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Sample records for randomly selected households

  1. Using ArcMap, Google Earth, and Global Positioning Systems to select and locate random households in rural Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wampler, Peter J; Rediske, Richard R; Molla, Azizur R

    2013-01-18

    A remote sensing technique was developed which combines a Geographic Information System (GIS); Google Earth, and Microsoft Excel to identify home locations for a random sample of households in rural Haiti. The method was used to select homes for ethnographic and water quality research in a region of rural Haiti located within 9 km of a local hospital and source of health education in Deschapelles, Haiti. The technique does not require access to governmental records or ground based surveys to collect household location data and can be performed in a rapid, cost-effective manner. The random selection of households and the location of these households during field surveys were accomplished using GIS, Google Earth, Microsoft Excel, and handheld Garmin GPSmap 76CSx GPS units. Homes were identified and mapped in Google Earth, exported to ArcMap 10.0, and a random list of homes was generated using Microsoft Excel which was then loaded onto handheld GPS units for field location. The development and use of a remote sensing method was essential to the selection and location of random households. A total of 537 homes initially were mapped and a randomized subset of 96 was identified as potential survey locations. Over 96% of the homes mapped using Google Earth imagery were correctly identified as occupied dwellings. Only 3.6% of the occupants of mapped homes visited declined to be interviewed. 16.4% of the homes visited were not occupied at the time of the visit due to work away from the home or market days. A total of 55 households were located using this method during the 10 days of fieldwork in May and June of 2012. The method used to generate and field locate random homes for surveys and water sampling was an effective means of selecting random households in a rural environment lacking geolocation infrastructure. The success rate for locating households using a handheld GPS was excellent and only rarely was local knowledge required to identify and locate households. This

  2. Using ArcMap, Google Earth, and Global Positioning Systems to select and locate random households in rural Haiti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wampler Peter J

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A remote sensing technique was developed which combines a Geographic Information System (GIS; Google Earth, and Microsoft Excel to identify home locations for a random sample of households in rural Haiti. The method was used to select homes for ethnographic and water quality research in a region of rural Haiti located within 9 km of a local hospital and source of health education in Deschapelles, Haiti. The technique does not require access to governmental records or ground based surveys to collect household location data and can be performed in a rapid, cost-effective manner. Methods The random selection of households and the location of these households during field surveys were accomplished using GIS, Google Earth, Microsoft Excel, and handheld Garmin GPSmap 76CSx GPS units. Homes were identified and mapped in Google Earth, exported to ArcMap 10.0, and a random list of homes was generated using Microsoft Excel which was then loaded onto handheld GPS units for field location. The development and use of a remote sensing method was essential to the selection and location of random households. Results A total of 537 homes initially were mapped and a randomized subset of 96 was identified as potential survey locations. Over 96% of the homes mapped using Google Earth imagery were correctly identified as occupied dwellings. Only 3.6% of the occupants of mapped homes visited declined to be interviewed. 16.4% of the homes visited were not occupied at the time of the visit due to work away from the home or market days. A total of 55 households were located using this method during the 10 days of fieldwork in May and June of 2012. Conclusions The method used to generate and field locate random homes for surveys and water sampling was an effective means of selecting random households in a rural environment lacking geolocation infrastructure. The success rate for locating households using a handheld GPS was excellent and only

  3. Spatial and simultaneous seroepidemiology of anti-Leishmania spp. antibodies in dog owners and their dogs from randomly selected households in a major city of southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benitez, Aline do Nascimento; Martins, Felippe Danyel Cardoso; Mareze, Marcelle; Nino, Beatriz de Souza Lima; Caldart, Eloiza Teles; Ferreira, Fernanda Pinto; Mitsuka-Breganó, Regina; Freire, Roberta Lemos; Galhardo, Juliana Arena; Martins, Camila Marinelli; Biondo, Alexander Welker; Navarro, Italmar Teodorico

    2018-06-01

    Although leishmaniasis has been described as a classic example of a zoonosis requiring a comprehensive approach for control, to date, no study has been conducted on the spatial distribution of simultaneous Leishmania spp. seroprevalence in dog owners and dogs from randomly selected households in urban settings. Accordingly, the present study aimed to simultaneously identify the seroprevalence, spatial distribution and associated factors of infection with Leishmania spp. in dog owners and their dogs in the city of Londrina, a county seat in southern Brazil with a population of half a million people and ranked 18th in population and 145th in the human development index (HDI) out of 5570 Brazilian cities. Overall, 564 households were surveyed and included 597 homeowners and their 729 dogs. Anti-Leishmania spp. antibodies were detected by ELISA in 9/597 (1.50%) dog owners and in 32/729 (4.38%) dogs, with significantly higher prevalence (p = 0.0042) in dogs. Spatial analysis revealed associations between seropositive dogs and households located up to 500 m from the local railway. No clusters were found for either owner or dog case distributions. In summary, the seroepidemiological and spatial results collectively show a lack of association of the factors for infection, and the results demonstrated higher exposure for dogs than their owners. However, railway areas may provide favorable conditions for the maintenance of infected phlebotomines, thereby causing infection in nearby domiciled dogs. In such an urban scenario, local sanitary barriers should be focused on the terrestrial routes of people and surrounding areas, particularly railways, via continuous vector surveillance and identification of phlebotomines infected by Leishmania spp. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Using a Calendar and Explanatory Instructions to Aid Within-Household Selection in Mail Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stange, Mathew; Smyth, Jolene D.; Olson, Kristen

    2016-01-01

    Although researchers can easily select probability samples of addresses using the U.S. Postal Service's Delivery Sequence File, randomly selecting respondents within households for surveys remains challenging. Researchers often place within-household selection instructions, such as the next or last birthday methods, in survey cover letters to…

  5. Blocked Randomization with Randomly Selected Block Sizes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimmy Efird

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available When planning a randomized clinical trial, careful consideration must be given to how participants are selected for various arms of a study. Selection and accidental bias may occur when participants are not assigned to study groups with equal probability. A simple random allocation scheme is a process by which each participant has equal likelihood of being assigned to treatment versus referent groups. However, by chance an unequal number of individuals may be assigned to each arm of the study and thus decrease the power to detect statistically significant differences between groups. Block randomization is a commonly used technique in clinical trial design to reduce bias and achieve balance in the allocation of participants to treatment arms, especially when the sample size is small. This method increases the probability that each arm will contain an equal number of individuals by sequencing participant assignments by block. Yet still, the allocation process may be predictable, for example, when the investigator is not blind and the block size is fixed. This paper provides an overview of blocked randomization and illustrates how to avoid selection bias by using random block sizes.

  6. Optimizing Household Chlorination Marketing Strategies: A Randomized Controlled Trial on the Effect of Price and Promotion on Adoption in Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Michael; Camille, Eveline; Velcine, Christophe; Guillaume, Rose-Kerline; Lantagne, Daniele

    2017-07-01

    Household water treatment can reduce diarrheal morbidity and mortality in developing countries, but adoption remains low and supply is often unreliable. To test effects of marketing strategies on consumers and suppliers, we randomized 1,798 households in rural Haiti and collected data on purchases of a household chlorination product for 4 months. Households received randomly selected prices ($0.11-$0.56 per chlorine bottle), and half received monthly visits from sales agents. Each $0.22 drop in price increased purchases by 0.10 bottles per household per month ( P sales agents increased purchases at mid-range prices; however, the additional revenue did not offset visit cost. Choosing the lowest price and conducting visits maximizes chlorine purchase, whereas slightly raising the retail price and not conducting visits maximizes cost recovery. For the equivalent cost, price discounts increase purchases 4.2 times as much as adding visits at the current retail price. In this context, price subsidies may be a more cost-effective use of resources than household visits, though all marketing strategies tested offer cost-effective ways to achieve incremental health impact. Decisions about pricing and promotion for health products in developing countries affect health impact, cost recovery, and cost-effectiveness, and tradeoffs between these goals should be made explicit in program design.

  7. Minimization over randomly selected lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismet Sahin

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a population-based evolutionary optimization method for minimizing a given cost function. The mutation operator of this method selects randomly oriented lines in the cost function domain, constructs quadratic functions interpolating the cost function at three different points over each line, and uses extrema of the quadratics as mutated points. The crossover operator modifies each mutated point based on components of two points in population, instead of one point as is usually performed in other evolutionary algorithms. The stopping criterion of this method depends on the number of almost degenerate quadratics. We demonstrate that the proposed method with these mutation and crossover operations achieves faster and more robust convergence than the well-known Differential Evolution and Particle Swarm algorithms.

  8. (PSNP) to Household Asset Building in Selected Kebeles of K

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    resources in cash and in kind have been transferred to the beneficiaries for .... and micro-credit programs. ... Since the latter is the major factor, SNNP-DPPB further grouped ... data of a typical household in each wealth group for the year ...... N. P im p act o n h o u seh o ld assets. a b. In creased. M ain tain ed. 8. 1. (4. 0 .5. ).

  9. High Entropy Random Selection Protocols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Buhrman (Harry); M. Christandl (Matthias); M. Koucky (Michal); Z. Lotker (Zvi); B. Patt-Shamir; M. Charikar; K. Jansen; O. Reingold; J. Rolim

    2007-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper, we construct protocols for two parties that do not trust each other, to generate random variables with high Shannon entropy. We improve known bounds for the trade off between the number of rounds, length of communication and the entropy of the outcome.

  10. A dynamic random effects multinomial logit model of household car ownership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bue Bjørner, Thomas; Leth-Petersen, Søren

    2007-01-01

    Using a large household panel we estimate demand for car ownership by means of a dynamic multinomial model with correlated random effects. Results suggest that the persistence in car ownership observed in the data should be attributed to both true state dependence and to unobserved heterogeneity...... (random effects). It also appears that random effects related to single and multiple car ownership are correlated, suggesting that the IIA assumption employed in simple multinomial models of car ownership is invalid. Relatively small elasticities with respect to income and car costs are estimated...

  11. A panel study of migration, self-selection and household real income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelsson, R; Westerlund, O

    1998-02-01

    "The impact of migration on income for Swedish multi-adult households is examined using panel data pertaining to a sample of stable household constellations during the period 1980-1990. In contrast to previous studies, data on household disposable income is employed in estimating the income function. The empirical results indicate no significant effect on real disposable income from migration. In addition, the hypothesis of no self-selection, or zero correlation between the errors in the decision function and the income function, cannot be rejected." excerpt

  12. Reducing diarrhea through the use of household-based ceramic water filters: a randomized, controlled trial in rural Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clasen, Thomas F; Brown, Joseph; Collin, Simon; Suntura, Oscar; Cairncross, Sandy

    2004-06-01

    Ceramic water filters have been identified as one of the most promising and accessible technologies for treating water at the household level. In a six-month trial, water filters were distributed randomly to half of the 50 participating households in a rural community in Bolivia; the remaining households continued to use customary water handling practices and served as controls. In four rounds of sampling following distribution of the filters, 100% of the 96 water samples from the filter households were free of thermotolerant coliforms compared with 15.5% of the control household samples. Diarrheal disease risk for individuals in intervention households was 70% lower than for controls (95% confidence interval [CI] = 53-80%; P ceramic water filters enable low-income households to treat and maintain the microbiologic quality of their drinking water.

  13. Household pathway selection of energy consumption during urbanization process in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Chuanwang; Ouyang, Xiaoling; Cai, Hongbo; Luo, Zhichao; Li, Aijun

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Energy consumption patterns have long-term impacts on energy demand. • We explore determinants and structure of household energy consumption. • Tobit and OLS models are adopted to explore factors influencing energy expenditure. • Residential energy consumption in 2030 is evaluated using scenario analysis. - Abstract: China’s growing energy demand is driven by urbanization. Facing the problem of energy scarcity, residential energy consumption is a crucial area of energy conservation and emissions reduction. Household energy consumption patterns, which are characterized by effects of “path lock-in”, have long-term impacts on China’s energy demand. Based on the survey data, this paper explores factors that influence household energy consumption and analyzes the structure of residential energy consumption in China. Based on the results of analysis of variance (ANOVA), this paper applies the Tobit and Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) models to investigate impacts of variables of “the tiered pricing for household electricity (TPHE)”, “solar energy usage”, “automobile ownership”, “rural or urban areas”, “household income” and “city scale” on the residential energy expenditure. In addition, household energy consumption is estimated under different scenarios including improving the utilization of solar energy, rise in energy prices and the increase in automobile ownership. Residential energy consumption in 2030 is evaluated by simulating different models for urban development. Policy recommendations are suggested for China’s urban development strategy, new energy development and household pathway selection of energy consumption

  14. Motivation and Characteristics of Poor Household on Selecting to Live at Sawahan Village, Sangkrah, Pasar Kliwon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dahroni Dahroni

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This research tahes the title “motivation and Characteristics of Poor Household That Choosing o Live in Kampung Saahan, Kelurahan Sangkrah, Kecamatan Pasar Kliwon”. The research problem is, what is the motivation that encouraging resident aspirants who choosing Kampung Sawahan as their residences and the characteristics of poor households in terms of why do they choose Kampung Sawahan as tehir residences. The number of settlers population in Kampung Sawahan is 113 households. The research sampling was 100 household respondents. The research method used survey methods. Respondents were taken proportionally by random sampling from the population 113 households in Kampung Sawahan. Data analysis used frequency table analysis and cross table. The result of research showed that the encouraging motivation in choosing Kampung Saahan as their residences is, they feel the location is strategic enough, because it near trading centers where they work. Beside that there is s research result identifying the characteristic problems of poor households in terms of why do they chose to live in Kampung Sawahan, Kelurahan Sangkrah. The result is, their choices are based on assumptions that they can not buy a house because their poor incomes so that they rent a house from the owner.

  15. Random regret and random utility in the household purchase of a motor vehicle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beck, M.; Chorus, C.G.; Rose, J.M.; Hensher, D.A.

    2013-01-01

    Random utility maximisation is the preeminent behavioural theory used to model choices. An alternative paradigm, however, is random regret minimisation. While the majority of the literature examines the choices of individuals, this paper compares the choices of groups, as well individuals, in both

  16. Model selection and averaging in the assessment of the drivers of household food waste to reduce the probability of false positives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aramyan, Lusine; Piras, Simone; Quested, Thomas Edward; Righi, Simone; Setti, Marco; Vittuari, Matteo; Stewart, Gavin Bruce

    2018-01-01

    Food waste from households contributes the greatest proportion to total food waste in developed countries. Therefore, food waste reduction requires an understanding of the socio-economic (contextual and behavioural) factors that lead to its generation within the household. Addressing such a complex subject calls for sound methodological approaches that until now have been conditioned by the large number of factors involved in waste generation, by the lack of a recognised definition, and by limited available data. This work contributes to food waste generation literature by using one of the largest available datasets that includes data on the objective amount of avoidable household food waste, along with information on a series of socio-economic factors. In order to address one aspect of the complexity of the problem, machine learning algorithms (random forests and boruta) for variable selection integrated with linear modelling, model selection and averaging are implemented. Model selection addresses model structural uncertainty, which is not routinely considered in assessments of food waste in literature. The main drivers of food waste in the home selected in the most parsimonious models include household size, the presence of fussy eaters, employment status, home ownership status, and the local authority. Results, regardless of which variable set the models are run on, point toward large households as being a key target element for food waste reduction interventions. PMID:29389949

  17. Model selection and averaging in the assessment of the drivers of household food waste to reduce the probability of false positives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grainger, Matthew James; Aramyan, Lusine; Piras, Simone; Quested, Thomas Edward; Righi, Simone; Setti, Marco; Vittuari, Matteo; Stewart, Gavin Bruce

    2018-01-01

    Food waste from households contributes the greatest proportion to total food waste in developed countries. Therefore, food waste reduction requires an understanding of the socio-economic (contextual and behavioural) factors that lead to its generation within the household. Addressing such a complex subject calls for sound methodological approaches that until now have been conditioned by the large number of factors involved in waste generation, by the lack of a recognised definition, and by limited available data. This work contributes to food waste generation literature by using one of the largest available datasets that includes data on the objective amount of avoidable household food waste, along with information on a series of socio-economic factors. In order to address one aspect of the complexity of the problem, machine learning algorithms (random forests and boruta) for variable selection integrated with linear modelling, model selection and averaging are implemented. Model selection addresses model structural uncertainty, which is not routinely considered in assessments of food waste in literature. The main drivers of food waste in the home selected in the most parsimonious models include household size, the presence of fussy eaters, employment status, home ownership status, and the local authority. Results, regardless of which variable set the models are run on, point toward large households as being a key target element for food waste reduction interventions.

  18. Preliminary findings of a randomized trial of non-pharmaceutical interventions to prevent influenza transmission in households.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin J Cowling

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available There are sparse data on whether non-pharmaceutical interventions can reduce the spread of influenza. We implemented a study of the feasibility and efficacy of face masks and hand hygiene to reduce influenza transmission among Hong Kong household members.We conducted a cluster randomized controlled trial of households (composed of at least 3 members where an index subject presented with influenza-like-illness of <48 hours duration. After influenza was confirmed in an index case by the QuickVue Influenza A+B rapid test, the household of the index subject was randomized to 1 control or 2 surgical face masks or 3 hand hygiene. Households were visited within 36 hours, and 3, 6 and 9 days later. Nose and throat swabs were collected from index subjects and all household contacts at each home visit and tested by viral culture. The primary outcome measure was laboratory culture confirmed influenza in a household contact; the secondary outcome was clinically diagnosed influenza (by self-reported symptoms. We randomized 198 households and completed follow up home visits in 128; the index cases in 122 of those households had laboratory-confirmed influenza. There were 21 household contacts with laboratory confirmed influenza corresponding to a secondary attack ratio of 6%. Clinical secondary attack ratios varied from 5% to 18% depending on case definitions. The laboratory-based or clinical secondary attack ratios did not significantly differ across the intervention arms. Adherence to interventions was variable.The secondary attack ratios were lower than anticipated, and lower than reported in other countries, perhaps due to differing patterns of susceptibility, lack of significant antigenic drift in circulating influenza virus strains recently, and/or issues related to the symptomatic recruitment design. Lessons learnt from this pilot have informed changes for the main study in 2008.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00425893 HKClinicalTrials.com HKCTR-365.

  19. Secondhand Smoke Exposure Reduction Intervention in Chinese Households of Young Children: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Abu S; Hua, Fu; Khan, Hafiz; Xia, Xiao; Bing, Qi; Tarang, Kheradia; Winickoff, Jonathan P

    2015-01-01

    To assess whether a theory-based, community health worker-delivered intervention for household smokers will lead to reduced secondhand smoke exposure to children in Chinese families. Smoking parents or caregivers who had a child aged 5 years or younger at home were randomized to the intervention group (n = 164) to receive smoking hygiene intervention or to the comparison group (n = 154). The intervention was delivered by trained community health workers. Outcomes were assessed at 2- and 6- month follow-up. Of the 318 families randomized, 98 (60%) of 164 intervention group and 82 (53%) of 154 of controls completed 6-month follow-up assessment. At the 6-month follow-up, 62% of intervention and 45% of comparison group households adopted complete smoking restrictions at home (P = .022); total exposure (mean number of cigarettes per week ± standard deviation) from all smokers at home in the past 7 days was significantly lower among children in the intervention (3.29 ± 9.06) than the comparison (7.41 ± 14.63) group (P = .021); and mean urine cotinine level (ng/mL) was significantly lower in the intervention (0.030 ± .065) than the comparison (0.087 ± .027) group, P exposure to secondhand smoke. These findings have implications for the development of primary health care-based secondhand smoke exposure reduction and family oriented smoking cessation interventions as China moves toward a smoke-free society. Copyright © 2015 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. 47 CFR 1.1603 - Conduct of random selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Conduct of random selection. 1.1603 Section 1.1603 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Random Selection Procedures for Mass Media Services General Procedures § 1.1603 Conduct of random selection. The...

  1. 47 CFR 1.1602 - Designation for random selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Designation for random selection. 1.1602 Section 1.1602 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Random Selection Procedures for Mass Media Services General Procedures § 1.1602 Designation for random selection...

  2. Random demographic household surveys in highly mobile pastoral communities in Chad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weibel, Daniel; Béchir, Mahamat; Hattendorf, Jan; Bonfoh, Bassirou; Zinsstag, Jakob; Schelling, Esther

    2011-05-01

    Reliable demographic data is a central requirement for health planning and management, and for the implementation of adequate interventions. This study addresses the lack of demographic data on mobile pastoral communities in the Sahel. A total of 1081 Arab, Fulani and Gorane women and 2541 children (1336 boys and 1205 girls) were interviewed and registered by a biometric fingerprint scanner in five repeated random transect demographic and health surveys conducted from March 2007 to January 2008 in the Lake Chad region in Chad. Important determinants for the planning and implementation of household surveys among mobile pastoral communities include: environmental factors; availability of women for interviews; difficulties in defining "own" children; the need for information-education-communication campaigns; and informed consent of husbands in typically patriarchal societies. Due to their high mobility, only 5% (56/1081) of registered women were encountered twice. Therefore, it was not possible to establish a demographic and health cohort. Prospective demographic and health cohorts are the most accurate method to assess child mortality and other demographic indices. However, their feasibility in a highly mobile pastoral setting remains to be shown. Future interdisciplinary scientific efforts need to target innovative methods, tools and approaches to include marginalized communities in operational health and demographic surveillance systems.

  3. Household Obesity Prevention: Take Action—a Group-Randomized Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Simone A.; Gerlach, Anne F.; Mitchell, Nathan R.; Hannan, Peter J.; Welsh, Ericka M.

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate an intervention to prevent weight gain among households (HHs) in the community. Ninety HHs were randomized to intervention or control group for 1 year. Intervention consisted of six face-to-face group sessions, placement of a television (TV) locking device on all home TVs, and home-based intervention activities. Measures were collected in person at baseline and 1 year. Weight, height, eating behaviors, physical activity (PA), and TV viewing were measured among HH members ages ≥12 years. Follow-up rate at 1 year was 96%. No significant intervention effects were observed for change in HH BMI-z score. Intervention HHs significantly reduced TV viewing, snacks/sweets intake, and dollars per person spent eating out, and increased (adults only) PA and self-weighing frequency compared with control HHs. A 1 year obesity prevention intervention targeting entire HHs was effective in reducing TV viewing, snack/sweets intake and eating out purchases. Innovative methods are needed to strengthen the home food environment intervention component. Longer intervention durations also need to be evaluated. PMID:21212771

  4. Random demographic household surveys in highly mobile pastoral communities in Chad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Béchir, Mahamat; Hattendorf, Jan; Bonfoh, Bassirou; Zinsstag, Jakob; Schelling, Esther

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Problem Reliable demographic data is a central requirement for health planning and management, and for the implementation of adequate interventions. This study addresses the lack of demographic data on mobile pastoral communities in the Sahel. Approach A total of 1081 Arab, Fulani and Gorane women and 2541 children (1336 boys and 1205 girls) were interviewed and registered by a biometric fingerprint scanner in five repeated random transect demographic and health surveys conducted from March 2007 to January 2008 in the Lake Chad region in Chad. Local setting Important determinants for the planning and implementation of household surveys among mobile pastoral communities include: environmental factors; availability of women for interviews; difficulties in defining “own” children; the need for information-education-communication campaigns; and informed consent of husbands in typically patriarchal societies. Relevant changes Due to their high mobility, only 5% (56/1081) of registered women were encountered twice. Therefore, it was not possible to establish a demographic and health cohort. Lessons learnt Prospective demographic and health cohorts are the most accurate method to assess child mortality and other demographic indices. However, their feasibility in a highly mobile pastoral setting remains to be shown. Future interdisciplinary scientific efforts need to target innovative methods, tools and approaches to include marginalized communities in operational health and demographic surveillance systems. PMID:21556307

  5. Healthy Habits, Happy Homes: methods and baseline data of a randomized controlled trial to improve household routines for obesity prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taveras, Elsie M; McDonald, Julia; O'Brien, Ashley; Haines, Jess; Sherry, Bettylou; Bottino, Clement J; Troncoso, Karen; Schmidt, Marie Evans; Koziol, Renata

    2012-11-01

    To develop a home-based intervention for parents of 2-5 year old children to promote household routines to prevent overweight/obesity. We recruited 121 children from health centers in Boston between 2011 and 2012 and randomized 62 to intervention and 59 to the control condition. The 6-month intervention included 1) motivational coaching at home and by phone with a health educator, 2) mailed educational materials, and 3) weekly text messages. The intervention promoted three household routines: eating meals as a family, obtaining adequate sleep, and limiting screen time. Of the 121 children, mean (SD) age was 4.0 (1.1) years; 52% were Hispanic, 34% Black, and 14% White/Other. Nearly 60% of the sample had annual household incomes ≤ $20,000. Approximately 64% of families reported eating together ≥ 7 times per week, however, many meals were eaten in front of a TV. Over half of the children slept less than the recommended 11h/night and 78% viewed ≥ 2 h/day of screen time. Household routines that increase obesity risk were prevalent among low-income families in this study. If proven to be effective, promotion of household routines related to family meals, sleep, and screen time may prevent young children from becoming overweight/obese. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Testing, Selection, and Implementation of Random Number Generators

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Collins, Joseph C

    2008-01-01

    An exhaustive evaluation of state-of-the-art random number generators with several well-known suites of tests provides the basis for selection of suitable random number generators for use in stochastic simulations...

  7. Analysis of the residential location choice and household energy consumption behavior by incorporating multiple self-selection effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Biying; Junyi Zhang; Fujiwara, Akimasa

    2012-01-01

    It is expected that the residential location choice and household energy consumption behavior might correlate with each other. Besides, due to the existence of self-selection effects, the observed inter-relationship between them might be the spurious result of the fact that some unobserved variables are causing both. These concerns motivate us to (1) consider residential location choice and household energy consumption behavior (for both in-home appliances and out-of-home cars) simultaneously and, (2) explicitly control self-selection effects so as to capture a relatively true effect of land-use policy on household energy consumption behavior. An integrated model termed as joint mixed Multinomial Logit-Multiple Discrete-Continuous Extreme Value model is presented here to identify the sensitivity of household energy consumption to land use policy by considering multiple self-selection effects. The model results indicate that land-use policy do play a great role in changing Beijing residents’ energy consumption pattern, while the self-selection effects cannot be ignored when evaluating the effect of land-use policy. Based on the policy scenario design, it is found that increasing recreational facilities and bus lines in the neighborhood can greatly promote household's energy-saving behavior. Additionally, the importance of “soft policy” and package policy is also emphasized in the context of Beijing. - Highlights: ► Representing residential choice and household energy consumption behavior jointly. ► Land use policy is found effective to control the household energy use in Beijing. ► Multiple self-selection effects are posed to get the true effect of land use policy. ► Significant self-selection effects call an attention to the soft policy in Beijing. ► The necessity of package policy on saving Beijing residents’ energy use is confirmed.

  8. Random effect selection in generalised linear models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Denwood, Matt; Houe, Hans; Forkman, Björn

    We analysed abattoir recordings of meat inspection codes with possible relevance to onfarm animal welfare in cattle. Random effects logistic regression models were used to describe individual-level data obtained from 461,406 cattle slaughtered in Denmark. Our results demonstrate that the largest...

  9. Financing rural households and its impact: Evidence from randomized field experiment data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mekonnen Melesse, Tigist

    2017-01-01

    We evaluate the short-term impact of financial support to smallholder farmers and training program to married women in two regions of Ethiopia. Using household-level panel data from the World Bank collected in 2010-2012, the combined Difference-In-Difference (DID) and matching methods are applied.

  10. Contribution of forest restoration to rural livelihoods and household income in Indonesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Widianingsih, Nayu Nuringdati; Theilade, Ida; Pouliot, Mariéve

    2016-01-01

    restoration area in Sumatra, Indonesia. Survey data were collected on 268 households, with a four-month recall period and three repeat visits to each selected household within a year. Random sampling was applied to select households in five villages and five Batin Sembilan (indigenous) semi-nomadic groups...

  11. Changes in the VAT Burden on Expenses of Selected Households in the Czech Republic (2007–2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Střílková Regína

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The Czech Republic is a typical representative EU Member State which has several times changed VAT rates during the analyzed period 2007–2014 in an effort to consolidate the public budget. These changes are reflected in household spending, which were analyzed by means of the consumer basket, the composition of which is also undergoing changes. Another factor that has an impact on household expenditures is the transfer of commodities between the reduced and standard rate of VAT. The final factor used is the differentiation of households according to their income levels. The aim of this paper is to determine how these changes took effect in the Czech Republic in the share of consumption of commodities included in the standard and reduced VAT rates and in exempt transactions according to household income groups in the analyzed period 2007–2014 and to determine the impact of these changes on the tax burden on selected households by value added tax and confirmation of the assumption of VAT regressivity.

  12. Interference-aware random beam selection for spectrum sharing systems

    KAUST Repository

    Abdallah, Mohamed M.; Sayed, Mostafa M.; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Qaraqe, Khalid A.

    2012-01-01

    . In this paper, we develop interference-aware random beam selection schemes that provide enhanced throughput for the secondary link under the condition that the interference observed at the primary link is within a predetermined acceptable value. For a secondary

  13. Sex Differences in Civilian Injury in Baghdad From 2003 to 2014: Results of a Randomized Household Cluster Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaak, Kyle; Lafta, Riyadh; Stewart, Barclay T; Fowler, Thomas R; Al-Shatari, Sahar A Esa; Burnham, Gilbert; Cherewick, Megan; Wren, Sherry M; Groen, Reinou S; Kushner, Adam L

    2018-06-01

    To examine sex differences in injury mechanisms, injury-related death, injury-related disability, and associated financial consequences in Baghdad since the 2003 invasion of Iraq to inform prevention initiatives, health policy, and relief planning. Reliable estimates of injury burden among civilians during conflict are lacking, particularly among vulnerable subpopulations, such as women. A 2-stage, cluster randomized, community-based household survey was conducted in May 2014 to determine the civilian burden of injury in Baghdad since 2003. Households were surveyed regarding injury mechanisms, healthcare required, disability, deaths, connection to conflict, and resultant financial hardship. We surveyed 900 households (5148 individuals), reporting 553 injuries, 162 (29%) of which were injuries among women. The mean age of injury was higher among women compared with men (34 ± 21.3 vs 27 ± 16.5 years; P < 0.001). More women than men were injured while in the home [104 (64%) vs 82 (21%); P < 0.001]. Fewer women than men died from injuries [11 (6.8%) vs 77 (20%); P < 0.001]; however, women were more likely than men to live with reduced function [101 (63%) vs 192 (49%); P = 0.005]. Of intentional injuries, women had higher rates of injury by shell fragments (41% vs 26%); more men were injured by gunshots [76 (41%) vs 6 (17.6%); P = .011). Women experienced fewer injuries than men in postinvasion Baghdad, but were more likely to suffer disability after injury. Efforts to improve conditions for injured women should focus on mitigating financial and provisional hardships, providing counseling services, and ensuring access to rehabilitation services.

  14. Selectivity and sparseness in randomly connected balanced networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cengiz Pehlevan

    Full Text Available Neurons in sensory cortex show stimulus selectivity and sparse population response, even in cases where no strong functionally specific structure in connectivity can be detected. This raises the question whether selectivity and sparseness can be generated and maintained in randomly connected networks. We consider a recurrent network of excitatory and inhibitory spiking neurons with random connectivity, driven by random projections from an input layer of stimulus selective neurons. In this architecture, the stimulus-to-stimulus and neuron-to-neuron modulation of total synaptic input is weak compared to the mean input. Surprisingly, we show that in the balanced state the network can still support high stimulus selectivity and sparse population response. In the balanced state, strong synapses amplify the variation in synaptic input and recurrent inhibition cancels the mean. Functional specificity in connectivity emerges due to the inhomogeneity caused by the generative statistical rule used to build the network. We further elucidate the mechanism behind and evaluate the effects of model parameters on population sparseness and stimulus selectivity. Network response to mixtures of stimuli is investigated. It is shown that a balanced state with unselective inhibition can be achieved with densely connected input to inhibitory population. Balanced networks exhibit the "paradoxical" effect: an increase in excitatory drive to inhibition leads to decreased inhibitory population firing rate. We compare and contrast selectivity and sparseness generated by the balanced network to randomly connected unbalanced networks. Finally, we discuss our results in light of experiments.

  15. Healthy Habits, Happy Homes: randomized trial to improve household routines for obesity prevention among preschool-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, Jess; McDonald, Julia; O'Brien, Ashley; Sherry, Bettylou; Bottino, Clement J; Schmidt, Marie Evans; Taveras, Elsie M

    2013-11-01

    Racial/ethnic and socioeconomic disparities exist across risk factors for childhood obesity. To examine the effectiveness of a home-based intervention to improve household routines known to be associated with childhood obesity among a sample of low-income, racial/ethnic minority families with young children. Randomized trial. The intervention was delivered in the families' homes. The study involved 121 families with children aged 2 to 5 years who had a television (TV) in the room where he or she slept; 111 (92%) had 6-month outcome data (55 intervention and 56 control). The mean (SD) age of the children was 4.0 (1.1) years; 45% were overweight/obese. Fifty-two percent of the children were Hispanic, 34% were black, and 14% were white/other. Nearly 60% of the families had household incomes of $20,000 or less. The 6-month intervention promoted 4 household routines, family meals, adequate sleep, limiting TV time, and removing the TV from the child's bedroom, using (1) motivational coaching at home and by phone, (2) mailed educational materials, and (3) text messages. Control subjects were mailed materials focused on child development. Change in parent report of frequency of family meals (times/wk), child sleep duration (hours/d), child weekday and weekend day TV viewing (hours/d), and the presence of a TV in the room where the child slept from baseline to 6 months. A secondary outcome was change in age- and sex-adjusted body mass index (calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared). Compared with control subjects, intervention participants had increased sleep duration (0.75 hours/d; 95% CI, 0.06 to 1.44; P = .03), greater decreases in TV viewing on weekend days (-1.06 hours/d; 95% CI, -1.97 to -0.15; P = .02), and decreased body mass index (-0.40; 95% CI, -0.79 to 0.00; P = .05). No significant intervention effect was found for the presence of a TV in the room where the child slept or family meal frequency. Our results suggest that promoting

  16. SNAP-Ed (Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program-Education) Increases Long-Term Food Security among Indiana Households with Children in a Randomized Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Rebecca L; Maulding, Melissa K; Abbott, Angela R; Craig, Bruce A; Eicher-Miller, Heather A

    2016-11-01

    Food insecurity is negatively associated with US children's dietary intake and health. The Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program-Education (SNAP-Ed) aims to alleviate food insecurity by offering nutrition, budgeting, and healthy lifestyle education to low-income individuals and families. The objective of this study was to evaluate the long-term impact of the Indiana SNAP-Ed on food security among households with children. A randomized, controlled, parallel study design with SNAP-Ed as an intervention was carried out during a 4- to 10-wk intervention period. Intervention group participants received the first 4 Indiana SNAP-Ed curriculum lessons. Study participants (n = 575) were adults aged ≥18 y from low-income Indiana households with ≥1 child living in the household. Both treatment groups completed an assessment before and after the intervention period and 1 y after recruitment. The 18-item US Household Food Security Survey Module was used to classify the primary outcomes of food security for the household and adults and children in the household. A linear mixed model was used to compare intervention with control group effects over time on food security. Mean ± SEM changes in household food security score and food security score among household adults from baseline to 1-y follow-up were 1.2 ± 0.4 and 0.9 ± 0.3 units lower, respectively, in the intervention group than in the control group (P security score from baseline to 1-y follow-up among household children was not significantly different in the intervention group compared with the control group. SNAP-Ed improved food security over a longitudinal time frame among low-income Indiana households with children in this study. SNAP-Ed may be a successful intervention to improve food security. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  17. Human rights abuse and other criminal violations in Port-au-Prince, Haiti: a random survey of households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolbe, Athena R; Hutson, Royce A

    2006-09-02

    Reliable evidence of the frequency and severity of human rights abuses in Haiti after the departure of the elected president in 2004 was scarce. We assessed data from a random survey of households in the greater Port-au-Prince area. Using random Global Positioning System (GPS) coordinate sampling, 1260 households (5720 individuals) were sampled. They were interviewed with a structured questionnaire by trained interviewers about their experiences after the departure of President Jean-Bertrand Aristide. The response rate was 90.7%. Information on demographic characteristics, crime, and human rights violations was obtained. Our findings suggested that 8000 individuals were murdered in the greater Port-au-Prince area during the 22-month period assessed. Almost half of the identified perpetrators were government forces or outside political actors. Sexual assault of women and girls was common, with findings suggesting that 35,000 women were victimised in the area; more than half of all female victims were younger than 18 years. Criminals were the most identified perpetrators, but officers from the Haitian National Police accounted for 13.8% and armed anti-Lavalas groups accounted for 10.6% of identified perpetrators of sexual assault. Kidnappings and extrajudicial detentions, physical assaults, death threats, physical threats, and threats of sexual violence were also common. Our results indicate that crime and systematic abuse of human rights were common in Port-au-Prince. Although criminals were the most identified perpetrators of violations, political actors and UN soldiers were also frequently identified. These findings suggest the need for a systematic response from the newly elected Haitian government, the UN, and social service organisations to address the legal, medical, psychological, and economic consequences of widespread human rights abuses and crime.

  18. A stepped wedge, cluster-randomized trial of a household UV-disinfection and safe storage drinking water intervention in rural Baja California Sur, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, Joshua S; Reygadas, Fermin; Arnold, Benjamin F; Ray, Isha; Nelson, Kara; Colford, John M

    2013-08-01

    In collaboration with a local non-profit organization, this study evaluated the expansion of a program that promoted and installed Mesita Azul, an ultraviolet-disinfection system designed to treat household drinking water in rural Mexico. We conducted a 15-month, cluster-randomized stepped wedge trial by randomizing the order in which 24 communities (444 households) received the intervention. We measured primary outcomes (water contamination and diarrhea) during seven household visits. The intervention increased the percentage of households with access to treated and safely stored drinking water (23-62%), and reduced the percentage of households with Escherichia coli contaminated drinking water (risk difference (RD): -19% [95% CI: -27%, -14%]). No significant reduction in diarrhea was observed (RD: -0.1% [95% CI: -1.1%, 0.9%]). We conclude that household water quality improvements measured in this study justify future promotion of the Mesita Azul, and that future studies to measure its health impact would be valuable if conducted in populations with higher diarrhea prevalence.

  19. The signature of positive selection at randomly chosen loci.

    OpenAIRE

    Przeworski, Molly

    2002-01-01

    In Drosophila and humans, there are accumulating examples of loci with a significant excess of high-frequency-derived alleles or high levels of linkage disequilibrium, relative to a neutral model of a random-mating population of constant size. These are features expected after a recent selective sweep. Their prevalence suggests that positive directional selection may be widespread in both species. However, as I show here, these features do not persist long after the sweep ends: The high-frequ...

  20. The reliability of randomly selected final year pharmacy students in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Employing ANOVA, factorial experimental analysis, and the theory of error, reliability studies were conducted on the assessment of the drug product chloroquine phosphate tablets. The G–Study employed equal numbers of the factors for uniform control, and involved three analysts (randomly selected final year Pharmacy ...

  1. Food security status among cocoa growing households in Ondo and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Food security status among cocoa growing households in Ondo and Kwara states of ... A simple purposive random sampling technique was used to select 100 cocoa ... from the information were analysed with Descriptive Statistics, Food Security ... taken per day (p<0.05) would improve the food security status of households ...

  2. Determinants of Household Food Security in Drought Prone Areas of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper documents the determinants of household-level food security based on the data collected in 2003 from 954 randomly-selected households in major drought-prone areas of Ethiopia; namely from the West and East Haraghe zones of Oromiya and South Gonder zone of Amhara. The food security is assessed using ...

  3. Local randomization in neighbor selection improves PRM roadmap quality

    KAUST Repository

    McMahon, Troy

    2012-10-01

    Probabilistic Roadmap Methods (PRMs) are one of the most used classes of motion planning methods. These sampling-based methods generate robot configurations (nodes) and then connect them to form a graph (roadmap) containing representative feasible pathways. A key step in PRM roadmap construction involves identifying a set of candidate neighbors for each node. Traditionally, these candidates are chosen to be the k-closest nodes based on a given distance metric. In this paper, we propose a new neighbor selection policy called LocalRand(k,K\\'), that first computes the K\\' closest nodes to a specified node and then selects k of those nodes at random. Intuitively, LocalRand attempts to benefit from random sampling while maintaining the higher levels of local planner success inherent to selecting more local neighbors. We provide a methodology for selecting the parameters k and K\\'. We perform an experimental comparison which shows that for both rigid and articulated robots, LocalRand results in roadmaps that are better connected than the traditional k-closest policy or a purely random neighbor selection policy. The cost required to achieve these results is shown to be comparable to k-closest. © 2012 IEEE.

  4. Local randomization in neighbor selection improves PRM roadmap quality

    KAUST Repository

    McMahon, Troy; Jacobs, Sam; Boyd, Bryan; Tapia, Lydia; Amato, Nancy M.

    2012-01-01

    Probabilistic Roadmap Methods (PRMs) are one of the most used classes of motion planning methods. These sampling-based methods generate robot configurations (nodes) and then connect them to form a graph (roadmap) containing representative feasible pathways. A key step in PRM roadmap construction involves identifying a set of candidate neighbors for each node. Traditionally, these candidates are chosen to be the k-closest nodes based on a given distance metric. In this paper, we propose a new neighbor selection policy called LocalRand(k,K'), that first computes the K' closest nodes to a specified node and then selects k of those nodes at random. Intuitively, LocalRand attempts to benefit from random sampling while maintaining the higher levels of local planner success inherent to selecting more local neighbors. We provide a methodology for selecting the parameters k and K'. We perform an experimental comparison which shows that for both rigid and articulated robots, LocalRand results in roadmaps that are better connected than the traditional k-closest policy or a purely random neighbor selection policy. The cost required to achieve these results is shown to be comparable to k-closest. © 2012 IEEE.

  5. The effect of three-monthly albendazole treatment on malarial parasitemia and allergy: a household-based cluster-randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiria, Aprilianto E.; Hamid, Firdaus; Wammes, Linda J.; Kaisar, Maria M. M.; May, Linda; Prasetyani, Margaretta A.; Wahyuni, Sitti; Djuardi, Yenny; Ariawan, Iwan; Wibowo, Heri; Lell, Bertrand; Sauerwein, Robert; Brice, Gary T.; Sutanto, Inge; van Lieshout, Lisette; de Craen, Anton J. M.; van Ree, Ronald; Verweij, Jaco J.; Tsonaka, Roula; Houwing-Duistermaat, Jeanine J.; Luty, Adrian J. F.; Sartono, Erliyani; Supali, Taniawati; Yazdanbakhsh, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Helminth infections are proposed to have immunomodulatory activities affecting health outcomes either detrimentally or beneficially. We evaluated the effects of albendazole treatment, every three months for 21 months, on STH, malarial parasitemia and allergy. A household-based cluster-randomized,

  6. Introducing mandatory standards for select household appliances in Lebanon: A cost-benefit analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruble, Isabella; Karaki, Sami

    2013-01-01

    Lebanon's energy sector crisis leads to a lack of access to uninterrupted, basic modern electricity services that affects all sectors of the economy. Energy conservation measures are nearly inexistent yet they can potentially lead to substantial reductions in energy demand growth, environmental damages and public expenditures. This paper presents an analysis of the costs and benefits associated with the introduction of mandatory standards for energy efficiency for four different household appliances (refrigerator/freezers, AC split units, washing machines and lighting) over the period 2013–2027. Our results show potential savings in electricity consumption reaching 2054 GW h annually in 2027 as well as a reduction of subsidies paid to the public utility of 3.6 billion USD in 2027 while CO 2 emissions avoided amount to 8.9 million tons over the period of analysis. Furthermore, we propose a financially attractive refrigerator/freezer replacement program for low income households. If this program would cover all existing low-income households in 2013, the savings in electricity consumption would lead to a reduction in subsidies of 9 billion USD (NPV) over the period 2013–2027, while full funding for this program would cost the government 223.8 million USD. This program would thereby benefit consumers, the government and further economic development. - Highlights: ► We model the effect of mandatory appliance standards on electricity consumption. ► We present a refrigerator replacement program contributing to economic development. ► We show that economic efficiency favors the introduction of standards for appliances.

  7. Food acquisition and intra-household consumption patterns: a study of low and middle income urban households in Delhi, India

    OpenAIRE

    MR Pradhan; FC Taylor; S Agrawal; D Prabhakaran; S Ebrahim

    2013-01-01

    Background: Food habits and choices in India are shifting due to many factors: changing food markets, fast urbanization, food price inflation, uncertain food production and unequal distribution during the past decade. This study aims to explore food acquisition and intra-household consumption patterns in urban low and middle income (LMI) households in Delhi. Methods: Twenty households were randomly selected from the Center for Cardio-metabolic Risk Reduction in South Asia (CARRS) surveillance...

  8. Food acquisition and intra-household consumption patterns: a study of low and middle income urban households in Delhi, India

    OpenAIRE

    MR Pradhan .; F C Taylor; S Agrawal; D Prabhakaran; S Ebrahim

    2013-01-01

    Background: Food habits and choices in India are shifting due to many factors: changing food markets, fast urbanization, food price inflation, uncertain food production and unequal distribution during the past decade. This study aims to explore food acquisition and intra-household consumption patterns in urban low and middle income (LMI) households in Delhi. Methods: Twenty households were randomly selected from the Center for Cardio-metabolic Risk Reduction in South Asia (CARRS) surveillance...

  9. Selection for altruism through random drift in variable size populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houchmandzadeh Bahram

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Altruistic behavior is defined as helping others at a cost to oneself and a lowered fitness. The lower fitness implies that altruists should be selected against, which is in contradiction with their widespread presence is nature. Present models of selection for altruism (kin or multilevel show that altruistic behaviors can have ‘hidden’ advantages if the ‘common good’ produced by altruists is restricted to some related or unrelated groups. These models are mostly deterministic, or assume a frequency dependent fitness. Results Evolutionary dynamics is a competition between deterministic selection pressure and stochastic events due to random sampling from one generation to the next. We show here that an altruistic allele extending the carrying capacity of the habitat can win by increasing the random drift of “selfish” alleles. In other terms, the fixation probability of altruistic genes can be higher than those of a selfish ones, even though altruists have a smaller fitness. Moreover when populations are geographically structured, the altruists advantage can be highly amplified and the fixation probability of selfish genes can tend toward zero. The above results are obtained both by numerical and analytical calculations. Analytical results are obtained in the limit of large populations. Conclusions The theory we present does not involve kin or multilevel selection, but is based on the existence of random drift in variable size populations. The model is a generalization of the original Fisher-Wright and Moran models where the carrying capacity depends on the number of altruists.

  10. A cross-sectional, randomized cluster sample survey of household vulnerability to extreme heat among slum dwellers in ahmedabad, india.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Kathy V; Azhar, Gulrez S; Nair, Rajesh; Knowlton, Kim; Jaiswal, Anjali; Sheffield, Perry; Mavalankar, Dileep; Hess, Jeremy

    2013-06-18

    Extreme heat is a significant public health concern in India; extreme heat hazards are projected to increase in frequency and severity with climate change. Few of the factors driving population heat vulnerability are documented, though poverty is a presumed risk factor. To facilitate public health preparedness, an assessment of factors affecting vulnerability among slum dwellers was conducted in summer 2011 in Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India. Indicators of heat exposure, susceptibility to heat illness, and adaptive capacity, all of which feed into heat vulnerability, was assessed through a cross-sectional household survey using randomized multistage cluster sampling. Associations between heat-related morbidity and vulnerability factors were identified using multivariate logistic regression with generalized estimating equations to account for clustering effects. Age, preexisting medical conditions, work location, and access to health information and resources were associated with self-reported heat illness. Several of these variables were unique to this study. As sociodemographics, occupational heat exposure, and access to resources were shown to increase vulnerability, future interventions (e.g., health education) might target specific populations among Ahmedabad urban slum dwellers to reduce vulnerability to extreme heat. Surveillance and evaluations of future interventions may also be worthwhile.

  11. PAAPPAS community trial protocol: a randomized study of obesity prevention for adolescents combining school with household intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele R. Sgambato

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of childhood obesity is increasing at a high rate in Brazil, making prevention a health priority. Schools are the central focus of interventions aiming the prevention and treatment of childhood obesity, however, randomized trials and cohort studies have not yet provided clear evidence of strategies to reduce prevalence of obesity. The aim of this study is to present a protocol to evaluate the efficacy of combining school and household level interventions to reduce excessive weight gain among students. Methods The intervention target fifth and sixth graders from 18 public schools (9 interventions and 9 controls in the municipality of Duque de Caxias, metropolitan area of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. A sample size of 2500 students will be evaluated at school for their weight status and those from the intervention group who are overweight or obese will be followed monthly at home by community health agents. Demographic, socioeconomic, anthropometric, eating behavior and food consumption data will be collected at school using a standardized questionnaire programmed in personal digital assistant. At school, all students from the intervention group will be encouraged to change eating habits and food consumption and to increase physical activity and reducing sedentary behavior. Discussion This study will provide evidence whether integration of school with primary health care can prevent excessive weight gain among adolescents. Positive results will inform a sustainable strategy to be disseminated in the health care system in Brazil. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02711488 . Date of registration: March 11, 2016.

  12. Interference-aware random beam selection for spectrum sharing systems

    KAUST Repository

    Abdallah, Mohamed M.

    2012-09-01

    Spectrum sharing systems have been introduced to alleviate the problem of spectrum scarcity by allowing secondary unlicensed networks to share the spectrum with primary licensed networks under acceptable interference levels to the primary users. In this paper, we develop interference-aware random beam selection schemes that provide enhanced throughput for the secondary link under the condition that the interference observed at the primary link is within a predetermined acceptable value. For a secondary transmitter equipped with multiple antennas, our schemes select a random beam, among a set of power- optimized orthogonal random beams, that maximizes the capacity of the secondary link while satisfying the interference constraint at the primary receiver for different levels of feedback information describing the interference level at the primary receiver. For the proposed schemes, we develop a statistical analysis for the signal-to-noise and interference ratio (SINR) statistics as well as the capacity of the secondary link. Finally, we present numerical results that study the effect of system parameters including number of beams and the maximum transmission power on the capacity of the secondary link attained using the proposed schemes. © 2012 IEEE.

  13. Household air pollution and chronic hypoxia in the placenta of pregnant Nigerian women: A randomized controlled ethanol Cookstove intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Anindita; Khramtsova, Galina; Brito, Katherine; Alexander, Donee; Mueller, Ariel; Chinthala, Sireesha; Adu, Damilola; Ibigbami, Tope; Olamijulo, John; Odetunde, Abayomi; Adigun, Kehinde; Pruitt, Liese; Hurley, Ian; Olopade, Olufunmilayo; Ojengbede, Oladosu; Rana, Sarosh; Olopade, Christopher O

    2018-04-01

    Household air pollution (HAP) is associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. Investigate impact of in-utero HAP exposure on placental development and chronic hypoxia. Markers of chronic placental hypoxia [Hofbauer cells (HBC), syncytial knots (SK), chorionic vascular density (cVD) and hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)] were stained by hematoxylin-eosin and/or immunohistochemically in placenta samples collected from firewood-/kerosene-users (A,n=16), and ethanol-users (B,n=20) that participated in a randomized controlled intervention trial in Ibadan, Nigeria. A third group of non-smoking and presumed natural gas-using Chicago women (C,n=12) were included in this exploratory pilot to assess for possible differences in placenta histology between similar racial groups. All patients had uncomplicated pregnancies and delivered at term. HBC, SK and cVD were significantly increased among firewood-/kerosene-users compared to ethanol-users and natural gas-using Chicago women (HBC medians 5.5, 3.5, and 2.0, respectively; SK means 55.6, 41.8 and 30.1; cVD means 8.8, 6.2, and 5.2; all pfirewood/kerosene-users compared to ethanol-users with less HAP exposure and Chicago women with no presumed HAP exposure. Presence of chronic hypoxic signature in placenta of women exposed to HAP has implications for adverse pregnancy complications and future growth and development of the young children. Future larger studies need to focus on HAP exposure and placental disorders like preeclampsia and long-term health impact of in-utero exposure to HAP. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Random selection of items. Selection of n1 samples among N items composing a stratum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaech, J.L.; Lemaire, R.J.

    1987-02-01

    STR-224 provides generalized procedures to determine required sample sizes, for instance in the course of a Physical Inventory Verification at Bulk Handling Facilities. The present report describes procedures to generate random numbers and select groups of items to be verified in a given stratum through each of the measurement methods involved in the verification. (author). 3 refs

  15. Cassava household expenditure and anthropometric indices of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In an attempt to verify the myth associated with cassava, that high consumption causes malnutrition, anthropometric measurements of 445 preschool children aged 0 - 5 years in 90 randomly selected farm households of cassava growing areas of Imo State were undertaken. Growth deviations (Z – scores) were calculated ...

  16. On dynamic selection of households for direct marketing based on Markov chain models with memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otter, Pieter W.

    A simple, dynamic selection procedure is proposed, based on conditional, expected profits using Markov chain models with memory. The method is easy to apply, only frequencies and mean values have to be calculated or estimated. The method is empirically illustrated using a data set from a charitable

  17. The signature of positive selection at randomly chosen loci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przeworski, Molly

    2002-03-01

    In Drosophila and humans, there are accumulating examples of loci with a significant excess of high-frequency-derived alleles or high levels of linkage disequilibrium, relative to a neutral model of a random-mating population of constant size. These are features expected after a recent selective sweep. Their prevalence suggests that positive directional selection may be widespread in both species. However, as I show here, these features do not persist long after the sweep ends: The high-frequency alleles drift to fixation and no longer contribute to polymorphism, while linkage disequilibrium is broken down by recombination. As a result, loci chosen without independent evidence of recent selection are not expected to exhibit either of these features, even if they have been affected by numerous sweeps in their genealogical history. How then can we explain the patterns in the data? One possibility is population structure, with unequal sampling from different subpopulations. Alternatively, positive selection may not operate as is commonly modeled. In particular, the rate of fixation of advantageous mutations may have increased in the recent past.

  18. A Bayesian random effects discrete-choice model for resource selection: Population-level selection inference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, D.L.; Johnson, D.; Griffith, B.

    2006-01-01

    Modeling the probability of use of land units characterized by discrete and continuous measures, we present a Bayesian random-effects model to assess resource selection. This model provides simultaneous estimation of both individual- and population-level selection. Deviance information criterion (DIC), a Bayesian alternative to AIC that is sample-size specific, is used for model selection. Aerial radiolocation data from 76 adult female caribou (Rangifer tarandus) and calf pairs during 1 year on an Arctic coastal plain calving ground were used to illustrate models and assess population-level selection of landscape attributes, as well as individual heterogeneity of selection. Landscape attributes included elevation, NDVI (a measure of forage greenness), and land cover-type classification. Results from the first of a 2-stage model-selection procedure indicated that there is substantial heterogeneity among cow-calf pairs with respect to selection of the landscape attributes. In the second stage, selection of models with heterogeneity included indicated that at the population-level, NDVI and land cover class were significant attributes for selection of different landscapes by pairs on the calving ground. Population-level selection coefficients indicate that the pairs generally select landscapes with higher levels of NDVI, but the relationship is quadratic. The highest rate of selection occurs at values of NDVI less than the maximum observed. Results for land cover-class selections coefficients indicate that wet sedge, moist sedge, herbaceous tussock tundra, and shrub tussock tundra are selected at approximately the same rate, while alpine and sparsely vegetated landscapes are selected at a lower rate. Furthermore, the variability in selection by individual caribou for moist sedge and sparsely vegetated landscapes is large relative to the variability in selection of other land cover types. The example analysis illustrates that, while sometimes computationally intense, a

  19. Using rewards-based incentives to increase purchase of fruit and vegetables in lower-income households: design and start-up of a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phipps, Etienne J; Wallace, Samantha L; Stites, Shana D; Uplinger, Nadine; Brook Singletary, S; Hunt, Lacy; Axelrod, Saul; Glanz, Karen; Braitman, Leonard E

    2013-05-01

    To report the design and baseline results of a rewards-based incentive to promote purchase of fruit and vegetables by lower-income households. A four-phase randomized trial with wait-listed controls. In a pilot study, despite inadequate study coupon use, purchases of fresh fruit (but not vegetables) increased, but with little maintenance. In the present study, credits on the study store gift card replace paper coupons and a tapering phase is added. The primary outcome is the number of servings of fresh and frozen fruit and vegetables purchased per week. A large full-service supermarket located in a predominantly minority community in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA. Fifty-eight households, with at least one child living in the home. During the baseline period, households purchased an average of 3·7 servings of fresh vegetables and an average of less than 1 serving of frozen vegetables per week. Households purchased an average of 1·9 servings of fresh fruit per week, with little to no frozen fruit purchases. Overall, the range of fresh and frozen produce purchased during this pre-intervention period was limited. At baseline, produce purchases were small and of limited variety. The study will contribute to understanding the impact of financial incentives on increasing the purchases of healthier foods by lower-income populations.

  20. Household-based ceramic water filters for the prevention of diarrhea: a randomized, controlled trial of a pilot program in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clasen, Thomas; Garcia Parra, Gloria; Boisson, Sophie; Collin, Simon

    2005-10-01

    Household water treatment is increasingly recognized as an effective means of reducing the burden of diarrheal disease among low-income populations without access to safe water. Oxfam GB undertook a pilot project to explore the use of household-based ceramic water filters in three remote communities in Colombia. In a randomized, controlled trial over a period of six months, the filters were associated with a 75.3% reduction in arithmetic mean thermotolerant coliforms (TTCs) (P Health Organization limits for low risk (1-10 TTCs/100 mL), respectively, compared with 0.9% and 7.3% for control group samples. Overall, prevalence of diarrhea was 60% less among households using filters than among control households (odds ratio = 0.40, 95% confidence interval = 0.25, 0.63, P < 0.0001). However, the microbiologic performance and protective effect of the filters was not uniform throughout the study communities, suggesting the need to consider the circumstances of the particular setting before implementing this intervention.

  1. Blind Measurement Selection: A Random Matrix Theory Approach

    KAUST Repository

    Elkhalil, Khalil

    2016-12-14

    This paper considers the problem of selecting a set of $k$ measurements from $n$ available sensor observations. The selected measurements should minimize a certain error function assessing the error in estimating a certain $m$ dimensional parameter vector. The exhaustive search inspecting each of the $n\\\\choose k$ possible choices would require a very high computational complexity and as such is not practical for large $n$ and $k$. Alternative methods with low complexity have recently been investigated but their main drawbacks are that 1) they require perfect knowledge of the measurement matrix and 2) they need to be applied at the pace of change of the measurement matrix. To overcome these issues, we consider the asymptotic regime in which $k$, $n$ and $m$ grow large at the same pace. Tools from random matrix theory are then used to approximate in closed-form the most important error measures that are commonly used. The asymptotic approximations are then leveraged to select properly $k$ measurements exhibiting low values for the asymptotic error measures. Two heuristic algorithms are proposed: the first one merely consists in applying the convex optimization artifice to the asymptotic error measure. The second algorithm is a low-complexity greedy algorithm that attempts to look for a sufficiently good solution for the original minimization problem. The greedy algorithm can be applied to both the exact and the asymptotic error measures and can be thus implemented in blind and channel-aware fashions. We present two potential applications where the proposed algorithms can be used, namely antenna selection for uplink transmissions in large scale multi-user systems and sensor selection for wireless sensor networks. Numerical results are also presented and sustain the efficiency of the proposed blind methods in reaching the performances of channel-aware algorithms.

  2. Materials selection for oxide-based resistive random access memories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Yuzheng; Robertson, John

    2014-01-01

    The energies of atomic processes in resistive random access memories (RRAMs) are calculated for four typical oxides, HfO 2 , TiO 2 , Ta 2 O 5 , and Al 2 O 3 , to define a materials selection process. O vacancies have the lowest defect formation energy in the O-poor limit and dominate the processes. A band diagram defines the operating Fermi energy and O chemical potential range. It is shown how the scavenger metal can be used to vary the O vacancy formation energy, via controlling the O chemical potential, and the mean Fermi energy. The high endurance of Ta 2 O 5 RRAM is related to its more stable amorphous phase and the adaptive lattice rearrangements of its O vacancy

  3. Primitive polynomials selection method for pseudo-random number generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anikin, I. V.; Alnajjar, Kh

    2018-01-01

    In this paper we suggested the method for primitive polynomials selection of special type. This kind of polynomials can be efficiently used as a characteristic polynomials for linear feedback shift registers in pseudo-random number generators. The proposed method consists of two basic steps: finding minimum-cost irreducible polynomials of the desired degree and applying primitivity tests to get the primitive ones. Finally two primitive polynomials, which was found by the proposed method, used in pseudorandom number generator based on fuzzy logic (FRNG) which had been suggested before by the authors. The sequences generated by new version of FRNG have low correlation magnitude, high linear complexity, less power consumption, is more balanced and have better statistical properties.

  4. Materials selection for oxide-based resistive random access memories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Yuzheng; Robertson, John [Engineering Department, Cambridge University, Cambridge CB2 1PZ (United Kingdom)

    2014-12-01

    The energies of atomic processes in resistive random access memories (RRAMs) are calculated for four typical oxides, HfO{sub 2}, TiO{sub 2}, Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5}, and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, to define a materials selection process. O vacancies have the lowest defect formation energy in the O-poor limit and dominate the processes. A band diagram defines the operating Fermi energy and O chemical potential range. It is shown how the scavenger metal can be used to vary the O vacancy formation energy, via controlling the O chemical potential, and the mean Fermi energy. The high endurance of Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} RRAM is related to its more stable amorphous phase and the adaptive lattice rearrangements of its O vacancy.

  5. Optimizing Event Selection with the Random Grid Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhat, Pushpalatha C. [Fermilab; Prosper, Harrison B. [Florida State U.; Sekmen, Sezen [Kyungpook Natl. U.; Stewart, Chip [Broad Inst., Cambridge

    2017-06-29

    The random grid search (RGS) is a simple, but efficient, stochastic algorithm to find optimal cuts that was developed in the context of the search for the top quark at Fermilab in the mid-1990s. The algorithm, and associated code, have been enhanced recently with the introduction of two new cut types, one of which has been successfully used in searches for supersymmetry at the Large Hadron Collider. The RGS optimization algorithm is described along with the recent developments, which are illustrated with two examples from particle physics. One explores the optimization of the selection of vector boson fusion events in the four-lepton decay mode of the Higgs boson and the other optimizes SUSY searches using boosted objects and the razor variables.

  6. Selective decontamination in pediatric liver transplants. A randomized prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, S D; Jackson, R J; Hannakan, C J; Wadowsky, R M; Tzakis, A G; Rowe, M I

    1993-06-01

    Although it has been suggested that selective decontamination of the digestive tract (SDD) decreases postoperative aerobic Gram-negative and fungal infections in orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT), no controlled trials exist in pediatric patients. This prospective, randomized controlled study of 36 pediatric OLT patients examines the effect of short-term SDD on postoperative infection and digestive tract flora. Patients were randomized into two groups. The control group received perioperative parenteral antibiotics only. The SDD group received in addition polymyxin E, tobramycin, and amphotericin B enterally and by oropharyngeal swab postoperatively until oral intake was tolerated (6 +/- 4 days). Indications for operation, preoperative status, age, and intensive care unit and hospital length of stay were no different in SDD (n = 18) and control (n = 18) groups. A total of 14 Gram-negative infections (intraabdominal abscess 7, septicemia 5, pneumonia 1, urinary tract 1) developed in the 36 patients studied. Mortality was not significantly different in the two groups. However, there were significantly fewer patients with Gram-negative infections in the SDD group: 3/18 patients (11%) vs. 11/18 patients (50%) in the control group, P < 0.001. There was also significant reduction in aerobic Gram-negative flora in the stool and pharynx in patients receiving SDD. Gram-positive and anaerobic organisms were unaffected. We conclude that short-term postoperative SDD significantly reduces Gram-negative infections in pediatric OLT patients.

  7. Households And Bio-Resources In Plateau State Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dasogot, A.D.

    2002-01-01

    The paper examines household dynamics as variables for bio-resource or biomass resource potentials and utilisation. Information was collected from 250 randomly selected households in five villages of the State, mainly using questionnaire administered on household heads, and a direct measurement/observation about what households have, do or say concerning the study problem. It was shown that insignificant quantity were utilised for various purposes like cooking and heating, but the bio-resources generated met both domestic and income needs of the households. It was concluded that beneficial use (compost, biogas or generation of electricity) should be found for the largely unused bio-resources and household dynamics should be integrated into bio-resource energy planning

  8. Promotion of Cholera Awareness Among Households of Cholera Patients: A Randomized Controlled Trial of the Cholera-Hospital-Based-Intervention-for-7 Days (CHoBI7) Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saif-Ur-Rahman, K M; Parvin, Tahmina; Bhuyian, Sazzadul Islam; Zohura, Fatema; Begum, Farzana; Rashid, Mahamud-Ur; Biswas, Shwapon Kumar; Sack, David; Sack, R Bradley; Monira, Shirajum; Alam, Munirul; Shaly, Nusrat Jahan; George, Christine Marie

    2016-12-07

    Previous studies have demonstrated that household contacts of cholera patients are highly susceptible to cholera infections for a 7-day period after the presentation of the index patient in the hospital. However, there is no standard of care to prevent cholera transmission in this high-risk population. Furthermore, there is limited information available on awareness of cholera transmission and prevention among cholera patients and their household contacts. To initiate a standard of care for this high-risk population, we developed the Cholera-Hospital-Based-Intervention-for-7-Days (CHoBI7), which delivers a handwashing with soap and water treatment intervention to household contacts during the time they spend with the admitted cholera patient in the hospital and reinforces these messages through home visits. To test CHoBI7, we conducted a randomized controlled trial among 302 intervention cholera patient household members and 302 control cholera patient household members in Dhaka, Bangladesh. In this study, we evaluated the effectiveness of the CHoBI7 intervention in increasing awareness of cholera transmission and prevention, and the key times for handwashing with soap. We observed a significant increase in cholera knowledge score in the intervention arm compared with the control arm at both the 1-week follow-up {score coefficient = 2.34 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.96, 2.71)} and 6 to 12-month follow-up period (score coefficient = 1.59 [95% CI = 1.05, 2.13]). This 1-week hospital- and home-based intervention led to a significant increase in knowledge of cholera transmission and prevention which was sustained 6 to 12 months post-intervention. These findings suggest that the CHoBI7 intervention presents a promising approach to increase cholera awareness among this high-risk population. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  9. The impact of multiple interventions to reduce household exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke among women: a cluster randomized controlled trial in Kalutara district, Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. A. A. P. Alagiyawanna

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Second-hand smoke (SHS in households remains a serious public health problem in Sri Lanka, partly due to a lack of voluntary prohibitions of tobacco smoking inside houses. Women are especially at risk of being exposed. Effective community based interventions to reduce the SHS in households targeting women is scarce. The objective of this study was to examine the impact of a multi-component intervention on household SHS exposure among Sri Lankan women. Methods Thirty clusters of 25 women (aged 18–65 from 750 households were randomized into the intervention and control groups. Women in the intervention group were exposed to activities which focused on improving knowledge on the health effects of SHS, attitudes towards SHS exposure, right to a smoke-free living and women empowerment against smoking. The duration of the intervention was six months. The comparison group received no intervention. The primary outcome of interest was self-reported SHS exposure in the household within 7 days prior to data collection. The secondary outcomes were exposure in the past 30 days, knowledge of the health risks of exposure, attitudes towards exposure, right to smoke-free living, women empowerment against smoking, and smoking inside the homes. Results Final assessment was in 329 (89.6% in the intervention group and 309 (85.8% in the comparison group. Following the intervention, significantly lower proportion of women in the intervention group as compared to the control group reported SHS exposure in their households within 7-days (9.2% vs. 15.3%, p = 0.02 and 30-days (13.6% vs. 21.6%, p = 0.008 prior to the post survey. As compared to the control group, significantly higher median scores were observed in the intervention group on the knowledge of the health risks of exposure to SHS (p < 0.001, attitudes on exposure to SHS (p = 0.004, right to smoke free living (p = 0.001 and women empowerment (p < 0.001. Conclusion Multi

  10. The effect of providing free autopoweroff plugs to households on electricity consumption - a field experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Carsten Lynge; Hansen, Lars Gårn; Fjordbak, Troels

    on metered electricity consumption for different types of households. We find effects for single men and couples without children, while we find no effect for single women and households with children. We suggest that this could be because of differences in saving potential (e.g. some households do not have......Experimental evidence of the effect of providing cheap energy saving technology to households is sparse. We present results from a field experiment in which autopoweroff plugs are provided free of charge to randomly selected households. We use propensity score matching to find treatment effects...... increase efficiency of programmes....

  11. Pediatric selective mutism therapy: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Maria; Gimigliano, Francesca; Barillari, Maria R; Precenzano, Francesco; Ruberto, Maria; Sepe, Joseph; Barillari, Umberto; Gimigliano, Raffaele; Militerni, Roberto; Messina, Giovanni; Carotenuto, Marco

    2017-10-01

    Selective mutism (SM) is a rare disease in children coded by DSM-5 as an anxiety disorder. Despite the disabling nature of the disease, there is still no specific treatment. The aims of this study were to verify the efficacy of six-month standard psychomotor treatment and the positive changes in lifestyle, in a population of children affected by SM. Randomized controlled trial registered in the European Clinical Trials Registry (EuDract 2015-001161-36). University third level Centre (Child and Adolescent Neuropsychiatry Clinic). Study population was composed by 67 children in group A (psychomotricity treatment) (35 M, mean age 7.84±1.15) and 71 children in group B (behavioral and educational counseling) (37 M, mean age 7.75±1.36). Psychomotor treatment was administered by trained child therapists in residential settings three times per week. Each child was treated for the whole period by the same therapist and all the therapists shared the same protocol. The standard psychomotor session length is of 45 minutes. At T0 and after 6 months (T1) of treatments, patients underwent a behavioral and SM severity assessment. To verify the effects of the psychomotor management, the Child Behavior Checklist questionnaire (CBCL) and Selective Mutism Questionnaire (SMQ) were administered to the parents. After 6 months of psychomotor treatment SM children showed a significant reduction among CBCL scores such as in social relations, anxious/depressed, social problems and total problems (Pselective mutism, even if further studies are needed. The present study identifies in psychomotricity a safe and efficacy therapy for pediatric selective mutism.

  12. Differences in field effectiveness and adoption between a novel automated chlorination system and household manual chlorination of drinking water in Dhaka, Bangladesh: a randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy J Pickering

    Full Text Available The number of people served by networked systems that supply intermittent and contaminated drinking water is increasing. In these settings, centralized water treatment is ineffective, while household-level water treatment technologies have not been brought to scale. This study compares a novel low-cost technology designed to passively (automatically dispense chlorine at shared handpumps with a household-level intervention providing water disinfection tablets (Aquatab, safe water storage containers, and behavior promotion. Twenty compounds were enrolled in Dhaka, Bangladesh, and randomly assigned to one of three groups: passive chlorinator, Aquatabs, or control. Over a 10-month intervention period, the mean percentage of households whose stored drinking water had detectable total chlorine was 75% in compounds with access to the passive chlorinator, 72% in compounds receiving Aquatabs, and 6% in control compounds. Both interventions also significantly improved microbial water quality. Aquatabs usage fell by 50% after behavioral promotion visits concluded, suggesting intensive promotion is necessary for sustained uptake. The study findings suggest high potential for an automated decentralized water treatment system to increase consistent access to clean water in low-income urban communities.

  13. Differences in Field Effectiveness and Adoption between a Novel Automated Chlorination System and Household Manual Chlorination of Drinking Water in Dhaka, Bangladesh: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, Amy J.; Crider, Yoshika; Amin, Nuhu; Bauza, Valerie; Unicomb, Leanne; Davis, Jennifer; Luby, Stephen P.

    2015-01-01

    The number of people served by networked systems that supply intermittent and contaminated drinking water is increasing. In these settings, centralized water treatment is ineffective, while household-level water treatment technologies have not been brought to scale. This study compares a novel low-cost technology designed to passively (automatically) dispense chlorine at shared handpumps with a household-level intervention providing water disinfection tablets (Aquatab), safe water storage containers, and behavior promotion. Twenty compounds were enrolled in Dhaka, Bangladesh, and randomly assigned to one of three groups: passive chlorinator, Aquatabs, or control. Over a 10-month intervention period, the mean percentage of households whose stored drinking water had detectable total chlorine was 75% in compounds with access to the passive chlorinator, 72% in compounds receiving Aquatabs, and 6% in control compounds. Both interventions also significantly improved microbial water quality. Aquatabs usage fell by 50% after behavioral promotion visits concluded, suggesting intensive promotion is necessary for sustained uptake. The study findings suggest high potential for an automated decentralized water treatment system to increase consistent access to clean water in low-income urban communities. PMID:25734448

  14. Differences in field effectiveness and adoption between a novel automated chlorination system and household manual chlorination of drinking water in Dhaka, Bangladesh: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, Amy J; Crider, Yoshika; Amin, Nuhu; Bauza, Valerie; Unicomb, Leanne; Davis, Jennifer; Luby, Stephen P

    2015-01-01

    The number of people served by networked systems that supply intermittent and contaminated drinking water is increasing. In these settings, centralized water treatment is ineffective, while household-level water treatment technologies have not been brought to scale. This study compares a novel low-cost technology designed to passively (automatically) dispense chlorine at shared handpumps with a household-level intervention providing water disinfection tablets (Aquatab), safe water storage containers, and behavior promotion. Twenty compounds were enrolled in Dhaka, Bangladesh, and randomly assigned to one of three groups: passive chlorinator, Aquatabs, or control. Over a 10-month intervention period, the mean percentage of households whose stored drinking water had detectable total chlorine was 75% in compounds with access to the passive chlorinator, 72% in compounds receiving Aquatabs, and 6% in control compounds. Both interventions also significantly improved microbial water quality. Aquatabs usage fell by 50% after behavioral promotion visits concluded, suggesting intensive promotion is necessary for sustained uptake. The study findings suggest high potential for an automated decentralized water treatment system to increase consistent access to clean water in low-income urban communities.

  15. Food variety and dietary diversity scores to understand the food-intake pattern among selected Malaysian households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainal Badari, Shamsul A; Arcot, Jayashree; Haron, Sharifah A; Paim, Laily; Sulaiman, Norhasmah; Masud, Jariah

    2012-01-01

    Food variety scores (FVS) and dietary diversity scores (DDS) were estimated based on foods consumed weekly by 285 Malaysian households using a food frequency questionnaire. The scoring system of FVS and DDS was based on a scale of 0-7 and 0-6 respectively. The mean household FVS and DDS was 164.1 ± 93 and 6 ± 0.4. The age of respondents (husbands or wives; p Malaysian households showed that their typical diets had high protein and energy-based foods.

  16. Household Finance

    OpenAIRE

    Campbell, John

    2006-01-01

    The welfare benefits of financial markets depend in large part on how effectively households use these markets. The study of household finance is challenging because household behavior is difficult to measure accurately, and because households face constraints that are not captured by textbook models, including fixed costs, uninsurable income risk, borrowing constraints, and contracts that are non-neutral with respect to inflation. Evidence on participation, diversification, and the exercise ...

  17. Pilot Study of Generation and Disposal of Municipal Solid Wastes in Selected Household in Rural Areas in the South-Western Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strzelczyk Maria

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Pilot study of the composition of wastes was carried out in 15 rural family households engaged in agricultural activity. In the study group the average resident of rural areas generates about 166 kg of municipal wastes annually. The conducted studies showed that the composition of municipal wastes coming from rural households changes seasonally. During the periods of summer and autumn, the quantity of bio-wastes increased distinctly. The average mass of wastes transferred to the companies engaged in the collection of wastes in the analyzed rural households is almost 50 kg · M–1. year–1. The studies showed that over 80% of organic wastes (kitchen and garden is utilized in the place where they are generated. In the studies, organic wastes were collected selectively (in separate bags, which undoubtedly had infiuence on their humidity (70–90%. Laboratory analysis of these wastes showed that the ratio C:N in it was from 7 to 19, whereas pH lay within the limits from 5.8 to 6.9 indicating its very good properties for the composting process. Therefore composting of organic waste from rural household should be recommended as the best way for its disposal and the weight reduction of biodegradable waste going to landfills. Comparison of the analyzed variants showed that some waste other than kitchen and garden does not leave the holding (it is re-used or burned in home hearths.

  18. Blind Measurement Selection: A Random Matrix Theory Approach

    KAUST Repository

    Elkhalil, Khalil; Kammoun, Abla; Al-Naffouri, Tareq Y.; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2016-01-01

    -aware fashions. We present two potential applications where the proposed algorithms can be used, namely antenna selection for uplink transmissions in large scale multi-user systems and sensor selection for wireless sensor networks. Numerical results are also

  19. FOOD ACQUISITION AND INTRA-HOUSEHOLD CONSUMPTION PATTERNS: A STUDY OF LOW AND MIDDLE INCOME URBAN HOUSEHOLDS IN DELHI, INDIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Mr; Taylor, Fc; Agrawal, S; Prabhakaran, D; Ebrahim, S

    2013-12-01

    Food habits and choices in India are shifting due to many factors: changing food markets, fast urbanization, food price inflation, uncertain food production and unequal distribution during the past decade. This study aims to explore food acquisition and intra-household consumption patterns in urban low and middle income (LMI) households in Delhi. Twenty households were randomly selected from the Center for Cardio-metabolic Risk Reduction in South Asia (CARRS) surveillance study. Data were derived from 20 questionnaires administered to women responsible for food preparation, four key-informant-interviews, and 20 in-depth interviews with household heads during September-November 2011. STATA and ATLAS.ti software were used for data analysis. Half of the households spent at least two-thirds of their income on food. The major expenditures were on vegetables (22% of total food expenditure), milk and milk products (16%), and cereal and related products (15%). Income, food prices, food preferences, and seasonal variation influenced food expenditure. Adults usually ate two to three times a day while children ate more frequently. Eating sequence was based on the work pattern within the household and cultural beliefs. Contrary to previous evidence, there was no gender bias in intra-household food distribution. Women considered food acquisition, preparation and distribution part of their self-worth and played a major role in food related issues in the household. Women's key roles in food acquisition, preparation and intra household food consumption should be considered in formulating food policies and programs.

  20. The Impact of Entrepreneurial Competencies on Household Food Security Among Smallholder Farmers in KwaZulu Natal, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinyolo, Sikhulumile; Mudhara, Maxwell

    2018-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of entrepreneurial competencies on food security among rural farming households in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa (SA). A total of 513 rural households were randomly selected, and the descriptive results indicated that 51% of these households were food insecure, and they were somewhat negative about their entrepreneurial competencies. The estimated results indicated that entrepreneurship had a positive impact on food security. The study findings suggest that stimulating entrepreneurship through developing entrepreneurial competencies among the farming households is important for improved food security among rural households in SA.

  1. Strategyproof Peer Selection using Randomization, Partitioning, and Apportionment

    OpenAIRE

    Aziz, Haris; Lev, Omer; Mattei, Nicholas; Rosenschein, Jeffrey S.; Walsh, Toby

    2016-01-01

    Peer review, evaluation, and selection is a fundamental aspect of modern science. Funding bodies the world over employ experts to review and select the best proposals of those submitted for funding. The problem of peer selection, however, is much more general: a professional society may want to give a subset of its members awards based on the opinions of all members; an instructor for a MOOC or online course may want to crowdsource grading; or a marketing company may select ideas from group b...

  2. Role of forest income in rural household livelihoods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Misbahuzzaman, Khaled; Smith-Hall, Carsten

    2015-01-01

    as Village Common Forests (VCFs), which provide valuable resources for community use. An investigation was made of the role of forest income in livelihoods of selected VCF communities in Bandarban and Rangamati districts of the CHTs. Both quantitative and qualitative analyses were employed to examine...... the household livelihood system of the respondents selected at random from 7 villages. Data were collected through participatory rural appraisal and structured quarterly surveys. The contribution of all forest-related income was found to be much smaller (11.59 %) than that of agricultural income (77.......02 %) in average total household income. However, VCFs provide bamboos, which are the largest source of household forest income. Moreover, they harbour rich native tree diversity which is vital for maintaining perennial water sources upon which most household livelihood activities depend. Therefore, it seems...

  3. The Effect of Three-Monthly Albendazole Treatment on Malarial Parasitemia and Allergy: A Household-Based Cluster-Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaisar, Maria M. M.; May, Linda; Prasetyani, Margaretta A.; Wahyuni, Sitti; Djuardi, Yenny; Ariawan, Iwan; Wibowo, Heri; Lell, Bertrand; Sauerwein, Robert; Brice, Gary T.; Sutanto, Inge; van Lieshout, Lisette; de Craen, Anton J. M.; van Ree, Ronald; Verweij, Jaco J.; Tsonaka, Roula; Houwing-Duistermaat, Jeanine J.; Luty, Adrian J. F.; Sartono, Erliyani; Supali, Taniawati; Yazdanbakhsh, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Background Helminth infections are proposed to have immunomodulatory activities affecting health outcomes either detrimentally or beneficially. We evaluated the effects of albendazole treatment, every three months for 21 months, on STH, malarial parasitemia and allergy. Methods and Findings A household-based cluster-randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted in an area in Indonesia endemic for STH. Using computer-aided block randomization, 481 households (2022 subjects) and 473 households (1982 subjects) were assigned to receive placebo and albendazole, respectively, every three months. The treatment code was concealed from trial investigators and participants. Malarial parasitemia and malaria-like symptoms were assessed in participants older than four years of age while skin prick test (SPT) to allergens as well as reported symptoms of allergy in children aged 5–15 years. The general impact of treatment on STH prevalence and body mass index (BMI) was evaluated. Primary outcomes were prevalence of malarial parasitemia and SPT to any allergen. Analysis was by intention to treat. At 9 and 21 months post-treatment 80.8% and 80.1% of the study subjects were retained, respectively. The intensive treatment regiment resulted in a reduction in the prevalence of STH by 48% in albendazole and 9% in placebo group. Albendazole treatment led to a transient increase in malarial parasitemia at 6 months post treatment (OR 4.16(1.35–12.80)) and no statistically significant increase in SPT reactivity (OR 1.18(0.74–1.86) at 9 months or 1.37 (0.93–2.01) 21 months). No effect of anthelminthic treatment was found on BMI, reported malaria-like- and allergy symptoms. No adverse effects were reported. Conclusions The study indicates that intensive community treatment of 3 monthly albendazole administration for 21 months over two years leads to a reduction in STH. This degree of reduction appears safe without any increased risk of malaria or allergies. Trial

  4. Factors Affecting Utilization of Cooking Banana among Households ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated factors affecting utilization of cooking banana among households in Oguta area of Imo State, Nigeria. Data were collected from 84 randomly selected respondents from six communities in the study area who were administered with structured questionnaire. Data analysis was by use of descriptive ...

  5. Implications of Child Labour on Household Resource Management ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the relevance of children in household resource management. Data were collected using interview schedule from 186 randomly selected respondents. Data were described while analysis of variance, correlation and regression analyses were used to establish differences and relationships of ...

  6. Variable Selection in Time Series Forecasting Using Random Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hristos Tyralis

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Time series forecasting using machine learning algorithms has gained popularity recently. Random forest is a machine learning algorithm implemented in time series forecasting; however, most of its forecasting properties have remained unexplored. Here we focus on assessing the performance of random forests in one-step forecasting using two large datasets of short time series with the aim to suggest an optimal set of predictor variables. Furthermore, we compare its performance to benchmarking methods. The first dataset is composed by 16,000 simulated time series from a variety of Autoregressive Fractionally Integrated Moving Average (ARFIMA models. The second dataset consists of 135 mean annual temperature time series. The highest predictive performance of RF is observed when using a low number of recent lagged predictor variables. This outcome could be useful in relevant future applications, with the prospect to achieve higher predictive accuracy.

  7. Random-walk simulation of selected aspects of dissipative collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toeke, J.; Gobbi, A.; Matulewicz, T.

    1984-11-01

    Internuclear thermal equilibrium effects and shell structure effects in dissipative collisions are studied numerically within the framework of the model of stochastic exchanges by applying the random-walk technique. Effective blocking of the drift through the mass flux induced by the temperature difference, while leaving the variances of the mass distributions unaltered is found possible, provided an internuclear potential barrier is present. Presence of the shell structure is found to lead to characteristic correlations between the consecutive exchanges. Experimental evidence for the predicted effects is discussed. (orig.)

  8. Application of random effects to the study of resource selection by animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillies, Cameron S; Hebblewhite, Mark; Nielsen, Scott E; Krawchuk, Meg A; Aldridge, Cameron L; Frair, Jacqueline L; Saher, D Joanne; Stevens, Cameron E; Jerde, Christopher L

    2006-07-01

    1. Resource selection estimated by logistic regression is used increasingly in studies to identify critical resources for animal populations and to predict species occurrence. 2. Most frequently, individual animals are monitored and pooled to estimate population-level effects without regard to group or individual-level variation. Pooling assumes that both observations and their errors are independent, and resource selection is constant given individual variation in resource availability. 3. Although researchers have identified ways to minimize autocorrelation, variation between individuals caused by differences in selection or available resources, including functional responses in resource selection, have not been well addressed. 4. Here we review random-effects models and their application to resource selection modelling to overcome these common limitations. We present a simple case study of an analysis of resource selection by grizzly bears in the foothills of the Canadian Rocky Mountains with and without random effects. 5. Both categorical and continuous variables in the grizzly bear model differed in interpretation, both in statistical significance and coefficient sign, depending on how a random effect was included. We used a simulation approach to clarify the application of random effects under three common situations for telemetry studies: (a) discrepancies in sample sizes among individuals; (b) differences among individuals in selection where availability is constant; and (c) differences in availability with and without a functional response in resource selection. 6. We found that random intercepts accounted for unbalanced sample designs, and models with random intercepts and coefficients improved model fit given the variation in selection among individuals and functional responses in selection. Our empirical example and simulations demonstrate how including random effects in resource selection models can aid interpretation and address difficult assumptions

  9. Interference-aware random beam selection schemes for spectrum sharing systems

    KAUST Repository

    Abdallah, Mohamed; Qaraqe, Khalid; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2012-01-01

    users. In this work, we develop interference-aware random beam selection schemes that provide enhanced performance for the secondary network under the condition that the interference observed by the receivers of the primary network is below a

  10. Assessing the accuracy and stability of variable selection methods for random forest modeling in ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Random forest (RF) modeling has emerged as an important statistical learning method in ecology due to its exceptional predictive performance. However, for large and complex ecological datasets there is limited guidance on variable selection methods for RF modeling. Typically, e...

  11. The mathematics of random mutation and natural selection for multiple simultaneous selection pressures and the evolution of antimicrobial drug resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinman, Alan

    2016-12-20

    The random mutation and natural selection phenomenon act in a mathematically predictable behavior, which when understood leads to approaches to reduce and prevent the failure of the use of these selection pressures when treating infections and cancers. The underlying principle to impair the random mutation and natural selection phenomenon is to use combination therapy, which forces the population to evolve to multiple selection pressures simultaneously that invoke the multiplication rule of probabilities simultaneously as well. Recently, it has been seen that combination therapy for the treatment of malaria has failed to prevent the emergence of drug-resistant variants. Using this empirical example and the principles of probability theory, the derivation of the equations describing this treatment failure is carried out. These equations give guidance as to how to use combination therapy for the treatment of cancers and infectious diseases and prevent the emergence of drug resistance. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Acceptance sampling using judgmental and randomly selected samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sego, Landon H.; Shulman, Stanley A.; Anderson, Kevin K.; Wilson, John E.; Pulsipher, Brent A.; Sieber, W. Karl

    2010-09-01

    We present a Bayesian model for acceptance sampling where the population consists of two groups, each with different levels of risk of containing unacceptable items. Expert opinion, or judgment, may be required to distinguish between the high and low-risk groups. Hence, high-risk items are likely to be identifed (and sampled) using expert judgment, while the remaining low-risk items are sampled randomly. We focus on the situation where all observed samples must be acceptable. Consequently, the objective of the statistical inference is to quantify the probability that a large percentage of the unsampled items in the population are also acceptable. We demonstrate that traditional (frequentist) acceptance sampling and simpler Bayesian formulations of the problem are essentially special cases of the proposed model. We explore the properties of the model in detail, and discuss the conditions necessary to ensure that required samples sizes are non-decreasing function of the population size. The method is applicable to a variety of acceptance sampling problems, and, in particular, to environmental sampling where the objective is to demonstrate the safety of reoccupying a remediated facility that has been contaminated with a lethal agent.

  13. 40 CFR 761.308 - Sample selection by random number generation on any two-dimensional square grid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sample selection by random number... § 761.79(b)(3) § 761.308 Sample selection by random number generation on any two-dimensional square... area created in accordance with paragraph (a) of this section, select two random numbers: one each for...

  14. Measuring User Compliance and Cost Effectiveness of Safe Drinking Water Programs: A Cluster-Randomized Study of Household Ultraviolet Disinfection in Rural Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reygadas, Fermín; Gruber, Joshua S; Dreizler, Lindsay; Nelson, Kara L; Ray, Isha

    2018-03-01

    Low adoption and compliance levels for household water treatment and safe storage (HWTS) technologies have made it challenging for these systems to achieve measurable health benefits in the developing world. User compliance remains an inconsistently defined and poorly understood feature of HWTS programs. In this article, we develop a comprehensive approach to understanding HWTS compliance. First, our Safe Drinking Water Compliance Framework disaggregates and measures the components of compliance from initial adoption of the HWTS to exclusive consumption of treated water. We apply this framework to an ultraviolet (UV)-based safe water system in a cluster-randomized controlled trial in rural Mexico. Second, we evaluate a no-frills (or "Basic") variant of the program as well as an improved (or "Enhanced") variant, to test if subtle changes in the user interface of HWTS programs could improve compliance. Finally, we perform a full-cost analysis of both variants to assess their cost effectiveness (CE) in achieving compliance. We define "compliance" strictly as the habit of consuming safe water. We find that compliance was significantly higher in the groups where the UV program variants were rolled out than in the control groups. The Enhanced variant performed better immediately postintervention than the Basic, but compliance (and thus CE) degraded with time such that no effective difference remained between the two versions of the program.

  15. HOUSEHOLD PARTICIPATION IN RECYCLING PROGRAMS: A CASE STUDY FROM MALAYSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azilah M Akil

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The increase in per capita income and rapid urbanization, have contributed significantly to changes in consumption behaviour leading to increased waste generation.  Waste disposed to landfill sites is fast becoming unfeasible thus requiring a more effective management of waste material involving waste reduction, reuse and recycling. The success of recycling program, however, is largely dependent on household participation activities which are essentially behaviour driven. The recycling performance of Malaysian households is still low as it stands at 5.5% compared to Singapore and Vietnam which are 56% and 22% respectively. This study examines recycling behaviour among households and the influence of socioeconomic, demographic and behavioural characteristics on households’ participation in recycling program in Malaysia.  A sample of 300 randomly selected household were surveyed.  The findings revealed that most of the households (70% claim that they are practicing recycling particularly types of paper and old clothes. The factors of participation in recycling show equal results both for environmental concerns and economic benefits. Those who did not participate in recycling, listed household issues or behaviour, namely lack of time and materials to recycle, inconvenient, lack of space, lack of facilities and information as well as laziness, as barriers. The paper finally highlights the factors which can encourage household to be involved in recycling and give recommendations to the authorities in terms of facilities and infrastructures to facilitate the program.

  16. Rural Households

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Ole

    2013-01-01

    dependency on state institutions under the Vietnamese transition to a market society. It discusses present poverty definitions and measures by comparing survey data with the formal economic categorization of rural households. Both the overall characteristics of rural society and qualitative data indicate...... that the reforms have set in motion a process by which a mix of new opportunities and increasing pressures creates new winners and losers. Second, the chapter draws attention to the nature of interactions between households, local communities and the Vietnamese state. This shows both potentials and limitations...

  17. Household Food Insecurity Is Associated with Nutritional Status among Iranian Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahraki, Soudabeh Hamedi; Amirkhizi, Farshad; Amirkhizi, Behzad; Hamedi, Sousan

    2016-01-01

    This cross-sectional study was conducted to determine household food security status and sociodemographic factors influencing it and to examine whether food insecurity of household is a risk factor for underweight, stunting, and thinness in primary school children of Sistan and Baluchestan Province in southeastern Iran. A sample of 610 students aged 7-11 years was selected by a multistage cluster random sampling method during December 2013-May 2014. Using U.S. Department of Agriculture Food Security questionnaire, 42.3% of households showed some degree of food insecurity. Food insecurity was positively associated with household size (p = .002) and number of children per household (p = .001) and negatively associated with mother's and father's education level (p = .005 and p = .042, respectively), father's occupation status, and household income (p Children living in food insecure with severe hunger households were 10.13, 10.07, and 4.54 times as likely to be underweight, stunted, and thin, respectively, as counterparts from food secure households. The findings showed food insecurity was prevalent and associated with sociodemographic factors among households with schoolchildren in southeastern Iran. Nutritional status of children was also associated with food security status of their households.

  18. A community-based survey for different abnormal glucose metabolism among pregnant women in a random household study (SAUDI-DM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Rubeaan, Khalid; Al-Manaa, Hamad A; Khoja, Tawfik A; Youssef, Amira M; Al-Sharqawi, Ahmad H; Siddiqui, Khalid; Ahmad, Najlaa A

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess the prevalence and risk factors of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in a population known to have a high prevalence of abnormal glucose metabolism. Methods A household random population-based cross-sectional study of 13 627 women in the childbearing age, who were subjected to fasting plasma glucose if they were not known to have been diagnosed before with any type of diabetes. GDM cases were diagnosed using the International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Group (IAPSG) criteria. Results The overall GDM prevalence was 36.6%, categorised into 32.4% new cases and 4.2% known cases. Another 3.6% had preconception type 1 or 2 diabetes. GDM cases were older and had a significantly higher body mass index, in addition to a higher rate of macrocosmic baby and history of GDM. Monthly income, educational level, living in urban areas and smoking were not found to be significantly different between normal and GDM cases. The most important and significant risk factors for GDM were history of GDM, macrosomic baby, obesity and age >30 years. However, hypertension, low high-density lipoprotein, family history of diabetes and increased triglycerides did not show any significant effect on GDM prevalence in this cohort. Conclusions This society is facing a real burden of abnormal glucose metabolism during pregnancy, where almost half of the pregnant women are subjected to maternal and neonatal complications. Early screening of pregnant women, especially those at a high risk for GDM, is mandatory to identify and manage those cases. PMID:25138813

  19. The effect on haemoglobin of the use of iron cooking pots in rural Malawian households in an area with high malaria prevalence: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geerligs, Paul Prinsen; Brabin, Bernard; Mkumbwa, Albert; Broadhead, Robin; Cuevas, Luis E

    2003-04-01

    Innovative low-cost sustainable strategies are required to reduce the high prevalence of iron-deficiency anaemia in developing countries. We undertook a community-based randomized controlled intervention trial to assess the effects of cooking in iron or aluminium cooking pots in Malawian households in an area with high malaria prevalence. Analysis was by intention to treat and consistency of use. The primary outcomes were change in haemoglobin and iron status. The study population comprised 164 participants eating from aluminium cooking pots and 158 from iron cooking pots. The mean haemoglobin change was significantly increased after 6 weeks in adults who consistently ate from an iron cooking pot (+3.6 g/l compared to -3.2 g/l, mean difference between groups 6.8 g/l, 95% CI +0.86, +12.74). In children, no significant haemoglobin change was observed in consistent pot users, although they showed a significant reduction in iron deficiency (iron 8.6 ZP/g and aluminium 10.8 ZP/g, mean difference 2.2 ZP/g, 95% CI +1.08, +3.32). Rural Malawian adults in a high malaria transmission area who consistently consume food prepared in iron cooking pots show a significant rise in haemoglobin after 6 weeks use. Children showed a reduction in iron deficiency, but no significant improvement in haemoglobin, possibly because of their high malaria parasite prevalence. Using iron cooking pots in developing countries could provide an innovative way to prevent iron deficiency and anaemia in malarious areas where regular iron supplementation is problematic.

  20. Household determinants of bushmeat and eru (Gnetum africanum) harvesting for cash in the Democratic Republic of Congo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakkegaard, Riyong Kim; Nielsen, Martin Reinhardt; Thorsen, Bo Jellesmark

    2017-01-01

    Peri-urban pressure on the Luki Biosphere Reserve in Bas-Congo, Democratic Republic of Congo, is fuelled by growing demand in urban markets coupled with easy access. With data from 175 randomly selected households, this paper examines factors that motivate households to collect two major forest....... Greater market distance being a female-headed household and greater age of household heads negatively affected selection into eru collection, reflecting characteristics of cash harvesting activities. Low education and more local knowledge characterised more successful outcome of eru collection, whereas...... of these activities in providing a pathway out of poverty and stress the needs for better integration of conservation and development policies....

  1. Food acquisition and intra-household consumption patterns: a study of low and middle income urban households in Delhi, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MR Pradhan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Food habits and choices in India are shifting due to many factors: changing food markets, fast urbanization, food price inflation, uncertain food production and unequal distribution during the past decade. This study aims to explore food acquisition and intra-household consumption patterns in urban low and middle income (LMI households in Delhi. Methods: Twenty households were randomly selected from the Center for Cardio-metabolic Risk Reduction in South Asia (CARRS surveillance study. Data were derived from 20 questionnaires administered to women responsible for food preparation, four key-informant-interviews, and 20 in-depth interviews with household heads during September-November 2011. STATA and ATLAS.ti software were used for data analysis. Results: Half of the households spent at least two-thirds of their income on food. The major expenditures were on vegetables (22% of total food expenditure, milk and milk products (16%, and cereal and related products (15%. Income, food prices, food preferences, and seasonal variation influenced food expenditure. Adults usually ate two to three times a day while children ate more frequently. Eating sequence was based on the work pattern within the household and cultural beliefs. Contrary to previous evidence, there was no gender bias in intra-household food distribution. Women considered food acquisition, preparation and distribution part of their self-worth and played a major role in food related issues in the household. Conclusion: Women’s key roles in food acquisition, preparation and intra household food consumption should be considered in formulating food policies and programs. 

  2. Food acquisition and intra-household consumption patterns: a study of low and middle income urban households in Delhi, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MR Pradhan .

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Food habits and choices in India are shifting due to many factors: changing food markets, fast urbanization, food price inflation, uncertain food production and unequal distribution during the past decade. This study aims to explore food acquisition and intra-household consumption patterns in urban low and middle income (LMI households in Delhi. Methods: Twenty households were randomly selected from the Center for Cardio-metabolic Risk Reduction in South Asia (CARRS surveillance study. Data were derived from 20 questionnaires administered to women responsible for food preparation, four key-informant-interviews, and 20 in-depth interviews with household heads during September-November 2011. STATA and ATLAS.ti software were used for data analysis. Results: Half of the households spent at least two-thirds of their income on food. The major expenditures were on vegetables (22% of total food expenditure, milk and milk products (16%, and cereal and related products (15%. Income, food prices, food preferences, and seasonal variation influenced food expenditure. Adults usually ate two to three times a day while children ate more frequently. Eating sequence was based on the work pattern within the household and cultural beliefs. Contrary to previous evidence, there was no gender bias in intra-household food distribution. Women considered food acquisition, preparation and distribution part of their self-worth and played a major role in food related issues in the household. Conclusion: Women’s key roles in food acquisition, preparation and intra household food consumption should be considered in formulating food policies and programs.  

  3. Non-random mating for selection with restricted rates of inbreeding and overlapping generations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonesson, A.K.; Meuwissen, T.H.E.

    2002-01-01

    Minimum coancestry mating with a maximum of one offspring per mating pair (MC1) is compared with random mating schemes for populations with overlapping generations. Optimum contribution selection is used, whereby $\\\\\\\\Delta F$ is restricted. For schemes with $\\\\\\\\Delta F$ restricted to 0.25% per

  4. Applications of random forest feature selection for fine-scale genetic population assignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylvester, Emma V A; Bentzen, Paul; Bradbury, Ian R; Clément, Marie; Pearce, Jon; Horne, John; Beiko, Robert G

    2018-02-01

    Genetic population assignment used to inform wildlife management and conservation efforts requires panels of highly informative genetic markers and sensitive assignment tests. We explored the utility of machine-learning algorithms (random forest, regularized random forest and guided regularized random forest) compared with F ST ranking for selection of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) for fine-scale population assignment. We applied these methods to an unpublished SNP data set for Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar ) and a published SNP data set for Alaskan Chinook salmon ( Oncorhynchus tshawytscha ). In each species, we identified the minimum panel size required to obtain a self-assignment accuracy of at least 90% using each method to create panels of 50-700 markers Panels of SNPs identified using random forest-based methods performed up to 7.8 and 11.2 percentage points better than F ST -selected panels of similar size for the Atlantic salmon and Chinook salmon data, respectively. Self-assignment accuracy ≥90% was obtained with panels of 670 and 384 SNPs for each data set, respectively, a level of accuracy never reached for these species using F ST -selected panels. Our results demonstrate a role for machine-learning approaches in marker selection across large genomic data sets to improve assignment for management and conservation of exploited populations.

  5. 40 CFR 761.306 - Sampling 1 meter square surfaces by random selection of halves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sampling 1 meter square surfaces by...(b)(3) § 761.306 Sampling 1 meter square surfaces by random selection of halves. (a) Divide each 1 meter square portion where it is necessary to collect a surface wipe test sample into two equal (or as...

  6. Household Chemical Emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Content Home Be Informed Household Chemical Emergencies Household Chemical Emergencies Although the risk of a chemical accident ... reduce the risk of injury. Before a Household Chemical Emergency It is critical to store household chemicals ...

  7. Hebbian Learning in a Random Network Captures Selectivity Properties of the Prefrontal Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Grace W.

    2017-01-01

    Complex cognitive behaviors, such as context-switching and rule-following, are thought to be supported by the prefrontal cortex (PFC). Neural activity in the PFC must thus be specialized to specific tasks while retaining flexibility. Nonlinear “mixed” selectivity is an important neurophysiological trait for enabling complex and context-dependent behaviors. Here we investigate (1) the extent to which the PFC exhibits computationally relevant properties, such as mixed selectivity, and (2) how such properties could arise via circuit mechanisms. We show that PFC cells recorded from male and female rhesus macaques during a complex task show a moderate level of specialization and structure that is not replicated by a model wherein cells receive random feedforward inputs. While random connectivity can be effective at generating mixed selectivity, the data show significantly more mixed selectivity than predicted by a model with otherwise matched parameters. A simple Hebbian learning rule applied to the random connectivity, however, increases mixed selectivity and enables the model to match the data more accurately. To explain how learning achieves this, we provide analysis along with a clear geometric interpretation of the impact of learning on selectivity. After learning, the model also matches the data on measures of noise, response density, clustering, and the distribution of selectivities. Of two styles of Hebbian learning tested, the simpler and more biologically plausible option better matches the data. These modeling results provide clues about how neural properties important for cognition can arise in a circuit and make clear experimental predictions regarding how various measures of selectivity would evolve during animal training. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The prefrontal cortex is a brain region believed to support the ability of animals to engage in complex behavior. How neurons in this area respond to stimuli—and in particular, to combinations of stimuli (

  8. Performance Evaluation of User Selection Protocols in Random Networks with Energy Harvesting and Hardware Impairments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Nhat Nguyen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we evaluate performances of various user selection protocols under impact of hardware impairments. In the considered protocols, a Base Station (BS selects one of available Users (US to serve, while the remaining USs harvest the energy from the Radio Frequency (RF transmitted by the BS. We assume that all of the US randomly appear around the BS. In the Random Selection Protocol (RAN, the BS randomly selects a US to transmit the data. In the second proposed protocol, named Minimum Distance Protocol (MIND, the US that is nearest to the BS will be chosen. In the Optimal Selection Protocol (OPT, the US providing the highest channel gain between itself and the BS will be served. For performance evaluation, we derive exact and asymptotic closed-form expressions of average Outage Probability (OP over Rayleigh fading channels. We also consider average harvested energy per a US. Finally, Monte-Carlo simulations are then performed to verify the theoretical results.

  9. Simulated Performance Evaluation of a Selective Tracker Through Random Scenario Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hussain, Dil Muhammad Akbar

    2006-01-01

    performance assessment. Therefore, a random target motion scenario is adopted. Its implementation in particular for testing the proposed selective track splitting algorithm using Kalman filters is investigated through a number of performance parameters which gives the activity profile of the tracking scenario......  The paper presents a simulation study on the performance of a target tracker using selective track splitting filter algorithm through a random scenario implemented on a digital signal processor.  In a typical track splitting filter all the observation which fall inside a likelihood ellipse...... are used for update, however, in our proposed selective track splitting filter less number of observations are used for track update.  Much of the previous performance work [1] has been done on specific (deterministic) scenarios. One of the reasons for considering the specific scenarios, which were...

  10. TEHRAN AIR POLLUTANTS PREDICTION BASED ON RANDOM FOREST FEATURE SELECTION METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Shamsoddini

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution as one of the most serious forms of environmental pollutions poses huge threat to human life. Air pollution leads to environmental instability, and has harmful and undesirable effects on the environment. Modern prediction methods of the pollutant concentration are able to improve decision making and provide appropriate solutions. This study examines the performance of the Random Forest feature selection in combination with multiple-linear regression and Multilayer Perceptron Artificial Neural Networks methods, in order to achieve an efficient model to estimate carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide and PM2.5 contents in the air. The results indicated that Artificial Neural Networks fed by the attributes selected by Random Forest feature selection method performed more accurate than other models for the modeling of all pollutants. The estimation accuracy of sulfur dioxide emissions was lower than the other air contaminants whereas the nitrogen dioxide was predicted more accurate than the other pollutants.

  11. Tehran Air Pollutants Prediction Based on Random Forest Feature Selection Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamsoddini, A.; Aboodi, M. R.; Karami, J.

    2017-09-01

    Air pollution as one of the most serious forms of environmental pollutions poses huge threat to human life. Air pollution leads to environmental instability, and has harmful and undesirable effects on the environment. Modern prediction methods of the pollutant concentration are able to improve decision making and provide appropriate solutions. This study examines the performance of the Random Forest feature selection in combination with multiple-linear regression and Multilayer Perceptron Artificial Neural Networks methods, in order to achieve an efficient model to estimate carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide and PM2.5 contents in the air. The results indicated that Artificial Neural Networks fed by the attributes selected by Random Forest feature selection method performed more accurate than other models for the modeling of all pollutants. The estimation accuracy of sulfur dioxide emissions was lower than the other air contaminants whereas the nitrogen dioxide was predicted more accurate than the other pollutants.

  12. Household Savings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Browning, Martin; Lusardi, Annamaria

    suggested in the informal saving literature can be captured in the standard optimizing model. Particular attention is given to recent work on the precautionary motive and its implications for saving and consumption behavior. We also discuss the "behavioral" or "psychological" approach that eschews the use......In this survey, we review the recent theoretical and empirical literature on household saving and consumption. The discussion is structured around a list of motives for saving and how well the standard theory captures these motives. We show that almost all of the motives for saving that have been...

  13. Household demand for improved sanitation services in Kumasi, Ghana: A contingent valuation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittington, Dale; Lauria, Donald T.; Wright, Albert M.; Choe, Kyeongae; Hughes, Jeffrey A.; Swarna, Venkateswarlu

    1993-06-01

    A contingent valuation survey was conducted in Kumasi, Ghana, to estimate households' willingness to pay for two types of improved sanitation services: improved ventilated pit latrines and water closets connected to a sewer system. Over 1200 randomly selected households throughout the city were interviewed. Most households were willing to pay more for improved sanitation service than they were currently paying for their existing sanitation system (mostly public and bucket latrines), but in absolute terms the potential revenues from households are not large, of the order of US$1.40 per household per month (about 1-2% of household income). The results of the study confirm the conventional wisdom that conventional sewerage is not affordable to the vast majority of households without massive government subsidies. On the other hand, it appears that only modest subsidies are required to achieve relatively high levels of coverage with on-site sanitation (improved ventilated pit latrines). This is because improved ventilated pit latrines are much cheaper than conventional sewerage and because most households are willing to pay about as much for a ventilated pit latrine as for a water closet connected to a sewer. Several tests were conducted to check the accuracy of respondents' answers to contingent valuation questions. The findings indicate that contingent valuation surveys can be successfully carried out in cities in developing countries for public services such as sanitation and that reasonably reliable information can be obtained on household demand for different sanitation technologies.

  14. Contribution of Forest Restoration to Rural Livelihoods and Household Income in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayu Nuringdati Widianingsih

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Forest resources remain vital to the survival of many rural communities, though the level of forest reliance varies across a range of sites and socio-economic settings. This article investigates variation in forest utilization across households in three ethnic groups living near a forest restoration area in Sumatra, Indonesia. Survey data were collected on 268 households, with a four-month recall period and three repeat visits to each selected household within a year. Random sampling was applied to select households in five villages and five Batin Sembilan (indigenous semi-nomadic groups. Sampled households belonged to three ethnic groups: 15% were Batin Sembilan, 40% Local Malayan, and 45% Immigrant households. Indigenous households displayed the highest reliance on forests: 36% of their annual total income came from this source, as compared with 10% and 8% for Local and Immigrant households, respectively. Our findings showed that the livelihoods of indigenous groups were still intricately linked with forest resources, despite a rapid landscape-wide transition from natural forest to oil palm and timber plantations.

  15. Continuous-Time Mean-Variance Portfolio Selection with Random Horizon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Zhiyong

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the continuous-time mean-variance optimal portfolio selection problem with random market parameters and random time horizon. Treating this problem as a linearly constrained stochastic linear-quadratic optimal control problem, I explicitly derive the efficient portfolios and efficient frontier in closed forms based on the solutions of two backward stochastic differential equations. Some related issues such as a minimum variance portfolio and a mutual fund theorem are also addressed. All the results are markedly different from those in the problem with deterministic exit time. A key part of my analysis involves proving the global solvability of a stochastic Riccati equation, which is interesting in its own right

  16. Continuous-Time Mean-Variance Portfolio Selection with Random Horizon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Zhiyong, E-mail: yuzhiyong@sdu.edu.cn [Shandong University, School of Mathematics (China)

    2013-12-15

    This paper examines the continuous-time mean-variance optimal portfolio selection problem with random market parameters and random time horizon. Treating this problem as a linearly constrained stochastic linear-quadratic optimal control problem, I explicitly derive the efficient portfolios and efficient frontier in closed forms based on the solutions of two backward stochastic differential equations. Some related issues such as a minimum variance portfolio and a mutual fund theorem are also addressed. All the results are markedly different from those in the problem with deterministic exit time. A key part of my analysis involves proving the global solvability of a stochastic Riccati equation, which is interesting in its own right.

  17. Rural household incomes and land grabbing in Cambodia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiao, Xi; Smith-Hall, Carsten; Theilade, Ida

    2015-01-01

    This paper empirically quantifies environmentally augmented rural household incomes in Cambodia and analyzes how economic land concessions (ELCs) affect such incomes. Data is derived from a structured survey of 600 randomly selected households in 15 villages in three study sites in Cambodia, where...... local livelihoods are highly reliant on access to land and natural resources, supported by qualitative data from focus group discussions. Gini coefficient decomposition, multiple regression models, and propensity score matching (PSM) models were employed to analyze the composition of income portfolios......, determinants of major income sources, and the impacts of land grabbing on incomes. Results documented high reliance on environmental income (32–35% of total household income) and farm income (51–53%) across income quartiles; demonstrated the variation in product composition across quartiles...

  18. Mortality in North Korean migrant households: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, W C; Lee, M K; Hill, K; Burnham, G M

    1999-07-24

    A deteriorating economy, coupled with a series of natural disasters in 1995-97, led to a severe food crisis in North Korea. Although the country has received substantial international aid since 1996, demographic assessments of crisis impact have been limited. We assessed mortality trends in North Korea since 1995. At 15 randomly selected sites in China, 440 North Korean adult migrants were interviewed during July-September, 1998. Respondents were asked about births, deaths, and migration patterns in their households between mid-1994 and mid-1998, and about household food sources. The respondents also provided basic demographic information about the households of their relatives. We compared mortality rates from migrant households with data from the 1993 census and with data about households of non-migrant relatives. Households that included a recent migrant to China showed increasing mortality: crude death rates rose from 28.9 per 1000 in 1995, to 45.6 per 1000 in 1996, and to 56.0 per 1000 in 1997 (p=0.0001), with a 3-year average rate of 42.8 per 1000. The crude 3-year birth rate was 11.0 per 1000. Average household size declined from 4.0 at the beginning of 1995 to 3.4 at the end of 1997 (p=0.0002). Among 259 households of non-migrant relatives, the crude death rate was 43.2 per 1000 and the crude birth rate was 8.8 per 1000. In these households, the 3-year trend of increasing mortality was significant (p=0.001), as was the decline in average household size from 4.3 at the beginning of 1995 to 3.7 at the end of 1997 (p=0.0001). Among North Korean households that include a recent migrant to China, mortality has increased and household size has declined since 1995. This trend raises concern about the state of the general population, at least in the province of North Hamkyong, from where most of the migrants originated.

  19. Household adoption of energy and water-efficient appliances: An analysis of attitudes, labelling and complementary green behaviours in selected OECD countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieu-Hang, To; Grafton, R Quentin; Martínez-Espiñeira, Roberto; Garcia-Valiñas, Maria

    2017-07-15

    Using a household-based data set of more than 12,000 households from 11 OECD countries, we analyse the factors underlying the decision by households to adopt energy-efficient and water-efficient equipment. We evaluate the roles of both attitudes and labelling schemes on the adoption of energy and water-efficient equipment, and also the interaction and complementarity between energy and water conservation behaviours. Our findings show: one, 'green' social norms and favourable attitudes towards the environment are associated with an increased likelihood of households' adoption of energy and water-efficient appliances; two, households' purchase decisions are positively affected by their awareness, understanding, and trust of labelling schemes; and three, there is evidence of complementarity between energy conservation and water conservation behaviours. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Emergence of multilevel selection in the prisoner's dilemma game on coevolving random networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szolnoki, Attila; Perc, Matjaz

    2009-01-01

    We study the evolution of cooperation in the prisoner's dilemma game, whereby a coevolutionary rule is introduced that molds the random topology of the interaction network in two ways. First, existing links are deleted whenever a player adopts a new strategy or its degree exceeds a threshold value; second, new links are added randomly after a given number of game iterations. These coevolutionary processes correspond to the generic formation of new links and deletion of existing links that, especially in human societies, appear frequently as a consequence of ongoing socialization, change of lifestyle or death. Due to the counteraction of deletions and additions of links the initial heterogeneity of the interaction network is qualitatively preserved, and thus cannot be held responsible for the observed promotion of cooperation. Indeed, the coevolutionary rule evokes the spontaneous emergence of a powerful multilevel selection mechanism, which despite the sustained random topology of the evolving network, maintains cooperation across the whole span of defection temptation values.

  1. Topology-selective jamming of fully-connected, code-division random-access networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polydoros, Andreas; Cheng, Unjeng

    1990-01-01

    The purpose is to introduce certain models of topology selective stochastic jamming and examine its impact on a class of fully-connected, spread-spectrum, slotted ALOHA-type random access networks. The theory covers dedicated as well as half-duplex units. The dominant role of the spatial duty factor is established, and connections with the dual concept of time selective jamming are discussed. The optimal choices of coding rate and link access parameters (from the users' side) and the jamming spatial fraction are numerically established for DS and FH spreading.

  2. Random drift versus selection in academic vocabulary: an evolutionary analysis of published keywords.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Alexander Bentley

    Full Text Available The evolution of vocabulary in academic publishing is characterized via keyword frequencies recorded in the ISI Web of Science citations database. In four distinct case-studies, evolutionary analysis of keyword frequency change through time is compared to a model of random copying used as the null hypothesis, such that selection may be identified against it. The case studies from the physical sciences indicate greater selection in keyword choice than in the social sciences. Similar evolutionary analyses can be applied to a wide range of phenomena; wherever the popularity of multiple items through time has been recorded, as with web searches, or sales of popular music and books, for example.

  3. Random drift versus selection in academic vocabulary: an evolutionary analysis of published keywords.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, R Alexander

    2008-08-27

    The evolution of vocabulary in academic publishing is characterized via keyword frequencies recorded in the ISI Web of Science citations database. In four distinct case-studies, evolutionary analysis of keyword frequency change through time is compared to a model of random copying used as the null hypothesis, such that selection may be identified against it. The case studies from the physical sciences indicate greater selection in keyword choice than in the social sciences. Similar evolutionary analyses can be applied to a wide range of phenomena; wherever the popularity of multiple items through time has been recorded, as with web searches, or sales of popular music and books, for example.

  4. Under-reported income of Russian households

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaroslav Murashov

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In the proposed paper, an attempt is made to estimate the proportion of unstated income for Russian households based on micro data. An overview of microeconomic approaches to estimating the scale of under-reported income is provided. These approaches are weakly represented in the national literature, so their strengths and weaknesses are also analyzed. A theoretical model of household consumer behavior is described that allows the size of under-reported income to be estimated. The structure of household incomes and expenditures is studied based on an RLMS sample for 2012. The model is estimated using household subsamples based on the type of household and household income. The estimation technique utilizes regression variables and random effects. The resulting subsample estimates were applied to the general population and compared with those obtained by other researchers using alternative methods and other data. A comparison is made to estimates of under-reported income developed for British households.

  5. Household energy consumption attitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, P

    1976-05-01

    This report contains a summary of the results of a study of household attitudes to energy use and conservation while the author was a member of staff at Massey University. During 1975 seven batches of a mail questionnaire were sent out to a random sample of people drawn from the 1974 Local Body Electoral Rolls. Valid replies were obtained from just under 60% of the 17,500 households to which the forms were sent. The study was undertaken for the simple reason that all energy demand depends on people and yet very little information seemed to be available which showed what people thought about the energy situation and how they felt about the need for conservation. The way people evaluate their energy needs represents a focal element in the energy system as it is this appraisal which results in their demand for energy. The impact of household attitudes goes far beyond the relative share of the energy market taken by the domestic sector, however, as the same people are involved in the demand from all other sectors.

  6. Comparative Evaluations of Randomly Selected Four Point-of-Care Glucometer Devices in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolde, Mistire; Tarekegn, Getahun; Kebede, Tedla

    2018-05-01

    Point-of-care glucometer (PoCG) devices play a significant role in self-monitoring of the blood sugar level, particularly in the follow-up of high blood sugar therapeutic response. The aim of this study was to evaluate blood glucose test results performed with four randomly selected glucometers on diabetes and control subjects versus standard wet chemistry (hexokinase) methods in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. A prospective cross-sectional study was conducted on randomly selected 200 study participants (100 participants with diabetes and 100 healthy controls). Four randomly selected PoCG devices (CareSens N, DIAVUE Prudential, On Call Extra, i-QARE DS-W) were evaluated against hexokinase method and ISO 15197:2003 and ISO 15197:2013 standards. The minimum and maximum blood sugar values were recorded by CareSens N (21 mg/dl) and hexokinase method (498.8 mg/dl), respectively. The mean sugar values of all PoCG devices except On Call Extra showed significant differences compared with the reference hexokinase method. Meanwhile, all four PoCG devices had strong positive relationship (>80%) with the reference method (hexokinase). On the other hand, none of the four PoCG devices fulfilled the minimum accuracy measurement set by ISO 15197:2003 and ISO 15197:2013 standards. In addition, the linear regression analysis revealed that all four selected PoCG overestimated the glucose concentrations. The overall evaluation of the selected four PoCG measurements were poorly correlated with standard reference method. Therefore, before introducing PoCG devices to the market, there should be a standardized evaluation platform for validation. Further similar large-scale studies on other PoCG devices also need to be undertaken.

  7. Selection bias and subject refusal in a cluster-randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rochelle Yang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Selection bias and non-participation bias are major methodological concerns which impact external validity. Cluster-randomized controlled trials are especially prone to selection bias as it is impractical to blind clusters to their allocation into intervention or control. This study assessed the impact of selection bias in a large cluster-randomized controlled trial. Methods The Improved Cardiovascular Risk Reduction to Enhance Rural Primary Care (ICARE study examined the impact of a remote pharmacist-led intervention in twelve medical offices. To assess eligibility, a standardized form containing patient demographics and medical information was completed for each screened patient. Eligible patients were approached by the study coordinator for recruitment. Both the study coordinator and the patient were aware of the site’s allocation prior to consent. Patients who consented or declined to participate were compared across control and intervention arms for differing characteristics. Statistical significance was determined using a two-tailed, equal variance t-test and a chi-square test with adjusted Bonferroni p-values. Results were adjusted for random cluster variation. Results There were 2749 completed screening forms returned to research staff with 461 subjects who had either consented or declined participation. Patients with poorly controlled diabetes were found to be significantly more likely to decline participation in intervention sites compared to those in control sites. A higher mean diastolic blood pressure was seen in patients with uncontrolled hypertension who declined in the control sites compared to those who declined in the intervention sites. However, these findings were no longer significant after adjustment for random variation among the sites. After this adjustment, females were now found to be significantly more likely to consent than males (odds ratio = 1.41; 95% confidence interval = 1.03, 1

  8. Fuzzy Random λ-Mean SAD Portfolio Selection Problem: An Ant Colony Optimization Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Gour Sundar Mitra; Bhattacharyya, Rupak; Mitra, Swapan Kumar

    2010-10-01

    To reach the investment goal, one has to select a combination of securities among different portfolios containing large number of securities. Only the past records of each security do not guarantee the future return. As there are many uncertain factors which directly or indirectly influence the stock market and there are also some newer stock markets which do not have enough historical data, experts' expectation and experience must be combined with the past records to generate an effective portfolio selection model. In this paper the return of security is assumed to be Fuzzy Random Variable Set (FRVS), where returns are set of random numbers which are in turn fuzzy numbers. A new λ-Mean Semi Absolute Deviation (λ-MSAD) portfolio selection model is developed. The subjective opinions of the investors to the rate of returns of each security are taken into consideration by introducing a pessimistic-optimistic parameter vector λ. λ-Mean Semi Absolute Deviation (λ-MSAD) model is preferred as it follows absolute deviation of the rate of returns of a portfolio instead of the variance as the measure of the risk. As this model can be reduced to Linear Programming Problem (LPP) it can be solved much faster than quadratic programming problems. Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) is used for solving the portfolio selection problem. ACO is a paradigm for designing meta-heuristic algorithms for combinatorial optimization problem. Data from BSE is used for illustration.

  9. From Protocols to Publications: A Study in Selective Reporting of Outcomes in Randomized Trials in Oncology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghav, Kanwal Pratap Singh; Mahajan, Sminil; Yao, James C.; Hobbs, Brian P.; Berry, Donald A.; Pentz, Rebecca D.; Tam, Alda; Hong, Waun K.; Ellis, Lee M.; Abbruzzese, James; Overman, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The decision by journals to append protocols to published reports of randomized trials was a landmark event in clinical trial reporting. However, limited information is available on how this initiative effected transparency and selective reporting of clinical trial data. Methods We analyzed 74 oncology-based randomized trials published in Journal of Clinical Oncology, the New England Journal of Medicine, and The Lancet in 2012. To ascertain integrity of reporting, we compared published reports with their respective appended protocols with regard to primary end points, nonprimary end points, unplanned end points, and unplanned analyses. Results A total of 86 primary end points were reported in 74 randomized trials; nine trials had greater than one primary end point. Nine trials (12.2%) had some discrepancy between their planned and published primary end points. A total of 579 nonprimary end points (median, seven per trial) were planned, of which 373 (64.4%; median, five per trial) were reported. A significant positive correlation was found between the number of planned and nonreported nonprimary end points (Spearman r = 0.66; P < .001). Twenty-eight studies (37.8%) reported a total of 65 unplanned end points; 52 (80.0%) of which were not identified as unplanned. Thirty-one (41.9%) and 19 (25.7%) of 74 trials reported a total of 52 unplanned analyses involving primary end points and 33 unplanned analyses involving nonprimary end points, respectively. Studies reported positive unplanned end points and unplanned analyses more frequently than negative outcomes in abstracts (unplanned end points odds ratio, 6.8; P = .002; unplanned analyses odd ratio, 8.4; P = .007). Conclusion Despite public and reviewer access to protocols, selective outcome reporting persists and is a major concern in the reporting of randomized clinical trials. To foster credible evidence-based medicine, additional initiatives are needed to minimize selective reporting. PMID:26304898

  10. Household Food Insecurity, Mother's Feeding Practices, and the Early Childhood's Iron Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salarkia, Nahid; Neyestani, Tirang R; Omidvar, Nasrin; Zayeri, Farid

    2015-01-01

    Health consequences of food insecurity among infants and toddlers have not been fully examined. The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between household food insecurity, mother's infant feeding practices and iron status of 6-24 months children. In this cross-sectional study, 423 mother-child pairs were randomly selected by multistage sampling method. Children blood samples were analyzed for hemoglobin and serum ferritin concentrations. Household food security was evaluated using a validated Household Food Insecurity Access Scale. The mother's feeding practices were evaluated using Infant and Young Child Feeding practice variables including: The duration of breastfeeding and the time of introducing of complementary feeding. Based on the results, of the studied households only 47.7% were food secure. Mild and moderate-severe household food insecurity was 39.5% and 12.8%, respectively. Anemia, iron deficiency (ID), and iron deficiency anemia were seen in 29.1%, 12.2%, and 4.8% of children, respectively. There was no significant association between household food insecurity; mother's feeding practices and child ID with or without anemia. We found no association between household food insecurity and the occurrence of anemia in the 6-24 months children. However, these findings do not rule out the possibility of other micronutrient deficiencies among the food-insecure household children.

  11. The Effectiveness Of National Root Crop Research Institute Nrcri Selected Technologies In Poverty Alleviation Among Rural Households In Abia State Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OKRINGBO

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effectiveness of National Root Crop Research Institute NRCRI selected technologies in poverty alleviation among rural households in Abia state Nigeria. Purposive and multi-stage sampling techniques were used in selection of Umuahia agricultural zone which is the host zone to NRCRI and sixty 60 rural farmers from the study area were selected. Data were collected using structured questionnaire and analyzed with descriptive statistics poverty gap analysis and one sample Z-test and ANOVA. The result shows that farmers identified yam of mini sett 2.07 as an improved yam technology provision of improved technology of cocoyam 4.23 provision of improved technology of sweet potatoes 6.52 advisory services on other improved technologies 8.32 agro-processing improvement services 10.77 and advisory service on stem cutting and planting pattern 0.62 were the various technologies provided by NRCRI. NRCRI technologies were effective in reducing the cost of purchasing root and tuber crops 3.2 producing disease resistance early maturing and large yield root and tuber crops 3.4 were effective means to alleviate poverty by NRCRI. The study further shows that improved cassava varieties TMS 2.7 and NR 2.6 were adopted by farmers and improved varieties yam Dioscorea rotundata 3.0 was adopted. The results of the one sample z-test showed that there were significant difference between the mean scores response of the respondents on the various questions raised on the NRCRI technologies effectiveness in alleviating poverty were significant at 1 respectively . The result showed that the mean score on the level of adoption of improved variety TMS in the study were 1.00.000b and 1.30.070b was at the same level of adoption while mean scores NR were 1.15.154a 2.11.048a and 3.00.000a respectively and the Duncan multiple range test used as mean separation technique show that there is a significant difference F-ratio 3.295 among the level of adoption. The

  12. Passenger transport and household activity patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kaj

    1997-01-01

    Review of Danish passenger transport patterns and analysis of energy consumption, emissions and safety impacts for selected typical households' travelling......Review of Danish passenger transport patterns and analysis of energy consumption, emissions and safety impacts for selected typical households' travelling...

  13. Optimization of the Dutch Matrix Test by Random Selection of Sentences From a Preselected Subset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolph Houben

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Matrix tests are available for speech recognition testing in many languages. For an accurate measurement, a steep psychometric function of the speech materials is required. For existing tests, it would be beneficial if it were possible to further optimize the available materials by increasing the function’s steepness. The objective is to show if the steepness of the psychometric function of an existing matrix test can be increased by selecting a homogeneous subset of recordings with the steepest sentence-based psychometric functions. We took data from a previous multicenter evaluation of the Dutch matrix test (45 normal-hearing listeners. Based on half of the data set, first the sentences (140 out of 311 with a similar speech reception threshold and with the steepest psychometric function (≥9.7%/dB were selected. Subsequently, the steepness of the psychometric function for this selection was calculated from the remaining (unused second half of the data set. The calculation showed that the slope increased from 10.2%/dB to 13.7%/dB. The resulting subset did not allow the construction of enough balanced test lists. Therefore, the measurement procedure was changed to randomly select the sentences during testing. Random selection may interfere with a representative occurrence of phonemes. However, in our material, the median phonemic occurrence remained close to that of the original test. This finding indicates that phonemic occurrence is not a critical factor. The work highlights the possibility that existing speech tests might be improved by selecting sentences with a steep psychometric function.

  14. Household Income Composition and Household Goods

    OpenAIRE

    Voynov, Ivan

    2005-01-01

    The paper focuses on the change in household income composition and the factors that determine it. The results bring additional knowledge about household poverty dynamics. Based on the collective approach to the family and the cooperative game theory it is constructed theoretical model of household income composition change. The change in income composition is a result from bargaining between household members in attempt to defend the most suitable for them income source. Decisive influence i...

  15. Using Random Forests to Select Optimal Input Variables for Short-Term Wind Speed Forecasting Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Wang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Achieving relatively high-accuracy short-term wind speed forecasting estimates is a precondition for the construction and grid-connected operation of wind power forecasting systems for wind farms. Currently, most research is focused on the structure of forecasting models and does not consider the selection of input variables, which can have significant impacts on forecasting performance. This paper presents an input variable selection method for wind speed forecasting models. The candidate input variables for various leading periods are selected and random forests (RF is employed to evaluate the importance of all variable as features. The feature subset with the best evaluation performance is selected as the optimal feature set. Then, kernel-based extreme learning machine is constructed to evaluate the performance of input variables selection based on RF. The results of the case study show that by removing the uncorrelated and redundant features, RF effectively extracts the most strongly correlated set of features from the candidate input variables. By finding the optimal feature combination to represent the original information, RF simplifies the structure of the wind speed forecasting model, shortens the training time required, and substantially improves the model’s accuracy and generalization ability, demonstrating that the input variables selected by RF are effective.

  16. From Protocols to Publications: A Study in Selective Reporting of Outcomes in Randomized Trials in Oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghav, Kanwal Pratap Singh; Mahajan, Sminil; Yao, James C; Hobbs, Brian P; Berry, Donald A; Pentz, Rebecca D; Tam, Alda; Hong, Waun K; Ellis, Lee M; Abbruzzese, James; Overman, Michael J

    2015-11-01

    The decision by journals to append protocols to published reports of randomized trials was a landmark event in clinical trial reporting. However, limited information is available on how this initiative effected transparency and selective reporting of clinical trial data. We analyzed 74 oncology-based randomized trials published in Journal of Clinical Oncology, the New England Journal of Medicine, and The Lancet in 2012. To ascertain integrity of reporting, we compared published reports with their respective appended protocols with regard to primary end points, nonprimary end points, unplanned end points, and unplanned analyses. A total of 86 primary end points were reported in 74 randomized trials; nine trials had greater than one primary end point. Nine trials (12.2%) had some discrepancy between their planned and published primary end points. A total of 579 nonprimary end points (median, seven per trial) were planned, of which 373 (64.4%; median, five per trial) were reported. A significant positive correlation was found between the number of planned and nonreported nonprimary end points (Spearman r = 0.66; P medicine, additional initiatives are needed to minimize selective reporting. © 2015 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  17. Dietary patterns and household food insecurity in rural populations of Kilosa district, Tanzania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julius Edward Ntwenya

    Full Text Available Few studies have investigated the relationship between dietary pattern and household food insecurity. The objective of the present analysis was to describe the food consumption patterns and to relate these with the prevalence of food insecurity in the context of a rural community.Three hundred and seven (307 randomly selected households in Kilosa district participated in the study. Data were collected during the rainy season (February-May and post harvest season (September-October in the year 2011. Food consumption pattern was determined using a 24-h dietary recall method. Food insecurity data were based on the 30 day recall experience to food insecurity in the household. Factor analysis method using Principal Components extraction function was used to derive the dietary patterns and correlation analysis was used to establish the existing relationship between household food insecurity and dietary patterns factor score.Four food consumption patterns namely (I Meat and milk; (II Pulses, legumes, nuts and cooking oils; (III fish (and other sea foods, roots and tubers; (IV Cereals, vegetables and fruits consumption patterns were identified during harvest season. Dietary patterns identified during the rainy season were as follows: (I Fruits, cooking oils, fats, roots and tubers (II Eggs, meat, milk and milk products (III Fish, other sea foods, vegetables, roots and tubers and (IV Pulses, legumes, nuts, cereals and vegetables. Household food insecurity was 80% and 69% during rainy and harvest-seasons, respectively (P = 0.01. Household food insecurity access scale score was negatively correlated with the factor scores on household dietary diversity.Food consumption patterns and food insecurity varied by seasons with worst scenarios most prevalent during the rainy season. The risk for inadequate dietary diversity was higher among food insecure households compared to food secure households. Effort geared at alleviating household food insecurity could

  18. On theoretical models of gene expression evolution with random genetic drift and natural selection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osamu Ogasawara

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The relative contributions of natural selection and random genetic drift are a major source of debate in the study of gene expression evolution, which is hypothesized to serve as a bridge from molecular to phenotypic evolution. It has been suggested that the conflict between views is caused by the lack of a definite model of the neutral hypothesis, which can describe the long-run behavior of evolutionary change in mRNA abundance. Therefore previous studies have used inadequate analogies with the neutral prediction of other phenomena, such as amino acid or nucleotide sequence evolution, as the null hypothesis of their statistical inference.In this study, we introduced two novel theoretical models, one based on neutral drift and the other assuming natural selection, by focusing on a common property of the distribution of mRNA abundance among a variety of eukaryotic cells, which reflects the result of long-term evolution. Our results demonstrated that (1 our models can reproduce two independently found phenomena simultaneously: the time development of gene expression divergence and Zipf's law of the transcriptome; (2 cytological constraints can be explicitly formulated to describe long-term evolution; (3 the model assuming that natural selection optimized relative mRNA abundance was more consistent with previously published observations than the model of optimized absolute mRNA abundances.The models introduced in this study give a formulation of evolutionary change in the mRNA abundance of each gene as a stochastic process, on the basis of previously published observations. This model provides a foundation for interpreting observed data in studies of gene expression evolution, including identifying an adequate time scale for discriminating the effect of natural selection from that of random genetic drift of selectively neutral variations.

  19. Public-private sector partnership in household waste management as perceived by residents in south-west Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezebilo, Eugene E; Animasaun, Emmanuel D

    2012-08-01

    In most developing countries public-private sector partnership is becoming increasingly applied in household waste management service delivery especially in urban areas to reduce cost and improve effectiveness. This paper reports a study of householders' perceptions of public-private sector partnership in provision of household waste management services in Ilorin, south-west Nigeria. A multistage random sampling technique was used to select 224 households for the study. The data generated from the survey were analysed using a binary logit model. The results show that most of the respondents were of the opinion that the public-private partnership has not been able to improve household waste management services. Time taken to visit solid waste collection point, income and marital status negatively influenced their perceptions, while activities of sanitary inspectors, occupation and gender had positive influence. The public-private partnership will be more effective and sustainable if the public sector could pay more attention to performance monitoring and accountability.

  20. Assessing the accuracy and stability of variable selection methods for random forest modeling in ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Eric W; Hill, Ryan A; Leibowitz, Scott G; Olsen, Anthony R; Thornbrugh, Darren J; Weber, Marc H

    2017-07-01

    Random forest (RF) modeling has emerged as an important statistical learning method in ecology due to its exceptional predictive performance. However, for large and complex ecological data sets, there is limited guidance on variable selection methods for RF modeling. Typically, either a preselected set of predictor variables are used or stepwise procedures are employed which iteratively remove variables according to their importance measures. This paper investigates the application of variable selection methods to RF models for predicting probable biological stream condition. Our motivating data set consists of the good/poor condition of n = 1365 stream survey sites from the 2008/2009 National Rivers and Stream Assessment, and a large set (p = 212) of landscape features from the StreamCat data set as potential predictors. We compare two types of RF models: a full variable set model with all 212 predictors and a reduced variable set model selected using a backward elimination approach. We assess model accuracy using RF's internal out-of-bag estimate, and a cross-validation procedure with validation folds external to the variable selection process. We also assess the stability of the spatial predictions generated by the RF models to changes in the number of predictors and argue that model selection needs to consider both accuracy and stability. The results suggest that RF modeling is robust to the inclusion of many variables of moderate to low importance. We found no substantial improvement in cross-validated accuracy as a result of variable reduction. Moreover, the backward elimination procedure tended to select too few variables and exhibited numerous issues such as upwardly biased out-of-bag accuracy estimates and instabilities in the spatial predictions. We use simulations to further support and generalize results from the analysis of real data. A main purpose of this work is to elucidate issues of model selection bias and instability to ecologists interested in

  1. Analysis and applications of a frequency selective surface via a random distribution method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Shao-Yi; Huang Jing-Jian; Yuan Nai-Chang; Liu Li-Guo

    2014-01-01

    A novel frequency selective surface (FSS) for reducing radar cross section (RCS) is proposed in this paper. This FSS is based on the random distribution method, so it can be called random surface. In this paper, the stacked patches serving as periodic elements are employed for RCS reduction. Previous work has demonstrated the efficiency by utilizing the microstrip patches, especially for the reflectarray. First, the relevant theory of the method is described. Then a sample of a three-layer variable-sized stacked patch random surface with a dimension of 260 mm×260 mm is simulated, fabricated, and measured in order to demonstrate the validity of the proposed design. For the normal incidence, the 8-dB RCS reduction can be achieved both by the simulation and the measurement in 8 GHz–13 GHz. The oblique incidence of 30° is also investigated, in which the 7-dB RCS reduction can be obtained in a frequency range of 8 GHz–14 GHz. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  2. Selective oropharyngeal decontamination versus selective digestive decontamination in critically ill patients: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao D

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Di Zhao,1,* Jian Song,2,* Xuan Gao,3 Fei Gao,4 Yupeng Wu,2 Yingying Lu,5 Kai Hou1 1Department of Neurosurgery, The First Hospital of Hebei Medical University, 2Department of Neurosurgery, 3Department of Neurology, The Second Hospital of Hebei Medical University, 4Hebei Provincial Procurement Centers for Medical Drugs and Devices, 5Department of Neurosurgery, The Second Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Selective digestive decontamination (SDD and selective oropharyngeal decontamination (SOD are associated with reduced mortality and infection rates among patients in intensive care units (ICUs; however, whether SOD has a superior effect than SDD remains uncertain. Hence, we conducted a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs to compare SOD with SDD in terms of clinical outcomes and antimicrobial resistance rates in patients who were critically ill. Methods: RCTs published in PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science were systematically reviewed to compare the effects of SOD and SDD in patients who were critically ill. Outcomes included day-28 mortality, length of ICU stay, length of hospital stay, duration of mechanical ventilation, ICU-acquired bacteremia, and prevalence of antibiotic-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. Results were expressed as risk ratio (RR with 95% confidence intervals (CIs, and weighted mean differences (WMDs with 95% CIs. Pooled estimates were performed using a fixed-effects model or random-effects model, depending on the heterogeneity among studies. Results: A total of four RCTs involving 23,822 patients met the inclusion criteria and were included in this meta-analysis. Among patients whose admitting specialty was surgery, cardiothoracic surgery (57.3% and neurosurgery (29.7% were the two main types of surgery being performed. Pooled results showed that SOD had similar effects as SDD in day-28 mortality (RR =1

  3. Geography and genography: prediction of continental origin using randomly selected single nucleotide polymorphisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramoni Marco F

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent studies have shown that when individuals are grouped on the basis of genetic similarity, group membership corresponds closely to continental origin. There has been considerable debate about the implications of these findings in the context of larger debates about race and the extent of genetic variation between groups. Some have argued that clustering according to continental origin demonstrates the existence of significant genetic differences between groups and that these differences may have important implications for differences in health and disease. Others argue that clustering according to continental origin requires the use of large amounts of genetic data or specifically chosen markers and is indicative only of very subtle genetic differences that are unlikely to have biomedical significance. Results We used small numbers of randomly selected single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs from the International HapMap Project to train naïve Bayes classifiers for prediction of ancestral continent of origin. Predictive accuracy was tested on two independent data sets. Genetically similar groups should be difficult to distinguish, especially if only a small number of genetic markers are used. The genetic differences between continentally defined groups are sufficiently large that one can accurately predict ancestral continent of origin using only a minute, randomly selected fraction of the genetic variation present in the human genome. Genotype data from only 50 random SNPs was sufficient to predict ancestral continent of origin in our primary test data set with an average accuracy of 95%. Genetic variations informative about ancestry were common and widely distributed throughout the genome. Conclusion Accurate characterization of ancestry is possible using small numbers of randomly selected SNPs. The results presented here show how investigators conducting genetic association studies can use small numbers of arbitrarily

  4. Random forest variable selection in spatial malaria transmission modelling in Mpumalanga Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thandi Kapwata

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Malaria is an environmentally driven disease. In order to quantify the spatial variability of malaria transmission, it is imperative to understand the interactions between environmental variables and malaria epidemiology at a micro-geographic level using a novel statistical approach. The random forest (RF statistical learning method, a relatively new variable-importance ranking method, measures the variable importance of potentially influential parameters through the percent increase of the mean squared error. As this value increases, so does the relative importance of the associated variable. The principal aim of this study was to create predictive malaria maps generated using the selected variables based on the RF algorithm in the Ehlanzeni District of Mpumalanga Province, South Africa. From the seven environmental variables used [temperature, lag temperature, rainfall, lag rainfall, humidity, altitude, and the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI], altitude was identified as the most influential predictor variable due its high selection frequency. It was selected as the top predictor for 4 out of 12 months of the year, followed by NDVI, temperature and lag rainfall, which were each selected twice. The combination of climatic variables that produced the highest prediction accuracy was altitude, NDVI, and temperature. This suggests that these three variables have high predictive capabilities in relation to malaria transmission. Furthermore, it is anticipated that the predictive maps generated from predictions made by the RF algorithm could be used to monitor the progression of malaria and assist in intervention and prevention efforts with respect to malaria.

  5. Distribution of orientation selectivity in recurrent networks of spiking neurons with different random topologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeh, Sadra; Rotter, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Neurons in the primary visual cortex are more or less selective for the orientation of a light bar used for stimulation. A broad distribution of individual grades of orientation selectivity has in fact been reported in all species. A possible reason for emergence of broad distributions is the recurrent network within which the stimulus is being processed. Here we compute the distribution of orientation selectivity in randomly connected model networks that are equipped with different spatial patterns of connectivity. We show that, for a wide variety of connectivity patterns, a linear theory based on firing rates accurately approximates the outcome of direct numerical simulations of networks of spiking neurons. Distance dependent connectivity in networks with a more biologically realistic structure does not compromise our linear analysis, as long as the linearized dynamics, and hence the uniform asynchronous irregular activity state, remain stable. We conclude that linear mechanisms of stimulus processing are indeed responsible for the emergence of orientation selectivity and its distribution in recurrent networks with functionally heterogeneous synaptic connectivity.

  6. Interference-aware random beam selection schemes for spectrum sharing systems

    KAUST Repository

    Abdallah, Mohamed

    2012-10-19

    Spectrum sharing systems have been recently introduced to alleviate the problem of spectrum scarcity by allowing secondary unlicensed networks to share the spectrum with primary licensed networks under acceptable interference levels to the primary users. In this work, we develop interference-aware random beam selection schemes that provide enhanced performance for the secondary network under the condition that the interference observed by the receivers of the primary network is below a predetermined/acceptable value. We consider a secondary link composed of a transmitter equipped with multiple antennas and a single-antenna receiver sharing the same spectrum with a primary link composed of a single-antenna transmitter and a single-antenna receiver. The proposed schemes select a beam, among a set of power-optimized random beams, that maximizes the signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR) of the secondary link while satisfying the primary interference constraint for different levels of feedback information describing the interference level at the primary receiver. For the proposed schemes, we develop a statistical analysis for the SINR statistics as well as the capacity and bit error rate (BER) of the secondary link.

  7. Joint random beam and spectrum selection for spectrum sharing systems with partial channel state information

    KAUST Repository

    Abdallah, Mohamed M.

    2013-11-01

    In this work, we develop joint interference-aware random beam and spectrum selection scheme that provide enhanced performance for the secondary network under the condition that the interference observed at the primary receiver is below a predetermined acceptable value. We consider a secondary link composed of a transmitter equipped with multiple antennas and a single-antenna receiver sharing the same spectrum with a set of primary links composed of a single-antenna transmitter and a single-antenna receiver. The proposed schemes jointly select a beam, among a set of power-optimized random beams, as well as the primary spectrum that maximizes the signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR) of the secondary link while satisfying the primary interference constraint. In particular, we consider the case where the interference level is described by a q-bit description of its magnitude, whereby we propose a technique to find the optimal quantizer thresholds in a mean square error (MSE) sense. © 2013 IEEE.

  8. Joint random beam and spectrum selection for spectrum sharing systems with partial channel state information

    KAUST Repository

    Abdallah, Mohamed M.; Sayed, Mostafa M.; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Qaraqe, Khalid A.

    2013-01-01

    In this work, we develop joint interference-aware random beam and spectrum selection scheme that provide enhanced performance for the secondary network under the condition that the interference observed at the primary receiver is below a predetermined acceptable value. We consider a secondary link composed of a transmitter equipped with multiple antennas and a single-antenna receiver sharing the same spectrum with a set of primary links composed of a single-antenna transmitter and a single-antenna receiver. The proposed schemes jointly select a beam, among a set of power-optimized random beams, as well as the primary spectrum that maximizes the signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR) of the secondary link while satisfying the primary interference constraint. In particular, we consider the case where the interference level is described by a q-bit description of its magnitude, whereby we propose a technique to find the optimal quantizer thresholds in a mean square error (MSE) sense. © 2013 IEEE.

  9. Burden of Surgical Conditions in Uganda: A Cross-sectional Nationwide Household Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Tu M; Fuller, Anthony T; Butler, Elissa K; Makumbi, Fredrick; Luboga, Samuel; Muhumuza, Christine; Ssennono, Vincent F; Chipman, Jeffrey G; Galukande, Moses; Haglund, Michael M

    2017-08-01

    To quantify the burden of surgical conditions in Uganda. Data on the burden of disease have long served as a cornerstone to health policymaking, planning, and resource allocation. Population-based data are the gold standard, but no data on surgical burden at a national scale exist; therefore, we adapted the Surgeons OverSeas Assessment of Surgical Need survey and conducted a nation-wide, cross-sectional survey of Uganda to quantify the burden of surgically treatable conditions. The 2-stage cluster sample included 105 enumeration areas, representing 74 districts and Kampala Capital City Authority. Enumeration occurred from August 20 to September 12, 2014. In each enumeration area, 24 households were randomly selected; the head of the household provided details regarding any household deaths within the previous 12 months. Two household members were randomly selected for a head-to-toe verbal interview to determine existing untreated and treated surgical conditions. In 2315 households, we surveyed 4248 individuals: 461 (10.6%) reported 1 or more conditions requiring at least surgical consultation [95% confidence interval (CI) 8.9%-12.4%]. The most frequent barrier to surgical care was the lack of financial resources for the direct cost of care. Of the 153 household deaths recalled, 53 deaths (34.2%; 95% CI 22.1%-46.3%) were associated with surgically treatable signs/symptoms. Shortage of time was the most frequently cited reason (25.8%) among the 11.6% household deaths that should have, but did not, receive surgical care (95% CI 6.4%-16.8%). Unmet surgical need is prevalent in Uganda. There is an urgent need to expand the surgical care delivery system starting with the district-level hospitals. Routine surgical data collection at both the health facility and household level should be implemented.

  10. Household out-of-pocket payments for illness: Evidence from Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janlert Urban

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Vietnam, illnesses create high out-of-pocket health care expenditures for households. In this study, the burden of illness in the Bavi district, Vietnam is measured based upon individual household health expenditures for communicable and non-communicable illnesses. The focus of the paper is on the relative effect of different illnesses on the total economic burden of health care on households in general and on households that have catastrophic health care spending in particular. Methods The study was performed by twelve monthly follow-up interviews of 621 randomly selected households. The households are part of the FilaBavi project sample – Health System Research Project. The heads of household were interviewed at monthly intervals from July 2001 to June 2002. Results For the population in the Bavi district, communicable illnesses predominate among the episodes of illness and are the reason for most household health care expenditure. This is the case for almost all groups within the study and for the study population as a whole. However, communicable illnesses are more dominant in the poor population compared to the rich population, and are more dominant in households that have very large, or catastrophic, health care expenditure, compared to those without such expenditures. Conclusion The main findings indicate that catastrophic health care spending for a household is not usually the result of one single disastrous event, but rather a series of events and is related more to "every-day illnesses" in a developing country context than to more spectacular events such as injuries or heart illnesses.

  11. Antibiotics in Serbian Households: a Source of Potential Health and Environmental Threats?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusturica, Milica Paut; Tomić, Zdenko; Bukumirić, Zoran; Horvat, Olga; Pavlović, Nebojša; Mikov, Momir; Sabo, Ana

    2015-06-01

    Worldwide data indicate that antibiotics are frequently used inappropriately. The objective of this study was to investigate the extent of storage and wastage of antibacterial agents in households in Novi Sad, Serbia. The study was performed in 8 months period (December 2011-July 2012) in households in Novi Sad, Serbia. The households were randomly selected from the telephone directory. The interviewer performed the survey visiting each household. The total number of antibacterial agents in the 383 surveyed households was 318, constituting 7.3% of the total stored medications. From 383 families included in the study antibiotics were found in 178 (46.5%). In 13 (7.3%) families were found more than one pack of the same antibiotics. The median number of antibacterial agents per household was 1 (range 1-5). The most common antibacterial agents that were not in current use were cephalexin (22.1%) and amoxicillin (16.6%), followed by doxycycline (11.4%), sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (11.4%) and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (9.2%). The percentage of expired antibacterial agents was 20.8%, while 85.2% were not currently in use. Antibacterial agents were commonly encountered in Serbian households, and a relatively large percentage was wasted. Informational and educational activities aimed at improving the public knowledge about antimicrobials play the leading role in reducing imprudent use of antibiotics. Copyright© by the National Institute of Public Health, Prague 2015.

  12. Treatment selection in a randomized clinical trial via covariate-specific treatment effect curves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yunbei; Zhou, Xiao-Hua

    2017-02-01

    For time-to-event data in a randomized clinical trial, we proposed two new methods for selecting an optimal treatment for a patient based on the covariate-specific treatment effect curve, which is used to represent the clinical utility of a predictive biomarker. To select an optimal treatment for a patient with a specific biomarker value, we proposed pointwise confidence intervals for each covariate-specific treatment effect curve and the difference between covariate-specific treatment effect curves of two treatments. Furthermore, to select an optimal treatment for a future biomarker-defined subpopulation of patients, we proposed confidence bands for each covariate-specific treatment effect curve and the difference between each pair of covariate-specific treatment effect curve over a fixed interval of biomarker values. We constructed the confidence bands based on a resampling technique. We also conducted simulation studies to evaluate finite-sample properties of the proposed estimation methods. Finally, we illustrated the application of the proposed method in a real-world data set.

  13. Integrated Behavior Therapy for Selective Mutism: a randomized controlled pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, R Lindsey; Gonzalez, Araceli; Piacentini, John; Keller, Melody L

    2013-10-01

    To evaluate the feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary efficacy of a novel behavioral intervention for reducing symptoms of selective mutism and increasing functional speech. A total of 21 children ages 4 to 8 with primary selective mutism were randomized to 24 weeks of Integrated Behavior Therapy for Selective Mutism (IBTSM) or a 12-week Waitlist control. Clinical outcomes were assessed using blind independent evaluators, parent-, and teacher-report, and an objective behavioral measure. Treatment recipients completed a three-month follow-up to assess durability of treatment gains. Data indicated increased functional speaking behavior post-treatment as rated by parents and teachers, with a high rate of treatment responders as rated by blind independent evaluators (75%). Conversely, children in the Waitlist comparison group did not experience significant improvements in speaking behaviors. Children who received IBTSM also demonstrated significant improvements in number of words spoken at school compared to baseline, however, significant group differences did not emerge. Treatment recipients also experienced significant reductions in social anxiety per parent, but not teacher, report. Clinical gains were maintained over 3 month follow-up. IBTSM appears to be a promising new intervention that is efficacious in increasing functional speaking behaviors, feasible, and acceptable to parents and teachers. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Two-year Randomized Clinical Trial of Self-etching Adhesives and Selective Enamel Etching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pena, C E; Rodrigues, J A; Ely, C; Giannini, M; Reis, A F

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this randomized, controlled prospective clinical trial was to evaluate the clinical effectiveness of restoring noncarious cervical lesions with two self-etching adhesive systems applied with or without selective enamel etching. A one-step self-etching adhesive (Xeno V(+)) and a two-step self-etching system (Clearfil SE Bond) were used. The effectiveness of phosphoric acid selective etching of enamel margins was also evaluated. Fifty-six cavities were restored with each adhesive system and divided into two subgroups (n=28; etch and non-etch). All 112 cavities were restored with the nanohybrid composite Esthet.X HD. The clinical effectiveness of restorations was recorded in terms of retention, marginal integrity, marginal staining, caries recurrence, and postoperative sensitivity after 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months (modified United States Public Health Service). The Friedman test detected significant differences only after 18 months for marginal staining in the groups Clearfil SE non-etch (p=0.009) and Xeno V(+) etch (p=0.004). One restoration was lost during the trial (Xeno V(+) etch; p>0.05). Although an increase in marginal staining was recorded for groups Clearfil SE non-etch and Xeno V(+) etch, the clinical effectiveness of restorations was considered acceptable for the single-step and two-step self-etching systems with or without selective enamel etching in this 24-month clinical trial.

  15. The existence and persistence of household financial hardship

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, S.; Ghosh, P.; Taylor, K.

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the existence and persistence of financial hardship at the household level using data from the British Household Panel Survey. Our modelling strategy makes three important contributions to the existing literature on household finances. Firstly, we model nine different types of household financial problems within a joint framework, allowing for correlation in the random effects across the nine equations. Secondly, we develop a dynamic framework in order to model the persistence ...

  16. Selecting Optimal Parameters of Random Linear Network Coding for Wireless Sensor Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heide, J; Zhang, Qi; Fitzek, F H P

    2013-01-01

    This work studies how to select optimal code parameters of Random Linear Network Coding (RLNC) in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). With Rateless Deluge [1] the authors proposed to apply Network Coding (NC) for Over-the-Air Programming (OAP) in WSNs, and demonstrated that with NC a significant...... reduction in the number of transmitted packets can be achieved. However, NC introduces additional computations and potentially a non-negligible transmission overhead, both of which depend on the chosen coding parameters. Therefore it is necessary to consider the trade-off that these coding parameters...... present in order to obtain the lowest energy consumption per transmitted bit. This problem is analyzed and suitable coding parameters are determined for the popular Tmote Sky platform. Compared to the use of traditional RLNC, these parameters enable a reduction in the energy spent per bit which grows...

  17. Secondary household transmission of 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1 virus among an urban and rural population in Kenya, 2009-2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Y Kim

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In Kenya, >1,200 laboratory-confirmed 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1 (pH1N1 cases occurred since June 2009. We used population-based infectious disease surveillance (PBIDS data to assess household transmission of pH1N1 in urban Nairobi (Kibera and rural Lwak. METHODS: We defined a pH1N1 patient as laboratory-confirmed pH1N1 infection among PBIDS participants during August 1, 2009-February 5, 2010, in Kibera, or August 1, 2009-January 20, 2010, in Lwak, and a case household as a household with a laboratory-confirmed pH1N1 patient. Community interviewers visited PBIDS-participating households to inquire about illnesses among household members. We randomly selected 4 comparison households per case household matched by number of children aged <5. Comparison households had a household visit 10 days before or after the matched patient symptom onset date. We defined influenza-like illnesses (ILI as self-reported cough or sore throat, and a self-reported fever ≤8 days after the pH1N1 patient's symptom onset in case households and ≤8 days before selected household visit in comparison households. We used the Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel test to compare proportions of ILIs among case and comparison households, and log binomial-model to compare that of Kibera and Lwak. RESULTS: Among household contacts of patients with confirmed pH1N1 in Kibera, 4.6% had ILI compared with 8.2% in Lwak (risk ratio [RR], 0.5; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.3-0.9. Household contacts of patients were more likely to have ILIs than comparison-household members in both Kibera (RR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.1-2.8 and Lwak (RR, 2.6; 95% CI, 1.6-4.3. Overall, ILI was not associated with patient age. However, ILI rates among household contacts were higher among children aged <5 years than persons aged ≥5 years in Lwak, but not Kibera. CONCLUSIONS: Substantial pH1N1 household transmission occurred in urban and rural Kenya. Household transmission rates were higher in the rural area.

  18. Implications of structural genomics target selection strategies: Pfam5000, whole genome, and random approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandonia, John-Marc; Brenner, Steven E.

    2004-07-14

    The structural genomics project is an international effort to determine the three-dimensional shapes of all important biological macromolecules, with a primary focus on proteins. Target proteins should be selected according to a strategy which is medically and biologically relevant, of good value, and tractable. As an option to consider, we present the Pfam5000 strategy, which involves selecting the 5000 most important families from the Pfam database as sources for targets. We compare the Pfam5000 strategy to several other proposed strategies that would require similar numbers of targets. These include including complete solution of several small to moderately sized bacterial proteomes, partial coverage of the human proteome, and random selection of approximately 5000 targets from sequenced genomes. We measure the impact that successful implementation of these strategies would have upon structural interpretation of the proteins in Swiss-Prot, TrEMBL, and 131 complete proteomes (including 10 of eukaryotes) from the Proteome Analysis database at EBI. Solving the structures of proteins from the 5000 largest Pfam families would allow accurate fold assignment for approximately 68 percent of all prokaryotic proteins (covering 59 percent of residues) and 61 percent of eukaryotic proteins (40 percent of residues). More fine-grained coverage which would allow accurate modeling of these proteins would require an order of magnitude more targets. The Pfam5000 strategy may be modified in several ways, for example to focus on larger families, bacterial sequences, or eukaryotic sequences; as long as secondary consideration is given to large families within Pfam, coverage results vary only slightly. In contrast, focusing structural genomics on a single tractable genome would have only a limited impact in structural knowledge of other proteomes: a significant fraction (about 30-40 percent of the proteins, and 40-60 percent of the residues) of each proteome is classified in small

  19. Day-ahead load forecast using random forest and expert input selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lahouar, A.; Ben Hadj Slama, J.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A model based on random forests for short term load forecast is proposed. • An expert feature selection is added to refine inputs. • Special attention is paid to customers behavior, load profile and special holidays. • The model is flexible and able to handle complex load signal. • A technical comparison is performed to assess the forecast accuracy. - Abstract: The electrical load forecast is getting more and more important in recent years due to the electricity market deregulation and integration of renewable resources. To overcome the incoming challenges and ensure accurate power prediction for different time horizons, sophisticated intelligent methods are elaborated. Utilization of intelligent forecast algorithms is among main characteristics of smart grids, and is an efficient tool to face uncertainty. Several crucial tasks of power operators such as load dispatch rely on the short term forecast, thus it should be as accurate as possible. To this end, this paper proposes a short term load predictor, able to forecast the next 24 h of load. Using random forest, characterized by immunity to parameter variations and internal cross validation, the model is constructed following an online learning process. The inputs are refined by expert feature selection using a set of if–then rules, in order to include the own user specifications about the country weather or market, and to generalize the forecast ability. The proposed approach is tested through a real historical set from the Tunisian Power Company, and the simulation shows accurate and satisfactory results for one day in advance, with an average error exceeding rarely 2.3%. The model is validated for regular working days and weekends, and special attention is paid to moving holidays, following non Gregorian calendar

  20. Reflection of the Change in VAT Rates on Selected Household Expenditures in the Czech Republic and the Slovak Republic (2007–2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Široký

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Member States of the European Union in the period of years 2007–2013 increased the rate of value added tax several times in an attempt to consolidate public budgets. While the Czech Republic is a typical representative of country changing VAT rates several times, Slovakia made practically only one change in the VAT rate. On the other hand, the Slovak Republic is a country where the reduced rate is applied only to the minimum of commodities. Changes in VAT are naturally reflected in household expenditures which are analyzed by the consumer basket, whose composition is also a subject of changes. Another factor that has an impact on household spending is swapping commodities between the rates of VAT.The aim of this paper is, based on the analytic-synthetic methods, to determine how are these changes differently manifested in the Czech Republic and the Slovak Republic in reference to the share of commodity consumption included in the standard and reduced VAT rates and to the exempt transactions, and, in particular, to determine how they affected the VAT burden of the hypothetical household in both countries.

  1. The effect on haemoglobin of the use of iron cooking pots in rural Malawian households in an area with high malaria prevalence: a randomized trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geerligs, Paul Prinsen; Brabin, Bernard; Mkumbwa, Albert; Broadhead, Robin; Cuevas, Luis E.

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND Innovative low-cost sustainable strategies are required to reduce the high prevalence of iron-deficiency anaemia in developing countries. METHODS We undertook a community-based randomized controlled intervention trial to assess the effects of cooking in iron or aluminium cooking pots in

  2. Field-based random sampling without a sampling frame: control selection for a case-control study in rural Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crampin, A C; Mwinuka, V; Malema, S S; Glynn, J R; Fine, P E

    2001-01-01

    Selection bias, particularly of controls, is common in case-control studies and may materially affect the results. Methods of control selection should be tailored both for the risk factors and disease under investigation and for the population being studied. We present here a control selection method devised for a case-control study of tuberculosis in rural Africa (Karonga, northern Malawi) that selects an age/sex frequency-matched random sample of the population, with a geographical distribution in proportion to the population density. We also present an audit of the selection process, and discuss the potential of this method in other settings.

  3. Modified random hinge transport mechanics and multiple scattering step-size selection in EGS5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilderman, S.J.; Bielajew, A.F.

    2005-01-01

    The new transport mechanics in EGS5 allows for significantly longer electron transport step sizes and hence shorter computation times than required for identical problems in EGS4. But as with all Monte Carlo electron transport algorithms, certain classes of problems exhibit step-size dependencies even when operating within recommended ranges, sometimes making selection of step-sizes a daunting task for novice users. Further contributing to this problem, because of the decoupling of multiple scattering and continuous energy loss in the dual random hinge transport mechanics of EGS5, there are two independent step sizes in EGS5, one for multiple scattering and one for continuous energy loss, each of which influences speed and accuracy in a different manner. Further, whereas EGS4 used a single value of fractional energy loss (ESTEPE) to determine step sizes at all energies, to increase performance by decreasing the amount of effort expended simulating lower energy particles, EGS5 permits the fractional energy loss values which are used to determine both the multiple scattering and continuous energy loss step sizes to vary with energy. This results in requiring the user to specify four fractional energy loss values when optimizing computations for speed. Thus, in order to simplify step-size selection and to mitigate step-size dependencies, a method has been devised to automatically optimize step-size selection based on a single material dependent input related to the size of problem tally region. In this paper we discuss the new transport mechanics in EGS5 and describe the automatic step-size optimization algorithm. (author)

  4. Family and household demography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willekens, F.J.C.; Zeng, Yi

    2009-01-01

    Households are groups of people that co-reside and share some resources. Families are households of related individuals. Household and family demography is the study of these primary social groups or social units, and in particular of group membership and the relationships between members of the

  5. Household choices of car-use reduction measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaerling, T. [Goeteborg Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Psychology; Gaerling, A. [Goeteborg Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Psychology; Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Road and Traffic Planning; Johannsson, A. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Road and Traffic Planning

    2000-07-01

    The present research investigated what car-use reduction measures are perceived by households to be feasible if their goal is to reduce car driving. In Study 1 a number of such measures were included in a survey questionnaire requesting a total of 770 randomly selected respondents to rate how likely they would be to choose the different measures. The ratings suggested that for shopping trips choosing closer stores and trip chaining are more likely to be chosen than any other measure. A similar pattern was observed for leisure trips. Switching to public transport was the most. likely choice for work trips. Women were more likely than men to choose public transport and trip chaining, whereas men were more likely than women to choose motorbike/moped. Choices of car pooling, biking. and motorbike/moped decreased with age. In Study 2 it was determined in interviews what choices households would make in forming car-use reduction intentions, then 1-week travel diaries were collected to assess whether their car-use intentions were implemented. A random sample of 113 multiperson households participated. They expected to he able to change approximately 10% of their car trips. However they made many more trips than they had expected. Constraints, perceived costs, and preferences for different car-use reduction measures may all play a role for the choices. Further research needs to disentangle these roles since their implications for policies are different. (Author)

  6. The adverse effect of selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor on random skin flap survival in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiyong Ren

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cyclooxygenase-2(COX-2 inhibitors provide desired analgesic effects after injury or surgery, but evidences suggested they also attenuate wound healing. The study is to investigate the effect of COX-2 inhibitor on random skin flap survival. METHODS: The McFarlane flap model was established in 40 rats and evaluated within two groups, each group gave the same volume of Parecoxib and saline injection for 7 days. The necrotic area of the flap was measured, the specimens of the flap were stained with haematoxylin-eosin(HE for histologic analysis. Immunohistochemical staining was performed to analyse the level of VEGF and COX-2 . RESULTS: 7 days after operation, the flap necrotic area ratio in study group (66.65 ± 2.81% was significantly enlarged than that of the control group(48.81 ± 2.33%(P <0.01. Histological analysis demonstrated angiogenesis with mean vessel density per mm(2 being lower in study group (15.4 ± 4.4 than in control group (27.2 ± 4.1 (P <0.05. To evaluate the expression of COX-2 and VEGF protein in the intermediate area II in the two groups by immunohistochemistry test .The expression of COX-2 in study group was (1022.45 ± 153.1, and in control group was (2638.05 ± 132.2 (P <0.01. The expression of VEGF in the study and control groups were (2779.45 ± 472.0 vs (4938.05 ± 123.6(P <0.01.In the COX-2 inhibitor group, the expressions of COX-2 and VEGF protein were remarkably down-regulated as compared with the control group. CONCLUSION: Selective COX-2 inhibitor had adverse effect on random skin flap survival. Suppression of neovascularization induced by low level of VEGF was supposed to be the biological mechanism.

  7. Application of random coherence order selection in gradient-enhanced multidimensional NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bostock, Mark J.; Nietlispach, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Development of multidimensional NMR is essential to many applications, for example in high resolution structural studies of biomolecules. Multidimensional techniques enable separation of NMR signals over several dimensions, improving signal resolution, whilst also allowing identification of new connectivities. However, these advantages come at a significant cost. The Fourier transform theorem requires acquisition of a grid of regularly spaced points to satisfy the Nyquist criterion, while frequency discrimination and acquisition of a pure phase spectrum require acquisition of both quadrature components for each time point in every indirect (non-acquisition) dimension, adding a factor of 2 N -1 to the number of free- induction decays which must be acquired, where N is the number of dimensions. Compressed sensing (CS) ℓ 1 -norm minimisation in combination with non-uniform sampling (NUS) has been shown to be extremely successful in overcoming the Nyquist criterion. Previously, maximum entropy reconstruction has also been used to overcome the limitation of frequency discrimination, processing data acquired with only one quadrature component at a given time interval, known as random phase detection (RPD), allowing a factor of two reduction in the number of points for each indirect dimension (Maciejewski et al. 2011 PNAS 108 16640). However, whilst this approach can be easily applied in situations where the quadrature components are acquired as amplitude modulated data, the same principle is not easily extended to phase modulated (P-/N-type) experiments where data is acquired in the form exp (iωt) or exp (-iωt), and which make up many of the multidimensional experiments used in modern NMR. Here we demonstrate a modification of the CS ℓ 1 -norm approach to allow random coherence order selection (RCS) for phase modulated experiments; we generalise the nomenclature for RCS and RPD as random quadrature detection (RQD). With this method, the power of RQD can be extended

  8. Random genetic drift, natural selection, and noise in human cranial evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roseman, Charles C

    2016-08-01

    This study assesses the extent to which relationships among groups complicate comparative studies of adaptation in recent human cranial variation and the extent to which departures from neutral additive models of evolution hinder the reconstruction of population relationships among groups using cranial morphology. Using a maximum likelihood evolutionary model fitting approach and a mixed population genomic and cranial data set, I evaluate the relative fits of several widely used models of human cranial evolution. Moreover, I compare the goodness of fit of models of cranial evolution constrained by genomic variation to test hypotheses about population specific departures from neutrality. Models from population genomics are much better fits to cranial variation than are traditional models from comparative human biology. There is not enough evolutionary information in the cranium to reconstruct much of recent human evolution but the influence of population history on cranial variation is strong enough to cause comparative studies of adaptation serious difficulties. Deviations from a model of random genetic drift along a tree-like population history show the importance of environmental effects, gene flow, and/or natural selection on human cranial variation. Moreover, there is a strong signal of the effect of natural selection or an environmental factor on a group of humans from Siberia. The evolution of the human cranium is complex and no one evolutionary process has prevailed at the expense of all others. A holistic unification of phenome, genome, and environmental context, gives us a strong point of purchase on these problems, which is unavailable to any one traditional approach alone. Am J Phys Anthropol 160:582-592, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Improving household air, drinking water and hygiene in rural Peru: a community-randomized-controlled trial of an integrated environmental home-based intervention package to improve child health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartinger, S M; Lanata, C F; Hattendorf, J; Verastegui, H; Gil, A I; Wolf, J; Mäusezahl, D

    2016-12-01

    Diarrhoea and acute lower respiratory infections are leading causes of childhood morbidity and mortality, which can be prevented by simple low-cost interventions. Integrated strategies can provide additional benefits by addressing multiple health burdens simultaneously. We conducted a community-randomized-controlled trial in 51 rural communities in Peru to evaluate whether an environmental home-based intervention package, consisting of improved solid-fuel stoves, kitchen sinks, solar disinfection of drinking water and hygiene promotion, reduces lower respiratory infections, diarrhoeal disease and improves growth in children younger than 36 months. The attention control group received an early child stimulation programme. We recorded 24 647 child-days of observation from 250 households in the intervention and 253 in the attention control group during 12-month follow-up. Mean diarrhoea incidence was 2.8 episodes per child-year in the intervention compared with 3.1 episodes in the control arm. This corresponds to a relative rate of 0.78 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.58-1.05] for diarrhoea incidence and an odds ratio of 0.71 (95% CI: 0.47-1.06) for diarrhoea prevalence. No effects on acute lower respiratory infections or children's growth rates were observed. Combined home-based environmental interventions slightly reduced childhood diarrhoea, but the confidence interval included unity. Effects on growth and respiratory outcomes were not observed, despite high user compliance of the interventions. The absent effect on respiratory health might be due to insufficient household air quality improvements of the improved stoves and additional time needed to achieve attitudinal and behaviour change when providing composite interventions. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association

  10. The effect of household heads training about the use of treated bed nets on the burden of malaria and anaemia in under-five children: a cluster randomized trial in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deribew Amare

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Long-lasting insecticide-treated bed nets (LLITN have demonstrated a significant effect in reducing malaria-related morbidity and mortality. However, barriers on the utilization of LLITN have hampered the desired outcomes. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of community empowerment on the burden of malaria and anaemia in under-five children in Ethiopia. Methods A cluster randomized trial was done in 22 (11 intervention and 11 control villages in south-west Ethiopia. The intervention consisted of tailored training of household heads about the proper use of LLITN and community network system. The burden of malaria and anaemia in under-five children was determined through mass blood investigation at baseline, six and 12 months of the project period. Cases of malaria and anaemia were treated based on the national protocol. The burden of malaria and anaemia between the intervention and control villages was compared using the complex logistic regression model by taking into account the clustering effect. Eight Focus group discussions were conducted to complement the quantitative findings. Results A total of 2,105 household heads received the intervention and the prevalence of malaria and anaemia was assessed among 2410, 2037 and 2612 under-five children at baseline, six and 12 months of the project period respectively. During the high transmission/epidemic season, children in the intervention arm were less likely to have malaria as compared to children in the control arm (OR = 0.42; 95%CI: 0.32, 0.57. Symptomatic malaria also steadily declined in the intervention villages compared to the control villages in the follow up periods. Children in the intervention arm were less likely to be anaemic compared to those in the control arm both at the high (OR = 0.84; 95%CI: 0.71, 0.99 and low (OR = 0.73; 95%CI: 0.60, 0.89 transmission seasons. Conclusion Training of household heads on the utilization of LLITN significantly

  11. Correlates of Intra-Household ITN Use in Liberia: A Multilevel Analysis of Household Survey Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babalola, Stella; Ricotta, Emily; Awantang, Grace; Lewicky, Nan; Koenker, Hannah; Toso, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Malaria is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in Liberia. At the same time, insecticide-treated net (ITN) ownership and use remain low. Access is a key determinant of ITN use but it is not the only one; prior studies have identified factors that affect the use of ITNs in households with at least one ITN. These factors operate at the individual, household, and community levels. However, studies have generally not assessed the psychosocial or ideational determinants of ITN use. Using 2014 household survey data, this manuscript examines the socio-demographic, ideational, household, and community factors associated with household member use of ITNs in Liberia. Multilevel modeling was used to assess fixed effects at the individual, household, and community levels, and random effects at the household and cluster levels. The data showed significant residual clustering at the household level, indicating that there were unmeasured factors operating at this level that are associated with ITN use. The association of age with ITN use was moderated by sex such that men, older children, and teenagers were less likely to sleep under an ITN compared to women and children under five years old. Female caregivers' perceived severity of malaria, perceived self-efficacy to detect a complicated case of malaria, and exposure to the "Take Cover" communication campaign were positively associated with ITN use by members of her household. The association with household size was negative, while the relationship with the number of ITNs was positive. Programs should seek to achieve universal coverage (that is, one ITN for every two household members) and promote the notion that everyone needs to sleep under an ITN every night. Programs should also seek to strengthen perceived severity of malaria and educate intended audience groups on the signs of malaria complications. Given the significance of residual clustering at the household level, interventions that engage men as heads of

  12. Multi-Label Learning via Random Label Selection for Protein Subcellular Multi-Locations Prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao; Li, Guo-Zheng

    2013-03-12

    Prediction of protein subcellular localization is an important but challenging problem, particularly when proteins may simultaneously exist at, or move between, two or more different subcellular location sites. Most of the existing protein subcellular localization methods are only used to deal with the single-location proteins. In the past few years, only a few methods have been proposed to tackle proteins with multiple locations. However, they only adopt a simple strategy, that is, transforming the multi-location proteins to multiple proteins with single location, which doesn't take correlations among different subcellular locations into account. In this paper, a novel method named RALS (multi-label learning via RAndom Label Selection), is proposed to learn from multi-location proteins in an effective and efficient way. Through five-fold cross validation test on a benchmark dataset, we demonstrate our proposed method with consideration of label correlations obviously outperforms the baseline BR method without consideration of label correlations, indicating correlations among different subcellular locations really exist and contribute to improvement of prediction performance. Experimental results on two benchmark datasets also show that our proposed methods achieve significantly higher performance than some other state-of-the-art methods in predicting subcellular multi-locations of proteins. The prediction web server is available at http://levis.tongji.edu.cn:8080/bioinfo/MLPred-Euk/ for the public usage.

  13. The effects of improved maize technology on household welfare in Buruku, Benue State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria I. Audu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine the welfare effects of improved maize technology in Buruku Local Government Area of Benue State, Nigeria. The study also examined the determinants of the adoption of improved maize technology. Structured questionnaires were used in collecting the primary data for the study. A multi-stage random technique was used in selecting 125 farm households for the study. The Logit and ordinary least square (OLS models were used in analyzing the data. The OLS results show that adoption of improved maize varieties is positively and significantly related to household welfare and thus has contributed to moving farm households out of poverty. Other variables found to be statistically significant in explaining household welfare are education, household size, and landholding. The Logit results show that age, household size, off-farm income, and education were found to be significant in influencing farmers’ adoption decisions. Some robustness checks were performed with different specifications of the Logit and OLS models as well as re-estimation with propensity matching score approach. Overall, the results are robust to different specifications.

  14. Economic costs of fever to households in the middle belt of Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawiah, Theresa; Asante, Kwaku Poku; Dwommoh, Rebecca Akua; Kwarteng, Anthony; Gyaase, Stephaney; Mahama, Emmanuel; Abokyi, Livesy; Amenga-Etego, Seeba; Hansen, Kristian; Akweongo, Patricia; Owusu-Agyei, Seth

    2016-02-06

    Malaria is one of the main health problems in the sub-Saharan Africa accounting for approximately 198 million morbidity and close to 600,000 mortality cases. Households incur out-of-pocket expenditure for treatment and lose income as a result of not being able to work or care for family members. The main objective of this survey was to assess the economic cost of treating malaria and/or fever with the new ACT to households in the Kintampo districts of Ghana where a health and demographic surveillance systems (KHDSS) are set up to document population dynamics. The study was a cross-sectional survey conducted from October 2009 to July 2011 using community members' accessed using KHDSS population in the Kintampo area. An estimated sample size of 4226 was randomly selected from the active members of the KHDSS. A structured questionnaire was administered to the selected populates who reported of fever within the last 2 weeks prior to the visit. Data was collected on treatment-seeking behaviour, direct and indirect costs of malaria from the patient perspective. Of the 4226 households selected, 947 households with 1222 household members had fever out of which 92 % sought treatment outside home; 55 % of these were females. 31.6 % of these patients sought care from chemical shops. A mean amount of GHS 4.2 (US$2.76) and GHS 18.0 (US$11.84) were incurred by households as direct and indirect cost respectively. On average a household incurred a total cost of GHS 22.2 (US$14.61) per patient per episode. Total economic cost was lowest for those in the highest quintile and highest for those in the middle quintile. The total cost of treating fever/malaria episode is relatively high in the study area considering the poverty levels in Ghana. The NHIS has positively influenced health-seeking behaviours and reduced the financial burden of seeking care for those that are insured.

  15. Socio-economic determinants of household food security and women's dietary diversity in rural Bangladesh: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris-Fry, Helen; Azad, Kishwar; Kuddus, Abdul; Shaha, Sanjit; Nahar, Badrun; Hossen, Munir; Younes, Leila; Costello, Anthony; Fottrell, Edward

    2015-07-10

    There has been limited decline in undernutrition rates in South Asia compared with the rest of Asia and one reason for this may be low levels of household food security. However, the evidence base on the determinants of household food security is limited. To develop policies intended to improve household food security, improved knowledge of the determinants of household food security is required. Household data were collected in 2011 from a randomly selected sample of 2,809 women of reproductive age. The sample was drawn from nine unions in three districts of rural Bangladesh. Multinomial logistic regression was conducted to measure the relationship between selected determinants of household food security and months of adequate household food provisioning, and a linear regression to measure the association between the same determinants and women's dietary diversity score. The analyses found that land ownership, adjusted relative risk ratio (RRR) 0.28 (CI 0.18, 0.42); relative wealth (middle tertile 0.49 (0.29, 0.84) and top tertile 0.18 (0.10, 0.33)); women's literacy 0.64 (0.46, 0.90); access to media 0.49 (0.33, 0.72); and women's freedom to access the market 0.56 (0.36, 0.85) all significantly reduced the risk of food insecurity. Larger households increased the risk of food insecurity, adjusted RRR 1.46 (CI 1.02, 2.09). Households with vegetable gardens 0.20 (0.11, 0.31), rich households 0.46 (0.24, 0.68) and literate women 0.37 (0.20, 0.54) were significantly more likely to have better dietary diversity scores. Household food insecurity remains a key public health problem in Bangladesh, with households suffering food shortages for an average of one quarter of the year. Simple survey and analytical methods are able to identify numerous interlinked factors associated with household food security, but wealth and literacy were the only two determinants associated with both improved food security and dietary diversity. We cannot conclude whether improvements in all

  16. Differential privacy-based evaporative cooling feature selection and classification with relief-F and random forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Trang T; Simmons, W Kyle; Misaki, Masaya; Bodurka, Jerzy; White, Bill C; Savitz, Jonathan; McKinney, Brett A

    2017-09-15

    Classification of individuals into disease or clinical categories from high-dimensional biological data with low prediction error is an important challenge of statistical learning in bioinformatics. Feature selection can improve classification accuracy but must be incorporated carefully into cross-validation to avoid overfitting. Recently, feature selection methods based on differential privacy, such as differentially private random forests and reusable holdout sets, have been proposed. However, for domains such as bioinformatics, where the number of features is much larger than the number of observations p≫n , these differential privacy methods are susceptible to overfitting. We introduce private Evaporative Cooling, a stochastic privacy-preserving machine learning algorithm that uses Relief-F for feature selection and random forest for privacy preserving classification that also prevents overfitting. We relate the privacy-preserving threshold mechanism to a thermodynamic Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution, where the temperature represents the privacy threshold. We use the thermal statistical physics concept of Evaporative Cooling of atomic gases to perform backward stepwise privacy-preserving feature selection. On simulated data with main effects and statistical interactions, we compare accuracies on holdout and validation sets for three privacy-preserving methods: the reusable holdout, reusable holdout with random forest, and private Evaporative Cooling, which uses Relief-F feature selection and random forest classification. In simulations where interactions exist between attributes, private Evaporative Cooling provides higher classification accuracy without overfitting based on an independent validation set. In simulations without interactions, thresholdout with random forest and private Evaporative Cooling give comparable accuracies. We also apply these privacy methods to human brain resting-state fMRI data from a study of major depressive disorder. Code

  17. Agricultural productivity, household poverty and migration in the Indian Sundarban Delta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rituparna Hajra

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Deltas are highly sensitive to erosion, flooding, and salinization with consequential agricultural productivity losses and out-migration, which is a preferred adaptive measure for the inhabitants of deltaic islands. This study investigates the associations between agricultural productivity decrease, household poverty and the probability of out-migration in the Indian Sundarban Delta (ISD. Using newly collected survey data from randomly selected households within the ISD, we analysed these relationships by means of descriptive statistics and regression modeling. Results suggest the significant positive association between a decrease in agricultural productivity and out-migration. The results further show that ceteris paribus, out-migration is negatively associated with household poverty, which is likely to be explained by the effect of remittances. The results yield important policy implications at the local level and can contribute to the progress towards sustainable livelihoods in these deltaic islands.

  18. Bayesian dose selection design for a binary outcome using restricted response adaptive randomization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinzer, Caitlyn; Martin, Renee; Suarez, Jose I

    2017-09-08

    In phase II trials, the most efficacious dose is usually not known. Moreover, given limited resources, it is difficult to robustly identify a dose while also testing for a signal of efficacy that would support a phase III trial. Recent designs have sought to be more efficient by exploring multiple doses through the use of adaptive strategies. However, the added flexibility may potentially increase the risk of making incorrect assumptions and reduce the total amount of information available across the dose range as a function of imbalanced sample size. To balance these challenges, a novel placebo-controlled design is presented in which a restricted Bayesian response adaptive randomization (RAR) is used to allocate a majority of subjects to the optimal dose of active drug, defined as the dose with the lowest probability of poor outcome. However, the allocation between subjects who receive active drug or placebo is held constant to retain the maximum possible power for a hypothesis test of overall efficacy comparing the optimal dose to placebo. The design properties and optimization of the design are presented in the context of a phase II trial for subarachnoid hemorrhage. For a fixed total sample size, a trade-off exists between the ability to select the optimal dose and the probability of rejecting the null hypothesis. This relationship is modified by the allocation ratio between active and control subjects, the choice of RAR algorithm, and the number of subjects allocated to an initial fixed allocation period. While a responsive RAR algorithm improves the ability to select the correct dose, there is an increased risk of assigning more subjects to a worse arm as a function of ephemeral trends in the data. A subarachnoid treatment trial is used to illustrate how this design can be customized for specific objectives and available data. Bayesian adaptive designs are a flexible approach to addressing multiple questions surrounding the optimal dose for treatment efficacy

  19. Catastrophic health expenditure among households with members with special diseases: A case study in Kurdistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, Ghobad; Safari, Hossein; Piroozi, Bakhtiar; Qanbari, Laila; Farshadi, Salahadin; Qasri, Homan; Farhadifar, Fariba

    2017-01-01

    Background: One of the main goals of health systems is to protect people against financial risks associated with diseases that can be catastrophic for patients. In 2014, Health Sector Evolution Plan (HSEP) was implemented in Iran; one of the objectives of HSEP was to reduce out-of-pocket payments and provide more financial protection for people. Therefore, the present study aimed at exploring the likelihood of facing catastrophic health expenditures (CHE) among households with members suffering from dialysis, kidney transplant, or multiple sclerosis (MS) after the implementation of HSEP. Methods: A total number of 385 households were selected using stratified random sampling and were asked to complete the World Health Survey questionnaire through telephone conversations. As outlined by the World Health Organization (WHO), when household out-of-pocket expense for health services is ≥40% of its capacity to pay, then that household is considered to be facing CHE. Furthermore, determinants of CHE were identified using logistic regression. Results: The percentage of facing catastrophic health care expenditures for households with a MS, dialysis, and kidney transplant patient was 20.6%, 18.7%, and 13.8%, respectively. Results of logistic regression analysis revealed that patient's economic status, level of education, supplementary insurance status, type of disease, multiple members with special diseases in the household, rural residence, use of inpatient, dental, and rehabilitation services were effective factors for determining the likelihood of facing CHE. Conclusion: Despite the implementation of HSEP, the percentage of CHE is still high for households that have members who suffer from special diseases. However, basic health insurance packages should be amended and more cost-sharing exemptions should be granted to provide more financial protection for the vulnerable households.

  20. Peculiarities of the statistics of spectrally selected fluorescence radiation in laser-pumped dye-doped random media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuvchenko, S. A.; Ushakova, E. V.; Pavlova, M. V.; Alonova, M. V.; Zimnyakov, D. A.

    2018-04-01

    We consider the practical realization of a new optical probe method of the random media which is defined as the reference-free path length interferometry with the intensity moments analysis. A peculiarity in the statistics of the spectrally selected fluorescence radiation in laser-pumped dye-doped random medium is discussed. Previously established correlations between the second- and the third-order moments of the intensity fluctuations in the random interference patterns, the coherence function of the probe radiation, and the path difference probability density for the interfering partial waves in the medium are confirmed. The correlations were verified using the statistical analysis of the spectrally selected fluorescence radiation emitted by a laser-pumped dye-doped random medium. Water solution of Rhodamine 6G was applied as the doping fluorescent agent for the ensembles of the densely packed silica grains, which were pumped by the 532 nm radiation of a solid state laser. The spectrum of the mean path length for a random medium was reconstructed.

  1. When Bigger Is Better: Household Size, Abuse Injuries, Neglect, and Family Response in Novosibirsk, Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, Clifton R; Eremina, Tatiana; Arenas, Carmen; Kim, Jaeyop; Chan, Ko Ling

    2017-02-01

    Although previous research has demonstrated larger households to be at higher risk of physical abuse and neglect of children, we argue that unilateral conceptualization of larger households as a risk factor is inappropriate. Application of resource dilution theory must capture the possibility that larger families may have more members with both the agency and will to intervene against child maltreatment. We hypothesized a negative interaction between household size and protective informal social control by family members in predicting abuse injuries and neglect. A three-stage probability proportional to size cluster sample representative of Novosibirsk, Russia, was collected from 306 cohabiting couples. One parent in each household was interviewed. A focal child was selected using most recent birthday. When responses limited to families with minor children (below age 18) were selected, 172 families remained in the data. Physical abuse and neglect were measured using the Conflict Tactics Scales (CTS). Protective informal social control by family members was measured using the Informal Social Control of Child Maltreatment (ISC_CM) Scale. Models were tested using random effects regression and logistic regression. Nearly 7% of focal children were injured in the last year, 10% were neglected. Consistent with previous research, protective informal social control was associated with lower odds of injury and fewer instances of neglect. The significant negative interaction between household size and protective control is consistent with the idea that larger households may be protective when adult family members intervene against maltreatment to protect children. Replication and further investigation of protective ISC_CM in Western populations is much needed. Future research should not conceptualize or measure household size as a unilateral risk factor.

  2. Households' portfolio choices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hochgürtel, S.

    1998-01-01

    This thesis presents four topics on households' portfolio choices. Empirically, households do not hold well-diversified wealth portfolios. In particular, they refrain from putting their savings into risky assets. We explore several ways that might help explaining this observation. Using Dutch

  3. Household financial behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brounen, Dirk; Koedijk, Kees; Pownall, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    Greater personal responsibility toward financial decision-making is being advocated on a global basis. Individuals and households are encouraged to take a more active approach to personal finance. In this paper, we examine behavioral factors, which lead households toward savings and financial

  4. Household food waste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wahlen, S.; Winkel, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Food waste is debated not only in the light of sustainable consumption in research and policy, but also in the broader public. This article focuses on food waste in household contexts, what is widely believed the end of the food chain. However, household food waste is far more complex and intricate

  5. Essays in household finance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Djordjevic, Ljubica

    2015-01-01

    Household finance is a young and vibrant research field that continuously attracts public attention. There may be very few matters that people care so much about as their personal finance. Recent rise of academic interest in household finance is to a great extent due to households’ more active role

  6. Household Wealth in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yu; Jin, Yongai

    2015-01-01

    With new nationwide longitudinal survey data now available from the China Family Panel Studies (CFPS), we study the level, distribution, and composition of household wealth in contemporary China. We find that the wealth Gini coefficient of China was 0.73 in 2012. The richest 1 percent owned more than one-third of the total national household wealth, while the poorest 25 percent owned less than 2 percent. Housing assets, which accounted for over 70 percent, were the largest component of household wealth. Finally, the urban-rural divide and regional disparities played important roles in household wealth distribution, and institutional factors significantly affected household wealth holdings, wealth growth rate, and wealth mobility. PMID:26435882

  7. Promoting household energy conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steg, Linda

    2008-01-01

    It is commonly assumed that households must change their behaviour to reduce the problems caused by increasing levels of fossil energy use. Strategies for behaviour change will be more effective if they target the most important causes of the behaviour in question. Therefore, this paper first discusses the factors influencing household energy use. Three barriers to fossil fuel energy conservation are discussed: insufficient knowledge of effective ways to reduce household energy use, the low priority and high costs of energy savings, and the lack of feasible alternatives. Next, the paper elaborates on the effectiveness and acceptability of strategies aimed to promote household energy savings. Informational strategies aimed at changing individuals' knowledge, perceptions, cognitions, motivations and norms, as well as structural strategies aimed at changing the context in which decisions are made, are discussed. This paper focuses on the psychological literature on household energy conservation, which mostly examined the effects of informational strategies. Finally, this paper lists important topics for future research

  8. Household location choices: implications for biodiversity conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, M Nils; Chen, Xiaodong; Liu, Jianguo

    2008-08-01

    Successful conservation efforts require understanding human behaviors that directly affect biodiversity. Choice of household location represents an observable behavior that has direct effects on biodiversity conservation, but no one has examined the sociocultural predictors of this choice relative to its environmental impacts. We conducted a case study of the Teton Valley of Idaho and Wyoming (U.S.A.) that (1) explored relationships between sociodemographic variables, environmental attitudes, and the environmental impact of household location choices, (2) assessed the potential for small household sizes in natural areas to multiply the environmental impacts of household location decisions, and (3) evaluated how length of residency predicted the environmental attitudes of people living in natural areas. We collected sociodemographic data, spatial coordinates, and land-cover information in a survey of 416 households drawn from a random sample of Teton Valley residents (95% compliance rate). Immigrants (respondents not born in the study area) with the lowest education levels and least environmentally oriented attitudes lived in previously established residential areas in disproportionately high numbers, and older and more educated immigrants with the most environmentally oriented attitudes lived in natural areas in disproportionately high numbers. Income was not a significant predictor of household location decisions. Those living in natural areas had more environmental impact per person because of the location and because small households (educated, and potentially growing more environmentally oriented, these patterns are troubling for biodiversity conservation. Our results demonstrate a need for environmentalists to make household location decisions that reflect their environmental attitudes and future research to address how interactions between education level, environmental attitudes, population aging, and household location choices influence biodiversity

  9. Factors Influencing Poverty Alleviation amongst Microfinance Adopting Households in Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mavhungu Abel Mafukata

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to investigate the factors having the most influence on the alleviation of poverty amongst the households adopting microfinance in Zambia. Ninety nine (n=99 respondents were randomly and purposively selected from amongst 340 microfinance adopters of the so-called Micro Bankers Trust programme operating a microfinance business in the Makululu Compound of Kabwe, Zambia. Socio-demographic primary data were collected through face-to-face interviews based on a semi-structured questionnaire instrument. The data were entered into an excel spreadsheet for analysis. The descriptive data were thereafter exported and fitted to an empirical model. The descriptive results revealed that the majority of the respondents were married, unemployed, fairly educated younger women from larger-sized poor households who drew their household income mainly from microfinance activities. The majority of the respondents thought microfinance had improved their well-being in some crucial areas. The results of the empirical model found that some respondents were indeed alleviated from poverty through microfinance. Conclusion drawn in this paper is that microfinance does alleviate poverty of the poor.

  10. Survey of Recipients of WAP Services Assessment of Household Budget and Energy Behaviors Pre to Post Weatherization DOE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonn, Bruce Edward [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Rose, Erin M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hawkins, Beth A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-10-01

    This report presents results from the national survey of weatherization recipients. This research was one component of the retrospective and Recovery Act evaluations of the U.S. Department of Energy s Weatherization Assistance Program. Survey respondents were randomly selected from a nationally representative sample of weatherization recipients. The respondents and a comparison group were surveyed just prior to receiving their energy audits and then again approximately 18 months post-weatherization. This report focuses on budget issues faced by WAP households pre- and post-weatherization, whether household energy behaviors changed from pre- to post, the effectiveness of approaches to client energy education, and use and knowledge about thermostats.

  11. The basic science and mathematics of random mutation and natural selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinman, Alan

    2014-12-20

    The mutation and natural selection phenomenon can and often does cause the failure of antimicrobial, herbicidal, pesticide and cancer treatments selection pressures. This phenomenon operates in a mathematically predictable behavior, which when understood leads to approaches to reduce and prevent the failure of the use of these selection pressures. The mathematical behavior of mutation and selection is derived using the principles given by probability theory. The derivation of the equations describing the mutation and selection phenomenon is carried out in the context of an empirical example. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Household Food Insecurity, Underweight Status, and Associated Characteristics among Women of Reproductive Age Group in Assayita District, Afar Regional State, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdu, Jemal; Kahssay, Molla; Gebremedhin, Merhawi

    2018-01-01

    Poor nutritional status of women has been a serious problem in Ethiopia. Rural women are more likely to be undernourished than urban women. Afar region is the most likely to be undernourished (43.5%). Despite the humanitarian and food aid, food insecurity and maternal underweight are very high in the region. Household food insecurity is not adequately studied in Afar region. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of household food insecurity and underweight status and its association among reproductive age women. The study was conducted in Assayita district in June 2015. Community-based cross-sectional study design was used among nonpregnant women. Household data was collected using structured questionnaire. Multistage cluster sampling procedure was applied. Two pastoral and two agropastoral Kebeles have been selected by simple random sampling. Systematic random sampling was used to select respondents. The total sample size was 549 households. Household Food Insecurity Access Scale (HFIAS) and anthropometric data were used to determine food insecurity and underweight, respectively. Multivariate regression models were used to measure associations. Prevalence of HFIAS was 70.4 with a mean of 7.0 (3.6 ± SD); 26.1%, 30.20%, and 14.1% were mild, moderate, and severe food insecurity, respectively. Underweight prevalence (BMI 2 children below five years of age were statistically associated with household food insecurity and maternal underweight. Household food insecurity and maternal underweight were very high. Age, parity, and having ≥2 children below five years of age were associated with household food insecurity. Maternal underweight was associated with maternal age, marital status, parity, number of children below 5 years, household food insecurity, and vocation of the respondents.

  13. Household-food market relations and its implications for food ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Household-food market relations and its implications for food security of farm ... of this relationship and how it affects the dietary supply of the household needs to be ... the rural areas of Imo state using a multi-stage random sampling technique. ... and transportation facilities will in the long run improve market efficiency and ...

  14. Essays in Household Finance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanspal, Tobin

    This Ph.D. thesis, entitled Essays in Household Finance, analyzes the determinants and implications of investment biases, personal experiences in financial markets, and financing disruptions on households, individual investors, and entrepreneurs and small business owners. The first essay...... on risk taking is the potential bias resulting from inertia and inattention, which has been shown to be endemic in household finance. If individuals are inert or inattentive, it is difficult to establish whether changes in risk taking are caused by personal experiences or whether the change in risk taking...

  15. Determinants and policy implications for household electricity-saving behaviour: Evidence from Beijing, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhaohua; Zhang Bin; Yin Jianhua; Zhang Yixiang

    2011-01-01

    This research sets out to explore the possibilities for further saving in household electricity consumption through a study of the residents' willingness and behavioural characteristics in electricity saving, as applied within a Chinese context. Based on an extensive literature review, the authors argue that economic benefits, policy and social norms, and past experience may have a positive correlation with household electricity-saving behaviour, while the discomfort caused by electricity-saving activities, may exert a negative effect on it. Through a sample of 816 randomly selected residents in Beijing, the propositions are examined using logit regression analysis. The conclusions support the ideas, concerning both the positive influence of economic benefits, policy and social norms, and past experience as they affect broader electricity-saving behaviour, and the negative influence of the discomfort caused by electricity-saving activities. Finally, some inferences are drawn, and suggestions are offered for policy makers and further studies. - Highlights: → We develop a logistic regression to investigate household electricity saving behaviour. → Determinants for household electricity saving are verified with a questionnaire survey. → Environmental awareness does not impact on household electricity saving directly. → It is prerequisite to focus on both financial subsidy and technology improvement. → Tiered price reform is considered an effective policy for electricity saving.

  16. Selecting for Fast Protein-Protein Association As Demonstrated on a Random TEM1 Yeast Library Binding BLIP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen-Khait, Ruth; Schreiber, Gideon

    2018-04-27

    Protein-protein interactions mediate the vast majority of cellular processes. Though protein interactions obey basic chemical principles also within the cell, the in vivo physiological environment may not allow for equilibrium to be reached. Thus, in vitro measured thermodynamic affinity may not provide a complete picture of protein interactions in the biological context. Binding kinetics composed of the association and dissociation rate constants are relevant and important in the cell. Therefore, changes in protein-protein interaction kinetics have a significant impact on the in vivo activity of the proteins. The common protocol for the selection of tighter binders from a mutant library selects for protein complexes with slower dissociation rate constants. Here we describe a method to specifically select for variants with faster association rate constants by using pre-equilibrium selection, starting from a large random library. Toward this end, we refine the selection conditions of a TEM1-β-lactamase library against its natural nanomolar affinity binder β-lactamase inhibitor protein (BLIP). The optimal selection conditions depend on the ligand concentration and on the incubation time. In addition, we show that a second sort of the library helps to separate signal from noise, resulting in a higher percent of faster binders in the selected library. Fast associating protein variants are of particular interest for drug development and other biotechnological applications.

  17. A census-weighted, spatially-stratified household sampling strategy for urban malaria epidemiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slutsker Laurence

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Urban malaria is likely to become increasingly important as a consequence of the growing proportion of Africans living in cities. A novel sampling strategy was developed for urban areas to generate a sample simultaneously representative of population and inhabited environments. Such a strategy should facilitate analysis of important epidemiological relationships in this ecological context. Methods Census maps and summary data for Kisumu, Kenya, were used to create a pseudo-sampling frame using the geographic coordinates of census-sampled structures. For every enumeration area (EA designated as urban by the census (n = 535, a sample of structures equal to one-tenth the number of households was selected. In EAs designated as rural (n = 32, a geographically random sample totalling one-tenth the number of households was selected from a grid of points at 100 m intervals. The selected samples were cross-referenced to a geographic information system, and coordinates transferred to handheld global positioning units. Interviewers found the closest eligible household to the sampling point and interviewed the caregiver of a child aged Results 4,336 interviews were completed in 473 of the 567 study area EAs from June 2002 through February 2003. EAs without completed interviews were randomly distributed, and non-response was approximately 2%. Mean distance from the assigned sampling point to the completed interview was 74.6 m, and was significantly less in urban than rural EAs, even when controlling for number of households. The selected sample had significantly more children and females of childbearing age than the general population, and fewer older individuals. Conclusion This method selected a sample that was simultaneously population-representative and inclusive of important environmental variation. The use of a pseudo-sampling frame and pre-programmed handheld GPS units is more efficient and may yield a more complete sample than

  18. Household hazardous waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjelsted, Lotte; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2007-01-01

    .) comprised 15-25% and foreign items comprised 10-20%. Water-based paint was the dominant part of the paint waste. The chemical composition of the paint waste and the paint-like waste was characterized by an analysis of 27 substances in seven waste fractions. The content of critical substances was tow......'Paint waste', a part of the 'household hazardous waste', amounting to approximately 5 tonnes was collected from recycling stations in two Danish cities. Sorting and analyses of the waste showed paint waste comprised approximately 65% of the mass, paint-like waste (cleaners, fillers, etc...... and the paint waste was less contaminated with heavy metals than was the ordinary household waste. This may suggest that households no longer need to source-segregate their paint if the household waste is incinerated, since the presence of a small quantity of solvent-based paint will not be harmful when...

  19. Household electricity demand profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marszal, Anna Joanna; Heiselberg, Per Kvols; Larsen, Olena Kalyanova

    2016-01-01

    Highlights •A 1-min resolution household electricity load model is presented. •Model adapts a bottom-up approach with single appliance as the main building block. •Load profiles are used to analyse the flexibility potential of household appliances. •Load profiles can be applied in other domains, .......g. building energy simulations. •The demand level of houses with different number of occupants is well captured....

  20. The interference of paid work with household demands in different social policy contexts: perceived work-household conflict in Sweden, the UK, the Netherlands, Hungary, and the Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strandh, Mattias; Nordenmark, Mikael

    2006-12-01

    The article explores whether people experiences a lower level of work-household conflict in a context that is characterized by extensive family policies (Sweden and to some extent Hungary and Czech Republic) aimed at facilitating participation in the labour market. This is done by studying perceived work-household conflict among women and men living in Sweden, the UK, the Netherlands, Hungary, and the Czech Republic. The analyses are based on the answers to a questionnaire distributed to nearly 6,000 randomly selected individuals within the framework of the European Union financed 'Household, Work, and Flexibility' (HWF) study. The results show that women in Sweden experience conflicts between work and household demands to a higher degree than any other category in all five countries. The differences between Swedish women and women living in the Netherlands and the UK are explained by variables indicating qualifications and workload in the main job, but the lower degree of work-household conflict among Czech and Hungarian women is still significant when controlling for household composition and working conditions. Data indicate that a possible explanation for this can be found in the interplay between men's and women's attitudes toward gender roles and the actual situation in terms of division of labour.

  1. r2VIM: A new variable selection method for random forests in genome-wide association studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymczak, Silke; Holzinger, Emily; Dasgupta, Abhijit; Malley, James D; Molloy, Anne M; Mills, James L; Brody, Lawrence C; Stambolian, Dwight; Bailey-Wilson, Joan E

    2016-01-01

    Machine learning methods and in particular random forests (RFs) are a promising alternative to standard single SNP analyses in genome-wide association studies (GWAS). RFs provide variable importance measures (VIMs) to rank SNPs according to their predictive power. However, in contrast to the established genome-wide significance threshold, no clear criteria exist to determine how many SNPs should be selected for downstream analyses. We propose a new variable selection approach, recurrent relative variable importance measure (r2VIM). Importance values are calculated relative to an observed minimal importance score for several runs of RF and only SNPs with large relative VIMs in all of the runs are selected as important. Evaluations on simulated GWAS data show that the new method controls the number of false-positives under the null hypothesis. Under a simple alternative hypothesis with several independent main effects it is only slightly less powerful than logistic regression. In an experimental GWAS data set, the same strong signal is identified while the approach selects none of the SNPs in an underpowered GWAS. The novel variable selection method r2VIM is a promising extension to standard RF for objectively selecting relevant SNPs in GWAS while controlling the number of false-positive results.

  2. Feature selection and classification of mechanical fault of an induction motor using random forest classifier

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, Raj Kumar; Giri, V.K.

    2016-01-01

    Fault detection and diagnosis is the most important technology in condition-based maintenance (CBM) system for rotating machinery. This paper experimentally explores the development of a random forest (RF) classifier, a recently emerged machine learning technique, for multi-class mechanical fault diagnosis in bearing of an induction motor. Firstly, the vibration signals are collected from the bearing using accelerometer sensor. Parameters from the vibration signal are extracted in the form of...

  3. Comparison of confirmed inactive and randomly selected compounds as negative training examples in support vector machine-based virtual screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikamp, Kathrin; Bajorath, Jürgen

    2013-07-22

    The choice of negative training data for machine learning is a little explored issue in chemoinformatics. In this study, the influence of alternative sets of negative training data and different background databases on support vector machine (SVM) modeling and virtual screening has been investigated. Target-directed SVM models have been derived on the basis of differently composed training sets containing confirmed inactive molecules or randomly selected database compounds as negative training instances. These models were then applied to search background databases consisting of biological screening data or randomly assembled compounds for available hits. Negative training data were found to systematically influence compound recall in virtual screening. In addition, different background databases had a strong influence on the search results. Our findings also indicated that typical benchmark settings lead to an overestimation of SVM-based virtual screening performance compared to search conditions that are more relevant for practical applications.

  4. Environmental income improves household-level poverty assessments and dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walelign, Solomon Zena; Charlery, Lindy Callen; Smith-Hall, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    Household-level poverty assessments and analyses of poverty dynamics in developing countries typically do not include environmental income. Using household (n = 427 in 2006, 2009 and 2012) total income panel data sets, with and without environmental income, from Nepal, we analysed the importance...... of environmental income in household-level poverty assessments (Foster-Greer-Thorbecke indices) and dynamics (movements in the Poverty Transition Matrix). Random effects logit and ordered logit models were applied to estimate variables covarying with poverty categories and compared for annual household incomes...... with and without environmental income. Using the without environmental income data set significantly changed the number of households classified as poor, as well as rates of movements in and out of poverty. Excluding household-level environmental income also distorted estimation of covariates of poverty incidence...

  5. Determinants of Household Food Security in Urban Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Ayu Mutiah

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Food security at household level is a very important precondition to foster the national and regional food security. Many people migrate to urban areas in the hope of improving their welfare. Generally people think that in the city there are more opportunities, but the opposite is true. The problem is more complex in the city especially for people who do not have adequate skills and education. This study aims to address whether  age of household head, household size, education level of household head, income, and distribution of subsidized rice policy affect the food security of urban poor households in Purbalingga district. A hundred respondents were selected from four top villages in urban areas of Purbalingga with the highest level of poverty. Using binary logistic regression, this study finds significant positive effect of education of household head and household income and significant negative effect of household size and raskin on household food security, while age of household head has no significant effect on household food security. The results imply the need for increased awareness of family planning, education, improved skills, and increased control of the implementation of subsidized rice for the poor.

  6. Novel Zn2+-chelating peptides selected from a fimbria-displayed random peptide library

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Kristian; Schembri, Mark; Klemm, Per

    2001-01-01

    The display of peptide sequences on the surface of bacteria is a technology that offers exciting applications in biotechnology and medical research. Type 1 fimbriae are surface organelles of Escherichia coli which mediate D-mannose-sensitive binding to different host surfaces by virtue of the Fim......H adhesin. FimH is a component of the fimbrial organelle that can accommodate and display a diverse range of peptide sequences on the E. coli cell surface. In this study we have constructed a random peptide library in FimH. The library, consisting of similar to 40 million individual clones, was screened...

  7. Electricity savings in households with everyday IT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kibsgaard, Kaj; Larsen, Anders; leth, Søren

    This paper analyzes the effect of supplying online feedback by SMS-text messages and email about electricity consumption on the level of total household electricity consumption. An experiment was conducted where 1,452 households were randomly allocated to three experimental groups and two control...... groups. Feedback was supplied throughout 2007 to members of the experiment groups who accepted the invitation, and data on consumption of electricity for 2006 and 2007 collected for all participants and control group members. 30% of the households invited to receive feedback accepted the invitation....... The estimated effects of the feedback on consumption of electricity are estimated to be in the range of 2-3%. The feedback technology is cheap to implement and therefore likely to be cost-effective...

  8. Sharing family and household:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Ida Wentzel

    Keynote: Family relationships are normatively assumed to be characterized by ‘sharing’, such as living together in the same home, occupying the same place, sharing stuff, blood and biology, spending special and ordinary time together, and consequently creating shared biographical experiences....... In that way, families are thrown into togetherness. At the same time, we see families in varying forms where 'sharing' is lived and contested differently. In Denmark, many children live in nuclear families, and many live in different variations of more than one household. For those who share household...... and family, 'sharing' will be a basic condition. No matter what, they should share life circumstances, more stories, more places and spaces, more households families with both kin and non-kin. This keynote addresses the particular of children’s experiences of living apart and/or living together in sharing...

  9. Analysis of the Effect of Health Education Activities on Selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-03-01

    Mar 1, 2018 ... integrated management of childhood illness have the potential to improve these child ... faecal disposal, etc, all in an attempt to decrease under-five ... sanitation practices and clean water supply are .... random selection of households was done. Interviews .... A multivariate logistic regression analysis was.

  10. Predictive Validity of an Empirical Approach for Selecting Promising Message Topics: A Randomized-Controlled Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Stella Juhyun; Brennan, Emily; Gibson, Laura Anne; Tan, Andy S. L.; Kybert-Momjian, Ani; Liu, Jiaying; Hornik, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Several message topic selection approaches propose that messages based on beliefs pretested and found to be more strongly associated with intentions will be more effective in changing population intentions and behaviors when used in a campaign. This study aimed to validate the underlying causal assumption of these approaches which rely on cross-sectional belief–intention associations. We experimentally tested whether messages addressing promising themes as identified by the above criterion were more persuasive than messages addressing less promising themes. Contrary to expectations, all messages increased intentions. Interestingly, mediation analyses showed that while messages deemed promising affected intentions through changes in targeted promising beliefs, messages deemed less promising also achieved persuasion by influencing nontargeted promising beliefs. Implications for message topic selection are discussed. PMID:27867218

  11. Oracle Efficient Variable Selection in Random and Fixed Effects Panel Data Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kock, Anders Bredahl

    This paper generalizes the results for the Bridge estimator of Huang et al. (2008) to linear random and fixed effects panel data models which are allowed to grow in both dimensions. In particular we show that the Bridge estimator is oracle efficient. It can correctly distinguish between relevant...... and irrelevant variables and the asymptotic distribution of the estimators of the coefficients of the relevant variables is the same as if only these had been included in the model, i.e. as if an oracle had revealed the true model prior to estimation. In the case of more explanatory variables than observations......, we prove that the Marginal Bridge estimator can asymptotically correctly distinguish between relevant and irrelevant explanatory variables. We do this without restricting the dependence between covariates and without assuming sub Gaussianity of the error terms thereby generalizing the results...

  12. Presence of psychoactive substances in oral fluid from randomly selected drivers in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, K. Wiese; Steentoft, A.; Hels, Tove

    2012-01-01

    . The percentage of drivers positive for medicinal drugs above the Danish legal concentration limit was 0.4%; while, 0.3% of the drivers tested positive for one or more illicit drug at concentrations exceeding the Danish legal limit. Tetrahydrocannabinol, cocaine, and amphetamine were the most frequent illicit......This roadside study is the Danish part of the EU-project DRUID (Driving under the Influence of Drugs, Alcohol, and Medicines) and included three representative regions in Denmark. Oral fluid samples (n = 3002) were collected randomly from drivers using a sampling scheme stratified by time, season......, and road type. The oral fluid samples were screened for 29 illegal and legal psychoactive substances and metabolites as well as ethanol. Fourteen (0.5%) drivers were positive for ethanol alone or in combination with drugs) at concentrations above 0.53 g/l (0.5 mg/g), which is the Danish legal limit...

  13. Proximity to natural gas wells and reported health status: results of a household survey in Washington County, Pennsylvania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinowitz, Peter M; Slizovskiy, Ilya B; Lamers, Vanessa; Trufan, Sally J; Holford, Theodore R; Dziura, James D; Peduzzi, Peter N; Kane, Michael J; Reif, John S; Weiss, Theresa R; Stowe, Meredith H

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the environmental and public health impact of unconventional natural gas extraction activities, including hydraulic fracturing, that occur near residential areas. Our aim was to assess the relationship between household proximity to natural gas wells and reported health symptoms. We conducted a hypothesis-generating health symptom survey of 492 persons in 180 randomly selected households with ground-fed wells in an area of active natural gas drilling. Gas well proximity for each household was compared with the prevalence and frequency of reported dermal, respiratory, gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, and neurological symptoms. The number of reported health symptoms per person was higher among residents living 2 km from the nearest gas well (mean ± SD, 1.60 ± 2.14; p = 0.0002). In a model that adjusted for age, sex, household education, smoking, awareness of environmental risk, work type, and animals in house, reported skin conditions were more common in households 2 km from the nearest gas well (odds ratio = 4.1; 95% CI: 1.4, 12.3; p = 0.01). Upper respiratory symptoms were also more frequently reported in persons living in households gas wells (39%) compared with households 1-2 km or > 2 km from the nearest well (31 and 18%, respectively) (p = 0.004). No equivalent correlation was found between well proximity and other reported groups of respiratory, neurological, cardiovascular, or gastrointestinal conditions. Although these results should be viewed as hypothesis generating, and the population studied was limited to households with a ground-fed water supply, proximity of natural gas wells may be associated with the prevalence of health symptoms including dermal and respiratory conditions in residents living near natural gas extraction activities. Further study of these associations, including the role of specific air and water exposures, is warranted.

  14. Low long-lasting insecticide nets (LLINs use among household members for protection against mosquito bite in kersa, Eastern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gobena Tesfaye

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Ethiopia, despite the increasing availability of long-lasting insecticide treated nets (LLINs, the LLINs use among LLINs owning households has not been satisfactory. Identifying the circumstances and the associated factors is necessary to achieve the Millennium Development Goal targets. We aimed to assess barriers related with LLIN use at the household level. Methods A cross sectional survey was conducted in Kersa Demographic Surveillance and Health Research Center (KDS-HRC from October to November 2010. A total of 2867 households were selected from a surveillance database using a simple random sampling technique. The data were collected by interviewing women, direct observation of LLINs conditions and use, and in-depth interviewing of key informants. Multivariate analysis was used to determine independent predictors of LLIN non-use. Results Of the total surveyed households, 65.5% (1879 had at least one LLIN, but 33.5% (630 LLINs owned households had used at least one LLIN the night before the survey. Low educational level of women, low awareness on malaria prevention, unavailability of separate sleeping room, LLIN colour preference, and unavailability of enough LLINs to the household members were the main barriers to LLIN use. A supplementary qualitative interview with key informants also identified that poor condition of LLINs; undermining the extent of malaria; and using the LLIN for other purposes as the main reasons for non-use. Conclusions This study indicates that only about one third of LLIN owned households are actually using at least one LLIN for protection against mosquito bite. Thus, majority of the residents are at higher risk of mosquito bite and acquiring of malaria infection. Households living in fringe zone are not benefiting from the LLIN protection. Further progress in malaria prevention can be achieved by specifically targeting populations in fringe zones and conducting focused public education to

  15. UK Household Portfolios

    OpenAIRE

    Banks, James; Smith, Sarah

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents a detailed analysis of the composition of household portfolios, using both aggregate and micro-data. Among the key findings are that: Most household wealth is held in the form of housing and pensions. Over time, there has been a shift away from housing towards financial assets, driven largely by the growth in life and pension funds. Liquid financial wealth (excluding life and pension funds) is not predominantly held in risky form. By far the most commonly held asset is an ...

  16. Correlates of smoking with socioeconomic status, leisure time physical activity and alcohol consumption among Polish adults from randomly selected regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woitas-Slubowska, Donata; Hurnik, Elzbieta; Skarpańska-Stejnborn, Anna

    2010-12-01

    To determine the association between smoking status and leisure time physical activity (LTPA), alcohol consumption, and socioeconomic status (SES) among Polish adults. 466 randomly selected men and women (aged 18-66 years) responded to an anonymous questionnaire regarding smoking, alcohol consumption, LTPA, and SES. Multiple logistic regression was used to examine the association of smoking status with six socioeconomic measures, level of LTPA, and frequency and type of alcohol consumed. Smokers were defined as individuals smoking occasionally or daily. The odds of being smoker were 9 times (men) and 27 times (women) higher among respondents who drink alcohol several times/ week or everyday in comparison to non-drinkers (p times higher compared to those with the high educational attainment (p = 0.007). Among women we observed that students were the most frequent smokers. Female students were almost three times more likely to smoke than non-professional women, and two times more likely than physical workers (p = 0.018). The findings of this study indicated that among randomly selected Polish man and women aged 18-66 smoking and alcohol consumption tended to cluster. These results imply that intervention strategies need to target multiple risk factors simultaneously. The highest risk of smoking was observed among low educated men, female students, and both men and women drinking alcohol several times a week or every day. Information on subgroups with the high risk of smoking will help in planning future preventive strategies.

  17. Determinants of nutritional status of children in farming households ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    economic, household and child-related factors on the nutritional status of children (0-5yrs) in farming households of Oyo State, Nigeria. The study was conducted using a multistage sampling technique to select 201 mother-child pairs from 18 farming ...

  18. Genome-wide association data classification and SNPs selection using two-stage quality-based Random Forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thanh-Tung; Huang, Joshua; Wu, Qingyao; Nguyen, Thuy; Li, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) selection and identification are the most important tasks in Genome-wide association data analysis. The problem is difficult because genome-wide association data is very high dimensional and a large portion of SNPs in the data is irrelevant to the disease. Advanced machine learning methods have been successfully used in Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for identification of genetic variants that have relatively big effects in some common, complex diseases. Among them, the most successful one is Random Forests (RF). Despite of performing well in terms of prediction accuracy in some data sets with moderate size, RF still suffers from working in GWAS for selecting informative SNPs and building accurate prediction models. In this paper, we propose to use a new two-stage quality-based sampling method in random forests, named ts-RF, for SNP subspace selection for GWAS. The method first applies p-value assessment to find a cut-off point that separates informative and irrelevant SNPs in two groups. The informative SNPs group is further divided into two sub-groups: highly informative and weak informative SNPs. When sampling the SNP subspace for building trees for the forest, only those SNPs from the two sub-groups are taken into account. The feature subspaces always contain highly informative SNPs when used to split a node at a tree. This approach enables one to generate more accurate trees with a lower prediction error, meanwhile possibly avoiding overfitting. It allows one to detect interactions of multiple SNPs with the diseases, and to reduce the dimensionality and the amount of Genome-wide association data needed for learning the RF model. Extensive experiments on two genome-wide SNP data sets (Parkinson case-control data comprised of 408,803 SNPs and Alzheimer case-control data comprised of 380,157 SNPs) and 10 gene data sets have demonstrated that the proposed model significantly reduced prediction errors and outperformed

  19. Household food wastage by income level: A case study of five areas in the city of Tshwane Metropolitan Municipality, Gauteng Province, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ramukhwatho, FR

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Food waste is generated throughout the supply chain including at household level. Household waste contains a fairly large percentage of food in developing countries. This study assesses household food wastage in five selected areas in the City...

  20. Capturing the Flatness of a peer-to-peer lending network through random and selected perturbations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karampourniotis, Panagiotis D.; Singh, Pramesh; Uparna, Jayaram; Horvat, Emoke-Agnes; Szymanski, Boleslaw K.; Korniss, Gyorgy; Bakdash, Jonathan Z.; Uzzi, Brian

    Null models are established tools that have been used in network analysis to uncover various structural patterns. They quantify the deviance of an observed network measure to that given by the null model. We construct a null model for weighted, directed networks to identify biased links (carrying significantly different weights than expected according to the null model) and thus quantify the flatness of the system. Using this model, we study the flatness of Kiva, a large international crownfinancing network of borrowers and lenders, aggregated to the country level. The dataset spans the years from 2006 to 2013. Our longitudinal analysis shows that flatness of the system is reducing over time, meaning the proportion of biased inter-country links is growing. We extend our analysis by testing the robustness of the flatness of the network in perturbations on the links' weights or the nodes themselves. Examples of such perturbations are event shocks (e.g. erecting walls) or regulatory shocks (e.g. Brexit). We find that flatness is unaffected by random shocks, but changes after shocks target links with a large weight or bias. The methods we use to capture the flatness are based on analytics, simulations, and numerical computations using Shannon's maximum entropy. Supported by ARL NS-CTA.

  1. Households at Grasshopper Pueblo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, J. Jefferson; Whittlesey, Stephanie M.

    1982-01-01

    Describes the archaeological reconstruction of domestic life in Grasshopper, Arizona, a mogollon pueblo community which began around 1300 A.D. Categories of space and domestic activities are discussed. An analysis of variations in the patterns of household types within the pueblo is included. (AM)

  2. Households at Pella, Jordan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walmsley, Alan George

    2007-01-01

    about the layout of buildings and the contextual origin of the many domestic objects recovered permit a full reconstruction of life in the household, especially the use of space. Generally, the upstairs area served as the primary living quarters, whereas the ground floor was used to house valuable...... domestic animals and for light workshop activities....

  3. Reporting 1998 - households

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohm, Jostein

    1998-01-01

    The report summarises the results from an investigation among households in the seven counties which participates in the project ''Sustainable local communities'' - Fredrikstad, Flora, Hurum, Kristiansand, Roeros, Stavanger and Steigen. The study contained the fields of environmental involvement and motivation, transportation, energy utilisation, purchases, waste management and communication with the local project leadership

  4. Food insecurity and food consumption by season in households with children in an Arctic city: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huet, Catherine; Ford, James D; Edge, Victoria L; Shirley, Jamal; King, Nia; Harper, Sherilee L

    2017-06-15

    High rates of food insecurity are documented among Inuit households in Canada; however, data on food insecurity prevalence and seasonality for Inuit households with children are lacking, especially in city centres. This project: (1) compared food consumption patterns for households with and without children, (2) compared the prevalence of food insecurity for households with and without children, (3) compared food consumption patterns and food insecurity prevalence between seasons, and (4) identified factors associated with food insecurity in households with children in Iqaluit, Nunavut, Canada. Randomly selected households were surveyed in Iqaluit in September 2012 and May 2013. Household food security status was determined using an adapted United States Department of Agriculture Household Food Security Survey Module. Univariable logistic regressions were used to examine unconditional associations between food security status and demographics, socioeconomics, frequency of food consumption, and method of food preparation in households with children by season. Households with children (n = 431) and without children (n = 468) participated in the survey. Food insecurity was identified in 32.9% (95% CI: 28.5-37.4%) of households with children; this was significantly higher than in households without children (23.2%, 95% CI: 19.4-27.1%). The prevalence of household food insecurity did not significantly differ by season. Demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of the person responsible for food preparation, including low formal education attainment (OR Sept  = 4.3, 95% CI: 2.3-8.0; OR May  = 3.2, 95% CI: 1.8-5.8), unemployment (OR Sept  = 1.1, 95% CI: 1.1-1.3; OR May  = 1.3, 95% CI: 1.1-1.5), and Inuit identity (OR Sept  = 8.9, 95% CI: 3.4-23.5; OR May  = 21.8, 95% CI: 6.6-72.4), were associated with increased odds of food insecurity in households with children. Fruit and vegetable consumption (OR Sept  = 0.4, 95% CI: 0.2-0.8; OR May  = 0.5, 95

  5. Participant-selected music and physical activity in older adults following cardiac rehabilitation: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Imogen N; Baker, Felicity A; Peiris, Casey L; Shoebridge, Georgie; Taylor, Nicholas F

    2017-03-01

    To evaluate effects of participant-selected music on older adults' achievement of activity levels recommended in the physical activity guidelines following cardiac rehabilitation. A parallel group randomized controlled trial with measurements at Weeks 0, 6 and 26. A multisite outpatient rehabilitation programme of a publicly funded metropolitan health service. Adults aged 60 years and older who had completed a cardiac rehabilitation programme. Experimental participants selected music to support walking with guidance from a music therapist. Control participants received usual care only. The primary outcome was the proportion of participants achieving activity levels recommended in physical activity guidelines. Secondary outcomes compared amounts of physical activity, exercise capacity, cardiac risk factors, and exercise self-efficacy. A total of 56 participants, mean age 68.2 years (SD = 6.5), were randomized to the experimental ( n = 28) and control groups ( n = 28). There were no differences between groups in proportions of participants achieving activity recommended in physical activity guidelines at Week 6 or 26. Secondary outcomes demonstrated between-group differences in male waist circumference at both measurements (Week 6 difference -2.0 cm, 95% CI -4.0 to 0; Week 26 difference -2.8 cm, 95% CI -5.4 to -0.1), and observed effect sizes favoured the experimental group for amounts of physical activity (d = 0.30), exercise capacity (d = 0.48), and blood pressure (d = -0.32). Participant-selected music did not increase the proportion of participants achieving recommended amounts of physical activity, but may have contributed to exercise-related benefits.

  6. Injury-related unsafe behavior among households from different socioeconomic strata in Pune city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirkazemi Roksana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Behavior pattern influences the risk of unintentional injuries. This study was conducted to identify the pattern of household unsafe behavior in different socioeconomic strata, in Pune city, India. Materials and Method: Population-based, cross-sectional study. Behaviors influencing the risk of burn, poisoning, drowning, and road traffic injuries were questioned from 200 randomly selected households. Results: Nearly 28% of the households did not have a separate kitchen, 37.5% cooked at the ground level, 33.5% used a kerosene pressure stove, 12% used unprotected open fire as a source of warmth in winter, and 34.5% stored inflammable substances at home. Ninety one percent of the households reported storing poisonous chemicals in places that could not be locked. In 68.3% of the households with children below five years, these chemicals were kept in places accessible to children. Nearly 21% of the individuals, who could swim, did so in unsafe places and 25.2% of them were not trained in swimming. In 35.5% of the households, children used streets as playgrounds. Among all two-wheeled vehicle riders, 35.6% reported not having a helmet and 57.7% of those who had a helmet did not use it regularly. Socioeconomic status was strongly associated with the unsafe behaviors related to burns, drowning, and road traffic injuries. Conclusion: The study identifies the sociocultural and behavioral factors leading to unsafe behaviors, placing individuals at risk of unintentional injuries, which can be used as a first step toward prevention.

  7. Household food insecurity and its association with morbidity report among school adolescent in Jimma zone, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamiru, Dessalegn; Belachew, Tefera

    2018-01-13

    Background Household food insecurity has a substantial contribution to poor health outcomes among young children and adolescents. Food insecurity also affects optimal cognitive development and physiological function of these vulnerable groups. There is a gap of documented data regarding the association of food insecurity and morbidity among school adolescents in Ethiopia. Objective The aim of this study is to assess the interrelationship of household food insecurity and morbidity report among school adolescent in Jimma zone, Ethiopia. Methods A community based cross-sectional study was done from October to November, 2013. Data were gathered using structured questionnaires through interview of students and their caregivers. A total of 1000 students were selected by using simple random sampling methods using their rosters as a frame. Data were also checked for missing values and outliers, and analyzed using SPSS version 16.0. Regression analyses were used to see the strength of association between independent and dependent variables using odds ratios and 95% of confidence intervals. Results Adolescents from food insecure households had more reported illness (39.3%) than adolescents from food secure households (24.7%) (p insecure households were two times more exposed to morbidity [AOR = 2.04(1.32, 3.14)] than adolescents from food secure households. This study also showed that males had 48% less reported illness [AOR = 0.52(0.01, 0.23)] than females. Adolescents who had attended health education had less reported illness [AOR = 0.57(0.38, 0.86)] than those who did not ever attend. This study also showed that having a farmer [AOR = 0.46(0.28, 0.74)] and government employee [AOR = 0.33 (0.17, 0.64)] father were inversely associated with adolescent morbidity. Conclusion The findings of this study showed that household food insecurity, female gender and lack of attending health education had a significant contribution to adolescent morbidity. Therefore, there is a need

  8. Mirnacle: machine learning with SMOTE and random forest for improving selectivity in pre-miRNA ab initio prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Yuri Bento; de Paiva Oliveira, Alcione; Ribeiro Vasconcelos, Ana Tereza; Cerqueira, Fabio Ribeiro

    2016-12-15

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are key gene expression regulators in plants and animals. Therefore, miRNAs are involved in several biological processes, making the study of these molecules one of the most relevant topics of molecular biology nowadays. However, characterizing miRNAs in vivo is still a complex task. As a consequence, in silico methods have been developed to predict miRNA loci. A common ab initio strategy to find miRNAs in genomic data is to search for sequences that can fold into the typical hairpin structure of miRNA precursors (pre-miRNAs). The current ab initio approaches, however, have selectivity issues, i.e., a high number of false positives is reported, which can lead to laborious and costly attempts to provide biological validation. This study presents an extension of the ab initio method miRNAFold, with the aim of improving selectivity through machine learning techniques, namely, random forest combined with the SMOTE procedure that copes with imbalance datasets. By comparing our method, termed Mirnacle, with other important approaches in the literature, we demonstrate that Mirnacle substantially improves selectivity without compromising sensitivity. For the three datasets used in our experiments, our method achieved at least 97% of sensitivity and could deliver a two-fold, 20-fold, and 6-fold increase in selectivity, respectively, compared with the best results of current computational tools. The extension of miRNAFold by the introduction of machine learning techniques, significantly increases selectivity in pre-miRNA ab initio prediction, which optimally contributes to advanced studies on miRNAs, as the need of biological validations is diminished. Hopefully, new research, such as studies of severe diseases caused by miRNA malfunction, will benefit from the proposed computational tool.

  9. Reduced plasma aldosterone concentrations in randomly selected patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cronin, C C

    2012-02-03

    Abnormalities of the renin-angiotensin system have been reported in patients with diabetes mellitus and with diabetic complications. In this study, plasma concentrations of prorenin, renin, and aldosterone were measured in a stratified random sample of 110 insulin-dependent (Type 1) diabetic patients attending our outpatient clinic. Fifty-four age- and sex-matched control subjects were also examined. Plasma prorenin concentration was higher in patients without complications than in control subjects when upright (geometric mean (95% confidence intervals (CI): 75.9 (55.0-105.6) vs 45.1 (31.6-64.3) mU I-1, p < 0.05). There was no difference in plasma prorenin concentration between patients without and with microalbuminuria and between patients without and with background retinopathy. Plasma renin concentration, both when supine and upright, was similar in control subjects, in patients without complications, and in patients with varying degrees of diabetic microangiopathy. Plasma aldosterone was suppressed in patients without complications in comparison to control subjects (74 (58-95) vs 167 (140-199) ng I-1, p < 0.001) and was also suppressed in patients with microvascular disease. Plasma potassium was significantly higher in patients than in control subjects (mean +\\/- standard deviation: 4.10 +\\/- 0.36 vs 3.89 +\\/- 0.26 mmol I-1; p < 0.001) and plasma sodium was significantly lower (138 +\\/- 4 vs 140 +\\/- 2 mmol I-1; p < 0.001). We conclude that plasma prorenin is not a useful early marker for diabetic microvascular disease. Despite apparently normal plasma renin concentrations, plasma aldosterone is suppressed in insulin-dependent diabetic patients.

  10. A Permutation Importance-Based Feature Selection Method for Short-Term Electricity Load Forecasting Using Random Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nantian Huang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The prediction accuracy of short-term load forecast (STLF depends on prediction model choice and feature selection result. In this paper, a novel random forest (RF-based feature selection method for STLF is proposed. First, 243 related features were extracted from historical load data and the time information of prediction points to form the original feature set. Subsequently, the original feature set was used to train an RF as the original model. After the training process, the prediction error of the original model on the test set was recorded and the permutation importance (PI value of each feature was obtained. Then, an improved sequential backward search method was used to select the optimal forecasting feature subset based on the PI value of each feature. Finally, the optimal forecasting feature subset was used to train a new RF model as the final prediction model. Experiments showed that the prediction accuracy of RF trained by the optimal forecasting feature subset was higher than that of the original model and comparative models based on support vector regression and artificial neural network.

  11. Nitrates and bone turnover (NABT) - trial to select the best nitrate preparation: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucur, Roxana C; Reid, Lauren S; Hamilton, Celeste J; Cummings, Steven R; Jamal, Sophie A

    2013-09-08

    comparisons with the best' approach for data analyses, as this strategy allows practical considerations of ease of use and tolerability to guide selection of the preparation for future studies. Data from this protocol will be used to develop a randomized, controlled trial of nitrates to prevent osteoporotic fractures. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01387672. Controlled-Trials.com: ISRCTN08860742.

  12. Non-Random Inversion Landscapes in Prokaryotic Genomes Are Shaped by Heterogeneous Selection Pressures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repar, Jelena; Warnecke, Tobias

    2017-08-01

    Inversions are a major contributor to structural genome evolution in prokaryotes. Here, using a novel alignment-based method, we systematically compare 1,651 bacterial and 98 archaeal genomes to show that inversion landscapes are frequently biased toward (symmetric) inversions around the origin-terminus axis. However, symmetric inversion bias is not a universal feature of prokaryotic genome evolution but varies considerably across clades. At the extremes, inversion landscapes in Bacillus-Clostridium and Actinobacteria are dominated by symmetric inversions, while there is little or no systematic bias favoring symmetric rearrangements in archaea with a single origin of replication. Within clades, we find strong but clade-specific relationships between symmetric inversion bias and different features of adaptive genome architecture, including the distance of essential genes to the origin of replication and the preferential localization of genes on the leading strand. We suggest that heterogeneous selection pressures have converged to produce similar patterns of structural genome evolution across prokaryotes. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  13. 9708 INTRAHOUSEHOLD ALLOCATION, HOUSEHOLD HEADSHIP ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mimi

    agricultural production, education, healthcare and other household needs [17]. ... to various assets within the household depends on age, gender and power ..... Omilola B Patterns and Trends of Child and Maternal Nutrition Inequalities in.

  14. Factors Influencing Poverty Alleviation amongst Microfinance Adopting Households in Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mavhungu Abel Mafukata

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to explore the factors having the most significance on the probability of the adopters of microfinance moving out of poverty in Zambia. Ninety nine (n=99 respondents were randomly and purposively selected from amongst 340 microfinance adopters of the so-called Micro Bankers Trust programme operating a microfinance business in the Makululu Compound of Kabwe, Zambia. Primary data were collected through face-to-face interviews based on a semi-structured questionnaire. The data were entered into an excel spreadsheet for analysis. The descriptive data were thereafter exported and fitted to an empirical model. The descriptive results revealed that the majority of the respondents were married, unemployed, fairly educated younger women from larger-sized poor households who drew their household income mainly from microfinance activities. The majority of the respondents thought microfinance had improved their well-being in some crucial areas. The results of the empirical model found that some respondents indeed had improved their probabilities to move out of poverty. Conclusion drawn in this paper is that microfinance does alleviate poverty of the poor. 

  15. Households and the Welfare State

    OpenAIRE

    Gustavo Ventura

    2012-01-01

    Consider the following facts. First, with dramatic changes in the household and family structure in every major industrialized country during the last couple of decades, today's households are very far from traditional breadwinner husband and housekeeper wife paradigm. Second, average households face significant uninsurable idiosyncratic risk and countries differ significantly on their social insurance expenditure. Third, since mid 1980s, household income inequality has been rising, generatin...

  16. Fast selection of miRNA candidates based on large-scale pre-computed MFE sets of randomized sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warris, Sven; Boymans, Sander; Muiser, Iwe; Noback, Michiel; Krijnen, Wim; Nap, Jan-Peter

    2014-01-13

    Small RNAs are important regulators of genome function, yet their prediction in genomes is still a major computational challenge. Statistical analyses of pre-miRNA sequences indicated that their 2D structure tends to have a minimal free energy (MFE) significantly lower than MFE values of equivalently randomized sequences with the same nucleotide composition, in contrast to other classes of non-coding RNA. The computation of many MFEs is, however, too intensive to allow for genome-wide screenings. Using a local grid infrastructure, MFE distributions of random sequences were pre-calculated on a large scale. These distributions follow a normal distribution and can be used to determine the MFE distribution for any given sequence composition by interpolation. It allows on-the-fly calculation of the normal distribution for any candidate sequence composition. The speedup achieved makes genome-wide screening with this characteristic of a pre-miRNA sequence practical. Although this particular property alone will not be able to distinguish miRNAs from other sequences sufficiently discriminative, the MFE-based P-value should be added to the parameters of choice to be included in the selection of potential miRNA candidates for experimental verification.

  17. Selecting Optimal Random Forest Predictive Models: A Case Study on Predicting the Spatial Distribution of Seabed Hardness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jin; Tran, Maggie; Siwabessy, Justy

    2016-01-01

    Spatially continuous predictions of seabed hardness are important baseline environmental information for sustainable management of Australia’s marine jurisdiction. Seabed hardness is often inferred from multibeam backscatter data with unknown accuracy and can be inferred from underwater video footage at limited locations. In this study, we classified the seabed into four classes based on two new seabed hardness classification schemes (i.e., hard90 and hard70). We developed optimal predictive models to predict seabed hardness using random forest (RF) based on the point data of hardness classes and spatially continuous multibeam data. Five feature selection (FS) methods that are variable importance (VI), averaged variable importance (AVI), knowledge informed AVI (KIAVI), Boruta and regularized RF (RRF) were tested based on predictive accuracy. Effects of highly correlated, important and unimportant predictors on the accuracy of RF predictive models were examined. Finally, spatial predictions generated using the most accurate models were visually examined and analysed. This study confirmed that: 1) hard90 and hard70 are effective seabed hardness classification schemes; 2) seabed hardness of four classes can be predicted with a high degree of accuracy; 3) the typical approach used to pre-select predictive variables by excluding highly correlated variables needs to be re-examined; 4) the identification of the important and unimportant predictors provides useful guidelines for further improving predictive models; 5) FS methods select the most accurate predictive model(s) instead of the most parsimonious ones, and AVI and Boruta are recommended for future studies; and 6) RF is an effective modelling method with high predictive accuracy for multi-level categorical data and can be applied to ‘small p and large n’ problems in environmental sciences. Additionally, automated computational programs for AVI need to be developed to increase its computational efficiency and

  18. Examination of Poverty Gender Gap among Households in Ukwuani ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Examination of Poverty Gender Gap among Households in Ukwuani Local Government area of Delta State, Nigeria. ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... A test analysis to determine the effect of selected socioeconomic ...

  19. HOUSEHOLDS Households by Type COS 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — TIGER, TIGER/Line, and Census TIGER are registered trademarks of the Bureau of the Census. The Redistricting Census 2000 TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected...

  20. Long-lasting insecticidal net source, ownership and use in the context of universal coverage: a household survey in eastern Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kateera, Fredrick; Ingabire, Chantal M; Hakizimana, Emmanuel; Rulisa, Alexis; Karinda, Parfait; Grobusch, Martin P; Mutesa, Leon; van Vugt, Michèle; Mens, Petra F

    2015-10-06

    Universal long-lasting insecticidal net (LLIN) coverage (ULC) has reduced malaria morbidity and mortality across Africa. Although information is available on bed net use in specific groups, such as pregnant women and children under 5 years, there is paucity of data on their use among the general population. Bed net source, ownership and determinants of use among individuals from households in an eastern Rwanda community 8 months after a ULC were characterized. Using household-based, interviewer-administered questionnaires and interviewer-direct observations, data on bed net source, ownership and key determinants of net use, including demographics, socio-economic status indicators, house structure characteristics, as well as of bed net quantity, type and integrity, were collected from 1400 randomly selected households. Univariate and mixed effects logistic regression modelling was done to assess for determinants of bed net use. A total of 1410 households and 6598 individuals were included in the study. Overall, the proportion of households with at least one net was 92 % while bed net usage was reported among 72 % of household members. Of the households surveyed, a total ownership of 2768 nets was reported, of which about 96 % were reportedly LLINs received from the ULC. By interviewer-physical observation, 88 % of the nets owned were of the LLIN type with the remaining 12 % did not carry any mark to enable type recognition. The odds of bed net use were significantly lower among males and individuals: from households of low socio-economic status, from households with economic status, number of bed nets and type and number of sleeping spaces were key determinants of bed net use. To maximize impact of ULC, strategies that target males as well as those that ensure ITN coverage for all, address barriers to feasible and convenient bed net use including covering over all sleeping space types, and provide net hanging supports, are needed.

  1. Determinants of Income Inequality among Korean Farm Households

    OpenAIRE

    Arayama, Yuko; Kim, Jong Moo; Kimhi, Ayal

    2006-01-01

    We extend the existing regression-based inequality decomposition methods to account for different income sources and different income regimes, and adequately correct for selectivity into the different income regimes. We apply these extensions to data on Korean farm households, and find that they lead to different and more informative conclusions. We also find that the correction for selectivity is essential. In particular, our results show that much of the inequality in farm household income ...

  2. Performance of Universal Adhesive in Primary Molars After Selective Removal of Carious Tissue: An 18-Month Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenzi, Tathiane Larissa; Pires, Carine Weber; Soares, Fabio Zovico Maxnuck; Raggio, Daniela Prócida; Ardenghi, Thiago Machado; de Oliveira Rocha, Rachel

    2017-09-15

    To evaluate the 18-month clinical performance of a universal adhesive, applied under different adhesion strategies, after selective carious tissue removal in primary molars. Forty-four subjects (five to 10 years old) contributed with 90 primary molars presenting moderately deep dentin carious lesions on occlusal or occluso-proximal surfaces, which were randomly assigned following either self-etch or etch-and-rinse protocol of Scotchbond Universal Adhesive (3M ESPE). Resin composite was incrementally inserted for all restorations. Restorations were evaluated at one, six, 12, and 18 months using the modified United States Public Health Service criteria. Survival estimates for restorations' longevity were evaluated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Multivariate Cox regression analysis with shared frailty to assess the factors associated with failures (Padhesion strategy did not influence the restorations' longevity (P=0.06; 72.2 percent and 89.7 percent with etch-and-rinse and self-etch mode, respectively). Self-etch and etch-and-rinse strategies did not influence the clinical behavior of universal adhesive used in primary molars after selective carious tissue removal; although there was a tendency for better outcome of the self-etch strategy.

  3. DNABP: Identification of DNA-Binding Proteins Based on Feature Selection Using a Random Forest and Predicting Binding Residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xin; Guo, Jing; Sun, Xiao

    2016-01-01

    DNA-binding proteins are fundamentally important in cellular processes. Several computational-based methods have been developed to improve the prediction of DNA-binding proteins in previous years. However, insufficient work has been done on the prediction of DNA-binding proteins from protein sequence information. In this paper, a novel predictor, DNABP (DNA-binding proteins), was designed to predict DNA-binding proteins using the random forest (RF) classifier with a hybrid feature. The hybrid feature contains two types of novel sequence features, which reflect information about the conservation of physicochemical properties of the amino acids, and the binding propensity of DNA-binding residues and non-binding propensities of non-binding residues. The comparisons with each feature demonstrated that these two novel features contributed most to the improvement in predictive ability. Furthermore, to improve the prediction performance of the DNABP model, feature selection using the minimum redundancy maximum relevance (mRMR) method combined with incremental feature selection (IFS) was carried out during the model construction. The results showed that the DNABP model could achieve 86.90% accuracy, 83.76% sensitivity, 90.03% specificity and a Matthews correlation coefficient of 0.727. High prediction accuracy and performance comparisons with previous research suggested that DNABP could be a useful approach to identify DNA-binding proteins from sequence information. The DNABP web server system is freely available at http://www.cbi.seu.edu.cn/DNABP/.

  4. Income situation of households as a social status indicator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Stávková

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The net financial income of households plays a crucial role in assessing their living standard. It determines of which social class they are members and, thus, their social status as well. In order to monitor their income situation, this paper uses survey data of the European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions (EU SILC. An abundance of identification data, such as economic activity, industrial classification or sector of economic activity, level of education, age, number of household members, place of residence, household type and others, makes it possible to identify factors that demonstrably influence the household income level. On this basis, it is possible not only to determine the commonly available social class definitions using income intervals, but also to identify specific causes affecting household income and, thus, link a particular household to a given social class. The goal of this article is to establish which factors influence the income level of households. The authors of this paper focused on four factors: social group membership, occupation classified according to the national economy sectors, the highest level of education attained by the household leader and their age. To analyse the influence of selected factors including their interaction and impact on the income situation of households, the authors applied the method of analysing variance between groups (ANOVA using STATA statistical software. The Scheffe’s method of contrasts was used to determine specific differences between factor levels.

  5. Prevalence of Pulmonary Tuberculosis among Household Contacts in Hyderabad, Sindh: Active Contact Tracing in Children with Tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheikh, M.A.; Shah, S.A.A.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Tuberculosis (TB) in children is clearly linked to TB in adults therefore active household contact tracing is an important method of early diagnosis and treatment particularly in high-TB-burden countries. Objectives: To estimate the prevalence of TB among household contacts of children suffering from tuberculosis using active contact tracing and linking them to TB program for treatment. Subjects and Methods: A total of 125 children suffering from active tuberculosis (index cases)aged 12 years or less were randomly selected from the outpatient department of a tertiary care hospital of Hyderabad. Using their home address, all house hold members of the index cases (sharing one kitchen) were identified. The households were visited by a team including a doctor and the supported staff and were screened for TB using history, physical examination, sputum for AFB and X-ray of chest. Clinical suspects were divided in to two populations, equal to or less than 12 years of age and greater than this age. All suspected cases were brought to outpatient's department of the hospital where children were examined and diagnosed by pediatrician and adults were examined by the pulmonologist. Results: There were 125 children and 1365 household members. Prevalence of active TB in adult household contacts was 8.1 percent and among children was 5.7 percent. Mother, father, grand parents or siblings were the source of disease spread in children. Family history of TB was present in 95 percent (pulmonary 78 percent, extra-pulmonary 22 percent). Conclusion: Tuberculosis in children is mostly spreading from household member hence deeply required to undertake active contact tracing in each new case that is diagnosed or being treated. Policy message: National and Provincial TB programs should advocate and undertake active screening of all household contacts of all TB cases. (author)

  6. Assessment of drinking water quality and rural household water treatment in Balaka District, Malawi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mkwate, Raphael C.; Chidya, Russel C. G.; Wanda, Elijah M. M.

    2017-08-01

    Access to drinking water from unsafe sources is widespread amongst communities in rural areas such as Balaka District in Malawi. This situation puts many individuals and communities at risk of waterborne diseases despite some households adopting household water treatment to improve the quality of the water. However, there still remains data gaps regarding the quality of drinking water from such sources and the household water treatment methods used to improve public health. This study was, therefore, conducted to help bridge the knowledge gap by evaluating drinking water quality and adoption rate of household water treatment and storage (HWTS) practices in Nkaya, Balaka District. Water samples were collected from eleven systematically selected sites and analyzed for physico-chemical and microbiological parameters: pH, TDS, electrical conductivity (EC), turbidity, F-, Cl-, NO3-, Na, K, Fe, Faecal Coliform (FC) and Faecal Streptococcus (FS) bacteria using standard methods. The mean results were compared to the World Health Organization (WHO) and Malawi Bureau of Standards (MBS) (MS 733:2005) to ascertain the water quality for drinking purposes. A total of 204 randomly selected households were interviewed to determine their access to drinking water, water quality perception and HWTS among others. The majority of households (72%, n = 83) in Njerenje accessed water from shallow wells and rivers whilst in Phimbi boreholes were commonly used. Several households (>95%, n = 204) were observed to be practicing HWST techniques by boiling or chlorination and water storage in closed containers. The levels of pH (7.10-7.64), F- (0.89-1.46 mg/L), Cl- (5.45-89.84 mg/L), NO3- (0-0.16 mg/L), Na (20-490 mg/L), K (2.40-14 mg/L) and Fe (0.10-0.40 mg/L) for most sites were within the standard limits. The EC (358-2220 μS/cm), turbidity (0.54-14.60 NTU), FC (0-56 cfu/100 mL) and FS (0-120 cfu/100 mL) - mainly in shallow wells, were found to be above the WHO and MBS water quality

  7. The Household Registration System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Although longitudinal experimental community health research is crucial to testing hypotheses about the demographic impact of health technologies, longitudinal demographic research field stations are rare, owing to the complexity and high cost of developing requisite computer software systems. This paper describes the Household Registration System (HRS, a software package that has been used for the rapid development of eleven surveillance systems in sub-Saharan Africa and Asia. Features of the HRS automate software generation for a family of surveillance applications, obviating the need for new and complex computer software systems for each new longitudinal demographic study.

  8. Household Food Insecurity along an Agro-Ecological Gradient Influences Children’s Nutritional Status in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakona, Gamuchirai; Shackleton, Charlie M.

    2018-01-01

    The burden of food insecurity and malnutrition is a severe problem experienced by many poor households and children under the age of five are at high risk. The objective of the study was to examine household food insecurity, dietary diversity, and child nutritional status in relation to local context which influences access to and ability to grow food in South Africa and explore the links and associations between these and household socio-economic status. Using a 48-h dietary recall method, we interviewed 554 women from randomly selected households along a rural–urban continuum in three towns situated along an agro-ecological gradient. The Household Dietary Diversity Scores (HDDS) and the Household Food Insecurity Access Scale (HFIAS) tools were used to measure household dietary diversity and food insecurity, respectively. Anthropometric measurements with 216 children (2–5 years) from the sampled households were conducted using height-for-age and mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) as indicators of stunting and wasting, respectively. The key findings were that mean HDDS declined with decreasing agro-ecological potential from the wettest site (8.44 ± 1.72) to the other two drier sites (7.83 ± 1.59 and 7.76 ± 1.63). The mean HFIAS followed the opposite trend. Stunted growth was the dominant form of malnutrition detected in 35% of children and 18% of children were wasted. Child wasting was greatest at the site with lowest agro-ecological potential. Children from households with low HDDS had large MUAC which showed an inverse association among HDDS and obesity. Areas with agro-ecological potential had lower prevalence of food insecurity and wasting in children. Agro-ecological potential has significant influence on children’s nutritional status, which is also related to household food security and socio-economic status. Dependence on food purchasing and any limitations in households’ income, access to land and food, can result in different forms

  9. Household Food Insecurity along an Agro-Ecological Gradient Influences Children’s Nutritional Status in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamuchirai Chakona

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The burden of food insecurity and malnutrition is a severe problem experienced by many poor households and children under the age of five are at high risk. The objective of the study was to examine household food insecurity, dietary diversity, and child nutritional status in relation to local context which influences access to and ability to grow food in South Africa and explore the links and associations between these and household socio-economic status. Using a 48-h dietary recall method, we interviewed 554 women from randomly selected households along a rural–urban continuum in three towns situated along an agro-ecological gradient. The Household Dietary Diversity Scores (HDDS and the Household Food Insecurity Access Scale (HFIAS tools were used to measure household dietary diversity and food insecurity, respectively. Anthropometric measurements with 216 children (2–5 years from the sampled households were conducted using height-for-age and mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC as indicators of stunting and wasting, respectively. The key findings were that mean HDDS declined with decreasing agro-ecological potential from the wettest site (8.44 ± 1.72 to the other two drier sites (7.83 ± 1.59 and 7.76 ± 1.63. The mean HFIAS followed the opposite trend. Stunted growth was the dominant form of malnutrition detected in 35% of children and 18% of children were wasted. Child wasting was greatest at the site with lowest agro-ecological potential. Children from households with low HDDS had large MUAC which showed an inverse association among HDDS and obesity. Areas with agro-ecological potential had lower prevalence of food insecurity and wasting in children. Agro-ecological potential has significant influence on children’s nutritional status, which is also related to household food security and socio-economic status. Dependence on food purchasing and any limitations in households’ income, access to land and food, can result in

  10. Bacterial Zoonoses Transmitted by Household Pets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damborg, Peter Panduro; Broens, E.M.; Chomel, B.B.

    2016-01-01

    The close contact between household pets and people offers favourable conditions for bacterial transmission. In this article, the aetiology, prevalence, transmission, impact on human health and preventative measures are summarized for selected bacterial zoonoses transmissible by household pets. Six...... zoonoses representing distinct transmission routes were selected arbitrarily based on the available information on incidence and severity of pet-associated disease caused by zoonotic bacteria: bite infections and cat scratch disease (physical injuries), psittacosis (inhalation), leptospirosis (contact...... with urine), and campylobacteriosis and salmonellosis (faecal–oral ingestion). Antimicrobial resistance was also included due to the recent emergence of multidrug-resistant bacteria of zoonotic potential in dogs and cats. There is a general lack of data on pathogen prevalence in the relevant pet population...

  11. Alcohol consumption and household expenditure on alcohol in a rural district in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Allebeck

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Alcohol use and alcohol-related problems are on the rise in low- and middle-income countries. Expenditure on alcohol is an important problem for families and communities and needs to be assessed. Aim: This study examines level of alcohol consumption and expenditure on alcohol in a district in Vietnam. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in a rural district in northern Vietnam. Multi-stage sampling was employed to randomly select participants from 20 communities and a town in the same district. One thousand five hundred and sixty-four adults (765 males and 799 females aged 18–60 years were interviewed. Information about alcohol use as well as expenditure on alcohol consumption four weeks prior to the interview was gathered. Non-parametric tests and log-linear regression were employed to compare expenditure on alcohol consumption across socioeconomic groups. Results: The prevalence of alcohol use one month prior to interview was 35% (66% among men and 5% among women. The median alcohol consumption among those who reported use of alcohol in the week prior to the interview was 7.9 standard drinks. Excessive drinking (more than 14 standard drinks per week for men and more than seven standard drinks per week for women occurred among 35% of those who used alcohol. Median expenditure for alcohol consumption during one month by those who drank alcohol was USD 3.5, accounting for 4.6% of household food expenditure, 2.7% of total household expenditure, and 1.8% of household income. The differences in alcohol consumption and expenditure between sexes and between socioeconomic groups are also presented. Conclusion: Our study confirms that alcohol consumption and alcohol-related problems are common among men in Vietnam. The share of alcohol expenditure in total household expenditure is substantial, especially among poor households. This should be considered an important public health issue, which needs to be taken into account in

  12. Alcohol consumption and household expenditure on alcohol in a rural district in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giang, Kim Bao; Van Minh, Hoang; Allebeck, Peter

    2013-01-28

    Alcohol use and alcohol-related problems are on the rise in low- and middle-income countries. Expenditure on alcohol is an important problem for families and communities and needs to be assessed. This study examines level of alcohol consumption and expenditure on alcohol in a district in Vietnam. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in a rural district in northern Vietnam. Multi-stage sampling was employed to randomly select participants from 20 communities and a town in the same district. One thousand five hundred and sixty-four adults (765 males and 799 females) aged 18-60 years were interviewed. Information about alcohol use as well as expenditure on alcohol consumption four weeks prior to the interview was gathered. Non-parametric tests and log-linear regression were employed to compare expenditure on alcohol consumption across socioeconomic groups. The prevalence of alcohol use one month prior to interview was 35% (66% among men and 5% among women). The median alcohol consumption among those who reported use of alcohol in the week prior to the interview was 7.9 standard drinks. Excessive drinking (more than 14 standard drinks per week for men and more than seven standard drinks per week for women) occurred among 35% of those who used alcohol. Median expenditure for alcohol consumption during one month by those who drank alcohol was USD 3.5, accounting for 4.6% of household food expenditure, 2.7% of total household expenditure, and 1.8% of household income. The differences in alcohol consumption and expenditure between sexes and between socioeconomic groups are also presented. Our study confirms that alcohol consumption and alcohol-related problems are common among men in Vietnam. The share of alcohol expenditure in total household expenditure is substantial, especially among poor households. This should be considered an important public health issue, which needs to be taken into account in the alcohol policy debate.

  13. Multidimensional Measurement of Household Water Poverty in a Mumbai Slum: Looking Beyond Water Quality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramnath Subbaraman

    Full Text Available A focus on bacterial contamination has limited many studies of water service delivery in slums, with diarrheal illness being the presumed outcome of interest. We conducted a mixed methods study in a slum of 12,000 people in Mumbai, India to measure deficiencies in a broader array of water service delivery indicators and their adverse life impacts on the slum's residents.Six focus group discussions and 40 individual qualitative interviews were conducted using purposeful sampling. Quantitative data on water indicators-quantity, access, price, reliability, and equity-were collected via a structured survey of 521 households selected using population-based random sampling.In addition to negatively affecting health, the qualitative findings reveal that water service delivery failures have a constellation of other adverse life impacts-on household economy, employment, education, quality of life, social cohesion, and people's sense of political inclusion. In a multivariate logistic regression analysis, price of water is the factor most strongly associated with use of inadequate water quantity (≤20 liters per capita per day. Water service delivery failures and their adverse impacts vary based on whether households fetch water or have informal water vendors deliver it to their homes.Deficiencies in water service delivery are associated with many non-health-related adverse impacts on slum households. Failure to evaluate non-health outcomes may underestimate the deprivation resulting from inadequate water service delivery. Based on these findings, we outline a multidimensional definition of household "water poverty" that encourages policymakers and researchers to look beyond evaluation of water quality and health. Use of multidimensional water metrics by governments, slum communities, and researchers may help to ensure that water supplies are designed to advance a broad array of health, economic, and social outcomes for the urban poor.

  14. Multidimensional Measurement of Household Water Poverty in a Mumbai Slum: Looking Beyond Water Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subbaraman, Ramnath; Nolan, Laura; Sawant, Kiran; Shitole, Shrutika; Shitole, Tejal; Nanarkar, Mahesh; Patil-Deshmukh, Anita; Bloom, David E

    2015-01-01

    A focus on bacterial contamination has limited many studies of water service delivery in slums, with diarrheal illness being the presumed outcome of interest. We conducted a mixed methods study in a slum of 12,000 people in Mumbai, India to measure deficiencies in a broader array of water service delivery indicators and their adverse life impacts on the slum's residents. Six focus group discussions and 40 individual qualitative interviews were conducted using purposeful sampling. Quantitative data on water indicators-quantity, access, price, reliability, and equity-were collected via a structured survey of 521 households selected using population-based random sampling. In addition to negatively affecting health, the qualitative findings reveal that water service delivery failures have a constellation of other adverse life impacts-on household economy, employment, education, quality of life, social cohesion, and people's sense of political inclusion. In a multivariate logistic regression analysis, price of water is the factor most strongly associated with use of inadequate water quantity (≤20 liters per capita per day). Water service delivery failures and their adverse impacts vary based on whether households fetch water or have informal water vendors deliver it to their homes. Deficiencies in water service delivery are associated with many non-health-related adverse impacts on slum households. Failure to evaluate non-health outcomes may underestimate the deprivation resulting from inadequate water service delivery. Based on these findings, we outline a multidimensional definition of household "water poverty" that encourages policymakers and researchers to look beyond evaluation of water quality and health. Use of multidimensional water metrics by governments, slum communities, and researchers may help to ensure that water supplies are designed to advance a broad array of health, economic, and social outcomes for the urban poor.

  15. Can households earning minimum wage in Nova Scotia afford a nutritious diet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Patricia L; Johnson, Christine P; Kratzmann, Meredith L V; Johnson, C Shanthi Jacob; Anderson, Barbara J; Chenhall, Cathy

    2006-01-01

    To assess the affordability of a nutritious diet for households earning minimum wage in Nova Scotia. Food costing data were collected in 43 randomly selected grocery stores throughout NS in 2002 using the National Nutritious Food Basket (NNFB). To estimate the affordability of a nutritious diet for households earning minimum wage, average monthly costs for essential expenses were subtracted from overall income to see if enough money remained for the cost of the NNFB. This was calculated for three types of household: 1) two parents and two children; 2) lone parent and two children; and 3) single male. Calculations were also made for the proposed 2006 minimum wage increase with expenses adjusted using the Consumer Price Index (CPI). The monthly cost of the NNFB priced in 2002 for the three types of household was 572.90 dollars, 351.68 dollars, and 198.73 dollars, respectively. Put into the context of basic living, these data showed that Nova Scotians relying on minimum wage could not afford to purchase a nutritious diet and meet their basic needs, placing their health at risk. These basic expenses do not include other routine costs, such as personal hygiene products, household and laundry cleaners, and prescriptions and costs associated with physical activity, education or savings for unexpected expenses. People working at minimum wage in Nova Scotia have not had adequate income to meet basic needs, including a nutritious diet. The 2006 increase in minimum wage to 7.15 dollars/hr is inadequate to ensure that Nova Scotians working at minimum wage are able to meet these basic needs. Wage increases and supplements, along with supports for expenses such as childcare and transportation, are indicated to address this public health problem.

  16. Targeting antibiotics to households for trachoma control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isobel M Blake

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Mass drug administration (MDA is part of the current trachoma control strategy, but it can be costly and results in many uninfected individuals receiving treatment. Here we explore whether alternative, targeted approaches are effective antibiotic-sparing strategies.We analysed data on the prevalence of ocular infection with Chlamydia trachomatis and of active trachoma disease among 4,436 individuals from two communities in The Gambia (West Africa and two communities in Tanzania (East Africa. An age- and household-structured mathematical model of transmission was fitted to these data using maximum likelihood. The presence of active inflammatory disease as a marker of infection in a household was, in general, significantly more sensitive (between 79% [95%CI: 60%-92%] and 86% [71%-95%] across the four communities than as a marker of infection in an individual (24% [16%-33%]-66% [56%-76%]. Model simulations, under the best fit models for each community, showed that targeting treatment to households has the potential to be as effective as and significantly more cost-effective than mass treatment when antibiotics are not donated. The cost (2007US$ per incident infection averted ranged from 1.5 to 3.1 for MDA, from 1.0 to 1.7 for household-targeted treatment assuming equivalent coverage, and from 0.4 to 1.7 if household visits increased treatment coverage to 100% in selected households. Assuming antibiotics were donated, MDA was predicted to be more cost-effective unless opportunity costs incurred by individuals collecting antibiotics were included or household visits improved treatment uptake. Limiting MDA to children was not as effective in reducing infection as the other aforementioned distribution strategies.Our model suggests that targeting antibiotics to households with active trachoma has the potential to be a cost-effective trachoma control measure, but further work is required to assess if costs can be reduced and to what extent the approach

  17. Explaining electricity demand and the role of energy and investment literacy on end-use efficiency of Swiss households

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blasch, J.E.; Filippini, Massimo; Boogen, Nina; Kumar, Nilkanth

    2017-01-01

    This paper estimates the level of transient and persistent efficiency in the use of electricity in Swiss households using the newly developed generalized true random effects model (GTREM). An unbalanced panel dataset of 1994 Swiss households from 2010 to 2014 collected via a household survey is used

  18. Efficient Intra-Household Allocations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Browning, Martin

    demands must satisfy a symmetry and rank condition on the Slutsky matrix. We also present some further results on the effects on demands of variables that do nor modify preferences but that do affect how decisions are made. We apply our theory to a series of surveys of household expendityres from Canada......The neo-classical theory of demand applies to individuals yet in empirical work it is usually taken as valid for households with many members. This paper explores what the theory of individuals implies for households with many members. This paper explores what the theory of individuals implies...... for households which have more than one member. We make minimal assumptions about how the individual members of the household resolve conflicts. All we assume is that however decisions are made, outcomes are efficient. We refer to this as the collective setting. We show that in the collective setting household...

  19. Biased random key genetic algorithm with insertion and gender selection for capacitated vehicle routing problem with time windows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochman, Auliya Noor; Prasetyo, Hari; Nugroho, Munajat Tri

    2017-06-01

    Vehicle Routing Problem (VRP) often occurs when the manufacturers need to distribute their product to some customers/outlets. The distribution process is typically restricted by the capacity of the vehicle and the working hours at the distributor. This type of VRP is also known as Capacitated Vehicle Routing Problem with Time Windows (CVRPTW). A Biased Random Key Genetic Algorithm (BRKGA) was designed and coded in MATLAB to solve the CVRPTW case of soft drink distribution. The standard BRKGA was then modified by applying chromosome insertion into the initial population and defining chromosome gender for parent undergoing crossover operation. The performance of the established algorithms was then compared to a heuristic procedure for solving a soft drink distribution. Some findings are revealed (1) the total distribution cost of BRKGA with insertion (BRKGA-I) results in a cost saving of 39% compared to the total cost of heuristic method, (2) BRKGA with the gender selection (BRKGA-GS) could further improve the performance of the heuristic method. However, the BRKGA-GS tends to yield worse results compared to that obtained from the standard BRKGA.

  20. Sequence-Based Prediction of RNA-Binding Proteins Using Random Forest with Minimum Redundancy Maximum Relevance Feature Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Ma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The prediction of RNA-binding proteins is one of the most challenging problems in computation biology. Although some studies have investigated this problem, the accuracy of prediction is still not sufficient. In this study, a highly accurate method was developed to predict RNA-binding proteins from amino acid sequences using random forests with the minimum redundancy maximum relevance (mRMR method, followed by incremental feature selection (IFS. We incorporated features of conjoint triad features and three novel features: binding propensity (BP, nonbinding propensity (NBP, and evolutionary information combined with physicochemical properties (EIPP. The results showed that these novel features have important roles in improving the performance of the predictor. Using the mRMR-IFS method, our predictor achieved the best performance (86.62% accuracy and 0.737 Matthews correlation coefficient. High prediction accuracy and successful prediction performance suggested that our method can be a useful approach to identify RNA-binding proteins from sequence information.

  1. Optimal Subset Selection of Time-Series MODIS Images and Sample Data Transfer with Random Forests for Supervised Classification Modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Fuqun; Zhang, Aining

    2016-10-25

    Nowadays, various time-series Earth Observation data with multiple bands are freely available, such as Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) datasets including 8-day composites from NASA, and 10-day composites from the Canada Centre for Remote Sensing (CCRS). It is challenging to efficiently use these time-series MODIS datasets for long-term environmental monitoring due to their vast volume and information redundancy. This challenge will be greater when Sentinel 2-3 data become available. Another challenge that researchers face is the lack of in-situ data for supervised modelling, especially for time-series data analysis. In this study, we attempt to tackle the two important issues with a case study of land cover mapping using CCRS 10-day MODIS composites with the help of Random Forests' features: variable importance, outlier identification. The variable importance feature is used to analyze and select optimal subsets of time-series MODIS imagery for efficient land cover mapping, and the outlier identification feature is utilized for transferring sample data available from one year to an adjacent year for supervised classification modelling. The results of the case study of agricultural land cover classification at a regional scale show that using only about a half of the variables we can achieve land cover classification accuracy close to that generated using the full dataset. The proposed simple but effective solution of sample transferring could make supervised modelling possible for applications lacking sample data.

  2. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) for post-partum depression (PPD): a systematic review of randomized clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Crescenzo, Franco; Perelli, Federica; Armando, Marco; Vicari, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    The treatment of postpartum depression with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) has been claimed to be both efficacious and well tolerated, but no recent systematic reviews have been conducted. A qualitative systematic review of randomized clinical trials on women with postpartum depression comparing SSRIs to placebo and/or other treatments was performed. A comprehensive literature search of online databases, the bibliographies of published articles and grey literature were conducted. Data on efficacy, acceptability and tolerability were extracted and the quality of the trials was assessed. Six randomised clinical trials, comprising 595 patients, met quality criteria for inclusion in the analysis. Cognitive-behavioural intervention, psychosocial community-based intervention, psychodynamic therapy, cognitive behavioural therapy, a second-generation tricyclic antidepressant and placebo were used as comparisons. All studies demonstrated higher response and remission rates among those treated with SSRIs and greater mean changes on depression scales, although findings were not always statistically significant. Dropout rates were high in three of the trials but similar among treatment and comparison groups. In general, SSRIs were well tolerated and trial quality was good. There are few trials, patients included in the trials were not representative of all patients with postpartum depression, dropout rates in three trials were high, and long-term efficacy and tolerability were assessed in only two trials. SSRIs appear to be efficacious and well tolerated in the treatment of postpartum depression, but the available evidence fails to demonstrate a clear superiority over other treatments. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Bacterial Zoonoses Transmitted by Household Pets : State-of-the-Art and Future Perspectives for Targeted Research and Policy Actions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damborg, P; Broens, E M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314627723; Chomel, B B; Guenther, S; Pasmans, F; Wagenaar, J A|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/126613354; Weese, J S; Wieler, L H; Windahl, U; Vanrompay, D; Guardabassi, L

    The close contact between household pets and people offers favourable conditions for bacterial transmission. In this article, the aetiology, prevalence, transmission, impact on human health and preventative measures are summarized for selected bacterial zoonoses transmissible by household pets. Six

  4. Bacterial zoonoses transmitted by Household pets: State of the Art and Future perspectives for targeted research and policy actions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damborg, P.; Broens, E.M.; Chomel, B.B.; Guenther, S.; Pasmans, F.; Wagenaar, J.A.; Weese, J.S.; Wieler, L.H.; Windahl, U.; Vanrompay, D.; Guardabassi, L.

    2016-01-01

    The close contact between household pets and people offers favourable conditions for bacterial transmission. In this article, the aetiology, prevalence, transmission, impact on human health and preventative measures are summarized for selected bacterial zoonoses transmissible by household pets. Six

  5. Farm Households Food Production and Households' Food Security ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Food is an important basic human need for survival, growth, and good health. Most rural households in Tanzania, Kahama district inclusive produce the food they consume. Despite this reality, a number of households in the district suffer from food insecurity. However, there are inequalities across the districtfs ecological ...

  6. The Long-Term Effectiveness of a Selective, Personality-Targeted Prevention Program in Reducing Alcohol Use and Related Harms: A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Nicola C.; Conrod, Patricia J.; Slade, Tim; Carragher, Natacha; Champion, Katrina E.; Barrett, Emma L.; Kelly, Erin V.; Nair, Natasha K.; Stapinski, Lexine; Teesson, Maree

    2016-01-01

    Background: This study investigated the long-term effectiveness of Preventure, a selective personality-targeted prevention program, in reducing the uptake of alcohol, harmful use of alcohol, and alcohol-related harms over a 3-year period. Methods: A cluster randomized controlled trial was conducted to assess the effectiveness of Preventure.…

  7. Alcohol Consumption in Family Budgets: Effects of Purchasing Power and Households Demographic Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo García Arancibia

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Among the problems associated with family alcohol consumption is the effect on household resource distribution, with a larger incidence in those households that are socially more vulnerable. This study examines the influence that household socioeconomic and demographic characteristics have on the share of alcoholic beverages in the household budget, using data from Santa Fe, Argentina for the period 2004-2005. Engel parametric curves are estimated using a sample selection model (Tobit type II. The sample is subdivided using the poverty line as the criterion. The results show that the most relevant characteristics differ depending on whether the household is poor or not. In non-poor households, variables such as the age of the household head, the share of women and the number of minors have a statistically significant effect on alcohol’s share of expenditures. In contrast, only characteristics related to purchasing power are relevant in poor households.

  8. Urban Farm-Nonfarm Diversification, Household Income and Food Expenditure in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ampaw Samuel

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the impact of farm-nonfarm diversification (FND on household income and food expenditure in urban Ghana using propensity score matching (PSM technique to account for potential selection bias. We find diversified households to be statistically different from undiversified households in terms of household characteristics. Age, gender, educational attainment of the household head, household size, ownership of livestock and agricultural land, and receipt of miscellaneous and rent incomes are positive and significant determinants of FND in urban Ghana. In addition, we find that participation in both farm and nonfarm activities positively and significantly impacts household income and food expenditure. In the light of growing urbanization, with its implications for unemployment, poverty and food insecurity, we recommend diversification among urban households as a means of smoothing income and consumption.

  9. Households and the Environment. Key figures - 2017 edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauche, Melanie; Moreau, Sylvain; Bottin, Anne; Carriere, Celine

    2017-10-01

    Households' daily activities and patterns of consumption exert pressures on the environment (greenhouse gas emissions and atmospheric pollution, waste generation, etc.). Although these pressures appear insignificant at the individual level, when taken collectively they have profound repercussions for the environment and for natural resources. This publication presents a selection of indicators of the pressures and impacts on the environment associated with households' habits and lifestyles

  10. Evaluation of Randomly Selected Completed Medical Records Sheets in Teaching Hospitals of Jahrom University of Medical Sciences, 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Parsa Mahjob

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective: Medical record documentation, often use to protect the patients legal rights, also providing information for medical researchers, general studies, education of health care staff and qualitative surveys is used. There is a need to control the amount of data entered in the medical record sheets of patients, considering the completion of these sheets is often carried out after completion of service delivery to the patients. Therefore, in this study the prevalence of completeness of medical history, operation reports, and physician order sheets by different documentaries in Jahrom teaching hospitals during year 2009 was analyzed. Methods and Materials: In this descriptive / retrospective study, the 400 medical record sheets of the patients from two teaching hospitals affiliated to Jahrom medical university was randomly selected. The tool of data collection was a checklist based on the content of medical history sheet, operation report and physician order sheets. The data were analyzed by SPSS (Version10 software and Microsoft Office Excel 2003. Results: Average of personal (Demography data entered in medical history, physician order and operation report sheets which is done by department's secretaries were 32.9, 35.8 and 40.18 percent. Average of clinical data entered by physician in medical history sheet is 38 percent. Surgical data entered by the surgeon in operation report sheet was 94.77 percent. Average of data entered by operation room's nurse in operation report sheet was 36.78 percent; Average of physician order data in physician order sheet entered by physician was 99.3 percent. Conclusion: According to this study, the rate of completed record papers reviewed by documentary in Jahrom teaching hospitals were not desirable and in some cases were very weak and incomplete. This deficiency was due to different reason such as medical record documentaries negligence, lack of adequate education for documentaries, High work

  11. Water chemistry in 179 randomly selected Swedish headwater streams related to forest production, clear-felling and climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löfgren, Stefan; Fröberg, Mats; Yu, Jun; Nisell, Jakob; Ranneby, Bo

    2014-12-01

    From a policy perspective, it is important to understand forestry effects on surface waters from a landscape perspective. The EU Water Framework Directive demands remedial actions if not achieving good ecological status. In Sweden, 44 % of the surface water bodies have moderate ecological status or worse. Many of these drain catchments with a mosaic of managed forests. It is important for the forestry sector and water authorities to be able to identify where, in the forested landscape, special precautions are necessary. The aim of this study was to quantify the relations between forestry parameters and headwater stream concentrations of nutrients, organic matter and acid-base chemistry. The results are put into the context of regional climate, sulphur and nitrogen deposition, as well as marine influences. Water chemistry was measured in 179 randomly selected headwater streams from two regions in southwest and central Sweden, corresponding to 10 % of the Swedish land area. Forest status was determined from satellite images and Swedish National Forest Inventory data using the probabilistic classifier method, which was used to model stream water chemistry with Bayesian model averaging. The results indicate that concentrations of e.g. nitrogen, phosphorus and organic matter are related to factors associated with forest production but that it is not forestry per se that causes the excess losses. Instead, factors simultaneously affecting forest production and stream water chemistry, such as climate, extensive soil pools and nitrogen deposition, are the most likely candidates The relationships with clear-felled and wetland areas are likely to be direct effects.

  12. Changing Age and Household Patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højbjerg Jacobsen, Rasmus; Hougaard Jensen, Svend E.

    2014-01-01

    finances by almost 1% of GDP on the yearly budget. While the net fiscal effect of changing household structures is minor, the gross effects are substantial. In a future characterized by population ageing, public finances may be adversely affected by changes in both age and household structures, thus...

  13. Feedback on household electricity consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønhøj, Alice; Thøgersen, John

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we present results from a project aiming to develop a new feedback technology to support sustainable living in private households. Against the backdrop of a review of the relevant literature and based on qualitative family interviews and registration of the households' electricity ...

  14. Community mobilization and household level waste management for dengue vector control in Gampaha district of Sri Lanka; an intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeyewickreme, W; Wickremasinghe, A R; Karunatilake, K; Sommerfeld, J; Axel, Kroeger

    2012-12-01

    Waste management through community mobilization to reduce breeding places at household level could be an effective and sustainable dengue vector control strategy in areas where vector breeding takes place in small discarded water containers. The objective of this study was to assess the validity of this assumption. An intervention study was conducted from February 2009 to February 2010 in the populous Gampaha District of Sri Lanka. Eight neighborhoods (clusters) with roughly 200 houses each were selected randomly from high and low dengue endemic areas; 4 of them were allocated to the intervention arm (2 in the high and 2 in the low endemicity areas) and in the same way 4 clusters to the control arm. A baseline household survey was conducted and entomological and sociological surveys were carried out simultaneously at baseline, at 3 months, at 9 months and at 15 months after the start of the intervention. The intervention programme in the treatment clusters consisted of building partnerships of local stakeholders, waste management at household level, the promotion of composting biodegradable household waste, raising awareness on the importance of solid waste management in dengue control and improving garbage collection with the assistance of local government authorities. The intervention and control clusters were very similar and there were no significant differences in pupal and larval indices of Aedes mosquitoes. The establishment of partnerships among local authorities was well accepted and sustainable; the involvement of communities and households was successful. Waste management with the elimination of the most productive water container types (bowls, tins, bottles) led to a significant reduction of pupal indices as a proxy for adult vector densities. The coordination of local authorities along with increased household responsibility for targeted vector interventions (in our case solid waste management due to the type of preferred vector breeding places) is

  15. [Estimation of Aedes aegypti (L.) (Diptera: Culicidae) productivity in households and public spaces in a dengue endemic city in Colombia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcalá, Lucas; Quintero, Juliana; González-Uribe, Catalina; Brochero, Helena

    2015-01-01

    Aedes aegypti is a vector for the dengue virus in Colombia. Its productivity can be estimated using pupal counts. To determine Ae. aegypti productivity in households and public spaces in Girardot (Colombia) during both wet and dry seasons. The amount of Ae. aegypti pupae was evaluated in 20 randomly selected clusters in Girardot, each consisting of 100 households and public spaces. Inspections were performed during the rainy (February-May, 2011), and dry (August-September, 2011) seasons. House, container, Breteau, person and hectare pupae indices were estimated. During the rainy season households contributed 94% to the total number of pupae (n=7,098) while only 6% (n=482) were found in public spaces. In the dry season, 98% (n=9,138) of pupae were found in households and 2% (n=223), in public spaces. Low water-storage tanks and tanks for washing purposes provided >87% of pupae in households, whereas jars, tires and sinks contained most pupae in public spaces. High pupal densities were observed in public spaces during the rainy season and in streets and schools in the dry season. There were no significant differences in the index per person (rainy season=1.0; dry season=1.3) or per hectare (rainy season=0.96, dry season=0.45) between seasons. High Ae. aegypti pupal densities were found inside households in low water-storage tanks and tanks for washing purposes during both the dry and rainy seasons. Public spaces provided more aquatic habitats during the rainy season. Vector control strategies targeting these containers could allow a more rational use of resources and increase efficiency.

  16. The Socio-economic Impact of Stroke on Households in Livingstone District, Zambia: A Cross-sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mapulanga, M; Nzala, S; Mweemba, C

    2014-07-01

    Stroke is the leading cause of adult disability. Stroke, which affects mostly the productive age group, leaves about 65% of its victims disabled, leads to increased loss of manpower both at individual and national levels. Little is known about the socio-economic burden of the disease in terms of its impacts on the individual, family and community both directly and indirectly in Sub-Sahara Africa region and Zambia at large. The study was aimed at assessing the socio-economic impact of stroke households in Livingstone district, Zambia. A total of 50 households were randomly selected from the registers of Livingstone General Hospital. Self-administered questionnaires and focus group discussions were used to collect quantitative and qualitative data respectively. The data was analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 16 (IBM Corporation) and content analysis. Chi-square test was used to make associations between variables. The social impacts on the victim were depression, difficult to get along with, resentfulness, apathy, needy, separation, divorce, general marital problems, neglect on the part of the victim and fear. The economic impacts were loss of employment, reduced business activity and loss of business on the part of the victim. Economic activities such as food provision, payment of school fees, accommodation were affected as a result of stroke and this led to financial insecurities in households with lost incomes in form of salaries and businesses. The activities forgone by stroke households were food provision, housing and education. The study also revealed an association between period of stroke and relationship changes (P < 0.001). Gender and family relationship changes were highly associated (P < 0.00), as more females than males experienced relationship changes. The results of the present study show that stroke has considerable socio-economic impact on households in Livingstone district, which can deter the victims' development as

  17. Bayesian modelling of household solid fuel use: insights towards designing effective interventions to promote fuel switching in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehfuess, Eva A; Briggs, David J; Joffe, Mike; Best, Nicky

    2010-10-01

    Indoor air pollution from solid fuel use is a significant risk factor for acute lower respiratory infections among children in sub-Saharan Africa. Interventions that promote a switch to modern fuels hold a large health promise, but their effective design and implementation require an understanding of the web of upstream and proximal determinants of household fuel use. Using Demographic and Health Survey data for Benin, Kenya and Ethiopia together with Bayesian hierarchical and spatial modelling, this paper quantifies the impact of household-level factors on cooking fuel choice, assesses variation between communities and districts and discusses the likely nature of contextual effects. Household- and area-level characteristics appear to interact as determinants of cooking fuel choice. In all three countries, wealth and the educational attainment of women and men emerge as important; the nature of area-level factors varies between countries. In Benin, a two-level model with spatial community random effects best explains the data, pointing to an environmental explanation. In Ethiopia and Kenya, a three-level model with unstructured community and district random effects is selected, implying relatively autonomous economic and social areas. Area-level heterogeneity, indicated by large median odds ratios, appears to be responsible for a greater share of variation in the data than household-level factors. This may be an indication that fuel choice is to a considerable extent supply-driven rather than demand-driven. Consequently, interventions to promote fuel switching will carefully need to assess supply-side limitations and devise appropriate policy and programmatic approaches to overcome them. To our knowledge, this paper represents the first attempt to model the determinants of solid fuel use, highlighting socio-economic differences between households and, notably, the dramatic influence of contextual effects. It illustrates the potential that multilevel and spatial

  18. Biomass fuel use by the rural households in Chittagong region, Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danesh Miah; Romel Ahmed; Mohammad Belal Uddin [University of Chittagong (Bulgaria). Institute of Forestry and Environmental Sciences

    2003-05-01

    An exploratory survey was carried out to assess biomass fuel use by the rural households in the Chittagong region, Bangladesh. A multistage random sampling technique was adopted to perform the study. Based on the monthly income, respondents were categorized into rich, medium and poor and a total of 45 homesteads, 15 from each category were selected randomly for the study. The study revealed that stems, branches, leaves of trees and agricultural residues were the biomass fuel used by the respondents. Market, homestead, agricultural field, secondary forests/plantation were the sources of biomass fuel identified. Male and female were identified as the major collectors of fuelwood from the nearby forests/plantations and homesteads, respectively. Six fuelwood species were identified as the most preferred in the study area. The study identified the rainy season as the woodfuel shortage period spanning between May and August. (author)

  19. Occurrence of faecal contamination in households along the US-Mexico border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, L; Mena, K D; Mota, L C; Ortiz, M; Behravesh, C B; Gibbs, S G; Bristol, J R; Mayberry, L; Cardenas, V M

    2008-06-01

    The study aim was to determine the presence of total and faecal coliforms on kitchen surfaces, in tap water and on the hands of caregivers in households on both sides of the US-Mexico border. Samples were collected in 135 randomly selected households in Ciudad Juarez, Mexico, and El Paso, Texas. Different surfaces throughout the kitchen and head of households' hands were sampled using sterile cotton swabs moistened in D/E neutralizing solution. Sponge/dishcloth and drinking water samples were also obtained. Total and faecal coliforms were enumerated on m-Endo LES and mFC respectively. Total coliforms and Escherichia coli in drinking water samples were enumerated in accordance with the Quanti-Tray method. Sponge/dishcloth samples were the most commonly contaminated kitchen sites, followed by countertops and cutting boards. We recovered faecal coliforms from 14% of the hands of child caregivers, and this indicator was moderately associated with self-reported failure to wash hands after using the toilet (OR = 3.2; 95% CI: 0.9, 11.1). Hand washing should continue to be emphasized, and additional interventions should be directed to specific kitchen areas, such as sponges/dishcloths, tables/countertops and cutting boards. There is a need for additional interventions regarding kitchen sanitation.

  20. [Coexistence of maternal overweight or obesity and stunted children in south-western Benin households].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dembélé, Bernard; Sossa Jérôme, Charles; Saizonou, Jacques; Makoutodé, Patrick Charles; Mongbo Adé, Virginie; Guedègbé Capo-Chichi, Justine; Dona Ouendo, Marius-Edgard

    To determine the prevalence and determinants of coexistence of maternal overweight or obesity and stunted children (DBM / SCOM) in south-western Benin households. This cross-sectional study was carried out in June 2015 on 357 mother-child pairs randomly selected by a two-stage sampling technique in the city of Comè and its surroundings. Data on socio-economic factors, family, health care, dietary quality were collected by questionnaires, observation and documentary review. Anthropometric measurements were performed in mothers and children. A logistic regression analysis model was used to search for determinants of the coexistence of the two aspects of malnutrition. 19.3% of mothers were overweight and 5.7% were obese. 46% of children were stunted. The prevalence of DBM / SCOM was 11.5%. The main factors associated with DBM/SCOM were the child's age, the mother's occupation, ethnicity, social status and educational level, and the size, economic level, transportation means and food insecurity of the household. A high frequency of the coexistence of maternal overweight or obesity and stunting was observed in Comè households. Interventions based on the identified determinants are needed to act simultaneously on the double burden of malnutrition in Comè.

  1. OPTIMAZION STUDY OF FARM HOUSEHOLD INCOME IN KAPUAS SUBDISTRICT, MURUNG DISTRICT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jhon Wardie

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Study aims: (1 analyze resource allocation farm households include land, labor, and capital optimally; (2 assess resources become a limiting factor in obtaining maximum revenue; and (3 analyze effect of changes in land resource constraints, price inputs and outputs as well as rice farming technology to optimal resource allocation and maximum income for farm households. Purposive sampling to select “Palingkau Lama” and “Palingkau Baru” Village, in Kapuas District. Sampling done by simple random sampling method on 50 respondents. Research objectives assessed using linear programming analysis model with software WIN-QSB. Results: (1 farming pattern is optimal on households are (local rice + rambutan with a maximum income IDR 31,590,000 per year; (2 resources become a limiting factor in achieving maximum revenue is due to land and capital used up, while labor resource is not depleted so that not limiting factor; (3 simulation led to an increase land area increased revenue to IDR 36,857,540, and pattern of optimal farming transformed into pattern (local rice + banana + rambutan, while simulating an increase in price inputs and outputs as well as technology of rice farming by 20 percent resulting in increased revenue to IDR 36,041,270 and IDR 33,594,860 but optimal farming pattern remains unchanged.

  2. Incarceration and Household Asset Ownership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turney, Kristin; Schneider, Daniel

    2016-12-01

    A considerable literature documents the deleterious economic consequences of incarceration. However, little is known about the consequences of incarceration for household assets-a distinct indicator of economic well-being that may be especially valuable to the survival of low-income families-or about the spillover economic consequences of incarceration for families. In this article, we use longitudinal data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study to examine how incarceration is associated with asset ownership among formerly incarcerated men and their romantic partners. Results, which pay careful attention to the social forces that select individuals into incarceration, show that incarceration is negatively associated with ownership of a bank account, vehicle, and home among men and that these consequences for asset ownership extend to the romantic partners of these men. These associations are concentrated among men who previously held assets. Results also show that post-incarceration changes in romantic relationships are an important pathway by which even short-term incarceration depletes assets.

  3. The global impact of non-communicable diseases on households and impoverishment: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaspers, Loes; Colpani, Veronica; Chaker, Layal; van der Lee, Sven J; Muka, Taulant; Imo, David; Mendis, Shanthi; Chowdhury, Rajiv; Bramer, Wichor M; Falla, Abby; Pazoki, Raha; Franco, Oscar H

    2015-03-01

    The global economic impact of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) on household expenditures and poverty indicators remains less well understood. To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of the literature evaluating the global economic impact of six NCDs [including coronary heart disease, stroke, type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM), cancer (lung, colon, cervical and breast), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and chronic kidney disease (CKD)] on households and impoverishment. Medline, Embase and Google Scholar databases were searched from inception to November 6th 2014. To identify additional publications, reference lists of retrieved studies were searched. Randomized controlled trials, systematic reviews, cohorts, case-control, cross-sectional, modeling and ecological studies carried out in adults and assessing the economic consequences of NCDs on households and impoverishment. No language restrictions. All abstract and full text selection was done by two independent reviewers. Data were extracted by two independent reviewers and checked by a third independent reviewer. Studies were included evaluating the impact of at least one of the selected NCDs and on at least one of the following measures: expenditure on medication, transport, co-morbidities, out-of-pocket (OOP) payments or other indirect costs; impoverishment, poverty line and catastrophic spending; household or individual financial cost. From 3,241 references, 64 studies met the inclusion criteria, 75% of which originated from the Americas and Western Pacific WHO region. Breast cancer and DM were the most studied NCDs (42 in total); CKD and COPD were the least represented (five and three studies respectively). OOP payments and financial catastrophe, mostly defined as OOP exceeding a certain proportion of household income, were the most studied outcomes. OOP expenditure as a proportion of family income, ranged between 2 and 158% across the different NCDs and countries. Financial catastrophe due to

  4. The Effect of Resiliency Training on Mental Health, Optimism and Life Satisfaction of Female-Headed Households

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    َAli Mohammad Naemi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of resiliency intervention on mental health, optimism and life satisfaction of female-headed-households in the city of Sabzevar. The research was semi-experimental, with pretest-posttest and control group. Forty two women who volunteered to participate in the training program (10 sessions, each session 90 minutes and within 10 weeks were selected by available sampling and randomly assigned to experimental and control groups (each group,n = 21. Data was collected by demographic questionnaire, Goldberg General Health Questionnaire (28- GHQ, Scheier, and Carver Optimism Scale (LOT-R and Diener, Emmons, Larsen, and Griffin Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS. The results of co-variance analysis showed that resiliency training was effective on increasing mental health, optimism and life satisfaction. Therefore, resiliency skill training can be used as an efficient way to increase mental health, optimism and life satisfaction of female-headed households.

  5. The determinants of agricultural productivity and rural household ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper aims at investigating the determinants of agricultural productivity and rural household income in Ethiopia. Three econometric models namely: Pooled ordinary least square (POLS), fixed effects (FE) and random effects (RE) model were used to examine the relationship between productivity and income; using ...

  6. A study of institutional environment and household food security at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study looked into the current scenario of food security in Rwanda. After analysing the national level institutional and food security scenarios by using available secondary data, the researchers used primary data that have been collected from a random sample of 200 households spreading over six sectors of the Huye ...

  7. Determinants of rural household marketed surplus for cereal crops ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and supply of cereal crops to the market (market surplus). The study utilized cross sectional data obtained through multistage random sampling method. Ordinary least square method was used for the analysis. Finding revealed that the quantity of food crops reserved for home consumption by households increased their ...

  8. Household vehicles energy consumption 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-08-01

    Household Vehicles Energy Consumption 1994 reports on the results of the 1994 Residential Transportation Energy Consumption Survey (RTECS). The RTECS is a national sample survey that has been conducted every 3 years since 1985. For the 1994 survey, more than 3,000 households that own or use some 6,000 vehicles provided information to describe vehicle stock, vehicle-miles traveled, energy end-use consumption, and energy expenditures for personal vehicles. The survey results represent the characteristics of the 84.9 million households that used or had access to vehicles in 1994 nationwide. (An additional 12 million households neither owned or had access to vehicles during the survey year.) To be included in then RTECS survey, vehicles must be either owned or used by household members on a regular basis for personal transportation, or owned by a company rather than a household, but kept at home, regularly available for the use of household members. Most vehicles included in the RTECS are classified as {open_quotes}light-duty vehicles{close_quotes} (weighing less than 8,500 pounds). However, the RTECS also includes a very small number of {open_quotes}other{close_quotes} vehicles, such as motor homes and larger trucks that are available for personal use.

  9. Household hazardous waste data for the UK by direct sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slack, Rebecca J; Bonin, Michael; Gronow, Jan R; Van Santen, Anton; Voulvoulis, Nikolaos

    2007-04-01

    The amount of household hazardous waste (HHW) disposed of in the United Kingdom (UK) requires assessment. This paper describes a direct analysis study carried out in three areas in southeast England involving over 500 households. Each participating householder was provided with a special bin in which to place items corresponding to a list of HHW. The amount of waste collected was split into nine broad categories: batteries, home maintenance (DIY), vehicle upkeep, pesticides, pet care, pharmaceuticals, photographic chemicals, household cleaners, and printer cartridges. Over 1 T of waste was collected from the sample households over a 32-week period, which would correspond to an estimated 51,000 T if extrapolated to the UK population for the same period or over 7,000 T per month. Details of likely disposal routes adopted by householders were also sought, demonstrating the different pathways selected for different waste categories. Co-disposal with residual household waste dominated for waste batteries and veterinary medicines, hence avoiding classification as hazardous waste under new UK waste regulations. The information can be used to set a baseline for the management of HHW and provides information for an environmental risk assessment of the disposal of such wastes to landfill.

  10. Comparative Analysis of Households' Socioeconomic and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study analysed the socioeconomic and demographic characteristics of ... In order to improve households' food security status in both rural and urban areas, ... as reduction in household size through birth control, and increase in household ...

  11. The Household Planning Game

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Louise; Ramsøy, Thomas Z.; Nyström, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    shopping or budget planning situation. The selection of a card was associated with a monetary reward, but the card selection was also associated with a risk of receiving a penalty, which could be greater than the reward. The aim was to win as much money as possible. Rewards and penalties were modelled...... goods like groceries or presents; and 3) prioritize between paying bills at the beginning of a month or go out and spend money on shopping. Eye tracking was used to assess visual attention while participants performed the task. The results showed that the two non-risky decks were selected 30% and 37...

  12. Farm Households Food Production and Households' Food Security ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    insecurity existed among households in the study areas based on the recommended average DEC/AE, of 2200 kcal and ... An International Journal of Basic and Applied Research. 41 ... population, for example, eating of less preferred foods.

  13. Factors associated with household food security of participants of the MANA food supplement program in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackett, Michelle; Melgar-Quiñonez, Hugo; Taylor, Christopher A; Alvarez Uribe, Martha Cecilia

    2010-03-01

    The objective of this study was to explore demographic and economic characteristics associated with household food security of 2,784 low-income households with pre-school aged children receiving food supplements from the Colombian Plan for Improving Food and Nutrition in Antioquia - MANA (Mejoramiento Alimentario y Nutricional de Antioquia) in the Department of Antioquia, Colombia. Included in the study was a 12-item household food security survey was collected from a cross-sectional, stratified random sample of MANA participants in which households were characterized as food secure, mildly food insecure, moderately food insecure, and severely food insecure. It was hypothesized that household food security status would be strongly associated with demographic characteristics, food expenditure variables, and food supplement consumption by children in MANA. Food insecure households were characterized by more members, older parents, and lower income (p < 0.0001). Rural residence and female head of households had higher rates of food insecurity (p < 0.01). Food insecure households had the lowest monthly expenditures food (p < 0.0001). Severely food insecure households saved the highest percentage of per capita food expenditure from consuming MANA supplements (p < 0.0001), similarly, MANA food supplement intakes were greatest in households reporting the most food insecurity (p < 0.001). The results of this study are important to describe characteristics of the population benefiting from the MANA nutrition intervention by their unique level of household food security status.

  14. Household Food Insecurity and Its Association with Nutritional Status of Children 6-59 Months of Age in East Badawacho District, South Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betebo, Bealu; Ejajo, Tekle; Alemseged, Fissahaye; Massa, Desalegn

    2017-01-01

    Background . Ethiopia has one of the highest child malnutrition rates in the world. Food insecurity is one of the determinant factors of malnutrition in developing countries; however its role remains unclear. Objective . To assess household food insecurity and its association with the nutritional status of children 6-59 months of age in East Badawacho District, South Ethiopia. Methods . A community based cross-sectional study was conducted from February 20 to 30, 2014 on a sample of 508 mother/child pairs of 6-59-month-old children. Sample households with eligible children were selected using systematic random sampling technique. Both bivariate and multivariate analysis were used to identify factors associated with nutritional status of children. P value of insecurity was 75.8%. The prevalence rates of stunting, underweight, and wasting among children were 45.6%, 26.3%, and 14.6%, respectively. Household food insecurity was significantly associated with underweight (AOR = 3.82; CI = 1.78-8.19) and stunting (AOR = 6.7; CI = 3.71-12.1) but not with wasting. Conclusion and Recommendation . Household food insecurity and the prevalence rates of stunting, underweight, and wasting, among children 6 to 59 months, were high. Intervention programs should focus on improving household food insecurity and nutritional status of children.

  15. Convergence analysis for Latin-hypercube lattice-sample selection strategies for 3D correlated random hydraulic-conductivity fields

    OpenAIRE

    Simuta-Champo, R.; Herrera-Zamarrón, G. S.

    2010-01-01

    The Monte Carlo technique provides a natural method for evaluating uncertainties. The uncertainty is represented by a probability distribution or by related quantities such as statistical moments. When the groundwater flow and transport governing equations are solved and the hydraulic conductivity field is treated as a random spatial function, the hydraulic head, velocities and concentrations also become random spatial functions. When that is the case, for the stochastic simulation of groundw...

  16. Ventilation Behavior and Household Characteristics in NewCalifornia Houses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, Phillip N.; Sherman, Max H.

    2006-02-01

    A survey was conducted to determine occupant use of windows and mechanical ventilation devices; barriers that inhibit their use; satisfaction with indoor air quality (IAQ); and the relationship between these factors. A questionnaire was mailed to a stratified random sample of 4,972 single-family detached homes built in 2003, and 1,448 responses were received. A convenience sample of 230 houses known to have mechanical ventilation systems resulted in another 67 completed interviews. Some results are: (1) Many houses are under-ventilated: depending on season, only 10-50% of houses meet the standard recommendation of 0.35 air changes per hour. (2) Local exhaust fans are under-utilized. For instance, about 30% of households rarely or never use their bathroom fan. (3) More than 95% of households report that indoor air quality is ''very'' or ''somewhat'' acceptable, although about 1/3 of households also report dustiness, dry air, or stagnant or humid air. (4) Except households where people cook several hours per week, there is no evidence that households with significant indoor pollutant sources get more ventilation. (5) Except households containing asthmatics, there is no evidence that health issues motivate ventilation behavior. (6) Security and energy saving are the two main reasons people close windows or keep them closed.

  17. A comparison of random forest and its Gini importance with standard chemometric methods for the feature selection and classification of spectral data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himmelreich Uwe

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Regularized regression methods such as principal component or partial least squares regression perform well in learning tasks on high dimensional spectral data, but cannot explicitly eliminate irrelevant features. The random forest classifier with its associated Gini feature importance, on the other hand, allows for an explicit feature elimination, but may not be optimally adapted to spectral data due to the topology of its constituent classification trees which are based on orthogonal splits in feature space. Results We propose to combine the best of both approaches, and evaluated the joint use of a feature selection based on a recursive feature elimination using the Gini importance of random forests' together with regularized classification methods on spectral data sets from medical diagnostics, chemotaxonomy, biomedical analytics, food science, and synthetically modified spectral data. Here, a feature selection using the Gini feature importance with a regularized classification by discriminant partial least squares regression performed as well as or better than a filtering according to different univariate statistical tests, or using regression coefficients in a backward feature elimination. It outperformed the direct application of the random forest classifier, or the direct application of the regularized classifiers on the full set of features. Conclusion The Gini importance of the random forest provided superior means for measuring feature relevance on spectral data, but – on an optimal subset of features – the regularized classifiers might be preferable over the random forest classifier, in spite of their limitation to model linear dependencies only. A feature selection based on Gini importance, however, may precede a regularized linear classification to identify this optimal subset of features, and to earn a double benefit of both dimensionality reduction and the elimination of noise from the classification task.

  18. Affinity selection of Nipah and Hendra virus-related vaccine candidates from a complex random peptide library displayed on bacteriophage virus-like particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peabody, David S.; Chackerian, Bryce; Ashley, Carlee; Carnes, Eric; Negrete, Oscar

    2017-01-24

    The invention relates to virus-like particles of bacteriophage MS2 (MS2 VLPs) displaying peptide epitopes or peptide mimics of epitopes of Nipah Virus envelope glycoprotein that elicit an immune response against Nipah Virus upon vaccination of humans or animals. Affinity selection on Nipah Virus-neutralizing monoclonal antibodies using random sequence peptide libraries on MS2 VLPs selected peptides with sequence similarity to peptide sequences found within the envelope glycoprotein of Nipah itself, thus identifying the epitopes the antibodies recognize. The selected peptide sequences themselves are not necessarily identical in all respects to a sequence within Nipah Virus glycoprotein, and therefore may be referred to as epitope mimics VLPs displaying these epitope mimics can serve as vaccine. On the other hand, display of the corresponding wild-type sequence derived from Nipah Virus and corresponding to the epitope mapped by affinity selection, may also be used as a vaccine.

  19. Wood, energy and households: perspectives on rural Kenya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, C; Ensminger, J; O' Keefe, P [eds.

    1984-01-01

    A collection of nine articles on agricultural and pastoral households in Kenya stems from a growing concern about the ability of households to meet their energy needs as the demand for wood resources increasingly outstrips the supply and the potential for securing non-biomass sources appears bleak. The future for most rural households relates to the socio-economic differentiation and the economic condition which exists in most Fourth World countries. The studies reflect the author's diverse interests in ecology, economics, geography, history, and anthropology, but all employ a household-level analysis. Separate abstracts were prepared for the nine chapters selected for the Energy Data Base (EDB) and Energy Abstracts for Policy Analysis (EPA).

  20. Household composition and psychological health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joensen, Lene Eide; Willaing, Ingrid; Holt, Richard I G

    2017-01-01

    AIMS: 1) To explore the effect of household composition on the psychological health of adults with diabetes by comparing those living with other adult(s) including a partner with those living with neither partner nor other adult(s); 2) to examine potential mediation of social support...... in the association between household composition and psychological health. METHODS: The study is part of the DAWN2 study conducted in 17 countries. The population comprised 8596 people with diabetes (PWD). Multiple regression models (linear and binary) were applied. RESULTS: People living with 'other adult...... to the other household composition groups. The association between household composition and psychological health was not mediated by diabetes-specific social support. CONCLUSIONS: The study indicates the psychological vulnerability of respondents living without a partner but with other adult(s). Appropriate...

  1. Car use within the household

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Borger, Bruno; Mulalic, Ismir; Rouwendal, Jan

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we study the demand for car kilometres in two-car households, focusing on the substitution between cars in response to fuel price changes. We use a large sample of detailed Danish data on two-car households to estimate—for each car owned by the household—own and cross-price effects...... of increases in fuel costs per kilometre. The empirical results show that failure to capture substitution between cars within the household can result in substantial misspecification biases. Ignoring substitution, we estimate fuel price elasticities of –0.81 and -0.65 for the primary and secondary cars...... efficient car, finding partial support for the underlying hypothesis. More importantly, the results of this extended model emphasize the importance of behavioural differences related to the position of the most fuel efficient car in the household, suggesting that households’ fuel efficiency choices...

  2. The association of household food insecurity with the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus in adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdurahman, Ahmed A; Chaka, Eshetu E; Nedjat, S; Dorosty, Ahmed Reza; Majdzadeh, R

    2018-05-02

    The link between household food insecurity and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus still remains controversial. Therefore, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to clarify the association between household food insecurity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. EMBASE, PubMed, ISI Web of Science and Scopus databases were searched up to March 2017. The selection of studies, data extraction and assessing the risk of bias in the included studies were carried out by two reviewers independently. Study-specific odds ratios (ORs) were pooled using a random effects model. A total of 18 articles including a total of 55,353,915 adult participants were included in the meta-analysis. The pooled ORs of the cross-sectional studies revealed that household food insecurity was significantly associated with the odds of T2DM (OR 1.27, 95% CI 1.11-1.42) with no evidence of publication bias (p = 0.63) but heterogeneity between studies (I 2  = 61.1%). Similarly, subgroup analyses showed that the country where the study conducted and household food insecurity assessment tool used to influence the effect of household food insecurity on the odds of T2DM. However, the pooled ORs for two case-control and one cohort studies were not significantly associated between household food insecurity and T2DM in adults. This study strengthens the hypothesis of the household food insecurity effect on the odds of T2DM among adults. Further longitudinal studies based on larger, and more representative samples are needed to identify the underlying relationships between food insecurity and type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  3. Revised CDM baseline study on fuel use and manure management at household level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buysman, E.; Bryan, S.; Pino, M.

    2010-05-15

    This report presents the revised study of the original CDM baseline study conducted in 2006. The original study was conducted under the authority of the National Biogas Program (NBP), to study the potential GHG mitigation resulting from the adoption of domestic biodigesters. In the beginning of June 2006, a survey amongst 300 randomly selected households with the technical potential for a biodigester was conducted in the NBP's 6-targeted provinces (Kampong Cham, Svay Rieng, Prey Veng, Kampong Speu, Takeo and Kandal) in southeast Cambodia. The revised baseline study includes two additional provinces, Kampot and Kampong Chhnang. The survey showed that a significant proportion of the households have no access to basic sanitation and often have health problems. They consume mainly wood as cooking fuel and the majority use inefficient cooking stoves. The main lighting fuel is kerosene. The GHG emissions were calculated for each type of Animal Waste Management System (AWMS) and the baseline fuel consumption. The main methodology used is the GS-VER biodigester methodology and the IPCC 2006 guidelines to ex-ante estimate baseline, project and the emission reductions. The GHG emission from wood burning is only considered when it originates from a non-renewable source. The NRB analysis determined a NRB share of 70.7% for both collected and purchased wood. Total GHG emission is calculated by combining AWMS and wood fuels emissions. The annual baseline and project emission was estimated to be respectively 5.38 tCO2eq and 0.46 tCO2eq per average household, the emission reductions (ER) are therefore 4.92 tCO2eq/household/year.

  4. Sale of electricity to households

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2011-01-01

    The Company Slovenske elektrarne (SE) Predaj has after two years of presence in the market expanded their business activities to the households segment. The first customers can be particularly employees of Slovenske elektrarne. This chance will be provided to them starting from 1 October of this year. 'The electricity supplies for households will only be supplementary segment of sales at SE Predaj Company. We will still focus mainly at businesses with higher consumption,' says director of the Company Mr. Stanislav Reguli. (author)

  5. Does fertility decrease household consumption?

    OpenAIRE

    Jungho Kim; Henriette Engelhardt; Alexia Fürnkranz-Prskawetz; Arnstein Aassve

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an empirical analysis of the relationship between fertility and a direct measure of poverty for Indonesia, a country, which has experienced unprecedented economic growth and sharp fertility declines over recent decades. It focuses on illustrating the sensitivity of the effect of fertility on household consumption with respect to the equivalence scale by applying the propensity score matching method. The analysis suggests that a newborn child decreases household consumption...

  6. Consumption Profiles for Future Households

    OpenAIRE

    Blikø, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    Over the last few years there has been a change in energy consumption in Norwegian households. New houses are far better insulated, have high demands for efficient energy carriers and new installations that affect the electricity consumption. Today, most of the electricity in a Norwegian household is used for space heating, but this demand is expected to be reduced in the future, mainly because the need for space heating is reduced as a result of stricter demands for isolation. Electricity co...

  7. Ecological and economical significance of homestead forest to the household of the offshore island in Bangladesh

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kazi Mohammad Masum; Mohammed Shafiul Alam; M. M. Abdullah-Al-Mamun

    2008-01-01

    An explanatory survey was conducted to assess the contribution of plant diversity to the ecological and socio-economic condition of the rural household in the offshore island of Bangladesh.Assessment was done by means of multistage random sampling.The homestead sizes of the study area were classified into 3 groups viz,large (>0.25 ha),medium (0.05-0.25 ha) and small (<0.05 ha) based on the result obtained from a preliminary survey,and a total of 45 homesteads,15 from each group,were selected randomly for the study.The average annual income from homestead's plant diversity varied from Tk 5730.00 (US$95.5) to Tk 17500.00 (US$291.67).The rural people were mainly dependent on their homegarden for woodfuel and nutritional requirement as forest was unavailable in the island.The rural people here also cultivated the plant species as a safety measure from frequent cyclone.Constraints hindering the development of homestead plantation were identified and suggestions were given such as the adequate supply of seedlings of fast growing native species and conservation of endangered species to meet the demand of the household as well as to keep ecological balance.

  8. The Economic Value of Habits in Household Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bejan, Ioana; Jensen, Carsten Lynge; Andersen, Laura Mørch

    to adjust habits relevant for these activities. We utilize smart-metered hourly power consumption to unobtrusively measure treatment effects. We find that preventing habits from being adjusted reduces consumer surplus by 76% suggesting a substantial economic value of habits.......People are prone to habits but how important are they for economic outcomes? In a randomized field experiment we compare two treatments with identical economic incentives to adjust a range of household production activities. Treatments only differ in the extent to which they allow households...

  9. The Impact of Tobacco Consumption on Rural Household Expenditure and Self-rated Health Among Rural Household Members in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Changle; Supakankunti, Siripen

    2018-03-26

    To estimate how tobacco consumption affects household expenditure on other goods and services in rural China and to assess the tobacco consumption affects self-rated health among rural household members in China. A Seemingly Unrelated Regression was used to assess the impact of tobacco consumption on rural household expenditure. To detect tobacco consumption causing heterogeneity in self-rated health among adults in rural China, this study employed a random effects generalized ordered probit model. 2010-2014 China Family Panel Studies was used for the analysis. The data set included 3,611 households and 10,610 adults in each wave. Tobacco consumption households assign significantly lower budget shares to food, health care, dress, and education in rural China. Moreover, self-rated health factor has a significantly positive coefficient with respect to non-smokers and ex-smokers, that is, when the individuals is a non-smoker or ex-smoker, he/ she will be more likely to report his/her health status as positive. The first analysis showed that tobacco consumption crowds out expenditures on food, dress, health care, and education for rural households in China, and the second analysis indicated that non-smokers and ex-smokers are more likely to report their health status as better compared with last year. The results of the present study revealed that Chinese policymakers might consider controlling tobacco consumption since tobacco control can improve not only rural household welfare but also rural household members' health status. Therefore, the tobacco tax policy and brief clinical interventions by the doctor should be implemented in rural China.

  10. Randomized trial of switching from prescribed non-selective non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs to prescribed celecoxib

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Macdonald, Thomas M; Hawkey, Chris J; Ford, Ian

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors and conventional non-selective non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (nsNSAIDs) have been associated with adverse cardiovascular (CV) effects. We compared the CV safety of switching to celecoxib vs. continuing nsNSAID therapy in a European setting...

  11. Empirical versus Random Item Selection in the Design of Intelligence Test Short Forms--The WISC-R Example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, David S.

    1979-01-01

    The advantages of using psychometric thoery to design short forms of intelligence tests are demonstrated by comparing such usage to a systematic random procedure that has previously been used. The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children Revised (WISC-R) Short Form is presented as an example. (JKS)

  12. Household Consumption of Thiamin-Fortified Fish Sauce Increases Erythrocyte Thiamin Concentrations among Rural Cambodian Women and Their Children Younger Than 5 Years of Age: A Randomized Controlled Efficacy Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitfield, Kyly C; Karakochuk, Crystal D; Kroeun, Hou; Sokhoing, Ly; Chan, Benny B; Borath, Mam; Sophonneary, Prak; Moore, Kirsten; Tong, Jeffery K T; McLean, Judy; Talukder, Aminuzzaman; Lynd, Larry D; Li-Chan, Eunice C Y; Kitts, David D; Green, Tim J

    2017-02-01

    To assess whether ad libitum consumption of thiamin-fortified fish sauce over 6 months yields higher erythrocyte thiamin diphosphate concentrations (eTDP) among women of childbearing age and their children aged 12-59 months compared with control sauce containing no thiamin. In this double-blind, randomized controlled efficacy trial, 276 nonpregnant, nonlactating women (18-45 years of age) and their families in Prey Veng, Cambodia, were randomized to receive 1 of 3 fish sauce formulations: low thiamin concentration (low, 2 g/L), high thiamin concentration (high, 8 g/L), or a control (no thiamin) fish sauce. Baseline (t = 0) and endline (t = 6 months) eTDP were measured with the use of high-performance liquid chromatography with a fluorescence detector. Fish sauce consumption did not differ between treatment groups (P = .19). In intent-to-treat analysis, women's baseline-adjusted endline eTDP (mean; 95% CI) was higher among women in the low (259; 245-274 nmol/L) and high (257; 237-276 nmol/L) groups compared with control (184; 169-198 nmol/L; P sauce appears to be an efficacious means of improving biochemical thiamin status in nonpregnant, nonlactating women and their children (1-5 years of age) living in rural Cambodia. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02221063. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. HEALTH STATUS, ENVIRONMENTAL LIVING CONDITIONS AND MICROBIAL INDOOR AIR QUALITY AMONG MIGRANT WORKER HOUSEHOLDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luksamijarulkul, Pipat; Suknongbung, Siranee; Vatanasomboon, Pisit; Sujirarut, Dusit

    2017-03-01

    A large number of migrants have move to cities in Thailand seeking employment. These people may be at increased risk for environmental health problems. We studied the health status, environmental living conditions and microbial indoor air quality (IAQ) among selected groups of migrant workers and their households in Mueang District, Samut Sakhon, central Thailand. We conducted a cross sectional study of 240 migrant workers and their households randomly selected by multistage sampling. The person responsible for hygiene at each studied household was interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Two indoor air samples were taken from each household (480 indoor air samples) to determine bacterial and fungal counts using a Millipore air tester; 240 outdoor air samples were collected for comparison. Ninety-nine point six percent of study subjects were Myanmar, 74.2% were aged 21-40 years, 91.7% had a primary school level education or lower and 53.7% had stayed in Thailand less than 5 years. Eight point three percent had a history of an underlying disease, 20.8% had a recent history of pulmonary tuberculosis in a family member within the previous year. Forty-three point eight percent had a current illness related to IAQ during a previous month. Twenty-one point three were current cigarette smokers, 15.0% were current alcohol consumers, and 5.0% exercises ≥3 times per week. Forty-nine point two percent never opened the windows of their bedrooms or living rooms for ventilation, 45% never cleaned their window screens, and 38.3% never put their pillows or mattresses in the sunlight. The mean(±SD) air bacterial count was 230(±229) CFU/m3 (outdoor air = 128±82 CFU/ m3), and the mean fungal count was 630(±842) CFU/m3 (outdoor air = 138±94 CFU/ m3). When the bacterial and fungal counts were compared with the guidelines of the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists, the bacterial counts in 6.5% of houses surveyed and the fungal counts in 28.8% of house

  14. ANALYSIS OF FOOD SECURITY AMONG SMALLHOLDER FARMING HOUSEHOLDS IN ARID AREAS OF BORNO STATE, NIGERIA

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed, , D; Bukar , U; Umar , J; Abdulsalam , B; Dahiru , B

    2016-01-01

    International audience; The study assessed food security situation among smallholder farming househ Borno State, Nigeria. Multi-stage sampling procedure was used in selecting 200 household respondents. Data were collected with the use of interview scheduled and structured questionnaires. Result revealed that 91% of the respondents were male, 59% were full time farmers and 33% of the households had farming experience of 11 household respondents were food secure. Logit result indicates that the...

  15. Source separation of household waste: A case study in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuang Ying; Wu Songwei; Wang Yunlong; Wu Weixiang; Chen Yingxu

    2008-01-01

    A pilot program concerning source separation of household waste was launched in Hangzhou, capital city of Zhejiang province, China. Detailed investigations on the composition and properties of household waste in the experimental communities revealed that high water content and high percentage of food waste are the main limiting factors in the recovery of recyclables, especially paper from household waste, and the main contributors to the high cost and low efficiency of waste disposal. On the basis of the investigation, a novel source separation method, according to which household waste was classified as food waste, dry waste and harmful waste, was proposed and performed in four selected communities. In addition, a corresponding household waste management system that involves all stakeholders, a recovery system and a mechanical dehydration system for food waste were constituted to promote source separation activity. Performances and the questionnaire survey results showed that the active support and investment of a real estate company and a community residential committee play important roles in enhancing public participation and awareness of the importance of waste source separation. In comparison with the conventional mixed collection and transportation system of household waste, the established source separation and management system is cost-effective. It could be extended to the entire city and used by other cities in China as a source of reference

  16. Analyzing the Investment Behaviour of Households at the Microlevel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lepeyko Tetyana I.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at analyzing the characteristics of the investment behaviour of households at the microlevel. Essence of the investment behavior of of households was considered, substantiating that it differs in relation to the social indicators of households as well as to their income and costs. In order to analyze the investment behavior of households at the microlevel, it was proposed to conduct an expert survey of economic agents (staff of enterprises, private entrepreneurs, etc.. Using the hierarchy analysis method, it has been substantiated that the most appropriate method for the selected criteria (minimizing the time and cost of the survey, improving the truthfulness and completeness of the responses is the anonymous respondent survey. To implement this method, a list of questions was proposed that would allow to analyze the social indicators of households, structure of their incomes and costs. On the basis of the survey conducted at the enterprises of Kharkiv region, the main prerequisites for a possible improvement of the microlevel investment behavior of households have been identified.

  17. OPERATION OF THE HOUSEHOLD SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANTS IN POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelina Pryszcz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In many rural communities the building of sewage collection and treatment system is still current and important problem of water and wastewater management. Besides the collection of sewage in the septic tank, the solution for wastewater treatment from individual buildings without access to sewerage system is the construction of household sewage treatment plants. Construction of household sewage treatment plant poses a number of challenges for municipalities and potential investors. The existing plants should be analyzed, so that in the future the selected systems would be characterized by high performance, simple operation and reliable exploitation. In the paper, the assessment of selection criteria of adopted technical solution and the functioning of household sewage treatment plants is carried out.

  18. Do vouchers lead to sorting under random private-school selection? Evidence from the Milwaukee voucher program

    OpenAIRE

    Chakrabarti, Rajashri

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyzes the effect of school vouchers on student sorting - defined as a flight to private schools by high-income and committed public-school students - and whether vouchers can be designed to reduce or eliminate it. Much of the existing literature investigates sorting in cases where private schools can screen students. However, publicly funded U.S. voucher programs require a private school to accept all students unless it is oversubscribed and to pick students randomly if it is ov...

  19. SNPs selected by information content outperform randomly selected microsatellite loci for delineating genetic identification and introgression in the endangered dark European honeybee (Apis mellifera mellifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Irene; Henriques, Dora; Jara, Laura; Johnston, J Spencer; Chávez-Galarza, Julio; De La Rúa, Pilar; Pinto, M Alice

    2017-07-01

    The honeybee (Apis mellifera) has been threatened by multiple factors including pests and pathogens, pesticides and loss of locally adapted gene complexes due to replacement and introgression. In western Europe, the genetic integrity of the native A. m. mellifera (M-lineage) is endangered due to trading and intensive queen breeding with commercial subspecies of eastern European ancestry (C-lineage). Effective conservation actions require reliable molecular tools to identify pure-bred A. m. mellifera colonies. Microsatellites have been preferred for identification of A. m. mellifera stocks across conservation centres. However, owing to high throughput, easy transferability between laboratories and low genotyping error, SNPs promise to become popular. Here, we compared the resolving power of a widely utilized microsatellite set to detect structure and introgression with that of different sets that combine a variable number of SNPs selected for their information content and genomic proximity to the microsatellite loci. Contrary to every SNP data set, microsatellites did not discriminate between the two lineages in the PCA space. Mean introgression proportions were identical across the two marker types, although at the individual level, microsatellites' performance was relatively poor at the upper range of Q-values, a result reflected by their lower precision. Our results suggest that SNPs are more accurate and powerful than microsatellites for identification of A. m. mellifera colonies, especially when they are selected by information content. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Effects of one versus two bouts of moderate intensity physical activity on selective attention during a school morning in Dutch primary schoolchildren: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altenburg, Teatske M; Chinapaw, Mai J M; Singh, Amika S

    2016-10-01

    Evidence suggests that physical activity is positively related to several aspects of cognitive functioning in children, among which is selective attention. To date, no information is available on the optimal frequency of physical activity on cognitive functioning in children. The current study examined the acute effects of one and two bouts of moderate-intensity physical activity on children's selective attention. Randomized controlled trial (ISRCTN97975679). Thirty boys and twenty-six girls, aged 10-13 years, were randomly assigned to three conditions: (A) sitting all morning working on simulated school tasks; (B) one 20-min physical activity bout after 90min; and (C) two 20-min physical activity bouts, i.e. at the start and after 90min. Selective attention was assessed at five time points during the morning (i.e. at baseline and after 20, 110, 130 and 220min), using the 'Sky Search' subtest of the 'Test of Selective Attention in Children'. We used GEE analysis to examine differences in Sky Search scores between the three experimental conditions, adjusting for school, baseline scores, self-reported screen time and time spent in sports. Children who performed two 20-min bouts of moderate-intensity physical activity had significantly better Sky Search scores compared to children who performed one physical activity bout or remained seated the whole morning (B=-0.26; 95% CI=[-0.52; -0.00]). Our findings support the importance of repeated physical activity during the school day for beneficial effects on selective attention in children. Copyright © 2015 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Alcohol Consumption Practices among Married Women of Reproductive Age in Nepal: A Population Based Household Survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narbada Thapa

    Full Text Available Alcohol chemically known as ethanol, causes several health, economic and social consequences across the world. Literatures suggest potential harm of alcohol drinking by pregnant women especially to the fetus and the mother. Despite a number of significant public health problems related to alcohol consumption, this area has been ignored in Nepal and information at the national level is limited. Thus this study aimed at finding the prevalence of alcohol consumption among married women of reproductive age.A nationally representative household survey was carried out from April to August 2013 by taking 16 districts across all 15 eco administrative regions. From the selected districts, 86 village development committees and 14 municipalities were selected as primary sampling units using probability proportionate to size, followed by random selection of 3 wards from each primary sampling unit. Finally, 30 households within each ward were selected using systematic random sampling, and one married women of reproductive age from each household. A total of 9000 married women of reproductive age were interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire, on alcohol consumption practices including environmental factors and socio demographic characteristics and were included in the analysis.National prevalence of alcohol consumption ever among married women of reproductive age was 24.7% (95% CI:21.7-28.0, last 12 months 17.9% (95% CI:15.3-20.7 and last 30 days (current drinking 11.8% (95% CI:9.8-14.1. There was substantial variation among the districts ranging from 2% to 60%. Multivariable analysis suggests women with no education or within formal education, dalit and janajatis ethnicity, whose husbands drink alcohol, who brew alcohol at home and women from mountains were significantly at higher risk of consuming alcohol. Among the women who drank alcohol in last 12 months, a substantial proportion of them drank home brewed alcoholic beverages (95.9%, 95% CI:94

  2. Role of Household Members in Kolanut Production and Marketing in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study assessed roles of household members in kolanut production and marketing in Ekiti State, Nigeria. Multistage sampling procedure was used in selecting 80 kolanut farmers. Data were collected from the respondents using structured interview schedule. Data were presented and analyzed using frequency counts, ...

  3. The concentration of heavy metals: zinc, cadmium, lead, copper, mercury, iron and calcium in head hair of a randomly selected sample of Kenyan people

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wandiga, S.O.; Jumba, I.O.

    1982-01-01

    An intercomparative analysis of the concentration of heavy metals:zinc, cadmium, lead, copper, mercury, iron and calcium in head hair of a randomly selected sample of Kenyan people using the techniques of atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS) and differential pulse anodic stripping voltammetry (DPAS) has been undertaken. The percent relative standard deviation for each sample analysed using either of the techniques show good sensitivity and correlation between the techniques. The DPAS was found to be slightly sensitive than the AAs instrument used. The recalculated body burden rations of Cd to Zn, Pb to Fe reveal no unusual health impairement symptoms and suggest a relatively clean environment in Kenya.(author)

  4. Evaluating the effectiveness of selected community-level interventions on key maternal, child health, and prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV outcomes in three countries (the ACCLAIM Project): a study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woelk, Godfrey B; Kieffer, Mary Pat; Walker, Damilola; Mpofu, Daphne; Machekano, Rhoderick

    2016-02-16

    Efforts to scale up and improve programs for prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) have focused primarily at the health facility level, and limited attention has been paid to defining an effective set of community interventions to improve demand and uptake of services and retention. Many barriers to PMTCT are also barriers to pregnancy, childbirth, and postnatal care faced by mothers regardless of HIV status. Demand for maternal and child health (MCH) and PMTCT services can be limited by critical social, cultural, and structural barriers. Yet, rigorous evaluation has shown limited evidence of effectiveness of multilevel community-wide interventions aimed at improving MCH and HIV outcomes for pregnant women living with HIV. We propose to assess the effect of a package of multilevel community interventions: a social learning and action component, community dialogues, and peer-led discussion groups, on the demand for, uptake of, and retention of HIV positive pregnant/postpartum women in MCH/PMTCT services. This study will undertake a three-arm randomized trial in Swaziland, Uganda, and Zimbabwe. Districts/regions (n = 9) with 45 PMTCT-implementing health facilities and their catchment areas (populations 7,300-27,500) will be randomly allocated to three intervention arms: 1) community leader engagement, 2) community leader engagement with community days, or 3) community leader engagement with community days and male and female community peer groups. The primary study outcome is HIV exposed infants (HEIs) returning to the health facility within 2 months for early infant diagnosis (EID) of HIV. Secondary study outcomes include gestational age of women attending for first antenatal care, male partners tested for HIV, and HEIs receiving nevirapine prophylaxis at birth. Changes in community knowledge, attitudes, practices, and beliefs on MCH/PMTCT will be assessed through household surveys. Implementation of the protocol necessitated changes in the

  5. Subjective measures of household resilience to climate variability and change: insights from a nationally representative survey of Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsey Jones

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Promoting household resilience to climate extremes has emerged as a key development priority. Yet tracking and evaluating resilience at this level remains a critical challenge. Most quantitative approaches rely on objective indicators and assessment frameworks, but these are not fully satisfactory. Much of the difficulty arises from a combination of conceptual ambiguities, challenges in selecting appropriate indicators, and in measuring the many intangible aspects that contribute to household resilience. More recently, subjective measures of resilience have been advocated in helping to overcome some of the limitations of traditional objective characterizations. However, few large-scale studies of quantitative subjective approaches to resilience measurement have been conducted. In this study, we address this gap by exploring perceived levels of household resilience to climate extremes in Tanzania and the utility of standardized subjective methods for its assessment. A nationally representative cross-sectional survey involving 1294 individuals was carried out by mobile phone in June 2015 among randomly selected adult respondents aged 18 and above. Factors that are most associated with resilience-related capacities are having had advance knowledge of a previous flood, and to a lesser extent, believing flooding to be a serious community problem. Somewhat surprisingly, though a small number of weak relationships are apparent, most socio-demographic variables do not exhibit statistically significant differences with regards to perceived resilience-related capacities. These findings may challenge traditional assumptions about what factors characterize household resilience, offering a motivation for studying both subjective and objective perspectives, and understanding better their relationship to one another. If further validated, subjective measures may offer potential as both a complement and alternative to traditional objective methods of resilience

  6. Financial planning for young households

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anne Marie Boiden; Weissensteiner, Alex; Poulsen, Rolf

    2013-01-01

    We analyze the financial planning problems of young households whose main decisions are how to finance the purchase of a house (liabilities) and how to allocate investments in pension savings schemes (assets). The problems are solved using a multi-stage stochastic programming model where...

  7. Family Issues in Multigenerational Households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinauer, Leslie L; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Studied issues faced by multigenerational families and their implications for family therapy. Major factors in multigenerational households included dependency, sibling relationships, depression, and demanding and egocentric behavior. Factors to consider during family therapy include respite care, age, interdependence, dignity, provision of care,…

  8. Household Arthropod Allergens in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Kyoung Yong

    2009-01-01

    Arthropods are important in human health, which can transmit pathogens to humans, parasitize, or produce important allergens. Allergy prevalence becomes higher in Korea recently as well as other developed countries in contrast to a decrease of infectious diseases. Allergic diseases caused by household arthropods have increased dramatically during the last few decades since human beings spend more their time for indoor activities in modernized life style. Household arthropods are one of the most common causes of allergic diseases. Biological characterization of household arthropods and researches on their allergens will provide better understanding of the pathogenesis of allergic diseases and suggest new therapeutic ways. Therefore, studies on arthropods of allergenic importance can be considered one of the major research areas in medical arthropodology and parasitology. Here, the biology of several household arthropods, including house dust mites and cockroaches, the 2 most well known arthropods living indoor together with humans worldwide, and characteristics of their allergens, especially the research activities on these allergens performed in Korea, are summarized. PMID:19885330

  9. Inflation differentials among Czech households

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Janský, Petr; Hait, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 1 (2016), s. 71-84 ISSN 1210-0455 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR(CZ) TD020188 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : households * inflation * inflation differentials Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.710, year: 2016

  10. Household Portfolios in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alessie, R.J.M.; Hochgürtel, S.; van Soest, A.H.O.

    2000-01-01

    We describe and analyse the portfolio structure of Dutch households using micro panel data from the CentER Savings Survey, 1993-1998.The data allows for a distinction between many types of assets.Moreover, we have information on mortgage debt, consumer debt, etc.We analyse the composition of

  11. Household Financial Contribution to the Health System in Shiraz, Iran in 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Kavosi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background One common challenge to social systems is achieving equity in financial contributions and preventing financial loss. Because of the large and unpredictable nature of some costs, achieving this goal in the health system presents important and unique problems. The present study investigated the Household Financial Contributions (HFCs to the health system. Methods The study investigated 800 households in Shiraz. The study sample size was selected using stratified sampling and cluster sampling in the urban and rural regions, respectively. The data was collected using the household section of the World Health Survey (WHS questionnaire. Catastrophic health expenditures were calculated based on the ability of the household to pay and the reasons for the catastrophic health expenditures by a household were specified using logistic regression. Results The results showed that the fairness financial contribution index was 0.6 and that 14.2% of households were faced with catastrophic health expenditures. Logistic regression analysis revealed that household economic status, the basic and supplementary insurance status of the head of the household, existence of individuals in the household who require chronic medical care, use of dental and hospital care, rural location of residences, frequency of use of outpatient services, and Out-of-Pocket (OOP payment for physician visits were effective factors for determining the likelihood of experiencing catastrophic health expenditure. Conclusion It appears that the current method of health financing in Iran does not adequately protect households against catastrophic health expenditure. Consequently, it is essential to reform healthcare financing.

  12. ANALYSIS OF FOOD SECURITY STATUS OF FARMING HOUSEHOLDS IN THE FOREST BELT OF THE CENTRAL REGION OF GHANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John K.M. Kuwornu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The study seeks to examine the Food Security Status of Farming Households in the Forest Belt of the Central Region of Ghana. A multistage sampling technique was used to select the respondents that were interviewed. In all 134 farming households were interviewed but 120 were selected for analysis after removing the questionnaires which were not properly administered. The households were selected from eight communities in two districts. Food consumption data of 851 individuals in 120 households were used for the analysis. The study reveals that the majority of the farming households (60% were found to be food insecure. Further, the Binary Logit Model results reveal that an increase in household's income, having access to credit as well as increase in the quantity of own farm production improve the food security status of farming households in the Forest Belt of the Central Region of Ghana. However, holding all other factors constant, increases in non-working member of households worsens the food security status of farming households. Most of the food insecurity coping strategies adopted by household's are not severe and can only be used to avert the impact of food insecurity on a temporal basis. These results have policy implications for Food Security Status of Farming Households in developing countries.

  13. Household transitions to energy efficient lighting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, Bradford; Schleich, Joachim

    2014-01-01

    New energy efficient lighting technologies can significantly reduce household electricity consumption, but adoption has been slow. A unique dataset of German households is used in this paper to examine the factors associated with the replacement of old incandescent lamps (ILs) with new energy efficient compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) and light emitting diodes (LEDs). The ‘rebound’ effect of increased lamp luminosity in the transition to energy efficient bulbs is analyzed jointly with the replacement decision to account for household self-selection in bulb-type choice. Results indicate that the EU ban on ILs accelerated the pace of transition to CFLs and LEDs, while storage of bulbs significantly dampened the speed of the transition. Higher lighting needs and bulb attributes like energy efficiency, environmental friendliness, and durability spur IL replacement with CFLs or LEDs. Electricity gains from new energy efficient lighting are mitigated by 23% and 47% increases in luminosity for CFL and LED replacements, respectively. Model results suggest that taking the replacement bulb from storage and higher levels of education dampen the magnitude of these luminosity rebounds in IL to CFL transitions. - Highlights: • EU ban on ILs has fostered transitions to energy efficient lighting • Energy efficient, environmentally friendly, and durable lighting preferences make CFL and LED transitions more likely • Indicators of greater lighting needs are associated with higher propensities to replace ILs with CFLs and LEDs • For residential lighting, the rebound effect manifests itself through increases in luminosity • In IL to CLF transitions luminosity increases are lower with higher levels of education

  14. Short-term poverty dynamics of rural households: Evidence from Central Sulawesi, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Schwarze

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The understanding of poverty dynamics is crucial for the design of appropriate poverty reduction strategies. Taking the case of Central Sulawesi, we investigate the determinants of both chronic and transitory poverty using data from 264 randomly selected households interviewed in 2005 and 2007. Regarding the US 1$/day poverty line, the headcount index declined from 19.3% in 2005 to 18.2% in 2007. However, we observed an increasing number of people living on less than US 2$/day expressed in purchasing power parity (PPP. The results of the estimated multinomial logit model applied in this study indicate that a lack of non-agricultural employment opportunities and low endowment of social capital are major determinants of chronic as well as transitory poverty in this province of Indonesia. These results are used to draw policy conclusions with respect to the alleviation of transitory and chronic poverty in Central Sulawesi.

  15. "Open mesh" or "strictly selected population" recruitment? The experience of the randomized controlled MeMeMe trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cortellini M

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Mauro Cortellini, Franco Berrino, Patrizia Pasanisi Department of Preventive & Predictive Medicine, Foundation IRCCS National Cancer Institute of Milan, Milan, Italy Abstract: Among randomized controlled trials (RCTs, trials for primary prevention require large samples and long follow-up to obtain a high-quality outcome; therefore the recruitment process and the drop-out rates largely dictate the adequacy of the results. We are conducting a Phase III trial on persons with metabolic syndrome to test the hypothesis that comprehensive lifestyle changes and/or metformin treatment prevents age-related chronic diseases (the MeMeMe trial, EudraCT number: 2012-005427-32, also registered on ClinicalTrials.gov [NCT02960711]. Here, we briefly analyze and discuss the reasons which may lead to participants dropping out from trials. In our experience, participants may back out of a trial for different reasons. Drug-induced side effects are certainly the most compelling reason. But what are the other reasons, relating to the participants’ perception of the progress of the trial which led them to withdraw after randomization? What about the time-dependent drop-out rate in primary prevention trials? The primary outcome of this analysis is the point of drop-out from trial, defined as the time from the randomization date to the withdrawal date. Survival functions were non-parametrically estimated using the product-limit estimator. The curves were statistically compared using the log-rank test (P=0.64, not significant. Researchers involved in primary prevention RCTs seem to have to deal with the paradox of the proverbial “short blanket syndrome”. Recruiting only highly motivated candidates might be useful for the smooth progress of the trial but it may lead to a very low enrollment rate. On the other hand, what about enrolling all the eligible subjects without considering their motivation? This might boost the enrollment rate, but it can lead to biased

  16. "Open mesh" or "strictly selected population" recruitment? The experience of the randomized controlled MeMeMe trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortellini, Mauro; Berrino, Franco; Pasanisi, Patrizia

    2017-01-01

    Among randomized controlled trials (RCTs), trials for primary prevention require large samples and long follow-up to obtain a high-quality outcome; therefore the recruitment process and the drop-out rates largely dictate the adequacy of the results. We are conducting a Phase III trial on persons with metabolic syndrome to test the hypothesis that comprehensive lifestyle changes and/or metformin treatment prevents age-related chronic diseases (the MeMeMe trial, EudraCT number: 2012-005427-32, also registered on ClinicalTrials.gov [NCT02960711]). Here, we briefly analyze and discuss the reasons which may lead to participants dropping out from trials. In our experience, participants may back out of a trial for different reasons. Drug-induced side effects are certainly the most compelling reason. But what are the other reasons, relating to the participants' perception of the progress of the trial which led them to withdraw after randomization? What about the time-dependent drop-out rate in primary prevention trials? The primary outcome of this analysis is the point of drop-out from trial, defined as the time from the randomization date to the withdrawal date. Survival functions were non-parametrically estimated using the product-limit estimator. The curves were statistically compared using the log-rank test ( P =0.64, not significant). Researchers involved in primary prevention RCTs seem to have to deal with the paradox of the proverbial "short blanket syndrome". Recruiting only highly motivated candidates might be useful for the smooth progress of the trial but it may lead to a very low enrollment rate. On the other hand, what about enrolling all the eligible subjects without considering their motivation? This might boost the enrollment rate, but it can lead to biased results on account of large proportions of drop-outs. Our experience suggests that participants do not change their mind depending on the allocation group (intervention or control). There is no single

  17. Rural household energy consumption pattern in the disregarded villages of Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miah, Md. Danesh; Kabir, Rashel Rana Mohammad Sirajul; Koike, Masao; Akther, Shalina; Shin, Man Yong

    2010-01-01

    Energy is one of the most important ingredients required to alleviate poverty and realize socio-economic and human development, which is directly interconnected to the prominence of life in rural areas. An extensive survey on household energy consumption pattern interrelating socio-economic and demographic factors was carried out in the disregarded villages of Bangladesh using stratified random sampling technique of 120 households. This paper focuses on household energy consumption, various combinations of fuels and their expenditure in the study area. Biomass, kerosene, electricity, LPG and candle were found as the energy carrier used in the rural households in this study. The study shows that 92% households use biomass, 28% LPG, 89% kerosene, 78% electricity and 27% candle as fuel types. It was found that 56% households collected biomass from their own homesteads and/or agricultural lands. Bamboo, branches, cow dung, firewood, rice husk, leaves and twigs and straw were found as the biomass for household energy use. Average monthly household expenditure for total energy was US$ 9.67 (SE, 0.31) per month while the total monthly income of the household was US$ 123 (SE, 2.53). The ratio of the total monthly energy expenditure to the total monthly income was 7.86%. The study will be helpful to understand the energy consumption system and its expenditure in the rural areas of Bangladesh and to the policy formulation for energy production, consumption and utilization.

  18. Rural household energy consumption pattern in the disregarded villages of Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miah, Md. Danesh [Institute of Forestry and Environmental Sciences, University of Chittagong, Chittagong 4331 (Bangladesh); Forest Policy Laboratory, Shinshu University, 8304 Minamimminowa, Nagano-ken 399-4598 (Japan); Kabir, Rashel Rana Mohammad Sirajul [Institute of Forestry and Environmental Sciences, University of Chittagong, Chittagong 4331 (Bangladesh); Koike, Masao; Akther, Shalina [Forest Policy Laboratory, Shinshu University, 8304 Minamimminowa, Nagano-ken 399-4598 (Japan); Yong Shin, Man [Department of Forest Science, Kookmin University, Seoul (Korea)

    2010-02-15

    Energy is one of the most important ingredients required to alleviate poverty and realize socio-economic and human development, which is directly interconnected to the prominence of life in rural areas. An extensive survey on household energy consumption pattern interrelating socio-economic and demographic factors was carried out in the disregarded villages of Bangladesh using stratified random sampling technique of 120 households. This paper focuses on household energy consumption, various combinations of fuels and their expenditure in the study area. Biomass, kerosene, electricity, LPG and candle were found as the energy carrier used in the rural households in this study. The study shows that 92% households use biomass, 28% LPG, 89% kerosene, 78% electricity and 27% candle as fuel types. It was found that 56% households collected biomass from their own homesteads and/or agricultural lands. Bamboo, branches, cow dung, firewood, rice husk, leaves and twigs and straw were found as the biomass for household energy use. Average monthly household expenditure for total energy was US$ 9.67 (SE, 0.31) per month while the total monthly income of the household was US$ 123 (SE, 2.53). The ratio of the total monthly energy expenditure to the total monthly income was 7.86%. The study will be helpful to understand the energy consumption system and its expenditure in the rural areas of Bangladesh and to the policy formulation for energy production, consumption and utilization. (author)

  19. Evolution of Randomized Trials in Advanced/Metastatic Soft Tissue Sarcoma: End Point Selection, Surrogacy, and Quality of Reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zer, Alona; Prince, Rebecca M; Amir, Eitan; Abdul Razak, Albiruni

    2016-05-01

    Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in soft tissue sarcoma (STS) have used varying end points. The surrogacy of intermediate end points, such as progression-free survival (PFS), response rate (RR), and 3-month and 6-month PFS (3moPFS and 6moPFS) with overall survival (OS), remains unknown. The quality of efficacy and toxicity reporting in these studies is also uncertain. A systematic review of systemic therapy RCTs in STS was performed. Surrogacy between intermediate end points and OS was explored using weighted linear regression for the hazard ratio for OS with the hazard ratio for PFS or the odds ratio for RR, 3moPFS, and 6moPFS. The quality of reporting for efficacy and toxicity was also evaluated. Fifty-two RCTs published between 1974 and 2014, comprising 9,762 patients, met the inclusion criteria. There were significant correlations between PFS and OS (R = 0.61) and between RR and OS (R = 0.51). Conversely, there were nonsignificant correlations between 3moPFS and 6moPFS with OS. A reduction in the use of RR as the primary end point was observed over time, favoring time-based events (P for trend = .02). In 14% of RCTs, the primary end point was not met, but the study was reported as being positive. Toxicity was comprehensively reported in 47% of RCTs, whereas 14% inadequately reported toxicity. In advanced STS, PFS and RR seem to be appropriate surrogates for OS. There is poor correlation between OS and both 3moPFS and 6moPFS. As such, caution is urged with the use of these as primary end points in randomized STS trials. The quality of toxicity reporting and interpretation of results is suboptimal. © 2016 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  20. Analysis of household food security concerns and coping strategies of small farmers in northwestern highlands of pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amir, R.M.; Shahbaz, B.; Ali, T.; Zafar, M.I.

    2013-01-01

    Food insecurity is turning out to be one of the worst crises of world in future. Developing countries are especially considered vulnerable to be hit most severely by this impending danger. Resource scarce regions of Pakistan are also included in the list of marginalized areas where population is not able to manage its food by herself. The present study was designed to analyze the state of household food security concerns and identify managing strategies for dealing with shortage of food patterns in Northern Pakistan. The research was based upon a survey of randomly selected two districts. Both qualitative and quantitative research methods were used for data collection. The results indicated that prices of food items were very high. It also delineated that lack of irrigational water; limited market access, and high cost of fertilizers were leading production related constraints. As a resort to these constraints and due to low output from the food crops there was found a shift from subsistence to cash seeking cropping patterns of the growers. This increase in income was perceived as a mean to ensure household food security. Furthermore, at household level the respondents expressed to reduce their expenses on the agricultural inputs in future. (author)

  1. Brucellosis in cattle and micro-scale spatial variability of pastoral household income from dairy production in south western Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nina, Pius Mbuya; Mugisha, Samuel; Leirs, Herwig; Basuta, Gilbert Isabirye; Van Damme, Patrick

    2017-11-01

    Brucellosis in cattle and humans has received world-wide research attention as a neglected and re-emerging zoonotic disease with many routes of transmission. Studies of brucellosis in Uganda have emphasized occupational exposures and also revealed variations in prevalence levels by region and cattle production systems. To date, research linking pastoralist household income from dairy production to brucellosis and its transmission risk pathways do not exist in Uganda. We assessed whether spatial differences in unit milk prices can be explained by brucellosis prevalence in cattle along a distance gradient from Lake Mburo National Park in Uganda. Semi-structured interviews administered to 366 randomly selected household heads were supplemented with serological data on brucellosis in cattle. Statistical analysis included Pearson correlation test, multiple regression and analysis of variance (ANOVA) using SPSS version 17. Serological results showed that 44% of cattle blood samples were sero-positive for brucellosis. The results obtained from interviews put the statistical mean of household reported cattle abortions at 5.39 (5.08-5.70 at 95% CI, n=366). Post-hoc analysis of variance revealed that both sero-positive cattle and reported cattle abortions significantly were much lower when moving outwards from the park boundary (pbrucellosis management practices at the nexus of wildlife and livestock in Uganda. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Organic Ferroelectric-Based 1T1T Random Access Memory Cell Employing a Common Dielectric Layer Overcoming the Half-Selection Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qiang; Wang, Hanlin; Ni, Zhenjie; Liu, Jie; Zhen, Yonggang; Zhang, Xiaotao; Jiang, Lang; Li, Rongjin; Dong, Huanli; Hu, Wenping

    2017-09-01

    Organic electronics based on poly(vinylidenefluoride/trifluoroethylene) (P(VDF-TrFE)) dielectric is facing great challenges in flexible circuits. As one indispensable part of integrated circuits, there is an urgent demand for low-cost and easy-fabrication nonvolatile memory devices. A breakthrough is made on a novel ferroelectric random access memory cell (1T1T FeRAM cell) consisting of one selection transistor and one ferroelectric memory transistor in order to overcome the half-selection problem. Unlike complicated manufacturing using multiple dielectrics, this system simplifies 1T1T FeRAM cell fabrication using one common dielectric. To achieve this goal, a strategy for semiconductor/insulator (S/I) interface modulation is put forward and applied to nonhysteretic selection transistors with high performances for driving or addressing purposes. As a result, high hole mobility of 3.81 cm 2 V -1 s -1 (average) for 2,6-diphenylanthracene (DPA) and electron mobility of 0.124 cm 2 V -1 s -1 (average) for N,N'-1H,1H-perfluorobutyl dicyanoperylenecarboxydiimide (PDI-FCN 2 ) are obtained in selection transistors. In this work, we demonstrate this technology's potential for organic ferroelectric-based pixelated memory module fabrication. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Varying levels of difficulty index of skills-test items randomly selected by examinees on the Korean emergency medical technician licensing examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bongyeun Koh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The goal of this study was to characterize the difficulty index of the items in the skills test components of the class I and II Korean emergency medical technician licensing examination (KEMTLE, which requires examinees to select items randomly. Methods: The results of 1,309 class I KEMTLE examinations and 1,801 class II KEMTLE examinations in 2013 were subjected to analysis. Items from the basic and advanced skills test sections of the KEMTLE were compared to determine whether some were significantly more difficult than others. Results: In the class I KEMTLE, all 4 of the items on the basic skills test showed significant variation in difficulty index (P<0.01, as well as 4 of the 5 items on the advanced skills test (P<0.05. In the class II KEMTLE, 4 of the 5 items on the basic skills test showed significantly different difficulty index (P<0.01, as well as all 3 of the advanced skills test items (P<0.01. Conclusion: In the skills test components of the class I and II KEMTLE, the procedure in which examinees randomly select questions should be revised to require examinees to respond to a set of fixed items in order to improve the reliability of the national licensing examination.

  4. Varying levels of difficulty index of skills-test items randomly selected by examinees on the Korean emergency medical technician licensing examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Bongyeun; Hong, Sunggi; Kim, Soon-Sim; Hyun, Jin-Sook; Baek, Milye; Moon, Jundong; Kwon, Hayran; Kim, Gyoungyong; Min, Seonggi; Kang, Gu-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study was to characterize the difficulty index of the items in the skills test components of the class I and II Korean emergency medical technician licensing examination (KEMTLE), which requires examinees to select items randomly. The results of 1,309 class I KEMTLE examinations and 1,801 class II KEMTLE examinations in 2013 were subjected to analysis. Items from the basic and advanced skills test sections of the KEMTLE were compared to determine whether some were significantly more difficult than others. In the class I KEMTLE, all 4 of the items on the basic skills test showed significant variation in difficulty index (P<0.01), as well as 4 of the 5 items on the advanced skills test (P<0.05). In the class II KEMTLE, 4 of the 5 items on the basic skills test showed significantly different difficulty index (P<0.01), as well as all 3 of the advanced skills test items (P<0.01). In the skills test components of the class I and II KEMTLE, the procedure in which examinees randomly select questions should be revised to require examinees to respond to a set of fixed items in order to improve the reliability of the national licensing examination.

  5. Effects of choice architecture and chef-enhanced meals on the selection and consumption of healthier school foods: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Juliana F W; Richardson, Scott A; Cluggish, Sarah A; Parker, Ellen; Catalano, Paul J; Rimm, Eric B

    2015-05-01

    Little is known about the long-term effect of a chef-enhanced menu on healthier food selection and consumption in school lunchrooms. In addition, it remains unclear if extended exposure to other strategies to promote healthier foods (eg, choice architecture) also improves food selection or consumption. To evaluate the short- and long-term effects of chef-enhanced meals and extended exposure to choice architecture on healthier school food selection and consumption. A school-based randomized clinical trial was conducted during the 2011-2012 school year among 14 elementary and middle schools in 2 urban, low-income school districts (intent-to-treat analysis). Included in the study were 2638 students in grades 3 through 8 attending participating schools (38.4% of eligible participants). Schools were first randomized to receive a professional chef to improve school meal palatability (chef schools) or to a delayed intervention (control group). To assess the effect of choice architecture (smart café), all schools after 3 months were then randomized to the smart café intervention or to the control group. School food selection was recorded, and consumption was measured using plate waste methods. After 3 months, vegetable selection increased in chef vs control schools (odds ratio [OR], 1.75; 95% CI, 1.36-2.24), but there was no effect on the selection of other components or on meal consumption. After long-term or extended exposure to the chef or smart café intervention, fruit selection increased in the chef (OR, 3.08; 95% CI, 2.23-4.25), smart café (OR, 1.45; 95% CI, 1.13-1.87), and chef plus smart café (OR, 3.10; 95% CI, 2.26-4.25) schools compared with the control schools, and consumption increased in the chef schools (OR, 0.17; 95% CI, 0.03-0.30 cups/d). Vegetable selection increased in the chef (OR, 2.54; 95% CI, 1.83-3.54), smart café (OR, 1.91; 95% CI, 1.46-2.50), and chef plus smart café schools (OR, 7.38, 95% CI, 5.26-10.35) compared with the control schools

  6. Household Coverage of Fortified Staple Food Commodities in Rajasthan, India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grant J Aaron

    Full Text Available A spatially representative statewide survey was conducted in Rajasthan, India to assess household coverage of atta wheat flour, edible oil, and salt. An even distribution of primary sampling units were selected based on their proximity to centroids on a hexagonal grid laid over the survey area. A sample of n = 18 households from each of m = 252 primary sampling units PSUs was taken. Demographic data on all members of these households were collected, and a broader dataset was collected about a single caregiver and a child in the first 2 years of life. Data were collected on demographic and socioeconomic status; education; housing conditions; recent infant and child mortality; water, sanitation, and hygiene practices; food security; child health; infant and young child feeding practices; maternal dietary diversity; coverage of fortified staples; and maternal and child anthropometry. Data were collected from 4,627 households and the same number of caregiver/child pairs. Atta wheat flour was widely consumed across the state (83%; however, only about 7% of the atta wheat flour was classified as fortifiable, and only about 6% was actually fortified (mostly inadequately. For oil, almost 90% of edible oil consumed by households in the survey was classified as fortifiable, but only about 24% was fortified. For salt, coverage was high, with almost 85% of households using fortified salt and 66% of households using adequately fortified salt. Iodized salt coverage was also high; however, rural and poor population groups were less likely to be reached by the intervention. Voluntary fortification of atta wheat flour and edible oil lacked sufficient industry consolidation to cover significant portions of the population. It is crucial that appropriate delivery channels are utilized to effectively deliver essential micronutrients to at-risk population groups. Government distribution systems are likely the best means to accomplish this goal.

  7. Health Care Expenditure of Rural Households in Pondicherry, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poornima Varadarajan

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Shortcomings in healthcare delivery has led people to spend a substantial proportion of their incomes on medical treatment. World Health Organization (2005 estimates reveal that every year 25 million households are forced into poverty by illness and the struggle to pay for healthcare. Thus we planned to calculate the health care expenditure of rural households and to assess the households incurring catastrophic health expenditure. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in the service area of Sri Manakula Vinayagar Medical College and Hospital from May to August 2011. A total of 100 households from the 4 adjoining villages of our Institute were selected for operational and logistic feasibility. The household’s capacity to pay, out of pocket expenditure and catastrophic health expenditure were calculated. Data collection was done using a pretested questionnaire by the principal investigator and the analysis was done using SPSS (version 16. Results: The average income in the highest income quintile was Rs 51,885 but the quintile ratio was 14.98. The median subsistence expenditure was Rs 4,520. About 18% of households got impoverished paying for health care. About 81% of households were incurring out of pocket expenditure and 66% were facing catastrophic health expenses of 40%.Conclusion There was very high out of pocket spending and a high prevalence of catastrophic expenditure noted. Providing quality care at affordable cost and appropriate risk pooling mechanism are warranted to protect households from such economic threats.

  8. Measuring the Impact of Convenient Water Supply on Household Time Use in Rural Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, J.; Masuda, Y.; Fortmann, L.; Smith-Nilson, M.; Gugerty, M.

    2012-12-01

    What is the impact of providing convenient water supply on water carriers' pattern of time use? How much of the freed time is re-allocated to paid market work, education (for girls), agricultural labor, or leisure? Do women report spending more time on activities they enjoy? Does convenient water supply lead to a re-allocation of leisure time to other household members? These questions are an important, but largely missing, piece of the economic evidence base for investment in the water supply sector. Cairncross and Valdmanis (2007) observe that "given the relevance of the time-saving benefit to water supply policy and the fact that the benefit is usually uppermost in the mind of the consumer, it is remarkable how few data have been collected on the amounts of time spent collecting water". We address this gap by measuring changes in time use among female water carriers before and after new water systems are installed in three rural villages in the Oromia region of Ethiopia. The timing of completion of the projects in the three villages was staggered over time for logistical reasons, so our quasi-experimental design allows us to control for any region-wide changes in time use. Because of low literacy levels, we used a pictorial time use elicitation approach based on respondents' recall of the previous day as well as the standard questions used in the DHS and LSMS ("how many minutes..."). We measured time use for all household members over the age of 10. We use this unique panel dataset with both pre- and post-project time use data to examine not only the effect on water carriers' time use but also any intra-household reallocation of time savings. In total, we interviewed 454 randomly-selected households in the three villages over three rainy seasons, and collected time use information on 1,590 household members. Primary water carriers spend (pre-project) an average of 110 minutes per day collecting water, roughly representative of water collection times reported in

  9. A randomized trial on mineralocorticoid receptor blockade in men: effects on stress responses, selective attention, and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelisse, Sandra; Joëls, Marian; Smeets, Tom

    2011-12-01

    Corticosteroids, released in high amounts after stress, exert their effects via two different receptors in the brain: glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) and mineralocorticoid receptors (MRs). GRs have a role in normalizing stress-induced effects and promoting consolidation, while MRs are thought to be important in determining the threshold for activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. We investigated the effects of MR blockade on HPA axis responses to stress and stress-induced changes in cognitive function. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 64 healthy young men received 400 mg of the MR antagonist spironolactone or placebo. After 1.5 h, they were exposed to either a Trier Social Stress Test or a non-stressful control task. Responses to stress were evaluated by hormonal, subjective, and physiological measurements. Afterwards, selective attention, working memory, and long-term memory performance were assessed. Spironolactone increased basal salivary cortisol levels as well as cortisol levels in response to stress. Furthermore, spironolactone significantly impaired selective attention, but only in the control group. The stress group receiving spironolactone showed impaired working memory performance. By contrast, long-term memory was enhanced in this group. These data support a role of MRs in the regulation of the HPA axis under basal conditions as well as in response to stress. The increased availability of cortisol after spironolactone treatment implies enhanced GR activation, which, in combination with MR blockade, presumably resulted in a decreased MR/GR activation ratio. This condition influences both selective attention and performance in various memory tasks.

  10. A Picture of Subsidized Households 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Picture of Subsidized Households describes the nearly 5 million households living in HUD-subsidized housing in the United States for the year 2009. Picture 2009...

  11. A Panel Data Model for Subjective Information on Household Income Growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Das, J.W.M.; van Soest, A.H.O.

    1996-01-01

    Subjective expectations about future income changes are analyzed, using household panel data.The models used are extensions of existing binary choice panel data models to the case of ordered response.We consider both random and fixed individual effects.The random effects model is estimated by

  12. EcmPred: Prediction of extracellular matrix proteins based on random forest with maximum relevance minimum redundancy feature selection

    KAUST Repository

    Kandaswamy, Krishna Kumar Umar

    2013-01-01

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) is a major component of tissues of multicellular organisms. It consists of secreted macromolecules, mainly polysaccharides and glycoproteins. Malfunctions of ECM proteins lead to severe disorders such as marfan syndrome, osteogenesis imperfecta, numerous chondrodysplasias, and skin diseases. In this work, we report a random forest approach, EcmPred, for the prediction of ECM proteins from protein sequences. EcmPred was trained on a dataset containing 300 ECM and 300 non-ECM and tested on a dataset containing 145 ECM and 4187 non-ECM proteins. EcmPred achieved 83% accuracy on the training and 77% on the test dataset. EcmPred predicted 15 out of 20 experimentally verified ECM proteins. By scanning the entire human proteome, we predicted novel ECM proteins validated with gene ontology and InterPro. The dataset and standalone version of the EcmPred software is available at http://www.inb.uni-luebeck.de/tools-demos/Extracellular_matrix_proteins/EcmPred. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Household characteristics and market participation competence of smallholder farmers supplying cassava to starch processors in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ifeanyi A Ojiako

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The household head characteristics of smallholder cassava farmers supplying raw materials to the major commercial starch processors in Nigeria were examined alongside their market participation categories. A multi-stage random sampling technique was used to select 96 farmers working in clusters in the eight cassava producing states. Data were analyzed using a combination of descriptive and inferential statistics, including the use of independent sample t-test technique to compare farmer's characteristics for the farmers' market participation categories. Results revealed that majority of the farmers were farming for subsistence with only 19.80% selling up to 50% of their farm produce as against 80.20% who sold less. Average mean values were found to be higher for the high market participants compared with the low participants for the age, farming experiences, education, farm size, gender, marital status, household size, training, season of harvesting and fertilizer use, but lower for use of credit, improved cassava variety, harvesting method, farming time devotion, and road access. Only farm size, gender and harvesting season at p<0.01 level and training at p<0.05 level were found to be statistically significant in distinguishing the high and low market participation categories. Policies and programmes aimed at promoting market participation among cassava farmers in Nigeria should be more impactful if directed at these significant factors.

  14. Comparative Analysis of Households Solid Waste Management in Rural and Urban Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Boateng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The comparative analysis of solid waste management between rural and urban Ghana is largely lacking. This study investigated the solid waste situation and the organisation of solid waste management in both urban and rural settings from the perspective of households. The study employed cross-sectional survey covering both rural and urban districts in the Ashanti and Greater Accra Regions of Ghana. The study systematically sampled houses from which 400 households and respondents were randomly selected. Pearson’s Chi square test was used to compare demographic and socioeconomic variables in rural and urban areas. Multivariate Test, Tests of Between-Subjects Effects, and Pair-Wise Comparisons were performed through one-way MANOVA to determine whether or not solid waste situations in rural and urban areas are significantly different. The results revealed that location significantly affects solid waste management in Ghana. Urban communities had lower mean scores than rural communities for poor solid waste situation in homes. However, urban communities had higher mean scores than rural communities for poor solid waste situation in principal streets and dumping sites. The study recommends that the local government authorities implement very comprehensive policies (sanitary inspection, infrastructure development, and community participation that will take into consideration the specific solid waste management needs of both urban and rural areas.

  15. Comparative Analysis of Households Solid Waste Management in Rural and Urban Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appiah, Divine Odame; Poku, Adjoa Afriyie; Garsonu, Emmanuel Kofi

    2016-01-01

    The comparative analysis of solid waste management between rural and urban Ghana is largely lacking. This study investigated the solid waste situation and the organisation of solid waste management in both urban and rural settings from the perspective of households. The study employed cross-sectional survey covering both rural and urban districts in the Ashanti and Greater Accra Regions of Ghana. The study systematically sampled houses from which 400 households and respondents were randomly selected. Pearson's Chi square test was used to compare demographic and socioeconomic variables in rural and urban areas. Multivariate Test, Tests of Between-Subjects Effects, and Pair-Wise Comparisons were performed through one-way MANOVA to determine whether or not solid waste situations in rural and urban areas are significantly different. The results revealed that location significantly affects solid waste management in Ghana. Urban communities had lower mean scores than rural communities for poor solid waste situation in homes. However, urban communities had higher mean scores than rural communities for poor solid waste situation in principal streets and dumping sites. The study recommends that the local government authorities implement very comprehensive policies (sanitary inspection, infrastructure development, and community participation) that will take into consideration the specific solid waste management needs of both urban and rural areas. PMID:27807453

  16. Comparative Analysis of Households Solid Waste Management in Rural and Urban Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boateng, Simon; Amoako, Prince; Appiah, Divine Odame; Poku, Adjoa Afriyie; Garsonu, Emmanuel Kofi

    2016-01-01

    The comparative analysis of solid waste management between rural and urban Ghana is largely lacking. This study investigated the solid waste situation and the organisation of solid waste management in both urban and rural settings from the perspective of households. The study employed cross-sectional survey covering both rural and urban districts in the Ashanti and Greater Accra Regions of Ghana. The study systematically sampled houses from which 400 households and respondents were randomly selected. Pearson's Chi square test was used to compare demographic and socioeconomic variables in rural and urban areas. Multivariate Test, Tests of Between-Subjects Effects, and Pair-Wise Comparisons were performed through one-way MANOVA to determine whether or not solid waste situations in rural and urban areas are significantly different. The results revealed that location significantly affects solid waste management in Ghana. Urban communities had lower mean scores than rural communities for poor solid waste situation in homes. However, urban communities had higher mean scores than rural communities for poor solid waste situation in principal streets and dumping sites. The study recommends that the local government authorities implement very comprehensive policies (sanitary inspection, infrastructure development, and community participation) that will take into consideration the specific solid waste management needs of both urban and rural areas.

  17. Characterization of household food waste in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edjabou, Vincent Maklawe Essonanawe; Petersen, C.; Scheutz, Charlotte

    This paper presents a methodology and the results of compositional analysis of food waste from Danish families living in single-family houses. Residual household waste was sampled and manually sorted from 211 single-family houses in the suburb of Copenhagen. The main fractions contributing...... to the household food waste were avoidable vegetable food waste and non-avoidable vegetable food waste. Statistical analysis found a positive linear relationship between household size and the amount of the household food waste....

  18. Household energy and consumption and expenditures, 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this supplement to the Household Energy Consumption and Expenditures 1990 report is to provide information on the use of energy in residential housing units, specifically at the four Census regions and nine Census division levels. This report includes household energy consumption, expenditures, and prices for natural gas, electricity, fuel oil, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), and kerosene as well as household wood consumption. For national-level data, see the main report, Household Energy Consumption and Expenditures 1990

  19. Household Consumption, Investment and Life Insurance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruhn, Kenneth; Steffensen, Mogens

    2011-01-01

    This paper develops a continuous-time Markov model for utility optimization of households. The household optimizes expected future utility from consumption by controlling consumption, investments and purchase of lifeinsurance for each person in the household. The optimal controls are investigated...... in the special case of a two-person household, and we present graphics illustrating how differences between the two persons affect the controls....

  20. The Effect of Feedback by SMS-text messages and email on Household Electricity Consumption: Experimental Evidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anders

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyzes the effect of supplying online feedback by SMS-text messages and email about electricity consumption on the level of total household electricity consumption. An experiment was conducted in which 1,452 households were randomly allocated to three experimental groups and two...

  1. Food insecurity, health and nutritional status among sample of palm-plantation households in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamadpour, M; Sharif, Z Mohd; Keysami, M Avakh

    2012-09-01

    Food insecurity is a worldwide problem and has been shown to contribute to poor health and nutritional outcomes. In Malaysia, poor dietary intake, overweight and obesity, diabetes mellitus, and hypercholesterolaemia have been reported to be more prevalent in females compared to males and in Indians compared to other ethnic groups. A cross-sectional study was designed to investigate the relationship between food insecurity and health and nutritional status among 169 Indian women (19-49 years old, non-pregnant, and non-lactating) from randomly-selected palm-plantation households in Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia. Subjects were interviewed for socioeconomic and demographic data, and information on household food security and dietary intake. They were examined for weight, height, waist-circumference, blood pressure and lipids, and plasma glucose levels. For analysis of data, descriptive statistics, ANOVA, and logistic regression were used. Majority (85.2%) of the households showed food insecurity as assessed using the Radimer/Cornell Hunger and Food Insecurity Instrument. The food-secure women had significantly higher mean years of education and lower mean number of children than food-insecure groups (pdiet diversity score (11.60±4.13) than child hunger (9.23±3.36). The group of subjects with higher intake of meat/fish/poultry/legumes (crude odds ratio [OR]=0.53, confidence interval [CI]=0.29-0.95) and higher diet diversity score (crude OR=0.87, CI=0.78-0.97) was more likely to have Diet diversity score remained a significant protective factor against heath risks even after adjusting for other variables. The present study showed that food insecurity is indirectly associated with poor health and nutritional status. Therefore, appropriate community-based interventions should be designed and implemented to address the problems of food insecurity and possible health and nutritional outcomes.

  2. Natural Disaster Induced Losses at Household Level: A Study on the Disaster Affected Migrants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishtiaque, A.; Nazem, N. I.; Jerin, T.

    2015-12-01

    Given its geographical location Bangladesh frequently confronts natural disasters. Disaster induced losses often obligate socio-economic dislocation from rural areas to large urban centers. After incurring what type/amount of losses people migrate is still unknown. In this paper we focus on migrants who migrated due to natural disasters. Thus, the objectives of this paper are, first, ascertaining the proportion of disaster migrants in Dhaka city; second, determining types of natural disasters which compel rural out-migration; third, assessing the resource and economic losses stem from these disasters at household level. Using the slum database (N = 4966), we select eight slums randomly with a purpose to include migrants from maximum districts available. In order to identify the proportion of disaster affected migrants a census is conducted in 407 households of those 8 slums and the result demonstrates that 18.43% of the migrants are disaster affected, which was only 5% in 1993. Out of all hydro-meteorological disasters, river bank erosion (RBE), followed by flood, drives most people out of their abode. However, unlike RBE migrants, migrants affected by flood usually return to their origin after certain period. In-depth interviews on the disaster migrants reveal that RBE claims total loss of homestead land & agricultural land while flood causes 20% and 23% loss respectively. Agricultural income decreases 96% because of RBE whereas flood victims encounter 98% decrease. People also incur 79% & 69% loss in livestock owing to RBE and flood severally. These disasters cause more than eighty percent reduction in total monthly income. Albeit RBE appears more vigorous but total economic loss is greater in flood- on average each household experiences a loss of BDT 350,555 due to flood and BDT 300,000 on account of RBE. Receiving no substantial support from community or government the affected people are compelled to migrate.

  3. The effectiveness of educational interventions to enhance the adoption of fee-based arsenic testing in Bangladesh: a cluster randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Christine Marie; Inauen, Jennifer; Rahman, Sheikh Masudur; Zheng, Yan

    2013-07-01

    Arsenic (As) testing could help 22 million people, using drinking water sources that exceed the Bangladesh As standard, to identify safe sources. A cluster randomized controlled trial was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of household education and local media in the increasing demand for fee-based As testing. Randomly selected households (N = 452) were divided into three interventions implemented by community workers: 1) fee-based As testing with household education (HE); 2) fee-based As testing with household education and a local media campaign (HELM); and 3) fee-based As testing alone (Control). The fee for the As test was US$ 0.28, higher than the cost of the test (US$ 0.16). Of households with untested wells, 93% in both intervention groups HE and HELM purchased an As test, whereas only 53% in the control group. In conclusion, fee-based As testing with household education is effective in the increasing demand for As testing in rural Bangladesh.

  4. Division of household tasks and financial management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antonides, G.

    2011-01-01

    Both the standard economic model and bargaining theory make predictions about financial management and the division of household labor between household partners. Using a large Internet survey, we have tested several predictions about task divisions reported by Dutch household partners. The division

  5. 7 CFR 273.1 - Household concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Household concept. 273.1 Section 273.1 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOOD STAMP AND FOOD DISTRIBUTION PROGRAM CERTIFICATION OF ELIGIBLE HOUSEHOLDS § 273.1 Household concept...

  6. Size of households and income disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznets, S

    1981-01-01

    The author examines "the relation between differentials in size of households, (preponderantly family households including one-person units) and disparities in income per household, per person, or per some version of consuming unit." The analysis is based on data for the United States, the Federal Republic of Germany, Israel, Taiwan, the Philippines, and Thailand. excerpt

  7. Spending time and money within the household

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Browning, Martin; Gørtz, Mette

    We consider theoretically and empirically the allocation of time and money within the household. The novelty of our empirical work is that we have a survey which provides information on both time use and the allocation of some goods within the household, for the same households. We can consider...

  8. Intrahousehold allocation, household headship and nutrition of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper aims to establish whether there is a significant difference in nutritional status of children in male-headed households, de jure female-headed households and de facto female-headed households. The study uses a sample of 199 children aged 6 to 60 months, of mothers in reproductive age, derived from 499 ...

  9. Smartphone Household Wireless Electroencephalogram Hat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harold Szu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Rudimentary brain machine interface has existed for the gaming industry. Here, we propose a wireless, real-time, and smartphone-based electroencephalogram (EEG system for homecare applications. The system uses high-density dry electrodes and compressive sensing strategies to overcome conflicting requirements between spatial electrode density, temporal resolution, and spatiotemporal throughput rate. Spatial sparseness is addressed by close proximity between active electrodes and desired source locations and using an adaptive selection of N active among 10N passive electrodes to form m-organized random linear combinations of readouts, m≪N≪10N. Temporal sparseness is addressed via parallel frame differences in hardware. During the design phase, we took tethered laboratory EEG dataset and applied fuzzy logic to compute (a spatiotemporal average of larger magnitude EEG data centers in 0.3 second intervals and (b inside brainwave sources by Independent Component Analysis blind deconvolution without knowing the impulse response function. Our main contributions are the fidelity of quality wireless EEG data compared to original tethered data and the speed of compressive image recovery. We have compared our recovery of ill-posed inverse data against results using Block Sparse Code. Future work includes development of strategies to filter unwanted artifact from high-density EEGs (i.e., facial muscle-related events and wireless environmental electromagnetic interferences.

  10. Food pantry selection solutions: a randomized controlled trial in client-choice food pantries to nudge clients to targeted foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Norbert L W; Just, David R; Swigert, Jeffery; Wansink, Brian

    2017-06-01

    Food pantries and food banks are interested in cost-effective methods to encourage the selection of targeted foods without restricting choices. Thus, this study evaluates the effectiveness of nudges toward targeted foods. In October/November 2014, we manipulated the display of a targeted product in a New York State food pantry. We evaluated the binary choice of the targeted good when we placed it in the front or the back of the category line (placement order) and when we presented the product in its original box or unboxed (packaging). The average uptake proportion for the back treatment was 0.231, 95% CI = 0.179, 0.29, n = 205, and for the front treatment, the proportion was 0.337, 95% CI = 0.272, 0.406, n = 238 with an odds ratio of 1.688, 95% CI = 1.088, 2.523. The average uptake for the unboxed treatment was 0.224, 95% CI = 0.174, 0.280, n = 255, and for the boxed intervention, the proportion was 0.356, 95% CI = 0.288, 0.429, n = 188 with an odds ratio of 1.923, 95% CI = 1.237, 2.991. Nudges increased uptake of the targeted food. The findings also hold when we control for a potential confounder. Low cost and unobtrusive nudges can be effective tools for food pantry organizers to encourage the selection of targeted foods. NCT02403882. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Recruitment strategies should not be randomly selected: empirically improving recruitment success and diversity in developmental psychology research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugden, Nicole A.; Moulson, Margaret C.

    2015-01-01

    Psychological and developmental research have been critiqued for the lack of diversity of research samples. Because differences in culture, race, and ethnicity can influence participant behavior, limited diversity limits the generalizability of the findings. These differences may also impact how participants behave in response to recruitment attempts, which suggests that recruitment itself may be leveraged to increase sample diversity. The goal of the current study was to determine what factors, within a recruitment interaction, could be leveraged to increase success and diversity when recruiting families with children for developmental research. Study 1 found three factors influenced success: (1) recruitment was more successful when other potential participants were also interested (i.e., recruiters were busy), (2) recruiters of particular races were more successful than recruiters of other races, and (3) differences in success were related to what the recruiter said to engage the potential participant (i.e., the script). The latter two factors interacted, suggesting some recruiters were using less optimal scripts. To improve success rates, study 2 randomly assigned scripts to recruiters and encouraged them to recruit more vigorously during busy periods. Study 2 found that two factors influenced success: (1) some scripts were more successful than others and (2) we were more successful at recruiting non-White potential participants than White participants. These two interacted, with some scripts being more successful with White and other scripts being more successful with non-White families. This intervention significantly increased recruitment success rate by 8.1% and the overall number of families recruited by 15.3%. These findings reveal that empirically evaluating and tailoring recruitment efforts based on the most successful strategies is effective in boosting diversity through increased participation of children from non-White families. PMID:25972829

  12. Suicide in Nepal: a modified psychological autopsy investigation from randomly selected police cases between 2013 and 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagaman, Ashley K; Khadka, S; Lohani, S; Kohrt, B

    2017-12-01

    Yearly, 600,000 people complete suicide in low- and middle-income countries, accounting for 75% of the world's burden of suicide mortality. The highest regional rates are in South and East Asia. Nepal has one of the highest suicide rates in the world; however, few investigations exploring patterns surrounding both male and female suicides exist. This study used psychological autopsies to identify common factors, precipitating events, and warning signs in a diverse sample. Randomly sampled from 302 police case reports over 24 months, psychological autopsies were conducted for 39 completed suicide cases in one urban and one rural region of Nepal. In the total police sample (n = 302), 57.0% of deaths were male. Over 40% of deaths were 25 years or younger, including 65% of rural and 50.8% of female suicide deaths. We estimate the crude urban and rural suicide rates to be 16.1 and 22.8 per 100,000, respectively. Within our psychological autopsy sample, 38.5% met criteria for depression and only 23.1% informants believed that the deceased had thoughts of self-harm or suicide before death. Important warning signs include recent geographic migration, alcohol abuse, and family history of suicide. Suicide prevention strategies in Nepal should account for the lack of awareness about suicide risk among family members and early age of suicide completion, especially in rural and female populations. Given the low rates of ideation disclosure to friends and family, educating the general public about other signs of suicide may help prevention efforts in Nepal.

  13. The effect of feedback by SMS-text messages and email on household electricity consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gleerup, Maria; Larsen, Anders; Leth-Petersen, Søren

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyzes the effect of supplying feedback by text messages (SMS) and email about electricity consumption on the level of total household electricity consumption. An experiment was conducted in which 1,452 households were randomly allocated to three experimental groups and two control....... Results suggest that email and SMS messaging that communicated timely information about a household's 'exceptional' consumption periods (e.g. highest week of electricity use in past quarter) produced average reductions in total annual electricity use of about 3%. The feedback technology is cheap...

  14. Low prevalence of malnourishment among household contacts of patients with tuberculosis in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patsche, C B; Rudolf, F; Mogensen, S W

    2017-01-01

    Setting: An urban demographic surveillance site in Bissau, the capital of Guinea-Bissau, West Africa. Background: We hypothesised that if previous malnutrition plays a part in acquiring active tuberculosis (TB) disease, households of TB cases would have a higher prevalence of malnutrition than...... those of healthy controls. Design: A cross-sectional study comparing nutritional and socio-economic status of all newly diagnosed patients with TB in 2014 with household contacts (persons residing in the household of TB cases) and random controls. Exclusion criteria were extra-pulmonary TB, age ,15...

  15. Selection of drug resistant mutants from random library of Plasmodium falciparum dihydrofolate reductase in Plasmodium berghei model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuthavong Yongyuth

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of drug resistance amongst the human malaria Plasmodium species has most commonly been associated with genomic mutation within the parasites. This phenomenon necessitates evolutionary predictive studies of possible resistance mutations, which may occur when a new drug is introduced. Therefore, identification of possible new Plasmodium falciparum dihydrofolate reductase (PfDHFR mutants that confer resistance to antifolate drugs is essential in the process of antifolate anti-malarial drug development. Methods A system to identify mutations in Pfdhfr gene that confer antifolate drug resistance using an animal Plasmodium parasite model was developed. By using error-prone PCR and Plasmodium transfection technologies, libraries of Pfdhfr mutant were generated and then episomally transfected to Plasmodium berghei parasites, from which pyrimethamine-resistant PfDHFR mutants were selected. Results The principal mutation found from this experiment was S108N, coincident with the first pyrimethamine-resistance mutation isolated from the field. A transgenic P. berghei, in which endogenous Pbdhfr allele was replaced with the mutant PfdhfrS108N, was generated and confirmed to have normal growth rate comparing to parental non-transgenic parasite and also confer resistance to pyrimethamine. Conclusion This study demonstrated the power of the transgenic P. berghei system to predict drug-resistant Pfdhfr mutations in an in vivo parasite/host setting. The system could be utilized for identification of possible novel drug-resistant mutants that could arise against new antifolate compounds and for prediction the evolution of resistance mutations.

  16. Household pesticide usage in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, E P; Keefe, T J; Wheeler, H W; Mounce, L; Helwic, L; Applehans, F; Goes, E; Goes, T; Mihlan, G; Rench, J; Taylor, D K

    1981-01-01

    A total of 10,000 U.S. households in 25 standard metropolitan statistical areas and 25 counties were included in the United States. More than 8,200 households granted an interview. Nine of every ten households in the United States used some types of pesticide in their house, garden, or yard. Households in the southeastern United States used the most pesticides. Although more than 500 different pesticide formulations were used by the sampled households, 15 pesticides accounted for 65.5% of all pesticides reported in this study. Thirteen of these 15 pesticides were insecticides, one was a herbicide, and one was a rodenticide.

  17. Family ties: the multilevel effects of households and kinship on the networks of individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koster, Jeremy

    2018-04-01

    Among social mammals, humans uniquely organize themselves into communities of households that are centred around enduring, predominantly monogamous unions of men and women. As a consequence of this social organization, individuals maintain social relationships both within and across households, and potentially there is conflict among household members about which social ties to prioritize or de-emphasize. Extending the logic of structural balance theory, I predict that there will be considerable overlap in the social networks of individual household members, resulting in a pattern of group-level reciprocity. To test this prediction, I advance the Group-Structured Social Relations Model, a generalized linear mixed model that tests for group-level effects in the inter-household social networks of individuals. The empirical data stem from social support interviews conducted in a community of indigenous Nicaraguan horticulturalists, and model results show high group-level reciprocity among households. Although support networks are organized around kinship, covariates that test predictions of kin selection models do not receive strong support, potentially because most kin-directed altruism occurs within households, not between households. In addition, the models show that households with high genetic relatedness in part from children born to adulterous relationships are less likely to assist each other.

  18. Bla g 1 allergen levels in Zagreb area household dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prester, Ljerka; Macan, Jelena

    2011-03-01

    Cockroach allergy is a health problem in many parts of the world. In urban environments, indoor exposure to cockroach allergens involves a risk of asthma. The aim of this study was to measure the mass fraction of Bla g 1, a major allergen of the German cockroach (Blatella germanica) in 30 house samples, collected at random from Zagreb area households, Croatia. Dust samples were collected on cellulose filters by vacuuming living rooms floors. After extraction, Bla g 1 was detected using the commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Only four of the thirty households had detectable Bla g 1 levels, and only in one was its concentration higher than 2.0 U g(-1), the threshold associated with sensitisation. The Bla g 1 ELISA proved highly sensitive, with the detection limit of 0.12 U g(-1). The within- and between-assay imprecision was 8.9 % and 14.4 %, respectively, and accuracy 85 % to 120 %. Low Bla g 1 levels in the household dust support previously reported low prevalence of skin sensitisation to B. germanica among Zagreb residents. Further monitoring should reveal if there are differences in cockroach allergen exposure and sensitisation between households from other geographic areas in Croatia.

  19. Obesity and household food insecurity: evidence from a sample of rural households in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariff, Z Mohd; Khor, G L

    2005-09-01

    The study examined nutritional outcomes related to body fat accumulation of food insecurity among women from selected rural communities in Malaysia. Cross-sectional study. Rural communities (seven villages and two palm plantations) in a district with high percentage of welfare recipients. Malay (n = 140) and Indian (n = 60) women were interviewed and measured for demographic, socioeconomic, anthropometric, dietary and physical activity information. The women were measured for their body mass index and waist circumference (WC). Energy and nutrient intakes, food group intake and food variety score were analyzed from 24 h dietary recalls and food-frequency questionnaire. Daily physical activity of the women was examined as the number of hours spent in economic, domestic, leisure and sport activities. Using the Radimer/Cornell Hunger and Food Insecurity Instrument, 58% of the women reported some degree of food insecurity (household insecure 14%, adult insecure 9.5% and child hunger 34.5%). In general, food-insecure women had lower years of education, household income and income per capita, more children and mothers as housewives. More than 50% of food-insecure women were overweight and obese than women from food-secure households (38%). Similarly, more food-insecure women (32-47%) had at-risk WC (> or = 88 cm) than food-secure women (29%). Food-insecure women spent significantly more time in domestic and leisure activities than food-secure women. Overweight and abdominal adiposity among the women were associated with a number of independent variables, such as women as housewives, women with more children, larger household size, food insecurity, shorter time spent in economic activities, longer time spent in leisure activities and lower food variety score. After adjusting for factors that are related to both adiposity and food insecurity, women from food-insecure households were significantly more likely to have at-risk WC, but not obese. Among this sample of rural

  20. Urban household energy consumption in Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pongsapich, Amara; Wongsekiarttirat, Wathana (Chulalongkorn Univ., Bangkok (Thailand). Social Research Inst.)

    1994-05-01

    This study was aimed at developing a better understanding of urban household energy consumption in Thailand through a series of in-depth household energy surveys. Households in urban areas used electricity, LPG, charcoal and fuelwood. Traditional biomass fuels such as husk and dung, as well as kerosene, were essentially not used in urban households. Nearly all households used electricity and most households used LPG. Some households used more than one fuel for cooking, particularly LPG and charcoal. There was a great difference in electricity used between the households in Bangkok and other urban areas. Most households in the study areas used LPG stove or burners for cooking. But charcoal stoves were also used by many households for specific culinary purposes. Electric rice-cookers are widely used for convenience. The study suggests that the number of households using charcoal stoves will decrease gradually and fuelwood use will disappear. Saturation rates for refrigerators and colour television sets were very high and air conditioners were common in Bangkok. Some users may be unaware of the benefits of LPG as a cooking fuel. To improve indoor air quality and cooking safety and reduce pressures on forests from commercial fuelwood use, measures to promote LPG should be undertaken. The government should also provide information about efficient appliances and electricity conservation. (Author)

  1. Household demographic determinants of Ebola epidemic risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Ben

    2016-03-07

    A salient characteristic of Ebola, and some other infectious diseases such as Tuberculosis, is intense transmission among small groups of cohabitants and relatively limited indiscriminate transmission in the wider population. Here we consider a mathematical model for an Ebola epidemic in a population structured into households of equal size. We show that household size, a fundamental demographic unit, is a critical factor that determines the vulnerability of a community to epidemics, and the effort required to control them. Our analysis is based on the household reproduction number, but we also consider the basic reproduction number, intrinsic growth rate and final epidemic size. We show that, when other epidemiological parameters are kept the same, all of these quantifications of epidemic growth and size are increased by larger households and more intense within-household transmission. We go on to model epidemic control by case detection and isolation followed by household quarantine. We show that, if household quarantine is ineffective, the critical probability with which cases must be detected to halt an epidemic increases significantly with each increment in household size and may be a very challenging target for communities composed of large households. Effective quarantine may, however, mitigate the detrimental impact of large household sizes. We conclude that communities composed of large households are fundamentally more vulnerable to epidemics of infectious diseases primarily transmitted by close contact, and any assessment of control strategies for these epidemics should take into account the demographic structure of the population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Managing salinity in Upper Colorado River Basin streams: Selecting catchments for sediment control efforts using watershed characteristics and random forests models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillman, Fred; Anning, David W.; Heilman, Julian A.; Buto, Susan G.; Miller, Matthew P.

    2018-01-01

    Elevated concentrations of dissolved-solids (salinity) including calcium, sodium, sulfate, and chloride, among others, in the Colorado River cause substantial problems for its water users. Previous efforts to reduce dissolved solids in upper Colorado River basin (UCRB) streams often focused on reducing suspended-sediment transport to streams, but few studies have investigated the relationship between suspended sediment and salinity, or evaluated which watershed characteristics might be associated with this relationship. Are there catchment properties that may help in identifying areas where control of suspended sediment will also reduce salinity transport to streams? A random forests classification analysis was performed on topographic, climate, land cover, geology, rock chemistry, soil, and hydrologic information in 163 UCRB catchments. Two random forests models were developed in this study: one for exploring stream and catchment characteristics associated with stream sites where dissolved solids increase with increasing suspended-sediment concentration, and the other for predicting where these sites are located in unmonitored reaches. Results of variable importance from the exploratory random forests models indicate that no simple source, geochemical process, or transport mechanism can easily explain the relationship between dissolved solids and suspended sediment concentrations at UCRB monitoring sites. Among the most important watershed characteristics in both models were measures of soil hydraulic conductivity, soil erodibility, minimum catchment elevation, catchment area, and the silt component of soil in the catchment. Predictions at key locations in the basin were combined with observations from selected monitoring sites, and presented in map-form to give a complete understanding of where catchment sediment control practices would also benefit control of dissolved solids in streams.

  3. The Determinants of Agricultural Productivity and Rural Household ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rahel

    Key Words: Labor productivity, Land productivity; Rural household income, Rural ... household labor ratio of rural household farmers, given fixed level of inputs ... because households are rarely practicing dominated by a subsistence.

  4. Effect of a Counseling Session Bolstered by Text Messaging on Self-Selected Health Behaviors in College Students: A Preliminary Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandrick, Janice; Tracy, Doreen; Eliasson, Arn; Roth, Ashley; Bartel, Jeffrey; Simko, Melanie; Bowman, Tracy; Harouse-Bell, Karen; Kashani, Mariam; Vernalis, Marina

    2017-05-17

    The college experience is often the first time when young adults live independently and make their own lifestyle choices. These choices affect dietary behaviors, exercise habits, techniques to deal with stress, and decisions on sleep time, all of which direct the trajectory of future health. There is a need for effective strategies that will encourage healthy lifestyle choices in young adults attending college. This preliminary randomized controlled trial tested the effect of coaching and text messages (short message service, SMS) on self-selected health behaviors in the domains of diet, exercise, stress, and sleep. A second analysis measured the ripple effect of the intervention on health behaviors not specifically selected as a goal by participants. Full-time students aged 18-30 years were recruited by word of mouth and campuswide advertisements (flyers, posters, mailings, university website) at a small university in western Pennsylvania from January to May 2015. Exclusions included pregnancy, eating disorders, chronic medical diagnoses, and prescription medications other than birth control. Of 60 participants, 30 were randomized to receive a single face-to-face meeting with a health coach to review results of behavioral questionnaires and to set a health behavior goal for the 8-week study period. The face-to-face meeting was followed by SMS text messages designed to encourage achievement of the behavioral goal. A total of 30 control subjects underwent the same health and behavioral assessments at intake and program end but did not receive coaching or SMS text messages. The texting app showed that 87.31% (2187/2505) of messages were viewed by intervention participants. Furthermore, 28 of the 30 intervention participants and all 30 control participants provided outcome data. Among intervention participants, 22 of 30 (73%) showed improvement in health behavior goal attainment, with the whole group (n=30) showing a mean improvement of 88% (95% CI 39-136). Mean

  5. A theory for the origin of a self-replicating chemical system. I - Natural selection of the autogen from short, random oligomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, D. H.

    1980-01-01

    A general theory is presented for the origin of a self-replicating chemical system, termed an autogen, which is capable of both crude replication and translation (protein synthesis). The theory requires the availability of free energy and monomers to the system, a significant background low-yield synthesis of kinetically stable oligopeptides and oligonucleotides, the localization of the oligomers, crude oligonucleotide selectivity of amino acids during oligopeptide synthesis, crude oligonucleotide replication, and two short peptide families which catalyze replication and translation, to produce a localized group of at least one copy each of two protogenes and two protoenzymes. The model posits a process of random oligomerization, followed by the random nucleation of functional components and the rapid autocatalytic growth of the functioning autogen to macroscopic amounts, to account for the origin of the first self-replicating system. Such a process contains steps of such high probability and short time periods that it is suggested that the emergence of an autogen in a laboratory experiment of reasonable time scale may be possible.

  6. Effects of Video Game Training on Measures of Selective Attention and Working Memory in Older Adults: Results from a Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballesteros, Soledad; Mayas, Julia; Prieto, Antonio; Ruiz-Marquez, Eloísa; Toril, Pilar; Reales, José M.

    2017-01-01

    Video game training with older adults potentially enhances aspects of cognition that decline with aging and could therefore offer a promising training approach. Although, previous published studies suggest that training can produce transfer, many of them have certain shortcomings. This randomized controlled trial (RCT; Clinicaltrials.gov ID: NCT02796508) tried to overcome some of these limitations by incorporating an active control group and the assessment of motivation and expectations. Seventy-five older volunteers were randomly assigned to the experimental group trained for 16 sessions with non-action video games from Lumosity, a commercial platform (http://www.lumosity.com/) or to an active control group trained for the same number of sessions with simulation strategy games. The final sample included 55 older adults (30 in the experimental group and 25 in the active control group). Participants were tested individually before and after training to assess working memory (WM) and selective attention and also reported their perceived improvement, motivation and engagement. The results showed improved performance across the training sessions. The main results were: (1) the experimental group did not show greater improvements in measures of selective attention and working memory than the active control group (the opposite occurred in the oddball task); (2) a marginal training effect was observed for the N-back task, but not for the Stroop task while both groups improved in the Corsi Blocks task. Based on these results, one can conclude that training with non-action games provide modest benefits for untrained tasks. The effect is not specific for that kind of training as a similar effect was observed for strategy video games. Groups did not differ in motivation, engagement or expectations. PMID:29163136

  7. Effects of Video Game Training on Measures of Selective Attention and Working Memory in Older Adults: Results from a Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soledad Ballesteros

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Video game training with older adults potentially enhances aspects of cognition that decline with aging and could therefore offer a promising training approach. Although, previous published studies suggest that training can produce transfer, many of them have certain shortcomings. This randomized controlled trial (RCT; Clinicaltrials.gov ID: NCT02796508 tried to overcome some of these limitations by incorporating an active control group and the assessment of motivation and expectations. Seventy-five older volunteers were randomly assigned to the experimental group trained for 16 sessions with non-action video games from Lumosity, a commercial platform (http://www.lumosity.com/ or to an active control group trained for the same number of sessions with simulation strategy games. The final sample included 55 older adults (30 in the experimental group and 25 in the active control group. Participants were tested individually before and after training to assess working memory (WM and selective attention and also reported their perceived improvement, motivation and engagement. The results showed improved performance across the training sessions. The main results were: (1 the experimental group did not show greater improvements in measures of selective attention and working memory than the active control group (the opposite occurred in the oddball task; (2 a marginal training effect was observed for the N-back task, but not for the Stroop task while both groups improved in the Corsi Blocks task. Based on these results, one can conclude that training with non-action games provide modest benefits for untrained tasks. The effect is not specific for that kind of training as a similar effect was observed for strategy video games. Groups did not differ in motivation, engagement or expectations.

  8. Effects of Video Game Training on Measures of Selective Attention and Working Memory in Older Adults: Results from a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballesteros, Soledad; Mayas, Julia; Prieto, Antonio; Ruiz-Marquez, Eloísa; Toril, Pilar; Reales, José M

    2017-01-01

    Video game training with older adults potentially enhances aspects of cognition that decline with aging and could therefore offer a promising training approach. Although, previous published studies suggest that training can produce transfer, many of them have certain shortcomings. This randomized controlled trial (RCT; Clinicaltrials.gov ID: NCT02796508) tried to overcome some of these limitations by incorporating an active control group and the assessment of motivation and expectations. Seventy-five older volunteers were randomly assigned to the experimental group trained for 16 sessions with non-action video games from Lumosity , a commercial platform (http://www.lumosity.com/) or to an active control group trained for the same number of sessions with simulation strategy games. The final sample included 55 older adults (30 in the experimental group and 25 in the active control group). Participants were tested individually before and after training to assess working memory (WM) and selective attention and also reported their perceived improvement, motivation and engagement. The results showed improved performance across the training sessions. The main results were: (1) the experimental group did not show greater improvements in measures of selective attention and working memory than the active control group (the opposite occurred in the oddball task); (2) a marginal training effect was observed for the N -back task, but not for the Stroop task while both groups improved in the Corsi Blocks task. Based on these results, one can conclude that training with non-action games provide modest benefits for untrained tasks. The effect is not specific for that kind of training as a similar effect was observed for strategy video games. Groups did not differ in motivation, engagement or expectations.

  9. Recent trend in family households in Beijing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Z; Guo, L

    1997-01-01

    This study examined trends in household size and age structure in Beijing, China, in 1995. Data were reliably obtained from the 1% sample survey of China. Findings indicate that the average size of a family household was 3.15 persons, that is, 0.050 persons fewer than the 3.20 from the 1990 Census. Children aged 0-14 years in each household averaged 0.04 fewer children during 1990-95. 80% of the decline in household size was due to decreases in the number of children. The percentage of single-family and single-person households declined. Three-person households were the only size group that increased (23.2-40.7%). The household headship (HH) rate for males increased dramatically between the ages of 20 and 30 years and stabilized after 35 years. The HH rate for women grew slowly and continuously until age 50 years and then stabilized. The gender gap in HH appeared at an early age and remained thereafter. The HH rate declined at older ages. The HH rate in Beijing, compared to the national rate, suggests relative gender equity in Beijing. As a child ages, the percentage of three-generation households declines and the percentage of two-generation households rises. As a child becomes an adult, the percentages of single-person households and single-couple households increase. Single-couple households decreased among the middle-aged. 67.4% of the elderly lived in two- or three-generation households. 31.4% of elderly lived in single-person/couple households. The percentage of elderly living with their children declined by 2 points during 1990-95.

  10. Household exposure to violence and human rights violations in western Bangladesh (I: prevalence, risk factors and consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montgomery Edith

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ruling parties in Bangladesh have systematically used violence against political opponents and criminals. It is essential to 1 determine the magnitude and burden of organised crime and political violence (OPV and human rights violations in the affected community, and to 2 identify the risk factors and key indicators for developing effective health intervention and prevention measures. Methods The population-based study consisted of two parts: a household survey and OPV screening at mobile clinics (presented in Part II. A cross-sectional, multistage cluster household survey was conducted in the Meherpur district in February-March 2008; 22 clusters with a sample size of 1,101 households (population of 4,870 were selected. Results Around 83% of households reported being exposed to at least two categories of OPV or human rights violations: 29% reported that the family members had been arrested or detained; 31% reported torture or other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment. Crude mortality rate was 17.9/1,000 and under 5 mortality rate was 75/1,000. The annual injury rate was 36%, lifetime experience of violence-related injury was 50%, and pain experience within 2 weeks was reported by 57%. Over 80% of the population over 35 years old complained of pain. High prevalence of injury, lifetime experience of OPV-related injury and pain complaints are related to the level of exposure to OPV and human rights violations. A financial burden was imposed on families with an injured person. A geographical variation was revealed regarding reports of torture and lifetime experience of violence-related injury. A combination of individual, relational, community and societal factors, including variables such as political party affiliation, conflict with other families, household income and residential area, affected the risk of victimisation in the household. The odds ratio for reporting extrajudicial execution of a family

  11. Household exposure to violence and human rights violations in western Bangladesh (I): prevalence, risk factors and consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shr-Jie; Modvig, Jens; Montgomery, Edith

    2009-11-21

    The ruling parties in Bangladesh have systematically used violence against political opponents and criminals. It is essential to 1) determine the magnitude and burden of organised crime and political violence (OPV) and human rights violations in the affected community, and to 2) identify the risk factors and key indicators for developing effective health intervention and prevention measures. The population-based study consisted of two parts: a household survey and OPV screening at mobile clinics (presented in Part II). A cross-sectional, multistage cluster household survey was conducted in the Meherpur district in February-March 2008; 22 clusters with a sample size of 1,101 households (population of 4,870) were selected. Around 83% of households reported being exposed to at least two categories of OPV or human rights violations: 29% reported that the family members had been arrested or detained; 31% reported torture or other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment. Crude mortality rate was 17.9/1,000 and under 5 mortality rate was 75/1,000. The annual injury rate was 36%, lifetime experience of violence-related injury was 50%, and pain experience within 2 weeks was reported by 57%. Over 80% of the population over 35 years old complained of pain. High prevalence of injury, lifetime experience of OPV-related injury and pain complaints are related to the level of exposure to OPV and human rights violations. A financial burden was imposed on families with an injured person. A geographical variation was revealed regarding reports of torture and lifetime experience of violence-related injury. A combination of individual, relational, community and societal factors, including variables such as political party affiliation, conflict with other families, household income and residential area, affected the risk of victimisation in the household. The odds ratio for reporting extrajudicial execution of a family member was 9.22 for Awami League supporters, 9.15 for

  12. A patient and community-centered approach selecting endpoints for a randomized trial of a novel advance care planning tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bridges JFP

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available John FP Bridges,1,2 Norah L Crossnohere,2 Anne L Schuster,1 Judith A Miller,3 Carolyn Pastorini,3,† Rebecca A Aslakson2,4,5 1Department of Health Policy and Management, The Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, 2Department of Health, Behavior, and Society, The Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, 3Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute (PCORI Project, Baltimore, MD, 4Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, The Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, 5Armstrong Institute for Patient Safety and Quality, The Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA †Carolyn Pastorini passed away on August 24, 2015 Background: Despite a movement toward patient-centered outcomes, best practices on how to gather and refine patients’ perspectives on research endpoints are limited. Advanced care planning (ACP is inherently patient centered and would benefit from patient prioritization of endpoints for ACP-related tools and studies.Objective: This investigation sought to prioritize patient-centered endpoints for the content and evaluation of an ACP video being developed for patients undergoing major surgery. We also sought to highlight an approach using complementary engagement and research strategies to document priorities and preferences of patients and other stakeholders.Materials and methods: Endpoints identified from a previously published environmental scan were operationalized following rating by a caregiver co-investigator, refinement by a patient co-investigator, review by a stakeholder committee, and validation by patients and family members. Finalized endpoints were taken to a state fair where members of the public who indicated that they or a loved one had undergone major surgery prioritized their most relevant endpoints and provided comments.Results: Of the initial 50 ACP endpoints identified from the review, 12 endpoints were selected for public

  13. The householders' guide to radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-06-01

    This guide is a follow-up to the leaflet Radon in Houses which was issued previously by the Department of the Environment. It is intended for people who live in areas with high levels of radon. It is written particularly for householders whose homes have already been tested and found to have an appreciable level of radon. It explains what radon is, how it gets into houses and what the effects on health may be. It also outlines some of the ways of reducing the level of radon and gives guidance both on how to get the work done and likely costs. (author)

  14. A randomized controlled trial investigating the use of a predictive nomogram for the selection of the FSH starting dose in IVF/ICSI cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allegra, Adolfo; Marino, Angelo; Volpes, Aldo; Coffaro, Francesco; Scaglione, Piero; Gullo, Salvatore; La Marca, Antonio

    2017-04-01

    The number of oocytes retrieved is a relevant intermediate outcome in women undergoing IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). This trial compared the efficiency of the selection of the FSH starting dose according to a nomogram based on multiple biomarkers (age, day 3 FSH, anti-Müllerian hormone) versus an age-based strategy. The primary outcome measure was the proportion of women with an optimal number of retrieved oocytes defined as 8-14. At their first IVF/ICSI cycle, 191 patients underwent a long gonadotrophin-releasing hormone agonist protocol and were randomized to receive a starting dose of recombinant (human) FSH, based on their age (150 IU if ≤35 years, 225 IU if >35 years) or based on the nomogram. Optimal response was observed in 58/92 patients (63%) in the nomogram group and in 42/99 (42%) in the control group (+21%, 95% CI = 0.07 to 0.35, P = 0.0037). No significant differences were found in the clinical pregnancy rate or the number of embryos cryopreserved per patient. The study showed that the FSH starting dose selected according to ovarian reserve is associated with an increase in the proportion of patients with an optimal response: large trials are recommended to investigate any possible effect on the live-birth rate. Copyright © 2017 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Novel β-lactamase-random peptide fusion libraries for phage display selection of cancer cell-targeting agents suitable for enzyme prodrug therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Girja S.; Krag, David N.

    2010-01-01

    Novel phage-displayed random linear dodecapeptide (X12) and cysteine-constrained decapeptide (CX10C) libraries constructed in fusion to the amino-terminus of P99 β-lactamase molecules were used for identifying β-lactamase-linked cancer cell-specific ligands. The size and quality of both libraries were comparable to the standards of other reported phage display systems. Using the single-round panning method based on phage DNA recovery, we identified severalβ-lactamase fusion peptides that specifically bind to live human breast cancer MDA-MB-361 cells. The β-lactamase fusion to the peptides helped in conducting the enzyme activity-based clone normalization and cell-binding screening in a very time- and cost-efficient manner. The methods were suitable for 96-well readout as well as microscopic imaging. The success of the biopanning was indicated by the presence of ~40% cancer cell-specific clones among recovered phages. One of the binding clones appeared multiple times. The cancer cell-binding fusion peptides also shared several significant motifs. This opens a new way of preparing and selecting phage display libraries. The cancer cell-specific β-lactamase-linked affinity reagents selected from these libraries can be used for any application that requires a reporter for tracking the ligand molecules. Furthermore, these affinity reagents have also a potential for their direct use in the targeted enzyme prodrug therapy of cancer. PMID:19751096

  16. Mucositis reduction by selective elimination of oral flora in irradiated cancers of the head and neck: a placebo-controlled double-blind randomized study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wijers, Oda B.; Levendag, Peter C.; Harms, Erik; Gan-Teng, A.M.; Schmitz, Paul I.M.; Hendriks, W.D.H.; Wilms, Erik B.; Est, Henri van der; Visch, Leo L.

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the study was to test the hypothesis that aerobic Gram-negative bacteria (AGNB) play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of radiation-induced mucositis; consequently, selective elimination of these bacteria from the oral flora should result in a reduction of the mucositis. Methods and Materials: Head-and-neck cancer patients, when scheduled for treatment by external beam radiation therapy (EBRT), were randomized for prophylactic treatment with an oral paste containing either a placebo or a combination of the antibiotics polymyxin E, tobramycin, and amphotericin B (PTA group). Weekly, the objective and subjective mucositis scores and microbiologic counts of the oral flora were noted. The primary study endpoint was the mucositis grade after 3 weeks of EBRT. Results: Seventy-seven patients were evaluable. No statistically significant difference for the objective and subjective mucositis scores was observed between the two study arms (p=0.33). The percentage of patients with positive cultures of AGNB was significantly reduced in the PTA group (p=0.01). However, complete eradication of AGNB was not achieved. Conclusions: Selective elimination of AGNB of the oral flora did not result in a reduction of radiation-induced mucositis and therefore does not support the hypothesis that these bacteria play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of mucositis

  17. Prevalence of at-risk genotypes for genotoxic effects decreases with age in a randomly selected population in Flanders: a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Delft Joost HM

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We hypothesized that in Flanders (Belgium, the prevalence of at-risk genotypes for genotoxic effects decreases with age due to morbidity and mortality resulting from chronic diseases. Rather than polymorphisms in single genes, the interaction of multiple genetic polymorphisms in low penetrance genes involved in genotoxic effects might be of relevance. Methods Genotyping was performed on 399 randomly selected adults (aged 50-65 and on 442 randomly selected adolescents. Based on their involvement in processes relevant to genotoxicity, 28 low penetrance polymorphisms affecting the phenotype in 19 genes were selected (xenobiotic metabolism, oxidative stress defense and DNA repair, respectively 13, 6 and 9 polymorphisms. Polymorphisms which, based on available literature, could not clearly be categorized a priori as leading to an 'increased risk' or a 'protective effect' were excluded. Results The mean number of risk alleles for all investigated polymorphisms was found to be lower in the 'elderly' (17.0 ± 2.9 than the 'adolescent' (17.6 ± 3.1 subpopulation (P = 0.002. These results were not affected by gender nor smoking. The prevalence of a high (> 17 = median number of risk alleles was less frequent in the 'elderly' (40.6% than the 'adolescent' (51.4% subpopulation (P = 0.002. In particular for phase II enzymes, the mean number of risk alleles was lower in the 'elderly' (4.3 ± 1.6 than the 'adolescent' age group (4.8 ± 1.9 P 4 = median number of risk alleles was less frequent in the 'elderly' (41.3% than the adolescent subpopulation (56.3%, P 8 = median number of risk alleles for DNA repair enzyme-coding genes was lower in the 'elderly' (37,3% than the 'adolescent' subpopulation (45.6%, P = 0.017. Conclusions These observations are consistent with the hypothesis that, in Flanders, the prevalence of at-risk alleles in genes involved in genotoxic effects decreases with age, suggesting that persons carrying a higher number of

  18. Socioeconomic inequality in health in the British Household Panel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foverskov, Else; Holm, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Despite social inequality in health being well documented, it is still debated which causal mechanism best explains the negative association between socioeconomic position (SEP) and health. This paper is concerned with testing the explanatory power of three widely proposed causal explanations...... for social inequality in health in adulthood: the social causation hypothesis (SEP determines health), the health selection hypothesis (health determines SEP) and the indirect selection hypothesis (no causal relationship). We employ dynamic data of respondents aged 30 to 60 from the last nine waves...... of the British Household Panel Survey. Household income and location on the Cambridge Scale is included as measures of different dimensions of SEP and health is measured as a latent factor score. The causal hypotheses are tested using a time-based Granger approach by estimating dynamic fixed effects panel...

  19. Socioeconomic inequality in health in the British household panel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foverskov, Else; Holm, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Despite social inequality in health being well documented, it is still debated which causal mechanism best explains the negative association between socioeconomic position (SEP) and health. This paper is concerned with testing the explanatory power of three widely proposed causal explanations...... for social inequality in health in adulthood: the social causation hypothesis (SEP determines health), the health selection hypothesis (health determines SEP) and the indirect selection hypothesis (no causal relationship). We employ dynamic data of respondents aged 30 to 60 from the last nine waves...... of the British Household Panel Survey. Household income and location on the Cambridge Scale is included as measures of different dimensions of SEP and health is measured as a latent factor score. The causal hypotheses are tested using a time-based Granger approach by estimating dynamic fixed effects panel...

  20. Optimum Identification Method of Sorting Green Household Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daud Mohd Hisam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This project is related to design of sorting facility for reducing, reusing, recycling green waste material, and in particular to invent an automatic system to distinguish household waste in order to separate them from the main waste stream. The project focuses on thorough analysis of the properties of green household waste. The method of identification is using capacitive sensor where the characteristic data taken on three different sensor drive frequency. Three types of material have been chosen as a medium of this research, to be separated using the selected method. Based on capacitance characteristics and its ability to penetrate green object, optimum identification method is expected to be recognized in this project. The output capacitance sensor is in analogue value. The results demonstrate that the information from the sensor is enough to recognize the materials that have been selected.

  1. PONTIAC (NT-proBNP selected prevention of cardiac events in a population of diabetic patients without a history of cardiac disease): a prospective randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huelsmann, Martin; Neuhold, Stephanie; Resl, Michael; Strunk, Guido; Brath, Helmut; Francesconi, Claudia; Adlbrecht, Christopher; Prager, Rudolf; Luger, Anton; Pacher, Richard; Clodi, Martin

    2013-10-08

    The study sought to assess the primary preventive effect of neurohumoral therapy in high-risk diabetic patients selected by N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP). Few clinical trials have successfully demonstrated the prevention of cardiac events in patients with diabetes. One reason for this might be an inaccurate selection of patients. NT-proBNP has not been assessed in this context. A total of 300 patients with type 2 diabetes, elevated NT-proBNP (>125 pg/ml) but free of cardiac disease were randomized. The "control" group was cared for at 4 diabetes care units; the "intensified" group was additionally treated at a cardiac outpatient clinic for the up-titration of renin-angiotensin system (RAS) antagonists and beta-blockers. The primary endpoint was hospitalization/death due to cardiac disease after 2 years. At baseline, the mean age of the patients was 67.5 ± 9 years, duration of diabetes was 15 ± 12 years, 37% were male, HbA1c was 7 ± 1.1%, blood pressure was 151 ± 22 mm Hg, heart rate was 72 ± 11 beats/min, median NT-proBNP was 265.5 pg/ml (interquartile range: 180.8 to 401.8 pg/ml). After 12 months there was a significant difference between the number of patients treated with a RAS antagonist/beta-blocker and the dosage reached between groups (p titration of RAS antagonists and beta-blockers to maximum tolerated dosages is an effective and safe intervention for the primary prevention of cardiac events for diabetic patients pre-selected using NT-proBNP. (Nt-proBNP Guided Primary Prevention of CV Events in Diabetic Patients [PONTIAC]; NCT00562952). Copyright © 2013 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Food Expenditures away from Home by Elderly Households

    OpenAIRE

    Yen, Steven T.; Kasteridis, Panagiotis P.; Riley, John B.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the differentiated effects of economic and socio-demographic variables on food away from home (FAFH) expenditures by type of facility among elderly households in the United States. Using data from the 2008–2010 Consumer Expenditure Surveys, the systems of expenditures on full-service, fast food, and other restaurants are estimated with a multivariate sample selection estimator which also accommodates heteroscedasticity in the error distribution. Statistical significanc...

  3. Household energy transition in Hong Kong

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hills, Peter (Hong Kong Univ. (Hong Kong). Centre of Urban Planning and Environmental Management)

    1994-05-01

    A household energy survey in Hong Kong confirmed that domestic energy consumption is dominated by modern fuels. Household spending on fuels typically amounts to less than 3% of monthly income. Delivered energy use per household per month averages 1.77 GJ and per capita use 0.37 GJ. Electricity accounts for more than half of fuel expenditure and energy use. Patterns of fuel choice and use are quite consistent across income levels, although electricity use rises with higher household incomes. Many households use a combination of kerosene, gas and electricity (rice cookers) for cooking, which appears to reflect culinary practices more than fuel prices, perceived safety or availability. Electrical appliance saturation is high already, and air conditioning use is growing rapidly. Household electricity consumption may increase substantially during the 1990s as higher comfort levels lead to increased heating and cooling demand and space standards in public housing units improve. (Author)

  4. Household ecology and out-migration among ethnic Karen along the Thai-Myanmar border

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel M. Parker

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Local migration in developing-world settings, particularly among rural populations, is an important yet understudied demographic process. Research on migration in such populations can help us test and inform anthropological and demographic theory. Furthermore, it can lead to a better understanding of modern population distributions and epidemiologic landscapes. Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential relationships between household- and individual-level factors on out-migration among Karen villagers along the Thai-Myanmar border. Methods: We used a random effects hazard model to investigate the relationship of household consumer-producer (C/P ratios, the number of household members, and an individual's sex on the odds of outmigration. We then used simulations in order to test the sensitivity of our model to our C/P ratio weighting scheme. Results: We found that the number of household members is predictive of increased out-migration. Household C/P ratios were positively associated with out-migration in children but negatively associated with out-migration in working age adults. Finally, adult males were much more likely to move out of the household than were adult females. Conclusions: While household-level factors are important with regard to out-migration, the relationships between such household-level factors and out-migration are complex and vary by the individual's age and sex. Our study offers two novel concepts to household demography and migration studies. First, this study offers a new approach to evaluating weighting schemes for C/P ratios. Second, we show that household level factors are important at units of time (two-week intervals that are not normally studied by demographers.

  5. Household HIV Testing Uptake among Contacts of TB Patients in South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavindhran Velen

    Full Text Available In high HIV prevalence settings, offering HIV testing may be a reasonable part of contact tracing of index tuberculosis (TB patients. We evaluated the uptake of HIV counselling and testing (HCT among household contacts of index TB patients and the proportion of newly diagnosed HIV-infected persons linked into care as part of a household TB contact tracing study.We recruited index TB patients at public health clinics in two South African provinces to obtain consent for household contact tracing. During scheduled household visits we offered TB symptom screening to all household members and HCT to individuals ≥14years of age. Factors associated with HCT uptake were investigated using a random effects logistic regression model.Out of 1,887 listed household members ≥14 years old, 984 (52% were available during a household visit and offered HCT of which 108 (11% self-reported being HIV infected and did not undergo HCT. Of the remaining 876, a total of 304 agreed to HCT (35%; 26 (8.6% were newly diagnosed as HIV positive. In multivariable analysis, factors associated with uptake of HCT were prior testing (odds ratio 1.6; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.1-2.3 and another member in the household testing (odds ratio 2.4; 95% CI: 1.7-3.4. Within 3 months of testing HIV-positive, 35% reported initiating HIV care.HCT as a component of household TB contact tracing reached individuals without prior HIV testing, however uptake of HIV testing was poor. Strategies to improve HIV testing in household contacts should be evaluated.

  6. Issues and prospects for coal utilization in Zimbabwe's rural households

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maya, R.S.

    1990-01-01

    The increasing shortage of traditional fuels in Zimbabwe has prompted government to consider seriously the use of coal in rural households. In this regard, both government and the privately owned coal industry have begun pilot projects in selected rural areas to initiate the introduction of coal stoves and coal fuels. These efforts by government and the coal industry need to be informed by knowledge of the financial and economic dimensions of coal diffusion to rural economies, the environmental implications of widespread coal use in rural households, and the general acceptability of coal as a fuel to households with a long tradition of free fuels. This paper summarizes the results of a study undertaken to provide such background information. Conducted over six months during 1988, the study included field surveys of four districts in Zimbabwe: Murewa, Shurugwi, Mberengwa, and Mazoe Citrus Estates. All but the Mazoe district are rural settings with severe shortages of fuelwood. Mazoe Citrus Estates is a semi-urban plantation community which has had over twenty years' experience with coal use in households under a company-sponsored programme which supplies both fuels and stoves free of charge

  7. Wipe sampling of amphetamine-type stimulants and recreational drugs on selected household surfaces with analysis by ultra-performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madireddy, Sri Bharat; Bodeddula, Vanaja Reddy; Mansani, Sravan Kumar; Wells, Martha J.M.; Boles, Jeffrey O.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Degree of sorption of eight drugs on eleven countertop surfaces was investigated. • Surface composition, volatility and solvent composition played a role in sorption. • Solvent-dependent migration was a key factor of consideration during remediation. • SPME-assisted volatility studies provided evidence for varying degrees of recovery. • Rapid three minute UPLC-QTOF method was developed to quantify the eight compounds. -- Abstract: Sorption characteristics of eight drugs related to recreational and clandestine activity—amphetamine, cocaine, heroin, N-formyl amphetamine, N-formyl methamphetamine, methamphetamine, 3, 4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), and pseudoephedrine—were evaluated on selected kitchen countertop surfaces. Methanol-dampened Whatman™ 40 filter paper wipes were used to collect samples from eleven surfaces including alkyd resin, ceramic tiles, glass, granite, laminate, limestone, marble, quartz compac, quartz real, soap stone, and stainless steel. The filter paper wipes were analyzed by a rapid three-minute UPLC-QTOF method, following ammonium acetate buffer (pH 5.8–6.2) extraction. The average percentage recoveries after 15 h of exposure to the surface materials tested, was found to be highest for cocaine and MDMA and lowest for amphetamine and methamphetamine. Among the eleven countertop surfaces, overall recoveries for marble were observed to be the least, whereas soapstone, quartz compac and stainless steel were among the highest. Scanning electron microscopic images of the surfaces provided a unique view of surface irregularities that potentially influenced drug recovery. Aging, migration, solvent composition, and volatility were examined. The variation in recovery of drugs was attributed to four key factors: compound volatility, surface composition, surface—compound interaction, and solvent composition

  8. Wipe sampling of amphetamine-type stimulants and recreational drugs on selected household surfaces with analysis by ultra-performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madireddy, Sri Bharat; Bodeddula, Vanaja Reddy; Mansani, Sravan Kumar; Wells, Martha J.M.; Boles, Jeffrey O., E-mail: jboles@tntech.edu

    2013-06-15

    Highlights: • Degree of sorption of eight drugs on eleven countertop surfaces was investigated. • Surface composition, volatility and solvent composition played a role in sorption. • Solvent-dependent migration was a key factor of consideration during remediation. • SPME-assisted volatility studies provided evidence for varying degrees of recovery. • Rapid three minute UPLC-QTOF method was developed to quantify the eight compounds. -- Abstract: Sorption characteristics of eight drugs related to recreational and clandestine activity—amphetamine, cocaine, heroin, N-formyl amphetamine, N-formyl methamphetamine, methamphetamine, 3, 4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), and pseudoephedrine—were evaluated on selected kitchen countertop surfaces. Methanol-dampened Whatman™ 40 filter paper wipes were used to collect samples from eleven surfaces including alkyd resin, ceramic tiles, glass, granite, laminate, limestone, marble, quartz compac, quartz real, soap stone, and stainless steel. The filter paper wipes were analyzed by a rapid three-minute UPLC-QTOF method, following ammonium acetate buffer (pH 5.8–6.2) extraction. The average percentage recoveries after 15 h of exposure to the surface materials tested, was found to be highest for cocaine and MDMA and lowest for amphetamine and methamphetamine. Among the eleven countertop surfaces, overall recoveries for marble were observed to be the least, whereas soapstone, quartz compac and stainless steel were among the highest. Scanning electron microscopic images of the surfaces provided a unique view of surface irregularities that potentially influenced drug recovery. Aging, migration, solvent composition, and volatility were examined. The variation in recovery of drugs was attributed to four key factors: compound volatility, surface composition, surface—compound interaction, and solvent composition.

  9. Incomes and expenses of the households

    OpenAIRE

    Mirosław Gorczyca

    2007-01-01

    An analysis of the statistical spectrum of the incomes and expenses of the Polish households leads to the conclusion that the disposable incomes only slightly surpass the expenses of the households and, for a significant part of the households, are lower. There is a growing economic polarization of the society whose considerable part lives on incomes below the social minimum and even below the minimum of existence. The society, as a whole, only to a small extent enjoys the fruits of the econo...

  10. Common selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor side effects in older adults associated with genetic polymorphisms in the serotonin transporter and receptors: data from a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garfield, Lauren D; Dixon, David; Nowotny, Petra; Lotrich, Francis E; Pollock, Bruce G; Kristjansson, Sean D; Doré, Peter M; Lenze, Eric J

    2014-10-01

    Antidepressant side effects are a significant public health issue, associated with poor adherence, premature treatment discontinuation, and, rarely, significant harm. Older adults assume the largest and most serious burden of medication side effects. We investigated the association between antidepressant side effects and genetic variation in the serotonin system in anxious, older adults participating in a randomized, placebo-controlled trial of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) escitalopram. Adults (N = 177) aged ≥ 60 years were randomized to active treatment or placebo for 12 weeks. Side effects were assessed using the Udvalg fur Kliniske Undersøgelser side-effect rating scale. Genetic polymorphisms were putative functional variants in the promoters of the serotonin transporter and 1A and 2A receptors (5-HTTLPR [L/S + rs25531], HTR1A rs6295, HTR2A rs6311, respectively). Four significant drug-placebo side-effect differences were found: increased duration of sleep, dry mouth, diarrhea, and diminished sexual desire. Analyses using putative high- versus low-transcription genotype groupings revealed six pharmacogenetic effects: greater dry mouth and decreased sexual desire for the low- and high-expressing serotonin transporter genotypes, respectively, and greater diarrhea with the 1A receptor low-transcription genotype. Diminished sexual desire was experienced significantly more by high-expressing genotypes in the serotonin transporter, 1A, or 2A receptors. There was not a significant relationship between drug concentration and side effects nor a mean difference in drug concentration between low- and high-expressing genotypes. Genetic variation in the serotonin system may predict who develops common SSRI side effects and why. More work is needed to further characterize this genetic modulation and to translate research findings into strategies useful for more personalized patient care. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Socio-economic, Knowledge Attitude Practices (KAP), household related and demographic based appearance of non-dengue infected individuals in high dengue risk areas of Kandy District, Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udayanga, Lahiru; Gunathilaka, Nayana; Iqbal, M C M; Pahalagedara, Kusumawathie; Amarasinghe, Upali S; Abeyewickreme, Wimaladharma

    2018-02-21

    Socio-economic, demographic factors and Knowledge Attitude Practices (KAPs) have been recognized as critical factors that influence the incidence and transmission of dengue epidemics. However, studies that characterize above features of a risk free or low risk population are rare. Therefore, the present study was conducted to characterize the household related, demographic, socio-economic factors and KAPs status of five selected dengue free communities. An analytical cross-sectional survey was conducted on selected demographic, socio-economic, household related and KAPs in five selected dengue free communities living in dengue risk areas within Kandy District, Central Province, Sri Lanka. Household heads of 1000 randomly selected houses were interviewed in this study. Chi-square test for independence, cluster analysis and Principal Coordinates (PCO) analysis were used for data analysis. Knowledge and awareness regarding dengue, (prevention of the vector breeding, bites of mosquitoes, disease symptoms and waste management) and attitudes of the community (towards home gardening, composting, waste management and maintenance of a clean and dengue free environment) are associated with the dengue free status of the study populations. The vector controlling authorities should focus on socio-economic, demographic and KAPs in stimulating the community to cooperate in the integrated vector management strategies to improve vector control and reduce transmission of dengue within Kandy District.

  12. Smart Energy Management for Households

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja van Dam

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research presented in this thesis was to infer design-related insights and guidelines to improve the use and effectiveness of home energy management systems (HEMS. This was done through an empirical evaluation of the longitudinal effectiveness of these devices and an exploration of factors that influence their use and effectiveness. Three case studies executed with three different HEMS in households, a life cycle assessment (LCA on those three HEMS, as well as a reflection on the challenges of both researching and implementing HEMS in existing housing gave a comprehensive picture of the opportunities and barriers for HEMS. The research revealed five typical use patterns that emerged amongst households. It also revealed average energy savings of 7.8%, which however decreased in the follow-up that was conducted, and factors that may influence the use and effectiveness of HEMS. Nonetheless, the LCA calculations divulged that the HEMS can achieve net energy savings when taking their embedded energy into account. Problem statement The goal of reducing the energy consumption of existing housing formed the basis for this research. There are many facets to this energy consumption, including the characteristics of the house, its appliances, and the behaviours of its inhabitants. Because of this complexity, addressing only one of these facets is not effective in substantially reducing the overall energy consumption of households. This called for an interdisciplinary approach, merging the domains of design for sustainability, sustainable housing transformation and environmental psychology. In this thesis, HEMS were chosen as the intervention to address the various elements that contribute to household energy consumption, thereby functioning as a pivot. By giving feedback and/or helping manage consumption they can assist households in changing their behaviour and help save energy. However, in analysing literature on HEMS, four critique points

  13. Household energy consumption and expenditures, 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This report, Household Energy Consumption and Expenditures 1990, is based upon data from the 1990 Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS). Focusing on energy end-use consumption and expenditures of households, the 1990 RECS is the eighth in a series conducted since 1978 by the Energy Information Administration (EIA). Over 5,000 households were surveyed, providing information on their housing units, housing characteristics, energy consumption and expenditures, stock of energy-consuming appliances, and energy-related behavior. The information provided represents the characteristics and energy consumption of 94 million households nationwide

  14. Householder transformations and optimal linear combinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decell, H. P., Jr.; Smiley, W., III

    1974-01-01

    Several theorems related to the Householder transformation and separability criteria are proven. Orthogonal transformations, topology, divergence, mathematical matrices, and group theory are discussed.

  15. Evaluation of Iranian Household\\'s Diet in terms of Calcium and Iron Density in the Seven Provinces of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeedeh Valaei

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Imbalanced diet, as it may cause micronutrient malnutrition has been known as a causal factor for several chronic diseases. Several studies in Iran have shown that some micro-nutrient deficiencies are prevalent and of high concern. Minerals such as calcium and iron can supply physical and mental health as well as survival, and growth development. In this study, Nutrient density analysis was used to display Iranian households' diet quality. Methods: In this descriptive-analytical study, the diet quality of seven provinces, namely Eastern Azarbaijan, Isfahan, Tehran, Khorasan, Khouzestan, Sistan Balochestan and Fars was assessed in terms of calcium and iron. To do so, the data were obtained through national household food consumption survey conducted by National Nutrition & Food Technology Research Institute, 2000-02, in Iran. Results: Generally, 80% of households' calcium density was less than the standard value and this rate was 40-70% for iron. Index of nutrition quality (INQ for calcium and iron were respectively almost 1/2 and 1/3 of requirements in all provinces. Conclusions: There were significant differences in calcium intake density between the rural and urban households however; there were no differences between the selective provinces and all over the country

  16. House prices and household mobility in the Netherlands : Empirical analyses of financial characteristics of the household

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steegmans, J.W.A.M.

    2017-01-01

    The dissertation studies the role of financial household characteristics in the determination of house prices and household mobility in the Dutch owner-occupied housing market. We investigate how various financial characteristics -- in particular income, wealth, housing equity, and prospective

  17. Realizing potential savings of energy and emissions from efficient household appliances in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parikh, Kirit S.; Parikh, Jyoti K.

    2016-01-01

    The paper projects households' stock of four major electricity consuming appliances till 2030 and explores policy options to accelerate adoption of more energy efficient appliances. India's rapid economic growth has enabled the growing middle class to buy household appliances in increasing numbers. The consequent rise in energy consumption and GHG emissions can be significantly reduced if consumers are motivated by awareness and options in the market to buy energy efficient appliances. India has introduced a star rating scheme for appliances, and even without incentives consumers purchase star-rated appliances. The stock of household appliances is projected using the data of a national sample survey of household consumption, observed sale of star-rated appliances and projected consumption distribution. Estimated savings in households' electricity consumption from just four appliances, ACs, refrigerators, TVs, and ceiling fans, for which data were available, range from 52 bKwh to 145 bkwh in 2030, reductions of 10–27%. The corresponding reduction in CO_2 emissions will be between 42 Mt and 116 Mt in 2030. With policies of finance and bulk procurement to reduce costs, emissions reduction can be 128 Mt in 2030, a reduction of 30%. - Highlights: • Estimates the stock of selected household appliances with 20 classes of rural and urban households in the years 2030 in India. • Assesses the economics of energy efficient appliances. • Estimates spread of selected energy efficient appliances. • Assesses savings in energy consumption and CO_2 emissions in four alternative scenarios. • Suggests policies to promote energy efficient appliances.

  18. Perceived and geographic food access and food security status among households with children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaoguang; Liese, Angela D; Bell, Bethany A; Martini, Lauren; Hibbert, James; Draper, Carrie; Burke, Michael P; Jones, Sonya J

    2016-10-01

    To examine the association of both perceived and geographic neighbourhood food access with food security status among households with children. This was a cross-sectional study in which participants' perceptions of neighbourhood food access were assessed by a standard survey instrument, and geographic food access was evaluated by distance to the nearest supermarket. Multinomial logistic regression models were used to examine the associations. The Midlands Family Study included 544 households with children in eight counties in South Carolina, USA. Food security status among participants was classified into three categories: food secure (FS), food insecure (FI) and very low food security among children (VLFS-C). Compared with FS households, VLFS-C households had lower odds of reporting easy access to adequate food shopping. VLFS-C households also had lower odds of reporting neighbourhood access to affordable fruits and vegetables compared with FS households and reported worse selection of fruits and vegetables, quality of fruits and vegetables, and selection of low-fat products. FI households had lower odds of reporting fewer opportunities to purchase fast food. None of the geographic access measures was significantly associated with food security status. Caregivers with children who experienced hunger perceived that they had less access to healthy affordable food in their community, even though grocery stores were present. Approaches to improve perceived access to healthy affordable food should be considered as part of the overall approach to improving food security and eliminating child hunger.

  19. Perceived and Geographic Food Access and Food Security Status among Households with Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaoguang; Liese, Angela D.; Bell, Bethany; Martini, Lauren; Hibbert, James; Draper, Carrie; Jones, Sonya J.

    2017-01-01

    Objective To examine the association of both perceived and geographic neighborhood food access with food security status among households with children. Design This was a cross-sectional study in which participants’ perceptions of neighborhood food access were assessed by a standard survey instrument, and geographic food access was evaluated by distance to the nearest supermarket. Multinomial logistic regression models were used to examine the associations. Subjects The Midlands Family Study included 544 households with children in eight counties in South Carolina. Food security status among participants was classified into three categories: food secure (FS), food insecure (FI) and very low food security among children (VLFS-C). Results Compared to FS households, VLFS-C households had lower odds of reporting easy access to adequate food shopping. VLFS-C households also had lower odds of reporting neighborhood access to affordable fruits and vegetables compared to FS households and reported worse selection of fruits and vegetables, quality of fruits and vegetables and selection of low-fat products. FI households had lower odds of reporting fewer opportunities to purchase fast food. None of the geographic access measures was significantly associated with food security status. Conclusions Caregivers with children that experienced hunger perceived that they had less access to healthy affordably food in their community, even though grocery stores were present. Approaches to improve perceived access to healthy affordable food should be considered as part of the overall approach to improving food security and eliminating child hunger. PMID:27133939

  20. National Alcohol Survey of households in Trinidad and Tobago (NASHTT: Alcohol use in households

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.G. Maharaj

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To determine the patterns of alcohol use among households in Trinidad and Tobago (T&T and to estimate the association between alcohol use and negative psychological, social, or physical events experienced by the household. Methods A convenience sample of 1837 households across T&T. We identified bivariate correlates of alcohol use, and heavy episodic drinking using chi-square and t-test analyses and used multivariable logistic regression to estimate adjusted associations between household alcohol use and experiences within the past 12 months adjusted for sociodemographic covariates. Results One thousand five hundred two households had complete data for all variables (82% response rate. Nearly two thirds (64% of households included alcohol users; 57% of household that consumed alcohol also reported heavy episodic drinking. Households that reported alcohol consumption were significantly more likely to report illnesses within the households, relationship problems, and behavioral and antisocial problems with children. Among households where a member was employed, those who consumed alcohol were nearly twice as likely (OR = 1.98; 95% confidence interval (CI 1.03, 3.82 to have a household member call in sick to work and 2.9 times as likely (OR = 2.9; CI 1.19, 7.04 to have a household member suffer work related problems compared with households who reported not consuming alcohol. Conclusions Approximately two thirds of households in T&T reported using alcohol. These households were more likely to report psychological, physical, and social problems. These findings would support efforts to enforce current policies, laws, and regulations as well as new strategies to reduce the impact of harmful alcohol consumption on households in T&T.

  1. Essays on household time allocation decisions in a collective household model

    OpenAIRE

    Silvennoinen, Heidi

    2008-01-01

    This thesis considers the consequences of traditional division of labour in households in a setting where spouses are allowed to have distinct preferences. This approach leads to different results compared to the traditional unitary approach and is better equipped to take into consideration gender related issues of household decision making. The thesis consists of three theoretical essays where the household production theory is applied in the collective household model. The first essay ...

  2. Family Meal Frequency and Association with Household Food Availability in United States Multi-Person Households: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah L Newman

    Full Text Available Family meals are associated with a healthier diet among children and adolescents, but how family meal frequency varies in the U.S. population overall by household food availability and sociodemographic characteristics is not well characterized.The U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2010 assessed the frequency of family meals eaten at home in the past week and the household availability of fruits, dark green vegetables, salty snacks, and sugar-sweetened beverages.Computer-assisted face-to-face interviews with a selected adult (≥18 years who owned or rented the home (i.e., the household reference person.We analyzed information on family meal frequency for 18,031 participants living in multi-person households in relation to sociodemographic characteristics and food availability.Among the U.S. population living in households of two or more individuals, the prevalence (95% confidence interval of having 0-2, 3-6 and ≥7 family meals/week was 18.0% (16.6-19.3, 32.4% (31.0-33.9, and 49.6% (47.8-51.4, respectively. Greater household availability of fruits and dark green vegetables and less availability of salty snacks and sugar-sweetened beverages was associated with more frequent family meals. Family meals were more prevalent in low-income households and those in which the reference person was ≥65 years, married, or had less than high school education.About half of the US population living in households of 2 or more people shares meals frequently with their family at home. Family meal frequency was positively associated with a healthier pattern of household food availability.

  3. Family Meal Frequency and Association with Household Food Availability in United States Multi-Person Households: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Sarah L.; Tumin, Rachel; Andridge, Rebecca; Anderson, Sarah E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Family meals are associated with a healthier diet among children and adolescents, but how family meal frequency varies in the U.S. population overall by household food availability and sociodemographic characteristics is not well characterized. Design The U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007–2010 assessed the frequency of family meals eaten at home in the past week and the household availability of fruits, dark green vegetables, salty snacks, and sugar-sweetened beverages. Setting Computer-assisted face-to-face interviews with a selected adult (≥18 years) who owned or rented the home (i.e., the household reference person). Subjects We analyzed information on family meal frequency for 18,031 participants living in multi-person households in relation to sociodemographic characteristics and food availability. Results Among the U.S. population living in households of two or more individuals, the prevalence (95% confidence interval) of having 0–2, 3–6 and ≥7 family meals/week was 18.0% (16.6–19.3), 32.4% (31.0–33.9), and 49.6% (47.8–51.4), respectively. Greater household availability of fruits and dark green vegetables and less availability of salty snacks and sugar-sweetened beverages was associated with more frequent family meals. Family meals were more prevalent in low-income households and those in which the reference person was ≥65 years, married, or had less than high school education. Conclusions About half of the US population living in households of 2 or more people shares meals frequently with their family at home. Family meal frequency was positively associated with a healthier pattern of household food availability. PMID:26636976

  4. Households and food security: lessons from food secure households in East Africa.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silvestri, Silvia; Douxchamps, Sabine; Kristjanson, Patti; Förch, Wiebke; Radeny, Maren; Mutie, Lanetta; Quiros, F.C.; Herrero, M.; Ndungu, Anthony; Claessens, L.F.G.

    2015-01-01

    Background
    What are the key factors that contribute to household-level food security? What lessons can we learn from food secure households? What agricultural options and management strategies are likely to benefit female-headed households in particular? This paper addresses these questions

  5. On the role of heat and mass transfer into laser processability during selective laser melting AlSi12 alloy based on a randomly packed powder-bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lianfeng; Yan, Biao; Guo, Lijie; Gu, Dongdong

    2018-04-01

    A newly transient mesoscopic model with a randomly packed powder-bed has been proposed to investigate the heat and mass transfer and laser process quality between neighboring tracks during selective laser melting (SLM) AlSi12 alloy by finite volume method (FVM), considering the solid/liquid phase transition, variable temperature-dependent properties and interfacial force. The results apparently revealed that both the operating temperature and resultant cooling rate were obviously elevated by increasing the laser power. Accordingly, the resultant viscosity of liquid significantly reduced under a large laser power and was characterized with a large velocity, which was prone to result in a more intensive convection within pool. In this case, the sufficient heat and mass transfer occurred at the interface between the previously fabricated tracks and currently building track, revealing a strongly sufficient spreading between the neighboring tracks and a resultant high-quality surface without obvious porosity. By contrast, the surface quality of SLM-processed components with a relatively low laser power notably weakened due to the limited and insufficient heat and mass transfer at the interface of neighboring tracks. Furthermore, the experimental surface morphologies of the top surface were correspondingly acquired and were in full accordance to the calculated results via simulation.

  6. The economic status of older people's households in urban and rural settings in Peru, Mexico and China: a 10/66 INDEP study cross-sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, Martin J; Lloyd-Sherlock, Peter; Guerra, Mariella; Huang, Yueqin; Sosa, Ana Luisa; Uwakwe, Richard; Acosta, Isaac; Liu, Zhaorui; Gallardo, Sara; Guerchet, Maelenn; Mayston, Rosie; de Oca, Veronica Montes; Wang, Hong; Ezeah, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Few data are available from middle income countries regarding economic circumstances of households in which older people live. Many such settings have experienced rapid demographic, social and economic change, alongside increasing pension coverage. Population-based household surveys in rural and urban catchment areas in Peru, Mexico and China. Participating households were selected from all households with older residents. Descriptive analyses were weighted back for sampling fractions and non-response. Household income and consumption were estimated from a household key informant interview. 877 Household interviews (3177 residents). Response rate 68 %. Household income and consumption correlated plausibly with other economic wellbeing indicators. Household Incomes varied considerably within and between sites. While multigenerational households were the norm, older resident's incomes accounted for a high proportion of household income, and older people were particularly likely to pool income. Differences in the coverage and value of pensions were a major source of variation in household income among sites. There was a small, consistent inverse association between household pension income and labour force participation of younger adult co-residents. The effect of pension income on older adults' labour force participation was less clear-cut. Historical linkage of social protection to formal employment may have contributed to profound late-life socioeconomic inequalities. Strategies to formalise the informal economy, alongside increases in the coverage and value of non-contributory pensions and transfers would help to address this problem.

  7. Barriers to Household Risk Management: Evidence from India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Shawn; Giné, Xavier; Tobacman, Jeremy; Townsend, Robert; Topalova, Petia; Vickery, James

    2012-01-01

    Why do many households remain exposed to large exogenous sources of non-systematic income risk? We use a series of randomized field experiments in rural India to test the importance of price and non-price factors in the adoption of an innovative rainfall insurance product. Demand is significantly price sensitive, but widespread take-up would not be achieved even if the product offered a payout ratio comparable to U.S. insurance contracts. We present evidence suggesting that lack of trust, liquidity constraints and limited salience are significant non-price frictions that constrain demand. We suggest contract design improvements to mitigate these frictions. PMID:24765234

  8. Barriers to Household Risk Management: Evidence from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Shawn; Giné, Xavier; Tobacman, Jeremy; Townsend, Robert; Topalova, Petia; Vickery, James

    2013-01-01

    Why do many households remain exposed to large exogenous sources of non-systematic income risk? We use a series of randomized field experiments in rural India to test the importance of price and non-price factors in the adoption of an innovative rainfall insurance product. Demand is significantly price sensitive, but widespread take-up would not be achieved even if the product offered a payout ratio comparable to U.S. insurance contracts. We present evidence suggesting that lack of trust, liquidity constraints and limited salience are significant non-price frictions that constrain demand. We suggest contract design improvements to mitigate these frictions.

  9. Selection of single blastocysts for fresh transfer via standard morphology assessment alone and with array CGH for good prognosis IVF patients: results from a randomized pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Zhihong

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Single embryo transfer (SET remains underutilized as a strategy to reduce multiple gestation risk in IVF, and its overall lower pregnancy rate underscores the need for improved techniques to select one embryo for fresh transfer. This study explored use of comprehensive chromosomal screening by array CGH (aCGH to provide this advantage and improve pregnancy rate from SET. Methods First-time IVF patients with a good prognosis (age Results For patients in Group A (n = 55, 425 blastocysts were biopsied and analyzed via aCGH (7.7 blastocysts/patient. Aneuploidy was detected in 191/425 (44.9% of blastocysts in this group. For patients in Group B (n = 48, 389 blastocysts were microscopically examined (8.1 blastocysts/patient. Clinical pregnancy rate was significantly higher in the morphology + aCGH group compared to the morphology-only group (70.9 and 45.8%, respectively; p = 0.017; ongoing pregnancy rate for Groups A and B were 69.1 vs. 41.7%, respectively (p = 0.009. There were no twin pregnancies. Conclusion Although aCGH followed by frozen embryo transfer has been used to screen at risk embryos (e.g., known parental chromosomal translocation or history of recurrent pregnancy loss, this is the first description of aCGH fully integrated with a clinical IVF program to select single blastocysts for fresh SET in good prognosis patients. The observed aneuploidy rate (44.9% among biopsied blastocysts highlights the inherent imprecision of SET when conventional morphology is used alone. Embryos randomized to the aCGH group implanted with greater efficiency, resulted in clinical pregnancy more often, and yielded a lower miscarriage rate than those selected without aCGH. Additional studies are needed to verify our pilot data and confirm a role for on-site, rapid aCGH for IVF patients contemplating fresh SET.

  10. Early prevention of antisocial personality: long-term follow-up of two randomized controlled trials comparing indicated and selective approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Stephen; Briskman, Jackie; O'Connor, Thomas G

    2014-06-01

    Antisocial personality is a common adult problem that imposes a major public health burden, but for which there is no effective treatment. Affected individuals exhibit persistent antisocial behavior and pervasive antisocial character traits, such as irritability, manipulativeness, and lack of remorse. Prevention of antisocial personality in childhood has been advocated, but evidence for effective interventions is lacking. The authors conducted two follow-up studies of randomized trials of group parent training. One involved 120 clinic-referred 3- to 7-year-olds with severe antisocial behavior for whom treatment was indicated, 93 of whom were reassessed between ages 10 and 17. The other involved 109 high-risk 4- to 6-year-olds with elevated antisocial behavior who were selectively screened from the community, 90 of whom were reassessed between ages 9 and 13. The primary psychiatric outcome measures were the two elements of antisocial personality, namely, antisocial behavior (assessed by a diagnostic interview) and antisocial character traits (assessed by a questionnaire). Also assessed were reading achievement (an important domain of youth functioning at work) and parent-adolescent relationship quality. In the indicated sample, both elements of antisocial personality were improved in the early intervention group at long-term follow-up compared with the control group (antisocial behavior: odds ratio of oppositional defiant disorder=0.20, 95% CI=0.06, 0.69; antisocial character traits: B=-4.41, 95% CI=-1.12, -8.64). Additionally, reading ability improved (B=9.18, 95% CI=0.58, 18.0). Parental expressed emotion was warmer (B=0.86, 95% CI=0.20, 1.41) and supervision was closer (B=-0.43, 95% CI=-0.11, -0.75), but direct observation of parenting showed no differences. Teacher-rated and self-rated antisocial behavior were unchanged. In contrast, in the selective high-risk sample, early intervention was not associated with improved long-term outcomes. Early intervention with

  11. Micro Econometric Modelling of Household Energy Use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth-Petersen, Søren

    2002-01-01

    Presents a micro econometric analysis of household electricity and natural gas demand for Danish households observed in 1996. Dependence between demand for gas and demand for electricity; Separability of demand for gas from demand for electricity; Relation between energy consumption and the age...

  12. Characterization of household waste in Greenland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisted, Rasmus; Christensen, Thomas H.

    2011-01-01

    The composition of household waste in Greenland was investigated for the first time. About 2 tonnes of household waste was sampled as every 7th bag collected during 1 week along the scheduled collection routes in Sisimiut, the second largest town in Greenland with about 5400 inhabitants. The collection bags were sorted manually into 10 material fractions. The household waste composition consisted primarily of biowaste (43%) and the combustible fraction (30%), including anything combustible that did not belong to other clean fractions as paper, cardboard and plastic. Paper (8%) (dominated by magazine type paper) and glass (7%) were other important material fractions of the household waste. The remaining approximately 10% constituted of steel (1.5%), aluminum (0.5%), plastic (2.4%), wood (1.0%), non-combustible waste (1.8%) and household hazardous waste (1.2%). The high content of biowaste and the low content of paper make Greenlandic waste much different from Danish household waste. The moisture content, calorific value and chemical composition (55 elements, of which 22 were below detection limits) were determined for each material fraction. These characteristics were similar to what has been found for material fractions in Danish household waste. The chemical composition and the calorific value of the plastic fraction revealed that this fraction was not clean but contained a lot of biowaste. The established waste composition is useful in assessing alternative waste management schemes for household waste in Greenland.

  13. Household fuels, direct combustion, public perception, fuel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2005-07-10

    Jul 10, 2005 ... household energy needs and should b e c onsidered as a v ia b le alternativ e sour c e o f energy w hen energy p olic ... consumption is dominated by industries and house- ..... support the predictions of household economics,.

  14. Steps to design a household energy game

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fijnheer, J.D.L.; van Oostendorp, H.

    2016-01-01

    Research where gamification is used to influence household energy consumption is an emerging field. This paper reviews the design and effectiveness of ten games that aim to influence household energy consumption and presents a novel gamification approach in which real world activities are

  15. Gamification in a Prototype Household Energy Game

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fijnheer, J.D.L.; van Oostendorp, H.; Veltkamp, R.C.

    2016-01-01

    Research where gamification is used to influence household energy consumption is an emerging field. This paper reviews design features of the prototype Powersaver Game. The aim of this game is to influence household energy consumption in the long-term. The evaluation of the design of the prototype,

  16. Households' willingness to pay for public housing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ommeren, J.; van der Vlist, A.J.

    2016-01-01

    In the presence of price controls, nonmarket housing allocation mechanisms such as queueing prevent households from revealing their marginal willingness to pay for housing through market prices. We derive the households' marginal willingness to pay using the intuitive idea that the length of the

  17. Supplementary household water sources to augment potable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper addresses on-site supplementary household water sources with a focus on groundwater abstraction, rainwater harvesting and greywater reuse as available non-potable water sources to residential consumers. An end-use model is presented and used to assess the theoretical impact of household water sources ...

  18. Religion, economic attitudes, and household finance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renneboog, L.D.R.; Spaenjers, C.

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the differences in economic attitudes and financial decisions between religious and non-religious households. Using Dutch survey data, we find that religious households consider themselves more trusting, and have a stronger bequest motive and a longer planning horizon. Furthermore,

  19. Spending Time and Money within the Household

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Browning, Martin; Gørtz, Mette

    2012-01-01

    We consider, both theoretically and empirically, the allocation of time and money within the household. The research question is whether a married person who enjoys more leisure than their partner also receives more consumption (which seems to indicate the outcome of power within the household...

  20. Power in Households: Disentangling Bargaining Power

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Mabsout (Ramzi); I.P. van Staveren (Irene)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction Within the household bargaining literature, bargaining power is generally understood in terms of economic resources, such as income or assets. Empirical analyses of women’s bargaining power in households in developed and developing countries find that, in general, higher

  1. Formal demography of families and households

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willekens, F.J.; van Imhoff, E.; Wright, James D.

    2015-01-01

    ‘Family and household demography’ differs from traditional demography in that it explicitly recognizes and studies relationships between individuals. Formal demography focuses on the definition and measurement of families and households, and modeling of types, number, and composition of families and

  2. EFFECT OF COMMERCIALIZATION ON PRODUCTIVE CAPACITY AMONG CASSAVA PRODUCING HOUSEHOLDS IN IKWUANO LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF ABIA STATE, NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogbonnaya Ukeh OTEH

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The study investigated factors affecting commercialization of cassava producing household in Ikwuano Local Government Area, Abia State, Nigeria. It specifically examined the socio-economic characteristics of cassava household; determine commercialization index and analyzed factors that influence commercialization among cassava producing households. The study employed purposive sampling technique in the selection of 120 respondents from one local government area (LGA based on characteristics of interest, nearness and other related features. The selection was done from 6 communities at the rate of 20 respondents per community. Analytically, descriptive statistics, household commercialization index (HCI, and multiple regression analysis were used. The results showed that the mean age of the cassava producing household was about 40 years with a mean farming experience of 14 years. They are mostly married with an average of 5 persons per households. The result further revealed that only a few households (less than 2% have very high commercialization orientation, which exposes the level of farming in the area. With respect to determinants of factors that influence commercialization, value of output, farm size, sex, nearness to market, membership of cooperative and farming experience were significant and found to exhibit varying degree. The study therefore recommends that support policies that sustain and improve the productivity among farming household especially land tenure policy issues, greater incentives policies for farmers in the rural areas; linkages between farm households and the markets; increase access and exchange of information on markets.

  3. Characterization of household waste in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eisted, Rasmus; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    The composition of household waste in Greenland was investigated for the first time. About 2tonnes of household waste was sampled as every 7th bag collected during 1week along the scheduled collection routes in Sisimiut, the second largest town in Greenland with about 5400 inhabitants....... The collection bags were sorted manually into 10 material fractions. The household waste composition consisted primarily of biowaste (43%) and the combustible fraction (30%), including anything combustible that did not belong to other clean fractions as paper, cardboard and plastic. Paper (8%) (dominated...... by magazine type paper) and glass (7%) were other important material fractions of the household waste. The remaining approximately 10% constituted of steel (1.5%), aluminum (0.5%), plastic (2.4%), wood (1.0%), non-combustible waste (1.8%) and household hazardous waste (1.2%). The high content of biowaste...

  4. Capitalization of Local Products through Agro- Household

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona Ciolac

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In every household there are many family activities that provide the necessary income or living foods. Some activities are related to cultivation of land, others for breeding other means services provided by the vilagers. The products of the own household must cover 40% of meals offered to tourists. These products are produced by the householder work in their household, the tourist having the opportunity to observe how the products are produced and participate effectively in this production. Specific rural household products can be recovered through tourism by both indirect and direct ways. Both variants can generate increased profitability and interest of the tourist business activity and impose a sense of satisfaction for quality benefit, issues that may be, in turn, assumptions favorable to the extension of this work.

  5. Household consumption and environment. 2011 edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    This report presents and comments numerous data and indicators concerning the constraints and impacts on the environment related to household consumption and behaviour. After a presentation of context indicators (household number and size, household consumption expenses) and of some global indicators (water and carbon footprint of household consumption), several specific aspects are addressed: housing (electric and electronic equipment, water, space and energy consumption, renewable energies, CO 2 emissions), transport (general statistics on travels, CO 2 and pollutant emissions related to motor cars), food (water print and carbon print related to household food, consumption of bio-agriculture products and of conditioned beverages), and wastes (production and composition, electronic and electric equipment wastes, waste treatment)

  6. [Characterization of Mexican households with food insecurity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundo-Rosas, Verónica; Méndez-Gómez Humarán, Ignacio; Shamah-Levy, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    To describe the sociodemographic and health characteristics associated with food insecurity (FI) in Mexican households. The study included information about 40 809 households from the National Health and Nutrition Survey 2012. The Latin American and Caribbean Scale Food Safety (ELCSA) was used to categorize households in terms of food insecurity. Classification and regression trees were used to identify the most significant characteristics in households with high prevalence of FI. The characteristics associated with higher prevalence of FI in homes were: lowest quintiles of welfare status, lack of education or walking or moving disability of household head, and not receiving money from social programmes, pension or remittances. Monitoring of the factors that favor the presence of FI is required to detect social groups being excluded from the right to food.

  7. Household illness, poverty and physical and emotional child abuse victimisation: findings from South Africa's first prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinck, Franziska; Cluver, Lucie D; Boyes, Mark E

    2015-05-01

    Physical and emotional abuse of children is a large scale problem in South Africa, with severe negative outcomes for survivors. Although chronic household illness has shown to be a predictor for physical and emotional abuse, no research has thus far investigated the different pathways from household chronic illness to child abuse victimisation in South Africa. Confidential self-report questionnaires using internationally utilised measures were completed by children aged 10-17 (n = 3515, 56.7% female) using door-to-door sampling in randomly selected areas in rural and urban locations of South Africa. Follow-up surveys were conducted a year later (96.7% retention rate). Using multiple mediation analyses, this study investigated direct and indirect effects of chronic household illness (AIDS or other illness) on frequent (monthly) physical and emotional abuse victimisation with poverty and extent of the ill person's disability as hypothesised mediators. For children in AIDS-ill families, a positive direct effect on physical abuse was obtained. In addition, positive indirect effects through poverty and disability were established. For boys, a positive direct and indirect effect of AIDS-illness on emotional abuse through poverty were detected. For girls, a positive indirect effect through poverty was observed. For children in households with other chronic illness, a negative indirect effect on physical abuse was obtained. In addition, a negative indirect effect through poverty and positive indirect effect through disability was established. For boys, positive and negative indirect effects through poverty and disability were found respectively. For girls, a negative indirect effect through poverty was observed. These results indicate that children in families affected by AIDS-illness are at higher risk of child abuse victimisation, and this risk is mediated by higher levels of poverty and disability. Children affected by other chronic illness are at lower risk for

  8. Household food insecurity and dietary patterns in rural and urban American Indian families with young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomayko, Emily J; Mosso, Kathryn L; Cronin, Kate A; Carmichael, Lakeesha; Kim, KyungMann; Parker, Tassy; Yaroch, Amy L; Adams, Alexandra K

    2017-06-30

    High food insecurity has been demonstrated in rural American Indian households, but little is known about American Indian families in urban settings or the association of food insecurity with diet for these families. The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of food insecurity in American Indian households by urban-rural status, correlates of food insecurity in these households, and the relationship between food insecurity and diet in these households. Dyads consisting of an adult caregiver and a child (2-5 years old) from the same household in five urban and rural American Indian communities were included. Demographic information was collected, and food insecurity was assessed using two validated items from the USDA Household Food Security Survey. Factors associated with food insecurity were examined using logistic regression. Child and adult diets were assessed using food screeners. Coping strategies were assessed through focus group discussions. These cross-sectional baseline data were collected from 2/2013 through 4/2015 for the Healthy Children, Strong Families 2 randomized controlled trial of a healthy lifestyles intervention for American Indian families. A high prevalence of food insecurity was determined (61%) and was associated with American Indian ethnicity, lower educational level, single adult households, WIC participation, and urban settings (p = 0.05). Food insecure adults had significantly lower intake of vegetables (p insecure children had significantly higher intakes of fried potatoes (p insecurity. The prevalence of food insecurity in American Indian households in our sample is extremely high, and geographic designation may be an important contributing factor. Moreover, food insecurity had a significant negative influence on dietary intake for families. Understanding strategies employed by households may help inform future interventions to address food insecurity. ( NCT01776255 ). Registered: January 16, 2013. Date of enrollment

  9. Household food security and breast-feeding duration among Canadian Inuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIsaac, Kathryn E; Stock, David C; Lou, Wendy

    2017-01-01

    There have been few studies investigating the association between food security and breast-feeding duration and none have been conducted among Canadian Inuit, a population disproportionately burdened with food insecurity. We evaluated the association between household food security and breast-feeding duration in Canadian Inuit children. Data were obtained from the Nunavut Inuit Child Health Survey, a population-based cross-sectional survey. The Canadian Territory of Nunavut in 2007 and 2008. Caregivers of Inuit children aged 3-5 years. Participating children were randomly sampled from community medical centre lists. Out of 215 children, 147 lived in food-insecure households (68·4 %). Using restricted mean survival time models, we estimated that children in food-secure households were breast-fed for 16·8 (95 % CI 12·5, 21·2) months and children in food-insecure households were breast-fed for 21·4 (95 % CI 17·9, 24·8) months. In models adjusting for social class, traditional knowledge and child health, household food security was not associated with breast-feeding duration (hazard ratio=0·82, 95 % CI 0·58, 1·14). Our research does not support the hypothesis that children living in food-insecure households were breast-fed for a longer duration than children living in food-secure households. However, we found that more than 50 % of mothers in food-insecure households continued breast-feeding well beyond 1 year. Many mothers in food-secure households also continued to breast-feed beyond 1 year. Given the high prevalence of food insecurity in Inuit communities, we need to ensure infants and their caregivers are being adequately nourished to support growth and breast-feeding, respectively.

  10. Impact of agricultural intensification on poverty alleviation among rural farm households in Imo state Nigeria

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    Iheke, O.R.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was on the impact of agricultural intensification on poverty alleviation among rural farm households in Imo State Nigeria. Multi-stage random sampling and purposive sampling technique was used in choosing the samples used for the study. Data collections were by the use of structured questionnaire and interview schedules and data analysis involved the computation per capital household food expenditure and mean per capita household expenditure so as to draw the poverty line and hence derive the poverty status of the respondents, regression analysis as well as computation of the Chow’s statistic. The results of data analysis revealed that poverty is more pronounced with the farm households that are not practicing agricultural intensification. The significant factors influencing the poverty level of the farmers practicing agricultural intensification were sex of household head, years of formal education, assets endowment, and income; while for the farmers not practicing intensification, household size, years of formal education, assets endowment, and income were the significant factors influencing their poverty level. For the two households, age, years of formal education, assets endowment, and income were the significant factors influencing their poverty level. Education, income and the dummy variable indicating intensification status were the significant factors influencing their poverty level for the entire household with a dummy introduced. The Chow’s test revealed that agricultual intensification has a positive and significant impact on poverty reduction. Therefore, creation of awareness and persuading rural farming households to practice more of intensified agriculture would lead increase in productivity and income with a multiplier effect on poverty reduction.

  11. Free distribution of insecticidal bed nets improves possession and preferential use by households and is equitable: findings from two cross-sectional surveys in thirteen malaria endemic districts of Bangladesh

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    Ahmed Syed M

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background BRAC, an indigenous non-governmental development organization (NGO, has been implementing a programme to prevent and control malaria in the 13 malaria-endemic districts of Bangladesh since 2007. One of the critical preventive interventions is the distribution of insecticidal bed nets (long-lasting insecticide-treated nets, LLINs and insecticide-treated ordinary nets, ITNs to the community free of cost. This study aimed to assess progress in the possession, preferential use, and knowledge on use of the LLIN/ITNs including the programme's avowed pro-poor inclination one and three and half years after intervention began. Methods A convenient sampling strategy based on malaria endemicity in the districts was adopted. First, thirty upazila (sub-district, with a population around 250,000s were selected at random, with high prevalent districts contributing more upazilas; second, from each upazila, one (2008 to two (2011 villages (covered by insecticidal bed net distribution programme were selected. From each village, households that had either one under-five child and/or a pregnant woman were included in the survey, one household being included only once. Data were collected using a pre-tested structured questionnaire. Results In all, 3,760 households in 2008 and 7,895 households in 2011 were surveyed for collecting relevant information. Proportion of households with at least one LLIN, and at least one LLIN/ITN increased (22-59 to 62-67% and 22-64% to 74-76% respectively over time, including increase in the mean number of LLIN/ITNs per household (≤ 1 to 1 +. The programme achieved > 80% coverage in sleeping under an LLIN/ITN in the case of under-five children and pregnant women, especially in the high-endemic districts. Knowledge regarding critical time of hanging the net also increased over time (7-22 to 44-54%, but remained low. The pro-poor inclination of the programme is reflected in the status of relevant indicators according

  12. Household medical waste disposal policy in Israel.

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    Barnett-Itzhaki, Zohar; Berman, Tamar; Grotto, Itamar; Schwartzberg, Eyal

    2016-01-01

    Large amounts of expired and unused medications accumulate in households. This potentially exposes the public to hazards due to uncontrolled use of medications. Most of the expired or unused medications that accumulate in households (household medical waste) is thrown to the garbage or flushed down to the sewage, potentially contaminating waste-water, water resources and even drinking water. There is evidence that pharmaceutical active ingredients reach the environment, including food, however the risk to public health from low level exposure to pharmaceuticals in the environment is currently unknown. In Israel, there is no legislation regarding household medical waste collection and disposal. Furthermore, only less than 14 % of Israelis return unused medications to Health Maintenance Organization (HMO) pharmacies. In this study, we investigated world-wide approaches and programs for household medical waste collection and disposal. In many countries around the world there are programs for household medical waste collection. In many countries there is legislation to address the issue of household medical waste, and this waste is collected in hospitals, clinics, law enforcement agencies and pharmacies. Furthermore, in many countries, medication producers and pharmacies pay for the collection and destruction of household medical waste, following the "polluter pays" principle. Several approaches and methods should be considered in Israel: (a) legislation and regulation to enable a variety of institutes to collect household medical waste (b) implementing the "polluter pays" principle and enforcing medical products manufactures to pay for the collection and destruction of household medical waste. (c) Raising awareness of patients, pharmacists, and other medical health providers regarding the health and environmental risks in accumulation of drugs and throwing them to the garbage, sink or toilet. (d) Adding specific instructions regarding disposal of the drug, in the

  13. Wood fuels consumption in households in Montenegro

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    Glavonjić Branko D.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of researching wood fuels consumption in households in Montenegro in the heating season 2011/2012. The research was conducted in the period October-November 2012 on the sample of 5% of the total number of households which stated to use solid fuels for heating purposes in the 2011 census. Results of the conducted researches on the presence and amounts of fuels consumed in households in Montenegro showed that total firewood consumption in the heating season 2011/2012 (both urban and rural households was 703,571 m3. Wood consumption is the lowest in the households in the municipalities in the coastal zone, it is somewhat higher in central zone and the highest in the zone on the north of Montenegro. Average wood consumption in households in the coastal zone municipalities is 3.79 m3, in the central zone it is 5.02 m3 and on the north of Montenegro it is 6.74 m3/household. Observed on the level of Montenegro, average firewood consumption per household was 5.49 m3 and as such it best represents relatively low consumption level in the coastal zone and high consumption level on the north of Montenegro. Compared to the neighboring countries, average firewood consumption per household in Montenegro in the amount of 5.49 m3 is significantly lower than the average consumption in Serbia which is 7.3 m3/household as well as in Slovenia in the amount of 6.5 m3.

  14. The effects of the adjunctive bupropion on male sexual dysfunction induced by a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor: a double-blind placebo-controlled and randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safarinejad, Mohammad Reza

    2010-09-01

    To determine the safety and efficacy of adjunctive bupropion sustained-release (SR) on male sexual dysfunction (SD) induced by a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), as SD is a common side-effect of SSRIs and the most effective treatments have yet to be determined. The randomized sample consisted of 234 euthymic men who were receiving some type of SSRI. The men were randomly assigned to bupropion SR (150 mg twice daily, 117) or placebo (twice daily, 117) for 12 weeks. Efficacy was evaluated using the Clinical Global Impression-Sexual Function (CGI-SF; the primary outcome measure), the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF), Arizona Sexual Experience Scale (ASEX), and Erectile Dysfunction Inventory of Treatment Satisfaction (EDITS) (secondary outcome measures). Participants were followed biweekly during study period. After 12 weeks of treatment, the mean (sd) scores for CGI-SF were significantly lower, i.e. better, in patients on bupropion SR, at 2.4 (1.2), than in the placebo group, at 3.9 (1.1) (P= 0.01). Men who received bupropion had a significant increase in the total IIEF score (54.4% vs 1.2%; P= 0.003), and in the five different domains of the IIEF. Total ASEX scores were significantly lower, i.e. better, among men who received bupropion than placebo, at 15.5 (4.3) vs 21.5 (4.7) (P= 0.002). The EDITS scores were 67.4 (10.2) for the bupropion and 36.3 (11.7) for the placebo group (P= 0.001). The ASEX score and CGI-SF score were correlated (P= 0.003). In linear regression analyses the CGI-SF score was not affected significantly by the duration of SD, type of SSRI used and age. Bupropion is an effective treatment for male SD induced by SSRIs. These results provide empirical support for conducting a further study of bupropion.

  15. Oseltamivir for treatment and prevention of pandemic influenza A/H1N1 virus infection in households, Milwaukee, 2009

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    Miller Joel C

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During an influenza pandemic, a substantial proportion of transmission is thought to occur in households. We used data on influenza progression in individuals and their contacts collected by the City of Milwaukee Health Department (MHD to study the transmission of pandemic influenza A/H1N1 virus in 362 households in Milwaukee, WI, and the effects of oseltamivir treatment and chemoprophylaxis. Methods 135 households had chronological information on symptoms and oseltamivir usage for all household members. The effect of oseltamivir treatment and other factors on the household secondary attack rate was estimated using univariate and multivariate logistic regression with households as the unit of analysis. The effect of oseltamivir treatment and other factors on the individual secondary attack rate was estimated using univariate and multivariate logistic regression with individual household contacts as the unit of analysis, and a generalized estimating equations approach was used to fit the model to allow for clustering within households. Results Oseltamivir index treatment on onset day or the following day (early treatment was associated with a 42% reduction (OR: 0.58, 95% CI: 0.19, 1.73 in the odds of one or more secondary infections in a household and a 50% reduction (OR: 0.5, 95% CI: 0.17, 1.46 in the odds of a secondary infection in individual contacts. The confidence bounds are wide due to a small sample of households with early oseltamivir index usage - in 29 such households, 5 had a secondary attack. Younger household contacts were at higher risk of infection (OR: 2.79, 95% CI: 1.50-5.20. Conclusions Early oseltamivir treatment may be beneficial in preventing H1N1pdm influenza transmission; this may have relevance to future control measures for influenza pandemics. Larger randomized trials are needed to confirm this finding statistically.

  16. Energy Expenditure of Selected Household Activities during Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chasan-Taber, Lisa; Freedson, Patty S.; Roberts, Dawn E.; Schmidt, Michael D.; Fragala, Maren S.

    2007-01-01

    Accurately measuring pregnancy physical activity is critical to assess the percentage of pregnant women meeting the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) guidelines. In addition, valid assessment of pregnancy physical activity is important for epidemiologic studies assessing the relationship between physical activity and…

  17. Household characteristics for older adults and study background from SAGE Ghana Wave 1

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    Richard B. Biritwum

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Globally, the population aged 60 years and older is projected to reach 22% by 2050. In sub-Saharan Africa, this figure is projected to exceed 8%, while in Ghana, the older adult population will reach 12% by 2050. The living arrangements and household characteristics are fundamental determinants of the health and well-being of this population, data sources about which are increasingly available. Methods: The World Health Organization's Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE Wave 1 was conducted in China, Ghana, India, Russian Federation, Mexico, and South Africa between 2007 and 2010. SAGE Ghana Wave 1 was implemented in 2007/08 using face-to-face interviews in a nationally representative sample of persons aged 50-plus, along with a smaller cohort aged 18–49 years for comparison purposes. Household information included a household roster including questions about health insurance coverage for all household members, household and sociodemographic characteristics, status of the dwelling, and economic situation. Re-interviews were done in a random 10% of the sample and proxy interviews done where necessary. Verbal autopsies were conducted for deaths occurring in older adult household members in the 24 months prior to interview. Results: The total household population was 27,270 from 5,178 households. The overall household response rate was 86% and household cooperation rate was 98%. Thirty-four percent of household members were under 15 years of age while 8.3% were aged 65-plus years. Households with more than 11 members were more common in rural areas (57.2% and in the highest income quintile (30.6%. Household members with no formal education formed 24.7% of the sample, with Northern and Upper East regions reaching more than 50%. Only 26.8% of the household members had insurance coverage. Households with hard floors ranged from 25.7% in Upper West to 97.7% in Ashanti region. Overall, 84.9% of the households had access to

  18. Household characteristics for older adults and study background from SAGE Ghana Wave 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biritwum, Richard B; Mensah, George; Minicuci, Nadia; Yawson, Alfred E; Naidoo, Nirmala; Chatterji, Somnath; Kowal, Paul

    2013-06-11

    Globally, the population aged 60 years and older is projected to reach 22% by 2050. In sub-Saharan Africa, this figure is projected to exceed 8%, while in Ghana, the older adult population will reach 12% by 2050. The living arrangements and household characteristics are fundamental determinants of the health and well-being of this population, data sources about which are increasingly available. The World Health Organization's Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE) Wave 1 was conducted in China, Ghana, India, Russian Federation, Mexico, and South Africa between 2007 and 2010. SAGE Ghana Wave 1 was implemented in 2007/08 using face-to-face interviews in a nationally representative sample of persons aged 50-plus, along with a smaller cohort aged 18-49 years for comparison purposes. Household information included a household roster including questions about health insurance coverage for all household members, household and sociodemographic characteristics, status of the dwelling, and economic situation. Re-interviews were done in a random 10% of the sample and proxy interviews done where necessary. Verbal autopsies were conducted for deaths occurring in older adult household members in the 24 months prior to interview. The total household population was 27,270 from 5,178 households. The overall household response rate was 86% and household cooperation rate was 98%. Thirty-four percent of household members were under 15 years of age while 8.3% were aged 65-plus years. Households with more than 11 members were more common in rural areas (57.2%) and in the highest income quintile (30.6%). Household members with no formal education formed 24.7% of the sample, with Northern and Upper East regions reaching more than 50%. Only 26.8% of the household members had insurance coverage. Households with hard floors ranged from 25.7% in Upper West to 97.7% in Ashanti region. Overall, 84.9% of the households had access to improved sources of drinking water, with the lowest at

  19. Modes of transmission of influenza B virus in households.

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    Benjamin J Cowling

    Full Text Available While influenza A and B viruses can be transmitted via respiratory droplets, the importance of small droplet nuclei "aerosols" in transmission is controversial.In Hong Kong and Bangkok, in 2008-11, subjects were recruited from outpatient clinics if they had recent onset of acute respiratory illness and none of their household contacts were ill. Following a positive rapid influenza diagnostic test result, subjects were randomly allocated to one of three household-based interventions: hand hygiene, hand hygiene plus face masks, and a control group. Index cases plus their household contacts were followed for 7-10 days to identify secondary infections by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR testing of respiratory specimens. Index cases with RT-PCR-confirmed influenza B were included in the present analyses. We used a mathematical model to make inferences on the modes of transmission, facilitated by apparent differences in clinical presentation of secondary infections resulting from aerosol transmission. We estimated that approximately 37% and 26% of influenza B virus transmission was via the aerosol mode in households in Hong Kong and Bangkok, respectively. In the fitted model, influenza B virus infections were associated with a 56%-72% risk of fever plus cough if infected via aerosol route, and a 23%-31% risk of fever plus cough if infected via the other two modes of transmission.Aerosol transmission may be an important mode of spread of influenza B virus. The point estimates of aerosol transmission were slightly lower for influenza B virus compared to previously published estimates for influenza A virus in both Hong Kong and Bangkok. Caution should be taken in interpreting these findings because of the multiple assumptions inherent in the model, including that there is limited biological evidence to date supporting a difference in the clinical features of influenza B virus infection by different modes.

  20. Sequence based prediction of DNA-binding proteins based on hybrid feature selection using random forest and Gaussian naïve Bayes.

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    Wangchao Lou

    Full Text Available Developing an efficient method for determination of the DNA-binding proteins, due to their vital roles in gene regulation, is becoming highly desired since it would be invaluable to advance our understanding of protein functions. In this study, we proposed a new method for the prediction of the DNA-binding proteins, by performing the feature rank using random forest and the wrapper-based feature selection using forward best-first search strategy. The features comprise information from primary sequence, predicted secondary structure, predicted relative solvent accessibility, and position specific scoring matrix. The proposed method, called DBPPred, used Gaussian naïve Bayes as the underlying classifier since it outperformed five other classifiers, including decision tree, logistic regression, k-nearest neighbor, support vector machine with polynomial kernel, and support vector machine with radial basis function. As a result, the proposed DBPPred yields the highest average accuracy of 0.791 and average MCC of 0.583 according to the five-fold cross validation with ten runs on the training benchmark dataset PDB594. Subsequently, blind tests on the independent dataset PDB186 by the proposed model trained on the entire PDB594 dataset and by other five existing methods (including iDNA-Prot, DNA-Prot, DNAbinder, DNABIND and DBD-Threader were performed, resulting in that the proposed DBPPred yielded the highest accuracy of 0.769, MCC of 0.538, and AUC of 0.790. The independent tests performed by the proposed DBPPred on completely a large non-DNA binding protein dataset and two RNA binding protein datasets also showed improved or comparable quality when compared with the relevant prediction methods. Moreover, we observed that majority of the selected features by the proposed method are statistically significantly different between the mean feature values of the DNA-binding and the non DNA-binding proteins. All of the experimental results indicate that

  1. The CAP study, evaluation of integrated universal and selective prevention strategies for youth alcohol misuse: study protocol of a cluster randomized controlled trial

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    Newton Nicola C

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alcohol misuse amongst young people is a serious concern. The need for effective prevention is clear, yet there appear to be few evidenced-based programs that prevent alcohol misuse and none that target both high and low-risk youth. The CAP study addresses this gap by evaluating the efficacy of an integrated approach to alcohol misuse prevention, which combines the effective universal internet-based Climate Schools program with the effective selective personality-targeted Preventure program. This article describes the development and protocol of the CAP study which aims to prevent alcohol misuse and related harms in Australian adolescents. Methods/Design A cluster randomized controlled trial (RCT is being conducted with Year 8 students aged 13 to 14-years-old from 27 secondary schools in New South Wales and Victoria, Australia. Blocked randomisation was used to assign schools to one of four groups; Climate Schools only, Preventure only, CAP (Climate Schools and Preventure, or Control (alcohol, drug and health education as usual. The primary outcomes of the trial will be the uptake and harmful use of alcohol and alcohol related harms. Secondary outcomes will include alcohol and cannabis related knowledge, cannabis related harms, intentions to use, and mental health symptomatology. All participants will complete assessments on five occasions; baseline; immediately post intervention, and at 12, 24 and 36 months post baseline. Discussion This study protocol presents the design and current implementation of a cluster RCT to evaluate the efficacy of the CAP study; an integrated universal and selective approach to prevent alcohol use and related harms among adolescents. Compared to students who receive the stand-alone universal Climate Schools program or alcohol and drug education as usual (Controls, we expect the students who receive the CAP intervention to have significantly less uptake of alcohol use, a reduction in average

  2. Efficacy of Positive Thinking Training on the Family Process and Subjective Wellbeing of Female Heads of Household

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    محمد خدایاری فرد

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to investigate the efficacy of positive thinking training on family process and subjective wellbeing of female heads of household. The method was a semi-experimental with pretest-posttest and control group; and the study population included all female heads of household residing in Chaharbagh, Alborz province, who have at least one primary school-kid.  Using available sampling method, 50 women were selected among school-students’ mothers, and were randomly assigned into two equal groups of experimental and control groups. Both groups filled Self-Report Family Process Scale (SFPS and Subjective Wellbeing Questionnaire (SWQ. The experimental group received positive thinking training for eight 2-hours-sessions. Then, all participants were assessed again as the posttest. The data were analyzed by covariance analysis method. Findings showed that after the intervention family process scores of experimental group had been significantly improved, while subjective wellbeing scores had not significantly enhanced. Therefore, it can be told that the present program was effective in increasing the family process, though it went ineffective in improving subjective wellbeing in these irritable individuals. Thus, altering and enriching the program and conducting further investigations seems necessary.

  3. Technical assistance and seasonality in the diet and production of dairy herds in household agriculture of Western Paraná

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    Rodrigo Cesar dos Reis Tinini

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to characterize the food sources, as well as the composition and quality of milk obtained from household farms of western Paraná State (Brazil with and without technical assistance during the different seasons. For such, 24 properties were selected, 12 of which only received assistance and technical support. Four milk samples were taken (summer, autumn, winter and spring to assess the physicochemical composition, somatic cell count and total bacterial count and feed supplied to the animals to assess the chemical composition (crude protein, ash, dry matter and neutral detergent fiber. The data were analyzed in a completely randomized design with a 2 × 4 factorial arrangement; the first factor was the presence and absence of technical assistance and the second factor was the four seasons of the year. Due to the dairy tradition of properties in the region, technical assistance had no significant effects on the health and nutritional quality of food, the number of animals, the production, or total bacterial count, which suffered oscillations only depending on the seasons of the year. However, the presence of assistance contributed to reducing somatic cell counts of milk produced and marketed. The technical assistance does not affect the quality of forages and concentrates used or the milk composition; however, it improves the sanitary quality of the milk produced throughout the four seasons of the year in household farms of western Paraná.

  4. Effect of health education based on the protection motivation theory on malaria preventive behaviors in rural households of kerman, iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghahremani, Leila; Faryabi, Reza; Kaveh, Mohammad Hossein

    2014-04-01

    Malaria is one of the most serious diseases in pregnant women as well as children less than 5 years around the world. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of health education based on the protection motivation theory on malaria preventive behaviors in the households of Ghale Ganj, Kerman, Iran in 2011. The present quasi-experimental study was conducted on 144 households covered by 8 health centers of Ghale Ganj, Kerman. The study samples were selected through systematic random sampling and the study data were collected using a questionnaire including demographic information, the constructs of the protection motivation theory, and a checklist for assessing the malaria preventive behaviors. After the pre-test, the intervention group underwent an educational intervention and after two months, the post-test was performed through the same questionnaire. Then, the data were entered into the SPSS statistical software (v. 18) and analyzed using Chi-square and Wilcoxon non-parametric tests. Besides, P motivation theory as well as malaria preventive behaviors (P motivation theory is highly effective in promoting malaria preventive behaviors.

  5. An assessment of the quality of care for children in eighteen randomly selected district and sub-district hospitals in Bangladesh

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    Hoque Dewan ME

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Quality hospital care is important in ensuring that the needs of severely ill children are met to avert child mortality. However, the quality of hospital care for children in developing countries has often been found poor. As the first step of a country road map for improving hospital care for children, we assessed the baseline situation with respect to the quality of care provided to children under-five years age in district and sub-district level hospitals in Bangladesh. Methods Using adapted World Health Organization (WHO hospital assessment tools and standards, an assessment of 18 randomly selected district (n=6 and sub-district (n=12 hospitals was undertaken. Teams of trained assessors used direct case observation, record review, interviews, and Management Information System (MIS data to assess the quality of clinical case management and monitoring; infrastructure, processes and hospital administration; essential hospital and laboratory supports, drugs and equipment. Results Findings demonstrate that the overall quality of care provided in these hospitals was poor. No hospital had a functioning triage system to prioritise those children most in need of immediate care. Laboratory supports and essential equipment were deficient. Only one hospital had all of the essential drugs for paediatric care. Less than a third of hospitals had a back-up power supply, and just under half had functioning arrangements for safe-drinking water. Clinical case management was found to be sub-optimal for prevalent illnesses, as was the quality of neonatal care. Conclusion Action is needed to improve the quality of paediatric care in hospital settings in Bangladesh, with a particular need to invest in improving newborn care.

  6. Household food insecurity and child health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmeer, Kammi K; Piperata, Barbara A

    2017-04-01

    Food insecurity, the lack of consistent access to sufficient quality and quantity of food, affects an estimated 800 million people around the world. Although household food insecurity is generally associated with poor child nutrition and health in the USA, we know less about household food insecurity and child health in developing countries. Particularly lacking is research assessing how associations between household food insecurity and children's health outcomes may differ by child age and among children beyond age 5 years in low-income settings. We use data from a population-based sample of households with children ages 3-11 years (N = 431) in León, Nicaragua to consider how household food insecurity is associated with three measures of child health: illness, anaemia and low height-for-age. Our results provide new evidence that even mild household food insecurity is detrimental to children's health; and that child age conditions the associations between household food insecurity and child health. We find that food insecurity is especially harmful to health during early childhood, but continues to have significant associations with health into middle childhood (up to ages 7-8 years). We discuss the potential implications of these results for future child health research and policies in low-income countries. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Sources of household salt in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jooste, Pieter L

    2005-01-01

    Marketing of non-iodized salt through unconventional distribution channels is one of the factors weakening the national salt iodization program in South Africa. The aim of this study was therefore to quantify the various sources of household salt, and to relate this information to socio-economic status. Questionnaire information was collected by personal interview during home visits from a multistage, cluster, probability sample of 2164 adults representative of the adult population. Nationally 77.7% of households obtained their table salt from the typical food shops distributing iodized salt. However, in the nine different provinces between 8 and 37.3% of households used unconventional sources, distributing mainly non-iodized salt, to obtain their household salt. These alternative sources include distributors of agricultural salt, small general dealer shops called spaza shops, in peri-urban and rural townships, street vendors and salt saches placed in the packaging of maize meal bags. Country-wide around 30% of low socio-economic households obtained their salt from unconventional sources compared to less than 5% in high socio-economic households, emphasizing the vulnerability of low socio-economic groups to the use of non-iodized salt. Intervention strategies should mobilize all role players involved in unconventional marketing channels of household salt to provide only iodized salt to consumers, as required by law.

  8. ASSESSMENT OF HOUSEHOLD CARBON FOOTPRINT REDUCTION POTENTIALS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, Klaas Jan; Homan, Greg; Brown, Rich; Worrell, Ernst; Masanet, Eric

    2009-04-15

    The term ?household carbon footprint? refers to the total annual carbon emissions associated with household consumption of energy, goods, and services. In this project, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory developed a carbon footprint modeling framework that characterizes the key underlying technologies and processes that contribute to household carbon footprints in California and the United States. The approach breaks down the carbon footprint by 35 different household fuel end uses and 32 different supply chain fuel end uses. This level of end use detail allows energy and policy analysts to better understand the underlying technologies and processes contributing to the carbon footprint of California households. The modeling framework was applied to estimate the annual home energy and supply chain carbon footprints of a prototypical California household. A preliminary assessment of parameter uncertainty associated with key model input data was also conducted. To illustrate the policy-relevance of this modeling framework, a case study was conducted that analyzed the achievable carbon footprint reductions associated with the adoption of energy efficient household and supply chain technologies.

  9. The cost of HIV/AIDS-related morbidity and mortality to households: Preliminary estimates for Soweto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Naidu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article has two main aims: to provide data on the cost of HIV/AIDS to urban South African households and to contribute to the development of a methodology that could be used in later studies. Data on the costs of HIV/AIDS-related morbidity and mortality were collected from a purposively selected sample of households in Soweto on four occasions between September 2002 and August 2003. The sample comprised 61 affected households, which had at least one member with a CD4 count of 200 or less at the start of the study, and 52 non-affected households. Three types of costs were examined – financial, economic and the present value of lost future earnings. The data suggest that the financial costs of morbidity and mortality were three and two times greater, respectively, for affected households than for those non-affected households that reported disease and/or death. Mortality costs far exceeded morbidity costs. The present value of lost future earnings, where the deceased had previously been an income earner, proved to be the major cost incurred by an affected household.

  10. Determinants of Vulnerability to Livelihood Insecurity at Household ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    Household Economic Approach of measuring vulnerability. The Household ... external and internal sides as proposed by Conway and Chambers (1989): ... education and occupation of the household head, dependency ratio, exposure.

  11. households' choices of healthcare services in the north west region

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    model. Households' characteristics such as sex and age of household heads, marital status of household heads and .... Based Financing (PBF) of healthcare in the North .... return from this capital in both market and non- ... Healthy Life Style.

  12. Exploring HIV risk perception and behaviour in the context of antiretroviral treatment: results from a township household survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulle, A; Hilderbrand, K; Menten, J; Coetzee, D; Ford, N; Matthys, F; Boelaert, M; Van der Stuyft, P

    2008-08-01

    The objective of this cross-sectional household survey was to assess factors influencing HIV risk perception, behaviour and intervention uptake in a community characterised by high HIV prevalence and availability of antiretroviral therapy (ART). The survey was conducted in Khayelitsha, South Africa and involved two-stage sampling with self-weighting clusters and random selection of households within clusters. One man and woman between 14 and 49 years old was interviewed in each household; 696 men and 879 women were interviewed for a response rate of 84% and 92% respectively. Ninety-three percent and 94% were sexually active with median age of sexual debut 15.3 and 16.5 years. Eighty-three percent and 82% reported a partner at the time of interview and 29% and 8% had additional partner(s). Forty-one percent and 33% reported condom use during the last sexual encounter. Thirty-seven percent of men not using condoms did not as they believed their partner to be faithful, whilst 27% of women did not as their partner refused. Twenty-eight percent and 53% had been tested for HIV. Having undergone HIV testing was not associated with condom usage, whilst current relationship status was the strongest association with condom usage for both men and women. In spite of a relatively high uptake of condoms and testing as well as ART availability, the HIV epidemic has continued unabated in Khayelitsha. Even greater coverage of preventive interventions is required, together with a national social and political environment that builds on the availability of both preventive and treatment services.

  13. The Influence of Farmers’ Livelihood Strategies on Household Energy Consumption in the Eastern Qinghai–Tibet Plateau, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueyan Zhao

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available As an essential factor for sustainable development, energy plays a very important role in sustaining a modern lifestyle, particularly in poor rural areas. Considering that farmers’ livelihood in such areas is enormously dependent on services provided by environmental resources, it makes sense to investigate the relationships and interactions between farming households’ livelihood strategies and their energy consumption. The findings and outcomes would be expected to contribute to the body of knowledge and benefit local policy-making toward sustainable transformation in the long run. Taking Gannan as an example, this study employed a participatory rural appraisal approach, with first-hand data mainly from field surveys, using a stratified random sampling method to illustrate the influence of farmers’ livelihood strategies for household energy consumption in the eastern Qinghai–Tibet Plateau, China. Seven townships in Gannan were covered, three of them in pure pastoral areas, two in farming-pastoral areas, and two in farming areas. From these, 230 households were selected as study samples, with a valid return of 217 questionnaires, among which 78 came from pure pastoral areas, 60 from farming-pastoral areas, and 79 from farming areas. The results show that livelihood has a significant impact on farmers’ household energy consumption patterns, and increasing family income level and education level and improving the availability of commodity energy resources will help farmers reduce the proportion of biomass energy consumption and increase the proportion of commodity energy consumption. Furthermore, measures such as developing nonagricultural industries, improving the energy infrastructure, and enhancing farmers’ energy-saving awareness should be seriously considered to optimize farmers’ living energy consumption patterns in these poverty-stricken and eco-frangible regions.

  14. Assessing the internal validity of a household survey-based food security measure adapted for use in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadeghizadeh Atefeh

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of food insecurity is an indicator of material well-being in an area of basic need. The U.S. Food Security Module has been adapted for use in a wide variety of cultural and linguistic settings around the world. We assessed the internal validity of the adapted U.S. Household Food Security Survey Module to measure adult and child food insecurity in Isfahan, Iran, using statistical methods based on the Rasch measurement model. Methods The U.S. Household Food Security Survey Module was translated into Farsi and after adaptation, administered to a representative sample. Data were provided by 2,004 randomly selected households from all sectors of the population of Isfahan, Iran, during 2005. Results 53.1 percent reported that their food had run out at some time during the previous 12 months and they did not have money to buy more, while 26.7 percent reported that an adult had cut the size of a meal or skipped a meal because there was not enough money for food, and 7.2 percent reported that an adult did not eat for a whole day because there was not enough money for food. The severity of the items in the adult scale, estimated under Rasch-model assumptions, covered a range of 6.65 logistic units, and those in the child scale 11.68 logistic units. Most Item-infit statistics were near unity, and none exceeded 1.20. Conclusion The range of severity of items provides measurement coverage across a wide range of severity of food insecurity for both adults and children. Both scales demonstrated acceptable levels of internal validity, although several items should be improved. The similarity of the response patterns in the Isfahan and the U.S. suggests that food insecurity is experienced, managed, and described similarly in the two countries.

  15. Information content of household-stratified epidemics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.M. Kinyanjui

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Household structure is a key driver of many infectious diseases, as well as a natural target for interventions such as vaccination programs. Many theoretical and conceptual advances on household-stratified epidemic models are relatively recent, but have successfully managed to increase the applicability of such models to practical problems. To be of maximum realism and hence benefit, they require parameterisation from epidemiological data, and while household-stratified final size data has been the traditional source, increasingly time-series infection data from households are becoming available. This paper is concerned with the design of studies aimed at collecting time-series epidemic data in order to maximize the amount of information available to calibrate household models. A design decision involves a trade-off between the number of households to enrol and the sampling frequency. Two commonly used epidemiological study designs are considered: cross-sectional, where different households are sampled at every time point, and cohort, where the same households are followed over the course of the study period. The search for an optimal design uses Bayesian computationally intensive methods to explore the joint parameter-design space combined with the Shannon entropy of the posteriors to estimate the amount of information in each design. For the cross-sectional design, the amount of information increases with the sampling intensity, i.e., the designs with the highest number of time points have the most information. On the other hand, the cohort design often exhibits a trade-off between the number of households sampled and the intensity of follow-up. Our results broadly support the choices made in existing epidemiological data collection studies. Prospective problem-specific use of our computational methods can bring significant benefits in guiding future study designs.

  16. Information content of household-stratified epidemics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinyanjui, T M; Pellis, L; House, T

    2016-09-01

    Household structure is a key driver of many infectious diseases, as well as a natural target for interventions such as vaccination programs. Many theoretical and conceptual advances on household-stratified epidemic models are relatively recent, but have successfully managed to increase the applicability of such models to practical problems. To be of maximum realism and hence benefit, they require parameterisation from epidemiological data, and while household-stratified final size data has been the traditional source, increasingly time-series infection data from households are becoming available. This paper is concerned with the design of studies aimed at collecting time-series epidemic data in order to maximize the amount of information available to calibrate household models. A design decision involves a trade-off between the number of households to enrol and the sampling frequency. Two commonly used epidemiological study designs are considered: cross-sectional, where different households are sampled at every time point, and cohort, where the same households are followed over the course of the study period. The search for an optimal design uses Bayesian computationally intensive methods to explore the joint parameter-design space combined with the Shannon entropy of the posteriors to estimate the amount of information in each design. For the cross-sectional design, the amount of information increases with the sampling intensity, i.e., the designs with the highest number of time points have the most information. On the other hand, the cohort design often exhibits a trade-off between the number of households sampled and the intensity of follow-up. Our results broadly support the choices made in existing epidemiological data collection studies. Prospective problem-specific use of our computational methods can bring significant benefits in guiding future study designs. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Future Changes in Age and Household Patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højbjerg Jacobsen, Rasmus; Hougaard Jensen, Svend E.

    2014-01-01

    Using stochastic forecasting techniques, this paper assesses the consequences for public finances of changes in age and household structures in Denmark over the period 2008–2037. Focusing on components of welfare provisions and tax payments with noticeable differences across age and household...... status, we show that, based on a point forecast, the fiscal impact of changes in household structures amounts to an annual negative effect of 0.5% of GDP, and the effect of changes in age structures is forecast to worsen the public budget by 3.7% of GDP per year. While being subject to a considerable...

  18. Raising household saving: does financial education work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, William G; Harris, Benjamin H; Levine, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    This article highlights the prevalence and economic outcomes of financial illiteracy among American households, and reviews previous research that examines how improving financial literacy affects household saving. Analysis of the research literature suggests that previous financial literacy efforts have yielded mixed results. Evidence suggests that interventions provided for employees in the workplace have helped increase household saving, but estimates of the magnitude of the impact vary widely. For financial education initiatives targeted to other groups, the evidence is much more ambiguous, suggesting a need for more econometrically rigorous evaluations.

  19. Substitution between cars within the household

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Borger, Bruno; Mulalic, Ismir; Rouwendal, Jan

    The purpose of this paper is to study to what extent two-car households substitute the use of their less fuel efficient car by the use of their more fuel efficient car after an increase in fuel prices. Based on a simple theoretical framework we use a large sample of detailed Danish data on two-car...... households to estimate, for each car owned by the household, own and cross-price effects of increases in fuel costs per kilometer. The empirical results point at important substitution effects, so that models that estimate responses to fuel prices on the implicit or explicit assumption of one car per...

  20. Household energy demand. Empirical studies concerning Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dargay, J; Lundin, A

    1978-06-01

    This paper investigates the effects of energy policy on households in Sweden and provides the material necessary for evaluation of current and proposed energy-conservation measures. Emphasis is placed on the impact of enery taxation or price changes on household demand for electricity, heating oil, and gasoline and the consequences of such measures for income distribution. The results of the Swedish studies of household demand for heating oil and gasoline indicate that price changes can have a considerable long run impact on fuel utilization. In the short run, price responsiveness is notably reduced, but it is nevertheless of consequence for energy demand.

  1. Individual and Household Willingness to Pay for Public Goods

    OpenAIRE

    John Quiggin

    1998-01-01

    The issue of whether willingness to pay (WTP) for the benefits generated by a public good should be elicited on an individual or on a household basis is addressed. Differences between individual and household WTP may arise when members of the household are mutually altruistic. It is shown that, for general specifications of altruism, household WTP is less than the sum of household members' individual WTP. Implications for the choice between household and individual measures of WTP are conside...

  2. Household structure, maternal characteristics and childhood mortality in rural sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinyemi, Joshua O; Chisumpa, Vesper H; Odimegwu, Clifford O

    2016-01-01

    The household dynamics of childhood mortality in rural areas of sub-Saharan Africa is less researched despite the fact that mortality rates are almost two times that of urban settings. This study aimed to investigate the influence of household structure on childhood mortality while controlling for household and maternal characteristics in rural sub-Saharan Africa. Eight countries with recent demographic and health survey data not earlier than the year 2010 were selected, two from each sub-region of sub-Saharan Africa. The outcome variables were risk of infant and child death while the main independent variables included sex of household head and household structure. Descriptive statistics were generated for all variables. Mortality rates disaggregated by sex of household head and household structure were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Cox proportional hazard regression models were fitted to investigate the relationship between the outcome and explanatory variables in each country. The percentage of children living in female-headed households (FHHs) ranged from 5.2% in Burkina Faso to 49.1% in Namibia while those living in extended family households ranged from 27.4% in Rwanda to 59.9% in Namibia. Multivariate hazard regression showed that, in the majority of the countries, there was no significant relationship between living in FHHs and childhood mortality, but the direction and magnitude of effect varied across countries. A significant negative effect of FHHs on infant mortality was observed in Burkina Faso (HR=1.64, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.09-2.48) and Zambia (HR=1.49, 95%CI: 1.02-2.17). Likewise, children in extended family households had a higher risk of child mortality in Burkina Faso (HR=1.33, 95%CI: 1.04-1.69) and Zambia (HR=1.59, 95%CI: 1.02-2.49). There was not much difference in the effect of FHHs between infancy (0-11 months) and childhood (12-59 months) in the other countries. The pooled adjusted hazard ratio (HR) showed that the risk

  3. Effectiveness of a selective intervention program targeting personality risk factors for alcohol misuse among young adolescents: results of a cluster randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammers, J.; Goossens, F.; Conrod, P.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Wiers, R.W.H.J.; Kleinjan, M.

    2015-01-01

    Aim The effectiveness of Preventure was tested on drinking behaviour of young adolescents in secondary education in the Netherlands. Design A cluster randomized controlled trial was carried out, with participants assigned randomly to a two-session coping skills intervention or a control

  4. Household air pollution (HAP), microenvironment and child health: Strategies for mitigating HAP exposure in urban Rwanda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Ipsita; Pedit, Joseph; Handa, Sudhanshu; Jagger, Pamela

    2018-04-01

    Exposure to household air pollution (HAP) from cooking and heating with solid fuels is a major risk factor for morbidity and mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. Children under five are particularly at risk for acute lower respiratory infection. We use baseline data from a randomized controlled trial evaluating a household energy intervention in Gisenyi, Rwanda to investigate the role of the microenvironment as a determinant of children’s HAP-related health symptoms. Our sample includes 529 households, with 694 children under five. We examine the association between likelihood of HAP-related health symptom prevalence and characteristics of the microenvironment including: dwelling and cooking area structure; distance to nearest road; and tree cover. We find that children residing in groups of enclosed dwellings, in households that cook indoors, and in households proximate to tree cover, are significantly more likely to experience symptoms of respiratory infection, illness with cough and difficulty breathing. On the other hand, children in households with cemented floors and ventilation holes in the cooking area, are significantly less likely to experience the same symptoms. Our findings suggest that in addition to promoting increased access to clean cooking technologies, there are important infrastructure and microenvironment-related interventions that mitigate HAP exposure.

  5. Bacterial Zoonoses Transmitted by Household Pets : State-of-the-Art and Future Perspectives for Targeted Research and Policy Actions

    OpenAIRE

    Damborg, P; Broens, E M; Chomel, B B; Guenther, S; Pasmans, F; Wagenaar, J A; Weese, J S; Wieler, L H; Windahl, U; Vanrompay, D; Guardabassi, L

    2016-01-01

    The close contact between household pets and people offers favourable conditions for bacterial transmission. In this article, the aetiology, prevalence, transmission, impact on human health and preventative measures are summarized for selected bacterial zoonoses transmissible by household pets. Six zoonoses representing distinct transmission routes were selected arbitrarily based on the available information on incidence and severity of pet-associated disease caused by zoonotic bacteria: bite...

  6. Realization of Intelligent Household Appliance Wireless Monitoring Network Based on LEACH Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weilong ZHOU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The intelligent household appliance wireless monitoring network can real-time monitor the apparent power and power factor of various household appliances in different indoor regions, and can realize the real-time monitoring on the household appliance working status and performance. The household appliance wireless monitoring network based on LEACH protocol is designed in the paper. Firstly, the basic idea of LEACH routing algorithm is proposed. Aiming at the node-distribution feature of intelligent home, the selection of cluster head in the routing algorithm and the data transmission method at the stable communication phase is modified. Moreover, the hardware circuit of power acquisition and power factor measurement is designed. The realization of wireless monitoring network based on CC2530 is described, each module and the whole system were conducted the on-line debugging. Finally, the system is proved to meet the practical requirement through the networking test.

  7. Randomizing Roaches: Exploring the "Bugs" of Randomization in Experimental Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagler, Amy; Wagler, Ron

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the roles of random selection and random assignment in experimental design is a central learning objective in most introductory statistics courses. This article describes an activity, appropriate for a high school or introductory statistics course, designed to teach the concepts, values and pitfalls of random selection and assignment…

  8. Sustainable income-generating projects for HIV-affected households in Zimbabwe: evidence from two high-density suburbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutenje, Munyaradzi J; Nyakudya, Innocent W; Katsinde, Constance; Chikuvire, Tichaedza J

    2007-04-01

    An estimated 25% of the adults in urban areas of Zimbabwe are living as HIV-positive. In HIV-affected households the need for income increases with the demand for medicines, food and funeral costs. One way to mitigate this effect of the epidemic is by expanding micro enterprises that can enhance the livelihoods of urban households affected by HIV. To identify viable income-generating projects for such households, five possible projects facilitated by two HIV/AIDS support organisations were selected for assessment. These were: selling second-hand clothing, poultry-keeping and nutritional/herbal gardens, freezit-making, mobile kitchens, and payphone set-ups. A case study of 200 households benefiting from one of these projects was done in two high-density suburbs in the town of Bindura, northern Zimbabwe. Information was collected from each household four times per year, over four years (2001-2004). Information on the income generated from the micro enterprises was collected monthly during the period. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse household demographic data; income data was analysed using cost-benefit analysis and analysis of variance. The results show that all five income-generating projects were viable for these households, although some were not feasible for the most vulnerable HIV-affected households. Making more efficient use of micro enterprises can be a valuable part of mainstreaming HIV-affected people and households in urban areas, and so allow people living with HIV to have longer and more meaningful lives.

  9. Climate Change, Household Vulnerability and Smart Agriculture

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Marina

    The cost benefits analysis was the main technique used to evaluate alternative adaptation strategies. .... Figure 7 Different vulnerability levels of households from Lambani and Alice . ...... practices and the maintenance of surface residues.

  10. Substitution between cars within the household

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Borger, Bruno; Mulalic, Ismir; Rouwendal, Jan

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we study the demand for car kilometres in two-car households, focusing on the substitution between cars of different fuel efficiency in response to fuel price changes. We use a large sample of detailed Danish data on two-car households to estimate – for each car owned by the household...... – own and cross-price effects of increases in fuel costs per kilometre. The empirical results show that failure to capture substitution between cars within the household can result in substantial misspecification biases. Ignoring substitution, the basic model yielded fuel price elasticities of 0.......98 and 1.41 for the primary and secondary cars, respectively. Accounting for substitution effects, these figures reduce to, respectively, 0.32 and 0.45. Consistent with substitution behaviour, we find that the fuel price elasticity of fuel demand exceeds the elasticity of kilometre demands with respect...

  11. Substitution between Cars within the Household

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Borger, Bruno; Mulalic, Ismir; Rouwendal, Jan

    In this paper we study the demand for car kilometres in two-car households, focusing on the substitution between cars in response to fuel price changes. We use a large sample of detailed Danish data on two-car households to estimate—for each car owned by the household—own and cross-price effects...... of increases in fuel costs per kilometre. The empirical results show that failure to capture substitution between cars within the household can result in substantial misspecification biases. Ignoring substitution, we estimate fuel price elasticities of –0.81 and -0.65 for the primary and secondary cars...... efficient car, finding partial support for the underlying hypothesis. More importantly, the results of this extended model emphasize the importance of behavioural differences related to the position of the most fuel efficient car in the household, suggesting that households’ fuel efficiency choices...

  12. Household wealth and child health in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalasani, Satvika; Rutstein, Shea

    2014-03-01

    Using data from the Indian National Family Health Surveys (1992-93, 1998-99, 2005-06), this study examined how the relationship between household wealth and child health evolved during a time of significant economic change in India. The main predictor was an innovative measure of household wealth that captures changes in wealth over time. Discrete-time logistic models (with community fixed effects) were used to examine mortality and malnutrition outcomes: infant, child, and under-5 mortality; stunting, wasting, and being underweight. Analysis was conducted at the national, urban/rural, and regional levels, separately for boys and girls. The results indicate that the relationship between household wealth and under-5 mortality weakened over time but this result was dominated by infant mortality. The relationship between wealth and child mortality stayed strong for girls. The relationship between household wealth and malnutrition became stronger over time for boys and particularly for girls, in urban and (especially) rural areas.

  13. Community mobilization and household level waste management ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    A baseline household survey was conducted and entomological and sociological surveys were carried out .... Research methods ... including the objectives and the methodology were .... tained both quantitative and qualitative assessments.

  14. Household energy consumption and expenditures 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-05

    This presents information about household end-use consumption of energy and expenditures for that energy. These data were collected in the 1993 Residential Energy Consumption Survey; more than 7,000 households were surveyed for information on their housing units, energy consumption and expenditures, stock of energy-consuming appliances, and energy-related behavior. The information represents all households nationwide (97 million). Key findings: National residential energy consumption was 10.0 quadrillion Btu in 1993, a 9% increase over 1990. Weather has a significant effect on energy consumption. Consumption of electricity for appliances is increasing. Houses that use electricity for space heating have lower overall energy expenditures than households that heat with other fuels. RECS collected data for the 4 most populous states: CA, FL, NY, TX.

  15. FOOD DEMAND PATTERNS IN GHANAIAN URBAN HOUSEHOLDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard SAKYIAMAH

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper analysed food consumption patterns in Ghanaian urban households by comparing food commodity budget shares and estimating price and expenditure elasticities for eleven food commodity groups across different income groups. The Linear Approximation Almost Ideal Demand System (LA/AIDS was applied to the data. Demand for most of the food commodity groups was found to be elastic. The study concluded that generally, across income groups, food commodities respond negatively to changes in food prices and that cereals/bread, roots/tubers, vegetables, meat and fish will remain an important component of urban household food expenditure. Generally, household demographic characteristics such as age, gender and household size had significant effects on urban food demand patterns.

  16. Bangladesh Integrated Household Survey (BIHS) 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — This dataset is the second round of Bangladesh Integrated Household Survey (BIHS). The BIHS is the only nationally representative survey in Bangladesh that collects...

  17. Food security and nutritional status of children under-five in households affected by HIV and AIDS in Kiandutu informal settlement, Kiambu County, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chege, Peter M; Ndungu, Zipporah W; Gitonga, Betty M

    2016-07-22

    HIV and AIDS affect most the productive people, leading to reduced capacity to either produce food or generate income. Children under-fives are the most vulnerable group in the affected households. There exists minimal information on food security status and its effect on nutritional status of children under-fives in households affected by HIV and AIDS. The aim of this study was to assess food security and nutritional status of children under-five in households affected by HIV and AIDS in Kiandutu informal settlement, Kiambu County. A cross-sectional analytical design was used. A formula by Fisher was used to calculate the desired sample size of 286. Systematic random sampling was used to select the children from a list of identified households affected by HIV. A questionnaire was used to collect data. Focus group discussion (FGD) guides were used to collect qualitative data. Nutri-survey software was used for analysis of nutrient intake while ENA for SMART software for nutritional status. Data were analyzed using SPSS computer software for frequency and means. Qualitative data was coded and summarized to capture the emerging themes Results show that HIV affected the occupation of people with majority being casual laborers (37.3 %), thus affecting the engagement in high income generating activities. Pearson correlation coefficient showed a significant relationship between dietary diversity score and energy intake (r = 0.54 p = 0.044) and intake of vitamin A, iron, and zinc (p poor nutritional status noted by a prevalence of 9.9 % in wasting. Stunting and underweight was 17.5 and 5.5 %, respectively. Qualitative data shows that the stigma due to HIV affected the occupation and ability to earn income. The research recommends a food-based intervention program among the already malnourished children.

  18. Macroeconomic Expectations of Households and Professional Forecasters

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher D Carroll

    2002-01-01

    Economists have long emphasized the importance of expectations in determining macroeconomic outcomes Yet there has been almost no recent effort to model actual empirical expectations data; instead macroeconomists usually simply assume expectations are rational This paper shows that while empirical household expectations are not rational in the usual sense expectational dynamics are well captured by a model in which households' views derive from news reports of the views of professional foreca...

  19. Revealing household characteristics from smart meter data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beckel, Christian; Sadamori, Leyna; Staake, Thorsten; Santini, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    Utilities are currently deploying smart electricity meters in millions of households worldwide to collect fine-grained electricity consumption data. We present an approach to automatically analyzing this data to enable personalized and scalable energy efficiency programs for private households. In particular, we develop and evaluate a system that uses supervised machine learning techniques to automatically estimate specific “characteristics” of a household from its electricity consumption. The characteristics are related to a household's socio-economic status, its dwelling, or its appliance stock. We evaluate our approach by analyzing smart meter data collected from 4232 households in Ireland at a 30-min granularity over a period of 1.5 years. Our analysis shows that revealing characteristics from smart meter data is feasible, as our method achieves an accuracy of more than 70% over all households for many of the characteristics and even exceeds 80% for some of the characteristics. The findings are applicable to all smart metering systems without making changes to the measurement infrastructure. The inferred knowledge paves the way for targeted energy efficiency programs and other services that benefit from improved customer insights. On the basis of these promising results, the paper discusses the potential for utilities as well as policy and privacy implications. - Highlights: • Many household characteristics can be automatically inferred from smart meter data. • We develop a system to infer employment status and number of occupants, for instance. • We evaluate our system analyzing data collected from 4232 households in Ireland. • The insights enable personalized and scalable efficiency campaigns for utilities. • Energy efficiency measures must be complemented by privacy protection

  20. Power in Households: Disentangling Bargaining Power

    OpenAIRE

    Mabsout, Ramzi; Staveren, Irene

    2009-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction Within the household bargaining literature, bargaining power is generally understood in terms of economic resources, such as income or assets. Empirical analyses of women’s bargaining power in households in developed and developing countries find that, in general, higher female incomes lead to higher bargaining power, which in turn tends to increase women’s relative wellbeing (Quisumbing, 2003). For assets, the empirical literature comes up with similar results, indic...