selected from a large number of random DNA sequence libraries. The main strategy to obtain aptamers is systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX. Low efficiency is one of the limitations for conventional PCR amplification of random DNA sequence library in aptamer selection because of relative low products and high by-products formation efficiency. Here, we developed emulsion PCR for aptamer selection. With this method, the by-products formation decreased tremendously to an undetectable level, while the products formation increased significantly. Our results indicated that by-products in conventional PCR amplification were from primer-product and product-product hybridization. In emulsion PCR, we can completely avoid the product-product hybridization and avoid the most of primer-product hybridization if the conditions were optimized. In addition, it also showed that the molecule ratio of template to compartment was crucial to by-product formation efficiency in emulsion PCR amplification. Furthermore, the concentration of the Taq DNA polymerase in the emulsion PCR mixture had a significant impact on product formation efficiency. So, the results of our study indicated that emulsion PCR could improve the efficiency of SELEX.

  17. A prospective randomized study comparing unipolar versus bipolar hysteroscopic myomectomy in infertile women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kallol K Roy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Study Objective: To compare the operative and reproductive outcome of hysteroscopic myomectomy using unipolar resectoscope versus bipolar resectoscope in patients with infertility and menorrhagia. Design: Randomized, prospective, parallel, comparative, single-blinded study. Design Classification: Canadian Task Force classification I. Setting: Tertiary care institute. Patients: Sixty women with submucous myoma and infertility. Interventions: Hysteroscopic myomectomy performed with unipolar resectoscope or bipolar resectoscope. Measurements: Primary outcome measures were the pregnancy-related indicators. Secondary outcome measures were the operative parameters, harmful outcomes related to the procedure, and comparison of improvement levels in the menstrual pattern after surgery between the two groups. Main Results: A total of 60 patients were randomized into two groups of equal size. Baseline characteristics were not significantly different between the two groups. Reduction in sodium level from pre- to postsurgery was significantly (P = 0.001 higher in the unipolar group. Nine patients (30% in the unipolar group had hyponatremia in the postoperative period compared to none in the bipolar group (P = 0.002. However, there was no significant difference in the other operative parameters between the two groups. In both the groups, a significant improvement in the menstrual symptoms was observed after myomectomy. Pregnancy-related outcomes were similar in both the groups. Conclusion: The use of bipolar resectoscope for hysteroscopic myomectomy is associated with lesser risk of hyponatremia compared to unipolar resectoscope. Bipolar resectoscopic myomectomy is found to be an effective and safer alternative to unipolar resectoscopy with similar reproductive outcome.

  18. Effects of aerobic exercise training on estrogen metabolism in premenopausal women: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Kristin L; Westerlind, Kim C; Harber, Vicki J; Bell, Gordon J; Mackey, John R; Courneya, Kerry S

    2007-04-01

    Regular physical activity may alter estrogen metabolism, a proposed biomarker of breast cancer risk, by shifting metabolism to favor production of 2-hydroxyestrone (2-OHE1). Few studies, however, have examined this question using a randomized controlled trial. To examine the effects of 12 weeks of aerobic exercise training on 2-OHE1 and 16alpha-hydroxyestrone (16alpha-OHE1) in premenopausal women. Participants were healthy, regularly menstruating, Caucasian women, 20 to 35 years, body mass index of 18 to 29.9, not using pharmacologic contraceptives, with average or below average fitness [maximal oxygen consumption (VO(2max)), menstrual cycle, participants (N = 32) were randomly assigned to a 12-week aerobic exercise training intervention (n = 17) or usual lifestyle (n = 15). Height, body mass, body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and VO(2max) were measured at baseline and following the intervention. Urine samples were collected in the luteal phase of four consecutive menstrual cycles. The exercise group increased VO(2max) by 14% and had significant, although modest, improvements in fat and lean body mass. No significant between-group differences were observed, however, for the changes in 2-OHE1 (P = 0.944), 16alpha-OHE1 (P = 0.411), or the ratio of 2-OHE1 to 16alpha-OHE1 (P = 0.317). At baseline, there was an inverse association between body fat and 2-OHE1 to 16alpha-OHE1 ratio (r = -0.40; P = 0.044); however, it was the change in lean body mass over the intervention that was positively associated with a change in 2-OHE1 to 16alpha-OHE1 ratio (r = 0.43; P = 0.015). A 12-week aerobic exercise training intervention significantly improved aerobic fitness and body composition but did not alter estrogen metabolism in premenopausal women. Interestingly, an increase in lean body mass was associated with a favorable change in 2-OHE1 to 16alpha-OHE1 ratio.

  19. Low-educated women with chronic pain were less often selected to multidisciplinary rehabilitation programs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Hammarström

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is a lack of research about a potential education-related bias in assessment of patients with chronic pain. The aim of this study was to analyze whether low-educated men and women with chronic pain were less often selected to multidisciplinary rehabilitation than those with high education. METHODS: The population consisted of consecutive patients (n = 595 women, 266 men referred during a three-year period from mainly primary health care centers for a multidisciplinary team assessment at a pain rehabilitation clinic at a university hospital in Northern Sweden. Patient data were collected from the Swedish Quality Registry for Pain Rehabilitation National Pain Register. The outcome variable was being selected by the multidisciplinary team assessment to a multidisciplinary rehabilitation program. The independent variables were: sex, age, born outside Sweden, education, pain severity as well as the hospital, anxiety and depression scale (HADS. RESULTS: Low-educated women were less often selected to multidisciplinary rehabilitation programs than high-educated women (OR 0.55, CI 0.30-0.98, even after control for age, being born outside Sweden, pain intensity and HADS. No significant findings were found when comparing the results between high- and low-educated men. CONCLUSION: Our findings can be interpreted as possible discrimination against low-educated women with chronic pain in hospital referrals to pain rehabilitation. There is a need for more gender-theoretical research emphasizing the importance of taking several power dimensions into account when analyzing possible bias in health care.

  20. The Effect of Probiotic Yogurt on Constipation in Pregnant Women: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirghafourvand, Mojgan; Homayouni Rad, Aziz; Mohammad Alizadeh Charandabi, Sakineh; Fardiazar, Zahra; Shokri, Kolsoum

    2016-11-01

    Probiotics can alter the colonic microbiota and might improve bowel function. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the consumption of yogurt, enriched with Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus 4.8 × 10(10) (CFU) on the symptoms of constipated pregnant women. This triple-blind randomized controlled trial was conducted on 60 constipated pregnant women who were diagnosed by the ROME III criteria in Tabriz, Iran from December 2014 to July 2015. Participants were randomly put into two groups including the treatment and the control group through block randomization. The treatment group received 300 g of yogurt enriched with Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus 4.8 × 10(10) colony forming units (CFU) (n = 30) while the control group received conventional yogurt (n = 30) for 4 weeks. The defecation frequency, stool consistency, straining during defecation, sensation of anorectal obstruction, sensation of incomplete evacuation and manual manoeuvres to facilitate defecation were primary outcomes while the amount of defecation, stool colure, and quality of life were secondary outcomes. The frequency of defecation was increased from 2.1 (0.8) at baseline to 8.3 (4.4) in the probiotic yogurt group vs. 2.3 (0.7) at baseline to 8.1 (4.3) in the conventional yogurt group at the end of 4th week. These results were based on the repeated measure ANOVA test and there was no statistically significant difference between the two groups (mean difference: 0.1; Confidence Interval 95%: -1.4 to 1.7; P = 0.872). Constipation symptoms including straining, anorectal obstruction, manipulation to facilitate defecation, consistency of stool and color of stool were improved significantly (P < 0.05) in both groups. In addition, the amount of defecation was significantly increased in both groups (P < 0.05), while incomplete evacuation was significantly reduced in the treatment group (P = 0.01). There was no statistically significant difference between the groups in the mean scores of

  1. Women's Relationship Power Modifies the Effect of a Randomized Conditional Cash Transfer Intervention for Safer Sex in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Jan E; McCoy, Sandra I; Fernald, Lia C H; de Walque, Damien; Dow, William H

    2017-08-03

    This study tests whether women's relationship power modifies the effect of a conditional cash transfer (CCT) on STI risk. We analyzed 988 women enrolled in the RESPECT study in Tanzania, a yearlong, randomized-controlled trial testing the effectiveness of a CCT to reduce STI incidence. Women were randomized at the individual level to a no-cash control group, a low-cash, or a high-cash study arm. After one year, there was no main effect of study arm on risk of having an STI among women. However, in tests of heterogeneity, the effect of the CCT varied by a woman's relationship power (adjusted RRs of the interaction term for women with higher relationship power: RR 0.567 (95% CI 0.240-0.895) for high cash and RR 1.217 (95% CI 0.794-1.641) for low cash). Specifically, women with higher relationship power in the low cash transfer arm had an elevated risk of testing positive for an STI, whereas women with high relationship power in the high cash transfer arm had a decreased risk of testing positive for an STI.

  2. Symptomatic treatment of premenstrual mastalgia in premenopausal women with lisuride maleate: a double-blind placebo-controlled randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaleli, S; Aydin, Y; Erel, C T; Colgar, U

    2001-04-01

    To determine the therapeutic effect of lisuride maleate on premenstrual mastalgia in premenopausal women. Double-blind randomized prospective study. Department of obstetrics and gynecology at a university hospital. Sixty women with premenstrual mastalgia were included in the study. Study and control groups consisted of 30 women each. Women enrolled in the study and control group were given one tablet daily (0.2 mg) of lisuride maleate or placebo orally for 2 months. Severity of mastalgia was evaluated using the visual analog scale. Severity of mastalgia and side effects of the drug administered. Mastalgia subsided significantly in women receiving lisuride maleate compared with controls. There were no significant side effects from lisuride maleate. Prolactin levels decreased significantly in the group receiving lisuride, which correlated well with pain resolution. Lisuride maleate may be useful for the symptomatic treatment of premenstrual mastalgia.

  3. Depression and poverty among rural women: a relationship of social causation or social selection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Leigh A; Braun, Bonnie; Charnigo, Richard; Havens, Jennifer R; Wright, David W

    2008-01-01

    Depression among rural women is a major public health concern. The purpose of this study was to test the competing theories of social causation and social selection to assess the relationship between depression and economic status for a sample of rural, low-income women in the United States. Structural equation modeling was used to analyze data from Rural Families Speak, a US Department of Agriculture-funded multi-state, longitudinal study of rural low-income families (N = 413). Results indicated that the social causation theory yielded a better approximation of the relationship between economic status and depression (RMSEA = 0.50 for a model based on this theory) than the social selection theory (RMSEA = 0.067). The association between lesser economic status and depressive symptoms is pressing in rural areas, given the high prevalence of both depression and poverty. These findings further emphasize the need for improved mental health services in this vulnerable population.

  4. Gender Equality and Women Empowerment Gleaned in the Selected Speeches of Senator Miriam Defensor Santiago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luisa A. Valdez

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Gender inequality and the resulting discrimination of women are deeply rooted in history, culture and tradition. It is said to be detrimental to the mental health of women and persists as a debilitating stigma which lowers their dignity and sense of self-worth. Thus, this qualitative research was conducted to underscore the issue of gender equality and women empowerment as core topics in selected speeches of Senator Miriam Defensor Santiago. Findings of the analysis showed that the issue of gender gap in the Philippines was manifested and discussed forthrightly by the senator in her speeches in terms of educational attainment, health and survival, economic participation and opportunity, and political empowerment, all being effectively touched by the senator with the signature wit, eloquence, astuteness and passion she was widely known for; that gender equality and women empowerment were likewise gleaned in the selected speeches, all of which were delivered by Miriam Defensor Santiago with the motive of persuading her audience to espouse the same advocacy, and this she achieved through her unique and distinct style of utilizing the persuasive ability of literature; and, that the implications of the author's advocacy on gender equality and gender empowerment delegated the monumental task upon the shoulders of the Filipino youth, in ways that their thinking will be directly influenced by her advocacy and thus promote within them a sense of urgency to embrace and espouse the same advocacies in order for them to be able to contribute to nation building.

  5. Randomized Controlled Trial of Home-Based Hormonal Contraceptive Dispensing for Women At Risk of Unintended Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnick, Alan L; Rdesinski, Rebecca E; Marino, Miguel; Jacob-Files, Elizabeth; Gipson, Teresa; Kuyl, Marni; Dexter, Eve; Olds, David

    2016-06-01

    Women frequently experience barriers to obtaining effective contraceptives from clinic-based providers. Allowing nurses to dispense hormonal methods during home visits may be a way to reduce barriers and improve -effective contraceptive use. Between 2009 and 2013, a sample of 337 low-income, pregnant clients of a nurse home-visit program in Washington State were randomly selected to receive either usual care or enhanced care in which nurses were permitted to provide hormonal contraceptives postpartum. Participants were surveyed at baseline and every three months postpartum for up to two years. Longitudinal Poisson mixed-effects regression analysis was used to examine group differences in gaps in effective contraceptive use, and survival analysis was used to examine time until a subsequent pregnancy. Compared with usual care participants, enhanced care participants had an average of 9.6 fewer days not covered by effective contraceptive use during the 90 days following a first birth (52.6 vs. 62.2). By six months postpartum, 50% of usual care participants and 39% of enhanced care participants were using a long-acting reversible contraceptive (LARC). In analyses excluding LARC use, enhanced care participants had an average of 14.2 fewer days not covered by effective contraceptive use 0-3 months postpartum (65.0 vs. 79.2) and 15.7 fewer uncovered days 4-6 months postpartum (39.2 vs. 54.9). Home dispensing of hormonal contraceptives may improve women's postpartum contraceptive use and should be explored as an intervention in communities where contraceptives are not easily accessible. Copyright © 2016 by the Guttmacher Institute.

  6. Novel Zn2+-chelating peptides selected from a fimbria-displayed random peptide library

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Kristian; Schembri, Mark; Klemm, Per

    2001-01-01

    H adhesin. FimH is a component of the fimbrial organelle that can accommodate and display a diverse range of peptide sequences on the E. coli cell surface. In this study we have constructed a random peptide library in FimH. The library, consisting of similar to 40 million individual clones, was screened...... for peptide sequences that conferred on recombinant cells the ability to bind Zn2+. By serial selection, sequences that exhibited various degrees of binding affinity and specificity toward Zn2+ were enriched. None of the isolated sequences showed similarity to known Zn2+-binding proteins, indicating...

  7. Assessing the accuracy and stability of variable selection methods for random forest modeling in ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Eric W; Hill, Ryan A; Leibowitz, Scott G; Olsen, Anthony R; Thornbrugh, Darren J; Weber, Marc H

    2017-07-01

    Random forest (RF) modeling has emerged as an important statistical learning method in ecology due to its exceptional predictive performance. However, for large and complex ecological data sets, there is limited guidance on variable selection methods for RF modeling. Typically, either a preselected set of predictor variables are used or stepwise procedures are employed which iteratively remove variables according to their importance measures. This paper investigates the application of variable selection methods to RF models for predicting probable biological stream condition. Our motivating data set consists of the good/poor condition of n = 1365 stream survey sites from the 2008/2009 National Rivers and Stream Assessment, and a large set (p = 212) of landscape features from the StreamCat data set as potential predictors. We compare two types of RF models: a full variable set model with all 212 predictors and a reduced variable set model selected using a backward elimination approach. We assess model accuracy using RF's internal out-of-bag estimate, and a cross-validation procedure with validation folds external to the variable selection process. We also assess the stability of the spatial predictions generated by the RF models to changes in the number of predictors and argue that model selection needs to consider both accuracy and stability. The results suggest that RF modeling is robust to the inclusion of many variables of moderate to low importance. We found no substantial improvement in cross-validated accuracy as a result of variable reduction. Moreover, the backward elimination procedure tended to select too few variables and exhibited numerous issues such as upwardly biased out-of-bag accuracy estimates and instabilities in the spatial predictions. We use simulations to further support and generalize results from the analysis of real data. A main purpose of this work is to elucidate issues of model selection bias and instability to ecologists interested in

  8. Sexual assault resistance education for university women: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial (SARE trial).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senn, Charlene Y; Eliasziw, Misha; Barata, Paula C; Thurston, Wilfreda E; Newby-Clark, Ian R; Radtke, H Lorraine; Hobden, Karen L

    2013-05-23

    More than one in six women will be sexually assaulted in their lifetimes, most by men they know. The situation on university campuses is even more startling, with as many as 1 in 4 female students being victims of rape or attempted rape. The associated physical and mental health effects are extensive and the social and economic costs are staggering. The aim of this randomized controlled trial is to determine whether a novel, small-group sexual assault resistance education program can reduce the incidence of sexual assault among university-attending women, when compared to current university practice of providing informational brochures. The trial will evaluate a theoretically and empirically sound four-unit, 12-hour education program that has been demonstrated in pilot studies to have short-term efficacy. Three of the four units provide information, skills, and practice aimed at decreasing the time needed for women to assess situations with elevated risk of acquaintance sexual assault as dangerous and to take action, reducing emotional obstacles to taking action, and increasing the use of the most effective methods of verbal and physical self-defense. The fourth unit focuses on facilitating a stronger positive sexuality from which women may resist sexual coercion by male intimates more successfully. The trial will extend the pilot evaluations by expanding the participant pool and examining the long term efficacy of the program. A total of 1716 first-year female students (age 17 to 24 years) from three Canadian universities will be enrolled. The primary outcome is completed sexual assault, measured by The Sexual Experiences Survey - Short Form Victimization instrument. Secondary outcomes include changes in knowledge, attitudes, and skills related to the process of sexual assault resistance. Outcomes will be measured at baseline, 1 week, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. The results of the trial will be used to produce a maximally effective sexual assault resistance

  9. PReFerSim: fast simulation of demography and selection under the Poisson Random Field model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Del Vecchyo, Diego; Marsden, Clare D; Lohmueller, Kirk E

    2016-11-15

    The Poisson Random Field (PRF) model has become an important tool in population genetics to study weakly deleterious genetic variation under complicated demographic scenarios. Currently, there are no freely available software applications that allow simulation of genetic variation data under this model. Here we present PReFerSim, an ANSI C program that performs forward simulations under the PRF model. PReFerSim models changes in population size, arbitrary amounts of inbreeding, dominance and distributions of selective effects. Users can track summaries of genetic variation over time and output trajectories of selected alleles. PReFerSim is freely available at: https://github.com/LohmuellerLab/PReFerSim CONTACT: klohmueller@ucla.eduSupplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. The effects of metformin on weight loss in women with gestational diabetes: a pilot randomized, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Refuerzo, Jerrie S; Viteri, Oscar A; Hutchinson, Maria; Pedroza, Claudia; Blackwell, Sean C; Tyson, Jon E; Ramin, Susan M

    2015-03-01

    We sought to compare weight loss in the first 6 weeks postpartum among women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) treated with metformin or placebo, a promising therapy to reduce later risk of progression to diabetes mellitus. We conducted a pilot, randomized trial of metformin vs placebo in postpartum women with GDM. Women with pre-GDM, unable to tolerate metformin, resumed on insulin or oral hypoglycemic agent, delivered Women were randomized to either metformin 850 mg daily for 7 days, then metformin 850 mg twice a day for the next 5 weeks or placebo prescribed in a similar frequency. The subject, health care provider, and research staff were blinded to the treatment. The primary outcome was weight change from delivery to 6 weeks postpartum. Secondary outcomes included the percentage of women achieving their self-reported prepregnancy weight, reported medication adherence, adverse effects, and satisfaction. Differences in weight change between groups were determined by Wilcoxon rank sum test and in achieving prepregnancy weight by χ(2) test. Of 114 women randomized, 79 (69.3%) completed the 6 weeks; 36 (45.6%) were randomized to metformin and 43 (54.4%) to placebo. Metformin and placebo groups were similar in median weight loss (6.3 kg [range, -0.3 to 19.8] vs 6.5 kg [range, -0.3 to 12.1], P = .988) and percentage of women achieving reported prepregnancy weight (41.7 vs 37.2%, P = .69). Self-reported adherence in taking >50% of medication was 75% at 3 weeks and 97% at 6 weeks. Nausea, diarrhea, and hypoglycemia were reported in approximately 11-17% of women and 56-63% reported dissatisfaction with the medication. Women with GDM lost approximately 6 kg by 6 weeks' postpartum. This was similar in both groups and resulted in women achieving their prepregnancy weight. Although the reported adherence and satisfaction with the medication was high, adverse effects were reported with nearly 1 in 5 women including nausea, diarrhea, and hypoglycemia. Contrary to

  11. Raloxifene and body composition and muscle strength in postmenopausal women: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobsen, D.E.; Samson, M.M.; Emmelot-Vonk, M.H.; Verhaar, H.J.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects of raloxifene and placebo on body composition and muscle strength. DESIGN: Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial involving 198 healthy women aged 70 years or older conducted between July 2003 and January 2008 at the University Medical Centre, Utrecht,

  12. Long-term effects of a weight loss intervention with or without exercise component in postmenopausal women : A randomized trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Roon, Martijn; van Gemert, Willemijn A; Peeters, Petra H M; Schuit, Albertine J; Monninkhof, Evelyn M.

    The aim of this study was to determine the long-term effects of a weight loss intervention with or without an exercise component on body weight and physical activity. Women were randomized to diet (n = 97) or exercise (N = 98) for 16 weeks. During the intervention, both groups had achieved the set

  13. Long-term effects of a weight loss intervention with or without exercise component in postmenopausal women : A randomized trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Roon, Martijn; van Gemert, Willemijn A.; Peeters, Petra H.; Schuit, Albertine J.; Monninkhof, Evelyn M.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the long-term effects of a weight loss intervention with or without an exercise component on body weight and physical activity. Women were randomized to diet (n = 97) or exercise (N = 98) for 16 weeks. During the intervention, both groups had achieved the set

  14. Effects of lifestyle intervention in obese pregnant women on gestational weight gain and mental health : A randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogaerts, A.F.L.; Devlieger, R.; Nuyts, E.; Witters, I.; Gyselaers, W.; Van den Bergh, B.R.H.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Lifestyle intervention could help obese pregnant women to limit their weight gain during pregnancy and improve their psychological comfort, but has not yet been evaluated in randomized controlled trials. We evaluated whether a targeted antenatal lifestyle intervention programme for obese

  15. Effects of a comprehensive educational group intervention in older women with cognitive complaints: a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogenhout, Esther; De Groot, Renate; Van der Elst, Wim; Jolles, Jelle

    2012-01-01

    Hoogenhout, E. M., De Groot, R. H. M., Van der Elst, W., Jolles J. (2012). Effects of a comprehensive educational group intervention in older women with cognitive complaints: a randomized controlled trial. Aging & Mental Health, 16, 135-144. doi:10.1080/13607863.2011.598846

  16. Does improved functional performance help to reduce urinary incontinence in institutionalized older women? a multicenter randomized clinical trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tak, E.C.P.M.; van Hespen, A.; van Dommelen, P.; Hopman-Rock, M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Urinary incontinence (UI) is a major problem in older women. Management is usually restricted to dealing with the consequences instead of treating underlying causes such as bladder dysfunction or reduced mobility. The aim of this multicenter randomized controlled trial was to compare a

  17. Does improved functional performance help to reduce urinary incontinence in institutionalized older women? a multicenter randomized clinical trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tak, E.C.P.M.; Hespen, A. van; Dommelen, P. van; Hopman-Rock, M.

    2012-01-01

    Background Urinary incontinence (UI) is a major problem in older women. Management is usually restricted to dealing with the consequences instead of treating underlying causes such as bladder dysfunction or reduced mobility. The aim of this multicenter randomized controlled trial was to compare a

  18. Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Women with Lifelong Vaginismus: A Randomized Waiting-List Controlled Trial of Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Lankveld, Jacques J. D. M.; ter Kuile, Moniek M.; de Groot, H. Ellen; Melles, Reinhilde; Nefs, Janneke; Zandbergen, Maartje

    2006-01-01

    Women with lifelong vaginismus (N = 117) were randomly assigned to cognitive-behavioral group therapy, cognitive-behavioral bibliotherapy, or a waiting list. Manualized treatment comprised sexual education, relaxation exercises, gradual exposure, cognitive therapy, and sensate focus therapy. Group therapy consisted of ten 2-hr sessions with 6 to 9…

  19. Raloxifene improves verbal memory in late postmenopausal women: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobsen, D.E.; Samson, M.M.; Emmelot-Vonk, M.H.; Verhaar, H.J.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine the effects of raloxifene compared with those of placebo on verbal memory, mental processing speed, depression, anxiety, and quality of life. METHODS: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of 213 healthy women 70 years or older was

  20. Effects of Aromatherapy Massage on Pregnant Women's Stress and Immune Function: A Longitudinal, Prospective, Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Pao-Ju; Chou, Cheng-Chen; Yang, Luke; Tsai, Yu-Lun; Chang, Yue-Cune; Liaw, Jen-Jiuan

    2017-10-01

    This study's aims are to examine the effects of aromatherapy massage on women's stress and immune function during pregnancy. This longitudinal, prospective, randomized controlled trial recruited 52 healthy pregnant women from a prenatal clinic in Taipei using convenience sampling. The participants were randomly assigned to the intervention (n = 24) or control (n = 28) group using Clinstat block randomization. The intervention group received 70 min of aromatherapy massage with 2% lavender essential oil every other week (10 times in total) for 20 weeks; the control group received only routine prenatal care. In both groups, participants' salivary cortisol and immunoglobulin A (IgA) levels were collected before and after the intervention group received aromatherapy massage (every month from 16 to 36 weeks gestation) and were analyzed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The pregnant women in the intervention group had lower salivary cortisol (p aromatherapy massage than those in the control group, which did not receive massage treatment. Comparing the long-term effects of aromatherapy massage on salivary IgA levels between groups at different times, the study found that the pretest salivary IgA levels at 32 (p = 0.002) and 36 (p aromatherapy massage could significantly decrease stress and enhance immune function in pregnant women. The findings can guide clinicians or midwives in providing aromatherapy massage to women throughout the pregnancy.

  1. Quality of life and standard of living in a randomly selected group of psychiatrically disabled people in Sweden 2 years after a psychiatry reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson, I; Frederiksen, S-O; Gottfries, C-G

    2002-07-01

    In Sweden, a psychiatry reform, aimed at improving the living conditions of the psychiatrically disabled, came into force in 1995. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of the reform by investigating quality of life and standard of living 2 years later in a randomly selected group of people with longstanding psychiatric disability. Self-ratings and interviews were conducted in a study group and a control group. The study group consisted of 19 women and 18 men (mean age 46.1 years) diagnosed with neurosis, schizophrenia or affective disorder. The control group consisted of 19 women and 17 men (mean age 48.7 years). Self-rated quality of life was significantly poorer in the study group (P standard of living in either group but a significant negative correlation in the control group (P standard of living.

  2. Selective oropharyngeal decontamination versus selective digestive decontamination in critically ill patients: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao D

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Di Zhao,1,* Jian Song,2,* Xuan Gao,3 Fei Gao,4 Yupeng Wu,2 Yingying Lu,5 Kai Hou1 1Department of Neurosurgery, The First Hospital of Hebei Medical University, 2Department of Neurosurgery, 3Department of Neurology, The Second Hospital of Hebei Medical University, 4Hebei Provincial Procurement Centers for Medical Drugs and Devices, 5Department of Neurosurgery, The Second Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Selective digestive decontamination (SDD and selective oropharyngeal decontamination (SOD are associated with reduced mortality and infection rates among patients in intensive care units (ICUs; however, whether SOD has a superior effect than SDD remains uncertain. Hence, we conducted a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs to compare SOD with SDD in terms of clinical outcomes and antimicrobial resistance rates in patients who were critically ill. Methods: RCTs published in PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science were systematically reviewed to compare the effects of SOD and SDD in patients who were critically ill. Outcomes included day-28 mortality, length of ICU stay, length of hospital stay, duration of mechanical ventilation, ICU-acquired bacteremia, and prevalence of antibiotic-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. Results were expressed as risk ratio (RR with 95% confidence intervals (CIs, and weighted mean differences (WMDs with 95% CIs. Pooled estimates were performed using a fixed-effects model or random-effects model, depending on the heterogeneity among studies. Results: A total of four RCTs involving 23,822 patients met the inclusion criteria and were included in this meta-analysis. Among patients whose admitting specialty was surgery, cardiothoracic surgery (57.3% and neurosurgery (29.7% were the two main types of surgery being performed. Pooled results showed that SOD had similar effects as SDD in day-28 mortality (RR =1

  3. Ethnopharmacological versus random plant selection methods for the evaluation of the antimycobacterial activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo R. Oliveira

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The municipality of Oriximiná, Brazil, has 33 quilombola communities in remote areas, endowed with wide experience in the use of medicinal plants. An ethnobotanical survey was carried out in five of these communities. A free-listing method directed for the survey of species locally indicated against Tuberculosis and lung problems was also applied. Data were analyzed by quantitative techniques: saliency index and major use agreement. Thirty four informants related 254 ethnospecies. Among these, 43 were surveyed for possible antimycobacterial activity. As a result of those informations, ten species obtained from the ethnodirected approach (ETHNO and eighteen species obtained from the random approach (RANDOM were assayed against Mycobacterium tuberculosis by the microdilution method, using resazurin as an indicator of cell viability. The best results for antimycobacterial activity were obtained of some plants selected by the ethnopharmacological approach (50% ETHNO x 16,7% RANDOM. These results can be even more significant if we consider that the therapeutic success obtained among the quilombola practice is complex, being the use of some plants acting as fortifying agents, depurative, vomitory, purgative and bitter remedy, especially to infectious diseases, of great importance to the communities in the curing or recovering of health as a whole.

  4. Random forest variable selection in spatial malaria transmission modelling in Mpumalanga Province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapwata, Thandi; Gebreslasie, Michael T

    2016-11-16

    Malaria is an environmentally driven disease. In order to quantify the spatial variability of malaria transmission, it is imperative to understand the interactions between environmental variables and malaria epidemiology at a micro-geographic level using a novel statistical approach. The random forest (RF) statistical learning method, a relatively new variable-importance ranking method, measures the variable importance of potentially influential parameters through the percent increase of the mean squared error. As this value increases, so does the relative importance of the associated variable. The principal aim of this study was to create predictive malaria maps generated using the selected variables based on the RF algorithm in the Ehlanzeni District of Mpumalanga Province, South Africa. From the seven environmental variables used [temperature, lag temperature, rainfall, lag rainfall, humidity, altitude, and the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI)], altitude was identified as the most influential predictor variable due its high selection frequency. It was selected as the top predictor for 4 out of 12 months of the year, followed by NDVI, temperature and lag rainfall, which were each selected twice. The combination of climatic variables that produced the highest prediction accuracy was altitude, NDVI, and temperature. This suggests that these three variables have high predictive capabilities in relation to malaria transmission. Furthermore, it is anticipated that the predictive maps generated from predictions made by the RF algorithm could be used to monitor the progression of malaria and assist in intervention and prevention efforts with respect to malaria.

  5. Random forest variable selection in spatial malaria transmission modelling in Mpumalanga Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thandi Kapwata

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Malaria is an environmentally driven disease. In order to quantify the spatial variability of malaria transmission, it is imperative to understand the interactions between environmental variables and malaria epidemiology at a micro-geographic level using a novel statistical approach. The random forest (RF statistical learning method, a relatively new variable-importance ranking method, measures the variable importance of potentially influential parameters through the percent increase of the mean squared error. As this value increases, so does the relative importance of the associated variable. The principal aim of this study was to create predictive malaria maps generated using the selected variables based on the RF algorithm in the Ehlanzeni District of Mpumalanga Province, South Africa. From the seven environmental variables used [temperature, lag temperature, rainfall, lag rainfall, humidity, altitude, and the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI], altitude was identified as the most influential predictor variable due its high selection frequency. It was selected as the top predictor for 4 out of 12 months of the year, followed by NDVI, temperature and lag rainfall, which were each selected twice. The combination of climatic variables that produced the highest prediction accuracy was altitude, NDVI, and temperature. This suggests that these three variables have high predictive capabilities in relation to malaria transmission. Furthermore, it is anticipated that the predictive maps generated from predictions made by the RF algorithm could be used to monitor the progression of malaria and assist in intervention and prevention efforts with respect to malaria.

  6. Selecting the appropriate pacing mode for patients with sick sinus syndrome: evidence from randomized clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albertsen, A E; Nielsen, J C

    2003-12-01

    Several observational studies have indicated that selection of pacing mode may be important for the clinical outcome in patients with symptomatic bradycardia, affecting the development of atrial fibrillation (AF), thromboembolism, congestive heart failure, mortality and quality of life. In this paper we present and discuss the most recent data from six randomized trials on mode selection in patients with sick sinus syndrome (SSS). In pacing mode selection, VVI(R) pacing is the least attractive solution, increasing the incidence of AF and-as compared with AAI(R) pacing, also the incidence of heart failure, thromboembolism and death. VVI(R) pacing should not be used as the primary pacing mode in patients with SSS, who haven't chronic AF. AAIR pacing is superior to DDDR pacing, reducing AF and preserving left ventricular function. Single site right ventricular pacing-VVI(R) or DDD(R) mode-causes an abnormal ventricular activation and contraction (called ventricular desynchronization), which results in a reduced left ventricular function. Despite the risk of AV block, we consider AAIR pacing to be the optimal pacing mode for isolated SSS today and an algorithm to select patients for AAIR pacing is suggested. Trials on new pacemaker algorithms minimizing right ventricular pacing as well as trials testing alternative pacing sites and multisite pacing to reduce ventricular desynchronization can be expected within the next years.

  7. Geography and genography: prediction of continental origin using randomly selected single nucleotide polymorphisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramoni Marco F

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent studies have shown that when individuals are grouped on the basis of genetic similarity, group membership corresponds closely to continental origin. There has been considerable debate about the implications of these findings in the context of larger debates about race and the extent of genetic variation between groups. Some have argued that clustering according to continental origin demonstrates the existence of significant genetic differences between groups and that these differences may have important implications for differences in health and disease. Others argue that clustering according to continental origin requires the use of large amounts of genetic data or specifically chosen markers and is indicative only of very subtle genetic differences that are unlikely to have biomedical significance. Results We used small numbers of randomly selected single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs from the International HapMap Project to train naïve Bayes classifiers for prediction of ancestral continent of origin. Predictive accuracy was tested on two independent data sets. Genetically similar groups should be difficult to distinguish, especially if only a small number of genetic markers are used. The genetic differences between continentally defined groups are sufficiently large that one can accurately predict ancestral continent of origin using only a minute, randomly selected fraction of the genetic variation present in the human genome. Genotype data from only 50 random SNPs was sufficient to predict ancestral continent of origin in our primary test data set with an average accuracy of 95%. Genetic variations informative about ancestry were common and widely distributed throughout the genome. Conclusion Accurate characterization of ancestry is possible using small numbers of randomly selected SNPs. The results presented here show how investigators conducting genetic association studies can use small numbers of arbitrarily

  8. Joint random beam and spectrum selection for spectrum sharing systems with partial channel state information

    KAUST Repository

    Abdallah, Mohamed M.

    2013-11-01

    In this work, we develop joint interference-aware random beam and spectrum selection scheme that provide enhanced performance for the secondary network under the condition that the interference observed at the primary receiver is below a predetermined acceptable value. We consider a secondary link composed of a transmitter equipped with multiple antennas and a single-antenna receiver sharing the same spectrum with a set of primary links composed of a single-antenna transmitter and a single-antenna receiver. The proposed schemes jointly select a beam, among a set of power-optimized random beams, as well as the primary spectrum that maximizes the signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR) of the secondary link while satisfying the primary interference constraint. In particular, we consider the case where the interference level is described by a q-bit description of its magnitude, whereby we propose a technique to find the optimal quantizer thresholds in a mean square error (MSE) sense. © 2013 IEEE.

  9. Interference-aware random beam selection schemes for spectrum sharing systems

    KAUST Repository

    Abdallah, Mohamed

    2012-10-19

    Spectrum sharing systems have been recently introduced to alleviate the problem of spectrum scarcity by allowing secondary unlicensed networks to share the spectrum with primary licensed networks under acceptable interference levels to the primary users. In this work, we develop interference-aware random beam selection schemes that provide enhanced performance for the secondary network under the condition that the interference observed by the receivers of the primary network is below a predetermined/acceptable value. We consider a secondary link composed of a transmitter equipped with multiple antennas and a single-antenna receiver sharing the same spectrum with a primary link composed of a single-antenna transmitter and a single-antenna receiver. The proposed schemes select a beam, among a set of power-optimized random beams, that maximizes the signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR) of the secondary link while satisfying the primary interference constraint for different levels of feedback information describing the interference level at the primary receiver. For the proposed schemes, we develop a statistical analysis for the SINR statistics as well as the capacity and bit error rate (BER) of the secondary link.

  10. Feature selection for outcome prediction in oesophageal cancer using genetic algorithm and random forest classifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Desbordes; Su, Ruan; Romain, Modzelewski; Sébastien, Vauclin; Pierre, Vera; Isabelle, Gardin

    2017-09-01

    The outcome prediction of patients can greatly help to personalize cancer treatment. A large amount of quantitative features (clinical exams, imaging, …) are potentially useful to assess the patient outcome. The challenge is to choose the most predictive subset of features. In this paper, we propose a new feature selection strategy called GARF (genetic algorithm based on random forest) extracted from positron emission tomography (PET) images and clinical data. The most relevant features, predictive of the therapeutic response or which are prognoses of the patient survival 3 years after the end of treatment, were selected using GARF on a cohort of 65 patients with a local advanced oesophageal cancer eligible for chemo-radiation therapy. The most relevant predictive results were obtained with a subset of 9 features leading to a random forest misclassification rate of 18±4% and an areas under the of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves (AUC) of 0.823±0.032. The most relevant prognostic results were obtained with 8 features leading to an error rate of 20±7% and an AUC of 0.750±0.108. Both predictive and prognostic results show better performances using GARF than using 4 other studied methods. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Postnatal Sexual Concerns Regarding the Selection of Delivery Mode among Iranian Women: A Qualitative Content Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Abbaspoor

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Several factors influence the choice of cesarean section and its increasing rate among pregnant women. It seems that sexual satisfaction after childbirth plays a pivotal role in the selection of delivery mode. This study aimed to describe the experiences of pregnant women regarding postnatal sexual concerns and delivery mode selection. Methods:This conventional qualitative content analysis was based on the study by Graneheim & Lundman (2004. Sample population consisted of 18 pregnant women undergoing natural vaginal delivery (NVD or elective cesarean section (CS at term in three hospitals and two healthcare centers of Tehran, Iran. Data collection and analysis were performed concurrently, and interviews continued until data saturation was achieved. Results: In this study, the main extracted theme was “decision-making influenced by socio-cultural childbirth beliefs.” One of the main categories comprising the content of the interviews was “meeting the sexual satisfaction of spouse" with subcategories of “spouse dissatisfaction after NVD” and “preserved sexual satisfaction after CS.” The other category was "preserving the original shape of genital organs” with subcategories of “necessity of cosmetic surgery after NVD” and “maintaining an intact genital system after CS.” Conclusion: According to the results of this study, sexual attitudes and beliefs in the Iranian society are essentially involved in women's preference of CS over NVD. Choice of CS by pregnant women is often influenced by the opinion of the spouse, family members, peers, and friends. Therefore, it is recommended that the knowledge of couples in this regard be enhanced through related educational programs.

  12. Oral Administration to Nursing Women of Lactobacillus fermentum CECT5716 Prevents Lactational Mastitis Development: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurtado, José A.; Maldonado-Lobón, Jose A.; Díaz-Ropero, M. Paz; Flores-Rojas, Katherine; Uberos, José; Leante, José L.; Affumicato, Laura; Couce, María Luz; Garrido, José M.; Olivares, Mónica

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Objective: The objective of this study is to evaluate the preventive effect of oral administration of Lactobacillus fermentum CECT5716 on mastitis incidence in lactating women. Methods: A randomized double-blinded controlled trial that included 625 women was conducted. Women who received preventive dose of antibiotic in the context of delivery were recruited 1–6 days after childbirth and randomly assigned to a group. Probiotic group received 1 capsule/day containing L. fermentum 3 × 109 CFU, control group received 1 placebo capsule/day containing maltodextrin. The intervention period was 16 weeks. The primary outcome of the study was the incidence of clinical mastitis defined as at least two out of the three breast symptoms (pain, redness, and lump) and at least one of fever or flu-like symptoms (shivering, hot sweats, or aches). Results: Two hundred ninety-one women completed 16 weeks of treatment. Sixteen women in the probiotic group developed mastitis versus 30 women in the control group (odds ratio = 0.531; p = 0.058). Incidence rate of mastitis in the probiotic group was significantly lower than that in the control group (IR = 0.130 in the probiotic group versus IR = 0.263 in the control group; p = 0.021). Therefore, the oral administration of L. fermentum CECT5716 during lactation decreased by 51% the incidence rate of clinical mastitis. Staphylococcus spp. load at the end of intervention was significantly lower in breast milk of women in the probiotic group than in breast milk of women in the control group (p = 0.025). Conclusion: Consumption of the probiotic strain L. fermentum CECT5716 might be used during breastfeeding as an efficient strategy to prevent development of lactational mastitis in women. Trial registration: NCT02203877.

  13. Effect of vaginal spheres and pelvic floor muscle training in women with urinary incontinence: a randomized, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porta-Roda, Oriol; Vara-Paniagua, Jesús; Díaz-López, Miguel A; Sobrado-Lozano, Pilar; Simó-González, Marta; Díaz-Bellido, Paloma; Reula-Blasco, María C; Muñoz-Garrido, Francisco

    2015-08-01

    To compare the efficacy and safety of Kegel exercises performed with or without, vaginal spheres as treatment for women with urinary incontinence. Multicentre parallel-group, open, randomized controlled trial. Women were allocated to either a pelvic floor muscle-training program consisting of Kegel exercises performed twice daily, 5 days/week at home, over 6 months with vaginal spheres, or to the same program without spheres. The primary endpoint was women's report of urinary incontinence at 6 months using the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-Short Form (ICIQ-UI-SF). Secondary outcome measures were the 1 hr pad-test, King's Health Questionnaire (KHQ) and a five-point Likert scale for subjective evaluation. Adherence was measured with the Morisky-Green test. Thirty-seven women were randomized to the spheres group and 33 to the control group. The primary endpoint was evaluated in 65 women (35 in the spheres group vs. 30 controls). ICIQ-UI-SF results improved significantly at 1-month follow-up in the spheres group (P side effects were reported in four patients in the spheres group and one in the control group. Both treatments improved urinary incontinence but women who performed the exercises with vaginal spheres showed an earlier improvement. Vaginal spheres were well tolerated and safe. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Iyengar Yoga for Distressed Women: A 3-Armed Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Michalsen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Distress is an increasing public health problem. We aimed to investigate the effects of an Iyengar yoga program on perceived stress and psychological outcomes in distressed women and evaluated a potential dose-effect relationship. Seventy-two female distressed subjects were included into a 3-armed randomized controlled trial and allocated to yoga group 1 (n=24 with twelve 90 min sessions over 3 months, yoga group 2 (n=24 with 24 sessions over 3 months, or a waiting list control group (n=24. The primary outcome was stress perception, measured by Cohen Stress Scale; secondary outcomes included state trait anxiety, depression, psychological and physical quality of life (QOL, profile of Mood States, well being, and bodily complaints. After three months, women in the yoga groups showed significant improvements in perceived stress (P=0.003, state trait anxiety (P=0.021 and P=0.003, depression (P=0.008, psychological QOL (P=0.012, mood states being (P=0.007, and bodily complaints well(P=0.012 when compared to controls. Both yoga programs were similarly effective for these outcomes; however, compliance was better in the group with fewer sessions (yoga group 1. Dose effects were seen only in the analysis of group-independent effects for back pain, anxiety, and depression. These findings suggest that Iyengar yoga effectively reduces distress and improves related psychological and physical outcomes. Furthermore, attending twice-weekly yoga classes was not superior to once-weekly classes, as a result of limited compliance in the twice-weekly group.

  15. The Effect of Selective Hata Yoga Training on Balance of Elderly Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sepideh Jannati

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of current study was to determine the effects of Hata yoga training on dynamic and static balances of elderly women in Mashhad. Methods and Materials: The present study enjoys the semi-experimental design. The statistical population of the study, which has been carried out in 2009, were elderly women of Mashhad who were voluntarily invited to participate in the research. 29 healthy elderly women aged 56-72 years old have been selected who haven’t had any disease history during the last one year such as: advanced osteoporosis, hip replacement, glaucoma, Parkinson’s disease, common occurrences of dizziness, or any surgery. Before and after doing the Hata yoga training program which was performed in 3- sessions of 1- hour during 8 weeks Dynamic and static balances were evaluated by fall risk test and postural stability test respectively by Biodex Balance System. Finally data were analyzed by using Variance analysis (GLM-repeated measures and Dependent T-test and the significance of results was α=0.05. Results: The effects of 24 sessions of Hata yoga training were significant on static balance: overall (P=0.001, anterior-posterior (P=0.002, medial-lateral (P=0.006 and dynamic balance of elderly women (P=0.00. Conclusion: Considering the positive influence of Hata yoga training on dynamic and static balances, it is concluded that Hata yoga training has led to the improvement muscle strength among elderly women particularly endurance and strength of muscles in lower extremity and may increase the efficiency of neuro- motor system and improve somatosensory of muscles and joints by ameliorating the existed balance and decreasing fall risk in elderly women.

  16. Yoga for managing knee osteoarthritis in older women: a pilot randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Corjena; Wyman, Jean F; Resnick, Barbara; Savik, Kay

    2014-05-18

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a common problem in older women that is associated with pain and disabilities. Although yoga is recommended as an exercise intervention to manage arthritis, there is limited evidence documenting its effectiveness, with little known about its long term benefits. This study's aims were to assess the feasibility and potential efficacy of a Hatha yoga exercise program in managing OA-related symptoms in older women with knee OA. Eligible participants (N=36; mean age 72 years) were randomly assigned to 8-week yoga program involving group and home-based sessions or wait-list control. The yoga intervention program was developed by a group of yoga experts (N=5). The primary outcome was the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) total score that measures knee OA pain, stiffness, and function at 8 weeks. The secondary outcomes, physical function of the lower extremities, body mass index (BMI), quality of sleep (QOS), and quality of life (QOL), were measured using weight, height, the short physical performance battery (SPPB), the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), the Cantril Self-Anchoring Ladder, and the SF12v2 Health Survey. Data were collected at baseline, 4 weeks and 8 weeks, and 20 weeks. The recruitment target was met, with study retention at 95%. Based on ANCOVAs, participants in the treatment group exhibited significantly greater improvement in WOMAC pain (adjusted means [SE]) (8.3 [.67], 5.8 [.67]; p=.01), stiffness (4.7 [.28], 3.4 [.28]; p=.002) and SPPB (repeated chair stands) (2.0 [.23], 2.8 [.23]; p=.03) at 8 weeks. Significant treatment and time effects were seen in WOMAC pain (7.0 [.46], 5.4 [.54]; p=.03), function (24.5 [1.8], 19.9 [1.6]; p=.01) and total scores (35.4 [2.3], 28.6 [2.1]; p=.01) from 4 to 20 weeks. Sleep disturbance was improved but the PSQI total score declined significantly at 20 weeks. Changes in BMI and QOL were not significant. No yoga related adverse events were observed. A weekly

  17. Changes in pain perception after pelvis manipulation in women with primary dysmenorrhea: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molins-Cubero, Silvia; Rodríguez-Blanco, Cleofás; Oliva-Pascual-Vaca, Angel; Heredia-Rizo, Alberto M; Boscá-Gandía, Juan J; Ricard, François

    2014-09-01

    This study aims to evaluate the immediate effect of a global pelvic manipulation (GPM) technique, bilaterally applied, on low back pelvic pain in women with primary dysmenorrhea (PD). A prospective, randomized, double-blind, controlled trial. Faculty of Nursing, Physiotherapy and Podiatry. University of Sevilla, Spain. The sample group included 40 women (30 ± 6.10 years) that were divided into an experimental group (EG) (N = 20) who underwent a bilateral GPM technique and a control group (CG) (N = 20) who underwent a sham (placebo) intervention. Evaluations were made of self-reported low back pelvic pain (visual analog scale), pressure pain threshold (PPT) in sacroiliac joints (SIJs), and the endogenous response of the organism to pain following catecholamines and serotonin release in blood levels. The intragroup comparison showed a significant improvement in the EG in the self-perceived low back pelvic pain (P = 0.003) and in the mechanosensitivity in both SIJs (P = 0.001). In the between-group comparison, there was a decrease in pain perception (P = 0.004; F(1,38) = 9.62; R(2) = 0.20) and an increase in the PPT of both SIJs, in the right side (P = 0.001; F(1,38) = 21.29; R(2) = 0.35) and in the left side (P = 0.001; F(1,38) = 20.63; R(2) = 0.35). There were no intergroup differences for catecholamines plasma levels (adrenaline P = 0.123; noradrenaline P = 0.281; dopamine P = 0.173), but there were for serotonin levels (P = 0.045; F(1,38) = 4.296; R(2) = 0.10). The bilateral GPM technique improves in a short term the self-perceived low back pelvic pain, the PPT in both SIJs, and the serotonin levels in women with PD. It shows no significant differences with a sham intervention in catecholamines plasma levels. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Postpartum weight retention and breastfeeding among obese women from the randomized controlled Lifestyle in Pregnancy (LiP) trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinter, Christina Anne; Jensen, Dorte Møller; Ovesen, Per Glud

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To study the effects of lifestyle intervention in pregnancy on weight retention 6 months postpartum among obese women from the "Lifestyle in Pregnancy" (LiP) study, and to determine associations between breastfeeding with postpartum maternal weight. DESIGN: Six months postpartum follow...... of breastfeeding mothers was higher among women with postpartum weight retention ≤5 kg compared with those with weight retention > 5 kg (94% vs. 85%, p = 0.034). CONCLUSIONS: We could not detect sustained weight control at 6 months postpartum despite a lower gestational weight gain for obese women during pregnancy...... up after a randomized controlled intervention trial. SETTING: Two university hospitals in Denmark. POPULATION: A total of 360 women with pregestational body mass index ≥30 kg/m(2) . METHODS: The intervention involved lifestyle changes (diet and exercise) during pregnancy. The control group received...

  19. A Randomized Trial of Text Messaging for Smoking Cessation in Pregnant Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abroms, Lorien C; Johnson, Pamela R; Leavitt, Leah E; Cleary, Sean D; Bushar, Jessica; Brandon, Thomas H; Chiang, Shawn C

    2017-12-01

    There is a need for innovation in both the enrollment of pregnant smokers in smoking cessation treatment programs and in the types of treatments offered. The study tests whether an interactive and intensive text messaging program, Quit4baby, can promote smoking cessation for pregnant women already enrolled in a health text messaging program, Text4baby. Between July 2015 and February 2016, a total of 35,957 recruitment text messages were sent to Text4baby subscribers. Eligible pregnant smokers were enrolled and randomized to receive Text4baby (control) or Text4baby and Quit4baby (intervention; N=497). Participants were surveyed at 1 month, 3 months, and 6 months post-enrollment, and saliva samples were collected at 3 months for biochemical verification of smoking status. Data were collected from 2015 to 2016 and analyzed in 2016. Using an intention-to-treat analysis, 28.80% of the intervention group and 15.79% of the control group reported not smoking in the past 7 days at 1 month (ptext messaging program in the short term and late in pregnancy, but not in the postpartum period. Copyright © 2017 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The effect of a peer education program on combating violence against women: A randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürkan, Özlem C; Kömürcü, Nuran

    2017-10-01

    Student nurses in Turkey need to be exposed to appropriate undergraduate training if they are to acquire the required knowledge, attitudes and skills that will help them to fight the issue of violence against women (VAW). The aim of this research study was to assess the effect of a peer education program about combating VAW on the knowledge, attitudes and skills of nursing students. The study was designed as a randomized controlled trial. The participants in the intervention group received peer education on combating VAW. 136 nursing students (intervention group: n=63, control group: n=73) were included in the study. Participants in both the intervention and control groups were assessed at pre-training and at two months post-training. Pre-training and post-training knowledge and attitudes were significantly different in the intervention group (p<0.001). Moreover, the intervention group displayed a statistically significant difference in their ability to explain the correct interventions in a case study about VAW (p<0.001). Our results indicate that peer education should be used as a part of undergraduate nursing education on VAW. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Exercise in pregnant women and birth weight: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bø Kari

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Birth weight plays an important role in infant mortality and morbidity, childhood development, and adult health. To date there are contradictory results regarding the role of physical activity on birth weight. In addition, it is questioned whether exercise during second and third trimesters of pregnancy might affect gestational age and increase the risk of preterm delivery. Hence, the purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a supervised exercise-program on birth weight, gestational age at delivery and Apgar-score. Methods Sedentary, nulliparous pregnant women (N = 105, mean age 30.7 ± 4.0 years, pre-pregnancy BMI 23.8 ± 4.3 were randomized to either an exercise group (EG, n = 52 or a control group (CG, n = 53. The exercise program consisted of supervised aerobic dance and strength training for 60 minutes, twice per week for a minimum of 12 weeks, with an additional 30 minutes of self-imposed physical activity on the non-supervised week-days. Results There was no statistically significant difference between groups in mean birth weight, low birth weight ( Conclusion Aerobic-dance exercise was not associated with reduction in birth weight, preterm birth rate or neonatal well-being. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00617149

  2. Effects of a traditional herbal medicine on peripheral blood flow in women experiencing peripheral coldness: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishida, Shinji; Eguchi, Eri; Ohira, Tetsuya; Kitamura, Akihiko; Kato, Yukiko Hakariya; Hagihara, Keisuke; Iso, Hiroyasu

    2015-04-02

    In Japan, a traditional herbal medicine, Tokishigyakukagoshuyushokyoto (TJ-38), is often used for the treatment of peripheral coldness, which is a common complaint among Japanese women. However, the effects of this herbal medicine have yet to be examined in a randomized controlled trial. In the current study, the effect of TJ-38 on the peripheral blood flow in women experiencing peripheral coldness was investigated using a parallel-group randomized controlled trial. Fifty-eight women aged 23 to 79 years with peripheral coldness were randomly divided into the intervention or control group. They were examined using cold bathing tests, physical examinations, and questionnaires in January 2010 for the baseline and in March 2010 for the follow-up, and January 2011 and March 2011, respectively. At the baseline, there were no differences in clinical characteristics between the two groups. In the intervention group, peripheral coldness improved after the intervention term; however, it persisted in the control group. Mean values of percentage recovery of the peripheral blood flow after cold bathing tests were 17.2% and -28.2% for the intervention and control groups, respectively (p = 0.007), and the proportions for percentage recovery of >50% were 32% and 0%, respectively (p = 0.0007). Mean values of percent recovery of skin temperature did not differ between the two groups. The present clinical trial supports that a traditional herbal medicine relieves peripheral coldness in women probably through the improvement of peripheral blood flow.

  3. Does the Use of a Decision Aid Improve Decision Making in Prosthetic Heart Valve Selection? A Multicenter Randomized Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korteland, Nelleke M.; Ahmed, Yunus; Koolbergen, David R.; Brouwer, Marjan; de Heer, Frederiek; Kluin, Jolanda; Bruggemans, Eline F.; Klautz, Robert J. M.; Stiggelbout, Anne M.; Bucx, Jeroen J. J.; Roos-Hesselink, Jolien W.; Polak, Peter; Markou, Thanasie; van den Broek, Inge; Ligthart, Rene; Bogers, Ad J. J. C.; Takkenberg, Johanna J. M.

    2017-01-01

    A Dutch online patient decision aid to support prosthetic heart valve selection was recently developed. A multicenter randomized controlled trial was conducted to assess whether use of the patient decision aid results in optimization of shared decision making in prosthetic heart valve selection. In

  4. Selective outcome reporting and sponsorship in randomized controlled trials in IVF and ICSI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braakhekke, M; Scholten, I; Mol, F; Limpens, J; Mol, B W; van der Veen, F

    2017-10-01

    Are randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on IVF and ICSI subject to selective outcome reporting and is this related to sponsorship? There are inconsistencies, independent from sponsorship, in the reporting of primary outcome measures in the majority of IVF and ICSI trials, indicating selective outcome reporting. RCTs are subject to bias at various levels. Of these biases, selective outcome reporting is particularly relevant to IVF and ICSI trials since there is a wide variety of outcome measures to choose from. An established cause of reporting bias is sponsorship. It is, at present, unknown whether RCTs in IVF/ICSI are subject to selective outcome reporting and whether this is related with sponsorship. We systematically searched RCTs on IVF and ICSI published between January 2009 and March 2016 in MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and the publisher subset of PubMed. We analysed 415 RCTs. Per included RCT, we extracted data on impact factor of the journal, sample size, power calculation, and trial registry and thereafter data on primary outcome measure, the direction of trial results and sponsorship. Of the 415 identified RCTs, 235 were excluded for our primary analysis, because the sponsorship was not reported. Of the 180 RCTs included in our analysis, 7 trials did not report on any primary outcome measure and 107 of the remaining 173 trials (62%) reported on surrogate primary outcome measures. Of the 114 registered trials, 21 trials (18%) provided primary outcomes in their manuscript that were different from those in the trial registry. This indicates selective outcome reporting. We found no association between selective outcome reporting and sponsorship. We ran additional analyses to include the trials that had not reported sponsorship and found no outcomes that differed from our primary analysis. Since the majority of the trials did not report on sponsorship, there is a risk on sampling bias. IVF and ICSI trials are subject, to

  5. A randomized comparison of vaginal prostaglandin E2 with oxytocin plus amniotomy for induction of labour in women with intermediately ripe cervices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parazzini, F; Benedetto, C; Danti, L; Zanini, A; Facchinetti, F; Ettore, G; Franchi, M; Bertulessi, C; Caruso, A

    1998-10-01

    To compare the effects of oxytocin and amniotomy or vaginal prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) for induction of labour. We conducted a randomized clinical trial. Eligible for the trial were women with normal pregnancy, parity 0-3, with intact membranes, >40 weeks of gestation documented by ultrasound examination before 20 weeks gestation, observed in a network of 13 general and teaching hospitals in Italy. Inclusion criteria were cervical Bishop's score 5-7, less than six uterine contractions per hour, single pregnancy, cephalic presentation, no history of cesarean section and uterine surgery. Eligible women were randomly assigned by phone to oxytocin plus amniotomy (163 women) or vaginal PGE2 2 mg, two doses at 6-h intervals (157 women). Overall, 50 women (15.6%) delivered by cesarean section, 22 (13.5%) randomized to oxytocin, and 28 (17.8%) randomized to PGE2 (not significant). Twelve hours after randomization, induction had failed in 26 women of the 163 randomized to oxytocin plus amniotomy (21.6%) and 34 out of the 157 randomized to PGE2 (15.9%): the difference was not significant. Neonatal outcome was similar in the two groups. This study did not find marked differences in labour and neonatal outcome between women randomized to oxytocin plus amniotomy or vaginal PGE2. A shorter induction delivery interval in the group receiving amniotomy and oxytocin after PGE2 priming was observed.

  6. Selective modulation of postmenopausal women: cutting the Gordian knot of hormone replacement therapy with breast carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamanti-Kandarakis, Evanthia; Sykiotis, Gerasimos P; Papavassiliou, Athanasios G

    2003-01-01

    Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) has proven and presumable benefits for women desiring postmenopausal health preservation. Among HRT-associated risks, the fear of breast carcinoma intimidates women and physicians contemplating hormonal treatment and limits long-term compliance. Identifying effective alternative medications that are not associated with breast carcinoma or that even may prevent its development would be a major advance. This article discusses the clinical perspective of HRT and selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) in light of the molecular and cellular mechanisms of estrogen and progesterone action on the breast. Emphasis is placed on the potential of selective receptor modulation as the future of postmenopausal treatment. Current epidemiologic evidence suggests that HRT is associated with a small but substantial increase in the risk of breast carcinoma, and combined estrogen-progesterone regimens further increase this hazard. Ample biologic data support this clinical association and propose multiple molecular mechanisms for the effects of estrogen and progesterone on breast cells. SERMs are a novel class of drugs that demonstrate estrogen agonistic and antagonistic actions in a tissue specific manner. SERMs act by binding the estrogen receptor and selectively modulating its effect on gene transcription at target tissues. SERMs offer an alternative to HRT that can successfully circumvent the intimidating side-effect of breast carcinoma. Further insight into the molecular mechanisms of SERM action may enable the development of agents with improved target-tissue selectivity. Identifying selective modulators with unique pharmacologic properties would facilitate the creation of individualized treatment for the postmenopausal woman according to her particular predisposition for menopause-related morbidities and her overall clinical profile. Copyright 2003 American Cancer Society.DOI 10.1002/cncr.11049

  7. Uterine and tubal anatomical abnormalities in infertile women: diagnosis with routine hysterosalpingography prior to selective laparoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mwaffaq Heis

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the findings and usefulness of hysterosalpingography as a routine investigation in the fertility workup prior to selective laparoscopy. Design: Descriptive retrospective study. Setting: A university hospital in the north of Jordan. Subjects: All hysterosalpingographies performed in the period between 1st January and 31 December 2008. Outcome measures: Detection of uterine and fallopian tube abnormalities and their correlation with laparoscopic findings. Results: During the study period, 281 infertile women underwent hysterosalpingography with no post procedural complications. The mean (SD age was 31.5 (5.91 years. Mean (SD duration of infertility was 4 (3.44 years. Infertility was reported as primary and secondary by 119 (42.3 % and 162 (57.6 %, respectively. Altogether 281 patients and 562 tubes were examined. Of those, 402 were patent and 160 occluded. There was only one woman in whom peritubal adhesions were diagnosed. Because of hysterosalpingographically diagnosed tubal occlusion, 46 women (16.4 % were referred for laparoscopy. Eight (17.3% of them were treated with unilateral salpingectomy and 28 (60.8% with bilateral salpingectomy. Salpingolysis was performed for 7 (15.2% women, and 3 (6.7% women had untreatable adhesions. The concordance was 71.7%. The sensitivity of HSG was 80%, the specificity 50%, the negative predictive value 61% and the positive predictive value 71%. Of the total of 281 women, 30 (10.7% conceived within 1 - 11 months after the hysterosalpingography. Conclusions: The very high abnormal predictive value of hysterosalpingography in the diagnosis of tubal occlusion suggests that this procedure could be performed as a screening examination.

  8. Recruitment of lactating women into a randomized dietary intervention: successful strategies and factors promoting enrollment and retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stendell-Hollis, Nicole R; Laudermilk, Monica J; West, Julie L; Thompson, Patricia A; Thomson, Cynthia A

    2011-07-01

    Recruitment and retention of lactating women require unique strategies to prevent high attrition. The purpose of this report is to identify successful recruitment strategies and evaluate demographic and lifestyle characteristics associated with study completion. A randomized, controlled trial was initiated to test the hypothesis that lactating women adhering to a Mediterranean diet will show a significant reduction in anthropometric measurements as compared to lactating women randomized to the USDA's MyPyramid diet for Pregnancy and Breastfeeding (control diet). Measurements were collected at baseline, 2 months, and 4 months. Recruitment methods and baseline characteristics of completers and non-completers are described. The largest percentage of women, 24.8%, were recruited from a local parenting magazine, 20.9% from Craig's List, 20.2% from local hospitals, and 34.1% from various other sources. At baseline, women (n = 129) were mostly Non-Hispanic (75.2%), average age 29.7 years, BMI averaged 27.2 kg/m(2), waist:hip ratio 0.84 cm (SD: 0.07), and body fat averaged 30.8%. Approximately 72% were exclusively breastfeeding, a mean 17.5 weeks postpartum, and 69.0% had a college degree. Non-completers were more likely to have supplemented with formula at baseline as compared to completers (Pwomen may consider "exclusive breastfeeding" as a study inclusion criterion to prevent high attrition rates or include additional breastfeeding support to study participants. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Active classifier selection for RGB-D object categorization using a Markov random field ensemble method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durner, Maximilian; Márton, Zoltán.; Hillenbrand, Ulrich; Ali, Haider; Kleinsteuber, Martin

    2017-03-01

    In this work, a new ensemble method for the task of category recognition in different environments is presented. The focus is on service robotic perception in an open environment, where the robot's task is to recognize previously unseen objects of predefined categories, based on training on a public dataset. We propose an ensemble learning approach to be able to flexibly combine complementary sources of information (different state-of-the-art descriptors computed on color and depth images), based on a Markov Random Field (MRF). By exploiting its specific characteristics, the MRF ensemble method can also be executed as a Dynamic Classifier Selection (DCS) system. In the experiments, the committee- and topology-dependent performance boost of our ensemble is shown. Despite reduced computational costs and using less information, our strategy performs on the same level as common ensemble approaches. Finally, the impact of large differences between datasets is analyzed.

  10. Implications of structural genomics target selection strategies: Pfam5000, whole genome, and random approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandonia, John-Marc; Brenner, Steven E.

    2004-07-14

    The structural genomics project is an international effort to determine the three-dimensional shapes of all important biological macromolecules, with a primary focus on proteins. Target proteins should be selected according to a strategy which is medically and biologically relevant, of good value, and tractable. As an option to consider, we present the Pfam5000 strategy, which involves selecting the 5000 most important families from the Pfam database as sources for targets. We compare the Pfam5000 strategy to several other proposed strategies that would require similar numbers of targets. These include including complete solution of several small to moderately sized bacterial proteomes, partial coverage of the human proteome, and random selection of approximately 5000 targets from sequenced genomes. We measure the impact that successful implementation of these strategies would have upon structural interpretation of the proteins in Swiss-Prot, TrEMBL, and 131 complete proteomes (including 10 of eukaryotes) from the Proteome Analysis database at EBI. Solving the structures of proteins from the 5000 largest Pfam families would allow accurate fold assignment for approximately 68 percent of all prokaryotic proteins (covering 59 percent of residues) and 61 percent of eukaryotic proteins (40 percent of residues). More fine-grained coverage which would allow accurate modeling of these proteins would require an order of magnitude more targets. The Pfam5000 strategy may be modified in several ways, for example to focus on larger families, bacterial sequences, or eukaryotic sequences; as long as secondary consideration is given to large families within Pfam, coverage results vary only slightly. In contrast, focusing structural genomics on a single tractable genome would have only a limited impact in structural knowledge of other proteomes: a significant fraction (about 30-40 percent of the proteins, and 40-60 percent of the residues) of each proteome is classified in small

  11. Clinical outcome of intracytoplasmic injection of spermatozoa morphologically selected under high magnification: a prospective randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaban, Basak; Yakin, Kayhan; Alatas, Cengiz; Oktem, Ozgur; Isiklar, Aycan; Urman, Bulent

    2011-05-01

    Recent evidence shows that the selection of spermatozoa based on the analysis of morphology under high magnification (×6000) may have a positive impact on embryo development in cases with severe male factor infertility and/or previous implantation failures. The objective of this prospective randomized study was to compare the clinical outcome of 87 intracytoplasmic morphologically selected sperm injection (IMSI) cycles with 81 conventional intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles in an unselected infertile population. IMSI did not provide a significant improvement in the clinical outcome compared with ICSI although there were trends for higher implantation (28.9% versus 19.5%), clinical pregnancy (54.0% versus 44.4%) and live birth rates (43.7% versus 38.3%) in the IMSI group. However, severe male factor patients benefited from the IMSI procedure as shown by significantly higher implantation rates compared with their counterparts in the ICSI group (29.6% versus 15.2%, P=0.01). These results suggest that IMSI may improve IVF success rates in a selected group of patients with male factor infertility. New technological developments enable the real time examination of motile spermatozoa with an inverted light microscope equipped with high-power differential interference contrast optics, enhanced by digital imaging. High magnification (over ×6000) provides the identification of spermatozoa with a normal nucleus and nuclear content. Intracytoplasmic injection of spermatozoa selected according to fine nuclear morphology under high magnification may improve the clinical outcome in cases with severe male factor infertility. Copyright © 2010 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A Comparison of Dietary Habits between Recreational Runners and a Randomly Selected Adult Population in Slovenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Škof, Branko; Rotovnik Kozjek, Nada

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the dietary habits of recreational runners with those of a random sample of the general population. We also wanted to determine the influence of gender, age and sports performance of recreational runners on their basic diet and compliance with recommendations in sports nutrition. The study population consisted of 1,212 adult Slovenian recreational runners and 774 randomly selected residents of Slovenia between the ages of 18 and 65 years. The data on the dietary habits of our subjects was gathered by means of two questionnaires. The following parameters were evaluated: the type of diet, a food pattern, and the frequency of consumption of individual food groups, the use of dietary supplements, fluid intake, and alcohol consumption. Recreational runners had better compliance with recommendations for healthy nutrition than the general population. This pattern increased with the runner's age and performance level. Compared to male runners, female runners ate more regularly and had a more frequent consumption of food groups associated with a healthy diet (fruit, vegetables, whole grain foods, and low-fat dairy products). The consumption of simple sugars and use of nutritional supplements by well-trained runners was inadequate with values recommended for physically active individuals. Recreational runners are an exemplary population group that actively seeks to adopt a healthier lifestyle.

  13. Radiographic methods used before removal of mandibular third molars among randomly selected general dental clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matzen, Louise H; Petersen, Lars B; Wenzel, Ann

    2016-01-01

    To assess radiographic methods and diagnostically sufficient images used before removal of mandibular third molars among randomly selected general dental clinics. Furthermore, to assess factors predisposing for an additional radiographic examination. 2 observers visited 18 randomly selected clinics in Denmark and studied patient files, including radiographs of patients who had their mandibular third molar(s) removed. The radiographic unit and type of receptor were registered. A diagnostically sufficient image was defined as the whole tooth and mandibular canal were displayed in the radiograph (yes/no). Overprojection between the tooth and mandibular canal (yes/no) and patient-reported inferior alveolar nerve sensory disturbances (yes/no) were recorded. Regression analyses tested if overprojection between the third molar and the mandibular canal and an insufficient intraoral image predisposed for additional radiographic examination(s). 1500 mandibular third molars had been removed; 1090 had intraoral, 468 had panoramic and 67 had CBCT examination. 1000 teeth were removed after an intraoral examination alone, 433 after panoramic examination and 67 after CBCT examination. 90 teeth had an additional examination after intraoral. Overprojection between the tooth and mandibular canal was a significant factor (p < 0.001, odds ratio = 3.56) for an additional examination. 63.7% of the intraoral images were sufficient and 36.3% were insufficient, with no significant difference between images performed with phosphor plates and solid-state sensors (p = 0.6). An insufficient image predisposed for an additional examination (p = 0.008, odds ratio = 1.8) but was only performed in 11% of the cases. Most mandibular third molars were removed based on an intraoral examination although 36.3% were insufficient.

  14. Can Facebook Be Used for Research? Experiences Using Facebook to Recruit Pregnant Women for a Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Laura M; Manca, Donna P

    2016-01-01

    Background Recruitment is often a difficult and costly part of any human research study. Social media and other emerging means of mass communication hold promise as means to complement traditional strategies used for recruiting participants because they can reach a large number of people in a short amount of time. With the ability to target a specified audience, paid Facebook advertisements have potential to reach future research participants of a specific demographic. This paper describes the experiences of a randomized controlled trial in Edmonton, Alberta, attempting to recruit healthy pregnant women between 8 and 20 weeks’ gestation for participation in a prenatal study. Various traditional recruitment approaches, in addition to paid Facebook advertisements were trialed. Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of paid advertisements on Facebook as a platform for recruiting pregnant women to a randomized controlled trial in comparison with traditional recruitment approaches. Methods Recruitment using traditional approaches occurred for 7 months, whereas Facebook advertisements ran for a total of 26 days. Interested women were prompted to contact the study staff for a screening call to determine study eligibility. Costs associated with each recruitment approach were recorded and used to calculate the cost to recruit eligible participants. Performance of Facebook advertisements was monitored using Facebook Ads Manager. Results Of the 115 women included, 39.1% (n=45) of the women who contacted study staff heard about the study through Facebook, whereas 60.9% (n=70) of them heard about it through traditional recruitment approaches. During the 215 days (~7 months) that the traditional approaches were used, the average rate of interest was 0.3 (0.2) women/day, whereas the 26 days of Facebook advertisements resulted in an average rate of interest of 2.8 (1.7) women/day. Facebook advertisements cost Can $506.91 with a cost per eligible participant of Cad $20.28. In

  15. Can Facebook Be Used for Research? Experiences Using Facebook to Recruit Pregnant Women for a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Laura M; Manca, Donna P; Bell, Rhonda C

    2016-09-21

    Recruitment is often a difficult and costly part of any human research study. Social media and other emerging means of mass communication hold promise as means to complement traditional strategies used for recruiting participants because they can reach a large number of people in a short amount of time. With the ability to target a specified audience, paid Facebook advertisements have potential to reach future research participants of a specific demographic. This paper describes the experiences of a randomized controlled trial in Edmonton, Alberta, attempting to recruit healthy pregnant women between 8 and 20 weeks' gestation for participation in a prenatal study. Various traditional recruitment approaches, in addition to paid Facebook advertisements were trialed. To evaluate the effectiveness of paid advertisements on Facebook as a platform for recruiting pregnant women to a randomized controlled trial in comparison with traditional recruitment approaches. Recruitment using traditional approaches occurred for 7 months, whereas Facebook advertisements ran for a total of 26 days. Interested women were prompted to contact the study staff for a screening call to determine study eligibility. Costs associated with each recruitment approach were recorded and used to calculate the cost to recruit eligible participants. Performance of Facebook advertisements was monitored using Facebook Ads Manager. Of the 115 women included, 39.1% (n=45) of the women who contacted study staff heard about the study through Facebook, whereas 60.9% (n=70) of them heard about it through traditional recruitment approaches. During the 215 days (~7 months) that the traditional approaches were used, the average rate of interest was 0.3 (0.2) women/day, whereas the 26 days of Facebook advertisements resulted in an average rate of interest of 2.8 (1.7) women/day. Facebook advertisements cost Can $506.91 with a cost per eligible participant of Cad $20.28. In comparison, the traditional approaches

  16. Consumption of calcium-fortified cereal bars to improve dietary calcium intake of healthy women: randomized controlled feasibility study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer T Lee

    Full Text Available Calcium is an important structural component of the skeletal system. Although an adequate intake of calcium helps to maintain bone health and reduce the risk of osteoporosis, many women do not meet recommended daily intakes of calcium. Previous interventions studies designed to increase dietary intake of women have utilized primarily dairy sources of calcium or supplements. However, lactose intolerance, milk protein allergies, or food preferences may lead many women to exclude important dairy sources of dietary calcium. Therefore, we undertook a 9 week randomized crossover design trial to examine the potential benefit of including a non-dairy source of calcium in the diet of women. Following a 3 week run-in baseline period, 35 healthy women > 18 years were randomized by crossover design into either Group I or Group II. Group I added 2 calcium-fortified cereal bars daily (total of 400 mg calcium/day (intervention to their usual diet and Group II continued their usual diet (control. At the end of 3 weeks, diets were switched for another 3 weeks. Intakes of calcium and energy were estimated from 3-day diet and supplemental diaries. Wilcoxon signed-rank tests were used for within group comparisons and Mann Whitney U tests were used for between group comparisons of calcium and energy intake. Dietary calcium was significantly higher during intervention (1071 mg/d when participants consumed 2 calcium-fortified cereal bars daily than during the baseline (720 mg/d, P <0.0001 or control diets (775 mg/d, P = 0.0001 periods. Furthermore, the addition of 2 calcium-fortified cereal bars daily for the 3 week intervention did not significantly increase total energy intake or result in weight gain. In conclusion, consumption of calcium-fortified cereal bars significantly increased calcium intake of women. Further research examining the potential ability of fortified cereal bars to help maintain and improve bone health of women is warranted.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT

  17. Low-fat Dietary Pattern and Pancreatic Cancer Risk in the Women's Health Initiative Dietary Modification Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Li; Chen, Liang; White, Donna L; Tinker, Lesley; Chlebowski, Rowan T; Van Horn, Linda V; Richardson, Peter; Lane, Dorothy; Sangi-Haghpeykar, Haleh; El-Serag, Hashem B

    2018-01-01

    Observational studies suggest that diet may influence pancreatic cancer risk. We investigated the effect of a low-fat dietary intervention on pancreatic cancer incidence. The Women's Health Initiative Dietary Modification (WHI-DM) trial is a randomized controlled trial conducted in 48 835 postmenopausal women age 50 to 79 years in the United States between 1993 and 1998. Women were randomly assigned to the intervention group (n = 19 541), with the goal of reducing total fat intake and increasing intake of vegetables, fruits, and grains, or to the usual diet comparison group (n = 29 294). The intervention concluded in March 2005. We evaluated the effect of the intervention on pancreatic cancer incidence with the follow-up through 2014 using the log-rank test and multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression model. All statistical tests were two-sided. In intention-to-treat analyses including 46 200 women, 92 vs 165 pancreatic cancer cases were ascertained in the intervention vs the comparison group (P = .23). The multivariable hazard ratio (HR) of pancreatic cancer was 0.86 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.67 to 1.11). Risk was statistically significantly reduced among women with baseline body mass indexes (BMIs) of 25 kg/m2 or higher (HR = 0.71, 95% CI = 0.53 to 0.96), but not among women with BMIs of less than 25 kg/m2 (HR = 1.62, 95% CI = 0.97 to 2.71, Pinteraction = .01). A low-fat dietary intervention was associated with reduced pancreatic cancer incidence in women who were overweight or obese in the WHI-DM trial. Caution needs to be taken in interpreting the findings based on subgroup analyses.

  18. Cryotherapy Reduces Progression of Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia Grade 1 in South African HIV-Infected Women: A Randomized, Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firnhaber, Cynthia; Swarts, Avril; Goeieman, Bridgette; Rakhombe, Ntombi; Mulongo, Masangu; Williamson, Anna-Lise; Michelow, Pam; Ramotshela, Sibongile; Faesen, Mark; Levin, Simon; Wilkin, Timothy

    2017-12-15

    HIV-infected women are at an increased risk of cervical cancer, especially in resource-limited countries. Cervical cancer prevention strategies focus treating cervical high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL). The management of low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL) in HIV-infected women is unknown. HIV treatment clinic in Johannesburg, South Africa. We randomized HIV-infected women with histologic cervical LSIL to cervical cryotherapy vs. no treatment (standard of care). Cervical high-risk human papillomavirus testing (hrHPV) was performed at baseline. All women underwent cervical cytology and colposcopic biopsies 12 months after enrollment. The primary end point was HSIL on histology at month 12. Chi-square was used to compare arms. Overall, 220 HIV-infected women were randomized to cryotherapy (n = 112) or no treatment (n = 108). Median age was 38 years, 94% were receiving antiretroviral therapy; median CD4 was 499 cells per cubic millimeter, and 59% were hrHPV positive. Cryotherapy reduced progression to HSIL: 2/99 (2%) in the cryotherapy arm and 15/103 (15%) in the no treatment arm developed HSIL, 86% reduction (95% confidence interval: 41% to 97%; P = 0.002). Among 17 HSIL end points, 16 were hrHPV+ at baseline. When restricting the analysis to hrHPV+ women, HSIL occurred in 2/61 (3%) in the cryotherapy arm vs. 14/54 (26%) in the no treatment arm, 87% reduction (95% confidence interval: 47% to 97%; P = 0.0004). Participants in the cryotherapy arm experienced greater regression to normal histology and improved cytologic outcomes. Treatment of cervical LSIL with cryotherapy decreased progression to HSIL among HIV-infected women especially if hrHPV positive. These results support treatment of LSIL in human papillomavirus test-and-treat approaches for cervical cancer prevention in resource-constrained settings.

  19. Brief education to increase uptake of influenza vaccine among pregnant women: a study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Valerie W Y; Fong, Daniel Y T; Tarrant, Marie

    2014-01-14

    Pregnant women are the highest priority group for annual influenza vaccination. Studies have shown unacceptably low uptake of both seasonal and pandemic A/H1N1 influenza vaccination among pregnant women. This paper will describe the study protocol and methodology of a randomised controlled trial designed to assess the effectiveness of a brief educational intervention in improving the uptake of seasonal influenza vaccine among pregnant women in Hong Kong. A randomised controlled trial will be conducted with pregnant women in at least the second trimester of pregnancy from four publicly funded hospital antenatal clinics in Hong Kong. Participants will be randomly assigned to either one of the two treatment groups: standard care (control) or standard care plus brief education (intervention). Pregnant women in the standard care group will receive the usual antenatal care with an educational pamphlet developed by the Hong Kong Centre for Health Protection and those in the intervention group will be provided with usual care plus a brief ten-minute education intervention. Content of the education session will cover four core components recommended in the research literature. The primary study outcome will be the proportion of participants who have received influenza vaccine during their pregnancy. A total of 184 pregnant women (92 per group) will be required to give an 80% power to detect a treatment effect of 15%. Most intervention studies aimed at improving influenza vaccination rates in pregnant women have targeted obstetric-care providers and the results of the two patient-oriented RCT interventions are conflicting. The high priority for vaccination given to pregnant women and the low influenza vaccination rate among pregnant women worldwide strongly indicates a need for interventions to improve uptake.

  20. Using selective chromogenic plates to optimize isolation of group B Streptococcus in pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romano Mattei

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Group B Streptococcus (GBS remains the leading cause of severe bacterial infections (sepsis, meningitis, pneumonia in neonates. We compared the detection of GBS from recto-vaginal swabs on blood agar and two chromogenic media and evaluated their antibiotic susceptibility. A total of 1351 swabs were taken from pregnant women at 35-37 weeks of gestation. Following enrichment in Todd Hewitt broth + nalidixic acid and colistin, the samples were plated on Columbia CNA agar (CNA, chromID Strepto B agar (STRB and Granada Agar (GRAN, respectively. GBS were found in 22.4% of recto-vaginal swabs from pregnant women. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of GBS detection were 88%, 88%, 81% and 96% for CNA, 99%, 97%, 90% and 99% for STRB and 94%, 99%, 98% e 99% for GRAN; Cohen’s k index concordances for CNA, STREB and GRAN were 0.68, 0.92 and 0.96, respectively. All isolates were susceptible to penicillin, whereas resistances of erythromycin and clindamycin were 40% and 42%, respectively. To conclude, selective broth enrichment combined with chromogenic plates is recommended for GBS screening in pregnant women.

  1. Selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM for the treatment of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women: focus on lasofoxifene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Gennari

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Luigi Gennari, Daniela Merlotti, Ranuccio NutiDepartment of Internal Medicine, Endocrine-Metabolic Sciences and Biochemistry, University of Siena, Siena, ItalyAbstract: Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs represent a class with a growing number of compounds that act as either estrogen receptor agonists or antagonists in a tissuespecific manner. This article reviews lasofoxifene, a new-generation SERM that has completed phase III development for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. Consistent with preclinical observations, this new SERM demonstrated improved skeletal efficacy over raloxifene and at an oral dose of 0.5 mg/day was effective in the prevention of both vertebral and nonvertebral fractures in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. At the same dosage, lasofoxifene treatment also reduced estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer risk and the occurrence of vaginal atrophy, but, like the other SERMs, was associated with hot flushes and an increased risk of venous thromboembolic events. With its increased efficacy on the prevention of nonvertebral fractures than current available SERMs and its positive effects on the vagina, this new compound may represent an alternative and cost-effective therapy for osteoporosis in postmenopausal women.Keywords: SERM, lasofoxifene, postmenopausal osteoporosis, fractures, bone density, menopause

  2. The impact of sleep healthy behavior education on the quality of life in the pregnant women with sleep disorder: A randomized control trial in the year 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei, Elham; Moghadam, Zahra Behboodi; Nejat, Saharnaz; Dehghannayeri, Nahid

    2014-09-01

    About 79% of pregnant women in the world suffer from sleep disorders. These disorders result from physiological changes during pregnancy, originate from different factors, and can affect pregnant women's quality of life before, during, and after delivery. This study aimed to investigate the effect of sleep healthy behavior education on the quality of life among pregnant women with sleep disorders in the second trimester. This is a clinical trial conducted on 112 pregnant women with sleep disorders referring to two selected health care centers in Makou affiliated to Urmia University of Medical Sciences during June-Oct 2012. Data collection tools included demographic characteristics questionnaire, Pittsburgh Standard Sleep Quality questionnaire, and World Health Organization, Quality of Life (WHOQOL-BREF) WHOQOL-BREEF questionnaire. Sampling was done by convenient sampling. Firstly, Pittsburg Standard Sleep Quality Questionnaire was completed and the pregnant women with sleep disorders were selected as the subjects. After completion of sampling, the subjects were randomly assigned to two groups of study and control. Education of sleep health behavior was provided in the study group by the researcher during four 1-h sessions. Then, WHOQOL-BREEF and Pittsburg Standard Sleep Quality questionnaire were completed again in two groups in the first follow-up session (1 month after educational intervention) and in the second follow-up session (2 months after educational intervention) held by the researcher. Control group only received conventional prenatal care. The obtained data were analyzed by Chi-square test, independent t-test, Fisher's exact and repeated measure tests through SPSS 18. Mean scores of quality of life showed an increase in 1 and 2 months after intervention in the study group compared to the control group. A significant difference was observed in the QOL in the two groups, 1 month (P Education of sleep healthy behaviors was effective on the QOL of pregnant

  3. Effects of Sex Education and Kegel Exercises on the Sexual Function of Postmenopausal Women: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazarpour, Soheila; Simbar, Masoumeh; Ramezani Tehrani, Fahimeh; Alavi Majd, Hamid

    2017-07-01

    The sex lives of women are strongly affected by menopause. Non-pharmacologic approaches to improving the sexual function of postmenopausal women might prove effective. To compare two methods of intervention (formal sex education and Kegel exercises) with routine postmenopausal care services in a randomized clinical trial. A randomized clinical trial was conducted of 145 postmenopausal women residing in Chalus and Noshahr, Iran. Their sexual function statuses were assessed using the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) questionnaire. After obtaining written informed consents, they were randomly assigned to one of three groups: (i) formal sex education, (ii) Kegel exercises, or (iii) routine postmenopausal care. After 12 weeks, all participants completed the FSFI again. Analysis of covariance was used to compare the participants' sexual function before and after the interventions, and multiple linear regression analysis was used to determine the predictive factors for variation in FSFI scores in the postintervention stage. Sexual function was assessed using the FSFI. There were no statistically significant differences in demographic and socioeconomic characteristics and FSFI total scores among the three study groups at the outset of the study. After 12 weeks, the scores of arousal in the formal sex education and Kegel groups were significantly higher compared with the control group (3.38 and 3.15 vs 2.77, respectively). The scores of orgasm and satisfaction in the Kegel group were significantly higher compared with the control group (4.43 and 4.88 vs 3.95 and 4.39, respectively). Formal sex education and Kegel exercises were used as two non-pharmacologic approaches to improve the sexual function of women after menopause. The main strength of this study was its design: a well-organized randomized trial using precise eligibility criteria with a small sample loss. The second strength was the methods of intervention used, namely non-pharmacologic approaches that are

  4. Effects of Recitation of Holy Quran on Anxiety of Women before Cesarean Section: A Randomize Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Mir Bagher AjorPaz

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Background and Objectives: Anxiety is a kind of agitation and concern stemming from the feeling of threat or hazard in human. It can decrease or increase the understanding ability of individuals. Most clinical patients have anxiety in confronting a new and unknown environment such as hospitals. A non-pharmacological method such as pleasant sound of Holy Quran recitation can be used as a useful and effective procedure to decrease the anxiety. The aim of this research was to study the recitation effects of Holy Quran on anxiety of woman before cesarean.

    Methods: In this quasi-experimental study, 80 women expecting cesarean section were randomly selected regarding their characteristics and divided into two groups: control group (30 members and experimental group (50 members. Data collection instrument was a two-part questionnaire including demographic characteristics, and Spilburge’s state-trait anxiety inventory. The degree of anxiety for the two groups was evaluated before cesarean, then before innate cesarean, the Holy Quran recitation was played for experimental group for 20 minutes by the sound of famous recite, Abdol Basset. Data were analyzed using Chi-Square, single sample & paired T-test, and a Pvalue of 0<0.05 was considered as statistically significant.

    Results: The results showed that the degree of anxiety decreased in experimental group after intervention (P=0.0001, but not in the control group.(P=0.98 Comparison of the two groups showed a significant difference after intervention (P=0.002.

    Conclusion: According to the results of this research and because of the agreeable rhythmic intonation of the Quran as gnostic music and its miracle aspect, we can use its tone as a non medicinal method for reducing anxiety before cesarean women.

  5. Theory-based Osteoporosis Prevention Education and Counseling Program for Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkım, Aslı; Dağhan, Şafak

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the effect of an osteoporosis prevention program based on the Health Belief Model for women between the ages of 30 years and 45 years at risk of osteoporosis. This study was conducted with randomized control group pretest, post-test and follow-up trial. Intervention group (n = 37) and control group (n = 36) participated in the research. Data were collected using a sociodemographic data questionnaire, the Osteoporosis Knowledge Test, the Osteoporosis Health Belief Scale, the Osteoporosis Self-efficacy Scale, a monitoring form for estimated dairy calcium intake, and a monitoring form for estimated weekly exercise. Intervention program was composed of a 4-week education program and a 24-week counseling program. Data were collected pretest, post-test 15 days after the end of the education program, follow-up 1 after 3 months, and follow-up 2 after 6 months. Mann Whitney U test, chi-square test, Friedman test, Bonferroni test, two means test and Wilcoxon signed-rank test were used for statistical analysis. After the education and counseling program, a significant increase was seen in comparison with the control group in the mean scores of the intervention group on the Osteoporosis Knowledge Test and its subscales (p Belief Scale and its subscales (p Belief Model-based osteoporosis prevention education and counseling program conducted by nurses. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Exploratory plasma proteomic analysis in a randomized crossover trial of aspirin among healthy men and women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoliang Wang

    Full Text Available Long-term use of aspirin is associated with lower risk of colorectal cancer and other cancers; however, the mechanism of chemopreventive effect of aspirin is not fully understood. Animal studies suggest that COX-2, NFκB signaling and Wnt/β-catenin pathways may play a role, but no clinical trials have systematically evaluated the biological response to aspirin in healthy humans. Using a high-density antibody array, we assessed the difference in plasma protein levels after 60 days of regular dose aspirin (325 mg/day compared to placebo in a randomized double-blinded crossover trial of 44 healthy non-smoking men and women, aged 21-45 years. The plasma proteome was analyzed on an antibody microarray with ~3,300 full-length antibodies, printed in triplicate. Moderated paired t-tests were performed on individual antibodies, and gene-set analyses were performed based on KEGG and GO pathways. Among the 3,000 antibodies analyzed, statistically significant differences in plasma protein levels were observed for nine antibodies after adjusting for false discoveries (FDR adjusted p-value<0.1. The most significant protein was succinate dehydrogenase subunit C (SDHC, a key enzyme complex of the mitochondrial tricarboxylic acid (TCA cycle. The other statistically significant proteins (NR2F1, MSI1, MYH1, FOXO1, KHDRBS3, NFKBIE, LYZ and IKZF1 are involved in multiple pathways, including DNA base-pair repair, inflammation and oncogenic pathways. None of the 258 KEGG and 1,139 GO pathways was found to be statistically significant after FDR adjustment. This study suggests several chemopreventive mechanisms of aspirin in humans, which have previously been reported to play a role in anti- or pro-carcinogenesis in cell systems; however, larger, confirmatory studies are needed.

  7. A cluster randomized controlled trial to increase breast cancer screening among African American women: the black cosmetologists promoting health program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadler, Georgia Robins; Ko, Celine M; Wu, Phillis; Alisangco, Jennifer; Castañeda, Sheila F; Kelly, Colleen

    2011-08-01

    African American women have disproportionately higher rates of breast cancer mortality than all other ethnic groups, thus highlighting the importance of promoting early detection. African American women (N = 984) from San Diego, California, participated in a randomized controlled trial testing the efficacy of breast cancer education sessions offered in beauty salons. Cosmetologists received ongoing support, training, and additional culturally aligned educational materials to help them engage their clients in dialogues about the importance of breast cancer early detection. Posters and literature about breast cancer early detection were displayed throughout the salons and cosmetologists used synthetic breast models to show their clients how breast cancer lumps might feel. Participants in the control group received a comparable diabetes education program. Baseline and 6-month follow-up surveys were administered to evaluate changes in women's breast cancer knowledge, attitudes, and screening behaviors. This intervention was well received by the participants and their cosmetologists and did not interfere with or prolong the client's salon visit. Women in the intervention group reported significantly higher rates of mammography compared to women in the control group. Training a single educator proved sufficient to permeate the entire salon with the health message, and salon clients agreed that cosmetologists could become effective health educators. Cosmetologists are in an ideal position to increase African American women's breast cancer knowledge and adherence to breast cancer screening guidelines.

  8. A web-based lifestyle intervention for women with recent gestational diabetes mellitus: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicklas, Jacinda M; Zera, Chloe A; England, Lucinda J; Rosner, Bernard A; Horton, Edward; Levkoff, Sue E; Seely, Ellen W

    2014-09-01

    To test the feasibility and effectiveness of a Web-based lifestyle intervention based on the Diabetes Prevention Program modified for women with recent gestational diabetes mellitus to reduce postpartum weight retention. We randomly allocated 75 women with recent gestational diabetes mellitus to either a Web-based lifestyle program (Balance after Baby) delivered over the first postpartum year or to a control group. Primary outcomes were change in body weight at 12 months from 1) first postpartum measured weight; and 2) self-reported prepregnancy weight. There were no significant differences in baseline characteristics between groups including age, body mass index, race, and income status. Women assigned to the Balance after Baby program (n=36, three lost to follow-up) lost a mean of 2.8 kg (95% confidence interval -4.8 to -0.7) from 6 weeks to 12 months postpartum, whereas the control group (n=39, one lost to follow-up) gained a mean of 0.5 kg (-1.4 to +2.4) (P=.022). Women in the intervention were closer to prepregnancy weight at 12 months postpartum (mean change -0.7 kg; -3.5 to +2.2) compared with women in the control arm (+4.0 kg; +1.3 to +6.8) (P=.035). A Web-based lifestyle modification program for women with recent gestational diabetes mellitus decreased postpartum weight retention. ClinicalTrials.gov, www.clinicaltrials.gov, NCT01158131. I.

  9. Randomized trial of stopping or continuing ART among postpartum women with pre-ART CD4 ≥ 400 cells/mm3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currier, Judith S; Britto, Paula; Hoffman, Risa M; Brummel, Sean; Masheto, Gaerolwe; Joao, Esau; Santos, Breno; Aurpibul, Linda; Losso, Marcelo; Pierre, Marie F; Weinberg, Adriana; Gnanashanmugam, Devasena; Chakhtoura, Nahida; Klingman, Karin; Browning, Renee; Coletti, Anne; Mofenson, Lynne; Shapiro, David; Pilotto, Jose

    2017-01-01

    Health benefits of postpartum antiretroviral therapy (ART) for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive women with high CD4+ T-counts have not been assessed in randomized trials. Asymptomatic, HIV-positive, non-breastfeeding women with pre-ART CD4+ T-cell counts ≥ 400 cells/mm3 started on ART during pregnancy were randomized up to 42 days after delivery to continue or discontinue ART. Lopinavir/ritonavir plus tenofovir/emtricitabine was the preferred ART regimen. The sample size was selected to provide 88% power to detect a 50% reduction from an annualized primary event rate of 2.07%. A post-hoc analysis evaluated HIV/AIDS-related and World Health Organization (WHO) Stage 2 and 3 events. All analyses were intent to treat. 1652 women from 52 sites in Argentina, Botswana, Brazil, China, Haiti, Peru, Thailand and the US were enrolled (1/2010-11/2014). Median age was 28 years and major racial categories were Black African (28%), Asian (25%) White (15%). Median entry CD4 count was 696 cells/mm3 (IQR 575-869), median ART exposure prior to delivery was 19 weeks (IQR 13-24) and 94% had entry HIV-1 RNA ART (2.08/100 py vs. 4.36/100 py in the discontinue arm; HR 0.48, 95%CI: 0.33, 0.70). Toxicity rates did not differ significantly between arms. Among women randomized to continue ART, 189/827 (23%) had virologic failure; of the 155 with resistance testing, 103 (66%) failed without resistance to their current regimen, suggesting non-adherence. Overall, serious clinical events were rare among young HIV-positive post-partum women with high CD4 cell counts. Continued ART was safe and was associated with a halving of the rate of WHO 2/3 conditions. Virologic failure rates were high, underscoring the urgent need to improve adherence in this population. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00955968.

  10. Long-term effects of the Mediterranean lifestyle program: a randomized clinical trial for postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Toobert, Deborah J; Glasgow, Russell E; Strycker, Lisa A; Barrera, Manuel; Ritzwoller, Debra P; Weidner, Gerdi

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Multiple-risk-factor interventions offer a promising means for addressing the complex interactions between lifestyle behaviors, psychosocial factors, and the social environment. This report examines the long-term effects of a multiple-risk-factor intervention. Methods Postmenopausal women (N = 279) with type 2 diabetes participated in the Mediterranean Lifestyle Program (MLP), a randomized, comprehensive lifestyle intervention study. The intervention targeted healthful eat...

  11. Control group selection in critical care randomized controlled trials evaluating interventional strategies: An ethical assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Henry J; Miller, Franklin G

    2004-03-01

    Ethical concern has been raised with critical care randomized controlled trials in which the standard of care reflects a broad range of clinical practices. Commentators have argued that trials without an unrestricted control group, in which standard practices are implemented at the discretion of the attending physician, lack the ability to redefine the standard of care and might expose subjects to excessive harms due to an inability to stop early. To develop a framework for analyzing control group selection for critical care trials. Ethical analysis. A key ethical variable in trial design is the extent with which the control group adequately reflects standard care practices. Such a control group might incorporate either the "unrestricted" practices of physicians or a protocol that specifies and restricts the parameters of standard practices. Control group selection should be determined with respect to the following ethical objectives of trial design: 1) clinical value, 2) scientific validity, 3) efficiency and feasibility, and 4) protection of human subjects. Because these objectives may conflict, control group selection will involve trade-offs and compromises. Trials using a protocolized rather than an unrestricted standard care control group will likely have enhanced validity. However, if the protocolized control group lacks representativeness to standard care practices, then trials that use such groups will offer less clinical value and could provide less assurance of protecting subjects compared with trials that use unrestricted control groups. For trials evaluating contrasting strategies that do not adequately represent standard practices, use of a third group that is more representative of standard practices will enhance clinical value and increase the ability to stop early if needed to protect subjects. These advantages might come at the expense of efficiency and feasibility. Weighing and balancing the competing ethical objectives of trial design should be

  12. The glass cliff: when and why women are selected as leaders in crisis contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruckmüller, Susanne; Branscombe, Nyla R

    2010-09-01

    The glass cliff refers to women being more likely to rise to positions of organizational leadership in times of crisis than in times of success, and men being more likely to achieve those positions in prosperous times. We examine the role that (a) a gendered history of leadership and (b) stereotypes about gender and leadership play in creating the glass cliff. In Expt 1, participants who read about a company with a male history of leadership selected a male future leader for a successful organization, but chose a female future leader in times of crisis. This interaction--between company performance and gender of the preferred future leader--was eliminated for a counter-stereotypic history of female leadership. In Expt 2, stereotypically male attributes were most predictive of leader selection in a successful organization, while stereotypically female attributes were most predictive in times of crisis. Differences in the endorsement of these stereotypes, in particular with regard to the ascription of lower stereotypically female attributes to the male candidate mediated the glass cliff effect. Overall, results suggest that stereotypes about male leadership may be more important for the glass cliff effect than stereotypes about women and leadership.

  13. Effect of reducing indoor air pollution on women's respiratory symptoms and lung function: the RESPIRE Randomized Trial, Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Sivertsen, Tone; Díaz, Esperanza; Pope, Dan; Lie, Rolv T; Díaz, Anaite; McCracken, John; Bakke, Per; Arana, Byron; Smith, Kirk R; Bruce, Nigel

    2009-07-15

    Exposure to household wood smoke from cooking is a risk factor for chronic obstructive lung disease among women in developing countries. The Randomized Exposure Study of Pollution Indoors and Respiratory Effects (RESPIRE) is a randomized intervention trial evaluating the respiratory health effects of reducing indoor air pollution from open cooking fires. A total of 504 rural Mayan women in highland Guatemala aged 15-50 years, all using traditional indoor open fires, were randomized to either receive a chimney woodstove (plancha) or continue using the open fire. Assessments of chronic respiratory symptoms and lung function and individual measurements of carbon monoxide exposure were performed at baseline and every 6 months up to 18 months. Use of a plancha significantly reduced carbon monoxide exposure by 61.6%. For all respiratory symptoms, reductions in risk were observed in the plancha group during follow-up; the reduction was statistically significant for wheeze (relative risk = 0.42, 95% confidence interval: 0.25, 0.70). The number of respiratory symptoms reported by the women at each follow-up point was also significantly reduced by the plancha (odds ratio = 0.7, 95% confidence interval: 0.50, 0.97). However, no significant effects on lung function were found after 12-18 months. Reducing indoor air pollution from household biomass burning may relieve symptoms consistent with chronic respiratory tract irritation.

  14. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Whole Body Vibration Exposure on Markers of Bone Turnover in Postmenopausal Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Sarah; Torode, Margaret; Climstein, Mike; Naughton, Geraldine; Greene, David; Baker, Michael K.; Fiatarone Singh, Maria A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. To examine the effects of two doses of low-frequency (12 Hz), low-magnitude (0.3 g), whole body vibration on markers of bone formation and resorption in postmenopausal women. Methods. Women were recruited and randomized into a sham vibration control group, one time per week vibration group (1×/week), or three times per week vibration group (3×/week). Vibration exposure consisted of 20 minutes of intermittent vibration for the 1×/week and 3×/week groups, and sham vibration (vibration group but not in the 1×/wk vibration group compared with sham control (P vibration 3×/week for eight weeks in postmenopausal women results in a significant reduction in NTx/Cr, a marker of bone resorption, when compared with sham vibration exposure. PMID:21772975

  15. Effects of Inulin on Lipid Profile, Inflammation and Blood Pressure in Women with Type 2 Diabetes: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahram Pourghassem Gargari

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives: Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disease characterized by hyperglycemia together with biochemical alterations of lipid profile, insulin resistance and inflammation . Considering the high prevalence of hypertension, dyslipidemia and inflammation in type 2 diabetic patients, the aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of inulin on lipid profile, inflammation and blood pressure in women with type 2 diabetes.   Methods: In this controlled, randomized clinical trial, 49 women with type 2 diabetes (fiber intake 0.04 . Changes in diastolic blood pressures, LDL-c and HDL-c were not significant in inulin group compared with the maltodextrin group. A significant decrease in systolic, diastolic blood pressures, total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL-c, hs-CRP and significant increase in HDL-c were observed in inulin group compared to baseline.   Conclusions: Inulin supplementation may improve lipid profile, hs-CRP and blood pressure in women with type 2 diabetes.

  16. Effect of trans-fatty acid intake on insulin sensitivity and intramuscular lipids - a randomized trial in overweight postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendsen, Nathalie Tommerup; Haugaard, Steen; Larsen, Thomas Meinert

    2011-01-01

    -nine women completed the study. Insulin sensitivity (assessed by ISI(composite)), β-cell function (the disposition index), and the metabolic clearance rate of insulin were not significantly affected by the dietary intervention. Neither was the ability of insulin to suppress plasma nonesterified fatty acid......Intake of industrially produced trans-fatty acids (TFA) has been linked to increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus in observational studies. We investigated the causality of this association by examining if a high intake of TFA impairs measures of glucose homeostasis and induces intramuscular...... lipid deposition in abdominally obese women. In a double-blind, parallel dietary intervention study, 52 healthy but overweight postmenopausal women were randomized to receive either partially hydrogenated soybean oil (15 g/d TFA) or a control oil (mainly oleic and palmitic acid) for 16 weeks. Three...

  17. Selectivity in Genetic Association with Sub-classified Migraine in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chasman, Daniel I.; Anttila, Verneri; Buring, Julie E.; Ridker, Paul M.; Schürks, Markus; Kurth, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    Migraine can be sub-classified not only according to presence of migraine aura (MA) or absence of migraine aura (MO), but also by additional features accompanying migraine attacks, e.g. photophobia, phonophobia, nausea, etc. all of which are formally recognized by the International Classification of Headache Disorders. It remains unclear how aura status and the other migraine features may be related to underlying migraine pathophysiology. Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified 12 independent loci at which single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are associated with migraine. Using a likelihood framework, we explored the selective association of these SNPs with migraine, sub-classified according to aura status and the other features in a large population-based cohort of women including 3,003 active migraineurs and 18,108 free of migraine. Five loci met stringent significance for association with migraine, among which four were selective for sub-classified migraine, including rs11172113 (LRP1) for MO. The number of loci associated with migraine increased to 11 at suggestive significance thresholds, including five additional selective associations for MO but none for MA. No two SNPs showed similar patterns of selective association with migraine characteristics. At one extreme, SNPs rs6790925 (near TGFBR2) and rs2274316 (MEF2D) were not associated with migraine overall, MA, or MO but were selective for migraine sub-classified by the presence of one or more of the additional migraine features. In contrast, SNP rs7577262 (TRPM8) was associated with migraine overall and showed little or no selectivity for any of the migraine characteristics. The results emphasize the multivalent nature of migraine pathophysiology and suggest that a complete understanding of the genetic influence on migraine may benefit from analyses that stratify migraine according to both aura status and the additional diagnostic features used for clinical characterization of

  18. Effects of exercise and Kinesio taping on abdominal recovery in women with cesarean section: a pilot randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürşen, Ceren; İnanoğlu, Deniz; Kaya, Serap; Akbayrak, Türkan; Baltacı, Gül

    2016-03-01

    Abdominal muscle strength decreases and fat ratio in the waist region increases following cesarean section. Kinesio taping (KT) is an easily applicable method and stimulates muscle activation. The aim of this pilot randomized controlled trial (RCT) was to investigate the effects of KT combined with exercise in women with cesarean section on abdominal recovery compared to the exercise alone. Twenty-four women in between the fourth and sixth postnatal months who had cesarean section were randomly assigned to KT + exercise (n = 12) group or exercise group (n = 12). KT was applied twice a week for 4 weeks on rectus abdominis, oblique abdominal muscles and cesarean incision. All women were instructed to carry out posterior pelvic tilt, core stabilization and abdominal correction exercises. Outcome measures were evaluated with the manual muscle test, sit-up test, abdominal endurance test, Visual Analog Scale (VAS), circumference measurements and Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMDQ). Mann-Whitney U and Wilcoxon tests were used to analyze data. p exercise group was significantly greater compared to the exercise group in terms of the strength of the rectus abdominis muscle, sit-up test, VAS, measurements of the waist circumference and RMDQ (p exercises in the postnatal physiotherapy program provides greater benefit for the abdominal recovery in women with cesarean section. Further studies with larger sample sizes and long-term follow-up are needed to verify these results.

  19. Effect of Motivational Interviewing on Physical Activity Intention among Obese and Overweight Women Using Protection Motivation Theory: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Mirkarimi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Aims: As a growing problem, obesity is one of the most important worldwide health problems. One of the major factors leading to obesity is the sedentary lifestyle. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of motivational interviewing on the physical activity intention in the obese or overweight women, using the protection motivation theory (PMT. Materials & Methods: In the clinical trial study, 60 obese or overweight women referred to the health centers of Gorgan were studied in 2015. The subjects, selected via non-probable and available sampling method, were randomly divided into two groups including control and motivational interviewing groups. Data was collected using a researcher-made questionnaire before the intervention and 2 and 6 months after in both groups. Data was analyzed by SPSS 18 software using independent T, Chi-square, repeated measures ANOVA, LSD, and one-variable and multivariable linear regression tests. Findings: The scores of all the constructs of PMT in motivational interviewing group significantly increased 2 and 6 months after he intervention (p0.05. The most powerful constructs predicting the intention towards the physical activities 2 months after the intervention were perceived-reply efficiency, self-efficiency, and perceived intensity, successively. In addition, such factors 6 months after the intervention were attitude and perceived intensity, successively. Conclusion: The motivational interviewing increases the scores of all the constructs of PMT, which leads to an increase in the physical activity intention in the obese or overweight women.

  20. Successful use of "Hour 1" transfer of sperm microinjected oocytes in natural cycles of poor responder women: a prospective randomized controlled pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragona, Cesare; Linari, Antonella; Micara, Giulietta; Tranquilli, Daniela; Gambaro, Agnese Maria Lourdes; Bezerra Espinola, Maria Salome

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study is to demonstrate the successful use of "Hour 1" transfer of sperm microinjected oocytes in natural cycles of poor responder women. Seventy women were selected from 92 consecutive poor responders undergoing intracytoplasmatic sperm injection (ICSI) in a natural cycle at our Sterility and Assisted Reproduction Unit from September 2009 to July 2013, and randomly distributed in two homogeneous groups: Group A or B. Women in Group A (35) underwent transfer within 1 h after ICSI; Group B (35, control group) underwent transfer 3 days after ICSI. In Group A, seven clinical pregnancy and one miscarriage occurred; in Group B, eight clinical pregnancies and two miscarriages were observed. Pregnancy, miscarriage, term pregnancy and overall live birth rates' difference between the two groups was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). Difference between the two groups in terms of timing, type of delivery and newborn birthweight was not observed. Neither ectopic pregnancy nor multiple pregnancies occurred. "Hour 1" uterine transfer of ICSI oocytes, still to be considered with caution because of the relatively low number of observations of the pilot study, deserves further attention on a larger scale, and might be evaluated for clinical and financial effectiveness in other clinical settings.

  1. Effect of early amniotomy on the outcome of spontaneous labour: a randomized controlled trial of pregnant women in Enugu, South-east Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onah, Livinus N; Dim, Cyril C; Nwagha, Uchenna I; Ozumba, Benjamin C

    2015-12-01

    Early amniotomy is common in obstetric practice but, its effectiveness has not been proven. To determine the effects of early amniotomy on the duration of labour, and other maternal / neonatal outcomes of uncomplicated pregnancies in Enugu, South-east Nigeria. A randomized controlled study of 214 consenting term pregnant women at the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital Enugu, Nigeria. Intervention group received amniotomy early in active labour while the control group had their membranes conserved. Mean duration of labour for the amniotomy group (279.4 ± 53.7 minutes) was significantly lower than that of control group (354.4 ± 67.5 minutes), (t = -8.988, p amniotomy group needed oxytocin augmentation as against 21 (19.6%) women in the control group RR = 0.14, (CI 95%: 0.04 - 0.46), NNT = 16. The two groups did not vary with respect to cesarean section rate, newborn Apgar scores, and need for new born special care unit admission. Early amniotomy when compared to fetal membrane conservation reduced the duration of labour and need for oxytocin augmentation among term singleton pregnant women in Enugu, Nigeria. Its routine use in well selected cases may reduce prolonged labour and its complications.

  2. Yoga effects on mood and quality of life in Chinese women undergoing heroin detoxification: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Shu-mei; An, Shi-hui; Zhao, Yue

    2013-01-01

    Yoga, as a mind-body therapy, is effective in improving quality of life for patients with chronic diseases, yet little is known about its effectiveness in female heroin addicts. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of yoga on mood status and quality of life among women undergoing detoxification for heroin dependence in China. This study was a randomized controlled trial. Seventy-five women aged 20-37 years undergoing detoxification for heroin dependence at AnKang Hospital were allocated randomly into an intervention or a control group. Women in the intervention group received a 6-month yoga intervention in addition to hospital routine care, and women in the control group received hospital routine care only. Mood status and quality of life were assessed using the Profile of Mood States and Medical Outcomes Study 36-item Short-Form Health Survey at baseline and following 3 and 6 months of treatment. Repeated-measures analysis of variance was used to evaluate treatment and time effects on mood and quality of life. Most female heroin addicts were young and single, with a low education level. Most had used heroin by injection. Mood state and quality of life of female heroin addicts were poor. The intervention group showed a significant improvement in mood status and quality of life over time compared with their counterparts in the control group. Yoga may improve mood status and quality of life for women undergoing detoxification for heroin dependence. Yoga can be used as an auxiliary treatment with traditional hospital routine care for these women.

  3. The adverse effect of selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor on random skin flap survival in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiyong Ren

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cyclooxygenase-2(COX-2 inhibitors provide desired analgesic effects after injury or surgery, but evidences suggested they also attenuate wound healing. The study is to investigate the effect of COX-2 inhibitor on random skin flap survival. METHODS: The McFarlane flap model was established in 40 rats and evaluated within two groups, each group gave the same volume of Parecoxib and saline injection for 7 days. The necrotic area of the flap was measured, the specimens of the flap were stained with haematoxylin-eosin(HE for histologic analysis. Immunohistochemical staining was performed to analyse the level of VEGF and COX-2 . RESULTS: 7 days after operation, the flap necrotic area ratio in study group (66.65 ± 2.81% was significantly enlarged than that of the control group(48.81 ± 2.33%(P <0.01. Histological analysis demonstrated angiogenesis with mean vessel density per mm(2 being lower in study group (15.4 ± 4.4 than in control group (27.2 ± 4.1 (P <0.05. To evaluate the expression of COX-2 and VEGF protein in the intermediate area II in the two groups by immunohistochemistry test .The expression of COX-2 in study group was (1022.45 ± 153.1, and in control group was (2638.05 ± 132.2 (P <0.01. The expression of VEGF in the study and control groups were (2779.45 ± 472.0 vs (4938.05 ± 123.6(P <0.01.In the COX-2 inhibitor group, the expressions of COX-2 and VEGF protein were remarkably down-regulated as compared with the control group. CONCLUSION: Selective COX-2 inhibitor had adverse effect on random skin flap survival. Suppression of neovascularization induced by low level of VEGF was supposed to be the biological mechanism.

  4. Rapid selection of accessible and cleavable sites in RNA by Escherichia coli RNase P and random external guide sequences

    OpenAIRE

    Lundblad, Eirik W.; Xiao, Gaoping; Ko, Jae-hyeong; Altman, Sidney

    2008-01-01

    A method of inhibiting the expression of particular genes by using external guide sequences (EGSs) has been improved in its rapidity and specificity. Random EGSs that have 14-nt random sequences are used in the selection procedure for an EGS that attacks the mRNA for a gene in a particular location. A mixture of the random EGSs, the particular target RNA, and RNase P is used in the diagnostic procedure, which, after completion, is analyzed in a gel with suitable control lanes. Within a few ho...

  5. Preventing weight gain: the baseline weight related behaviors and delivery of a randomized controlled intervention in community based women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombard, Catherine; Deeks, Amanda; Jolley, Damien; Teede, Helena J

    2009-01-03

    Women aged 25-45 years represent a high risk group for weight gain and those with children are at increased risk because of weight gain associated with pregnancy and subsequent lifestyle change. Average self-reported weight gain is approximately 0.60 kg per year, and weight gain is associated with increased risk of chronic disease. There are barriers to reaching, engaging and delivering lifestyle interventions to prevent weight gain in this population. This study investigated the baseline weight related behaviors and feasibility of recruiting and delivering a low intensity self-management lifestyle intervention to community based women with children in order to prevent weight gain, compared to standard education. The recruitment and delivery of the cluster-randomized controlled intervention was in conjunction with 12 primary (elementary) schools. Baseline data collection included demographic, anthropometric, behavioral and biological measures. Two hundred and fifty community based women were randomized as clusters to intervention (n = 127) or control (n = 123). Mean age was 40.4 years (SD 4.7) and mean BMI 27.8 kg/m2 (SD 5.6). All components of this intervention were successfully delivered and retention rates were excellent, 97% at 4 months.Nearly all women (90%) reported being dissatisfied with their weight and 72% attempted to self-manage their weight. Women were more confident of changing their diet (mean score 3.2) than physical activity (mean score 2.7). This population perceived they were engaging in prevention behaviors, with 71% reporting actively trying to prevent weight gain, yet they consumed a mean of 68 g fat/day (SD30 g) and 27 g saturated fat/day (SD12 g) representing 32% and 13% of energy respectively. The women had a high rate of dyslipidemia (33%) and engaged in an average of 9187 steps/day (SD 3671). Delivery of this low intensity intervention to a broad cross-section of community based women with children is feasible. Women with children are

  6. Preventing weight gain: the baseline weight related behaviors and delivery of a randomized controlled intervention in community based women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teede Helena J

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Women aged 25–45 years represent a high risk group for weight gain and those with children are at increased risk because of weight gain associated with pregnancy and subsequent lifestyle change. Average self-reported weight gain is approximately 0.60 kg per year, and weight gain is associated with increased risk of chronic disease. There are barriers to reaching, engaging and delivering lifestyle interventions to prevent weight gain in this population. Methods This study investigated the baseline weight related behaviors and feasibility of recruiting and delivering a low intensity self-management lifestyle intervention to community based women with children in order to prevent weight gain, compared to standard education. The recruitment and delivery of the cluster-randomized controlled intervention was in conjunction with 12 primary (elementary schools. Baseline data collection included demographic, anthropometric, behavioral and biological measures. Results Two hundred and fifty community based women were randomized as clusters to intervention (n = 127 or control (n = 123. Mean age was 40.4 years (SD 4.7 and mean BMI 27.8 kg/m2 (SD 5.6. All components of this intervention were successfully delivered and retention rates were excellent, 97% at 4 months. Nearly all women (90% reported being dissatisfied with their weight and 72% attempted to self-manage their weight. Women were more confident of changing their diet (mean score 3.2 than physical activity (mean score 2.7. This population perceived they were engaging in prevention behaviors, with 71% reporting actively trying to prevent weight gain, yet they consumed a mean of 68 g fat/day (SD30 g and 27 g saturated fat/day (SD12 g representing 32% and 13% of energy respectively. The women had a high rate of dyslipidemia (33% and engaged in an average of 9187 steps/day (SD 3671. Conclusion Delivery of this low intensity intervention to a broad cross-section of community based

  7. Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials evaluating primary care-based interventions to promote breastfeeding in low-income women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibanez, Gladys; de Reynal de Saint Michel, Cyrille; Denantes, Mady; Saurel-Cubizolles, Marie-Josèphe; Ringa, Virginie; Magnier, Anne-Marie

    2012-06-01

    Given the benefits of breastfeeding (BF), health care institutions recommend that a child should be breastfed for the first 6 months of its life. However, differences between social groups as regards BF behaviour are very prevalent. To identify effective programmes that can be implemented by GPs to promote BF in low-income women. A review of the literature was based on the Medline, Cochrane and Public Health databases (1985-2009), using index terms relating to BF, general medicine and social inequalities in health. Randomized controlled trials were included in our analysis. Two people independently selected which studies would be used by rating the quality of the articles. The results of these studies were presented in raw form and in terms of a pooled relative risk. We analysed 10 studies (of the 343 articles originally selected) involving a population of 1445 'mother and child' pairs. The studies that assessed ways of encouraging the initiation of any form of BF showed that educational programmes are effective [relative risk (RR) for starting BF, 1.46, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.03-2.08]. As regards the studies that involved ways to encourage mothers to continue BF, the programmes used showed significant success rates after 3-month postpartum (RR: 1.15, 95% CI: 1.01-1.30). The successful programmes usually involved multiple 'short' follow-up appointments (effective in promoting BF in low-income women.

  8. Risk of heart failure among postmenopausal women: a secondary analysis of the randomized trial of vitamin D plus calcium of the women's health initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donneyong, Macarius M; Hornung, Carlton A; Taylor, Kira C; Baumgartner, Richard N; Myers, John A; Eaton, Charles B; Gorodeski, Eiran Z; Klein, Liviu; Martin, Lisa W; Shikany, James M; Song, Yiqing; Li, Wenjun; Manson, JoAnn E

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin D supplementation may be an inexpensive intervention to reduce heart failure (HF) incidence. However, there are insufficient data to support this hypothesis. This study evaluates whether vitamin D plus calcium (CaD) supplementation is associated with lower rates of HF in postmenopausal women and whether the effects differ between those at high versus low risk for HF. Analyses were restricted to 35 983 (of original 36 282) women aged 50 to 79 years old in the Women's Health Initiative randomized trial of CaD supplementation who were randomized 1:1 in a double-blinded fashion to receive 1000 mg/d of calcium plus 400 IU/d of vitamin D3 or placebo. Overall, 744 adjudicated incident HF cases (intervention, 363; control, 381) occurred during a median follow-up of 7.1 (interquartile range, 1.6) years. CaD supplementation, compared with placebo, was not associated with reduced HF risk in the overall population, hazard ratio, 0.95; P=0.46. However, CaD supplementation had differential effects (P interaction=0.005) in subgroups stratified by baseline risk status of HF defined by the presence (high risk=17 449) or absence (low risk=18 534) of pre-existing HF precursors including coronary heart diseases, diabetes mellitus, or hypertension: 37% (hazard ratio, 0.63 [95% confidence interval, 0.46-0.87]) lower risk of HF in the low-risk versus hazard ratio, 1.06; P=0.51, in the high-risk subgroups. CaD supplementation did not significantly reduce HF incidence in the overall cohort, however, it was beneficial among postmenopausal women without major HF precursors while of little value in high-risk subgroups. Additional studies are warranted to confirm these findings and investigate the underlying mechanism. http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00000611. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  9. Random genetic drift, natural selection, and noise in human cranial evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roseman, Charles C

    2016-08-01

    This study assesses the extent to which relationships among groups complicate comparative studies of adaptation in recent human cranial variation and the extent to which departures from neutral additive models of evolution hinder the reconstruction of population relationships among groups using cranial morphology. Using a maximum likelihood evolutionary model fitting approach and a mixed population genomic and cranial data set, I evaluate the relative fits of several widely used models of human cranial evolution. Moreover, I compare the goodness of fit of models of cranial evolution constrained by genomic variation to test hypotheses about population specific departures from neutrality. Models from population genomics are much better fits to cranial variation than are traditional models from comparative human biology. There is not enough evolutionary information in the cranium to reconstruct much of recent human evolution but the influence of population history on cranial variation is strong enough to cause comparative studies of adaptation serious difficulties. Deviations from a model of random genetic drift along a tree-like population history show the importance of environmental effects, gene flow, and/or natural selection on human cranial variation. Moreover, there is a strong signal of the effect of natural selection or an environmental factor on a group of humans from Siberia. The evolution of the human cranium is complex and no one evolutionary process has prevailed at the expense of all others. A holistic unification of phenome, genome, and environmental context, gives us a strong point of purchase on these problems, which is unavailable to any one traditional approach alone. Am J Phys Anthropol 160:582-592, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Combined Lifestyle and Herbal Medicine in Overweight Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS): A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Caroline A.; Abbott, Jason; Fahey, Paul; Cheema, Birinder S.; Bensoussan, Alan

    2017-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common, complex reproductive endocrinopathy characterized by menstrual irregularities, hyperandrogenism and polycystic ovaries. Lifestyle modification is a first‐line intervention; however, there are barriers to success for this form of self‐care, and women often seek adjunct therapies including herbal medicines. This pragmatic, randomized controlled trial, delivered in communities of Australia in overweight women with PCOS, compared the effectiveness and safety of a lifestyle intervention plus herbal medicine against lifestyle alone. All participants were helped to construct a personalized lifestyle plan. The herbal intervention consisted of two tablets. Tablet 1 contained Cinnamomum verum, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Hypericum perforatum and Paeonia lactiflora. Tablet 2 contained Tribulus terrestris. The primary outcome was oligomenorrhoea/amenorrhoea. Secondary outcomes were hormones; anthropometry; quality of life; depression, anxiety and stress; pregnancy; birth outcomes; and safety. One hundred and twenty‐two women gave their consent. At 3 months, women in the combination group recorded a reduction in oligomenorrhoea of 32.9% (95% confidence interval 23.3–42.6, p herbal medicines in women with PCOS. © 2017 The Authors. Phytotherapy Research published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd PMID:28685911

  11. The effect of gabapentin on intensity and duration of hot flashes in postmenopausal women: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadati, Najmieh; Mohammadjafari, Razieh; Natanj, Solmaz; Abedi, Parvin

    2013-09-10

    Menopause is the stage of time in which the menstruation stops following the loss of ovarian activity. The purpose of this study was to find out the effectiveness of gabapentin on hot flashes in postmenopausal women. A randomized controlled trial from Feb 2010 to 2011 was conducted. Sixty postmenopausal women who were referred to obstetrics and gynecology ward of two educational hospitals were recruited and divided into two groups (intervention and control). Intervention group received 300 mg gabapentin three times a day for three months, while control group received placebo. The Intensity and duration of hot flashes in women scored and recorded using visual analog scale. Independent, Paired t-test and chi-square test were used for analyzing data. Intensity of hot flashes in the beginning of research in the intervention group was significantly different with the first, second and third follow-up visit (Phot flashes (Phot flashes in postmenopausal women. For postmenopausal women who hormone therapy is contraindicated, gabapentine could be an acceptable alternative.

  12. The effectiveness of an osteoporosis prevention education programme for women in Hong Kong: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Moon Fai; Ko, Chung Ying; Day, Mary Christine

    2005-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether a nurse-initiated education programme on four specific osteoporosis-prevention related behaviours leads to their adoption or positive attitude changes compared with women who did not participate in this programme. The design was a randomized controlled design and the setting was a local private beauty clinic. Pre-, post- and follow-up education data compared attitudes and consumption frequency before and after the education programme. The results showed significant increases in the reported follow-up for each behaviour: consumption of soya foods (mean = 4.3, SD = 0.5), milk (mean = 4.2, SD = 0.8), more exercise (mean = 4.3, SD = 0.5) and vitamin D/exposure to sunlight (mean = 4.2, SD = 0.9) for subjects in the case group compared with control group subjects (soya foods: mean = 3.3, SD = 0.9, P women resulted in significantly increased consumption of calcium including soya-based foods, milk and vitamin D. According to the reported attitudinal and behavioural intentions, participants' positive feedback suggests that women who participated in this educational programme were motivated to make changes and benefited from the support of this nurse-initiated education programme. Osteoporosis was a serious health concern that most commonly affected women. As indicated by the results of this study, this educational programme can act as simple but effective nursing intervention to promote women's attitudinal and behavioural intentions towards osteoporosis-prevention.

  13. Women's experiences after early versus postponed oxytocin treatment of slow progress in first childbirth--a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergqvist, Liselotte; Dencker, Anna; Taft, Charles; Lilja, Håkan; Ladfors, Lars; Skaring-Thorsén, Lena; Berg, Marie

    2012-06-01

    The aim was to compare the childbirth experiences of primiparous women with slow labour progress who had received early versus postponed oxytocin augmentation. The population included healthy primiparous women with slow labour progress after a normal pregnancy and spontaneous onset of active labour at term who had taken part in a randomized controlled trial at two delivery units in Sweden comparing early versus postponed oxytocin augmentation. A total of 536 women were sent the Childbirth Experience Questionnaire (CEQ) one month postpartum. The 22-item questionnaire assesses four domains of the childbirth experience. Main outcomes were the four domains of the CEQ: Own capacity, Professional support, Perceived safety and Participation. There were no significant differences between the women in the early and expectant oxytocin treatment groups in any of the four domains; however, operative births were associated with significantly worse childbirth experiences. Almost every third woman in both groups had negative and depressing memories from the childbirth process. Early oxytocin augmentation for slow labour progress does not appear to be more beneficial than expectant management regarding women's perceptions of childbirth one month postpartum. Given the risks for the foetus associated with oxytocin treatment, prudent expectant management seems to be a safe and viable alternative. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. A randomized controlled trial of a psycho-education intervention by midwives in reducing childbirth fear in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toohill, Jocelyn; Fenwick, Jennifer; Gamble, Jenny; Creedy, Debra K; Buist, Anne; Turkstra, Erika; Ryding, Elsa-Lena

    2014-12-01

    Childbirth fear is associated with increased obstetric interventions and poor emotional and psychological health for women. The purpose of this study is to test an antenatal psycho-education intervention by midwives in reducing women's childbirth fear. Women (n = 1,410) attending three hospitals in South East Queensland, Australia, were recruited into the BELIEF trial. Participants reporting high fear were randomly allocated to intervention (n = 170) or control (n = 169) groups. All women received a decision-aid booklet on childbirth choices. The telephone counseling intervention was offered at 24 and 34 weeks of pregnancy. The control group received usual care offered by public maternity services. Primary outcome was reduction in childbirth fear (WDEQ-A) from second trimester to 36 weeks' gestation. Secondary outcomes were improved childbirth self-efficacy, and reduced decisional conflict and depressive symptoms. Demographic, obstetric & psychometric measures were administered at recruitment, and 36 weeks of pregnancy. There were significant differences between groups on postintervention scores for fear of birth (p childbirth self-efficacy (p = 0.002). Decisional conflict and depressive symptoms reduced but were not significant. Psycho-education by trained midwives was effective in reducing high childbirth fear levels and increasing childbirth confidence in pregnant women. Improving antenatal emotional well-being may have wider positive social and maternity care implications for optimal childbirth experiences. © 2014 The Authors. Birth Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. A randomized clinical trial of behavioral couples therapy versus individually-based treatment for drug-abusing women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Farrell, Timothy J; Schumm, Jeremiah A; Murphy, Marie M; Muchowski, Patrice M

    2017-04-01

    Behavioral couples therapy (BCT) is more efficacious than individually-based therapy (IBT) for substance and relationship outcomes among substance use disorder patients. This study compared BCT with IBT for drug-abusing women. Sixty-one women, mostly White, late 30s, with primary substance use disorder other than alcohol (74% opioid), and male partners were randomized to 26 sessions over 13 weeks of BCT plus 12-step-oriented IBT (i.e., BCT + IBT) or IBT. Substance-related outcomes were percentage days abstinent (PDA), percentage days drug use (PDDU), Inventory of Drug Use Consequences. Relationship outcomes were Dyadic Adjustment Scale (DAS), days separated. Data were collected at baseline, posttreatment, and quarterly for 1-year follow-up. On PDA, PDDU, and substance-related problems, both BCT + IBT and IBT patients showed significant (p .8 for most time periods). BCT + IBT showed a significant (p .47). On relationship outcomes, compared to IBT, BCT + IBT had significantly higher male-reported Dyadic Adjustment Scale (p women was more efficacious than IBT in improving relationship satisfaction and preventing relationship breakup. On substance use and substance-related problems, women receiving both treatments substantially improved, and women receiving BCT + IBT had fewer substance-related problems than IBT. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Effect of a lifestyle intervention in obese infertile women on cardiometabolic health and quality of life: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dammen, Lotte; Wekker, Vincent; van Oers, Anne M; Mutsaerts, Meike A Q; Painter, Rebecca C; Zwinderman, Aeilko H; Groen, Henk; van de Beek, Cornelieke; Muller Kobold, Anneke C; Kuchenbecker, Walter K H; van Golde, Ron; Oosterhuis, Gerrit J E; Vogel, Niels E A; Mol, Ben Willem J; Roseboom, Tessa J; Hoek, Annemieke

    2018-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity, an important cardiometabolic risk factor, is rising in women. Lifestyle improvements are the first step in treatment of obesity, but the success depends on factors like timing and motivation. Women are especially receptive to advice about lifestyle before and during pregnancy. Therefore, we hypothesize that the pre-pregnancy period provides the perfect window of opportunity to improve cardiometabolic health and quality of life of obese infertile women, by means of a lifestyle intervention. Between 2009-2012, 577 infertile women between 18 and 39 years of age, with a Body Mass Index of ≥ 29 kg/m2, were randomized to a six month lifestyle intervention preceding infertility treatment, or to direct infertility treatment. The goal of the intervention was 5-10% weight loss or a BMI lifestyle intervention group (2.2 95% CI: 0.9 to 3.5; P = .001) while mental QoL scores did not differ. In obese infertile women, a lifestyle intervention prior to infertility treatment improves cardiometabolic health and self-reported physical quality of life (LIFEstyle study: Netherlands Trial Register: NTR1530).

  17. Combined Lifestyle and Herbal Medicine in Overweight Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS): A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arentz, Susan; Smith, Caroline A; Abbott, Jason; Fahey, Paul; Cheema, Birinder S; Bensoussan, Alan

    2017-09-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common, complex reproductive endocrinopathy characterized by menstrual irregularities, hyperandrogenism and polycystic ovaries. Lifestyle modification is a first-line intervention; however, there are barriers to success for this form of self-care, and women often seek adjunct therapies including herbal medicines. This pragmatic, randomized controlled trial, delivered in communities of Australia in overweight women with PCOS, compared the effectiveness and safety of a lifestyle intervention plus herbal medicine against lifestyle alone. All participants were helped to construct a personalized lifestyle plan. The herbal intervention consisted of two tablets. Tablet 1 contained Cinnamomum verum, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Hypericum perforatum and Paeonia lactiflora. Tablet 2 contained Tribulus terrestris. The primary outcome was oligomenorrhoea/amenorrhoea. Secondary outcomes were hormones; anthropometry; quality of life; depression, anxiety and stress; pregnancy; birth outcomes; and safety. One hundred and twenty-two women gave their consent. At 3 months, women in the combination group recorded a reduction in oligomenorrhoea of 32.9% (95% confidence interval 23.3-42.6, p pregnancy rates (p = 0.01). This trial provides evidence of improved effectiveness and safety for lifestyle intervention when combined with herbal medicines in women with PCOS. © 2017 The Authors. Phytotherapy Research published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. © 2017 The Authors. Phytotherapy Research published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. The LiP (Lifestyle in Pregnancy) study: a randomized controlled trial of lifestyle intervention in 360 obese pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinter, Christina A; Jensen, Dorte M; Ovesen, Per; Beck-Nielsen, Henning; Jørgensen, Jan S

    2011-12-01

    To study the effects of lifestyle intervention on gestational weight gain (GWG) and obstetric outcomes. The LiP (Lifestyle in Pregnancy) study was a randomized controlled trial in 360 obese women allocated in early pregnancy to lifestyle intervention or control. The intervention program included dietary guidance, free membership in fitness centers, physical training, and personal coaching. A total of 360 obese pregnant women were included, and 304 (84%) were followed up until delivery. The intervention group had a significantly lower median (range) GWG compared with the control group of 7.0 (4.7-10.6) vs. 8.6 kg (5.7-11.5; P = 0.01). The Institute of Medicine (IOM) recommendations on GWG were exceeded in 35.4% of women in the intervention group compared with 46.6% in the control group (P = 0.058). Overall, the obstetric outcomes between the two groups were not significantly different. Lifestyle intervention in pregnancy resulted in limited GWG in obese pregnant women. Overall obstetric outcomes were similar in the two groups. Lifestyle intervention resulted in a higher adherence to the IOM weight gain recommendations; however, a significant number of women still exceeded the upper threshold.

  19. Art therapy improves experienced quality of life among women undergoing treatment for breast cancer: a randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensk, A-C; Oster, I; Thyme, K E; Magnusson, E; Sjödin, M; Eisemann, M; Aström, S; Lindh, J

    2009-01-01

    Women with breast cancer are naturally exposed to strain related to diagnosis and treatment, and this influences their experienced quality of life (QoL). The present paper reports the effect, with regard to QoL aspects, of an art therapy intervention among 41 women undergoing radiotherapy treatment for breast cancer. The women were randomized to an intervention group with individual art therapy sessions for 1 h/week (n = 20), or to a control group (n = 21). The WHOQOL-BREF and EORTC Quality of Life Questionnaire-BR23, were used for QoL assessment, and administrated on three measurement occasions, before the start of radiotherapy and 2 and 6 months later. The results indicate an overall improvement in QoL aspects among women in the intervention group. A significant increase in total health, total QoL, physical health and psychological health was observed in the art therapy group. A significant positive difference within the art therapy group was also seen, concerning future perspectives, body image and systemic therapy side effects. The present study provides strong support for the use of art therapy to improve QoL for women undergoing radiotherapy treatment for breast cancer.

  20. CURE-SMOTE algorithm and hybrid algorithm for feature selection and parameter optimization based on random forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Li; Fan, Suohai

    2017-03-14

    The random forests algorithm is a type of classifier with prominent universality, a wide application range, and robustness for avoiding overfitting. But there are still some drawbacks to random forests. Therefore, to improve the performance of random forests, this paper seeks to improve imbalanced data processing, feature selection and parameter optimization. We propose the CURE-SMOTE algorithm for the imbalanced data classification problem. Experiments on imbalanced UCI data reveal that the combination of Clustering Using Representatives (CURE) enhances the original synthetic minority oversampling technique (SMOTE) algorithms effectively compared with the classification results on the original data using random sampling, Borderline-SMOTE1, safe-level SMOTE, C-SMOTE, and k-means-SMOTE. Additionally, the hybrid RF (random forests) algorithm has been proposed for feature selection and parameter optimization, which uses the minimum out of bag (OOB) data error as its objective function. Simulation results on binary and higher-dimensional data indicate that the proposed hybrid RF algorithms, hybrid genetic-random forests algorithm, hybrid particle swarm-random forests algorithm and hybrid fish swarm-random forests algorithm can achieve the minimum OOB error and show the best generalization ability. The training set produced from the proposed CURE-SMOTE algorithm is closer to the original data distribution because it contains minimal noise. Thus, better classification results are produced from this feasible and effective algorithm. Moreover, the hybrid algorithm's F-value, G-mean, AUC and OOB scores demonstrate that they surpass the performance of the original RF algorithm. Hence, this hybrid algorithm provides a new way to perform feature selection and parameter optimization.

  1. Project Gel a Randomized Rectal Microbicide Safety and Acceptability Study in Young Men and Transgender Women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian McGowan

    Full Text Available The purpose of Project Gel was to determine the safety and acceptability of rectal microbicides in young men who have sex with men (MSM and transgender women (TGW at risk of HIV infection.MSM and TGW aged 18-30 years were enrolled at three sites; Pittsburgh, PA; Boston, MA; and San Juan, PR. Stage 1A was a cross-sectional assessment of sexual health and behavior in MSM and TGW. A subset of participants from Stage 1A were then enrolled in Stage 1B, a 12-week evaluation of the safety and acceptability of a placebo rectal gel. This was followed by the final phase of the study (Stage 2 in which a subset of participants from Stage 1B were enrolled into a Phase 1 rectal safety and acceptability evaluation of tenofovir (TFV 1% gel.248 participants were enrolled into Stage 1A. Participants' average age was 23.3 years. The most common sexually transmitted infection (STIs at baseline were Herpes simplex (HSV-2 (16.1% by serology and rectal Chlamydia trachomatis (CT (10.1% by NAAT. 134 participants were enrolled into Stage 1B. During the 12 week period of follow-up 2 HIV, 5 rectal CT, and 5 rectal Neisseria gonorrhea infections were detected. The majority of adverse events (AEs were infections (N = 56 or gastrointestinal (N = 46 and were mild (69.6% or moderate (28.0%. Of the participants who completed Stage 1B, 24 were enrolled into Stage 2 and randomized (1:1 to receive TFV or placebo gel. All participants completed Stage 2. The majority of AEs were gastrointestinal (N = 10 and of mild (87.2% or moderate (10.3% severity.In this study we were able to enroll a sexually active population of young MSM and TGW who were willing to use rectal microbicides. TFV gel was safe and acceptable and should be further developed as an alternative HIV prevention intervention for this population.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01283360.

  2. Noise-induced hearing loss in randomly selected New York dairy farmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, J J; Marvel, M; Regan, M; Marvel, L H; Pratt, D S

    1990-01-01

    To understand better the effects of noise levels associated with dairy farming, we randomly selected 49 full-time dairy farmers from an established cohort. Medical and occupational histories were taken and standard audiometric testing was done. Forty-six males (94%) and three females (6%) with a mean age of 43.5 (+/- 13) years and an average of 29.4 (+/- 14) years in farming were tested. Pure Tone Average thresholds (PTA4) at 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0 kHz plus High Frequency Average thresholds (HFA3) at 3.0, 4.0, and 6.0 kHz were calculated. Subjects with a loss of greater than or equal to 20 db in either ear were considered abnormal. Eighteen subjects (37%) had abnormal PTA4S and 32 (65%) abnormal HFA3S. The left ear was more severely affected in both groups (p less than or equal to .05, t-test). Significant associations were found between hearing loss and years worked (odds ratio 4.1, r = .53) and age (odds ratio 4.1, r = .59). No association could be found between hearing loss and measles; mumps; previous ear infections; or use of power tools, guns, motorcycles, snowmobiles, or stereo headphones. Our data suggest that among farmers, substantial hearing loss occurs especially in the high-frequency ranges. Presbycusis is an important confounding variable.

  3. Modeling Slotted Aloha as a Stochastic Game with Random Discrete Power Selection Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachid El-Azouzi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the uplink case of a cellular system where bufferless mobiles transmit over a common channel to a base station, using the slotted aloha medium access protocol. We study the performance of this system under several power differentiation schemes. Indeed, we consider a random set of selectable transmission powers and further study the impact of priorities given either to new arrival packets or to the backlogged ones. Later, we address a general capture model where a mobile transmits successfully a packet if its instantaneous SINR (signal to interferences plus noise ratio is lager than some fixed threshold. Under this capture model, we analyze both the cooperative team in which a common goal is jointly optimized as well as the noncooperative game problem where mobiles reach to optimize their own objectives. Furthermore, we derive the throughput and the expected delay and use them as the objectives to optimize and provide a stability analysis as alternative study. Exhaustive performance evaluations were carried out, we show that schemes with power differentiation improve significantly the individual as well as global performances, and could eliminate in some cases the bi-stable nature of slotted aloha.

  4. Random Start Ovarian Stimulation for Oocyte or Embryo Cryopreservation in Women Desiring Fertility Preservation Prior to Gonadotoxic Cancer Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danis, Rachel B; Pereira, Nigel; Elias, Rony T

    2017-11-10

    Women of reproductive age diagnosed with cancer are often interested in preserving gametes or reproductive tissue that would allow for future genetic parenthood. Preservation of fertility is often accomplished in young cancer patients via ovarian stimulation followed by oocyte or embryo cryopreservation. Conventional stimulation protocols, however, require 2-4 weeks to complete ovarian stimulation, oocyte retrieval and possible fertilization. Such a strategy may not be feasible in patients requiring urgent cancer treatment. Recent studies have highlighted that random start ovarian stimulation can be initiated irrespective of the phase of the menstrual cycle and is an attractive alternative to conventional ovarian stimulation. The primary aim of the current review is to discuss the feasibility and success of random start ovarian stimulation for oocyte or embryo cryopreservation in women desiring fertility preservation prior to gonadotoxic cancer therapy. We performed a systematic review of medical literature published between January 2000 to June 2017 reporting the utility of random start ovarian stimulation for fertility preservation. Search terms included "fertility preservation," "cancer," "ovarian stimulation," "random-start ovarian stimulation," "embryo cryopreservation, and" "oocyte cryopreservation." Publications were included in this review only if patients underwent random start ovarian stimulation prior to cancer therapy. Nineteen publications were identified and perused by the authors. Most publications described the utility of random start ovarian stimulation in the setting of breast cancer. Radom-start stimulation was associated with a reduced time interval between ovarian stimulation initiation and oocyte or embryo cryopreservation. The yield of mature oocytes and their developmental potential into embryos was comparable between conventional and random-start protocols, albeit with higher gonadotropin doses in the latter. The current review suggests

  5. Effect of a Scalp Cooling Device on Alopecia in Women Undergoing Chemotherapy for Breast Cancer: The SCALP Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nangia, Julie; Wang, Tao; Osborne, Cynthia; Niravath, Polly; Otte, Kristen; Papish, Steven; Holmes, Frankie; Abraham, Jame; Lacouture, Mario; Courtright, Jay; Paxman, Richard; Rude, Mari; Hilsenbeck, Susan; Osborne, C Kent; Rimawi, Mothaffar

    2017-02-14

    Chemotherapy may induce alopecia. Although scalp cooling devices have been used to prevent this alopecia, efficacy has not been assessed in a randomized clinical trial. To assess whether a scalp cooling device is effective at reducing chemotherapy-induced alopecia and to assess adverse treatment effects. Multicenter randomized clinical trial of women with breast cancer undergoing chemotherapy. Patients were enrolled from December 9, 2013, to September 30, 2016. One interim analysis was planned to allow the study to stop early for efficacy. Data reported are from the interim analysis. This study was conducted at 7 sites in the United States, and 182 women with breast cancer requiring chemotherapy were enrolled and randomized. Participants were randomized to scalp cooling (n = 119) or control (n = 63). Scalp cooling was done using a scalp cooling device. The primary efficacy end points were successful hair preservation assessed using the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.0 scale (grade 0 [no hair loss] or grade 1 [scalp cooling and control groups. Only adverse events related to device use were collected; 54 adverse events were reported in the cooling group, all grades 1 and 2. There were no serious adverse device events. Among women with stage I to II breast cancer receiving chemotherapy with a taxane, anthracycline, or both, those who underwent scalp cooling were significantly more likely to have less than 50% hair loss after the fourth chemotherapy cycle compared with those who received no scalp cooling. Further research is needed to assess longer-term efficacy and adverse effects. clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01986140.

  6. Effects of estrogen plus progestin on gynecologic cancers and associated diagnostic procedures: the Women's Health Initiative randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Garnet L; Judd, Howard L; Kaunitz, Andrew M; Barad, David H; Beresford, Shirley A A; Pettinger, Mary; Liu, James; McNeeley, S Gene; Lopez, Ana Maria

    2003-10-01

    The effects of continuous combined hormone therapy on gynecologic cancers have not been investigated previously in a randomized trial setting. To determine the possible associations of estrogen plus progestin on gynecologic cancers and related diagnostic procedures. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of 16 608 postmenopausal women, who had not had a hysterectomy at baseline and who had been recruited from 40 US clinical centers between September 1993 and October 1998 (average follow-up, 5.6 years). One tablet per day containing 0.625 mg of conjugated equine estrogens plus 2.5 mg of medroxyprogesterone acetate (n = 8506) or placebo (n = 8102). Incident invasive cancer of the ovary and endometrium. In 5.6 years of follow-up, there were 32 cases of invasive ovarian cancer, 58 cases of endometrial cancer, 1 case of nonendometrial uterine cancer, 13 cases of cervical cancer, and 7 cases of other gynecologic cancers. The hazard ratio (HR) for invasive ovarian cancer in women assigned to estrogen plus progestin compared with placebo was 1.58 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.77-3.24). The HR for endometrial cancer was 0.81 (95% CI, 0.48-1.36). No appreciable differences were found in the distributions of tumor histology, stage, or grade for either cancer site. The incidence of other gynecologic cancers was low and did not differ by randomization assignment. More women taking estrogen plus progestin required endometrial biopsies (33% vs 6%; P<.001). This randomized trial suggests that continuous combined estrogen plus progestin therapy may increase the risk of ovarian cancer while producing endometrial cancer rates similar to placebo. The increased burden of endometrial biopsies required to assess vaginal bleeding further limits the acceptability of this regimen. These data provide additional support for caution in the use of continuous combined hormones.

  7. The effect of Calendula officinalis versus metronidazole on bacterial vaginosis in women: A double-blind randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Pazhohideh

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial vaginosis (BV is a common disorder among women of reproductive age. This study aimed to compare the effect of a Calendula officinalis extract-based cream and metronidazole on BV among women of reproductive age. In this study, 80 women of reproductive age with BV were randomly assigned to the C. officinalis (n = 40 or metronidazole (n = 40. Diagnosis of BV was confirmed when at least 3 of the 4 Amsel criteria were met (pH> 4.5, whitish grey or thin homogeneous discharge, release of a fishy odor on adding 10% KOH, and detection of clue cells on microscopic examination. For each group, either a methanol extract of C. officinalis or metronidazole vaginal cream (5 g was used for 1 week intravaginally, and all signs and symptoms were assessed 1 week after treatment completion. Before the intervention, the two groups did not differ significantly with regard to vaginal burning, odor, dysuria, and dyspareunia, but itching was significantly more common in the C. officinalis group than in the metronidazole group (22.5% vs. 2.5%, P = 0.01. One week after the intervention, all women in both groups were free of symptoms, including vaginal itching and burning sensation, odor, dysuria, and dyspareunia. None of the women in either group suffered any side effects from C. officinalis or metronidazole. C. officinalis was effective for the treatment of BV in women of reproductive age, without any side effects. This herb could be recommended for women of reproductive age who uncomfortable with the potential side effects of synthetic drugs.

  8. The effect ofCalendula officinalisversus metronidazole on bacterial vaginosis in women: A double-blind randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazhohideh, Zahra; Mohammadi, Solmaz; Bahrami, Nosrat; Mojab, Faraz; Abedi, Parvin; Maraghi, Elham

    2018-01-01

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a common disorder among women of reproductive age. This study aimed to compare the effect of a Calendula officinalis extract-based cream and metronidazole on BV among women of reproductive age. In this study, 80 women of reproductive age with BV were randomly assigned to the C. officinalis ( n = 40) or metronidazole ( n = 40). Diagnosis of BV was confirmed when at least 3 of the 4 Amsel criteria were met (pH >4.5, whitish grey or thin homogeneous discharge, release of a fishy odor on adding 10% KOH, and detection of clue cells on microscopic examination). For each group, either a methanol extract of C. officinalis or metronidazole vaginal cream (5 g) was used for 1 week intravaginally, and all signs and symptoms were assessed 1 week after treatment completion. Before the intervention, the two groups did not differ significantly with regard to vaginal burning, odor, dysuria, and dyspareunia, but itching was significantly more common in the C. officinalis group than in the metronidazole group (22.5% vs. 2.5%, P = 0.01). One week after the intervention, all women in both groups were free of symptoms, including vaginal itching and burning sensation, odor, dysuria, and dyspareunia. None of the women in either group suffered any side effects from C. officinalis or metronidazole. C. officinalis was effective for the treatment of BV in women of reproductive age, without any side effects. This herb could be recommended for women of reproductive age who uncomfortable with the potential side effects of synthetic drugs.

  9. The effect of Calendula officinalis versus metronidazole on bacterial vaginosis in women: A double-blind randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazhohideh, Zahra; Mohammadi, Solmaz; Bahrami, Nosrat; Mojab, Faraz; Abedi, Parvin; Maraghi, Elham

    2018-01-01

    Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a common disorder among women of reproductive age. This study aimed to compare the effect of a Calendula officinalis extract-based cream and metronidazole on BV among women of reproductive age. In this study, 80 women of reproductive age with BV were randomly assigned to the C. officinalis (n = 40) or metronidazole (n = 40). Diagnosis of BV was confirmed when at least 3 of the 4 Amsel criteria were met (pH >4.5, whitish grey or thin homogeneous discharge, release of a fishy odor on adding 10% KOH, and detection of clue cells on microscopic examination). For each group, either a methanol extract of C. officinalis or metronidazole vaginal cream (5 g) was used for 1 week intravaginally, and all signs and symptoms were assessed 1 week after treatment completion. Before the intervention, the two groups did not differ significantly with regard to vaginal burning, odor, dysuria, and dyspareunia, but itching was significantly more common in the C. officinalis group than in the metronidazole group (22.5% vs. 2.5%, P = 0.01). One week after the intervention, all women in both groups were free of symptoms, including vaginal itching and burning sensation, odor, dysuria, and dyspareunia. None of the women in either group suffered any side effects from C. officinalis or metronidazole. C. officinalis was effective for the treatment of BV in women of reproductive age, without any side effects. This herb could be recommended for women of reproductive age who uncomfortable with the potential side effects of synthetic drugs. PMID:29441319

  10. Evaluation of two vaccine education interventions to improve pertussis vaccination among pregnant African American women: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriss, Jennifer L; Frew, Paula M; Cortes, Marielysse; Malik, Fauzia A; Chamberlain, Allison T; Seib, Katherine; Flowers, Lisa; Ault, Kevin A; Howards, Penelope P; Orenstein, Walter A; Omer, Saad B

    2017-03-13

    Vaccination coverage with tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine in pregnancy or immediately postpartum has been low. Limited data exist on rigorously evaluated interventions to increase maternal vaccination, including Tdap. Tailored messaging based on the Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM) framework has been successful in improving uptake of some public health interventions. We evaluated the effect of two ELM-based vaccine educational interventions on Tdap vaccination among pregnant African American women, a group of women who tend to have lower vaccine uptake compared with other groups. We conducted a prospective randomized controlled trial to pilot test two interventions - an affective messaging video and a cognitive messaging iBook - among pregnant African American women recruited during routine prenatal care visits. We measured Tdap vaccination during the perinatal period (during pregnancy and immediately postpartum), reasons for non-vaccination, and intention to receive Tdap in the next pregnancy. Among the enrolled women (n=106), 90% completed follow-up. Tdap vaccination in the perinatal period was 18% in the control group; 50% in the iBook group (Risk Ratio [vs. control group]: 2.83; 95% CI, 1.26-6.37), and 29% in the video group (RR: 1.65; 95% CI, 0.66-4.09). From baseline to follow-up, women's reported intention to receive Tdap during the next pregnancy improved in all three groups. Among unvaccinated women, the most common reason reported for non-vaccination was lack of a recommendation for Tdap by the woman's physician. Education interventions that provide targeted information for pregnant women in an interactive manner may be useful to improve Tdap vaccination during the perinatal period. However, larger studies including multiple racial and ethnic groups are needed to evaluate robustness of our findings. clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01740310. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Enhancing Women's Resistance to Sexual Coercion: A Randomized Controlled Trial of the DATE Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson Rowe, Lorelei; Jouriles, Ernest N.; McDonald, Renee; Platt, Cora G.; Gomez, Gabriella S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Despite extensive efforts to develop sexual assault prevention programs for college women, few have been rigorously evaluated, and fewer have demonstrable effects on victimization. This study pilots the Dating Assertiveness Training Experience (DATE), designed to train young women in assertiveness skills for responding to sexual…

  12. Effects of Exercise Intervention on Pain, Shoulder Movement, and Functional Status in Women after Breast Cancer Surgery: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Salwa A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Breast cancer is one of the most important types of cancer among women worldwide and is a significant stressor in women's life that may affect functional health status. The present study was aimed to determine the effect of selected exercises program on pain, shoulder disability, and functional outcomes in women after breast cancer…

  13. A randomized controlled trial investigating the use of a predictive nomogram for the selection of the FSH starting dose in IVF/ICSI cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allegra, Adolfo; Marino, Angelo; Volpes, Aldo; Coffaro, Francesco; Scaglione, Piero; Gullo, Salvatore; La Marca, Antonio

    2017-04-01

    The number of oocytes retrieved is a relevant intermediate outcome in women undergoing IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). This trial compared the efficiency of the selection of the FSH starting dose according to a nomogram based on multiple biomarkers (age, day 3 FSH, anti-Müllerian hormone) versus an age-based strategy. The primary outcome measure was the proportion of women with an optimal number of retrieved oocytes defined as 8-14. At their first IVF/ICSI cycle, 191 patients underwent a long gonadotrophin-releasing hormone agonist protocol and were randomized to receive a starting dose of recombinant (human) FSH, based on their age (150 IU if ≤35 years, 225 IU if >35 years) or based on the nomogram. Optimal response was observed in 58/92 patients (63%) in the nomogram group and in 42/99 (42%) in the control group (+21%, 95% CI = 0.07 to 0.35, P = 0.0037). No significant differences were found in the clinical pregnancy rate or the number of embryos cryopreserved per patient. The study showed that the FSH starting dose selected according to ovarian reserve is associated with an increase in the proportion of patients with an optimal response: large trials are recommended to investigate any possible effect on the live-birth rate. Copyright © 2017 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. What is a good life? Selecting capabilities to assess women's quality of life in rural Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greco, Giulia; Skordis-Worrall, Jolene; Mkandawire, Bryan; Mills, Anne

    2015-04-01

    There is growing interest in using Sen's Capability Approach to assess quality of life and to evaluate social policies. This paper describes the formative stages of developing a quality of life measure: the selection of the relevant capabilities. This measure is intended to provide a more comprehensive outcome measure for the evaluation of complex interventions such as Maimwana womens' groups, a community based participatory intervention to improve maternal health in rural Malawi. Fifteen focus group discussions with 129 women were conducted to explore relevant concepts of quality of life in rural Malawi. Data collection started in October 2009. Findings were elicited based on framework analysis. The findings portray a complex and highly nuanced perception that women in rural Malawi have of their life and wellbeing. Quality of life was described using a variety of dimensions that are highly interconnected. Quality of life emerges to be not only shaped by the realisation of basic material needs such as being sufficiently nourished and adequately sheltered, but is also highly dependent on complex feelings, relations and social norms. The full exposition of wellbeing with its domains was organised into a framework constituting six different spheres of wellbeing: physical strength, inner wellbeing, household wellbeing, community relations, economic security and happiness. Despite the list being developed in a specific context and for a specific group of people, the similarities with lists developed in other contexts, with different methods and for different purposes, are considerable. This suggests that there are a number of core aspects of wellbeing considered a minimum requirement for a life of human dignity, that should be included in any attempt to assess quality of life and human development across populations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Diet and lifestyle interventions in postpartum women in China: study design and rationale of a multicenter randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu Juan

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background "Doing the month", or "sitting month", is a traditional practice for postpartum women in China and other Asian countries, which includes some taboos against well-accepted healthy diet and lifestyles in general population. Previous studies have shown this practice may be associated with higher prevalence of postpartum problems. The current multicenter randomized controlled trial (RCT aims to evaluate outcomes of diet and lifestyle interventions in Chinese postpartum women. Methods/Design The current multicenter RCT will be conducted in three representative areas in China, Shandong province, Hubei province and Guangdong province, which locate in northern, central and southern parts of China, respectively. Women who attend routine pregnancy diagnosis in hospitals or maternal healthcare centers will be invited to take part in this study. At least 800 women who meet our eligibility criteria will be recruited and randomly assigned to the intervention group (n > = 400 and the control group (n > = 400. A three-dimension comprehensive intervention strategy, which incorporates intervention measures simultaneously to individual postpartum woman, their family members and community environment, will be utilized to maximize the effectiveness of intervention. Regular visiting and follow-up will be done in both group; nutrition and health-related measurements will be assessed both before and after the intervention. Discussion To our knowledge, this current study is the first and largest multicenter RCT which focus on the effectiveness of diet and lifestyle intervention on reducing the incidence rate of postpartum diseases and improving health status in postpartum women. We hypothesize that the intervention will reduce the incidence rates of postpartum diseases and improve nutrition and health status due to a balanced diet and reasonable lifestyle in comparison with the control condition. If so, the results of our study will provide

  16. Facilitating decision-making in women undergoing genetic testing for hereditary breast cancer: BRECONDA randomized controlled trial results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Kerry A; Kilby, Christopher J; Shaw, Laura-Kate; Winch, Caleb; Kirk, Judy; Tucker, Kathy; Elder, Elisabeth

    2017-12-01

    Decision-making concerning risk-reducing mastectomy for women at hereditary risk of breast cancer entails complex personal choices. Deciding whether and how to restore breast shape after risk-reducing mastectomy is a key part of this process. We developed a web-based decision aid, BRECONDA (Breast Reconstruction Decision Aid), to assist women in decision-making regarding breast reconstruction. This study assessed the efficacy of BRECONDA to assist women at increased risk of breast cancer in making decisions regarding risk-reducing mastectomy in terms of decisional conflict, knowledge, and satisfaction with information. Women at hereditary risk of breast cancer (N = 64) were recruited into this randomized controlled trial from four Australian hereditary cancer clinics. Participants initially provided online consent and completed baseline questionnaires assessing decisional conflict, knowledge, and satisfaction with information. They were then randomly assigned to either: 1) Intervention - unlimited access to BRECONDA, with usual care; or, 2) Control - usual care. At 2-months follow-up (N = 60) the outcomes were re-assessed. Intervention participants also completed user acceptability ratings for the intervention overall and specific key modules. MANCOVA analyses indicated that Intervention participants reported lower decisional conflict (P = 0.027), and greater knowledge (P = 0.019) and satisfaction with information (P < 0.0005) at 2-months follow-up compared with Controls. Intervention participants reported high user acceptability and satisfaction with the intervention. BRECONDA benefits women considering risk-reducing mastectomy by reducing decisional conflict, and improving knowledge and satisfaction with information. These benefits, coupled with high user acceptability, demonstrate the feasibility of implementing BRECONDA in the hereditary cancer risk context. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Efficacy of selective antenatal screening for hepatitis B among pregnant women in Denmark: is selective screening still an acceptable strategy in a low-endemicity country?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lise; Heilmann, Carsten; Smith, Else

    2003-01-01

    The prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) carriage in Denmark is unknown, but expected to be low (0.1%). This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of selective antenatal screening for HBV infection and the epidemiology of HBV and hepatitis C virus (HCV) among pregnant women. 4098 women were...... included in the study. Blood tests were examined for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), anti-hepatitis B core antigen (HBc) and anti-HCV. Case records were studied to evaluate whether patients at risk for HBV infection had been tested. Among the 4098 women, 18 10.4%, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0...... programme in this area of Denmark did not pick up one-third of pregnant women at risk of HBV....

  18. The prevalence of premenstrual dysphoric disorder in a randomly selected group of urban and rural women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gehlert, S.; Song, I. H.; Chang, C. -H.; Hartlage, S. A.

    Background. Premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) was included as a provisional diagnostic category in the appendices of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)-III-R (then called late luteal phase dysphoric disorder) and remained as an appendix in DSM-IV. Our study aimed to

  19. Effects of an 8-Month Ashtanga-Based Yoga Intervention on Bone Metabolism in Middle-Aged Premenopausal Women: A Randomized Controlled Study

    OpenAIRE

    SoJung Kim, Michael G. Bemben, Allen W. Knehans, Debra A. Bemben

    2015-01-01

    Although Yoga has the potential to be an alternative physical activity to enhance bone health, there is a lack of high quality evidence for this type of intervention. The purpose of this randomized controlled trial was to examine the effects of a progressive 8-month Ashtanga-based Yoga program on bone turnover markers (BTM), areal bone mineral density (aBMD) and volumetric bone characteristics in premenopausal women. Thirty-four premenopausal women (35-50 years) were randomly assigned either ...

  20. The prevalence of symptoms associated with pulmonary tuberculosis in randomly selected children from a high burden community

    OpenAIRE

    Marais, B.; Obihara, C; Gie, R.; Schaaf, H; Hesseling, A.; Lombard, C.; Enarson, D; Bateman, E; Beyers, N

    2005-01-01

    Background: Diagnosis of childhood tuberculosis is problematic and symptom based diagnostic approaches are often promoted in high burden settings. This study aimed (i) to document the prevalence of symptoms associated with tuberculosis among randomly selected children living in a high burden community, and (ii) to compare the prevalence of these symptoms in children without tuberculosis to those in children with newly diagnosed tuberculosis.

  1. Effect of health education combining diet and exercise supervision in Chinese women with perimenopausal symptoms: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, S; Mao, L; Chen, X; Bai, W

    2017-04-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of health education combining diet and exercise supervision on menopausal symptoms and diet/exercise habits. The randomized controlled study enrolled 60 patients with perimenopausal syndrome (Kupperman Menopause Index (KMI) score ≥15). The participants were randomized into either an intervention group (n = 30) or a control group (n = 30). Women were interviewed with questionnaires about perimenopausal symptoms, diet pattern and exercise habit. Their height and weight were measured. Women in the intervention group received health education, diet supervision and exercise supervision twice a week while those in the control group continued as normal. The total KMI score, scores of individual symptoms, diet pattern and exercise habit were measured after intervention. The total KMI score, the individual KMI scores for paresthesia, irritability, depression/suspicious, fatigue, arthralgia/myalgia, and palpitations of the intervention group were significantly lower compared with the control group after intervention. The intake of cereal, meat, fats and oils of the intervention group were significantly lower at week 12 compared with baseline. The percentage of women with a regular exercise habit was significantly higher in the intervention group than in the control group after intervention. Twelve weeks intervention of health education combining diet and exercise supervision could improve perimenopausal symptoms and help the patients establish good living habits.

  2. Comparisons for Effectiveness of Aromatherapy and Acupressure Massage on Quality of Life in Career Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Yu-Hsiu; Huang, Yi-Ching; Chung, Ue-Lin; Hsu, Wen-Ni; Tang, Yi-Ting; Liao, Yi-Hung

    2017-06-01

    This study was aimed to compare the effectiveness of aromatherapy and acupressure massage intervention strategies on the sleep quality and quality of life (QOL) in career women. The randomized controlled trial experimental design was used in the present study. One hundred and thirty-two career women (24-55 years) voluntarily participated in this study and they were randomly assigned to (1) placebo (distilled water), (2) lavender essential oil (Lavandula angustifolia), (3) blended essential oil (1:1:1 ratio of L. angustifolia, Salvia sclarea, and Origanum majorana), and (4) acupressure massage groups for a 4-week treatment. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and Short Form 36 Health Survey were used to evaluate the intervention effects at pre- and postintervention. After a 4-week treatment, all experimental groups (blended essential oil, lavender essential oil, and acupressure massage) showed significant improvements in sleep quality and QOL (p aromatherapy and acupressure massage improve the sleep and QOL and may serve as the optimal means for career women to improve their sleep and QOL.

  3. The Effect of Acupressure on Sanyinjiao and Hugo Points on Labor Pain in Nulliparous Women : A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Heshmat

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:Most women have experienced child birth and its pain, which is inevitable. If this pain is not controlled it leads to prolonged labor and injury to the mother and fetus. This study was conducted to identify the effect of acupressure on sanyinjiao and hugo points on delivery pain in nulliparous women. Methods:This was a randomized controlled clinical trial on 84 nulliparous women in hospitals of Ardebil, Iran. The participants were divided by randomized blocks of 4 and 6 into two groups. The intervention was in the form of applying pressure at sanyinjiao and hugo points based on different dilatations. The intensity of the pain before and after the intervention was recorded by visual scale of pain assessment. To determine the effect of pressure on the intensity of labor pain, analytical descriptive test was conducted in SPSS (version 13. Results:There was a significant decrease in mean intensity of pain after each intervention in the experimental group with different dilatations (4, 6, 8, and 10 cm. Moreover, the Student’s independent t-test results indicated that the mean intensity of pain in the experimental group after the intervention in all four dilatations was significantly lower than the control group. Repeated measures ANOVA test indicated that in both experimental and control groups in four time periods, there was a statistically significant difference. Conclusion:Acupressure on sanyinjiao and hugo points decreases the labor pain. Therefore, this method can be used effectively in the labor process.

  4. Randomized clinical trial of multimodal physiotherapy treatment compared to overnight lidocaine ointment in women with provoked vestibulodynia: Design and methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Mélanie; Dumoulin, Chantale; Bergeron, Sophie; Mayrand, Marie-Hélène; Khalifé, Samir; Waddell, Guy; Dubois, Marie-France

    2016-01-01

    Provoked vestibulodynia (PVD) is a highly prevalent and debilitating condition yet its management relies mainly on non-empirically validated interventions. Among the many causes of PVD, there is growing evidence that pelvic floor muscle (PFM) dysfunctions play an important role in its pathophysiology. Multimodal physiotherapy, which addresses these dysfunctions, is judged by experts to be highly effective and is recommended as a first-line treatment. However, the effectiveness of this promising intervention has been evaluated through only two small uncontrolled trials. The proposed bi-center, single-blind, parallel group, randomized controlled trial (RCT) aims to evaluate the efficacy of multimodal physiotherapy and compare it to a frequently used first-line treatment, topical overnight application of lidocaine, in women with PVD. A total of 212 women diagnosed with PVD according to a standardized protocol were eligible for the study and were randomly assigned to either multimodal physiotherapy or lidocaine treatment for 10weeks. The primary outcome measure is pain during intercourse (assessed with a numerical rating scale). Secondary measures include sexual function, pain quality, psychological factors (including pain catastrophizing, anxiety, depression and fear of pain), PFM morphology and function, and patients' global impression of change. Assessments are made at baseline, post-treatment and at the 6-month follow-up. This manuscript presents and discusses the rationale, design and methodology of the first RCT investigating physiotherapy in comparison to a commonly prescribed first-line treatment, overnight topical lidocaine, for women with PVD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The effect of acupressure on sanyinjiao and hugo points on labor pain in nulliparous women: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehhatie-Shafaie, Fahimeh; Kazemzadeh, Rafat; Amani, Firouz; Heshmat, Reza

    2013-06-01

    Most women have experienced child birth and its pain, which is inevitable. If this pain is not controlled it leads to prolonged labor and injury to the mother and fetus. This study was conducted to identify the effect of acupressure on sanyinjiao and hugo points on delivery pain in nulliparous women. This was a randomized controlled clinical trial on 84 nulliparous women in hospitals of Ardebil, Iran. The participants were divided by randomized blocks of 4 and 6 into two groups. The intervention was in the form of applying pressure at sanyinjiao and hugo points based on different dilatations. The intensity of the pain before and after the intervention was recorded by visual scale of pain assessment. To determine the effect of pressure on the intensity of labor pain, analytical descriptive test was conducted in SPSS (version 13). There was a significant decrease in mean intensity of pain after each intervention in the experimental group with different dilatations (4, 6, 8, and 10 cm). Moreover, the Student's independent t-test results indicated that the mean intensity of pain in the experimental group after the intervention in all four dilatations was significantly lower than the control group. Repeated measures ANOVA test indicated that in both experimental and control groups in four time periods, there was a statistically significant difference. Acupressure on sanyinjiao and hugo points decreases the labor pain. Therefore, this method can be used effectively in the labor process.

  6. Effect of an Internet-Based Program on Weight Loss for Low-Income Postpartum Women: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelan, Suzanne; Hagobian, Todd; Brannen, Anna; Hatley, Karen E; Schaffner, Andrew; Muñoz-Christian, Karen; Tate, Deborah F

    2017-06-20

    Postpartum weight retention increases lifetime risk of obesity and related morbidity. Few effective interventions exist for multicultural, low-income women. To test whether an internet-based weight loss program in addition to the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC program) for low-income postpartum women could produce greater weight loss than the WIC program alone over 12 months. A 12-month, cluster randomized, assessor-blind, clinical trial enrolling 371 adult postpartum women at 12 clinics in WIC programs from the California central coast between July 2011 and May 2015 with data collection completed in May 2016. Clinics were randomized to the WIC program (standard care group) or the WIC program plus a 12-month primarily internet-based weight loss program (intervention group), including a website with weekly lessons, web diary, instructional videos, computerized feedback, text messages, and monthly face-to-face groups at the WIC clinics. The primary outcome was weight change over 12 months, based on measurements at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months. Secondary outcomes included proportion returning to preconception weight and changes in physical activity and diet. Participants included 371 women (mean age, 28.1 years; Hispanic, 81.6%; mean weight above prepregnancy weight, 7.8 kg; mean months post partum, 5.2 months) randomized to the intervention group (n = 174) or standard care group (n = 197); 89.2% of participants completed the study. The intervention group produced greater mean 12-month weight loss compared with the standard care group (3.2 kg in the intervention group vs 0.9 kg in standard care group, P internet-based weight loss program in addition to the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC program) compared with the WIC program alone resulted in a statistically significant greater weight loss over 12 months. Further research is needed to determine program and cost

  7. Beneficial effects of a high-protein, low-glycemic-load hypocaloric diet in overweight and obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a randomized controlled intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrabani, Homeira Hamayeli; Salehpour, Saghar; Amiri, Zohreh; Farahani, Sara Jalali; Meyer, Barbara J; Tahbaz, Farideh

    2012-04-01

    The recommended composition of a hypocaloric diet for obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a high-protein, low-glycemic-load diet compared with a conventional hypocaloric diet on reproductive hormones, inflammatory markers, lipids, glucose, and insulin levels in obese women with PCOS. A total of 60 overweight and obese women with PCOS who did not use insulin-sensitizing agents were recruited and randomly assigned to 1 of the 2 hypocaloric diet groups for a single-blind clinical trial. The groups included a conventional hypocaloric diet (CHCD) (15% of daily energy from protein) and a modified hypocaloric diet (MHCD) with a high-protein, low-glycemic load (30% of daily energy from protein plus low-glycemic-load foods selected from a list) that was prescribed via counseling visits weekly during 12 weeks of study. Anthropometric assessments and biochemical measurements including reproductive hormones, inflammatory factors, lipids, glucose, and insulin were performed on fasting blood samples at baseline and after 12 weeks of dietary intervention. Weight loss was significant and similar in the 2 groups. Mean of testosterone in the MHCD and CHCD groups decreased from 1.78 ± 0.32 to 1.31 ± 0.26 ng/ml and from 1.51 ± 0.12 to 1.15 ± 0.11 ng/ml, respectively (p diets significantly led to reduced body weight and androgen levels in these two groups of women with PCOS. The combination of high-protein and low-glycemic-load foods in a modified diet caused a significant increase in insulin sensitivity and a decrease in hsCRP level when compared with a conventional diet.

  8. Occupational Lead Exposure and Associations with Selected Cancers: The Shanghai Men's and Women's Health Study Cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Linda M; Friesen, Melissa C; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Cai, Hui; Koh, Dong-Hee; Ji, Bu-Tian; Yang, Gong; Li, Hong-Lan; Locke, Sarah J; Rothman, Nathaniel; Zheng, Wei; Gao, Yu-Tang; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Purdue, Mark P

    2016-01-01

    , Zheng W, Gao YT, Shu XO, Purdue MP. 2016. Occupational lead exposure and associations with selected cancers: the Shanghai Men's and Women's Health Study cohorts. Environ Health Perspect 124:97-103; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1408171.

  9. Rapid selection of accessible and cleavable sites in RNA by Escherichia coli RNase P and random external guide sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundblad, Eirik W; Xiao, Gaoping; Ko, Jae-Hyeong; Altman, Sidney

    2008-02-19

    A method of inhibiting the expression of particular genes by using external guide sequences (EGSs) has been improved in its rapidity and specificity. Random EGSs that have 14-nt random sequences are used in the selection procedure for an EGS that attacks the mRNA for a gene in a particular location. A mixture of the random EGSs, the particular target RNA, and RNase P is used in the diagnostic procedure, which, after completion, is analyzed in a gel with suitable control lanes. Within a few hours, the procedure is complete. The action of EGSs designed by an older method is compared with EGSs designed by the random EGS method on mRNAs from two bacterial pathogens.

  10. Effect of weight loss with or without exercise on inflammatory markers and adipokines in postmenopausal women : The SHAPE-2 Trial, a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Gemert, Willemijn A.; May, Anne M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304818658; Schuit, Albertine J.; Oosterhof, Blanche Y M; Peeters, Petra H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074099655; Monninkhof, Evelyn M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/260610178

    2016-01-01

    Background: We investigated the effect of equivalent weight loss, by a hypocaloric diet or mainly exercise, on inflammatory markers and adipokines in overweight postmenopausal women. Methods: Women were randomized to a diet (n = 97), mainly exercise (n = 98), or control group (n = 48). Goal of both

  11. Effect of Weight Loss with or without Exercise on Inflammatory Markers and Adipokines in Postmenopausal Women : The SHAPE-2 Trial, A Randomized Controlled Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gemert, Willemijn A; May, Anne M; Schuit, Albertine J; Oosterhof, Blanche Y M; Peeters, Petra H M; Monninkhof, Evelyn M.

    BACKGROUND: We investigated the effect of equivalent weight loss, by a hypocaloric diet or mainly exercise, on inflammatory markers and adipokines in overweight postmenopausal women. METHODS: Women were randomized to a diet (n = 97), mainly exercise (n = 98), or control group (n = 48). Goal of both

  12. Efficacy of Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy on Late Post-Treatment Pain in Women Treated for Primary Breast Cancer: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannsen, Maja; O Connor, Maja; OToole, Mia Skytte

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: To assess the efficacy of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) for late post-treatment pain in women treated for primary breast cancer. METHODS: A randomized wait list-controlled trial was conducted with 129 women treated for breast cancer reporting post-treatment pain (score ≥ 3...

  13. Differential privacy-based evaporative cooling feature selection and classification with relief-F and random forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Trang T; Simmons, W Kyle; Misaki, Masaya; Bodurka, Jerzy; White, Bill C; Savitz, Jonathan; McKinney, Brett A

    2017-09-15

    Classification of individuals into disease or clinical categories from high-dimensional biological data with low prediction error is an important challenge of statistical learning in bioinformatics. Feature selection can improve classification accuracy but must be incorporated carefully into cross-validation to avoid overfitting. Recently, feature selection methods based on differential privacy, such as differentially private random forests and reusable holdout sets, have been proposed. However, for domains such as bioinformatics, where the number of features is much larger than the number of observations p≫n , these differential privacy methods are susceptible to overfitting. We introduce private Evaporative Cooling, a stochastic privacy-preserving machine learning algorithm that uses Relief-F for feature selection and random forest for privacy preserving classification that also prevents overfitting. We relate the privacy-preserving threshold mechanism to a thermodynamic Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution, where the temperature represents the privacy threshold. We use the thermal statistical physics concept of Evaporative Cooling of atomic gases to perform backward stepwise privacy-preserving feature selection. On simulated data with main effects and statistical interactions, we compare accuracies on holdout and validation sets for three privacy-preserving methods: the reusable holdout, reusable holdout with random forest, and private Evaporative Cooling, which uses Relief-F feature selection and random forest classification. In simulations where interactions exist between attributes, private Evaporative Cooling provides higher classification accuracy without overfitting based on an independent validation set. In simulations without interactions, thresholdout with random forest and private Evaporative Cooling give comparable accuracies. We also apply these privacy methods to human brain resting-state fMRI data from a study of major depressive disorder. Code

  14. The effect of dental health education on pregnant women's adherence with toothbrushing and flossing - A randomized control trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Khamis, Suad; Asimakopoulou, Koula; Newton, Tim; Daly, Blanaid

    2017-10-01

    In a three-arm randomized control trial, this study compared the efficacy of dental health education (DHE) with or without a planning intervention on adherence to oral health-related behaviours. Women (N=154) in their second trimester of pregnancy attending three maternal healthcare clinics in Kuwait completed an assessment of social cognitions and oral health behaviours before a debris and gingival assessment (Plaque Index [PI], Gingival Index [GI]) was undertaken; this was repeated at 1 month. In addition to treatment as usual (TAU), which was a demonstration of OH practices, intervention participants received one of two interventions: (i) DHE, which targeted social cognitions; or (ii) DHE and planning (DHE&P), which targeted social cognitions and intentions to undertake oral health behaviours. The TAU group was given a standard oral hygiene leaflet. At Time one (T1) 154 women were eligible and randomly allocated to the three groups, respectively: treatment as usual (TAU)=53; DHE=53; DHE and planning=48. At Time two (T2), the number of women in each group completing the intervention (N=90) was, respectively, as follows TAU=28; DHE=30; DHE&P=32. There were no demographic differences between the groups at baseline. The mean age of women was 27.80±SD 5.40; 43% (n=38) had a high school level education. A mixed factor ANOVA analysis demonstrated that all women improved their PI (F=94.343 df=1 P=.001) and GI (F=73.138 df=1 P=.001) scores. There were no differences in self-reported oral hygiene and PI and GI by intervention group. The social cognition models (SCM) constructs changed over time in all women (N=90) except barriers to attendance (F=1.067 df=1 P=.305). There were no statistically significant differences in SCM constructs by intervention group at T2. All women reported increasing the frequency of toothbrushing and flossing. The provision of information using a simple leaflet improved the adherence of Kuwaiti pregnant with toothbrushing and flossing advice

  15. Addressing multilevel barriers to cervical cancer screening in Korean American women: A randomized trial of a community-based intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Carolyn Y; Ma, Grace X; Handorf, Elizabeth A; Feng, Ziding; Tan, Yin; Rhee, Joanne; Miller, Suzanne M; Kim, Charles; Koh, Han Seung

    2017-05-15

    Korean American women have among the lowest rates of cervical cancer screening in the United States. The authors evaluated a multicomponent intervention combining community education with navigation services to reduce access barriers and increase screening rates in this underserved population. It was hypothesized that cervical cancer screening rates would be higher among women who received the intervention program compared with those in the control program. Korean American women (N = 705) were recruited from 22 churches. In this matched-pair, group-randomized design, 347 women received the intervention, which consisted of a culturally relevant cancer education program combined with provision of navigation services. The control group (N = 358) received general health education, including information about cervical cancer risk and screening and where to obtain low-cost or no-cost screening. Screening behavior was assessed 12 months after the program. Screening behavior data were obtained from 588 women 12 months after the program. In both site-level and participant-level analyses, the intervention program contributed to significantly higher screening rates compared with the control program (odds ratio [OR], 25.9; 95% confidence interval [CI], 10.1-66.1; P cancer education with navigation services yielded significant increases in cervical cancer screening rates among underscreened Korean American women. Community-accessible programs that incorporate cancer education with the delivery of key navigation services can be highly effective in increasing cervical cancer screening rates in this underserved population. Cancer 2017;123:1018-26. © 2016 American Cancer Society. © 2016 American Cancer Society.

  16. Postpartum weight retention and breastfeeding among obese women from the randomized controlled Lifestyle in Pregnancy (LiP) trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinter, Christina Anne; Jensen, Dorte Møller; Ovesen, Per; Beck-Nielsen, Henning; Tanvig, Mette; Lamont, Ronald F; Jørgensen, Jan Stener

    2014-08-01

    To study the effects of lifestyle intervention in pregnancy on weight retention 6 months postpartum among obese women from the "Lifestyle in Pregnancy" (LiP) study, and to determine associations between breastfeeding with postpartum maternal weight. Six months postpartum follow up after a randomized controlled intervention trial. Two university hospitals in Denmark. A total of 360 women with pregestational body mass index ≥30 kg/m(2) . The intervention involved lifestyle changes (diet and exercise) during pregnancy. The control group received routine pregnancy care. Both groups received standard postnatal care. Gestational weight gain, postpartum weight retention and breastfeeding. Follow up was completed in 238 women of whom 46% in the intervention group and 57% in the control group had retained weight 6 months postpartum (p = 0.088). Women with gestational weight gain ≤9 kg, (recommended by the Institute of Medicine), retained less postpartum weight compared with those who exceeded 9 kg (median -0.7 vs. 1.5, p  5 kg (94% vs. 85%, p = 0.034). We could not detect sustained weight control at 6 months postpartum despite a lower gestational weight gain for obese women during pregnancy who received a lifestyle intervention rather than standard care. Women who adhered to gestational weight gain recommendations had significantly lower postpartum weight retention. Breastfeeding for 6 months was negatively associated with postpartum weight retention. © 2014 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  17. Characteristics of Women Enrolled into a Randomized Clinical Trial of Dapivirine Vaginal Ring for HIV-1 Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palanee-Phillips, Thesla; Schwartz, Katie; Brown, Elizabeth R; Govender, Vaneshree; Mgodi, Nyaradzo; Kiweewa, Flavia Matovu; Nair, Gonasagrie; Mhlanga, Felix; Siva, Samantha; Bekker, Linda-Gail; Jeenarain, Nitesha; Gaffoor, Zakir; Martinson, Francis; Makanani, Bonus; Naidoo, Sarita; Pather, Arendevi; Phillip, Jessica; Husnik, Marla J; van der Straten, Ariane; Soto-Torres, Lydia; Baeten, Jared

    2015-01-01

    Women in sub-Saharan Africa are a priority population for evaluation of new biomedical HIV-1 prevention strategies. Antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis is a promising prevention approach; however, clinical trials among young women using daily or coitally-dependent products have found low adherence. Antiretroviral-containing vaginal microbicide rings, which release medication over a month or longer, may reduce these adherence challenges. ASPIRE (A Study to Prevent Infection with a Ring for Extended Use) is a phase III, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial testing the safety and effectiveness of a vaginal ring containing the non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor dapivirine for prevention of HIV-1 infection. We describe the baseline characteristics of African women enrolled in the ASPIRE trial. Between August 2012 and June 2014, 5516 women were screened and 2629 HIV-1 seronegative women between 18-45 years of age were enrolled from 15 research sites in Malawi, South Africa, Uganda, and Zimbabwe. The median age was 26 years (IQR 22-31) and the majority (59%) were unmarried. Nearly 100% of participants reported having a primary sex partner in the prior three months but 43% did not know the HIV-1 status of their primary partner; 17% reported additional concurrent partners. Nearly two-thirds (64%) reported having disclosed to primary partners about planned vaginal ring use in the trial. Sexually transmitted infections were prevalent: 12% had Chlamydia trachomatis, 7% Trichomonas vaginalis, 4% Neisseria gonorrhoeae, and 1% syphilis. African HIV-1 seronegative women at risk of HIV -1 infection were successfully enrolled into a phase III trial of dapivirine vaginal ring for HIV-1 prevention.

  18. Multivitamin and iron supplementation to prevent periconceptional anemia in rural tanzanian women: a randomized, controlled trial

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gunaratna, Nilupa S; Masanja, Honorati; Mrema, Sigilbert; Levira, Francis; Spiegelman, Donna; Hertzmark, Ellen; Saronga, Naomi; Irema, Kahema; Shuma, Mary; Elisaria, Ester; Fawzi, Wafaie

    2015-01-01

    .... This study examined the efficacy of pre-pregnancy supplementation with iron and multivitamins to reduce the prevalence of anemia during the periconceptional period among rural Tanzanian women and adolescent girls...

  19. Effects of a community-based healthy heart program on increasing healthy women's physical activity: a randomized controlled trial guided by Community-based Participatory Research (CBPR)

    OpenAIRE

    Seyednezami Nasrin; Nabipour Iraj; Pazoki Raha; Imami Seyed

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Cardiovascular disease remains the leading killer of women in most developed areas of the world. Rates of physical inactivity and poor nutrition, which are two of the most important modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular disease in women, are substantial. This study sought to examine the effectiveness of a community-based lifestyle-modification program on increasing women's physical activity in a randomized trial guided by community-based participatory research (CBPR) ...

  20. Bayesian dose selection design for a binary outcome using restricted response adaptive randomization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinzer, Caitlyn; Martin, Renee; Suarez, Jose I

    2017-09-08

    In phase II trials, the most efficacious dose is usually not known. Moreover, given limited resources, it is difficult to robustly identify a dose while also testing for a signal of efficacy that would support a phase III trial. Recent designs have sought to be more efficient by exploring multiple doses through the use of adaptive strategies. However, the added flexibility may potentially increase the risk of making incorrect assumptions and reduce the total amount of information available across the dose range as a function of imbalanced sample size. To balance these challenges, a novel placebo-controlled design is presented in which a restricted Bayesian response adaptive randomization (RAR) is used to allocate a majority of subjects to the optimal dose of active drug, defined as the dose with the lowest probability of poor outcome. However, the allocation between subjects who receive active drug or placebo is held constant to retain the maximum possible power for a hypothesis test of overall efficacy comparing the optimal dose to placebo. The design properties and optimization of the design are presented in the context of a phase II trial for subarachnoid hemorrhage. For a fixed total sample size, a trade-off exists between the ability to select the optimal dose and the probability of rejecting the null hypothesis. This relationship is modified by the allocation ratio between active and control subjects, the choice of RAR algorithm, and the number of subjects allocated to an initial fixed allocation period. While a responsive RAR algorithm improves the ability to select the correct dose, there is an increased risk of assigning more subjects to a worse arm as a function of ephemeral trends in the data. A subarachnoid treatment trial is used to illustrate how this design can be customized for specific objectives and available data. Bayesian adaptive designs are a flexible approach to addressing multiple questions surrounding the optimal dose for treatment efficacy

  1. Effects of a community-based healthy heart program on increasing healthy women\\'s physical activity: a randomized controlled trial guided by Community-based Participatory Research (CBPR)

    OpenAIRE

    Iraj Nabipour

    2007-01-01

    Background: Cardiovascular disease remains the leading killer of women in most areas of the world. Rates of physical inactivity and poor nutrition, which are two of the most important modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular disease in women, are substantial. This study sought to examine the effectiveness of a community-based lifestyle-modification program on increasing women's physical activity in a randomized trial guided by community-based participatory research (CBPR) methods. Methods: ...

  2. Using ArcMap, Google Earth, and Global Positioning Systems to select and locate random households in rural Haiti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wampler Peter J

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A remote sensing technique was developed which combines a Geographic Information System (GIS; Google Earth, and Microsoft Excel to identify home locations for a random sample of households in rural Haiti. The method was used to select homes for ethnographic and water quality research in a region of rural Haiti located within 9 km of a local hospital and source of health education in Deschapelles, Haiti. The technique does not require access to governmental records or ground based surveys to collect household location data and can be performed in a rapid, cost-effective manner. Methods The random selection of households and the location of these households during field surveys were accomplished using GIS, Google Earth, Microsoft Excel, and handheld Garmin GPSmap 76CSx GPS units. Homes were identified and mapped in Google Earth, exported to ArcMap 10.0, and a random list of homes was generated using Microsoft Excel which was then loaded onto handheld GPS units for field location. The development and use of a remote sensing method was essential to the selection and location of random households. Results A total of 537 homes initially were mapped and a randomized subset of 96 was identified as potential survey locations. Over 96% of the homes mapped using Google Earth imagery were correctly identified as occupied dwellings. Only 3.6% of the occupants of mapped homes visited declined to be interviewed. 16.4% of the homes visited were not occupied at the time of the visit due to work away from the home or market days. A total of 55 households were located using this method during the 10 days of fieldwork in May and June of 2012. Conclusions The method used to generate and field locate random homes for surveys and water sampling was an effective means of selecting random households in a rural environment lacking geolocation infrastructure. The success rate for locating households using a handheld GPS was excellent and only

  3. Using ArcMap, Google Earth, and Global Positioning Systems to select and locate random households in rural Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wampler, Peter J; Rediske, Richard R; Molla, Azizur R

    2013-01-18

    A remote sensing technique was developed which combines a Geographic Information System (GIS); Google Earth, and Microsoft Excel to identify home locations for a random sample of households in rural Haiti. The method was used to select homes for ethnographic and water quality research in a region of rural Haiti located within 9 km of a local hospital and source of health education in Deschapelles, Haiti. The technique does not require access to governmental records or ground based surveys to collect household location data and can be performed in a rapid, cost-effective manner. The random selection of households and the location of these households during field surveys were accomplished using GIS, Google Earth, Microsoft Excel, and handheld Garmin GPSmap 76CSx GPS units. Homes were identified and mapped in Google Earth, exported to ArcMap 10.0, and a random list of homes was generated using Microsoft Excel which was then loaded onto handheld GPS units for field location. The development and use of a remote sensing method was essential to the selection and location of random households. A total of 537 homes initially were mapped and a randomized subset of 96 was identified as potential survey locations. Over 96% of the homes mapped using Google Earth imagery were correctly identified as occupied dwellings. Only 3.6% of the occupants of mapped homes visited declined to be interviewed. 16.4% of the homes visited were not occupied at the time of the visit due to work away from the home or market days. A total of 55 households were located using this method during the 10 days of fieldwork in May and June of 2012. The method used to generate and field locate random homes for surveys and water sampling was an effective means of selecting random households in a rural environment lacking geolocation infrastructure. The success rate for locating households using a handheld GPS was excellent and only rarely was local knowledge required to identify and locate households. This

  4. Effectiveness of balance training programme in reducing the frequency of falling in established osteoporotic women: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikó, Ibolya; Szerb, Imre; Szerb, Anna; Poor, Gyula

    2017-02-01

    To investigate the effect of a 12-month sensomotor balance exercise programme on postural control and the frequency of falling in women with established osteoporosis. Randomized controlled trial where the intervention group was assigned the 12-month Balance Training Programme and the control group did not undertake any intervention beyond regular osteoporosis treatment. A total of 100 osteoporotic women - at least with one osteoporotic fracture - aged 65 years old and above. Balance was assessed in static and dynamic posture both with performance-based measures of balance, such as the Berg Balance Scale and the Timed Up and Go Test, and with a stabilometric computerized platform. Patients in the intervention group completed the 12-month sensomotor Balance Training Programme in an outpatient setting, guided by physical therapists, three times a week, for 30 minutes. The Berg Balance Scale and the Timed Up and Go Test showed a statistically significant improvement of balance in the intervention group ( p = 0.001 and p = 0.005, respectively). Balance tests using the stabilometer also showed a statistically significant improvement in static and dynamic postural balance for osteoporotic women after the completion of the Balance Training Programme. As a consequence, the one-year exercise programme significantly decreased the number of falls in the exercise group compared with the control group. The Balance Training Programme significantly improved the balance parameters and reduced the number of falls in postmenopausal women who have already had at least one fracture in the past.

  5. Efficacy of pelvic floor muscle training and hypopressive exercises for treating pelvic organ prolapse in women: randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Teixeira Bernardes

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Previous studies have shown that women with pelvic floor dysfunctions present decreased cross-sectional area (CSA of the levator ani muscle. One way to assess the effects of training programs is to measure the CSA of the muscle, using ultrasonography. The aim here was to evaluate the efficacy of pelvic floor muscle training and hypopressive exercises for increasing the CSA of the levator ani muscle in women with pelvic organ prolapse. DESIGN AND SETTING: Prospective randomized controlled trial at the Urogynecology outpatient clinic of Universidade Federal de São Paulo. METHODS: Fifty-eight women with stage II pelvic organ prolapse were divided into three groups for physiotherapy: a pelvic floor muscle training group (GI; a hypopressive exercise group (GII; and a control group (GIII. The patients underwent transperineal ultrasonographic evaluation using a transducer of frequency 4-9 MHz. The (CSA of the levator ani muscle was measured before physiotherapy and after 12 weeks of treatment. RESULTS: The groups were homogeneous regarding age, number of pregnancies, number of vaginal deliveries, body mass index and hormonal status. Statistically significant differences in CSA were found in GI and GII from before to after the treatment (P < 0.001, but not in relation to GIII (P = 0.816. CONCLUSIONS: The CSA of the levator ani muscle increased significantly with physiotherapy among the women with pelvic organ prolapse. Pelvic floor muscle training and hypopressive exercises produced similar improvements in the CSA of the levator ani muscle.

  6. Does offering and performing prenatal screening influence women's attachment to their unborn child? A longitudinal randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinveld, Johanna H; Timmermans, Daniëlle R M; van den Berg, Matthijs; van Eijk, Jacques Th M; Ten Kate, Leo P

    2007-08-01

    The question addressed was: Does offering prenatal screening and receiving a negative screening outcome influence women's attachment to their unborn child? Women were offered a nuchal translucency measurement, maternal serum screening, or no screening at all in a randomized controlled trial. Attachment was measured by a self-developed questionnaire at four points in time: before screening was offered, after the offer, after receiving the negative screening result (or at comparable points in time) and in the last trimester of pregnancy. In the last trimester, the Prenatal Attachment Inventory was also filled in. Women who had been offered screening (n = 1031) showed more attachment (F(1,1415) = 19.42, p attachment compared to screening decliners (n = 565). No difference was observed between women who received a negative result of the ultrasound screening (n = 285) as compared to the blood screening (n = 162). Offering prenatal screening seems to temporarily increase attachment. However, this difference is very small. Attachment is not influenced by whether a blood screening or an ultrasound screening is performed. Copyright (c) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. A randomized trial to promote health belief and to reduce environmental tobacco smoke exposure in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazemi, Ashraf; Ehsanpour, Soheila; Nekoei-Zahraei, Nafiseh Sadat

    2012-02-01

    Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is widespread among women in Iran. This study aimed to explore the impact of education on health belief and environmental tobacco smoke exposure in pregnant women. This randomized trial was administrated to 130 pregnant women exposed to ETS. The face-to-face education was provided for the intervention group after completing the questionnaire compiled on the constructs of the health belief model and self-reports of weekly ETS exposure. The theoretical constructs and weekly ETS exposure were compared in the study groups at the intake, third, fourth and fifth sections. In the intervention group, perceived susceptibility/severity and perceived benefits increased and the weekly ETS exposure decreased on the third as opposed to the first section (P education about the impacts of ETS exposure of pregnant women is an effective way to increase the theoretical constructs according to the health belief model and is associated with a reduction of ETS exposure. But this is not sufficient for making smoke-free homes.

  8. Early versus delayed amniotomy during labor induction with oxytocin in women with Bishop's score of ≥6: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bala, Anju; Bagga, Rashmi; Kalra, Jasvinder; Dutta, Sourabh

    2017-08-09

    To study the effect of "early amniotomy" {initiating induction of labor (IOL) with amniotomy followed by oxytocin} versus "late amniotomy" (initiating IOL with oxytocin followed by amniotomy 4-8 h later) in induced labor. One hundred and fifty women with Bishop's score of ≥6 undergoing IOL were randomized into "early amniotomy" and "delayed amniotomy". Early amniotomy resulted in a reduced induction-delivery interval (IDI) (7.35 versus 11.66 h with delayed amniotomy, p = .000) but higher the caesarean section (CS) rate was observed (10.7 versus 2.7% with delayed amniotomy, p = .049). With early amniotomy, the proportion of women delivering within 12 h was higher (86.7 versus 60%, p = .000) and the maximum oxytocin concentration used was lower (30.05 versus 39.68 mU/min, p = .001) as compared to delayed amniotomy. The neonatal outcomes were similar in the two groups. Early amniotomy detected meconium prior to initiating uterine contractions with oxytocin in three women who underwent CS for meconium. Initiating IOL with amniotomy in women with a favorable cervix was efficacious in expediting delivery, but it resulted in a higher CS rate. The higher CS rate was partly due to CS for meconium detected as a result of early amniotomy. Clinical Trials Registry (CTRI), India: Registration number CTRI/2015/01/005418.

  9. The effect of physical exercise on postpartum fitness, hormone and lipid levels: a randomized controlled trial in primiparous, lactating women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zourladani, A; Zafrakas, M; Chatzigiannis, B; Papasozomenou, P; Vavilis, D; Matziari, C

    2015-03-01

    To evaluate the effect of an exercise training program combining low-impact dance aerobic, resistance and stretching exercise on physical fitness, hormone and lipid levels of postpartum, primiparous, lactating women. Thirty seven primiparous, lactating women were randomly assigned at 4-6 weeks postpartum to either follow an exercise training program of 50-60 min aerobic, strengthening and stretching exercise, 3 days a week, for 12 weeks (interventional group; n = 20) or no training program at all (control group; n = 17). The following parameters were measured at baseline and 12 weeks later: (1) for evaluation of physical fitness: VO2max, muscular endurance, joint mobility and body fat; (2) for evaluation of the lipidemic profile: triglyceride, total cholesterol, HDL and LDL levels, and (3) levels of hormones associated with lactation: prolactin, estradiol, cortisol, TSH, fT3 and fT4. After completion of the exercise training program, comparisons between the interventional and the control group showed statistically significant mean changes in VO2max (p = 0.003), muscular endurance of the upper extremities (p impact exercise training program appears to improve physical fitness of postpartum women, while it does not seem to affect lipid levels and lactation-associated hormone levels. Hence, implementation of an exercise training program combining low-impact dance aerobic, resistance and stretching exercise is feasible in postpartum, primiparous, lactating women.

  10. Effects of Exergames on Quality of Life, Pain, and Disease Effect in Women With Fibromyalgia: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collado-Mateo, Daniel; Dominguez-Muñoz, Francisco Javier; Adsuar, Jose Carmelo; Garcia-Gordillo, Miguel Angel; Gusi, Narcis

    2017-09-01

    To evaluate the effects of an exergame-based intervention on a population sample of women with fibromyalgia. Single-blinded, randomized controlled trial with 8-week intervention. Fibromyalgia center. Participants (all women) (N=83) were divided into 2 groups: an exercise group (n=42; mean age ± SD, 52.52±9.73y) and a nonexercise group (n=41; mean age ± SD, 52.47±8.75y). Women in the exercise group completed an 8-week exergame-based training program, which was focused on postural control and coordination of the upper and lower limbs, aerobic conditioning, strength, and mobility. Women (groups of 3) were encouraged to exercise for 120 minutes (over 2 sessions) per week. Main outcome measures included pain and disease effect, which were assessed with the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ), a specific measure for fibromyalgia. Secondary outcome measure included quality of life, which was assessed with the EuroQoL-5 Dimensions-5 Levels (EQ-5D-5L) generic instrument. The results showed that 97.62% of participants in the exercise group completed the 8-week intervention. The exercise group showed a significant improvement (Pfibromyalgia. Copyright © 2017 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Home-based video exercise intervention for community-dwelling frail older women: a randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Sonja; Kronborg, Christian; Puggaard, Lis

    2008-01-01

    , handgrip, biceps strength, chair rise, and 10-m maximal walking-speed in the training group, and for walking-speed and self-rated health in the control group. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that homebased training for frail older women using an exercise video induces lasting health-related quality...... and health-related quality of life. METHODS: Communitydwelling frail women >/=75 yrs, receiving public home care, were randomized into a training group (n=30) and a control group (n=31). Participants exercised for 26 minutes, three times per week for five months. Both groups received a bi-weekly telephone...... call. The effect of intervention was evaluated by the physical performance test, mobility-tiredness score, maximal isometric handgrip and biceps strength, lower limb explosive power, repeated chair rise (5 times), 10-m maximal walking-speed, semi-tandem balance, and health-related quality of life...

  12. Efficacy of a randomized trial examining commercial weight loss programs and exercise on metabolic syndrome in overweight and obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baetge, Claire; Earnest, Conrad P; Lockard, Brittanie; Coletta, Adriana M; Galvan, Elfego; Rasmussen, Christopher; Levers, Kyle; Simbo, Sunday Y; Jung, Y Peter; Koozehchian, Majid; Oliver, Jonathan; Dalton, Ryan; Sanchez, Brittany; Byrd, Michael J; Khanna, Deepesh; Jagim, Andrew; Kresta, Julie; Greenwood, Mike; Kreider, Richard B

    2017-02-01

    While commercial dietary weight-loss programs typically advise exercise, few provide actual programing. The goal of this study was to compare the Curves Complete 90-day Challenge (CC, n = 29), which incorporates exercising and diet, to programs advocating exercise (Weight Watchers Points Plus (WW, n = 29), Jenny Craig At Home (JC, n = 27), and Nutrisystem Advance Select (NS, n = 28)) or control (n = 20) on metabolic syndrome (MetS) and weight loss. We randomized 133 sedentary, overweight women (age, 47 ± 11 years; body mass, 86 ± 14 kg; body mass index, 35 ± 6 kg/m2) into respective treatment groups for 12 weeks. Data were analyzed using chi square and general linear models adjusted for age and respective baseline measures. Data are means ± SD or mean change ± 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We observed a significant trend for a reduction in energy intake for all treatment groups and significant weight loss for all groups except control: CC (-4.32 kg; 95% CI, -5.75, -2.88), WW (-4.31 kg; 95% CI, -5.82, -2.96), JC (-5.34 kg; 95% CI, -6.86, -3.90), NS (-5.03 kg; 95% CI, -6.49, -3.56), and control (0.16 kg, 95% CI, -1.56, 1.89). Reduced MetS prevalence was observed at follow-up for CC (35% vs. 14%, adjusted standardized residuals (adjres.) = 3.1), but not WW (31% vs. 28% adjres. = 0.5), JC (37% vs. 42%, adjres. = -0.7), NS (39% vs. 50% adjres. = -1.5), or control (45% vs. 55% adjres. = -1.7). While all groups improved relative fitness (mL·kg-1·min-1) because of weight loss, only the CC group improved absolute fitness (L/min). In conclusion, commercial programs offering concurrent diet and exercise programming appear to offer greater improvements in MetS prevalence and cardiovascular function after 12 weeks of intervention.

  13. Maternal Efficacy and Safety Outcomes in a Randomized, Controlled Trial Comparing Insulin Detemir With NPH Insulin in 310 Pregnant Women With Type 1 Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Elisabeth R; Hod, Moshe; Ivanisevic, Marina

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE This randomized, controlled noninferiority trial aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of insulin detemir (IDet) versus neutral protamine Hagedorn (NPH) (both with prandial insulin aspart) in pregnant women with type 1 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Patients were randomized an...

  14. Effect of exercise on total and intra-abdominal body fat in postmenopausal women: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Melinda L; Yasui, Yutaka; Ulrich, Cornelia M; Bowen, Deborah; Rudolph, Rebecca E; Schwartz, Robert S; Yukawa, Michi; Aiello, Erin; Potter, John D; McTiernan, Anne

    2003-01-15

    The increasing prevalence of obesity is a major public health concern. Physical activity may promote weight and body fat loss. To examine the effects of exercise on total and intra-abdominal body fat overall and by level of exercise. Randomized controlled trial conducted from 1997 to 2001. A total of 173 sedentary, overweight (body mass index > or =24.0 and >33% body fat), postmenopausal women aged 50 to 75 years who were living in the Seattle, Wash, area. Participants were randomly assigned to an intervention consisting of exercise facility and home-based moderate-intensity exercise (n = 87) or a stretching control group (n = 86). Changes in body weight and waist and hip circumferences at 3 and 12 months; total body, intra-abdominal, and subcutaneous abdominal fat at 12 months. Twelve-month data were available for 168 women. Women in the exercise group participated in moderate-intensity sports/recreational activity for a mean (SD) of 3.5 (1.2) d/wk for 176 (91) min/wk. Walking was the most frequently reported activity. Exercisers showed statistically significant differences from controls in baseline to 12-month changes in body weight (-1.4 kg; 95% confidence interval [CI], -2.5 to -0.3 kg), total body fat (-1.0%; 95% CI, -1.6% to -0.4%), intra-abdominal fat (-8.6 g/cm2; 95% CI, -17.8 to 0.9 g/cm2), and subcutaneous abdominal fat (-28.8 g/cm2); 95% CI, -47.5 to -10.0 g/cm2). A significant dose response for greater body fat loss was observed with increasing duration of exercise. Regular exercise such as brisk walking results in reduced body weight and body fat among overweight and obese postmenopausal women.

  15. Effectiveness of complementary pain treatment for women with deep endometriosis through Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (TENS): randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mira, Ticiana A A; Giraldo, Paulo C; Yela, Daniela A; Benetti-Pinto, Cristina L

    2015-11-01

    Evaluate TENS effectiveness as a complementary treatment of chronic pelvic pain and deep dyspareunia in women with deep endometriosis. This randomized controlled trial was performed in a tertiary health care center, including twenty-two women with deep endometriosis undergoing hormone therapy with persistent pelvic pain and/or deep dyspareunia. This study was registered in the Brazilian Record of Clinical Trials (ReBEC), under n RBR-3rndh6. TENS application for 8 weeks followed a randomized allocation into two groups: Group 1 - acupuncture-like TENS (Frequency: 8Hz, pulse duration: 250μs) - VIF (n=11) and Group 2 - self-applied TENS (Frequency: 85Hz, pulse duration: 75μs) (n=11). The intensity applied was "strong, but comfortable". We evaluated patients before and after treatment by the use of the Visual Analogue Scale, Deep Dyspareunia Scale and Endometriosis Quality of Life Questionnaire. We used the Wilcoxon and Mann-Whitney tests to compare before and after treatment conditions. Despite the use of hormone therapy for 1.65±2.08 years, the 22 women with deep endometriosis sustained pelvic pain complaints (VAS=5.95±2.13 and 2.45±2.42, pTENS. Both application types of TENS were effective for improving the evaluated types of pain. Both resources (acupuncture-like TENS and self-applied TENS) demonstrated effectiveness as a complementary treatment of pelvic pain and deep dyspareunia, improving quality of life in women with deep endometriosis regardless of the device used for treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of a dance-based aquatic exercise program in obese postmenopausal women with knee osteoarthritis: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casilda-López, Jesús; Valenza, Marie Carmen; Cabrera-Martos, Irene; Díaz-Pelegrina, Ana; Moreno-Ramírez, Maria Paz; Valenza-Demet, Gerald

    2017-07-01

    To evaluate the effects of a dance-based aquatic exercise program on functionality, cardiorespiratory capacity, postexercise heart rate, and fatigue in obese postmenopausal women with knee osteoarthritis. A randomized controlled trial was performed. In all, 34 obese women diagnosed with knee osteoarthritis participated. Women were randomly allocated to an experimental group (n = 17) or a control group (n = 17). Participants in the experimental group were included in an 8-week dance-based aquatic exercise program conducted in community swimming pools. Those in the control group underwent a global aquatic exercise program. The primary outcome measure was functionality assessed with the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC). Secondary outcomes were cardiorespiratory capacity evaluated with the 6-minute walk test, and postexercise heart rate and fatigue assessed using a visual analog scale. Variables were measured at baseline, after the intervention, and at 3-month follow-up. A between-group analysis showed significant postintervention differences in functionality (aggregate postintervention WOMAC score of 37.30 ± 16.61 vs 41.83 ± 13.69; P = 0.048) in favor of the experimental group. In addition, significant between-group differences were found after the 8 weeks in cardiorespiratory capacity, postexercise heart rate, and fatigue. Follow-up continued to show significant differences between groups in function (aggregate WOMAC score of 38.60 ± 13.61 vs 42.60 ± 9.05; P = 0.038), postexercise heart rate, and fatigue. An 8-week dance-based exercise program significantly improved function and cardiorespiratory capacity, and decreased postexercise heart rate and fatigue. Most of these improvements were maintained at 3-month follow-up in obese postmenopausal women.

  17. Change in body fat mass is independently associated with executive functions in older women: a secondary analysis of a 12-month randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Dao

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To investigate the independent contribution of change in sub-total body fat and lean mass to cognitive performance, specifically the executive processes of selective attention and conflict resolution, in community-dwelling older women. METHODS: This secondary analysis included 114 women aged 65 to 75 years old. Participants were randomly allocated to once-weekly resistance training, twice-weekly resistance training, or twice-weekly balance and tone training. The primary outcome measure was the executive processes of selective attention and conflict resolution as assessed by the Stroop Test. Sub-total body fat and lean mass were measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA to determine the independent association of change in both sub-total body fat and sub-total body lean mass with Stroop Test performance at trial completion. RESULTS: A multiple linear regression model showed reductions in sub-total body fat mass to be independently associated with better performance on the Stroop Test at trial completion after accounting for baseline Stroop performance, age, baseline global cognitive state, baseline number of comorbidities, baseline depression, and experimental group. The total variance explained was 39.5%; change in sub-total body fat mass explained 3.9% of the variance. Change in sub-total body lean mass was not independently associated with Stroop Test performance (P>0.05. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that reductions in sub-total body fat mass - not sub-total lean mass - is associated with better performance of selective attention and conflict resolution.

  18. e-Therapy to reduce emotional distress in women undergoing assisted reproductive technology (ART): a feasibility randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dongen, Angelique J C M; Nelen, Willianne L D M; IntHout, Joanna; Kremer, Jan A M; Verhaak, Christianne M

    2016-05-01

    Is it feasible to evaluate a personalized e-therapy program (Internet based) for women during fertility treatment aimed to reduce the chance of having clinically relevant symptoms of anxiety and/or depression after unsuccessful assisted reproductive technology (ART) treatment within a randomized controlled trial (RCT)? The evaluation of a personalized e-therapy program is feasible, reflected by good acceptability and integration within current guidelines, but adjustments to the e-therapy program and study design of the RCT have to be made to enhance demand, practicality and efficacy. Internet-based interventions are promising in reducing psychological distress, especially when treatment is personalized to specific risk profiles of patients. However in fertility care, the beneficial effects of personalized e-therapy on psychological distress and its implementation in daily clinical care still have to be evaluated. To evaluate the feasibility of a personalized e-therapy program, we conducted a two-arm, parallel group, single-blind feasibility randomized controlled trial with a 1:1 allocation. Feasibility was assessed in terms of demand, acceptability, practicality, implementation, integration and limited efficacy. Women were included between 1 February 2011 and 1 June 2013. Women in the control group received care as usual, whereas women in the intervention group received in addition to their usual care access to a personalized e-therapy program. Women were monitored until 3 months after the start of their first ART cycle. In a university hospital in the Netherlands women who were screened as at risk for emotional adjustment problems and intended to start their first ART cycle were invited, and of them 120 were randomized. Of these women, 48% in the intervention group were compliant to the intervention. Outcome measures associated with the feasibility to analyse this e-therapy program within an RCT were assessed. It is feasible to evaluate a personalized e

  19. Generation of Aptamers from A Primer-Free Randomized ssDNA Library Using Magnetic-Assisted Rapid Aptamer Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsao, Shih-Ming; Lai, Ji-Ching; Horng, Horng-Er; Liu, Tu-Chen; Hong, Chin-Yih

    2017-04-01

    Aptamers are oligonucleotides that can bind to specific target molecules. Most aptamers are generated using random libraries in the standard systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX). Each random library contains oligonucleotides with a randomized central region and two fixed primer regions at both ends. The fixed primer regions are necessary for amplifying target-bound sequences by PCR. However, these extra-sequences may cause non-specific bindings, which potentially interfere with good binding for random sequences. The Magnetic-Assisted Rapid Aptamer Selection (MARAS) is a newly developed protocol for generating single-strand DNA aptamers. No repeat selection cycle is required in the protocol. This study proposes and demonstrates a method to isolate aptamers for C-reactive proteins (CRP) from a randomized ssDNA library containing no fixed sequences at 5‧ and 3‧ termini using the MARAS platform. Furthermore, the isolated primer-free aptamer was sequenced and binding affinity for CRP was analyzed. The specificity of the obtained aptamer was validated using blind serum samples. The result was consistent with monoclonal antibody-based nephelometry analysis, which indicated that a primer-free aptamer has high specificity toward targets. MARAS is a feasible platform for efficiently generating primer-free aptamers for clinical diagnoses.

  20. Blood pressure and endothelial function in healthy, pregnant women after acute and daily consumption of flavanol-rich chocolate: a pilot, randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Mogollon, Jaime Andres; Bujold, Emmanuel; Lemieux, Simone; Bourdages, M?lodie; Blanchet, Claudine; Bazinet, Laurent; Couillard, Charles; No?l, Martin; Dodin, Sylvie

    2013-01-01

    Background Several randomized clinical trials (RCTs) indicate that flavanol-rich chocolate has beneficial effects on flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and blood pressure (BP). However, no RCTs have evaluated these outcomes in pregnant women. The objective of this 2-group, parallel, double-blind RCT was to examine the effects of flavanol-rich chocolate on FMD and BP in pregnant women with normal BP. Methods Forty-four healthy, pregnant women were randomized to the high-flavanol (n?=?23) or low-flav...

  1. Breast density as indicator for the use of mammography or MRI to screen women with familial risk for breast cancer (FaMRIsc: a multicentre randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saadatmand Sepideh

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To reduce mortality, women with a family history of breast cancer often start mammography screening at a younger age than the general population. Breast density is high in over 50% of women younger than 50 years. With high breast density, breast cancer incidence increases, but sensitivity of mammography decreases. Therefore, mammography might not be the optimal method for breast cancer screening in young women. Adding MRI increases sensitivity, but also the risk of false-positive results. The limitation of all previous MRI screening studies is that they do not contain a comparison group; all participants received both MRI and mammography. Therefore, we cannot empirically assess in which stage tumours would have been detected by either test. The aim of the Familial MRI Screening Study (FaMRIsc is to compare the efficacy of MRI screening to mammography for women with a familial risk. Furthermore, we will assess the influence of breast density. Methods/Design This Dutch multicentre, randomized controlled trial, with balanced randomisation (1:1 has a parallel grouped design. Women with a cumulative lifetime risk for breast cancer due to their family history of ≥20%, aged 30–55 years are eligible. Identified BRCA1/2 mutation carriers or women with 50% risk of carrying a mutation are excluded. Group 1 receives yearly mammography and clinical breast examination (n = 1000, and group 2 yearly MRI and clinical breast examination, and mammography biennially (n = 1000. Primary endpoints are the number and stage of the detected breast cancers in each arm. Secondary endpoints are the number of false-positive results in both screening arms. Furthermore, sensitivity and positive predictive value of both screening strategies will be assessed. Cost-effectiveness of both strategies will be assessed. Analyses will also be performed with mammographic density as stratification factor. Discussion Personalized breast cancer screening

  2. Increasing Pap Smear Utilization Among Samoan Women: Results from a Community Based Participatory Randomized Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Shiraz I.; Luce, Pat H.; Baquet, Claudia R.

    2013-01-01

    Background We tested the effectiveness of a theory-guided, culturally tailored cervical cancer education program designed to increase Pap smear use among Samoan women residing in the U.S. Territory of American Samoa. Methods We used a two-group, pretest-posttest design. The sample comprised 398 Samoan women age 20 and older who we recruited from Samoan churches. Women in the intervention group received a culturally tailored cervical cancer education program in three weekly sessions. The primary outcome was self-reported receipt of a Pap smear. Results Overall, there was a significant intervention effect, with intervention compared with control group women twice (adjusted odds ratio = 2.0, 95% confidence interval = 1.3–3.2, pPap smear use at the posttest. Conclusions The findings support the efficacy of the multifaceted, theory-guided, culturally tailored community-based participatory cervical cancer education program for Samoan women in effecting positive changes in Pap smear use and cervical cancer related knowledge and attitudes. PMID:19711495

  3. Changes in prevalence of calcaneal spurs in men & women: a random population from a trauma clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toumi, Hechmi; Davies, Ryan; Mazor, Marija; Coursier, Raphael; Best, Thomas M; Jennane, Rachid; Lespessailles, Eric

    2014-03-15

    This study reports the changing prevalence of ankle (Achilles and plantar) spurs with age, in order to comment on their significance to rheumatologists. 1080 lateral ankle radiographs from each of 9 (50 men and 50 women) age cohorts from 2 to 96 years old of patients attending a trauma clinic were examined and spurs classified as small or large. The prevalence of both Achilles and plantar spurs in relation to the age categories and sex was variable. Overall, there was 38% of the population who had a spur (Achilles or plantar) and only third (11%) with spurs at both sites (Achilles and plantar). Large spurs were more prevalent in older individuals (40 to 79 years). There were no large plantar spurs in individuals prevalence of spurs (Achilles and plantar) was significantly higher for woman than men in individuals spurs for women spurs are highly prevalent in older people and the radiographic appearance of spurs differs between men and women. In individuals spur (Achilles and plantar) formation is more common in women than in men. Additionally, there was a notable moderate positive correlation between Achilles and plantar spurs for women <30 years of age.

  4. Osteopathic Manipulative Therapy in Women With Postpartum Low Back Pain and Disability: A Pragmatic Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwerla, Florian; Rother, Katrin; Rother, Denis; Ruetz, Michaela; Resch, Karl-Ludwig

    2015-07-01

    Persistent low back pain (LBP) is a common complaint among women during and after pregnancy, and its effects on quality of life can be disabling. To evaluate the effectiveness of osteopathic manipulative therapy (OMTh; manipulative care provided by foreign-trained osteopaths) in women with persistent LBP and functional disability after childbirth. A pragmatic randomized controlled trial was conducted among a sample of women with a history of pregnancy-related LBP for at least 3 months after delivery. Participants were identified from the general population in Germany. By means of external randomization, women were allocated to an OMTh group and a waitlist control group. Osteopathic manipulative therapy was provided 4 times at intervals of 2 weeks, with a follow-up after 12 weeks. The OMTh was tailored to each participant and based on osteopathic principles. The participants allocated to the control group did not receive OMTh during the 8-week study; rather, they were put on a waiting list to receive OMTh on completion of the study. Further, they were not allowed to receive any additional treatment (ie, medication, physical therapy, or other sources of pain relief) during the study period. The main outcome measures were pain intensity as measured by a visual analog scale and the effect of LBP on daily activities as assessed by the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI). A total of 80 women aged between 23 and 42 years (mean [SD], 33.6 [4.5] years) were included in the study, with 40 in the OMTh group and 40 in the control group. Pain intensity decreased in the OMTh group from 7.3 to 2.0 (95% CI, 4.8-5.9; P<.001) and in the control group from 7.0 to 6.5 (95% CI, -0.2 to -0.9; P=.005). The between-group comparison of changes revealed a statistically significant improvement in pain intensity in the OMTh group (between-group difference of means, 4.8; 95% CI, 4.1-5.4; P<.001) and level of disability (between-group difference of means, 10.6; 95% CI, 9.9-13.2; P<.005). The follow

  5. The impact of a microsavings intervention on reducing violence against women engaged in sex work: a randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Laura Cordisco; Carlson, Catherine E; Aira, Toivgoo; Norcini Pala, Andrea; Riedel, Marion; Witte, Susan S

    2016-10-28

    Women who engage in sex work are at risk for experiencing violence from numerous perpetrators, including paying partners. Empirical evidence has shown mixed results regarding the impact of participation in microfinance interventions on women's experiences of violence, with some studies demonstrating reductions in intimate partner violence (IPV) and others showing heightened risk for IPV. The current study reports on the impact of participation in a microsavings intervention on experiences of paying partner violence among women engaged in sex work in Mongolia. Between 2011 and 2013, we conducted a two-arm, non-blinded randomized controlled trial (RCT) comparing an HIV/STI risk reduction intervention (HIVSRR) (control condition) to a combined microsavings and HIVSRR intervention (treatment condition). Eligible women (aged 18 or older, reported having engaged in unprotected sex with paying partner in past 90 days, expressed interest in microsavings intervention) were invited to participate. One hundred seven were randomized, including 50 in the control and 57 in the treatment condition. Participants completed assessments at baseline, immediate post-test following HIVSRR, and at 3-months and 6-months after completion of the treatment group intervention. Outcomes for the current study include any violence (physical and/or sexual), sexual violence, and physical violence from paying partners in the past 90 days. An intention-to-treat approach was utilized. Linear growth models revealed significant reductions over time in both conditions for any violence (β = -0.867, p violence (β = -0.0923, p violence (β = -1.639, p = 0.001) from paying partners. No significant differences between groups were found for any violence (β = 0.118, p = 0.389), physical violence (β = 0.091, p = 0.792), or sexual violence (β = 0.379, p = 0.114) from paying partners. Microsavings participation did not significantly impact women's risk for paying

  6. Pregnancy outcomes in women with repeated implantation failures after intracytoplasmic morphologically selected sperm injection (IMSI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauri Ana L

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to compare laboratory and clinical outcomes of intracytoplasmic morphologically selected sperm injection (IMSI and conventional intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI in couples with repeated implantation failures. Methods A total of 200 couples with at least two prior unsuccessful ICSI cycles were enrolled: 100 couples were submitted to IMSI and 100 were submitted to routine ICSI. For IMSI, spermatozoa were selected at 8400× magnification using an inverted microscope equipped with Nomarski (differential interference contrast optics. For conventional ICSI, spermatozoa were selected at 400× magnification. Clinical outcomes were evaluated between the two groups. Results Study patients were comparable in age, number of treatment failures, aetiology of infertility, percentage of normal form assessed by MSOME (motile sperm organelle morphology examination, semen parameters, total number of oocytes collected, number of mature oocytes collected, total number of embryos transferred and number of high-quality embryos transferred. No statistically significant differences between the two groups were observed with regard to rates of fertilisation, implantation and pregnancy/cycle. Although not statistically significant, rates of miscarriage (IMSI:15.3% vs ICSI:31.7%, ongoing pregnancy (IMSI:22% vs ICSI:13% and live births (IMSI:21% vs ICSI:12% showed a trend towards better outcomes in the IMSI group. In addition, analysis of subpopulations with or without male factor showed similar results. Conclusions Our results suggest that IMSI does not provide a significant improvement in clinical outcome compared to ICSI, at least in couples with repeated implantation failures after conventional ICSI. However, it should be noted that there were clear trends for lower miscarriage rates (≈50% reduced and higher rates of ongoing pregnancy and live births (both nearly doubled within the IMSI group. Further confirmation

  7. The Effect of Education of Fetal Movement Counting on Maternal-Fetal Attachment in the Pregnant Women: a Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kobra Salehi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Prenatal care is a good opportunity for evaluating and improving maternal-fetal attachment. In the present study the effect of early education of fetal movement counting in the second trimester on maternal-fetal attachment was evaluated. Materials and Methods 52 eligible pregnant women were selected through simple sampling and then randomly allocated into control (n=29, and intervention groups (n=23. First, demographic characteristics questionnaire and Cranely’s Maternal-Fetal Attachment Scale (MFAS, were completed by pregnant women. Face to face training about counting and recording the daily fetal movement was provided in the intervention group and from the 24th to 28th weeks of pregnancy, daily counting of fetal movements were conducted. Then at the end of the 28th week of pregnancy, MFAS was again completed by both groups. Data analysis was conducted using SPSS version16.0. Results The mean score of MFA scale in the intervention group was 86.63±11.62 and in the control group was 87.48±10.31 (total score of 120. No significant difference was observed between two groups. After the intervention, the mean score of MFA was increased to 96.30±10.81 in the intervention group and 88.64±10.31 in the control group. The difference was statistically significant between two groups (P

  8. Consumption of a Double-Fortified Salt Affects Perceptual, Attentional, and Mnemonic Functioning in Women in a Randomized Controlled Trial in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenger, Michael J; Murray-Kolb, Laura E; Nevins, Julie Eh; Venkatramanan, Sudha; Reinhart, Gregory A; Wesley, Annie; Haas, Jere D

    2017-12-01

    Background: Iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia have been shown to have negative effects on aspects of perception, attention, and memory. Objective: The purpose of this investigation was to assess the extent to which increases in dietary iron consumption are related to improvements in behavioral measures of perceptual, attentional, and mnemonic function. Methods: Women were selected from a randomized, double-blind, controlled food-fortification trial involving ad libitum consumption of either a double-fortified salt (DFS) containing 47 mg potassium iodate/kg and 3.3 mg microencapsulated ferrous fumarate/g (1.1 mg elemental Fe/g) or a control iodized salt. Participants' blood iron status (primary outcomes) and cognitive functioning (secondary outcomes) were assessed at baseline and after 10 mo at endline. The study was performed on a tea plantation in the Darjeeling district of India. Participants ( n = 126; 66% iron deficient and 49% anemic at baseline) were otherwise healthy women of reproductive age, 18-55 y. Results: Significant improvements were documented for iron status and for perceptual, attentional, and mnemonic function in the DFS group (percentage of variance accounted for: 16.5%) compared with the control group. In addition, the amount of change in perceptual and cognitive performance was significantly ( P mnemonic performance of Indian female tea pickers of reproductive age. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01032005. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  9. Inositol supplementation in women with polycystic ovary syndrome undergoing intracytoplasmic sperm injection: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Nicolás; Pérez, Laura; Simoncini, Tommaso; Genazzani, Alessandro

    2017-11-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a complex and heterogeneous disease that involves menstrual dysfunction and reproductive difficulty, as well as metabolic problems. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of myo-inositol (MYO) and d-chiro-inositol (DCI) on improving oocyte or embryo quality and pregnancy rates for women with PCOS undergoing intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). We searched the Web of Knowledge, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Pubmed, Scopus and Cochrane databases for all articles published in any language up to March 2017. The selection criteria were as follows: (population) patients with PCOS; (intervention) treatment with inositol (MYO, DCI, or both, with any dose and any duration) in conjunction with an ovulation-inducing agent versus the ovulation-inducing agent alone; (outcome) oocyte and embryo quality; (study design) randomized controlled trials. Of 76 identified studies, eight RCTs were included for analysis comprising 1019 women with PCOS. MYO supplementation was insufficient to improve oocyte quality (OR 2.2051; 95% CI 0.8260 to 5.8868), embryo quality (OR 1.6231, 95% CI 0.3926 to 6.7097), or pregnancy rate (OR 1.2832, 95% CI 0.8692 to 1.8944). Future studies of appropriate dose, size and duration of DCI are vital to clarify its the role in the management of PCOS. Copyright © 2017 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Physiological and perceptual responses of sedentary women while walking at a self-selected pace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiane Hallage

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the physiological and perceptual responses of sedentary women while walking at a self-selected pace. The sample was made up of forty-one women with a median age of 32.6 ± 8.6 years. Subjects underwent an incremental test until exhaustion on a treadmill in order to determine their maximum physiological and perceptual responses. The subjects then a 20-minute walking test at their self-selected pace to determine physiological and perceptual responses. Descriptive analysis was in the form of measures of central tendency, variability and relative frequency. Mean exercise intensity during the walking bout was 57.3 ± 12.1% of peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak and 74.4 ± 9.3% of peak heart rate (HRpeak, corresponding to 88.4 ± 19.8% and 85.6 ± 21.6% of the fi gures obtained at ventilatory threshold (VT, respectively. Nevertheless, the rating of perceived effort (RPE and affective valence (AV during the walking session returned mean values of 11.9 ± 2.1 and 2.4 ± 2.0, which correspond to 100.7 ± 20.0% and 96.0 ± 2.0% of the fi gures obtained at VT, respectively. In conclusion, the exercise intensity that was self-selected by this group of sedentary women meets current recommendations for moderate intensity exercise and was associated with increased pleasure.RESUMO O objetivo desse estudo foi verifi car os parâmetros fi siológicos e perceptivos durante a realização de caminhada de intensidade preferida por mulheres adultas, previamente sedentárias. Foram investigados 41 sujeitos (idade 32,6 ± 8,6 anos, os quais realizaram, inicialmente, um teste de esteira incremental até a exaustão para a determinação de respostas fi siológicas e perceptivas máximas e, posteriormente, um teste de caminhada em esteira por 20 minutos em uma intensidade auto-selecionada, no qual parâmetros fi siológicos e perceptivos foram obtidos. Medidas de tendência central e variabilidade foram empregadas para a an

  11. The portrayal of single women characters in selected African literary texts

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    Linda Kwatsha

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the portrayal of single women characters in works by a number of African women authors is critically reflected upon. These women are portrayed as strong, resistant, independent and realistic characters, who boldly resist male paternalism and dominance in order to look to the future with courage. Single women characters are presented as independent individuals rather than as kinship appendages. They are portrayed as architects of their own potential happiness rather than as passive receivers of the dictates of patriarchy. The article will also show that women characters account for their own values, rather than subserviently surrender to stereotypical conventions. African women writers portray single women characters as having the professional and economic means to look after themselves. This portrayal of women characters is part of a debate that translates itself to contemporary everyday philosophical social theory.

  12. Percutaneous tibial nerve stimulation versus electrical stimulation with pelvic floor muscle training for overactive bladder syndrome in women: results of a randomized controlled study

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    Carlo Vecchioli Scaldazza

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction This study compared percutaneous tibial nerve stimulation (PTNS versus electrical stimulation with pelvic floor muscle training (ES + PFMT in women with overactive bladder syndrome (OAB. Materials and Methods 60 women with OAB were enrolled. Patients were randomized into two groups. In group A, women underwent ES with PFMT, in group B women underwent PTNS. Results A statistically significant reduction in the number of daily micturitions, episodes of nocturia and urge incontinence was found in the two groups but the difference was more substantial in women treated with PTNS; voided volume increased in both groups. Quality of life improved in both groups, whereas patient perception of urgency improved only in women treated with PTNS. Global impression of improvement revealed a greater satisfaction in patients treated with PTNS. Conclusion This study demonstrates the effectiveness of PTNS and ES with PFMT in women with OAB, but greater improvements were found with PTNS.

  13. A mild ovarian stimulation strategy in women with poor ovarian reserve undergoing IVF: a multicenter randomized non-inferiority trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, M A; van Wely, M; Al-Inany, H; Madani, T; Jahangiri, N; Khodabakhshi, S; Alhalabi, M; Akhondi, M; Ansaripour, S; Tokhmechy, R; Zarandi, L; Rizk, A; El-Mohamedy, M; Shaeer, E; Khattab, M; Mochtar, M H; van der Veen, F

    2017-01-01

    In subfertile women with poor ovarian reserve undergoing IVF does a mild ovarian stimulation strategy lead to comparable ongoing pregnancy rates in comparison to a conventional ovarian stimulation strategy? A mild ovarian stimulation strategy in women with poor ovarian reserve undergoing IVF leads to similar ongoing pregnancy rates as a conventional ovarian stimulation strategy. Women diagnosed with poor ovarian reserve are treated with a conventional ovarian stimulation strategy consisting of high-dose gonadotropins and pituitary downregulation with a long mid-luteal start GnRH-agonist protocol. Previous studies comparing a conventional strategy with a mild ovarian stimulation strategy consisting of low-dose gonadotropins and pituitary downregulation with a GnRH-antagonist have been under powered and their effectiveness is inconclusive. This open label multicenter randomized trial was designed to compare one cycle of a mild ovarian stimulation strategy consisting of low-dose gonadotropins (150 IU FSH) and pituitary downregulation with a GnRH-antagonist to one cycle of a conventional ovarian stimulation strategy consisting of high-dose gonadotropins (450 IU HMG) and pituitary downregulation with a long mid-luteal GnRH-agonist in women of advanced maternal age and/or women with poor ovarian reserve undergoing IVF between May 2011 and April 2014. Couples seeking infertility treatment were eligible if they fulfilled the following inclusion criteria: female age ≥35 years, a raised basal FSH level >10 IU/ml irrespective of age, a low antral follicular count of ≤5 follicles or poor ovarian response or cycle cancellation during a previous IVF cycle irrespective of age. The primary outcome was ongoing pregnancy rate per woman randomized. Analyses were on an intention-to-treat basis. We randomly assigned 195 women to the mild ovarian stimulation strategy and 199 women to the conventional ovarian stimulation strategy. Ongoing pregnancy rate was 12.8% (25/195) for mild

  14. Efficacy of a Health Educator–Delivered HIV Prevention Intervention for Latina Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiClemente, Ralph J.; Villamizar, Kira; Er, Deja L.; DeVarona, Martina; Taveras, Janelle; Painter, Thomas M.; Lang, Delia L.; Hardin, James W.; Ullah, Evelyn; Stallworth, JoAna; Purcell, David W.; Jean, Reynald

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. We developed and assessed AMIGAS (Amigas, Mujeres Latinas, Inform andonos, Gui andonos, y Apoy andonos contra el SIDA [friends, Latina women, informing each other, guiding each other, and supporting each other against AIDS]), a culturally congruent HIV prevention intervention for Latina women adapted from SiSTA (Sistas Informing Sistas about Topics on AIDS), an intervention for African American women. Methods. We recruited 252 Latina women aged 18 to 35 years in Miami, Florida, in 2008 to 2009 and randomized them to the 4-session AMIGAS intervention or a 1-session health intervention. Participants completed audio computer-assisted self-interviews at baseline and follow-up. Results. Over the 6-month follow-up, AMIGAS participants reported more consistent condom use during the past 90 (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 4.81; P < .001) and 30 (AOR = 3.14; P < .001) days and at last sexual encounter (AOR = 2.76; P < .001), and a higher mean percentage condom use during the past 90 (relative change = 55.7%; P < .001) and 30 (relative change = 43.8%; P < .001) days than did comparison participants. AMIGAS participants reported fewer traditional views of gender roles (P = .008), greater self-efficacy for negotiating safer sex (P < .001), greater feelings of power in relationships (P = .02), greater self-efficacy for using condoms (P < .001), and greater HIV knowledge (P = .009) and perceived fewer barriers to using condoms (P < .001). Conclusions. Our results support the efficacy of this linguistically and culturally adapted HIV intervention among ethnically diverse, predominantly foreign-born Latina women. PMID:22021297

  15. Habitual cocoa intake reduces arterial stiffness in postmenopausal women regardless of intake frequency: a randomized parallel-group study

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    Okamoto T

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Takanobu Okamoto,1 Ryota Kobayashi,1 Midori Natsume,2 Koichi Nakazato1 1Department of Exercise Physiology, Nippon Sport Science University, Tokyo, Japan; 2Food Sciences Research Laboratories, Meiji Co Ltd, Kanagawa, Japan Abstract: Arterial stiffness is substantially higher in postmenopausal than in premenopausal women. Daily cocoa intake has been shown to reduce central arterial stiffness in health adults, regardless of age; however, the effect of cocoa-intake frequency on arterial stiffness in postmenopausal women remains unclear. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of cocoa-intake frequency on arterial stiffness in postmenopausal women. A total of 26 postmenopausal women (mean age ± standard deviation 64±12 years were randomly assigned to two groups with different cocoa-intake frequencies: one group ingested 17 g of cocoa once daily except on Sundays (every-day group, n=13, and the other ingested 17 g of cocoa twice daily every other day (every-other-day group, n=13. These intake regimens were maintained in both groups for 12 weeks. Carotid–femoral pulse-wave velocity and femoral–ankle pulse-wave velocity were measured in both groups at baseline and again at the end of the 12-week study period. Compared to baseline, both pulse-wave velocities had significantly decreased after the 12-week study period in both groups (P<0.05. However, no significant difference in degree of change was observed between the two groups. Although this study did not include a sedentary control group, these results suggest that regardless of frequency, habitual cocoa intake reduces central and peripheral arterial stiffness in postmenopausal women. Keywords: flavanol-enriched cocoa, pulse-wave velocity, intake frequency, endothelin 1

  16. Optimizing healthy gestational weight gain in women at high risk of gestational diabetes: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Cheryce L; Lombard, Catherine B; Strauss, Boyd J; Teede, Helena J

    2013-05-01

    Optimizing gestational weight gain (GWG) in early pregnancy is of clinical and public health importance, especially in higher risk pregnancies. In a robustly designed, randomized controlled trial, 228 pregnant women at risk of developing gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) were allocated to either control (written health information only) or intervention (four-session lifestyle program). All women received standard maternal care. Measures were completed at 12-15 and 26-28 weeks gestation. Measures included anthropometrics (weight and height), physical activity (pedometer and International Physical Activity Questionnaire), questionnaires (risk perception), and GDM screening. The mean (SD) age [31.7 (4.5) and 32.4 (4.7) years] and body mass index [BMI; 30.3 (5.9) and 30.4 (5.6) kg/m(2) ] were similar between control and intervention groups, respectively. By 28 weeks, GWG was significantly different between control and intervention groups [6.9 (3.3) vs. 6.0 (2.8) kg, P group gained significantly more weight compared to overweight women in the intervention group [7.8 (3.4) vs. 6.0 (2.2) kg, P groups. Physical activity levels declined by 28 weeks gestation overall (P group retained a 20% higher step count compared to controls [5,203 (3,368) vs. 4,140 (2,420) steps/day, P toward less cases in the intervention group (P = 0.1). Results indicate that a low-intensity lifestyle intervention, integrated with antenatal care, optimizes healthy GWG and attenuates physical activity decline in early pregnancy. Efficacy in limiting weight gain was greatest in overweight women and in high-risk ethnically diverse women. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.

  17. A randomized clinical trial of behavioral couples therapy versus individually based treatment for women with alcohol dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumm, Jeremiah A; O'Farrell, Timothy J; Kahler, Christopher W; Murphy, Marie M; Muchowski, Patrice

    2014-12-01

    Multiple studies show that behavioral couples therapy (BCT) is more efficacious than individually based therapy (IBT) for substance use and relationship outcomes among men with alcohol use disorder (AUD). The present study compared BCT with IBT for women with AUD. Participants were women with AUD (N = 105) and their male partners without substance use disorder. Participants were mostly White and in their 40s. Women were randomized to equally intensive treatments consisting of either BCT plus 12-step-oriented IBT or IBT only. Primary outcomes included time line follow-back interview percentage days abstinent (PDA) and Inventory of Drug Use Consequences measure of substance-related problems. Secondary outcomes included the Dyadic Adjustment Scale (DAS), Relationship Happiness Scale (RHS), and Revised Conflict Tactics Scales measure of intimate partner violence (IPV). Outcome data were collected at baseline, posttreatment, and quarterly for 1-year follow-up. Compared with IBT only, BCT plus IBT had significantly better primary outcomes of higher PDA and fewer substance-related problems during the 1-year follow-up period. Compared with IBT only, BCT had significantly higher male RHS during the 1-year follow-up. Women with lower pretreatment DAS had significantly higher DAS following BCT versus IBT, and there was an increasing advantage for BCT on female DAS over the follow-up. IPV was significantly reduced from pretreatment to follow-up, with no differences between treatment conditions. RESULTS showed that BCT for women with AUD was more efficacious than IBT in reducing substance use and substance-related problems and improving partner relationships.

  18. A Randomized Clinical Trial of Behavioral Couples Therapy versus Individually-Based Treatment for Women with Alcohol Dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumm, Jeremiah A.; O’Farrell, Timothy J.; Kahler, Christopher W.; Murphy, Marie M.; Muchowski, Patrice

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Multiple studies show that behavioral couples therapy (BCT) is more efficacious than individually-based therapy (IBT) for substance use and relationship outcomes among men with alcohol use disorder (AUD). The present study compared BCT with IBT for women with AUD. Method: Participants were women with AUD (N = 105) and their male partners without SUD. Participants were mostly White and in their forties. Women were randomized to equally intensive treatments consisting of either BCT plus 12-step-oriented IBT or IBT only. Primary outcomes included: Timeline Followback Interview percentage days abstinent (PDA) and Inventory of Drug Use Consequences measure of substance-related problems. Secondary outcomes included: Dyadic Adjustment Scale (DAS), Relationship Happiness Scale (RHS), and Revised Conflict Tactics Scales measure of intimate partner violence (IPV). Outcome data were collected at baseline, post-treatment, and quarterly for 1-yr follow-up. Results: Compared to IBT only, BCT plus IBT had significantly better primary outcomes of higher PDA and fewer substance-related problems during the 1-yr follow-up period. Compared to IBT only, BCT had significantly higher male RHS during the 1-yr follow-up. Women with lower pretreatment DAS had significantly higher DAS following BCT versus IBT, and there was an increasing advantage for BCT on female DAS over the follow-up. IPV was significantly reduced from pretreatment to follow-up, with no differences between treatment conditions. Conclusion: Results showed that BCT for women with AUD was more efficacious than IBT in reducing substance use and substance-related problems and improving partner relationships. PMID:25045910

  19. Changes in circulating cytokine levels in midlife women with psychological symptoms with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor and Japanese traditional medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasui, Toshiyuki; Yamada, Masayo; Uemura, Hirokazu; Ueno, Shu-Ichi; Numata, Shusuke; Ohmori, Tetsuro; Tsuchiya, Naoko; Noguchi, Masamichi; Yuzurihara, Mitsutoshi; Kase, Yoshio; Irahara, Minoru

    2009-02-20

    The aim of the present study was to compare the effects on serum cytokine concentrations of paroxetine, a selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor, and kamishoyosan, a Japanese traditional medicine, in midlife women with psychological symptoms. Seventy-six women with psychological symptoms such as anxiety and mild depression as menopausal symptoms were enrolled in this study. Thirty-eight women received oral administration of 10mg paroxetine every day, and 38 women received oral administration of kamshoyosan every day for 6 months. Overall climacteric symptoms were assessed using Greene's climacteric scale. Serum levels of cytokines were measured using a multiplexed human cytokine assay. Greene's total scores in both women treated with paroxetine and in women treated with kamishoyosan decreased significantly. Percentage decreases in Greene's total, psychological and vasomotor scores during the 6-month period in the paroxetine group were significantly greater than those in the kamishoyosan group. Serum IL-6 concentration in women treated with paroxetine decreased significantly. Serum concentrations of IL-8, IL-10, macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1beta and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in women treated with paroxetine decreased significantly. On the other hand, serum IL-6 concentration in women treated with kamishoyosan decreased significantly, but other serum concentrations did not change significantly. Decrease in IL-6 concentration may be involved in the mechanism of the actions of both paroxetine and kamishoyosan in women with psychological symptoms, and IL-6 may therefore be useful as a marker of treatment. The action of paroxetine may also be associated with decreases in IL-8, IL-10, MIP-1beta.

  20. Aspirin or heparin or both in the treatment of recurrent spontaneous abortion in women with antiphospholipid antibody syndrome: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chang; Liu, Yong; Jiang, Hai-Li

    2018-01-10

    This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of aspirin or heparin or both in the treatment for recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA) in women with antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APS). Systematic searches for randomized clinical trials (RCTs) evaluating on live birth and preterm delivery, preeclampsia, intrauterine growth restriction, gestational diabetes, bleeding of RSA with APS patients receiving aspirin, and heparin therapy were carried out, from PubMed, EMBASE, ScienceDirect, and CNKI. Related data were extracted from eligible studies and then subjected to Reviewer Manage 5.3 for analysis. Relative risk (RR) and its 95% confidence interval were calculated. Nineteen publications with randomized controlled trials were selected for this study, which included a total of 1251 pregnant patients with diagnosis of RSA with APS. With respect to live birth, it was remarkably improved in aspirin plus heparin or heparin alone group [RR =1.23, 95% CI (1.12-1.36), p < .0001; RR = 1.18, 95% CI (1.03-1.35), p = .02]; aspirin alone group, however, there was no statistically significant difference compare to placebo [RR = 0.97, 95% CI (0.80-1.16), p = .71]. Meanwhile, aspirin plus heparin therapy did not significantly reduce the risk of recurrent placenta-mediated pregnancy complications including preterm birth, intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR), gestational diabetes, and minor bleeding. A beneficial therapeutic effect of heparin alone therapy was found on preventing preterm birth and low-dose aspirin plus heparin therapy was significant reduce the risk of preeclampsia. An improvement of pregnancy outcomes in women with RSA and APS can be achieved by treatment strategies combining low-dose aspirin plus heparin or heparin alone. Aspirin alone, by contrast, seemed inferior to other treatments in achieving more live birth.

  1. Selective Hearing: The Unrecognised Contribution of Women to the Outdoor Profession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Tonia; Allen-Craig, Sandy; Carpenter, Cathryn

    2017-01-01

    The role, place, and often invisible contributions of women working in the outdoor learning profession have become an area for increased scrutiny. Alarmingly, there is an underrepresentation of women cited in research and practice, yet women make up approximately half those involved in outdoor education and outdoor recreation. A male-dominated…

  2. Exercise during pregnancy in normal-weight women and risk of preterm birth: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Mascio, Daniele; Magro-Malosso, Elena Rita; Saccone, Gabriele; Marhefka, Gregary D; Berghella, Vincenzo

    2016-11-01

    Preterm birth is the major cause of perinatal mortality in the United States. In the past, pregnant women have been recommended to not exercise because of presumed risks of preterm birth. Physical activity has been theoretically related to preterm birth because it increases the release of catecholamines, especially norepinephrine, which might stimulate myometrial activity. Conversely, exercise may reduce the risk of preterm birth by other mechanisms such as decreased oxidative stress or improved placenta vascularization. Therefore, the safety of exercise regarding preterm birth and its effects on gestational age at delivery remain controversial. The objective of the study was to evaluate the effects of exercise during pregnancy on the risk of preterm birth. MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Sciences, Scopus, ClinicalTrial.gov, OVID, and Cochrane Library were searched from the inception of each database to April 2016. Selection criteria included only randomized clinical trials of pregnant women randomized before 23 weeks to an aerobic exercise regimen or not. Types of participants included women of normal weight with uncomplicated, singleton pregnancies without any obstetric contraindication to physical activity. The summary measures were reported as relative risk or as mean difference with 95% confidence intervals. The primary outcome was the incidence of preterm birth exercise group and 1037 (50.4%) to the control group. Aerobic exercise lasted about 35-90 minutes 3-4 times per week. Women who were randomized to aerobic exercise had a similar incidence of preterm birth of exercise group had a significantly higher incidence of vaginal delivery (73.6% vs 67.5%; relative risk, 1.09, 95% confidence interval, 1.04-1.15) and a significantly lower incidence of cesarean delivery (17.9% vs 22%; relative risk, 0.82, 95% confidence interval, 0.69-0.97) compared with controls. The incidence of operative vaginal delivery (12.9% vs 16.5%; relative risk, 0.78, 95% confidence interval, 0

  3. Long-term outcomes of exercise: follow-up of a randomized trial in older women with osteopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korpelainen, Raija; Keinänen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka; Nieminen, Pentti; Heikkinen, Jorma; Väänänen, Kalervo; Korpelainen, Juha

    2010-09-27

    Long-term evidence from randomized trials of the effectiveness of exercise in preventing disability and fall-related fractures in elderly people has been lacking. We performed extended follow-up of 160 women (aged 70-73 years at baseline) with osteopenia in a population-based, randomized, controlled exercise trial. The trial was conducted from April 1 through April 30, 2001. Follow-up was conducted from May 1, 2001, through December 31, 2005. Mean total time in observation was 7.1 years. Primary outcome measures were femoral neck bone mineral density, postural sway, and leg strength. Secondary outcome measures were hospital-treated fractures and functional ability measures. Outcomes were measured annually using masked assessors. There was a significant difference between groups in favor of exercise in terms of postural sway (group × time interaction, P = .005), walking speed (group × time interaction, P training seem to have a long-term effect on balance and gait and may even protect high-risk elderly women from hip fractures. clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00655577.

  4. A Randomized Controlled Trial Targeting Alcohol Use and Sexual Assault Risk among College Women at High Risk for Victimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, Amanda K.; Lewis, Melissa A.; George, William H.

    2015-01-01

    Current sexual assault risk reduction programs do not target alcohol use despite the widespread knowledge that alcohol use is a risk factor for being victimized. The current study assessed the effectiveness of a web-based combined sexual assault risk and alcohol use reduction program using a randomized control trial. A total of 207 college women between the ages of 18 and 20 who engaged in heavy episodic drinking were randomized to one of five conditions: full assessment only control condition, sexual assault risk reduction condition, alcohol use reduction condition, combined sexual assault risk and alcohol use reduction condition, and a minimal assessment only condition. Participants completed a 3-month follow-up survey on alcohol-related sexual assault outcomes, sexual assault outcomes, and alcohol use outcomes. Significant interactions revealed that women with higher incidence and severity of sexual assault at baseline experienced less incapacitated attempted or completed rapes, less incidence/severity of sexual assaults, and engaged in less heavy episodic drinking compared to the control condition at the 3-month follow-up. Web-based risk reduction programs targeting both sexual assault and alcohol use may be the most effective way to target the highest risk sample of college students for sexual assault: those with a sexual assault history and those who engage in heavy episodic drinking. PMID:26408290

  5. Effectiveness of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy on the Quality of Sleep in Women with Multiple Sclerosis: A Randomized Controlled Trial Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samira Abbasi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Multiple sclerosis is accompanied by secondary clinical signs such as insomnia. Considering the side effects of drugs and also increasing acceptability of psychotherapy methods in health systems, we aimed to determine the effect of group cognitive behavioral therapy on the quality of sleep in women with multiple sclerosis in 2014. Methods: This study is a randomized controlled clinical conducted on 72 women with multiple sclerosis who referred to medical centers of Isfahan. After convenience sampling, participants were randomly allocated into two equal groups of control (n=36 and intervention (n=36. In the intervention group, cognitive behavioral therapy was performed in 8 sessions. The control group, along with receiving the common drugs, participated in 3 group sessions and talked about their feelings and experiences. Data were gathered using Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI and analyzed through independent t-test, Chi-square, Mann Whitney, ANOVA with repeated measure, using SPSS 18. Results: There was a significant difference between the mean score of sleep quality of the control and intervention groups immediately and one month after the intervention (P<0.001. ANOVA with repeated measure test showed that the mean score of sleep quality of patients in the intervention group had a significant difference at three stages of before, immediately and one month after the intervention. Conclusions: According to the results of this study, cognitive behavioral therapy, as an effective and cost-effective therapy, could improve sleep quality in patients with multiple sclerosis.

  6. Comparison of manual lymph drainage therapy and connective tissue massage in women with fibromyalgia: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekici, Gamze; Bakar, Yesim; Akbayrak, Turkan; Yuksel, Inci

    2009-02-01

    This study analyzed and compared the effects of manual lymph drainage therapy (MLDT) and connective tissue massage (CTM) in women with primary fibromyalgia (PFM). The study design was a randomized controlled trial. Fifty women with PFM completed the study. The patients were divided randomly into 2 groups. Whereas 25 of them received MLDT, the other 25 underwent CTM. The treatment program was carried out 5 times a week for 3 weeks in each group. Pain was evaluated by a visual analogue scale and algometry. The Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ) and Nottingham Health Profile were used to describe health status and health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Wilcoxon signed rank test and Mann-Whitney U test were used to analyze the data. In both groups, significant improvements were found regarding pain intensity, pain pressure threshold, and HRQoL (P treatment. For this particular group of patients, both MLDT and CTM appear to yield improvements in terms of pain, health status, and HRQoL. The results indicate that these manual therapy techniques might be used in the treatment of PFM. However, MLDT was found to be more effective than CTM according to some subitems of FIQ (morning tiredness and anxiety) and FIQ total score. Manual lymph drainage therapy might be preferred; however, further long-term follow-up studies are needed.

  7. A randomized controlled trial targeting alcohol use and sexual assault risk among college women at high risk for victimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, Amanda K; Lewis, Melissa A; George, William H

    2015-11-01

    Sexual assault risk reduction programs do not target alcohol use despite the widespread knowledge that alcohol use is a risk factor for being victimized. The current study assessed the effectiveness of a web-based combined sexual assault risk and alcohol use reduction program using a randomized control trial. A total of 207 college women between the ages of 18 and 20 who engaged in heavy episodic drinking were randomized to one of five conditions: full assessment only control condition, sexual assault risk reduction condition, alcohol use reduction condition, combined sexual assault risk and alcohol use reduction condition, and a minimal assessment only condition. Participants completed a 3-month follow-up survey on alcohol-related sexual assault outcomes, sexual assault outcomes, and alcohol use outcomes. Significant interactions revealed that women with higher severity of sexual assault at baseline experienced less incapacitated attempted or completed rapes, less severity of sexual assaults, and engaged in less heavy episodic drinking compared to the control condition at the 3-month follow-up. Web-based risk reduction programs targeting both sexual assault and alcohol use may be the most effective way to target the highest risk sample of college students for sexual assault: those with a sexual assault history and those who engage in heavy episodic drinking. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Forming a Stress Management and Health Promotion Program for Women Undergoing Chemotherapy for Breast Cancer: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelekasis, Panagiotis; Zisi, Georgia; Koumarianou, Anna; Marioli, Androniki; Chrousos, George; Syrigos, Konstantinos; Darviri, Christina

    2016-06-01

    To assess the effects of an 8-week stress management and health promotion program on women undergoing breast cancer chemotherapy treatment. Patients and methods A total of 61 patients were recruited in 2 cancer centers and were randomly assigned to the intervention program (n = 30) or control group (n = 31). The intervention program consisted of different stress management techniques, which were combined with instructions for lifestyle modification. Assessments were carried out through questionnaires and measurement of body mass index (BMI) at baseline and at the end of the 8-week program. In all, 25 participants completed the intervention program, whereas 28 participants completed the observational control program. The intervention program resulted in a small effect size on internal dimension of Health Locus of Control (HLC) and a medium effect size on stress, depression, anxiety, night sleep duration, and chance dimension of HLC. A strong effect size was recorded for BMI and sleep onset latency. Self-rated health, spiritual well-being, and powerful others dimension of HLC were not significantly affected. Additionally, some of the participants reported a reduction in the side effects caused by chemotherapy. The intervention resulted in several benefits for the general health status of patients. Therefore, it should be considered as feasible and potentially beneficial for women undergoing breast cancer chemotherapy. However, it is necessary for this intervention to be tested through a randomized controlled trial in a larger sample of patients before adopting this program in standard cancer care. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. Effectiveness of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy on the Quality of Sleep in Women with Multiple Sclerosis: A Randomized Controlled Trial Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Samira; Alimohammadi, Nasrollah; Pahlavanzadeh, Saeid

    2016-10-01

    Multiple sclerosis is accompanied by secondary clinical signs such as insomnia. Considering the side effects of drugs and also increasing acceptability of psychotherapy methods in health systems, we aimed to determine the effect of group cognitive behavioral therapy on the quality of sleep in women with multiple sclerosis in 2014. This study is a randomized controlled clinical conducted on 72 women with multiple sclerosis who referred to medical centers of Isfahan. After convenience sampling, participants were randomly allocated into two equal groups of control (n=36) and intervention (n=36). In the intervention group, cognitive behavioral therapy was performed in 8 sessions. The control group, along with receiving the common drugs, participated in 3 group sessions and talked about their feelings and experiences. Data were gathered using Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and analyzed through independent t-test, Chi-square, Mann Whitney, ANOVA with repeated measure, using SPSS 18. There was a significant difference between the mean score of sleep quality of the control and intervention groups immediately and one month after the intervention (Ptherapy, as an effective and cost-effective therapy, could improve sleep quality in patients with multiple sclerosis. Trial Registration Number: IRCT2015012720833N1.

  10. Antiobesity Effect of Caraway Extract on Overweight and Obese Women: A Randomized, Triple-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahnaz Kazemipoor

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Caraway (Carum carvi L., a potent medicinal plant, is traditionally used for treating obesity. This study investigates the weight-lowering effects of caraway extract (CE on physically active, overweight and obese women through a randomized, triple-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Seventy overweight and obese, healthy, aerobic-trained, adult females were randomly assigned to two groups (n=35 per group. Participants received either 30 mL/day of CE or placebo without changing their diet or physical activity. Subjects were examined at baseline and after 90 days for changes in body composition, anthropometric indices, and clinical and paraclinical variables. The treatment group, compared with placebo, showed a significant reduction of weight, body mass index, body fat percentage, and waist-to-hip ratio. No changes were observed in lipid profile, urine-specific gravity, and blood pressure of subjects. The results suggest that a dietary CE with no restriction in food intake, when combined with exercise, is of value in the management of obesity in women wishing to lower their weight, BMI, body fat percentage, and body size, with no clinical side effects. In conclusion, results of this study suggest a possible phytotherapeutic approach for caraway extract in the management of obesity. This trial is registered with NCT01833377.

  11. Cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia outcomes in women after primary breast cancer treatment: a randomized, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Ellyn E; Berger, Ann M; Schmiege, Sarah J; Cook, Paul F; McCarthy, Michaela S; Moore, Camille M; Aloia, Mark S

    2014-05-01

    To examine the effect of cognitive-behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBTI) on sleep improvement, daytime symptoms, and quality of life (QOL) in breast cancer survivors (BCSs) after cancer treatment. A prospective, longitudinal, randomized, controlled trial. Oncology clinics, breast cancer support groups, and communities in Colorado. 56 middle-aged BCSs with chronic insomnia. Women were randomly assigned to CBTI or behavioral placebo treatment (BPT) and completed measures of sleep, QOL, functioning, fatigue, and mood at baseline, postintervention, and at three- and six-month follow-ups. Sleep outcomes (e.g., sleep efficiency, sleep latency, total sleep time, wake after sleep onset, number of nightly awakenings); secondary variables included sleep medication use, insomnia severity, QOL, physical function, cognitive function, fatigue, depression, anxiety, and sleep attitudes or knowledge. Sleep efficiency and latency improved more in the CBTI group than the BPT group; this difference was maintained during follow-up. Women in the CBTI group had less subjective insomnia, greater improvements in physical and cognitive functioning, positive sleep attitudes, and increased sleep hygiene knowledge. No group differences in improvement were noted relative to QOL, fatigue, or mood. Nurse-delivered CBTI appears to be beneficial for BCSs' sleep latency/efficiency, insomnia severity, functioning, sleep knowledge, and attitudes more than active placebo, with sustained benefit over time. Oncology nurses are in a unique position to identify insomnia in cancer survivors. When sleep disturbances become chronic, nurses need to make recommendations and referrals.

  12. Efficacy of selective antenatal screening for hepatitis B among pregnant women in Denmark: is selective screening still an acceptable strategy in a low-endemicity country?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2003-01-01

    The prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) carriage in Denmark is unknown, but expected to be low (0.1%). This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of selective antenatal screening for HBV infection and the epidemiology of HBV and hepatitis C virus (HCV) among pregnant women. 4098 women were...... included in the study. Blood tests were examined for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), anti-hepatitis B core antigen (HBc) and anti-HCV. Case records were studied to evaluate whether patients at risk for HBV infection had been tested. Among the 4098 women, 18 10.4%, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.......3-0.71 were HBsAg positive. All had a risk factor for HBV infection. Only 13 (72%) were identified as HBsAg positive in the selective screening programme. 115 women (2.8%, 95% CI 2.3-3.4) were anti-HBc positive only. 95 (83%) were at risk for HBV. Only 72 of these (63%) were tested for HBsAg. The screening...

  13. Development and validation of the Osteoporosis Risk Assessment Instrument to facilitate selection of women for bone densitometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadarette, S M; Jaglal, S B; Kreiger, N; McIsaac, W J; Darlington, G A; Tu, J V

    2000-05-02

    Although mass screening for osteoporosis is not recommended among postmenopausal women, there is no consensus on which women should undergo testing for low bone mineral density. The objective of this study was to develop and validate a clinical tool to help clinicians identify which women are at increased risk for osteoporosis and should therefore undergo further testing with bone densitometry. Using Ontario baseline data from the Canadian Multicentre Osteoporosis Study, we identified all cognitively normal women aged 45 years or more who had undergone testing with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) at both the femoral neck and the lumbar spine (L1-L4). Participants who had a previous diagnosis of osteoporosis or were taking bone active medication other than ovarian hormones were excluded. The main outcome measure was low bone mineral density (T score of 2 or more standard deviations below the mean for young Canadian women) at either the femoral neck or the lumbar spine. Logistic regression analysis and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis were used to identify the simplest algorithm that would identify women at increased risk for low bone mineral density. The study population comprised 1376 women, of whom 926 were allocated to the development of the tool and 450 to its validation. A simple algorithm based on age, weight and current estrogen use (yes or no) was developed. Validation of this 3-item Osteoporosis Risk Assessment Instrument (ORAI) showed that the tool had a sensitivity of 93.3% (95% confidence interval [CI] 86.3%-97.0%) and a specificity of 46.4% (95% CI 41.0%-51.8%) for selecting women with low bone mineral density. The sensitivity of the instrument for selecting women with osteoporosis was 94.4% (95% CI 83.7%-98.6%). Use of the ORAI represented a 38.7% reduction in DXA testing compared with screening all women in our study. The ORAI accurately identifies the vast majority of women likely to have low bone mineral density and is

  14. Cost-effectiveness of salpingotomy and salpingectomy in women with tubal pregnancy (a randomized controlled trial)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mol, F; van Mello, N M; Strandell, A; Jurkovic, D; Ross, J A; Yalcinkaya, T M; Barnhart, K T; Verhoeve, H R; Graziosi, G C; Koks, C A; Mol, B W; Ankum, W M; van der Veen, F; Hajenius, P J; van Wely, M; Hoek, Annemieke

    STUDY QUESTION: Is salpingotomy cost effective compared with salpingectomy in women with tubal pregnancy and a healthy contralateral tube? SUMMARY ANSWER: Salpingotomy is not cost effective over salpingectomy as a surgical procedure for tubal pregnancy, as its costs are higher without a better

  15. Cost-effectiveness of salpingotomy and salpingectomy in women with tubal pregnancy (a randomized controlled trial)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broekmans, FJM; Mol, F.; Mello, N.M.; Strandell, Annika; Strandell, Karin; Jurkovic, Davor; Ross, Jackie; Barnhart, K.; Yalcinkaya, Tamer; Verhoeve, H.R.; Graziosi, G.C.M.; Koks, Carolien A M; Klinte, Ingmar; Hogstrom, Lars; Janssen, Ineke; Kragt, Harry; Hoek, Annemieke; Trimbos-Kemper, Trudy; Willemsen, Wim; Ankum, W.M.; Mol, Benwillem; Wely, M.; van der Veen, Fulco; Hajenius, Petra J

    2015-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: Is salpingotomy cost effective compared with salpingectomy in women with tubal pregnancy and a healthy contralateral tube? SUMMARY ANSWER: Salpingotomy is not cost effective over salpingectomy as a surgical procedure for tubal pregnancy, as its costs are higher without a better

  16. Effect of Daily Antenatal Iron Supplementation on Plasmodium Infection in Kenyan Women: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mwangi, Martin N.; Roth, Johanna M.; Smit, Menno R.; Trijsburg, Laura; Mwangi, Alice M.; Demir, Ayşe Y.; Wielders, Jos P. M.; Mens, Petra F.; Verweij, Jaco J.; Cox, Sharon E.; Prentice, Andrew M.; Brouwer, Inge D.; Savelkoul, Huub F. J.; Andang'o, Pauline E. A.; Verhoef, Hans

    2015-01-01

    Anemia affects most pregnant African women and is predominantly due to iron deficiency, but antenatal iron supplementation has uncertain health benefits and can increase the malaria burden. To measure the effect of antenatal iron supplementation on maternal Plasmodium infection risk, maternal iron

  17. Effect of daily antenatal iron supplementation on plasmodium infection in Kenyan women. A randomized clinical trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mwangi, M.N.; Roth, J.M.; Smit, M.R.; Trijsburg, Laura; Mwangi, A.M.; Demir, A.Y.; Wielders, J.P.M.; Mens, P.F.; Verweij, J.J.; Cox, S.E.; Prentice, A.M.; Brouwer, I.D.; Savelkoul, H.F.J.; Andang'o, P.E.A.; Verhoef, J.C.M.

    2015-01-01

    Importance Anemia affects most pregnant African women and is predominantly due to iron deficiency, but antenatal iron supplementation has uncertain health benefits and can increase the malaria burden. Objective To measure the effect of antenatal iron supplementation on maternal Plasmodium infection

  18. Cervical HPV natural history among young Western Cape, South African women: The randomized control EVRI Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sudenga, Staci L.; Torres, B. Nelson; Botha, Matthys H.; Zeier, Michele; Abrahamsen, Martha E.; Glashoff, Richard H.; Engelbrecht, Susan; Schim van der Loeff, Maarten F.; van der Laan, Louvina E.; Kipping, Siegfried; Taylor, Douglas; Giuliano, Anna R.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this analysis was to assess human papillomavirus (HPV) infection persistence and incidence 7-months post-enrollment by HPV vaccine study arm (vaccine or placebo). HIV-negative, sexually active women aged 16-24 years in the Western Cape, South Africa, were enrolled in the EVRI Trial

  19. Does improved functional performance help to reduce urinary incontinence in institutionalized older women? a multicenter randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tak Erwin CPM

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Urinary incontinence (UI is a major problem in older women. Management is usually restricted to dealing with the consequences instead of treating underlying causes such as bladder dysfunction or reduced mobility. The aim of this multicenter randomized controlled trial was to compare a group-based behavioral exercise program to prevent or reduce UI, with usual care. The exercise program aimed to improve functional performance of pelvic floor muscle (PFM, bladder and physical performance of women living in homes for the elderly. Methods Twenty participating Dutch homes were matched and randomized into intervention or control homes using a random number generator. Homes recruited 6–10 older women, with or without UI, with sufficient cognitive and physical function to participate in the program comprising behavioral aspects of continence and physical exercises to improve PFM, bladder and physical performance. The program consisted of a weekly group training session and homework exercises and ran for 6 months during which time the control group participants received care as usual. Primary outcome measures after 6 months were presence or absence of UI, frequency of episodes (measured by participants and caregivers (not blinded using a 3-day bladder diary and the Physical Performance Test (blinded. Linear and logistic regression analysis based on the Intention to Treat (ITT principle using an imputed data set and per protocol analysis including all participants who completed the study and intervention (minimal attendance of 14 sessions. Results 102 participants were allocated to the program and 90 to care as usual. ITT analysis (n = 85 intervention, n = 70 control showed improvement of physical performance (intervention +8%; control −7% and no differences on other primary and secondary outcome measures. Per protocol analysis (n = 51 intervention, n = 60 control showed a reduction of participants with UI

  20. Results of a pilot randomized controlled trial of buprenorphine for opioid dependent women in the criminal justice system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cropsey, Karen L; Lane, Peter S; Hale, Galen J; Jackson, Dorothy O; Clark, C Brendan; Ingersoll, Karen S; Islam, M Aminul; Stitzer, Maxine L

    2011-12-15

    Recent studies have demonstrated the efficacy of both methadone and buprenorphine when used with opioid dependent men transitioning from prison to the community, but no studies have been conducted with women in the criminal justice (CJ) system. The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of buprenorphine for relapse prevention among opioid dependent women in the CJ system transitioning back to the community. 36 women under CJ supervision were recruited from an inpatient drug treatment facility that treats CJ individuals returning back to the community. Nine were enrolled in an open label buprenorphine arm then 27 were randomized to buprenorphine (n=15) or placebo (n=12; double-blind). All women completed baseline measures and started study medication prior to release. Participants were followed weekly, provided urine drug screens (UDS), received study medication for 12 weeks, and returned for a 3-month follow-up. Intent-to-treat analyses were performed for all time points through 3 month follow-up. The majority of participants were Caucasian (88.9%), young (M±SD=31.8±8.4 years), divorced/separated (59.2%) women with at least a high school/GED education (M±SD=12±1.7 years). GEE analyses showed that buprenorphine was efficacious in maintaining abstinence across time compared to placebo. At end of treatment, 92% of placebo and 33% of active medication participants were positive for opiates on urine drug screen (Chi-Square=10.9, df=1; pup point, no differences were found between the two groups, with 83% of participants at follow-up positive for opiates. Women in the CJ system who received buprenorphine prior to release from a treatment facility had fewer opiate positive UDS through the 12 weeks of treatment compared to women receiving placebo. Initiating buprenorphine in a controlled environment prior to release appears to be a viable strategy to reduce opiate use when transitioning back to the community. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights

  1. Effect of the Novel Selective Progesterone Receptor Modulator Vilaprisan on Ovarian Activity in Healthy Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schütt, Barbara; Schultze-Mosgau, Marcus-Hillert; Draeger, Corinna; Chang, Xinying; Löwen, Stephanie; Kaiser, Andreas; Rohde, Beate

    2017-09-21

    This randomized, double-blind, parallel-group study in healthy young women investigated the effect of treatment with vilaprisan (0.5, 1, 2, or 4 mg/day for 12 weeks) on ovarian function by assessing the Hoogland score, which is based on the size of follicle-like structures as determined by transvaginal ultrasound and on estradiol and progesterone serum concentrations. Ovulation inhibition (ie, Hoogland score 80% of the subjects receiving vilaprisan ≥1 mg/day. The effect was dose dependent. With a Bayesian approach, the percentage of subjects with ovulation inhibition was estimated to increase from 37% in subjects receiving 0.5 mg/day vilaprisan to 76%, 86%, and 88% in subjects receiving 1, 2, and 4 mg/day, respectively. Follicle growth was not suppressed during treatment. The majority of subjects receiving ≥1 mg/day had a Hoogland score of 4 (active follicle-like structures, ie, follicle diameter >13 mm, estradiol >27.2 pg/mL, no progesterone increase) both at beginning and end of treatment. Mean average estradiol as well as mean maximum progesterone concentrations were noticeably decreased during treatment with vilaprisan ≥1 mg/day compared to pretreatment, but estradiol concentrations remained >80 pg/mL. Both hormones returned to pretreatment levels after the end of treatment, indicating a rapid resumption of normal ovarian activity. Amenorrhea occurred in the majority of subjects during treatment at dosages ≥1 mg/day. The adverse events observed in this study confirm the known safety profile of vilaprisan. All in all, the results of this study support the development of vilaprisan for the long-term treatment of uterine fibroids. © 2017, The Authors. The Journal of Clinical Pharmacology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  2. Selected determinants of quality of life in women with urinary incontinence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Szymona-Pałkowska

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Urinary incontinence (UI is one of the most common diseases in women. It involves uncontrolled leaking of urine through the urethra. UI incidence depends on age and in certain age groups it can affect up to 60% of the female population. The symptoms can be persistent and due to their embarrassing nature they can lead to significant deterioration of quality of life and psychological functioning. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the quality of life and selected aspects of functioning. Seventy female outpatients of a public clinic in Nałęczów, Poland, were examined, and the following methods were used: the Urinary Incontinence Life Quality Scale (Szymona-Pałkowska, Kraczkowski, Disease-Related Appraisal Scale (Janowski, Steuden, Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (Endler, Parker, Disease-Related Social Support Scale (Brachowicz, Janowski, Sadowska, and the Knowledge Appraisal Scale for Urinary Incontinence (Szymona-Pałkowska, Kraczkowski. The obtained results suggest that the strongest predictors for the quality of life with UI would be: perception of the disease as an injustice and a challenge (a reverse relationship and an avoidance-oriented style of coping with stress through companionship seeking (a positive relationship. The duration of the disease and the level of related knowledge proved to be crucial in the analysis of one dimension, i.e. distance to the symptoms.

  3. The basic science and mathematics of random mutation and natural selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinman, Alan

    2014-12-20

    The mutation and natural selection phenomenon can and often does cause the failure of antimicrobial, herbicidal, pesticide and cancer treatments selection pressures. This phenomenon operates in a mathematically predictable behavior, which when understood leads to approaches to reduce and prevent the failure of the use of these selection pressures. The mathematical behavior of mutation and selection is derived using the principles given by probability theory. The derivation of the equations describing the mutation and selection phenomenon is carried out in the context of an empirical example. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Effects of acupuncture on hot flashes in perimenopausal and postmenopausal women--a multicenter randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kun Hyung; Kang, Kyung Won; Kim, Dong Il; Kim, Hyung Jun; Yoon, Hyun Min; Lee, Jin Moo; Jeong, Jae Cheol; Lee, Myeong Soo; Jung, Hee Jung; Choi, Sun-Mi

    2010-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of acupuncture plus usual care for relief of hot flashes and menopause-related symptoms compared with usual care alone in perimenopausal or postmenopausal women. A multicenter, randomized, controlled trial was conducted. Perimenopausal or postmenopausal women with average hot flash scores of 10 or higher during the week before the screening visit were enrolled and randomly divided into two groups. The treatment group received 12 sessions of acupuncture and maintained usual care for 4 weeks, whereas the control group underwent usual care alone. Hot flash scores were calculated by multiplying frequency by severity of hot flashes recorded in a daily diary. The primary outcome was the mean change in the average 24-hour hot flash score at week 4 from baseline. The secondary outcome was the mean change in menopause-related symptoms as estimated by the Menopause Rating Scale questionnaire at week 4. Follow-up assessment at week 8 was conducted in the treatment group only. The mean change in the average 24-hour hot flash score was -16.57 in the treatment group (n = 116) and -6.93 in the control group (n = 59), a difference of 9.64 (P Menopause Rating Scale score, as well as the subscale scores for the psychological, somatic, and urogenital dimensions of menopause, showed significant improvement in the acupuncture group compared with the control group (P acupuncture in addition to usual care is associated with marked clinical improvement in hot flashes and menopause-related symptoms in perimenopausal or postmenopausal women.

  5. Effectiveness of a facebook-delivered physical activity intervention for post-partum women: a randomized controlled trial protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kernot, Jocelyn; Olds, Tim; Lewis, Lucy K; Maher, Carol

    2013-05-29

    Physical activity is reduced during the post-partum period. Facebook is frequently used by Australian mothers, and offers flexibility, high levels of engagement and the ability to disseminate information and advice via social contacts. The Mums Step it Up Program is a newly developed 50 day team-based physical activity intervention delivered via a Facebook app. The program involves post-partum women working in teams of 4-8 friends aiming to achieve 10,000 steps per day measured by a pedometer. Women are encouraged to use the app to log their daily steps and undertake social and supportive interactions with their friends and other participants. This study aims to determine the effectiveness of the Mums Step it Up Program. A sample of 126 women up to 12 months post-partum will be recruited through community-based health and family services. Participants will be randomly allocated into one of three groups: control, pedometer only and the Mums Step it Up Program. Assessments will be completed at baseline, 6 weeks and 6 months. The primary outcome (objective physical activity) and the secondary outcomes (sleep quality and quantity, depressive symptoms, weight and quality of life) will be used to determine the effectiveness of the Mums Step it Up Program compared with the control and pedometer only groups. Analyses will be undertaken on an intention-to-treat-basis using random effects mixed modeling. The effect of theorized mediators (physical activity attitudes, subjective norms and perceived behavioral control) will also be examined. This study will provide information about the potential of a Facebook app for the delivery of health behavior interventions. If this intervention proves to be effective it will be released on a mass scale and promoted to the general public. Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trials Register: ACTRN12613000069752.

  6. Randomized controlled trial of whole soy and isoflavone daidzein on menopausal symptoms in equol-producing Chinese postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhao-min; Ho, Suzanne C; Woo, Jean; Chen, Yu-ming; Wong, Carmen

    2014-06-01

    Dietary supplements containing soy or isoflavones are widely used as alternatives to hormone therapy. However, their efficacy is still inconclusive, and limited data on equol producers are available. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of whole soy (soy flour) or purified daidzein (one major soy isoflavone and the precursor of equol) on menopausal symptoms in equol-producing postmenopausal women, a population most likely to benefit from soy intervention. This is a 6-month parallel-group, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Two hundred seventy equol-producing prehypertensive Chinese postmenopausal women were randomized to one of three treatment groups: 40 g of soy flour (whole soy group), 40 g of low-fat milk powder + 63 mg of daidzein (daidzein group), or 40 g of low-fat milk powder (placebo group) daily, each given as a solid beverage for 6 months. Changes in menopausal symptoms were assessed by a validated and structured symptom checklist at baseline and 6 months. Two hundred fifty-three participants completed the study according to protocol. Urinary isoflavones indicated good compliance with the interventions. Baseline menopausal symptoms were comparable among the three study groups. Intention-to-treat analysis indicated that there was no significant difference in the 6-month changes or percent changes in the total number of menopausal symptoms, in the five dimensions of symptoms, and in the frequencies of individual symptoms among the three treatment groups. Whole soy and purified daidzein have no significant effect on alleviation of menopausal symptoms among equol-producing postmenopausal women with prehypertension.

  7. Effects of a weight loss plus exercise program on physical function in overweight, older women: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton, Stephen D; Manini, Todd M; Milsom, Vanessa A; Dubyak, Pamela; Cesari, Matteo; Cheng, Jing; Daniels, Michael J; Marsiske, Michael; Pahor, Marco; Leeuwenburgh, Christiaan; Perri, Michael G

    2011-01-01

    Obesity and a sedentary lifestyle are associated with physical impairments and biologic changes in older adults. Weight loss combined with exercise may reduce inflammation and improve physical functioning in overweight, sedentary, older adults. This study tested whether a weight loss program combined with moderate exercise could improve physical function in obese, older adult women. Participants (N = 34) were generally healthy, obese, older adult women (age range 55-79 years) with mild to moderate physical impairments (ie, functional limitations). Participants were randomly assigned to one of two groups for 24 weeks: (i) weight loss plus exercise (WL+E; n = 17; mean age = 63.7 years [4.5]) or (ii) educational control (n = 17; mean age = 63.7 [6.7]). In the WL+E group, participants attended a group-based weight management session plus three supervised exercise sessions within their community each week. During exercise sessions, participants engaged in brisk walking and lower-body resistance training of moderate intensity. Participants in the educational control group attended monthly health education lectures on topics relevant to older adults. Outcomes were: (i) body weight, (ii) walking speed (assessed by 400-meter walk test), (iii) the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB), and (iv) knee extension isokinetic strength. Participants randomized to the WL+E group lost significantly more weight than participants in the educational control group (5.95 [0.992] vs 0.23 [0.99] kg; P walking speed of participants in the WL+E group significantly increased compared with that of the control group (reduction in time on the 400-meter walk test = 44 seconds; P moderate caloric restriction plus moderate exercise can produce significant weight loss and improve physical function while maintaining muscle strength in obese, older adult women with mild to moderate physical impairments.

  8. Effects of aerobic and strength exercise on motor fatigue in men and women with multiple sclerosis: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surakka, Jukka; Romberg, Anders; Ruutiainen, Juhani; Aunola, Sirkka; Virtanen, Arja; Karppi, Sirkka-Liisa; Mäentaka, Kari

    2004-11-01

    To investigate the effects of aerobic and strength exercise on motor fatigue of knee flexor and extensor muscles in subjects with multiple sclerosis (MS). A randomized controlled trial. At Masku Neurological Rehabilitation Centre, Masku, and the Social Insurance Institution, Research Department, Turku, Finland. Ninety-five MS patients with mild to moderate disability were randomized into exercise group (n =47) and a control group (n =48). Participants in the exercise group attended in a supervised exercise period of three weeks, which was followed by a home exercise programme lasting for 23 weeks. Patients in the control group continued with their normal living. Motor fatigue of knee flexor and extensor muscles was measured during a static 30-s maximal sustained muscle contraction. The decline in force (Nm) during the 30 s was recorded, and a fatigue index (FI) was calculated. Subjective fatigue was measured by using the Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS). The Ambulatory Fatigue Index (AFI) was calculated on the basis of a 500-m walking test. Assessment took place at baseline, at the third week (not for the control group) and at the 26th week. All outcome variables were analysed, men and women together, and some interesting contrasts were analysed by gender. Associations were observed with changes in extension FI and Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) score and mean extension torque (Nm), but not with changes in FI and aerobic or strength exercise activity, mean AFI, mean FSS or in mean knee flexion torque. AFI was decreased in all subject groups (p =0.007). Motor fatigue was reduced in knee flexion (p=0.0014) and extension (ns) among female but not in male exercisers after six months of exercise. The exercise activity of women was 25% higher than that of the men. Six months of exercise reduced motor fatigue in women, but not in men.

  9. Effect of Two Different Multimicronutrient Supplements on Vitamin D Status in Women of Childbearing Age: A Randomized Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Pilz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The German Nutrition Society raised in 2012 the recommended daily vitamin D intake from 200 to 800 international units (IU to achieve 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OHD levels of at least 50 nmol/L, even when endogenous vitamin D synthesis is minimal such as in winter. We aimed to evaluate this recommendation in women of childbearing age. This is a single-center, randomized, open trial conducted from 8 January to 9 May 2016 in Esslingen, Germany. We randomized 201 apparently healthy women to receive for 8 weeks a daily multimicronutrient supplement containing either 200 IU (n = 100 or 800 IU vitamin D3 (n = 101. Primary outcome measure was serum 25(OHD. 196 participants completed the trial. Increases in 25(OHD (median with interquartile range from baseline to study end were 13.2 (5.9 to 20.7 nmol/L in the 200 IU group, and 35.8 (18.2 to 52.8 nmol/L in the 800 IU group (p < 0.001 for the between group difference. At study end, levels of ≥50 nmol/L were present in 70.4% of the 200 IU group and in 99% of the 800 IU group. Participants on hormonal contraceptives had higher baseline levels and a stronger increase in 25(OHD. In conclusion, daily supplementation of 800 IU vitamin D3 during wintertime in Germany is sufficient to achieve a 25(OHD level of at least 50 nmol/L in almost all women of childbearing age, whereas 200 IU are insufficient.

  10. Whey Protein Supplementation Enhances Body Fat and Weight Loss in Women Long After Bariatric Surgery: a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes Gomes, Daniela; Moehlecke, Milene; Lopes da Silva, Fernanda Bassan; Dutra, Eliane Said; D'Agord Schaan, Beatriz; Baiocchi de Carvalho, Kenia Mara

    2017-02-01

    The ideal nutritional approach for weight regain after bariatric surgery remains unclear. The objective of this study is to assess the effect of whey protein supplementation on weight loss and body composition of women who regained weight 24 or more months after bariatric surgery. This is a 16-week open-label, parallel-group, randomized controlled trial of women who regained at least 5 % of their lowest postoperative weight after a Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). A total of 34 participants were treated with hypocaloric diet and randomized (1:1) to receive or not supplementation with whey protein, 0.5 g/kg of the ideal body weight. The primary outcomes were changes in body weight, fat free mass (FFM), and fat mass (FM), evaluated by tetrapolar bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). Secondary outcomes included resting energy expenditure, blood glucose, lipids, adiponectin, interleukin 6 (IL-6), and cholecystokinin levels. Statistical analyses included generalized estimating equations adjusted for age and physical activity. Fifteen patients in each group were evaluated: mean age was 45 ± 11 years, body mass index (BMI) was 35.7 ± 5.2 kg/m2, and time since surgery was 69 ± 23 months. Protein intake during follow-up increased by approximately 75 % in the intervention group (p = 0.01). The intervention group presented more body weight loss (1.86 kg, p = 0.017), accounted for FM loss (2.78, p = 0.021) and no change in FFM, as compared to controls (gain of 0.42 kg of body weight and 0.6 kg of FM). No differences in secondary outcomes were observed between groups. Whey protein supplementation promoted body weight and FM loss in women with long-term weight regain following RYGB.

  11. Hypnosis for hot flashes among postmenopausal women study: A study protocol of an ongoing randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson Aimee K

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hot flashes are a highly prevalent problem associated with menopause and breast cancer treatments. The recent findings from the Women's Health Initiative have important implications for the significance of a non-hormonal, mind-body intervention for hot flashes in breast cancer survivors. Women who take hormone therapy long-term may have a 1.2 to 2.0 fold increased risk of developing breast cancer. In addition, it is now known that hormone therapy with estrogen and progestin is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease and stroke. Currently there are limited options to hormone replacement therapy as non-hormonal pharmacological agents are associated with only modest activity and many adverse side effects. Because of this there is a need for more alternative, non-hormonal therapies. Hypnosis is a mind-body intervention that has been shown to reduce self-reported hot flashes by up to 68% among breast cancer survivors, however, the use of hypnosis for hot flashes among post-menopausal women has not been adequately explored and the efficacy of hypnosis in reducing physiologically measured hot flashes has not yet been determined. Methods/design A sample of 180 post-menopausal women will be randomly assigned to either a 5-session Hypnosis Intervention or 5-session structured-attention control with 12 week follow-up. The present study will compare hypnosis to a structured-attention control in reducing hot flashes (perceived and physiologically monitored in post-menopausal women in a randomized clinical trial. Outcomes will be hot flashes (self-report daily diaries; physiological monitoring; Hot Flash Related Daily Interference Scale, anxiety (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory; Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS; anxiety visual analog scale (VAS rating; depression (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, sexual functioning (Sexual Activity Questionnaire, sleep quality (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and

  12. Hypnosis for hot flashes among postmenopausal women study: a study protocol of an ongoing randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkins, Gary R; Fisher, William I; Johnson, Aimee K

    2011-10-11

    Hot flashes are a highly prevalent problem associated with menopause and breast cancer treatments. The recent findings from the Women's Health Initiative have important implications for the significance of a non-hormonal, mind-body intervention for hot flashes in breast cancer survivors. Women who take hormone therapy long-term may have a 1.2 to 2.0 fold increased risk of developing breast cancer. In addition, it is now known that hormone therapy with estrogen and progestin is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease and stroke. Currently there are limited options to hormone replacement therapy as non-hormonal pharmacological agents are associated with only modest activity and many adverse side effects. Because of this there is a need for more alternative, non-hormonal therapies. Hypnosis is a mind-body intervention that has been shown to reduce self-reported hot flashes by up to 68% among breast cancer survivors, however, the use of hypnosis for hot flashes among post-menopausal women has not been adequately explored and the efficacy of hypnosis in reducing physiologically measured hot flashes has not yet been determined. A sample of 180 post-menopausal women will be randomly assigned to either a 5-session Hypnosis Intervention or 5-session structured-attention control with 12 week follow-up. The present study will compare hypnosis to a structured-attention control in reducing hot flashes (perceived and physiologically monitored) in post-menopausal women in a randomized clinical trial. Outcomes will be hot flashes (self-report daily diaries; physiological monitoring; Hot Flash Related Daily Interference Scale), anxiety (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory; Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS); anxiety visual analog scale (VAS rating); depression (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale), sexual functioning (Sexual Activity Questionnaire), sleep quality (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index) and cortisol. This study will be the first full

  13. The Impact of Aerobic Exercise on Quality of Life in Women with Breast Cancer: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shobeiri, Fatemeh; Masoumi, Seyedeh Zahra; Nikravesh, Azita; Heidari Moghadam, Rashid; Karami, Manoochehr

    2016-01-01

    The women with breast cancer experience high rates of morbidity due to different treatments. The objective of this study was to evaluate the role of aerobic exercise in the quality of life (QoL) among women suffering from breast cancer in Hamadan, western Iran. Participants who had consummated the eligibility criteria were randomly assigned in exercise group (n=30) and control group (n=30). Written informed consent was obtained from all participants. The mean age was 42.70 ±9.6 and 43.50 ±8.60 yr old in exercise and control groups, respectively. The quality of life was assessed by two widely used standard questionnaires (EORTC QLQ-C30 and EORTC QLQ-BR23). The exercise group received supervised exercise 2 days per week for 10 weeks. Through two stages (before and after intervention) these groups were evaluated. Analyzing the data was performed by SPSS/20.0, using t-test, chi-squared and ANCOVA. Pexercise group (48.76±24.96 vs. 81.79±16.34) in comparison with the controls (47.75 ±15.73 vs. 52.88 ±14.51) (Pexercise intervention was associated with substantial development in total score of functions and symptoms of QoL using EORTC QLQ-BR23 (Pexercise in breast cancer women.

  14. The Relationship between Prenatal Antidepressant Use and the Decision to Breastfeed among Women Enrolled in a Randomized Exercise Intervention Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Beth A; Schuver, Katie; Gjerdingen, Dwenda; Avery, Melissa; Sirard, John; Marcus, Bess H

    2016-08-01

    Despite the numerous health benefits associated with breastfeeding, only 49% of postpartum women in the United States breastfeed at 6 months. Therefore, it is important to understand factors that may influence a woman's decision to breastfeed. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between prenatal antidepressant use and the decision to breastfeed among postpartum women. Participants were postpartum women (N = 87) who had participated in a randomized trial examining the efficacy of a 6-month exercise intervention for the prevention of postpartum depression (2009-2012). Participants were recruited from the upper Midwest and were at risk for postpartum depression. Participants completed telephone-based questionnaires assessing their prenatal antidepressant use and breastfeeding behavior. Seventeen percent of the participants took an antidepressant medication during pregnancy and 91% breastfed at birth. After controlling for baseline depressive symptoms, body mass index, and condition assignment, participants who were taking an antidepressant during pregnancy were less likely to initiate breastfeeding than participants who were not taking an antidepressant during pregnancy, β = -2.042, P < .05 (odds ratio = 0.130; 95% confidence interval, 0.024-0.696). Our study indicates that prenatal antidepressant medication use may be a potential barrier to breastfeeding initiation. Additional research is needed to better understand the factors that play a role in the relationship between prenatal antidepressant use and breastfeeding initiation. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. Does magnesium sulfate delay the active phase of labor in women with premature rupture of membranes? A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzamoradi, Masoumeh; Behnam, Marzieh; Jahed, Tayebeh; Saleh-Gargari, Soraya; Bakhtiyari, Mahmood

    2014-09-01

    Administration of many drugs including magnesium sulfate (MS) has considerable influences on pregnancy outcomes. The present study investigates the effects of MS administration on reaching the active phase of labor in women with premature rupture of membrane (PROM) and subsequent fetal complications. A double blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial was performed among primipara women referred to the PROM center in Tehran, Iran between March 2010 and August 2012. Patients were equally allocated into two groups; the intervention group who received MS (n = 46) and the control (placebo) group (n = 46). Both groups received a corticosteroid, 1g oral azithromycin (oral) and 2 g ampicillin (IV) every 6 hours for 48 hours, followed by amoxicillin (500 mg orally 3 times daily) for an additional 5 days. None of the research staff were aware of the treatment allocation of patients in order for blinding purposes. Administration of MS in intervention group increases this period 2.7 times compared to the control group. In women whose gestational age was magnesium sulfate reduced the risk of respiratory distress syndrome significantly (p = 0 .002), without producing any adverse pregnancy outcomes. Magnesium sulfate increases delay in reaching the active phase of labor in mothers with PROM, without producing adverse birth outcomes. (Registration ID in IRCT; IRCT2012091810876N1). Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Long-term effects of a Palaeolithic-type diet in obese postmenopausal women: a two-year randomized trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellberg, Caroline; Sandberg, Susanne; Ryberg, Mats; Eriksson, Marie; Brage, Sören; Larsson, Christel; Olsson, Tommy; Lindahl, Bernt

    2014-01-01

    Background/Objectives Short-term studies have suggested beneficial effects of a Palaeolithic-type diet (PD) on body weight and metabolic balance. We now report long-term effects in obese postmenopausal women of a PD on anthropometric measurements and metabolic balance, in comparison with a diet according to the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations (NNR). Subjects/Methods Seventy obese postmenopausal women (mean age 60 years, body mass index 33 kg/m2) were assigned to an ad libitum PD or NNR diet in a 2-year randomized controlled trial. The primary outcome was change in fat mass as measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Results Both groups significantly decreased total fat mass at 6 months (−6.5 and −2.6 kg) and 24 months (−4.6 and −2.9 kg), with a more pronounced fat loss in the PD group at 6 months (Pdiet regarding fat mass, abdominal obesity and triglyceride levels in obese postmenopausal women; effects not fully sustained for anthropometric measurements at 24 months. Adherence to protein intake was poor in the PD group. The long-term consequences of these changes remain to be studied. PMID:24473459

  17. Long-term effects of a Palaeolithic-type diet in obese postmenopausal women: a 2-year randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellberg, C; Sandberg, S; Ryberg, M; Eriksson, M; Brage, S; Larsson, C; Olsson, T; Lindahl, B

    2014-03-01

    Short-term studies have suggested beneficial effects of a Palaeolithic-type diet (PD) on body weight and metabolic balance. We now report the long-term effects of a PD on anthropometric measurements and metabolic balance in obese postmenopausal women, in comparison with a diet according to the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations (NNR). Seventy obese postmenopausal women (mean age 60 years, body mass index 33 kg/m(2)) were assigned to an ad libitum PD or NNR diet in a 2-year randomized controlled trial. The primary outcome was change in fat mass as measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Both groups significantly decreased total fat mass at 6 months (-6.5 and-2.6 kg) and 24 months (-4.6 and-2.9 kg), with a more pronounced fat loss in the PD group at 6 months (Pdiet regarding fat mass, abdominal obesity and triglyceride levels in obese postmenopausal women; effects not sustained for anthropometric measurements at 24 months. Adherence to protein intake was poor in the PD group. The long-term consequences of these changes remain to be studied.

  18. The Impact of Aloe vera and Calendula on Perineal Healing after Episiotomy in Primiparous Women: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eghdampour, Farideh; Jahdie, Fereshteh; Kheyrkhah, Masomeh; Taghizadeh, Mohsen; Naghizadeh, Somayeh; Hagani, Hamid

    2013-12-01

    Episiotomy is used for enlarging the perineum. Aloe vera and Calendula have been used for treating different diseases from ancient times, limited researches have been done regarding the healing of these plants. Since the effect of their ointment on episiotomy healing has not been studied, this study is being done for determining the impact of Aloe vera and Calendula on episiotomy healing in primiparous women. This clinical trial involves 111 qualified primiparous women admitted in Lolagar hospital. They were randomly categorized into three groups of control (n=1) and experimental (n=2) groups. The women in experimental group used Aloe vera and Calendula Ointment every 8 hours and the control group used hospital routine on episiotomy for 5 days. The data were collected by demographic questionnaire and redness, edema, ecchymosis, discharge and approximation scale (REEDA) which investigated the episiotomy healing before and five days after intervention in two groups. ANOVA, Tukey test, Kruskal-wallis, Chi-square were used for data analysis. The three groups do not have statistically significant different regarding demographic and other intervening variables. Comparing the mean of REEDA in five days after delivery showed statistically significant difference between control and experimental groups. According to the results, using Aloe vera and Calendula ointment considerably increases the speed of episiotomy wound healing so it can be used for quickening the episiotomy healing.

  19. Effects of a six-month walking intervention on depression in inactive post-menopausal women: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, P; Ninot, G; Bernard, P L; Picot, M C; Jaussent, A; Tallon, G; Blain, H

    2015-01-01

    Physical inactivity and advanced age are associated with risk of depressive disorders. Physical activity can reduce depressive symptoms in older subjects with depressive disorders. We investigated whether a walking intervention program may decrease the occurrence of depressive symptoms in inactive post-menopausal women without depression. A total of 121 participants aged 57-75 years were randomly assigned to a six-month moderate intensity walking intervention (three times a week, 40 minutes per session, supervised and home-based) or to a control group (waiting list). Inactivity was assessed using the Physical Activity Questionnaire for the Elderly. Depression levels were measured pre- and post-intervention with the Beck depression inventory (BDI). Several baseline measures were considered as possible predictors of post-intervention BDI score. Participants in the walking intervention showed a significant decrease in depression as compared with controls. Baseline cognitive-BDI subscore, subjective health status, body mass index and adherence were post-intervention BDI score predictors. A six-month, three-session per week, moderate intensity walking intervention with a minimal 50% adherence rate reduces depression in post-menopausal women at risk for depression due to physical inactivity. This type of walking intervention could be considered as a widely accessible prevention strategy to prevent depressive symptoms in post-menopausal women at risk of depression.

  20. Bone mineral density during pregnancy in women participating in a randomized controlled trial of vitamin D supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wei; Shary, Judith R; Garrett-Mayer, Elizabeth; Anderson, Betsy; Forestieri, Nina E; Hollis, Bruce W; Wagner, Carol L

    2017-12-01

    Background: Little is known about bone mineral density (BMD) during pregnancy. Advances in technology with lower radiation emissions by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry instruments now permit the safe measurement of BMD during pregnancy. Objective: We evaluated maternal BMD during pregnancy as a function of vitamin D status in women of diverse racial/ethnic backgrounds. Design: A total of 301 women who underwent BMD measurements at 12-20 wk of gestation and again at 0-14 wk postpartum were included in this analysis. Women were a subset of subjects who were recruited for a randomized, controlled, double-blind trial of vitamin D supplementation in pregnancy (400, 2000, or 4000 IU/d). Results: Treatment had no significant effect on changes in BMD that occurred between 12-20 wk of gestation and 0-14 wk postpartum. Similarly, changes in spine and femoral neck bone mineral contents (BMCs) were not significantly different in the treatment groups. In addition, vitamin D inadequacy (serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration, averaged across pregnancy, pregnancy bone health. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00292591. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  1. A Randomized Controlled Trial Provides Evidence to Support Aromatherapy to Minimize Anxiety in Women Undergoing Breast Biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trambert, Renee; Kowalski, Mildred Ortu; Wu, Betty; Mehta, Nimisha; Friedman, Paul

    2017-10-01

    Aromatherapy has been used to reduce anxiety in a variety of settings, but usefulness associated with breast biopsies has not been documented. This study was conducted in women undergoing image-guided breast biopsy. We explored the use of two different aromatherapy scents, compared to placebo, aimed at reducing anxiety with the intent of generating new knowledge. This was a randomized, placebo-controlled study of two different types of external aromatherapy tabs (lavender-sandalwood and orange-peppermint) compared with a matched placebo-control delivery system. Anxiety was self-reported before and after undergoing a breast biopsy using the Spielberger State Anxiety Inventory Scale. Eighty-seven women participated in this study. There was a statistically significant reduction in self-reported anxiety with the use of the lavender-sandalwood aromatherapy tab compared with the placebo group (p = .032). Aromatherapy tabs reduced anxiety during image-guided breast biopsy. The completion of the biopsy provided some relief from anxiety in all groups. The use of aromatherapy tabs offers an evidence-based nursing intervention to improve adaptation and reduce anxiety for women undergoing breast biopsy. Lavender-sandalwood aromatherapy reduced anxiety and promoted adaptation more than orange-peppermint aromatherapy or placebo. © 2017 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  2. Efficacy of pelvic floor muscle training and hypopressive exercises for treating pelvic organ prolapse in women: randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardes, Bruno Teixeira; Resende, Ana Paula Magalhães; Stüpp, Liliana; Oliveira, Emerson; Castro, Rodrigo Aquino; Bella, Zsuzsanna Ilona Katalin Jármy di; Girão, Manoel João Batista Castello; Sartori, Marair Gracio Ferreira

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that women with pelvic floor dysfunctions present decreased cross-sectional area (CSA) of the levator ani muscle. One way to assess the effects of training programs is to measure the CSA of the muscle, using ultrasonography. The aim here was to evaluate the efficacy of pelvic floor muscle training and hypopressive exercises for increasing the CSA of the levator ani muscle in women with pelvic organ prolapse. Prospective randomized controlled trial at the Urogynecology outpatient clinic of Universidade Federal de São Paulo. Fifty-eight women with stage II pelvic organ prolapse were divided into three groups for physiotherapy: a pelvic floor muscle training group (GI); a hypopressive exercise group (GII); and a control group (GIII). The patients underwent transperineal ultrasonographic evaluation using a transducer of frequency 4-9 MHz. The (CSA) of the levator ani muscle was measured before physiotherapy and after 12 weeks of treatment. The groups were homogeneous regarding age, number of pregnancies, number of vaginal deliveries, body mass index and hormonal status. Statistically significant differences in CSA were found in GI and GII from before to after the treatment (P hypopressive exercises produced similar improvements in the CSA of the levator ani muscle.

  3. The Impact of Aloe vera and Calendula on Perineal Healing after Episiotomy in Primiparous Women: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farideh Eghdampour

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Episiotomy is used for enlarging the perineum. Aloe vera and Calendula have been used for treating different diseases from ancient times, limited researches have been done regarding the healing of these plants. Since the effect of their ointment on episiotomy healing has not been studied, this study is being done for determining the impact of Aloe vera and Calendula on episiotomy healing in primiparous women. Methods: This clinical trial involves 111 qualified primiparous women admitted in Lolagar hospital. They were randomly categorized into three groups of control (n=1 and experimental (n=2 groups. The women in experimental group used Aloe vera and Calendula Ointment every 8 hours and the control group used hospital routine on episiotomy for 5 days. The data were collected by demographic questionnaire and redness, edema, ecchymosis, discharge and approximation scale (REEDA which investigated the episiotomy healing before and five days after intervention in two groups. ANOVA, Tukey test, Kruskal-wallis, Chi-square were used for data analysis. Results: The three groups do not have statistically significant different regarding demographic and other intervening variables. Comparing the mean of REEDA in five days after delivery showed statistically significant difference between control and experimental groups.Conclusion: According to the results, using Aloe vera and Calendula ointment considerably increases the speed of episiotomy wound healing so it can be used for quickening the episiotomy healing.

  4. Nevirapine- versus lopinavir/ritonavir-based initial therapy for HIV-1 infection among women in Africa: a randomized trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahin Lockman

    Full Text Available Nevirapine (NVP is widely used in antiretroviral treatment (ART of HIV-1 globally. The primary objective of the AA5208/OCTANE trial was to compare the efficacy of NVP-based versus lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r-based initial ART.In seven African countries (Botswana, Kenya, Malawi, South Africa, Uganda, Zambia, and Zimbabwe, 500 antiretroviral-naïve HIV-infected women with CD4<200 cells/mm(3 were enrolled into a two-arm randomized trial to initiate open-label ART with tenofovir (TDF/emtricitabine (FTC once/day plus either NVP (n = 249 or LPV/r (n = 251 twice/day, and followed for ≥48 weeks. The primary endpoint was time from randomization to death or confirmed virologic failure ([VF] (plasma HIV RNA<1 log(10 below baseline 12 weeks after treatment initiation, or ≥400 copies/ml at or after 24 weeks, with comparison between treatments based on hazard ratios (HRs in intention-to-treat analysis. Equivalence of randomized treatments was defined as finding the 95% CI for HR for virological failure or death in the range 0.5 to 2.0. Baseline characteristics were (median: age = 34 years, CD4 = 121 cells/mm(3, HIV RNA = 5.2 log(10copies/ml. Median follow-up = 118 weeks; 29 (6% women were lost to follow-up. 42 women (37 VFs, five deaths; 17% in the NVP and 50 (43 VFs, seven deaths; 20% in the LPV/r arm reached the primary endpoint (HR 0.85, 95% CI 0.56-1.29. During initial assigned treatment, 14% and 16% of women receiving NVP and LPV/r experienced grade 3/4 signs/symptoms and 26% and 22% experienced grade 3/4 laboratory abnormalities. However, 35 (14% women discontinued NVP because of adverse events, most in the first 8 weeks, versus none for LPV/r (p<0.001. VF, death, or permanent treatment discontinuation occurred in 80 (32% of NVP and 54 (22% of LPV/r arms (HR = 1.7, 95% CI 1.2-2.4, with the difference primarily due to more treatment discontinuation in the NVP arm. 13 (45% of 29 women tested in the NVP versus six (15% of 40

  5. Results of Mujeres Felices por ser Saludables: a dietary/breast health randomized clinical trial for Latino women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgibbon, Marian L; Gapstur, Susan M; Knight, Sara J

    2004-10-01

    Data are limited on the efficacy of health-focused interventions for young, low-acculturated Latino women. Because breast cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer and the most common cause of cancer mortality in this population, combined interventions that address both early detection and dietary patterns could help reduce both morbidity and mortality associated with breast cancer in this underserved population. Mujeres Felices por ser Saludables was randomized intervention study designed to assess the efficacy of an 8-month combined dietary and breast health intervention to reduce fat and increase fiber intake as well as to increase the frequency and proficiency of breast self-examination (BSE) and reduce anxiety related to BSE among Latinas. Blocked randomization in blocks of 6 was used to randomize 256 20- to 40-year-old Latinas to the intervention (n = 127) or control group (n = 129). The intervention group attended an 8-month multicomponent education program designed specifically for low-acculturated Latinas. The control group received mailed health education material on a schedule comparable to the intervention. A total of 195 women (76.2%) completed both the baseline and 8-month follow-up interviews. The intervention and control groups were similar on baseline sociodemographic characteristics. At the 8-month follow up, the intervention group reported lower dietary fat (P < .001) and higher fiber intake (p = .06); a higher proportion reported practicing BSE at the recommended interval (p < .001) and showed improved BSE proficiency (p < .001) compared to the control group. BSE-related anxiety was low for both groups at baseline, and no difference in reduction was observed. This project provides a successful model for achieving dietary change and improving breast health behavior in young, low-acculturated Latinas.

  6. Spiritual Therapy to Improve the Spiritual Well-Being of Iranian Women with Breast Cancer: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najmeh Jafari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of spiritual therapy intervention in improving the spiritual well-being and quality of life (QOL of Iranian women with breast cancer. Methods. This randomized controlled clinical trial (RCT recruited 65 women with breast cancer, randomly assigned to a 6-week spirituality-based intervention (n=34 or control group (n=31. Before and after six-week spiritual therapy intervention, spiritual well-being and quality of life (QOL were assessed using Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy Spiritual Well-being scale (FACIT-Sp12 and cancer quality-of-life questionnaire (QLQ-C30, respectively. t-test, Paired t-test, pearson's correlation, and hierarchical regression analyses were used for analysis using Predictive Analytic software (PASW, version 18 for Windows. Results. After six spiritual therapy sessions, the mean spiritual well-being score from 29.76 (SD=6.63 to 37.24 (SD=3.52 in the intervention group (P<0.001. There was a significant difference between arms of study (F=22.91, P<0.001. A significant positive correlation was detected between meaning and peace with all subscales of functional subscales on European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer quality of Life (EORTC QLQ-C30 (P<0.05. Hierarchical regression analyses of participants indicated that the study arm, pain, and financial impact were significant predictors of spiritual well-being and overall QOL. Social functioning was another significant predictor of spiritual well-being. Conclusion. The results of this randomized controlled trial study suggest that participation in spiritual therapy program is associated with improvements in spiritual well-being and QOL. Targeted interventions to acknowledge and incorporate spiritual needs into conventional treatment should be considered in caring of Iranian patients with breast cancer.

  7. Effect of Training Preparation for Childbirth on Fear of Normal Vaginal Delivery and Choosing the Type of Delivery Among Pregnant Women in Hamadan, Iran: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoumi, Seyedeh Zahra; Kazemi, Farideh; Oshvandi, Khodayar; Jalali, Mozhgan; Esmaeili-Vardanjani, Ali; Rafiei, Hossein

    2016-09-01

    Objective: To examine effect of an educational program on pregnant women's fear of normal vaginal delivery. Fear of natural childbirth during pregnancy may increase the risk of caesarean section. Educational programs may be effective in reducing women fear of natural childbirth. Materials and methods: This randomized controlled trial conducted from September 2012 to January 2013 in Hamadan, Iran. One hundred fifty eligible women were randomly assigned to group "A" (Intervention group, n = 75) or group "B" (Control group, n = 75). Women in group A, participated in an antenatal educations program for physiologic childbirth in 8 two-hour sessions. A self-designed questionnaire was used to examine women's fear of natural childbirth. Data were analyzed with SPSS.16 software. Results: Baseline characteristics of women were similar in both groups. After intervention the mean fear score in group A compared to group B was significantly reduced (51.7 ± 22.4 vs. 58.7 ± 21.7) (p = 0.007). Physiologic delivery was the first choice of type of child birth after training in pregnant women in group A (58.7%). But delivery in physiologic form had lowest rate in group A (8%). Conclusion: Results of present study showed that educational program could be serving as an important tool in reducing women fear from natural childbirth and in choosing of physiologic birth. And for delivery as a physiological, education and counseling of pregnant women, doctors and midwives are required.

  8. Dietary intakes and biochemical markers of selected minerals: comparison of highly trained runners and untrained women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, A; Deuster, P A; Day, B A; Moser-Veillon, P B

    1990-02-01

    Mineral status of highly trained (HT) women runners (n = 14) and untrained (UT) women (n = 11), as determined from 3-day dietary records, blood, and urine samples, was compared. HT women had significantly higher energy (HT: 2331 +/- 121 vs UT: 1973 +/- 107 kcal/day; p less than 0.05), magnesium (Mg) (HT: 369 +/- 29 vs UT: 262 +/- 18 mg/day, p less than 0.05), and potassium (K) (HT: 3874 +/- 384 vs UT: 2646 +/- 244 mg/day; p less than 0.05) intakes than UT women. However, mean daily intakes of calcium (Ca), iron (Fe), copper (Cu), and sodium (Na) were not different for the two groups. Plasma concentrations and urinary excretion of Ca, Mg, and Cu of HT and UT women did not differ. Plasma Fe concentrations of the two groups were also similar (HT: 21 +/- 2 vs UT: 22 +/- 1 mumol/L), and, although serum ferritin concentrations of HT women were lower than UT women (HT: 18 +/- 4 vs UT: 30 +/- 6 micrograms/L), the difference was not significant. Urinary Na excretion of the two groups did not differ. HT women had a higher K intake than UT women but urinary K excretion of the two groups did not differ. Whether present mineral intakes by HT women are adequate during periods of intensive training remains to be determined.

  9. Effects of Music Therapy on Anesthesia Requirements and Anxiety in Women Undergoing Ambulatory Breast Surgery for Cancer Diagnosis and Treatment: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Jaclyn Bradley; Lane, Deforia; Mayo, Diane; Schluchter, Mark; Leeming, Rosemary

    2015-10-01

    To investigate the effect of live and recorded perioperative music therapy on anesthesia