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Sample records for randomly selected cases

  1. Blocked Randomization with Randomly Selected Block Sizes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimmy Efird

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available When planning a randomized clinical trial, careful consideration must be given to how participants are selected for various arms of a study. Selection and accidental bias may occur when participants are not assigned to study groups with equal probability. A simple random allocation scheme is a process by which each participant has equal likelihood of being assigned to treatment versus referent groups. However, by chance an unequal number of individuals may be assigned to each arm of the study and thus decrease the power to detect statistically significant differences between groups. Block randomization is a commonly used technique in clinical trial design to reduce bias and achieve balance in the allocation of participants to treatment arms, especially when the sample size is small. This method increases the probability that each arm will contain an equal number of individuals by sequencing participant assignments by block. Yet still, the allocation process may be predictable, for example, when the investigator is not blind and the block size is fixed. This paper provides an overview of blocked randomization and illustrates how to avoid selection bias by using random block sizes.

  2. Blocked randomization with randomly selected block sizes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efird, Jimmy

    2011-01-01

    When planning a randomized clinical trial, careful consideration must be given to how participants are selected for various arms of a study. Selection and accidental bias may occur when participants are not assigned to study groups with equal probability. A simple random allocation scheme is a process by which each participant has equal likelihood of being assigned to treatment versus referent groups. However, by chance an unequal number of individuals may be assigned to each arm of the study and thus decrease the power to detect statistically significant differences between groups. Block randomization is a commonly used technique in clinical trial design to reduce bias and achieve balance in the allocation of participants to treatment arms, especially when the sample size is small. This method increases the probability that each arm will contain an equal number of individuals by sequencing participant assignments by block. Yet still, the allocation process may be predictable, for example, when the investigator is not blind and the block size is fixed. This paper provides an overview of blocked randomization and illustrates how to avoid selection bias by using random block sizes.

  3. Case Selection via Matching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Richard A.

    2016-01-01

    This article shows how statistical matching methods can be used to select "most similar" cases for qualitative analysis. I first offer a methodological justification for research designs based on selecting most similar cases. I then discuss the applicability of existing matching methods to the task of selecting most similar cases and…

  4. Randomized selection on the GPU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monroe, Laura Marie [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wendelberger, Joanne R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Michalak, Sarah E [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2011-01-13

    We implement here a fast and memory-sparing probabilistic top N selection algorithm on the GPU. To our knowledge, this is the first direct selection in the literature for the GPU. The algorithm proceeds via a probabilistic-guess-and-chcck process searching for the Nth element. It always gives a correct result and always terminates. The use of randomization reduces the amount of data that needs heavy processing, and so reduces the average time required for the algorithm. Probabilistic Las Vegas algorithms of this kind are a form of stochastic optimization and can be well suited to more general parallel processors with limited amounts of fast memory.

  5. Selecting Optimal Random Forest Predictive Models: A Case Study on Predicting the Spatial Distribution of Seabed Hardness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jin; Tran, Maggie; Siwabessy, Justy

    2016-01-01

    Spatially continuous predictions of seabed hardness are important baseline environmental information for sustainable management of Australia’s marine jurisdiction. Seabed hardness is often inferred from multibeam backscatter data with unknown accuracy and can be inferred from underwater video footage at limited locations. In this study, we classified the seabed into four classes based on two new seabed hardness classification schemes (i.e., hard90 and hard70). We developed optimal predictive models to predict seabed hardness using random forest (RF) based on the point data of hardness classes and spatially continuous multibeam data. Five feature selection (FS) methods that are variable importance (VI), averaged variable importance (AVI), knowledge informed AVI (KIAVI), Boruta and regularized RF (RRF) were tested based on predictive accuracy. Effects of highly correlated, important and unimportant predictors on the accuracy of RF predictive models were examined. Finally, spatial predictions generated using the most accurate models were visually examined and analysed. This study confirmed that: 1) hard90 and hard70 are effective seabed hardness classification schemes; 2) seabed hardness of four classes can be predicted with a high degree of accuracy; 3) the typical approach used to pre-select predictive variables by excluding highly correlated variables needs to be re-examined; 4) the identification of the important and unimportant predictors provides useful guidelines for further improving predictive models; 5) FS methods select the most accurate predictive model(s) instead of the most parsimonious ones, and AVI and Boruta are recommended for future studies; and 6) RF is an effective modelling method with high predictive accuracy for multi-level categorical data and can be applied to ‘small p and large n’ problems in environmental sciences. Additionally, automated computational programs for AVI need to be developed to increase its computational efficiency and

  6. Selecting Optimal Random Forest Predictive Models: A Case Study on Predicting the Spatial Distribution of Seabed Hardness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Li

    Full Text Available Spatially continuous predictions of seabed hardness are important baseline environmental information for sustainable management of Australia's marine jurisdiction. Seabed hardness is often inferred from multibeam backscatter data with unknown accuracy and can be inferred from underwater video footage at limited locations. In this study, we classified the seabed into four classes based on two new seabed hardness classification schemes (i.e., hard90 and hard70. We developed optimal predictive models to predict seabed hardness using random forest (RF based on the point data of hardness classes and spatially continuous multibeam data. Five feature selection (FS methods that are variable importance (VI, averaged variable importance (AVI, knowledge informed AVI (KIAVI, Boruta and regularized RF (RRF were tested based on predictive accuracy. Effects of highly correlated, important and unimportant predictors on the accuracy of RF predictive models were examined. Finally, spatial predictions generated using the most accurate models were visually examined and analysed. This study confirmed that: 1 hard90 and hard70 are effective seabed hardness classification schemes; 2 seabed hardness of four classes can be predicted with a high degree of accuracy; 3 the typical approach used to pre-select predictive variables by excluding highly correlated variables needs to be re-examined; 4 the identification of the important and unimportant predictors provides useful guidelines for further improving predictive models; 5 FS methods select the most accurate predictive model(s instead of the most parsimonious ones, and AVI and Boruta are recommended for future studies; and 6 RF is an effective modelling method with high predictive accuracy for multi-level categorical data and can be applied to 'small p and large n' problems in environmental sciences. Additionally, automated computational programs for AVI need to be developed to increase its computational efficiency and

  7. Suicide in Nepal: a modified psychological autopsy investigation from randomly selected police cases between 2013 and 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagaman, Ashley K; Khadka, S; Lohani, S; Kohrt, B

    2017-12-01

    Yearly, 600,000 people complete suicide in low- and middle-income countries, accounting for 75% of the world's burden of suicide mortality. The highest regional rates are in South and East Asia. Nepal has one of the highest suicide rates in the world; however, few investigations exploring patterns surrounding both male and female suicides exist. This study used psychological autopsies to identify common factors, precipitating events, and warning signs in a diverse sample. Randomly sampled from 302 police case reports over 24 months, psychological autopsies were conducted for 39 completed suicide cases in one urban and one rural region of Nepal. In the total police sample (n = 302), 57.0% of deaths were male. Over 40% of deaths were 25 years or younger, including 65% of rural and 50.8% of female suicide deaths. We estimate the crude urban and rural suicide rates to be 16.1 and 22.8 per 100,000, respectively. Within our psychological autopsy sample, 38.5% met criteria for depression and only 23.1% informants believed that the deceased had thoughts of self-harm or suicide before death. Important warning signs include recent geographic migration, alcohol abuse, and family history of suicide. Suicide prevention strategies in Nepal should account for the lack of awareness about suicide risk among family members and early age of suicide completion, especially in rural and female populations. Given the low rates of ideation disclosure to friends and family, educating the general public about other signs of suicide may help prevention efforts in Nepal.

  8. Random selection of Borel sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernd Günther

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available A theory of random Borel sets is presented, based on dyadic resolutions of compact metric spaces. The conditional expectation of the intersection of two independent random Borel sets is investigated. An example based on an embedding of Sierpinski’s universal curve into the space of Borel sets is given.

  9. Species selection and random drift in macroevolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevin, Luis-Miguel

    2016-03-01

    Species selection resulting from trait-dependent speciation and extinction is increasingly recognized as an important mechanism of phenotypic macroevolution. However, the recent bloom in statistical methods quantifying this process faces a scarcity of dynamical theory for their interpretation, notably regarding the relative contributions of deterministic versus stochastic evolutionary forces. I use simple diffusion approximations of birth-death processes to investigate how the expected and random components of macroevolutionary change depend on phenotype-dependent speciation and extinction rates, as can be estimated empirically. I show that the species selection coefficient for a binary trait, and selection differential for a quantitative trait, depend not only on differences in net diversification rates (speciation minus extinction), but also on differences in species turnover rates (speciation plus extinction), especially in small clades. The randomness in speciation and extinction events also produces a species-level equivalent to random genetic drift, which is stronger for higher turnover rates. I then show how microevolutionary processes including mutation, organismic selection, and random genetic drift cause state transitions at the species level, allowing comparison of evolutionary forces across levels. A key parameter that would be needed to apply this theory is the distribution and rate of origination of new optimum phenotypes along a phylogeny. © 2016 The Author(s). Evolution © 2016 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  10. Selectivity and sparseness in randomly connected balanced networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cengiz Pehlevan

    Full Text Available Neurons in sensory cortex show stimulus selectivity and sparse population response, even in cases where no strong functionally specific structure in connectivity can be detected. This raises the question whether selectivity and sparseness can be generated and maintained in randomly connected networks. We consider a recurrent network of excitatory and inhibitory spiking neurons with random connectivity, driven by random projections from an input layer of stimulus selective neurons. In this architecture, the stimulus-to-stimulus and neuron-to-neuron modulation of total synaptic input is weak compared to the mean input. Surprisingly, we show that in the balanced state the network can still support high stimulus selectivity and sparse population response. In the balanced state, strong synapses amplify the variation in synaptic input and recurrent inhibition cancels the mean. Functional specificity in connectivity emerges due to the inhomogeneity caused by the generative statistical rule used to build the network. We further elucidate the mechanism behind and evaluate the effects of model parameters on population sparseness and stimulus selectivity. Network response to mixtures of stimuli is investigated. It is shown that a balanced state with unselective inhibition can be achieved with densely connected input to inhibitory population. Balanced networks exhibit the "paradoxical" effect: an increase in excitatory drive to inhibition leads to decreased inhibitory population firing rate. We compare and contrast selectivity and sparseness generated by the balanced network to randomly connected unbalanced networks. Finally, we discuss our results in light of experiments.

  11. Improving randomness characterization through Bayesian model selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz Hernández Rojas, Rafael; Solís, Aldo; Angulo Martínez, Alí M; U'Ren, Alfred B; Hirsch, Jorge G; Marsili, Matteo; Pérez Castillo, Isaac

    2017-06-08

    Random number generation plays an essential role in technology with important applications in areas ranging from cryptography to Monte Carlo methods, and other probabilistic algorithms. All such applications require high-quality sources of random numbers, yet effective methods for assessing whether a source produce truly random sequences are still missing. Current methods either do not rely on a formal description of randomness (NIST test suite) on the one hand, or are inapplicable in principle (the characterization derived from the Algorithmic Theory of Information), on the other, for they require testing all the possible computer programs that could produce the sequence to be analysed. Here we present a rigorous method that overcomes these problems based on Bayesian model selection. We derive analytic expressions for a model's likelihood which is then used to compute its posterior distribution. Our method proves to be more rigorous than NIST's suite and Borel-Normality criterion and its implementation is straightforward. We applied our method to an experimental device based on the process of spontaneous parametric downconversion to confirm it behaves as a genuine quantum random number generator. As our approach relies on Bayesian inference our scheme transcends individual sequence analysis, leading to a characterization of the source itself.

  12. 32 CFR 1624.1 - Random selection procedures for induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Random selection procedures for induction. 1624... SYSTEM INDUCTIONS § 1624.1 Random selection procedures for induction. (a) The Director of Selective Service shall from time to time establish a random selection sequence for induction by a drawing to be...

  13. In-Place Randomized Slope Selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blunck, Henrik; Vahrenhold, Jan

    2006-01-01

    Slope selection is a well-known algorithmic tool used in the context of computing robust estimators for fitting a line to a collection P of n points in the plane. We demonstrate that it is possible to perform slope selection in expected O(nlogn) time using only constant extra space in addition to...

  14. Random effect selection in generalised linear models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Denwood, Matt; Houe, Hans; Forkman, Björn

    We analysed abattoir recordings of meat inspection codes with possible relevance to onfarm animal welfare in cattle. Random effects logistic regression models were used to describe individual-level data obtained from 461,406 cattle slaughtered in Denmark. Our results demonstrate that the largest ...

  15. Selected Regional Judicial Officer Cases, 2005 - Present

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset contains selected cases involving EPA's Regional Judicial Officers (RJOs) from 2005 to present. EPA's Regional Judicial Officers (RJOs) perform...

  16. Reported cases of selected diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-06-01

    The number of reported cases of measles, poliomyelitis, tetanus, diphtheria, and whooping cough for the period of January 1, 1994 to the date of the last report is presented in tabular form by country with a comparison for the same epidemiological period in 1993. The countries included are Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Venezuela, Argentina, Chile, Paraguay, Uruguay, Brazil, Belize, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Panama, Mexico, Cuba, Haiti, the Dominican Republic, Antigua and Barbuda, the Bahamas, Barbados, Dominica, Grenada, Guyana, Jamaica, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Vincent, Saint Lucia, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, Canada, and the US. The figures for measles are given as reported and as confirmed. In some countries, the reported number of cases of measles decreased from 1993 figures (Venezuela 5275 vs. 6060, Paraguay 26 vs. 958, Brazil 272 vs. 958, Canada 30 vs. 38), but, in others, the figure increased from 1993 (Mexico 47 vs. 21, the US 155 vs. 86). There were no reported cases of poliomyelitis for either year in any country. The figures for tetanus are divided into nonneonatal and neonatal. In Brazil the number of nonneonatal cases decreased to 360 from 371 in 1993, and the number of neonatal cases decreased to 28 from 65. In Mexico, nonneonatal cases decreased to 28 from 45, but neonatal cases increased to 23 from 20 in 1993. The number of cases of diphtheria cases in Brazil decreased to 28 from 65 in the same period of 1993. The number of cases of whooping cough decreased to 431 from 1651 in Brazil and to 51 from 70 in Mexico. However, the number of cases in Canada increased to 1047 from 784.

  17. Sequential selection of random vectors under a sum constraint

    OpenAIRE

    Stanke, Mario

    2004-01-01

    We observe a sequence X1,X2,...,Xn of independent and identically distributed coordinatewise nonnegative d-dimensional random vectors. When a vector is observed it can either be selected or rejected but once made this decision is final. In each coordinate the sum of the selected vectors must not exceed a given constant. The problem is to find a selection policy that maximizes the expected number of selected vectors. For a general absolutely continuous distribution of t...

  18. Portfolio Manager Selection – A Case Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Within a delegated portfolio management setting, this paper presents a case study of how the manager selection process can be operationalized in practice. Investors have to pursue a thorough screening of potential portfolio managers in order to discover their quality, and this paper discusses how...... such a screening process can be performed—represented by a case study....

  19. Fast, Randomized Join-Order Selection - Why Use Transformations?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.A. Galindo-Legaria; A.J. Pellenkoft (Jan); M.L. Kersten (Martin)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractWe study the effectiveness of probabilistic selection of join-query evaluation plans, without reliance on tree transformation rules. Instead, each candidate plan is chosen uniformly at random from the space of valid evaluation orders. This leads to a transformation-free strategy where a

  20. The reliability of randomly selected final year pharmacy students in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Employing ANOVA, factorial experimental analysis, and the theory of error, reliability studies were conducted on the assessment of the drug product chloroquine phosphate tablets. The G–Study employed equal numbers of the factors for uniform control, and involved three analysts (randomly selected final year Pharmacy ...

  1. SNP selection and classification of genome-wide SNP data using stratified sampling random forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qingyao; Ye, Yunming; Liu, Yang; Ng, Michael K

    2012-09-01

    For high dimensional genome-wide association (GWA) case-control data of complex disease, there are usually a large portion of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are irrelevant with the disease. A simple random sampling method in random forest using default mtry parameter to choose feature subspace, will select too many subspaces without informative SNPs. Exhaustive searching an optimal mtry is often required in order to include useful and relevant SNPs and get rid of vast of non-informative SNPs. However, it is too time-consuming and not favorable in GWA for high-dimensional data. The main aim of this paper is to propose a stratified sampling method for feature subspace selection to generate decision trees in a random forest for GWA high-dimensional data. Our idea is to design an equal-width discretization scheme for informativeness to divide SNPs into multiple groups. In feature subspace selection, we randomly select the same number of SNPs from each group and combine them to form a subspace to generate a decision tree. The advantage of this stratified sampling procedure can make sure each subspace contains enough useful SNPs, but can avoid a very high computational cost of exhaustive search of an optimal mtry, and maintain the randomness of a random forest. We employ two genome-wide SNP data sets (Parkinson case-control data comprised of 408 803 SNPs and Alzheimer case-control data comprised of 380 157 SNPs) to demonstrate that the proposed stratified sampling method is effective, and it can generate better random forest with higher accuracy and lower error bound than those by Breiman's random forest generation method. For Parkinson data, we also show some interesting genes identified by the method, which may be associated with neurological disorders for further biological investigations.

  2. Local randomization in neighbor selection improves PRM roadmap quality

    KAUST Repository

    McMahon, Troy

    2012-10-01

    Probabilistic Roadmap Methods (PRMs) are one of the most used classes of motion planning methods. These sampling-based methods generate robot configurations (nodes) and then connect them to form a graph (roadmap) containing representative feasible pathways. A key step in PRM roadmap construction involves identifying a set of candidate neighbors for each node. Traditionally, these candidates are chosen to be the k-closest nodes based on a given distance metric. In this paper, we propose a new neighbor selection policy called LocalRand(k,K\\'), that first computes the K\\' closest nodes to a specified node and then selects k of those nodes at random. Intuitively, LocalRand attempts to benefit from random sampling while maintaining the higher levels of local planner success inherent to selecting more local neighbors. We provide a methodology for selecting the parameters k and K\\'. We perform an experimental comparison which shows that for both rigid and articulated robots, LocalRand results in roadmaps that are better connected than the traditional k-closest policy or a purely random neighbor selection policy. The cost required to achieve these results is shown to be comparable to k-closest. © 2012 IEEE.

  3. Selective abortion in Brazil: the anencephaly case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, Debora

    2007-08-01

    This paper discusses the Brazilian Supreme Court ruling on the case of anencephaly. In Brazil, abortion is a crime against the life of a fetus, and selective abortion of non-viable fetuses is prohibited. Following a paradigmatic case discussed by the Brazilian Supreme Court in 2004, the use of abortion was authorized in the case of a fetus with anencephaly. The objective of this paper is to analyze the ethical arguments of the case, in particular the strategy of avoiding the moral status of the fetus, the cornerstone thesis of the Catholic Church.

  4. Selecting a phoneme-to-grapheme mapping: Random or weighted selection?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binna Lee

    2015-05-01

    Our findings demonstrate that random selection underestimates MOA’s PG correspondences whereas weighted selection predicts higher PG correspondences than he produces. To explain his intermediate spelling performance on PPEs, we will test additional approaches to weighing the relative probability of PG mappings, including using log frequencies, separating consonant and vowel status, and considering the number of grapheme options in each phoneme.

  5. Selection for altruism through random drift in variable size populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houchmandzadeh, Bahram; Vallade, Marcel

    2012-05-10

    Altruistic behavior is defined as helping others at a cost to oneself and a lowered fitness. The lower fitness implies that altruists should be selected against, which is in contradiction with their widespread presence is nature. Present models of selection for altruism (kin or multilevel) show that altruistic behaviors can have 'hidden' advantages if the 'common good' produced by altruists is restricted to some related or unrelated groups. These models are mostly deterministic, or assume a frequency dependent fitness. Evolutionary dynamics is a competition between deterministic selection pressure and stochastic events due to random sampling from one generation to the next. We show here that an altruistic allele extending the carrying capacity of the habitat can win by increasing the random drift of "selfish" alleles. In other terms, the fixation probability of altruistic genes can be higher than those of a selfish ones, even though altruists have a smaller fitness. Moreover when populations are geographically structured, the altruists advantage can be highly amplified and the fixation probability of selfish genes can tend toward zero. The above results are obtained both by numerical and analytical calculations. Analytical results are obtained in the limit of large populations. The theory we present does not involve kin or multilevel selection, but is based on the existence of random drift in variable size populations. The model is a generalization of the original Fisher-Wright and Moran models where the carrying capacity depends on the number of altruists.

  6. Selection for altruism through random drift in variable size populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houchmandzadeh Bahram

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Altruistic behavior is defined as helping others at a cost to oneself and a lowered fitness. The lower fitness implies that altruists should be selected against, which is in contradiction with their widespread presence is nature. Present models of selection for altruism (kin or multilevel show that altruistic behaviors can have ‘hidden’ advantages if the ‘common good’ produced by altruists is restricted to some related or unrelated groups. These models are mostly deterministic, or assume a frequency dependent fitness. Results Evolutionary dynamics is a competition between deterministic selection pressure and stochastic events due to random sampling from one generation to the next. We show here that an altruistic allele extending the carrying capacity of the habitat can win by increasing the random drift of “selfish” alleles. In other terms, the fixation probability of altruistic genes can be higher than those of a selfish ones, even though altruists have a smaller fitness. Moreover when populations are geographically structured, the altruists advantage can be highly amplified and the fixation probability of selfish genes can tend toward zero. The above results are obtained both by numerical and analytical calculations. Analytical results are obtained in the limit of large populations. Conclusions The theory we present does not involve kin or multilevel selection, but is based on the existence of random drift in variable size populations. The model is a generalization of the original Fisher-Wright and Moran models where the carrying capacity depends on the number of altruists.

  7. Case Based Heuristic Selection for Timetabling Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Burke, Edmund; Petrovic, Sanja; Qu, Rong

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a case-based heuristic selection approach for automated university course and exam timetabling. The method described in this paper is motivated by the goal of developing timetabling systems that are fundamentally more general than the current state of the art. Heuristics that worked well in previous similar situations are memorized in a case base and are retrieved for solving the problem in hand. Knowledge discovery techniques are employed in two distinct scenarios. Firstl...

  8. Interference-aware random beam selection for spectrum sharing systems

    KAUST Repository

    Abdallah, Mohamed M.

    2012-09-01

    Spectrum sharing systems have been introduced to alleviate the problem of spectrum scarcity by allowing secondary unlicensed networks to share the spectrum with primary licensed networks under acceptable interference levels to the primary users. In this paper, we develop interference-aware random beam selection schemes that provide enhanced throughput for the secondary link under the condition that the interference observed at the primary link is within a predetermined acceptable value. For a secondary transmitter equipped with multiple antennas, our schemes select a random beam, among a set of power- optimized orthogonal random beams, that maximizes the capacity of the secondary link while satisfying the interference constraint at the primary receiver for different levels of feedback information describing the interference level at the primary receiver. For the proposed schemes, we develop a statistical analysis for the signal-to-noise and interference ratio (SINR) statistics as well as the capacity of the secondary link. Finally, we present numerical results that study the effect of system parameters including number of beams and the maximum transmission power on the capacity of the secondary link attained using the proposed schemes. © 2012 IEEE.

  9. Unbiased split variable selection for random survival forests using maximally selected rank statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Marvin N; Dankowski, Theresa; Ziegler, Andreas

    2017-04-15

    The most popular approach for analyzing survival data is the Cox regression model. The Cox model may, however, be misspecified, and its proportionality assumption may not always be fulfilled. An alternative approach for survival prediction is random forests for survival outcomes. The standard split criterion for random survival forests is the log-rank test statistic, which favors splitting variables with many possible split points. Conditional inference forests avoid this split variable selection bias. However, linear rank statistics are utilized by default in conditional inference forests to select the optimal splitting variable, which cannot detect non-linear effects in the independent variables. An alternative is to use maximally selected rank statistics for the split point selection. As in conditional inference forests, splitting variables are compared on the p-value scale. However, instead of the conditional Monte-Carlo approach used in conditional inference forests, p-value approximations are employed. We describe several p-value approximations and the implementation of the proposed random forest approach. A simulation study demonstrates that unbiased split variable selection is possible. However, there is a trade-off between unbiased split variable selection and runtime. In benchmark studies of prediction performance on simulated and real datasets, the new method performs better than random survival forests if informative dichotomous variables are combined with uninformative variables with more categories and better than conditional inference forests if non-linear covariate effects are included. In a runtime comparison, the method proves to be computationally faster than both alternatives, if a simple p-value approximation is used. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. The signature of positive selection at randomly chosen loci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przeworski, Molly

    2002-03-01

    In Drosophila and humans, there are accumulating examples of loci with a significant excess of high-frequency-derived alleles or high levels of linkage disequilibrium, relative to a neutral model of a random-mating population of constant size. These are features expected after a recent selective sweep. Their prevalence suggests that positive directional selection may be widespread in both species. However, as I show here, these features do not persist long after the sweep ends: The high-frequency alleles drift to fixation and no longer contribute to polymorphism, while linkage disequilibrium is broken down by recombination. As a result, loci chosen without independent evidence of recent selection are not expected to exhibit either of these features, even if they have been affected by numerous sweeps in their genealogical history. How then can we explain the patterns in the data? One possibility is population structure, with unequal sampling from different subpopulations. Alternatively, positive selection may not operate as is commonly modeled. In particular, the rate of fixation of advantageous mutations may have increased in the recent past.

  11. Blind Measurement Selection: A Random Matrix Theory Approach

    KAUST Repository

    Elkhalil, Khalil

    2016-12-14

    This paper considers the problem of selecting a set of $k$ measurements from $n$ available sensor observations. The selected measurements should minimize a certain error function assessing the error in estimating a certain $m$ dimensional parameter vector. The exhaustive search inspecting each of the $n\\\\choose k$ possible choices would require a very high computational complexity and as such is not practical for large $n$ and $k$. Alternative methods with low complexity have recently been investigated but their main drawbacks are that 1) they require perfect knowledge of the measurement matrix and 2) they need to be applied at the pace of change of the measurement matrix. To overcome these issues, we consider the asymptotic regime in which $k$, $n$ and $m$ grow large at the same pace. Tools from random matrix theory are then used to approximate in closed-form the most important error measures that are commonly used. The asymptotic approximations are then leveraged to select properly $k$ measurements exhibiting low values for the asymptotic error measures. Two heuristic algorithms are proposed: the first one merely consists in applying the convex optimization artifice to the asymptotic error measure. The second algorithm is a low-complexity greedy algorithm that attempts to look for a sufficiently good solution for the original minimization problem. The greedy algorithm can be applied to both the exact and the asymptotic error measures and can be thus implemented in blind and channel-aware fashions. We present two potential applications where the proposed algorithms can be used, namely antenna selection for uplink transmissions in large scale multi-user systems and sensor selection for wireless sensor networks. Numerical results are also presented and sustain the efficiency of the proposed blind methods in reaching the performances of channel-aware algorithms.

  12. Pediatric selective mutism therapy: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Maria; Gimigliano, Francesca; Barillari, Maria R; Precenzano, Francesco; Ruberto, Maria; Sepe, Joseph; Barillari, Umberto; Gimigliano, Raffaele; Militerni, Roberto; Messina, Giovanni; Carotenuto, Marco

    2017-10-01

    Selective mutism (SM) is a rare disease in children coded by DSM-5 as an anxiety disorder. Despite the disabling nature of the disease, there is still no specific treatment. The aims of this study were to verify the efficacy of six-month standard psychomotor treatment and the positive changes in lifestyle, in a population of children affected by SM. Randomized controlled trial registered in the European Clinical Trials Registry (EuDract 2015-001161-36). University third level Centre (Child and Adolescent Neuropsychiatry Clinic). Study population was composed by 67 children in group A (psychomotricity treatment) (35 M, mean age 7.84±1.15) and 71 children in group B (behavioral and educational counseling) (37 M, mean age 7.75±1.36). Psychomotor treatment was administered by trained child therapists in residential settings three times per week. Each child was treated for the whole period by the same therapist and all the therapists shared the same protocol. The standard psychomotor session length is of 45 minutes. At T0 and after 6 months (T1) of treatments, patients underwent a behavioral and SM severity assessment. To verify the effects of the psychomotor management, the Child Behavior Checklist questionnaire (CBCL) and Selective Mutism Questionnaire (SMQ) were administered to the parents. After 6 months of psychomotor treatment SM children showed a significant reduction among CBCL scores such as in social relations, anxious/depressed, social problems and total problems (Ppsychomotricity a safe and efficacy therapy for pediatric selective mutism.

  13. Optimizing Event Selection with the Random Grid Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhat, Pushpalatha C. [Fermilab; Prosper, Harrison B. [Florida State U.; Sekmen, Sezen [Kyungpook Natl. U.; Stewart, Chip [Broad Inst., Cambridge

    2017-06-29

    The random grid search (RGS) is a simple, but efficient, stochastic algorithm to find optimal cuts that was developed in the context of the search for the top quark at Fermilab in the mid-1990s. The algorithm, and associated code, have been enhanced recently with the introduction of two new cut types, one of which has been successfully used in searches for supersymmetry at the Large Hadron Collider. The RGS optimization algorithm is described along with the recent developments, which are illustrated with two examples from particle physics. One explores the optimization of the selection of vector boson fusion events in the four-lepton decay mode of the Higgs boson and the other optimizes SUSY searches using boosted objects and the razor variables.

  14. Selective impairment of phonation: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, R C; Gandour, J; Windsor, J

    1988-11-01

    A 47-year-old right-handed man underwent craniotomy for clipping of an aneurism at the trifurcation of the left middle cerebral artery. Subsequently, he suffered a left hemisphere CVA after which his speech and language resembled that of Broca's aphasia with accompanying apraxia of speech. Medical, behavioral, and acoustical data amassed over a period of several months indicated numerous contraindications to traditional diagnoses of Broca's aphasia, apraxia of speech, and dysarthria. Ultimately, it was determined that the patient had a selective impairement of phonation or laryngeal apraxia. This was illustrated dramatically when he was taught to use an electrolarynx which allowed him to bypass his disrupted phonatory system. Speaking with the electrolarynx, the patient communicated normally. Any semblance of Broca's aphasia disappeared. Supralaryngeal articulation was normal; apraxia of speech behaviors were absent. This case report indicates that dissociation of oral and laryngeal gestures due to brain injury is possible. Mechanisms underlying such a dissociation for this case are reviewed. The possibility of discrete center lesions in the frontal motor association area causing different types of apraxia of speech is discussed.

  15. Acceptance sampling using judgmental and randomly selected samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sego, Landon H.; Shulman, Stanley A.; Anderson, Kevin K.; Wilson, John E.; Pulsipher, Brent A.; Sieber, W. Karl

    2010-09-01

    We present a Bayesian model for acceptance sampling where the population consists of two groups, each with different levels of risk of containing unacceptable items. Expert opinion, or judgment, may be required to distinguish between the high and low-risk groups. Hence, high-risk items are likely to be identifed (and sampled) using expert judgment, while the remaining low-risk items are sampled randomly. We focus on the situation where all observed samples must be acceptable. Consequently, the objective of the statistical inference is to quantify the probability that a large percentage of the unsampled items in the population are also acceptable. We demonstrate that traditional (frequentist) acceptance sampling and simpler Bayesian formulations of the problem are essentially special cases of the proposed model. We explore the properties of the model in detail, and discuss the conditions necessary to ensure that required samples sizes are non-decreasing function of the population size. The method is applicable to a variety of acceptance sampling problems, and, in particular, to environmental sampling where the objective is to demonstrate the safety of reoccupying a remediated facility that has been contaminated with a lethal agent.

  16. Jury Selection in Child Sex Abuse Trials: A Case Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Robert J.; Adams, Desiree D.; Brodsky, Stanley L.

    2009-01-01

    Child sex abuse cases have been the target of considerable psycho-legal research. The present paper offers an analysis of psychological constructs for jury selection in child sex abuse cases from the defense perspective. The authors specifically delineate general and case-specific jury selection variables. General variables include…

  17. Event selection with a Random Forest in IceCube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruhe, Tim [TU, Dortmund (Germany); Collaboration: IceCube-Collaboration

    2011-07-01

    The Random Forest method is a multivariate algorithm that can be used for classification and regression respectively. The Random Forest implemented in the RapidMiner learning environment has been used for training and validation on data and Monte Carlo simulations of the IceCube neutrino telescope. Latest results are presented.

  18. A Careful Look at Modern Case Selection Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herron, Michael C.; Quinn, Kevin M.

    2016-01-01

    Case studies appear prominently in political science, sociology, and other social science fields. A scholar employing a case study research design in an effort to estimate causal effects must confront the question, how should cases be selected for analysis? This question is important because the results derived from a case study research program…

  19. Study on MAX-MIN Ant System with Random Selection in Quadratic Assignment Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iimura, Ichiro; Yoshida, Kenji; Ishibashi, Ken; Nakayama, Shigeru

    Ant Colony Optimization (ACO), which is a type of swarm intelligence inspired by ants' foraging behavior, has been studied extensively and its effectiveness has been shown by many researchers. The previous studies have reported that MAX-MIN Ant System (MMAS) is one of effective ACO algorithms. The MMAS maintains the balance of intensification and diversification concerning pheromone by limiting the quantity of pheromone to the range of minimum and maximum values. In this paper, we propose MAX-MIN Ant System with Random Selection (MMASRS) for improving the search performance even further. The MMASRS is a new ACO algorithm that is MMAS into which random selection was newly introduced. The random selection is one of the edgechoosing methods by agents (ants). In our experimental evaluation using ten quadratic assignment problems, we have proved that the proposed MMASRS with the random selection is superior to the conventional MMAS without the random selection in the viewpoint of the search performance.

  20. Ericksonian hypnotherapy for selective mutism: A single-case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavarra, Mauro; Brizio, Adelina; Gava, Nicoletta

    2017-01-16

    Children affected by selective mutism don't speak in contexts that are unfamiliar to them or in which speaking is expected or required (e.g. school, kindergarten…). Such disorder interferes with the child's normal activities, may have invalidating consequences in the long run if left untreated, is associated to anxious conditions and is considered hard to treat. Contemporary research is still in need of methodologically rigorous outcome studies and the results described in the small number of published randomized controlled trials and retrospective studies indicate cognitive-behavioral interventions lasting 20-24 sessions as the best therapeutic option. This case study, involving a 7-year-old girl, aims at providing preliminary evidence on the effectiveness of Ericksonian hypnosis in the treatment of this condition. A brief review of current evidence is provided. The case was treated by a licensed hypnotherapist, specialized in family therapy, in 5 sessions during the course of 3 months. After 3 months the symptoms of the client were resolved and the diagnosis was no longer applicable. Other improvements regarded her mood, social skills and school performance.  Conclusions: Ericksonian Hypnotherapy lead to the remission of the disorder and to the improvement of the general well being of the client in 5 sessions, a much briefer time span compared to what is reported in current literature. This paper represents the first step in the elaboration of replicable and reliable intervention principles.

  1. Augmented Local Anaesthesia In Selected Cases Of Thyroidectomy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An augmentation of anaesthesia in 12 selected cases of thyroidectomy in a rural practice is presented. The cases were selected according to well defined criteria. The augmentation involved the use of general anaesthesia with ketarmine hydrochloride and diazepam, at the state of mobilizing the superior poles of the gland.

  2. University Evaluation-Selection: A Turkish Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Gonca Telli

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to examine the university selection criteria of students for better university management with the use of marketing tools. Design/methodology/approach: This study consists of a survey on students attending a foundation university in Turkey. The questionnaire method has been chosen in order to determine the…

  3. Joint random beam and spectrum selection for spectrum sharing systems with partial channel state information

    KAUST Repository

    Abdallah, Mohamed M.

    2013-11-01

    In this work, we develop joint interference-aware random beam and spectrum selection scheme that provide enhanced performance for the secondary network under the condition that the interference observed at the primary receiver is below a predetermined acceptable value. We consider a secondary link composed of a transmitter equipped with multiple antennas and a single-antenna receiver sharing the same spectrum with a set of primary links composed of a single-antenna transmitter and a single-antenna receiver. The proposed schemes jointly select a beam, among a set of power-optimized random beams, as well as the primary spectrum that maximizes the signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR) of the secondary link while satisfying the primary interference constraint. In particular, we consider the case where the interference level is described by a q-bit description of its magnitude, whereby we propose a technique to find the optimal quantizer thresholds in a mean square error (MSE) sense. © 2013 IEEE.

  4. Clinical outcome of intracytoplasmic injection of spermatozoa morphologically selected under high magnification: a prospective randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaban, Basak; Yakin, Kayhan; Alatas, Cengiz; Oktem, Ozgur; Isiklar, Aycan; Urman, Bulent

    2011-05-01

    Recent evidence shows that the selection of spermatozoa based on the analysis of morphology under high magnification (×6000) may have a positive impact on embryo development in cases with severe male factor infertility and/or previous implantation failures. The objective of this prospective randomized study was to compare the clinical outcome of 87 intracytoplasmic morphologically selected sperm injection (IMSI) cycles with 81 conventional intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles in an unselected infertile population. IMSI did not provide a significant improvement in the clinical outcome compared with ICSI although there were trends for higher implantation (28.9% versus 19.5%), clinical pregnancy (54.0% versus 44.4%) and live birth rates (43.7% versus 38.3%) in the IMSI group. However, severe male factor patients benefited from the IMSI procedure as shown by significantly higher implantation rates compared with their counterparts in the ICSI group (29.6% versus 15.2%, P=0.01). These results suggest that IMSI may improve IVF success rates in a selected group of patients with male factor infertility. New technological developments enable the real time examination of motile spermatozoa with an inverted light microscope equipped with high-power differential interference contrast optics, enhanced by digital imaging. High magnification (over ×6000) provides the identification of spermatozoa with a normal nucleus and nuclear content. Intracytoplasmic injection of spermatozoa selected according to fine nuclear morphology under high magnification may improve the clinical outcome in cases with severe male factor infertility. Copyright © 2010 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Medical Device Recalls: Examination of Selected Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-10-01

    at samp~le of recalls andl reviewing them in depth, Making use of FMA’s detailed case h’istory files and additional data collected fromt device manu...cl 11-233 199 11 \\-I have aiv questi ons w" womld like additional information, please call me al (2(12) 27--1 854 or I)r. Michael .1. Wargo. Director...of its inspect ions of’ a mnaimfactiliir- Itl. examplle, duiing one of its" biennial good manifacturing pr-actices or- Ni ~ inspect ions. In t he

  6. In vivo selection of randomly mutated retroviral genomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhout, B.; Klaver, B.

    1993-01-01

    Darwinian evolution, that is the outgrowth of the fittest variants in a population, usually applies to living organisms over long periods of time. Recently, in vitro selection/amplification techniques have been developed that allow for the rapid evolution of functionally active nucleic acids from a

  7. Assessing the accuracy and stability of variable selection methods for random forest modeling in ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Random forest (RF) modeling has emerged as an important statistical learning method in ecology due to its exceptional predictive performance. However, for large and complex ecological datasets there is limited guidance on variable selection methods for RF modeling. Typically, e...

  8. The frequency of drugs in randomly selected drivers in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Kirsten Wiese; Steentoft, Anni; Hels, Tove

    Introduction Driving under the influence of alcohol and drugs is a global problem. In Denmark as well as in other countries there is an increasing focus on impaired driving. Little is known about the occurrence of psychoactive drugs in the general traffic. Therefore the European commission...... initiated the DRUID project. This roadside study is the Danish part of the EU-project DRUID (Driving under the Influence of Drugs, Alcohol, and Medicines) and included three representative regions in Denmark. Methods Oral fluid samples (n = 3002) were collected randomly from drivers using a sampling scheme...... stratified by time, season, and road type. The oral fluid samples were screened for 29 illegal and legal psychoactive substances and metabolites as well as ethanol. Results Fourteen (0.5%) drivers were positive for ethanol (alone or in combination with drugs) at concentrations above 0.53 g/l, which...

  9. Sample Selection in Randomized Experiments: A New Method Using Propensity Score Stratified Sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipton, Elizabeth; Hedges, Larry; Vaden-Kiernan, Michael; Borman, Geoffrey; Sullivan, Kate; Caverly, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Randomized experiments are often seen as the "gold standard" for causal research. Despite the fact that experiments use random assignment to treatment conditions, units are seldom selected into the experiment using probability sampling. Very little research on experimental design has focused on how to make generalizations to well-defined…

  10. Pseudo cluster randomization dealt with selection bias and contamination in clinical trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teerenstra, S.; Melis, R.J.F.; Peer, P.G.M.; Borm, G.F.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: When contamination is present, randomization on a patient level leads to dilution of the treatment effect. The usual solution is to randomize on a cluster level, but at the cost of efficiency and more importantly, this may introduce selection bias. Furthermore, it may slow

  11. Case studies of selected Project "Flash" events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. A. Nicolaides

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Flooding is a consequence of the prevailing meteorological situation, the intensity and duration of precipitation, geomorphology, human activities over a geographical region and other factors. Floods result in damage and destruction of infrastructure and private property and, in some cases, in fatalities. Flash floods are sudden and quite localized in extend, characterized by excessive amounts of rainfall within a short period of time and are distinguished from other floods by their degree of severity. The broader knowledge concerning flash floods is useful for the better understanding of the underlying thermodynamic and dynamic mechanisms, as well as the associated physical processes. The wider understanding of flashfloods can form part of an integrated system for short and very short forecasting of these events. In the present study, the synoptic, dynamic and thermodynamic conditions during the development of a baroclinic depression which affected the area of Cyprus on 6 November 2005 are studied. The depression was associated with extreme weather phenomena, such as thunderstorms, a water spout and high precipitation accumulations. The results indicate the importance of the dynamic parameters in the system's development and the thermodynamic analysis has shown the convective potential of the atmosphere.

  12. Recruitment and quality academic staff selection: the case study of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The sources from which organizations decide to select personnel from are central to its ability to survive, adapt, and grow (Noe et al, 2004:171). The paper examines a case study of recruitment and selection of quality academic staff into Covenant University. The paper addresses the factors that could affect recruitment ...

  13. Radiographic methods used before removal of mandibular third molars among randomly selected general dental clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matzen, Louise H; Petersen, Lars B; Wenzel, Ann

    2016-01-01

    To assess radiographic methods and diagnostically sufficient images used before removal of mandibular third molars among randomly selected general dental clinics. Furthermore, to assess factors predisposing for an additional radiographic examination. 2 observers visited 18 randomly selected clinics in Denmark and studied patient files, including radiographs of patients who had their mandibular third molar(s) removed. The radiographic unit and type of receptor were registered. A diagnostically sufficient image was defined as the whole tooth and mandibular canal were displayed in the radiograph (yes/no). Overprojection between the tooth and mandibular canal (yes/no) and patient-reported inferior alveolar nerve sensory disturbances (yes/no) were recorded. Regression analyses tested if overprojection between the third molar and the mandibular canal and an insufficient intraoral image predisposed for additional radiographic examination(s). 1500 mandibular third molars had been removed; 1090 had intraoral, 468 had panoramic and 67 had CBCT examination. 1000 teeth were removed after an intraoral examination alone, 433 after panoramic examination and 67 after CBCT examination. 90 teeth had an additional examination after intraoral. Overprojection between the tooth and mandibular canal was a significant factor (p < 0.001, odds ratio = 3.56) for an additional examination. 63.7% of the intraoral images were sufficient and 36.3% were insufficient, with no significant difference between images performed with phosphor plates and solid-state sensors (p = 0.6). An insufficient image predisposed for an additional examination (p = 0.008, odds ratio = 1.8) but was only performed in 11% of the cases. Most mandibular third molars were removed based on an intraoral examination although 36.3% were insufficient.

  14. RANDOM FORESTS-BASED FEATURE SELECTION FOR LAND-USE CLASSIFICATION USING LIDAR DATA AND ORTHOIMAGERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Guan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The development of lidar system, especially incorporated with high-resolution camera components, has shown great potential for urban classification. However, how to automatically select the best features for land-use classification is challenging. Random Forests, a newly developed machine learning algorithm, is receiving considerable attention in the field of image classification and pattern recognition. Especially, it can provide the measure of variable importance. Thus, in this study the performance of the Random Forests-based feature selection for urban areas was explored. First, we extract features from lidar data, including height-based, intensity-based GLCM measures; other spectral features can be obtained from imagery, such as Red, Blue and Green three bands, and GLCM-based measures. Finally, Random Forests is used to automatically select the optimal and uncorrelated features for landuse classification. 0.5-meter resolution lidar data and aerial imagery are used to assess the feature selection performance of Random Forests in the study area located in Mannheim, Germany. The results clearly demonstrate that the use of Random Forests-based feature selection can improve the classification performance by the selected features.

  15. Modeling Slotted Aloha as a Stochastic Game with Random Discrete Power Selection Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachid El-Azouzi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the uplink case of a cellular system where bufferless mobiles transmit over a common channel to a base station, using the slotted aloha medium access protocol. We study the performance of this system under several power differentiation schemes. Indeed, we consider a random set of selectable transmission powers and further study the impact of priorities given either to new arrival packets or to the backlogged ones. Later, we address a general capture model where a mobile transmits successfully a packet if its instantaneous SINR (signal to interferences plus noise ratio is lager than some fixed threshold. Under this capture model, we analyze both the cooperative team in which a common goal is jointly optimized as well as the noncooperative game problem where mobiles reach to optimize their own objectives. Furthermore, we derive the throughput and the expected delay and use them as the objectives to optimize and provide a stability analysis as alternative study. Exhaustive performance evaluations were carried out, we show that schemes with power differentiation improve significantly the individual as well as global performances, and could eliminate in some cases the bi-stable nature of slotted aloha.

  16. Bayesian Variable Selection Methods for Matched Case-Control Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asafu-Adjei, Josephine; Mahlet, G Tadesse; Coull, Brent; Balasubramanian, Raji; Lev, Michael; Schwamm, Lee; Betensky, Rebecca

    2017-01-31

    Matched case-control designs are currently used in many biomedical applications. To ensure high efficiency and statistical power in identifying features that best discriminate cases from controls, it is important to account for the use of matched designs. However, in the setting of high dimensional data, few variable selection methods account for matching. Bayesian approaches to variable selection have several advantages, including the fact that such approaches visit a wider range of model subsets. In this paper, we propose a variable selection method to account for case-control matching in a Bayesian context and apply it using simulation studies, a matched brain imaging study conducted at Massachusetts General Hospital, and a matched cardiovascular biomarker study conducted by the High Risk Plaque Initiative.

  17. An efficient method of wavelength interval selection based on random frog for multivariate spectral calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Yong-Huan; Li, Hong-Dong; Wood, Leslie R. E.; Fan, Wei; Wang, Jia-Jun; Cao, Dong-Sheng; Xu, Qing-Song; Liang, Yi-Zeng

    2013-07-01

    Wavelength selection is a critical step for producing better prediction performance when applied to spectral data. Considering the fact that the vibrational and rotational spectra have continuous features of spectral bands, we propose a novel method of wavelength interval selection based on random frog, called interval random frog (iRF). To obtain all the possible continuous intervals, spectra are first divided into intervals by moving window of a fix width over the whole spectra. These overlapping intervals are ranked applying random frog coupled with PLS and the optimal ones are chosen. This method has been applied to two near-infrared spectral datasets displaying higher efficiency in wavelength interval selection than others. The source code of iRF can be freely downloaded for academy research at the website: http://code.google.com/p/multivariate-calibration/downloads/list.

  18. Delay line length selection in generating fast random numbers with a chaotic laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianzhong; Wang, Yuncai; Xue, Lugang; Hou, Jiayin; Zhang, Beibei; Wang, Anbang; Zhang, Mingjiang

    2012-04-10

    The chaotic light signals generated by an external cavity semiconductor laser have been experimentally demonstrated to extract fast random numbers. However, the photon round-trip time in the external cavity can cause the occurrence of the periodicity in random sequences. To overcome it, the exclusive-or operation on corresponding random bits in samples of the chaotic signal and its time-delay signal from a chaotic laser is required. In this scheme, the proper selection of delay length is a key issue. By doing a large number of experiments and theoretically analyzing the interplay between the Runs test and the threshold value of the autocorrelation function, we find when the corresponding delay time of autocorrelation trace with the correlation coefficient of less than 0.007 is considered as the delay time between the chaotic signal and its time-delay signal, streams of random numbers can be generated with verified randomness.

  19. Construction Tender Subcontract Selection using Case-based Reasoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Due Luu

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Obtaining competitive quotations from suitably qualified subcontractors at tender tim n significantly increase the chance of w1nmng a construction project. Amidst an increasingly growing trend to subcontracting in Australia, selecting appropriate subcontractors for a construction project can be a daunting task requiring the analysis of complex and dynamic criteria such as past performance, suitable experience, track record of competitive pricing, financial stability and so on. Subcontractor selection is plagued with uncertainty and vagueness and these conditions are difficul_t o represent in generalised sets of rules. DeciSIOns pertaining to the selection of subcontr:act?s tender time are usually based on the mtu1t1onand past experience of construction estimators. Case-based reasoning (CBR may be an appropriate method of addressing the chal_lenges of selecting subcontractors because CBR 1s able to harness the experiential knowledge of practitioners. This paper reviews the practicality and suitability of a CBR approach for subcontractor tender selection through the development of a prototype CBR procurement advisory system. In this system, subcontractor selection cases are represented by a set of attributes elicited from experienced construction estimators. The results indicate that CBR can enhance the appropriateness of the selection of subcontractors for construction projects.

  20. Emotional selection in memes: the case of urban legends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, C; Sternberg, E

    2001-12-01

    This article explores how much memes like urban legends succeed on the basis of informational selection (i.e., truth or a moral lesson) and emotional selection (i.e., the ability to evoke emotions like anger, fear, or disgust). The article focuses on disgust because its elicitors have been precisely described. In Study 1, with controls for informational factors like truth, people were more willing to pass along stories that elicited stronger disgust. Study 2 randomly sampled legends and created versions that varied in disgust; people preferred to pass along versions that produced the highest level of disgust. Study 3 coded legends for specific story motifs that produce disgust (e.g., ingestion of a contaminated substance) and found that legends that contained more disgust motifs were distributed more widely on urban legend Web sites. The conclusion discusses implications of emotional selection for the social marketplace of ideas.

  1. A case of selective non-operative management of penetrating ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This case report focuses on the application of selective non operative management (SNOM) of penetrating abdominal trauma in a complex patient who was also pregnant at the time of injury. It goes on to contextualize SNOM in terms of its historical evolution as a strategy in South Africa and its appropriate safe application in ...

  2. Family Therapy with Selectively Mute Children: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloan, Trish L.

    2007-01-01

    Due to its rarity (less than 1% of all clinical cases), few Marriage and Family Therapists have significant expertise in dealing with children who have become selectively mute, and little research has been conducted to determine the effectiveness of family therapy in treating this disorder. Much of what has been researched does not serve to…

  3. Community forestry resources: a case study of selected woodlots in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Community forestry resources: a case study of selected woodlots in the Eastern Cape Province. Cori Ham, Francois Theron. Abstract. Community surveys were conducted through the use of participatory community meetings and a questionnaire in the Butterworth area of the Eastern Cape. The objectives of these surveys ...

  4. au gmented local anaesthesia in selected cases of thyroidectomy in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    June 200i, Vol. 7(1); 31 — 32. AU GMENTED LOCAL ANAESTHESIA IN SELECTED CASES OF. THYROIDECTOMY IN RURAL PRACTICE. E. F. A1uf0hai* O. O. Odusanya** ... immediately relieved after the administration of general anaesthesia. The result ... 1% lidocaine hydrochloride with adrenaline acid tartrate .BP in.

  5. Two-year Randomized Clinical Trial Of Self-etching Adhesives And Selective Enamel Etching

    OpenAIRE

    Pena, MR; Rodrigues CE; JA; Ely; Giannini, C.; Reis, M; AF

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this randomized, controlled prospective clinical trial was to evaluate the clinical effectiveness of restoring noncarious cervical lesions with two self-etching adhesive systems applied with or without selective enamel etching. Methods: A one-step self-etching adhesive (Xeno V+) and a two-step self-etching system (Clearfil SE Bond) were used. The effectiveness of phosphoric acid selective etching of enamel margins was also evaluated. Fifty-six cavities were restored with...

  6. Hebbian Learning in a Random Network Captures Selectivity Properties of the Prefrontal Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Grace W; Rigotti, Mattia; Warden, Melissa R; Miller, Earl K; Fusi, Stefano

    2017-11-08

    Complex cognitive behaviors, such as context-switching and rule-following, are thought to be supported by the prefrontal cortex (PFC). Neural activity in the PFC must thus be specialized to specific tasks while retaining flexibility. Nonlinear "mixed" selectivity is an important neurophysiological trait for enabling complex and context-dependent behaviors. Here we investigate (1) the extent to which the PFC exhibits computationally relevant properties, such as mixed selectivity, and (2) how such properties could arise via circuit mechanisms. We show that PFC cells recorded from male and female rhesus macaques during a complex task show a moderate level of specialization and structure that is not replicated by a model wherein cells receive random feedforward inputs. While random connectivity can be effective at generating mixed selectivity, the data show significantly more mixed selectivity than predicted by a model with otherwise matched parameters. A simple Hebbian learning rule applied to the random connectivity, however, increases mixed selectivity and enables the model to match the data more accurately. To explain how learning achieves this, we provide analysis along with a clear geometric interpretation of the impact of learning on selectivity. After learning, the model also matches the data on measures of noise, response density, clustering, and the distribution of selectivities. Of two styles of Hebbian learning tested, the simpler and more biologically plausible option better matches the data. These modeling results provide clues about how neural properties important for cognition can arise in a circuit and make clear experimental predictions regarding how various measures of selectivity would evolve during animal training. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The prefrontal cortex is a brain region believed to support the ability of animals to engage in complex behavior. How neurons in this area respond to stimuli-and in particular, to combinations of stimuli ("mixed

  7. Selecting Optimal Parameters of Random Linear Network Coding for Wireless Sensor Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heide, Janus; Zhang, Qi; Fitzek, Frank

    2013-01-01

    This work studies how to select optimal code parameters of Random Linear Network Coding (RLNC) in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). With Rateless Deluge [1] the authors proposed to apply Network Coding (NC) for Over-the-Air Programming (OAP) in WSNs, and demonstrated that with NC a significant...

  8. Managing the Public Sector Research and Development Portfolio Selection Process: A Case Study of Quantitative Selection and Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    PUBLIC SECTOR RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT PORTFOLIO SELECTION PROCESS: A CASE STUDY OF QUANTITATIVE SELECTION AND OPTIMIZATION by Jason A. Schwartz...PUBLIC SECTOR RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT PORTFOLIO SELECTION PROCESS: A CASE STUDY OF QUANTITATIVE SELECTION AND OPTIMIZATION 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 6...describing how public sector organizations can implement a research and development (R&D) portfolio optimization strategy to maximize the cost

  9. Selective nerve root blocks vs. caudal epidural injection for single level prolapsed lumbar intervertebral disc - A prospective randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sudhir; Kumar, Sanjiv; Chahal, Gaurav; Verma, Reetu

    2017-01-01

    Chronic lumbar radiculopathy has a lifetime prevalence of 5.3% in men and 3.7% in women. It usually resolves spontaneously, but up to 30% cases will have pronounced symptoms even after one year. A prospective randomized single-blind study was conducted to compare the efficacy of caudal epidural steroid injection and selective nerve root block in management of pain and disability in cases of lumbar disc herniation. Eighty patients with confirmed single-level lumbar disc herniation were equally divided in two groups: (a) caudal epidural and (b) selective nerve root block group, by a computer-generated random allocation method. The caudal group received three injections of steroid mixed with local anesthetics while selective nerve root block group received single injection of steroid mixed with local anesthetic agent. Patients were assessed for pain relief and reduction in disability. In SNRB group, pain reduced by more than 50% up till 6 months, while in caudal group more than 50% reduction of pain was maintained till 1 year. The reduction in ODI in SNRB group was 52.8% till 3 months, 48.6% till 6 months, and 46.7% at 1 year, while in caudal group the improvement was 59.6%, 64.6%, 65.1%, and 65.4% at corresponding follow-up periods, respectively. Caudal epidural block is an easy and safe method with better pain relief and improvement in functional disability than selective nerve root block. Selective nerve root block injection is technically more demanding and has to be given by a skilled anesthetist.

  10. Tehran Air Pollutants Prediction Based on Random Forest Feature Selection Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamsoddini, A.; Aboodi, M. R.; Karami, J.

    2017-09-01

    Air pollution as one of the most serious forms of environmental pollutions poses huge threat to human life. Air pollution leads to environmental instability, and has harmful and undesirable effects on the environment. Modern prediction methods of the pollutant concentration are able to improve decision making and provide appropriate solutions. This study examines the performance of the Random Forest feature selection in combination with multiple-linear regression and Multilayer Perceptron Artificial Neural Networks methods, in order to achieve an efficient model to estimate carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide and PM2.5 contents in the air. The results indicated that Artificial Neural Networks fed by the attributes selected by Random Forest feature selection method performed more accurate than other models for the modeling of all pollutants. The estimation accuracy of sulfur dioxide emissions was lower than the other air contaminants whereas the nitrogen dioxide was predicted more accurate than the other pollutants.

  11. TEHRAN AIR POLLUTANTS PREDICTION BASED ON RANDOM FOREST FEATURE SELECTION METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Shamsoddini

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution as one of the most serious forms of environmental pollutions poses huge threat to human life. Air pollution leads to environmental instability, and has harmful and undesirable effects on the environment. Modern prediction methods of the pollutant concentration are able to improve decision making and provide appropriate solutions. This study examines the performance of the Random Forest feature selection in combination with multiple-linear regression and Multilayer Perceptron Artificial Neural Networks methods, in order to achieve an efficient model to estimate carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide and PM2.5 contents in the air. The results indicated that Artificial Neural Networks fed by the attributes selected by Random Forest feature selection method performed more accurate than other models for the modeling of all pollutants. The estimation accuracy of sulfur dioxide emissions was lower than the other air contaminants whereas the nitrogen dioxide was predicted more accurate than the other pollutants.

  12. Classification of epileptic EEG signals based on simple random sampling and sequential feature selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghayab, Hadi Ratham Al; Li, Yan; Abdulla, Shahab; Diykh, Mohammed; Wan, Xiangkui

    2016-06-01

    Electroencephalogram (EEG) signals are used broadly in the medical fields. The main applications of EEG signals are the diagnosis and treatment of diseases such as epilepsy, Alzheimer, sleep problems and so on. This paper presents a new method which extracts and selects features from multi-channel EEG signals. This research focuses on three main points. Firstly, simple random sampling (SRS) technique is used to extract features from the time domain of EEG signals. Secondly, the sequential feature selection (SFS) algorithm is applied to select the key features and to reduce the dimensionality of the data. Finally, the selected features are forwarded to a least square support vector machine (LS_SVM) classifier to classify the EEG signals. The LS_SVM classifier classified the features which are extracted and selected from the SRS and the SFS. The experimental results show that the method achieves 99.90, 99.80 and 100 % for classification accuracy, sensitivity and specificity, respectively.

  13. An uncommon case of random fire-setting behavior associated with Todd paralysis: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanehisa, Masayuki; Morinaga, Katsuhiko; Kohno, Hisae; Maruyama, Yoshihiro; Ninomiya, Taiga; Ishitobi, Yoshinobu; Tanaka, Yoshihiro; Tsuru, Jusen; Hanada, Hiroaki; Yoshikawa, Tomoya; Akiyoshi, Jotaro

    2012-08-31

    The association between fire-setting behavior and psychiatric or medical disorders remains poorly understood. Although a link between fire-setting behavior and various organic brain disorders has been established, associations between fire setting and focal brain lesions have not yet been reported. Here, we describe the case of a 24-year-old first time arsonist who suffered Todd's paralysis prior to the onset of a bizarre and random fire-setting behavior. A case of a 24-year-old man with a sudden onset of a bizarre and random fire-setting behavior is reported. The man, who had been arrested on felony arson charges, complained of difficulties concentrating and of recent memory disturbances with leg weakness. A video-EEG recording demonstrated a close relationship between the focal motor impairment and a clear-cut epileptic ictal discharge involving the bilateral motor cortical areas. The SPECT result was statistically analyzed by comparing with standard SPECT images obtained from our institute (easy Z-score imaging system; eZIS). eZIS revealed hypoperfusion in cingulate cortex, basal ganglia and hyperperfusion in frontal cortex,. A neuropsychological test battery revealed lower than normal scores for executive function, attention, and memory, consistent with frontal lobe dysfunction. The fire-setting behavior and Todd's paralysis, together with an unremarkable performance on tests measuring executive function fifteen months prior, suggested a causal relationship between this organic brain lesion and the fire-setting behavior. The case describes a rare and as yet unreported association between random, impulse-driven fire-setting behavior and damage to the brain and suggests a disconnection of frontal lobe structures as a possible pathogenic mechanism.

  14. Personal name in Igbo Culture: A dataset on randomly selected personal names and their statistical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okagbue, Hilary I; Opanuga, Abiodun A; Adamu, Muminu O; Ugwoke, Paulinus O; Obasi, Emmanuela C M; Eze, Grace A

    2017-12-01

    This data article contains the statistical analysis of Igbo personal names and a sample of randomly selected of such names. This was presented as the following: 1). A simple random sampling of some Igbo personal names and their respective gender associated with each name. 2). The distribution of the vowels, consonants and letters of alphabets of the personal names. 3). The distribution of name length. 4). The distribution of initial and terminal letters of Igbo personal names. The significance of the data was discussed.

  15. Perspectives on randomized clinical trials : the case for albuminuria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lambers Heerspink, Hiddo Jan

    2008-01-01

    Large scale randomized clinical trials are needed to detect small but meaningful effects of new drugs. However, large scale randomized clinical trials are expensive undertakings and they are in imbalance with the scientific output. As a consequence there is a strong voice for more efficacious

  16. Control selection methods in recent case-control studies conducted as part of infectious disease outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldram, Alison; McKerr, Caoimhe; Gobin, Maya; Adak, Goutam; Stuart, James M; Cleary, Paul

    2015-06-01

    Successful investigation of national outbreaks of communicable disease relies on rapid identification of the source. Case-control methodologies are commonly used to achieve this. We assessed control selection methods used in recently published case-control studies for methodological and resource issues to determine if a standard approach could be identified. Neighbourhood controls were the most frequently used method in 53 studies of a range of different sizes, infections and settings. The most commonly used method of data collection was face to face interview. Control selection issues were identified in four areas: method of identification of controls, appropriateness of controls, ease of recruitment of controls, and resource requirements. Potential biases arising from the method of control selection were identified in half of the studies assessed. There is a need to develop new ways of selecting controls in a rapid, random and representative manner to improve the accuracy and timeliness of epidemiological investigations and maximise the effectiveness of public health interventions. Innovative methods such as prior recruitment of controls could improve timeliness and representativeness of control selection.

  17. Simulated Performance Evaluation of a Selective Tracker Through Random Scenario Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hussain, Dil Muhammad Akbar

    2006-01-01

      The paper presents a simulation study on the performance of a target tracker using selective track splitting filter algorithm through a random scenario implemented on a digital signal processor.  In a typical track splitting filter all the observation which fall inside a likelihood ellipse...... are used for update, however, in our proposed selective track splitting filter less number of observations are used for track update.  Much of the previous performance work [1] has been done on specific (deterministic) scenarios. One of the reasons for considering the specific scenarios, which were...

  18. Classification of epileptic EEG signals based on simple random sampling and sequential feature selection

    OpenAIRE

    Ghayab, Hadi Ratham Al; Li, Yan; Abdulla, Shahab; Diykh, Mohammed; Wan, Xiangkui

    2016-01-01

    Electroencephalogram (EEG) signals are used broadly in the medical fields. The main applications of EEG signals are the diagnosis and treatment of diseases such as epilepsy, Alzheimer, sleep problems and so on. This paper presents a new method which extracts and selects features from multi-channel EEG signals. This research focuses on three main points. Firstly, simple random sampling (SRS) technique is used to extract features from the time domain of EEG signals. Secondly, the sequential fea...

  19. Genome-wide association data classification and SNPs selection using two-stage quality-based Random Forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thanh-Tung; Huang, Joshua; Wu, Qingyao; Nguyen, Thuy; Li, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) selection and identification are the most important tasks in Genome-wide association data analysis. The problem is difficult because genome-wide association data is very high dimensional and a large portion of SNPs in the data is irrelevant to the disease. Advanced machine learning methods have been successfully used in Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for identification of genetic variants that have relatively big effects in some common, complex diseases. Among them, the most successful one is Random Forests (RF). Despite of performing well in terms of prediction accuracy in some data sets with moderate size, RF still suffers from working in GWAS for selecting informative SNPs and building accurate prediction models. In this paper, we propose to use a new two-stage quality-based sampling method in random forests, named ts-RF, for SNP subspace selection for GWAS. The method first applies p-value assessment to find a cut-off point that separates informative and irrelevant SNPs in two groups. The informative SNPs group is further divided into two sub-groups: highly informative and weak informative SNPs. When sampling the SNP subspace for building trees for the forest, only those SNPs from the two sub-groups are taken into account. The feature subspaces always contain highly informative SNPs when used to split a node at a tree. This approach enables one to generate more accurate trees with a lower prediction error, meanwhile possibly avoiding overfitting. It allows one to detect interactions of multiple SNPs with the diseases, and to reduce the dimensionality and the amount of Genome-wide association data needed for learning the RF model. Extensive experiments on two genome-wide SNP data sets (Parkinson case-control data comprised of 408,803 SNPs and Alzheimer case-control data comprised of 380,157 SNPs) and 10 gene data sets have demonstrated that the proposed model significantly reduced prediction errors and outperformed

  20. Reducing selection bias in case-control studies from rare disease registries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mistry Pramod K

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In clinical research of rare diseases, where small patient numbers and disease heterogeneity limit study design options, registries are a valuable resource for demographic and outcome information. However, in contrast to prospective, randomized clinical trials, the observational design of registries is prone to introduce selection bias and negatively impact the validity of data analyses. The objective of the study was to demonstrate the utility of case-control matching and the risk-set method in order to control bias in data from a rare disease registry. Data from the International Collaborative Gaucher Group (ICGG Gaucher Registry were used as an example. Methods A case-control matching analysis using the risk-set method was conducted to identify two groups of patients with type 1 Gaucher disease in the ICGG Gaucher Registry: patients with avascular osteonecrosis (AVN and those without AVN. The frequency distributions of gender, decade of birth, treatment status, and splenectomy status were presented for cases and controls before and after matching. Odds ratios (and 95% confidence intervals were calculated for each variable before and after matching. Results The application of case-control matching methodology results in cohorts of cases (i.e., patients with AVN and controls (i.e., patients without AVN who have comparable distributions for four common parameters used in subject selection: gender, year of birth (age, treatment status, and splenectomy status. Matching resulted in odds ratios of approximately 1.00, indicating no bias. Conclusions We demonstrated bias in case-control selection in subjects from a prototype rare disease registry and used case-control matching to minimize this bias. Therefore, this approach appears useful to study cohorts of heterogeneous patients in rare disease registries.

  1. Statistical inference of selection and divergence from a time-dependent Poisson random field model.

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    Amei Amei

    Full Text Available We apply a recently developed time-dependent Poisson random field model to aligned DNA sequences from two related biological species to estimate selection coefficients and divergence time. We use Markov chain Monte Carlo methods to estimate species divergence time and selection coefficients for each locus. The model assumes that the selective effects of non-synonymous mutations are normally distributed across genetic loci but constant within loci, and synonymous mutations are selectively neutral. In contrast with previous models, we do not assume that the individual species are at population equilibrium after divergence. Using a data set of 91 genes in two Drosophila species, D. melanogaster and D. simulans, we estimate the species divergence time t(div = 2.16 N(e (or 1.68 million years, assuming the haploid effective population size N(e = 6.45 x 10(5 years and a mean selection coefficient per generation μ(γ = 1.98/N(e. Although the average selection coefficient is positive, the magnitude of the selection is quite small. Results from numerical simulations are also presented as an accuracy check for the time-dependent model.

  2. Selection bias and subject refusal in a cluster-randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rochelle Yang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Selection bias and non-participation bias are major methodological concerns which impact external validity. Cluster-randomized controlled trials are especially prone to selection bias as it is impractical to blind clusters to their allocation into intervention or control. This study assessed the impact of selection bias in a large cluster-randomized controlled trial. Methods The Improved Cardiovascular Risk Reduction to Enhance Rural Primary Care (ICARE study examined the impact of a remote pharmacist-led intervention in twelve medical offices. To assess eligibility, a standardized form containing patient demographics and medical information was completed for each screened patient. Eligible patients were approached by the study coordinator for recruitment. Both the study coordinator and the patient were aware of the site’s allocation prior to consent. Patients who consented or declined to participate were compared across control and intervention arms for differing characteristics. Statistical significance was determined using a two-tailed, equal variance t-test and a chi-square test with adjusted Bonferroni p-values. Results were adjusted for random cluster variation. Results There were 2749 completed screening forms returned to research staff with 461 subjects who had either consented or declined participation. Patients with poorly controlled diabetes were found to be significantly more likely to decline participation in intervention sites compared to those in control sites. A higher mean diastolic blood pressure was seen in patients with uncontrolled hypertension who declined in the control sites compared to those who declined in the intervention sites. However, these findings were no longer significant after adjustment for random variation among the sites. After this adjustment, females were now found to be significantly more likely to consent than males (odds ratio = 1.41; 95% confidence interval = 1.03, 1

  3. Effect of non-random mating on genomic and BLUP selection schemes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirea Kahsay G

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The risk of long-term unequal contribution of mating pairs to the gene pool is that deleterious recessive genes can be expressed. Such consequences could be alleviated by appropriately designing and optimizing breeding schemes i.e. by improving selection and mating procedures. Methods We studied the effect of mating designs, random, minimum coancestry and minimum covariance of ancestral contributions on rate of inbreeding and genetic gain for schemes with different information sources, i.e. sib test or own performance records, different genetic evaluation methods, i.e. BLUP or genomic selection, and different family structures, i.e. factorial or pair-wise. Results Results showed that substantial differences in rates of inbreeding due to mating design were present under schemes with a pair-wise family structure, for which minimum coancestry turned out to be more effective to generate lower rates of inbreeding. Specifically, substantial reductions in rates of inbreeding were observed in schemes using sib test records and BLUP evaluation. However, with a factorial family structure, differences in rates of inbreeding due mating designs were minor. Moreover, non-random mating had only a small effect in breeding schemes that used genomic evaluation, regardless of the information source. Conclusions It was concluded that minimum coancestry remains an efficient mating design when BLUP is used for genetic evaluation or when the size of the population is small, whereas the effect of non-random mating is smaller in schemes using genomic evaluation.

  4. Emulsion PCR: a high efficient way of PCR amplification of random DNA libraries in aptamer selection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keke Shao

    Full Text Available Aptamers are short RNA or DNA oligonucleotides which can bind with different targets. Typically, they are selected from a large number of random DNA sequence libraries. The main strategy to obtain aptamers is systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX. Low efficiency is one of the limitations for conventional PCR amplification of random DNA sequence library in aptamer selection because of relative low products and high by-products formation efficiency. Here, we developed emulsion PCR for aptamer selection. With this method, the by-products formation decreased tremendously to an undetectable level, while the products formation increased significantly. Our results indicated that by-products in conventional PCR amplification were from primer-product and product-product hybridization. In emulsion PCR, we can completely avoid the product-product hybridization and avoid the most of primer-product hybridization if the conditions were optimized. In addition, it also showed that the molecule ratio of template to compartment was crucial to by-product formation efficiency in emulsion PCR amplification. Furthermore, the concentration of the Taq DNA polymerase in the emulsion PCR mixture had a significant impact on product formation efficiency. So, the results of our study indicated that emulsion PCR could improve the efficiency of SELEX.

  5. Randomizing bipartite networks: the case of the World Trade Web

    CERN Document Server

    Saracco, Fabio; Gabrielli, Andrea; Squartini, Tiziano

    2015-01-01

    Within the last fifteen years, network theory has been successfully applied both to natural sciences and to socioeconomic disciplines. In particular, bipartite networks have been recognized to provide a particularly insightful representation of many systems, ranging from mutualistic networks in ecology to trade networks in economy, whence the need of a pattern detection-oriented analysis in order to identify statistically-significant structural properties. Such an analysis rests upon the definition of suitable null models, i.e. upon the choice of the portion of network structure to be preserved while randomizing everything else. However, quite surprisingly, little work has been done so far to define null models for real bipartite networks. The aim of the present work is to fill this gap, extending a recently-proposed method to randomize monopartite networks to bipartite networks. While the proposed formalism is perfectly general, we apply our method to the binary, undirected, bipartite representation of the W...

  6. Fuzzy random variables — II. Algorithms and examples for the discrete case

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwakernaak, H.

    1979-01-01

    The results obtained in part I of the paper are specialized to the case of discrete fuzzy random variables. A more intuitive interpretation is given of the notion of fuzzy random variables. Algorithms are derived for determining expectations, fuzzy probabilities, fuzzy conditional expectations and

  7. Novel Zn2+-chelating peptides selected from a fimbria-displayed random peptide library

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Kristian; Schembri, Mark; Klemm, Per

    2001-01-01

    H adhesin. FimH is a component of the fimbrial organelle that can accommodate and display a diverse range of peptide sequences on the E. coli cell surface. In this study we have constructed a random peptide library in FimH. The library, consisting of similar to 40 million individual clones, was screened...... for peptide sequences that conferred on recombinant cells the ability to bind Zn2+. By serial selection, sequences that exhibited various degrees of binding affinity and specificity toward Zn2+ were enriched. None of the isolated sequences showed similarity to known Zn2+-binding proteins, indicating...

  8. Assessing the accuracy and stability of variable selection methods for random forest modeling in ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Eric W; Hill, Ryan A; Leibowitz, Scott G; Olsen, Anthony R; Thornbrugh, Darren J; Weber, Marc H

    2017-07-01

    Random forest (RF) modeling has emerged as an important statistical learning method in ecology due to its exceptional predictive performance. However, for large and complex ecological data sets, there is limited guidance on variable selection methods for RF modeling. Typically, either a preselected set of predictor variables are used or stepwise procedures are employed which iteratively remove variables according to their importance measures. This paper investigates the application of variable selection methods to RF models for predicting probable biological stream condition. Our motivating data set consists of the good/poor condition of n = 1365 stream survey sites from the 2008/2009 National Rivers and Stream Assessment, and a large set (p = 212) of landscape features from the StreamCat data set as potential predictors. We compare two types of RF models: a full variable set model with all 212 predictors and a reduced variable set model selected using a backward elimination approach. We assess model accuracy using RF's internal out-of-bag estimate, and a cross-validation procedure with validation folds external to the variable selection process. We also assess the stability of the spatial predictions generated by the RF models to changes in the number of predictors and argue that model selection needs to consider both accuracy and stability. The results suggest that RF modeling is robust to the inclusion of many variables of moderate to low importance. We found no substantial improvement in cross-validated accuracy as a result of variable reduction. Moreover, the backward elimination procedure tended to select too few variables and exhibited numerous issues such as upwardly biased out-of-bag accuracy estimates and instabilities in the spatial predictions. We use simulations to further support and generalize results from the analysis of real data. A main purpose of this work is to elucidate issues of model selection bias and instability to ecologists interested in

  9. Selection bias: neighbourhood controls and controls selected from those presenting to a Health Unit in a case control study of efficacy of BCG revaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Souza Wayner V

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In most case control studies the hardest decision is the choice of the control group, as in the ideal control group the proportion exposed is the same as in the population that produced the cases. Methods A comparison of two control groups in a case control study of the efficacy of BCG revaccination. One group was selected from subjects presenting to the heath unit the case attended for routine prevention and care; the second group was selected from the neighbourhood of cases. All Health Units from which controls were selected offered BCG revaccination. Efficacy estimated in a randomized control trial of BCG revaccination was used to establish that the neighbourhood control group was the one that gave unbiased results. Results The proportion of controls with scars indicating BCG revaccination was higher among the control group selected from Health Unit attenders than among neighbourhood controls. This excess was not removed after control for social variables and history of exposure to tuberculosis, and appears to have resulted from the fact that people attending the Health Unit were more likely to have been revaccinated than neighbourhood controls, although we can not exclude an effect of other unmeasured variables. Conclusion In this study, controls selected from people presenting to a Health Unit overrepresented exposure to BCG revaccination. Had the results from the HU attenders control group been accepted this would have resulted in overestimation of vaccine efficacy. When the exposure of interest is offered in a health facility, selection of controls from attenders at the facility may result in over representation of exposure in controls and selection bias.

  10. PReFerSim: fast simulation of demography and selection under the Poisson Random Field model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Del Vecchyo, Diego; Marsden, Clare D; Lohmueller, Kirk E

    2016-11-15

    The Poisson Random Field (PRF) model has become an important tool in population genetics to study weakly deleterious genetic variation under complicated demographic scenarios. Currently, there are no freely available software applications that allow simulation of genetic variation data under this model. Here we present PReFerSim, an ANSI C program that performs forward simulations under the PRF model. PReFerSim models changes in population size, arbitrary amounts of inbreeding, dominance and distributions of selective effects. Users can track summaries of genetic variation over time and output trajectories of selected alleles. PReFerSim is freely available at: https://github.com/LohmuellerLab/PReFerSim CONTACT: klohmueller@ucla.eduSupplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Selective oropharyngeal decontamination versus selective digestive decontamination in critically ill patients: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao D

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Di Zhao,1,* Jian Song,2,* Xuan Gao,3 Fei Gao,4 Yupeng Wu,2 Yingying Lu,5 Kai Hou1 1Department of Neurosurgery, The First Hospital of Hebei Medical University, 2Department of Neurosurgery, 3Department of Neurology, The Second Hospital of Hebei Medical University, 4Hebei Provincial Procurement Centers for Medical Drugs and Devices, 5Department of Neurosurgery, The Second Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Selective digestive decontamination (SDD and selective oropharyngeal decontamination (SOD are associated with reduced mortality and infection rates among patients in intensive care units (ICUs; however, whether SOD has a superior effect than SDD remains uncertain. Hence, we conducted a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs to compare SOD with SDD in terms of clinical outcomes and antimicrobial resistance rates in patients who were critically ill. Methods: RCTs published in PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science were systematically reviewed to compare the effects of SOD and SDD in patients who were critically ill. Outcomes included day-28 mortality, length of ICU stay, length of hospital stay, duration of mechanical ventilation, ICU-acquired bacteremia, and prevalence of antibiotic-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. Results were expressed as risk ratio (RR with 95% confidence intervals (CIs, and weighted mean differences (WMDs with 95% CIs. Pooled estimates were performed using a fixed-effects model or random-effects model, depending on the heterogeneity among studies. Results: A total of four RCTs involving 23,822 patients met the inclusion criteria and were included in this meta-analysis. Among patients whose admitting specialty was surgery, cardiothoracic surgery (57.3% and neurosurgery (29.7% were the two main types of surgery being performed. Pooled results showed that SOD had similar effects as SDD in day-28 mortality (RR =1

  12. Ethnopharmacological versus random plant selection methods for the evaluation of the antimycobacterial activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo R. Oliveira

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The municipality of Oriximiná, Brazil, has 33 quilombola communities in remote areas, endowed with wide experience in the use of medicinal plants. An ethnobotanical survey was carried out in five of these communities. A free-listing method directed for the survey of species locally indicated against Tuberculosis and lung problems was also applied. Data were analyzed by quantitative techniques: saliency index and major use agreement. Thirty four informants related 254 ethnospecies. Among these, 43 were surveyed for possible antimycobacterial activity. As a result of those informations, ten species obtained from the ethnodirected approach (ETHNO and eighteen species obtained from the random approach (RANDOM were assayed against Mycobacterium tuberculosis by the microdilution method, using resazurin as an indicator of cell viability. The best results for antimycobacterial activity were obtained of some plants selected by the ethnopharmacological approach (50% ETHNO x 16,7% RANDOM. These results can be even more significant if we consider that the therapeutic success obtained among the quilombola practice is complex, being the use of some plants acting as fortifying agents, depurative, vomitory, purgative and bitter remedy, especially to infectious diseases, of great importance to the communities in the curing or recovering of health as a whole.

  13. Random forest variable selection in spatial malaria transmission modelling in Mpumalanga Province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapwata, Thandi; Gebreslasie, Michael T

    2016-11-16

    Malaria is an environmentally driven disease. In order to quantify the spatial variability of malaria transmission, it is imperative to understand the interactions between environmental variables and malaria epidemiology at a micro-geographic level using a novel statistical approach. The random forest (RF) statistical learning method, a relatively new variable-importance ranking method, measures the variable importance of potentially influential parameters through the percent increase of the mean squared error. As this value increases, so does the relative importance of the associated variable. The principal aim of this study was to create predictive malaria maps generated using the selected variables based on the RF algorithm in the Ehlanzeni District of Mpumalanga Province, South Africa. From the seven environmental variables used [temperature, lag temperature, rainfall, lag rainfall, humidity, altitude, and the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI)], altitude was identified as the most influential predictor variable due its high selection frequency. It was selected as the top predictor for 4 out of 12 months of the year, followed by NDVI, temperature and lag rainfall, which were each selected twice. The combination of climatic variables that produced the highest prediction accuracy was altitude, NDVI, and temperature. This suggests that these three variables have high predictive capabilities in relation to malaria transmission. Furthermore, it is anticipated that the predictive maps generated from predictions made by the RF algorithm could be used to monitor the progression of malaria and assist in intervention and prevention efforts with respect to malaria.

  14. Random forest variable selection in spatial malaria transmission modelling in Mpumalanga Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thandi Kapwata

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Malaria is an environmentally driven disease. In order to quantify the spatial variability of malaria transmission, it is imperative to understand the interactions between environmental variables and malaria epidemiology at a micro-geographic level using a novel statistical approach. The random forest (RF statistical learning method, a relatively new variable-importance ranking method, measures the variable importance of potentially influential parameters through the percent increase of the mean squared error. As this value increases, so does the relative importance of the associated variable. The principal aim of this study was to create predictive malaria maps generated using the selected variables based on the RF algorithm in the Ehlanzeni District of Mpumalanga Province, South Africa. From the seven environmental variables used [temperature, lag temperature, rainfall, lag rainfall, humidity, altitude, and the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI], altitude was identified as the most influential predictor variable due its high selection frequency. It was selected as the top predictor for 4 out of 12 months of the year, followed by NDVI, temperature and lag rainfall, which were each selected twice. The combination of climatic variables that produced the highest prediction accuracy was altitude, NDVI, and temperature. This suggests that these three variables have high predictive capabilities in relation to malaria transmission. Furthermore, it is anticipated that the predictive maps generated from predictions made by the RF algorithm could be used to monitor the progression of malaria and assist in intervention and prevention efforts with respect to malaria.

  15. Selecting the appropriate pacing mode for patients with sick sinus syndrome: evidence from randomized clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albertsen, A E; Nielsen, J C

    2003-12-01

    Several observational studies have indicated that selection of pacing mode may be important for the clinical outcome in patients with symptomatic bradycardia, affecting the development of atrial fibrillation (AF), thromboembolism, congestive heart failure, mortality and quality of life. In this paper we present and discuss the most recent data from six randomized trials on mode selection in patients with sick sinus syndrome (SSS). In pacing mode selection, VVI(R) pacing is the least attractive solution, increasing the incidence of AF and-as compared with AAI(R) pacing, also the incidence of heart failure, thromboembolism and death. VVI(R) pacing should not be used as the primary pacing mode in patients with SSS, who haven't chronic AF. AAIR pacing is superior to DDDR pacing, reducing AF and preserving left ventricular function. Single site right ventricular pacing-VVI(R) or DDD(R) mode-causes an abnormal ventricular activation and contraction (called ventricular desynchronization), which results in a reduced left ventricular function. Despite the risk of AV block, we consider AAIR pacing to be the optimal pacing mode for isolated SSS today and an algorithm to select patients for AAIR pacing is suggested. Trials on new pacemaker algorithms minimizing right ventricular pacing as well as trials testing alternative pacing sites and multisite pacing to reduce ventricular desynchronization can be expected within the next years.

  16. Geography and genography: prediction of continental origin using randomly selected single nucleotide polymorphisms

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    Ramoni Marco F

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent studies have shown that when individuals are grouped on the basis of genetic similarity, group membership corresponds closely to continental origin. There has been considerable debate about the implications of these findings in the context of larger debates about race and the extent of genetic variation between groups. Some have argued that clustering according to continental origin demonstrates the existence of significant genetic differences between groups and that these differences may have important implications for differences in health and disease. Others argue that clustering according to continental origin requires the use of large amounts of genetic data or specifically chosen markers and is indicative only of very subtle genetic differences that are unlikely to have biomedical significance. Results We used small numbers of randomly selected single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs from the International HapMap Project to train naïve Bayes classifiers for prediction of ancestral continent of origin. Predictive accuracy was tested on two independent data sets. Genetically similar groups should be difficult to distinguish, especially if only a small number of genetic markers are used. The genetic differences between continentally defined groups are sufficiently large that one can accurately predict ancestral continent of origin using only a minute, randomly selected fraction of the genetic variation present in the human genome. Genotype data from only 50 random SNPs was sufficient to predict ancestral continent of origin in our primary test data set with an average accuracy of 95%. Genetic variations informative about ancestry were common and widely distributed throughout the genome. Conclusion Accurate characterization of ancestry is possible using small numbers of randomly selected SNPs. The results presented here show how investigators conducting genetic association studies can use small numbers of arbitrarily

  17. Interference-aware random beam selection schemes for spectrum sharing systems

    KAUST Repository

    Abdallah, Mohamed

    2012-10-19

    Spectrum sharing systems have been recently introduced to alleviate the problem of spectrum scarcity by allowing secondary unlicensed networks to share the spectrum with primary licensed networks under acceptable interference levels to the primary users. In this work, we develop interference-aware random beam selection schemes that provide enhanced performance for the secondary network under the condition that the interference observed by the receivers of the primary network is below a predetermined/acceptable value. We consider a secondary link composed of a transmitter equipped with multiple antennas and a single-antenna receiver sharing the same spectrum with a primary link composed of a single-antenna transmitter and a single-antenna receiver. The proposed schemes select a beam, among a set of power-optimized random beams, that maximizes the signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR) of the secondary link while satisfying the primary interference constraint for different levels of feedback information describing the interference level at the primary receiver. For the proposed schemes, we develop a statistical analysis for the SINR statistics as well as the capacity and bit error rate (BER) of the secondary link.

  18. Feature selection for outcome prediction in oesophageal cancer using genetic algorithm and random forest classifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Desbordes; Su, Ruan; Romain, Modzelewski; Sébastien, Vauclin; Pierre, Vera; Isabelle, Gardin

    2017-09-01

    The outcome prediction of patients can greatly help to personalize cancer treatment. A large amount of quantitative features (clinical exams, imaging, …) are potentially useful to assess the patient outcome. The challenge is to choose the most predictive subset of features. In this paper, we propose a new feature selection strategy called GARF (genetic algorithm based on random forest) extracted from positron emission tomography (PET) images and clinical data. The most relevant features, predictive of the therapeutic response or which are prognoses of the patient survival 3 years after the end of treatment, were selected using GARF on a cohort of 65 patients with a local advanced oesophageal cancer eligible for chemo-radiation therapy. The most relevant predictive results were obtained with a subset of 9 features leading to a random forest misclassification rate of 18±4% and an areas under the of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves (AUC) of 0.823±0.032. The most relevant prognostic results were obtained with 8 features leading to an error rate of 20±7% and an AUC of 0.750±0.108. Both predictive and prognostic results show better performances using GARF than using 4 other studied methods. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Cognitive Debiasing Improves Assessment and Treatment Selection for Pediatric Bipolar Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Melissa M.; Youngstrom, Eric A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study examined the efficacy of a new cognitive debiasing intervention in reducing decision-making errors in the assessment of pediatric bipolar disorder (PBD). Method The study was a randomized controlled trial using case vignette methodology. Participants were 137 mental health professionals working in different regions of the US (M=8.6±7.5 years of experience). Participants were randomly assigned to a (1) brief overview of PBD (control condition), or (2) the same brief overview plus a cognitive debiasing intervention (treatment condition) that educated participants about common cognitive pitfalls (e.g., base-rate neglect; search satisficing) and taught corrective strategies (e.g., mnemonics, Bayesian tools). Both groups evaluated four identical case vignettes. Primary outcome measures were clinicians’ diagnoses and treatment decisions. The vignette characters’ race/ethnicity was experimentally manipulated. Results Participants in the treatment group showed better overall judgment accuracy, p < .001, and committed significantly fewer decision-making errors, p < .001. Inaccurate and somewhat accurate diagnostic decisions were significantly associated with different treatment and clinical recommendations, particularly in cases where participants missed comorbid conditions, failed to detect the possibility of hypomania or mania in depressed youths, and misdiagnosed classic manic symptoms. In contrast, effects of patient race were negligible. Conclusions The cognitive debiasing intervention outperformed the control condition. Examining specific heuristics in cases of PBD may identify especially problematic mismatches between typical habits of thought and characteristics of the disorder. The debiasing intervention was brief and delivered via the Web; it has the potential to generalize and extend to other diagnoses as well as to various practice and training settings. PMID:26727411

  20. Does the Use of a Decision Aid Improve Decision Making in Prosthetic Heart Valve Selection? A Multicenter Randomized Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korteland, Nelleke M.; Ahmed, Yunus; Koolbergen, David R.; Brouwer, Marjan; de Heer, Frederiek; Kluin, Jolanda; Bruggemans, Eline F.; Klautz, Robert J. M.; Stiggelbout, Anne M.; Bucx, Jeroen J. J.; Roos-Hesselink, Jolien W.; Polak, Peter; Markou, Thanasie; van den Broek, Inge; Ligthart, Rene; Bogers, Ad J. J. C.; Takkenberg, Johanna J. M.

    2017-01-01

    A Dutch online patient decision aid to support prosthetic heart valve selection was recently developed. A multicenter randomized controlled trial was conducted to assess whether use of the patient decision aid results in optimization of shared decision making in prosthetic heart valve selection. In

  1. Selective outcome reporting and sponsorship in randomized controlled trials in IVF and ICSI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braakhekke, M; Scholten, I; Mol, F; Limpens, J; Mol, B W; van der Veen, F

    2017-10-01

    Are randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on IVF and ICSI subject to selective outcome reporting and is this related to sponsorship? There are inconsistencies, independent from sponsorship, in the reporting of primary outcome measures in the majority of IVF and ICSI trials, indicating selective outcome reporting. RCTs are subject to bias at various levels. Of these biases, selective outcome reporting is particularly relevant to IVF and ICSI trials since there is a wide variety of outcome measures to choose from. An established cause of reporting bias is sponsorship. It is, at present, unknown whether RCTs in IVF/ICSI are subject to selective outcome reporting and whether this is related with sponsorship. We systematically searched RCTs on IVF and ICSI published between January 2009 and March 2016 in MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and the publisher subset of PubMed. We analysed 415 RCTs. Per included RCT, we extracted data on impact factor of the journal, sample size, power calculation, and trial registry and thereafter data on primary outcome measure, the direction of trial results and sponsorship. Of the 415 identified RCTs, 235 were excluded for our primary analysis, because the sponsorship was not reported. Of the 180 RCTs included in our analysis, 7 trials did not report on any primary outcome measure and 107 of the remaining 173 trials (62%) reported on surrogate primary outcome measures. Of the 114 registered trials, 21 trials (18%) provided primary outcomes in their manuscript that were different from those in the trial registry. This indicates selective outcome reporting. We found no association between selective outcome reporting and sponsorship. We ran additional analyses to include the trials that had not reported sponsorship and found no outcomes that differed from our primary analysis. Since the majority of the trials did not report on sponsorship, there is a risk on sampling bias. IVF and ICSI trials are subject, to

  2. Active classifier selection for RGB-D object categorization using a Markov random field ensemble method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durner, Maximilian; Márton, Zoltán.; Hillenbrand, Ulrich; Ali, Haider; Kleinsteuber, Martin

    2017-03-01

    In this work, a new ensemble method for the task of category recognition in different environments is presented. The focus is on service robotic perception in an open environment, where the robot's task is to recognize previously unseen objects of predefined categories, based on training on a public dataset. We propose an ensemble learning approach to be able to flexibly combine complementary sources of information (different state-of-the-art descriptors computed on color and depth images), based on a Markov Random Field (MRF). By exploiting its specific characteristics, the MRF ensemble method can also be executed as a Dynamic Classifier Selection (DCS) system. In the experiments, the committee- and topology-dependent performance boost of our ensemble is shown. Despite reduced computational costs and using less information, our strategy performs on the same level as common ensemble approaches. Finally, the impact of large differences between datasets is analyzed.

  3. Adherence of French GPs to Chronic Neuropathic Pain Clinical Guidelines: Results of a Cross-Sectional, Randomized, “e” Case-Vignette Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Valéria Martinez; Nadine Attal; Bertrand Vanzo; Eric Vicaut; Jean Michel Gautier; Didier Bouhassira; Michel Lantéri-Minet

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The French Pain Society published guidelines for neuropathic pain management in 2010. Our aim was to evaluate the compliance of GPs with these guidelines three years later. METHODS: We used "e" case vignette methodology for this non interventional study. A national panel of randomly selected GPs was included. We used eight "e" case-vignettes relating to chronic pain, differing in terms of the type of pain (neuropathic/non neuropathic), etiology (cancer, postoperative pain...

  4. Implications of structural genomics target selection strategies: Pfam5000, whole genome, and random approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandonia, John-Marc; Brenner, Steven E.

    2004-07-14

    The structural genomics project is an international effort to determine the three-dimensional shapes of all important biological macromolecules, with a primary focus on proteins. Target proteins should be selected according to a strategy which is medically and biologically relevant, of good value, and tractable. As an option to consider, we present the Pfam5000 strategy, which involves selecting the 5000 most important families from the Pfam database as sources for targets. We compare the Pfam5000 strategy to several other proposed strategies that would require similar numbers of targets. These include including complete solution of several small to moderately sized bacterial proteomes, partial coverage of the human proteome, and random selection of approximately 5000 targets from sequenced genomes. We measure the impact that successful implementation of these strategies would have upon structural interpretation of the proteins in Swiss-Prot, TrEMBL, and 131 complete proteomes (including 10 of eukaryotes) from the Proteome Analysis database at EBI. Solving the structures of proteins from the 5000 largest Pfam families would allow accurate fold assignment for approximately 68 percent of all prokaryotic proteins (covering 59 percent of residues) and 61 percent of eukaryotic proteins (40 percent of residues). More fine-grained coverage which would allow accurate modeling of these proteins would require an order of magnitude more targets. The Pfam5000 strategy may be modified in several ways, for example to focus on larger families, bacterial sequences, or eukaryotic sequences; as long as secondary consideration is given to large families within Pfam, coverage results vary only slightly. In contrast, focusing structural genomics on a single tractable genome would have only a limited impact in structural knowledge of other proteomes: a significant fraction (about 30-40 percent of the proteins, and 40-60 percent of the residues) of each proteome is classified in small

  5. A Comparison of Dietary Habits between Recreational Runners and a Randomly Selected Adult Population in Slovenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Škof, Branko; Rotovnik Kozjek, Nada

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the dietary habits of recreational runners with those of a random sample of the general population. We also wanted to determine the influence of gender, age and sports performance of recreational runners on their basic diet and compliance with recommendations in sports nutrition. The study population consisted of 1,212 adult Slovenian recreational runners and 774 randomly selected residents of Slovenia between the ages of 18 and 65 years. The data on the dietary habits of our subjects was gathered by means of two questionnaires. The following parameters were evaluated: the type of diet, a food pattern, and the frequency of consumption of individual food groups, the use of dietary supplements, fluid intake, and alcohol consumption. Recreational runners had better compliance with recommendations for healthy nutrition than the general population. This pattern increased with the runner's age and performance level. Compared to male runners, female runners ate more regularly and had a more frequent consumption of food groups associated with a healthy diet (fruit, vegetables, whole grain foods, and low-fat dairy products). The consumption of simple sugars and use of nutritional supplements by well-trained runners was inadequate with values recommended for physically active individuals. Recreational runners are an exemplary population group that actively seeks to adopt a healthier lifestyle.

  6. Optimal Subset Selection of Time-Series MODIS Images and Sample Data Transfer with Random Forests for Supervised Classification Modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuqun Zhou

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, various time-series Earth Observation data with multiple bands are freely available, such as Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS datasets including 8-day composites from NASA, and 10-day composites from the Canada Centre for Remote Sensing (CCRS. It is challenging to efficiently use these time-series MODIS datasets for long-term environmental monitoring due to their vast volume and information redundancy. This challenge will be greater when Sentinel 2–3 data become available. Another challenge that researchers face is the lack of in-situ data for supervised modelling, especially for time-series data analysis. In this study, we attempt to tackle the two important issues with a case study of land cover mapping using CCRS 10-day MODIS composites with the help of Random Forests’ features: variable importance, outlier identification. The variable importance feature is used to analyze and select optimal subsets of time-series MODIS imagery for efficient land cover mapping, and the outlier identification feature is utilized for transferring sample data available from one year to an adjacent year for supervised classification modelling. The results of the case study of agricultural land cover classification at a regional scale show that using only about a half of the variables we can achieve land cover classification accuracy close to that generated using the full dataset. The proposed simple but effective solution of sample transferring could make supervised modelling possible for applications lacking sample data.

  7. Optimal Subset Selection of Time-Series MODIS Images and Sample Data Transfer with Random Forests for Supervised Classification Modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Fuqun; Zhang, Aining

    2016-10-25

    Nowadays, various time-series Earth Observation data with multiple bands are freely available, such as Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) datasets including 8-day composites from NASA, and 10-day composites from the Canada Centre for Remote Sensing (CCRS). It is challenging to efficiently use these time-series MODIS datasets for long-term environmental monitoring due to their vast volume and information redundancy. This challenge will be greater when Sentinel 2-3 data become available. Another challenge that researchers face is the lack of in-situ data for supervised modelling, especially for time-series data analysis. In this study, we attempt to tackle the two important issues with a case study of land cover mapping using CCRS 10-day MODIS composites with the help of Random Forests' features: variable importance, outlier identification. The variable importance feature is used to analyze and select optimal subsets of time-series MODIS imagery for efficient land cover mapping, and the outlier identification feature is utilized for transferring sample data available from one year to an adjacent year for supervised classification modelling. The results of the case study of agricultural land cover classification at a regional scale show that using only about a half of the variables we can achieve land cover classification accuracy close to that generated using the full dataset. The proposed simple but effective solution of sample transferring could make supervised modelling possible for applications lacking sample data.

  8. Microbial Resistance to Triclosan: A Case Study in Natural Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafini, Amanda; Matthews, Dorothy M.

    2009-01-01

    Natural selection is the mechanism of evolution caused by the environmental selection of organisms most fit to reproduce, sometimes explained as "survival of the fittest." An example of evolution by natural selection is the development of bacteria that are resistant to antimicrobial agents as a result of exposure to these agents. Triclosan, which…

  9. Control group selection in critical care randomized controlled trials evaluating interventional strategies: An ethical assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Henry J; Miller, Franklin G

    2004-03-01

    Ethical concern has been raised with critical care randomized controlled trials in which the standard of care reflects a broad range of clinical practices. Commentators have argued that trials without an unrestricted control group, in which standard practices are implemented at the discretion of the attending physician, lack the ability to redefine the standard of care and might expose subjects to excessive harms due to an inability to stop early. To develop a framework for analyzing control group selection for critical care trials. Ethical analysis. A key ethical variable in trial design is the extent with which the control group adequately reflects standard care practices. Such a control group might incorporate either the "unrestricted" practices of physicians or a protocol that specifies and restricts the parameters of standard practices. Control group selection should be determined with respect to the following ethical objectives of trial design: 1) clinical value, 2) scientific validity, 3) efficiency and feasibility, and 4) protection of human subjects. Because these objectives may conflict, control group selection will involve trade-offs and compromises. Trials using a protocolized rather than an unrestricted standard care control group will likely have enhanced validity. However, if the protocolized control group lacks representativeness to standard care practices, then trials that use such groups will offer less clinical value and could provide less assurance of protecting subjects compared with trials that use unrestricted control groups. For trials evaluating contrasting strategies that do not adequately represent standard practices, use of a third group that is more representative of standard practices will enhance clinical value and increase the ability to stop early if needed to protect subjects. These advantages might come at the expense of efficiency and feasibility. Weighing and balancing the competing ethical objectives of trial design should be

  10. The adverse effect of selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor on random skin flap survival in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiyong Ren

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cyclooxygenase-2(COX-2 inhibitors provide desired analgesic effects after injury or surgery, but evidences suggested they also attenuate wound healing. The study is to investigate the effect of COX-2 inhibitor on random skin flap survival. METHODS: The McFarlane flap model was established in 40 rats and evaluated within two groups, each group gave the same volume of Parecoxib and saline injection for 7 days. The necrotic area of the flap was measured, the specimens of the flap were stained with haematoxylin-eosin(HE for histologic analysis. Immunohistochemical staining was performed to analyse the level of VEGF and COX-2 . RESULTS: 7 days after operation, the flap necrotic area ratio in study group (66.65 ± 2.81% was significantly enlarged than that of the control group(48.81 ± 2.33%(P <0.01. Histological analysis demonstrated angiogenesis with mean vessel density per mm(2 being lower in study group (15.4 ± 4.4 than in control group (27.2 ± 4.1 (P <0.05. To evaluate the expression of COX-2 and VEGF protein in the intermediate area II in the two groups by immunohistochemistry test .The expression of COX-2 in study group was (1022.45 ± 153.1, and in control group was (2638.05 ± 132.2 (P <0.01. The expression of VEGF in the study and control groups were (2779.45 ± 472.0 vs (4938.05 ± 123.6(P <0.01.In the COX-2 inhibitor group, the expressions of COX-2 and VEGF protein were remarkably down-regulated as compared with the control group. CONCLUSION: Selective COX-2 inhibitor had adverse effect on random skin flap survival. Suppression of neovascularization induced by low level of VEGF was supposed to be the biological mechanism.

  11. Rapid selection of accessible and cleavable sites in RNA by Escherichia coli RNase P and random external guide sequences

    OpenAIRE

    Lundblad, Eirik W.; Xiao, Gaoping; Ko, Jae-hyeong; Altman, Sidney

    2008-01-01

    A method of inhibiting the expression of particular genes by using external guide sequences (EGSs) has been improved in its rapidity and specificity. Random EGSs that have 14-nt random sequences are used in the selection procedure for an EGS that attacks the mRNA for a gene in a particular location. A mixture of the random EGSs, the particular target RNA, and RNase P is used in the diagnostic procedure, which, after completion, is analyzed in a gel with suitable control lanes. Within a few ho...

  12. Exploring the effect of absence selection on landslide susceptibility models: A case study in Sicily, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conoscenti, Christian; Rotigliano, Edoardo; Cama, Mariaelena; Caraballo-Arias, Nathalie Almaru; Lombardo, Luigi; Agnesi, Valerio

    2016-05-01

    A statistical approach was employed to model the spatial distribution of rainfall-triggered landslides in two areas in Sicily (Italy) that occurred during the winter of 2004-2005. The investigated areas are located within the Belice River basin and extend for 38.5 and 10.3 km2, respectively. A landslide inventory was established for both areas using two Google Earth images taken on October 25th 2004 and on March 18th 2005, to map slope failures activated or reactivated during this interval. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) were used to prepare 5 m grids of the dependent variables (absence/presence of landslide) and independent variables (lithology and 13 DEM-derivatives). Multivariate Adaptive Regression Splines (MARS) were applied to model landslide susceptibility whereas receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and the area under the ROC curve (AUC) were used to evaluate model performance. To evaluate the robustness of the whole procedure, we prepared 10 different samples of positive (landslide presence) and negative (landslide absence) cases for each area. Absences were selected through two different methods: (i) extraction from randomly distributed circles with a diameter corresponding to the mean width of the landslide source areas; and (ii) selection as randomly distributed individual grid cells. A comparison was also made between the predictive performances of models including and not including the lithology parameter. The models trained and tested on the same area demonstrated excellent to outstanding fit (AUC > 0.8). On the other hand, predictive skill decreases when measured outside the calibration area, although most of the landslides occur where susceptibility is high and the overall model performance is acceptable (AUC > 0.7). The results also showed that the accuracy of the landslide susceptibility models is higher when lithology is included in the statistical analysis. Models whose absences were selected using random circles showed a

  13. Evidence from Social Service Enhancement Projects: Selected Cases from Norway's HUSK Project

    OpenAIRE

    Johannessen, Asbjørn; Eide, Solveig Botnen

    2015-01-01

    Through this article the authors describe the social service context of the HUSK (The University Research Program to Support Selected Municipal Social Service Offices) projects and briefly describe 10 of the 50 projects funded throughout the country. The welfare state context for the cases and the criteria for case selection are also provided. The 10 cases are organized into three categories that feature the role of dialogue, educational innovation, and service innovation. These cases provide...

  14. A Randomized Trial of Probation Case Management for Drug-Involved Women Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guydish, Joseph; Chan, Monica; Bostrom, Alan; Jessup, Martha A.; Davis, Thomas B.; Marsh, Cheryl

    2011-01-01

    This article reports findings from a clinical trial of a probation case management (PCM) intervention for drug-involved women offenders. Participants were randomly assigned to PCM (n = 92) or standard probation (n = 91) and followed for 12 months using measures of substance abuse, psychiatric symptoms, social support, and service utilization.…

  15. Random genetic drift, natural selection, and noise in human cranial evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roseman, Charles C

    2016-08-01

    This study assesses the extent to which relationships among groups complicate comparative studies of adaptation in recent human cranial variation and the extent to which departures from neutral additive models of evolution hinder the reconstruction of population relationships among groups using cranial morphology. Using a maximum likelihood evolutionary model fitting approach and a mixed population genomic and cranial data set, I evaluate the relative fits of several widely used models of human cranial evolution. Moreover, I compare the goodness of fit of models of cranial evolution constrained by genomic variation to test hypotheses about population specific departures from neutrality. Models from population genomics are much better fits to cranial variation than are traditional models from comparative human biology. There is not enough evolutionary information in the cranium to reconstruct much of recent human evolution but the influence of population history on cranial variation is strong enough to cause comparative studies of adaptation serious difficulties. Deviations from a model of random genetic drift along a tree-like population history show the importance of environmental effects, gene flow, and/or natural selection on human cranial variation. Moreover, there is a strong signal of the effect of natural selection or an environmental factor on a group of humans from Siberia. The evolution of the human cranium is complex and no one evolutionary process has prevailed at the expense of all others. A holistic unification of phenome, genome, and environmental context, gives us a strong point of purchase on these problems, which is unavailable to any one traditional approach alone. Am J Phys Anthropol 160:582-592, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. CURE-SMOTE algorithm and hybrid algorithm for feature selection and parameter optimization based on random forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Li; Fan, Suohai

    2017-03-14

    The random forests algorithm is a type of classifier with prominent universality, a wide application range, and robustness for avoiding overfitting. But there are still some drawbacks to random forests. Therefore, to improve the performance of random forests, this paper seeks to improve imbalanced data processing, feature selection and parameter optimization. We propose the CURE-SMOTE algorithm for the imbalanced data classification problem. Experiments on imbalanced UCI data reveal that the combination of Clustering Using Representatives (CURE) enhances the original synthetic minority oversampling technique (SMOTE) algorithms effectively compared with the classification results on the original data using random sampling, Borderline-SMOTE1, safe-level SMOTE, C-SMOTE, and k-means-SMOTE. Additionally, the hybrid RF (random forests) algorithm has been proposed for feature selection and parameter optimization, which uses the minimum out of bag (OOB) data error as its objective function. Simulation results on binary and higher-dimensional data indicate that the proposed hybrid RF algorithms, hybrid genetic-random forests algorithm, hybrid particle swarm-random forests algorithm and hybrid fish swarm-random forests algorithm can achieve the minimum OOB error and show the best generalization ability. The training set produced from the proposed CURE-SMOTE algorithm is closer to the original data distribution because it contains minimal noise. Thus, better classification results are produced from this feasible and effective algorithm. Moreover, the hybrid algorithm's F-value, G-mean, AUC and OOB scores demonstrate that they surpass the performance of the original RF algorithm. Hence, this hybrid algorithm provides a new way to perform feature selection and parameter optimization.

  17. Biased random key genetic algorithm with insertion and gender selection for capacitated vehicle routing problem with time windows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochman, Auliya Noor; Prasetyo, Hari; Nugroho, Munajat Tri

    2017-06-01

    Vehicle Routing Problem (VRP) often occurs when the manufacturers need to distribute their product to some customers/outlets. The distribution process is typically restricted by the capacity of the vehicle and the working hours at the distributor. This type of VRP is also known as Capacitated Vehicle Routing Problem with Time Windows (CVRPTW). A Biased Random Key Genetic Algorithm (BRKGA) was designed and coded in MATLAB to solve the CVRPTW case of soft drink distribution. The standard BRKGA was then modified by applying chromosome insertion into the initial population and defining chromosome gender for parent undergoing crossover operation. The performance of the established algorithms was then compared to a heuristic procedure for solving a soft drink distribution. Some findings are revealed (1) the total distribution cost of BRKGA with insertion (BRKGA-I) results in a cost saving of 39% compared to the total cost of heuristic method, (2) BRKGA with the gender selection (BRKGA-GS) could further improve the performance of the heuristic method. However, the BRKGA-GS tends to yield worse results compared to that obtained from the standard BRKGA.

  18. Noise-induced hearing loss in randomly selected New York dairy farmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, J J; Marvel, M; Regan, M; Marvel, L H; Pratt, D S

    1990-01-01

    To understand better the effects of noise levels associated with dairy farming, we randomly selected 49 full-time dairy farmers from an established cohort. Medical and occupational histories were taken and standard audiometric testing was done. Forty-six males (94%) and three females (6%) with a mean age of 43.5 (+/- 13) years and an average of 29.4 (+/- 14) years in farming were tested. Pure Tone Average thresholds (PTA4) at 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, and 3.0 kHz plus High Frequency Average thresholds (HFA3) at 3.0, 4.0, and 6.0 kHz were calculated. Subjects with a loss of greater than or equal to 20 db in either ear were considered abnormal. Eighteen subjects (37%) had abnormal PTA4S and 32 (65%) abnormal HFA3S. The left ear was more severely affected in both groups (p less than or equal to .05, t-test). Significant associations were found between hearing loss and years worked (odds ratio 4.1, r = .53) and age (odds ratio 4.1, r = .59). No association could be found between hearing loss and measles; mumps; previous ear infections; or use of power tools, guns, motorcycles, snowmobiles, or stereo headphones. Our data suggest that among farmers, substantial hearing loss occurs especially in the high-frequency ranges. Presbycusis is an important confounding variable.

  19. Conflicts of Interest, Selective Inertia, and Research Malpractice in Randomized Clinical Trials: An Unholy Trinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Vance W

    2015-08-01

    Recently a great deal of attention has been paid to conflicts of interest in medical research, and the Institute of Medicine has called for more research into this important area. One research question that has not received sufficient attention concerns the mechanisms of action by which conflicts of interest can result in biased and/or flawed research. What discretion do conflicted researchers have to sway the results one way or the other? We address this issue from the perspective of selective inertia, or an unnatural selection of research methods based on which are most likely to establish the preferred conclusions, rather than on which are most valid. In many cases it is abundantly clear that a method that is not being used in practice is superior to the one that is being used in practice, at least from the perspective of validity, and that it is only inertia, as opposed to any serious suggestion that the incumbent method is superior (or even comparable), that keeps the inferior procedure in use, to the exclusion of the superior one. By focusing on these flawed research methods we can go beyond statements of potential harm from real conflicts of interest, and can more directly assess actual (not potential) harm.

  20. Selection of neighborhood controls for a population-based Lyme disease case-control study by using a commercial marketing database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connally, Neeta P; Yousey-Hindes, Kimberly; Meek, James

    2013-07-15

    The selection of controls is an important methodological consideration for case-control studies. Neighborhood-matched control selection is particularly crucial for studies of vector-borne disease, such as Lyme disease, for which risk is intrinsically linked to geographical location. The matching of case-control pairs on neighborhood can help control for variation in ecological risk factors that are tied to geographical location, like vector and host habitat in the peridomestic environment. Random-digit dialing has been used to find neighborhood controls by using the area code and exchange of the case to generate lists of potential control households. An alternative to random-digit dialing is the purchase of residential telephone numbers from a commercial marketing database. This report describes the utility of the InfoUSA.com (InfoGroup, Papillion, Nebraska) commercial marketing database for neighborhood control recruitment in a Lyme disease case-control study in Connecticut during 2005-2007.

  1. The prevalence of symptoms associated with pulmonary tuberculosis in randomly selected children from a high burden community

    OpenAIRE

    Marais, B.; Obihara, C; Gie, R.; Schaaf, H; Hesseling, A.; Lombard, C.; Enarson, D; Bateman, E; Beyers, N

    2005-01-01

    Background: Diagnosis of childhood tuberculosis is problematic and symptom based diagnostic approaches are often promoted in high burden settings. This study aimed (i) to document the prevalence of symptoms associated with tuberculosis among randomly selected children living in a high burden community, and (ii) to compare the prevalence of these symptoms in children without tuberculosis to those in children with newly diagnosed tuberculosis.

  2. Rapid selection of accessible and cleavable sites in RNA by Escherichia coli RNase P and random external guide sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundblad, Eirik W; Xiao, Gaoping; Ko, Jae-Hyeong; Altman, Sidney

    2008-02-19

    A method of inhibiting the expression of particular genes by using external guide sequences (EGSs) has been improved in its rapidity and specificity. Random EGSs that have 14-nt random sequences are used in the selection procedure for an EGS that attacks the mRNA for a gene in a particular location. A mixture of the random EGSs, the particular target RNA, and RNase P is used in the diagnostic procedure, which, after completion, is analyzed in a gel with suitable control lanes. Within a few hours, the procedure is complete. The action of EGSs designed by an older method is compared with EGSs designed by the random EGS method on mRNAs from two bacterial pathogens.

  3. A case on vendor selection methodology: An integrated approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikhil C. Shil

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Vendor selection methodology is a highly researched area in supply chain management l terature and a very significant decision taken by supply chain managers due to technological advances in the manufacturing process. Such research has two basic dimensions: one is related to the identification of variables affecting the performance of the vendors and the other deals with the methodology to be applied. Most of the research conducted in this area deal with the upfront selection of vendors. However, it is very common to have a list of dedicated vendors due to the development of sophisticated production technologies like just in time (JIT, a lean or agile manufacturing process where continuous flow of materials is a requirement. This paper addresses the issue of selecting the optimal vendor from the internal database of a company. Factor analysis, analytical hierarchy process and regression analysis is used in an integrated way to supplement the vendor selection process. The methodology presented here is simply a proposal where every possible room for adjustment is available.

  4. Leadership Practices: A case of selected corporate institutions in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Leadership determines whether an organization, a nation or a group will achieve its goals and also satisfy the followers' needs. This study focused on leadership practices in selected institutions in Nairobi-Kenya. The design of the study was exploratory and snowball sampling methodology was used. The results of this ...

  5. The case for selection at CCR5-Delta32.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pardis C Sabeti

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The C-C chemokine receptor 5, 32 base-pair deletion (CCR5-Delta32 allele confers strong resistance to infection by the AIDS virus HIV. Previous studies have suggested that CCR5-Delta32 arose within the past 1,000 y and rose to its present high frequency (5%-14% in Europe as a result of strong positive selection, perhaps by such selective agents as the bubonic plague or smallpox during the Middle Ages. This hypothesis was based on several lines of evidence, including the absence of the allele outside of Europe and long-range linkage disequilibrium at the locus. We reevaluated this evidence with the benefit of much denser genetic maps and extensive control data. We find that the pattern of genetic variation at CCR5-Delta32 does not stand out as exceptional relative to other loci across the genome. Moreover using newer genetic maps, we estimated that the CCR5-Delta32 allele is likely to have arisen more than 5,000 y ago. While such results can not rule out the possibility that some selection may have occurred at C-C chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5, they imply that the pattern of genetic variation seen at CCR5-Delta32 is consistent with neutral evolution. More broadly, the results have general implications for the design of future studies to detect the signs of positive selection in the human genome.

  6. The case for selection at CCR5-Delta32.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The C-C chemokine receptor 5, 32 base-pair deletion (CCR5-Delta32 allele confers strong resistance to infection by the AIDS virus HIV. Previous studies have suggested that CCR5-Delta32 arose within the past 1,000 y and rose to its present high frequency (5%-14% in Europe as a result of strong positive selection, perhaps by such selective agents as the bubonic plague or smallpox during the Middle Ages. This hypothesis was based on several lines of evidence, including the absence of the allele outside of Europe and long-range linkage disequilibrium at the locus. We reevaluated this evidence with the benefit of much denser genetic maps and extensive control data. We find that the pattern of genetic variation at CCR5-Delta32 does not stand out as exceptional relative to other loci across the genome. Moreover using newer genetic maps, we estimated that the CCR5-Delta32 allele is likely to have arisen more than 5,000 y ago. While such results can not rule out the possibility that some selection may have occurred at C-C chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5, they imply that the pattern of genetic variation seen atCCR5-Delta32 is consistent with neutral evolution. More broadly, the results have general implications for the design of future studies to detect the signs of positive selection in the human genome.

  7. Equivalent Selection in Specialized e-Lexicography: A Case Study ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper follows suit and elaborates on the selection of Spanish equivalents in a particular dictionary project: the Diccionario Inglés–Español de Contabilidad, one of the Accounting dictionaries. This dictionary aims to satisfy the needs of translators (primary user group), accountants and financial experts (secondary user ...

  8. Differential privacy-based evaporative cooling feature selection and classification with relief-F and random forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Trang T; Simmons, W Kyle; Misaki, Masaya; Bodurka, Jerzy; White, Bill C; Savitz, Jonathan; McKinney, Brett A

    2017-09-15

    Classification of individuals into disease or clinical categories from high-dimensional biological data with low prediction error is an important challenge of statistical learning in bioinformatics. Feature selection can improve classification accuracy but must be incorporated carefully into cross-validation to avoid overfitting. Recently, feature selection methods based on differential privacy, such as differentially private random forests and reusable holdout sets, have been proposed. However, for domains such as bioinformatics, where the number of features is much larger than the number of observations p≫n , these differential privacy methods are susceptible to overfitting. We introduce private Evaporative Cooling, a stochastic privacy-preserving machine learning algorithm that uses Relief-F for feature selection and random forest for privacy preserving classification that also prevents overfitting. We relate the privacy-preserving threshold mechanism to a thermodynamic Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution, where the temperature represents the privacy threshold. We use the thermal statistical physics concept of Evaporative Cooling of atomic gases to perform backward stepwise privacy-preserving feature selection. On simulated data with main effects and statistical interactions, we compare accuracies on holdout and validation sets for three privacy-preserving methods: the reusable holdout, reusable holdout with random forest, and private Evaporative Cooling, which uses Relief-F feature selection and random forest classification. In simulations where interactions exist between attributes, private Evaporative Cooling provides higher classification accuracy without overfitting based on an independent validation set. In simulations without interactions, thresholdout with random forest and private Evaporative Cooling give comparable accuracies. We also apply these privacy methods to human brain resting-state fMRI data from a study of major depressive disorder. Code

  9. Bayesian dose selection design for a binary outcome using restricted response adaptive randomization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinzer, Caitlyn; Martin, Renee; Suarez, Jose I

    2017-09-08

    In phase II trials, the most efficacious dose is usually not known. Moreover, given limited resources, it is difficult to robustly identify a dose while also testing for a signal of efficacy that would support a phase III trial. Recent designs have sought to be more efficient by exploring multiple doses through the use of adaptive strategies. However, the added flexibility may potentially increase the risk of making incorrect assumptions and reduce the total amount of information available across the dose range as a function of imbalanced sample size. To balance these challenges, a novel placebo-controlled design is presented in which a restricted Bayesian response adaptive randomization (RAR) is used to allocate a majority of subjects to the optimal dose of active drug, defined as the dose with the lowest probability of poor outcome. However, the allocation between subjects who receive active drug or placebo is held constant to retain the maximum possible power for a hypothesis test of overall efficacy comparing the optimal dose to placebo. The design properties and optimization of the design are presented in the context of a phase II trial for subarachnoid hemorrhage. For a fixed total sample size, a trade-off exists between the ability to select the optimal dose and the probability of rejecting the null hypothesis. This relationship is modified by the allocation ratio between active and control subjects, the choice of RAR algorithm, and the number of subjects allocated to an initial fixed allocation period. While a responsive RAR algorithm improves the ability to select the correct dose, there is an increased risk of assigning more subjects to a worse arm as a function of ephemeral trends in the data. A subarachnoid treatment trial is used to illustrate how this design can be customized for specific objectives and available data. Bayesian adaptive designs are a flexible approach to addressing multiple questions surrounding the optimal dose for treatment efficacy

  10. Using ArcMap, Google Earth, and Global Positioning Systems to select and locate random households in rural Haiti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wampler Peter J

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A remote sensing technique was developed which combines a Geographic Information System (GIS; Google Earth, and Microsoft Excel to identify home locations for a random sample of households in rural Haiti. The method was used to select homes for ethnographic and water quality research in a region of rural Haiti located within 9 km of a local hospital and source of health education in Deschapelles, Haiti. The technique does not require access to governmental records or ground based surveys to collect household location data and can be performed in a rapid, cost-effective manner. Methods The random selection of households and the location of these households during field surveys were accomplished using GIS, Google Earth, Microsoft Excel, and handheld Garmin GPSmap 76CSx GPS units. Homes were identified and mapped in Google Earth, exported to ArcMap 10.0, and a random list of homes was generated using Microsoft Excel which was then loaded onto handheld GPS units for field location. The development and use of a remote sensing method was essential to the selection and location of random households. Results A total of 537 homes initially were mapped and a randomized subset of 96 was identified as potential survey locations. Over 96% of the homes mapped using Google Earth imagery were correctly identified as occupied dwellings. Only 3.6% of the occupants of mapped homes visited declined to be interviewed. 16.4% of the homes visited were not occupied at the time of the visit due to work away from the home or market days. A total of 55 households were located using this method during the 10 days of fieldwork in May and June of 2012. Conclusions The method used to generate and field locate random homes for surveys and water sampling was an effective means of selecting random households in a rural environment lacking geolocation infrastructure. The success rate for locating households using a handheld GPS was excellent and only

  11. Using ArcMap, Google Earth, and Global Positioning Systems to select and locate random households in rural Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wampler, Peter J; Rediske, Richard R; Molla, Azizur R

    2013-01-18

    A remote sensing technique was developed which combines a Geographic Information System (GIS); Google Earth, and Microsoft Excel to identify home locations for a random sample of households in rural Haiti. The method was used to select homes for ethnographic and water quality research in a region of rural Haiti located within 9 km of a local hospital and source of health education in Deschapelles, Haiti. The technique does not require access to governmental records or ground based surveys to collect household location data and can be performed in a rapid, cost-effective manner. The random selection of households and the location of these households during field surveys were accomplished using GIS, Google Earth, Microsoft Excel, and handheld Garmin GPSmap 76CSx GPS units. Homes were identified and mapped in Google Earth, exported to ArcMap 10.0, and a random list of homes was generated using Microsoft Excel which was then loaded onto handheld GPS units for field location. The development and use of a remote sensing method was essential to the selection and location of random households. A total of 537 homes initially were mapped and a randomized subset of 96 was identified as potential survey locations. Over 96% of the homes mapped using Google Earth imagery were correctly identified as occupied dwellings. Only 3.6% of the occupants of mapped homes visited declined to be interviewed. 16.4% of the homes visited were not occupied at the time of the visit due to work away from the home or market days. A total of 55 households were located using this method during the 10 days of fieldwork in May and June of 2012. The method used to generate and field locate random homes for surveys and water sampling was an effective means of selecting random households in a rural environment lacking geolocation infrastructure. The success rate for locating households using a handheld GPS was excellent and only rarely was local knowledge required to identify and locate households. This

  12. Longitudinal evaluation of selected human laser eye accident cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwick, Harry; Stuck, Bruce E.; Scales, David K.; Brown, Jeremiah; Ness, James W.

    1999-06-01

    Two Q-switched military accident cases involving foveal retinal damage were followed for at least two years with a variety of morphological and functional diagnostic techniques. Both cases demonstrated remarkable recovery of visual acuity and contrast sensitivity within 1 to 4 months post exposure. Early deficits in visual acuity, sine wave contrast sensitivity, various measures of color vision, and focal electrophysiological measures all showed remarkable recovery. With the use of a scanning laser ophthalmoscope (SLO), we were able to further evaluate the retinal preference threshold contrast targets and found that small targets requiring foveal resolution were initially placed superior and slightly temporal to the damaged fovea in these eyes, even though visual acuity in these eyes was 20/15 or better. In one of these cases, a return to foveal functionality was demonstrated even though the fovea appeared lightly scarred small test targets were placed at its center for detection. In the second case, the PRL stayed superior temporal. Attempts to force target resolution in this area were unsuccessful. These findings suggest a more active role of neural retinal plasticity in the damage recovery process as well as caution in assuming that all such injuries will exhibit such plasticity.

  13. ERP SYSTEM SELECTION BY AHP METHOD: CASE STUDY FROM TURKEY

    OpenAIRE

    Rouyendegh, Babak Daneshvar; Erkan, Turan Erman

    2011-01-01

    An Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) system is a critical investment that can significantly affect competitiveness of a corporate in the future. There are many national and international ERP vendors in Turkey. This study presents a comprehensive framework for selecting a suitable ERP system by using Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP). AHP method, directs how to determine the priority of a set of alternatives and the relative importance of attributes in a multiple criteria decision-making probl...

  14. Evaluating local food programs: the case of Select Nova Scotia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Andrew J

    2013-02-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of the buy local food program Select Nova Scotia; a government program with the goal to increase awareness and consumption of Nova Scotia produced and processed agri-food products by Nova Scotians and visitors. The evaluation methodology was based on prior evaluation resources and local food consumer research. Data were gathered through a web panel survey; 877 respondents completed the survey in June 2010. The results suggest that the program is reaching a wider audience than just those predisposed to local food initiatives. In addition, awareness of Select Nova was related to perceptions of local benefits and barriers, as well as purchase motivation and behavior. Respondents who were aware of Select Nova Scotia rated societal benefits as more important and viewed location and price as less of a barrier; they were also more likely to be highly motivated to purchase local foods. This study also informs results found in previous consumer research studies and identifies marketing opportunities to enhance the effectiveness of local food programs. The results suggest that societal benefits might be used as a way to differentiate products with similar attributes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Generation of Aptamers from A Primer-Free Randomized ssDNA Library Using Magnetic-Assisted Rapid Aptamer Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsao, Shih-Ming; Lai, Ji-Ching; Horng, Horng-Er; Liu, Tu-Chen; Hong, Chin-Yih

    2017-04-01

    Aptamers are oligonucleotides that can bind to specific target molecules. Most aptamers are generated using random libraries in the standard systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX). Each random library contains oligonucleotides with a randomized central region and two fixed primer regions at both ends. The fixed primer regions are necessary for amplifying target-bound sequences by PCR. However, these extra-sequences may cause non-specific bindings, which potentially interfere with good binding for random sequences. The Magnetic-Assisted Rapid Aptamer Selection (MARAS) is a newly developed protocol for generating single-strand DNA aptamers. No repeat selection cycle is required in the protocol. This study proposes and demonstrates a method to isolate aptamers for C-reactive proteins (CRP) from a randomized ssDNA library containing no fixed sequences at 5‧ and 3‧ termini using the MARAS platform. Furthermore, the isolated primer-free aptamer was sequenced and binding affinity for CRP was analyzed. The specificity of the obtained aptamer was validated using blind serum samples. The result was consistent with monoclonal antibody-based nephelometry analysis, which indicated that a primer-free aptamer has high specificity toward targets. MARAS is a feasible platform for efficiently generating primer-free aptamers for clinical diagnoses.

  16. Management of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: selected case reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Kreuter

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In 2011, revised international guidelines were issued jointly by the American Thoracic Society, the European Respiratory Society, the Japanese Respiratory Society and the Latin American Thoracic Association, which provide a valuable framework for the diagnosis and management of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF. However, due to the complexity of IPF, these guidelines may not comprehensively account for the management of individual IPF patients in clinical practice. We describe three patient cases that were presented and discussed during the 2013 AIR: Advancing IPF Research meeting in Nice, France. These cases highlight the heterogeneity in the presentation, history and clinical course of IPF, together with expert insights regarding the diagnosis and management of IPF in the real-life setting.

  17. Method of Path Selection in the Graph - Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Neumann

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a different perspective on the Dijkstra algorithm. In this paper algorithm will be used in the further analysis to find additional paths between nodes in the maritime sector. In many cases, the best solution for a single criterion is not sufficient. I would be the search for more effective solutions of the starting point to use for subsequent analysis or decision making by the captain of the ship. Using cutting-edge thinking mechanisms, it is possible to create a decision support system based on known Dijkstra's algorithm.

  18. Method of Path Selection in the Graph - Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Tomasz Neumann

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a different perspective on the Dijkstra algorithm. In this paper algorithm will be used in the further analysis to find additional paths between nodes in the maritime sector. In many cases, the best solution for a single criterion is not sufficient. I would be the search for more effective solutions of the starting point to use for subsequent analysis or decision making by the captain of the ship. Using cutting-edge thinking mechanisms, it is possible to create a decision ...

  19. The use of a clinical case study in a clinical information system selection process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, C. M.; Scanlon, K. W.

    1994-01-01

    The University of Pennsylvania Health System recently underwent an extensive selection process for a new clinical information system. In addition to a traditional system selection approach, a clinical case study was utilized during our selection process. This was done in an effort to better prepare the clinicians involved in the selection process, as well as to help identify key operational issues that the institution would need to resolve, related to the design and implementation of a new clinical system. We wil describe here the reasons this approach was chosen, how the case study was utilized, and provide an assessment of its usefulness. PMID:7950007

  20. Evaluation of Randomly Selected Completed Medical Records Sheets in Teaching Hospitals of Jahrom University of Medical Sciences, 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Parsa Mahjob

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective: Medical record documentation, often use to protect the patients legal rights, also providing information for medical researchers, general studies, education of health care staff and qualitative surveys is used. There is a need to control the amount of data entered in the medical record sheets of patients, considering the completion of these sheets is often carried out after completion of service delivery to the patients. Therefore, in this study the prevalence of completeness of medical history, operation reports, and physician order sheets by different documentaries in Jahrom teaching hospitals during year 2009 was analyzed. Methods and Materials: In this descriptive / retrospective study, the 400 medical record sheets of the patients from two teaching hospitals affiliated to Jahrom medical university was randomly selected. The tool of data collection was a checklist based on the content of medical history sheet, operation report and physician order sheets. The data were analyzed by SPSS (Version10 software and Microsoft Office Excel 2003. Results: Average of personal (Demography data entered in medical history, physician order and operation report sheets which is done by department's secretaries were 32.9, 35.8 and 40.18 percent. Average of clinical data entered by physician in medical history sheet is 38 percent. Surgical data entered by the surgeon in operation report sheet was 94.77 percent. Average of data entered by operation room's nurse in operation report sheet was 36.78 percent; Average of physician order data in physician order sheet entered by physician was 99.3 percent. Conclusion: According to this study, the rate of completed record papers reviewed by documentary in Jahrom teaching hospitals were not desirable and in some cases were very weak and incomplete. This deficiency was due to different reason such as medical record documentaries negligence, lack of adequate education for documentaries, High work

  1. Agile methodology selection criteria: IT start-up case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micic, Lj

    2017-05-01

    Project management in modern IT companies is often based on agile methodologies which have several advantages compared to traditional methodologies such is waterfall. Having in mind that clients sometimes change project during development it is crucial for an IT company to choose carefully which methodology is going to implement and is it going to be mostly based on one or is it going got be combination of several. There are several modern and often used methodologies but among those Scrum, Kanban and XP programming are usually the most common. Sometimes companies use mostly tools and procedures from one but quite often they use some of the combination of those methodologies. Having in mind that those methodologies are just a framework they allow companies to adapt it for their specific projects as well as for other limitations. These methodologies are in limited usage Bosnia but more and more IT companies are starting to use agile methodologies because it is practice and common not just for their clients abroad but also starting to be the only option in order to deliver quality product on time. However it is always challenging which methodology or combination of several companies should implement and how to connect it to its own project, organizational framework and HR management. This paper presents one case study based on local IT start up and delivers solution based on theoretical framework and practical limitations that case company has.

  2. The basic science and mathematics of random mutation and natural selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinman, Alan

    2014-12-20

    The mutation and natural selection phenomenon can and often does cause the failure of antimicrobial, herbicidal, pesticide and cancer treatments selection pressures. This phenomenon operates in a mathematically predictable behavior, which when understood leads to approaches to reduce and prevent the failure of the use of these selection pressures. The mathematical behavior of mutation and selection is derived using the principles given by probability theory. The derivation of the equations describing the mutation and selection phenomenon is carried out in the context of an empirical example. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Factor selection for service quality evaluation: a hospital case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameryoun, Ahmad; Najafi, Seyedvahid; Nejati-Zarnaqi, Bayram; Khalilifar, Seyed Omid; Ajam, Mahdi; Ansarimoghadam, Ahmad

    2017-02-13

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to develop a systematic approach to predict service quality dimension's influence on service quality using a novel analysis based on data envelopment and SERVQUAL. Design/methodology/approach To assess hospital service quality in Tehran, expectation and perception of those who received the services were evaluated using SERVQUAL. The hospital service quality dimensions were found by exploratory factor analysis (EFA). To compare customer expectation and perception, perceived service quality index (PSQI) was measured using a new method based on common weights. A novel sensitivity approach was used to test the service quality factor's impact on the PSQI. Findings A new service quality dimension named "trust in services" was found using EFA, which is not an original SERVQUAL factor. The approach was applied to assess the hospital's service quality. Since the PSQI value was 0.76 it showed that improvements are needed to meet customer expectations. The results showed the factor order that affect PSQI. "Trust in services" has the strongest influence on PSQI followed by "tangibles," "assurance," "empathy," and "responsiveness," respectively. Practical implications This work gives managers insight into service quality by following a systematic method; i.e., measuring perceived service quality from the customer viewpoint and service factors' impact on customer perception. Originality/value The procedure helps managers to select the required service quality dimensions which need improvement and predict their effects on customer perception.

  4. Selected acoustic characteristics of emerging esophageal speech: Case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenn Binder

    1978-08-01

    Full Text Available The development of esophageal speech was examined in a laryngectomee subject to observe the emergence of selected acoustic characteristics, and their relation to listener intelligibility ratings. Over a two-and-a-half  month period, the data from  five recording sessions was used for spectrographic and perceptual (listener analysis. There was evidence to suggest a fairly reliable correlation between emerging acoustic characteristics and increasing perceptual ratings. Acoustic factors coincident with increased intelligibility ratings appeared related to two dimensions: firstly, the increasing pseudoglottic control over esophageal air release; secondly the presence of  a mechanism of  pharyngeal compression. Increased pseudoglottic control manifested  in a reduction of  tracheo-esophageal turbulence, and a more efficient  burping mode of  vibration with clearer formant structure. Spectrographic evidence of  a fundamental  frequency  did not emerge. These dimensions appeared to have potential diagnostic and therapeutic value, rendering an analysis of  the patient's developing vocal performance  more explicit for  both clinician and patient.

  5. An analysis of selected cases of derecho in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celiński-Mysław, Daniel; Matuszko, Dorota

    2014-11-01

    The paper analyses six cases of the derecho phenomena, which occurred in Poland between 2007 and 2012. The input data included reports on dangerous meteorological phenomena, SYNOP and METAR reports, MSL pressure maps, upper air maps at 500 hPa and 850 hPa, radar depictions and satellite images, upper air sounding plots and data from a system locating atmospheric discharges. Derechos are caused directly by the activity of mesoscale convective systems linked up with either, in winter, a cold front of a deep low-pressure system, or, in summer, with an area of wind convergence in a warm sector of a cyclone or with an articulated cold front which, moving within a low-pressure embayment, develops a very active secondary depression. It was found that southern and central Poland were the regions most frequently affected by derechos. Mid-level and high-level jet streams, augmented by high thermodynamic instability of air masses, were found to be conducive to the development of derechos.

  6. Novel random peptide libraries displayed on AAV serotype 9 for selection of endothelial cell-directed gene transfer vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varadi, K; Michelfelder, S; Korff, T; Hecker, M; Trepel, M; Katus, H A; Kleinschmidt, J A; Müller, O J

    2012-08-01

    We have demonstrated the potential of random peptide libraries displayed on adeno-associated virus (AAV)2 to select for AAV2 vectors with improved efficiency for cell type-directed gene transfer. AAV9, however, may have advantages over AAV2 because of a lower prevalence of neutralizing antibodies in humans and more efficient gene transfer in vivo. Here we provide evidence that random peptide libraries can be displayed on AAV9 and can be utilized to select for AAV9 capsids redirected to the cell type of interest. We generated an AAV9 peptide display library, which ensures that the displayed peptides correspond to the packaged genomes and performed four consecutive selection rounds on human coronary artery endothelial cells in vitro. This screening yielded AAV9 library capsids with distinct peptide motifs enabling up to 40-fold improved transduction efficiencies compared with wild-type (wt) AAV9 vectors. Incorporating sequences selected from AAV9 libraries into AAV2 capsids could not increase transduction as efficiently as in the AAV9 context. To analyze the potential on endothelial cells in the intact natural vascular context, human umbilical veins were incubated with the selected AAV in situ and endothelial cells were isolated. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis revealed a 200-fold improved transduction efficiency compared with wt AAV9 vectors. Furthermore, AAV9 vectors with targeting sequences selected from AAV9 libraries revealed an increased transduction efficiency in the presence of human intravenous immunoglobulins, suggesting a reduced immunogenicity. We conclude that our novel AAV9 peptide library is functional and can be used to select for vectors for future preclinical and clinical gene transfer applications.

  7. The impact of brand value on brand selection: Case study of mobile phone selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Safaei

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available There are many evidences to believe that customers select their products based on brand name. Products also maintain their own characteristics, which make them differentiable from others. In this paper, we present an empirical study to determine important factors influencing customers' purchasing intend for cellular phones in capital city of Iran, Tehran. The proposed study of this paper designs a questionnaire consists of 16 questions and distribute them among 428 people. The results of the study show that there are some positive relationships between exclusive name and quality perception, between exclusive name and word of mouth advertisement, between quality perception and fidelity, between word of mouth advertisement and brand name and between brand name image and brand name.

  8. Individualised resting hand splints for adults with acquired brain injury: a randomized, single blinded, single case design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copley, Jodie; Kuipers, Kathy; Fleming, Jenny; Rassafiani, Mehdi

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of individualized resting mitt splints on hypertonicity (spasticity and tissue stiffness) and passive range of motion (PROM). A randomized, single blinded, single case design. Ten adults with acquired brain injury were randomized to control (no-splint) and experimental (splint) groups. The experimental group received an individualized (wrist position, wearing schedule) thermoplastic resting mitt splint. Measures included wrist and finger PROM, muscle stiffness (Modified Ashworth Scale), and spasticity (Modified Tardieu Scale) which were taken at five time points. Between-group analyses indicated a statistically significant effect on PROM at the wrist (d = 2.14, CI₉₅ = 0.57, 3.72, p spasticity and stiffness. Within-group analyses indicated that splint-wear resulted in positive clinical effects ranging from zero effect (maintenance of pre-splinting status) to a large positive treatment effect. Non splint-wear resulted in negative clinical effects ranging from zero effect to a large negative treatment effect. Individualized resting splints for adults with moderate hypertonicity and no soft tissue contracture resulted in positive clinical effects to PROM, muscle stiffness and spasticity. Long-term splint-wear may be more beneficial than short-term wear, and may prevent the negative changes evident with no splint-wear. Resting hand splints should be considered for a select group where reduction in muscle stiffness and spasticity, or maintenance of PROM, is desired.

  9. The Jackprot Simulation Couples Mutation Rate with Natural Selection to Illustrate How Protein Evolution Is Not Random

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa, Avelina; Bai, Chunyan Y.

    2016-01-01

    Protein evolution is not a random process. Views which attribute randomness to molecular change, deleterious nature to single-gene mutations, insufficient geological time, or population size for molecular improvements to occur, or invoke “design creationism” to account for complexity in molecular structures and biological processes, are unfounded. Scientific evidence suggests that natural selection tinkers with molecular improvements by retaining adaptive peptide sequence. We used slot-machine probabilities and ion channels to show biological directionality on molecular change. Because ion channels reside in the lipid bilayer of cell membranes, their residue location must be in balance with the membrane's hydrophobic/philic nature; a selective “pore” for ion passage is located within the hydrophobic region. We contrasted the random generation of DNA sequence for KcsA, a bacterial two-transmembrane-domain (2TM) potassium channel, from Streptomyces lividans, with an under-selection scenario, the “jackprot,” which predicted much faster evolution than by chance. We wrote a computer program in JAVA APPLET version 1.0 and designed an online interface, The Jackprot Simulation http://faculty.rwu.edu/cbai/JackprotSimulation.htm, to model a numerical interaction between mutation rate and natural selection during a scenario of polypeptide evolution. Winning the “jackprot,” or highest-fitness complete-peptide sequence, required cumulative smaller “wins” (rewarded by selection) at the first, second, and third positions in each of the 161 KcsA codons (“jackdons” that led to “jackacids” that led to the “jackprot”). The “jackprot” is a didactic tool to demonstrate how mutation rate coupled with natural selection suffices to explain the evolution of specialized proteins, such as the complex six-transmembrane (6TM) domain potassium, sodium, or calcium channels. Ancestral DNA sequences coding for 2TM-like proteins underwent nucleotide

  10. The Jackprot Simulation Couples Mutation Rate with Natural Selection to Illustrate How Protein Evolution Is Not Random.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz-Y-Miño C, Guillermo; Espinosa, Avelina; Bai, Chunyan Y

    2011-09-01

    Protein evolution is not a random process. Views which attribute randomness to molecular change, deleterious nature to single-gene mutations, insufficient geological time, or population size for molecular improvements to occur, or invoke "design creationism" to account for complexity in molecular structures and biological processes, are unfounded. Scientific evidence suggests that natural selection tinkers with molecular improvements by retaining adaptive peptide sequence. We used slot-machine probabilities and ion channels to show biological directionality on molecular change. Because ion channels reside in the lipid bilayer of cell membranes, their residue location must be in balance with the membrane's hydrophobic/philic nature; a selective "pore" for ion passage is located within the hydrophobic region. We contrasted the random generation of DNA sequence for KcsA, a bacterial two-transmembrane-domain (2TM) potassium channel, from Streptomyces lividans, with an under-selection scenario, the "jackprot," which predicted much faster evolution than by chance. We wrote a computer program in JAVA APPLET version 1.0 and designed an online interface, The Jackprot Simulation http://faculty.rwu.edu/cbai/JackprotSimulation.htm, to model a numerical interaction between mutation rate and natural selection during a scenario of polypeptide evolution. Winning the "jackprot," or highest-fitness complete-peptide sequence, required cumulative smaller "wins" (rewarded by selection) at the first, second, and third positions in each of the 161 KcsA codons ("jackdons" that led to "jackacids" that led to the "jackprot"). The "jackprot" is a didactic tool to demonstrate how mutation rate coupled with natural selection suffices to explain the evolution of specialized proteins, such as the complex six-transmembrane (6TM) domain potassium, sodium, or calcium channels. Ancestral DNA sequences coding for 2TM-like proteins underwent nucleotide "edition" and gene duplications to generate the 6

  11. Do Instructional Videos on Sputum Submission Result in Increased Tuberculosis Case Detection? A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mhalu, Grace; Hella, Jerry; Doulla, Basra; Mhimbira, Francis; Mtutu, Hawa; Hiza, Helen; Sasamalo, Mohamed; Rutaihwa, Liliana; Rieder, Hans L; Seimon, Tamsyn; Mutayoba, Beatrice; Weiss, Mitchell G; Fenner, Lukas

    2015-01-01

    We examined the effect of an instructional video about the production of diagnostic sputum on case detection of tuberculosis (TB), and evaluated the acceptance of the video. Randomized controlled trial. We prepared a culturally adapted instructional video for sputum submission. We analyzed 200 presumptive TB cases coughing for more than two weeks who attended the outpatient department of the governmental Municipal Hospital in Mwananyamala (Dar es Salaam, Tanzania). They were randomly assigned to either receive instructions on sputum submission using the video before submission (intervention group, n = 100) or standard of care (control group, n = 100). Sputum samples were examined for volume, quality and presence of acid-fast bacilli by experienced laboratory technicians blinded to study groups. Median age was 39.1 years (interquartile range 37.0-50.0); 94 (47%) were females, 106 (53%) were males, and 49 (24.5%) were HIV-infected. We found that the instructional video intervention was associated with detection of a higher proportion of microscopically confirmed cases (56%, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 45.7-65.9%, sputum smear positive patients in the intervention group versus 23%, 95% CI 15.2-32.5%, in the control group, p instructions were understood, the majority of patients in the intervention group reported to have understood the video instructions well (97%). Most of the patients thought the video would be useful in the cultural setting of Tanzania (92%). Sputum submission instructional videos increased the yield of tuberculosis cases through better quality of sputum samples. If confirmed in larger studies, instructional videos may have a substantial effect on the case yield using sputum microscopy and also molecular tests. This low-cost strategy should be considered as part of the efforts to control TB in resource-limited settings. Pan African Clinical Trials Registry PACTR201504001098231.

  12. Pseudo cluster randomization: a treatment allocation method to minimize contamination and selection bias.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borm, G.F.; Melis, R.J.F.; Teerenstra, S.; Peer, P.G.M.

    2005-01-01

    In some clinical trials, treatment allocation on a patient level is not feasible, and whole groups or clusters of patients are allocated to the same treatment. If, for example, a clinical trial is investigating the efficacy of various patient coaching methods and randomization is done on a patient

  13. Prediction Of Students’ Learning Study Periode By Using Random Forest Method (Case Study: Stikom Bali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Made Budi Adnyana

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Graduation on time is one of the assessment elements of the college accreditation. Furthermore, graduation on time is an important issue because it indicates an effectiveness of college. Academic division of STIKOM Bali face many difficulties on predicting student graduation time because lack of information and analysis. Predictions of graduation time can help academic division in making appropriate strategy to shorten the study time. Data mining can be applied on this prediction problems using random forest classification methods. Random forest is a collection of of several tree, where each tree dependent on the pixels on each vector that selected randomly and independent .Sample data obtained from academic division of STIKOM Bali. This research use sample data of last 2 years graduated students, such as IPK, SKS, the number of inactive, and study time. The classification output consists of 2 class, “graduate on time” and “graduate over the time”. From the experimental result, 83.54 % accuracy value obtained.

  14. Age-related Cataract in a Randomized Trial of Selenium and Vitamin E in Men: The SELECT Eye Endpoints (SEE) Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christen, William G.; Glynn, Robert J.; Gaziano, J. Michael; Darke, Amy K.; Crowley, John J.; Goodman, Phyllis J.; Lippman, Scott M.; Lad, Thomas E.; Bearden, James D.; Goodman, Gary E.; Minasian, Lori M.; Thompson, Ian M.; Blanke, Charles D.; Klein, Eric A.

    2014-01-01

    Importance Observational studies suggest a role for dietary nutrients such as vitamin E and selenium in cataract prevention. However, the results of randomized trials of vitamin E supplements and cataract have been disappointing, and are not yet available for selenium. Objective To test whether long-term supplementation with selenium and vitamin E affects the incidence of cataract in a large cohort of men. Design, Setting, and Participants The SELECT Eye Endpoints (SEE) study was an ancillary study of the SWOG-coordinated Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT), a randomized, placebo-controlled, four arm trial of selenium and vitamin E conducted among 35,533 men aged 50 years and older for African Americans and 55 and older for all other men, at 427 participating sites in the US, Canada, and Puerto Rico. A total of 11,267 SELECT participants from 128 SELECT sites participated in the SEE ancillary study. Intervention Individual supplements of selenium (200 µg/d from L-selenomethionine) and vitamin E (400 IU/d of all rac-α-tocopheryl acetate). Main Outcome Measures Incident cataract, defined as a lens opacity, age-related in origin, responsible for a reduction in best-corrected visual acuity to 20/30 or worse based on self-report confirmed by medical record review, and cataract extraction, defined as the surgical removal of an incident cataract. Results During a mean (SD) of 5.6 (1.2) years of treatment and follow-up, 389 cases of cataract were documented. There were 185 cataracts in the selenium group and 204 in the no selenium group (hazard ratio [HR], 0.91; 95 percent confidence interval [CI], 0.75 to 1.11; P=.37). For vitamin E, there were 197 cases in the treated group and 192 in the placebo group (HR, 1.02; CI, 0.84 to 1.25; P=.81). Similar results were observed for cataract extraction. Conclusions and Relevance These randomized trial data from a large cohort of apparently healthy men indicate that long-term daily supplementation with selenium

  15. The Case Study: I'm Looking over a White-Striped Clover--A Case of Natural Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krufka, Alison; Evarts, Susan; Wilson, Chester

    2007-01-01

    The case presented in this article is an exploration of the process of natural selection using white clover ("Trifolium repens") as an example. In general, two forms of white clover can be found around the world in various habitats. One type has plain green leaves and the other type produces cyanide as a defense against herbivores and…

  16. Case Studies Nested in Fuzzy-Set QCA on Sufficiency: Formalizing Case Selection and Causal Inference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Carsten Q.; Rohlfing, Ingo

    2016-01-01

    Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA) is a method for cross-case analyses that works best when complemented with follow-up case studies focusing on the causal quality of the solution and its constitutive terms, the underlying causal mechanisms, and potentially omitted conditions. The anchorage of QCA in set theory demands criteria for follow-up…

  17. E-learning and deliberate practice for oral case presentation skills: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiman, Heather L; Uchida, Toshiko; Adams, Craig; Butter, John; Cohen, Elaine; Persell, Stephen D; Pribaz, Paul; McGaghie, William C; Martin, Gary J

    2012-01-01

    Oral case presentations are critical for patient care and student assessment. The best method to prepare early medical students for oral presentations is unknown. We aimed to develop and evaluate a curriculum of on-line learning and deliberate practice to improve pre-clinical students' case presentation skills. We developed a web-based, interactive curriculum emphasizing conciseness and clinical reasoning. Using a waitlist control design, we randomly assigned groups of second-year students to receive the curriculum in December 2010 or in April 2011. We evaluated their presentations at three time points. We also examined the performance of an untrained class of students as a historical comparison. We evaluated 132 second-year medical students at three time points. After the curriculum, mean scores of the intervention students improved from 60.2% to 70.1%, while scores of the waitlist control students improved less, from 61.8% to 64.5% (p oral presentation skills.

  18. Presence of psychoactive substances in oral fluid from randomly selected drivers in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, K. Wiese; Steentoft, A.; Hels, Tove

    2012-01-01

    This roadside study is the Danish part of the EU-project DRUID (Driving under the Influence of Drugs, Alcohol, and Medicines) and included three representative regions in Denmark. Oral fluid samples (n = 3002) were collected randomly from drivers using a sampling scheme stratified by time, season...... of narcotic drugs. It can be concluded that driving under the influence of drugs is as serious a road safety problem as drunk driving.......This roadside study is the Danish part of the EU-project DRUID (Driving under the Influence of Drugs, Alcohol, and Medicines) and included three representative regions in Denmark. Oral fluid samples (n = 3002) were collected randomly from drivers using a sampling scheme stratified by time, season...

  19. Presence of psychoactive substances in oral fluid from randomly selected drivers in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Kirsten Wiese; Steentoft, Anni; Hels, Tove

    2012-01-01

    This roadside study is the Danish part of the EU-project DRUID (Driving under the Influence of Drugs, Alcohol, and Medicines) and included three representative regions in Denmark. Oral fluid samples (n = 3002) were collected randomly from drivers using a sampling scheme stratified by time, season....... It can be concluded that driving under the influence of drugs is as serious a road safety problem as drunk driving.......This roadside study is the Danish part of the EU-project DRUID (Driving under the Influence of Drugs, Alcohol, and Medicines) and included three representative regions in Denmark. Oral fluid samples (n = 3002) were collected randomly from drivers using a sampling scheme stratified by time, season...

  20. Feature selection and classification of mechanical fault of an induction motor using random forest classifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raj Kumar Patel

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Fault detection and diagnosis is the most important technology in condition-based maintenance (CBM system for rotating machinery. This paper experimentally explores the development of a random forest (RF classifier, a recently emerged machine learning technique, for multi-class mechanical fault diagnosis in bearing of an induction motor. Firstly, the vibration signals are collected from the bearing using accelerometer sensor. Parameters from the vibration signal are extracted in the form of statistical features and used as input feature for the classification problem. These features are classified through RF classifiers for four class problems. The prime objective of this paper is to evaluate effectiveness of random forest classifier on bearing fault diagnosis. The obtained results compared with the existing artificial intelligence techniques, neural network. The analysis of results shows the better performance and higher accuracy than the well existing techniques.

  1. Effects of a case management program on patients with oral precancerous lesions: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hsiu-Ying; Chen, Shu-Ching; Peng, Hsi-Ling; Chen, Mu-Kuan

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to identify the effects of a case management program on knowledge about oral cancer, preventive behavior for oral cancer, and level of uncertainty for patients with oral precancerous lesions. A randomized controlled trial was conducted with two groups, using a pre- and posttest design. The experimental group received a case management program and telephone follow-up sessions; the control group received routine care. Patients were assessed at three time points: first visit to the otolaryngology clinic for biopsy examination (T0), and then at 2 weeks (T1) and 4 weeks (T2) after the biopsy examination. Patients in both groups had significantly higher levels of knowledge about oral cancer, preventive behavior for oral cancer, and lower level of uncertainty at T2 compared to T0. At T2, participants in the experimental group had significantly greater knowledge about oral cancer, more preventive behavior for oral cancer, and less uncertainty compared to those in the control group. The case management program with telephone counseling effectively improved knowledge about oral cancer, preventive behavior for oral cancer, and uncertainty levels in patients with oral precancerous lesions in the four weeks after receiving a biopsy examination. The case management program can be applied with positive results to patients receiving different types of cancer screening, including colorectal, breast, and cervical screening.

  2. Case management to increase quality of life after cancer treatment: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherz, Nathalie; Bachmann-Mettler, Irène; Chmiel, Corinne; Senn, Oliver; Boss, Nathalie; Bardheci, Katarina; Rosemann, Thomas

    2017-03-28

    Case management has been shown to be beneficial in phases of cancer screening and treatment. After treatment is completed, patients experience a loss of support due to reduced contact with medical professionals. Case management has the potential to offer continuity of care and ease re-entry to normal life. We therefore aim to investigate the effect of case management on quality of life in early cancer survivors. Between 06/2010 and 07/2012, we randomized 95 patients who had just completed cancer treatment in 11 cancer centres in the canton of Zurich, Switzerland. Patients in the case management group met with a case manager at least three times over 12 months. Patient-reported outcomes were assessed after 3, 6 and 12 months using the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy (FACT-G) scale, the Patient Assessment of Chronic Illness Care (PACIC) and the Self-Efficacy scale. The change in FACT-G over 12 months was significantly greater in the case management group than in the control group (16.2 (SE 2.0) vs. 9.2 (SE 1.5) points, P = 0.006). The PACIC score increased by 0.20 (SE 0.14) in the case management group and decreased by 0.29 (SE 0.12) points in the control group (P = 0.009). Self-Efficacy increased by 3.1 points (SE 0.9) in the case management group and by 0.7 (SE 0.8) points in the control group (P = 0.049). Case management has the potential to improve quality of life, to ease re-entry to normal life and to address needs for continuity of care in early cancer survivors. The study has been submitted to the ISRCTN register under the name "Case Management in Oncology Rehabilitation" on the 12th of October 2010 and retrospectively registered under the number ISRCTN41474586 on the 24th of November 2010.

  3. Assessing the Effectiveness of Case-Based Collaborative Learning via Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupat, Edward; Richards, Jeremy B; Sullivan, Amy M; Fleenor, Thomas J; Schwartzstein, Richard M

    2016-05-01

    Case-based collaborative learning (CBCL) is a novel small-group approach that borrows from team-based learning principles and incorporates elements of problem-based learning (PBL) and case-based learning. CBCL includes a preclass readiness assurance process and case-based in-class activities in which students respond to focused, open-ended questions individually, discuss their answers in groups of 4, and then reach consensus in larger groups of 16. This study introduces CBCL and assesses its effectiveness in one course at Harvard Medical School. In a 2013 randomized controlled trial, 64 medical and dental student volunteers were assigned randomly to one of four 8-person PBL tutorial groups (control; n = 32) or one of two 16-person CBCL tutorial groups (experimental condition; n = 32) as part of a required first-year physiology course. Outcomes for the PBL and CBCL groups were compared using final exam scores, student responses to a postcourse survey, and behavioral coding of portions of video-recorded class sessions. Overall, the course final exam scores for CBCL and PBL students were not significantly different. However, CBCL students whose mean exam performance in prior courses was below the participant median scored significantly higher than their PBL counterparts on the physiology course final exam. The most common adjectives students used to describe CBCL were "engaging," "fun," and "thought-provoking." Coding of observed behaviors indicated that individual affect was significantly higher in the CBCL groups than in the PBL groups. CBCL is a viable, engaging, active learning method. It may particularly benefit students with lower academic performance.

  4. Specific and selective probes for Staphylococcus aureus from phage-displayed random peptide libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Plano, Laura M; Carnazza, Santina; Messina, Grazia M L; Rizzo, Maria Giovanna; Marletta, Giovanni; Guglielmino, Salvatore P P

    2017-09-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a major human pathogen causing health care-associated and community-associated infections. Early diagnosis is essential to prevent disease progression and to reduce complications that can be serious. In this study, we selected, from a 9-mer phage peptide library, a phage clone displaying peptide capable of specific binding to S. aureus cell surface, namely St.au9IVS5 (sequence peptide RVRSAPSSS).The ability of the isolated phage clone to interact specifically with S. aureus and the efficacy of its bacteria-binding properties were established by using enzyme linked immune-sorbent assay (ELISA). We also demonstrated by Western blot analysis that the most reactive and selective phage peptide binds a 78KDa protein on the bacterial cell surface. Furthermore, we observed selectivity of phage-bacteria-binding allowing to identify clinical isolates of S. aureus in comparison with a panel of other bacterial species. In order to explore the possibility of realizing a selective bacteria biosensor device, based on immobilization of affinity-selected phage, we have studied the physisorbed phage deposition onto a mica surface. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) was used to determine the organization of phage on mica surface and then the binding performance of mica-physisorbed phage to bacterial target was evaluated during the time by fluorescent microscopy. The system is able to bind specifically about 50% of S. aureus cells after 15' and 90% after one hour. Due to specificity and rapidness, this biosensing strategy paves the way to the further development of new cheap biosensors to be used in developing countries, as lab-on-chip (LOC) to detect bacterial agents in clinical diagnostics applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Selection of locations of knots for linear splines in random regression test-day models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamrozik, J; Bohmanova, J; Schaeffer, L R

    2010-04-01

    Using spline functions (segmented polynomials) in regression models requires the knowledge of the location of the knots. Knots are the points at which independent linear segments are connected. Optimal positions of knots for linear splines of different orders were determined in this study for different scenarios, using existing estimates of covariance functions and an optimization algorithm. The traits considered were test-day milk, fat and protein yields, and somatic cell score (SCS) in the first three lactations of Canadian Holsteins. Two ranges of days in milk (from 5 to 305 and from 5 to 365) were taken into account. In addition, four different populations of Holstein cows, from Australia, Canada, Italy and New Zealand, were examined with respect to first lactation (305 days) milk only. The estimates of genetic and permanent environmental covariance functions were based on single- and multiple-trait test-day models, with Legendre polynomials of order 4 as random regressions. A differential evolution algorithm was applied to find the best location of knots for splines of orders 4 to 7 and the criterion for optimization was the goodness-of-fit of the spline covariance function. Results indicated that the optimal position of knots for linear splines differed between genetic and permanent environmental effects, as well as between traits and lactations. Different populations also exhibited different patterns of optimal knot locations. With linear splines, different positions of knots should therefore be used for different effects and traits in random regression test-day models when analysing milk production traits.

  6. Do Instructional Videos on Sputum Submission Result in Increased Tuberculosis Case Detection? A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace Mhalu

    Full Text Available We examined the effect of an instructional video about the production of diagnostic sputum on case detection of tuberculosis (TB, and evaluated the acceptance of the video.Randomized controlled trial.We prepared a culturally adapted instructional video for sputum submission. We analyzed 200 presumptive TB cases coughing for more than two weeks who attended the outpatient department of the governmental Municipal Hospital in Mwananyamala (Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. They were randomly assigned to either receive instructions on sputum submission using the video before submission (intervention group, n = 100 or standard of care (control group, n = 100. Sputum samples were examined for volume, quality and presence of acid-fast bacilli by experienced laboratory technicians blinded to study groups.Median age was 39.1 years (interquartile range 37.0-50.0; 94 (47% were females, 106 (53% were males, and 49 (24.5% were HIV-infected. We found that the instructional video intervention was associated with detection of a higher proportion of microscopically confirmed cases (56%, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 45.7-65.9%, sputum smear positive patients in the intervention group versus 23%, 95% CI 15.2-32.5%, in the control group, p <0.0001, an increase in volume of specimen defined as a volume ≥3ml (78%, 95% CI 68.6-85.7%, versus 45%, 95% CI 35.0-55.3%, p <0.0001, and specimens less likely to be salivary (14%, 95% CI 7.9-22.4%, versus 39%, 95% CI 29.4-49.3%, p = 0.0001. Older age, but not the HIV status or sex, modified the effectiveness of the intervention by improving it positively. When asked how well the video instructions were understood, the majority of patients in the intervention group reported to have understood the video instructions well (97%. Most of the patients thought the video would be useful in the cultural setting of Tanzania (92%.Sputum submission instructional videos increased the yield of tuberculosis cases through better quality of sputum

  7. The Value of Outsourcing Selected Cases in a Medical Examiner Population: A 10-Year Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCleskey, Brandi C; Reilly, Stephanie D; Atherton, Dan

    2017-01-01

    Due to increasing caseloads and inadequate staffing, the burden on Coroner/Medical Examiner Offices to comply with recommended autopsy limits for forensic pathologists (FPs) has been difficult. Since 2006, pathologists at the University of Alabama at Birmingham have performed select autopsies for the Alabama Department of Forensic Sciences. Each case was reviewed by a state FP and scene investigator to determine appropriateness for referral. All referred cases received full postmortem examination including microscopic examination and collection of toxicological samples, and toxicology was ordered by the referring FP as appropriate. The final cause and manner of death were determined by the referring state FP after review of all findings. A majority of the 421 cases were ruled accidental deaths (233), most due to drug toxicity. Of the 178 natural deaths, 118 were attributed to cardiovascular disease. Outsourcing select forensic cases can be educational and an effective tool to manage workflow without compromising quality. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  8. The selection problem for discounted Hamilton–Jacobi equations: some non-convex cases

    KAUST Repository

    Gomes, Diogo A.

    2018-01-26

    Here, we study the selection problem for the vanishing discount approximation of non-convex, first-order Hamilton–Jacobi equations. While the selection problem is well understood for convex Hamiltonians, the selection problem for non-convex Hamiltonians has thus far not been studied. We begin our study by examining a generalized discounted Hamilton–Jacobi equation. Next, using an exponential transformation, we apply our methods to strictly quasi-convex and to some non-convex Hamilton–Jacobi equations. Finally, we examine a non-convex Hamiltonian with flat parts to which our results do not directly apply. In this case, we establish the convergence by a direct approach.

  9. Role of selective V2-receptor-antagonism in septic shock: a randomized, controlled, experimental study

    OpenAIRE

    Rehberg, Sebastian; Ertmer, Christian; Lange, Matthias; Morelli, Andrea; Whorton, Elbert; Strohhäcker, Anne-Katrin; Dünser, Martin Wolfgang; Lipke, Erik; Kampmeier, Tim G; Aken, Hugo; Traber, Daniel L; Westphal, Martin

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT : INTRODUCTION : V2-receptor (V2R) stimulation potentially aggravates sepsis-induced vasodilation, fluid accumulation and microvascular thrombosis. Therefore, the present study was performed to determine the effects of a first-line therapy with the selective V2R-antagonist (Propionyl1-D-Tyr(Et)2-Val4-Abu6-Arg8,9)-Vasopressin on cardiopulmonary hemodynamics and organ function vs. the mixed V1aR/V2R-agonist arginine vasopressin (AVP) or placebo in an established ovine model of septic s...

  10. Simultaneous feature selection and parameter optimisation using an artificial ant colony: case study of melting point prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nigsch Florian

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We present a novel feature selection algorithm, Winnowing Artificial Ant Colony (WAAC, that performs simultaneous feature selection and model parameter optimisation for the development of predictive quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR models. The WAAC algorithm is an extension of the modified ant colony algorithm of Shen et al. (J Chem Inf Model 2005, 45: 1024–1029. We test the ability of the algorithm to develop a predictive partial least squares model for the Karthikeyan dataset (J Chem Inf Model 2005, 45: 581–590 of melting point values. We also test its ability to perform feature selection on a support vector machine model for the same dataset. Results Starting from an initial set of 203 descriptors, the WAAC algorithm selected a PLS model with 68 descriptors which has an RMSE on an external test set of 46.6°C and R2 of 0.51. The number of components chosen for the model was 49, which was close to optimal for this feature selection. The selected SVM model has 28 descriptors (cost of 5, ε of 0.21 and an RMSE of 45.1°C and R2 of 0.54. This model outperforms a kNN model (RMSE of 48.3°C, R2 of 0.47 for the same data and has similar performance to a Random Forest model (RMSE of 44.5°C, R2 of 0.55. However it is much less prone to bias at the extremes of the range of melting points as shown by the slope of the line through the residuals: -0.43 for WAAC/SVM, -0.53 for Random Forest. Conclusion With a careful choice of objective function, the WAAC algorithm can be used to optimise machine learning and regression models that suffer from overfitting. Where model parameters also need to be tuned, as is the case with support vector machine and partial least squares models, it can optimise these simultaneously. The moving probabilities used by the algorithm are easily interpreted in terms of the best and current models of the ants, and the winnowing procedure promotes the removal of irrelevant descriptors.

  11. Participant-selected music and physical activity in older adults following cardiac rehabilitation: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Imogen N; Baker, Felicity A; Peiris, Casey L; Shoebridge, Georgie; Taylor, Nicholas F

    2017-03-01

    To evaluate effects of participant-selected music on older adults' achievement of activity levels recommended in the physical activity guidelines following cardiac rehabilitation. A parallel group randomized controlled trial with measurements at Weeks 0, 6 and 26. A multisite outpatient rehabilitation programme of a publicly funded metropolitan health service. Adults aged 60 years and older who had completed a cardiac rehabilitation programme. Experimental participants selected music to support walking with guidance from a music therapist. Control participants received usual care only. The primary outcome was the proportion of participants achieving activity levels recommended in physical activity guidelines. Secondary outcomes compared amounts of physical activity, exercise capacity, cardiac risk factors, and exercise self-efficacy. A total of 56 participants, mean age 68.2 years (SD = 6.5), were randomized to the experimental ( n = 28) and control groups ( n = 28). There were no differences between groups in proportions of participants achieving activity recommended in physical activity guidelines at Week 6 or 26. Secondary outcomes demonstrated between-group differences in male waist circumference at both measurements (Week 6 difference -2.0 cm, 95% CI -4.0 to 0; Week 26 difference -2.8 cm, 95% CI -5.4 to -0.1), and observed effect sizes favoured the experimental group for amounts of physical activity (d = 0.30), exercise capacity (d = 0.48), and blood pressure (d = -0.32). Participant-selected music did not increase the proportion of participants achieving recommended amounts of physical activity, but may have contributed to exercise-related benefits.

  12. Content analysis of a stratified random selection of JVME articles: 1974-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Lynne E

    2011-01-01

    A content analysis was performed on a random sample (N = 168) of 25% of the articles published in the Journal of Veterinary Medical Education (JVME) per year from 1974 through 2004. Over time, there were increased numbers of authors per paper, more cross-institutional collaborations, greater prevalence of references or endnotes, and lengthier articles, which could indicate a trend toward publications describing more complex or complete work. The number of first authors that could be identified as female was greatest for the most recent time period studied (2000-2004). Two different categorization schemes were created to assess the content of the publications. The first categorization scheme identified the most frequently published topics as admissions, descriptions of courses, the effect of changing teaching methods, issues facing the profession, and examples of uses of technology. The second categorization scheme identified the subset of articles that described medical education research on the basis of the purpose of the research, which represented only 14% of the sample articles (24 of 168). Of that group, only three of 24, or 12%, represented studies based on a firm conceptual framework that could be confirmed or refuted by the study's results. The results indicate that JVME is meeting its broadly based mission and that publications in the veterinary medical education literature have features common to publications in medicine and medical education.

  13. Capturing the Flatness of a peer-to-peer lending network through random and selected perturbations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karampourniotis, Panagiotis D.; Singh, Pramesh; Uparna, Jayaram; Horvat, Emoke-Agnes; Szymanski, Boleslaw K.; Korniss, Gyorgy; Bakdash, Jonathan Z.; Uzzi, Brian

    Null models are established tools that have been used in network analysis to uncover various structural patterns. They quantify the deviance of an observed network measure to that given by the null model. We construct a null model for weighted, directed networks to identify biased links (carrying significantly different weights than expected according to the null model) and thus quantify the flatness of the system. Using this model, we study the flatness of Kiva, a large international crownfinancing network of borrowers and lenders, aggregated to the country level. The dataset spans the years from 2006 to 2013. Our longitudinal analysis shows that flatness of the system is reducing over time, meaning the proportion of biased inter-country links is growing. We extend our analysis by testing the robustness of the flatness of the network in perturbations on the links' weights or the nodes themselves. Examples of such perturbations are event shocks (e.g. erecting walls) or regulatory shocks (e.g. Brexit). We find that flatness is unaffected by random shocks, but changes after shocks target links with a large weight or bias. The methods we use to capture the flatness are based on analytics, simulations, and numerical computations using Shannon's maximum entropy. Supported by ARL NS-CTA.

  14. Benefits of Selected Physical Exercise Programs in Detention: A Randomized Controlled Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Battaglia

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine which kind of physical activity could be useful to inmate populations to improve their health status and fitness levels. A repeated measure design was used to evaluate the effects of two different training protocols on subjects in a state of detention, tested pre- and post-experimental protocol.Seventy-five male subjects were enrolled in the studyand randomly allocated to three groups: the cardiovascular plus resistance training protocol group (CRT (n = 25; mean age 30.9 ± 8.9 years,the high-intensity strength training protocol group (HIST (n = 25; mean age 33.9 ± 6.8 years, and a control group (C (n = 25; mean age 32.9 ± 8.9 years receiving no treatment. All subjects underwent a clinical assessmentandfitness tests. MANOVA revealed significant multivariate effects on group (p < 0.01 and group-training interaction (p < 0.05. CRT protocol resulted the most effective protocol to reach the best outcome in fitness tests. Both CRT and HIST protocols produced significant gains in the functional capacity (cardio-respiratory capacity and cardiovascular disease risk decrease of incarcerated males. The significant gains obtained in functional capacity reflect the great potential of supervised exercise interventions for improving the health status of incarcerated people.

  15. The Power of Natural Selection: A Guided Investigation of Three Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beachly, William

    2010-01-01

    I describe a quantitative approach to three case studies in evolution that can be used to challenge college freshmen to explore the power of natural selection and ask questions that foster a deeper understanding of its operation and relevance. Hemochromatosis, the peppered moth, and hominid cranial capacity are investigated with a common algebraic…

  16. Identification and selection of cases and controls in the Pneumonia Etiology Research for Child Health project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deloria-Knoll, Maria; Feikin, Daniel R.; Scott, J. Anthony G.; O'Brien, Katherine L.; DeLuca, Andrea N.; Driscoll, Amanda J.; Levine, Orin S.; Black, Robert E.; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A.; Campbell, Harry; Cherian, Thomas; Crook, Derrick W.; de Jong, Menno D.; Dowell, Scott F.; Graham, Stephen M.; Klugman, Keith P.; Lanata, Claudio F.; Madhi, Shabir A.; Martin, Paul; Nataro, James P.; Piazza, Franco M.; Qazi, Shamim A.; Zar, Heather J.; Baggett, Henry C.; Brooks, W. Abdullah; Chipeta, James; Ebruke, Bernard; Endtz, Hubert P.; Groome, Michelle; Hammitt, Laura L.; Howie, Stephen R. C.; Kotloff, Karen; Maloney, Susan A.; Moore, David; Otieno, Juliet; Seidenberg, Phil; Tapia, Milagritos; Thamthitiwat, Somsak; Thea, Donald M.; Zaman, Khaleque

    2012-01-01

    Methods for the identification and selection of patients (cases) with severe or very severe pneumonia and controls for the Pneumonia Etiology Research for Child Health (PERCH) project were needed. Issues considered include eligibility criteria and sampling strategies, whether to enroll hospital or

  17. Incidence of Data Duplications in a Randomly Selected Pool of Life Science Publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oksvold, Morten P

    2016-04-01

    Since the solution to many public health problems depends on research, it is critical for the progress and well-being for the patients that we can trust the scientific literature. Misconduct and poor laboratory practice in science threatens the scientific progress, leads to loss of productivity and increased healthcare costs, and endangers lives of patients. Data duplication may represent one of challenges related to these problems. In order to estimate the frequency of data duplication in life science literature, a systematic screen through 120 original scientific articles published in three different cancer related journals [journal impact factor (IF) 20] was completed. The study revealed a surprisingly high proportion of articles containing data duplication. For the IF 20 journals, 25% of the articles were found to contain data duplications. The IF 5-10 journal showed a comparable proportion (22.5%). The proportion of articles containing duplicated data was comparable between the three journals and no significant correlation to journal IF was found. The editorial offices representing the journals included in this study and the individual authors of the detected articles were contacted to clarify the individual cases. The editorial offices did not reply and only 1 out of 29 cases were apparently clarified by the authors, although no supporting data was supplied. This study questions the reliability of life science literature, it illustrates that data duplications are widespread and independent of journal impact factor and call for a reform of the current peer review and retraction process of scientific publishing.

  18. Ensuring optimal gender representation in recruitment and selection: the case of CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Sgouraki, Margarita

    This study examines gender diversity in recruitment and selection, exploring ways to improve female presence in science. First, the concepts of equal opportunities and managing diversity are presented. Next, the business case for diversity is discussed, emphasising the business and ethical benefits for organisations. Then, gender diversity issues regarding the underrepresentation of women in science are examined, focusing on gender stereotyping and the "leaky pipeline". Previous studies emphasise the importance of HRM activities such as recruitment and selection to promote gender diversity. However, there are still barriers when recruiting and selecting women in science. To examine and explore the research topic, a case-study approach is adopted. Methods included document analysis, interviews with key informants and cohort analysis. The limitations of the methodology are discussed and recommendations for future work are proposed. By examining the example of CERN, an intergovernmental research organisation, co...

  19. Selection, collection and analysis as sources of evidence in case study research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houghton, Catherine; Casey, Dympna; Smyth, Siobhan

    2017-03-22

    Background Case study research is a valuable way to explore and describe nursing phenomena in their natural contexts. Multiple sources of evidence are critical in this approach. It is imperative that the strategies for selection, collection and analysis of cases are considered and articulated in the early stages of planning, to avoid having large datasets which cannot be harmonised. Aim To critically examine what is meant by 'multiple sources of evidence' and how they can be used in case study research. Two examples of case study research are used to illustrate the decisions the authors made during the selection, collection and analysis stages of the research. Discussion These decisions included what sources would be used, rationales for their use, and how the data would be collected and analysed. In addition, multiple sources of evidence can result in large amounts of data so the use of NVivo to manage the data is described. Conclusion Each source of evidence selected must have a clear purpose and relate to the study's objectives. Clarification of this during the early planning of any research is imperative. Implications for practice The authors hope that the examples provided to illustrate how multiple sources of evidence are used will guide researchers conducting case study research.

  20. Reduced plasma aldosterone concentrations in randomly selected patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cronin, C C

    2012-02-03

    Abnormalities of the renin-angiotensin system have been reported in patients with diabetes mellitus and with diabetic complications. In this study, plasma concentrations of prorenin, renin, and aldosterone were measured in a stratified random sample of 110 insulin-dependent (Type 1) diabetic patients attending our outpatient clinic. Fifty-four age- and sex-matched control subjects were also examined. Plasma prorenin concentration was higher in patients without complications than in control subjects when upright (geometric mean (95% confidence intervals (CI): 75.9 (55.0-105.6) vs 45.1 (31.6-64.3) mU I-1, p < 0.05). There was no difference in plasma prorenin concentration between patients without and with microalbuminuria and between patients without and with background retinopathy. Plasma renin concentration, both when supine and upright, was similar in control subjects, in patients without complications, and in patients with varying degrees of diabetic microangiopathy. Plasma aldosterone was suppressed in patients without complications in comparison to control subjects (74 (58-95) vs 167 (140-199) ng I-1, p < 0.001) and was also suppressed in patients with microvascular disease. Plasma potassium was significantly higher in patients than in control subjects (mean +\\/- standard deviation: 4.10 +\\/- 0.36 vs 3.89 +\\/- 0.26 mmol I-1; p < 0.001) and plasma sodium was significantly lower (138 +\\/- 4 vs 140 +\\/- 2 mmol I-1; p < 0.001). We conclude that plasma prorenin is not a useful early marker for diabetic microvascular disease. Despite apparently normal plasma renin concentrations, plasma aldosterone is suppressed in insulin-dependent diabetic patients.

  1. A Permutation Importance-Based Feature Selection Method for Short-Term Electricity Load Forecasting Using Random Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nantian Huang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The prediction accuracy of short-term load forecast (STLF depends on prediction model choice and feature selection result. In this paper, a novel random forest (RF-based feature selection method for STLF is proposed. First, 243 related features were extracted from historical load data and the time information of prediction points to form the original feature set. Subsequently, the original feature set was used to train an RF as the original model. After the training process, the prediction error of the original model on the test set was recorded and the permutation importance (PI value of each feature was obtained. Then, an improved sequential backward search method was used to select the optimal forecasting feature subset based on the PI value of each feature. Finally, the optimal forecasting feature subset was used to train a new RF model as the final prediction model. Experiments showed that the prediction accuracy of RF trained by the optimal forecasting feature subset was higher than that of the original model and comparative models based on support vector regression and artificial neural network.

  2. Effectiveness of a selective, personality-targeted prevention program for adolescent alcohol use and misuse: a cluster randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrod, Patricia J; O'Leary-Barrett, Maeve; Newton, Nicola; Topper, Lauren; Castellanos-Ryan, Natalie; Mackie, Clare; Girard, Alain

    2013-03-01

    Selective school-based alcohol prevention programs targeting youth with personality risk factors for addiction and mental health problems have been found to reduce substance use and misuse in those with elevated personality profiles. To report 24-month outcomes of the Teacher-Delivered Personality-Targeted Interventions for Substance Misuse Trial (Adventure trial) in which school staff were trained to provide interventions to students with 1 of 4 high-risk (HR) profiles: anxiety sensitivity, hopelessness, impulsivity, and sensation seeking and to examine the indirect herd effects of this program on the broader low-risk (LR) population of students who were not selected for intervention. Cluster randomized controlled trial. Secondary schools in London, United Kingdom. A total of 1210 HR and 1433 LR students in the ninth grade (mean [SD] age, 13.7 [0.33] years). Schools were randomized to provide brief personality-targeted interventions to HR youth or treatment as usual (statutory drug education in class). Participants were assessed for drinking, binge drinking, and problem drinking before randomization and at 6-monthly intervals for 2 years. Two-part latent growth models indicated long-term effects of the intervention on drinking rates (β = -0.320, SE = 0.145, P = .03) and binge drinking rates (β = -0.400, SE = 0.179, P = .03) and growth in binge drinking (β = -0.716, SE = 0.274, P = .009) and problem drinking (β = -0.452, SE = 0.193, P = .02) for HR youth. The HR youth were also found to benefit from the interventions during the 24-month follow-up on drinking quantity (β = -0.098, SE = 0.047, P = .04), growth in drinking quantity (β = -0.176, SE = 0.073, P = .02), and growth in binge drinking frequency (β = -0.183, SE = 0.092, P = .047). Some herd effects in LR youth were observed, specifically on drinking rates (β = -0.259, SE = 0.132, P = .049) and growth of binge drinking (β = -0.244, SE = 0.073, P = .001), during the 24-month follow-up. Findings further

  3. Preference option randomized design (PORD) for comparative effectiveness research: Statistical power for testing comparative effect, preference effect, selection effect, intent-to-treat effect, and overall effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Moonseong; Meissner, Paul; Litwin, Alain H; Arnsten, Julia H; McKee, M Diane; Karasz, Alison; McKinley, Paula; Rehm, Colin D; Chambers, Earle C; Yeh, Ming-Chin; Wylie-Rosett, Judith

    2017-01-01

    Comparative effectiveness research trials in real-world settings may require participants to choose between preferred intervention options. A randomized clinical trial with parallel experimental and control arms is straightforward and regarded as a gold standard design, but by design it forces and anticipates the participants to comply with a randomly assigned intervention regardless of their preference. Therefore, the randomized clinical trial may impose impractical limitations when planning comparative effectiveness research trials. To accommodate participants' preference if they are expressed, and to maintain randomization, we propose an alternative design that allows participants' preference after randomization, which we call a "preference option randomized design (PORD)". In contrast to other preference designs, which ask whether or not participants consent to the assigned intervention after randomization, the crucial feature of preference option randomized design is its unique informed consent process before randomization. Specifically, the preference option randomized design consent process informs participants that they can opt out and switch to the other intervention only if after randomization they actively express the desire to do so. Participants who do not independently express explicit alternate preference or assent to the randomly assigned intervention are considered to not have an alternate preference. In sum, preference option randomized design intends to maximize retention, minimize possibility of forced assignment for any participants, and to maintain randomization by allowing participants with no or equal preference to represent random assignments. This design scheme enables to define five effects that are interconnected with each other through common design parameters-comparative, preference, selection, intent-to-treat, and overall/as-treated-to collectively guide decision making between interventions. Statistical power functions for testing

  4. Single-chain lipopeptide vaccines for the induction of virus-specific cytotoxic T cell responses in randomly selected populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gras-Masse, H

    2001-12-01

    Effective vaccine development is now taking advantage of the rapidly accumulating information concerning the molecular basis of a protective immune response. Analysts and medicinal chemists have joined forces with immunologists and taken up the clear challenge of identifying immunologically active structural elements and synthesizing them in pure, reproducible forms. Current literature reveals the growing interest for extremely reductionist approaches aiming at producing totally synthetic vaccines that would be fully defined at the molecular level and particularly safe. The sequential information contained in these formulations tends to be minimized to those epitopes which elicit neutralizing antibodies, or cell-mediated responses. In the following review, we describe some of our results in developing fully synthetic, clinically acceptable lipopeptide vaccines for inducing cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) responses in randomly selected populations.

  5. General practitioners' choices and their determinants when starting treatment for major depression: a cross sectional, randomized case-vignette survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélène Dumesnil

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In developed countries, primary care physicians manage most patients with depression. Relatively few studies allow a comprehensive assessment of the decisions these doctors make in these cases and the factors associated with these decisions. We studied how general practitioners (GPs manage the acute phase of a new episode of non-comorbid major depression (MD and the factors associated with their decisions. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this cross-sectional telephone survey, professional investigators interviewed an existing panel of randomly selected GPs (1249/1431, response rate: 87.3%. We used case-vignettes about new MD episodes in 8 versions differing by patient gender and socioeconomic status (blue/white collar and disease intensity (mild/severe. GPs were randomized to receive one of these 8 versions. Overall, 82.6% chose pharmacotherapy; among them GPs chose either an antidepressant (79.8% or an anxiolytic/hypnotic alone (18.5%. They rarely recommended referral for psychotherapy alone, regardless of severity, but 38.2% chose it in combination with pharmacotherapy. Antidepressant prescription was associated with severity of depression (OR = 1.74; 95%CI = 1.33-2.27, patient gender (female, OR = 0.75; 95%CI = 0.58-0.98, GP personal characteristics (e.g. history of antidepressant treatment: OR = 2.31; 95%CI = 1.41-3.81 and GP belief that antidepressants are overprescribed in France (OR = 0.63; 95%CI = 0.48-0.82. The combination of antidepressants and psychotherapy was associated with severity of depression (OR = 1.82; 95%CI = 1.31-2.52, patient's white-collar status (OR = 1.58; 95%CI = 1.14-2.18, and GPs' dissatisfaction with cooperation with mental health specialists (OR = 0.63; 95%CI = 0.45-0.89. These choices were not associated with either GPs' professional characteristics or psychiatrist density in the GP's practice areas. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: GPs' choices for

  6. General practitioners' choices and their determinants when starting treatment for major depression: a cross sectional, randomized case-vignette survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumesnil, Hélène; Cortaredona, Sébastien; Verdoux, Hélène; Sebbah, Rémy; Paraponaris, Alain; Verger, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    In developed countries, primary care physicians manage most patients with depression. Relatively few studies allow a comprehensive assessment of the decisions these doctors make in these cases and the factors associated with these decisions. We studied how general practitioners (GPs) manage the acute phase of a new episode of non-comorbid major depression (MD) and the factors associated with their decisions. In this cross-sectional telephone survey, professional investigators interviewed an existing panel of randomly selected GPs (1249/1431, response rate: 87.3%). We used case-vignettes about new MD episodes in 8 versions differing by patient gender and socioeconomic status (blue/white collar) and disease intensity (mild/severe). GPs were randomized to receive one of these 8 versions. Overall, 82.6% chose pharmacotherapy; among them GPs chose either an antidepressant (79.8%) or an anxiolytic/hypnotic alone (18.5%). They rarely recommended referral for psychotherapy alone, regardless of severity, but 38.2% chose it in combination with pharmacotherapy. Antidepressant prescription was associated with severity of depression (OR = 1.74; 95%CI = 1.33-2.27), patient gender (female, OR = 0.75; 95%CI = 0.58-0.98), GP personal characteristics (e.g. history of antidepressant treatment: OR = 2.31; 95%CI = 1.41-3.81) and GP belief that antidepressants are overprescribed in France (OR = 0.63; 95%CI = 0.48-0.82). The combination of antidepressants and psychotherapy was associated with severity of depression (OR = 1.82; 95%CI = 1.31-2.52), patient's white-collar status (OR = 1.58; 95%CI = 1.14-2.18), and GPs' dissatisfaction with cooperation with mental health specialists (OR = 0.63; 95%CI = 0.45-0.89). These choices were not associated with either GPs' professional characteristics or psychiatrist density in the GP's practice areas. GPs' choices for treating severe MD complied with clinical guidelines better than those for

  7. Multicomponent treatment for food selectivity in children: description and case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez, Michelle Ann

    2015-06-01

    Food selectivity is common in children with and without developmental disabilities and can have negative implications for nutrition intake and family quality of life. The evidence base for effective treatment protocols is still developing. The purpose of this study was to describe a pilot, multicomponent treatment protocol for food selectivity and present several case examples using a retrospective chart review. Elements in the treatment manual included sensory integration and behavioral modification strategies, including systematic desensitization. Also, parents were educated on factors associated with food selectivity and strategies for increasing food acceptance during family meals. Four children with food selectivity demonstrated increased food acceptance of previously refused foods. Incidence of negative behaviors, including gagging, vomiting, and aggressive behavior (eg, hitting, batting away spoon), during clinical meals was also evaluated. No aggressive behavior or vomiting was observed during treatment sessions, and gagging on foods at initial introduction was minimal. This descriptive study and case review provides information to inform treatment of food selectivity and may provide a catalyst for larger scale clinical trials. © 2014 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  8. Selecting registration schemes in case of interstitial lung disease follow-up in CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vlachopoulos, Georgios; Korfiatis, Panayiotis; Skiadopoulos, Spyros; Kazantzi, Alexandra [Department of Medical Physics, School of Medicine,University of Patras, Patras 26504 (Greece); Kalogeropoulou, Christina [Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, University of Patras, Patras 26504 (Greece); Pratikakis, Ioannis [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Democritus University of Thrace, Xanthi 67100 (Greece); Costaridou, Lena, E-mail: costarid@upatras.gr [Department of Medical Physics, School of Medicine, University of Patras, Patras 26504 (Greece)

    2015-08-15

    Purpose: Primary goal of this study is to select optimal registration schemes in the framework of interstitial lung disease (ILD) follow-up analysis in CT. Methods: A set of 128 multiresolution schemes composed of multiresolution nonrigid and combinations of rigid and nonrigid registration schemes are evaluated, utilizing ten artificially warped ILD follow-up volumes, originating from ten clinical volumetric CT scans of ILD affected patients, to select candidate optimal schemes. Specifically, all combinations of four transformation models (three rigid: rigid, similarity, affine and one nonrigid: third order B-spline), four cost functions (sum-of-square distances, normalized correlation coefficient, mutual information, and normalized mutual information), four gradient descent optimizers (standard, regular step, adaptive stochastic, and finite difference), and two types of pyramids (recursive and Gaussian-smoothing) were considered. The selection process involves two stages. The first stage involves identification of schemes with deformation field singularities, according to the determinant of the Jacobian matrix. In the second stage, evaluation methodology is based on distance between corresponding landmark points in both normal lung parenchyma (NLP) and ILD affected regions. Statistical analysis was performed in order to select near optimal registration schemes per evaluation metric. Performance of the candidate registration schemes was verified on a case sample of ten clinical follow-up CT scans to obtain the selected registration schemes. Results: By considering near optimal schemes common to all ranking lists, 16 out of 128 registration schemes were initially selected. These schemes obtained submillimeter registration accuracies in terms of average distance errors 0.18 ± 0.01 mm for NLP and 0.20 ± 0.01 mm for ILD, in case of artificially generated follow-up data. Registration accuracy in terms of average distance error in clinical follow-up data was in the

  9. Randomized trial of switching from prescribed non-selective non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs to prescribed celecoxib

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Macdonald, Thomas M; Hawkey, Chris J; Ford, Ian

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors and conventional non-selective non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (nsNSAIDs) have been associated with adverse cardiovascular (CV) effects. We compared the CV safety of switching to celecoxib vs. continuing nsNSAID therapy in a European setting....... METHOD: Patients aged 60 years and over with osteoarthritis or rheumatoid arthritis, free from established CV disease and taking chronic prescribed nsNSAIDs, were randomized to switch to celecoxib or to continue their previous nsNSAID. The primary endpoint was hospitalization for non-fatal myocardial...... expected developed an on-treatment (OT) primary CV event and the rate was similar for celecoxib, 0.95 per 100 patient-years, and nsNSAIDs, 0.86 per 100 patient-years (HR = 1.12, 95% confidence interval, 0.81-1.55; P = 0.50). Comparable intention-to-treat (ITT) rates were 1.14 per 100 patient...

  10. [Heparin in coronary angioplasty. Randomized study in cases with low risk of acute occlusion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanajura, L F; Sousa, A G; Pinto, I M; Chaves, A J; Centemero, M P; Feres, F; Mattos, L A; Cano, M N; Maldonado, G A; Sousa, J E

    1993-02-01

    To assess the efficacy of heparin in preventing the abrupt closure after coronary angioplasty in low risk patients for this phenomenon. In the last 4 years, 525 patients successfully dilated were randomized to receive intravenous heparin (n = 264) or not (n = 261) after the angioplasty. The excluding criteria were contraindications for heparin and risk for abrupt closure (refractory unstable angina, primary coronary angioplasty in acute myocardial infarction, evidence of intracoronary thrombus, intimal tear after the procedure and cases of chronic total occlusions). Both heparin and non heparin groups were similar in respect to female sex (15% x 17%; p = NS), age over 70 years old (7% x 9%; p = NS), previous myocardial infarction (26% x 24%; p = NS), multi-vessel procedures (4% x 7%; p = NS, stable angina (40% x 46%; p = NS), unstable angina (52% x 48%; p = NS) and angioplasty after thrombolytic therapy (8% x 6%; p = NS). The overall incidence of abrupt closure was 2/525 (0.4%), with one case (0.4%) in each group. The in-hospital mortality was 1/525 (0.2%), which occurred in a non-heparin patient, due to a anterior myocardial infarction. Major complications occurred similarly in heparin and non-heparin groups (0.4%). Bleeding complications were observed more frequently in the heparin group (7% x 2%; p = 0.002). All of them were in the catheterization site and none required blood transfusion. Severe systemic bleeding were not observed. In patients regarded as low risk for abrupt closure, the incidence of this complication was really low (0.4%) and heparin probably do not prevent it.

  11. Materials selection as an interdisciplinary technical activity: basic methodology and case studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferrante M.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The technical activity known as Materials Selection is reviewed in its concepts and methodologies. Objectives and strategies are briefly presented and two important features are introduced and discussed; (i Merit Indices: a combination of materials properties, which maximises the objectives chosen by the designer and (ii Materials Properties Maps: a bi-dimensional space whose coordinates are pairs of properties in which materials can be plotted and compared directly in terms of their merit indices. A general strategy for the deduction of these indices is explained and a formal methodology to establish a ranking of candidate materials when multiple constraints intervene is presented. Finally, two case studies are discussed in depth, one related to materials substitution in the context of mechanical design and a less conventional case linking material selection to physical comfort in the home furniture industry.

  12. [Use of Cone Beam Computed Tomography in endodontics: rational case selection criteria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, E; Tsesis, I

    2016-01-01

    To present rational case selection criteria for the use of CBCT (Cone Beam Computed Tomography) in endodontics. This article reviews the literature concerning the benefits of CBCT in endodontics, alongside its radiation risks, and present case selection criteria for referral of endodontic patients to CBCT. Up to date, the expected ultimate benefit of CBCT to the endodontic patient is yet uncertain, and the current literature is mainly restricted to its technical efficacy. In addition, the potential radiation risks of CBCT scan are stochastic in nature and uncertain, and are worrying especially in pediatric patients. Both the efficacy of CBCT in supporting the endodontic practitioner decision making and in affecting treatment outcomes, and its long term potential radiation risks are yet uncertain. Therefore, a cautious rational decision making is essential when a CBCT scan is considered in endodontics. Risk-benefit considerations are presented.

  13. Optimal Site Selection of Tidal Power Plants Using a Novel Method: A Case in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunna Wu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The site selection plays an important role in the entire life cycle of a tidal power plant (TPP project. However, some problems decrease the evaluation quality of TPP site selection: (a suitable and effective methods are scarce since the TPP site selection involves multiple forms of data; (b there is no comprehensive evaluation index system due to the unilateralism of existing criteria. In this paper, we firstly propose a novel method based on interval number with probability distribution weighted operation and stochastic dominance degree. It takes all stakeholders’ preferences into consideration and can simultaneously deal with different forms of data in the TPP site selection; then, a comprehensive evaluation index system for TPP site selection is constructed on the basis of academic literature, feasibility research reports and expert opinions in different fields. It takes the factors of construction conditions, existing policies, social impacts as well as ecological and environmental impacts which reflects the inherent characteristics of TPP site selection fully into account. Finally, a Chinese case study is given to illustrate the applicability and effectiveness of the proposed method.

  14. K-Ras(G12D)-selective inhibitory peptides generated by random peptide T7 phage display technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Kotaro; Kamada, Yusuke; Sameshima, Tomoya; Yaguchi, Masahiro; Niida, Ayumu; Sasaki, Shigekazu; Miwa, Masanori; Ohkubo, Shoichi; Sakamoto, Jun-Ichi; Kamaura, Masahiro; Cho, Nobuo; Tani, Akiyoshi

    2017-03-11

    Amino-acid mutations of Gly 12 (e.g. G12D, G12V, G12C) of V-Ki-ras2 Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (K-Ras), the most promising drug target in cancer therapy, are major growth drivers in various cancers. Although over 30 years have passed since the discovery of these mutations in most cancer patients, effective mutated K-Ras inhibitors have not been marketed. Here, we report novel and selective inhibitory peptides to K-Ras(G12D). We screened random peptide libraries displayed on T7 phage against purified recombinant K-Ras(G12D), with thorough subtraction of phages bound to wild-type K-Ras, and obtained KRpep-2 (Ac-RRCPLYISYDPVCRR-NH 2 ) as a consensus sequence. KRpep-2 showed more than 10-fold binding- and inhibition-selectivity to K-Ras(G12D), both in SPR analysis and GDP/GTP exchange enzyme assay. K D and IC 50 values were 51 and 8.9 nM, respectively. After subsequent sequence optimization, we successfully generated KRpep-2d (Ac-RRRRCPLYISYDPVCRRRR-NH 2 ) that inhibited enzyme activity of K-Ras(G12D) with IC 50  = 1.6 nM and significantly suppressed ERK-phosphorylation, downstream of K-Ras(G12D), along with A427 cancer cell proliferation at 30 μM peptide concentration. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a K-Ras(G12D)-selective inhibitor, contributing to the development and study of K-Ras(G12D)-targeting drugs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. From Insurgency to Stability. Volume 2: Insights from Selected Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Paul Oquist, Conflict and Politics in Colombia, New York: Academic Press, 1980; Rafael Pardo, La Historia de Las Guerras, Bogotá, 2004. 2 Known as...Verdadera Historia , Bogotá: Planeta, 2009. 58 From Insurgency to Stability, Volume II: Insights from Selected Case Studies been, or are being...1980. Pardo, Rafael, La Historia de Las Guerras, Bogotá, 2004. “Pastrana Desconoce Cómo Marchar Hacia Adelante,” El Tiempo, Bogotá, March 1, 1999. As

  16. Vowels in the buffer: a case study of acquired dysgraphia with selective vowel substitutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotelli, Maria; Abutalebi, Jubin; Zorzi, Marco; Cappa, Stefano F

    2003-03-01

    We report the case of a patient who recovered from a clinical picture of fluent aphasia to selective dysgraphia. The features of the writing disorder were compatible with a graphemic output buffer dysfunction (errors in all spelling tasks and for all type of material, affected by word length and consisting mostly of graphemic deviations), with the exception of the lack of transposition errors and position preference. Further, the spelling disorder was selective for vowels, replicating the original observation by Cubelli (1991). A similar, although milder, error pattern was also observed in reading tasks, in particular for nonwords, suggesting that the locus of dysfunction involves a processing stage shared by reading and writing. These findings support the notion that the consonant-vowel status is a property of graphemic representations, and is compatible with that a common buffer is involved in spelling and reading. We discuss the implications of selective vowel disorders for current models of the spelling system.

  17. Application Of Decision Tree Approach To Student Selection Model- A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwati; Sudiya, Amby

    2016-01-01

    The main purpose of the institution is to provide quality education to the students and to improve the quality of managerial decisions. One of the ways to improve the quality of students is to arrange the selection of new students with a more selective. This research takes the case in the selection of new students at Islamic University of Indonesia, Yogyakarta, Indonesia. One of the university's selection is through filtering administrative selection based on the records of prospective students at the high school without paper testing. Currently, that kind of selection does not yet has a standard model and criteria. Selection is only done by comparing candidate application file, so the subjectivity of assessment is very possible to happen because of the lack standard criteria that can differentiate the quality of students from one another. By applying data mining techniques classification, can be built a model selection for new students which includes criteria to certain standards such as the area of origin, the status of the school, the average value and so on. These criteria are determined by using rules that appear based on the classification of the academic achievement (GPA) of the students in previous years who entered the university through the same way. The decision tree method with C4.5 algorithm is used here. The results show that students are given priority for admission is that meet the following criteria: came from the island of Java, public school, majoring in science, an average value above 75, and have at least one achievement during their study in high school.

  18. Tests of Selection in Pooled Case-Control Data: An Empirical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin eUdpa

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available For smaller organisms with faster breeding cycles, artificial selection can be used to create sub-populations with different phenotypic traits. Genetic tests can be employed to identify the causal markers for the phenotypes, as a precursor to engineering strains with a combination of traits. Traditional approaches involve analyzing crosses of inbred strains to test for co-segregation with genetic markers. Here we take advantage of cheaper next generation sequencing techniques to identifygenetic signatures of adaptation to the selection constraints. Obtaining individual sequencing data is often unrealistic due to cost and sample issues, so we focus on pooled genomic data.In this paper, we explore a series of statistical tests for selection using pooled case (under selection and control populations. Extensive simulations are used to show that these approaches work well for a wide range of population divergence times and strong selective pressures. We show that pooling does not have a significant impact on statistical power. The tests are also robust to reasonable variations in several different parameters, including window size, base-calling error rate, and sequencing coverage. We then demonstrate the viability (and the challenges of one of these methods in two independent Drosophila populations (Drosophila melanogaster bred under selectionfor hypoxia and accelerated development, respectively. Testing for extreme hypoxia tolerance showed clear signals of selection, pointing to loci that are important for hypoxia adaptation.Overall, we outline a strategy for finding regions under selection using pooled sequences, then devise optimal tests for that strategy. The approaches show promise for detecting selection, even several generations after fixation of the beneficial allele has occurred.

  19. An assessment of the quality of care for children in eighteen randomly selected district and sub-district hospitals in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoque Dewan ME

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Quality hospital care is important in ensuring that the needs of severely ill children are met to avert child mortality. However, the quality of hospital care for children in developing countries has often been found poor. As the first step of a country road map for improving hospital care for children, we assessed the baseline situation with respect to the quality of care provided to children under-five years age in district and sub-district level hospitals in Bangladesh. Methods Using adapted World Health Organization (WHO hospital assessment tools and standards, an assessment of 18 randomly selected district (n=6 and sub-district (n=12 hospitals was undertaken. Teams of trained assessors used direct case observation, record review, interviews, and Management Information System (MIS data to assess the quality of clinical case management and monitoring; infrastructure, processes and hospital administration; essential hospital and laboratory supports, drugs and equipment. Results Findings demonstrate that the overall quality of care provided in these hospitals was poor. No hospital had a functioning triage system to prioritise those children most in need of immediate care. Laboratory supports and essential equipment were deficient. Only one hospital had all of the essential drugs for paediatric care. Less than a third of hospitals had a back-up power supply, and just under half had functioning arrangements for safe-drinking water. Clinical case management was found to be sub-optimal for prevalent illnesses, as was the quality of neonatal care. Conclusion Action is needed to improve the quality of paediatric care in hospital settings in Bangladesh, with a particular need to invest in improving newborn care.

  20. Quantifying the impact of selection bias caused by nonparticipation in a case-control study of mobile phone use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vrijheid, Martine; Richardson, Lesley; Armstrong, Bruce K

    2009-01-01

    To quantitatively assess the impact of selection bias caused by nonparticipation in a multinational case-control study of mobile phone use and brain tumor.......To quantitatively assess the impact of selection bias caused by nonparticipation in a multinational case-control study of mobile phone use and brain tumor....

  1. Method selection for sustainability assessments: The case of recovery of resources from waste water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zijp, M C; Waaijers-van der Loop, S L; Heijungs, R; Broeren, M L M; Peeters, R; Van Nieuwenhuijzen, A; Shen, L; Heugens, E H W; Posthuma, L

    2017-07-15

    Sustainability assessments provide scientific support in decision procedures towards sustainable solutions. However, in order to contribute in identifying and choosing sustainable solutions, the sustainability assessment has to fit the decision context. Two complicating factors exist. First, different stakeholders tend to have different views on what a sustainability assessment should encompass. Second, a plethora of sustainability assessment methods exist, due to the multi-dimensional characteristic of the concept. Different methods provide other representations of sustainability. Based on a literature review, we present a protocol to facilitate method selection together with stakeholders. The protocol guides the exploration of i) the decision context, ii) the different views of stakeholders and iii) the selection of pertinent assessment methods. In addition, we present an online tool for method selection. This tool identifies assessment methods that meet the specifications obtained with the protocol, and currently contains characteristics of 30 sustainability assessment methods. The utility of the protocol and the tool are tested in a case study on the recovery of resources from domestic waste water. In several iterations, a combination of methods was selected, followed by execution of the selected sustainability assessment methods. The assessment results can be used in the first phase of the decision procedure that leads to a strategic choice for sustainable resource recovery from waste water in the Netherlands. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Serious adverse events after HPV vaccination: a critical review of randomized trials and post-marketing case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Lavín, Manuel; Amezcua-Guerra, Luis

    2017-10-01

    This article critically reviews HPV vaccine serious adverse events described in pre-licensure randomized trials and in post-marketing case series. HPV vaccine randomized trials were identified in PubMed. Safety data were extracted. Post-marketing case series describing HPV immunization adverse events were reviewed. Most HPV vaccine randomized trials did not use inert placebo in the control group. Two of the largest randomized trials found significantly more severe adverse events in the tested HPV vaccine arm of the study. Compared to 2871 women receiving aluminum placebo, the group of 2881 women injected with the bivalent HPV vaccine had more deaths on follow-up (14 vs. 3, p = 0.012). Compared to 7078 girls injected with the 4-valent HPV vaccine, 7071 girls receiving the 9-valent dose had more serious systemic adverse events (3.3 vs. 2.6%, p = 0.01). For the 9-valent dose, our calculated number needed to seriously harm is 140 (95% CI, 79-653). The number needed to vaccinate is 1757 (95% CI, 131 to infinity). Practically, none of the serious adverse events occurring in any arm of both studies were judged to be vaccine-related. Pre-clinical trials, post-marketing case series, and the global drug adverse reaction database (VigiBase) describe similar post-HPV immunization symptom clusters. Two of the largest randomized HPV vaccine trials unveiled more severe adverse events in the tested HPV vaccine arm of the study. Nine-valent HPV vaccine has a worrisome number needed to vaccinate/number needed to harm quotient. Pre-clinical trials and post-marketing case series describe similar post-HPV immunization symptoms.

  3. Selectivity of Chemoresistive Sensors Made of Chemically Functionalized Carbon Nanotube Random Networks for Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-François Feller

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Different grades of chemically functionalized carbon nanotubes (CNT have been processed by spraying layer-by-layer (sLbL to obtain an array of chemoresistive transducers for volatile organic compound (VOC detection. The sLbL process led to random networks of CNT less conductive, but more sensitive to vapors than filtration under vacuum (bucky papers. Shorter CNT were also found to be more sensitive due to the less entangled and more easily disconnectable conducting networks they are making. Chemical functionalization of the CNT’ surface is changing their selectivity towards VOC, which makes it possible to easily discriminate methanol, chloroform and tetrahydrofuran (THF from toluene vapors after the assembly of CNT transducers into an array to make an e-nose. Interestingly, the amplitude of the CNT transducers’ responses can be enhanced by a factor of five (methanol to 100 (chloroform by dispersing them into a polymer matrix, such as poly(styrene (PS, poly(carbonate (PC or poly(methyl methacrylate (PMMA. COOH functionalization of CNT was found to penalize their dispersion in polymers and to decrease the sensors’ sensitivity. The resulting conductive polymer nanocomposites (CPCs not only allow for a more easy tuning of the sensors’ selectivity by changing the chemical nature of the matrix, but they also allow them to adjust their sensitivity by changing the average gap between CNT (acting on quantum tunneling in the CNT network. Quantum resistive sensors (QRSs appear promising for environmental monitoring and anticipated disease diagnostics that are both based on VOC analysis.

  4. Diabetes Nurse Case Management in a Canadian Tertiary Care Setting: Results of a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Danni; Elliott, Tom; Klein, Gerri; Ur, Ehud; Tang, Tricia S

    2017-06-01

    To examine the effects of a 6-month nurse case manager (NCM) intervention compared to standard care (SC) on glycemic control and diabetes distress in a Canadian tertiary-care setting. We recruited 140 adults with type 2 diabetes and glycated hemoglobin (A1C) levels >8% (64 mmol/mol) from 2 tertiary care facilities and randomized them to: 1) a 6-month NCM intervention in addition to SC or 2) SC by the primary endocrinologists. Assessments were conducted at baseline and at 6 months. Primary outcomes included A1C levels and diabetes distress scores (DDS). Secondary outcomes included body mass index, blood pressure, diabetes-related behaviour measures, depressive symptoms, self-motivation and perception of support. At the 6-month follow up, the NCM group experienced larger reductions in A1C levels of -0.73% compared to the SC group (p=0.027; n=134). The NCM group also showed an additional reduction of -0.40 (26% reduction) in DDS compared to those in the SC group (p=0.001; n=134). The NCM group had lower blood pressure, ate more fruit and vegetables, exercised more, checked their feet more frequently, were more motivated, were less depressed and perceived more support. There were no changes and no group differences in terms of body mass index, medication compliance or frequency of testing. Compared to SC, NCM intervention was more effective in improving glycemic control and reducing diabetes distress. It is, therefore, a viable adjunct to standard diabetes care in the tertiary care setting, particularly for patients at high risk and with poor control. Copyright © 2017 Diabetes Canada. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Case studies combined with or without concept maps improve critical thinking in hospital-based nurses: a randomized-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yu-Chuan; Chen, Hsing-Hsia; Yeh, Mei-Ling; Chung, Yu-Chu

    2012-06-01

    Critical thinking (CT) is essential to the exercise of professional judgment. As nurses face increasingly complex health-care situations, critical thinking can promote appropriate clinical decision-making and improve the quality of nursing care. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of a program of case studies, alone (CS) or combined with concept maps (CSCM), on improving CT in clinical nurses. The study was a randomized controlled trial. The experimental group participated in a 16-week CSCM program, whereas the control group participated in a CS program of equal duration. A randomized-controlled trial with a multistage randomization process was used to select and to assign participants, ultimately resulting in 67 nurses in each group. Data were collected before and after the program using the California Critical Thinking Skill Test (CCTST) and the California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory (CCTDI). After the programs, there were significant differences between the two groups in the critical thinking skills of analysis, evaluation, inference, deduction, and induction. There was also an overall significant difference, and a significant difference in the specific disposition of open-mindedness. This study supports the application of case studies combined with concept maps as a hospital-based teaching strategy to promote development of critical thinking skills and encourage dispositions for nurses. The CSCM resulted in greater improvements in all critical thinking skills of as well as the overall and open-minded affective dispositions toward critical thinking, compared with the case studies alone. An obvious improvement in the CSCM participants was the analytic skill and disposition. Further longitudinal studies and data collection from multisite evaluations in a range of geographic locales are warranted. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Sequence-Based Prediction of RNA-Binding Proteins Using Random Forest with Minimum Redundancy Maximum Relevance Feature Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Ma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The prediction of RNA-binding proteins is one of the most challenging problems in computation biology. Although some studies have investigated this problem, the accuracy of prediction is still not sufficient. In this study, a highly accurate method was developed to predict RNA-binding proteins from amino acid sequences using random forests with the minimum redundancy maximum relevance (mRMR method, followed by incremental feature selection (IFS. We incorporated features of conjoint triad features and three novel features: binding propensity (BP, nonbinding propensity (NBP, and evolutionary information combined with physicochemical properties (EIPP. The results showed that these novel features have important roles in improving the performance of the predictor. Using the mRMR-IFS method, our predictor achieved the best performance (86.62% accuracy and 0.737 Matthews correlation coefficient. High prediction accuracy and successful prediction performance suggested that our method can be a useful approach to identify RNA-binding proteins from sequence information.

  7. A preliminary investigation of the jack-bean urease inhibition by randomly selected traditionally used herbal medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biglar, Mahmood; Soltani, Khadijeh; Nabati, Farzaneh; Bazl, Roya; Mojab, Faraz; Amanlou, Massoud

    2012-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection leads to different clinical and pathological outcomes in humans, including chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer disease and gastric neoplasia and even gastric cancer and its eradiation dependst upon multi-drug therapy. The most effective therapy is still unknown and prompts people to make great efforts to find better and more modern natural or synthetic anti-H. pylori agents. In this report 21 randomly selected herbal methanolic extracts were evaluated for their effect on inhibition of Jack-bean urease using the indophenol method as described by Weatherburn. The inhibition potency was measured by UV spectroscopy technique at 630 nm which attributes to released ammonium. Among these extracts, five showed potent inhibitory activities with IC50 ranges of 18-35 μg/mL. These plants are Matricaria disciforme (IC50:35 μg/mL), Nasturtium officinale (IC50:18 μg/mL), Punica granatum (IC50:30 μg/mL), Camelia sinensis (IC50:35 μg/mL), Citrus aurantifolia (IC50:28 μg/mL).

  8. A brief, web-based personalized feedback selective intervention for college student marijuana use: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Christine M; Neighbors, Clayton; Kilmer, Jason R; Larimer, Mary E

    2010-06-01

    Despite clear need, brief web-based interventions for marijuana-using college students have not been evaluated in the literature. The current study was designed to evaluate a brief, web-based personalized feedback intervention for at-risk marijuana users transitioning to college. All entering first-year students were invited to complete a brief questionnaire. Participants meeting criteria completed a baseline assessment (N = 341) and were randomly assigned to web-based personalized feedback or assessment-only control conditions. Participants completed 3-month (95.0%) and 6-month (94.4%) follow-up assessments. Results indicated that although there was no overall intervention effect, moderator analyses found promising effects for those with a family history of drug problems and, to a smaller extent, students who were higher in contemplation of changing marijuana use at baseline. Implications of these findings for selective intervention of college marijuana use and web-based interventions in general are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Adherence of French GPs to chronic neuropathic pain clinical guidelines: results of a cross-sectional, randomized, "e" case-vignette survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Valéria; Attal, Nadine; Vanzo, Bertrand; Vicaut, Eric; Gautier, Jean Michel; Bouhassira, Didier; Lantéri-Minet, Michel

    2014-01-01

    The French Pain Society published guidelines for neuropathic pain management in 2010. Our aim was to evaluate the compliance of GPs with these guidelines three years later. We used "e" case vignette methodology for this non interventional study. A national panel of randomly selected GPs was included. We used eight "e" case-vignettes relating to chronic pain, differing in terms of the type of pain (neuropathic/non neuropathic), etiology (cancer, postoperative pain, low back pain with or without radicular pain, diabetes) and symptoms. GPs received two randomly selected consecutive "e" case vignettes (with/without neuropathic pain). We analyzed their ability to recognize neuropathic pain and to prescribe appropriate first-line treatment. From the 1265 GPs in the database, we recruited 443 (35.0%), 334 of whom logged onto the web site (26.4%) and 319 (25.2%) of whom completed the survey. Among these GPs, 170 (53.3%) were aware of the guidelines, 136 (42.6%) were able to follow them, and 110 (34.5%) used the DN4 diagnostic tool. Sensitivity for neuropathic pain recognition was 87.8% (CI: 84.2%; 91.4%). However, postoperative neuropathic pain was less well diagnosed (77.9%; CI: 69.6%; 86.2%) than diabetic pain (95.2%; CI: 90.0%; 100.0%), cancer pain (90.6%; CI: 83.5%; 97.8%) and typical radicular pain (90.7%; CI: 84.9%; 96.5%). When neuropathic pain was correctly recognized, the likelihood of appropriate first-line treatment prescription was 90.6% (CI: 87.4%; 93.8%). The treatments proposed were pregabaline (71.8%), gabapentine (43.9%), amiptriptylline (23.2%) and duloxetine (18.2%). However, ibuprofen (11%), acetaminophen-codeine (29.5%) and clonazepam (10%) were still prescribed. The compliance of GPs with clinical practice guidelines appeared to be satisfactory, but differed between etiologies.

  10. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and gastrointestinal bleeding: a case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Carvajal

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs have been associated with upper gastrointestinal (GI bleeding. Given their worldwide use, even small risks account for a large number of cases. This study has been conducted with carefully collected information to further investigate the relationship between SSRIs and upper GI bleeding. METHODS: We conducted a case-control study in hospitals in Spain and in Italy. Cases were patients aged ≥18 years with a primary diagnosis of acute upper GI bleeding diagnosed by endoscopy; three controls were matched by sex, age, date of admission (within 3 months and hospital among patients who were admitted for elective surgery for non-painful disorders. Exposures to SSRIs, other antidepressants and other drugs were defined as any use of these drugs in the 7 days before the day on which upper gastrointestinal bleeding started (index day. RESULTS: 581 cases of upper GI bleeding and 1358 controls were considered eligible for the study; no differences in age or sex distribution were observed between cases and controls after matching. Overall, 4.0% of the cases and 3.3% of controls used an SSRI antidepressant in the week before the index day. No significant risk of upper GI bleeding was encountered for SSRI antidepressants (adjusted odds ratio, 1.06, 95% CI, 0.57-1.96 or for whichever other grouping of antidepressants. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this case-control study showed no significant increase in upper GI bleeding with SSRIs and provide good evidence that the magnitude of any increase in risk is not greater than 2.

  11. Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors and Gastrointestinal Bleeding: A Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvajal, Alfonso; Ortega, Sara; Del Olmo, Lourdes; Vidal, Xavier; Aguirre, Carmelo; Ruiz, Borja; Conforti, Anita; Leone, Roberto; López-Vázquez, Paula; Figueiras, Adolfo; Ibáñez, Luisa

    2011-01-01

    Background Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) have been associated with upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding. Given their worldwide use, even small risks account for a large number of cases. This study has been conducted with carefully collected information to further investigate the relationship between SSRIs and upper GI bleeding. Methods We conducted a case-control study in hospitals in Spain and in Italy. Cases were patients aged ≥18 years with a primary diagnosis of acute upper GI bleeding diagnosed by endoscopy; three controls were matched by sex, age, date of admission (within 3 months) and hospital among patients who were admitted for elective surgery for non-painful disorders. Exposures to SSRIs, other antidepressants and other drugs were defined as any use of these drugs in the 7 days before the day on which upper gastrointestinal bleeding started (index day). Results 581 cases of upper GI bleeding and 1358 controls were considered eligible for the study; no differences in age or sex distribution were observed between cases and controls after matching. Overall, 4.0% of the cases and 3.3% of controls used an SSRI antidepressant in the week before the index day. No significant risk of upper GI bleeding was encountered for SSRI antidepressants (adjusted odds ratio, 1.06, 95% CI, 0.57–1.96) or for whichever other grouping of antidepressants. Conclusions The results of this case-control study showed no significant increase in upper GI bleeding with SSRIs and provide good evidence that the magnitude of any increase in risk is not greater than 2. PMID:21625637

  12. Comparative Evolutionary Histories of the Fungal Chitinase Gene Family Reveal Non-Random Size Expansions and Contractions due to Adaptive Natural Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Stenlid

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Gene duplication and loss play an important role in the evolution of novel functions and for shaping an organism’s gene content. Recently, it was suggested that stress-related genes frequently are exposed to duplications and losses, while growth-related genes show selection against change in copy number. The fungal chitinase gene family constitutes an interesting case study of gene duplication and loss, as their biological roles include growth and development as well as more stress-responsive functions. We used genome sequence data to analyze the size of the chitinase gene family in different fungal taxa, which range from 1 in Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis and Schizosaccharomyces pombe to 20 in Hypocrea jecorina and Emericella nidulans, and to infer their phylogenetic relationships. Novel chitinase subgroups are identified and their phylogenetic relationships with previously known chitinases are discussed. We also employ a stochastic birth and death model to show that the fungal chitinase gene family indeed evolves non-randomly, and we identify six fungal lineages where larger-than-expected expansions (Pezizomycotina, H. jecorina, Gibberella zeae, Uncinocarpus reesii, E. nidulans and Rhizopus oryzae, and two contractions (Coccidioides immitis and S. pombe potentially indicate the action of adaptive natural selection. The results indicate that antagonistic fungal-fungal interactions are an important process for soil borne ascomycetes, but not for fungal species that are pathogenic in humans. Unicellular growth is correlated with a reduction of chitinase gene copy numbers which emphasizes the requirement of the combined action of several chitinases for filamentous growth.

  13. Two models of inventory control with supplier selection in case of multiple sourcing: a case of Isfahan Steel Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabieh, Masood; Soukhakian, Mohammad Ali; Mosleh Shirazi, Ali Naghi

    2016-03-01

    Selecting the best suppliers is crucial for a company's success. Since competition is a determining factor nowadays, reducing cost and increasing quality of products are two key criteria for appropriate supplier selection. In the study, first the inventories of agglomeration plant of Isfahan Steel Company were categorized through VED and ABC methods. Then the models to supply two important kinds of raw materials (inventories) were developed, considering the following items: (1) the optimal consumption composite of the materials, (2) the total cost of logistics, (3) each supplier's terms and conditions, (4) the buyer's limitations and (5) the consumption behavior of the buyers. Among diverse developed and tested models—using the company's actual data within three pervious years—the two new innovative models of mixed-integer non-linear programming type were found to be most suitable. The results of solving two models by lingo software (based on company's data in this particular case) were equaled. Comparing the results of the new models to the actual performance of the company revealed 10.9 and 7.1 % reduction in total procurement costs of the company in two consecutive years.

  14. Endometrial Effects of Prolonged Therapy with the Selective Progesterone Receptor Modulator Ulipristal Acetate: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Gary; Elkas, John; Armstrong, Alicia Y; Nieman, Lynnette K

    2016-01-01

    Prolonged exposure to a selective progesterone receptor modulator (ulipristal acetate) in a patient with benign metastasizing leiomyoma did not result in endometrial hyperplasia or neoplasia. A woman with history of benign metastasizing leiomyoma underwent medical treatment for 5 years with ulipristal acetate. Endometrial biopsies were performed at established intervals to monitor for intraepithelial neoplasia or progesterone receptor modulator-associated endometrial changes (PAECs). The patient tolerated UPA therapy well; there was no evidence of hyperplasia or proliferative changes associated with progesterone-associated endometrial changes. In this case prolonged exposure to ulipristal acetate did not result in premalignant or malignant endometrial pathology.

  15. Out of the box selection and application of UX evaluation methods and practical cases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obrist, Marianna; Knoche, Hendrik; Basapur, Santosh

    2013-01-01

    The scope of user experience supersedes the concept of usability and other performance oriented measures by including for example users' emotions, motivations and a strong focus on the context of use. The purpose of this tutorial is to motivate researchers and practitioners to think about...... the challenging questions around how to select and apply UX evaluation methods for different usage contexts, in particular for the "home" and "mobile" context, relevant for TV-based services. Next to a general understanding of UX evaluation and available methods, we will provide concrete UX evaluation case...

  16. Enumeration of Escherichia coli cells on chicken carcasses as a potential measure of microbial process control in a random selection of slaughter establishments in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether the measurement of Escherichia coli levels at two points during the chicken slaughter process has utility as a measure of quality control. A one year long survey was conducted during 2004 and 2005 in 20 randomly selected United States chicken slaught...

  17. Impact of amoxicillin therapy on resistance selection in patients with community-acquired lower respiratory tract infections : A randomized, placebo-controlled study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malhotra-Kumar, Surbhi; Van Heirstraeten, Liesbet; Coenen, Samuel; Lammens, Christine; Adriaenssens, Niels; Kowalczyk, Anna; Godycki-Cwirko, Maciek; Bielicka, Zuzana; Hupkova, Helena; Lannering, Christina; Mölstad, Sigvard; Fernandez-Vandellos, Patricia; Torres, Antoni; Parizel, Maxim; Ieven, Margareta; Butler, Chris C.; Verheij, Theo; Little, Paul; Goossens, Hermanon; Frimodt-Møller, Niels; Bruno, Pascale; Hering, Iris; Lemiengre, Marieke; Loens, Katherine; Malmvall, Bo Eric; Muras, Magdalena; Romano, Nuria Sanchez; Prat, Matteu Serra; Svab, Igor; Swain, Jackie; Tarsia, Paolo; Leus, Frank; Veen, Robert; Worby, Tricia

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the effect of amoxicillin treatment on resistance selection in patients with community-acquired lower respiratory tract infections in a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Methods: Patients were prescribed amoxicillin 1 g, three times daily (n = 52) or placebo (n = 50) for

  18. The Long-Term Effectiveness of a Selective, Personality-Targeted Prevention Program in Reducing Alcohol Use and Related Harms: A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Nicola C.; Conrod, Patricia J.; Slade, Tim; Carragher, Natacha; Champion, Katrina E.; Barrett, Emma L.; Kelly, Erin V.; Nair, Natasha K.; Stapinski, Lexine; Teesson, Maree

    2016-01-01

    Background: This study investigated the long-term effectiveness of Preventure, a selective personality-targeted prevention program, in reducing the uptake of alcohol, harmful use of alcohol, and alcohol-related harms over a 3-year period. Methods: A cluster randomized controlled trial was conducted to assess the effectiveness of Preventure.…

  19. Pictorial mnemonic-strategy interventions for children with special needs: Illustration of a multiply randomized single-case crossover design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Yooyeun; Levin, Joel R; Johnson, Evan W

    2016-01-25

    An innovative single-case crossover design containing multiple forms of randomization was implemented with eight participants in seven weekly sessions, during which instruction was given in the use of two different pictorial mnemonic (memory-enhancing) strategies: one designed to improve the children's learning of the dates of various inventions and the other designed to improve the children's acquisition of unfamiliar vocabulary items. A composite randomization statistical test revealed that when compared with the children's own preferred learning methods, the mnemonic-strategy approach produced the predicted facilitation effects. At the same time, it was evident that mnemonic instruction enhanced children's performance to a greater extent on the vocabulary task than on the inventions task. In-depth examination of both individual student performance profiles and the tasks/procedures were conducted, yielding recommendations and challenges for follow-up single-case intervention research on the topic.

  20. Selection of comparative cases in land appraisal based on cloud model and gray relevancy theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liu; Liu, Yanfang; Liu, Wei; Song, Xinying; Xu, Xiongjie

    2008-10-01

    There is a traditional approach named market comparative method, which is used to appraise land price by putting a focus on comparing cases. A review of the developing history of this method highlights some persistent challenges. In this paper, this existing approach is extended through coupling the cloud model, a data-mining technique, with gray relevancy theory. This approach allows the construction of quantitative measurement according to qualitative concept (attribute), simulating human cognizing process. This novel method admits hierarchical describing and exploration of the relationship and proximity between district factors and individual factors. By 1-D cloud generator, we obtain several rules in terms of linguistic atom which confirm the number of overlap cloud. Each rule corresponds to a rule's rear that achieves uncertainty ratiocination. In order to prove applicability of this method, it is applied to the selection of comparative cases in land appraisal of Wuhan City. Experimental results show most cases can be correctly discriminated and the better comparative cases are acceptable. Compared with other approaches, this method has better performance in land appraisal.

  1. Application of cox proportional hazards model in case of tuberculosis patients in selected addis ababa health centres, ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolosie, Kabtamu; Sharma, M K

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Tuberculosis (TB) is a chronic infectious disease and mainly caused by mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB). It has been one of the major causes of mortality in Ethiopia. The objective of the study was to identify factors that affect the survival of the patients with tuberculosis who started treatment for tuberculosis. Methods. This was a retrospective study in six randomly selected health centres in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. The data were obtained from medical records of TB patients registered from September 2012 to August 2013 and treated under directly observed treatment surgery (DOTS) strategy. Kaplan Meier plots, logrank tests, and Wilcoxon tests were used to assess the survival pattern. Cox proportional hazards model for multivariable analysis was discussed. Results. Out of the total 826 registered TB patients, 105 (12.71%) died during the study period and 712 (87.29%) were censored. Based on Kaplan Meier survival curves, logrank test, and Wilcoxon test, it was found that the patients had statistically significant differences in survival experience with respect to age, body weight at initiation of treatment, TB patient category, and HIV status. Multivariable Cox hazards regression analysis revealed that the covariates age, TB patient category, HIV, and age by HIV interaction were significant risk factors associated with death status in TB patients. Conclusion. Deaths of individuals with diseases especially HIV coinfected and nonnew TB cases were high. Therefore, this needs to strengthen the follow-up of patients with TB treatment from the day of anti-TB treatment initiation to completion days.

  2. Adverse events associated with acupuncture: three multicentre randomized controlled trials of 1968 cases in China

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    Zheng Hui

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to evaluate the safety of acupuncture in China objectively, we investigated the adverse events associated with acupuncture based on three multicentre randomized controlled trials (RCTs to assess the safety of acupuncture, identifying the common types of acupuncture adverse events, and analysing the related risk factors for their occurrence. Methods This observational study included patients who received acupuncture from three multicentre RCTs respectively for migraine, functional dyspepsia and Bell's palsy. The 1968 patients and their acupuncturists documented adverse events associated with acupuncture after treatment. We collected data about adverse events due to acupuncture treatment from their case report forms. We analysed the incidence and details of the adverse effects, and studied the risk factors for acupuncture adverse events with non-conditional logistic regression analysis. Results Among the 1968 patients, 74 patients (3.76% suffered at least one adverse event throughout the treatment period. We did not observe the occurrence of serious adverse events. 73 patients with adverse events recovered within 2 weeks through effective treatment such as physiotherapy or self-treatment. A total of 3 patients withdrew because of adverse events. There were 9 types of adverse events related to acupuncture, including subcutaneous haematoma, bleeding, skin bruising and needle site pain. Subcutaneous haematoma and haemorrhage in the needling points were the most common adverse events. Age and gender were related to the occurrence of acupuncture adverse events. The older the patients were, the higher the risk of adverse events was. In addition, male patients had slightly higher risk of an adverse event than female patients. Conclusions Acupuncture is a safe therapy with low risk of adverse events in clinical practice. The risk factors for adverse events (AEs were related to the patients' gender and age and the local

  3. Surveillance for cancer recurrence in long-term young breast cancer survivors randomly selected from a statewide cancer registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Tarsha; Duquette, Debra; Underhill, Meghan; Ming, Chang; Mendelsohn-Victor, Kari E; Anderson, Beth; Milliron, Kara J; Copeland, Glenn; Janz, Nancy K; Northouse, Laurel L; Duffy, Sonia M; Merajver, Sofia D; Katapodi, Maria C

    2018-01-20

    This study examined clinical breast exam (CBE) and mammography surveillance in long-term young breast cancer survivors (YBCS) and identified barriers and facilitators to cancer surveillance practices. Data collected with a self-administered survey from a statewide, randomly selected sample of YBCS diagnosed with invasive breast cancer or ductal carcinoma in situ younger than 45 years old, stratified by race (Black vs. White/Other). Multivariate logistic regression models identified predictors of annual CBEs and mammograms. Among 859 YBCS (n = 340 Black; n = 519 White/Other; mean age = 51.0 ± 5.9; diagnosed 11.0 ± 4.0 years ago), the majority (> 85%) reported an annual CBE and a mammogram. Black YBCS in the study were more likely to report lower rates of annual mammography and more barriers accessing care compared to White/Other YBCS. Having a routine source of care, confidence to use healthcare services, perceived expectations from family members and healthcare providers to engage in cancer surveillance, and motivation to comply with these expectations were significant predictors of having annual CBEs and annual mammograms. Cost-related lack of access to care was a significant barrier to annual mammograms. Routine source of post-treatment care facilitated breast cancer surveillance above national average rates. Persistent disparities regarding access to mammography surveillance were identified for Black YBCS, primarily due to lack of access to routine source of care and high out-of-pocket costs. Public health action targeting cancer surveillance in YBCS should ensure routine source of post-treatment care and address cost-related barriers. Clinical Trials Registration Number: NCT01612338.

  4. Sexual selection has minimal impact on effective population sizes in species with high rates of random offspring mortality: An empirical demonstration using fitness distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pischedda, Alison; Friberg, Urban; Stewart, Andrew D; Miller, Paige M; Rice, William R

    2015-10-01

    The effective population size (N(e)) is a fundamental parameter in population genetics that influences the rate of loss of genetic diversity. Sexual selection has the potential to reduce N(e) by causing the sex-specific distributions of individuals that successfully reproduce to diverge. To empirically estimate the effect of sexual selection on N(e), we obtained fitness distributions for males and females from an outbred, laboratory-adapted population of Drosophila melanogaster. We observed strong sexual selection in this population (the variance in male reproductive success was ∼14 times higher than that for females), but found that sexual selection had only a modest effect on N(e), which was 75% of the census size. This occurs because the substantial random offspring mortality in this population diminishes the effects of sexual selection on N(e), a result that necessarily applies to other high fecundity species. The inclusion of this random offspring mortality creates a scaling effect that reduces the variance/mean ratios for male and female reproductive success and causes them to converge. Our results demonstrate that measuring reproductive success without considering offspring mortality can underestimate Ne and overestimate the genetic consequences of sexual selection. Similarly, comparing genetic diversity among different genomic components may fail to detect strong sexual selection. © 2015 The Author(s). Evolution © 2015 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  5. Limits of state intervention in sex-selective abortion: the case of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Jing-Bao

    2010-02-01

    Sex-selective abortion is the major direct cause of the severe imbalance in the sex ratio at birth - contributing to the phenomenon of over 100 million 'missing' females worldwide and 40 million in China alone. Internationally as well as in China, moral condemnation and legal prohibition constitute the mainstream and official position on sex-selective abortion. This paper characterises the dominant Chinese approach to the issue as state-centred and coercion-oriented. Drawing upon case study material, the paper discusses eight major problems arising from coercive state intervention in sex-selective abortion: neglect of reproductive liberty and reproductive rights; the hidden dangers of state power; inconsistency with existing abortion policies; practical ineffectiveness; underestimating the costs and resistance involved; simplifying and misrepresenting the key issues; the lack of sufficient public discussion; and ignoring the moral and political principles established by traditional Chinese thought. To avoid a solution that is worse than the problem itself, alternative social programmes that are focused on women, community-oriented and voluntary in nature need to be developed.

  6. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Consensus-Based Child Abuse Case Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldbeck, L.; Laib-Koehnemund, A.; Fegert, J. M.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: This study evaluates the effects of expert-assisted child abuse and neglect case management in the German child welfare and healthcare system as perceived by the case workers themselves. Methods: Case workers with different professions (social workers, counselors, clinic-based and office-based psychotherapists, and physicians)…

  7. Relationship between Selected Socio-Demographic Factors and Cancer of Oral Cavity - A Case Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdoul Hossain Madani

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to recognize factors associated with cancer of oral cavity considering socio-demographic characteristics. The cases were 350 with squamous-cell carcinoma of oral cavity diagnosed between 2005 and 2006 in Morbai, Narandia, Budharani Cancer Institute, Pune, India. Similar number of controls match for age and sex selected from the background population. Cases and controls were interviewed for tobacco related habits and general characteristics; age, gender, education and possible socio-demographic factors. Chi-square test in uni-variate analysis and estimate for risk showed that education, occupation and monthly household income were significantly different between cases and controls (P < 0.001. Irrespective to gender, relative risk, here odds ratio, (OR of low level of education (OR = 5.3, CI 3.7–7.6, working in field as a farmer (OR = 2.5, CI 1.7–3.7, and monthly household income less than 5000 Indian Rupees currency (OR = 1.7, CI 1.2–2.3 were significant risk factors for oral cancer. While, there was no significant relationship between religious and or marital status either in males or females.

  8. Selective preservation of the beat in apperceptive music agnosia: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Amee D; Walker, David G; Biggs, Vivien; Robinson, Gail A

    2014-04-01

    Music perception involves processing of melodic, temporal and emotional dimensions that have been found to dissociate in healthy individuals and after brain injury. Two components of the temporal dimension have been distinguished, namely rhythm and metre. We describe an 18 year old male musician 'JM' who showed apperceptive music agnosia with selectively preserved metre perception, and impaired recognition of sad and peaceful music relative to age and music experience matched controls after resection of a right temporoparietal tumour. Two months post-surgery JM underwent a comprehensive neuropsychological evaluation including assessment of his music perception abilities using the Montreal Battery for Evaluation of Amusia (MBEA, Peretz, Champod, & Hyde, 2003). He also completed several experimental tasks to explore his ability to recognise famous songs and melodies, emotions portrayed by music and a broader range of environmental sounds. Five age-, gender-, education- and musical experienced-matched controls were administered the same experimental tasks. JM showed selective preservation of metre perception, with impaired performances compared to controls and scoring below the 5% cut-off on all MBEA subtests, except for the metric condition. He could identify his favourite songs and environmental sounds. He showed impaired recognition of sad and peaceful emotions portrayed in music relative to controls but intact ability to identify happy and scary music. This case study contributes to the scarce literature documenting a dissociation between rhythmic and metric processing, and the rare observation of selectively preserved metric interpretation in the context of apperceptive music agnosia. It supports the notion that the anterior portion of the superior temporal gyrus (STG) plays a role in metric processing and provides the novel observation that selectively preserved metre is sufficient to identify happy and scary, but not sad or peaceful emotions portrayed in music

  9. Simulated patients versus seminars to train case history and feedback skills in audiology students: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Jane; Wilson, Wayne J; MacBean, Naomi; Hill, Anne E

    2016-12-01

    To compare simulated patients (SP) versus seminars for training audiology students to take a case history and give feedback with adult patients. A randomized controlled trial with cross-over. Twenty-four audiology students, five SPs, two clinical educators (CE) and three evaluators. Students were randomly allocated to Group 1 who completed SP then seminar training or Group 2 who completed seminar then SP training. The SP training saw each student work with an SP in a clinic room and receive individualized feedback. The seminar training saw the student group work with a single CE in a lecture room and receive group feedback. All students were assessed taking a case history and giving feedback to an SP before, between, and after the training blocks. Mixed model analyses of derived factors for case history and feedback showed significant (p < 0.05) effects for assessment occasion (i.e. student skills improved with more training) but not for training sequence (i.e. order of training did not affect skill improvements) or training type (i.e. type of training did not affect skill improvements). SP training provided no benefit over seminar training in audiology students learning case history and feedback skills with adult patients.

  10. Early-stage sustainability assessment to assist with material selection : a case study for biobased printer panels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broeren, M. L M; Molenveld, K.; van den Oever, M. J A; Patel, M. K.; Worrell, E.; Shen, L.

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims to incorporate sustainability assessment into the material selection processes during early-stage product (re)design, when time and data availability for such assessments are usually limited. A material selection framework is presented and illustrated step-by-step with a case study

  11. The competing risks Cox model with auxiliary case covariates under weaker missing-at-random cause of failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevo, Daniel; Nishihara, Reiko; Ogino, Shuji; Wang, Molin

    2017-08-04

    In the analysis of time-to-event data with multiple causes using a competing risks Cox model, often the cause of failure is unknown for some of the cases. The probability of a missing cause is typically assumed to be independent of the cause given the time of the event and covariates measured before the event occurred. In practice, however, the underlying missing-at-random assumption does not necessarily hold. Motivated by colorectal cancer molecular pathological epidemiology analysis, we develop a method to conduct valid analysis when additional auxiliary variables are available for cases only. We consider a weaker missing-at-random assumption, with missing pattern depending on the observed quantities, which include the auxiliary covariates. We use an informative likelihood approach that will yield consistent estimates even when the underlying model for missing cause of failure is misspecified. The superiority of our method over naive methods in finite samples is demonstrated by simulation study results. We illustrate the use of our method in an analysis of colorectal cancer data from the Nurses' Health Study cohort, where, apparently, the traditional missing-at-random assumption fails to hold.

  12. A Dutch treat : randomized controlled experimentation and the case of heroin-maintenance in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dehue, T.

    In 1995, the Dutch Minister of Health proposed that a randomized clinical trial (RCT) with heroin-maintenance for severe abusers be conducted. It took nearly four years of lengthy debates before the Dutch Parliament consented to the plan. Apart from the idea of prescribing heroin, the minister and

  13. DETERMINING THE RESPONSE IN CASE OF VIBRATIONS OF STRAIGHT BARS WITH RANDOM EXCITATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica BALDEA

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available By applying the finite element calculus to the study of bar vibrations, one obtains a system of linear diferential equations. One carries out the determination of the response to random stimulations by calculating the statistical terms as a function of the statistical terms of the stimulation

  14. Integrating Levels of Analysis in Systems and Cognitive Neurosciences: Selective Attention as a Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itthipuripat, Sirawaj; Serences, John T

    2016-06-01

    Neuroscience is inherently interdisciplinary, rapidly expanding beyond its roots in biological sciences to many areas of the social and physical sciences. This expansion has led to more sophisticated ways of thinking about the links between brains and behavior and has inspired the development of increasingly advanced tools to characterize the activity of large populations of neurons. However, along with these advances comes a heightened risk of fostering confusion unless efforts are made to better integrate findings across different model systems and to develop a better understanding about how different measurement techniques provide mutually constraining information. Here we use selective visuospatial attention as a case study to highlight the importance of these issues, and we suggest that exploiting multiple measures can better constrain models that relate neural activity to animal behavior. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. Lyme Neuroborreliosis: Preliminary Results from an Urban Referral Center Employing Strict CDC Criteria for Case Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David S. Younger

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Lyme neuroborreliosis or “neurological Lyme disease” was evidenced in 2 of 23 patients submitted to strict criteria for case selection of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention employing a two-tier test to detect antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi at a single institution. One patient had symptomatic polyradiculoneuritis, dysautonomia, and serological evidence of early infection; and another had symptomatic small fiber sensory neuropathy, distal polyneuropathy, dysautonomia, and serological evidence of late infection. In the remaining patients symptoms initially ascribed to Lyme disease were probably unrelated to B. burgdorferi infection. Our findings suggest early susceptibility and protracted involvement of the nervous system most likely due to the immunological effects of B. burgdorferi infection, although the exact mechanisms remain uncertain.

  16. Selective disappearance of medial back muscles in a case of myotonic dystrophy type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morihara, Ryuta; Hishikawa, Nozomi; Yamashita, Toru; Deguchi, Kentaro; Kurata, Tomoko; Abe, Koji

    2015-01-01

    Here, we report a unique case of late-onset myotonic dystrophy type 1 in a 64-year-old woman, with selective disappearance of the medial lower back muscles. We compared the clinical features of this patient with those of a cohort of 29 patients with myotonic dystrophy type 1 to clarify the correlation between clinical features and lower back muscle atrophy. After classification into three subgroups according to muscle atrophy pattern, medial muscle atrophy was present in 17.2% of the patients. Affected patients were older at onset than non-affected patients, and limb muscle power and respiratory function decreased with atrophy progression. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. A case-control investigation of adenomyosis: impact of control group selection on risk factor strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trabert, Britton; Weiss, Noel S; Rudra, Carole B; Scholes, Delia; Holt, Victoria L

    2011-01-01

    Using a medical record abstraction-based case-control study with two control groups, we evaluated adenomyosis risk factors and investigated differences related to comparison group selection. Medical records of all female 18- to 49-year-old Group Health (GH) enrollees with ICD-9 code 617.0 were abstracted using a standard data collection form. Cases were enrollees diagnosed with adenomyosis (n = 174) between April 1996 and September 2001. For comparison, medical records of two control groups were selected from the GH population: An age-matched sample of female enrollees (population-based controls; n = 149) and all female 18- to 49-year-old enrollees undergoing a hysterectomy (hysterectomy controls; n = 106) during the same time without adenomyosis. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using logistic regression, adjusted for identified covariates. Compared with normal and underweight women, overweight and obese women had increased adenomyosis risk using hysterectomy controls (OR, 2.2, 95% CI, 1.0-4.5; obese: OR, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.1-4.3) and population controls (overweight: OR, 2.1; 95% CI, 1.2-4.0; obese: OR, 3.8; 95% CI, 2.0-7.0). Using population controls, women with at least one live birth were more likely to have adenomyosis than nulliparous women (OR, 3.4; 95% CI, 1.9-6.2). Although some risk factors persisted in analyses using either control group, divergent results in relation to other risk factors for adenomyosis suggest that results of investigations of this disease may be affected by the choice of the comparison population. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Mathematical Modeling of Neural Correlates of Cognition: The Case of Selective Attention and Habituation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trenado, C.; Haab, L.; Strauss, D. J.

    2009-05-01

    Auditory evoked cortical potentials (AECPs) have extensively been applied in studies related to diagnosis and treatment of hearing disorders as well as cognitive and behavioral mechanisms. Regarding the mechanisms of attention and habituation, numerous studies involving electroencephalographic and magnetic resonance imaging techniques, emphasize the role of prominent cortico-subcortical brain structures as being implicated in a bidirectional processing and flux of sensory information with specific consequences for these processes. In spite of such progress, the effect of the interplay between prominent cortico-subcortical structures reflected in AECPs remains poorly understood. To address this issue, we propose a neuronal mean field approach for the study of neural correlates of selective attention and habituation in the case of the auditory modality. Such a framework is endowed with a neurophysiological interpretation so that we can formulate hypothesis concerning the mechanisms of selective attention and habituation. It is concluded that our approach represents a useful methodology for the study of neural correlates reflected in large-scale potentials.

  19. Case Studies on Timber Defects of Selected Traditional Houses in Malacca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nor Haniza Ishak

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of adverse environmental conditions on building materials and the extent of damage caused depends on both the materials used and the environmental conditions. Although timber is a diminishing resource, it is still widely used in today's construction. In Malaysia, timber is one of the main components of many historic buildings. Appropriate maintenance of such buildings requires an understanding of timber defects and its related problems. Timber defects are classified into two major groups: non-biological and biological deteriorations. Non-biological deterioration consists of physical decay, excessive moisture content, dimensional instability and chemical deterioration. These defects are mainly caused by the timber in service being subjected to environmental exposure. The most common and destructive timber biological deteriorations are those due to dry rot, we t rot as well as insect attacks . A study based on seven selected houses was conducted to identify the most common building defects, specifically on timber components amongst traditional Malay houses in Malacca, Malaysia, A building condition survey was carried out to determine the effect of the environment towards timber buildings and their main components. Data collected were based on the investigation and visual observation of the selected case studies. Findings of this research will serve as an indicator towards maintaining the buildings' timber components in good condition in order that the buildings' life span could be extended and primarily to conserve the valuable traditional timber houses in a historical city.

  20. Selective allergy to lobster in a case of primary sensitization to house dust mites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iparraguirre, A; Rodríguez-Pérez, R; Juste, S; Ledesma, A; Moneo, I; Caballero, M L

    2009-01-01

    Allergy to only 1 kind of seafood is uncommon. We report a case of selective allergy to lobster. We studied a 30-year-old man who suffered generalized urticaria, facial erythema, and pharyngeal pruritus after eating lobster. He had a more than 10-year history of mild persistent asthma and sensitization to house dust mites. The study was performed by skin prick test, and prick-prick test, oral food challenge, specific immunoglobulin (Ig) E determinations by CAP (Phadia, Uppsala, Sweden) and ADVIA-Centaur (ALK-Abelló, Madrid, Spain), and IgE-immunoblotting. The patient's serum recognized 2 allergens of around 198 kDa and 2 allergens of around 65 kDa from the lobster extract, allergens of around 15, 90, and 120 kDa from Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus extract, and allergens of around 15 and 65 kDa from Dermatophagoides farinae extract. Serum did not recognize purified shrimp tropomyosin. Immunoblot-inhibition assay results indicated cross-reactivity between lobster and mite allergens. This is the first report of selective allergy to lobster.

  1. Marketing Factors Affecting Leasing Selection in Bosnia and Herzegovina: Case Study on VB Leasing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almir Ljeskovica

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In constantly changing environment all types of companies need some support from various types of funding institutions. Companies use their own resources to finance some projects or purchases but also take loans, mostly from banks to have additional support or in case of lack of money. Beside small, medium, as well as big companies, physical persons also use different types of financing to achieve their goals and fulfil their needs. Financing companies need to recognize the criteria on which prospective customers establish their financing selection decision. Planning a proper marketing strategy in order to attract new customers is of crucial importance in identifying these criteria. The main purpose of the study is to identify which factors affects people to choose leasing services. For data collection and analyse both, qualitative and quantitative study is conducted. Data for this study were collected through surveys delivered to 65 VB Leasing users from Sarajevo region. Out of 65, 57 useful responses were accepted for further analysis. Also interview was done with director of VB Leasing for qualitative study in order to get more insights in this topic. Findings of the study show what are the important factors for leasing selection and these information can support leasing managers in designing marketing strategies for perspective customers.

  2. Affinity selection of Nipah and Hendra virus-related vaccine candidates from a complex random peptide library displayed on bacteriophage virus-like particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peabody, David S.; Chackerian, Bryce; Ashley, Carlee; Carnes, Eric; Negrete, Oscar

    2017-01-24

    The invention relates to virus-like particles of bacteriophage MS2 (MS2 VLPs) displaying peptide epitopes or peptide mimics of epitopes of Nipah Virus envelope glycoprotein that elicit an immune response against Nipah Virus upon vaccination of humans or animals. Affinity selection on Nipah Virus-neutralizing monoclonal antibodies using random sequence peptide libraries on MS2 VLPs selected peptides with sequence similarity to peptide sequences found within the envelope glycoprotein of Nipah itself, thus identifying the epitopes the antibodies recognize. The selected peptide sequences themselves are not necessarily identical in all respects to a sequence within Nipah Virus glycoprotein, and therefore may be referred to as epitope mimics VLPs displaying these epitope mimics can serve as vaccine. On the other hand, display of the corresponding wild-type sequence derived from Nipah Virus and corresponding to the epitope mapped by affinity selection, may also be used as a vaccine.

  3. Safety of Redo Hepatectomy for Colorectal Liver Metastases after Selective Interarterial Radiation Therapy: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyriakos Neofytou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Surgical resection is the only potentially curative strategy in the treatment of patients with colorectal liver metastases (CLM. Unfortunately, only about 10%–15% of patients are candidates for resection. Preoperative chemotherapy aims to increase the number of patients that may be eligible for liver resection by downsizing liver metastases. For patients with unresectable, chemotherapy refractory CLM the available treatment options are limited. Selective interarterial radiation therapy (SIRT is one of the most promising treatment options for this group of patients. Although only a small number of these patients have been reported as becoming candidates for potentially curative hepatic resection following sufficient reduction in the volume of liver metastases, the question arises regarding the safety of liver resection in these patients. We report a case of a patient who presented unresectable liver relapse of CLM after previous right hepatectomy. He underwent SIRT which resulted in downsizing of the liver metastases making the patient candidate for left lateral sectionectomy. He underwent the redo hepatectomy without any complications. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of redo hepatectomy after SIRT for CLM.

  4. Strategic decisions in transport: a case study for a naval base selection in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amaury Caruzzo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A decision on a military strategic environment, such as the selection of a new naval base, is a complex process and involves various criteria. In this context, few studies are available on the problems of military-naval transport decisions. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to present a maritime transport case study using a multi-methodology framework in a process of strategic decision making in logistics. Through a review of the literature, normative documents from the Brazilian armed forces, and interviews with military officers, criteria and preferences were identified and a hierarchical structure was constructed for a case study in the Brazilian Navy–the location of the second Fleet Headquarters. The results indicated that São Marcos Bay, in Maranhão State, was the best location among the alternatives. The multi-criteria approach was shown to be a valuable tool in assisting the decision making process and to understand the trade-offs between strategic and operational criteria in a transport decision.

  5. AN EXPLORATORY STUDY OF LONG SUPPLY CHAIN COMPETITION: SELECTED CASES IN THE SOUTH AFRICAN AEROSPACE SECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.J. Richardson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: This article investigates how supply chains, especially long supply chains, compete in the South African aerospace industry. A multiple case study methodology is employed, involving six selected firms. Semi-structured interviews provide the primary source of data. Multiple case analysis identifies similarities in competitive dimension criteria for supplier-firm and customer-firm units in the supply chain. Results indicate that supplier-firm units compete on the basis of speed, dependability, quality, flexibility, and cost. Customer-firm units compete on the basis of speed, quality, and flexibility. The results also identify focus areas for future research into how long supply chains compete in the South African aerospace industry.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Hierdie artikel ondersoek hoe voorsieningskettings, veral uitgerekte kettings, meeding in die Suid-Afrikaanse lugvaartindustrie. ‘n Meervoudige gevallestudie-metodologie is gevolg waartydens ses ondernemings bestudeer is. Semi-gestruktureerde onderhoude was die primêre bron van data. Meervoudige gevalle-analise identifiseer ooreenkomste in die mededingingskriteria vir leweransiers- en kliëntefirmas. Die resultate toon dat leweransiers kompeteer op spoed, betroubaarheid, kwaliteit, aanpasbaarheid en koste. Kliëntefirmas ding mee op grond van spoed, kwaliteit en aanpasbaarheid. Die resultate identifiseer fokusareas vir verdere navorsing op hierdie terrein.

  6. Comparing Non-Medical Sex Selection and Saviour Sibling Selection in the Case of JS and LS v Patient Review Panel: Beyond the Welfare of the Child?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Malcolm K; Taylor-Sands, Michelle

    2018-02-02

    The national ethical guidelines relevant to assisted reproductive technology (ART) have recently been reviewed by the National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC). The review process paid particular attention to the issue of non-medical sex selection, although ultimately, the updated ethical guidelines maintain the pre-consultation position of a prohibition on non-medical sex selection. Whilst this recent review process provided a public forum for debate and discussion of this ethically contentious issue, the Victorian case of JS and LS v Patient Review Panel (Health and Privacy) [2011] VCAT 856 provides a rare instance where the prohibition on non-medical sex selection has been explored by a court or tribunal in Australia. This paper analyses the reasoning in that decision, focusing specifically on how the Victorian Civil and Administrative Tribunal applied the statutory framework relevant to ART and its comparison to other uses of embryo selection technologies. The Tribunal relied heavily upon the welfare-of-the-child principle under the Assisted Reproductive Treatment Act 2008 (Vic). The Tribunal also compared non-medical sex selection with saviour sibling selection (that is, where a child is purposely conceived as a matched tissue donor for an existing child of the family). Our analysis leads us to conclude that the Tribunal's reasoning fails to adequately justify the denial of the applicants' request to utilize ART services to select the sex of their prospective child.

  7. Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors and Cataract Risk: A Case-Control Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Claudia; Jick, Susan S; Meier, Christoph R

    2017-11-01

    Use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) has been associated with an increased cataract risk. We aimed to assess cataract risk after exposure to SSRI or to other antidepressant drugs in a large electronic primary care database. Case-control study. The study population was derived from the UK-based Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD). We included patients with first-time cataract aged ≥40 years between 1995 and 2015 and an equal number of cataract-free controls matched on age, sex, general practice, date of cataract recording (i.e., index date), and years of history in the CPRD before the index date. We conducted conditional logistic regression analyses adjusted for body mass index, smoking, hypertension, diabetes, and systemic steroid use. Exposure of interest was the number of SSRI prescriptions and prescriptions for other antidepressant drugs. We further explored mutually exclusive use of single SSRI substances. In sensitivity analyses, we shifted the index date backwards by 2 years, and we restricted our analyses to cases and controls without a prior glaucoma diagnosis. Relative risk estimates as odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We identified 206 931 cataract cases and the same number of matched controls. Current long-term use of SSRI (≥20 prescriptions) was not associated with an increased cataract risk (adjusted OR, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.94-1.03). However, in a subset of patients aged 40 to 64 years, we found a slightly increased risk of cataract for long-term SSRI users (adjusted OR, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.15-1.34) compared with nonusers. In these data, use of SSRI was not associated with an increased risk of cataract. The slightly increased OR for individuals younger than 65 years of age in association with long-term SSRI use needs to be investigated in further studies. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Random walks in a random environment

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    Abstract. Random walks as well as diffusions in random media are considered. Methods are developed that allow one to establish large deviation results for both the 'quenched' and the 'averaged' case. Keywords. Large deviations; random walks in a random environment. 1. Introduction. A random walk on Zd is a stochastic ...

  9. Random Voting Effects in Social-Digital Spaces: A case study of Reddit Post Submissions

    OpenAIRE

    Glenski, Maria; Johnston, Thomas J.; Weninger, Tim

    2015-01-01

    At a time when information seekers first turn to digital sources for news and opinion, it is critical that we understand the role that social media plays in human behavior. This is especially true when information consumers also act as information producers and editors by their online activity. In order to better understand the effects that editorial ratings have on online human behavior, we report the results of a large-scale in-vivo experiment in social media. We find that small, random rat...

  10. Tuberculosis case-finding through a village outreach programme in a rural setting in southern Ethiopia: community randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shargie, Estifanos Biru; Mørkve, Odd; Lindtjørn, Bernt

    2006-02-01

    To ascertain whether case-finding through community outreach in a rural setting has an effect on case-notification rate, symptom duration, and treatment outcome of smear-positive tuberculosis (TB). We randomly allocated 32 rural communities to intervention or control groups. In intervention communities, health workers from seven health centres held monthly diagnostic outreach clinics at which they obtained sputum samples for sputum microscopy from symptomatic TB suspects. In addition, trained community promoters distributed leaflets and discussed symptoms of TB during house visits and at popular gatherings. Symptomatic individuals were encouraged to visit the outreach team or a nearby health facility. In control communities, cases were detected through passive case-finding among symptomatic suspects reporting to health facilities. Smear-positive TB patients from the intervention and control communities diagnosed during the study period were prospectively enrolled. In the 1-year study period, 159 and 221 cases of smear-positive TB were detected in the intervention and control groups, respectively. Case-notification rates in all age groups were 124.6/10(5) and 98.1/10(5) person-years, respectively (P = 0.12). The corresponding rates in adults older than 14 years were 207/10(5) and 158/10(5) person-years, respectively (P = 0.09). The proportion of patients with >3 months' symptom duration was 41% in the intervention group compared with 63% in the control group (Pcontrol group. In the intervention and control groups, 81% and 75%, respectively of patients successfully completed treatment (P = 0.12). The intervention was effective in improving the speed but not the extent of case finding for smear-positive TB in this setting. Both groups had comparable treatment outcomes.

  11. Health extension workers improve tuberculosis case detection and treatment success in southern Ethiopia: a community randomized trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel G Datiko

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: One of the main strategies to control tuberculosis (TB is to find and treat people with active disease. Unfortunately, the case detection rates remain low in many countries. Thus, we need interventions to find and treat sufficient number of patients to control TB. We investigated whether involving health extension workers (HEWs: trained community health workers in TB control improved smear-positive case detection and treatment success rates in southern Ethiopia. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDING: We carried out a community-randomized trial in southern Ethiopia from September 2006 to April 2008. Fifty-one kebeles (with a total population of 296, 811 were randomly allocated to intervention and control groups. We trained HEWs in the intervention kebeles on how to identify suspects, collect sputum, and provide directly observed treatment. The HEWs in the intervention kebeles advised people with productive cough of 2 weeks or more duration to attend the health posts. Two hundred and thirty smear-positive patients were identified from the intervention and 88 patients from the control kebeles. The mean case detection rate was higher in the intervention than in the control kebeles (122.2% vs 69.4%, p<0.001. In addition, more females patients were identified in the intervention kebeles (149.0 vs 91.6, p<0.001. The mean treatment success rate was higher in the intervention than in the control kebeles (89.3% vs 83.1%, p = 0.012 and more for females patients (89.8% vs 81.3%, p = 0.05. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The involvement of HEWs in sputum collection and treatment improved smear-positive case detection and treatment success rate, possibly because of an improved service access. This could be applied in settings with low health service coverage and a shortage of health workers. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00803322.

  12. Health extension workers improve tuberculosis case detection and treatment success in southern Ethiopia: a community randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datiko, Daniel G; Lindtjørn, Bernt

    2009-01-01

    One of the main strategies to control tuberculosis (TB) is to find and treat people with active disease. Unfortunately, the case detection rates remain low in many countries. Thus, we need interventions to find and treat sufficient number of patients to control TB. We investigated whether involving health extension workers (HEWs: trained community health workers) in TB control improved smear-positive case detection and treatment success rates in southern Ethiopia. We carried out a community-randomized trial in southern Ethiopia from September 2006 to April 2008. Fifty-one kebeles (with a total population of 296, 811) were randomly allocated to intervention and control groups. We trained HEWs in the intervention kebeles on how to identify suspects, collect sputum, and provide directly observed treatment. The HEWs in the intervention kebeles advised people with productive cough of 2 weeks or more duration to attend the health posts. Two hundred and thirty smear-positive patients were identified from the intervention and 88 patients from the control kebeles. The mean case detection rate was higher in the intervention than in the control kebeles (122.2% vs 69.4%, pcontrol kebeles (89.3% vs 83.1%, p = 0.012) and more for females patients (89.8% vs 81.3%, p = 0.05). The involvement of HEWs in sputum collection and treatment improved smear-positive case detection and treatment success rate, possibly because of an improved service access. This could be applied in settings with low health service coverage and a shortage of health workers. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00803322.

  13. Adherence of French GPs to Chronic Neuropathic Pain Clinical Guidelines: Results of a Cross-Sectional, Randomized, “e” Case-Vignette Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Valéria; Attal, Nadine; Vanzo, Bertrand; Vicaut, Eric; Gautier, Jean Michel; Bouhassira, Didier; Lantéri-Minet, Michel

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims The French Pain Society published guidelines for neuropathic pain management in 2010. Our aim was to evaluate the compliance of GPs with these guidelines three years later. Methods We used “e” case vignette methodology for this non interventional study. A national panel of randomly selected GPs was included. We used eight “e” case-vignettes relating to chronic pain, differing in terms of the type of pain (neuropathic/non neuropathic), etiology (cancer, postoperative pain, low back pain with or without radicular pain, diabetes) and symptoms. GPs received two randomly selected consecutive “e” case vignettes (with/without neuropathic pain). We analyzed their ability to recognize neuropathic pain and to prescribe appropriate first-line treatment. Results From the 1265 GPs in the database, we recruited 443 (35.0%), 334 of whom logged onto the web site (26.4%) and 319 (25.2%) of whom completed the survey. Among these GPs, 170 (53.3%) were aware of the guidelines, 136 (42.6%) were able to follow them, and 110 (34.5%) used the DN4 diagnostic tool. Sensitivity for neuropathic pain recognition was 87.8% (CI: 84.2%; 91.4%). However, postoperative neuropathic pain was less well diagnosed (77.9%; CI: 69.6%; 86.2%) than diabetic pain (95.2%; CI: 90.0%; 100.0%), cancer pain (90.6%; CI: 83.5%; 97.8%) and typical radicular pain (90.7%; CI: 84.9%; 96.5%). When neuropathic pain was correctly recognized, the likelihood of appropriate first-line treatment prescription was 90.6% (CI: 87.4%; 93.8%). The treatments proposed were pregabaline (71.8%), gabapentine (43.9%), amiptriptylline (23.2%) and duloxetine (18.2%). However, ibuprofen (11%), acetaminophen-codeine (29.5%) and clonazepam (10%) were still prescribed. Conclusions The compliance of GPs with clinical practice guidelines appeared to be satisfactory, but differed between etiologies. PMID:24747826

  14. Adherence of French GPs to chronic neuropathic pain clinical guidelines: results of a cross-sectional, randomized, "e" case-vignette survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Martinez

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The French Pain Society published guidelines for neuropathic pain management in 2010. Our aim was to evaluate the compliance of GPs with these guidelines three years later. METHODS: We used "e" case vignette methodology for this non interventional study. A national panel of randomly selected GPs was included. We used eight "e" case-vignettes relating to chronic pain, differing in terms of the type of pain (neuropathic/non neuropathic, etiology (cancer, postoperative pain, low back pain with or without radicular pain, diabetes and symptoms. GPs received two randomly selected consecutive "e" case vignettes (with/without neuropathic pain. We analyzed their ability to recognize neuropathic pain and to prescribe appropriate first-line treatment. RESULTS: From the 1265 GPs in the database, we recruited 443 (35.0%, 334 of whom logged onto the web site (26.4% and 319 (25.2% of whom completed the survey. Among these GPs, 170 (53.3% were aware of the guidelines, 136 (42.6% were able to follow them, and 110 (34.5% used the DN4 diagnostic tool. Sensitivity for neuropathic pain recognition was 87.8% (CI: 84.2%; 91.4%. However, postoperative neuropathic pain was less well diagnosed (77.9%; CI: 69.6%; 86.2% than diabetic pain (95.2%; CI: 90.0%; 100.0%, cancer pain (90.6%; CI: 83.5%; 97.8% and typical radicular pain (90.7%; CI: 84.9%; 96.5%. When neuropathic pain was correctly recognized, the likelihood of appropriate first-line treatment prescription was 90.6% (CI: 87.4%; 93.8%. The treatments proposed were pregabaline (71.8%, gabapentine (43.9%, amiptriptylline (23.2% and duloxetine (18.2%. However, ibuprofen (11%, acetaminophen-codeine (29.5% and clonazepam (10% were still prescribed. CONCLUSIONS: The compliance of GPs with clinical practice guidelines appeared to be satisfactory, but differed between etiologies.

  15. Nonstandard convergence to jamming in random sequential adsorption: The case of patterned one-dimensional substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Arjun; Privman, Vladimir

    2018-02-01

    We study approach to the large-time jammed state of the deposited particles in the model of random sequential adsorption. The convergence laws are usually derived from the argument of Pomeau which includes the assumption of the dominance, at large enough times, of small landing regions into each of which only a single particle can be deposited without overlapping earlier deposited particles and which, after a certain time are no longer created by depositions in larger gaps. The second assumption has been that the size distribution of gaps open for particle-center landing in this large-time small-gaps regime is finite in the limit of zero gap size. We report numerical Monte Carlo studies of a recently introduced model of random sequential adsorption on patterned one-dimensional substrates that suggest that the second assumption must be generalized. We argue that a region exists in the parameter space of the studied model in which the gap-size distribution in the Pomeau large-time regime actually linearly vanishes at zero gap sizes. In another region, the distribution develops a threshold property, i.e., there are no small gaps below a certain gap size. We discuss the implications of these findings for new asymptotic power-law and exponential-modified-by-a-power-law convergences to jamming in irreversible one-dimensional deposition.

  16. The Doppler-guided transfalcine venous approach in selected cases of vein of Galen malformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benes, L; Wakat, J-P; Jüttner, J; Riegel, T; Krischek, B; Bertalanffy, H; Bien, S

    2003-01-01

    This investigation was performed to evaluate the specific procedural issues and indications of a surgically assisted Doppler-guided endovascular transfalcine venous approach for the treatment of vein of Galen aneurysmal malformations (VGAM) in critically ill neonates. Two neonates out of a clinical series of 15 children (8 males and 7 females) with vein of Galen malformations were treated by our neurovascular team, using a combined surgically assisted endovascular transfalcine approach. In the biplanar angiography room a radiographically guided craniotomy (1.5 cm) was placed over the cranial projection of the falciforme sinus. After craniotomy the orthograd flow of the falciforme sinus was identified by Doppler ultrasonography. The sinus was punctured by an i. v. cannula with injection port and was sutured to the skin. A microcatheter was maneuvered over a guide into the malformation under fluoroscopic control. For embolization Guglielmi electrolytically detachable platinum coils were placed into the malformation as an embolic agent. Neurological examination records, available MR images, computed tomographic scans, pre- and postembolization angiograms and follow-up data were analyzed. In both individuals the malformation was classified as VGAM. The follow-up was 6 and 7 months, respectively. No technique associated morbidity or mortality occurred in the present series. At discharge both selected neonates were in stable condition and the flow in the VGAMs could be significantly reduced by a combination of approaches including the venous transfalcine approach. Meanwhile, 6 months after birth one neonate died due to a deterioration of the pulmonary hypertension. Endovascular treatment is presently the most efficient strategy to allow neonates and infants survive the early manifestation of vein of Galen malformations and probably render a normal neurological development. Consequently, a combination of approaches in selected cases including the Doppler guided venous

  17. Bias in the prediction of genetic gain due to mass and half-sib selection in random mating populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Marcelo Soriano Viana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The prediction of gains from selection allows the comparison of breeding methods and selection strategies, although these estimates may be biased. The objective of this study was to investigate the extent of such bias in predicting genetic gain. For this, we simulated 10 cycles of a hypothetical breeding program that involved seven traits, three population classes, three experimental conditions and two breeding methods (mass and half-sib selection. Each combination of trait, population, heritability, method and cycle was repeated 10 times. The predicted gains were biased, even when the genetic parameters were estimated without error. Gain from selection in both genders is twice the gain from selection in a single gender only in the absence of dominance. The use of genotypic variance or broad sense heritability in the predictions represented an additional source of bias. Predictions based on additive variance and narrow sense heritability were equivalent, as were predictions based on genotypic variance and broad sense heritability. The predictions based on mass and family selection were suitable for comparing selection strategies, whereas those based on selection within progenies showed the largest bias and lower association with the realized gain.

  18. On the selection of concept nominator in cases of semantic parallelism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanović Marija J.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of a concept starts from the concept nominator - a word that best represents the idea behind the concept. In cases of semantic parallelism (i.e. existence of two or more often polysemous words that nominate the same object or idea it is necessary to establish the procedure for the selection of the concept nominator. It is often the case that the many meanings of such words are identical, in certain, but they are not interchangeable in all contexts, which makes it difficult to determine the number of concepts they represent. Therefore, it is necessary to establish whether a word is the nominator of a concept, or it is only one of the possible elements in the concept’s nominative field. The associative fields contain information on the concept that an average person has, and that knowledge is context-free, so the analysis of associative fields shows the ways of conceptualization for the analyzed lexemes and it shows their relation in the lexical and semantic systems. Analysis of the associative fields trud and rabota in the Russian language has shown that the concept trud is included in the concept rabota, because all aspects of their conceptualization coincide, but the lexeme trud is perceived as more related to the political, economic and moral spheres, so it is shifting towards the periphery of the lexical system. The lexeme rabota should be considered the nominator of the concept related to purposeful human activity in the Russian conceptosphere. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. 178002: Jezici i kulture u vremenu i prostoru

  19. Expressed sequence tags of randomly selected cDNA clones from Eucalyptus globulus-Pisolithus tinctorius ectomycorrhiza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagu, D; Martin, F

    1995-01-01

    Random sequencing of cDNA clones from Eucalyptus globulus-Pisolithus tinctorius ectomycorrhizal tissues was carried out to generate expressed sequence tags (ESTs). Database comparisons revealed that 42% of the cDNAs corresponded to previously sequenced genes. These ESTs represent efficient molecular markers to analyze changes in gene expression during the formation of the ectomycorrhizal symbiosis.

  20. Randomization and Data-Analysis Items in Quality Standards for Single-Case Experimental Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyvaert, Mieke; Wendt, Oliver; Van den Noortgate, Wim; Onghena, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Reporting standards and critical appraisal tools serve as beacons for researchers, reviewers, and research consumers. Parallel to existing guidelines for researchers to report and evaluate group-comparison studies, single-case experimental (SCE) researchers are in need of guidelines for reporting and evaluating SCE studies. A systematic search was…

  1. Neuropathic pain: transcranial electric motor cortex stimulation using high frequency random noise. Case report of a novel treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alm PA

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Per A Alm, Karolina DreimanisDepartment of Neuroscience, Uppsala University, Uppsala, SwedenObjectives: Electric motor cortex stimulation has been reported to be effective for many cases of neuropathic pain, in the form of epidural stimulation or transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS. A novel technique is transcranial random noise stimulation (tRNS, which increases the cortical excitability irrespective of the orientation of the current. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of tRNS on neuropathic pain in a small number of subjects, and in a case study explore the effects of different stimulation parameters and the long-term stability of treatment effects.Methods: The study was divided into three phases: (1 a double-blind 100–600 Hz, varying from 0.5 to 10 minutes and from 50 to 1500 µA, at intervals ranging from daily to fortnightly.crossover study, with four subjects; (2 a double-blind extended case study with one responder; and (3 open continued treatment. The motor cortex stimulation consisted of alternating current random noise (100–600 Hz, varying from 0.5 to 10 minutes and from 50 to 1500 μA, at intervals ranging from daily to fortnightly.Results: One out of four participants showed a strong positive effect (also compared with direct-current-sham, P = 0.006. Unexpectedly, this effect was shown to occur also for very weak (100 µA, P = 0.048 and brief (0.5 minutes, P = 0.028 stimulation. The effect was largest during the first month, but remained at a highly motivating level for the patient after 6 months.Discussion: The study suggests that tRNS may be an effective treatment for some cases of neuropathic pain. An important result was the indication that even low levels of stimulation may have substantial effects.Keywords: neuropathic pain, central pain, transcranial direct current stimulation, motor cortex stimulation, random noise stimulation

  2. Feature Selection as a Time and Cost-Saving Approach for Land Suitability Classification (Case Study of Shavur Plain, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid Hamzeh

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Land suitability classification is important in planning and managing sustainable land use. Most approaches to land suitability analysis combine a large number of land and soil parameters, and are time-consuming and costly. In this study, a potentially useful technique (combined feature selection and fuzzy-AHP method to increase the efficiency of land suitability analysis was presented. To this end, three different feature selection algorithms—random search, best search and genetic methods—were used to determine the most effective parameters for land suitability classification for the cultivation of barely in the Shavur Plain, southwest Iran. Next, land suitability classes were calculated for all methods by using the fuzzy-AHP approach. Salinity (electrical conductivity (EC, alkalinity (exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP, wetness and soil texture were selected using the random search method. Gypsum, EC, ESP, and soil texture were selected using both the best search and genetic methods. The result shows a strong agreement between the standard fuzzy-AHP methods and methods presented in this study. The values of Kappa coefficients were 0.82, 0.79 and 0.79 for the random search, best search and genetic methods, respectively, compared with the standard fuzzy-AHP method. Our results indicate that EC, ESP, soil texture and wetness are the most effective features for evaluating land suitability classification for the cultivation of barely in the study area, and uses of these parameters, together with their appropriate weights as obtained from fuzzy-AHP, can perform good results for land suitability classification. So, the combined feature selection presented and the fuzzy-AHP approach has the potential to save time and money for land suitability classification.

  3. The Efficacy of Intraoperative Neuromonitoring During Robotic Thyroidectomy: A Prospective, Randomized Case-Control Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hye Yoon; Lee, Ju-Young; Dionigi, Gianlorenzo; Bae, Jeoung Won; Kim, Hoon Yub

    2015-11-01

    This study evaluates the efficacy of intraoperative neuromonitoring (IONM) on voice performance in robotic thyroidectomy. The study was based on a prospective randomized series. Between June 2011 to September 2012, 50 patients with thyroid cancer who underwent robotic thyroidectomy were enrolled. The IONM and non-IONM groups consisted of 25 patients each. Voice Handicap Index (VHI), voice range profile (VRP), and laryngoscopy were used to assess voice function before surgery and at 2 weeks, 3 months, and 6 months after the operation. No palsy was diagnosed by laryngoscopy in either group. VHI values were similar in both groups. In the IONM group, there was significantly earlier recovery in VRP minimum intensity compared with the non-IONM group. However, there were no differences of mean change of VRP maximum frequency and intensity or minimum frequency between the two groups. We found that IONM facilitated more rapid recovery of voice function, especially in VRP minimum intensity, during robotic thyroid surgery.

  4. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Hospital-based Case Management in Cancer Care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wulff, Christian N; Vedsted, Peter; Søndergaard, Jens

    2012-01-01

    -based CM on (i) GPs' evaluation of information from the hospital and collaboration with the hospital staff and (ii) patients' contacts with GPs during daytime and out of hours. DESIGN: A randomized controlled trial allocated 280 colorectal cancer patients 1:1 to either a control group or CM intervention....... SETTING: Patients were recruited at a Danish surgical department. METHODS: An ad hoc piloted questionnaire was sent to all patients' GPs 30 weeks after patients' recruitment and the responses from the two groups of GPs were compared. Registry data on patients' contacts with general practice during daytime...... and out of hours were collected 9 months after recruitment and the data from the two groups were compared quarterly. RESULTS: CM was associated with an overall tendency towards more positive GP evaluations, which for 3 of 20 items reached statistical significance. Statistically significantly fewer GPs...

  5. Randomness in denoised stock returns: The case of Moroccan family business companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahmiri, Salim

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, we scrutinize entropy in family business stocks listed on Casablanca stock exchange and market index to assess randomness in their returns. For this purpose, we adopt a novel approach based on combination of stationary wavelet transform and Tsallis entropy for empirical analysis of the return series. The obtained empirical results show strong evidence that their respective entropy functions are characterized by opposite dynamics. Indeed, the information contents of their respective dynamics are statistically and significantly different. Obviously, information on regular events carried by family business returns is more certain, whilst that carried by market returns is uncertain. Such results are definitively useful to understand the nonlinear dynamics on returns on family business companies and those of the market. Without a doubt, they could be helpful for quantitative portfolio managers and investors.

  6. Impact of Selection Bias on Treatment Effect Size Estimates in Randomized Trials of Oral Health Interventions: A Meta-epidemiological Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltaji, H; Armijo-Olivo, S; Cummings, G G; Amin, M; da Costa, B R; Flores-Mir, C

    2018-01-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that design flaws of randomized controlled trials can result in over- or underestimation of the treatment effect size (ES). The objective of this study was to examine associations between treatment ES estimates and adequacy of sequence generation, allocation concealment, and baseline comparability among a sample of oral health randomized controlled trials. For our analysis, we selected all meta-analyses that included a minimum of 5 oral health randomized controlled trials and used continuous outcomes. We extracted data, in duplicate, related to items of selection bias (sequence generation, allocation concealment, and baseline comparability) in the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool. Using a 2-level meta-meta-analytic approach with a random effects model to allow for intra- and inter-meta-analysis heterogeneity, we quantified the impact of selection bias on the magnitude of ES estimates. We identified 64 meta-analyses, including 540 randomized controlled trials analyzing 137,957 patients. Sequence generation was judged to be adequate (at low risk of bias) in 32% ( n = 173) of trials, and baseline comparability was judged to be adequate in 77.8% of trials. Allocation concealment was unclear in the majority of trials ( n = 458, 84.8%). We identified significantly larger treatment ES estimates in trials that had inadequate/unknown sequence generation (difference in ES = 0.13; 95% CI: 0.01 to 0.25) and inadequate/unknown allocation concealment (difference in ES = 0.15; 95% CI: 0.02 to 0.27). In contrast, baseline imbalance (difference in ES = 0.01, 95% CI: -0.09 to 0.12) was not associated with inflated or underestimated ES. In conclusion, treatment ES estimates were 0.13 and 0.15 larger in trials with inadequate/unknown sequence generation and inadequate/unknown allocation concealment, respectively. Therefore, authors of systematic reviews using oral health randomized controlled trials should perform sensitivity analyses based on the adequacy of

  7. HIGH QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL PRINCIPLES APPLIED TO THE ARCHITECTONIC DESIGN SELECTION PROCEDURE: THE NUTRE LAB CASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Barroso Krause

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The need to produce more sustainable buildings has been influencing the design decisions all over the world. That’s why it is imperative, in Brazil, the development of strategies and method to aid the decision making during the design process, focused on high quality environmental. This paper presents a decision support tool based on the principles of sustainable construction developed by the Project, Architecture and Sustainability Research Group (GPAS of Federal University of Rio de Janeiro – Brazil. The methodology has been developed for the selection of a preliminary design of a laboratory to be built at Rio Technology Park at the University campus. The support provided by GPAS occurred in three stages: the elaboration of the Reference Guide for the competitors, the development of a methodology to evaluate the proposed solutions (based on environmental performance criteria and the assistance of the members of jury in the trial phase. The theoretical framework was based upon the concepts of the bioclimatic architecture, the procedures specified by the certification HQE® (Haute Qualité Environnementale and the method suggested by the ADDENDA® architecture office. The success of this experience points out the possibility to future application in similar cases.

  8. Selecting statistical model and optimum maintenance policy: a case study of hydraulic pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhi, S; Karim, M R

    2016-01-01

    Proper maintenance policy can play a vital role for effective investigation of product reliability. Every engineered object such as product, plant or infrastructure needs preventive and corrective maintenance. In this paper we look at a real case study. It deals with the maintenance of hydraulic pumps used in excavators by a mining company. We obtain the data that the owner had collected and carry out an analysis and building models for pump failures. The data consist of both failure and censored lifetimes of the hydraulic pump. Different competitive mixture models are applied to analyze a set of maintenance data of a hydraulic pump. Various characteristics of the mixture models, such as the cumulative distribution function, reliability function, mean time to failure, etc. are estimated to assess the reliability of the pump. Akaike Information Criterion, adjusted Anderson-Darling test statistic, Kolmogrov-Smirnov test statistic and root mean square error are considered to select the suitable models among a set of competitive models. The maximum likelihood estimation method via the EM algorithm is applied mainly for estimating the parameters of the models and reliability related quantities. In this study, it is found that a threefold mixture model (Weibull-Normal-Exponential) fits well for the hydraulic pump failures data set. This paper also illustrates how a suitable statistical model can be applied to estimate the optimum maintenance period at a minimum cost of a hydraulic pump.

  9. Methodology for Selecting Best Management Practices Integrating Multiple Stakeholders and Criteria. Part 2: Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Carvallo Aceves

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The selection of stormwater Best Management Practices (BMPs for mitigating the effects of urbanization on the hydrological cycle could be a complex process due to conflicting stakeholder views, and varying levels of performance of BMPs across a range of criteria (runoff reduction, erosion control, etc.. Part 1 of this article proposed a methodology based on the application of multi-criteria decision aid (MCDA methods, which was tested here on a residential stormwater network in the Montreal area. The case study considered green roofs, rain gardens, rain barrels and pervious pavement over a range of economic, social, and water quality and quantity criteria by applying 4 MCDA methods under three different stakeholder views. The results indicated Elimination et Choix Traduisant la Réalité (ELECTRE III to be the most appropriate method for the methodology, presenting flexibility concerning threshold values, criteria weights, and showing shared top choices across stakeholders (rain gardens, and rain gardens in combination with pervious pavement. The methodology shows potential for more formal applications and research opportunities. Future work may lie in the inclusion of multiple objective optimization, better stakeholder engagement, estimation of economic benefits, water quality modeling, long-term hydrological simulations, and estimating real BMP pollutant removal rates.

  10. Indication, methods and results of selective arteriography of the A. iliaca interna in case of erectile dysfunction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baehren, W.; Gall, H.; Scherb, W.; Thon, W.

    1988-01-01

    Erectile dysfunction very frequently can be traced back to the real cause by means of angiography. Selective angiography is the method of choice in cases where other causes of circulatory disturbance have already been excluded, and non-invasive tests are expected to yield information of relevance to therapy. The qualitatively best angiographic results are obtained by examination under peridural anesthesia and by intracavitary injection of vaso-active substances. Selective arteriography is indicated in cases of primary or post-traumatic erectile dysfunction. It is a prerequisite of surgery for revascularisation of the pudendal-penile vascular bed.

  11. Two models of inventory control with supplier selection in case of multiple sourcing: A case of Isfahan Steel Company

    OpenAIRE

    Rabieh, Masood; Soukhakian, Mohammad Ali; Shirazi, Ali Naghi Mosleh

    2016-01-01

    Selecting the best suppliers is crucial for a company's success. Since competition is a determining factor nowadays, reducing cost and increasing quality of products are two key criteria for appropriate supplier selection. In the study, first the inventories of agglomeration plant of Isfahan Steel Company were categorized through VED and ABC methods. Then the models to supply two important kinds of raw materials (inventories) were developed, considering the following items: (1) the optimal co...

  12. A Brief, Web-based Personalized Feedback Selective Intervention for College Student Marijuana Use: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Christine M.; Neighbors, Clayton; Kilmer, Jason R; Larimer, Mary E.

    2010-01-01

    Despite clear need, brief web-based interventions for marijuana using college students have not been evaluated in the literature. The current study was designed to evaluate a brief, web-based personalized feedback intervention for at-risk marijuana users transitioning to college. All entering first-year students were invited to complete a brief questionnaire. Participants meeting criteria completed a baseline assessment (N = 341) and were randomly assigned to web-based personalized feedback o...

  13. Ethical complexities in standard of care randomized trials: A case study of morning versus nighttime dosing of blood pressure drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Scott Y H; Miller, Franklin G

    2015-12-01

    Pragmatic trials comparing "standard of care" treatments provide comparative effectiveness data to make practice of medicine more evidence-based. With electronic health records, recruiting and conducting such trials can be relatively inexpensive. But some worry that the traditional research ethics framework poses unnecessary obstacles and is not appropriate for evaluating such clinical trials. This concern is based on the view (which we call the "Standard of Care Principle") that such research is similar to usual clinical practice and therefore does not raise significant ethical issues since everyone in the research study will receive an accepted standard of care treatment. A case study of a pragmatic randomized clinical trial (Blood Pressure Medication Timing study) comparing morning versus nighttime dosing of antihypertensive medications. The Blood Pressure Medication Timing study has been proposed as a paradigm example of why the Standard of Care Principle obviates the need for traditional levels of ethical scrutiny and how the current regulatory framework poses unnecessary obstacles to research. We provide an ethical analysis of the Blood Pressure Medication Timing study, drawing on the empirical literature as well as on normative analysis. The Standard of Care Principle is the main ethical rationale given by commentators for asserting that the Blood Pressure Medication Timing study does not require "significant ethical debate" and by investigators for the assertion that the Blood Pressure Medication Timing study is minimal risk and thus eligible for lessened regulatory requirements. However, the Blood Pressure Medication Timing study raises important ethical issues, including whether it is even necessary, given the considerable randomized clinical trial evidence in support of nighttime dosing, a much larger (N≈17,000) confirmatory randomized clinical trial already in progress, evidence for safety of nighttime dosing, and the cost-free availability of the

  14. A Randomized Comparative Study of Pulsed Radiofrequency Treatment With or Without Selective Nerve Root Block for Chronic Cervical Radicular Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fei; Zhou, Qian; Xiao, Lizu; Yang, Juan; Xong, Donglin; Li, Disen; Liu, LiPing; Ancha, Sigdha; Cheng, Jianguo

    2017-06-01

    We demonstrated a combination of pulsed radiofrequency (PRF) and cervical nerve root block (CNRB) via a posterior approach was superior to a transforaminal epidural steroid injection through the anterolateral approach for cervical radicular pain in a previous study. This randomized trial was conducted to determine the comparative efficacy between CNRB, PRF, and CNRB + PRF for cervical radicular pain. A prospective and randomized design was used in this study. Sixty-two patients were randomized into three parallel groups: CNRB, PRF, or CNRB + PRF. Numeric Rating Scale (NRS) was used to measure pain intensity, and global perceived effect (GPE) was scored by the patient on a 7-point scale, ranging from much worse (-3), no change (0), to total improvement (+3). The outcomes were evaluated at 1 week, 1 month, 3 months, and 6 months. Side effects and complications were noted. The NRS was significantly reduced in all three groups 1 week after the treatments (P 0.05). No serious complications were observed in any of the patients. Combining CNRB and PRF appeared to be a safe and efficacious technique for cervical radicular pain. The combination therapy yielded better outcomes than either CNRB or PRF alone. © 2016 World Institute of Pain.

  15. A case study on dual forms of malnutrition among selected households in District 1, Tondo, Manila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angeles-Agdeppa, Imelda; Lana, Ruby D; Barba, Corazon V C

    2003-01-01

    The co-existence of under-and overnutrition in developing countries might be the resultant factor of a marked shift in dietary and lifestyle practices of people, especially in urban areas. The eating of high fat, high caloric diets, the presence of inactive entertainment devices and mechanized labour influence patterns of food demand and physical activity. This study identified factors associated with the occurrence of under/overweight or normal/normal nutritional status of child-mother pairs in one household. This study was conducted in two phases. The first phase was a survey of 376 child-mother pairs. The children aged 33-83 months were attending classes in government day care centres. Anthropometric indices: weight-for-age Z score (WAZ) group. Body mass index (BMI) > or = 25 kg/m2 was used to measure overweight among mothers. Results showed that about 59% of the child-mother pairs were suffering from two different types of malnutrition. From this, 31 (8.2%) child-mother pairs in the same household were experiencing underweight/overweight: the child was underweight and the mother was overweight. The second phase of the study was an in-depth study of these 31 under/overweight child-mother pairs and 30 randomly selected normal/normal pairs. Pre-tested questionnaires were used to gather socio-economic-demographic data; 3 day 24-h food recall for dietary intake and 24-h activity recall for physical activity. Results showed that the different factors associated with the existence of underweight child/overweight mother (UC/OM) or normal child/normal mother (NC/NM) in this study were: mother's educational level, mother's occupation, and number of children in the household; energy intake, the preference of meats, sweets and sugars among children or meats and fried foods among mothers; and mother's perception on body size. Physical activity of both mothers and children was higher in the UC/OM than in the NC/NM group. The problem of undernutrition and overnutrition in one

  16. Use of hyaluronan in the selection of sperm for intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI): significant improvement in clinical outcomes--multicenter, double-blinded and randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worrilow, K C; Eid, S; Woodhouse, D; Perloe, M; Smith, S; Witmyer, J; Ivani, K; Khoury, C; Ball, G D; Elliot, T; Lieberman, J

    2013-02-01

    Does the selection of sperm for ICSI based on their ability to bind to hyaluronan improve the clinical pregnancy rates (CPR) (primary end-point), implantation (IR) and pregnancy loss rates (PLR)? In couples where ≤ 65% of sperm bound hyaluronan, the selection of hyaluronan-bound (HB) sperm for ICSI led to a statistically significant reduction in PLR. HB sperm demonstrate enhanced developmental parameters which have been associated with successful fertilization and embryogenesis. Sperm selected for ICSI using a liquid source of hyaluronan achieved an improvement in IR. A pilot study by the primary author demonstrated that the use of HB sperm in ICSI was associated with improved CPR. The current study represents the single largest prospective, multicenter, double-blinded and randomized controlled trial to evaluate the use of hyaluronan in the selection of sperm for ICSI. Using the hyaluronan binding assay, an HB score was determined for the fresh or initial (I-HB) and processed or final semen specimen (F-HB). Patients were classified as >65% or ≤ 65% I-HB and stratified accordingly. Patients with I-HB scores ≤ 65% were randomized into control and HB selection (HYAL) groups whereas patients with I-HB >65% were randomized to non-participatory (NP), control or HYAL groups, in a ratio of 2:1:1. The NP group was included in the >65% study arm to balance the higher prevalence of patients with I-HB scores >65%. In the control group, oocytes received sperm selected via the conventional assessment of motility and morphology. In the HYAL group, HB sperm meeting the same visual criteria were selected for injection. Patient participants and clinical care providers were blinded to group assignment. Eight hundred two couples treated with ICSI in 10 private and hospital-based IVF programs were enrolled in this study. Of the 484 patients stratified to the I-HB > 65% arm, 115 participants were randomized to the control group, 122 participants were randomized to the HYAL group

  17. A two-step method for variable selection in the analysis of a case-cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcombe, P J; Connolly, S; Seaman, S; Richardson, S; Sharp, S J

    2017-11-10

    Accurate detection and estimation of true exposure-outcome associations is important in aetiological analysis; when there are multiple potential exposure variables of interest, methods for detecting the subset of variables most likely to have true associations with the outcome of interest are required. Case-cohort studies often collect data on a large number of variables which have not been measured in the entire cohort (e.g. panels of biomarkers). There is a lack of guidance on methods for variable selection in case-cohort studies. We describe and explore the application of three variable selection methods to data from a case-cohort study. These are: (i) selecting variables based on their level of significance in univariable (i.e. one-at-a-time) Prentice-weighted Cox regression models; (ii) stepwise selection applied to Prentice-weighted Cox regression; and (iii) a two-step method which applies a Bayesian variable selection algorithm to obtain posterior probabilities of selection for each variable using multivariable logistic regression followed by effect estimation using Prentice-weighted Cox regression. Across nine different simulation scenarios, the two-step method demonstrated higher sensitivity and lower false discovery rate than the one-at-a-time and stepwise methods. In an application of the methods to data from the EPIC-InterAct case-cohort study, the two-step method identified an additional two fatty acids as being associated with incident type 2 diabetes, compared with the one-at-a-time and stepwise methods. The two-step method enables more powerful and accurate detection of exposure-outcome associations in case-cohort studies. An R package is available to enable researchers to apply this method.

  18. The prevalence and classification of chronic kidney disease in cats randomly selected within four age groups and in cats recruited for degenerative joint disease studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, Christina L; Lascelles, B Duncan X; Vaden, Shelly L; Gruen, Margaret E; Marks, Steven L

    2015-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) and degenerative joint disease are both considered common in older cats. Information on the co-prevalence of these two diseases is lacking. This retrospective study was designed to determine the prevalence of CKD in two cohorts of cats: cats randomly selected from four evenly distributed age groups (RS group) and cats recruited for degenerative joint disease studies (DJD group), and to evaluate the concurrence of CKD and DJD in these cohorts. The RS group was randomly selected from four age groups from 6 months to 20 years, and the DJD group comprised cats recruited to four previous DJD studies, with the DJD group excluding cats with a blood urea nitrogen and/or serum creatinine concentration >20% (the upper end of normal) for two studies and cats with CKD stages 3 and 4 for the other two studies. The prevalence of CKD in the RS and DJD groups was higher than expected at 50% and 68.8%, respectively. CKD was common in cats between 1 and 15 years of age, with a similar prevalence of CKD stages 1 and 2 across age groups in both the RS and DJD cats, respectively. We found significant concurrence between CKD and DJD in cats of all ages, indicating the need for increased screening for CKD when selecting DJD treatments. Additionally, this study offers the idea of a relationship and causal commonality between CKD and DJD owing to the striking concurrence across age groups and life stages. PMID:24217707

  19. Blood Selenium Concentration and Blood Cystatin C Concentration in a Randomly Selected Population of Healthy Children Environmentally Exposed to Lead and Cadmium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gać, Paweł; Pawlas, Natalia; Wylężek, Paweł; Poręba, Rafał; Poręba, Małgorzata; Pawlas, Krystyna

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed at evaluation of a relationship between blood selenium concentration (Se-B) and blood cystatin C concentration (CST) in a randomly selected population of healthy children, environmentally exposed to lead and cadmium. The studies were conducted on 172 randomly selected children (7.98 ± 0.97 years). Among participants, the subgroups were distinguished, manifesting marginally low blood selenium concentration (Se-B 40-59 μg/l), suboptimal blood selenium concentration (Se-B: 60-79 μg/l) or optimal blood selenium concentration (Se-B ≥ 80 μg/l). At the subsequent stage, analogous subgroups of participants were selected separately in groups of children with BMI below median value (BMI selenium concentration and blood cystatin C concentration. On the other hand, in children with low body mass index, a negative non-linear relationship was present between blood selenium concentration and blood cystatin C concentration.

  20. Prevalence and classification of chronic kidney disease in cats randomly selected from four age groups and in cats recruited for degenerative joint disease studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, Christina L; Lascelles, B Duncan X; Vaden, Shelly L; Gruen, Margaret E; Marks, Steven L

    2014-06-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) and degenerative joint disease are both considered common in older cats. Information on the co-prevalence of these two diseases is lacking. This retrospective study was designed to determine the prevalence of CKD in two cohorts of cats: cats randomly selected from four evenly distributed age groups (RS group) and cats recruited for degenerative joint disease studies (DJD group), and to evaluate the concurrence of CKD and DJD in these cohorts. The RS group was randomly selected from four age groups from 6 months to 20 years, and the DJD group comprised cats recruited to four previous DJD studies, with the DJD group excluding cats with a blood urea nitrogen and/or serum creatinine concentration >20% (the upper end of normal) for two studies and cats with CKD stages 3 and 4 for the other two studies. The prevalence of CKD in the RS and DJD groups was higher than expected at 50% and 68.8%, respectively. CKD was common in cats between 1 and 15 years of age, with a similar prevalence of CKD stages 1 and 2 across age groups in both the RS and DJD cats, respectively. We found significant concurrence between CKD and DJD in cats of all ages, indicating the need for increased screening for CKD when selecting DJD treatments. Additionally, this study offers the idea of a relationship and causal commonality between CKD and DJD owing to the striking concurrence across age groups and life stages. © ISFM and AAFP 2013.

  1. SNPs selected by information content outperform randomly selected microsatellite loci for delineating genetic identification and introgression in the endangered dark European honeybee (Apis mellifera mellifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Irene; Henriques, Dora; Jara, Laura; Johnston, J Spencer; Chávez-Galarza, Julio; De La Rúa, Pilar; Pinto, M Alice

    2017-07-01

    The honeybee (Apis mellifera) has been threatened by multiple factors including pests and pathogens, pesticides and loss of locally adapted gene complexes due to replacement and introgression. In western Europe, the genetic integrity of the native A. m. mellifera (M-lineage) is endangered due to trading and intensive queen breeding with commercial subspecies of eastern European ancestry (C-lineage). Effective conservation actions require reliable molecular tools to identify pure-bred A. m. mellifera colonies. Microsatellites have been preferred for identification of A. m. mellifera stocks across conservation centres. However, owing to high throughput, easy transferability between laboratories and low genotyping error, SNPs promise to become popular. Here, we compared the resolving power of a widely utilized microsatellite set to detect structure and introgression with that of different sets that combine a variable number of SNPs selected for their information content and genomic proximity to the microsatellite loci. Contrary to every SNP data set, microsatellites did not discriminate between the two lineages in the PCA space. Mean introgression proportions were identical across the two marker types, although at the individual level, microsatellites' performance was relatively poor at the upper range of Q-values, a result reflected by their lower precision. Our results suggest that SNPs are more accurate and powerful than microsatellites for identification of A. m. mellifera colonies, especially when they are selected by information content. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Selection of controls in case-control studies on maternal medication use and risk of birth defects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, M.K.; de Walle, H.E.; Dequito, A.; van den Berg, P.B.; de Jong-van den Berg, L.T.

    BACKGROUND:: In case-control studies on teratogenic risks of maternal drug use during pregnancy, the use of normal or malformed controls may lead to recall-bias or selection bias. This can be avoided by using controls with a genetic disorder. However, researchers are hesitant to use these as

  3. The impact of the ECHR on private international law: An analysis of Strasbourg and selected national case law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiestra, L.R.

    2013-01-01

    In this research the interaction between the rights guaranteed in the European Convention of Human Rights (ECHR) and private international law has been analyzed by examining the case law of the European Court of Human Rights (the Court) in Strasbourg and selected national courts. In doing so the

  4. Thoracoscopic Decortication of Stage III Tuberculous Empyema Is Effective and Safe in Selected Cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Arvind; Asaf, Belal B; Lingaraju, Vijay C; Yendamuri, Sai; Pulle, Mohan V; Sood, Jayashree

    2017-09-27

    Open decortication of advanced tuberculous empyema remains standard of care. As with other aspects of thoracic surgery, minimally invasive approaches are making inroads into procedures traditionally performed open. In this retrospective analysis, we sought to examine feasibility, efficacy, and outcomes of thoracoscopic decortication of stage III tuberculous empyema in our experience. The records of all patients in whom thoracoscopic decortication of stage III tuberculous empyema was performed between March 2012 and December 2015 were examined. Demographic and perioperative data were analyzed to assess the surgical outcomes of this study group. To assess long-term efficacy, patients were followed for a minimum of 6 months. One hundred patients fit the study criteria, of these 67 were men. Ninety cases were successfully completed thoracoscopically. Mean operative time was 204 ± 34.2 minutes with mean blood loss of 384 ± 28 mL. Median chest drain duration and hospital stay was 7 days. There was no perioperative deaths. Morbidity rate was 33%, composed mostly of prolonged air leak (29%). Six-month follow-up revealed completely expanded lung in all patients except one with small apical asymptomatic air space. Intraoperative cultures were positive for mycobacteria in 25% patients. Six (6%) of these patients had multidrug-resistant tuberculosis and required a modification in their antituberculous therapy. Thoracoscopic decortication of advanced tuberculous empyema is feasible, safe, and effective with good short- and long-term results in selected patients. In a substantial portion of patients, operative cultures required modifying drug treatment to treat underlying tuberculosis. Copyright © 2017 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Adding random case analysis to direct observation (ARCADO) - Updating the external clinical teaching visit to improve general practice registrar assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingham, Gerard; Fry, Jennifer; Ward, Bernadette

    2016-12-01

    In response to the advent of competency-based training and the increase in the number of general practice registrars, the Australian general practice education community is seeking valid, reliable, time-efficient and cost-efficient tools to assess registrars. Despite the central role of the external clinical teaching visit (ECTV) in formative assessment of general practice registrars, the ECTV has been an infrequent subject of research or evaluation. The objective of this article is to report on the development of a new approach to ECTV that adds random case analysis to direct observation of consultations - ARCADO ECTV. ARCADO ECTV is a flexible, acceptable and time-efficient formative assessment. The two assessment approaches in the ARCADO ECTV provide complementary insights into the registrar's performance. At least three observed consultations are required to ensure adequate assessment of communications skills. Medical records need to be of recent consultations. There is scope for development of the ARCADO ECTV as a summative assessment.

  6. Selective Abortion as Moral Failure? Revaluation of the Feminist Case for Reproductive Rights in a Disability Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire McKinney

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Of feminism and disability theory's many overlapping concerns, few have received as much attention as prenatal genetic diagnosis and selective abortion. While the attention to how genetic selection reinforces disability stigma is important, much of this writing has failed to present the feminist case for the right to unrestricted abortion. This oversight has led to an articulation of the disability critique of selective abortion that threatens the very claims to reproductive freedom and bodily self-determination that undergird disability politics as well. This article rearticulates the feminist case for unrestricted reproductive rights in order to challenge the current framing of prenatal genetic diagnosis as an ethical failure and to present the opportunity to refigure reproductive rights as disability rights.

  7. Providing intensive addiction/housing case management to homeless veterans enrolled in addictions treatment: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malte, Carol A; Cox, Koriann; Saxon, Andrew J

    2017-05-01

    This study sought to determine whether homeless veterans entering Veterans Affairs (VA) substance use treatment randomized to intensive addiction/housing case management (AHCM) had improved housing, substance use, mental health, and functional outcomes and lower acute health care utilization, compared to a housing support group (HSG) control. Homeless veterans (n = 181) entering outpatient VA substance use treatment were randomized to AHCM and HSG and received treatment for 12 months. AHCM provided individualized housing, substance use and mental health case management, life skills training, and community outreach. The control condition was a weekly drop-in housing support group. Adjusted longitudinal analyses compared groups on baseline to month 12 change in percentage of days housed and functional status, substance use, and mental health outcomes (36-Item Short-Form Health Survey; Addiction Severity Index [ASI]). Negative binomial regression models compared groups on health care utilization. Both conditions significantly increased percentage of days housed, with no differences detected between conditions. In total, 74 (81.3%) AHCM and 64 (71.1%) HSG participants entered long-term housing (odds ratio = 1.9, 95% confidence interval [0.9, 4.0], p = .088). HSG participants experienced a greater decrease in emergency department visits than AHCM (p = .037), whereas AHCM participants remained in substance use treatment 52.7 days longer (p = .005) and had greater study treatment participation (p veterans not entering or losing long-term housing, different approaches to outreach and ongoing intervention are required. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. SELECTION OF PROJECT MANAGERS IN CONSTRUCTION FIRMS USING ANALYTIC HIERARCHY PROCESS (AHP AND FUZZY TOPSIS: A CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Torfi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Selecting a project manager is a major decision for every construction company. Traditionally, a project manager is selected by interviewing applicants and evaluating their capabilities by considering the special requirements of the project. The interviews are usually conducted by senior managers, and the selection of the best candidate depends on their opinions. Thus, the results may not be completely reliable. Moreover, conducting interviews for a large group of candidates is time-consuming. Thus, there is a need for computational models that can be used to select the most suitable applicant, given the project specifications and the applicants’ details. In this paper, a case study is performed in which a Fuzzy Multiple Criteria Decision Making (FMCDM model is used to select the best candidate for the post of project manager in a large construction firm. First, with the opinions of the senior managers, all the criteria and sub-criteria required for the selection are gathered, and the criteria priorities are qualitatively specified. Then, the applicants are ranked using the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP, approximate weights of the criteria, and fuzzy technique for order performance by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS. The results of the case study are shown to be satisfactory.

  9. Acute changes of hip joint range of motion using selected clinical stretching procedures: A randomized crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Adam M; Hammer, Roger L; Lomond, Karen V; O'Connor, Paul

    2017-09-01

    Hip adductor flexibility and strength is an important component of athletic performance and many activities of daily living. Little research has been done on the acute effects of a single session of stretching on hip abduction range of motion (ROM). The aim of this study was to compare 3 clinical stretching procedures against passive static stretching and control on ROM and peak isometric maximal voluntary contraction (MVC). Using a randomized crossover study design, a total of 40 participants (20 male and 20 female) who had reduced hip adductor muscle length attended a familiarization session and 5 testing sessions on non-consecutive days. Following the warm-up and pre-intervention measures of ROM and MVC, participants were randomly assigned 1 of 3 clinical stretching procedures (modified lunge, multidirectional, and joint mobilization) or a static stretch or control condition. Post-intervention measures of ROM and MVC were taken immediately following completion of the assigned condition. An ANOVA using a repeated measure design with the change score was conducted. All interventions resulted in small but statistically significant (p stretching was greater than control (p = 0.031). These data suggest that a single session of stretching has only a minimal effect on acute changes of hip abduction ROM. Although hip abduction is a frontal plane motion, to effectively increase the extensibility of the structures that limit abduction, integrating multi-planar stretches may be indicated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Selepressin, a novel selective vasopressin V1A agonist, is an effective substitute for norepinephrine in a phase IIa randomized, placebo-controlled trial in septic shock patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Russell, James A; Vincent, Jean-Louis; Kjølbye, Anne Louise

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Vasopressin is widely used for vasopressor support in septic shock patients, but experimental evidence suggests that selective V1A agonists are superior. The initial pharmacodynamic effects, pharmacokinetics, and safety of selepressin, a novel V1A-selective vasopressin analogue......, was examined in a phase IIa trial in septic shock patients. METHODS: This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled multicenter trial in 53 patients in early septic shock (aged ≥18 years, fluid resuscitation, requiring vasopressor support) who received selepressin 1.25 ng/kg/minute (n = 10), 2.5 ng...... for selepressin 2.5 ng/kg/minute and placebo. Two patients were infused at 3.75 ng/kg/minute, one of whom had the study drug infusion discontinued for possible safety reasons, with subsequent discontinuation of this dose group. CONCLUSIONS: In septic shock patients, selepressin 2.5 ng/kg/minute was able...

  11. Should we embed randomized controlled trials within action research: arguing from a case study of telemonitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Day

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Action research (AR and randomized controlled trials (RCTs are usually considered to be theoretically and practically incompatible. However, we argue that their respective strengths and weaknesses can be complementary. We illustrate our argument from a recent study assessing the effect of telemonitoring on health-related quality of life, self-care, hospital use, costs and the experiences of patients, informal carers and health care professionals in two urban hospital services and one remote rural primary care service in New Zealand. Methods Data came from authors’ observations and field notes of discussions with three groups: the healthcare providers and healthcare consumers who participated in the research, and a group of 17 researchers and collaborators. The consumers had heart failure (Site A, urban, airways disease (Site B, urban, and diabetes (Site C, rural. The research ran from 2008 (project inception until 2012 (project close-off. Researchers came from a wide range of disciplines. Both RCT and AR methods were recognised from early in the process but often worked in parallel rather than together. In retrospect, we have mapped our observed research processes to the AR cycle characteristics (creation of communicative space, democracy and participation, iterative learning and improvement, emergence, and accommodation of different ways of knowing. Results We describe the context, conduct and outcomes of the telemonitoring trial, framing the overall process in the language of AR. Although not fully articulated at the time, AR processes made the RCT sensitive to important context, e.g. clinical processes. They resulted in substantive changes to the design and conduct of the RCT, and to interpretation and uptake of findings, e.g. a simpler technology procurement process emerged. Creating a communicative space enabled co-design between the researcher group and collaborators from the provider participant group, and a stronger

  12. Early routine versus late selective surfactant in preterm neonates with respiratory distress syndrome on nasal continuous positive airway pressure: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandraju, Hemasree; Murki, Srinivas; Subramanian, Sreeram; Gaddam, Pramod; Deorari, Ashok; Kumar, Praveen

    2013-01-01

    Preterm neonates with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) benefit from early application of nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP). However, it is not clear whether surfactant should be administered early as a routine to all such infants or later in a selective manner. It was the aim of this study to compare the efficacy of early routine versus late selective surfactant treatment in reducing the need for mechanical ventilation (MV) during the first week of life among moderate-sized preterm infants with RDS being supported by nCPAP. Infants born at 28(0/7) to 33(6/7) weeks of gestation with RDS and on nCPAP were randomly assigned within the first 2 h of life to early routine surfactant administration by the InSurE technique (early surfactant group) or to late selective administration of surfactant (late surfactant group). The primary outcome was need for MV in the first 7 days of life. Among 153 infants randomized to early (n = 74) or late surfactant (n = 79) groups, the need for MV was significantly lower in the early surfactant group (16.2 vs. 31.6%; relative risk 0.41, 95% confidence interval 0.19-0.91). The incidence of pneumothorax (1.9 vs. 2.3%) and the need for supplemental O2 at 28 days (2.7 vs. 8.9%) were similar in the two groups. Early routine surfactant administration within 2 h of life as compared to late selective administration significantly reduced the need for MV in the first week of life among preterm infants with RDS on nCPAP. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Does Multimodal Analgesia with Acetaminophen, Nonsteroidal Antiinflammatory Drugs, or Selective Cyclooxygenase-2 Inhibitors and Patient-controlled Analgesia Morphine Offer Advantages over Morphine Alone?: Meta-analyses of Randomized Trials

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Elia, Nadia; Lysakowski, Christopher; Tramèr, Martin R

    2005-01-01

    The authors analyzed data from 52 randomized placebo-controlled trials (4,893 adults) testing acetaminophen, nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, or selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors given in conjunction with morphine after surgery...

  14. "Open mesh" or "strictly selected population" recruitment? The experience of the randomized controlled MeMeMe trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cortellini M

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Mauro Cortellini, Franco Berrino, Patrizia Pasanisi Department of Preventive & Predictive Medicine, Foundation IRCCS National Cancer Institute of Milan, Milan, Italy Abstract: Among randomized controlled trials (RCTs, trials for primary prevention require large samples and long follow-up to obtain a high-quality outcome; therefore the recruitment process and the drop-out rates largely dictate the adequacy of the results. We are conducting a Phase III trial on persons with metabolic syndrome to test the hypothesis that comprehensive lifestyle changes and/or metformin treatment prevents age-related chronic diseases (the MeMeMe trial, EudraCT number: 2012-005427-32, also registered on ClinicalTrials.gov [NCT02960711]. Here, we briefly analyze and discuss the reasons which may lead to participants dropping out from trials. In our experience, participants may back out of a trial for different reasons. Drug-induced side effects are certainly the most compelling reason. But what are the other reasons, relating to the participants’ perception of the progress of the trial which led them to withdraw after randomization? What about the time-dependent drop-out rate in primary prevention trials? The primary outcome of this analysis is the point of drop-out from trial, defined as the time from the randomization date to the withdrawal date. Survival functions were non-parametrically estimated using the product-limit estimator. The curves were statistically compared using the log-rank test (P=0.64, not significant. Researchers involved in primary prevention RCTs seem to have to deal with the paradox of the proverbial “short blanket syndrome”. Recruiting only highly motivated candidates might be useful for the smooth progress of the trial but it may lead to a very low enrollment rate. On the other hand, what about enrolling all the eligible subjects without considering their motivation? This might boost the enrollment rate, but it can lead to biased

  15. H-DROP: an SVM based helical domain linker predictor trained with features optimized by combining random forest and stepwise selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebina, Teppei; Suzuki, Ryosuke; Tsuji, Ryotaro; Kuroda, Yutaka

    2014-08-01

    Domain linker prediction is attracting much interest as it can help identifying novel domains suitable for high throughput proteomics analysis. Here, we report H-DROP, an SVM-based Helical Domain linker pRediction using OPtimal features. H-DROP is, to the best of our knowledge, the first predictor for specifically and effectively identifying helical linkers. This was made possible first because a large training dataset became available from IS-Dom, and second because we selected a small number of optimal features from a huge number of potential ones. The training helical linker dataset, which included 261 helical linkers, was constructed by detecting helical residues at the boundary regions of two independent structural domains listed in our previously reported IS-Dom dataset. 45 optimal feature candidates were selected from 3,000 features by random forest, which were further reduced to 26 optimal features by stepwise selection. The prediction sensitivity and precision of H-DROP were 35.2 and 38.8%, respectively. These values were over 10.7% higher than those of control methods including our previously developed DROP, which is a coil linker predictor, and PPRODO, which is trained with un-differentiated domain boundary sequences. Overall, these results indicated that helical linkers can be predicted from sequence information alone by using a strictly curated training data set for helical linkers and carefully selected set of optimal features. H-DROP is available at http://domserv.lab.tuat.ac.jp.

  16. Combined laser acupuncture and desmopressin for treating resistant cases of monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis: a randomized comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moursy, Essam Eldin S; Kamel, Naglaa F; Kaseem, Ahmed F

    2014-12-01

    Monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis (MNE) is a common sociomedical problem affecting children that may persist until adulthood despite various lines of therapy. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of combined laser acupuncture and desmopressin in managing patients with resistant MNE, compared with their efficacy when used as monotherapy. The study included 186 patients with a mean age of 15.7 years (range 10-21 years) presenting with persistent MNE. All patients were evaluated clinically and investigated with urine analysis, plain X-ray of the urinary tract and abdominal ultrasonography. They were randomized into three equal groups based on the line of management: group A, managed with laser acupuncture alone; group B, managed with desmopressin alone; and group C, managed with a combination of laser acupuncture and desmopressin, with a treatment course of 3 months and follow-up period of 6 months to record the efficacy of therapy, side-effects and bladder capacity. A statistically significant higher cure rate was reported in group C patients, being reported in 33, 35 and 46 patients in groups A, B and C, respectively. Improvement was reported in 18, 17 and 13 cases in groups A, B and C, respectively, but the difference was not statistically significant. Bladder capacity significantly increased only in patients receiving acupuncture (groups A and C). Combined laser acupuncture and desmopressin is a promising and valid option to manage resistant cases of MNE.

  17. Cavity trees, snags, and selection cutting: a northern hardwood case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laura S. Kenefic; Ralph D. Nyland

    2007-01-01

    Although traditional application of the selection system includes a focus on high-value trees that may reduce cavities and snags, few studies have quantified those habitat features in managed uneven-aged stands. We examined the effects of single-tree selection cutting on cavity trees and snags in a northern hardwood stand immediately prior to the second cutting....

  18. Using step and path selection functions for estimating resistance to movement: Pumas as a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katherine A. Zeller; Kevin McGarigal; Samuel A. Cushman; Paul Beier; T. Winston Vickers; Walter M. Boyce

    2015-01-01

    GPS telemetry collars and their ability to acquire accurate and consistently frequent locations have increased the use of step selection functions (SSFs) and path selection functions (PathSFs) for studying animal movement and estimating resistance. However, previously published SSFs and PathSFs often do not accommodate multiple scales or multiscale modeling....

  19. Cultural Diversity in Introductory Psychology Textbook Selection: The Case for Historically Black Colleges/Universities (HBCUs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whaley, Arthur L.; Clay, William A. L.; Broussard, Dominique

    2017-01-01

    The present study describes a culturally relevant approach to introductory psychology textbook selection for students attending a historically Black college/university (HBCU). The following multistage procedure was used: (1) a survey of HBCU psychology departments was conducted to ascertain how they selected their introductory psychology…

  20. An econometric method for estimating population parameters from non-random samples: An application to clinical case finding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Rulof P; McLaren, Zoë M

    2017-09-01

    The problem of sample selection complicates the process of drawing inference about populations. Selective sampling arises in many real world situations when agents such as doctors and customs officials search for targets with high values of a characteristic. We propose a new method for estimating population characteristics from these types of selected samples. We develop a model that captures key features of the agent's sampling decision. We use a generalized method of moments with instrumental variables and maximum likelihood to estimate the population prevalence of the characteristic of interest and the agents' accuracy in identifying targets. We apply this method to tuberculosis (TB), which is the leading infectious disease cause of death worldwide. We use a national database of TB test data from South Africa to examine testing for multidrug resistant TB (MDR-TB). Approximately one quarter of MDR-TB cases was undiagnosed between 2004 and 2010. The official estimate of 2.5% is therefore too low, and MDR-TB prevalence is as high as 3.5%. Signal-to-noise ratios are estimated to be between 0.5 and 1. Our approach is widely applicable because of the availability of routinely collected data and abundance of potential instruments. Using routinely collected data to monitor population prevalence can guide evidence-based policy making. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Deep learning for digital pathology image analysis: A comprehensive tutorial with selected use cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janowczyk, Andrew; Madabhushi, Anant

    2016-01-01

    Background: Deep learning (DL) is a representation learning approach ideally suited for image analysis challenges in digital pathology (DP). The variety of image analysis tasks in the context of DP includes detection and counting (e.g., mitotic events), segmentation (e.g., nuclei), and tissue classification (e.g., cancerous vs. non-cancerous). Unfortunately, issues with slide preparation, variations in staining and scanning across sites, and vendor platforms, as well as biological variance, such as the presentation of different grades of disease, make these image analysis tasks particularly challenging. Traditional approaches, wherein domain-specific cues are manually identified and developed into task-specific “handcrafted” features, can require extensive tuning to accommodate these variances. However, DL takes a more domain agnostic approach combining both feature discovery and implementation to maximally discriminate between the classes of interest. While DL approaches have performed well in a few DP related image analysis tasks, such as detection and tissue classification, the currently available open source tools and tutorials do not provide guidance on challenges such as (a) selecting appropriate magnification, (b) managing errors in annotations in the training (or learning) dataset, and (c) identifying a suitable training set containing information rich exemplars. These foundational concepts, which are needed to successfully translate the DL paradigm to DP tasks, are non-trivial for (i) DL experts with minimal digital histology experience, and (ii) DP and image processing experts with minimal DL experience, to derive on their own, thus meriting a dedicated tutorial. Aims: This paper investigates these concepts through seven unique DP tasks as use cases to elucidate techniques needed to produce comparable, and in many cases, superior to results from the state-of-the-art hand-crafted feature-based classification approaches. Results: Specifically, in this

  2. Deep learning for digital pathology image analysis: A comprehensive tutorial with selected use cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janowczyk, Andrew; Madabhushi, Anant

    2016-01-01

    Deep learning (DL) is a representation learning approach ideally suited for image analysis challenges in digital pathology (DP). The variety of image analysis tasks in the context of DP includes detection and counting (e.g., mitotic events), segmentation (e.g., nuclei), and tissue classification (e.g., cancerous vs. non-cancerous). Unfortunately, issues with slide preparation, variations in staining and scanning across sites, and vendor platforms, as well as biological variance, such as the presentation of different grades of disease, make these image analysis tasks particularly challenging. Traditional approaches, wherein domain-specific cues are manually identified and developed into task-specific "handcrafted" features, can require extensive tuning to accommodate these variances. However, DL takes a more domain agnostic approach combining both feature discovery and implementation to maximally discriminate between the classes of interest. While DL approaches have performed well in a few DP related image analysis tasks, such as detection and tissue classification, the currently available open source tools and tutorials do not provide guidance on challenges such as (a) selecting appropriate magnification, (b) managing errors in annotations in the training (or learning) dataset, and (c) identifying a suitable training set containing information rich exemplars. These foundational concepts, which are needed to successfully translate the DL paradigm to DP tasks, are non-trivial for (i) DL experts with minimal digital histology experience, and (ii) DP and image processing experts with minimal DL experience, to derive on their own, thus meriting a dedicated tutorial. This paper investigates these concepts through seven unique DP tasks as use cases to elucidate techniques needed to produce comparable, and in many cases, superior to results from the state-of-the-art hand-crafted feature-based classification approaches. Specifically, in this tutorial on DL for DP image

  3. A selective neurokinin-1 receptor antagonist in chronic PTSD: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, proof-of-concept trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Sanjay J; Vythilingam, Meena; Murrough, James W; Zarate, Carlos A; Feder, Adriana; Luckenbaugh, David A; Kinkead, Becky; Parides, Michael K; Trist, David G; Bani, Massimo S; Bettica, Paolo U; Ratti, Emiliangelo M; Charney, Dennis S

    2011-03-01

    The substance P-neurokinin-1 receptor (SP-NK(1)R) system has been extensively studied in experimental models of stress, fear, and reward. Elevated cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) SP levels were reported previously in combat-related PTSD. No medication specifically targeting this system has been tested in PTSD. This proof-of-concept randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial evaluated the selective NK(1)R antagonist GR205171 in predominately civilian PTSD. Following a 2-week placebo lead-in, 39 outpatients with chronic PTSD and a Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS) score ≥50 were randomized to a fixed dose of GR205171 (N=20) or placebo (N=19) for 8weeks. The primary endpoint was mean change from baseline to endpoint in the total CAPS score. Response rate (≥50% reduction in baseline CAPS) and safety/tolerability were secondary endpoints. CSF SP concentrations were measured in a subgroup of patients prior to randomization. There was significant improvement in the mean CAPS total score across all patients over time, but no significant difference was found between GR205171 and placebo. Likewise, there was no significant effect of drug on the proportion of responders [40% GR205171 versus 21% placebo (p=0.30)]. An exploratory analysis showed that GR205171 treatment was associated with significant improvement compared to placebo on the CAPS hyperarousal symptom cluster. GR205171 was well-tolerated, with no discontinuations due to adverse events. CSF SP concentrations were positively correlated with baseline CAPS severity. The selective NK(1)R antagonist GR205171 had fewer adverse effects but was not significantly superior to placebo in the short-term treatment of chronic PTSD. (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT 00211861, NCT 00383786). Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Telemonitoring and Protocolized Case Management for Hypertensive Community-Dwelling Seniors With Diabetes: Protocol of the TECHNOMED Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padwal, Raj; McAlister, Finlay Aleck; Wood, Peter William; Boulanger, Pierre; Fradette, Miriam; Klarenbach, Scott; Edwards, Alun L; Holroyd-Leduc, Jayna M; Alagiakrishnan, Kannayiram; Rabi, Doreen; Majumdar, Sumit Ranjan

    2016-06-24

    Diabetes and hypertension are devastating, deadly, and costly conditions that are very common in seniors. Controlling hypertension in seniors with diabetes dramatically reduces hypertension-related complications. However, blood pressure (BP) must be lowered carefully because seniors are also susceptible to low BP and attendant harms. Achieving "optimal BP control" (ie, avoiding both undertreatment and overtreatment) is the ultimate therapeutic goal in such patients. Regular BP monitoring is required to achieve this goal. BP monitoring at home is cheap, convenient, widely used, and guideline endorsed. However, major barriers prevent proper use. These may be overcome through use of BP telemonitoring-the secure teletransmission of BP readings to a health portal, where BP data are summarized for provider and patient use, with or without protocolized case management. To examine the incremental effectiveness, safety, cost-effectiveness, usability, and acceptability of home BP telemonitoring, used with or without protocolized case management, compared with "enhanced usual care" in community-dwelling seniors with diabetes and hypertension. A 300-patient, 3-arm, pragmatic randomized controlled trial with blinded outcome ascertainment will be performed in seniors with diabetes and hypertension living independently in seniors' residences in greater Edmonton. Consenting patients will be randomized to usual care, home BP telemonitoring alone, or home BP telemonitoring plus protocolized pharmacist case management. Usual care subjects will receive a home BP monitor but neither they nor their providers will have access to teletransmitted data. In both telemonitored arms, providers will receive telemonitored BP data summaries. In the case management arm, pharmacist case managers will be responsible for reviewing teletransmitted data and initiating guideline-concordant and protocolized changes in BP management. Outcomes will be ascertained at 6 and 12 months. Within-study-arm change

  5. Facility Location Selection For Seasonal Product A Case Study For New Business And A Comparative Study Of AHP And ANP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahed Mahmud

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Decision making and choosing the right decision is one of the main activities of businessmen. Taking a decision without proper knowledge and methods the performance of the business will reduce and businessmen will fail to earn optimum profit. Facility location selection is the fast and foremost decision of businessmen when starting a new supplying business. Without a proper accurate and standard method for selecting the most profitable facility location for supplier business the performance of this business will affect. Rajshahi is a city of mangoes in Bangladesh and a seasonal business of mangoes held here every year. Supplying of mangoes can become a profitable business by selecting the best location for supplying mangoes to the different areas of the country. But due to the wrong selection of the location most suppliers fail to earn the maximum profit. The objective of this case study is to provide a decision support system to select the facility location for mango supplying business. Moreover for conducting this investigation a survey data is collected of 37 samples to identify the criteria and sub-criteria of the mango supplying business. In order to resolve the case AHP and ANP the two MCDM techniques are used for resolving this decision making problem. This investigation also demonstrates a brief look at the foundation of AHP and ANP and their major differences.

  6. Remote-online case-based learning: A comparison of remote-online and face-to-face, case-based learning - a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicklen, Peter; Keating, Jenny L; Paynter, Sophie; Storr, Michael; Maloney, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Case-based learning (CBL) is an educational approach where students work in small, collaborative groups to solve problems. Computer assisted learning (CAL) is the implementation of computer technology in education. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of a remote-online CBL (RO-CBL) with traditional face-to-face CBL on learning the outcomes of undergraduate physiotherapy students. Participants were randomized to either the control (face-to-face CBL) or to the CAL intervention (RO-CBL). The entire 3rd year physiotherapy cohort (n = 41) at Monash University, Victoria, Australia, were invited to participate in the randomized controlled trial. Outcomes included a postintervention multiple-choice test evaluating the knowledge gained from the CBL, a self-assessment of learning based on examinable learning objectives and student satisfaction with the CBL. In addition, a focus group was conducted investigating perceptions and responses to the online format. Thirty-eight students (control n = 19, intervention n = 19) participated in two CBL sessions and completed the outcome assessments. CBL median scores for the postintervention multiple-choice test were comparable (Wilcoxon rank sum P = 0.61) (median/10 [range] intervention group: 9 [8-10] control group: 10 [7-10]). Of the 15 examinable learning objectives, eight were significantly in favor of the control group, suggesting a greater perceived depth of learning. Eighty-four percent of students (16/19) disagreed with the statement "I enjoyed the method of CBL delivery." Key themes identified from the focus group included risks associated with the implementation of, challenges of communicating in, and flexibility offered, by web-based programs. RO-CBL appears to provide students with a comparable learning experience to traditional CBL. Procedural and infrastructure factors need to be addressed in future studies to counter student dissatisfaction and decreased perceived depth of learning.

  7. A hybrid analytical network process and fuzzy goal programming for supplier selection: A case study of auto part maker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesam Zande Hesami

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to present a hybrid model to select auto part suppliers. The proposed method of this paper uses factor analysis to find the most influencing factors on part maker selection and the results are validated using different statistical tests such as Cronbach's Alpha and Kaiser-Meyer.The hybrid model uses analytical network process to rank different part maker suppliers and fuzzy goal programming to choose the appropriate alternative among various choices. The implementation of the proposed model of this paper is used for a case study of real-world problem and the results are discussed.

  8. Instance selection in digital soil mapping: a study case in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvio Giasson

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A critical issue in digital soil mapping (DSM is the selection of data sampling method for model training. One emerging approach applies instance selection to reduce the size of the dataset by drawing only relevant samples in order to obtain a representative subset that is still large enough to preserve relevant information, but small enough to be easily handled by learning algorithms. Although there are suggestions to distribute data sampling as a function of the soil map unit (MU boundaries location, there are still contradictions among research recommendations for locating samples either closer or more distant from soil MU boundaries. A study was conducted to evaluate instance selection methods based on spatially-explicit data collection using location in relation to soil MU boundaries as the main criterion. Decision tree analysis was performed for modeling digital soil class mapping using two different sampling schemes: a selecting sampling points located outside buffers near soil MU boundaries, and b selecting sampling points located within buffers near soil MU boundaries. Data was prepared for generating classification trees to include only data points located within or outside buffers with widths of 60, 120, 240, 360, 480, and 600m near MU boundaries. Instance selection methods using both spatial selection of methods was effective for reduced size of the dataset used for calibrating classification tree models, but failed to provide advantages to digital soil mapping because of potential reduction in the accuracy of classification tree models.

  9. How Do Contractors Select Suppliers for Greener Construction Projects? The Case of Three Swedish Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahin Mokhlesian

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available There are many studies of contractor selection based on clients and the selection of suppliers by contractors. However, supplier selection specifically related to green construction projects has been much less studied. Green construction differs from conventional construction because of differences in its underlying principles and use of environmentally-friendly materials and technologies. This paper studies how procurers in contractor companies in Sweden adopt green projects and how contractor perception of supplier mastery of green knowledge affects supplier selection. The investigation is based on a set of semi-structured interviews conducted among three large contractors in Sweden. A main finding is that the perceived differences between green and conventional projects do not change supplier selection dramatically. An implication is that “greener projects” is a more appropriate denotation than “green project”. Evidence shows that suppliers’ green knowledge is an important factor in supplier selection, as respondents rated suppliers’ knowledge of green projects as very important, and to fix his, there was a consensus among respondents about the need for close collaboration between contractors and suppliers. To ensure knowledge acquisition from suppliers and to increase their competitive advantage over rivals, contractors collaborate with their suppliers in a partnering setting. It is anticipated that the results of this study will be used to fill the gap in the literature on supplier selection in green projects and can also be used for construction firms contemplating getting involved in green projects.

  10. Predicting the velocity and azimuth of fragments generated by the range destruction or random failure of rocket casings and tankage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eck, M.; Mukunda, M.

    The proliferation of space vehicle launch sites and the projected utilization of these facilities portends an increase in the number of on-pad, ascent, and on-orbit solid-rocket motor (SRM) casings and liquid-rocket tanks which will randomly fail or will fail from range destruct actions. Beyond the obvious safety implications, these failures may have serious resource implications for mission system and facility planners. SRM-casing failures and liquid-rocket tankage failures result in the generation of large, high velocity fragments which may be serious threats to the safety of launch support personnel if proper bunkers and exclusion areas are not provided. In addition, these fragments may be indirect threats to the general public's safety if they encounter hazardous spacecraft payloads which have not been designed to withstand shrapnel of this caliber. They may also become threats to other spacecraft if, by failing on-orbit, they add to the ever increasing space-junk collision cross-section. Most prior attempts to assess the velocity of fragments from failed SRM casings have simply assigned the available chamber impulse to available casing and fuel mass and solved the resulting momentum balance for velocity. This method may predict a fragment velocity which is high or low by a factor of two depending on the ratio of fuel to casing mass extant at the time of failure. Recognizing the limitations of existing methods, the authors devised an analytical approach which properly partitions the available impulse to each major system-mass component. This approach uses the Physics International developed PISCES code to couple the forces generated by an Eulerian modeled gas flow field to a Lagrangian modeled fuel and casing system. The details of a predictive analytical modeling process as well as the development of normalized relations for momentum partition as a function of SRM burn time and initial geometry are discussed in this paper. Methods for applying similar modeling

  11. Food pantry selection solutions: a randomized controlled trial in client-choice food pantries to nudge clients to targeted foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Norbert L W; Just, David R; Swigert, Jeffery; Wansink, Brian

    2017-06-01

    Food pantries and food banks are interested in cost-effective methods to encourage the selection of targeted foods without restricting choices. Thus, this study evaluates the effectiveness of nudges toward targeted foods. In October/November 2014, we manipulated the display of a targeted product in a New York State food pantry. We evaluated the binary choice of the targeted good when we placed it in the front or the back of the category line (placement order) and when we presented the product in its original box or unboxed (packaging). The average uptake proportion for the back treatment was 0.231, 95% CI = 0.179, 0.29, n = 205, and for the front treatment, the proportion was 0.337, 95% CI = 0.272, 0.406, n = 238 with an odds ratio of 1.688, 95% CI = 1.088, 2.523. The average uptake for the unboxed treatment was 0.224, 95% CI = 0.174, 0.280, n = 255, and for the boxed intervention, the proportion was 0.356, 95% CI = 0.288, 0.429, n = 188 with an odds ratio of 1.923, 95% CI = 1.237, 2.991. Nudges increased uptake of the targeted food. The findings also hold when we control for a potential confounder. Low cost and unobtrusive nudges can be effective tools for food pantry organizers to encourage the selection of targeted foods. NCT02403882.

  12. EcmPred: Prediction of extracellular matrix proteins based on random forest with maximum relevance minimum redundancy feature selection

    KAUST Repository

    Kandaswamy, Krishna Kumar Umar

    2013-01-01

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) is a major component of tissues of multicellular organisms. It consists of secreted macromolecules, mainly polysaccharides and glycoproteins. Malfunctions of ECM proteins lead to severe disorders such as marfan syndrome, osteogenesis imperfecta, numerous chondrodysplasias, and skin diseases. In this work, we report a random forest approach, EcmPred, for the prediction of ECM proteins from protein sequences. EcmPred was trained on a dataset containing 300 ECM and 300 non-ECM and tested on a dataset containing 145 ECM and 4187 non-ECM proteins. EcmPred achieved 83% accuracy on the training and 77% on the test dataset. EcmPred predicted 15 out of 20 experimentally verified ECM proteins. By scanning the entire human proteome, we predicted novel ECM proteins validated with gene ontology and InterPro. The dataset and standalone version of the EcmPred software is available at http://www.inb.uni-luebeck.de/tools-demos/Extracellular_matrix_proteins/EcmPred. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Randomized Controlled Trial of Acupuncture for Women with Fibromyalgia: Group Acupuncture with Traditional Chinese Medicine Diagnosis-Based Point Selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mist, Scott D; Jones, Kim Dupree

    2018-02-13

    Group acupuncture is a growing and cost-effective method for delivering acupuncture in the United States and is the practice model in China. However, group acupuncture has not been tested in a research setting. To test the treatment effect of group acupuncture vs group education in persons with fibromyalgia. Random allocation two-group study with repeated measures. Group clinic in an academic health center in Portland, Oregon. Women with confirmed diagnosis of fibromyalgia (American College of Radiology 1990 criteria) and moderate to severe pain levels. Twenty treatments of a manualized acupuncture treatment based on Traditional Chinese Medicine diagnosis or group education over 10 weeks (both 900 minutes total). Weekly Revised Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQR) and Global Fatigue Index at baseline, five weeks, and 10 weeks and a four-week follow-up were assessed. Thirty women were recruited, with 78% reporting symptoms for longer than 10 years. The mean attendance was 810 minutes for acupuncture and 861 minutes for education. FIQR total, FIQR pain, and Global Fatigue Index all had clinically and statistically significant improvement in the group receiving acupuncture at end of treatment and four weeks post-treatment but not in participants receiving group education between groups. Compared with education, group acupuncture improved global symptom impact, pain, and fatigue. Furthermore, it was a safe and well-tolerated treatment option, improving a broader proportion of patients than current pharmaceutical options.

  14. Randomized trial of switching from prescribed non-selective non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs to prescribed celecoxib

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Macdonald, Thomas M; Hawkey, Chris J; Ford, Ian

    2017-01-01

    infarction or other biomarker positive acute coronary syndrome, non-fatal stroke or CV death analysed using a Cox model with a pre-specified non-inferiority limit of 1.4 for the hazard ratio (HR). RESULTS: In total, 7297 participants were randomized. During a median 3-year follow-up, fewer subjects than......-years with celecoxib and 1.10 per 100 patient-years with nsNSAIDs (HR = 1.04; 95% confidence interval, 0.81-1.33; P = 0.75). Pre-specified non-inferiority was achieved in the ITT analysis. The upper bound of the 95% confidence limit for the absolute increase in OT risk associated with celecoxib treatment was two......NSAIDs. There was no advantage of a strategy of switching prescribed nsNSAIDs to prescribed celecoxib. This study excluded an increased risk of the primary endpoint of more than two events per 1000 patient-years associated with switching to prescribed celecoxib....

  15. Variational perturbation and extended Plefka approaches to dynamics on random networks: the case of the kinetic Ising model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachschmid-Romano, L.; Battistin, C.; Opper, M.; Roudi, Y.

    2016-10-01

    We describe and analyze some novel approaches for studying the dynamics of Ising spin glass models. We first briefly consider the variational approach based on minimizing the Kullback-Leibler divergence between independent trajectories and the real ones and note that this approach only coincides with the mean field equations from the saddle point approximation to the generating functional when the dynamics is defined through a logistic link function, which is the case for the kinetic Ising model with parallel update. We then spend the rest of the paper developing two ways of going beyond the saddle point approximation to the generating functional. In the first one, we develop a variational perturbative approximation to the generating functional by expanding the action around a quadratic function of the local fields and conjugate local fields whose parameters are optimized. We derive analytical expressions for the optimal parameters and show that when the optimization is suitably restricted, we recover the mean field equations that are exact for the fully asymmetric random couplings (Mézard and Sakellariou 2011 J. Stat. Mech. 2011 L07001). However, without this restriction the results are different. We also describe an extended Plefka expansion in which in addition to the magnetization, we also fix the correlation and response functions. Finally, we numerically study the performance of these approximations for Sherrington-Kirkpatrick type couplings for various coupling strengths and the degrees of coupling symmetry, for both temporally constant but random, as well as time varying external fields. We show that the dynamical equations derived from the extended Plefka expansion outperform the others in all regimes, although it is computationally more demanding. The unconstrained variational approach does not perform well in the small coupling regime, while it approaches dynamical TAP equations of (Roudi and Hertz 2011 J. Stat. Mech. 2011 P03031) for strong couplings.

  16. Diabetes nurse case management and motivational interviewing for change (DYNAMIC): results of a 2-year randomized controlled pragmatic trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbay, Robert A; Añel-Tiangco, Raquel M; Dellasega, Cheryl; Mauger, David T; Adelman, Alan; Van Horn, Deborah H A

    2013-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine whether the addition of nurse case managers (NCMs) trained in motivational interviewing (MI) to usual care would result in improved outcomes in high-risk type 2 diabetes patients. A 2-year randomized controlled pragmatic trial randomized 545 patients to usual care control (n=313) or those who received the intervention (n=232) with additional practice-embedded NCM care, including MI-guided behavior change counseling. The NCMs received intensive MI training with ongoing fidelity assessment. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) was better in the intervention than usual care group (131 ± 15 vs. 135 ± 18 mmHg, respectively; P<0.05). Improvements were seen in both the control and intervention groups in terms of HbA1c (from 9.1% to 8.0% and from 8.8% to 7.8%, respectively), low-density lipoprotein (LDL; from 127 to 100 mg/dL and from 128 to 102 mg/dL, respectively), and diastolic blood pressure (from 78 to 74 mmHg and from 80 to 74 mmHg, respectively). Depression symptom scores were better in the intervention group. The reduction in diabetes-related distress approached statistical significance. The NCMs and MI improved SBP and complications screening. The large decrease in HbA1C and LDL in the control group may have obscured any further intervention effect. Although nurses prompted providers for medication titration, strategies to reduce provider clinical inertia may also be needed. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd and Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine.

  17. Selection and ranking of occupational safety indicators based on fuzzy AHP: A case study in road construction companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janackovic, Goran Lj.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the factors, performance, and indicators of occupational safety, as well as a method to select and rank occupational safety indicators based on the expert evaluation method and the fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (fuzzy AHP. A case study is done on road construction companies in Serbia. The key safety performance indicators for the road construction industry are identified and ranked according to the results of a survey that included experts who assessed occupational safety risks in these companies. The case study confirmed that organisational factors have a dominant effect on the quality of the occupational health and safety management system in Serbian road construction companies.

  18. Political economy of pension reforms: selected general issues and the Polish pension reform case

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Góra, Marek

    2013-01-01

    ... for their financing.In this paper I analyse selected political economy issues related to pension reforms, such as the worker-retiree conflict of interest, distribution by age of the costs of the loss of demographic...

  19. The genome response to artificial selection: a case study in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flori, Laurence; Fritz, Sébastien; Jaffrézic, Florence; Boussaha, Mekki; Gut, Ivo; Heath, Simon; Foulley, Jean-Louis; Gautier, Mathieu

    2009-08-12

    Dairy cattle breeds have been subjected over the last fifty years to intense artificial selection towards improvement of milk production traits. In this study, we performed a whole genome scan for differentiation using 42,486 SNPs in the three major French dairy cattle breeds (Holstein, Normande and Montbéliarde) to identify the main physiological pathways and regions which were affected by this selection. After analyzing the population structure, we estimated F(ST) within and across the three breeds for each SNP under a pure drift model. We further considered two different strategies to evaluate the effect of selection at the genome level. First, smoothing F(ST) values over each chromosome with a local variable bandwidth kernel estimator allowed identifying 13 highly significant regions subjected to strong and/or recent positive selection. Some of them contained genes within which causal variants with strong effect on milk production traits (GHR) or coloration (MC1R) have already been reported. To go further in the interpretation of the observed signatures of selection we subsequently concentrated on the annotation of differentiated genes defined according to the F(ST) value of SNPs localized close or within them. To that end we performed a comprehensive network analysis which suggested a central role of somatotropic and gonadotropic axes in the response to selection. Altogether, these observations shed light on the antagonism, at the genome level, between milk production and reproduction traits in highly producing dairy cows.

  20. Significance of cultural beliefs in presentation of psychiatric illness: a case report of selective mutism in a man from Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babikian, Sarkis; Emerson, Lyndal; Wynn, Gary H

    2007-11-01

    A 22-year-old active duty E1 Nepalese male who recently emigrated from Nepal suddenly exhibited strange behaviors and mutism during Advanced Individual Training. After receiving care from a hospital near his unit, he was transferred to Walter Reed Army Medical Center Inpatient Psychiatry for further evaluation and treatment. Although he was admitted with a diagnosis of psychosis not otherwise specified (NOS), after consideration of cultural factors and by ruling out concurrent thought disorder, a diagnosis of selective mutism was made. To our knowledge this is the first reported case of selective mutism in a soldier. This case serves as a reminder of the need for cultural awareness during psychological evaluation, diagnosis, and treatment of patients.

  1. Selection of population controls for a Salmonella case-control study in the UK using a market research panel and web-survey provides time and resource savings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mook, P; Kanagarajah, S; Maguire, H; Adak, G K; Dabrera, G; Waldram, A; Freeman, R; Charlett, A; Oliver, I

    2016-04-01

    Timely recruitment of population controls in infectious disease outbreak investigations is challenging. We evaluated the timeliness and cost of using a market research panel as a sampling frame for recruiting controls in a case-control study during an outbreak of Salmonella Mikawasima in the UK in 2013. We deployed a web-survey by email to targeted members of a market research panel (panel controls) in parallel to the outbreak control team interviewing randomly selected public health staff by telephone and completing paper-based questionnaires (staff controls). Recruitment and completion of exposure history web-surveys for panel controls (n = 123) took 14 h compared to 15 days for staff controls (n = 82). The average staff-time cost per questionnaire for staff controls was £13·13 compared to an invoiced cost of £3·60 per panel control. Differences in the distribution of some exposures existed between these control groups but case-control studies using each group found that illness was associated with consumption of chicken outside of the home and chicken from local butchers. Recruiting market research panel controls offers time and resource savings. More rapid investigations would enable more prompt implementation of control measures. We recommend that this method of recruiting controls is considered in future investigations and assessed further to better understand strengths and limitations.

  2. Recruitment strategies should not be randomly selected: empirically improving recruitment success and diversity in developmental psychology research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugden, Nicole A.; Moulson, Margaret C.

    2015-01-01

    Psychological and developmental research have been critiqued for the lack of diversity of research samples. Because differences in culture, race, and ethnicity can influence participant behavior, limited diversity limits the generalizability of the findings. These differences may also impact how participants behave in response to recruitment attempts, which suggests that recruitment itself may be leveraged to increase sample diversity. The goal of the current study was to determine what factors, within a recruitment interaction, could be leveraged to increase success and diversity when recruiting families with children for developmental research. Study 1 found three factors influenced success: (1) recruitment was more successful when other potential participants were also interested (i.e., recruiters were busy), (2) recruiters of particular races were more successful than recruiters of other races, and (3) differences in success were related to what the recruiter said to engage the potential participant (i.e., the script). The latter two factors interacted, suggesting some recruiters were using less optimal scripts. To improve success rates, study 2 randomly assigned scripts to recruiters and encouraged them to recruit more vigorously during busy periods. Study 2 found that two factors influenced success: (1) some scripts were more successful than others and (2) we were more successful at recruiting non-White potential participants than White participants. These two interacted, with some scripts being more successful with White and other scripts being more successful with non-White families. This intervention significantly increased recruitment success rate by 8.1% and the overall number of families recruited by 15.3%. These findings reveal that empirically evaluating and tailoring recruitment efforts based on the most successful strategies is effective in boosting diversity through increased participation of children from non-White families. PMID:25972829

  3. Recruitment strategies should not be randomly selected: empirically improving recruitment success and diversity in developmental psychology research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugden, Nicole A; Moulson, Margaret C

    2015-01-01

    Psychological and developmental research have been critiqued for the lack of diversity of research samples. Because differences in culture, race, and ethnicity can influence participant behavior, limited diversity limits the generalizability of the findings. These differences may also impact how participants behave in response to recruitment attempts, which suggests that recruitment itself may be leveraged to increase sample diversity. The goal of the current study was to determine what factors, within a recruitment interaction, could be leveraged to increase success and diversity when recruiting families with children for developmental research. Study 1 found three factors influenced success: (1) recruitment was more successful when other potential participants were also interested (i.e., recruiters were busy), (2) recruiters of particular races were more successful than recruiters of other races, and (3) differences in success were related to what the recruiter said to engage the potential participant (i.e., the script). The latter two factors interacted, suggesting some recruiters were using less optimal scripts. To improve success rates, study 2 randomly assigned scripts to recruiters and encouraged them to recruit more vigorously during busy periods. Study 2 found that two factors influenced success: (1) some scripts were more successful than others and (2) we were more successful at recruiting non-White potential participants than White participants. These two interacted, with some scripts being more successful with White and other scripts being more successful with non-White families. This intervention significantly increased recruitment success rate by 8.1% and the overall number of families recruited by 15.3%. These findings reveal that empirically evaluating and tailoring recruitment efforts based on the most successful strategies is effective in boosting diversity through increased participation of children from non-White families.

  4. Recruitment strategies shouldn’t be randomly selected: Empirically improving recruitment success and diversity in developmental psychology research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Andrea Sugden

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Psychological and developmental research have been critiqued for the lack of diversity of research samples. Because differences in culture, race, and ethnicity can influence participant behavior, limited diversity limits the generalizability of the findings. These differences may also impact how participants behave in response to recruitment attempts, which suggests that recruitment itself may be leveraged to increase sample diversity. The goal of the current study was to determine what factors, within a recruitment interaction, could be leveraged to increase success and diversity when recruiting families with children for developmental research. Study 1 found three factors influenced success: 1 recruitment was more successful when other potential participants were also interested (i.e., recruiters were busy, 2 recruiters of particular races were more successful than recruiters of other races, and 3 differences in success were related to what the recruiter said to engage the potential participant (i.e., the script. The latter two factors interacted, suggesting some recruiters were using less optimal scripts. To improve success rates, study 2 randomly assigned scripts to recruiters and encouraged them to recruit more vigorously during busy periods. Study 2 found that two factors influenced success: 1 some scripts were more successful than others and 2 we were more successful at recruiting non-White potential participants than White participants. These two interacted, with some scripts being more successful with White and other scripts being more successful with non-White families. This intervention significantly increased recruitment success rate by 8.1% and the overall number of families recruited by 15.3%. These findings reveal that empirically evaluating and tailoring recruitment efforts based on the most successful strategies is effective in boosting diversity through increased participation of children from non-White families.

  5. Selection of single blastocysts for fresh transfer via standard morphology assessment alone and with array CGH for good prognosis IVF patients: results from a randomized pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Single embryo transfer (SET) remains underutilized as a strategy to reduce multiple gestation risk in IVF, and its overall lower pregnancy rate underscores the need for improved techniques to select one embryo for fresh transfer. This study explored use of comprehensive chromosomal screening by array CGH (aCGH) to provide this advantage and improve pregnancy rate from SET. Methods First-time IVF patients with a good prognosis (age IVF program to select single blastocysts for fresh SET in good prognosis patients. The observed aneuploidy rate (44.9%) among biopsied blastocysts highlights the inherent imprecision of SET when conventional morphology is used alone. Embryos randomized to the aCGH group implanted with greater efficiency, resulted in clinical pregnancy more often, and yielded a lower miscarriage rate than those selected without aCGH. Additional studies are needed to verify our pilot data and confirm a role for on-site, rapid aCGH for IVF patients contemplating fresh SET. PMID:22551456

  6. Selection and ranking of occupational safety indicators based on fuzzy AHP: A case study in road construction companies

    OpenAIRE

    Janackovic, Goran Lj.; Suzana M. Savic; Stankovic, Miomir S.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the factors, performance, and indicators of occupational safety, as well as a method to select and rank occupational safety indicators based on the expert evaluation method and the fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (fuzzy AHP). A case study is done on road construction companies in Serbia. The key safety performance indicators for the road construction industry are identified and ranked according to the results of a survey that included experts who assessed occupational saf...

  7. Making burns count: the impact of varying case selection criteria on the identification of ICD-10 coded hospitalised burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Lara A; Poulos, Roslyn G; Finch, Caroline F

    2013-11-01

    Routinely collected hospitalisation data are widely used to monitor injury trends, provide estimates of the burden of injury and healthcare costs, and to inform policy. This study examined the impact of different ICD-10 based case selection criteria commonly used by Australian and international reporting bodies on the number and nature of burn-related hospitalisations identified. Burn cases from a state-wide administrative hospitalisation dataset were identified and compared using three different case selection criteria: (1) principal diagnosis code of burn 'T20-T31', (2) first external cause code denoting burn 'X00-X19' and (3) both principal diagnosis code of community acquired injury 'S00-T98' and first external cause code denoting burn 'X00-X19'. Principal diagnosis codes 'T20-T31' and first external cause codes 'X00-X19' identified a similar number of cases, however only 78% of these were captured by both definitions. Principal diagnosis codes identified chemical, electrical and contact burns not identified as burns using external cause codes. First external cause codes identified readmission cases which were not identified by principal diagnosis codes. Using principal diagnosis codes of community acquired injury combined with external cause code of burn under-numerated hospitalisations by forty percent. The development, implementation and evaluation of health policy and prevention measures rely on good quality, consistent data. Current methods for identifying burn cases in hospitalisation data provide wide differences in estimation of number and nature of cases. It is important for clinicians to understand the implications of coding on the epidemiology and measurement of the burden of burn. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  8. Stronger sexual selection in warmer waters: the case of a sex role reversed pipefish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuno M Monteiro

    Full Text Available In order to answer broader questions about sexual selection, one needs to measure selection on a wide array of phenotypic traits, simultaneously through space and time. Nevertheless, studies that simultaneously address temporal and spatial variation in reproduction are scarce. Here, we aimed to investigate the reproductive dynamics of a cold-water pipefish simultaneously through time (encompassing variation within each breeding cycle and as individuals grow and space (by contrasting populations experiencing distinct water temperature regimes in order to test hypothesized differences in sexual selection. Even though the sampled populations inhabited locations with very different water temperature regimes, they exhibited considerable similarities in reproductive parameters. The most striking was the existence of a well-defined substructure in reproductive activity, where larger individuals reproduce for longer periods, which seemed dependent on a high temperature threshold for breeding rather than on the low temperatures that vary heavily according to latitude. Furthermore, the perceived disparities among populations, such as size at first reproduction, female reproductive investment, or degree of sexual size dimorphism, seemed dependent on the interplay between seawater temperature and the operational sex ratio (OSR. Contrary to our expectations of an enhanced opportunity for sexual selection in the north, we found the opposite: higher female reproductive investment coupled with increased sexual size dimorphism in warmer waters, implying that a prolonged breeding season does not necessarily translate into reduced sexual selection pressure. In fact, if the limited sex has the ability to reproduce either continuously or recurrently during the entire breeding season, an increased opportunity for sexual selection might arise from the need to compete for available partners under strongly biased OSRs across protracted breeding seasons. A more general

  9. Genomic selection prediction accuracy in a perennial crop: case study of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cros, David; Denis, Marie; Sánchez, Leopoldo; Cochard, Benoit; Flori, Albert; Durand-Gasselin, Tristan; Nouy, Bruno; Omoré, Alphonse; Pomiès, Virginie; Riou, Virginie; Suryana, Edyana; Bouvet, Jean-Marc

    2015-03-01

    Genomic selection empirically appeared valuable for reciprocal recurrent selection in oil palm as it could account for family effects and Mendelian sampling terms, despite small populations and low marker density. Genomic selection (GS) can increase the genetic gain in plants. In perennial crops, this is expected mainly through shortened breeding cycles and increased selection intensity, which requires sufficient GS accuracy in selection candidates, despite often small training populations. Our objective was to obtain the first empirical estimate of GS accuracy in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis), the major world oil crop. We used two parental populations involved in conventional reciprocal recurrent selection (Deli and Group B) with 131 individuals each, genotyped with 265 SSR. We estimated within-population GS accuracies when predicting breeding values of non-progeny-tested individuals for eight yield traits. We used three methods to sample training sets and five statistical methods to estimate genomic breeding values. The results showed that GS could account for family effects and Mendelian sampling terms in Group B but only for family effects in Deli. Presumably, this difference between populations originated from their contrasting breeding history. The GS accuracy ranged from -0.41 to 0.94 and was positively correlated with the relationship between training and test sets. Training sets optimized with the so-called CDmean criterion gave the highest accuracies, ranging from 0.49 (pulp to fruit ratio in Group B) to 0.94 (fruit weight in Group B). The statistical methods did not affect the accuracy. Finally, Group B could be preselected for progeny tests by applying GS to key yield traits, therefore increasing the selection intensity. Our results should be valuable for breeding programs with small populations, long breeding cycles, or reduced effective size.

  10. Complex Demands on Teaching Require Innovation: Case Method & Other Techniques. Selected Papers of the International Conference on Case Method Research & Application (17th, Budapest, Hungary, July 2-5, 2000).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Hans E., Ed.

    This book presents a selection of papers from the annual, international, interdisciplinary conference of the World Association for Case Method Research & Application. Papers are categorized into six areas: (1) "Case Studies and Research" (e.g., subjectivity as a source of insight in case study research, evolution of a teaching case,…

  11. High hunting pressure selects for earlier birth date: Wild boar as a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamelon, M.; Besnard, A.; Gaillard, J.-M.; Servanty, S.; Baubet, E.; Brandt, S.; Gimenez, O.

    2011-01-01

    Exploitation by humans affects the size and structure of populations. This has evolutionary and demographic consequences that have typically being studied independent of one another. We here applied a framework recently developed applying quantitative tools from population ecology and selection gradient analysis to quantify the selection on a quantitative trait-birth date-through its association with multiple fitness components. From the long-term monitoring (22 years) of a wild boar (Sus scrofa scrofa) population subject to markedly increasing hunting pressure, we found that birth dates have advanced by up to 12 days throughout the study period. During the period of low hunting pressure, there was no detectable selection. However, during the period of high hunting pressure, the selection gradient linking breeding probability in the first year of life to birth date was negative, supporting current life-history theory predicting selection for early births to reproduce within the first year of life with increasing adult mortality. ?? 2011 The Author(s). Evolution?? 2011 The Society for the Study of Evolution..

  12. Geospatial tools for data-sharing : case studies of select transportation agencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    This report provides case studies from 23 State Departments of Transportation (DOTs) and others that are developing, using, and maintaining a variety of geospatial applications and tools to support GDC goals. The report also summarizes the state of t...

  13. Opportunity for Stakeholder Input on EPA's Hydraulic Fracturing Research Study: Criteria for Selecting Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA sought advice from stakeholders regarding potential case studies, stakeholder were invited to provide suggestions and refinements to the prioritization of criteria and information listed in Table 1 of the document.

  14. Case-Based Parameter Selection for Plans: Coordinating Autonomous Vehicle Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    Solution[] // A vector of parameter settings for q Legend : Nq // q’s k-Neighborhood of cases s // A parameter among those in q’s predicted solution S V otes...Case-based game play in the robocup four-legged league : Part I The theoretical model. In: RoboCup 2003: Robot Soccer World Cup VII. pp. 739–747 (2003) 7

  15. A stochastic model for stationary dynamics of prices in real estate markets. A case of random intensity for Poisson moments of prices changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusakov, Oleg; Laskin, Michael

    2017-06-01

    We consider a stochastic model of changes of prices in real estate markets. We suppose that in a book of prices the changes happen in points of jumps of a Poisson process with a random intensity, i.e. moments of changes sequently follow to a random process of the Cox process type. We calculate cumulative mathematical expectations and variances for the random intensity of this point process. In the case that the process of random intensity is a martingale the cumulative variance has a linear grows. We statistically process a number of observations of real estate prices and accept hypotheses of a linear grows for estimations as well for cumulative average, as for cumulative variance both for input and output prises that are writing in the book of prises.

  16. Green supply chain management strategy selection using analytic network process: case study at PT XYZ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelina, W.; Kusumastuti, R. D.

    2017-01-01

    This study is about business strategy selection for green supply chain management (GSCM) for PT XYZ by using Analytic Network Process (ANP). GSCM is initiated as a response to reduce environmental impacts from industrial activities. The purposes of this study are identifying criteria and sub criteria in selecting GSCM Strategy, and analysing a suitable GSCM strategy for PT XYZ. This study proposes ANP network with 6 criteria and 29 sub criteria, which are obtained from the literature and experts’ judgements. One of the six criteria contains GSCM strategy options, namely risk-based strategy, efficiency-based strategy, innovation-based strategy, and closed loop strategy. ANP solves complex GSCM strategy-selection by using a more structured process and considering green perspectives from experts. The result indicates that innovation-based strategy is the most suitable green supply chain management strategy for PT XYZ.

  17. Efficiently tracking selection in a multiparental population: the case of earliness in wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thépot, Stéphanie; Restoux, Gwendal; Goldringer, Isabelle; Hospital, Frédéric; Gouache, David; Mackay, Ian; Enjalbert, Jérôme

    2015-02-01

    Multiparental populations are innovative tools for fine mapping large numbers of loci. Here we explored the application of a wheat Multiparent Advanced Generation Inter-Cross (MAGIC) population for QTL mapping. This population was created by 12 generations of free recombination among 60 founder lines, following modification of the mating system from strict selfing to strict outcrossing using the ms1b nuclear male sterility gene. Available parents and a subset of 380 SSD lines of the resulting MAGIC population were phenotyped for earliness and genotyped with the 9K i-Select SNP array and additional markers in candidate genes controlling heading date. We demonstrated that 12 generations of strict outcrossing rapidly and drastically reduced linkage disequilibrium to very low levels even at short map distances and also greatly reduced the population structure exhibited among the parents. We developed a Bayesian method, based on allelic frequency, to estimate the contribution of each parent in the evolved population. To detect loci under selection and estimate selective pressure, we also developed a new method comparing shifts in allelic frequency between the initial and the evolved populations due to both selection and genetic drift with expectations under drift only. This evolutionary approach allowed us to identify 26 genomic areas under selection. Using association tests between flowering time and polymorphisms, 6 of these genomic areas appeared to carry flowering time QTL, 1 of which corresponds to Ppd-D1, a major gene involved in the photoperiod sensitivity. Frequency shifts at 4 of 6 areas were consistent with earlier flowering of the evolved population relative to the initial population. The use of this new outcrossing wheat population, mixing numerous initial parental lines through multiple generations of panmixia, is discussed in terms of power to detect genes under selection and association mapping. Furthermore we provide new statistical methods for use in

  18. The paradoxical advantages and disadvantages of natural selection: the case history of Charles Darwin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieb, J

    2007-01-01

    The biology of natural selection is an enduring mystery, as is the nature of Charles Darwin's chronic illness. Of the theories advanced to explain the latter, Oedipal conflicts and Chagas' disease are preeminent. Hypomania, however, propelled Darwin to the pinnacle of scientific achievement and good health, the depression that followed condemning him to intellectual stagnation, lethargy, impaired memory and concentration, and incapacitating gastrointestinal disorders. Examples of natural selection in humans are much sought after when, ironically, one need look no further than Darwin himself.

  19. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Intensive Case Management (Project Bridge) for HIV-Infected Probationers and Parolees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Michael S; Crable, Erika L; Carswell, Steven B; Leopold, Jessica; Hodo-Powell, Jennifer; McKenzie, Michelle; Rich, Josiah D

    2017-12-22

    Individuals on probation and parole are disproportionately at high risk for HIV infection and experience significant barriers to accessing health care. This study was a two-group randomized controlled trial conducted at a community corrections office and was designed to link HIV positive probationers/parolees to HIV treatment in the community. HIV positive participants were assigned to one of the two treatment conditions: (1) Project Bridge (PB), an intensive case-management intervention; or (2) treatment as usual (TAU), involving standard referral to treatment. We hypothesized that PB would be more effective than TAU in terms of initiating individuals in community HIV treatment. We found no difference in rates of, or time to, treatment initiation when comparing the PB to TAU (all ns > 0.05). Additionally, there was no statistically significant difference between HIV medication regiment initiation by treatment condition (p > 0.05). Despite limitations, we found that probationers and parolees were willing to be screened and linked to treatment.

  20. ARCADO - Adding random case analysis to direct observation in workplace-based formative assessment of general practice registrars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingham, Gerard; Fry, Jennifer; Morgan, Simon; Ward, Bernadette

    2015-12-10

    Workplace-based formative assessments using consultation observation are currently conducted during the Australian general practice training program. Assessment reliability is improved by using multiple assessment methods. The aim of this study was to explore experiences of general practice medical educator assessors and registrars (trainees) when adding random case analysis to direct observation (ARCADO) during formative workplace-based assessments. A sample of general practice medical educators and matched registrars were recruited. Following the ARCADO workplace assessment, semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted. The data was analysed thematically. Ten registrars and eight medical educators participated. Four major themes emerged - formative versus summative assessment; strengths (acceptability, flexibility, time efficiency, complementarity and authenticity); weaknesses (reduced observation and integrity risks); and contextual factors (variation in assessment content, assessment timing, registrar-medical educator relationship, medical educator's approach and registrar ability). ARCADO is a well-accepted workplace-based formative assessment perceived by registrars and assessors to be valid and flexible. The use of ARCADO enabled complementary insights that would not have been achieved with direct observation alone. Whilst there are some contextual factors to be considered in its implementation, ARCADO appears to have utility as formative assessment and, subject to further evaluation, high-stakes assessment.

  1. Quality of life and standard of living in a randomly selected group of psychiatrically disabled people in Sweden 2 years after a psychiatry reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson, I; Frederiksen, S-O; Gottfries, C-G

    2002-07-01

    In Sweden, a psychiatry reform, aimed at improving the living conditions of the psychiatrically disabled, came into force in 1995. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of the reform by investigating quality of life and standard of living 2 years later in a randomly selected group of people with longstanding psychiatric disability. Self-ratings and interviews were conducted in a study group and a control group. The study group consisted of 19 women and 18 men (mean age 46.1 years) diagnosed with neurosis, schizophrenia or affective disorder. The control group consisted of 19 women and 17 men (mean age 48.7 years). Self-rated quality of life was significantly poorer in the study group (P standard of living in either group but a significant negative correlation in the control group (P standard of living.

  2. Propensity score matching for selection of local areas as controls for evaluation of effects of alcohol policies in case series and quasi case-control designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vocht, F; Campbell, R; Brennan, A; Mooney, J; Angus, C; Hickman, M

    2016-03-01

    Area-level public health interventions can be difficult to evaluate using natural experiments. We describe the use of propensity score matching (PSM) to select control local authority areas (LAU) to evaluate the public health impact of alcohol policies for (1) prospective evaluation of alcohol policies using area-level data, and (2) a novel two-stage quasi case-control design. Ecological. Alcohol-related indicator data (Local Alcohol Profiles for England, PHE Health Profiles and ONS data) were linked at LAU level. Six LAUs (Blackpool, Bradford, Bristol, Ipswich, Islington, and Newcastle-upon-Tyne) as sample intervention or case areas were matched to two control LAUs each using PSM. For the quasi case-control study a second stage was added aimed at obtaining maximum contrast in outcomes based on propensity scores. Matching was evaluated based on average standardized absolute mean differences (ASAM) and variable-specific P-values after matching. The six LAUs were matched to suitable control areas (with ASAM values >0.05 indicating good matching) for a prospective evaluation study that sought areas that were similar at baseline in order to assess whether a change in intervention exposure led to a change in the outcome (alcohol related harm). PSM also generated appropriate matches for a quasi case-control study--whereby the contrast in health outcomes between cases and control areas needed to be optimized in order to assess retrospectively whether differences in intervention exposure were associated with the outcome. The use of PSM for area-level alcohol policy evaluation, but also for other public health interventions, will improve the value of these evaluations by objective and quantitative selection of the most appropriate control areas. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of a Counseling Session Bolstered by Text Messaging on Self-Selected Health Behaviors in College Students: A Preliminary Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandrick, Janice; Tracy, Doreen; Eliasson, Arn; Roth, Ashley; Bartel, Jeffrey; Simko, Melanie; Bowman, Tracy; Harouse-Bell, Karen; Kashani, Mariam; Vernalis, Marina

    2017-05-17

    The college experience is often the first time when young adults live independently and make their own lifestyle choices. These choices affect dietary behaviors, exercise habits, techniques to deal with stress, and decisions on sleep time, all of which direct the trajectory of future health. There is a need for effective strategies that will encourage healthy lifestyle choices in young adults attending college. This preliminary randomized controlled trial tested the effect of coaching and text messages (short message service, SMS) on self-selected health behaviors in the domains of diet, exercise, stress, and sleep. A second analysis measured the ripple effect of the intervention on health behaviors not specifically selected as a goal by participants. Full-time students aged 18-30 years were recruited by word of mouth and campuswide advertisements (flyers, posters, mailings, university website) at a small university in western Pennsylvania from January to May 2015. Exclusions included pregnancy, eating disorders, chronic medical diagnoses, and prescription medications other than birth control. Of 60 participants, 30 were randomized to receive a single face-to-face meeting with a health coach to review results of behavioral questionnaires and to set a health behavior goal for the 8-week study period. The face-to-face meeting was followed by SMS text messages designed to encourage achievement of the behavioral goal. A total of 30 control subjects underwent the same health and behavioral assessments at intake and program end but did not receive coaching or SMS text messages. The texting app showed that 87.31% (2187/2505) of messages were viewed by intervention participants. Furthermore, 28 of the 30 intervention participants and all 30 control participants provided outcome data. Among intervention participants, 22 of 30 (73%) showed improvement in health behavior goal attainment, with the whole group (n=30) showing a mean improvement of 88% (95% CI 39-136). Mean

  4. The effects of Nordic Walking training on selected upper-body muscle groups in female-office workers: A randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocur, Piotr; Pospieszna, Barbara; Choszczewski, Daniel; Michalowski, Lukasz; Wiernicka, Marzena; Lewandowski, Jacek

    2017-01-01

    Regular Nordic Walking training could improve fitness and reduce tenderness in selected muscle groups in office workers. An assessment of the effects of a 12-week Nordic Walking training program on the perceived pain threshold (PPT) and the flexibility of selected upper-body muscle groups in postmenopausal female office workers. 39 office workers were selected at random for the treatment group (NWg, n = 20) and the control group (Cg, n = 19). The persons from the NW group completed a 12-week Nordic Walking training program (3 times a week/1 hour). PPTs measurements in selected muscles and functional tests evaluating upper-body flexibility (Back Scratch - BS) were carried out twice in every participant of the study: before and after the training program. A significant increase in PPT (kg/cm2) was observed in the following muscles in the NW group only: upper trapezius (from 1,32 kg/cm2 to 1,99 kg/cm2), mid trapezius (from 2,92 kg/cm2 to 3,30 kg/cm2), latissimus dorsi (from 1,66 kg/cm2 to 2,21 kg/cm2) and infraspinatus (from 1,63 kg/cm2 to 2,93 kg/cm2). Moreover, a significant improvement in the BS test was noted in the NW group compared with the control group (from -1,16±5,7 cm to 2,18±5,1 cm in the NW group vs from -2,52±6,1 to -2,92±6,2 in the control group). A 12-week Nordic Walking training routine improves shoulder mobility and reduces tenderness in the following muscles: trapezius pars descendens and middle trapezius, infraspinatus and latissimus dorsi, in female office workers.

  5. Zeta Sperm Selection Improves Pregnancy Rate and Alters Sex Ratio in Male Factor Infertility Patients: A Double-Blind, Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasr Esfahani Mohammad Hossein

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Selection of sperm for intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI is usually considered as the ultimate technique to alleviate male-factor infertility. In routine ICSI, selection is based on morphology and viability which does not necessarily preclude the chance injection of DNA-damaged or apoptotic sperm into the oocyte. Sperm with high negative surface electrical charge, named “Zeta potential”, are mature and more likely to have intact chromatin. In addition, X-bearing spermatozoa carry more negative charge. Therefore, we aimed to compare the clinical outcomes of Zeta procedure with routine sperm selection in infertile men candidate for ICSI. Materials and Methods From a total of 203 ICSI cycles studied, 101 cycles were allocated to density gradient centrifugation (DGC/Zeta group and the remaining 102 were included in the DGC group in this prospective study. Clinical outcomes were com- pared between the two groups. The ratios of Xand Y bearing sperm were assessed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR methods in 17 independent semen samples. Results In the present double-blind randomized clinical trial, a significant increase in top quality embryos and pregnancy rate were observed in DGC/Zeta group compared to DGC group. Moreover, sex ratio (XY/XX at birth significantly was lower in the DGC/Zeta group compared to DGC group despite similar ratio of X/Y bearings sper- matozoa following Zeta selection. Conclusion Zeta method not only improves the percentage of top embryo quality and pregnancy outcome but also alters the sex ratio compared to the conventional DGC method, despite no significant change in the ratio of Xand Ybearing sperm population (Registration number: IRCT201108047223N1.

  6. A comparison of the effects of random and selective mass extinctions on erosion of evolutionary history in communities of digital organisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Yedid

    Full Text Available The effect of mass extinctions on phylogenetic diversity and branching history of clades remains poorly understood in paleobiology. We examined the phylogenies of communities of digital organisms undergoing open-ended evolution as we subjected them to instantaneous "pulse" extinctions, choosing survivors at random, and to prolonged "press" extinctions involving a period of low resource availability. We measured age of the phylogenetic root and tree stemminess, and evaluated how branching history of the phylogenetic trees was affected by the extinction treatments. We found that strong random (pulse and strong selective extinction (press both left clear long-term signatures in root age distribution and tree stemminess, and eroded deep branching history to a greater degree than did weak extinction and control treatments. The widely-used Pybus-Harvey gamma statistic showed a clear short-term response to extinction and recovery, but differences between treatments diminished over time and did not show a long-term signature. The characteristics of post-extinction phylogenies were often affected as much by the recovery interval as by the extinction episode itself.

  7. A theory for the origin of a self-replicating chemical system. I - Natural selection of the autogen from short, random oligomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, D. H.

    1980-01-01

    A general theory is presented for the origin of a self-replicating chemical system, termed an autogen, which is capable of both crude replication and translation (protein synthesis). The theory requires the availability of free energy and monomers to the system, a significant background low-yield synthesis of kinetically stable oligopeptides and oligonucleotides, the localization of the oligomers, crude oligonucleotide selectivity of amino acids during oligopeptide synthesis, crude oligonucleotide replication, and two short peptide families which catalyze replication and translation, to produce a localized group of at least one copy each of two protogenes and two protoenzymes. The model posits a process of random oligomerization, followed by the random nucleation of functional components and the rapid autocatalytic growth of the functioning autogen to macroscopic amounts, to account for the origin of the first self-replicating system. Such a process contains steps of such high probability and short time periods that it is suggested that the emergence of an autogen in a laboratory experiment of reasonable time scale may be possible.

  8. Effects of Video Game Training on Measures of Selective Attention and Working Memory in Older Adults: Results from a Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballesteros, Soledad; Mayas, Julia; Prieto, Antonio; Ruiz-Marquez, Eloísa; Toril, Pilar; Reales, José M.

    2017-01-01

    Video game training with older adults potentially enhances aspects of cognition that decline with aging and could therefore offer a promising training approach. Although, previous published studies suggest that training can produce transfer, many of them have certain shortcomings. This randomized controlled trial (RCT; Clinicaltrials.gov ID: NCT02796508) tried to overcome some of these limitations by incorporating an active control group and the assessment of motivation and expectations. Seventy-five older volunteers were randomly assigned to the experimental group trained for 16 sessions with non-action video games from Lumosity, a commercial platform (http://www.lumosity.com/) or to an active control group trained for the same number of sessions with simulation strategy games. The final sample included 55 older adults (30 in the experimental group and 25 in the active control group). Participants were tested individually before and after training to assess working memory (WM) and selective attention and also reported their perceived improvement, motivation and engagement. The results showed improved performance across the training sessions. The main results were: (1) the experimental group did not show greater improvements in measures of selective attention and working memory than the active control group (the opposite occurred in the oddball task); (2) a marginal training effect was observed for the N-back task, but not for the Stroop task while both groups improved in the Corsi Blocks task. Based on these results, one can conclude that training with non-action games provide modest benefits for untrained tasks. The effect is not specific for that kind of training as a similar effect was observed for strategy video games. Groups did not differ in motivation, engagement or expectations. PMID:29163136

  9. Effects of Video Game Training on Measures of Selective Attention and Working Memory in Older Adults: Results from a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballesteros, Soledad; Mayas, Julia; Prieto, Antonio; Ruiz-Marquez, Eloísa; Toril, Pilar; Reales, José M

    2017-01-01

    Video game training with older adults potentially enhances aspects of cognition that decline with aging and could therefore offer a promising training approach. Although, previous published studies suggest that training can produce transfer, many of them have certain shortcomings. This randomized controlled trial (RCT; Clinicaltrials.gov ID: NCT02796508) tried to overcome some of these limitations by incorporating an active control group and the assessment of motivation and expectations. Seventy-five older volunteers were randomly assigned to the experimental group trained for 16 sessions with non-action video games from Lumosity, a commercial platform (http://www.lumosity.com/) or to an active control group trained for the same number of sessions with simulation strategy games. The final sample included 55 older adults (30 in the experimental group and 25 in the active control group). Participants were tested individually before and after training to assess working memory (WM) and selective attention and also reported their perceived improvement, motivation and engagement. The results showed improved performance across the training sessions. The main results were: (1) the experimental group did not show greater improvements in measures of selective attention and working memory than the active control group (the opposite occurred in the oddball task); (2) a marginal training effect was observed for the N-back task, but not for the Stroop task while both groups improved in the Corsi Blocks task. Based on these results, one can conclude that training with non-action games provide modest benefits for untrained tasks. The effect is not specific for that kind of training as a similar effect was observed for strategy video games. Groups did not differ in motivation, engagement or expectations.

  10. Effects of Video Game Training on Measures of Selective Attention and Working Memory in Older Adults: Results from a Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soledad Ballesteros

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Video game training with older adults potentially enhances aspects of cognition that decline with aging and could therefore offer a promising training approach. Although, previous published studies suggest that training can produce transfer, many of them have certain shortcomings. This randomized controlled trial (RCT; Clinicaltrials.gov ID: NCT02796508 tried to overcome some of these limitations by incorporating an active control group and the assessment of motivation and expectations. Seventy-five older volunteers were randomly assigned to the experimental group trained for 16 sessions with non-action video games from Lumosity, a commercial platform (http://www.lumosity.com/ or to an active control group trained for the same number of sessions with simulation strategy games. The final sample included 55 older adults (30 in the experimental group and 25 in the active control group. Participants were tested individually before and after training to assess working memory (WM and selective attention and also reported their perceived improvement, motivation and engagement. The results showed improved performance across the training sessions. The main results were: (1 the experimental group did not show greater improvements in measures of selective attention and working memory than the active control group (the opposite occurred in the oddball task; (2 a marginal training effect was observed for the N-back task, but not for the Stroop task while both groups improved in the Corsi Blocks task. Based on these results, one can conclude that training with non-action games provide modest benefits for untrained tasks. The effect is not specific for that kind of training as a similar effect was observed for strategy video games. Groups did not differ in motivation, engagement or expectations.

  11. Genetic evaluation and selection response for growth in meat-type quail through random regression models using B-spline functions and Legendre polynomials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, L F M; Martins, P G M A; Littiere, T O; Abreu, L R A; Silva, M A; Bonafé, C M

    2017-08-14

    The objective was to estimate (co)variance functions using random regression models (RRM) with Legendre polynomials, B-spline function and multi-trait models aimed at evaluating genetic parameters of growth traits in meat-type quail. A database containing the complete pedigree information of 7000 meat-type quail was utilized. The models included the fixed effects of contemporary group and generation. Direct additive genetic and permanent environmental effects, considered as random, were modeled using B-spline functions considering quadratic and cubic polynomials for each individual segment, and Legendre polynomials for age. Residual variances were grouped in four age classes. Direct additive genetic and permanent environmental effects were modeled using 2 to 4 segments and were modeled by Legendre polynomial with orders of fit ranging from 2 to 4. The model with quadratic B-spline adjustment, using four segments for direct additive genetic and permanent environmental effects, was the most appropriate and parsimonious to describe the covariance structure of the data. The RRM using Legendre polynomials presented an underestimation of the residual variance. Lesser heritability estimates were observed for multi-trait models in comparison with RRM for the evaluated ages. In general, the genetic correlations between measures of BW from hatching to 35 days of age decreased as the range between the evaluated ages increased. Genetic trend for BW was positive and significant along the selection generations. The genetic response to selection for BW in the evaluated ages presented greater values for RRM compared with multi-trait models. In summary, RRM using B-spline functions with four residual variance classes and segments were the best fit for genetic evaluation of growth traits in meat-type quail. In conclusion, RRM should be considered in genetic evaluation of breeding programs.

  12. Evaluation of multiple variate selection methods from a biological perspective: A nutrigenomics case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tapp, H.S.; Radonjic, M.; Kemsley, E.K.; Thissen, U.

    2012-01-01

    Genomics-based technologies produce large amounts of data. To interpret the results and identify the most important variates related to phenotypes of interest, various multivariate regression and variate selection methods are used. Although inspected for statistical performance, the relevance of

  13. Selection of Objective Function For Imbalanced Classification: An Industrial Case Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Abdul Rauf; Schiøler, Henrik; Kulahci, Murat

    2017-01-01

    In this article we discuss the issue of selecting suitable objective function for Genetic Algorithm to solve an imbalanced classification problem. More precisely, first we discuss the need of specialized objective function to solve a real classification problem from our industrial partner...

  14. The Case for Using Student Voice in Teacher Selection and Recruitment: Reflections from a School Leader

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Peter

    2012-01-01

    In this piece Peter Kent, headteacher of Lawrence Sheriff School in Rugby in the UK, reflects upon the role of the student voice in selecting and recruiting new teaching staff. Contextualised by some recent unsympathetic reporting in the UK media, Peter explains why for their school community, using the student voice to inform teacher recruitment…

  15. A structured approach for selecting carbon capture process models : A case study on monoethanolamine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Spek, Mijndert; Ramirez, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Carbon capture and storage is considered a promising option to mitigate CO2 emissions. This has resulted in many R&D efforts focusing at developing viable carbon capture technologies. During carbon capture technology development, process modeling plays an important role. Selecting an appropriate

  16. Gendered production spaces and crop varietal selection: Case study in Yucatán, Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lope-Alzina, D.G.

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the influence of gender relations and gendered domains on maize and squash varietal selection in a village in Yucatán State, southeast Mexico. Results of the exploratory study indicate that the traditional production spaces of homegardens and agricultural fields are complementary

  17. Parental Selection of Responses to Misbehavior: The Case of Physical Punishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, George W.

    Mothers' behavioral intentions about using physical punishment were examined to reveal influences on their selection of responses to child misbehaviors. Participants were 55 middle-class, mostly college-educated mothers of 3-to-4-year-old children. A total of 31 children were girls. Mothers operated a computer program which presented, in a random…

  18. Influence of species on site selection and timber removal: a case study for West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    William Luppold; Delton Alderman

    2007-01-01

    Over the last 40 years the composition of West Virginia forests has been changing as selective cutting practices have removed larger-diameter timber of specific species and partial canopy removal has fostered the regeneration of shade-tolerant species such as red maple. However, since the mid-1990s there has been considerable change in the number of markets accepting...

  19. A case reopened : teleology and its consequences for the units of selection discussion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rossum, Joris van

    2003-01-01

    Darwinian explanations for teleology are often imprecise, and justify the occurrence of teleological features by referring to natural selection in a vague and unspecified sense. In this paper, the Darwinian account for teleology is further analyzed. It is argued that in theory only a specific form

  20. An innovative ontology-driven system supporting personnel selection: the OntoHR case

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kismihók, G.; Vas, R.; Mol, S.T.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the initial development of an HRM system that aims to decrease the gap between higher vocational education and the labour market for a specific job in the ICT sector. This paper focuses specifically on the delineation of a process model and the selection of a suitable job role

  1. Parent Decision-Making When Selecting Schools: The Case of Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Priyadarshani

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyzes the parent decision-making processes underlying school selection in Nepal. The analysis is based on primary survey and focus group data collected from parent meetings in diverse local education markets in two districts of Nepal in 2011. It highlights three main arguments that are less frequently discussed in the context of…

  2. Selection of a plant location - A case study: Urea production using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of ~hoosing an appropriate plant location is to select the place which will enable a factory to process the material and deliver the product lo its customers al a minimum cost. To meet this goal there are a number of criteria to be analyzed before taking any decision. The criteria are. amongst others, supply of raw ...

  3. Career Choices, Job Selection Criteria, and Leadership Preferences in a Transitional Nation: The Case of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aycan, Zeynep; Fikret-Pasa, Selda

    2003-01-01

    Survey responses from 1,213 Turkish management students indicated that the most motivating factors in job selection were power and authority, peaceful work environment, career advancement opportunities, and pay. Least motivating were close supervision, supervisor praise, performance feedback and a sense of belonging. Charismatic leadership style…

  4. A Case Study of the Selection/Censorship Problem and the Educational Value of Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdan, Deanne

    1988-01-01

    A rebellion against a work of literature in a course on women's literature and feminist criticism appeared to be censorship. Questions are raised about several topics. They are the following: (1) censorship and the selection of literature; (2) the literary versus the stock response; and (3) humanistic assumptions underlying the educational value…

  5. Just-in-time consent: The ethical case for an alternative to traditional informed consent in randomized trials comparing an experimental intervention with usual care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickers, Andrew J; Young-Afat, Danny A; Ehdaie, Behfar; Kim, Scott Yh

    2017-12-01

    Informed consent for randomized trials often causes significant and persistent anxiety, distress and confusion to patients. Where an experimental treatment is compared to a standard care control, much of this burden is potentially avoidable in the control group. We propose a "just-in-time" consent in which consent discussions take place in two stages: an initial consent to research from all participants and a later specific consent to randomized treatment only from those assigned to the experimental intervention. All patients are first approached and informed about research procedures, such as questionnaires or tests. They are also informed that they might be randomly selected to receive an experimental treatment and that, if selected, they can learn more about the treatment and decide whether or not to accept it at that time. After randomization, control patients undergo standard clinical consent whereas patients randomized to the experimental procedure undergo a second consent discussion. Analysis would be by intent-to-treat, which protects the trial from selection bias, although not from poor acceptance of experimental treatment. The advantages of just-in-time consent stem from the fact that only patients randomized to the experimental treatment are subject to a discussion of that intervention. We hypothesize that this will reduce much of the patient's burden associated with the consent process, such as decisional anxiety, confusion and information overload. We recommend well-controlled studies to compare just-in-time and traditional consent, with endpoints to include characteristics of participants, distress and anxiety and participants' understanding of research procedures.

  6. Importance of hereditary and selected environmental risk factors in the etiology of inflammatory breast cancer: a case-comparison study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moslehi, Roxana; Freedman, Elizabeth; Zeinomar, Nur; Veneroso, Carmela; Levine, Paul H

    2016-05-26

    To assess the importance of heredity in the etiology of inflammatory breast cancer (IBC), we compared IBC patients to several carefully chosen comparison groups with respect to the prevalence of first-degree family history of breast cancer. IBC cases (n = 141) were compared to non-inflammatory breast cancer cases (n = 178) ascertained through George Washington University (GWU) with respect to the prevalence of first-degree family history of breast cancer and selected environmental/lifestyle risk factors for breast cancer. Similar comparisons were conducted with subjects from three case-control studies: breast cancer cases (n = 1145) and unaffected controls (n = 1142) from the Cancer Genetic Markers of Susceptibility (CGEMS) study, breast cancer cases (n = 465) and controls (n = 9317) from the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) study, and ovarian cancer cases (n = 260) and controls (n = 331) from a study by University of Toronto (UT). The frequency of first-degree breast cancer family history among IBC cases was 17.0 % compared to 24.4 % for GWU breast cancer cases, 23.9 % and 17.9 % for CGEMS breast cancer cases and controls, respectively, 16.9 % and 12.6 % for WHI breast cancer cases and controls, respectively, and 24.2 % and 11.2 % for UT ovarian cancer cases and controls, respectively. IBC cases had a significantly lower prevalence of parous women than WHI breast cancer cases (OR = 0.46, 95 % CI:0.27-0.81) and controls (OR = 0.31, 95 % CI:0.20-0.49). Oral contraceptive use was significantly higher among IBC cases compared to WHI breast cancer cases (OR = 7.77, 95 % CI:4.82-12.59) and controls (OR = 8.14, 95 % CI:5.28-12.61). IBC cases had a significantly higher frequency of regular alcohol consumption (≥1 drink per day) compared to WHI controls (OR = 1.84, 95 % CI:1.20-2.82) and UT controls (OR = 1.86, 95 % CI:1.07-3.22) and higher (statistically non-significant) prevalence (21.3 %) compared to

  7. Developing effective web-based regional anesthesia education: a randomized study evaluating case-based versus non-case-based module design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopp, Sandra L; Smith, Hugh M

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about the use of Web-based education in regional anesthesia training. Benefits of Web-based education include the ability to standardize learning material quality and content, build appropriate learning progressions, use interactive multimedia technologies, and individualize delivery of course materials. The goals of this investigation were (1) to determine whether module design influences regional anesthesia knowledge acquisition, (2) to characterize learner preference patterns among anesthesia residents, and (3) to determine whether learner preferences play a role in knowledge acquisition. Direct comparison of knowledge assessments, learning styles, and learner preferences will be made between an interactive case-based and a traditional textbook-style module design. Forty-three Mayo Clinic anesthesiology residents completed 2 online modules, a knowledge pretest, posttest, an Index of Learning Styles assessment, and a participant satisfaction survey. Interscalene and lumbar plexus regional techniques were selected as the learning content for 4 Web modules constructed using the Blackboard Vista coursework application. One traditional textbook-style module and 1 interactive case-based module were designed for each of the interscalene and lumbar plexus techniques. Participants scored higher on the postmodule knowledge assessment for both of the interscalene and lumbar plexus modules. Postmodule knowledge performance scores were independent of both module design (interactive case-based versus traditional textbook style) and learning style preferences. However, nearly all participants reported a preference for Web-based learning and believe that it should be used in anesthesia resident education. Participants did not feel that Web-base learning should replace the current lecture-based curriculum. All residents scored higher on the postmodule knowledge assessment, but this improvement was independent of the module design and individual learning styles

  8. A selection of experimental test cases for the validation of CFD codes, volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-08-01

    This report presents the results of a study by Working Group 14 of the AGARD Fluid Dynamics Panel. This group was formed to establish an accessible, detailed experimental data base for the validation of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) codes. The thirty nine test cases that are documented cover the subsonic, transonic, and supersonic flow regimes and five classes of geometries. Included in the five classes of geometries are: two dimensional airfoils; three dimensional wings, designed for predominantly attached flow conditions; slender bodies, typical of missile type configurations; delta wings, characterized by a conical type of vortex flow; and complex configurations, either in a geometrical sense or because of complicated flow interactions. The report is presented in two volumes. Volume 1 provides a review of the theoretical and experimental requirements, a general introduction and summary of the test cases, and recommendations for the future. Volume 2 contains detailed information on the test cases. The relevant data of all test cases has been compiled on floppy disks, which can be obtained through National Centers.

  9. Reflections on Teaching Periodic Table Concepts: A Case Study of Selected Schools in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokiwa, Hamza Omari

    2017-01-01

    The Periodic Table of Elements is central to the study of modern Physics and Chemistry. It is however, considered by teachers as difficult to teach. This paper reports on a case study exploring reflections on teaching periodic table concepts in five secondary schools from South Africa. Qualitative methodology of interviews and document analysis…

  10. Leadership in school-based management: a case study in selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article, derived from a qualitative case study undertaken among a number of divergent secondary schools in Gauteng province, is an attempt to conceptualise the important and pivotal leadership role of the school principal in ensuring school improvement via effective school-based management in South African ...

  11. Exposure to selected fragrance materials. A case study of fragrance-mix-positive eczema patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, J D; Rastogi, Suresh Chandra; Menné, T

    1996-01-01

    . In all cases, the use of these cosmetics completely or partly explained present or past episodes of eczema. Between 1 to 6 constituents of the fragrance mix were found in 22 out of 23 products. The cosmetics of all the patients sensitive to hydroxycitronellal, eugenol, cinnamic alcohol and alpha...

  12. A case study in experimental exploration: exploratory data selection at the Large Hadron Collider

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karaca, Koray

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, I propose an account that accommodates the possibility of experimentation being exploratory in cases where the procedures necessary to plan and perform an experiment are dependent on the theoretical accounts of the phenomena under investigation. The present account suggests that

  13. Multi-Attribute Selection of Coal Center Location: A Case Study in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuakunrittiwong, T.; Ratanakuakangwan, S.

    2016-11-01

    Under Power Development Plan 2015, Thailand has to diversify its heavily gas-fired electricity generation. The main owner of electricity transmission grids is responsible to implement several coal-fired power plants with clean coal technology. To environmentally handle and economically transport unprecedented quantities of sub-bituminous and bituminous coal, a coal center is required. The location of such facility is an important strategic decision and a paramount to the success of the energy plan. As site selection involves many criteria, Fuzzy Analytical Hierarchy Process or Fuzzy-AHP is applied to select the most suitable location among three candidates. Having analyzed relevant criteria and the potential alternatives, the result reveals that engineering and socioeconomic are important criteria and Map Ta Phut is the most suitable site for the coal center.

  14. Mapping dermatomes during selective dorsal rhizotomy: case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemecek, Andrew N; Avellino, Anthony M; Goodkin, Robert; Little, James; Kliot, Michel

    2003-10-01

    Studies suggest that the pattern of dermatomal segmental innervation in any given patient, may differ from the classic dermatomal maps first described in the 1890s. Such variability may limit the effectiveness of selective dorsal rhizotomy for treatment of neurogenic pain. A 46-year-old male presented with a 27-year history of intractable pain in his left arm after being shot during the Vietnam War; multiple surgical and medical therapeutic modalities failed to produce durable pain relief. The patient underwent selective dorsal rhizotomy, with intraoperative dermatomal and mixed somatosensory evoked potential recordings. Pre- and postrhizotomy recordings were compared, effectively mapping this patient's dermatomal pattern. At 4 years' follow-up, the patient remains pain free. Intraoperative monitoring of somatosensory evoked potentials during dorsal rhizotomy for neurogenic pain can be used to establish the degree to which an individual's pattern of segmental innervation conforms to the traditionally described dermatomes.

  15. AHP-VIKOR Bridge Structural System Selection in Urban Areas Tehran: Interchanges Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Akbar Ramezanianpour

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The selection of “Structural system” is one of the most important factors in any bridge and infrastructure design. Designers perform the structural calculations for the project determines the priorities as well as design and performance criteria. Further analysis of the structural selection problem and the identification of the bridge desirable capabilities, triggered the consideration of analytic hierarchy process (AHP as a possible basis for the decision making. The methodology uses the VIKOR to evaluate the alternatives according to the decision criteria and determine the solution. The methodology was developed by a group of bridge designers involved in design and management of urban infrastructure projects and demonstrated using a Steel Girder bridge in an urban area as an optimum alternative.

  16. Selection Criteria for Computer Software and Hardware: A Case Study of Six University Libraries in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udoh-Ilomechine Queenette

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the criteria used in the selection of computer hardware and software in six university libraries in Nigeria. Six (6 copies of a questionnaire were sent to selected librarians in Edo and Delta states, Nigeria. All copies of the questionnaire were retrieved. The data collected were analyzed. The fin dings reveal that the respondents took into consideration such factors as memory, speed, capacity, durability, costs, reliability and standardization, brand and manufacturer, warranty, and scalability of the system before procuring computer hardware. The respondents also take into consideration the reliability and track record of the vendor, service and technical support, previews or sample sections, compatibility with other program s being used, product cost, and data migration before procuring computer software. It is also noteworthy that the respondents have encountered with electricity failure, improper implementation, and difficulties to get qualified personnel to maintain and/or repair computer hardware when it was broken down.

  17. A model for strategic selection of feeder management systems: A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Hsing Hung [Faculty of Management and Administration, Macau University of Science and Technology, Avenue Wei Long, Taipa, Macau (China); Lee, Amy H.I. [Department of Industrial Management, Chung Hua University, No. 707, Sec. 2, Wu Fu Rd., Hsinchu 300 (China); Kang, He-Yau [Department of Industrial Engineering and Management, National Chin-Yi University of Technology, 35, Lane 215, Sec. 1, Chung San Rd., Taiping, Taichung 411 (China)

    2010-06-15

    The move to integrating distribution management system (DMS) and feeder management system (FMS) in China is becoming the main trend in recent years, in addition to upgrading and rebuilding existing energy management system (EMS) and DMS. However, with increasing complexity in the social environments along with rapidly changing technologies, how to select a suitable contractor and a FMS project is becoming an important issue for electric power companies. This paper first briefly introduces FMS and then lists its critical success criteria. A model that applies a multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) method, an analytic network process (ANP) associated with benefits, opportunities, costs and risks (BOCR), is constructed to help power companies to select the most suitable FMS project. (author)

  18. Power and selection of contract terms: The case from the Brazilian orange juice sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuiuki Costa Ito

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT We propose a model to explain how contract terms are selected in the presence of a form of economic power: contract power. The orange juice sector is used to illustrate an analysis that demonstrates the effects of contract power on the economic organization of the sector. We define contract power as the ability to exploit contractual gaps or failures of contractual provisions, which are strategically left incomplete. Empirical evidence from content analysis of antitrust documents supports the logic of contract power in the orange juice sector in three forms: avoiding changes to payment methods from weight to solid contents (quality; using information asymmetries to manipulate indexes that calculate the formula of orange prices; and deliberately harvesting oranges late in order to dehydrate the fruit, which consequently reduces weight and price. The paper contributes to understanding the selection of contract terms and the debate about how antitrust offices can deal with this issue.

  19. A Decision support system for shelter site selection with GIS intergration : case for Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Kılcı, Fırat

    2012-01-01

    Ankara : The Department of Industrial Engineeringand the Graduate School of Engineering and Science of Bilkent University, 2012. Thesis (Master's) -- Bilkent University, 2012. Includes bibliographical refences. In this study, a methodology for locating shelter sites after a disaster is developed. Currently, in Turkey, Turkish Red Crescent is responsible for selecting the location of shelter areas. First, they identify the candidate shelter site locations. Then, they rank tho...

  20. How Widespread is Graphology in Personnel Selection Practice? A case study of a job market myth

    OpenAIRE

    Bangerter, Adrian; König, Cornelius J.; Blatti, Sandrine; Salvisberg, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    Graphology is allegedly widely used in personnel selection in Europe. This is a myth: a widespread but false belief. We explored this myth in five studies. Study 1 established that job ads rarely require handwritten letters. Study 2 showed that handwritten letters serve multiple purposes but are seldom used for handwriting analysis. In Study 3, job market actors overestimated the frequency with which handwritten letters are subjected to graphological analysis. In Study 4, we showed experiment...

  1. A randomized controlled trial investigating the use of a predictive nomogram for the selection of the FSH starting dose in IVF/ICSI cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allegra, Adolfo; Marino, Angelo; Volpes, Aldo; Coffaro, Francesco; Scaglione, Piero; Gullo, Salvatore; La Marca, Antonio

    2017-04-01

    The number of oocytes retrieved is a relevant intermediate outcome in women undergoing IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). This trial compared the efficiency of the selection of the FSH starting dose according to a nomogram based on multiple biomarkers (age, day 3 FSH, anti-Müllerian hormone) versus an age-based strategy. The primary outcome measure was the proportion of women with an optimal number of retrieved oocytes defined as 8-14. At their first IVF/ICSI cycle, 191 patients underwent a long gonadotrophin-releasing hormone agonist protocol and were randomized to receive a starting dose of recombinant (human) FSH, based on their age (150 IU if ≤35 years, 225 IU if >35 years) or based on the nomogram. Optimal response was observed in 58/92 patients (63%) in the nomogram group and in 42/99 (42%) in the control group (+21%, 95% CI = 0.07 to 0.35, P = 0.0037). No significant differences were found in the clinical pregnancy rate or the number of embryos cryopreserved per patient. The study showed that the FSH starting dose selected according to ovarian reserve is associated with an increase in the proportion of patients with an optimal response: large trials are recommended to investigate any possible effect on the live-birth rate. Copyright © 2017 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Paraplegia complicating selective steroid injections of the lumbar spine. Report of five cases and review of the literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wybier, Marc [Assistance Publique - Hopitaux de Paris, Musculoskeletal Radiology Department, Hopital Lariboisiere, Paris (France); Hopital Lariboisiere, Service de Radiologie Osteo-articulaire, Paris (France); Gaudart, Sandrine [Assistance Publique - Hopitaux de Paris, Radiology Department, Hopital Beaujon, Clichy (France); Petrover, David; Laredo, Jean-Denis [Assistance Publique - Hopitaux de Paris, Musculoskeletal Radiology Department, Hopital Lariboisiere, Paris (France); Houdart, Emmanuel [Assistance Publique - Hopitaux de Paris, Neuroradiology Department, Hopital Lariboisiere, Paris (France)

    2010-01-15

    Selective steroid injections of the lumbar spine carry a risk of paraplegia of sudden onset. Seven cases have been reported in the English literature since 2002. Five new cases have been analyzed, all coming from Paris area centers. Injections were performed between 2003 and 2008. The following items were searched for: location of a previous lumbar spine surgery if any, symptoms indicating the procedure, route of injection, imaging technique used for needle guidance, injection of a contrast medium, type of steroid, other drugs injected if any, paraplegia level, post-procedure MR findings. The current and reported cases were compared. MR findings were consistent with spinal cord ischemia of arterial origin. The high rate of patients who had been operated on in these cases does not correspond to that of patients undergoing injections. The presence of epidural scar might increase the risk. The foraminal route was the only one involved in nonoperated patients. Foraminal, interlaminar, or juxta-zygoapophyseal routes were used in operated-on patients. The high rate of French cases when compared to the literature might arise from the almost exclusive use of prednisolone acetate, a molecule with a high tendency to coalesce in macro-aggregates, putting the spinal cord at risk of arterial supply embolization. (orig.)

  3. New Hybrid Features Selection Method: A Case Study on Websites Phishing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khairan D. Rajab

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Phishing is one of the serious web threats that involves mimicking authenticated websites to deceive users in order to obtain their financial information. Phishing has caused financial damage to the different online stakeholders. It is massive in the magnitude of hundreds of millions; hence it is essential to minimize this risk. Classifying websites into “phishy” and legitimate types is a primary task in data mining that security experts and decision makers are hoping to improve particularly with respect to the detection rate and reliability of the results. One way to ensure the reliability of the results and to enhance performance is to identify a set of related features early on so the data dimensionality reduces and irrelevant features are discarded. To increase reliability of preprocessing, this article proposes a new feature selection method that combines the scores of multiple known methods to minimize discrepancies in feature selection results. The proposed method has been applied to the problem of website phishing classification to show its pros and cons in identifying relevant features. Results against a security dataset reveal that the proposed preprocessing method was able to derive new features datasets which when mined generate high competitive classifiers with reference to detection rate when compared to results obtained from other features selection methods.

  4. Health information security: a case study of three selected medical centers in iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajrahimi, Nafiseh; Dehaghani, Sayed Mehdi Hejazi; Sheikhtaheri, Abbas

    2013-03-01

    Health Information System (HIS) is considered a unique factor in improving the quality of health care activities and cost reduction, but today with the development of information technology and use of internet and computer networks, patients' electronic records and health information systems have become a source for hackers. This study aims at checking health information security of three selected medical centers in Iran using AHP fuzzy and TOPSIS compound model. To achieve that security measures were identified, based on the research literature and decision making matrix using experts' points of view. Among the 27 indicators, seven indicators were selected as effective indicators and Fuzzy AHP technique was used to determine the importance of security indicators. Based on the comparisons made between the three selected medical centers to assess the security of health information, it is concluded that Chamran hospital has the most acceptable level of security and attention in three indicators of "verification and system design, user access management, access control system", Al Zahra Hospital in two indicators of "access management and network access control" and Amin Hospital in "equipment safety and system design". In terms of information security, Chamran Hospital ranked first, Al-Zahra Hospital ranked second and Al- Zahra hospital has the third place.

  5. CLOTHING BUYING MOTIVES AND STORE SELECTION CRITERIA – THE CASE OF CROATIAN ADOLESCENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blaženka Knežević

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyse Croatian adolescents’ clothing buying motives and their retail store selection criteria. The paper examined their preferences, attitudes and behaviours when buying clothes - whether adolescents with different primary clothing motives would have similar or different store selection criteria. Also, the paper determined how today’s adolescents spend money on clothes and whether they are more inclined to purchase branded clothes or not. Finally, the paper explained whether Croatian adolescents prefer purchasing in small or large specialized apparel stores, or whether they are more prone to online purchasing or even buying clothes in second-hand shops. Also, the society influences in forming adolescents’ attitudes and decisions towards store selection and purchasing preferences of clothes were examined. The research findings showed that shopping centres are the preferred retail format. In addition, adolescents do not have a fully developed attitude on fashion and clothing. Therefore, they strongly refer to opinions of family and friends when choosing clothes. Moreover, the Internet and TV are evaluated as influential channels of consumer communication within this particular group of consumers. Based on the findings, suggestions for service management and marketing strategies are provided for apparel retail companies that target adolescents.

  6. OPEN SPATIAL DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEM: CASE FOR RADIOACTIVE WASTE DISPOSAL SITE SELECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Perković

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In recent years the scientific and professional circles frequently discussed about radioactive waste and site selection for radioactive waste disposal. This issue will be further updated with accession of Republic of Croatia to the European Union and the only issue is politicized view of the fact that nuclear power plant Krško Croatia shares with neighbouring Republic of Slovenia. All the necessary studies have been made and these are attended by experts from different areas. Also, all Croatian residents should be familiar with this subject matter in a manner accessible to the general public through all available media. There are some questions: What are the institutions have taken on the issue of informing the public and can it be enough? When selecting a suitable site, with many parameters, the basic element is suitable geological formation, although the landfill must be socially acceptable. Well established methods used in the selection of eligible areas are multicriteria decision analysis (MCDA, geographic information system (GIS and combined GIS-MCDA method. The application of these methods is of great help in making decisions about the location of disposal of radioactive waste. Presentation of results, designed in the form of an open spatial decision support system, could help in education and informing the general public (the paper is published in Croatian.

  7. Prevalence of at-risk genotypes for genotoxic effects decreases with age in a randomly selected population in Flanders: a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Delft Joost HM

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We hypothesized that in Flanders (Belgium, the prevalence of at-risk genotypes for genotoxic effects decreases with age due to morbidity and mortality resulting from chronic diseases. Rather than polymorphisms in single genes, the interaction of multiple genetic polymorphisms in low penetrance genes involved in genotoxic effects might be of relevance. Methods Genotyping was performed on 399 randomly selected adults (aged 50-65 and on 442 randomly selected adolescents. Based on their involvement in processes relevant to genotoxicity, 28 low penetrance polymorphisms affecting the phenotype in 19 genes were selected (xenobiotic metabolism, oxidative stress defense and DNA repair, respectively 13, 6 and 9 polymorphisms. Polymorphisms which, based on available literature, could not clearly be categorized a priori as leading to an 'increased risk' or a 'protective effect' were excluded. Results The mean number of risk alleles for all investigated polymorphisms was found to be lower in the 'elderly' (17.0 ± 2.9 than the 'adolescent' (17.6 ± 3.1 subpopulation (P = 0.002. These results were not affected by gender nor smoking. The prevalence of a high (> 17 = median number of risk alleles was less frequent in the 'elderly' (40.6% than the 'adolescent' (51.4% subpopulation (P = 0.002. In particular for phase II enzymes, the mean number of risk alleles was lower in the 'elderly' (4.3 ± 1.6 than the 'adolescent' age group (4.8 ± 1.9 P 4 = median number of risk alleles was less frequent in the 'elderly' (41.3% than the adolescent subpopulation (56.3%, P 8 = median number of risk alleles for DNA repair enzyme-coding genes was lower in the 'elderly' (37,3% than the 'adolescent' subpopulation (45.6%, P = 0.017. Conclusions These observations are consistent with the hypothesis that, in Flanders, the prevalence of at-risk alleles in genes involved in genotoxic effects decreases with age, suggesting that persons carrying a higher number of

  8. Limits on Exoneration from Responsibility in International Law: Amnesties, Selection and Priorization of Cases in National Jurisdiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastián Machado Ramírez

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Much has been said about the legal tools that a State has to confront a process of transitional justice. Traditionally, international literature has discussed the content of the “truth, justice and reparation” standards. Notwithstanding, little attention has been paid to the legal sources that may limit or permit the partial preclusion of wrongfulness in transitional justice mechanisms. This preclusion of wrongfulness may be part of a prosecutorial policy of prioritization and selection of cases, which may be in turn linked to partial amnesties or pardons. The objective of this article is to study three regulatory frameworks in international law: 1 international human rights law; 2 international humanitarian law; and 3 international criminal law. A close look reveals that no international instrument requires that a State investigates every case related to the armed conflict. In general terms, international law prohibits the adoption of blanket amnesties, but allows the State to select and prioritize its cases, without punishing the partial preclusion of wrongfulness of some of the perpetrators.

  9. Configuring Zeus: A case study of online crime target selection and knowledge transmission

    OpenAIRE

    Hutchings, Alice Jill; Clayton, Richard Neil

    2017-01-01

    Abstract—Zeus is a well-known and effective family of ‘man-in-the-browser’ malware. This qualitative case study analyses posts in online cybercrime forums that discuss Zeus configuration. Online cybercriminals were found to share, sell, steal, and trade configuration files. The discussions and advertisements on the forums, which span four years, were found to evolve with market conditions and externalities, including Zeus being offered as a subscription service. The release of tools to decryp...

  10. Protocol adherence for continuously titrated interventions in randomized trials: an overview of the current methodology and case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Lauzier

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The standard definition for protocol adherence is the proportion of all scheduled doses that are delivered. In clinical research, this definition has several limitations when evaluating protocol adherence in trials that study interventions requiring continuous titration. Discussion Building upon a specific case study, we analyzed a recent trial of a continuously titrated intervention to assess the impact of different definitions of protocol deviations on the interpretation of protocol adherence. The OVATION pilot trial was an open-label randomized controlled trial of higher (75–80 mmHg versus lower (60–65 mmHg mean arterial pressure (MAP targets for vasopressor therapy in shock. In this trial, potential protocol deviations were defined as MAP values outside the targeted range for >4 consecutive hours during vasopressor therapy without synchronous and consistent adjustments of vasopressor doses. An adjudication committee reviewed each potential deviation to determine if it was clinically-justified or not. There are four reasons for this contextual measurement and reporting of protocol adherence. First, between-arm separation is a robust measure of adherence to complex protocols. Second, adherence assessed by protocol deviations varies in function of the definition of deviations and the frequency of measurements. Third, distinguishing clinically-justified vs. not clinically-justified protocol deviations acknowledges clinically sensible bedside decision-making and offers a clear terminology before the trial begins. Finally, multiple metrics exist to report protocol deviations, which provides different information but complementary information on protocol adherence. Conclusions In trials of interventions requiring continuous titration, metrics used for defining protocol deviations have a considerable impact on the interpretation of protocol adherence. Definitions for protocol deviations should be prespecified and correlated

  11. Random and systematic errors in case-control studies calculating the injury risk of driving under the influence of psychoactive substances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houwing, Sjoerd; Hagenzieker, Marjan; Mathijssen, René

    2013-01-01

    injury in car crashes. The calculated odds ratios in these studies showed large variations, despite the use of uniform guidelines for the study designs. The main objective of the present article is to provide insight into the presence of random and systematic errors in the six DRUID case–control studies....... Relevant information was gathered from the DRUID-reports for eleven indicators for errors. The results showed that differences between the odds ratios in the DRUID case–control studies may indeed be (partially) explained by random and systematic errors. Selection bias and errors due to small sample sizes...... and cell counts were the most frequently observed errors in the six DRUID case–control studies. Therefore, it is recommended that epidemiological studies that assess the risk of psychoactive substances in traffic pay specific attention to avoid these potential sources of random and systematic errors...

  12. A "clearcut" case? Brown bear selection of coarse woody debris and carpenter ants on clearcuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Shane C; Steyaert, Sam M J G; Swenson, Jon E; Storch, Ilse; Kindberg, Jonas; Barck, Hanna; Zedrosser, Andreas

    2015-07-15

    Forest management alters habitat characteristics, resulting in various effects among and within species. It is crucial to understand how habitat alteration through forest management (e.g. clearcutting) affects animal populations, particularly with unknown future conditions (e.g. climate change). In Sweden, brown bears (Ursus arctos) forage on carpenter ants (Camponotus herculeanus) during summer, and may select for this food source within clearcuts. To assess carpenter ant occurrence and brown bear selection of carpenter ants, we sampled 6999 coarse woody debris (CWD) items within 1019 plots, of which 902 were within clearcuts (forests ⩽30 years of age) and 117 plots outside clearcuts (forests >30 years of age). We related various CWD and site characteristics to the presence or absence of carpenter ant galleries (nests) and bear foraging sign at three spatial scales: the CWD, plot, and clearcut scale. We tested whether both absolute and relative counts (the latter controlling for the number of CWD items) of galleries and bear sign in plots were higher inside or outside clearcuts. Absolute counts were higher inside than outside clearcuts for galleries (mean counts; inside: 1.8, outside: 0.8). CWD was also higher inside (mean: 6.8) than outside clearcuts (mean: 4.0). However, even after controlling for more CWD inside clearcuts, relative counts were higher inside than outside clearcuts for both galleries (mean counts; inside: 0.3, outside: 0.2) and bear sign (mean counts; inside: 0.03, outside: 0.01). Variables at the CWD scale best explained gallery and bear sign presence than variables at the plot or clearcut level, but bear selection was influenced by clearcut age. CWD circumference was important for both carpenter ant and bear sign presence. CWD hardness was most important for carpenter ant selection. However, the most important predictor for bear sign was the presence or absence of carpenter ant galleries. Bears had a high foraging "success" rate (⩾88%) in

  13. Case study for the evaluation and selection of man-machine interface (MMI) software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nekimken, H.; Pope, N.; Macdonald, J.; Bibeau, R.; Gomez, B.; Sellon, D. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Nuclear Materials Technology Div.

    1996-06-01

    The authors evaluated three of the top man-machine interface (MMI) software systems. The main categories upon which they based their evaluation on were the following: operator interface; network and data distribution; input/output (I/O) interface; application development; alarms; real-time and historical trending; support, documentation, and training; processing tools (batch, recipe, logic); reports; custom interfacing; start-up/recovery; external database; and multimedia. They also present their MMI requirements and guidelines for the selection and evaluation of these MMI systems.

  14. Comparison of the effectiveness of two styles of case-based learning implemented in lectures for developing nursing students' critical thinking ability: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Shaohua; Yu, Ping

    2017-03-01

    To explore and compare the effectiveness of two styles of case-based learning methods, unfolding nursing case and usual nursing case, implemented in lectures for developing nursing students' critical thinking ability. 122 undergraduate nursing students in four classes were taught the subject of medical nursing for one year. Two classes were randomly assigned as the experimental group and the other two the control group. The experimental group received the lectures presenting unfolding nursing cases and the control group was taught the usual cases. Nineteen case-based lectures were provided in 8 months in two semesters to each group. The two groups started with a similar level of critical thinking ability as tested by the instrument of Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory-Chinese version (CTDI-CV). After receiving 19 case-based learning lectures for 8 months, both groups of students significantly improved their critical thinking ability. The improvement in the experimental group was significantly higher than that in the control group (with the average total score of 303.77±15.24 vs. 288.34±13.94, pnursing cases appear to be significantly more effective than the usual nursing cases in developing undergraduate nursing students' critical thinking ability in the subject of medical nursing. Further research can implement the unfolding nursing cases in other nursing subjects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Strategic logistics service provider selection influenced by relationships, cost and market dynamics - a multi-factorial case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tambo, Torben

    2012-01-01

    ; attrition of relationships can be caused by poor quality, changed market conditions, changed management, changed operational conditions on either side, and moves from competitors. This study uses a case-based methodology to provide an in-depth account of business motivations in relationship development...... in LSP selection. The study presents a tendering process as a fulcrum of "non-conformant‟ behaviour and unexpected outcome. Major findings are that contract-bound services and cost structures seem to drift into less transparent and informal patterns of interactions over time; this is wearing...

  16. A Closed-Form Solution for Robust Portfolio Selection with Worst-Case CVaR Risk Measure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Tang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With the uncertainty probability distribution, we establish the worst-case CVaR (WCCVaR risk measure and discuss a robust portfolio selection problem with WCCVaR constraint. The explicit solution, instead of numerical solution, is found and two-fund separation is proved. The comparison of efficient frontier with mean-variance model is discussed and finally we give numerical comparison with VaR model and equally weighted strategy. The numerical findings indicate that the proposed WCCVaR model has relatively smaller risk and greater return and relatively higher accumulative wealth than VaR model and equally weighted strategy.

  17. A complementary graphical method for reducing and analyzing large data sets. Case studies demonstrating thresholds setting and selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, X; Cimino, J J

    2014-01-01

    Graphical displays can make data more understandable; however, large graphs can challenge human comprehension. We have previously described a filtering method to provide high-level summary views of large data sets. In this paper we demonstrate our method for setting and selecting thresholds to limit graph size while retaining important information by applying it to large single and paired data sets, taken from patient and bibliographic databases. Four case studies are used to illustrate our method. The data are either patient discharge diagnoses (coded using the International Classification of Diseases, Clinical Modifications [ICD9-CM]) or Medline citations (coded using the Medical Subject Headings [MeSH]). We use combinations of different thresholds to obtain filtered graphs for detailed analysis. The thresholds setting and selection, such as thresholds for node counts, class counts, ratio values, p values (for diff data sets), and percentiles of selected class count thresholds, are demonstrated with details in case studies. The main steps include: data preparation, data manipulation, computation, and threshold selection and visualization. We also describe the data models for different types of thresholds and the considerations for thresholds selection. The filtered graphs are 1%-3% of the size of the original graphs. For our case studies, the graphs provide 1) the most heavily used ICD9-CM codes, 2) the codes with most patients in a research hospital in 2011, 3) a profile of publications on "heavily represented topics" in MEDLINE in 2011, and 4) validated knowledge about adverse effects of the medication of rosiglitazone and new interesting areas in the ICD9-CM hierarchy associated with patients taking the medication of pioglitazone. Our filtering method reduces large graphs to a manageable size by removing relatively unimportant nodes. The graphical method provides summary views based on computation of usage frequency and semantic context of hierarchical

  18. Selected Trace Element Concentrations in Peat Used for Cosmetic Production - A Case Study from Southern Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glina, Bartłomiej

    2016-12-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the concentration of selected trace elements in organic soils used as a source to obtain a unique peat extract for cosmetics production. Peat material for laboratory analysis were collected from fen peatland located in the Prosna River Valley (Borek village). Studied peatland is managed by "Torf Corporation" company as a source of material to obtain peat extract for cosmetics production. In the collected soil samples (four soil profiles) Zn, Cu and Pb concentrations were determined by using atomic absorption spectrometer SpectraAA 220 (Varian), after acid digestion. Obtained results showed that the highest concentrations of selected trace elements were recorded in the surface horizons of organic soils. This fact might be the results of Prosna river flooding or air deposition. Howevere, according to the new Polish regulations (Ordinance of the Minister for Environment 01.09.2016 - the way of conducting contamination assessment of the earth surface), the content of trace elements in the examined soils was greatly belowe the permissible limit for areas from group IV (mine lands). Thus, described soils are proper to obtain peat extract used as a component in cosmetic production.

  19. Nonmaternal Care's Association With Mother's Parenting Sensitivity: A Case of Self-Selection Bias?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomaguchi, Kei M; Demaris, Alfred

    2013-06-01

    Although attachment theory posits that the use of nonmaternal care undermines quality of mothers' parenting, empirical evidence for this link is inconclusive. Using data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (N = 1,233), the authors examined the associations between nonmaternal care characteristics and maternal sensitivity during the first 3 years of children's lives, with special attention to selection effects and moderation by resource levels. Findings from fixed-effects regression models suggested that, on average, there is little relationship between nonmaternal care characteristics and maternal sensitivity, once selection factors are held constant. Some evidence of moderation effects was found, however. Excellent-quality care is related to more sensitivity for mothers with lower family income. Poor-quality care is related to lower sensitivity for single mothers, but not partnered mothers. In sum, nonmaternal care characteristics do not seem to have as much influence on mothers' parenting as attachment theory claims.

  20. VH-VL orientation prediction for antibody humanization candidate selection: A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bujotzek, Alexander; Lipsmeier, Florian; Harris, Seth F; Benz, Jörg; Kuglstatter, Andreas; Georges, Guy

    2016-01-01

    Antibody humanization describes the procedure of grafting a non-human antibody's complementarity-determining regions, i.e., the variable loop regions that mediate specific interactions with the antigen, onto a β-sheet framework that is representative of the human variable region germline repertoire, thus reducing the number of potentially antigenic epitopes that might trigger an anti-antibody response. The selection criterion for the so-called acceptor frameworks (one for the heavy and one for the light chain variable region) is traditionally based on sequence similarity. Here, we propose a novel approach that selects acceptor frameworks such that the relative orientation of the 2 variable domains in 3D space, and thereby the geometry of the antigen-binding site, is conserved throughout the process of humanization. The methodology relies on a machine learning-based predictor of antibody variable domain orientation that has recently been shown to improve the quality of antibody homology models. Using data from 3 humanization campaigns, we demonstrate that preselecting humanization variants based on the predicted difference in variable domain orientation with regard to the original antibody leads to subsets of variants with a significant improvement in binding affinity.

  1. Material Selection for Competition–A Case Study for Air Coolers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luma A. H. Al Kindi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Competition is one of the most important challenges that is facing the marketing of industrial products in today's markets. In this research study of the impact of material selection factor for air coolers of different materials is applied. Investigation on the air cooler windows which are part of the body of air coolers is conducted. Corrosion resistance, thermal conductivity, strength of material, weight, shape, cost and manufacturing process are the factors that are applied and calculated on three types of materials Aluminum, Galvanized steel and polypropylene. The physical properties of the three mentioned materials are used to calculate Merit Index .The corrosion average, according to Tafel Method depending the corrosion current and adopting contactors for the anodic and cathodic metals behaviors is performed. ANSYS is adopted using the three samples for the selected materials Aluminum, Galvanized steel and polypropylene to measure maximum stress and deflection are measured. Accordingly, the results are compared to choose the best alternative. It is observed that the polypropylene is the best choice depending three factors while the aluminum material is better depending two factors and the galvanized steel is regarded as the best in only one factor, the rest factors are identical when choosing  an alternative material for manufacturing the air cooler windows.

  2. Case reports: the influence of selective voluntary motor control on gait after hamstring lengthening surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Evan J; Fowler, Eileen G; Oppenheim, William L

    2012-05-01

    Preliminary evidence suggests selective voluntary motor control (SVMC), defined as performance of isolated voluntary joint movement on request, may be an important factor affecting functional movement tasks. Individuals with poor SVMC are unable to dissociate hip and knee synergistic movement during the swing phase of gait and have difficulty extending their knee while the hip is flexing during terminal swing regardless of hamstring length. This pattern may limit their ability to take advantage of hamstring-lengthening surgery (HLS) and may explain a lack of improved stride length postoperatively. Provide a preliminary clinical and conceptual framework for using SVMC to predict swing phase parameters of gait after HLS. We contrasted two patients with spastic diplegia of similar age, gross motor function, and spasticity but with different SVMC scores using the Selective Control Assessment of the Lower Extremity (SCALE). The patients underwent bilateral HLS. Popliteal angles, joint kinematics, step length, stride length, and walking velocity were assessed pre- and postoperatively. Popliteal angles, terminal knee extension, and knee range of motion improved for both patients. However, only the patient with higher SCALE scores improved stride length postoperatively. Although preliminary, the data suggest that SVMC, as measured by SCALE, may be a prognostic factor for improved stride length after HLS in patients with spastic diplegia. Level IV, therapeutic study. See Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  3. Technical Approach and Results from the Fuels Pathway on an Alternative Selection Case Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bob Youngblood; Curtis Smith

    2013-09-01

    The report presents a detailed plan for conducting case studies to characterize probabilistic safety margins associated with different fuel cladding types in a way that supports a valid comparison of different fuels' performance. Recent work performed in other programs is described briefly and used to illustrate the challenges posed by characterization of margin in a probabilistic way. It is additionally pointed out that consistency of evaluation of performance across different cladding types is not easy to assure; a process for achieving the needed consistency is described.

  4. An Exploratory Study on Retaining Talents in Malaysia : A Case Study of Selected Malaysian Talents

    OpenAIRE

    Kok, Phui Fun

    2011-01-01

    This research is intended as an exploratory case study to convey a qualitative feel on the issue of retention of Malaysian talents still in Malaysia. It fills a gap not covered by the World Bank’s “Malaysia Economic Monitor: Brain Drain” report, in order to give some insights to individual companies in Malaysia concerning the retention of their existing talents, provide some food for thought for other stakeholders, and spur ideas for more in-depth study in the future.It examines how salary an...

  5. Ensemble of random forests One vs. Rest classifiers for MCI and AD prediction using ANOVA cortical and subcortical feature selection and partial least squares.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez, J; Górriz, J M; Ortiz, A; Martínez-Murcia, F J; Segovia, F; Salas-Gonzalez, D; Castillo-Barnes, D; Illán, I A; Puntonet, C G

    2017-12-11

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia in the elderly and affects approximately 30 million individuals worldwide. Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is very frequently a prodromal phase of AD, and existing studies have suggested that people with MCI tend to progress to AD at a rate of about 10-15% per year. However, the ability of clinicians and machine learning systems to predict AD based on MRI biomarkers at an early stage is still a challenging problem that can have a great impact in improving treatments. The proposed system, developed by the SiPBA-UGR team for this challenge, is based on feature standardization, ANOVA feature selection, partial least squares feature dimension reduction and an ensemble of One vs. Rest random forest classifiers. With the aim of improving its performance when discriminating healthy controls (HC) from MCI, a second binary classification level was introduced that reconsiders the HC and MCI predictions of the first level. The system was trained and evaluated on an ADNI datasets that consist of T1-weighted MRI morphological measurements from HC, stable MCI, converter MCI and AD subjects. The proposed system yields a 56.25% classification score on the test subset which consists of 160 real subjects. The classifier yielded the best performance when compared to: (i) One vs. One (OvO), One vs. Rest (OvR) and error correcting output codes (ECOC) as strategies for reducing the multiclass classification task to multiple binary classification problems, (ii) support vector machines, gradient boosting classifier and random forest as base binary classifiers, and (iii) bagging ensemble learning. A robust method has been proposed for the international challenge on MCI prediction based on MRI data. The system yielded the second best performance during the competition with an accuracy rate of 56.25% when evaluated on the real subjects of the test set. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. [Characteristics of renal hemorrhage after percutaneous nephrolithotomy and the timing of selective embolization: a report of 13 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Liu-lin; Huang, Xiao-bo; Ye, Xiong-jun; Li, Jian-xing; Yang, Bo; Xu, Qing-quan; Ma, Kai; Chen, Liang; Wang, Xiao-feng; Gao, Jian; Jin, Long; Chen, Lei

    2010-08-18

    To investigate the characteristics of severe renal hemorrhage after percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL) and timing of selective transarterial embolization(TAE) . Between May 2005 and March 2010, superselective renal angiography was used to control severe bleeding in 15 of 1418 cases (1520 PNL procedures, 1.06%). In the 15 cases, superselective renal angioembolization was used to control severe bleeding in 13 (0.92%) . The medical records of all the patients who underwent renal angiography and angioembolization were reviewed. Severe bleeding cases after PNL were divided into 3 types according to the clinical characteristics: type I (urgency type), type II (intermittence type) and type III (persistent slow type). There were 3 patients in type I, 6 in type II and 6 in type III. All the patients had a normal coagulation profile before surgery. A total of 11 patients (84.6%) underwent the first-time successful embolization and 2 (15.4%) the second-time successful embolization. The longer time between angioembolization and bleeding was, the more blood loss and transfusion volume were, except for 1 patient in type II . Temporality serum creatinine abnormality was found in 2 patients, one with a solitary kidney patient and the other with angioembolization for both renal bleeding. TAE is a minimally invasive, safe, simple, and highly effective modality for the management of post PNL renal bleeding. This option should be considered early in the management of these cases,especially for Urgency type bleeding.

  7. Management of the late leaking filtration blebs. A report of seven cases and a selective review of the literature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandal A

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To describe the outcome of various treatment modalities in the management of late bleb leaks after glaucoma filtering surgery (GFS. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seven consecutive patients treated for late bleb leaks (Seidel′s positive between July 1990 and June 1999 were were enrolled in the study. The management strategy consisted of initial conservative therapy, and tailored surgery, if necessary. The surgical technique employed was either conjunctival-Tenon′s advancement flap, hinged scleral flap, or fistulectomy with direct suturing. The main outcome measures were bleb characteristics and postoperative intraocular pressure (IOP. The secondary outcome measure was visual acuity. RESULTS: One patient responded to conservative therapy (aqueous suppressants, bandage contact lens and six patients needed surgery. The successful surgical technique was conjunctivo-Tenon′s advancement flap in three, hinged scleral flap in two, and fistulectomy-direct suturing to the wound (combined with cataract surgery and intraocular lens implantation in one patient. The bleb leak stopped in all cases and 5 of the 6 surgical patients sustained functioning filtering blebs. Follow-up ranged from 8 to 56 months (mean = 20.4 +/- 16.2 months. Visual acuity improved to 6/12 or better in 4 cases, 6/36 in 2 cases and it remained at light perception in one case. None of the patients had any intraoperative or postoperative complications. CONCLUSIONS: Late leaking blebs after GFS can be treated successfully. The management decision and selection of surgical technique should be based on the clinical condition.

  8. Population structure of a widespread species under balancing selection: the case of Arbutus unedo L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xabier eSantiso

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Arbutus unedo L. is an evergreen shrub with a circum-Mediterranean distribution that also reaches the Eurosiberian region in northern Iberia, Atlantic France, and a disjunct population in southern Ireland. Due to the variety of climatic conditions across its distribution range, the populations of A. unedo were expected to display local adaptation. Conversely, common garden experiments revealed that diverse genotypes from a range of provenances produce similar phenotypes through adaptive plasticity, suggesting the action of stabilizing selection across its climatically heterogeneous range. Nonetheless, since an uniform response might also result from extensive gene flow, we have inferred the population structure of A. unedo and assessed whether its extended and largely one-dimensional range influences gene flow with the help of AFLP genotypes for 491 individuals from 19 populations covering the whole range of the species. As we had anticipated, gene flow is restricted in A. unedo, providing further support to the hypothesis that stabilizing selection is the most likely explanation for the homogeneous phenotypes along the range. The Euro-Siberian populations were not particularly isolated from the Mediterranean. Instead, there was a distinct genetic divide between the populations around the Mediterranean Sea and those sampled along Atlantic coasts from northern Africa up to Ireland. This genetic structure suggests the action of historic rather than biogeographic factors as it seems consistent with a scenario of independent glacial refugia in the Atlantic and Mediterranean portions of the range of A. unedo. Genetic exchange was likewise restricted within each set of populations. Nevertheless, IBD was stronger, and FST increased faster with distance, along the Atlantic, suggesting that gene flow might be larger among Mediterranean populations. Genetic diversity was significantly lower in NW Iberia and Ireland than in other populations whereas

  9. [Bottom-up analysis of the case costs of stem cell transplantation and selected chemotherapies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stäbler, W; Wagner, B

    2003-01-01

    Up to now, reliable data has not been available on the actual costs of treating oncological patients. However, such data material is urgently required in view of the institution of the health service reform with the concomitant introduction of the G-DRG remuneration system. The medical services and their costs for 66 patients comprising several stays in hospital, part-time hospitalization and outpatient visits to the clinic categorized "establishment of the diagnosis", "stem cell therapy (SCT)" and "chemotherapy" were recorded in parallel to treatment over a time period of three months. It was thus possible to relate a cost volume of 2.7 million euro to more than 2800 nursing days (full and partial hospitalization) and more than 500 outpatient visits. All pertinent costs were collated with the various stays/movements of the patients over 100 calendar days. This was very largely possible thanks to a sophisticated costing and setting off of payments within the hospital on the part of the service providers in the hospital in direct allocation to patients and the third-party payers. Additionally, partial and full surveys as well as questionnaires enabling allocation to the individual case as far as possible, especially the staff requirement, were used. A breakdown of the costs in terms of the patient nursing days was only effected in marginal areas such as the "hotel function" or the general administrative costs. A further subdivision of the stays and movements as well as the phases of the stays applied to the service or the treatment progress above and beyond the areas of treatment. In the case of chemotherapy, a distinction was therefore made between "protocol blocks" and "stays due to complications" and in the case of SCT inter alia even individual phases such as "conditioning". It is problematical to represent these patients within an DRG case flat rate system because of frequent and very divergent residence periods with regard to services and costs. The

  10. Case selection and outcome of radical perineal prostatectomy in localized prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey M Holzbeierlein

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Radical prostatectomy continues to play a central role in the management of localized prostate cancer. The majority of patients diagnosed with prostate cancer will undergo radical prostatectomy. A decrease in the morbidity of this surgical procedure has been accomplished through an improved understanding of pelvic anatomy and a greater understanding of the natural history of prostate cancer. Recently, minimally invasive techniques have been applied to radical prostatectomy (laparoscopic prostatectomy in order to further decrease the morbidity of this operation. What remains to be determined is whether this approach confers the same long term surgical outcomes as the open approach. One method which offers known long term outcomes coupled with decreased morbidity is the radical perineal prostatectomy. The purpose of this paper is to review the criteria for patient selection as well as outcomes of the radical perineal prostatectomy.

  11. The Influence of Membership Groups on Selecting Accommodations: the Case of the Residential Tourist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Perez-Aranda

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available An understanding of consumer behavior when choosing property as accommodations improves the use of limited resources such as land and may promote the suitable development of tourism destinations. Knowledge of the factors that influence consumer behavior and that condition the process of purchasing a residential tourism property is useful in managing and designing strategies for segmenting tourism destinations. This study analyzes the influence of membership groups such as social class, culture, and family on choosing the type of property (ownership versus renting or using family or friends’ property and the typology (single- or multifamily that is in demand among residential tourists in the destination. Firstly, we identify which membership groups specifically influence the selection of type of property (social class and family. Then, we identify which groups influence the property typology (social class and people who are traveling and, in addition, those that influence both choices (social class.

  12. Developing a management information system for a hospital: a case study on vendor selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsay, B Y; Stackhouse, J R

    1991-12-01

    This study examines the decision-making process that a medium-sized hospital took to develop a management information system. Since system developers in this particular hospital were all users without system expertise, a substantial amount of time was devoted to their search for relevant information. Outside consulting, literature review, and a market survey were conducted for the developers to understand the characteristics of systems products on the market. Developers also invited extended user participation in vendor evaluation. The authors analyzed the reasoning process behind the successful selection of a vendor-supported information system. The findings provide hospitals of similar characteristics a decision model to follow in their search for a vendor-supported information system.

  13. A TOTAL MANUFACTURING SOLUTIONS TECHNIQUE TO SELECT APPROPRIATE IMPROVEMENT STRATEGY: CASE STUDY OF A FOOTWEAR FACTORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gezahegn Tesfaye

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The Government of Ethiopia is promoting the manufacturing sector to join the global market in a large scale. Due to its comparative advantages, the Ethiopian leather and leather products industry have been given due attention. To fully utilize such advantages, the country shifted its export items from hides/skins to footwear products. Nevertheless, the performance of the leather sector in general and footwear sub-sector in particular is far below the desired standards. The improvement strategies applied hitherto were mainly to tackle a small portion of their total problems. If the Ethiopian footwear companies have to become globally competitive, their entire business spectrum has to be assessed and appropriate improvement strategies must be selected. In this research, we used a Total manufacturing solutions (TMS technique to identify areas of improvement and improvement strategy of one of Ethiopian footwear companies. For this purpose, we conducted two surveys using structured questionnaire. The first survey was to test the TMS technique against the context of footwear industry. The result proved that the original TMS model can be used to measure the performance of footwear companies. The second survey was done to identify company's total problems, map its current position and select appropriate improvement strategy. The result revealed that the company has company-wide problems and its current position is a plodder. For plodders which have company-wide problems, the improvement strategy must include aggressive application of BPR; and the implementation of best practices to develop workers skills that encourages networking and promotion, a market-led manufacturing strategy, employee involvement and team work cultures. According to the findings of this research, we suggested that a BPR technique followed by a continuous improvement programme could be an appropriate improvement strategy for this company. The company requires long-term improvement

  14. Validity of Qualis database as a predictor of evidence hierarchy and risk of bias in randomized controlled trials: a case study in dentistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane Alves Ferreira

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the validity of the Qualis database in identifying the levels of scientific evidence and the quality of randomized controlled trials indexed in the Lilacs database. METHODS: We selected 40 open-access journals and performed a page-by-page hand search, to identify published articles according to the type of study during a period of six years. Classification of studies was performed by independent reviewers assessed for their reliability. Randomized controlled trials were identified for separate evaluation of risk of bias using four dimensions: generation of allocation sequence, allocation concealment, blinding, and incomplete outcome data. The Qualis classification was considered to be the outcome variable. The statistical tests used included Kappa, Spearman's correlation, Kendall-tau and ordinal regressions. RESULTS: Studies with low levels of scientific evidence received similar Qualis classifications when compared to studies with high levels of evidence. In addition, randomized controlled trials with a high risk of bias for the generation of allocation sequences and allocation concealment were more likely to be published in journals with higher Qualis levels. DISCUSSION: The hierarchy level of the scientific evidence as classified by type of research design, as well as by the validity of studies according to the bias control level, was not correlated or associated with Qualis stratification. CONCLUSION: Qualis classifications for journals are not an approximate or indirect predictor of the validity of randomized controlled trials published in these journals and are therefore not a legitimate or appropriate indicator of the validity of randomized controlled trials.

  15. Use of Maximum Likelihood-Mixed Models to select stable reference genes: a case of heat stress response in sheep

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    Salces Judit

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reference genes with stable expression are required to normalize expression differences of target genes in qPCR experiments. Several procedures and companion software have been proposed to find the most stable genes. Model based procedures are attractive because they provide a solid statistical framework. NormFinder, a widely used software, uses a model based method. The pairwise comparison procedure implemented in GeNorm is a simpler procedure but one of the most extensively used. In the present work a statistical approach based in Maximum Likelihood estimation under mixed models was tested and compared with NormFinder and geNorm softwares. Sixteen candidate genes were tested in whole blood samples from control and heat stressed sheep. Results A model including gene and treatment as fixed effects, sample (animal, gene by treatment, gene by sample and treatment by sample interactions as random effects with heteroskedastic residual variance in gene by treatment levels was selected using goodness of fit and predictive ability criteria among a variety of models. Mean Square Error obtained under the selected model was used as indicator of gene expression stability. Genes top and bottom ranked by the three approaches were similar; however, notable differences for the best pair of genes selected for each method and the remaining genes of the rankings were shown. Differences among the expression values of normalized targets for each statistical approach were also found. Conclusions Optimal statistical properties of Maximum Likelihood estimation joined to mixed model flexibility allow for more accurate estimation of expression stability of genes under many different situations. Accurate selection of reference genes has a direct impact over the normalized expression values of a given target gene. This may be critical when the aim of the study is to compare expression rate differences among samples under different environmental

  16. Evaluation of targeted selective treatments in sheep in Italy: effects on faecal worm egg count and milk production in four case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cringoli, G; Rinaldi, L; Veneziano, V; Mezzino, L; Vercruysse, J; Jackson, F

    2009-09-16

    The aim of the present paper was to assess the benefit of targeted selective treatments (TSTs) on milk production and faecal worm egg count, in four commercial dairy sheep farms in southern Italy where animals were exposed to natural infection with gastrointestinal (GI) strongyles. On each farm, three similar groups of 20 animals each were formed and randomly assigned to the following treatments: strategic prophylactic treatment (SPT) group, targeted selective treatment group, and control (C) group. The TST schemes used were different between farms with regard to the indicators for treatment (FAMACHA or faecal egg count (FEC) or milk production) and the timing of treatment (periparturient or postparturient). Regarding milk production, on the four study farms the mean daily milk production in the SPT ewes was higher than those of the controls on Farms 1, 2, 3 and 4 by 13.6%, 30.4%, 37.0% and 5.5%, respectively. In the case of Farms 2 and 3 these differences were significant (PFAMACHA-based TST (Farms 1 and 2) had no positive effects on GI strongyle egg counts. In the FEC-based TST group on Farm 3 both the TST and SPT treatments reduced FEC. In the milk production-based TST group (Farm 4), no conclusion could be drawn regarding strategic efficacy since there was also a decrease in GI strongyle FEC in the control group. The findings of the present study demonstrate that TST can be considered as a potentially useful anthelmintic strategy in southern Italy, but the timing of treatments seems to be more crucial for the strategic and production efficacy than the indicators used for those treatments. From a practical point of view using milk production as a TST indicator appeared to be the most user-friendly approach for farmers; however, further studies will be needed to confirm its validity and acceptability.

  17. Exposure to selected fragrance materials. A case study of fragrance-mix-positive eczema patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, J D; Rastogi, Suresh Chandra; Menné, T

    1996-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess exposure to constituents of the fragrance mix from cosmetic products used by fragrance-mix-positive eczema patients. 23 products, which had either given a positive patch and/or use test in a total of 11 fragrance-mix-positive patients, were analyzed....... In all cases, the use of these cosmetics completely or partly explained present or past episodes of eczema. Between 1 to 6 constituents of the fragrance mix were found in 22 out of 23 products. The cosmetics of all the patients sensitive to hydroxycitronellal, eugenol, cinnamic alcohol and alpha......-amylcinnamic aldehyde were found to contain the respective substances. Exposure concentrations were seen to cover a large range. The content of hydroxycitronellal was, on average, 5 x higher in cosmetics from hydroxycitronellal-sensitive patients, compared to cosmetics from hydroxycitronellal-negative patients...

  18. Exposure to selected fragrance materials. A case study of fragrance-mix-positive eczema patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, J D; Rastogi, Suresh Chandra; Menné, T

    1996-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess exposure to constituents of the fragrance mix from cosmetic products used by fragrance-mix-positive eczema patients. 23 products, which had either given a positive patch and/or use test in a total of 11 fragrance-mix-positive patients, were analyzed....... In all cases, the use of these cosmetics completely or partly explained present or past episodes of eczema. Between 1 to 6 constituents of the fragrance mix were found in 22 out of 23 products. The cosmetics of all the patients sensitive to hydroxycitronellal, eugenol, cinnamic alcohol and alpha....... It is concluded that exposure to constituents of the fragrance mix is common in fragrance-allergic patients with cosmetic eczema, and that the fragrance mix is a good reflection of actual exposure....

  19. Design, and participant enrollment, of a randomized controlled trial evaluating effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a community-based case management intervention, for patients suffering from COPD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Sabrina Storgaard; Pedersen, Kjeld Møller; Weinreich, Ulla Møller

    2015-01-01

    controlled trial, conducted to evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a community-based case management model for patients suffering from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). With a focus on support for self-care and care coordination, the intervention was hypothesized to result...... in a reduced number of COPD-related hospital admissions. Patients and methods: The design was a randomized controlled trial conducted from 2012 to 2014 with randomization and intervention at patient level. The study took place in Aalborg Municipality, a larger municipality in Denmark. A total of 150 COPD......, effectiveness will be evaluated on COPD-related hospital admissions, mortality, health- related quality of life, and self-care. An economic evaluation will examine the cost-effectiveness of case management against current usual care from the perspective of the health care sector. Results: Baseline...

  20. The cost and benefit analysis of a contaminated area remediation: case study of dose level selection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauria, D.C. [Instituto de Radioproteccion e Dosimetria- IRD/CNEN, Av. Salvador Allende s/n, Barra de Tijuca, Rio de Janeiro- RJ (Brazil)]. e-mail: dejanira@ird.gov.br

    2006-07-01

    In recent years there has been an increasing awareness of the radiological impact of non-nuclear industries that extract and/or process ores and minerals containing naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). Without radiological rules, these industrial activities may result in significant radioactive contamination of installations and sites. Depending on the potential hazardous to the environment and public health, the radioactive contaminated sites may require remediation. The extent of the site cleanup is a function of the size, localization, complexity, potential risks and on possible future uses envisioned for the site. Since worker and public health, public anxiety and economics factors are involved; the selection of an appropriate dose level can be quite complicated. This paper discusses the selection of a dose level criterion to remedy a site, which was contaminated by wastes from monazite processing. The site is located in the Sao Paulo city; the most densely populated Brazilian City. In its 60,000 square meters of area, a preliminary survey showed contaminated zones covering an area of 6,500 square meters. In some places, contamination was found below the superficial layer of the soil, being the radionuclide vertical distribution not uniform. The {sup 228} Ra soil activity concentration reached values up to 33,000 Bq/kg while those for {sup 226} Ra reached values up to 6,700 Bq/kg. Based on pathway analysis model and considering both the current land use and a hypothetical residential scenario, the residual contamination levels of radionuclides in soil have been derived for dose values of 10 mSv/y (dose level for intervention), 5 mSv/y, 3 mSv/y, 1 mSv/y (dose limit for practices) and 0.3 mSv/y (dose constraint for practices). An optimized value o f annual dose of about 5 mSv/y would be a good option for intervention level, but taking into account the public concern and anxiety, the site location and size, and the remediation costs, it is suggested

  1. Effectiveness of technology-assisted case management in low income adults with type 2 diabetes (TACM-DM: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strom Joni L

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An estimated 1 in 3 American adults will have diabetes by the year 2050. Nationally, South Carolina ranks 10th in cases of diagnosed diabetes compared to other states. In adults, type 2 diabetes (T2DM accounts for approximately 90-95% of all diagnosed cases of diabetes. Clinically, provider and health system factors account for Methods We describe a four-year prospective, randomized clinical trial, which will test the effectiveness of technology-assisted case management in low income rural adults with T2DM. Two-hundred (200 male and female participants, 18 years of age or older and with an HbA1c ≥ 8%, will be randomized into one of two groups: (1 an intervention arm employing the innovative FORA system coupled with nurse case management or (2 a usual care group. Participants will be followed for 6-months to ascertain the effect of the interventions on glycemic control. Our primary hypothesis is that among indigent, rural adult patients with T2DM treated in FQHC's, participants randomized to the technology-assisted case management intervention will have significantly greater reduction in HbA1c at 6 months of follow-up compared to usual care. Discussion Results from this study will provide important insight into the effectiveness of technology-assisted case management intervention (TACM for optimizing diabetes care in indigent, rural adult patients with T2DM treated in FQHC's. Trial Registration National Institutes of Health Clinical Trials Registry (http://ClinicalTrials.gov identifier# NCT01373489

  2. Rock magnetic evidence of non-random raw material selection criteria in Cerro Toledo Obsidian Artifacts from Valles Caldera, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregovich, A.; Feinberg, J. M.; Steffen, A.; Sternberg, R. S.

    2014-12-01

    Stone tools are one of the most enduring forms of ancient human behavior available to anthropologists. The geologic materials that comprise stone tools are a reflection of the rocks that were available locally or through trade, as are the intended use of the tools and the knapping technology needed to produce them. Investigation of the rock magnetic and geochemical characteristics of the artifacts and the geological source materials provides a baseline to explore these past behaviors. This study uses rock magnetic properties to explore the raw material selection criteria involved in the production of obsidian tools in the region around Valles Caldera in northern New Mexico. Obsidian is locally abundant and was traded by tribes across the central United States. Here we compare the rock magnetic properties of a sample of obsidian projectile points (N =25) that have been geochemically sourced to the Cerro Toledo obsidian flow with geological samples collected from four sites within the same flow (N =135). This collection of archaeological artifacts, albeit small, contains representatives of at least 8 different point styles that were used over 6000 years from the Archaic into the Late Prehistoric. Bulk rock hysteresis parameters (Mr, Ms, Bc, and Bcr) and low-field susceptibility (Χ) measurements show that the projectile points generally contain a lower concentration of magnetic minerals than the geologic samples. For example, the artifacts' median Ms value is 2.9 x 10-3 Am2kg-1, while that of the geological samples is 6.5 x 10-3 Am2kg-1. The concentration of magnetic minerals in obsidian is a proxy for the concentration of microlites in general, and this relationship suggests that although obsidian was locally abundant, toolmakers employed non-random selection criteria resulting in generally lower concentrations of microlites in their obsidian tools.

  3. Radiofrequency catheter selection based on cavotricuspid angiography compared with a control group with an externally cooled-tip catheter: a randomized pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Costa, Antoine; Romeyer-Bouchard, Cécile; Jamon, Yann; Bisch, Laurence; Isaaz, Karl

    2009-05-01

    Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) of cavotricuspid isthmus (CTI)-dependent atrial flutter (AFL) can be performed using either externally cooled-tip RFA catheters or large-tip (8 mm) catheters. However, experimental and clinical studies suggest that the efficacy of both catheters may vary with CTI anatomy and catheters orientation. The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate: a RFA catheter selection based on CTI angiography compared with a control group with an externally cooled-tip catheter together with the risk of an expensive crossover catheter in both groups. Over a period of 16 months, 119 patients were included and randomized. When comparing the angiographic group (n = 56) and the externally cooled-tip RFA catheter group (n = 63), the duration of application time with a median of 7 min (interquartile range 4.5-11) versus a median of 10 min (interquartile range 6-20; P = 0.008) and the duration of X-ray exposure with a median of 7 min (interquartile range 4-10) versus a median of 10 min (interquartile range 5-15; P = 0.025) were significantly lower in the angiographic group versus externally cooled-tip catheter group. Furthermore, the number of catheters crossover was significantly higher in the angiographic group versus externally cooled-tip catheter group I (27% vs 7%; P = 0.007). This study shows that a strategy with a catheter selection based on a CTI angiographic evaluation is superior to an empirical use of an externally cooled-tip catheter during CTI RFA. Thus, angiographic isthmus evaluation predicts the effectiveness of a RFA catheter and the risk of an expensive catheter crossover.

  4. Risk-Informed Safety Margin Characterization Case Study: Selection of Electrical Equipment to Be Subjected to Environmental Qualification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. P. Blanchard; R. W. Youngblood

    2014-06-01

    The Risk-Informed Safety Margin Characterization (RISMC) pathway of the DOE’s Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) program focuses on advancing the state of the art in safety analysis and risk assessment to support decision-making on nuclear power plant operation well beyond the originally designed lifetime of the plants (i.e., beyond 60 years). Among the issues being addressed in RISMC is the significance of SSC aging and how confident we are about our understanding of its impact on the margin between the loads SSCs are expected to see during normal operation and accident conditions, and the SSC capacities (their ability to resist those loads) as the SSCs age. In this paper, a summary is provided of a case study that examines SSC aging from an environmental qualification (EQ) perspective. The case study illustrates how the state of knowledge regarding SSC margin can be characterized given the overall integrated plant design, and was developed to demonstrate a method for deciding on which cables to focus, which cables are not so important from an environmental qualification margin standpoint, and what plant design features or operating characteristics determine the role that environmental qualification plays in establishing a safety case on which decisions regarding margin can be made. The selection of cables for which demonstration of margin with respect to aging and environmental challenges uses a technique known as Prevention Analysis. Prevention Analysis is a Boolean method for optimal selection of SSCs (that is, those combinations of SSCs both necessary and sufficient to meet a predetermined selection criterion) in a manner that allows demonstration that plant-level safety can be demonstrated by the collection of selected SSCs alone. Choosing the set of SSCs that is necessary and sufficient to satisfy the safety objectives, and demonstrating that the safety objectives can be met effectively, determines where resources are best allocated to assure SSC

  5. Decision Analysis For Renewable Energy Technology Selection Delta State Of Nigeria As A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oseweuba Valentine Okoro

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Recent concerns over global warming as well as other well documented environmental impacts which arise from the utilisation of fossil fuels has led to intensified investigations to identify possible energy alternatives. These investigations sought to establish the feasibility of alternative energy sources to meet not only the increasing demand requirement but ultimately facilitate the realisation of the hypothetical Zero net Carbon pollution target. However while energy and environment enthusiasts consistently insist on the viability of Renewable Energy Technologies RETs as a conduit for meeting energy demand without compromising the need for sustainability deciding which RET or indeed combination of RETs will be most appropriate based on the existing economic legal as well as environmental framework remains a realistic challenge. This investigation therefore attempted to present a decision making process that will consider the four criteria inputs widely recognised as requirements for sustainable development. The RETs where subsequently evaluated via the consideration of these criteria as the only requirement for RET selection assuming the region under consideration was independent of the grid or a fossil fuel generator. The approach employed therefore presented a valid method for an initial and basic appraisal of RETs in the development of sustainable energy systems with the defining assumption being that the technical indicator incorporated the ability of the RET to meet the primary load. A preferential ranking was finally achieved via the utilisation of simple matrix models thus facilitating the development of a theoretical basis for the practical implementation of the most appropriate RET.

  6. Solid Waste Landfill Site Selection in the Sense of Environment Sensitive Sustainable Urbanization: Izmir, Turkey Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    TÜdeş, Şule; Kumlu, Kadriye Burcu Yavuz

    2017-10-01

    Each stage of the planning process should be based on the natural resource protection, in the sense of environmental sensitive and sustainable urban planning. Values, which are vital for the continuity of the life in the Earth, as soil, water, forest etc. should be protected from the undesired effects of the pollution and the other effects caused by the high urbanization levels. In this context, GIS-MCDM based solid waste landfill site selection is applied for Izmir, Turkey, where is a significant attraction place for tourism. As Multi criteria Decision Making (MCDM) technique, Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) is used. In this study, geological, tectonically and hydrological data, as well as agricultural land use, slope, distance to the settlement areas and the highways are used as inputs for AHP analysis. In the analysis stage, those inputs are rated and weighted. The weighted criteria are evaluated via GIS, by using weighted overlay tool. Therefore, an upper-scale analysis is conducted and a map, which shows the alternative places for the solid waste landfill sites, considering the environmental protection and evaluated in the context of environmental and urban criteria, are obtained.

  7. Preference heterogeneity and selection in private health insurance: the case of Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchmueller, Thomas C; Fiebig, Denzil G; Jones, Glenn; Savage, Elizabeth

    2013-09-01

    A basic prediction of theoretical models of insurance is that if consumers have private information about their risk of suffering a loss there will be a positive correlation between risk and the level of insurance coverage. We test this prediction in the context of the market for private health insurance in Australia. Despite a universal public system that provides comprehensive coverage for inpatient and outpatient care, roughly half of the adult population also carries private health insurance, the main benefit of which is more timely access to elective hospital treatment. Like several studies on different types of insurance in other countries, we find no support for the positive correlation hypothesis. Because strict underwriting regulations create strong information asymmetries, this result suggests the importance of multi-dimensional private information. Additional analyses suggest that the advantageous selection observed in this market is driven by the effect of risk aversion, the ability to make complex financial decisions and income. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. ELV Recycling Service Provider Selection Using the Hybrid MCDM Method: A Case Application in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuli Zhou

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid depletion of natural resources and undesired environmental changes globally, more interest has been shown in the research of green supply chain practices, including end-of-life vehicle (ELV recycling. The ELV recycling is mandatory for auto-manufacturers by legislation for the purpose of minimizing potential environmental damages. The purpose of the present research is to determine the best choice of ELV recycling service provider by employing an integrating hybrid multi-criteria decision making (MCDM method. In this research, economic, environmental and social factors are taken into consideration. The linguistic variables and trapezoidal fuzzy numbers (TFNs are applied into this evaluation to deal with the vague and qualitative information. With the combined weight calculation of criteria based on fuzzy aggregation and Shannon Entropy techniques, the normative multi-criteria optimization technique (FVIKOR method is applied to explore the best solution. An application was performed based on the proposed hybrid MCDM method, and sensitivity analysis was conducted on different decision making scenarios. The present study provides a decision-making approach on ELV recycling business selection under sustainability and green philosophy with high robustness and easy implementation.

  9. An Integrated Approach to Mitigation Wetland Site Selection: A Case Study in Gwacheon, Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junga Lee

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an integrated approach to mitigation wetland site selection using functional landscape connectivity and landscape structure. This approach enables landscape designers to evaluate the relative priorities of mitigation wetland areas based on functional landscape connectivity and wildlife mobility, as well as landscape structure, composition, and configuration. The least-cost path method is used to evaluate candidate sites for mitigation wetlands with regard to wildlife movement. A set of assessments for landscape indices using FRAGSTATS was applied to identify suitable mitigation wetland areas on the basis of landscape connectivity, composition, and configuration. The study was conducted in Gwacheon, Korea, where there are plans for regional development that will change the landscape. In the first step, a group of 14 candidate sites is identified via analysis of functional landscape connectivity using the least-cost path method. In the second step, candidate mitigation wetland areas are ranked according to landscape connectivity and composition. The five mitigation wetland areas that were found to be suitable were analyzed based on landscape configuration at the class level. This study demonstrates that functional landscape connectivity and landscape structure are important aspects to consider when identifying suitable sites for mitigation wetland planning and restoration.

  10. Influence of Learning Environment on Students' Academic Achievement in Mathematics: A Case Study of Some Selected Secondary Schools in Yobe State-Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamaki, Timothy Ado

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the influence of learning environment on students' academic achievement in mathematics at senior secondary school level. Thus the study investigated some components of learning environment and their possible influence on students' academic achievement in mathematics. A sample of 337 randomly selected SS II…

  11. An Algorithm to Guide Recipient Vessel Selection in Cases of Free Functional Muscle Transfer for Facial Reanimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis P Henry

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe aim of this study was to review the recipient vessels used in our cases of facial reanimation with free functional muscle transfer and to identify patient variables that may predict when the facial vessels are absent. From this we present a protocol for vessel selection in cases when the facial artery and/or vein are absent.MethodsPatients were identified from November 2006 to October 2013. Data was collected on patient demographics, facial palsy aetiology, history of previous facial surgery/trauma and flap/recipient vessels used. A standard operative approach was adopted and performed by a single surgeon.ResultsEighty-seven eligible patients were identified for inclusion amongst which 98 hemifaces were operated upon. The facial artery and vein were the most commonly used recipient vessels (90% and 83% of patients, respectively. Commonly used alternative vessels were the transverse facial vein and superficial temporal artery. Those with congenital facial palsy were significantly more likely to lack a suitable facial vein (P=0.03 and those with a history of previous facial surgery or trauma were significantly more likely to have an absent facial artery and vein (P<0.05.ConclusionsOur algorithm can help to guide vessel selection cases of facial reanimation with free functional muscle transfer. Amongst patients with congenital facial palsy or in those with a previous history of facial surgery or trauma, the facial vessels are more likely to be absent and so the surgeon should then look towards the transverse facial vein and superficial temporal artery as alternative recipient structures.

  12. Unruptured intracranial aneurysms: their illusive natural history and why subgroup statistics cannot provide normative criteria for clinical decisions or selection criteria for a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, J; Roy, D; Weill, A; Guilbert, F; Nguyen, T; Molyneux, A J; Fox, A J; Johnston, S C; Cognard, C; Pierot, L; Meder, J-F; Rouleau, Isabelle

    2008-10-01

    There is currently no evidence that treatment of unruptured aneurysms is beneficial. Confronted with the uncertainty, many clinicians are attracted by an individual calculus of risks using numbers extracted from subgroup statistics of observational studies or natural history data. The so-called natural history of unruptured aneurysms refers to a purely man-made ratio of events divided by the number of untreated patients identified by imaging, a ratio heavily influenced by referral patterns and arbitrary clinical decisions. Available studies lacked prespecified hypotheses, exposing all analyses to sampling error and bias, and sample sizes were too small to provide reliable subgroup statistics. Far from being "natural kinds" of aneurysms, subgroups were post-hoc creations. Resulting data-driven statistics can only be exploratory, the error too uncontrollable to serve for clinical decisions. A randomized trial is in order, but selection according to fixed size criteria is ill-advised, given the imprecision of imaging, the influence of other factors such as location, previous history, multiplicity of lesions, risks of treatment, age and the danger of arbitrarily excluding from a long trial a large segment of the population with aneurysms for whom the research question is most pertinent.

  13. Experience of laparoscopic partial nephrectomy using a kidney grasper in selective cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongo, Fumiya; Kawauchi, Akihiro; Itoh, Yoshizo; Fujii, Hidetaka; Naitoh, Yasuyuki; Nakamura, Terukazu; Naya, Yoshio; Kamoi, Kazumi; Okihara, Koji; Miki, Tsuneharu

    2014-11-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of regional cramp in laparoscopic partial nephrectomy, we performed partial nephrectomy using a kidney grasper that enabled the application of ischemia to a limited region of the kidney. The subjects were 5 renal cell carcinoma patients. The mean tumor diameter was 15 mm. There were 2 male and 3 female patients. A transperitoneal approach was used in all cases. Following the standard procedure of laparoscopic partial resection, the hilum of the kidney was confirmed and treated to prepare for rapidly applying clamping with forceps. Tumor resection and suture were then performed under partial warm ischemia using a kidney grasper. Surgery could be completed in 4 patients using this method. In the remaining patient, control of bleeding was considered difficult during tumor resection after applying partial ischemia, and so the procedure was switched to renal artery clamping using bulldog forceps. In the 4 patients in whom a kidney grasper was used, the mean partial warm ischemia time was 23.6 minutes (range, 23-25 minutes), and the mean blood loss was 110 mL (range, 20-260 mL). This procedure may be a useful option in ischemia for partial nephrectomy.

  14. Selective use of percutaneous testis biopsy to optimize IVF-ICSI outcomes: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayden, Russell P; Wright, Diane L; Toth, Thomas L; Tanrikut, Cigdem

    2016-01-01

    Sperm quality may degrade during transit through the male reproductive tract in some individuals. In this setting surgically retrieved testicular sperm may outperform ejaculated samples for use with in vitro fertilization (IVF) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF-ICSI). We sought to describe one center's experience with the use of fresh testicular sperm after prior failed IVF-ICSI with ejaculated samples. A retrospective review was conducted evaluating IVF-ICSI cycles performed at a tertiary IVF unit between 2009 and 2014. Couples who were managed with percutaneous testis biopsy to obtain sperm, despite availability of ejaculated sperm, were included. Four couples who underwent a total of 6 percutaneous testis biopsy/IVF-ICSI cycles were identified. Collectively, the couples had undergone 9 prior IVF-ICSI cycles using fresh ejaculated sperm without successful pregnancy. From the six cycles that used fresh testicular sperm four live births resulted (1 twin gestation, 3 singletons). Only 1 of the 4 couples remained childless. For patients who have had prior failed IVF-ICSI attempts, this small case series demonstrates a possible therapeutic benefit when freshly procured testicular sperm are used in lieu of ejaculated samples.

  15. Concentric-electrode organic electrochemical transistors: case study for selective hydrazine sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecqueur, S.; Lenfant, S.; Guérin, D.; Alibart, F.; Vuillaume, D.

    2017-12-01

    We report on hydrazine-sensing organic electrochemical transistors (OECTs) with a design consisting in concentric annular electrodes. The design engineering of these OECTs was motivated by the great potential of using OECT sensing arrays in fields such as bioelectronics. In this work, PEDOT:PSS-based OECTs have been studied as aqueous sensors, specifically sensitive to the lethal hydrazine molecule. These amperometric sensors have many relevant features for the development of hydrazine sensors, such as a sensitivity down to 10-5 M of hydrazine in water, an order of magnitude higher selectivity for hydrazine than for 9 other water soluble common analytes, the capability to recover entirely its base signal after water flushing and a very low voltage operation. The specificity for hydrazine to be sensed by our OECTs is caused by its catalytic oxidation at the gate electrode and enables increasing the output current modulation of the devices. This has permitted the device-geometry study of the whole series of 80 micrometric OECT devices with sub-20-nm PEDOT:PSS layers, channel lengths down to 1 μm and a specific device geometry of coplanar and concentric electrodes. The numerous geometries unravel new aspects of the OECT mechanisms governing the electrochemical sensing behaviours of the device, more particularly the effect of the contacts which are inherent at the micro-scale. By lowering the device cross-talking, micrometric gate-integrated radial OECTs shall contribute to the diminishing of the readout invasiveness and therefore promotes further the development of OECT biosensors.

  16. Concentric-Electrode Organic Electrochemical Transistors: Case Study for Selective Hydrazine Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Pecqueur

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available We report on hydrazine-sensing organic electrochemical transistors (OECTs with a design consisting of concentric annular electrodes. The design engineering of these OECTs was motivated by the great potential of using OECT sensing arrays in fields such as bioelectronics. In this work, poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene:poly(styrenesulfonate (PEDOT:PSS-based OECTs have been studied as aqueous sensors that are specifically sensitive to the lethal hydrazine molecule. These amperometric sensors have many relevant features for the development of hydrazine sensors, such as a sensitivity down to 10−5 M of hydrazine in water, an order of magnitude higher selectivity for hydrazine than for nine other water-soluble common analytes, the capability to entirely recover its base signal after water flushing, and a very low operation voltage. The specificity for hydrazine to be sensed by our OECTs is caused by its catalytic oxidation at the gate electrode, and enables an increase in the output current modulation of the devices. This has permitted the device-geometry study of the whole series of 80 micrometric OECT devices with sub-20-nm PEDOT:PSS layers, channel lengths down to 1 µm, and a specific device geometry of coplanar and concentric electrodes. The numerous geometries unravel new aspects of the OECT mechanisms governing the electrochemical sensing behaviours of the device—more particularly the effect of the contacts which are inherent at the micro-scale. By lowering the device cross-talk, micrometric gate-integrated radial OECTs shall contribute to the diminishing of the readout invasiveness and therefore further promote the development of OECT biosensors.

  17. Selected anionic and cationic surface active agents: case study on the Kłodnica sediments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olkowska Ewa

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Surface active agents (surfactants are a group of chemical compounds, which are used as ingredients of detergents, cleaning products, cosmetics and functional products. After use, wastes containing surfactants or their degradation products are discharged to wastewater treatment plants or directly into surface waters. Due to their specific properties of SAAs, compounds are able to migrate between different environmental compartments such as soil, sediment, water or even living organisms and accumulate there. Surfactants can have a harmful effect on living organisms. They can connect with bioactive molecules and modify their function. Additionally, they have the ability to migrate into cells and cause their damage or death. For these reasons investigation of individual surfactants should be conducted. The presented research has been undertaken to obtain information about SAA contamination of sediment from the River Kłodnica catchment caused by selected anionic (linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS C10-C13 and cationic (alkylbenzyldimethylammonium (BDMA-C12-16, alkyl trimethyl ammonium (DTMA, hexadecyl piridinium chloride (HP chlorides surfactants. This river flows through an area of the Upper Silesia Industrial Region where various companies and other institutions (e.g. coal mining, power plants, metallurgy, hospitals are located. To determine their concentration the following analytical tools have been applied: accelerated solvent extraction– solid phase extraction – high performance liquid chromatography – UV-Vis (anionic SAAs and conductivity (cationic SAAs detectors. In all sediments anionic SAAs have been detected. The concentrations of HTMA and BDMA-C16 in tested samples were higher than other cationic analytes. Generally, levels of surfactants with longer alkyl chains were higher and this observation can confirm their higher susceptibility to sorption on solid surfaces.

  18. The influence of selected senses on consumer experience: A brandy case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Pentz

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Sensory marketing has become a popular marketing technique to enhance consumer experience. Researchers have suggested that marketers should incorporate as many senses as possible in order for sensory marketing to be effective.Research purpose: To investigate the influence of selected senses – sight, sound and smell – on consumers’ experience, specifically in terms of the tastiness of brandy.Motivation for the study: Even though the use of the senses such as sight, sound and smell is a popular sensory marketing tool in the field of experiential marketing, applying such marketing techniques is a challenging and costly exercise for marketers, and researchers have called for more studies on senses and consumer experience.Research design, approach and method: A full factorial laboratory experiment (2 x 2 x 2 was conducted where 240 spirits consumers indicated the tastiness of a brandy sample under certain conditions.Main findings: Results revealed that, within a laboratory setting, consumers recorded lower levels of tastiness under conditions where more senses were manipulated than in conditions where less senses were manipulated.Practical/managerial implications: The results of the study coincided with previous results, which indicated that, within certain product categories, sensory marketing could actually decrease the consumer’s experience as sensory overload could occur.Contribution/value-add: In the endeavour to reduce possible sensory overload in the alcohol industry, the findings suggest that marketers should not apply sensory marketing indiscriminately to all product categories. For example, on a retail level, where experimental marketing might be too costly or even too complex to apply to some product categories, marketers should rather rethink the use of sensory marketing strategies within certain industries and focus on other marketing strategies, such a brand building.

  19. Chiral selectivity of amino acid adsorption on chiral surfaces—The case of alanine on Pt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franke, J.-H.; Kosov, D. S. [Department of Physics, Campus Plaine - CP 231, Université Libre de Bruxelles, 1050 Brussels (Belgium)

    2015-02-07

    We study the binding pattern of the amino acid alanine on the naturally chiral Pt surfaces Pt(531), Pt(321), and Pt(643). These surfaces are all vicinal to the (111) direction but have different local environments of their kink sites and are thus a model for realistic roughened Pt surfaces. Alanine has only a single methyl group attached to its chiral center, which makes the number of possible binding conformations computationally tractable. Additionally, only the amine and carboxyl group are expected to interact strongly with the Pt substrate. On Pt(531), we study the molecule in its pristine as well as its deprotonated form and find that the deprotonated one is more stable by 0.47 eV. Therefore, we study the molecule in its deprotonated form on Pt(321) and Pt(643). As expected, the oxygen and nitrogen atoms of the deprotonated molecule provide a local binding “tripod” and the most stable adsorption configurations optimize the interaction of this “tripod” with undercoordinated surface atoms. However, the interaction of the methyl group plays an important role: it induces significant chiral selectivity of about 60 meV on all surfaces. Hereby, the L-enantiomer adsorbs preferentially to the Pt(321){sup S} and Pt(643){sup S} surfaces, while the D-enantiomer is more stable on Pt(531){sup S}. The binding energies increase with increasing surface density of kink sites, i.e., they are largest for Pt(531){sup S} and smallest for Pt(643){sup S}.

  20. Early prevention of antisocial personality: long-term follow-up of two randomized controlled trials comparing indicated and selective approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Stephen; Briskman, Jackie; O'Connor, Thomas G

    2014-06-01

    Antisocial personality is a common adult problem that imposes a major public health burden, but for which there is no effective treatment. Affected individuals exhibit persistent antisocial behavior and pervasive antisocial character traits, such as irritability, manipulativeness, and lack of remorse. Prevention of antisocial personality in childhood has been advocated, but evidence for effective interventions is lacking. The authors conducted two follow-up studies of randomized trials of group parent training. One involved 120 clinic-referred 3- to 7-year-olds with severe antisocial behavior for whom treatment was indicated, 93 of whom were reassessed between ages 10 and 17. The other involved 109 high-risk 4- to 6-year-olds with elevated antisocial behavior who were selectively screened from the community, 90 of whom were reassessed between ages 9 and 13. The primary psychiatric outcome measures were the two elements of antisocial personality, namely, antisocial behavior (assessed by a diagnostic interview) and antisocial character traits (assessed by a questionnaire). Also assessed were reading achievement (an important domain of youth functioning at work) and parent-adolescent relationship quality. In the indicated sample, both elements of antisocial personality were improved in the early intervention group at long-term follow-up compared with the control group (antisocial behavior: odds ratio of oppositional defiant disorder=0.20, 95% CI=0.06, 0.69; antisocial character traits: B=-4.41, 95% CI=-1.12, -8.64). Additionally, reading ability improved (B=9.18, 95% CI=0.58, 18.0). Parental expressed emotion was warmer (B=0.86, 95% CI=0.20, 1.41) and supervision was closer (B=-0.43, 95% CI=-0.11, -0.75), but direct observation of parenting showed no differences. Teacher-rated and self-rated antisocial behavior were unchanged. In contrast, in the selective high-risk sample, early intervention was not associated with improved long-term outcomes. Early intervention with

  1. Selection of single blastocysts for fresh transfer via standard morphology assessment alone and with array CGH for good prognosis IVF patients: results from a randomized pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Zhihong

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Single embryo transfer (SET remains underutilized as a strategy to reduce multiple gestation risk in IVF, and its overall lower pregnancy rate underscores the need for improved techniques to select one embryo for fresh transfer. This study explored use of comprehensive chromosomal screening by array CGH (aCGH to provide this advantage and improve pregnancy rate from SET. Methods First-time IVF patients with a good prognosis (age Results For patients in Group A (n = 55, 425 blastocysts were biopsied and analyzed via aCGH (7.7 blastocysts/patient. Aneuploidy was detected in 191/425 (44.9% of blastocysts in this group. For patients in Group B (n = 48, 389 blastocysts were microscopically examined (8.1 blastocysts/patient. Clinical pregnancy rate was significantly higher in the morphology + aCGH group compared to the morphology-only group (70.9 and 45.8%, respectively; p = 0.017; ongoing pregnancy rate for Groups A and B were 69.1 vs. 41.7%, respectively (p = 0.009. There were no twin pregnancies. Conclusion Although aCGH followed by frozen embryo transfer has been used to screen at risk embryos (e.g., known parental chromosomal translocation or history of recurrent pregnancy loss, this is the first description of aCGH fully integrated with a clinical IVF program to select single blastocysts for fresh SET in good prognosis patients. The observed aneuploidy rate (44.9% among biopsied blastocysts highlights the inherent imprecision of SET when conventional morphology is used alone. Embryos randomized to the aCGH group implanted with greater efficiency, resulted in clinical pregnancy more often, and yielded a lower miscarriage rate than those selected without aCGH. Additional studies are needed to verify our pilot data and confirm a role for on-site, rapid aCGH for IVF patients contemplating fresh SET.

  2. Landscape planning and management of spas in Serbia with special reference to the selected case studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crnčević Tijana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the paper is presented the overview of the legal requirements in Serbia covering planning and as well landscape planning. It is stress that Serbia is in the process of the ratification of the European Landscape Convention (ELC and adoption of the Spatial Plan of the Republic of Serbia (SPRS where is included the obligation of the production of the study 'Characterization of the landscape in Serbia' and as well pilot projects 'Characterization of the landscape' where are separated priority areas and where are specially stressed as tourist destinations spas. Taking into consideration that important step towards development of the methodological framework for landscape planning and management in Serbia was made with the inclusion of this subject within the process of formulating of the SPRS, besides the overview of the main obligations set by this document covering landscape planning and management, as an example of the current practice, two case studies of Vrnjacka spa and Pribojska spa are presented where special attention within planning documents was given to the protection and enhancement of the landscape. Beside that, as a contribution, it is given the proposal of the preliminary typology of the landscape of Vrnjacke spa within the borders of the Master plan and Pribojska spa within the borders of the Plan of detailed regulation. Taking into consideration the scope of these plans, the landscape is defined as cultural and by more detailed analyses as urban and rural. Within these two types of landscape are separated urban area, the 'core' of the spa, peri-urban area, and within rural forest and agricultural area. One of the main conclusions of this paper is that the inclusion of the landscape within legal framework which is promoting spatial and urban planning, nature and environmental protection is very important prerequisite for adequate planning and management of the landscape in Serbia.

  3. Between-centre differences and treatment effects in randomized controlled trials: A case study in traumatic brain injury

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    Roberts Ian

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI, large between-centre differences in outcome exist and many clinicians believe that such differences influence estimation of the treatment effect in randomized controlled trial (RCTs. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of between-centre differences in outcome on the estimated treatment effect in a large RCT in TBI. Methods We used data from the MRC CRASH trial on the efficacy of corticosteroid infusion in patients with TBI. We analyzed the effect of the treatment on 14 day mortality with fixed effect logistic regression. Next we used random effects logistic regression with a random intercept to estimate the treatment effect taking into account between-centre differences in outcome. Between-centre differences in outcome were expressed with a 95% range of odds ratios (OR for centres compared to the average, based on the variance of the random effects (tau2. A random effects logistic regression model with random slopes was used to allow the treatment effect to vary by centre. The variation in treatment effect between the centres was expressed in a 95% range of the estimated treatment ORs. Results In 9978 patients from 237 centres, 14-day mortality was 19.5%. Mortality was higher in the treatment group (OR = 1.22, p = 0.00010. Using a random effects model showed large between-centre differences in outcome (95% range of centre effects: 0.27- 3.71, but did not substantially change the estimated treatment effect (OR = 1.24, p = 0.00003. There was limited, although statistically significant, between-centre variation in the treatment effect (OR = 1.22, 95% treatment OR range: 1.17-1.26. Conclusion Large between-centre differences in outcome do not necessarily affect the estimated treatment effect in RCTs, in contrast to current beliefs in the clinical area of TBI.

  4. Landslide hazard mapping with selected dominant factors: A study case of Penang Island, Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tay, Lea Tien; Alkhasawneh, Mutasem Sh.; Ngah, Umi Kalthum [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia); Lateh, Habibah [School of Distance Education, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11600 Penang (Malaysia)

    2015-05-15

    Landslide is one of the destructive natural geohazards in Malaysia. In addition to rainfall as triggering factos for landslide in Malaysia, topographical and geological factors play important role in the landslide susceptibility analysis. Conventional topographic factors such as elevation, slope angle, slope aspect, plan curvature and profile curvature have been considered as landslide causative factors in many research works. However, other topographic factors such as diagonal length, surface area, surface roughness and rugosity have not been considered, especially for the research work in landslide hazard analysis in Malaysia. This paper presents landslide hazard mapping using Frequency Ratio (FR) and the study area is Penang Island of Malaysia. Frequency ratio approach is a variant of probabilistic method that is based on the observed relationships between the distribution of landslides and each landslide-causative factor. Landslide hazard map of Penang Island is produced by considering twenty-two (22) landslide causative factors. Among these twenty-two (22) factors, fourteen (14) factors are topographic factors. They are elevation, slope gradient, slope aspect, plan curvature, profile curvature, general curvature, tangential curvature, longitudinal curvature, cross section curvature, total curvature, diagonal length, surface area, surface roughness and rugosity. These topographic factors are extracted from the digital elevation model of Penang Island. The other eight (8) non-topographic factors considered are land cover, vegetation cover, distance from road, distance from stream, distance from fault line, geology, soil texture and rainfall precipitation. After considering all twenty-two factors for landslide hazard mapping, the analysis is repeated with fourteen dominant factors which are selected from the twenty-two factors. Landslide hazard map was segregated into four categories of risks, i.e. Highly hazardous area, Hazardous area, Moderately hazardous area

  5. Landslide hazard mapping with selected dominant factors: A study case of Penang Island, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Lea Tien; Alkhasawneh, Mutasem Sh.; Ngah, Umi Kalthum; Lateh, Habibah

    2015-05-01

    Landslide is one of the destructive natural geohazards in Malaysia. In addition to rainfall as triggering factos for landslide in Malaysia, topographical and geological factors play important role in the landslide susceptibility analysis. Conventional topographic factors such as elevation, slope angle, slope aspect, plan curvature and profile curvature have been considered as landslide causative factors in many research works. However, other topographic factors such as diagonal length, surface area, surface roughness and rugosity have not been considered, especially for the research work in landslide hazard analysis in Malaysia. This paper presents landslide hazard mapping using Frequency Ratio (FR) and the study area is Penang Island of Malaysia. Frequency ratio approach is a variant of probabilistic method that is based on the observed relationships between the distribution of landslides and each landslide-causative factor. Landslide hazard map of Penang Island is produced by considering twenty-two (22) landslide causative factors. Among these twenty-two (22) factors, fourteen (14) factors are topographic factors. They are elevation, slope gradient, slope aspect, plan curvature, profile curvature, general curvature, tangential curvature, longitudinal curvature, cross section curvature, total curvature, diagonal length, surface area, surface roughness and rugosity. These topographic factors are extracted from the digital elevation model of Penang Island. The other eight (8) non-topographic factors considered are land cover, vegetation cover, distance from road, distance from stream, distance from fault line, geology, soil texture and rainfall precipitation. After considering all twenty-two factors for landslide hazard mapping, the analysis is repeated with fourteen dominant factors which are selected from the twenty-two factors. Landslide hazard map was segregated into four categories of risks, i.e. Highly hazardous area, Hazardous area, Moderately hazardous area

  6. Universal randomness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dotsenko, Viktor S [Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2011-03-31

    In the last two decades, it has been established that a single universal probability distribution function, known as the Tracy-Widom (TW) distribution, in many cases provides a macroscopic-level description of the statistical properties of microscopically different systems, including both purely mathematical ones, such as increasing subsequences in random permutations, and quite physical ones, such as directed polymers in random media or polynuclear crystal growth. In the first part of this review, we use a number of models to examine this phenomenon at a simple qualitative level and then consider the exact solution for one-dimensional directed polymers in a random environment, showing that free energy fluctuations in such a system are described by the universal TW distribution. The second part provides detailed appendix material containing the necessary mathematical background for the first part. (reviews of topical problems)

  7. Whole Slide Imaging Versus Microscopy for Primary Diagnosis in Surgical Pathology: A Multicenter Blinded Randomized Noninferiority Study of 1992 Cases (Pivotal Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Sanjay; Feldman, Michael D; Abels, Esther; Ashfaq, Raheela; Beltaifa, Senda; Cacciabeve, Nicolas G; Cathro, Helen P; Cheng, Liang; Cooper, Kumarasen; Dickey, Glenn E; Gill, Ryan M; Heaton, Robert P; Kerstens, René; Lindberg, Guy M; Malhotra, Reenu K; Mandell, James W; Manlucu, Ellen D; Mills, Anne M; Mills, Stacey E; Moskaluk, Christopher A; Nelis, Mischa; Patil, Deepa T; Przybycin, Christopher G; Reynolds, Jordan P; Rubin, Brian P; Saboorian, Mohammad H; Salicru, Mauricio; Samols, Mark A; Sturgis, Charles D; Turner, Kevin O; Wick, Mark R; Yoon, Ji Y; Zhao, Po; Taylor, Clive R

    2018-01-01

    Most prior studies of primary diagnosis in surgical pathology using whole slide imaging (WSI) versus microscopy have focused on specific organ systems or included relatively few cases. The objective of this study was to demonstrate that WSI is noninferior to microscopy for primary diagnosis in surgical pathology. A blinded randomized noninferiority study was conducted across the entire range of surgical pathology cases (biopsies and resections, including hematoxylin and eosin, immunohistochemistry, and special stains) from 4 institutions using the original sign-out diagnosis (baseline diagnosis) as the reference standard. Cases were scanned, converted to WSI and randomized. Sixteen pathologists interpreted cases by microscopy or WSI, followed by a wash-out period of ≥4 weeks, after which cases were read by the same observers using the other modality. Major discordances were identified by an adjudication panel, and the differences between major discordance rates for both microscopy (against the reference standard) and WSI (against the reference standard) were calculated. A total of 1992 cases were included, resulting in 15,925 reads. The major discordance rate with the reference standard diagnosis was 4.9% for WSI and 4.6% for microscopy. The difference between major discordance rates for microscopy and WSI was 0.4% (95% confidence interval, -0.30% to 1.01%). The difference in major discordance rates for WSI and microscopy was highest in endocrine pathology (1.8%), neoplastic kidney pathology (1.5%), urinary bladder pathology (1.3%), and gynecologic pathology (1.2%). Detailed analysis of these cases revealed no instances where interpretation by WSI was consistently inaccurate compared with microscopy for multiple observers. We conclude that WSI is noninferior to microscopy for primary diagnosis in surgical pathology, including biopsies and resections stained with hematoxylin and eosin, immunohistochemistry and special stains. This conclusion is valid across a wide

  8. Generic-reference and generic-generic bioequivalence of forty-two, randomly-selected, on-market generic products of fourteen immediate-release oral drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammami, Muhammad M; De Padua, Sophia J S; Hussein, Rajaa; Al Gaai, Eman; Khodr, Nesrine A; Al-Swayeh, Reem; Alvi, Syed N; Binhashim, Nada

    2017-12-08

    The extents of generic-reference and generic-generic average bioequivalence and intra-subject variation of on-market drug products have not been prospectively studied on a large scale. We assessed bioequivalence of 42 generic products of 14 immediate-release oral drugs with the highest number of generic products on the Saudi market. We conducted 14 four-sequence, randomized, crossover studies on the reference and three randomly-selected generic products of amlodipine, amoxicillin, atenolol, cephalexin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, diclofenac, ibuprofen, fluconazole, metformin, metronidazole, paracetamol, omeprazole, and ranitidine. Geometric mean ratios of maximum concentration (Cmax) and area-under-the-concentration-time-curve, to last measured concentration (AUCT), extrapolated to infinity (AUCI), or truncated to Cmax time of reference product (AUCReftmax) were calculated using non-compartmental method and their 90% confidence intervals (CI) were compared to the 80.00%-125.00% bioequivalence range. Percentages of individual ratios falling outside the ±25% range were also determined. Mean (SD) age and body-mass-index of 700 healthy volunteers (28-80/study) were 32.2 (6.2) years and 24.4 (3.2) kg/m2, respectively. In 42 generic-reference comparisons, 100% of AUCT and AUCI CIs showed bioequivalence, 9.5% of Cmax CIs barely failed to show bioequivalence, and 66.7% of AUCReftmax CIs failed to show bioequivalence/showed bioinequivalence. Adjusting for 6 comparisons, 2.4% of AUCT and AUCI CIs and 21.4% of Cmax CIs failed to show bioequivalence. In 42 generic-generic comparisons, 2.4% of AUCT, AUCI, and Cmax CIs failed to show bioequivalence, and 66.7% of AUCReftmax CIs failed to show bioequivalence/showed bioinequivalence. Adjusting for 6 comparisons, 2.4% of AUCT and AUCI CIs and 14.3% of Cmax CIs failed to show bioequivalence. Average geometric mean ratio deviation from 100% was ≤3.2 and ≤5.4 percentage points for AUCI and Cmax, respectively, in both generic

  9. Efficacy of aerobic exercise and a prudent diet for improving selected lipids and lipoproteins in adults: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberts Susan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies addressing the effects of aerobic exercise and a prudent diet on lipid and lipoprotein concentrations in adults have reached conflicting conclusions. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of aerobic exercise combined with a prudent diet on lipid and lipoprotein concentrations in adults. Methods Studies were located by searching nine electronic databases, cross-referencing, and expert review. Two independent reviewers selected studies that met the following criteria: (1 randomized controlled trials, (2 aerobic exercise combined with diet recommendations (saturated/trans fat intake less than 10% of total calories and cholesterol less than 300 mg/day and/or fiber intake ≥25 g/day in women and ≥35 grams per day in men, (3 intervention ≥4 weeks, (4 humans ≥18 years of age, (5 published studies, including dissertations and Master's theses, (6 studies published in any language, (7 studies published between January 1, 1955 and May 1, 2009, (8 assessment of one or more of the following lipid and lipoprotein concentrations: total cholesterol (TC, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, ratio of TC to HDL-C, non-HDL-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C and triglycerides (TG. Two reviewers independently extracted all data. Random-effects models that account for heterogeneity and 95% confidence intervals were used to pool findings. Results Of the 1,401 citations reviewed, six studies representing 16 groups (8 intervention, 8 control and up to 559 men and women (282 intervention, 277 control met the criteria for analysis. Statistically significant intervention minus control reductions were found for TC (-15.5 mg/dl, 95% CI, -20.3 to -10.7, TC:HDL-C (-0.4 mg/dl, 95% CI, -0.7 to -0.2, LDL-C (-9.2 mg/dl, 95% CI, -12.7 to -5.8 and TG (-10.6 mg/dl, 95% CI, -17.2 to -4.0 but not HDL-C (-0.5 mg/dl, 95% CI, -4.0 to 3.1. Changes were equivalent to reductions of 7.5%, 6.6%, 7.2% and 18.2% respectively

  10. Selection of Malaysia School Youth Cadet Corps leader by using analytical hierarchy process: A case study at SMK Ahmad Boestamam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Nurul Huda; Ahmat, Norhayati; Mohamed, Nurul Akmal; Razmi, Syazwani Che; Mohamed, Nurul Farihan

    2017-05-01

    This research is a case study to identify the best criteria that a person should have as the leader of Malaysia School Youth Cadet Corps (Kadet Remaja Sekolah (KRS)) at SMK Ahmad Boestamam, Sitiawan in order to select the most appropriate person to hold the position. The approach used in this study is Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) which include pairwise comparison to compare the criteria and also the candidates. There are four criteria namely charisma, interpersonal communication, personality and physical. Four candidates (1, 2, 3 and 4) are being considered in this study. Purposive sampling and questionnaires are used as instruments to obtain the data which are then analyzed by using the AHP method. The final output indicates that Candidate 1 has the highest score, followed by Candidate 2, Candidate 4 and Candidate 3. It shows that this method is very helpful in the multi-criteria decision making when there are several options available.

  11. Biological control of weeds: research by the United States Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service: selected case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quimby, Paul C; DeLoach, C Jack; Wineriter, Susan A; Goolsby, John A; Sobhian, Rouhollah; Boyette, C Douglas; Abbas, Hamed K

    2003-01-01

    Research by the USDA-Agricultural Research Service (ARS) on biological control of weeds has been practiced for many years because of its inherent ecological and economic advantages. Today, it is further driven by ARS adherence to Presidential Executive Order 13112 (3 February 1999) on invasive species and to USDA-ARS policy toward developing technology in support of sustainable agriculture with reduced dependence on non-renewable petrochemical resources. This paper reports examples or case studies selected to demonstrate the traditional or classical approach for biological control programs using Old World arthropods against Tamarix spp, Melaleuca quinquenervia (Cav) ST Blake and Galium spurium L/G aparine L, and the augmentative approach with a native plant pathogen against Pueraria lobata Ohwi = P montana. The examples illustrated various conflicts of interest with endangered species and ecological complexities of arthropods with associated microbes such as nematodes.

  12. Prospective study of ultrasound-guided percutaneous renal cryotherapy: case selection as an optimization factor for a technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Faba, O; Palou, J; Rosales, A; de la Torre, P; Martí, J; Palazzetti, A; Villavicencio, H

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the technical and oncological effectiveness of ultrasound-guided percutaneous renal cryotherapy (PRC) in a selected group of patients with renal cancer. We conducted a prospective study of 28 patients with posterior-facing T1a renal tumors with middle and inferior external borders. All patients underwent ultrasound-guided PRC. Follow-up was conducted with computed tomography at 1 month and then every 6 months, with a good result defined as the total absence of contrast incorporation. We performed a descriptive and survival study using the Kaplan-Meier estimator. The 28 patients had a mean age (SD) of 68.3 (10.1) years, and the group underwent 28 procedures. The mean (SD) size of the tumors was 25.5 (7.5) mm, the mean nephrometry score was 1.41 (0.52) and the mean preoperative creatinine level was 133.5 (144.1) mmol/L. There were no intraoperative complications. In terms of postoperative complications, there was only 1 case (3.5%) of a skin lesion resulting from treating a tumor in a transplanted kidney (Clavien II). The median follow-up was 25 months, and the mean (SD) postoperative creatinine level was 135.5 (110.3) mmol/L. Two cases presented radiological recurrence (93% efficacy), with a mean time to recurrence of 12 and 19 months, respectively. There were no tumor-related deaths. Our series (the largest on PRC in our country to date) shows that, with an appropriate selection of tumors, PRC is a safe technique with minimal morbidity. Ultrasonography enables the controlled performance of the procedure and saves the patient from radiation and reduces costs. Copyright © 2013 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Randomized Comparison of Selective Internal Radiotherapy (SIRT) Versus Drug-Eluting Bead Transarterial Chemoembolization (DEB-TACE) for the Treatment of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitton, Michael B., E-mail: michael.pitton@unimedizin-mainz.de; Kloeckner, Roman [Johannes Gutenberg University Medical Center, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Germany); Ruckes, Christian [Johannes Gutenberg University Medical Center, IZKS (Germany); Wirth, Gesine M. [Johannes Gutenberg University Medical Center, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Germany); Eichhorn, Waltraud [Johannes Gutenberg University Medical Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine (Germany); Wörns, Marcus A.; Weinmann, Arndt [Johannes Gutenberg University Medical Center, Department of Internal Medicine (Germany); Schreckenberger, Mathias [Johannes Gutenberg University Medical Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine (Germany); Galle, Peter R. [Johannes Gutenberg University Medical Center, Department of Internal Medicine (Germany); Otto, Gerd [Johannes Gutenberg University Medical Center, Department of Transplantation Surgery (Germany); Dueber, Christoph [Johannes Gutenberg University Medical Center, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Germany)

    2015-04-15

    PurposeTo prospectively compare SIRT and DEB-TACE for treating hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).MethodsFrom 04/2010–07/2012, 24 patients with histologically proven unresectable N0, M0 HCCs were randomized 1:1 to receive SIRT or DEB-TACE. SIRT could be repeated once in case of recurrence; while, TACE was repeated every 6 weeks until no viable tumor tissue was detected by MRI or contraindications prohibited further treatment. Patients were followed-up by MRI every 3 months; the final evaluation was 05/2013.ResultsBoth groups were comparable in demographics (SIRT: 8males/4females, mean age 72 ± 7 years; TACE: 10males/2females, mean age 71 ± 9 years), initial tumor load (1 patient ≥25 % in each group), and BCLC (Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer) stage (SIRT: 12×B; TACE 1×A, 11×B). Median progression-free survival (PFS) was 180 days for SIRT versus 216 days for TACE patients (p = 0.6193) with a median TTP of 371 days versus 336 days, respectively (p = 0.5764). Median OS was 592 days for SIRT versus 788 days for TACE patients (p = 0.9271). Seven patients died in each group. Causes of death were liver failure (n = 4 SIRT group), tumor progression (n = 4 TACE group), cardiovascular events, and inconclusive (n = 1 in each group).ConclusionsNo significant differences were found in median PFS, OS, and TTP. The lower rate of tumor progression in the SIRT group was nullified by a greater incidence of liver failure. This pilot study is the first prospective randomized trial comparing SIRT and TACE for treating HCC, and results can be used for sample size calculations of future studies.

  14. A geoprocessing model for the selection of populations most affected by diffuse industrial contamination: the case of oil refinery plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasetto, Roberto; De Santis, Marco

    2013-01-01

    A method to select populations living in areas affected by diffuse environmental contamination is presented, with particular regard to oil refineries, in the Italian context. The reasons to use municipality instead of census tract populations for environment and health small-area studies of contaminated sites are discussed. Populations most affected by diffuse environmental contamination are identified through a geoprocessing model. Data from the national census 2001 were used to estimate census tract level populations. A geodatabase was developed using the municipality and census tract layers provided by the Italian National Bureau of Statistics (ISTAT). The orthophotos of the Italian territory - year 2006 - available on the geographic information systems (GIS) of the National Cartographic Portal, were considered. The area within 2 km from the plant border was used as an operational definition to identify the area at major contamination. The geoprocessing model architecture is presented. The results of its application to the selection of municipality populations in a case study are shown. The application of the proposed geoprocessing model, the availability of long time series of mortality and morbidity data, and a quali-quantitative estimate of contamination over time, could allow an appraisal of the health status of populations affected by oil refinery emissions.

  15. A geoprocessing model for the selection of populations most affected by diffuse industrial contamination: the case of oil refinery plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Pasetto

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION. A method to select populations living in areas affected by diffuse environmental contamination is presented, with particular regard to oil refineries, in the Italian context. The reasons to use municipality instead of census tract populations for environment and health small-area studies of contaminated sites are discussed. METHODS. Populations most affected by diffuse environmental contamination are identified through a geoprocessing model. Data from the national census 2001 were used to estimate census tract level populations. A geodatabase was developed using the municipality and census tract layers provided by the Italian National Bureau of Statistics (ISTAT. The orthophotos of the Italian territory - year 2006 - available on the geographic information systems (GIS of the National Cartographic Portal, were considered. The area within 2 km from the plant border was used as an operational definition to identify the area at major contamination. RESULTS. The geoprocessing model architecture is presented. The results of its application to the selection of municipality populations in a case study are shown. CONCLUSIONS. The application of the proposed geoprocessing model, the availability of long time series of mortality and morbidity data, and a quali-quantitative estimate of contamination over time, could allow an appraisal of the health status of populations affected by oil refinery emissions.

  16. A comparative analysis of different hybrid MCDM techniques considering a case of selection of 3D printers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debapriyo Paul

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A multitude of techniques fall under the domain of Multi- Criteria Decision Making (MCDM which is used to select the best alternative among the available ones. The objective of this paper is to compare some of these techniques with respect to the problem of selection of 3D printers, which is associated with multiple attributes. The weights of the criteria were determined using analytical network process (ANP. Next, the alternatives were ranked using three different MCDM techniques- 1.TOPSIS which ranks alternatives having the shortest distance to the ideal solution as well as the greatest distance from the negative-ideal solution 2. Deng’s Similarity based Approach where the most preferred alternative should have the highest degree of similarity to the positive ideal solution and the lowest degree of similarity to the negative-ideal solution and 3.PROMETHEE and GAIA. The solutions for each of these three cases were analyzed thoroughly, and reasons for any deviations were discussed.

  17. A BSC method for supplier selection strategy using TOPSIS and VIKOR: A case study of part maker industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel Azar

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, provision-chain management has been one of the major concepts. The main reason that attracts attention to the concept is the increase in competition and struggle for the survival. There are different ways to increase the competition in organizations such as increasing productivity by acquiring information technology. In this paper, we present an integrated model with the balanced score card framework for supplier selection strategy. The proposed model of this paper gathers 161 important factors suggested in the literature and selects the six most important ones using different multi criteria techniques. We also propose a goal programming techniques with some hard constraints and implement the mathematical model for real-world case study of auto industry. The proposed model is solved in four different forms using TOPSIS, VIKOR and the combination of these 2 factors with factor analysis. The preliminary results indicate that a combination of VIKOR and factor analysis presented better results with 9% reduction in costs, 38% increase of quality, and 3.2% increase in acceptability.

  18. Fixed-points in random Boolean networks: The impact of parallelism in the Barabási-Albert scale-free topology case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moisset de Espanés, P; Osses, A; Rapaport, I

    2016-12-01

    Fixed points are fundamental states in any dynamical system. In the case of gene regulatory networks (GRNs) they correspond to stable genes profiles associated to the various cell types. We use Kauffman's approach to model GRNs with random Boolean networks (RBNs). In this paper we explore how the topology affects the distribution of the number of fixed points in randomly generated networks. We also study the size of the basins of attraction of these fixed points if we assume the α-asynchronous dynamics (where every node is updated independently with probability 0≤α≤1). It is well-known that asynchrony avoids the cyclic attractors into which parallel dynamics tends to fall. We observe the remarkable property that, in all our simulations, if for a given RBN with Barabási-Albert topology and α-asynchronous dynamics an initial configuration reaches a fixed point, then every configuration also reaches a fixed point. By contrast, in the parallel regime, the percentage of initial configurations reaching a fixed point (for the same networks) is dramatically smaller. We contrast the results of the simulations on Barabási-Albert networks with the classical Erdös-Rényi model of random networks. Everything indicates that Barabási-Albert networks are extremely robust. Finally, we study the mean and maximum time/work needed to reach a fixed point when starting from randomly chosen initial configurations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Sequence based prediction of DNA-binding proteins based on hybrid feature selection using random forest and Gaussian naïve Bayes.

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    Wangchao Lou

    Full Text Available Developing an efficient method for determination of the DNA-binding proteins, due to their vital roles in gene regulation, is becoming highly desired since it would be invaluable to advance our understanding of protein functions. In this study, we proposed a new method for the prediction of the DNA-binding proteins, by performing the feature rank using random forest and the wrapper-based feature selection using forward best-first search strategy. The features comprise information from primary sequence, predicted secondary structure, predicted relative solvent accessibility, and position specific scoring matrix. The proposed method, called DBPPred, used Gaussian naïve Bayes as the underlying classifier since it outperformed five other classifiers, including decision tree, logistic regression, k-nearest neighbor, support vector machine with polynomial kernel, and support vector machine with radial basis function. As a result, the proposed DBPPred yields the highest average accuracy of 0.791 and average MCC of 0.583 according to the five-fold cross validation with ten runs on the training benchmark dataset PDB594. Subsequently, blind tests on the independent dataset PDB186 by the proposed model trained on the entire PDB594 dataset and by other five existing methods (including iDNA-Prot, DNA-Prot, DNAbinder, DNABIND and DBD-Threader were performed, resulting in that the proposed DBPPred yielded the highest accuracy of 0.769, MCC of 0.538, and AUC of 0.790. The independent tests performed by the proposed DBPPred on completely a large non-DNA binding protein dataset and two RNA binding protein datasets also showed improved or comparable quality when compared with the relevant prediction methods. Moreover, we observed that majority of the selected features by the proposed method are statistically significantly different between the mean feature values of the DNA-binding and the non DNA-binding proteins. All of the experimental results indicate that

  20. The CAP study, evaluation of integrated universal and selective prevention strategies for youth alcohol misuse: study protocol of a cluster randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Newton Nicola C

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alcohol misuse amongst young people is a serious concern. The need for effective prevention is clear, yet there appear to be few evidenced-based programs that prevent alcohol misuse and none that target both high and low-risk youth. The CAP study addresses this gap by evaluating the efficacy of an integrated approach to alcohol misuse prevention, which combines the effective universal internet-based Climate Schools program with the effective selective personality-targeted Preventure program. This article describes the development and protocol of the CAP study which aims to prevent alcohol misuse and related harms in Australian adolescents. Methods/Design A cluster randomized controlled trial (RCT is being conducted with Year 8 students aged 13 to 14-years-old from 27 secondary schools in New South Wales and Victoria, Australia. Blocked randomisation was used to assign schools to one of four groups; Climate Schools only, Preventure only, CAP (Climate Schools and Preventure, or Control (alcohol, drug and health education as usual. The primary outcomes of the trial will be the uptake and harmful use of alcohol and alcohol related harms. Secondary outcomes will include alcohol and cannabis related knowledge, cannabis related harms, intentions to use, and mental health symptomatology. All participants will complete assessments on five occasions; baseline; immediately post intervention, and at 12, 24 and 36 months post baseline. Discussion This study protocol presents the design and current implementation of a cluster RCT to evaluate the efficacy of the CAP study; an integrated universal and selective approach to prevent alcohol use and related harms among adolescents. Compared to students who receive the stand-alone universal Climate Schools program or alcohol and drug education as usual (Controls, we expect the students who receive the CAP intervention to have significantly less uptake of alcohol use, a reduction in average

  1. Osteoarthritis treatment using autologous conditioned serum after placebo: Patient considerations and clinical response in a non-randomized case series

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutgers, M.; Creemers, L.B.; Yang, K.G.A.; Raijmakers, N.J.H.; Dhert, W.J.A.; Saris, Daniël B.F.

    2015-01-01

    Background and purpose Autologous conditioned serum (ACS) is a disease-modifying drug for treatment of knee osteoarthritis, and modest superiority over placebo was reported in an earlier randomized controlled trial (RCT). We hypothesized that when given the opportunity, placebo-treated patients from

  2. Impact of amoxicillin therapy on resistance selection in patients with community-acquired lower respiratory tract infections: a randomized, placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra-Kumar, Surbhi; Van Heirstraeten, Liesbet; Coenen, Samuel; Lammens, Christine; Adriaenssens, Niels; Kowalczyk, Anna; Godycki-Cwirko, Maciek; Bielicka, Zuzana; Hupkova, Helena; Lannering, Christina; Mölstad, Sigvard; Fernandez-Vandellos, Patricia; Torres, Antoni; Parizel, Maxim; Ieven, Margareta; Butler, Chris C; Verheij, Theo; Little, Paul; Goossens, Herman

    2016-11-01

    To determine the effect of amoxicillin treatment on resistance selection in patients with community-acquired lower respiratory tract infections in a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Patients were prescribed amoxicillin 1 g, three times daily (n = 52) or placebo (n = 50) for 7 days. Oropharyngeal swabs obtained before, within 48 h post-treatment and at 28-35 days were assessed for proportions of amoxicillin-resistant (ARS; amoxicillin MIC ≥2 mg/L) and -non-susceptible (ANS; MIC ≥0.5 mg/L) streptococci. Alterations in amoxicillin MICs and in penicillin-binding-proteins were also investigated. ITT and PP analyses were conducted. ARS and ANS proportions increased 11- and 2.5-fold, respectively, within 48 h post-amoxicillin treatment compared with placebo [ARS mean increase (MI) 9.46, 95% CI 5.57-13.35; ANS MI 39.87, 95% CI 30.96-48.78; P  0.1588). ARS/ANS were grouped by pbp mutations. Group 1 strains exhibited significantly lower amoxicillin resistance (mean MIC 2.8 mg/L, 95% CI 2.6-3.1) than group 2 (mean MIC 9.3 mg/L, 95% CI 8.1-10.5; P amoxicillin is modest and short-lived, probably due to 'fitness costs' engendered by high-level resistance-conferring mutations. This evidence further supports European guidelines that recommend amoxicillin when an antibiotic is indicated for community-acquired lower respiratory tract infections. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy.

  3. Acne RA-1,2, a novel UV-selective face cream for patients with acne: Efficacy and tolerability results of a randomized, placebo-controlled clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cestone, Enza; Michelotti, Angela; Zanoletti, Valentina; Zanardi, Andrea; Mantegazza, Raffaella; Dossena, Maurizia

    2017-06-01

    General skincare measures such as the use of moisturisers and products containing adequate photoprotection are important components of acne patients' management to complement the pharmacological regimen. Acne RA-1,2 is a novel dermato-cosmetic product which contains selective photofilters and active ingredients against the multifactorial pathophysiology of acne. To evaluate the tolerability of Acne RA-1,2 and its effect on the clinical signs of acne. This double-blind, placebo-controlled study randomized 40 adult patients with 10-25 comedones per half face to once-daily application of Acne RA-1,2 or placebo for 8 weeks. Evaluations after 4 and 8 weeks included the number of comedones, transepidermal water loss (TEWL), sebum production, and tolerability. In the Acne RA-1,2 group, there was a significant 35% decrease in the mean number of comedones from 26 at baseline to 17 at Week 8 (P<.001), a 7% significant reduction in TEWL (9.32 to 8.66 g/h/m(2) ; P<.001), and a 24% significant reduction in sebum production (154.8 to 117.6 μg/cm(2) ; P<.001). The reductions in TEWL and sebum production were significantly greater than those in the placebo group at Weeks 4 and 8 (P<0.05). There were no adverse events. Acne RA-1,2 was well tolerated and effective at reducing comedones and sebum production and improving epidermal barrier function. These results suggest that Acne RA-1,2 is useful against acne-prone facial skin, particularly as it targets sebum production, which topical pharmacological acne therapies do not address. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Subdural spread of injected local anesthetic in a selective transforaminal cervical nerve root block: a case report

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    Tofuku Katsuhiro

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Although uncommon, selective cervical nerve root blocks can have serious complications. The most serious complications that have been reported include cerebral infarction, spinal cord infarction, transient quadriplegia and death. Case presentation A 40-year-old Japanese woman with a history of severe right-sided cervical radicular pain was scheduled to undergo a right-sided C6 selective cervical nerve root block using a transforaminal approach under fluoroscopic guidance. An anterior oblique view of the C5-C6 intervertebral foramen was obtained, and a 23-gauge spinal needle, connected to the normal extension tube with a syringe filled with contrast medium, was introduced into the posterior-caudal aspect of the C5-C6 intervertebral foramen on the right side. In the anteroposterior view, the placement of the needle was considered satisfactory when it was placed no more medial than halfway across the width of the articular pillar. Although the spread of the contrast medium along the C6 nerve root was observed with right-sided C6 radiculography, the subdural flow of the contrast medium was not observed with real-time fluoroscopy. The extension tube used for the radiculography was removed from the spinal needle and a normal extension tube with a syringe filled with lidocaine connected in its place. We performed a negative aspiration test and then injected 1.5 mL of 1.0% lidocaine slowly around the C6 nerve root. Immediately after the injection of the local anesthetic, our patient developed acute flaccid paralysis, complained of breathing difficulties and became unresponsive; her respiratory pattern was uncoordinated. After 20 minutes, she regained consciousness and became alert, and her muscle strength in all four limbs returned to normal without any sensory deficits after receiving emergent cardiorespiratory support. Conclusions We believe that confirming maintenance of the appropriate needle position in the anteroposterior

  5. Improving the knowledge of labour and delivery nurses in India: a randomized controlled trial of mentoring and case sheets in primary care centres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Janet; Jayanna, Krishnamurthy; Shaw, Souradet; Cunningham, Troy; Fischer, Elizabeth; Mony, Prem; Ramesh, B M; Moses, Stephen; Avery, Lisa; Crockett, Maryanne; Blanchard, James F

    2017-01-07

    Birthing in health facilities in India has increased over the last few years, yet maternal and neonatal mortality rates remain high. Clinical mentoring with case sheets or checklists for nurses is viewed as essential for on-going knowledge transfer, particularly where basic training is inadequate. This paper summarizes a study of the effect of such a programme on staff knowledge and skills in a randomized trial of 295 nurses working in 108 Primary Health Centres (PHCs) in Karnataka, India. Stratifying by district, half of the PHCs were randomly assigned to be intervention sites and provided with regular mentoring visits where case sheet/checklists were a central job and teaching aid, and half to be control sites, where no support was provided except provision of case sheets. Nurses' knowledge and skills around normal labour, labour complications and neonate issues were tested before the intervention began and again one year later. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to examine the effect of mentoring and case sheets. Overall, on none of the 3 measures, did case sheet use without mentoring add anything to the basic nursing training when controlling for other factors. Only individuals who used both case-sheets and received mentoring scored significantly higher on the normal labour and neonate indices, scoring almost twice as high as those who only used case-sheets. This group was also associated with significantly higher scores on the complications of labour index, with their scores 2.3 times higher on average than the case sheet only control group. Individuals from facilities with 21 or more deliveries in a month tended to fare worse on all 3 indices. There were no differences in outcomes according to district or years of experience. This study demonstrates that provision of case sheets or checklists alone is insufficient to improve knowledge and practices. However, on-site mentoring in combination with case sheets can have a demonstrable effect on

  6. Effectiveness of a selective intervention program targeting personality risk factors for alcohol misuse among young adolescents: results of a cluster randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammers, J.; Goossens, F.; Conrod, P.; Engels, R.; Wiers, R.W.; Kleinjan, M.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The effectiveness of Preventure was tested on drinking behaviour of young adolescents in secondary education in the Netherlands. Design: A cluster randomized controlled trial was carried out, with participants assigned randomly to a two-session coping skills intervention or a control

  7. Issues in conducting randomized controlled trials of health services research interventions in nonacademic practice settings: the case of retail pharmacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberger, Morris; Murray, Michael D; Marrero, David G; Brewer, Nancy; Lykens, Michael; Harris, Lisa E; Newell, A Jeffrey; Collins, Joyce; Tierney, William M

    2002-08-01

    To describe unexpected challenges and strategies to overcome them when conducting randomized controlled trials (RCT) of health services research interventions in retail pharmacies. Thirty-six retail drug stores in Indianapolis. We conducted an RCT to evaluate the effectiveness of an intervention to increase pharmacists' involvement in caring for customers. We describe: (1) our RCT as originally designed, (2) unexpected challenges we faced; and (3) how we resolved those challenges. Randomized controlled trial. Major modifications in research design were necessitated by factors such as corporate restructuring, heightened sensitivity to patient confidentiality, and difficulties altering employees' behavior. We overcame these barriers by conducting research that is consistent with corporate goals, involving appropriate corporate administrators and technical personnel early in the process, and being flexible. Health services researchers should conduct RCTs in a variety of non-academic practice settings to increase generalizability and better reflect the true impact of interventions. Pragmatic problems, although significant, can be successfully overcome.

  8. Fractal and stochastic geometry inference for breast cancer: a case study with random fractal models and Quermass-interaction process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermann, Philipp; Mrkvička, Tomáš; Mattfeldt, Torsten; Minárová, Mária; Helisová, Kateřina; Nicolis, Orietta; Wartner, Fabian; Stehlík, Milan

    2015-08-15

    Fractals are models of natural processes with many applications in medicine. The recent studies in medicine show that fractals can be applied for cancer detection and the description of pathological architecture of tumors. This fact is not surprising, as due to the irregular structure, cancerous cells can be interpreted as fractals. Inspired by Sierpinski carpet, we introduce a flexible parametric model of random carpets. Randomization is introduced by usage of binomial random variables. We provide an algorithm for estimation of parameters of the model and illustrate theoretical and practical issues in generation of Sierpinski gaskets and Hausdorff measure calculations. Stochastic geometry models can also serve as models for binary cancer images. Recently, a Boolean model was applied on the 200 images of mammary cancer tissue and 200 images of mastopathic tissue. Here, we describe the Quermass-interaction process, which can handle much more variations in the cancer data, and we apply it to the images. It was found out that mastopathic tissue deviates significantly stronger from Quermass-interaction process, which describes interactions among particles, than mammary cancer tissue does. The Quermass-interaction process serves as a model describing the tissue, which structure is broken to a certain level. However, random fractal model fits well for mastopathic tissue. We provide a novel discrimination method between mastopathic and mammary cancer tissue on the basis of complex wavelet-based self-similarity measure with classification rates more than 80%. Such similarity measure relates to Hurst exponent and fractional Brownian motions. The R package FractalParameterEstimation is developed and introduced in the paper. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Natural Selection as an Emergent Process: Instructional Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Robert A.

    2017-01-01

    Student reasoning about cases of natural selection is often plagued by errors that stem from miscategorising selection as a direct, causal process, misunderstanding the role of randomness, and from the intuitive ideas of intentionality, teleology and essentialism. The common thread throughout many of these reasoning errors is a failure to apply…

  10. Urban Flood Mapping Based on Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Remote Sensing and Random Forest Classifier—A Case of Yuyao, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quanlong Feng

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Flooding is a severe natural hazard, which poses a great threat to human life and property, especially in densely-populated urban areas. As one of the fastest developing fields in remote sensing applications, an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV can provide high-resolution data with a great potential for fast and accurate detection of inundated areas under complex urban landscapes. In this research, optical imagery was acquired by a mini-UAV to monitor the serious urban waterlogging in Yuyao, China. Texture features derived from gray-level co-occurrence matrix were included to increase the separability of different ground objects. A Random Forest classifier, consisting of 200 decision trees, was used to extract flooded areas in the spectral-textural feature space. Confusion matrix was used to assess the accuracy of the proposed method. Results indicated the following: (1 Random Forest showed good performance in urban flood mapping with an overall accuracy of 87.3% and a Kappa coefficient of 0.746; (2 the inclusion of texture features improved classification accuracy significantly; (3 Random Forest outperformed maximum likelihood and artificial neural network, and showed a similar performance to support vector machine. The results demonstrate that UAV can provide an ideal platform for urban flood monitoring and the proposed method shows great capability for the accurate extraction of inundated areas.

  11. An Outbreak of Clostridium difficile Ribotype 027 Associated with Length of Stay in the Intensive Care Unit and Use of Selective Decontamination of the Digestive Tract: A Case Control Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yvette H van Beurden

    Full Text Available An outbreak of Clostridium difficile ribotype 027 infection (CDI occurred at an university hospital, involving 19 departments. To determine what hospital-associated factors drove the outbreak of this particular strain we performed a case-control study.Cases (n = 79, diagnosed with CDI due to C. difficile ribotype 027 were matched for age and treating medical specialty to four control patients (n = 316. Patients diagnosed with CDI due to other ribotypes were included as a second control group. A random selection of C. difficile ribotype 027 strains (n = 10 was genotyped by Whole Genome Sequencing (WGS.WGS showed the outbreak was likely caused by a single strain of C. difficile (two or less single-nucleotide variants between isolates. Ninety-five percent of cases had used antibiotics, compared to 56% of controls. Previous admission to the intensive care unit (ICU (OR: 2.4, 95% CI 1.0-5.6, longer length of stay (LOS, and recent hospital admission were associated with CDI ribotype 027. Cases were less likely to have been admitted to a ward with a known isolated CDI patient (OR: 0.2, 95% CI 0.1-0.6. Analysis of patients who stayed at the ICU (35 cases; 51 controls, indicated that the use of selective decontamination of the digestive tract (SDD and a longer LOS in the ICU were associated with CDI risk.In this large outbreak, any antibiotic use, including SDD use, appeared as a prerequisite for acquisition of the outbreak strain. The role of use of SDD and prolonged stay on the ICU could not be disentangled, but both factors can play a biologically plausible role in C. difficile acquisition and infection.

  12. A Multi-Center, Randomized, Controlled, Pivotal Study to Assess the Safety and Efficacy of a Selective Cytopheretic Device in Patients with Acute Kidney Injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A Tumlin

    Full Text Available Acute kidney injury (AKI is a highly morbid condition in critically ill patients that is associated with high mortality. Previous clinical studies have demonstrated the safety and efficacy of the Selective Cytopheretic Device (SCD in the treatment of AKI requiring continuous renal replacement therapy in the intensive care unit (ICU.A randomized, controlled trial of 134 ICU patients with AKI, 69 received continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT alone and 65 received SCD therapy.No significant difference in 60-day mortality was observed between the treated (27/69; 39% and control patients (21/59; 36%, with six patients lost to follow up in the intention to treat (ITT analysis. Of the 19 SCD subjects (CRRT+SCD and 31 control subjects (CRRT alone who maintained a post-filter ionized calcium (iCa level in the protocol's recommended range (≤ 0.4 mmol/L for greater or equal to 90% of the therapy time, 60-day mortality was 16% (3/19 in the SCD group compared to 41% (11/27 in the CRRT alone group (p = 0.11. Dialysis dependency showed a borderline statistically significant difference between the SCD treated versus control CRRT alone patients maintained for ≥ 90% of the treatment in the protocol's recommended (r iCa target range of ≤ 0.4 mmol/L with values of, 0% (0/16 and 25% (4/16, respectively (P = 0.10. When the riCa treated and control subgroups were compared for a composite index of 60 day mortality and dialysis dependency, the percentage of SCD treated subjects was 16% versus 58% in the control subjects (p<0.01. The incidence of serious adverse events did not differ between the treated (45/69; 65% and control groups (40/65; 63%; p = 0·86.SCD therapy may improve mortality and reduce dialysis dependency in a tightly controlled regional hypocalcaemic environment in the perfusion circuit.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01400893 http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01400893.

  13. A prospective randomized multicenter trial of amnioreduction versus selective fetoscopic laser photocoagulation for the treatment of severe twin–twin transfusion syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crombleholme, Timothy M.; Shera, David; Lee, Hanmin; Johnson, Mark; D’Alton, Mary; Porter, Flint; Chyu, Jacquelyn; Silver, Richard; Abuhamad, Alfred; Saade, George; Shields, Laurence; Kauffman, David; Stone, Joanne; Albanese, Craig T.; Bahado-Singh, Ray; Ball, Robert H.; Bilaniuk, Larissa; Coleman, Beverly; Farmer, Diana; Feldstein, Vickie; Harrison, Michael R.; Hedrick, Holly; Livingston, Jeffrey; Lorenz, Robert P.; Miller, David A.; Norton, Mary E.; Polzin, William J.; Robinson, Julian N.; Rychik, Jack; Sandberg, Per L.; Seri, Istvan; Simon, Erin; Simpson, Lynn L.; Yedigarova, Larisa; Wilson, R. Douglas; Young, Bruce

    2009-01-01

    Objective To examine the effect of selective fetoscopic laser photocoagulation (SFLP) versus serial amnioreduction (AR) on perinatal mortality in severe twin-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS). Study Design 5-year multicenter prospective randomized controlled trial. The primary outcome variable was 30-day postnatal survival of donors and recipients. Results There is no statistically significant difference in 30-day postnatal survival between SFLP or AR treatment for donors at 55% (11/20) vs 55% (11/20) (p=1, OR=1, 95%CI=0.242 to 4.14) or recipients at 30% (6/20) vs 45% (9/20) (p=0.51, OR=1.88, 95%CI=0.44 to 8.64). There is no difference in 30-day survival of one or both twins on a per pregnancy basis between AR at 75% (15/20) and SFLP at 65% (13/20) (p=0.73, OR=1.62, 95%CI=0.34 to 8.09). Overall survival (newborns divided by the number of fetuses treated) is not statistically significant for AR at 60% (24/40) vs SFLP 45% (18/40) (p=0.18, OR=2.01, 95%CI=0.76 to 5.44). There is a statistically significant increase in fetal recipient mortality in the SFLP arm at 70% (14/20) versus the AR arm at 35% (7/20) (p=0.25, OR=5.31, 95%CI=1.19 to 27.6). This is offset by increased recipient neonatal mortality of 30% (6/20) in the AR arm. Echocardiographic abnormality in recipient twin Cardiovascular Profile Score is the most significant predictor of recipient mortality (p=0.055, OR=3.025/point) by logistic regression analysis. Conclusions The outcome of the trial does not conclusively determine whether AR or SFLP is a superior treatment modality. TTTS cardiomyopathy appears to be an important factor in recipient survival in TTTS. PMID:17904975

  14. A randomized control trial to evaluate the effect of adjuvant selective laser trabeculoplasty versus medication alone in primary open-angle glaucoma: preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee JWY

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Jacky WY Lee,1,2 Catherine WS Chan,2 Mandy OM Wong,3 Jonathan CH Chan,3 Qing Li,2 Jimmy SM Lai2 1The Department of Ophthalmology, Caritas Medical Centre, 2The Department of Ophthalmology, The University of Hong Kong, 3The Department of Ophthalmology, Queen Mary Hospital, Hong Kong Background: The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of adjuvant selective laser trabeculoplasty (SLT versus medication alone on intraocular pressure (IOP control, medication use, and quality of life in patients with primary open-angle glaucoma.Methods: This prospective, randomized control study recruited 41 consecutive primary open-angle glaucoma subjects with medically-controlled IOP ≤21 mmHg. The SLT group (n=22 received a single 360-degree SLT treatment. The medication-only group (n=19 continued with their usual treatment regimen. In both groups, medication was titrated to maintain a target IOP defined as a 25% reduction from baseline IOP without medication, or <18 mmHg, whichever was lower. Outcomes, which were measured at baseline and at 6 months, included the Glaucoma Quality of Life-15 (GQL-15 and Comparison of Ophthalmic Medications for Tolerability (COMTOL survey scores, IOP, and the number of antiglaucoma medicines. Results: The baseline IOP was 15.8±2.7 mmHg and 14.5±2.5 mmHg in the SLT and medication-only groups, respectively (P=0.04. Both groups had a comparable number of baseline medication (P=0.2, GQL-15 (P=0.3 and COMTOL scores (P=0.7. At 6 months, the SLT group had a lower IOP (P=0.03 and required fewer medications compared with both baseline (P<0.0001 and with the medication-only group (P=0.02. There was no statistically significant difference in the 6-month GQL-15 or COMTOL score as compared to baseline (P≥0.4 or between the two treatment groups (P≥0.2.Conclusion: A single session of adjuvant SLT provided further reductions in IOP and medication without substantial changes in quality of life or medication tolerability at 6

  15. An association between initiation of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and suicide - a nationwide register-based case-crossover study.

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    Charlotte Björkenstam

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Treatment with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI is one of the most common treatments for depression. It is however not clear whether or not there is an increased short-term suicide risk during initiation with SSRI. METHODS: A register-based nationwide case-crossover study including 5,866 suicides, 1,698 women and 4,168 men, from the Death Register 2007-2010 in Sweden. SSRI initiation was defined as a dispensed prescription of SSRI within 28 days prior to the date of suicide with no previous dispensed prescription of SSRI within 4 months prior that prescription. The control period took place one year earlier. Odds ratio (OR was estimated using conditional logistic regression. RESULT: During the 28 day period prior to suicide 48 women and 138 men were exposed to SSRI initiation (while not being exposed in the control period and 22 women and 43 men were exposed in the control period (while not being exposed in the case period. The OR for suicide after initiation with SSRI was 2.7 (95% CI: 1.6-44 for women, and 4.3 (95% CI: 3.0-6.1 for men. The highest OR was found 8-11 days after initiation with SSRI 9.7 (95% CI: 3.0-31.7 for women and men combined. CONCLUSION: The main limitation in this study is confounding by indication, but the descriptive question is however not confounded by indication. Together with plausible biological mechanisms and previous clinical and epidemiological observations our findings, linking initiation of SSRI to increased short-term suicide risk, deserve further attention specifically in the clinical setting.

  16. 23-gauge vitrectomy with intraocular foreign body removal via the limbus: An alternative approach for select cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramandeep Singh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To study the outcome of removal of retained intraocular foreign bodies (RIOFBs via limbus using 23-gauge transconjunctival sutureless vitrectomy (TSV. Materials and Methods: In this prospective, non-comparative interventional case series, fourteen eyes of 14 patients fulfilling the inclusion criteria were enrolled. They underwent 23-gauge TSV for management of posterior segment RIOFB and reviewed at 1 day, 7 days, 6 weeks, 3, 6 and 12 months. Eyes with penetrating eye injury involving cornea or limbus (corneal injury not so severe to hinder vitrectomy, cataract associated with anterior and/or posterior capsular tear requiring cataract surgery and posterior segment RIOFB with minimal posterior segment involvement were included. Main outcome measures include success in removal of RIOFB without enlarging sclerotomy, ability to preserve capsular support, improvement in visual acuity and complications, if any. Results: All eyes underwent the successful RIOFB removal through limbal port without enlarging scleral ports. None of the eyes required suturing of the sclera, cornea or conjunctiva. Anterior capsular rim could be preserved in all eyes except one. Postoperatively follow up ranged from one year in 8, 6 months in 4 and 3 months in 2 eyes. The mean logMAR visual acuity at 3, 6, and 12 months showed significant improvement. There were no intraoperative complications. Postoperative complications include microscopic hyphema and loose blood in vitreous cavity in one eye. Conclusion: The advantages of 23-gauge TSV for removal of RIOFB may be passed on to select cases. RIOFB removal through limbal route obviated the need for scleral port enlargement and preserved capsular support for early visual rehabilitation.

  17. “On the Margins and Not the Mainstream:” Case Selection for the Implementation of Community based Primary Health Care in Canada and New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerry Kuluski

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Healthcare system reforms are pushing beyond primary care to more holistic, integrated models of community based primary health care (CBPHC to better meet the needs of the population. Across the world CBPHC is at varying stages of development and few standard models exist. In order to scale up and spread successful models of care it is important to study what works and why. The first step is to select ‘appropriate’ cases to study. In this commentary we reflect on our journey in the selection of CBPHC models for older adults, revealing the limited utility of sourcing the empirical literature; the difficulty in identifying “successful” models to study when outcomes of importance differ across stakeholders; the value of drawing on clinical and organisational networks and experts; and the association between policy context and ease of case selection. Such insights have important implications for case study methodology in health services and policy research.

  18. Effects of Video Game Training on Measures of Selective Attention and Working Memory in Older Adults: Results from a Randomized Controlled Trial

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Reales, Jos? M; Mayas, Julia; Ruiz-Marquez, Elo?Sa; Ballesteros, Soledad; Prieto, Antonio; Toril, Pilar

    2017-01-01

    .... Seventy-five older volunteers were randomly assigned to the experimental group trained for 16 sessions with non-action video games from Lumosity, a commercial platform (http://www.lumosity.com...

  19. Design, Modeling, and CFD Analysis of a Micro Hydro Pelton Turbine Runner: For the Case of Selected Site in Ethiopia

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    Tilahun Nigussie

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the design, modeling, and performance analysis of a Pelton turbine using CFD for one of the selected micro hydro potential sites in Ethiopia to meet the requirements of the energy demands. The site has a net head of 47.5 m and flow rate of 0.14 m3/s. The design process starts with the design of initial dimensions for the runner based on different literatures and directed towards the modeling of bucket using CATIA V5. The performance of the runner has been analyzed in ANSYS CFX (CFD under given loading conditions of the turbine. Consequently, the present study has also the ambition to reduce the size of the runner to have a cost effective runner design. The case study described in this paper provides an example of how the size of turbine can affect the efficiency of the turbine. These were discussed in detail which helps in understanding of the underlying fluid dynamic design problem as an aid for improving the efficiency and lowering the manufacturing cost for future study. The result showed that the model is highly dependent on the size and this was verified and discussed properly using flow visualization of the computed flow field and published result.

  20. Long-term impact of childhood selective dorsal rhizotomy on pain, fatigue, and function: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daunter, Alecia K; Kratz, Anna L; Hurvitz, Edward A

    2017-10-01

    Selective dorsal rhizotomy (SDR) is a surgical treatment for spasticity in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Studies suggest long-lasting effects of SDR on spasticity; long-term effects on symptoms and function are not clear. This study tested whether adults with CP (average 22y after SDR) report less pain, fatigue, and functional decline than a retrospectively assessed non-surgical comparison group. This was a case-control study. Eighty-eight adults with CP (mean age 27y; SDR=38 male/female/missing=20/16/2; non-surgical [comparison]=50, male/female=19/31) recruited from a tertiary care center and the community completed a battery of self-reported outcome measures. Regression models were used to test whether SDR status predicted pain, fatigue, functional change, and hours of assistance (controlling for Gross Motor Function Classification System level). SDR status did not significantly predict pain interference (p=0.965), pain intensity (p=0.512), or fatigue (p=0.404). SDR related to lower decline in gross motor functioning (p=0.010) and approximately 6 fewer hours of daily assistance than for those in the comparison group (p=0.001). Adults with CP who had SDR in childhood reported less gross motor decline and fewer daily assistance needs than non-surgically treated peers, suggesting the functional impact of SDR persists long after surgery. © 2017 Mac Keith Press.

  1. Selective mutism due to a dog bite trauma in a 4-year-old girl: a case report

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    Anyfantakis Dimitrios

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction A child experiencing an event of threatening or catastrophic nature may experience considerable post-traumatic psychological distress. Dog bites present an important public health problem and are a frequent cause of physical trauma in children. Physicians who manage paediatric trauma may not be vigilant of the high risk of psychological stress in children exposed to a physical injury. Case presentation A 4-year-old white girl of Greek origin, with a dog-bite related trauma was admitted to the University Hospital of Crete, Greece, for surgical repair and intravenous antibiotic therapy due to extensive lesions. Exposure to the traumatic event triggered the onset of an unusual psychological response, selective mutism and acute post-traumatic stress disorder. Conclusion There is limited literature discussing the psychological effect of dog bites in children. Parents and physicians involved in pediatric physical trauma need to be more familiar with post-traumatic behavioral reactions. Awareness of the potential development of such reactions may result in early detection and effective management of children at risk.

  2. Selection of low-e windows in retrofit of public buildings by applying multiple criteria method COPRAS: a Lithuanian case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaklauskas, A.; Zavadskas, E.K.; Raslanas, S.; Ginevicius, R.; Komka, A.; Malinauskas, P. [Vilnius Gediminas Technical University (Lithuania). Faculty of Civil Engineering

    2006-05-15

    Calculations of building retrofit effectiveness have shown that the replacement of original windows with new ones is not as effective in terms of heat energy saving as are the insulation of a roof, walls and other improvements because the investments are large and take a long time to be repaid. However, in addition to energy saving, window replacement improves the indoor climate of the building, its interior and architectural appearance as well as its market value. The sequence of building operations determines when the replacement of windows should be done. When financial resources are limited, managers of public buildings often begin the renovation of a building's envelope with the replacement of windows. The client faces some problems in choosing among the great variety of windows to satisfy his/her needs, especially with respect to the cost-quality relationship. The method of multiple criteria complex proportional assessment (COPRAS) developed by the authors aims at solving the above-mentioned problems. The solutions based on multicriteria analysis allow for a more rational and realistic assessment of customer's needs as well as cutting down window renewal costs. In this paper, practical example (key-case) of selecting a contractor for the replacement of windows in the main building of Vilnius Gediminas Technical University (VGTU) is presented as a part of its retrofit multivariant design. (author)

  3. Characterization of particle hygroscopicity by Raman lidar: Selected case studies from the convective and orographically-induced precipitation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelitano, Dario; Di Girolamo, Paolo; Summa, Donato

    2013-05-01

    The characterization of particle hygroscopicity has primary importance for climate monitoring and prediction. Model studies have demonstrated that relative humidity (RH) has a critical influence on aerosol climate forcing. Hygroscopic properties of aerosols influence particle size distribution and refractive index and hence their radiative effects. Aerosol particles tend to grow at large relative humidity values as a result of their hygroscopicity. Raman lidars with aerosol, water vapor and temperature measurement capability are potentially attractive tools for studying aerosol hygroscopicity as in fact they can provide continuous altitude-resolved measurements of particle optical, size and microphysical properties, as well as relative humidity, without perturbing the aerosols or their environment. Specifically, the University of Basilicata Raman lidar system (BASIL) considered for the present study, has the capability to perform all-lidar measurements of relative humidity based on the application of both the rotational and the vibrational Raman lidar techniques in the UV. BASIL was operational in Achern (Black Forest, Lat: 48.64° N, Long: 8.06° E, Elev.: 140 m) between 25 May and 30 August 2007 in the framework of the Convective and Orographically-induced Precipitation Study (COPS). The present analysis is focused on selected case studies characterized by the presence of different aerosol types with different hygroscopic behavior. The observed behavior, dependent upon aerosol composition, may range from hygrophobic to strongly hygroscopic.

  4. Sudden falls as a persistent complication of selective dorsal rhizotomy surgery in children with bilateral spasticity: report of 3 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grootveld, Laura R; van Schie, Petra E M; Buizer, Annemieke I; Jeroen Vermeulen, R; van Ouwerkerk, Willem J R; Strijers, Rob L M; Becher, Jules J G

    2016-08-01

    Selective dorsal rhizotomy (SDR) surgery is a well-established treatment for ambulatory children with bilateral spastic paresis and is performed to eliminate spasticity and improve walking. The objective of this case report is to describe sudden falls as a persistent complication of SDR. The authors report on 3 patients with bilateral spastic paresis, aged 12, 6, and 7 years at the time of surgery. The percentage of transected dorsal rootlets was around 40% at the L2-S1 levels. Sudden falls were reported with a frequency of several a day, continuing for years after SDR. The falls were often triggered by performing dual tasks as well as occurring in the transition from sitting to standing, during running, after strenuous exercise, or following a fright. Patients also had residual hyperesthesia and dysesthesia of the foot sole. The authors hypothesize that the sudden falls are caused by a muscle inhibition reflex of the muscles in the legs, as an abnormal reaction to a sensory stimulus that is perceived with increased intensity by a patient with hyperesthesia. A favorable effect of gabapentin medication supports this hypothesis.

  5. Balancing on the “Clear Line”: Between Selecting and Being Selected : Independent Comics Publishing in the Netherlands: the Case of Joost Swarte and Oog & Blik

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Rudolf; Dony, Christophe; Habrand, Tanguy; Meesters, Gert

    2014-01-01

    Taking its cue from selection systems theory, this paper discusses the capabilities of innovative comics artists and publishers to influence their environment in such a way that a certain level of artistic independence can be achieved or sustained. Increased chances of artistic autonomy depend on

  6. Areas of Hospitality Management and Stakeholders in Recruitment and Selection Multiple Case Study: Estanplaza, Travel in and Transamérica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Sbarai Santos Alves

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to analyze the relationships between recruitment and selection and its stakeholders, considering the areas of hospitality and its characteristics as influential factors to recruit and select new employees. The research approach was qualitative methodologies for the study of multiple cases, which contributed to the form of empirical research. For this investigation were selected by three chains together features that enabled a comparative analysis of the study, which were used for data collection, three sources of evidence: interviews, direct observations and documentation. The selected networks, Estanplaza Hotels, Hotels Transamerica and Travel Inn Hotels The overall goal was to understand the processes used in recruitment and selection set features the fields of hospitality. From this issue were established specific objectives: to observe the dynamics of recruitment and selection of chains; analyze the content related to the fields of hospitality in the tools used in the process of recruitment and selection, and meet stakeholders in this area. The research was conducted through interviews with managers of lodging facilities and with stakeholders in the area of recruitment and selection, based on a semistructured interview guide. Through this research, we found that some features of the fields of hospitality are considered in the process of recruitment and selection. Chains surveyed, however, point out that it is necessary to use tools and processes that enable this type of analysis.

  7. Information Seeking Behavior & Information Resources Management:Mental Process Selecting Subjects & Identifying Information Needs Case study: Graduate Students in Women seminaries of Shiraz of Academic year 1393- 1394(

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    Zohre Eftekhar

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is Information Resources Management: Mental Process Selecting Subjects &  Identifying Information Needs. The research method used in this study is a Quantitative method. Sampling is purposeful. This means that it includes graduate Students in Women seminaries of Shiraz who have information-seeking experience and are able to express their views and information needs. The sample was selected according to the random sampling method with Cochran formula from 710 students. According to this sampling method there is 241 Graduate Students included in 1392-1393 seminaries year of  Women seminaries of Shiraz. This is a survey research Which has been carried out by employing a questionnaire and SPSS for windows to analyze data. The results showed that students for selecting subjects,  identifying information needs used methods and media such as Prying Mind, reviewing of information resources, Consulting with subject specialists.

  8. Predicting the Velocity and Azimuth of Fragments Generated by the Range Destruction or Random Failure of Rocket Casings and Tankage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eck, Marshall B.; Mukunda, Meera

    1988-10-01

    The details of a predictive analytical modeling process as well as the development of normalized relations for momentum partition as a function of SRM burn time and initial geometry are discussed in this paper. Methods for applying similar modeling techniques to liquid-tankage-over-pressure failures are also discussed. These methods have been calibrated against observed SRM ascent failures and on-orbit tankage failures. Casing-quadrant sized fragments with velocities exceeding 100 m/s resulted from Titan 34D-SRM range destruct actions at 10 sec mission elapsed time (MET). Casing-quadrant sized fragments with velocities of approximately 200 m/s resulted from STS-SRM range destruct actions at 110 sec MET. Similar sized fragments for Ariane third stage and Delta second stage tankage were pr