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Sample records for randomly selected adults

  1. Participant-selected music and physical activity in older adults following cardiac rehabilitation: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Imogen N; Baker, Felicity A; Peiris, Casey L; Shoebridge, Georgie; Taylor, Nicholas F

    2017-03-01

    To evaluate effects of participant-selected music on older adults' achievement of activity levels recommended in the physical activity guidelines following cardiac rehabilitation. A parallel group randomized controlled trial with measurements at Weeks 0, 6 and 26. A multisite outpatient rehabilitation programme of a publicly funded metropolitan health service. Adults aged 60 years and older who had completed a cardiac rehabilitation programme. Experimental participants selected music to support walking with guidance from a music therapist. Control participants received usual care only. The primary outcome was the proportion of participants achieving activity levels recommended in physical activity guidelines. Secondary outcomes compared amounts of physical activity, exercise capacity, cardiac risk factors, and exercise self-efficacy. A total of 56 participants, mean age 68.2 years (SD = 6.5), were randomized to the experimental ( n = 28) and control groups ( n = 28). There were no differences between groups in proportions of participants achieving activity recommended in physical activity guidelines at Week 6 or 26. Secondary outcomes demonstrated between-group differences in male waist circumference at both measurements (Week 6 difference -2.0 cm, 95% CI -4.0 to 0; Week 26 difference -2.8 cm, 95% CI -5.4 to -0.1), and observed effect sizes favoured the experimental group for amounts of physical activity (d = 0.30), exercise capacity (d = 0.48), and blood pressure (d = -0.32). Participant-selected music did not increase the proportion of participants achieving recommended amounts of physical activity, but may have contributed to exercise-related benefits.

  2. Correlates of smoking with socioeconomic status, leisure time physical activity and alcohol consumption among Polish adults from randomly selected regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woitas-Slubowska, Donata; Hurnik, Elzbieta; Skarpańska-Stejnborn, Anna

    2010-12-01

    To determine the association between smoking status and leisure time physical activity (LTPA), alcohol consumption, and socioeconomic status (SES) among Polish adults. 466 randomly selected men and women (aged 18-66 years) responded to an anonymous questionnaire regarding smoking, alcohol consumption, LTPA, and SES. Multiple logistic regression was used to examine the association of smoking status with six socioeconomic measures, level of LTPA, and frequency and type of alcohol consumed. Smokers were defined as individuals smoking occasionally or daily. The odds of being smoker were 9 times (men) and 27 times (women) higher among respondents who drink alcohol several times/ week or everyday in comparison to non-drinkers (p times higher compared to those with the high educational attainment (p = 0.007). Among women we observed that students were the most frequent smokers. Female students were almost three times more likely to smoke than non-professional women, and two times more likely than physical workers (p = 0.018). The findings of this study indicated that among randomly selected Polish man and women aged 18-66 smoking and alcohol consumption tended to cluster. These results imply that intervention strategies need to target multiple risk factors simultaneously. The highest risk of smoking was observed among low educated men, female students, and both men and women drinking alcohol several times a week or every day. Information on subgroups with the high risk of smoking will help in planning future preventive strategies.

  3. Blocked Randomization with Randomly Selected Block Sizes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimmy Efird

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available When planning a randomized clinical trial, careful consideration must be given to how participants are selected for various arms of a study. Selection and accidental bias may occur when participants are not assigned to study groups with equal probability. A simple random allocation scheme is a process by which each participant has equal likelihood of being assigned to treatment versus referent groups. However, by chance an unequal number of individuals may be assigned to each arm of the study and thus decrease the power to detect statistically significant differences between groups. Block randomization is a commonly used technique in clinical trial design to reduce bias and achieve balance in the allocation of participants to treatment arms, especially when the sample size is small. This method increases the probability that each arm will contain an equal number of individuals by sequencing participant assignments by block. Yet still, the allocation process may be predictable, for example, when the investigator is not blind and the block size is fixed. This paper provides an overview of blocked randomization and illustrates how to avoid selection bias by using random block sizes.

  4. Common selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor side effects in older adults associated with genetic polymorphisms in the serotonin transporter and receptors: data from a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garfield, Lauren D; Dixon, David; Nowotny, Petra; Lotrich, Francis E; Pollock, Bruce G; Kristjansson, Sean D; Doré, Peter M; Lenze, Eric J

    2014-10-01

    Antidepressant side effects are a significant public health issue, associated with poor adherence, premature treatment discontinuation, and, rarely, significant harm. Older adults assume the largest and most serious burden of medication side effects. We investigated the association between antidepressant side effects and genetic variation in the serotonin system in anxious, older adults participating in a randomized, placebo-controlled trial of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) escitalopram. Adults (N = 177) aged ≥ 60 years were randomized to active treatment or placebo for 12 weeks. Side effects were assessed using the Udvalg fur Kliniske Undersøgelser side-effect rating scale. Genetic polymorphisms were putative functional variants in the promoters of the serotonin transporter and 1A and 2A receptors (5-HTTLPR [L/S + rs25531], HTR1A rs6295, HTR2A rs6311, respectively). Four significant drug-placebo side-effect differences were found: increased duration of sleep, dry mouth, diarrhea, and diminished sexual desire. Analyses using putative high- versus low-transcription genotype groupings revealed six pharmacogenetic effects: greater dry mouth and decreased sexual desire for the low- and high-expressing serotonin transporter genotypes, respectively, and greater diarrhea with the 1A receptor low-transcription genotype. Diminished sexual desire was experienced significantly more by high-expressing genotypes in the serotonin transporter, 1A, or 2A receptors. There was not a significant relationship between drug concentration and side effects nor a mean difference in drug concentration between low- and high-expressing genotypes. Genetic variation in the serotonin system may predict who develops common SSRI side effects and why. More work is needed to further characterize this genetic modulation and to translate research findings into strategies useful for more personalized patient care. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Effects of Video Game Training on Measures of Selective Attention and Working Memory in Older Adults: Results from a Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballesteros, Soledad; Mayas, Julia; Prieto, Antonio; Ruiz-Marquez, Eloísa; Toril, Pilar; Reales, José M.

    2017-01-01

    Video game training with older adults potentially enhances aspects of cognition that decline with aging and could therefore offer a promising training approach. Although, previous published studies suggest that training can produce transfer, many of them have certain shortcomings. This randomized controlled trial (RCT; Clinicaltrials.gov ID: NCT02796508) tried to overcome some of these limitations by incorporating an active control group and the assessment of motivation and expectations. Seventy-five older volunteers were randomly assigned to the experimental group trained for 16 sessions with non-action video games from Lumosity, a commercial platform (http://www.lumosity.com/) or to an active control group trained for the same number of sessions with simulation strategy games. The final sample included 55 older adults (30 in the experimental group and 25 in the active control group). Participants were tested individually before and after training to assess working memory (WM) and selective attention and also reported their perceived improvement, motivation and engagement. The results showed improved performance across the training sessions. The main results were: (1) the experimental group did not show greater improvements in measures of selective attention and working memory than the active control group (the opposite occurred in the oddball task); (2) a marginal training effect was observed for the N-back task, but not for the Stroop task while both groups improved in the Corsi Blocks task. Based on these results, one can conclude that training with non-action games provide modest benefits for untrained tasks. The effect is not specific for that kind of training as a similar effect was observed for strategy video games. Groups did not differ in motivation, engagement or expectations. PMID:29163136

  6. Effects of Video Game Training on Measures of Selective Attention and Working Memory in Older Adults: Results from a Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soledad Ballesteros

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Video game training with older adults potentially enhances aspects of cognition that decline with aging and could therefore offer a promising training approach. Although, previous published studies suggest that training can produce transfer, many of them have certain shortcomings. This randomized controlled trial (RCT; Clinicaltrials.gov ID: NCT02796508 tried to overcome some of these limitations by incorporating an active control group and the assessment of motivation and expectations. Seventy-five older volunteers were randomly assigned to the experimental group trained for 16 sessions with non-action video games from Lumosity, a commercial platform (http://www.lumosity.com/ or to an active control group trained for the same number of sessions with simulation strategy games. The final sample included 55 older adults (30 in the experimental group and 25 in the active control group. Participants were tested individually before and after training to assess working memory (WM and selective attention and also reported their perceived improvement, motivation and engagement. The results showed improved performance across the training sessions. The main results were: (1 the experimental group did not show greater improvements in measures of selective attention and working memory than the active control group (the opposite occurred in the oddball task; (2 a marginal training effect was observed for the N-back task, but not for the Stroop task while both groups improved in the Corsi Blocks task. Based on these results, one can conclude that training with non-action games provide modest benefits for untrained tasks. The effect is not specific for that kind of training as a similar effect was observed for strategy video games. Groups did not differ in motivation, engagement or expectations.

  7. Effects of Video Game Training on Measures of Selective Attention and Working Memory in Older Adults: Results from a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballesteros, Soledad; Mayas, Julia; Prieto, Antonio; Ruiz-Marquez, Eloísa; Toril, Pilar; Reales, José M

    2017-01-01

    Video game training with older adults potentially enhances aspects of cognition that decline with aging and could therefore offer a promising training approach. Although, previous published studies suggest that training can produce transfer, many of them have certain shortcomings. This randomized controlled trial (RCT; Clinicaltrials.gov ID: NCT02796508) tried to overcome some of these limitations by incorporating an active control group and the assessment of motivation and expectations. Seventy-five older volunteers were randomly assigned to the experimental group trained for 16 sessions with non-action video games from Lumosity , a commercial platform (http://www.lumosity.com/) or to an active control group trained for the same number of sessions with simulation strategy games. The final sample included 55 older adults (30 in the experimental group and 25 in the active control group). Participants were tested individually before and after training to assess working memory (WM) and selective attention and also reported their perceived improvement, motivation and engagement. The results showed improved performance across the training sessions. The main results were: (1) the experimental group did not show greater improvements in measures of selective attention and working memory than the active control group (the opposite occurred in the oddball task); (2) a marginal training effect was observed for the N -back task, but not for the Stroop task while both groups improved in the Corsi Blocks task. Based on these results, one can conclude that training with non-action games provide modest benefits for untrained tasks. The effect is not specific for that kind of training as a similar effect was observed for strategy video games. Groups did not differ in motivation, engagement or expectations.

  8. Minimization over randomly selected lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismet Sahin

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a population-based evolutionary optimization method for minimizing a given cost function. The mutation operator of this method selects randomly oriented lines in the cost function domain, constructs quadratic functions interpolating the cost function at three different points over each line, and uses extrema of the quadratics as mutated points. The crossover operator modifies each mutated point based on components of two points in population, instead of one point as is usually performed in other evolutionary algorithms. The stopping criterion of this method depends on the number of almost degenerate quadratics. We demonstrate that the proposed method with these mutation and crossover operations achieves faster and more robust convergence than the well-known Differential Evolution and Particle Swarm algorithms.

  9. High Entropy Random Selection Protocols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Buhrman (Harry); M. Christandl (Matthias); M. Koucky (Michal); Z. Lotker (Zvi); B. Patt-Shamir; M. Charikar; K. Jansen; O. Reingold; J. Rolim

    2007-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper, we construct protocols for two parties that do not trust each other, to generate random variables with high Shannon entropy. We improve known bounds for the trade off between the number of rounds, length of communication and the entropy of the outcome.

  10. Selected Films for Young Adults, 1984.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Top of the News, 1984

    1984-01-01

    This 22-item filmography of 16mm films recommended for use in programs planned for young adults was compiled by the Selected Films for Young Adults Committee, Young Adult Services Division, American Library Association. Producers, directors, distributors, length, price, and brief annotations are provided. Addresses for 12 distributors are…

  11. Efficacy of aerobic exercise and a prudent diet for improving selected lipids and lipoproteins in adults: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies addressing the effects of aerobic exercise and a prudent diet on lipid and lipoprotein concentrations in adults have reached conflicting conclusions. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of aerobic exercise combined with a prudent diet on lipid and lipoprotein concentration...

  12. 47 CFR 1.1603 - Conduct of random selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Conduct of random selection. 1.1603 Section 1.1603 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Random Selection Procedures for Mass Media Services General Procedures § 1.1603 Conduct of random selection. The...

  13. 47 CFR 1.1602 - Designation for random selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Designation for random selection. 1.1602 Section 1.1602 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Random Selection Procedures for Mass Media Services General Procedures § 1.1602 Designation for random selection...

  14. Testing, Selection, and Implementation of Random Number Generators

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Collins, Joseph C

    2008-01-01

    An exhaustive evaluation of state-of-the-art random number generators with several well-known suites of tests provides the basis for selection of suitable random number generators for use in stochastic simulations...

  15. A Bayesian random effects discrete-choice model for resource selection: Population-level selection inference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, D.L.; Johnson, D.; Griffith, B.

    2006-01-01

    Modeling the probability of use of land units characterized by discrete and continuous measures, we present a Bayesian random-effects model to assess resource selection. This model provides simultaneous estimation of both individual- and population-level selection. Deviance information criterion (DIC), a Bayesian alternative to AIC that is sample-size specific, is used for model selection. Aerial radiolocation data from 76 adult female caribou (Rangifer tarandus) and calf pairs during 1 year on an Arctic coastal plain calving ground were used to illustrate models and assess population-level selection of landscape attributes, as well as individual heterogeneity of selection. Landscape attributes included elevation, NDVI (a measure of forage greenness), and land cover-type classification. Results from the first of a 2-stage model-selection procedure indicated that there is substantial heterogeneity among cow-calf pairs with respect to selection of the landscape attributes. In the second stage, selection of models with heterogeneity included indicated that at the population-level, NDVI and land cover class were significant attributes for selection of different landscapes by pairs on the calving ground. Population-level selection coefficients indicate that the pairs generally select landscapes with higher levels of NDVI, but the relationship is quadratic. The highest rate of selection occurs at values of NDVI less than the maximum observed. Results for land cover-class selections coefficients indicate that wet sedge, moist sedge, herbaceous tussock tundra, and shrub tussock tundra are selected at approximately the same rate, while alpine and sparsely vegetated landscapes are selected at a lower rate. Furthermore, the variability in selection by individual caribou for moist sedge and sparsely vegetated landscapes is large relative to the variability in selection of other land cover types. The example analysis illustrates that, while sometimes computationally intense, a

  16. Adult EFL Reading Selection: Influence on Literacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Sebastián Basallo Gómez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is about the impact of systematic reading selection used to promote English as foreign language learning in adult students. A qualitative action research methodology was used to carry out this project. Ten class sessions were designed to provide students an opportunity to select texts according to criteria based upon their language levels and personal/professional interests. The findings align with three categories of influence: motivation, engagement, and contextualization/interpretation of readings. The main objective of this project was to see how the students’ text selection processes, guided by systematically designed criteria and elaborated strategies, influenced learning and acquisition in terms of motivation, perceptions, and opinions towards reading in English.

  17. Random effect selection in generalised linear models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Denwood, Matt; Houe, Hans; Forkman, Björn

    We analysed abattoir recordings of meat inspection codes with possible relevance to onfarm animal welfare in cattle. Random effects logistic regression models were used to describe individual-level data obtained from 461,406 cattle slaughtered in Denmark. Our results demonstrate that the largest...

  18. Interference-aware random beam selection for spectrum sharing systems

    KAUST Repository

    Abdallah, Mohamed M.; Sayed, Mostafa M.; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Qaraqe, Khalid A.

    2012-01-01

    . In this paper, we develop interference-aware random beam selection schemes that provide enhanced throughput for the secondary link under the condition that the interference observed at the primary link is within a predetermined acceptable value. For a secondary

  19. Immediate movement history influences reach-to-grasp action selection in children and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Samuel W; Wilson, Andrew D; Plumb, Mandy S; Williams, Justin H G; Mon-Williams, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Action selection is subject to many biases. Immediate movement history is one such bias seen in young infants. Is this bias strong enough to affect adult behavior? Adult participants reached and grasped a cylinder positioned to require either pronation or supination of the hand. Successive cylinder positions changed either randomly or systematically between trials. Random positioning led to optimized economy of movement. In contrast, systematic changes in position biased action selection toward previously selected actions at the expense of movement economy. Thus, one switches to a new movement only when the savings outweigh the costs of the switch. Immediate movement history had an even larger influence on children aged 7-15 years. This suggests that switching costs are greater in children, which is consistent with their reduced grasping experience. The presence of this effect in adults suggests that immediate movement history exerts a more widespread and pervasive influence on patterns of action selection than researchers had previously recognized.

  20. Selectivity and sparseness in randomly connected balanced networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cengiz Pehlevan

    Full Text Available Neurons in sensory cortex show stimulus selectivity and sparse population response, even in cases where no strong functionally specific structure in connectivity can be detected. This raises the question whether selectivity and sparseness can be generated and maintained in randomly connected networks. We consider a recurrent network of excitatory and inhibitory spiking neurons with random connectivity, driven by random projections from an input layer of stimulus selective neurons. In this architecture, the stimulus-to-stimulus and neuron-to-neuron modulation of total synaptic input is weak compared to the mean input. Surprisingly, we show that in the balanced state the network can still support high stimulus selectivity and sparse population response. In the balanced state, strong synapses amplify the variation in synaptic input and recurrent inhibition cancels the mean. Functional specificity in connectivity emerges due to the inhomogeneity caused by the generative statistical rule used to build the network. We further elucidate the mechanism behind and evaluate the effects of model parameters on population sparseness and stimulus selectivity. Network response to mixtures of stimuli is investigated. It is shown that a balanced state with unselective inhibition can be achieved with densely connected input to inhibitory population. Balanced networks exhibit the "paradoxical" effect: an increase in excitatory drive to inhibition leads to decreased inhibitory population firing rate. We compare and contrast selectivity and sparseness generated by the balanced network to randomly connected unbalanced networks. Finally, we discuss our results in light of experiments.

  1. The signature of positive selection at randomly chosen loci.

    OpenAIRE

    Przeworski, Molly

    2002-01-01

    In Drosophila and humans, there are accumulating examples of loci with a significant excess of high-frequency-derived alleles or high levels of linkage disequilibrium, relative to a neutral model of a random-mating population of constant size. These are features expected after a recent selective sweep. Their prevalence suggests that positive directional selection may be widespread in both species. However, as I show here, these features do not persist long after the sweep ends: The high-frequ...

  2. The reliability of randomly selected final year pharmacy students in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Employing ANOVA, factorial experimental analysis, and the theory of error, reliability studies were conducted on the assessment of the drug product chloroquine phosphate tablets. The G–Study employed equal numbers of the factors for uniform control, and involved three analysts (randomly selected final year Pharmacy ...

  3. Local randomization in neighbor selection improves PRM roadmap quality

    KAUST Repository

    McMahon, Troy

    2012-10-01

    Probabilistic Roadmap Methods (PRMs) are one of the most used classes of motion planning methods. These sampling-based methods generate robot configurations (nodes) and then connect them to form a graph (roadmap) containing representative feasible pathways. A key step in PRM roadmap construction involves identifying a set of candidate neighbors for each node. Traditionally, these candidates are chosen to be the k-closest nodes based on a given distance metric. In this paper, we propose a new neighbor selection policy called LocalRand(k,K\\'), that first computes the K\\' closest nodes to a specified node and then selects k of those nodes at random. Intuitively, LocalRand attempts to benefit from random sampling while maintaining the higher levels of local planner success inherent to selecting more local neighbors. We provide a methodology for selecting the parameters k and K\\'. We perform an experimental comparison which shows that for both rigid and articulated robots, LocalRand results in roadmaps that are better connected than the traditional k-closest policy or a purely random neighbor selection policy. The cost required to achieve these results is shown to be comparable to k-closest. © 2012 IEEE.

  4. Local randomization in neighbor selection improves PRM roadmap quality

    KAUST Repository

    McMahon, Troy; Jacobs, Sam; Boyd, Bryan; Tapia, Lydia; Amato, Nancy M.

    2012-01-01

    Probabilistic Roadmap Methods (PRMs) are one of the most used classes of motion planning methods. These sampling-based methods generate robot configurations (nodes) and then connect them to form a graph (roadmap) containing representative feasible pathways. A key step in PRM roadmap construction involves identifying a set of candidate neighbors for each node. Traditionally, these candidates are chosen to be the k-closest nodes based on a given distance metric. In this paper, we propose a new neighbor selection policy called LocalRand(k,K'), that first computes the K' closest nodes to a specified node and then selects k of those nodes at random. Intuitively, LocalRand attempts to benefit from random sampling while maintaining the higher levels of local planner success inherent to selecting more local neighbors. We provide a methodology for selecting the parameters k and K'. We perform an experimental comparison which shows that for both rigid and articulated robots, LocalRand results in roadmaps that are better connected than the traditional k-closest policy or a purely random neighbor selection policy. The cost required to achieve these results is shown to be comparable to k-closest. © 2012 IEEE.

  5. Exergaming and older adult cognition: a cluster randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson-Hanley, Cay; Arciero, Paul J; Brickman, Adam M; Nimon, Joseph P; Okuma, Naoko; Westen, Sarah C; Merz, Molly E; Pence, Brandt D; Woods, Jeffrey A; Kramer, Arthur F; Zimmerman, Earl A

    2012-02-01

    Dementia cases may reach 100 million by 2050. Interventions are sought to curb or prevent cognitive decline. Exercise yields cognitive benefits, but few older adults exercise. Virtual reality-enhanced exercise or "exergames" may elicit greater participation. To test the following hypotheses: (1) stationary cycling with virtual reality tours ("cybercycle") will enhance executive function and clinical status more than traditional exercise; (2) exercise effort will explain improvement; and (3) brain-derived neurotrophic growth factor (BDNF) will increase. Multi-site cluster randomized clinical trial (RCT) of the impact of 3 months of cybercycling versus traditional exercise, on cognitive function in older adults. Data were collected in 2008-2010; analyses were conducted in 2010-2011. 102 older adults from eight retirement communities enrolled; 79 were randomized and 63 completed. A recumbent stationary ergometer was utilized; virtual reality tours and competitors were enabled on the cybercycle. Executive function (Color Trails Difference, Stroop C, Digits Backward); clinical status (mild cognitive impairment; MCI); exercise effort/fitness; and plasma BDNF. Intent-to-treat analyses, controlling for age, education, and cluster randomization, revealed a significant group X time interaction for composite executive function (p=0.002). Cybercycling yielded a medium effect over traditional exercise (d=0.50). Cybercyclists had a 23% relative risk reduction in clinical progression to MCI. Exercise effort and fitness were comparable, suggesting another underlying mechanism. A significant group X time interaction for BDNF (p=0.05) indicated enhanced neuroplasticity among cybercyclists. Cybercycling older adults achieved better cognitive function than traditional exercisers, for the same effort, suggesting that simultaneous cognitive and physical exercise has greater potential for preventing cognitive decline. This study is registered at Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01167400. Copyright

  6. Determinant of Adult Education Program: A Critical Analysis of Adult Education in Some Selected Training Centers of Eastern Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yilfashewa Seyoum

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to analyze the factors affecting adult education in the eastern part of Ethiopia. The study employed a survey design that involved qualitative and quantitative approaches. A stratified random sampling technique was used to select 515 male and 285 female respondents. A questionnaire and an interview for collecting information from the primary sources were designed and implemented. Data were analyzed with linear correlation and Ordinary Least Square (OLS regression. The findings indicated that the relationship of overall adult learning achievement to assessment of learning (r = 0,29, P < 0,01, and the methods used by facilitators (r = 0,23, P < 0,01 is positive and significant. The regression model demonstrated that overall adult learning condition is significantly affected by variables such as relevance of the content, methods of teaching, assessment of learning outcome, and locality of the adult education learners. 

  7. Selection for altruism through random drift in variable size populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houchmandzadeh Bahram

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Altruistic behavior is defined as helping others at a cost to oneself and a lowered fitness. The lower fitness implies that altruists should be selected against, which is in contradiction with their widespread presence is nature. Present models of selection for altruism (kin or multilevel show that altruistic behaviors can have ‘hidden’ advantages if the ‘common good’ produced by altruists is restricted to some related or unrelated groups. These models are mostly deterministic, or assume a frequency dependent fitness. Results Evolutionary dynamics is a competition between deterministic selection pressure and stochastic events due to random sampling from one generation to the next. We show here that an altruistic allele extending the carrying capacity of the habitat can win by increasing the random drift of “selfish” alleles. In other terms, the fixation probability of altruistic genes can be higher than those of a selfish ones, even though altruists have a smaller fitness. Moreover when populations are geographically structured, the altruists advantage can be highly amplified and the fixation probability of selfish genes can tend toward zero. The above results are obtained both by numerical and analytical calculations. Analytical results are obtained in the limit of large populations. Conclusions The theory we present does not involve kin or multilevel selection, but is based on the existence of random drift in variable size populations. The model is a generalization of the original Fisher-Wright and Moran models where the carrying capacity depends on the number of altruists.

  8. The Benefits of Adult Piano Study as Self-Reported by Selected Adult Piano Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jutras, Peter J.

    2006-01-01

    Adult piano students (N = 711) from 24 states across the U.S. rated the existence and importance of 31 potential benefits of adult piano study. Benefits selected from existing adult music and leisure-benefit research were organized into three categories: Personal, Skill, and Social/Cultural. The category of Skill Benefits was the most-agreed-upon…

  9. Adolescents and Young Adults Mates Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Martina Casullo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The study sought to identify the relation between gender and age on mate pre- ferences using an intentional sample drawn in Buenos Aires city and its suburban area. A questionnaire adapted from a previous study developed by D.Buss (1990 requested subjects to rank each of 19 characteristics on its desirability in a mate. Subjects for this study were 900 adolescents and young adults aging 13 to 30 years old. Means and standard deviations were calculated as well as Spearman ́s Rho coefficients. High correlations between gender, age, and ordering were found. Mutual attraction and love, kindness and understanding and trust are cho- sen as the most important criteria. Phisically attractive is important for younger males. Similar political and religious background as well as chastity are conside- red among the less important criteria. 

  10. Long-Term Melatonin Therapy for Adolescents and Young Adults with Chronic Sleep Onset Insomnia and Late Melatonin Onset : Evaluation of Sleep Quality, Chronotype, and Lifestyle Factors Compared to Age-Related Randomly Selected Population Cohorts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwart, Tom; Smits, Marcel G; Egberts, Toine C G; Rademaker, Carin M A; van Geijlswijk, Ingeborg M

    2018-01-01

    The extent of continuance of melatonin therapy initiated in pre-pubertal children with chronic sleep onset insomnia (CSOI) was investigated in young adult life. Sleep timing, sleep quality, adverse events, reasons for cessation of therapy, and patient characteristics with regard to therapy regimen,

  11. Metabolic Profiling of Adiponectin Levels in Adults: Mendelian Randomization Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Maria Carolina; Barros, Aluísio J D; Ferreira, Diana L Santos; Casas, Juan Pablo; Horta, Bernardo Lessa; Kivimaki, Mika; Kumari, Meena; Menon, Usha; Gaunt, Tom R; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Freitas, Deise F; Oliveira, Isabel O; Gentry-Maharaj, Aleksandra; Fourkala, Evangelia; Lawlor, Debbie A; Hingorani, Aroon D

    2017-12-01

    Adiponectin, a circulating adipocyte-derived protein, has insulin-sensitizing, anti-inflammatory, antiatherogenic, and cardiomyocyte-protective properties in animal models. However, the systemic effects of adiponectin in humans are unknown. Our aims were to define the metabolic profile associated with higher blood adiponectin concentration and investigate whether variation in adiponectin concentration affects the systemic metabolic profile. We applied multivariable regression in ≤5909 adults and Mendelian randomization (using cis -acting genetic variants in the vicinity of the adiponectin gene as instrumental variables) for analyzing the causal effect of adiponectin in the metabolic profile of ≤37 545 adults. Participants were largely European from 6 longitudinal studies and 1 genome-wide association consortium. In the multivariable regression analyses, higher circulating adiponectin was associated with higher high-density lipoprotein lipids and lower very-low-density lipoprotein lipids, glucose levels, branched-chain amino acids, and inflammatory markers. However, these findings were not supported by Mendelian randomization analyses for most metabolites. Findings were consistent between sexes and after excluding high-risk groups (defined by age and occurrence of previous cardiovascular event) and 1 study with admixed population. Our findings indicate that blood adiponectin concentration is more likely to be an epiphenomenon in the context of metabolic disease than a key determinant. © 2017 The Authors.

  12. Interference-aware random beam selection for spectrum sharing systems

    KAUST Repository

    Abdallah, Mohamed M.

    2012-09-01

    Spectrum sharing systems have been introduced to alleviate the problem of spectrum scarcity by allowing secondary unlicensed networks to share the spectrum with primary licensed networks under acceptable interference levels to the primary users. In this paper, we develop interference-aware random beam selection schemes that provide enhanced throughput for the secondary link under the condition that the interference observed at the primary link is within a predetermined acceptable value. For a secondary transmitter equipped with multiple antennas, our schemes select a random beam, among a set of power- optimized orthogonal random beams, that maximizes the capacity of the secondary link while satisfying the interference constraint at the primary receiver for different levels of feedback information describing the interference level at the primary receiver. For the proposed schemes, we develop a statistical analysis for the signal-to-noise and interference ratio (SINR) statistics as well as the capacity of the secondary link. Finally, we present numerical results that study the effect of system parameters including number of beams and the maximum transmission power on the capacity of the secondary link attained using the proposed schemes. © 2012 IEEE.

  13. A randomized controlled trial to promote volunteering in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Lisa M; Wolff, Julia K; Ziegelmann, Jochen P; Wurm, Susanne

    2014-12-01

    Volunteering is presumed to confer health benefits, but interventions to encourage older adults to volunteer are sparse. Therefore, a randomized controlled trial with 280 community-dwelling older German adults was conducted to test the effects of a theory-based social-cognitive intervention against a passive waiting-list control group and an active control intervention designed to motivate physical activity. Self-reports of weekly volunteering minutes were assessed at baseline (5 weeks before the intervention) as well as 2 and 6 weeks after the intervention. Participants in the treatment group increased their weekly volunteering minutes to a greater extent than participants in the control groups 6 weeks after the intervention. We conclude that a single, face-to-face group session can increase volunteering among older community-dwelling adults. However, the effects need some time to unfold because changes in volunteering were not apparent 2 weeks after the intervention. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Randomized trial of behavior therapy for adults with Tourette syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Sabine; Peterson, Alan L; Piacentini, John; Woods, Douglas W; Deckersbach, Thilo; Sukhodolsky, Denis G; Chang, Susanna; Liu, Haibei; Dziura, James; Walkup, John T; Scahill, Lawrence

    2012-08-01

    Tics in Tourette syndrome begin in childhood, peak in early adolescence, and often decrease by early adulthood. However, some adult patients continue to have impairing tics. Medications for tics are often effective but can cause adverse effects. Behavior therapy may offer an alternative but has not been examined in a large-scale controlled trial in adults. To test the efficacy of a comprehensive behavioral intervention for tics in adults with Tourette syndrome of at least moderate severity. A randomized controlled trial with posttreatment evaluations at 3 and 6 months for positive responders. Three outpatient research clinics. Patients (N = 122; 78 males; age range, 16-69 years) with Tourette syndrome or chronic tic disorder were recruited between December 27, 2005, and May 21, 2009. Patients received 8 sessions of comprehensive behavioral intervention for tics or 8 sessions of supportive treatment for 10 weeks. Patients with a positive response were given 3 monthly booster sessions. Total tic score on the Yale Global Tic Severity Scale and the Clinical Global Impression-Improvement scale rated by a clinician masked to treatment assignment. Behavior therapy was associated with a significantly greater mean (SD) decrease on the Yale Global Tic Severity Scale (24.0 [6.47] to 17.8 [7.32]) from baseline to end point compared with the control treatment (21.8 [6.59] to 19.3 [7.40]) (P Tourette syndrome. clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00231985.

  15. A Randomized, Double-Blind, Crossover Comparison of MK-0929 and Placebo in the Treatment of Adults with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivkin, Anna; Alexander, Robert C.; Knighton, Jennifer; Hutson, Pete H.; Wang, Xiaojing J.; Snavely, Duane B.; Rosah, Thomas; Watt, Alan P.; Reimherr, Fred W.; Adler, Lenard A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Preclinical models, receptor localization, and genetic linkage data support the role of D4 receptors in the etiology of ADHD. This proof-of-concept study was designed to evaluate MK-0929, a selective D4 receptor antagonist as treatment for adult ADHD. Method: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study was conducted…

  16. Random selection of items. Selection of n1 samples among N items composing a stratum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaech, J.L.; Lemaire, R.J.

    1987-02-01

    STR-224 provides generalized procedures to determine required sample sizes, for instance in the course of a Physical Inventory Verification at Bulk Handling Facilities. The present report describes procedures to generate random numbers and select groups of items to be verified in a given stratum through each of the measurement methods involved in the verification. (author). 3 refs

  17. The signature of positive selection at randomly chosen loci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przeworski, Molly

    2002-03-01

    In Drosophila and humans, there are accumulating examples of loci with a significant excess of high-frequency-derived alleles or high levels of linkage disequilibrium, relative to a neutral model of a random-mating population of constant size. These are features expected after a recent selective sweep. Their prevalence suggests that positive directional selection may be widespread in both species. However, as I show here, these features do not persist long after the sweep ends: The high-frequency alleles drift to fixation and no longer contribute to polymorphism, while linkage disequilibrium is broken down by recombination. As a result, loci chosen without independent evidence of recent selection are not expected to exhibit either of these features, even if they have been affected by numerous sweeps in their genealogical history. How then can we explain the patterns in the data? One possibility is population structure, with unequal sampling from different subpopulations. Alternatively, positive selection may not operate as is commonly modeled. In particular, the rate of fixation of advantageous mutations may have increased in the recent past.

  18. Feasibility of exercising adults with asthma: a randomized pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boyd Amy

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aerobic exercise appears to have clinical benefits for many asthmatics, yet a complete understanding of the mechanisms underlying these benefits has not been elucidated at this time. Purpose The objective of this study was to determine feasibility for a larger, future study that will define the effect of aerobic exercise on cellular, molecular, and functional measures in adults with mild-moderate asthma. Design Recruited subjects were randomized into usual care (sedentary or usual care with moderate intensity aerobic exercise treatment groups. Setting / Participants Nineteen adults with mild-moderate asthma but without a recent history of exercise were recruited at the UAB Lung Health Center, Birmingham, AL. Intervention The exercise group underwent a 12 week walking program exercising at 60 – 75% of maximum heart rate (HRmax. Subjects self-monitored HRmax levels using heart rate monitors; exercise diaries and recreation center sign-in logs were also used. Main outcome measures Functional measures, including lung function and asthma control scores, were evaluated for all subjects at pre- and post-study time-points; fitness measures were also assessed for subjects in the exercise group. Peripheral blood and nasal lavage fluid were collected from all subjects at pre- and post-study visits in order to evaluate cellular and molecular measures, including cell differentials and eosinophilic cationic protein (ECP. Results Sixteen subjects completed the prescribed protocol. Results show that subjects randomized to the exercise group adhered well (80% to the exercise prescription and exhibited a trend toward improved fitness levels upon study completion. Both groups exhibited improvements in ACQ scores. No changes were observed in lung function (FEV1, FEV1/FVC, cell differentials, or ECP between groups. Conclusions Results indicate that a moderate intensity aerobic exercise training program may improve asthma control and fitness

  19. Blind Measurement Selection: A Random Matrix Theory Approach

    KAUST Repository

    Elkhalil, Khalil

    2016-12-14

    This paper considers the problem of selecting a set of $k$ measurements from $n$ available sensor observations. The selected measurements should minimize a certain error function assessing the error in estimating a certain $m$ dimensional parameter vector. The exhaustive search inspecting each of the $n\\\\choose k$ possible choices would require a very high computational complexity and as such is not practical for large $n$ and $k$. Alternative methods with low complexity have recently been investigated but their main drawbacks are that 1) they require perfect knowledge of the measurement matrix and 2) they need to be applied at the pace of change of the measurement matrix. To overcome these issues, we consider the asymptotic regime in which $k$, $n$ and $m$ grow large at the same pace. Tools from random matrix theory are then used to approximate in closed-form the most important error measures that are commonly used. The asymptotic approximations are then leveraged to select properly $k$ measurements exhibiting low values for the asymptotic error measures. Two heuristic algorithms are proposed: the first one merely consists in applying the convex optimization artifice to the asymptotic error measure. The second algorithm is a low-complexity greedy algorithm that attempts to look for a sufficiently good solution for the original minimization problem. The greedy algorithm can be applied to both the exact and the asymptotic error measures and can be thus implemented in blind and channel-aware fashions. We present two potential applications where the proposed algorithms can be used, namely antenna selection for uplink transmissions in large scale multi-user systems and sensor selection for wireless sensor networks. Numerical results are also presented and sustain the efficiency of the proposed blind methods in reaching the performances of channel-aware algorithms.

  20. Long-Term Melatonin Therapy for Adolescents and Young Adults with Chronic Sleep Onset Insomnia and Late Melatonin Onset: Evaluation of Sleep Quality, Chronotype, and Lifestyle Factors Compared to Age-Related Randomly Selected Population Cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwart, Tom C; Smits, Marcel G; Egberts, Toine C G; Rademaker, Carin M A; van Geijlswijk, Ingeborg M

    2018-03-02

    The extent of continuance of melatonin therapy initiated in pre-pubertal children with chronic sleep onset insomnia (CSOI) was investigated in young adult life. Sleep timing, sleep quality, adverse events, reasons for cessation of therapy, and patient characteristics with regard to therapy regimen, chronotype and lifestyle factors possibly influencing sleeping behavior were assessed. With an online survey using questionnaires (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, Insomnia Severity Index, Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire, and Munich Chronotype Questionnaire), outcomes were measured and compared with age-related controls. These controls were extracted from published epidemiological research programs applying the same questionnaires. At the moment of the survey, melatonin was still continued by 27.3% of the patients, with a mean treatment duration of 10.8 years. The overall average treatment duration was 7.1 years. Sleep quality of both discontinued and persistent melatonin users did not deviate from controls. Sleep timing and chronotype scores indicated evening type preference in all responders. Adverse events were scarce but the perceived timing of pubertal development suggested a tendency towards delayed puberty in former and current users of melatonin. This study may underestimate the number of children that are able to stop using melatonin due to the response rate (47.8%) and appeal for continuing users. Sleep timing parameters were based on self-reported estimates. Control populations were predominantly students and were of varying nationalities. The statistical power of this study is low due to the limited sample size. Melatonin therapy sustained for 7.1 years does not result in substantial deviations of sleep quality as compared to controls and appears to be safe. The evening type preference suggests a causal relation with CSOI. This study shows that ten years after initiation of treatment with melatonin for CSOI, approximately 75% of the patients will have

  1. Materials selection for oxide-based resistive random access memories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Yuzheng; Robertson, John

    2014-01-01

    The energies of atomic processes in resistive random access memories (RRAMs) are calculated for four typical oxides, HfO 2 , TiO 2 , Ta 2 O 5 , and Al 2 O 3 , to define a materials selection process. O vacancies have the lowest defect formation energy in the O-poor limit and dominate the processes. A band diagram defines the operating Fermi energy and O chemical potential range. It is shown how the scavenger metal can be used to vary the O vacancy formation energy, via controlling the O chemical potential, and the mean Fermi energy. The high endurance of Ta 2 O 5 RRAM is related to its more stable amorphous phase and the adaptive lattice rearrangements of its O vacancy

  2. Primitive polynomials selection method for pseudo-random number generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anikin, I. V.; Alnajjar, Kh

    2018-01-01

    In this paper we suggested the method for primitive polynomials selection of special type. This kind of polynomials can be efficiently used as a characteristic polynomials for linear feedback shift registers in pseudo-random number generators. The proposed method consists of two basic steps: finding minimum-cost irreducible polynomials of the desired degree and applying primitivity tests to get the primitive ones. Finally two primitive polynomials, which was found by the proposed method, used in pseudorandom number generator based on fuzzy logic (FRNG) which had been suggested before by the authors. The sequences generated by new version of FRNG have low correlation magnitude, high linear complexity, less power consumption, is more balanced and have better statistical properties.

  3. Materials selection for oxide-based resistive random access memories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Yuzheng; Robertson, John [Engineering Department, Cambridge University, Cambridge CB2 1PZ (United Kingdom)

    2014-12-01

    The energies of atomic processes in resistive random access memories (RRAMs) are calculated for four typical oxides, HfO{sub 2}, TiO{sub 2}, Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5}, and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, to define a materials selection process. O vacancies have the lowest defect formation energy in the O-poor limit and dominate the processes. A band diagram defines the operating Fermi energy and O chemical potential range. It is shown how the scavenger metal can be used to vary the O vacancy formation energy, via controlling the O chemical potential, and the mean Fermi energy. The high endurance of Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} RRAM is related to its more stable amorphous phase and the adaptive lattice rearrangements of its O vacancy.

  4. Optimizing Event Selection with the Random Grid Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhat, Pushpalatha C. [Fermilab; Prosper, Harrison B. [Florida State U.; Sekmen, Sezen [Kyungpook Natl. U.; Stewart, Chip [Broad Inst., Cambridge

    2017-06-29

    The random grid search (RGS) is a simple, but efficient, stochastic algorithm to find optimal cuts that was developed in the context of the search for the top quark at Fermilab in the mid-1990s. The algorithm, and associated code, have been enhanced recently with the introduction of two new cut types, one of which has been successfully used in searches for supersymmetry at the Large Hadron Collider. The RGS optimization algorithm is described along with the recent developments, which are illustrated with two examples from particle physics. One explores the optimization of the selection of vector boson fusion events in the four-lepton decay mode of the Higgs boson and the other optimizes SUSY searches using boosted objects and the razor variables.

  5. Selective decontamination in pediatric liver transplants. A randomized prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, S D; Jackson, R J; Hannakan, C J; Wadowsky, R M; Tzakis, A G; Rowe, M I

    1993-06-01

    Although it has been suggested that selective decontamination of the digestive tract (SDD) decreases postoperative aerobic Gram-negative and fungal infections in orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT), no controlled trials exist in pediatric patients. This prospective, randomized controlled study of 36 pediatric OLT patients examines the effect of short-term SDD on postoperative infection and digestive tract flora. Patients were randomized into two groups. The control group received perioperative parenteral antibiotics only. The SDD group received in addition polymyxin E, tobramycin, and amphotericin B enterally and by oropharyngeal swab postoperatively until oral intake was tolerated (6 +/- 4 days). Indications for operation, preoperative status, age, and intensive care unit and hospital length of stay were no different in SDD (n = 18) and control (n = 18) groups. A total of 14 Gram-negative infections (intraabdominal abscess 7, septicemia 5, pneumonia 1, urinary tract 1) developed in the 36 patients studied. Mortality was not significantly different in the two groups. However, there were significantly fewer patients with Gram-negative infections in the SDD group: 3/18 patients (11%) vs. 11/18 patients (50%) in the control group, P < 0.001. There was also significant reduction in aerobic Gram-negative flora in the stool and pharynx in patients receiving SDD. Gram-positive and anaerobic organisms were unaffected. We conclude that short-term postoperative SDD significantly reduces Gram-negative infections in pediatric OLT patients.

  6. Attentional selection and suppression in children and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Meirong; Wang, Encong; Huang, Jing; Zhao, Chenguang; Guo, Jialiang; Li, Dongwei; Sun, Li; Du, Boqi; Ding, Yulong; Song, Yan

    2018-05-15

    The fundamental role of covert spatial attention is to enhance the processing of attended items while simultaneously ignoring irrelevant items. However, relatively little is known about how brain electrophysiological activities associated with target selection and distractor suppression are involved as they develop and become fully functional. The current study aimed to identify the neurophysiological bases of the development of covert spatial attention, focusing on electroencephalographic (EEG) markers of attentional selection (N2pc) and suppression (P D ). EEG data were collected from healthy young adults and typically developing children (9-15 years old) as they searched for a shape singleton target in either the absence or the presence of a salient-but-irrelevant color singleton distractor. The ERP results showed that a lateral shape target elicited a smaller N2pc in children compared with adults regardless of whether a distractor was present or not. Moreover, the target-elicited N2pc was always followed by a similar positivity in both age groups. Counterintuitively, a lateral salient-but-irrelevant distractor elicited a large P D in children with low behavioral accuracy, whereas high-accuracy children exhibited a small and "adult-like" P D . More importantly, we found no evidence for a correlation between the target-elicited N2pc and the distractor-elicited P D in either age group. Our results provide neurophysiological evidence for the developmental differences between target selection and distractor suppression. Compared with adults, 9-15-year-old children deploy insufficient attentional selection resources to targets but use "adult-like" or even more attentional suppression resources to resist irrelevant distractors. A video abstract of this article can be viewed at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NhWapx0d75I. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Pediatric selective mutism therapy: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Maria; Gimigliano, Francesca; Barillari, Maria R; Precenzano, Francesco; Ruberto, Maria; Sepe, Joseph; Barillari, Umberto; Gimigliano, Raffaele; Militerni, Roberto; Messina, Giovanni; Carotenuto, Marco

    2017-10-01

    Selective mutism (SM) is a rare disease in children coded by DSM-5 as an anxiety disorder. Despite the disabling nature of the disease, there is still no specific treatment. The aims of this study were to verify the efficacy of six-month standard psychomotor treatment and the positive changes in lifestyle, in a population of children affected by SM. Randomized controlled trial registered in the European Clinical Trials Registry (EuDract 2015-001161-36). University third level Centre (Child and Adolescent Neuropsychiatry Clinic). Study population was composed by 67 children in group A (psychomotricity treatment) (35 M, mean age 7.84±1.15) and 71 children in group B (behavioral and educational counseling) (37 M, mean age 7.75±1.36). Psychomotor treatment was administered by trained child therapists in residential settings three times per week. Each child was treated for the whole period by the same therapist and all the therapists shared the same protocol. The standard psychomotor session length is of 45 minutes. At T0 and after 6 months (T1) of treatments, patients underwent a behavioral and SM severity assessment. To verify the effects of the psychomotor management, the Child Behavior Checklist questionnaire (CBCL) and Selective Mutism Questionnaire (SMQ) were administered to the parents. After 6 months of psychomotor treatment SM children showed a significant reduction among CBCL scores such as in social relations, anxious/depressed, social problems and total problems (Pselective mutism, even if further studies are needed. The present study identifies in psychomotricity a safe and efficacy therapy for pediatric selective mutism.

  8. Analysis of acute naproxen administration on memory in young adults: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Jack H; Criss, Amy H; Spangler, Sean A; Walukevich, Katherine; Hewett, Sandra

    2017-10-01

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs work by non-selectively inhibiting cyclooxygenase enzymes. Evidence indicates that metabolites of the cyclooxygenase pathway play a critical role in the process of learning and memory. We evaluated whether acute naproxen treatment impairs short-term working memory, episodic memory, or semantic memory in a young, healthy adult population. Participants received a single dose of placebo or naproxen (750 mg) in random order separated by 7-10 days. Two hours following administration, participants completed five memory tasks. The administration of acute high-dose naproxen had no effect on memory in healthy young adults.

  9. Sexual selection is influenced by both developmental and adult environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, Stephanie R; Scarlett Tudor, M; Moore, Allen J; Miller, Christine W

    2014-12-01

    Sexual selection is often assumed to be strong and consistent, yet increasing research shows it can fluctuate over space and time. Few experimental studies have examined changes in sexual selection in response to natural environmental variation. Here, we use a difference in resource quality to test for the influence of past environmental conditions and current environmental conditions on male and female mate choice and resulting selection gradients for leaf-footed cactus bugs, Narnia femorata. We raised juveniles on natural high- and low-quality diets, cactus pads with and without ripe cactus fruits. New adults were again assigned a cactus pad with or without fruit, paired with a potential mate, and observed for mating behaviors. We found developmental and adult encounter environments affected mating decisions and the resulting patterns of sexual selection for both males and females. Males were not choosy in the low-quality encounter environment, cactus without fruit, but they avoided mating with small females in the high-quality encounter environment. Females were choosy in both encounter environments, avoiding mating with small males. However, they were the choosiest when they were in the low-quality encounter environment. Female mate choice was also context dependent by male developmental environment. Females were more likely to mate with males that had developed on cactus with fruit when they were currently in the cactus with fruit environment. This pattern disappeared when females were in the cactus without fruit environment. Altogether, these results experimentally demonstrate context-dependent mate choice by both males and females. Furthermore, we demonstrate that simple, seasonal changes in resources can lead to fluctuations in sexual selection. © 2014 The Author(s). Evolution © 2014 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  10. Portion distortion: typical portion sizes selected by young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Jaime; Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol

    2006-09-01

    The incidence of obesity has increased in parallel with increasing portion sizes of individually packaged and ready-to-eat prepared foods as well as foods served at restaurants. Portion distortion (perceiving large portion sizes as appropriate amounts to eat at a single eating occasion) may contribute to increasing energy intakes and expanding waistlines. The purpose of this study was to determine typical portion sizes that young adults select, how typical portion sizes compare with reference portion sizes (based in this study on the Nutrition Labeling and Education Act's quantities of food customarily eaten per eating occasion), and whether the size of typical portions has changed over time. Young adults (n=177, 75% female, age range 16 to 26 years) at a major northeastern university. Participants served themselves typical portion sizes of eight foods at breakfast (n=63) or six foods at lunch or dinner (n=62, n=52, respectively). Typical portion-size selections were unobtrusively weighed. A unit score was calculated by awarding 1 point for each food with a typical portion size that was within 25% larger or smaller than the reference portion; larger or smaller portions were given 0 points. Thus, each participant's unit score could range from 0 to 8 at breakfast or 0 to 6 at lunch and dinner. Analysis of variance or t tests were used to determine whether typical and reference portion sizes differed, and whether typical portion sizes changed over time. Mean unit scores (+/-standard deviation) were 3.63+/-1.27 and 1.89+/-1.14, for breakfast and lunch/dinner, respectively, indicating little agreement between typical and reference portion sizes. Typical portions sizes in this study tended to be significantly different from those selected by young adults in a similar study conducted 2 decades ago. Portion distortion seems to affect the portion sizes selected by young adults for some foods. This phenomenon has the potential to hinder weight loss, weight maintenance, and

  11. Blind Measurement Selection: A Random Matrix Theory Approach

    KAUST Repository

    Elkhalil, Khalil; Kammoun, Abla; Al-Naffouri, Tareq Y.; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2016-01-01

    -aware fashions. We present two potential applications where the proposed algorithms can be used, namely antenna selection for uplink transmissions in large scale multi-user systems and sensor selection for wireless sensor networks. Numerical results are also

  12. External validity of randomized controlled trials in older adults, a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Floor J van Deudekom

    Full Text Available To critically assess the external validity of randomized controlled trials (RCTs it is important to know what older adults have been enrolled in the trials. The aim of this systematic review is to study what proportion of trials specifically designed for older patients report on somatic status, physical and mental functioning, social environment and frailty in the patient characteristics.PubMed was searched for articles published in 2012 and only RCTs were included. Articles were further excluded if not conducted with humans or only secondary analyses were reported. A random sample of 10% was drawn. The current review analyzed this random sample and further selected trials when the reported mean age was ≥ 60 years. We extracted geriatric assessments from the population descriptives or the in- and exclusion criteria.In total 1396 trials were analyzed and 300 trials included. The median of the reported mean age was 66 (IQR 63-70 and the median percentage of men in the trials was 60 (IQR 45-72. In 34% of the RCTs specifically designed for older patients somatic status, physical and mental functioning, social environment or frailty were reported in the population descriptives or the in- and exclusion criteria. Physical and mental functioning was reported most frequently (22% and 14%. When selecting RCTs on a mean age of 70 or 80 years the report of geriatric assessments in the patient characteristics was 46% and 85% respectively but represent only 5% and 1% of the trials.Somatic status, physical and mental functioning, social environment and frailty are underreported even in RCTs specifically designed for older patients published in 2012. Therefore, it is unclear for clinicians to which older patients the results can be applied. We recommend systematic to transparently report these relevant characteristics of older participants included in RCTs.

  13. A Randomized Trial of a Multifaceted Intervention to Reduce Falls among Community-Dwelling Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Patrick J.; Vazquez, Laurie; Tonner, Chris; Stevens, Judy A.; Fineman, Norman; Ross, Leslie K.

    2010-01-01

    Using a randomized controlled trial, we tested the efficacy of a fall prevention intervention to reduce falls among adults in a community-based health promotion program. Adults aged 65 and older within two counties were recruited (control n = 257; intervention n = 286). After 12 months, there was a significant decrease in the number of falls in…

  14. Strategyproof Peer Selection using Randomization, Partitioning, and Apportionment

    OpenAIRE

    Aziz, Haris; Lev, Omer; Mattei, Nicholas; Rosenschein, Jeffrey S.; Walsh, Toby

    2016-01-01

    Peer review, evaluation, and selection is a fundamental aspect of modern science. Funding bodies the world over employ experts to review and select the best proposals of those submitted for funding. The problem of peer selection, however, is much more general: a professional society may want to give a subset of its members awards based on the opinions of all members; an instructor for a MOOC or online course may want to crowdsource grading; or a marketing company may select ideas from group b...

  15. Effects of physical exercise interventions in frail older adults: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Labra, Carmen; Guimaraes-Pinheiro, Christyanne; Maseda, Ana; Lorenzo, Trinidad; Millán-Calenti, José C

    2015-12-02

    Low physical activity has been shown to be one of the most common components of frailty, and interventions have been considered to prevent or reverse this syndrome. The purpose of this systematic review of randomized, controlled trials is to examine the exercise interventions to manage frailty in older people. The PubMed, Web of Science, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases were searched using specific keywords and Medical Subject Headings for randomized, controlled trials published during the period of 2003-2015, which enrolled frail older adults in an exercise intervention program. Studies where frailty had been defined were included in the review. A narrative synthesis approach was performed to examine the results. The Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro scale) was used to assess the methodological quality of the selected studies. Of 507 articles, nine papers met the inclusion criteria. Of these, six included multi-component exercise interventions (aerobic and resistance training not coexisting in the intervention), one included physical comprehensive training, and two included exercises based on strength training. All nine of these trials included a control group receiving no treatment, maintaining their habitual lifestyle or using a home-based low level exercise program. Five investigated the effects of exercise on falls, and among them, three found a positive impact of exercise interventions on this parameter. Six trials reported the effects of exercise training on several aspects of mobility, and among them, four showed enhancements in several measurements of this outcome. Three trials focused on the effects of exercise intervention on balance performance, and one demonstrated enhanced balance. Four trials investigated functional ability, and two showed positive results after the intervention. Seven trials investigated the effects of exercise intervention on muscle strength, and five of them reported increases; three trials

  16. Variable Selection in Time Series Forecasting Using Random Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hristos Tyralis

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Time series forecasting using machine learning algorithms has gained popularity recently. Random forest is a machine learning algorithm implemented in time series forecasting; however, most of its forecasting properties have remained unexplored. Here we focus on assessing the performance of random forests in one-step forecasting using two large datasets of short time series with the aim to suggest an optimal set of predictor variables. Furthermore, we compare its performance to benchmarking methods. The first dataset is composed by 16,000 simulated time series from a variety of Autoregressive Fractionally Integrated Moving Average (ARFIMA models. The second dataset consists of 135 mean annual temperature time series. The highest predictive performance of RF is observed when using a low number of recent lagged predictor variables. This outcome could be useful in relevant future applications, with the prospect to achieve higher predictive accuracy.

  17. Promoting advance planning for health care and research among older adults: A randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bravo Gina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Family members are often required to act as substitute decision-makers when health care or research participation decisions must be made for an incapacitated relative. Yet most families are unable to accurately predict older adult preferences regarding future health care and willingness to engage in research studies. Discussion and documentation of preferences could improve proxies' abilities to decide for their loved ones. This trial assesses the efficacy of an advance planning intervention in improving the accuracy of substitute decision-making and increasing the frequency of documented preferences for health care and research. It also investigates the financial impact on the healthcare system of improving substitute decision-making. Methods/Design Dyads (n = 240 comprising an older adult and his/her self-selected proxy are randomly allocated to the experimental or control group, after stratification for type of designated proxy and self-report of prior documentation of healthcare preferences. At baseline, clinical and research vignettes are used to elicit older adult preferences and assess the ability of their proxy to predict those preferences. Responses are elicited under four health states, ranging from the subject's current health state to severe dementia. For each state, we estimated the public costs of the healthcare services that would typically be provided to a patient under these scenarios. Experimental dyads are visited at home, twice, by a specially trained facilitator who communicates the dyad-specific results of the concordance assessment, helps older adults convey their wishes to their proxies, and offers assistance in completing a guide entitled My Preferences that we designed specifically for that purpose. In between these meetings, experimental dyads attend a group information session about My Preferences. Control dyads attend three monthly workshops aimed at promoting healthy behaviors. Concordance

  18. Random-walk simulation of selected aspects of dissipative collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toeke, J.; Gobbi, A.; Matulewicz, T.

    1984-11-01

    Internuclear thermal equilibrium effects and shell structure effects in dissipative collisions are studied numerically within the framework of the model of stochastic exchanges by applying the random-walk technique. Effective blocking of the drift through the mass flux induced by the temperature difference, while leaving the variances of the mass distributions unaltered is found possible, provided an internuclear potential barrier is present. Presence of the shell structure is found to lead to characteristic correlations between the consecutive exchanges. Experimental evidence for the predicted effects is discussed. (orig.)

  19. Application of random effects to the study of resource selection by animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillies, Cameron S; Hebblewhite, Mark; Nielsen, Scott E; Krawchuk, Meg A; Aldridge, Cameron L; Frair, Jacqueline L; Saher, D Joanne; Stevens, Cameron E; Jerde, Christopher L

    2006-07-01

    1. Resource selection estimated by logistic regression is used increasingly in studies to identify critical resources for animal populations and to predict species occurrence. 2. Most frequently, individual animals are monitored and pooled to estimate population-level effects without regard to group or individual-level variation. Pooling assumes that both observations and their errors are independent, and resource selection is constant given individual variation in resource availability. 3. Although researchers have identified ways to minimize autocorrelation, variation between individuals caused by differences in selection or available resources, including functional responses in resource selection, have not been well addressed. 4. Here we review random-effects models and their application to resource selection modelling to overcome these common limitations. We present a simple case study of an analysis of resource selection by grizzly bears in the foothills of the Canadian Rocky Mountains with and without random effects. 5. Both categorical and continuous variables in the grizzly bear model differed in interpretation, both in statistical significance and coefficient sign, depending on how a random effect was included. We used a simulation approach to clarify the application of random effects under three common situations for telemetry studies: (a) discrepancies in sample sizes among individuals; (b) differences among individuals in selection where availability is constant; and (c) differences in availability with and without a functional response in resource selection. 6. We found that random intercepts accounted for unbalanced sample designs, and models with random intercepts and coefficients improved model fit given the variation in selection among individuals and functional responses in selection. Our empirical example and simulations demonstrate how including random effects in resource selection models can aid interpretation and address difficult assumptions

  20. Interference-aware random beam selection schemes for spectrum sharing systems

    KAUST Repository

    Abdallah, Mohamed; Qaraqe, Khalid; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2012-01-01

    users. In this work, we develop interference-aware random beam selection schemes that provide enhanced performance for the secondary network under the condition that the interference observed by the receivers of the primary network is below a

  1. Assessing the accuracy and stability of variable selection methods for random forest modeling in ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Random forest (RF) modeling has emerged as an important statistical learning method in ecology due to its exceptional predictive performance. However, for large and complex ecological datasets there is limited guidance on variable selection methods for RF modeling. Typically, e...

  2. The mathematics of random mutation and natural selection for multiple simultaneous selection pressures and the evolution of antimicrobial drug resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinman, Alan

    2016-12-20

    The random mutation and natural selection phenomenon act in a mathematically predictable behavior, which when understood leads to approaches to reduce and prevent the failure of the use of these selection pressures when treating infections and cancers. The underlying principle to impair the random mutation and natural selection phenomenon is to use combination therapy, which forces the population to evolve to multiple selection pressures simultaneously that invoke the multiplication rule of probabilities simultaneously as well. Recently, it has been seen that combination therapy for the treatment of malaria has failed to prevent the emergence of drug-resistant variants. Using this empirical example and the principles of probability theory, the derivation of the equations describing this treatment failure is carried out. These equations give guidance as to how to use combination therapy for the treatment of cancers and infectious diseases and prevent the emergence of drug resistance. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. A Randomized Clinical Trial of Cognitive Enhancement Therapy for Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    spectrum disorders , and assessing the efficacy of this approach in comparison to an active Enriched Supportive Therapy (EST) intervention . Major...This project is focused on conducting the first randomized-controlled trial of Cognitive Enhancement Therapy (CET) in 54 verbal adults with autism ...of the neuroplastic effects of CET on brain function in support of cognitive enhancement in adult autism . Analyses of treatment effects to date

  4. Evolutionary dynamics of adult stem cells: Comparison of random and immortal strand segregation mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Tannenbaum, Emmanuel; Sherley, James L.; Shakhnovich, Eugene I.

    2004-01-01

    This paper develops a point-mutation model describing the evolutionary dynamics of a population of adult stem cells. Such a model may prove useful for quantitative studies of tissue aging and the emergence of cancer. We consider two modes of chromosome segregation: (1) Random segregation, where the daughter chromosomes of a given parent chromosome segregate randomly into the stem cell and its differentiating sister cell. (2) ``Immortal DNA strand'' co-segregation, for which the stem cell reta...

  5. Acceptance sampling using judgmental and randomly selected samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sego, Landon H.; Shulman, Stanley A.; Anderson, Kevin K.; Wilson, John E.; Pulsipher, Brent A.; Sieber, W. Karl

    2010-09-01

    We present a Bayesian model for acceptance sampling where the population consists of two groups, each with different levels of risk of containing unacceptable items. Expert opinion, or judgment, may be required to distinguish between the high and low-risk groups. Hence, high-risk items are likely to be identifed (and sampled) using expert judgment, while the remaining low-risk items are sampled randomly. We focus on the situation where all observed samples must be acceptable. Consequently, the objective of the statistical inference is to quantify the probability that a large percentage of the unsampled items in the population are also acceptable. We demonstrate that traditional (frequentist) acceptance sampling and simpler Bayesian formulations of the problem are essentially special cases of the proposed model. We explore the properties of the model in detail, and discuss the conditions necessary to ensure that required samples sizes are non-decreasing function of the population size. The method is applicable to a variety of acceptance sampling problems, and, in particular, to environmental sampling where the objective is to demonstrate the safety of reoccupying a remediated facility that has been contaminated with a lethal agent.

  6. 40 CFR 761.308 - Sample selection by random number generation on any two-dimensional square grid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sample selection by random number... § 761.79(b)(3) § 761.308 Sample selection by random number generation on any two-dimensional square... area created in accordance with paragraph (a) of this section, select two random numbers: one each for...

  7. The effect of exercise in clinically depressed adults: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Jesper; Nordentoft, Merete; Sterne, Jonathan A C

    2011-01-01

    these, the estimated beneficial effect of exercise was more modest (SMD, -0.19; 95% CI, -0.70 to 0.31) than the pooled result for all 13 studies, with no strong evidence of benefit. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest a short-term effect of exercise on depression: on average, depression scores 0......OBJECTIVE: To assess the effectiveness of exercise in adults with clinical depression. DATA SOURCES: The databases CINAHL, Embase, Cochrane Database of Systematic reviews, Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, MEDLINE, and PsycINFO were searched (1806-2008) using medical subject headings (Me......SH) and text word terms depression, depressive disorder and exercise, aerobic, non-aerobic, physical activity, physical fitness, walk*, jog*, run*, bicycling, swim*, strength, and resistance. STUDY SELECTION: Randomized trials including adults with clinical depression according to any diagnostic system were...

  8. The effect of exercise in clinically depressed adults: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Jesper; Nordentoft, Merete; Sterne, Jonathan A C

    2011-01-01

    SH) and text word terms depression, depressive disorder and exercise, aerobic, non-aerobic, physical activity, physical fitness, walk*, jog*, run*, bicycling, swim*, strength, and resistance. STUDY SELECTION: Randomized trials including adults with clinical depression according to any diagnostic system were......OBJECTIVE: To assess the effectiveness of exercise in adults with clinical depression. DATA SOURCES: The databases CINAHL, Embase, Cochrane Database of Systematic reviews, Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, MEDLINE, and PsycINFO were searched (1806-2008) using medical subject headings (Me...... with depression (P = .002). No other characteristics were related to between-study heterogeneity. Pooled analysis of 5 trials with long-term follow-up (ie, that examined outcomes beyond the end of the intervention) suggested no long-term benefit (SMD, -0.01; 95% CI, -0.28 to 0.26), with no strong evidence...

  9. Comparison of nuisance parameters in pediatric versus adult randomized trials: a meta-epidemiologic empirical evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vandermeer, Ben; van der Tweel, Ingeborg; Jansen-van der Weide, Marijke C.; Weinreich, Stephanie S.; Contopoulos-Ioannidis, Despina G.; Bassler, Dirk; Fernandes, Ricardo M.; Askie, Lisa; Saloojee, Haroon; Baiardi, Paola; Ellenberg, Susan S.; van der Lee, Johanna H.

    2018-01-01

    Background: We wished to compare the nuisance parameters of pediatric vs. adult randomized-trials (RCTs) and determine if the latter can be used in sample size computations of the former. Methods: In this meta-epidemiologic empirical evaluation we examined meta-analyses from the Cochrane Database of

  10. Adult height, coronary heart disease and stroke : A multi-locus Mendelian randomization meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nüesch, Eveline; Dale, Caroline; Palmer, Tom M.; White, Jon; Keating, Brendan J.; van Iperen, Erik P A; Goel, Anuj; Padmanabhan, Sandosh; Asselbergs, F. W.; Verschuren, W. M.; Wijmenga, C.; Van der Schouw, Y. T.; Onland-Moret, N. C.; Lange, Leslie A.; Hovingh, G. K.; Sivapalaratnam, Suthesh; Morris, Richard W.; Whincup, Peter H.; Wannamethe, Goya S.; Gaunt, Tom R.; Ebrahim, Shah; Steel, Laura; Nair, Nikhil; Reiner, Alexander P.; Kooperberg, Charles; Wilson, James F.; Bolton, Jennifer L.; McLachlan, Stela; Price, Jacqueline F.; Strachan, Mark W J; Robertson, Christine M.; Kleber, Marcus E.; Delgado, Graciela; März, Winfried; Melander, Olle; Dominiczak, Anna F.; Farrall, Martin; Watkins, Hugh; Leusink, Maarten; Maitland-van der Zee, Anke H.; de Groot, Mark C H; Dudbridge, Frank; Hingorani, Aroon; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Amuzu, A.; Caufield, M.; Cavadino, A.; Cooper, J.; Davies, T. L.; Day, I. N.; Drenos, F.; Engmann, J.; Finan, C.; Giambartolomei, C.; Hardy, R.; Humphries, S. E.; Hypponen, E.; Kivimaki, M.; Kuh, D.; Kumari, M.; Ong, K.; Plagnol, V.; Power, C.; Richards, M.; Shah, S.; Shah, T.; Sofat, R.; Talmud, P. J.; Wareham, N.; Warren, H.; Whittaker, J. C.; Wong, A.; Zabaneh, D.; Smith, George Davey; Wells, Jonathan C.; Leon, David A.; Holmes, Michael V.; Casas, Juan P.

    2016-01-01

    Background: We investigated causal effect of completed growth, measured by adult height, on coronary heart disease (CHD), stroke and cardiovascular traits, using instrumental variable (IV) Mendelian randomization meta-analysis. Methods: We developed an allele score based on 69 single nucleotide

  11. A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial Testing the Effectiveness of Houvast: A Strengths-Based Intervention for Homeless Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krabbenborg, Manon A. M.; Boersma, Sandra N.; van der Veld, William M.; van Hulst, Bente; Vollebergh, Wilma A. M.; Wolf, Judith R. L. M.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To test the effectiveness of Houvast: a strengths-based intervention for homeless young adults. Method: A cluster randomized controlled trial was conducted with 10 Dutch shelter facilities randomly allocated to an intervention and a control group. Homeless young adults were interviewed when entering the facility and when care ended.…

  12. A cluster randomized controlled trial testing the effectiveness of Houvast: A strengths-based intervention for homeless young adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krabbenborg, M.A.M.; Boersma, S.N.; Veld, W.M. van der; Hulst, B. van; Vollebergh, W.A.M.; Wolf, J.R.L.M.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To test the effectiveness of Houvast: a strengths-based intervention for homeless young adults. Method: A cluster randomized controlled trial was conducted with 10 Dutch shelter facilities randomly allocated to an intervention and a control group. Homeless young adults were interviewed

  13. Relaxation Therapy and Anxiety, Self-Esteem, and Emotional Regulation among Adults with Intellectual Disabilities: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouvet, Cyrille; Coulet, Aurélie

    2016-01-01

    This pilot study is a randomized controlled trial on the effects of relaxation on anxiety, self-esteem, and emotional regulation in adults with intellectual disabilities (ID) working in a center of supported employment in France. We studied 30 adults with mild or moderate ID who were split at random into a relaxation group (RG, 15 subjects), who…

  14. Situation Selection and Modification for Emotion Regulation in Younger and Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingstone, Kimberly M; Isaacowitz, Derek M

    2015-11-01

    This research investigated age differences in use and effectiveness of situation selection and situation modification for emotion regulation. Socioemotional selectivity theory suggests stronger emotional well-being goals in older age; emotion regulation may support this goal. Younger and older adults assigned to an emotion regulation or "just view" condition first freely chose to engage with negative, neutral, or positive material (situation selection), then chose to view or skip negative and positive material (situation modification), rating affect after each experience. In both tasks, older adults in both goal conditions demonstrated pro-hedonic emotion regulation, spending less time with negative material compared to younger adults. Younger adults in the regulate condition also engaged in pro-hedonic situation selection, but not modification. Whereas situation selection was related to affect, modification of negative material was not. This research supports more frequent pro-hedonic motivation in older age, as well as age differences in use of early-stage emotion regulation.

  15. Resist diabetes: A randomized clinical trial for resistance training maintenance in adults with prediabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda M Davy

    Full Text Available To determine whether a social cognitive theory (SCT-based intervention improves resistance training (RT maintenance and strength, and reduces prediabetes prevalence.Sedentary, overweight/obese (BMI: 25-39.9 kg/m2 adults aged 50-69 (N = 170 with prediabetes participated in the 15-month trial. Participants completed a supervised 3-month RT (2×/wk phase and were randomly assigned (N = 159 to one of two 6-month maintenance conditions: SCT or standard care. Participants continued RT at a self-selected facility. The final 6-month period involved no contact. Assessments occurred at baseline and months 3, 9, and 15. The SCT faded-contact intervention consisted of nine tailored transition (i.e., supervised training to training alone and nine follow-up sessions. Standard care involved six generic follow-up sessions. Primary outcomes were prevalence of normoglycemia and muscular strength.The retention rate was 76%. Four serious adverse events were reported. After 3 months of RT, 34% of participants were no longer prediabetic. This prevalence of normoglycemia was maintained through month 15 (30%, with no group difference. There was an 18% increase in the odds of being normoglycemic for each % increase in fat-free mass. Increases in muscular strength were evident at month 3 and maintained through month 15 (P<0.001, which represented improvements of 21% and 14% for chest and leg press, respectively. Results did not demonstrate a greater reduction in prediabetes prevalence in the SCT condition.Resistance training is an effective, maintainable strategy for reducing prediabetes prevalence and increasing muscular strength. Future research which promotes RT initiation and maintenance in clinical and community settings is warranted.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01112709.

  16. Resist diabetes: A randomized clinical trial for resistance training maintenance in adults with prediabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davy, Brenda M; Winett, Richard A; Savla, Jyoti; Marinik, Elaina L; Baugh, Mary Elizabeth; Flack, Kyle D; Halliday, Tanya M; Kelleher, Sarah A; Winett, Sheila G; Williams, David M; Boshra, Soheir

    2017-01-01

    To determine whether a social cognitive theory (SCT)-based intervention improves resistance training (RT) maintenance and strength, and reduces prediabetes prevalence. Sedentary, overweight/obese (BMI: 25-39.9 kg/m2) adults aged 50-69 (N = 170) with prediabetes participated in the 15-month trial. Participants completed a supervised 3-month RT (2×/wk) phase and were randomly assigned (N = 159) to one of two 6-month maintenance conditions: SCT or standard care. Participants continued RT at a self-selected facility. The final 6-month period involved no contact. Assessments occurred at baseline and months 3, 9, and 15. The SCT faded-contact intervention consisted of nine tailored transition (i.e., supervised training to training alone) and nine follow-up sessions. Standard care involved six generic follow-up sessions. Primary outcomes were prevalence of normoglycemia and muscular strength. The retention rate was 76%. Four serious adverse events were reported. After 3 months of RT, 34% of participants were no longer prediabetic. This prevalence of normoglycemia was maintained through month 15 (30%), with no group difference. There was an 18% increase in the odds of being normoglycemic for each % increase in fat-free mass. Increases in muscular strength were evident at month 3 and maintained through month 15 (Pprediabetes prevalence in the SCT condition. Resistance training is an effective, maintainable strategy for reducing prediabetes prevalence and increasing muscular strength. Future research which promotes RT initiation and maintenance in clinical and community settings is warranted. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01112709.

  17. Chronic pain self-management for older adults: a randomized controlled trial [ISRCTN11899548

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cain Kevin C

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic pain is a common and frequently disabling problem in older adults. Clinical guidelines emphasize the need to use multimodal therapies to manage persistent pain in this population. Pain self-management training is a multimodal therapy that has been found to be effective in young to middle-aged adult samples. This training includes education about pain as well as instruction and practice in several management techniques, including relaxation, physical exercise, modification of negative thoughts, and goal setting. Few studies have examined the effectiveness of this therapy in older adult samples. Methods/Design This is a randomized, controlled trial to assess the effectiveness of a pain self-management training group intervention, as compared with an education-only control condition. Participants are recruited from retirement communities in the Pacific Northwest of the United States and must be 65 years or older and experience persistent, noncancer pain that limits their activities. The primary outcome is physical disability, as measured by the Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire. Secondary outcomes are depression (Geriatric Depression Scale, pain intensity (Brief Pain Inventory, and pain-related interference with activities (Brief Pain Inventory. Randomization occurs by facility to minimize cross-contamination between groups. The target sample size is 273 enrolled, which assuming a 20% attrition rate at 12 months, will provide us with 84% power to detect a moderate effect size of .50 for the primary outcome. Discussion Few studies have investigated the effects of multimodal pain self-management training among older adults. This randomized controlled trial is designed to assess the efficacy of a pain self-management program that incorporates physical and psychosocial pain coping skills among adults in the mid-old to old-old range.

  18. Non-random mating for selection with restricted rates of inbreeding and overlapping generations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonesson, A.K.; Meuwissen, T.H.E.

    2002-01-01

    Minimum coancestry mating with a maximum of one offspring per mating pair (MC1) is compared with random mating schemes for populations with overlapping generations. Optimum contribution selection is used, whereby $\\\\\\\\Delta F$ is restricted. For schemes with $\\\\\\\\Delta F$ restricted to 0.25% per

  19. Applications of random forest feature selection for fine-scale genetic population assignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylvester, Emma V A; Bentzen, Paul; Bradbury, Ian R; Clément, Marie; Pearce, Jon; Horne, John; Beiko, Robert G

    2018-02-01

    Genetic population assignment used to inform wildlife management and conservation efforts requires panels of highly informative genetic markers and sensitive assignment tests. We explored the utility of machine-learning algorithms (random forest, regularized random forest and guided regularized random forest) compared with F ST ranking for selection of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) for fine-scale population assignment. We applied these methods to an unpublished SNP data set for Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar ) and a published SNP data set for Alaskan Chinook salmon ( Oncorhynchus tshawytscha ). In each species, we identified the minimum panel size required to obtain a self-assignment accuracy of at least 90% using each method to create panels of 50-700 markers Panels of SNPs identified using random forest-based methods performed up to 7.8 and 11.2 percentage points better than F ST -selected panels of similar size for the Atlantic salmon and Chinook salmon data, respectively. Self-assignment accuracy ≥90% was obtained with panels of 670 and 384 SNPs for each data set, respectively, a level of accuracy never reached for these species using F ST -selected panels. Our results demonstrate a role for machine-learning approaches in marker selection across large genomic data sets to improve assignment for management and conservation of exploited populations.

  20. 40 CFR 761.306 - Sampling 1 meter square surfaces by random selection of halves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sampling 1 meter square surfaces by...(b)(3) § 761.306 Sampling 1 meter square surfaces by random selection of halves. (a) Divide each 1 meter square portion where it is necessary to collect a surface wipe test sample into two equal (or as...

  1. A randomized controlled trial of a novel mixed monoamine reuptake inhibitor in adults with ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wesnes Keith

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background NS2359 is a potent reuptake blocker of noradrenalin, dopamine, and serotonin. The aim of the study was to investigate the efficacy, safety and cognitive function of NS2359 in adults with a DSM IV diagnosis of ADHD. Methods The study was a multi-centre, double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled, parallel group design in outpatient adults (18–55 years testing 0.5 mg NS2359 vs. placebo for 8 weeks. Multiple assessments including computerized neuropsychological evaluation were performed. Results There was no significant difference between NS2359 (n = 63 versus placebo (n = 63 on the primary outcome measure reduction in investigator rated ADHD-RS total score (7.8 versus 6.4; p Conclusion No overall effect of NS2359 was found on overall symptoms of ADHD. There was also a modest signal of improvement in the inattentive adults with ADHD and cognition warranting further exploration using differing doses.

  2. Hebbian Learning in a Random Network Captures Selectivity Properties of the Prefrontal Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Grace W.

    2017-01-01

    Complex cognitive behaviors, such as context-switching and rule-following, are thought to be supported by the prefrontal cortex (PFC). Neural activity in the PFC must thus be specialized to specific tasks while retaining flexibility. Nonlinear “mixed” selectivity is an important neurophysiological trait for enabling complex and context-dependent behaviors. Here we investigate (1) the extent to which the PFC exhibits computationally relevant properties, such as mixed selectivity, and (2) how such properties could arise via circuit mechanisms. We show that PFC cells recorded from male and female rhesus macaques during a complex task show a moderate level of specialization and structure that is not replicated by a model wherein cells receive random feedforward inputs. While random connectivity can be effective at generating mixed selectivity, the data show significantly more mixed selectivity than predicted by a model with otherwise matched parameters. A simple Hebbian learning rule applied to the random connectivity, however, increases mixed selectivity and enables the model to match the data more accurately. To explain how learning achieves this, we provide analysis along with a clear geometric interpretation of the impact of learning on selectivity. After learning, the model also matches the data on measures of noise, response density, clustering, and the distribution of selectivities. Of two styles of Hebbian learning tested, the simpler and more biologically plausible option better matches the data. These modeling results provide clues about how neural properties important for cognition can arise in a circuit and make clear experimental predictions regarding how various measures of selectivity would evolve during animal training. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The prefrontal cortex is a brain region believed to support the ability of animals to engage in complex behavior. How neurons in this area respond to stimuli—and in particular, to combinations of stimuli (

  3. Selected Health Status Indicators and Behaviors of Young Adults, United States-2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Danice K.; Kann, Laura; Okoro, Catherine A.; Collins, Janet

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence of selected clinical preventive health services, health status indicators, health risk behaviors, and health-promoting behaviors among adults aged 18 to 24 years in the general U.S. population. The study analyzed data from the 2003 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Nearly 30% of young adults lacked…

  4. Sex-specific roost selection by adult red bats in a diverse forested landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger W. Perry; Ronald E. Thill; S. Andrew Carter

    2007-01-01

    The eastern red bat (Lasiurus borealis) is a common, widespread species that occurs throughout eastern North America; however, information on potential differences in roost selection between sexes is limited. We studied summer diurnal roosting of adult red bats in a diverse forested landscape to: (1) characterize roosts of adult males and females, (2...

  5. Brain training with non-action video games enhances aspects of cognition in older adults: a randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballesteros, Soledad; Prieto, Antonio; Mayas, Julia; Toril, Pilar; Pita, Carmen; Ponce de León, Laura; Reales, José M.; Waterworth, John

    2014-01-01

    Age-related cognitive and brain declines can result in functional deterioration in many cognitive domains, dependency, and dementia. A major goal of aging research is to investigate methods that help to maintain brain health, cognition, independent living and wellbeing in older adults. This randomized controlled study investigated the effects of 20 1-h non-action video game training sessions with games selected from a commercially available package (Lumosity) on a series of age-declined cognitive functions and subjective wellbeing. Two groups of healthy older adults participated in the study, the experimental group who received the training and the control group who attended three meetings with the research team along the study. Groups were similar at baseline on demographics, vocabulary, global cognition, and depression status. All participants were assessed individually before and after the intervention, or a similar period of time, using neuropsychological tests and laboratory tasks to investigate possible transfer effects. The results showed significant improvements in the trained group, and no variation in the control group, in processing speed (choice reaction time), attention (reduction of distraction and increase of alertness), immediate and delayed visual recognition memory, as well as a trend to improve in Affection and Assertivity, two dimensions of the Wellbeing Scale. Visuospatial working memory (WM) and executive control (shifting strategy) did not improve. Overall, the current results support the idea that training healthy older adults with non-action video games will enhance some cognitive abilities but not others. PMID:25352805

  6. Brain training with non-action video games enhances aspects of cognition in older adults: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballesteros, Soledad; Prieto, Antonio; Mayas, Julia; Toril, Pilar; Pita, Carmen; Ponce de León, Laura; Reales, José M; Waterworth, John

    2014-01-01

    Age-related cognitive and brain declines can result in functional deterioration in many cognitive domains, dependency, and dementia. A major goal of aging research is to investigate methods that help to maintain brain health, cognition, independent living and wellbeing in older adults. This randomized controlled study investigated the effects of 20 1-h non-action video game training sessions with games selected from a commercially available package (Lumosity) on a series of age-declined cognitive functions and subjective wellbeing. Two groups of healthy older adults participated in the study, the experimental group who received the training and the control group who attended three meetings with the research team along the study. Groups were similar at baseline on demographics, vocabulary, global cognition, and depression status. All participants were assessed individually before and after the intervention, or a similar period of time, using neuropsychological tests and laboratory tasks to investigate possible transfer effects. The results showed significant improvements in the trained group, and no variation in the control group, in processing speed (choice reaction time), attention (reduction of distraction and increase of alertness), immediate and delayed visual recognition memory, as well as a trend to improve in Affection and Assertivity, two dimensions of the Wellbeing Scale. Visuospatial working memory (WM) and executive control (shifting strategy) did not improve. Overall, the current results support the idea that training healthy older adults with non-action video games will enhance some cognitive abilities but not others.

  7. Performance Evaluation of User Selection Protocols in Random Networks with Energy Harvesting and Hardware Impairments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Nhat Nguyen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we evaluate performances of various user selection protocols under impact of hardware impairments. In the considered protocols, a Base Station (BS selects one of available Users (US to serve, while the remaining USs harvest the energy from the Radio Frequency (RF transmitted by the BS. We assume that all of the US randomly appear around the BS. In the Random Selection Protocol (RAN, the BS randomly selects a US to transmit the data. In the second proposed protocol, named Minimum Distance Protocol (MIND, the US that is nearest to the BS will be chosen. In the Optimal Selection Protocol (OPT, the US providing the highest channel gain between itself and the BS will be served. For performance evaluation, we derive exact and asymptotic closed-form expressions of average Outage Probability (OP over Rayleigh fading channels. We also consider average harvested energy per a US. Finally, Monte-Carlo simulations are then performed to verify the theoretical results.

  8. Simulated Performance Evaluation of a Selective Tracker Through Random Scenario Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hussain, Dil Muhammad Akbar

    2006-01-01

    performance assessment. Therefore, a random target motion scenario is adopted. Its implementation in particular for testing the proposed selective track splitting algorithm using Kalman filters is investigated through a number of performance parameters which gives the activity profile of the tracking scenario......  The paper presents a simulation study on the performance of a target tracker using selective track splitting filter algorithm through a random scenario implemented on a digital signal processor.  In a typical track splitting filter all the observation which fall inside a likelihood ellipse...... are used for update, however, in our proposed selective track splitting filter less number of observations are used for track update.  Much of the previous performance work [1] has been done on specific (deterministic) scenarios. One of the reasons for considering the specific scenarios, which were...

  9. TEHRAN AIR POLLUTANTS PREDICTION BASED ON RANDOM FOREST FEATURE SELECTION METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Shamsoddini

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution as one of the most serious forms of environmental pollutions poses huge threat to human life. Air pollution leads to environmental instability, and has harmful and undesirable effects on the environment. Modern prediction methods of the pollutant concentration are able to improve decision making and provide appropriate solutions. This study examines the performance of the Random Forest feature selection in combination with multiple-linear regression and Multilayer Perceptron Artificial Neural Networks methods, in order to achieve an efficient model to estimate carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide and PM2.5 contents in the air. The results indicated that Artificial Neural Networks fed by the attributes selected by Random Forest feature selection method performed more accurate than other models for the modeling of all pollutants. The estimation accuracy of sulfur dioxide emissions was lower than the other air contaminants whereas the nitrogen dioxide was predicted more accurate than the other pollutants.

  10. Tehran Air Pollutants Prediction Based on Random Forest Feature Selection Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamsoddini, A.; Aboodi, M. R.; Karami, J.

    2017-09-01

    Air pollution as one of the most serious forms of environmental pollutions poses huge threat to human life. Air pollution leads to environmental instability, and has harmful and undesirable effects on the environment. Modern prediction methods of the pollutant concentration are able to improve decision making and provide appropriate solutions. This study examines the performance of the Random Forest feature selection in combination with multiple-linear regression and Multilayer Perceptron Artificial Neural Networks methods, in order to achieve an efficient model to estimate carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide and PM2.5 contents in the air. The results indicated that Artificial Neural Networks fed by the attributes selected by Random Forest feature selection method performed more accurate than other models for the modeling of all pollutants. The estimation accuracy of sulfur dioxide emissions was lower than the other air contaminants whereas the nitrogen dioxide was predicted more accurate than the other pollutants.

  11. Effect of a mobile app intervention on vegetable consumption in overweight adults: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mummah, Sarah; Robinson, Thomas N; Mathur, Maya; Farzinkhou, Sarah; Sutton, Stephen; Gardner, Christopher D

    2017-09-15

    Mobile applications (apps) have been heralded as transformative tools to deliver behavioral health interventions at scale, but few have been tested in rigorous randomized controlled trials. We tested the effect of a mobile app to increase vegetable consumption among overweight adults attempting weight loss maintenance. Overweight adults (n=135) aged 18-50 years with BMI=28-40 kg/m 2 near Stanford, CA were recruited from an ongoing 12-month weight loss trial (parent trial) and randomly assigned to either the stand-alone, theory-based Vegethon mobile app (enabling goal setting, self-monitoring, and feedback and using "process motivators" including fun, surprise, choice, control, social comparison, and competition) or a wait-listed control condition. The primary outcome was daily vegetables servings, measured by an adapted Harvard food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) 8 weeks post-randomization. Daily vegetable servings from 24-hour dietary recalls, administered by trained, certified, and blinded interviewers 5 weeks post-randomization, was included as a secondary outcome. All analyses were conducted according to principles of intention-to-treat. Daily vegetable consumption was significantly greater in the intervention versus control condition for both measures (adjusted mean difference: 2.0 servings; 95% CI: 0.1, 3.8, p=0.04 for FFQ; and 1.0 servings; 95% CI: 0.2, 1.9; p=0.02 for 24-hour recalls). Baseline vegetable consumption was a significant moderator of intervention effects (p=0.002) in which effects increased as baseline consumption increased. These results demonstrate the efficacy of a mobile app to increase vegetable consumption among overweight adults. Theory-based mobile interventions may present a low-cost, scalable, and effective approach to improving dietary behaviors and preventing associated chronic diseases. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01826591. Registered 27 March 2013.

  12. Smartphone Technology and Text Messaging for Weight Loss in Young Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Janna D; Yager, Allison M; Allen, Jerilyn

    Using smartphone technology and text messaging for health is a growing field. This type of technology is well integrated into the lives of young adults. However, few studies have tested the effect of this type of technology to promote weight loss in young adults OBJECTIVE:: The purpose of this study is to test the effectiveness of a behaviorally based smartphone application for weight loss combined with text messaging from a health coach on weight, body mass index (BMI), and waist circumference in young adults as compared with a control condition. Sixty-two young adults, aged 18 to 25 years, were randomized to receive (1) a smartphone application + health coach intervention and counseling sessions or (2) control condition with a counseling session. All outcome measures were tested at baseline and 3 months. These included weight, BMI, waist circumference, dietary habits, physical activity habits, and self-efficacy for healthy eating and physical activity. The sample was 71% female and 39% white, with an average age of 20 years and average BMI of 28.5 kg/m. Participants in the smartphone + health coach group lost significantly more weight (P = .026) and had a significant reduction in both BMI (P = .024) and waist circumference (P technology and feedback from a health coach on improving weight in a group of diverse young adults.

  13. Perturbation training can reduce community-dwelling older adults' annual fall risk: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, Yi-Chung; Bhatt, Tanvi; Yang, Feng; Wang, Edward

    2014-12-01

    Previous studies indicated that a single session of repeated-slip exposure can reduce over 40% of laboratory-induced falls among older adults. The purpose of this study was to determine to what degree such perturbation training translated to the reduction of older adults' annual falls risk in their everyday living. Two hundred and twelve community-dwelling older adults (≥65 years old) were randomly assigned to either the training group (N = 109), who then were exposed to 24 unannounced repeated slips, or the control group (N = 103), who merely experienced one slip during the same walking in the same protective laboratory environment. We recorded their falls in the preceding year (through self-reported history) and during the next 12 months (through falls diary and monitored with phone calls). With this single session of repeated-slip exposure, training cut older adults' annual risk of falls by 50% (from 34% to 15%, p fall during the same 12-month follow-up period (p falls. A single session of repeated-slip exposure could improve community-dwelling older adults' resilience to postural disturbances and, hence, significantly reduce their annual risk of falls. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Continuous-Time Mean-Variance Portfolio Selection with Random Horizon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Zhiyong

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the continuous-time mean-variance optimal portfolio selection problem with random market parameters and random time horizon. Treating this problem as a linearly constrained stochastic linear-quadratic optimal control problem, I explicitly derive the efficient portfolios and efficient frontier in closed forms based on the solutions of two backward stochastic differential equations. Some related issues such as a minimum variance portfolio and a mutual fund theorem are also addressed. All the results are markedly different from those in the problem with deterministic exit time. A key part of my analysis involves proving the global solvability of a stochastic Riccati equation, which is interesting in its own right

  15. Continuous-Time Mean-Variance Portfolio Selection with Random Horizon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Zhiyong, E-mail: yuzhiyong@sdu.edu.cn [Shandong University, School of Mathematics (China)

    2013-12-15

    This paper examines the continuous-time mean-variance optimal portfolio selection problem with random market parameters and random time horizon. Treating this problem as a linearly constrained stochastic linear-quadratic optimal control problem, I explicitly derive the efficient portfolios and efficient frontier in closed forms based on the solutions of two backward stochastic differential equations. Some related issues such as a minimum variance portfolio and a mutual fund theorem are also addressed. All the results are markedly different from those in the problem with deterministic exit time. A key part of my analysis involves proving the global solvability of a stochastic Riccati equation, which is interesting in its own right.

  16. Dismantling multicomponent behavioral treatment for insomnia in older adults: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Dana R; Sidani, Souraya; Bootzin, Richard R; Belyea, Michael J

    2012-06-01

    Recently, the use of multicomponent insomnia treatment has increased. This study compares the effect of single component and multicomponent behavioral treatments for insomnia in older adults after intervention and at 3 months and 1 yr posttreatment. A randomized, controlled study. Veterans Affairs medical center. 179 older adults (mean age, 68.9 yr ± 8.0; 115 women [64.2%]) with chronic primary insomnia. Participants were randomly assigned to 6 wk of stimulus control therapy (SCT), sleep restriction therapy (SRT), the 2 therapies combined into a multicomponent intervention (MCI), or a wait-list control group. Primary outcomes were subjective (daily sleep diary) and objective (actigraphy) measures of sleep-onset latency (SOL), wake after sleep onset (WASO), total sleep time (TST), time in bed (TIB), and sleep efficiency (SE). Secondary outcomes were clinical measures including response and remission rates. There were no differences between the single and multicomponent interventions on primary sleep outcomes measured by diary and actigraphy. All treatments produced significant improvement in diary-reported sleep in comparison with the control group. Effect sizes for sleep diary outcomes were medium to large. Treatment gains were maintained at follow-up for diary and actigraph measured SOL, WASO, and SE. The MCI group had the largest proportion of treatment remitters. For older adults with chronic primary insomnia, the findings provide initial evidence that SCT, SRT, and MCI are equally efficacious and produce sustainable treatment gains on diary, actigraphy, and clinical outcomes. From a clinical perspective, MCI may be a preferred treatment due to its higher remission rate. Behavioral Intervention for Insomnia in Older Adults. NCT01154023. URL: http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01154023?term=Behavioral+Intervention+for+Insomnia+in+Older+Adults&rank=1.

  17. Intersession reliability of self-selected and narrow stance balance testing in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riemann, Bryan L; Piersol, Kelsey

    2017-10-01

    Despite the common practice of using force platforms to assess balance of older adults, few investigations have examined the reliability of postural screening tests in this population. We sought to determine the test-retest reliability of self-selected and narrow stance balance testing with eyes open and eyes closed in healthy older adults. Thirty older adults (>65 years) completed 45 s trials of eyes open and eyes closed stability tests using self-selected and narrow stances on two separate days (1.9 ± .7 days). Average medial-lateral center of pressure velocity was computed. The ICC results ranged from .74 to .86, and no significant systematic changes (P eyes open and closed balance testing using self-selected and narrow stances in older adults was established which should provide a foundation for the development of fall risk screening tests.

  18. Spatial distribution of juvenile and adult stages of limnetic Cladocera in relation to selected environmental factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Adamczuk

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Environmental factors have a varied impact on the development of juvenile and adult Cladocera, depending on their different physiological conditions and body size. The values of these factors alter spatially and temporarily, thus implying that they play a role in the spatial distribution of the pre-reproductive and potentially reproductive stages of cladocerans. The aim of the study was to determine seasonal and spatial variations in the distribution of juvenile and adult individuals of limnetic Cladocera in relation to selected physicochemical factors (temperature, conductivity, pH, concentration of dissolved oxygen, total organic carbon, total suspended solids and fish predation pressure (measured by Chesson’s coefficient λ in deep Lake Piaseczno (eastern Poland. Adult Cladocera displayed spatial distribution related to fish predation pressure. The species selectively eaten, B. coregoni and D. longispina, and non-selectively eaten, D. cucullata, selected the pelagic zone to exist, whereas those avoided by fish, D. brachyurum and B. longirostris, were evenly distributed in the littoral and pelagic zone. Juvenile cladocerans were strongly impacted by physico-chemical factors. Juvenile Daphnia, Diaphanosoma and B. longirostris showed preferences to biotic zones similar to the adults but differed in their habitat choices. Juvenile and adult stages of B. coregoni differed in their distribution, indicating that adult individuals impacted by high predation pressure alternatively modified their habitat selection. Principal component analysis (PCA ordination showed a seasonal tendency for the spatial segregation of the cladocerans, suggesting that possible competitive interactions between the studied cladocerans may also influence their distribution patterns.

  19. Emergence of multilevel selection in the prisoner's dilemma game on coevolving random networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szolnoki, Attila; Perc, Matjaz

    2009-01-01

    We study the evolution of cooperation in the prisoner's dilemma game, whereby a coevolutionary rule is introduced that molds the random topology of the interaction network in two ways. First, existing links are deleted whenever a player adopts a new strategy or its degree exceeds a threshold value; second, new links are added randomly after a given number of game iterations. These coevolutionary processes correspond to the generic formation of new links and deletion of existing links that, especially in human societies, appear frequently as a consequence of ongoing socialization, change of lifestyle or death. Due to the counteraction of deletions and additions of links the initial heterogeneity of the interaction network is qualitatively preserved, and thus cannot be held responsible for the observed promotion of cooperation. Indeed, the coevolutionary rule evokes the spontaneous emergence of a powerful multilevel selection mechanism, which despite the sustained random topology of the evolving network, maintains cooperation across the whole span of defection temptation values.

  20. Post-parturition habitat selection by elk calves and adult female elk in New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitman, James W.; Cain, James W.; Liley, Stewart; Gould, William R.; Quintana, Nichole T.; Ballard, Warren

    2014-01-01

    Neonatal survival and juvenile recruitment are crucial to maintaining viable elk (Cervus elaphus) populations. Neonate survival is known to be influenced by many factors, including bed-site selection. Although neonates select the actual bed-site location, they must do so within the larger calf-rearing area selected by the mother. As calves age, habitat selection should change to meet the changing needs of the growing calf. Our main objectives were to characterize habitat selection at 2 spatial scales and in areas with different predator assemblages in New Mexico. We evaluated bed-site selection by calves and calf-rearing area selection by adult females. We captured 108 elk calves by hand and fitted them with ear tag transmitters in two areas in New Mexico: the Valle Vidal and Blue Range Wolf Recovery Area. In both study areas, we found that concealing cover structure and distance to that cover influenced bed-site selection of young calves (i.e., age). Older calves (i.e., 3–10 weeks of age) still selected areas in relation to distance to cover, but also preferred areas with higher visibility. At the larger spatial scale of calf-rearing habitat selection by the adult female, concealing cover (e.g., rocks, shrubs, and logs) and other variables important to the hiding calves were still in the most supported models, but selection was also influenced by forage availability and indices of forage quality. Studies that seek to obtain insight into microhabitat selection of ungulate neonates should consider selection by the neonate and selection by the adult female, changes in selection as neonates age, and potential selection differences in areas of differing predation risk. By considering these influences together and at multiple scales, studies can achieve a broader understanding of neonatal ungulate habitat requirements. 

  1. Topology-selective jamming of fully-connected, code-division random-access networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polydoros, Andreas; Cheng, Unjeng

    1990-01-01

    The purpose is to introduce certain models of topology selective stochastic jamming and examine its impact on a class of fully-connected, spread-spectrum, slotted ALOHA-type random access networks. The theory covers dedicated as well as half-duplex units. The dominant role of the spatial duty factor is established, and connections with the dual concept of time selective jamming are discussed. The optimal choices of coding rate and link access parameters (from the users' side) and the jamming spatial fraction are numerically established for DS and FH spreading.

  2. Random drift versus selection in academic vocabulary: an evolutionary analysis of published keywords.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Alexander Bentley

    Full Text Available The evolution of vocabulary in academic publishing is characterized via keyword frequencies recorded in the ISI Web of Science citations database. In four distinct case-studies, evolutionary analysis of keyword frequency change through time is compared to a model of random copying used as the null hypothesis, such that selection may be identified against it. The case studies from the physical sciences indicate greater selection in keyword choice than in the social sciences. Similar evolutionary analyses can be applied to a wide range of phenomena; wherever the popularity of multiple items through time has been recorded, as with web searches, or sales of popular music and books, for example.

  3. Random drift versus selection in academic vocabulary: an evolutionary analysis of published keywords.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, R Alexander

    2008-08-27

    The evolution of vocabulary in academic publishing is characterized via keyword frequencies recorded in the ISI Web of Science citations database. In four distinct case-studies, evolutionary analysis of keyword frequency change through time is compared to a model of random copying used as the null hypothesis, such that selection may be identified against it. The case studies from the physical sciences indicate greater selection in keyword choice than in the social sciences. Similar evolutionary analyses can be applied to a wide range of phenomena; wherever the popularity of multiple items through time has been recorded, as with web searches, or sales of popular music and books, for example.

  4. A Mixed-Methods Randomized Controlled Trial of Financial Incentives and Peer Networks to Promote Walking among Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kullgren, Jeffrey T.; Harkins, Kristin A.; Bellamy, Scarlett L.; Gonzales, Amy; Tao, Yuanyuan; Zhu, Jingsan; Volpp, Kevin G.; Asch, David A.; Heisler, Michele; Karlawish, Jason

    2014-01-01

    Background: Financial incentives and peer networks could be delivered through eHealth technologies to encourage older adults to walk more. Methods: We conducted a 24-week randomized trial in which 92 older adults with a computer and Internet access received a pedometer, daily walking goals, and weekly feedback on goal achievement. Participants…

  5. Group Cognitive Behavioural Therapy and Group Recreational Activity for Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Preliminary Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesselmark, Eva; Plenty, Stephanie; Bejerot, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    Although adults with autism spectrum disorder are an increasingly identified patient population, few treatment options are available. This "preliminary" randomized controlled open trial with a parallel design developed two group interventions for adults with autism spectrum disorders and intelligence within the normal range: cognitive…

  6. A randomized trial of a Facebook-based physical activity intervention for young adult cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle, Carmina G; Tate, Deborah F; Mayer, Deborah K; Allicock, Marlyn; Cai, Jianwen

    2013-09-01

    Over half of young adult cancer survivors do not meet physical activity (PA) guidelines. PA interventions can enhance health and quality of life among young adult cancer survivors. However, few exercise interventions have been designed and tested in this population. This study evaluated the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of a 12-week, Facebook-based intervention (FITNET) aimed at increasing moderate-to-vigorous intensity PA compared with a Facebook-based self-help comparison (SC) condition. Young adult cancer survivors (n = 86) were randomly assigned to the FITNET or SC group. All participants were asked to complete self-administered online questionnaires at baseline and after 12 weeks. Seventy-seven percent of participants completed postintervention assessments, and most participants reported using intervention components as intended. Participants in both groups would recommend the program to other young adult cancer survivors (FITNET, 46.9 vs. SC, 61.8 %; p = 0.225). Over 12 weeks, both groups increased self-reported weekly minutes of moderate-to-vigorous PA (FITNET, 67 min/week (p = 0.009) vs. SC, 46 min/week (p = 0.045)), with no significant difference between groups. Increases in light PA were 135 min/week greater in the FITNET group relative to the SC group (p = 0.032), and the FITNET group reported significant weight loss over time (-2.1 kg, p = 0.004; p = 0.083 between groups). Facebook-based intervention approaches demonstrated potential for increasing PA in young adult cancer survivors. Social networking sites may be a feasible way for young adult cancer survivors to receive health information and support to promote PA and healthy behaviors.

  7. Interventions to Improve Medication Adherence among Older Adults: Meta-Analysis of Adherence Outcomes among Randomized Controlled Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conn, Vicki S.; Hafdahl, Adam R.; Cooper, Pamela S.; Ruppar, Todd M.; Mehr, David R.; Russell, Cynthia L.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigated the effectiveness of interventions to improve medication adherence (MA) in older adults. Design and Methods: Meta-analysis was used to synthesize results of 33 published and unpublished randomized controlled trials. Random-effects models were used to estimate overall mean effect sizes (ESs) for MA, knowledge,…

  8. Randomized controlled trial comparing esophageal dilation to no dilation among adults with esophageal eosinophilia and dysphagia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavitt, R T; Ates, F; Slaughter, J C; Higginbotham, T; Shepherd, B D; Sumner, E L; Vaezi, M F

    2016-11-01

    The role of esophageal dilation in patients with esophageal eosinophilia with dysphagia remains unknown. The practice of dilation is currently based on center preferences and expert opinion. The aim of this study is to determine if, and to what extent, dysphagia improves in response to initial esophageal dilation followed by standard medical therapies. We conducted a randomized, blinded, controlled trial evaluating adult patients with dysphagia and newly diagnosed esophageal eosinophilia from 2008 to 2013. Patients were randomized to dilation or no dilation at time of endoscopy and blinded to dilation status. Endoscopic features were graded as major and minor. Subsequent to randomization and endoscopy, all patients received fluticasone and dexlansoprazole for 2 months. The primary study outcome was reduction in overall dysphagia score, assessed at 30 and 60 days post-intervention. Patients with severe strictures (less than 7-mm esophageal diameter) were excluded from the study. Thirty-one patients were randomized and completed the protocol: 17 randomized to dilation and 14 to no dilation. Both groups were similar with regard to gender, age, eosinophil density, endoscopic score, and baseline dysphagia score. The population exhibited moderate to severe dysphagia and moderate esophageal stricturing at baseline. Overall, there was a significant (P dysphagia score at 30 and 60 days post-randomization compared with baseline in both groups. No significant difference in dysphagia scores between treatment groups after 30 (P = 0.93) or 60 (P = 0.21) days post-intervention was observed. Esophageal dilation did not result in additional improvement in dysphagia score compared with treatment with proton pump inhibitor and fluticasone alone. In patients with symptomatic esophageal eosinophilia without severe stricture, dilation does not appear to be a necessary initial treatment strategy. © 2015 International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus.

  9. Money matters: evidence from a large-scale randomized field experiment with vouchers for adult training

    OpenAIRE

    Messer, Dolores; Wolter, Stefan C.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a randomized experiment analyzing the use of vouchers for adult training. In 2006, 2,400 people were issued with a training voucher which they were entitled to use in payment for a training course of their choice. User behavior was compared with a control group of 14,000 people. People in the treatment and in the control group were not aware at any time that they were part of an experiment. The experiment shows that the voucher had a significant causal impac...

  10. Evolutionary dynamics of adult stem cells: comparison of random and immortal-strand segregation mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannenbaum, Emmanuel; Sherley, James L; Shakhnovich, Eugene I

    2005-04-01

    This paper develops a point-mutation model describing the evolutionary dynamics of a population of adult stem cells. Such a model may prove useful for quantitative studies of tissue aging and the emergence of cancer. We consider two modes of chromosome segregation: (1) random segregation, where the daughter chromosomes of a given parent chromosome segregate randomly into the stem cell and its differentiating sister cell and (2) "immortal DNA strand" co-segregation, for which the stem cell retains the daughter chromosomes with the oldest parent strands. Immortal strand co-segregation is a mechanism, originally proposed by [Cairns Nature (London) 255, 197 (1975)], by which stem cells preserve the integrity of their genomes. For random segregation, we develop an ordered strand pair formulation of the dynamics, analogous to the ordered strand pair formalism developed for quasispecies dynamics involving semiconservative replication with imperfect lesion repair (in this context, lesion repair is taken to mean repair of postreplication base-pair mismatches). Interestingly, a similar formulation is possible with immortal strand co-segregation, despite the fact that this segregation mechanism is age dependent. From our model we are able to mathematically show that, when lesion repair is imperfect, then immortal strand co-segregation leads to better preservation of the stem cell lineage than random chromosome segregation. Furthermore, our model allows us to estimate the optimal lesion repair efficiency for preserving an adult stem cell population for a given period of time. For human stem cells, we obtain that mispaired bases still present after replication and cell division should be left untouched, to avoid potentially fixing a mutation in both DNA strands.

  11. Comparative Evaluations of Randomly Selected Four Point-of-Care Glucometer Devices in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolde, Mistire; Tarekegn, Getahun; Kebede, Tedla

    2018-05-01

    Point-of-care glucometer (PoCG) devices play a significant role in self-monitoring of the blood sugar level, particularly in the follow-up of high blood sugar therapeutic response. The aim of this study was to evaluate blood glucose test results performed with four randomly selected glucometers on diabetes and control subjects versus standard wet chemistry (hexokinase) methods in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. A prospective cross-sectional study was conducted on randomly selected 200 study participants (100 participants with diabetes and 100 healthy controls). Four randomly selected PoCG devices (CareSens N, DIAVUE Prudential, On Call Extra, i-QARE DS-W) were evaluated against hexokinase method and ISO 15197:2003 and ISO 15197:2013 standards. The minimum and maximum blood sugar values were recorded by CareSens N (21 mg/dl) and hexokinase method (498.8 mg/dl), respectively. The mean sugar values of all PoCG devices except On Call Extra showed significant differences compared with the reference hexokinase method. Meanwhile, all four PoCG devices had strong positive relationship (>80%) with the reference method (hexokinase). On the other hand, none of the four PoCG devices fulfilled the minimum accuracy measurement set by ISO 15197:2003 and ISO 15197:2013 standards. In addition, the linear regression analysis revealed that all four selected PoCG overestimated the glucose concentrations. The overall evaluation of the selected four PoCG measurements were poorly correlated with standard reference method. Therefore, before introducing PoCG devices to the market, there should be a standardized evaluation platform for validation. Further similar large-scale studies on other PoCG devices also need to be undertaken.

  12. The effect of adult aggression on habitat selection by settlers of two coral-dwelling damselfishes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ofer Ben-Tzvi

    Full Text Available Coral-reef fishes experience a major challenge when facing settlement in a multi-threat environment, within which, using settlement cues, they need to select a suitable site. Studies in laboratories and artificial setups have shown that the presence of conspecific adults often serves as a positive settlement cue, whose value is explained by the increased survival of juveniles in an already proven fit environment. However, settlement in already inhabited corals may expose the recruits to adult aggression. Daily observations and manipulation experiments were used in the present study, which was conducted in the natural reef. We revealed differential strategies of settlers, which do not necessarily join conspecific adults. Dascyllus aruanus prefer to settle near (not with their aggressive adults, and to join them only after gaining in size; whereas Dascyllus marginatus settlers in densely populated reefs settle independently of their adult distribution. Our results present different solutions to the challenges faced by fish recruits while selecting their microhabitat, and emphasize the complexity of habitat selection by the naïve settlers. Although laboratory experiments are important to the understanding of fish habitat selection, further studies in natural habitats are essential in order to elucidate the actual patterns of settlement and habitat selection, which are crucial for the survival of coral-reef fish populations.

  13. Selection bias and subject refusal in a cluster-randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rochelle Yang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Selection bias and non-participation bias are major methodological concerns which impact external validity. Cluster-randomized controlled trials are especially prone to selection bias as it is impractical to blind clusters to their allocation into intervention or control. This study assessed the impact of selection bias in a large cluster-randomized controlled trial. Methods The Improved Cardiovascular Risk Reduction to Enhance Rural Primary Care (ICARE study examined the impact of a remote pharmacist-led intervention in twelve medical offices. To assess eligibility, a standardized form containing patient demographics and medical information was completed for each screened patient. Eligible patients were approached by the study coordinator for recruitment. Both the study coordinator and the patient were aware of the site’s allocation prior to consent. Patients who consented or declined to participate were compared across control and intervention arms for differing characteristics. Statistical significance was determined using a two-tailed, equal variance t-test and a chi-square test with adjusted Bonferroni p-values. Results were adjusted for random cluster variation. Results There were 2749 completed screening forms returned to research staff with 461 subjects who had either consented or declined participation. Patients with poorly controlled diabetes were found to be significantly more likely to decline participation in intervention sites compared to those in control sites. A higher mean diastolic blood pressure was seen in patients with uncontrolled hypertension who declined in the control sites compared to those who declined in the intervention sites. However, these findings were no longer significant after adjustment for random variation among the sites. After this adjustment, females were now found to be significantly more likely to consent than males (odds ratio = 1.41; 95% confidence interval = 1.03, 1

  14. Fuzzy Random λ-Mean SAD Portfolio Selection Problem: An Ant Colony Optimization Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Gour Sundar Mitra; Bhattacharyya, Rupak; Mitra, Swapan Kumar

    2010-10-01

    To reach the investment goal, one has to select a combination of securities among different portfolios containing large number of securities. Only the past records of each security do not guarantee the future return. As there are many uncertain factors which directly or indirectly influence the stock market and there are also some newer stock markets which do not have enough historical data, experts' expectation and experience must be combined with the past records to generate an effective portfolio selection model. In this paper the return of security is assumed to be Fuzzy Random Variable Set (FRVS), where returns are set of random numbers which are in turn fuzzy numbers. A new λ-Mean Semi Absolute Deviation (λ-MSAD) portfolio selection model is developed. The subjective opinions of the investors to the rate of returns of each security are taken into consideration by introducing a pessimistic-optimistic parameter vector λ. λ-Mean Semi Absolute Deviation (λ-MSAD) model is preferred as it follows absolute deviation of the rate of returns of a portfolio instead of the variance as the measure of the risk. As this model can be reduced to Linear Programming Problem (LPP) it can be solved much faster than quadratic programming problems. Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) is used for solving the portfolio selection problem. ACO is a paradigm for designing meta-heuristic algorithms for combinatorial optimization problem. Data from BSE is used for illustration.

  15. Randomized controlled trial comparing tailoring methods of multimedia-based fall prevention education for community-dwelling older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schepens, Stacey L; Panzer, Victoria; Goldberg, Allon

    2011-01-01

    We attempted to determine whether multimedia fall prevention education using different instructional strategies increases older adults' knowledge of fall threats and their fall prevention behaviors. Fifty-three community-dwelling older adults were randomized to iwo educational groups or a control group. Multimedia-based educational interventions to increase fall threats knowledge and encourage fall prevention behaviors had two tailoring strategies: (1) improve content realism for individual learners (authenticity group) and (2) highlight program goals and benefits while using participants' content selections (motivation group). Knowledge was measured at baseline and 1-mo follow-up. Participants recorded prevention behaviors for 1 mo. Intervention group participants showed greater knowledge gains and posttest knowledge than did control group participants. The motivation group engaged in more prevention behaviors over 1 mo than did the other groups. Tailoring fall prevention education by addressing authenticity and motivation successfully improved fall threats knowledge. Combining motivational strategies with multimedia education increased the effectiveness of the intervention in encouraging fall prevention behaviors.

  16. From Protocols to Publications: A Study in Selective Reporting of Outcomes in Randomized Trials in Oncology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghav, Kanwal Pratap Singh; Mahajan, Sminil; Yao, James C.; Hobbs, Brian P.; Berry, Donald A.; Pentz, Rebecca D.; Tam, Alda; Hong, Waun K.; Ellis, Lee M.; Abbruzzese, James; Overman, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The decision by journals to append protocols to published reports of randomized trials was a landmark event in clinical trial reporting. However, limited information is available on how this initiative effected transparency and selective reporting of clinical trial data. Methods We analyzed 74 oncology-based randomized trials published in Journal of Clinical Oncology, the New England Journal of Medicine, and The Lancet in 2012. To ascertain integrity of reporting, we compared published reports with their respective appended protocols with regard to primary end points, nonprimary end points, unplanned end points, and unplanned analyses. Results A total of 86 primary end points were reported in 74 randomized trials; nine trials had greater than one primary end point. Nine trials (12.2%) had some discrepancy between their planned and published primary end points. A total of 579 nonprimary end points (median, seven per trial) were planned, of which 373 (64.4%; median, five per trial) were reported. A significant positive correlation was found between the number of planned and nonreported nonprimary end points (Spearman r = 0.66; P < .001). Twenty-eight studies (37.8%) reported a total of 65 unplanned end points; 52 (80.0%) of which were not identified as unplanned. Thirty-one (41.9%) and 19 (25.7%) of 74 trials reported a total of 52 unplanned analyses involving primary end points and 33 unplanned analyses involving nonprimary end points, respectively. Studies reported positive unplanned end points and unplanned analyses more frequently than negative outcomes in abstracts (unplanned end points odds ratio, 6.8; P = .002; unplanned analyses odd ratio, 8.4; P = .007). Conclusion Despite public and reviewer access to protocols, selective outcome reporting persists and is a major concern in the reporting of randomized clinical trials. To foster credible evidence-based medicine, additional initiatives are needed to minimize selective reporting. PMID:26304898

  17. Evidence for a Selectively Regulated Prioritization Shift Depending on Walking Situations in Older Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Salkovic, Dina; Hobert, Markus A.; Bellut, Carolin; Funer, Florian; Renno, Sarah; Haertner, Linda; Hasmann, Sandra E.; Staebler, Jana; Geritz, Johanna; Suenkel, Ulrike; Fallgatter, Andreas J.; Eschweiler, Gerhard W.; Berg, Daniela; Maetzler, Walter

    2017-01-01

    Background: Older adults have increased risks of balance issues and falls when walking and performing turns in daily situations. Changes of prioritization during different walking situations associated with dual tasking may contribute to these deficits. The objective of this study was therefore to investigate whether older adults demonstrate changes of prioritization during different walking paths. Methods: In total, 1,054 subjects with an age range from 50 to 83 years were selected from t...

  18. Demographic Variables and Selective, Sustained Attention and Planning through Cognitive Tasks among Healthy Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Afsaneh Zarghi; Zali; A; Tehranidost; M; Mohammad Reza Zarindast; Ashrafi; F; Doroodgar; Khodadadi

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Cognitive tasks are considered to be applicable and appropriate in assessing cognitive domains. The purpose of our study is to determine the relationship existence between variables of age, sex and education with selective, sustained attention and planning abilities by means of computerized cognitive tasks among healthy adults. Methods: A cross-sectional study was implemented during 6 months from June to November, 2010 on 84 healthy adults (42 male and 42 female). The whole part...

  19. Food selection associated with sense of coherence in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindahl Bernt

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Favorable dietary habits promote health, whereas unfavorable habits link to various chronic diseases. An individual's "sense of coherence" (SOC is reported to correlate with prevalence of some diseases to which dietary habits are linked. However, understanding what determines an individual's dietary preferences and how to change his/her behavior remains limited. The aim of the present study was to evaluate associations between dietary intake and SOC in adults. Methods Diet intake was recorded by an 84-item semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire and SOC was measured by the 13-item Antonovsky questionnaire in 2,446 men and 2,545 women (25–74 years old from the population based northern Sweden MONICA screening in 1999. Results Intakes of energy, total and saturated fat, ascorbic acid, sucrose, and servings of fruits, vegetables, cereals, and sweets correlated with SOC among women, whereas intakes of total and saturated fat, ascorbic acid, fiber, and alcohol, and servings of fruits, vegetables, bread, bread and cereals, fish, and potatoes correlated with SOC among men. With a few exceptions, intakes of these nutrients/foods were significantly explained by SOC quartile scores in linear GLM models. Both women and men classified into the highest SOC quartile had significantly higher age-BMI-education standardized mean intakes of vegetables than those in the lowest quartiles. Women in the highest SOC quartile also had higher intake of fruits but lower intakes of energy, total and saturated fat, sucrose, and sweets. Projection to latent structures (PLS multivariate modeling of intakes of the 84 food items and food aggregates simultaneously on SOC scores supported low SOC to coincide with a presumably less health promoting dietary preference, e.g. intake of pizza, soft drinks, candies, sausages for main course, hamburgers, mashed potato, chips and other snacks, potato salad, French fries, whereas men and women with high SOC

  20. Albendazole versus metronidazole in the treatment of adult giardiasis: a randomized, double-blind, clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cañete, Roberto; Rodríguez, Pablo; Mesa, Lumey; Brito, Katia; Prior, Ada; Guilhem, Dirce; Novaes, M R C G

    2012-01-01

    Albendazole (ABZ) is a benzimidazole carbamate compound currently in use for human medical practice against enterobiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH); However, its spectrum of activity is broad and goes beyond these infections. This study compares the efficacy and safety of ABZ versus metronidazole (MTZ) in human giardiasis. A randomized, double-blind, clinical trial was carried out at the Centre of Hygiene, Epidemiology and Microbiology in Matanzas City, Cuba. Adult patients with confirmed symptomatic G. duodenalis mono-infection were randomly assigned to receive either ABZ [400 mg daily (n = 75)] or MTZ [250 mg t.i.d. (n = 75)], both for 5 days. Follow-up fecal samples were obtained at 3, 5, 7 days after treatment end. The efficacy was similar for both treatment groups: ABZ (82.6%) and MTZ (85.3%); p > 0.05. Side-effects including bitter taste, headache, vomiting and dizziness were significantly higher in the MTZ group. Abdominal pain was significantly higher in ABZ group. ABZ was found as effective as MTZ in the treatment of G. duodenalis infections in adult patients from Cuba and could be a useful drug in areas where co-infection with STH infections is common.

  1. Efficacy of chlorhexidine varnish for the prevention of adult caries: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papas, A S; Vollmer, W M; Gullion, C M; Bader, J; Laws, R; Fellows, J; Hollis, J F; Maupomé, G; Singh, M L; Snyder, J; Blanchard, P

    2012-02-01

    The Prevention of Adult Caries Study, an NIDCR-funded multicenter, double-blind, randomized clinical trial, enrolled 983 adults (aged 18-80 yrs) at high risk for developing caries (20 or more intact teeth and 2 or more lesions at screening) to test the efficacy of a chlorhexidine diacetate 10% weight per volume (w/v) dental coating (CHX). We excluded participants for whom the study treatment was contraindicated or whose health might affect outcomes or ability to complete the study. Participants were randomly assigned to receive either the CHX coating (n = 490) or a placebo control (n = 493). Coatings were applied weekly for 4 weeks and a fifth time 6 months later. The primary outcome (total net D(1-2)FS increment) was the sum of weighted counts of changes in tooth surface status over 13 months. We observed no significant difference between the two treatment arms in either the intention-to-treat or per-protocol analyses. Analysis of 3 protocol-specified secondary outcomes produced similar findings. This trial failed to find that 10% (w/v) chlorhexidine diacetate coating was superior to placebo coating for the prevention of new caries (Clinicaltrials.gov registration number NCT00357877).

  2. Optimization of the Dutch Matrix Test by Random Selection of Sentences From a Preselected Subset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolph Houben

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Matrix tests are available for speech recognition testing in many languages. For an accurate measurement, a steep psychometric function of the speech materials is required. For existing tests, it would be beneficial if it were possible to further optimize the available materials by increasing the function’s steepness. The objective is to show if the steepness of the psychometric function of an existing matrix test can be increased by selecting a homogeneous subset of recordings with the steepest sentence-based psychometric functions. We took data from a previous multicenter evaluation of the Dutch matrix test (45 normal-hearing listeners. Based on half of the data set, first the sentences (140 out of 311 with a similar speech reception threshold and with the steepest psychometric function (≥9.7%/dB were selected. Subsequently, the steepness of the psychometric function for this selection was calculated from the remaining (unused second half of the data set. The calculation showed that the slope increased from 10.2%/dB to 13.7%/dB. The resulting subset did not allow the construction of enough balanced test lists. Therefore, the measurement procedure was changed to randomly select the sentences during testing. Random selection may interfere with a representative occurrence of phonemes. However, in our material, the median phonemic occurrence remained close to that of the original test. This finding indicates that phonemic occurrence is not a critical factor. The work highlights the possibility that existing speech tests might be improved by selecting sentences with a steep psychometric function.

  3. Using Random Forests to Select Optimal Input Variables for Short-Term Wind Speed Forecasting Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Wang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Achieving relatively high-accuracy short-term wind speed forecasting estimates is a precondition for the construction and grid-connected operation of wind power forecasting systems for wind farms. Currently, most research is focused on the structure of forecasting models and does not consider the selection of input variables, which can have significant impacts on forecasting performance. This paper presents an input variable selection method for wind speed forecasting models. The candidate input variables for various leading periods are selected and random forests (RF is employed to evaluate the importance of all variable as features. The feature subset with the best evaluation performance is selected as the optimal feature set. Then, kernel-based extreme learning machine is constructed to evaluate the performance of input variables selection based on RF. The results of the case study show that by removing the uncorrelated and redundant features, RF effectively extracts the most strongly correlated set of features from the candidate input variables. By finding the optimal feature combination to represent the original information, RF simplifies the structure of the wind speed forecasting model, shortens the training time required, and substantially improves the model’s accuracy and generalization ability, demonstrating that the input variables selected by RF are effective.

  4. From Protocols to Publications: A Study in Selective Reporting of Outcomes in Randomized Trials in Oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghav, Kanwal Pratap Singh; Mahajan, Sminil; Yao, James C; Hobbs, Brian P; Berry, Donald A; Pentz, Rebecca D; Tam, Alda; Hong, Waun K; Ellis, Lee M; Abbruzzese, James; Overman, Michael J

    2015-11-01

    The decision by journals to append protocols to published reports of randomized trials was a landmark event in clinical trial reporting. However, limited information is available on how this initiative effected transparency and selective reporting of clinical trial data. We analyzed 74 oncology-based randomized trials published in Journal of Clinical Oncology, the New England Journal of Medicine, and The Lancet in 2012. To ascertain integrity of reporting, we compared published reports with their respective appended protocols with regard to primary end points, nonprimary end points, unplanned end points, and unplanned analyses. A total of 86 primary end points were reported in 74 randomized trials; nine trials had greater than one primary end point. Nine trials (12.2%) had some discrepancy between their planned and published primary end points. A total of 579 nonprimary end points (median, seven per trial) were planned, of which 373 (64.4%; median, five per trial) were reported. A significant positive correlation was found between the number of planned and nonreported nonprimary end points (Spearman r = 0.66; P medicine, additional initiatives are needed to minimize selective reporting. © 2015 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  5. Metacognition for strategy selection during arithmetic problem-solving in young and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geurten, Marie; Lemaire, Patrick

    2018-04-19

    We examined participants' strategy choices and metacognitive judgments during arithmetic problem-solving. Metacognitive judgments were collected either prospectively or retrospectively. We tested whether metacognitive judgments are related to strategy choices on the current problems and on the immediately following problems, and age-related differences in relations between metacognition and strategy choices. Data showed that both young and older adults were able to make accurate retrospective, but not prospective, judgments. Moreover, the accuracy of retrospective judgments was comparable in young and older adults when participants had to select and execute the better strategy. Metacognitive accuracy was even higher in older adults when participants had to only select the better strategy. Finally, low-confidence judgments on current items were more frequently followed by better strategy selection on immediately succeeding items than high-confidence judgments in both young and older adults. Implications of these findings to further our understanding of age-related differences and similarities in adults' metacognitive monitoring and metacognitive regulation for strategy selection in the context of arithmetic problem solving are discussed.

  6. Perioperative intravenous acetaminophen attenuates lipid peroxidation in adults undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass: a randomized clinical trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederic T Billings

    Full Text Available Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB lyses erythrocytes and induces lipid peroxidation, indicated by increasing plasma concentrations of free hemoglobin, F2-isoprostanes, and isofurans. Acetaminophen attenuates hemeprotein-mediated lipid peroxidation, reduces plasma and urine concentrations of F2-isoprostanes, and preserves kidney function in an animal model of rhabdomyolysis. Acetaminophen also attenuates plasma concentrations of isofurans in children undergoing CPB. The effect of acetaminophen on lipid peroxidation in adults has not been studied. This was a pilot study designed to test the hypothesis that acetaminophen attenuates lipid peroxidation in adults undergoing CPB and to generate data for a clinical trial aimed to reduce acute kidney injury following cardiac surgery.In a prospective double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial, sixty adult patients were randomized to receive intravenous acetaminophen or placebo starting prior to initiation of CPB and for every 6 hours for 4 doses. Acetaminophen concentrations measured 30 min into CPB and post-CPB were 11.9 ± 0.6 μg/mL (78.9 ± 3.9 μM and 8.7 ± 0.3 μg/mL (57.6 ± 2.0 μM, respectively. Plasma free hemoglobin increased more than 15-fold during CPB, and haptoglobin decreased 73%, indicating hemolysis. Plasma and urinary markers of lipid peroxidation also increased during CPB but returned to baseline by the first postoperative day. Acetaminophen reduced plasma isofuran concentrations over the duration of the study (P = 0.05, and the intraoperative plasma isofuran concentrations that corresponded to peak hemolysis were attenuated in those subjects randomized to acetaminophen (P = 0.03. Perioperative acetaminophen did not affect plasma concentrations of F2-isoprostanes or urinary markers of lipid peroxidation.Intravenous acetaminophen attenuates the increase in intraoperative plasma isofuran concentrations that occurs during CPB, while urinary markers were unaffected.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT

  7. A Decision Aid to Promote Appropriate Colorectal Cancer Screening among Older Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Carmen L; Kistler, Christine E; Dalton, Alexandra F; Morris, Carolyn; Ferrari, Renée; Barclay, Colleen; Brewer, Noel T; Dolor, Rowena; Harris, Russell; Vu, Maihan; Golin, Carol E

    2018-07-01

    Concerns have been raised about both over- and underutilization of colorectal cancer (CRC) screening in older patients and the need to align screening behavior with likelihood of net benefit. The purpose of this study was to test a novel use of a patient decision aid (PtDA) to promote appropriate CRC screening in older adults. A total of 424 patients ages 70 to 84 y who were not up to date with CRC screening participated in a double-blinded randomized controlled trial of a PtDA targeted to older adults making decisions about whether to undergo CRC screening from March 2012 to February 2015. Patients were randomized to a targeted PtDA or an attention control. The PtDA was designed to facilitate individualized decision making-helping patients understand the potential risks, benefits, and uncertainties of CRC screening given advanced age, health state, preferences, and values. Two composite outcomes, appropriate CRC screening behavior 6 mo after the index visit and appropriate screening intent immediately after the visit, were defined as completed screening or intent for patients in good health, discussion about screening with their provider for patients in intermediate health, and no screening or intent for patients in poor health. Health state was determined by age and Charlson Comorbidity Index. Four hundred twelve (97%) and 421 (99%) patients were analyzed for the primary and secondary outcomes, respectively. Appropriate screening behavior at 6 mo was higher in the intervention group (55% v. 45%, P = 0.023) as was appropriate screening intent following the provider visit (61% v. 47%, P = 0.003). The study took place in a single geographic region. The appropriate CRC screening classification system used in this study has not been formally validated. A PtDA for older adults promoted appropriate CRC screening behavior and intent. Clinicaltrials.gov, registration number NCT01575990. https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01575990?term=epic-d&rank=1.

  8. Cognitive enhancement therapy for adult autism spectrum disorder: Results of an 18-month randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eack, Shaun M; Hogarty, Susan S; Greenwald, Deborah P; Litschge, Maralee Y; Porton, Shannondora A; Mazefsky, Carla A; Minshew, Nancy J

    2018-03-01

    Cognitive remediation is a promising approach to treating core cognitive deficits in adults with autism, but rigorously controlled trials of comprehensive interventions that target both social and non-social cognition over a sufficient period of time to impact functioning are lacking. This study examined the efficacy of cognitive enhancement therapy (CET) for improving core cognitive and employment outcomes in adult autism. Verbal adult outpatients with autism spectrum disorder (N = 54) were randomized to an 18-month, single-blind trial of CET, a cognitive remediation approach that integrates computer-based neurocognitive training with group-based training in social cognition, or an active enriched supportive therapy (EST) comparison focused on psychoeducation and condition management. Primary outcomes were composite indexes of neurocognitive and social-cognitive change. Competitive employment was a secondary outcome. Intent-to-treat analyses indicated that CET produced significant differential increases in neurocognitive function relative to EST (d = .46, P = .013). Both CET and EST were associated with large social-cognitive improvements, with CET demonstrating an advantage at 9 (d = .58, P = 0.020), but not 18 months (d = .27, P = 0.298). Effects on employment indicated that participants treated with CET were significantly more likely to gain competitive employment than those in EST, OR = 6.21, P = 0.023, which was mediated by cognitive improvement. CET is a feasible and potentially effective treatment for core cognitive deficits in adult autism spectrum disorder. The treatment of cognitive impairments in this population can contribute to meaningful improvements in adult outcomes. Autism Res 2018, 11: 519-530. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Cognitive enhancement therapy (CET), an 18-month cognitive remediation intervention designed to improve thinking and social understanding, was

  9. Scale-Dependent Habitat Selection and Size-Based Dominance in Adult Male American Alligators.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley A Strickland

    Full Text Available Habitat selection is an active behavioral process that may vary across spatial and temporal scales. Animals choose an area of primary utilization (i.e., home range then make decisions focused on resource needs within patches. Dominance may affect the spatial distribution of conspecifics and concomitant habitat selection. Size-dependent social dominance hierarchies have been documented in captive alligators, but evidence is lacking from wild populations. We studied habitat selection for adult male American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis; n = 17 on the Pearl River in central Mississippi, USA, to test whether habitat selection was scale-dependent and individual resource selectivity was a function of conspecific body size. We used K-select analysis to quantify selection at the home range scale and patches within the home range to determine selection congruency and important habitat variables. In addition, we used linear models to determine if body size was related to selection patterns and strengths. Our results indicated habitat selection of adult male alligators was a scale-dependent process. Alligators demonstrated greater overall selection for habitat variables at the patch level and less at the home range level, suggesting resources may not be limited when selecting a home range for animals in our study area. Further, diurnal habitat selection patterns may depend on thermoregulatory needs. There was no relationship between resource selection or home range size and body size, suggesting size-dependent dominance hierarchies may not have influenced alligator resource selection or space use in our sample. Though apparent habitat suitability and low alligator density did not manifest in an observed dominance hierarchy, we hypothesize that a change in either could increase intraspecific interactions, facilitating a dominance hierarchy. Due to the broad and diverse ecological roles of alligators, understanding the factors that influence their

  10. Scale-dependent habitat selection and size-based dominance in adult male American alligators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, Bradley A.; Vilella, Francisco; Belant, Jerrold L.

    2016-01-01

    Habitat selection is an active behavioral process that may vary across spatial and temporal scales. Animals choose an area of primary utilization (i.e., home range) then make decisions focused on resource needs within patches. Dominance may affect the spatial distribution of conspecifics and concomitant habitat selection. Size-dependent social dominance hierarchies have been documented in captive alligators, but evidence is lacking from wild populations. We studied habitat selection for adult male American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis; n = 17) on the Pearl River in central Mississippi, USA, to test whether habitat selection was scale-dependent and individual resource selectivity was a function of conspecific body size. We used K-select analysis to quantify selection at the home range scale and patches within the home range to determine selection congruency and important habitat variables. In addition, we used linear models to determine if body size was related to selection patterns and strengths. Our results indicated habitat selection of adult male alligators was a scale-dependent process. Alligators demonstrated greater overall selection for habitat variables at the patch level and less at the home range level, suggesting resources may not be limited when selecting a home range for animals in our study area. Further, diurnal habitat selection patterns may depend on thermoregulatory needs. There was no relationship between resource selection or home range size and body size, suggesting size-dependent dominance hierarchies may not have influenced alligator resource selection or space use in our sample. Though apparent habitat suitability and low alligator density did not manifest in an observed dominance hierarchy, we hypothesize that a change in either could increase intraspecific interactions, facilitating a dominance hierarchy. Due to the broad and diverse ecological roles of alligators, understanding the factors that influence their social dominance

  11. Effect of Taichi Softball on Function-Related Outcomes in Older Adults: A Randomized Control Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Lou

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this present study was to examine the effect of Taichi softball (TCSB on physical function in Chinese older adults. Eighty Chinese older adults were randomly assigned into either an experimental group experiencing four 90-minute TCSB sessions weekly for seven consecutive weeks or a control group. At baseline and 7 weeks later, all participants were asked to perform physical functional tests for both lower and upper limbs. Multiple separate Analyses of Variance (ANOVA with repeated measures were applied to evaluate the effects of TCSB on function-related outcomes between baseline and postintervention in the two groups. The findings indicate that a short-term and intensive TCSB training program does not only improve low limb-related physical function such as dynamic balance and leg strength, but also strengthen upper limb-related physical function (e.g., arm and forearm strength, shoulder mobility, fine motor control, handgrip strength, and fine motor function. Health professionals could take into account TCSB exercise as an alternative method to help maintain or alleviate the inevitable age-related physical function degeneration in healthy older adults. In addition, researchers could investigate the effect of TCSB exercise on physical function in special populations such as patients with different chronic diseases or neurological disorder (e.g., Parkinson’s disease.

  12. (Costeffectiveness of life review for Older Adults: Design of a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onrust Simone

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Depression in older adults is a serious health problem with a poor prognosis. There is a need for indicated preventive psychological interventions for older adults, that show to be promising in preventing depressive disorders. Methods/design This manuscript describes the design of a study evaluating 'Looking for Meaning', a newly developed prevention course for older adults with depressive symptoms, based on life-review. Both clinical and economic effectiveness are evaluated in a pragmatic randomized controlled trial. The control condition of this 12-session preventive intervention is a 20-minute video movie. The primary outcome is symptoms of depression at post-treatment and follow-up (6 months after post-treatment. Secondary outcomes are symptoms of anxiety, satisfaction with life, mastery, reminiscence styles, quality of life, and health care costs. An additional result of this study is the insight into the working elements of the course, provided by the qualitative study. The qualitative data, mainly based on 20 open-ended interviews with participants, are to be analyzed with an emphasis on newly emerging insight. Discussion This study will add to the existing scientific knowledge in several ways, especially by also including an economic evaluation and a qualitative study to gain insight into the working mechanisms of the course, both rather new in the field of life review. Positive results of this study will make an evidence-based intervention to improve public health among older people available. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials Ltd, ISRCTN66645855

  13. Brain training with non-action video games enhances aspects of cognition in older adults: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soledad eBallesteros

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Age-related cognitive and brain declines can result in functional deterioration in many cognitive domains, dependency, and dementia. A major goal of aging research is to investigate methods that help to maintain brain health, cognition, independent living and wellbeing in older adults. This randomized controlled study investigated the effects of 20 1-hr non-action video game training sessions with games selected from a commercially available package (Lumosity on a series of age-declined cognitive functions and subjective wellbeing. Two groups of healthy older adults participated in the study, the experimental group who received the training and the control group who attended three meetings with the research team along the study. Groups were similar at baseline on demographics, vocabulary, global cognition, and depression status. All participants were assessed individually before and after the intervention, or a similar period of time, using neuropsychological tests and laboratory tasks to investigate possible transfer effects. The results showed significant improvements in the trained group, and no variation in the control group, in processing speed (choice reaction time, attention (reduction of distraction and increase of alertness, immediate and delayed visual recognition memory, as well as a trend to improve in Affection and Assertivity, two dimensions of the Wellbeing Scale. Visuospatial working memory (WM and executive control (shifting strategy did not improve. Overall, the current results support the idea that training healthy older adults with non-action video games will enhance some cognitive abilities but not others. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT02007616http://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT02007616

  14. The cost of selective attention in category learning: developmental differences between adults and infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, Catherine A; Yim, Hyungwook; Sloutsky, Vladimir M

    2013-10-01

    Selective attention plays an important role in category learning. However, immaturities of top-down attentional control during infancy coupled with successful category learning suggest that early category learning is achieved without attending selectively. Research presented here examines this possibility by focusing on category learning in infants (6-8months old) and adults. Participants were trained on a novel visual category. Halfway through the experiment, unbeknownst to participants, the to-be-learned category switched to another category, where previously relevant features became irrelevant and previously irrelevant features became relevant. If participants attend selectively to the relevant features of the first category, they should incur a cost of selective attention immediately after the unknown category switch. Results revealed that adults demonstrated a cost, as evidenced by a decrease in accuracy and response time on test trials as well as a decrease in visual attention to newly relevant features. In contrast, infants did not demonstrate a similar cost of selective attention as adults despite evidence of learning both to-be-learned categories. Findings are discussed as supporting multiple systems of category learning and as suggesting that learning mechanisms engaged by adults may be different from those engaged by infants. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The cost of selective attention in category learning: Developmental differences between adults and infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, Catherine A.; Yim, Hyungwook; Sloutsky, Vladimir M.

    2013-01-01

    Selective attention plays an important role in category learning. However, immaturities of top-down attentional control during infancy coupled with successful category learning suggest that early category learning is achieved without attending selectively. Research presented here examines this possibility by focusing on category learning in infants (6–8 months old) and adults. Participants were trained on a novel visual category. Halfway through the experiment, unbeknownst to participants, the to-be-learned category switched to another category, where previously relevant features became irrelevant and previously irrelevant features became relevant. If participants attend selectively to the relevant features of the first category, they should incur a cost of selective attention immediately after the unknown category switch. Results revealed that adults demonstrated a cost, as evidenced by a decrease in accuracy and response time on test trials as well as a decrease in visual attention to newly relevant features. In contrast, infants did not demonstrate a similar cost of selective attention as adults despite evidence of learning both to-be-learned categories. Findings are discussed as supporting multiple systems of category learning and as suggesting that learning mechanisms engaged by adults may be different from those engaged by infants. PMID:23773914

  16. On theoretical models of gene expression evolution with random genetic drift and natural selection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osamu Ogasawara

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The relative contributions of natural selection and random genetic drift are a major source of debate in the study of gene expression evolution, which is hypothesized to serve as a bridge from molecular to phenotypic evolution. It has been suggested that the conflict between views is caused by the lack of a definite model of the neutral hypothesis, which can describe the long-run behavior of evolutionary change in mRNA abundance. Therefore previous studies have used inadequate analogies with the neutral prediction of other phenomena, such as amino acid or nucleotide sequence evolution, as the null hypothesis of their statistical inference.In this study, we introduced two novel theoretical models, one based on neutral drift and the other assuming natural selection, by focusing on a common property of the distribution of mRNA abundance among a variety of eukaryotic cells, which reflects the result of long-term evolution. Our results demonstrated that (1 our models can reproduce two independently found phenomena simultaneously: the time development of gene expression divergence and Zipf's law of the transcriptome; (2 cytological constraints can be explicitly formulated to describe long-term evolution; (3 the model assuming that natural selection optimized relative mRNA abundance was more consistent with previously published observations than the model of optimized absolute mRNA abundances.The models introduced in this study give a formulation of evolutionary change in the mRNA abundance of each gene as a stochastic process, on the basis of previously published observations. This model provides a foundation for interpreting observed data in studies of gene expression evolution, including identifying an adequate time scale for discriminating the effect of natural selection from that of random genetic drift of selectively neutral variations.

  17. Sensation seeking and visual selective attention in adults with HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, David J; Castellon, Steven A; Hinkin, Charles H; Levine, Andrew J; Lam, Mona N

    2008-11-01

    The association between sensation seeking and visual selective attention was examined in 31 adults with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). Sensation seeking was measured with Zuckerman's Sensation Seeking Scale Form V (SSS-V). Selective attention was assessed with a perceptual span task, where a target letter-character must be identified in a quickly presented array of nontarget letter-characters. As predicted, sensation seeking was strongly associated (R(2) = .229) with perceptual span performance in the array size 12 condition, where selective attention demands were greatest, but not in the easier conditions. The Disinhibition, Boredom Susceptibility, and Experience Seeking subscales of the SSS-V were associated with span performance. It is argued that personality factors such as sensation seeking may play a significant role in selective attention and related cognitive abilities in HIV positive adults. Furthermore, sensation seeking differences might explain certain inconsistencies in the HIV neuropsychology literature.

  18. Short stick exercises for fall prevention among older adults: a cluster randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoi, Katsushi; Yoshimasu, Kouichi; Takemura, Shigeki; Fukumoto, Jin; Kurasawa, Shigeki; Miyashita, Kazuhisa

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the effects of short stick exercise (SSEs) on fall prevention and improvement of physical function in older adults. A cluster randomized trial was conducted in five residential care facilities. The intervention group (n = 51) practiced SSEs for six months, followed by routine care for six more months. The control group (n = 54) received ordinary care for 12 months. The primary outcome measure was the number of fallers, taking into account the time to first fall using the Kaplan-Meier method. The secondary outcome measures were physical and mental functions. The number of fallers was significantly lower in the intervention group (n = 6) than in the control group (n = 16) during the 12 months. The adjusted hazard ratio for a first fall in the intervention group compared with the control group was 0.15 (CI, 0.03 to 0.74, p = 0.02). The fall-free period was significantly longer in the intervention group than in controls (mean ± SD, 10.1 ± 3.0 versus 9.0 ± 4.1 months, p = 0.027). The functional reach and sit and reach tests were significantly improved at three and six months. The SSEs appeared effective for fall prevention and improvement of physical function in older adults. Implications for Rehabilitation The newly developed short stick exercises appear an effective means of reducing falls among older adults in residential care facilities. The short stick exercises seem to have an immediate effect on improving physical functions. Effects gained by performing the short stick exercises, such as static balance, flexibility and agility may last for six months. The short stick exercises were found to be easy for older adults to practice continuously in residential care facilities.

  19. Randomized controlled resistance training based physical activity trial for central European nursing home residing older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthalos, Istvan; Dorgo, Sandor; Kopkáné Plachy, Judit; Szakály, Zsolt; Ihász, Ferenc; Ráczné Németh, Teodóra; Bognár, József

    2016-10-01

    Nursing home residing older adults often experience fear of sickness or death, functional impairment and pain. It is difficult for these older adults to maintain a physically active lifestyle and to keep a positive outlook on life. This study evaluated the changes in quality of life, attitude to aging, assertiveness, physical fitness and body composition of nursing home residing elderly through a 15-week organized resistance training based physical activity program. Inactive older adults living in a state financed nursing home (N.=45) were randomly divided into two intervention groups and a control group. Both intervention groups were assigned to two physical activity sessions a week, but one of these groups also had weekly discussions on health and quality of life (Mental group). Data on anthropometric measures, fitness performance, as well as quality of life and attitudes to aging survey data were collected. Due to low attendance rate 12 subjects were excluded from the analyses. Statistical analysis included Paired Samples t-tests and Repeated Measures Analysis of Variance. Both intervention groups significantly improved their social participation, and their upper- and lower-body strength scores. Also, subjects in the Mental group showed improvement in agility fitness test and certain survey scales. No positive changes were detected in attitude towards aging and body composition measures in any groups. The post-hoc results suggest that Mental group improved significantly more than the Control group. Regular physical activity with discussions on health and quality of life made a more meaningful difference for the older adults living in nursing home than physical activity alone. Due to the fact that all participants were influenced by the program, it is suggested to further explore this area for better understanding of enhanced quality of life.

  20. Evolution of increased adult longevity in Drosophila melanogaster populations selected for adaptation to larval crowding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenoi, V N; Ali, S Z; Prasad, N G

    2016-02-01

    In holometabolous animals such as Drosophila melanogaster, larval crowding can affect a wide range of larval and adult traits. Adults emerging from high larval density cultures have smaller body size and increased mean life span compared to flies emerging from low larval density cultures. Therefore, adaptation to larval crowding could potentially affect adult longevity as a correlated response. We addressed this issue by studying a set of large, outbred populations of D. melanogaster, experimentally evolved for adaptation to larval crowding for 83 generations. We assayed longevity of adult flies from both selected (MCUs) and control populations (MBs) after growing them at different larval densities. We found that MCUs have evolved increased mean longevity compared to MBs at all larval densities. The interaction between selection regime and larval density was not significant, indicating that the density dependence of mean longevity had not evolved in the MCU populations. The increase in longevity in MCUs can be partially attributed to their lower rates of ageing. It is also noteworthy that reaction norm of dry body weight, a trait probably under direct selection in our populations, has indeed evolved in MCU populations. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of the evolution of adult longevity as a correlated response of adaptation to larval crowding. © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  1. Reducing TV watching during adult obesity treatment: two pilot randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raynor, Hollie A; Steeves, Elizabeth Anderson; Bassett, David R; Thompson, Dixie L; Gorin, Amy A; Bond, Dale S

    2013-12-01

    The more time adults spend being sedentary, the greater the risk of obesity. The effect of reducing television (TV) watching, a prominent sedentary behavior, on weight loss has not been tested in an adult standard behavioral obesity intervention, and the mechanisms by which reducing TV watching influences energy balance behaviors are not well understood. Two, 8-week, pilot, randomized controlled trials were conducted examining the effect of a reduced TV watching prescription on energy balance behaviors and weight loss within an adult standard behavioral obesity intervention. In the first study, participants (n=24) were randomized into one of two conditions: (a) reduce energy intake and increase moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) (INCREASE PA); or (b) reduce energy intake and decrease TV watching (DECREASE TV). As findings from the first pilot study did not show an increase in MVPA in the DECREASE TV group, the second study was designed to examine the effect of adding a reduced TV prescription to a standard intervention to optimize outcomes. In Pilot Study 2, participants (n=28) were randomized to INCREASE PA or to INCREASE PA+DECREASE TV. Outcomes included objectively measured TV watching and MVPA, self-reported light physical activity (LPA-Pilot Study 2 only), self-reported dietary intake while watching TV, and weight. Conditions with TV watching prescriptions significantly reduced TV watching. Both studies showed medium to large effect sizes for conditions with TV watching prescriptions to show greater reductions in dietary intake while watching TV. Pilot Study 1 found a trend for an increase in MVPA in INCREASE PA and Pilot Study 2 found significant increases in MVPA in both conditions. Pilot Study 2 found a significant increase in LPA in the INCREASE PA+DECREASE TV. Results indicate adding a TV watching prescription to a standard obesity intervention did not enhance increases in MVPA, but may assist with reducing dietary intake while TV watching and

  2. Assessing the accuracy and stability of variable selection methods for random forest modeling in ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Eric W; Hill, Ryan A; Leibowitz, Scott G; Olsen, Anthony R; Thornbrugh, Darren J; Weber, Marc H

    2017-07-01

    Random forest (RF) modeling has emerged as an important statistical learning method in ecology due to its exceptional predictive performance. However, for large and complex ecological data sets, there is limited guidance on variable selection methods for RF modeling. Typically, either a preselected set of predictor variables are used or stepwise procedures are employed which iteratively remove variables according to their importance measures. This paper investigates the application of variable selection methods to RF models for predicting probable biological stream condition. Our motivating data set consists of the good/poor condition of n = 1365 stream survey sites from the 2008/2009 National Rivers and Stream Assessment, and a large set (p = 212) of landscape features from the StreamCat data set as potential predictors. We compare two types of RF models: a full variable set model with all 212 predictors and a reduced variable set model selected using a backward elimination approach. We assess model accuracy using RF's internal out-of-bag estimate, and a cross-validation procedure with validation folds external to the variable selection process. We also assess the stability of the spatial predictions generated by the RF models to changes in the number of predictors and argue that model selection needs to consider both accuracy and stability. The results suggest that RF modeling is robust to the inclusion of many variables of moderate to low importance. We found no substantial improvement in cross-validated accuracy as a result of variable reduction. Moreover, the backward elimination procedure tended to select too few variables and exhibited numerous issues such as upwardly biased out-of-bag accuracy estimates and instabilities in the spatial predictions. We use simulations to further support and generalize results from the analysis of real data. A main purpose of this work is to elucidate issues of model selection bias and instability to ecologists interested in

  3. Assessment of Selective Attention with CSCWT (Computerized Stroop Color-Word Test) among Children and Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afsaneh, Zarghi; Alireza, Zali; Mehdi, Tehranidost; Farzad, Ashrafi; Reza, Zarindast Mohammad; Mehdi, Moazzezi; Mojtaba, Khodadadi Seyed

    2012-01-01

    The SCWT (Stroop Color-Word Test) is a quick and frequently used measure for assessing selective attention and cognitive flexibility. This study determines age, sex and education level influence on attention and cognitive flexibility by CSCWT (Computerized Stroop Color-Word Test) among healthy Iranian children and adults. There were 78 healthy…

  4. Analysis and applications of a frequency selective surface via a random distribution method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Shao-Yi; Huang Jing-Jian; Yuan Nai-Chang; Liu Li-Guo

    2014-01-01

    A novel frequency selective surface (FSS) for reducing radar cross section (RCS) is proposed in this paper. This FSS is based on the random distribution method, so it can be called random surface. In this paper, the stacked patches serving as periodic elements are employed for RCS reduction. Previous work has demonstrated the efficiency by utilizing the microstrip patches, especially for the reflectarray. First, the relevant theory of the method is described. Then a sample of a three-layer variable-sized stacked patch random surface with a dimension of 260 mm×260 mm is simulated, fabricated, and measured in order to demonstrate the validity of the proposed design. For the normal incidence, the 8-dB RCS reduction can be achieved both by the simulation and the measurement in 8 GHz–13 GHz. The oblique incidence of 30° is also investigated, in which the 7-dB RCS reduction can be obtained in a frequency range of 8 GHz–14 GHz. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  5. Associations Among Religiousness and Community Volunteerism in National Random Samples of American Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haggard, Megan C; Kang, Linda L; Rowatt, Wade C; Shen, Megan Johnson

    2015-01-01

    The connection between religiousness and volunteering for the community can be explained through two distinct features of religion. First, religious organizations are social groups that encourage members to help others through planned opportunities. Second, helping others is regarded as an important value for members in religious organizations to uphold. We examined the relationship between religiousness and self-reported community volunteering in two independent national random surveys of American adults (i.e., the 2005 and 2007 waves of the Baylor Religion Survey). In both waves, frequency of religious service attendance was associated with an increase in likelihood that individuals would volunteer, whether through their religious organization or not, whereas frequency of reading sacred texts outside of religious services was associated with an increase in likelihood of volunteering only for or through their religious organization. The role of religion in community volunteering is discussed in light of these findings.

  6. Study protocol: effect of playful training on functional abilities of older adults - a randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Jari Due; Lund, Henrik Hautop

    2017-01-01

    of community dwelling elderly as a result of short-term playing with an exergame system in the form of interactive modular tiles. Such playful training may be motivational to perform and viewed by the subjects to offer life-fulfilling quality, while providing improvement in physical abilities, e.g. related...... to prevent fall accidents. The RCT will test for a variety of health parameters of community-dwelling elderly playing on interactive modular tiles.Methods: The study will be a single blinded, randomized controlled trial with 60 community-dwelling adults 70+ years. The trial will consist an intervention group...... paired t-test, otherwise using Wilcoxon signed-rank test. "Intention to treat" analysis will be done.Discussion: The trial tests for increased mobility, agility, balancing and general fitness of community-dwelling elderly as a result of playing, in this case on modular interactive tiles. A positive...

  7. Selective oropharyngeal decontamination versus selective digestive decontamination in critically ill patients: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao D

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Di Zhao,1,* Jian Song,2,* Xuan Gao,3 Fei Gao,4 Yupeng Wu,2 Yingying Lu,5 Kai Hou1 1Department of Neurosurgery, The First Hospital of Hebei Medical University, 2Department of Neurosurgery, 3Department of Neurology, The Second Hospital of Hebei Medical University, 4Hebei Provincial Procurement Centers for Medical Drugs and Devices, 5Department of Neurosurgery, The Second Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Selective digestive decontamination (SDD and selective oropharyngeal decontamination (SOD are associated with reduced mortality and infection rates among patients in intensive care units (ICUs; however, whether SOD has a superior effect than SDD remains uncertain. Hence, we conducted a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs to compare SOD with SDD in terms of clinical outcomes and antimicrobial resistance rates in patients who were critically ill. Methods: RCTs published in PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science were systematically reviewed to compare the effects of SOD and SDD in patients who were critically ill. Outcomes included day-28 mortality, length of ICU stay, length of hospital stay, duration of mechanical ventilation, ICU-acquired bacteremia, and prevalence of antibiotic-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. Results were expressed as risk ratio (RR with 95% confidence intervals (CIs, and weighted mean differences (WMDs with 95% CIs. Pooled estimates were performed using a fixed-effects model or random-effects model, depending on the heterogeneity among studies. Results: A total of four RCTs involving 23,822 patients met the inclusion criteria and were included in this meta-analysis. Among patients whose admitting specialty was surgery, cardiothoracic surgery (57.3% and neurosurgery (29.7% were the two main types of surgery being performed. Pooled results showed that SOD had similar effects as SDD in day-28 mortality (RR =1

  8. Geography and genography: prediction of continental origin using randomly selected single nucleotide polymorphisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramoni Marco F

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent studies have shown that when individuals are grouped on the basis of genetic similarity, group membership corresponds closely to continental origin. There has been considerable debate about the implications of these findings in the context of larger debates about race and the extent of genetic variation between groups. Some have argued that clustering according to continental origin demonstrates the existence of significant genetic differences between groups and that these differences may have important implications for differences in health and disease. Others argue that clustering according to continental origin requires the use of large amounts of genetic data or specifically chosen markers and is indicative only of very subtle genetic differences that are unlikely to have biomedical significance. Results We used small numbers of randomly selected single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs from the International HapMap Project to train naïve Bayes classifiers for prediction of ancestral continent of origin. Predictive accuracy was tested on two independent data sets. Genetically similar groups should be difficult to distinguish, especially if only a small number of genetic markers are used. The genetic differences between continentally defined groups are sufficiently large that one can accurately predict ancestral continent of origin using only a minute, randomly selected fraction of the genetic variation present in the human genome. Genotype data from only 50 random SNPs was sufficient to predict ancestral continent of origin in our primary test data set with an average accuracy of 95%. Genetic variations informative about ancestry were common and widely distributed throughout the genome. Conclusion Accurate characterization of ancestry is possible using small numbers of randomly selected SNPs. The results presented here show how investigators conducting genetic association studies can use small numbers of arbitrarily

  9. Random forest variable selection in spatial malaria transmission modelling in Mpumalanga Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thandi Kapwata

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Malaria is an environmentally driven disease. In order to quantify the spatial variability of malaria transmission, it is imperative to understand the interactions between environmental variables and malaria epidemiology at a micro-geographic level using a novel statistical approach. The random forest (RF statistical learning method, a relatively new variable-importance ranking method, measures the variable importance of potentially influential parameters through the percent increase of the mean squared error. As this value increases, so does the relative importance of the associated variable. The principal aim of this study was to create predictive malaria maps generated using the selected variables based on the RF algorithm in the Ehlanzeni District of Mpumalanga Province, South Africa. From the seven environmental variables used [temperature, lag temperature, rainfall, lag rainfall, humidity, altitude, and the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI], altitude was identified as the most influential predictor variable due its high selection frequency. It was selected as the top predictor for 4 out of 12 months of the year, followed by NDVI, temperature and lag rainfall, which were each selected twice. The combination of climatic variables that produced the highest prediction accuracy was altitude, NDVI, and temperature. This suggests that these three variables have high predictive capabilities in relation to malaria transmission. Furthermore, it is anticipated that the predictive maps generated from predictions made by the RF algorithm could be used to monitor the progression of malaria and assist in intervention and prevention efforts with respect to malaria.

  10. Distribution of orientation selectivity in recurrent networks of spiking neurons with different random topologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeh, Sadra; Rotter, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Neurons in the primary visual cortex are more or less selective for the orientation of a light bar used for stimulation. A broad distribution of individual grades of orientation selectivity has in fact been reported in all species. A possible reason for emergence of broad distributions is the recurrent network within which the stimulus is being processed. Here we compute the distribution of orientation selectivity in randomly connected model networks that are equipped with different spatial patterns of connectivity. We show that, for a wide variety of connectivity patterns, a linear theory based on firing rates accurately approximates the outcome of direct numerical simulations of networks of spiking neurons. Distance dependent connectivity in networks with a more biologically realistic structure does not compromise our linear analysis, as long as the linearized dynamics, and hence the uniform asynchronous irregular activity state, remain stable. We conclude that linear mechanisms of stimulus processing are indeed responsible for the emergence of orientation selectivity and its distribution in recurrent networks with functionally heterogeneous synaptic connectivity.

  11. Interference-aware random beam selection schemes for spectrum sharing systems

    KAUST Repository

    Abdallah, Mohamed

    2012-10-19

    Spectrum sharing systems have been recently introduced to alleviate the problem of spectrum scarcity by allowing secondary unlicensed networks to share the spectrum with primary licensed networks under acceptable interference levels to the primary users. In this work, we develop interference-aware random beam selection schemes that provide enhanced performance for the secondary network under the condition that the interference observed by the receivers of the primary network is below a predetermined/acceptable value. We consider a secondary link composed of a transmitter equipped with multiple antennas and a single-antenna receiver sharing the same spectrum with a primary link composed of a single-antenna transmitter and a single-antenna receiver. The proposed schemes select a beam, among a set of power-optimized random beams, that maximizes the signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR) of the secondary link while satisfying the primary interference constraint for different levels of feedback information describing the interference level at the primary receiver. For the proposed schemes, we develop a statistical analysis for the SINR statistics as well as the capacity and bit error rate (BER) of the secondary link.

  12. Joint random beam and spectrum selection for spectrum sharing systems with partial channel state information

    KAUST Repository

    Abdallah, Mohamed M.

    2013-11-01

    In this work, we develop joint interference-aware random beam and spectrum selection scheme that provide enhanced performance for the secondary network under the condition that the interference observed at the primary receiver is below a predetermined acceptable value. We consider a secondary link composed of a transmitter equipped with multiple antennas and a single-antenna receiver sharing the same spectrum with a set of primary links composed of a single-antenna transmitter and a single-antenna receiver. The proposed schemes jointly select a beam, among a set of power-optimized random beams, as well as the primary spectrum that maximizes the signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR) of the secondary link while satisfying the primary interference constraint. In particular, we consider the case where the interference level is described by a q-bit description of its magnitude, whereby we propose a technique to find the optimal quantizer thresholds in a mean square error (MSE) sense. © 2013 IEEE.

  13. Joint random beam and spectrum selection for spectrum sharing systems with partial channel state information

    KAUST Repository

    Abdallah, Mohamed M.; Sayed, Mostafa M.; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Qaraqe, Khalid A.

    2013-01-01

    In this work, we develop joint interference-aware random beam and spectrum selection scheme that provide enhanced performance for the secondary network under the condition that the interference observed at the primary receiver is below a predetermined acceptable value. We consider a secondary link composed of a transmitter equipped with multiple antennas and a single-antenna receiver sharing the same spectrum with a set of primary links composed of a single-antenna transmitter and a single-antenna receiver. The proposed schemes jointly select a beam, among a set of power-optimized random beams, as well as the primary spectrum that maximizes the signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR) of the secondary link while satisfying the primary interference constraint. In particular, we consider the case where the interference level is described by a q-bit description of its magnitude, whereby we propose a technique to find the optimal quantizer thresholds in a mean square error (MSE) sense. © 2013 IEEE.

  14. Elearning approaches to prevent weight gain in young adults: A randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaou, Charoula Konstantia; Hankey, Catherine Ruth; Lean, Michael Ernest John

    2015-12-01

    Preventing obesity among young adults should be a preferred public health approach given the limited efficacy of treatment interventions. This study examined whether weight gain can be prevented by online approaches using two different behavioral models, one overtly directed at obesity and the other covertly. A three-group parallel randomized controlled intervention was conducted in 2012-2013; 20,975 young adults were allocated a priori to one control and two "treatment" groups. Two treatment groups were offered online courses over 19 weeks on (1) personal weight control ("Not the Ice Cream Van," NTICV) and, (2) political, environmental, and social issues around food ("Goddess Demetra," "GD"). Control group received no contact. The primary outcome was weight change over 40 weeks. Within-group 40-week weight changes were different between groups (P < 0.001): Control (n = 2,134): +2.0 kg (95% CI = 1.5, 2.3 kg); NTICV (n = 1,810): -1.0 kg (95% CI = -1.3, -0.5); and GD (n = 2,057): -1.35 kg (95% CI = -1.4 to -0.7). Relative risks for weight gain vs. NTICV = 0.13 kg (95% CI = 0.10, 0.15), P < 0.0001; GD = 0.07 kg (95% CI = 0.05, 0.10), P < 0.0001. Both interventions were associated with prevention of the weight gain observed among control subjects. This low-cost intervention could be widely transferable as one tool against the obesity epidemic. Outside the randomized controlled trial setting, it could be enhanced using supporting advertising and social media. © 2015 The Obesity Society.

  15. A randomized controlled evaluation of the tobacco status project, a Facebook intervention for young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramo, Danielle E; Thrul, Johannes; Delucchi, Kevin L; Hall, Sharon; Ling, Pamela M; Belohlavek, Alina; Prochaska, Judith J

    2018-05-24

    To test the efficacy of the Tobacco Status Project (TSP) Facebook smoking cessation intervention for young adults relative to referral to an on-line program on biochemically verified 7-day abstinence from smoking. Two-group parallel randomized controlled trial, comparing TSP (n = 251) to on-line control (n = 249) with follow-up to 12 months. On-line, throughout the United States. Young adult cigarette smokers (mean age 21 years; 73% white, 55% female, 87% daily smokers). TSP provided private Facebook groups tailored to stage of change to quit smoking, daily contacts, weekly live counseling sessions, and for those ready to quit, six cognitive behavioral therapy counseling sessions. Some TSP groups were assigned randomly to receive a monetary incentive for engagement. Control provided referral to the National Cancer Institute Smokefree.gov website. PRIMARY OUTCOME: Biochemically verified 7-day abstinence over 12 months. Post-treatment (3-month) abstinence; reported abstinence, quit attempt, reduction in smoking, readiness to quit smoking over 12 months. Verified 7-day abstinence was not significantly different for intervention compared with control over 1 year: month 3 (8.3 versus 3.2%), 6 (6.2 versus 6.0%), and 12 (5.9 versus 10.0%); odds ratio (OR) = 1.07; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.23, 4.97; retention = 71%. There was an effect at 3 months (OR = 2.52; CI = 1.56, 4.04; P Facebook smoking cessation intervention did not improve abstinence from smoking over 1 year, but increased abstinence at the end of treatment and was engaging to participants. © 2018 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  16. Effects of Music Therapy on Drug Therapy of Adult Psychiatric Outpatients: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degli Stefani, Mario; Biasutti, Michele

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Framed in the patients’ engagement perspective, the current study aims to determine the effects of group music therapy in addition to drug care in comparison with drug care in addition to other non-expressive group activities in the treatment of psychiatric outpatients. Method: Participants (n = 27) with ICD-10 diagnoses of F20 (schizophrenia), F25 (schizoaffective disorders), F31 (bipolar affective disorder), F32 (depressive episode), and F60 (specific personality disorders) were randomized to receive group music therapy plus standard care (48 weekly sessions of 2 h) or standard care only. The clinical measures included dosages of neuroleptics, benzodiazepines, mood stabilizers, and antidepressants. Results: The participants who received group music therapy demonstrated greater improvement in drug dosage with respect to neuroleptics than those who did not receive group music therapy. Antidepressants had an increment for both groups that was significant only for the control group. Benzodiazepines and mood stabilizers did not show any significant change in either group. Conclusion: Group music therapy combined with standard drug care was effective for controlling neuroleptic drug dosages in adult psychiatric outpatients who received group music therapy. We discussed the likely applications of group music therapy in psychiatry and the possible contribution of music therapy in improving the psychopathological condition of adult outpatients. In addition, the implications for the patient-centered perspective were also discussed. PMID:27774073

  17. Effects of clay art therapy on adults outpatients with major depressive disorder: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nan, Joshua K M; Ho, Rainbow T H

    2017-08-01

    Depression has become a critical global health problem, affecting millions of people. Cost-effective nonpharmacological treatment in community settings has been proposed to complement medical treatment. Short-term clay art therapy (CAT) is an alternative treatment that promotes the enhancement of various aspects of mental health for depressed individuals. One-hundred and six adults with depression were randomized into a CAT group or visual art (VA) control group for six 2.5-h weekly sessions. Intervention effects were measured using the Beck Depression Inventory, 12-Item General Health Questionnaire (Chinese version), Body-Mind-Spirit Well-Being Inventory, and 20-Item Toronto Alexithymia Scale (Chinese version) at baseline, immediately postintervention (T1), and 3-weeks postintervention (T2). Multivariate analysis of covariance results indicated a more significant time × group effect for CAT than for VA on depressive signs, general health, and body-mind-spirit well-being (all phealth in adults. The short duration of the intervention suggests additional application value in treating depression. Further investigation is warranted regarding the potential effect of CAT on alleviating physical symptoms and improving social function. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Behavioral self-regulation for weight loss in young adults: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wing Rena R

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To determine the feasibility of recruiting and retaining young adults in a brief behavioral weight loss intervention tailored for this age group, and to assess the preliminary efficacy of an intervention that emphasizes daily self-weighing within the context of a self-regulation model. Methods Forty young adults (29.1 ± 3.9 years, range 21–35, average BMI of 33.36 ± 3.4 were randomized to one of two brief behavioral weight loss interventions: behavioral self-regulation (BSR or adapted standard behavioral treatment (SBT. Assessments were conducted at baseline, post-treatment (10 weeks, and follow-up (20 weeks. Intent to treat analyses were conducted using general linear modeling in SPSS version 14.0. Results Participants in both groups attended an average of 8.7 out of 10 group meetings, and retention rates were 93% and 88% for post-treatment and follow-up assessments, respectively. Both groups achieved significant weight losses at post-treatment (BSR = -6.4 kg (4.0; SBT = -6.2 kg (4.5 and follow-up (BSR = -6.6 kg (5.5; SBT = -5.8 kg (5.2, p p = .84. Across groups, there was a positive association between frequency of weighing at follow-up and overall weight change at follow-up (p = .01. Daily weighing was not associated with any adverse changes in psychological symptoms. Conclusion Young adults can be recruited and retained in a behavioral weight loss program tailored to their needs, and significant weight losses can be achieved and maintained through this brief intervention. Future research on the longer-term efficacy of a self-regulation approach using daily self-weighing for weight loss in this age group is warranted. Clinical Trials Registration # NCT00488228

  19. You are what you choose to eat: factors influencing young adults' food selection behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebden, L; Chan, H N; Louie, J C; Rangan, A; Allman-Farinelli, M

    2015-08-01

    Young or 'emerging' adulthood (ages 18-24 years) is a life-stage characterised by rapid weight gain, particularly among those born in recent decades, when environments have become saturated with cheap, highly palatable, processed foods. Although intervening in the immediate food environments of emerging adults is indicated, little is known about the factors influencing their food selection. The present study aimed to: (i) measure the relative importance of different influences on foods selected by emerging adults for consumption from a tertiary education setting and (ii) examine whether these influences differ according to gender, adiposity status, perceived stress and dieting or physical activity behaviours. An online survey was administered with 112 emerging adults aged 19-24 years assessing demographics, perceived stress, dieting, physical activity and influences on food selection. Adiposity indicators (body mass index and waist circumference) were measured. Analyses compared the importance of influences on food selection by gender, adiposity, perceived stress, dieting and physical activity. Taste was the most important influence on food selection, followed by convenience (availability), cost, nutrition/health value, smell and stimulatory properties (alertness). Participants with an elevated waist circumference selected foods to help them cope with stress and control their weight. Those reporting a higher level of physical activity placed greater importance on nutritional/health value of foods but less importance on taste. Female dieters also placed less importance on taste and value for money. Health promotion strategies addressing tertiary education food environments of emerging adults should ensure the ready availability of tasty and nutritious foods at a low cost. © 2015 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  20. Hospital-Level Care at Home for Acutely Ill Adults: a Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, David M; Ouchi, Kei; Blanchfield, Bonnie; Diamond, Keren; Licurse, Adam; Pu, Charles T; Schnipper, Jeffrey L

    2018-05-01

    Hospitals are standard of care for acute illness, but hospitals can be unsafe, uncomfortable, and expensive. Providing substitutive hospital-level care in a patient's home potentially reduces cost while maintaining or improving quality, safety, and patient experience, although evidence from randomized controlled trials in the US is lacking. Determine if home hospital care reduces cost while maintaining quality, safety, and patient experience. Randomized controlled trial. Adults admitted via the emergency department with any infection or exacerbation of heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, or asthma. Home hospital care, including nurse and physician home visits, intravenous medications, continuous monitoring, video communication, and point-of-care testing. Primary outcome was direct cost of the acute care episode. Secondary outcomes included utilization, 30-day cost, physical activity, and patient experience. Nine patients were randomized to home, 11 to usual care. Median direct cost of the acute care episode for home patients was 52% (IQR, 28%; p = 0.05) lower than for control patients. During the care episode, home patients had fewer laboratory orders (median per admission: 6 vs. 19; p Home patients were more physically active (median minutes, 209 vs. 78; p home patients, one occurred in control patients. Median direct cost for the acute care plus 30-day post-discharge period for home patients was 67% (IQR, 77%; p home-care services (22% vs. 55%; p = 0.08) and fewer readmissions (11% vs. 36%; p = 0.32). Patient experience was similar in both groups. The use of substitutive home-hospitalization compared to in-hospital usual care reduced cost and utilization and improved physical activity. No significant differences in quality, safety, and patient experience were noted, with more definitive results awaiting a larger trial. Trial Registration NCT02864420.

  1. Recruitment of young adults for weight gain prevention: randomized comparison of direct mail strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Melissa M; LaRose, Jessica Gokee; Espeland, Mark A; Wing, Rena R; Tate, Deborah F

    2016-06-08

    Recruiting young adults (ages 18-35 years) into weight gain prevention intervention studies is challenging and men are particularly difficult to reach. This paper describes two studies designed to improve recruitment for a randomized trial of weight gain prevention interventions. Study 1 used a quasi-experimental design to test the effect of two types of direct mailings on their overall reach. Study 2 used a randomized design to test the effect of using targeted messages to increase recruitment of men into the trial. For Study 1, 60,000 male and female young-adult households were randomly assigned to receive either a recruitment brochure or postcard. Visits to recruitment websites during each mailing period were used to assess response to each mailing. Study 2 focused on postcard recruitment only. These households received either a targeted or generic recruitment postcard, where targeted postcards included the word "Men" in the headline text. Response rates to each type of card were categorized based on participant report of mailing received. The reach of the postcards and brochures were similar (421 and 386 website visits, respectively; P = 0.22). Individuals who received the brochure were more likely to initiate the online screener than those who received a postcard (P = 0.01). In Study 2, of those who completed the telephone screening, 60.9 % of men (n = 23) had received the targeted postcard as compared to the generic postcard (39.1 %, P = 0.30). The reverse was true for women (n = 62, 38.7 vs. 61.3 %, P = 0.08). These studies suggest there was little difference in the reach of postcards versus brochures. However, recipients of brochures were more likely to continue to the next stage of study participation. As expected, men's response to the weight gain prevention messages was lower than women's response; but using targeted messages appears to have modestly increased the proportion of male respondents. These studies add to the limited

  2. Socioemotional selectivity in older adults: Evidence from the subjective experience of angry memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzer, Tugba; Gulgoz, Sami

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have compared the phenomenological properties of younger and older adults' memories for emotional events. Some studies suggest that younger adults remember negative information more vividly than positive information whereas other studies suggest that positive emotion yields phenomenologically richer memories than negative emotion for both younger and older adults. One problem with previous studies is a tendency to treat emotion as a dichotomous variable. In contrast, emotional richness demands inclusion of assessments beyond just a positive and negative dimension (e.g., assessing specific emotions like anger, fear and happiness). The present study investigated different properties of autobiographical remembering as a function of discrete emotions and age. Thirty-two younger and thirty-one older adults participated by recalling recent and remote memories associated with six emotional categories and completed the Memory Characteristics Questionnaire for each. Results demonstrated that older adults' angry memories received lower ratings on some phenomenological properties than other emotional memories whereas younger adults' angry memories did not show this same pattern. These results are discussed within the context of socioemotional selectivity theory.

  3. Treatment selection in a randomized clinical trial via covariate-specific treatment effect curves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yunbei; Zhou, Xiao-Hua

    2017-02-01

    For time-to-event data in a randomized clinical trial, we proposed two new methods for selecting an optimal treatment for a patient based on the covariate-specific treatment effect curve, which is used to represent the clinical utility of a predictive biomarker. To select an optimal treatment for a patient with a specific biomarker value, we proposed pointwise confidence intervals for each covariate-specific treatment effect curve and the difference between covariate-specific treatment effect curves of two treatments. Furthermore, to select an optimal treatment for a future biomarker-defined subpopulation of patients, we proposed confidence bands for each covariate-specific treatment effect curve and the difference between each pair of covariate-specific treatment effect curve over a fixed interval of biomarker values. We constructed the confidence bands based on a resampling technique. We also conducted simulation studies to evaluate finite-sample properties of the proposed estimation methods. Finally, we illustrated the application of the proposed method in a real-world data set.

  4. Integrated Behavior Therapy for Selective Mutism: a randomized controlled pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, R Lindsey; Gonzalez, Araceli; Piacentini, John; Keller, Melody L

    2013-10-01

    To evaluate the feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary efficacy of a novel behavioral intervention for reducing symptoms of selective mutism and increasing functional speech. A total of 21 children ages 4 to 8 with primary selective mutism were randomized to 24 weeks of Integrated Behavior Therapy for Selective Mutism (IBTSM) or a 12-week Waitlist control. Clinical outcomes were assessed using blind independent evaluators, parent-, and teacher-report, and an objective behavioral measure. Treatment recipients completed a three-month follow-up to assess durability of treatment gains. Data indicated increased functional speaking behavior post-treatment as rated by parents and teachers, with a high rate of treatment responders as rated by blind independent evaluators (75%). Conversely, children in the Waitlist comparison group did not experience significant improvements in speaking behaviors. Children who received IBTSM also demonstrated significant improvements in number of words spoken at school compared to baseline, however, significant group differences did not emerge. Treatment recipients also experienced significant reductions in social anxiety per parent, but not teacher, report. Clinical gains were maintained over 3 month follow-up. IBTSM appears to be a promising new intervention that is efficacious in increasing functional speaking behaviors, feasible, and acceptable to parents and teachers. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Two-year Randomized Clinical Trial of Self-etching Adhesives and Selective Enamel Etching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pena, C E; Rodrigues, J A; Ely, C; Giannini, M; Reis, A F

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this randomized, controlled prospective clinical trial was to evaluate the clinical effectiveness of restoring noncarious cervical lesions with two self-etching adhesive systems applied with or without selective enamel etching. A one-step self-etching adhesive (Xeno V(+)) and a two-step self-etching system (Clearfil SE Bond) were used. The effectiveness of phosphoric acid selective etching of enamel margins was also evaluated. Fifty-six cavities were restored with each adhesive system and divided into two subgroups (n=28; etch and non-etch). All 112 cavities were restored with the nanohybrid composite Esthet.X HD. The clinical effectiveness of restorations was recorded in terms of retention, marginal integrity, marginal staining, caries recurrence, and postoperative sensitivity after 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months (modified United States Public Health Service). The Friedman test detected significant differences only after 18 months for marginal staining in the groups Clearfil SE non-etch (p=0.009) and Xeno V(+) etch (p=0.004). One restoration was lost during the trial (Xeno V(+) etch; p>0.05). Although an increase in marginal staining was recorded for groups Clearfil SE non-etch and Xeno V(+) etch, the clinical effectiveness of restorations was considered acceptable for the single-step and two-step self-etching systems with or without selective enamel etching in this 24-month clinical trial.

  6. Age differences in everyday problem-solving effectiveness: older adults select more effective strategies for interpersonal problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard-Fields, Fredda; Mienaltowski, Andrew; Seay, Renee Baldi

    2007-01-01

    Using the Everyday Problem Solving Inventory of Cornelius and Caspi, we examined differences in problem-solving strategy endorsement and effectiveness in two domains of everyday functioning (instrumental or interpersonal, and a mixture of the two domains) and for four strategies (avoidance-denial, passive dependence, planful problem solving, and cognitive analysis). Consistent with past research, our research showed that older adults were more problem focused than young adults in their approach to solving instrumental problems, whereas older adults selected more avoidant-denial strategies than young adults when solving interpersonal problems. Overall, older adults were also more effective than young adults when solving everyday problems, in particular for interpersonal problems.

  7. Bereaved Adults with Intellectual Disabilities: A Combined Randomized Controlled Trial and Qualitative Study of Two Community-Based Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, S.; Hubert, J.; White, S.; Hollins, S.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Bereaved adults with intellectual disabilities are known to experience prolonged and atypical grief which is often unrecognized. The aim of this project was to find an effective way to improve mental health and behavioural outcomes. Methods: Subjects were randomized to two different therapeutic interventions: traditional counselling by…

  8. Weight Management in Adults with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities: A Randomized Controlled Trial of Two Dietary Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ptomey, Lauren T.; Saunders, Richard R.; Saunders, Muriel; Washburn, Richard A.; Mayo, Matthew S.; Sullivan, Debra K.; Gibson, Cheryl A.; Goetz, Jeannine R.; Honas, Jeff J.; Willis, Erik A.; Danon, Jessica C.; Krebill, Ron; Donnelly, Joseph E.

    2018-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of obesity among individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) is equal to or greater than the general population. Methods: Overweight/obese adults (BMI =25 kg/m2) with mild-to-moderate intellectual and developmental disabilities were randomized to an enhanced stop light diet…

  9. Exercise training improves exercise capacity in adult patients with a systemic right ventricle : a randomized clinical trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winter, Michiel M.; van der Bom, Teun; de Vries, Leonie C. S.; Balducci, Anna; Bouma, Berto J.; Pieper, Petronella G.; van Dijk, Arie P. J.; van der Plas, Mart N.; Picchio, Fernando M.; Mulder, Barbara J. M.

    To assess whether exercise training in adult patients with a systemic right ventricle (RV) improves exercise capacity and quality of life and lowers serum N-terminal prohormone brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) levels. Multi-centre parallel randomized controlled trial. Patients with a systemic

  10. Randomized trial of weight-loss-diets for young adults varying in fish and fish oil content

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thorsdottir, I.; Tomasson, H.; Gunnarsdottir, I.; Gisladottir, E.; Kiely, M.; Parra, M.D.; Bandarra, N.M.; Schaafsma, G.; Martinez, J.A.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of including seafood and fish oils, as part of an energy-restricted diet, on weight loss in young overweight adults. Design: Randomized controlled trial of energy-restricted diet varying in fish and fish oil content was followed for 8 weeks. Subjects were

  11. Selecting Optimal Parameters of Random Linear Network Coding for Wireless Sensor Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heide, J; Zhang, Qi; Fitzek, F H P

    2013-01-01

    This work studies how to select optimal code parameters of Random Linear Network Coding (RLNC) in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). With Rateless Deluge [1] the authors proposed to apply Network Coding (NC) for Over-the-Air Programming (OAP) in WSNs, and demonstrated that with NC a significant...... reduction in the number of transmitted packets can be achieved. However, NC introduces additional computations and potentially a non-negligible transmission overhead, both of which depend on the chosen coding parameters. Therefore it is necessary to consider the trade-off that these coding parameters...... present in order to obtain the lowest energy consumption per transmitted bit. This problem is analyzed and suitable coding parameters are determined for the popular Tmote Sky platform. Compared to the use of traditional RLNC, these parameters enable a reduction in the energy spent per bit which grows...

  12. Implications of structural genomics target selection strategies: Pfam5000, whole genome, and random approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandonia, John-Marc; Brenner, Steven E.

    2004-07-14

    The structural genomics project is an international effort to determine the three-dimensional shapes of all important biological macromolecules, with a primary focus on proteins. Target proteins should be selected according to a strategy which is medically and biologically relevant, of good value, and tractable. As an option to consider, we present the Pfam5000 strategy, which involves selecting the 5000 most important families from the Pfam database as sources for targets. We compare the Pfam5000 strategy to several other proposed strategies that would require similar numbers of targets. These include including complete solution of several small to moderately sized bacterial proteomes, partial coverage of the human proteome, and random selection of approximately 5000 targets from sequenced genomes. We measure the impact that successful implementation of these strategies would have upon structural interpretation of the proteins in Swiss-Prot, TrEMBL, and 131 complete proteomes (including 10 of eukaryotes) from the Proteome Analysis database at EBI. Solving the structures of proteins from the 5000 largest Pfam families would allow accurate fold assignment for approximately 68 percent of all prokaryotic proteins (covering 59 percent of residues) and 61 percent of eukaryotic proteins (40 percent of residues). More fine-grained coverage which would allow accurate modeling of these proteins would require an order of magnitude more targets. The Pfam5000 strategy may be modified in several ways, for example to focus on larger families, bacterial sequences, or eukaryotic sequences; as long as secondary consideration is given to large families within Pfam, coverage results vary only slightly. In contrast, focusing structural genomics on a single tractable genome would have only a limited impact in structural knowledge of other proteomes: a significant fraction (about 30-40 percent of the proteins, and 40-60 percent of the residues) of each proteome is classified in small

  13. The Yin and Yang of chromatin dynamics in adult stem cell fate selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Rene C.; Fuchs, Elaine

    2015-01-01

    Adult organisms rely on tissue stem cells for maintenance and repair. During homeostasis, the concerted action of local niche signals and epigenetic regulators establish stable gene expression patterns to ensure that stem cells are not lost over time. However, stem cells also provide host tissues with a remarkable plasticity to respond to perturbations. How adult stem cells choose and acquire new fates is unknown, but the genome-wide mapping of epigenetic landscapes suggests a critical role for chromatin remodeling in these processes. Here, we explore the emerging role of chromatin modifiers and pioneer transcription factors in adult stem cell fate decisions and plasticity, which ensure that selective lineage choices are only made when environmentally cued. PMID:26689127

  14. Day-ahead load forecast using random forest and expert input selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lahouar, A.; Ben Hadj Slama, J.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A model based on random forests for short term load forecast is proposed. • An expert feature selection is added to refine inputs. • Special attention is paid to customers behavior, load profile and special holidays. • The model is flexible and able to handle complex load signal. • A technical comparison is performed to assess the forecast accuracy. - Abstract: The electrical load forecast is getting more and more important in recent years due to the electricity market deregulation and integration of renewable resources. To overcome the incoming challenges and ensure accurate power prediction for different time horizons, sophisticated intelligent methods are elaborated. Utilization of intelligent forecast algorithms is among main characteristics of smart grids, and is an efficient tool to face uncertainty. Several crucial tasks of power operators such as load dispatch rely on the short term forecast, thus it should be as accurate as possible. To this end, this paper proposes a short term load predictor, able to forecast the next 24 h of load. Using random forest, characterized by immunity to parameter variations and internal cross validation, the model is constructed following an online learning process. The inputs are refined by expert feature selection using a set of if–then rules, in order to include the own user specifications about the country weather or market, and to generalize the forecast ability. The proposed approach is tested through a real historical set from the Tunisian Power Company, and the simulation shows accurate and satisfactory results for one day in advance, with an average error exceeding rarely 2.3%. The model is validated for regular working days and weekends, and special attention is paid to moving holidays, following non Gregorian calendar

  15. Design of the Prevention of Adult Caries Study (PACS: A randomized clinical trial assessing the effect of a chlorhexidine dental coating for the prevention of adult caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snyder John J

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dental caries is one of the primary causes of tooth loss among adults. It is estimated to affect a majority of Americans aged 55 and older, with a disproportionately higher burden in disadvantaged populations. Although a number of treatments are currently in use for caries prevention in adults, evidence for their efficacy and effectiveness is limited. Methods/Design The Prevention of Adult Caries Study (PACS is a multicenter, placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized clinical trial of the efficacy of a chlorhexidine (10% w/v dental coating in preventing adult caries. Participants (n = 983 were recruited from four different dental delivery systems serving four diverse communities, including one American Indian population, and were randomized to receive either chlorhexidine or a placebo treatment. The primary outcome is the net caries increment (including non-cavitated lesions from baseline to 13 months of follow-up. A cost-effectiveness analysis also will be considered. Discussion This new dental treatment, if efficacious and approved for use by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA, would become a new in-office, anti-microbial agent for the prevention of adult caries in the United States. Trial Registration Number NCT00357877

  16. The relationship between bilingualism and selective attention in young adults: Evidence from an ambiguous figures task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung-Fat-Yim, Ashley; Sorge, Geoff B; Bialystok, Ellen

    2017-03-01

    Previous research has shown that bilinguals outperform monolinguals on a variety of tasks that have been described as involving executive functioning, but the precise mechanism for those effects or a clear definition for "executive function" is unknown. This uncertainty has led to a number of studies for which no performance difference between monolingual and bilingual adults has been detected. One approach to clarifying these issues comes from research with children showing that bilinguals were more able than their monolingual peers to perceive both interpretations of an ambiguous figure, an ability that is more tied to a conception of selective attention than to specific components of executive function. The present study extends this notion to adults by assessing their ability to see the alternative image in an ambiguous figure. Bilinguals performed this task more efficiently than monolinguals by requiring fewer cues to identify the second image. This finding has implications for the role of selective attention in performance differences between monolinguals and bilinguals.

  17. Demographic Variables and Selective, Sustained Attention and Planning through Cognitive Tasks among Healthy Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afsaneh Zarghi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cognitive tasks are considered to be applicable and appropriate in assessing cognitive domains. The purpose of our study is to determine the relationship existence between variables of age, sex and education with selective, sustained attention and planning abilities by means of computerized cognitive tasks among healthy adults. Methods: A cross-sectional study was implemented during 6 months from June to November, 2010 on 84 healthy adults (42 male and 42 female. The whole participants performed computerized CPT, STROOP and TOL tests after being content and trained. Results: The obtained data indicate that there is a significant correlation coefficient between age, sex and education variables (p<0.05. Discussion: The above-mentioned tests can be used to assess selective, sustained attention and planning.

  18. Field-based random sampling without a sampling frame: control selection for a case-control study in rural Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crampin, A C; Mwinuka, V; Malema, S S; Glynn, J R; Fine, P E

    2001-01-01

    Selection bias, particularly of controls, is common in case-control studies and may materially affect the results. Methods of control selection should be tailored both for the risk factors and disease under investigation and for the population being studied. We present here a control selection method devised for a case-control study of tuberculosis in rural Africa (Karonga, northern Malawi) that selects an age/sex frequency-matched random sample of the population, with a geographical distribution in proportion to the population density. We also present an audit of the selection process, and discuss the potential of this method in other settings.

  19. Framing Financial Incentives to Increase Physical Activity Among Overweight and Obese Adults: A Randomized, Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Mitesh S; Asch, David A; Rosin, Roy; Small, Dylan S; Bellamy, Scarlett L; Heuer, Jack; Sproat, Susan; Hyson, Chris; Haff, Nancy; Lee, Samantha M; Wesby, Lisa; Hoffer, Karen; Shuttleworth, David; Taylor, Devon H; Hilbert, Victoria; Zhu, Jingsan; Yang, Lin; Wang, Xingmei; Volpp, Kevin G

    2016-03-15

    Financial incentive designs to increase physical activity have not been well-examined. To test the effectiveness of 3 methods to frame financial incentives to increase physical activity among overweight and obese adults. Randomized, controlled trial. (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT 02030119). University of Pennsylvania. 281 adult employees (body mass index ≥27 kg/m2). 13-week intervention. Participants had a goal of 7000 steps per day and were randomly assigned to a control group with daily feedback or 1 of 3 financial incentive programs with daily feedback: a gain incentive ($1.40 given each day the goal was achieved), lottery incentive (daily eligibility [expected value approximately $1.40] if goal was achieved), or loss incentive ($42 allocated monthly upfront and $1.40 removed each day the goal was not achieved). Participants were followed for another 13 weeks with daily performance feedback but no incentives. Primary outcome was the mean proportion of participant-days that the 7000-step goal was achieved during the intervention. Secondary outcomes included the mean proportion of participant-days achieving the goal during follow-up and the mean daily steps during intervention and follow-up. The mean proportion of participant-days achieving the goal was 0.30 (95% CI, 0.22 to 0.37) in the control group, 0.35 (CI, 0.28 to 0.42) in the gain-incentive group, 0.36 (CI, 0.29 to 0.43) in the lottery-incentive group, and 0.45 (CI, 0.38 to 0.52) in the loss-incentive group. In adjusted analyses, only the loss-incentive group had a significantly greater mean proportion of participant-days achieving the goal than control (adjusted difference, 0.16 [CI, 0.06 to 0.26]; P = 0.001), but the adjusted difference in mean daily steps was not significant (861 [CI, 24 to 1746]; P = 0.056). During follow-up, daily steps decreased for all incentive groups and were not different from control. Single employer. Financial incentives framed as a loss were most effective for achieving physical

  20. Role of modified ultrfiltration in adult cardic surgery: a prospective randomized control trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naveed, D.; Khan, R.A.; Malik, A.; Shah, S.Z.A.; Ullah, I.; Hussain, A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) is associated with morbidity and mortality. To reduce its adverse effect modified ultrafiltration is being increasingly employed. This study is planned to evaluate the benefits of modified ultrafiltration (MUF) in adult cardiac surgery. Methods: Eighty consecutive patients presenting to adult cardiac surgery as elective case were enrolled. These patients were randomly divided in to two groups. MUF group which received modified ultrafiltration after separation from CPB and control group which did not receive modified ultrafiltration. Postoperative mediastinal and chest drainage in 24 hrs, blood products requirement, reopening, ICU stay, and mortality in 30 days were recorded. These variables were compared between MUF group and control group. Results: Forty patients were randomized to control group and 40 in MUF group. Mean age was 51.15±8.90 in control group as compared to 46.95±13.24 MUF group (p=0.1). Out of 40 patients in control group 7 (17.5 percentage) were female while 11 (27.5 percentage) out of total 40 were female in MUF group. (p=.284). Mean CBP time was 120.62±20.97 in control group versus 117.37±38.78 in MUF group (p=0.64). Post-operative drain output ranged from 330 ml to 1300 ml in control group and 300 ml to 780 ml in MUF group. Mean postoperative drain output 554.25±192.57 in control group versus 439.22±89.59 in MUF group (p=.001). Three (7.5 percentage) out of 40 patients required re-exploration in control group versus 1 (2.5 percentage) in MUF group. (p=.305). Mean ICU stay was 52.80±22.37 hours in control group versus 45.30±21.82 hours in MUF group (p=0.133). Three (7.5 percentage) out of 40 patients died in control group versus 1 (2.5 percentage) in MUF group. (p=0.305). Conclusion: Use of modified ultrafiltration is associated with low postoperative bleeding less requirements of blood and blood products. (author)

  1. NeuroD Modulates Opioid Agonist-Selective Regulation of Adult Neurogenesis and Contextual Memory Extinction

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Hui; Zhang, Yue; Li, Wen; Loh, Horace H; Law, Ping-Yee

    2013-01-01

    Addictive drugs, including opioids, modulate adult neurogenesis. In order to delineate the probable implications of neurogenesis on contextual memory associated with addiction, we investigated opioid agonist-selective regulation of neurogenic differentiation 1 (NeuroD) activities under the conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm. Training mice with equivalent doses of morphine and fentanyl produced different CPP extinction rates without measurable differences in the CPP acquisition rate o...

  2. Selective attention affects conceptual object priming and recognition: A study with young and older adults

    OpenAIRE

    Soledad eBallesteros; Julia eMayas

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the effects of selective attention at encoding on conceptual object priming (Experiment 1) and old–new recognition memory (Experiment 2) tasks in young and older adults. The procedures of both experiments included encoding and memory test phases separated by a short delay. At encoding, the picture outlines of two familiar objects, one in blue and the other in green, were presented to the left and to the right of fixation. In Experiment 1, participants wer...

  3. A randomized controlled trial of chloroquine for the treatment of dengue in Vietnamese adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vianney Tricou

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available There is currently no licensed antiviral drug for treatment of dengue. Chloroquine (CQ inhibits the replication of dengue virus (DENV in vitro.A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of CQ in 307 adults hospitalized for suspected DENV infection was conducted at the Hospital for Tropical Diseases (Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam between May 2007 and July 2008. Patients with illness histories of 72 hours or less were randomized to a 3-day course of CQ (n = 153 or placebo (n = 154. Laboratory-confirmation of DENV infection was made in 257 (84% patients. The primary endpoints were time to resolution of DENV viraemia and time to resolution of DENV NS1 antigenaemia. In patients treated with CQ there was a trend toward a longer duration of DENV viraemia (hazard ratio (HR = 0.80, 95% CI 0.62-1.05, but we did not find any difference for the time to resolution of NS1 antigenaemia (HR = 1.07, 95% CI 0.76-1.51. Interestingly, CQ was associated with a significant reduction in fever clearance time in the intention-to-treat population (HR = 1.37, 95% CI 1.08-1.74 but not in the per-protocol population. There was also a trend towards a lower incidence of dengue hemorrhagic fever (odds ratio = 0.60, PP 95% CI 0.34-1.04 in patients treated with CQ. Differences in levels of T cell activation or pro- or anti-inflammatory plasma cytokine concentrations between CQ- and placebo-treated patients did not explain the trend towards less dengue hemorrhagic fever in the CQ arm. CQ was associated with significantly more adverse events, primarily vomiting.CQ does not reduce the durations of viraemia and NS1 antigenaemia in dengue patients. Further trials, with appropriate endpoints, would be required to determine if CQ treatment has any clinical benefit in dengue.Current Controlled Trials number ISRCTN38002730.

  4. A randomized controlled trial of chloroquine for the treatment of dengue in Vietnamese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tricou, Vianney; Minh, Nguyet Nguyen; Van, Toi Pham; Lee, Sue J; Farrar, Jeremy; Wills, Bridget; Tran, Hien Tinh; Simmons, Cameron P

    2010-08-10

    There is currently no licensed antiviral drug for treatment of dengue. Chloroquine (CQ) inhibits the replication of dengue virus (DENV) in vitro. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of CQ in 307 adults hospitalized for suspected DENV infection was conducted at the Hospital for Tropical Diseases (Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam) between May 2007 and July 2008. Patients with illness histories of 72 hours or less were randomized to a 3-day course of CQ (n = 153) or placebo (n = 154). Laboratory-confirmation of DENV infection was made in 257 (84%) patients. The primary endpoints were time to resolution of DENV viraemia and time to resolution of DENV NS1 antigenaemia. In patients treated with CQ there was a trend toward a longer duration of DENV viraemia (hazard ratio (HR) = 0.80, 95% CI 0.62-1.05), but we did not find any difference for the time to resolution of NS1 antigenaemia (HR = 1.07, 95% CI 0.76-1.51). Interestingly, CQ was associated with a significant reduction in fever clearance time in the intention-to-treat population (HR = 1.37, 95% CI 1.08-1.74) but not in the per-protocol population. There was also a trend towards a lower incidence of dengue hemorrhagic fever (odds ratio = 0.60, PP 95% CI 0.34-1.04) in patients treated with CQ. Differences in levels of T cell activation or pro- or anti-inflammatory plasma cytokine concentrations between CQ- and placebo-treated patients did not explain the trend towards less dengue hemorrhagic fever in the CQ arm. CQ was associated with significantly more adverse events, primarily vomiting. CQ does not reduce the durations of viraemia and NS1 antigenaemia in dengue patients. Further trials, with appropriate endpoints, would be required to determine if CQ treatment has any clinical benefit in dengue. Current Controlled Trials number ISRCTN38002730.

  5. Persian randomized dichotic digits test: Development and dichotic listening performance in young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ebrahim Mahdavi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: The dichotic listening subtest is an important component of the test battery for auditory processing assessment in both children and adults. A randomized dichotic digits test (RDDT was created to compensate for sensitivity weakness of double digits when detecting abnormal ear asymmetry during dichotic listening. The aim of this study was the development and  intial evaluation of the Persian randomized dichotic digits test.Method: Persian digits 1-10 (except for the bisyllabic digit, 4 uttered by a native Persian language speaker were recorded in a studio. After alignment of intensity and temporal characteristics of digit waveforms, lists 1 and 2 of the RDDT were reproduced. List 1 of the test was administered at 55 dBHL on 50 right-handed normal hearing individuals (with an equal sex ratio in the age group of 18-25 years and hearing thresholds of 15 dBHL or better in audiometric frequencies.Results: Mean (standard deviation of percent-correct score for right and left ears and right ear advantage of the subjects was 94.3 (5.3, 84.8 (7.7, and 9.5 (7.0 percent, respectively. Sixty percent of the subjects showed normal results and unilateral and bilateral deficits were seen in 24 percent and 16 percent, respectively, of studied individuals.Conclusion: It seems the Persian version of RDDT test is the same as the original test as it is able to test ear asymmerty, unilateral and bilateral deficits in dichotic listening.

  6. Randomized controlled trial of SecondStory, an intervention targeting posttraumatic growth, with bereaved adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roepke, Ann Marie; Tsukayama, Eli; Forgeard, Marie; Blackie, Laura; Jayawickreme, Eranda

    2018-06-01

    People often report positive psychological changes after adversity, a phenomenon known as posttraumatic growth (PTG). Few PTG-focused interventions have been rigorously tested, and measurement strategies have had significant limitations. This study evaluated the effects of a new group-format psychosocial intervention, SecondStory, aimed at facilitating PTG by helping participants make meaning of the past and plan a purposeful future. In a randomized controlled trial, adults (N = 112, 64% women) bereaved within 5 years were randomly assigned to SecondStory or an active control, expressive writing. The primary outcome, PTG, was measured using two contrasting methods: the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory, which asks participants retrospectively how much they believe they have changed due to struggling with adversity, and the Current-Standing Posttraumatic Growth Inventory, which tracks quantifiable change in participants' standing in PTG domains over time. Secondary outcomes included depression symptoms, posttraumatic stress symptoms, and life satisfaction. Outcomes were measured at 2-week intervals: pretest, posttest, and three follow-up occasions. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to assess whether SecondStory participants experienced greater gains in primary and/or secondary outcomes over the 8-week trial. Results indicated that SecondStory participants did not show significantly greater improvements than control participants on measures of PTG, posttraumatic stress, or life satisfaction, but they did show greater decreases in depression symptoms by the first follow-up. These findings suggest that SecondStory may not facilitate PTG more effectively than existing interventions but may be promising for addressing depression. Positive interventions may productively be refined to support people experiencing trauma and loss. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Selective attention affects conceptual object priming and recognition: a study with young and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballesteros, Soledad; Mayas, Julia

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the effects of selective attention at encoding on conceptual object priming (Experiment 1) and old-new recognition memory (Experiment 2) tasks in young and older adults. The procedures of both experiments included encoding and memory test phases separated by a short delay. At encoding, the picture outlines of two familiar objects, one in blue and the other in green, were presented to the left and to the right of fixation. In Experiment 1, participants were instructed to attend to the picture outline of a certain color and to classify the object as natural or artificial. After a short delay, participants performed a natural/artificial speeded conceptual classification task with repeated attended, repeated unattended, and new pictures. In Experiment 2, participants at encoding memorized the attended pictures and classify them as natural or artificial. After the encoding phase, they performed an old-new recognition memory task. Consistent with previous findings with perceptual priming tasks, we found that conceptual object priming, like explicit memory, required attention at encoding. Significant priming was obtained in both age groups, but only for those pictures that were attended at encoding. Although older adults were slower than young adults, both groups showed facilitation for attended pictures. In line with previous studies, young adults had better recognition memory than older adults.

  8. Selective attention affects conceptual object priming and recognition: A study with young and older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soledad eBallesteros

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we investigated the effects of selective attention at encoding on conceptual object priming (Experiment 1 and old-new recognition memory (Experiment 2 tasks in young and older adults. The procedures of both experiments included encoding and memory test phases separated by a short delay. At encoding, the picture outlines of two familiar objects, one in blue and the other in green, were presented to the left and to the right of fixation. In Experiment 1, participants were instructed to attend to the picture outline of a certain color and to classify the object as natural or artificial. After a short delay, participants performed a natural/ artificial speeded conceptual classification task with repeated attended, repeated unattended and new pictures. In Experiment 2, participants at encoding memorized the attended pictures and classified them as natural or artificial. After the encoding phase, they performed an old-new recognition memory task. Consistent with previous findings with perceptual priming tasks, we found that conceptual object priming, like explicit memory, required attention at encoding. Significant priming was obtained in both age groups, but only for those pictures that were attended at encoding. Although older adults were slower than young adults, both groups showed facilitation for attended pictures. In line with previous studies, young adults had better recognition memory than older adults.

  9. Good genes and sexual selection in dung beetles (Onthophagus taurus: genetic variance in egg-to-adult and adult viability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Garcia-Gonzalez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Whether species exhibit significant heritable variation in fitness is central for sexual selection. According to good genes models there must be genetic variation in males leading to variation in offspring fitness if females are to obtain genetic benefits from exercising mate preferences, or by mating multiply. However, sexual selection based on genetic benefits is controversial, and there is limited unambiguous support for the notion that choosy or polyandrous females can increase the chances of producing offspring with high viability. Here we examine the levels of additive genetic variance in two fitness components in the dung beetle Onthophagus taurus. We found significant sire effects on egg-to-adult viability and on son, but not daughter, survival to sexual maturity, as well as moderate coefficients of additive variance in these traits. Moreover, we do not find evidence for sexual antagonism influencing genetic variation for fitness. Our results are consistent with good genes sexual selection, and suggest that both pre- and postcopulatory mate choice, and male competition could provide indirect benefits to females.

  10. Internet-based treatment for adults with depressive symptoms: the protocol of a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuijpers Pim

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Depression is a highly prevalent condition, affecting more than 15% of the adult population at least once in their lives. Guided self-help is effective in the treatment of depression. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of two Internet-based guided self-help treatments with adults reporting elevated depressive symptoms. Other research questions concern the identification of potential mediators and the search for subgroups who respond differently to the interventions. Methods This study is a randomized controlled trial with three conditions: two treatment conditions and one waiting list control group. The two treatment conditions are Internet-based cognitive behavior therapy and Internet-based problem-solving therapy. They consist of 8 and 5 weekly lessons respectively. Both interventions are combined with support by e-mail. Participants in the waiting list control group receive the intervention three months later. The study population consists of adults from the general population. They are recruited through advertisements in local and national newspapers and through banners on the Internet. Subjects with symptoms of depression (≥ 16 on the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression scale are included. Other inclusion criteria are having sufficient knowledge of the Dutch language, access to the Internet and an e-mail address. Primary outcome is depressive symptoms. Secondary outcomes are anxiety, quality of life, dysfunctional cognitions, worrying, problem solving skills, mastery, absence at work and use of healthcare. We will examine the following variables as potential mediators: dysfunctional cognitions, problem solving skills, worrying, anxiety and mastery. Potential moderating variables are: socio-demographic characteristics and symptom severity. Data are collected at baseline and at 5 weeks, 8 weeks, 12 weeks and 9 months after baseline. Analyses will be conducted on the intention

  11. Modified random hinge transport mechanics and multiple scattering step-size selection in EGS5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilderman, S.J.; Bielajew, A.F.

    2005-01-01

    The new transport mechanics in EGS5 allows for significantly longer electron transport step sizes and hence shorter computation times than required for identical problems in EGS4. But as with all Monte Carlo electron transport algorithms, certain classes of problems exhibit step-size dependencies even when operating within recommended ranges, sometimes making selection of step-sizes a daunting task for novice users. Further contributing to this problem, because of the decoupling of multiple scattering and continuous energy loss in the dual random hinge transport mechanics of EGS5, there are two independent step sizes in EGS5, one for multiple scattering and one for continuous energy loss, each of which influences speed and accuracy in a different manner. Further, whereas EGS4 used a single value of fractional energy loss (ESTEPE) to determine step sizes at all energies, to increase performance by decreasing the amount of effort expended simulating lower energy particles, EGS5 permits the fractional energy loss values which are used to determine both the multiple scattering and continuous energy loss step sizes to vary with energy. This results in requiring the user to specify four fractional energy loss values when optimizing computations for speed. Thus, in order to simplify step-size selection and to mitigate step-size dependencies, a method has been devised to automatically optimize step-size selection based on a single material dependent input related to the size of problem tally region. In this paper we discuss the new transport mechanics in EGS5 and describe the automatic step-size optimization algorithm. (author)

  12. Physical performance in recently aged adults after 6 weeks traditional Thai dance: a randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janyacharoen, Taweesak; Laophosri, Maneepun; Kanpittaya, Jaturat; Auvichayapat, Paradee; Sawanyawisuth, Kittisak

    2013-01-01

    Background Exercise has been shown to be effective in cardiovascular endurance in the elderly. We studied the effect of Thai dancing on physical performance of Thai elderly. Methods This was an open-labeled, randomized intervention study. The Thai dancing group exercised for 40 minutes three times a week for 6 weeks. Physical performance ability was the primary outcome, including a 6-minute walk test (6MWT), five-times sit-to-stand (FTSST), and a sit-and-reach test measured before and after 6 weeks of intervention. Results There were 42 subjects enrolled in the study, and 38 female subjects completed (20 in Thai dance group, 18 controls), with an average age of 65.8 ± 5.1 years. The Thai dance group had significantly better physical performance in all measurements at the end of the study. The 6MWT was longer (416.7 ± 58.7 versus 345.7 ± 55.1 m; P = 0.011), FTSST was quicker (10.2 ± 1.5 versus 14.4 ± 3.3 seconds; P dance group than the control group. Conclusion Thai dance can improve physical performance in recently aged (elderly) female adults. PMID:23950640

  13. Controlling memory impairment in elderly adults using virtual reality memory training: a randomized controlled pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Optale, Gabriele; Urgesi, Cosimo; Busato, Valentina; Marin, Silvia; Piron, Lamberto; Priftis, Konstantinos; Gamberini, Luciano; Capodieci, Salvatore; Bordin, Adalberto

    2010-05-01

    Memory decline is a prevalent aspect of aging but may also be the first sign of cognitive pathology. Virtual reality (VR) using immersion and interaction may provide new approaches to the treatment of memory deficits in elderly individuals. The authors implemented a VR training intervention to try to lessen cognitive decline and improve memory functions. The authors randomly assigned 36 elderly residents of a rest care facility (median age 80 years) who were impaired on the Verbal Story Recall Test either to the experimental group (EG) or the control group (CG). The EG underwent 6 months of VR memory training (VRMT) that involved auditory stimulation and VR experiences in path finding. The initial training phase lasted 3 months (3 auditory and 3 VR sessions every 2 weeks), and there was a booster training phase during the following 3 months (1 auditory and 1 VR session per week). The CG underwent equivalent face-to-face training sessions using music therapy. Both groups participated in social and creative and assisted-mobility activities. Neuropsychological and functional evaluations were performed at baseline, after the initial training phase, and after the booster training phase. The EG showed significant improvements in memory tests, especially in long-term recall with an effect size of 0.7 and in several other aspects of cognition. In contrast, the CG showed progressive decline. The authors suggest that VRMT may improve memory function in elderly adults by enhancing focused attention.

  14. The adverse effect of selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor on random skin flap survival in rats.

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    Haiyong Ren

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cyclooxygenase-2(COX-2 inhibitors provide desired analgesic effects after injury or surgery, but evidences suggested they also attenuate wound healing. The study is to investigate the effect of COX-2 inhibitor on random skin flap survival. METHODS: The McFarlane flap model was established in 40 rats and evaluated within two groups, each group gave the same volume of Parecoxib and saline injection for 7 days. The necrotic area of the flap was measured, the specimens of the flap were stained with haematoxylin-eosin(HE for histologic analysis. Immunohistochemical staining was performed to analyse the level of VEGF and COX-2 . RESULTS: 7 days after operation, the flap necrotic area ratio in study group (66.65 ± 2.81% was significantly enlarged than that of the control group(48.81 ± 2.33%(P <0.01. Histological analysis demonstrated angiogenesis with mean vessel density per mm(2 being lower in study group (15.4 ± 4.4 than in control group (27.2 ± 4.1 (P <0.05. To evaluate the expression of COX-2 and VEGF protein in the intermediate area II in the two groups by immunohistochemistry test .The expression of COX-2 in study group was (1022.45 ± 153.1, and in control group was (2638.05 ± 132.2 (P <0.01. The expression of VEGF in the study and control groups were (2779.45 ± 472.0 vs (4938.05 ± 123.6(P <0.01.In the COX-2 inhibitor group, the expressions of COX-2 and VEGF protein were remarkably down-regulated as compared with the control group. CONCLUSION: Selective COX-2 inhibitor had adverse effect on random skin flap survival. Suppression of neovascularization induced by low level of VEGF was supposed to be the biological mechanism.

  15. Application of random coherence order selection in gradient-enhanced multidimensional NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bostock, Mark J.; Nietlispach, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Development of multidimensional NMR is essential to many applications, for example in high resolution structural studies of biomolecules. Multidimensional techniques enable separation of NMR signals over several dimensions, improving signal resolution, whilst also allowing identification of new connectivities. However, these advantages come at a significant cost. The Fourier transform theorem requires acquisition of a grid of regularly spaced points to satisfy the Nyquist criterion, while frequency discrimination and acquisition of a pure phase spectrum require acquisition of both quadrature components for each time point in every indirect (non-acquisition) dimension, adding a factor of 2 N -1 to the number of free- induction decays which must be acquired, where N is the number of dimensions. Compressed sensing (CS) ℓ 1 -norm minimisation in combination with non-uniform sampling (NUS) has been shown to be extremely successful in overcoming the Nyquist criterion. Previously, maximum entropy reconstruction has also been used to overcome the limitation of frequency discrimination, processing data acquired with only one quadrature component at a given time interval, known as random phase detection (RPD), allowing a factor of two reduction in the number of points for each indirect dimension (Maciejewski et al. 2011 PNAS 108 16640). However, whilst this approach can be easily applied in situations where the quadrature components are acquired as amplitude modulated data, the same principle is not easily extended to phase modulated (P-/N-type) experiments where data is acquired in the form exp (iωt) or exp (-iωt), and which make up many of the multidimensional experiments used in modern NMR. Here we demonstrate a modification of the CS ℓ 1 -norm approach to allow random coherence order selection (RCS) for phase modulated experiments; we generalise the nomenclature for RCS and RPD as random quadrature detection (RQD). With this method, the power of RQD can be extended

  16. A randomized controlled trial comparing split and subunit influenza vaccines in adults in Colombia

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    A. Morales

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available In a two-center, comparative trial, 344 adults were randomly assigned to receive a single dose of inactivated split-virion (Imovax Gripeâ or sub-unit (Agrippal S1â influenza vaccine (1999-2000 formulations. For analysis, study groups were subdivided into adult (18-60 years old and elderly (over 60 years subjects. Blood was drawn immediately before and one month after vaccination, safety was evaluated using a blind-observer design based on reporting of solicited and unsolicited adverse events. Both vaccines were very well tolerated, had similar reactogenicity profiles, and elicited fewer reports of reactions in elderly individuals. Post-vaccination Imovax Gripeâ induced seroprotective antibody titers against the three vaccine strains in 94-99% of adults and 88-97% of elderly subjects, compared with 88-100% and 88-98%, respectively, of those given Agrippal S1â. In conclusion, the split-virion and sub-unit influenza vaccines had similar safety and reactogenicity profiles, and elicited satisfactory immunity in adult and elderly subjects. However, higher post-vaccination geometric mean titer (GMT values in response to the B strain were seen with the split vaccine Imovax Gripeâ, giving it a better overall immunogenicity.En un ensayo comparativo realizado en dos centros, se asignaron de manera aleatoria 344 adultos para recibir una dosis de vacuna contra la gripe de virus fraccionado inactivado (Imovax Gripeâ o de vacuna de subunidades (Agrippal S1â (formulaciones 1999-2000. Para el análisis, los grupos estudiados fueron subdivididos en adultos (18-60 años y ancianos (más de 60 años. La sangre fue extraída justo antes y un mes después de la vacunación. La inocuidad fue evaluada utilizando un informe sobre reacciones adversas, usando un diseño de observador a ciegas. Ambas vacunas fueron muy bien toleradas, con perfiles de reactogenicidad similares y desarrollaron escasas reacciones adversas en los individuos ancianos. La vacunación con

  17. Body-Selective Areas in the Visual Cortex are less active in Children than in Adults

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    Paddy D Ross

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Our ability to read other people’s non-verbal signals gets refined throughout childhood and adolescence. How this is paralleled by brain development has been investigated mainly with regards to face perception, showing a protracted functional development of the face-selective visual cortical areas. In view of the importance of whole-body expressions in interpersonal communication it is important to understand the development of brain areas sensitive to these social signals.Here we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to compare brain activity in a group of 24 children (age 6-11 and 26 adults while they passively watched short videos of body or object movements. We observed activity in similar regions in both groups; namely the extra-striate body area (EBA, fusiform body area (FBA, posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS, amygdala and premotor regions. Adults showed additional activity in the inferior frontal gyrus. Within the main body-selective regions (EBA, FBA and pSTS, the strength and spatial extent of fMRI signal change was larger in adults than in children. Multivariate Bayesian analysis showed that the spatial pattern of neural representation within those regions did not change over age.Our results indicate, for the first time, that body perception, like face perception, is still maturing through the second decade of life.

  18. Exercise training improves selected aspects of daytime functioning in adults with obstructive sleep apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, Christopher E; Ewing, Gary B; Burch, James B; Blair, Steven N; Durstine, J Larry; Davis, J Mark; Youngstedt, Shawn D

    2012-08-15

    To explore the utility of exercise training for improving daytime functioning in adults with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Forty-three sedentary and overweight/obese adults aged 18-55 years with at least moderate-severity untreated OSA (apnea-hypopnea index ≥ 15) were randomized to 12 weeks of moderate-intensity aerobic and resistance exercise training (n = 27) or low-intensity stretching control treatment (n = 16). As part of a trial investigating the efficacy of exercise training on OSA severity, daytime functioning was assessed before and following the intervention. Sleepiness, functional impairment due to sleepiness, depressive symptoms, mood, and quality of life (QOL) were evaluated with validated questionnaires, and cognitive function was assessed with a neurobehavioral performance battery. OSA severity was measured with one night of laboratory polysomnography before and following the intervention. Compared with stretching control, exercise training resulted in significant improvements in depressive symptoms, fatigue and vigor, and aspects of QOL (p improved following exercise versus control to a similar degree in terms of effect sizes (d > 0.5), though these changes were not statistically significant. No neurobehavioral performance improvements were found. Reduced fatigue following exercise training was mediated by a reduction in OSA severity, but changes in OSA severity did not significantly mediate improvement in any other measure of daytime functioning. These data provide preliminary evidence that exercise training may be helpful for improving aspects of daytime functioning of adults with OSA. Larger trials are needed to further verify the observed improvements.

  19. Random genetic drift, natural selection, and noise in human cranial evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roseman, Charles C

    2016-08-01

    This study assesses the extent to which relationships among groups complicate comparative studies of adaptation in recent human cranial variation and the extent to which departures from neutral additive models of evolution hinder the reconstruction of population relationships among groups using cranial morphology. Using a maximum likelihood evolutionary model fitting approach and a mixed population genomic and cranial data set, I evaluate the relative fits of several widely used models of human cranial evolution. Moreover, I compare the goodness of fit of models of cranial evolution constrained by genomic variation to test hypotheses about population specific departures from neutrality. Models from population genomics are much better fits to cranial variation than are traditional models from comparative human biology. There is not enough evolutionary information in the cranium to reconstruct much of recent human evolution but the influence of population history on cranial variation is strong enough to cause comparative studies of adaptation serious difficulties. Deviations from a model of random genetic drift along a tree-like population history show the importance of environmental effects, gene flow, and/or natural selection on human cranial variation. Moreover, there is a strong signal of the effect of natural selection or an environmental factor on a group of humans from Siberia. The evolution of the human cranium is complex and no one evolutionary process has prevailed at the expense of all others. A holistic unification of phenome, genome, and environmental context, gives us a strong point of purchase on these problems, which is unavailable to any one traditional approach alone. Am J Phys Anthropol 160:582-592, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Effect of brief daily exercise on headache among adults--secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars L; Mortensen, Ole S; Zebis, Mette K

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This paper investigates secondary outcomes (headache) in a randomized controlled trial with physical exercise among office workers with neck/shoulder pain. METHODS: A total of 198 office workers with frequent neck/shoulder pain were randomly allocated to either one of two intervention...... were unaffected. CONCLUSIONS: Two minutes of daily resistance training for ten weeks reduces headache frequency among office workers with neck/shoulder pain. The vast number of adult workers suffering from one or two days of weekly headaches and who could potentially comply with and benefit from brief...... exercise programs stresses the applicability of our findings....

  1. Physical performance in recently aged adults after 6 weeks traditional Thai dance: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janyacharoen T

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Taweesak Janyacharoen,1–3 Maneepun Laophosri,2,4 Jaturat Kanpittaya,3,5 Paradee Auvichayapat,6 Kittisak Sawanyawisuth71School of Physical Therapy, Faculty of Associated Medical Science, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand; 2Improvement of Physical Performance and Quality of Life Research Group, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand; 3Back, Neck and Other Joint Pain Research Group, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand; 4Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand; 5Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand; 6Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, Thailand; 7Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen, ThailandBackground: Exercise has been shown to be effective in cardiovascular endurance in the elderly. We studied the effect of Thai dancing on physical performance of Thai elderly.Methods: This was an open-labeled, randomized intervention study. The Thai dancing group exercised for 40 minutes three times a week for 6 weeks. Physical performance ability was the primary outcome, including a 6-minute walk test (6MWT, five-times sit-to-stand (FTSST, and a sit-and-reach test measured before and after 6 weeks of intervention.Results: There were 42 subjects enrolled in the study, and 38 female subjects completed (20 in Thai dance group, 18 controls, with an average age of 65.8 ± 5.1 years. The Thai dance group had significantly better physical performance in all measurements at the end of the study. The 6MWT was longer (416.7 ± 58.7 versus 345.7 ± 55.1 m; P = 0.011, FTSST was quicker (10.2 ± 1.5 versus 14.4 ± 3.3 seconds; P < 0.001, and flexibility was higher (14.9 ± 3.5 versus 11.1 ± 5.7 cm; P = 0.002 in the Thai dance group than the control group.Conclusion: Thai dance can improve physical performance in recently aged (elderly female adults

  2. The Cluster-Randomized BRIGHT Trial: Proactive Case Finding for Community-Dwelling Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerse, Ngaire; McLean, Chris; Moyes, Simon A.; Peri, Kathy; Ng, Terence; Wilkinson-Meyers, Laura; Brown, Paul; Latham, Nancy; Connolly, Martin

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE People are now living longer, but disability may affect the quality of those additional years of life. We undertook a trial to assess whether case finding reduces disability among older primary care patients. METHODS We conducted a cluster-randomized trial of the Brief Risk Identification Geriatric Health Tool (BRIGHT) among 60 primary care practices in New Zealand, assigning them to an intervention or control group. Intervention practices sent a BRIGHT screening tool to older adults every birthday; those with a score of 3 or higher were referred to regional geriatric services for assessment and, if needed, service provision. Control practices provided usual care. Main outcomes, assessed in blinded fashion, were residential care placement and hospitalization, and secondary outcomes were disability, assessed with Nottingham Extended Activities of Daily Living Scale (NEADL), and quality of life, assessed with the World Health Organization Quality of Life scale, abbreviated version (WHOQOL-BREF). RESULTS All 8,308 community-dwelling patients aged 75 years and older were approached; 3,893 (47%) participated, of whom 3,010 (77%) completed the trial. Their mean age was 80.3 (SD 4.5) years, and 55% were women. Overall, 88% of the intervention group returned a BRIGHT tool; 549 patients were referred. After 36 months, patients in the intervention group were more likely than those in the control group to have been placed in residential care: 8.4% vs 6.2% (hazard ratio = 1.32; 95% CI, 1.04–1.68; P = .02). Intervention patients had smaller declines in mean scores for physical health-related quality of life (1.6 vs 2.9 points, P = .007) and psychological health-related quality of life (1.1 vs 2.4 points, P = .005). Hospitalization, disability, and use of services did not differ between groups, however. CONCLUSIONS Our case-finding strategy was effective in increasing identification of older adults with disability, but there was little evidence of improved outcomes

  3. An adaptive physical activity intervention for overweight adults: a randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc A Adams

    Full Text Available Physical activity (PA interventions typically include components or doses that are static across participants. Adaptive interventions are dynamic; components or doses change in response to short-term variations in participant's performance. Emerging theory and technologies make adaptive goal setting and feedback interventions feasible.To test an adaptive intervention for PA based on Operant and Behavior Economic principles and a percentile-based algorithm. The adaptive intervention was hypothesized to result in greater increases in steps per day than the static intervention.Participants (N = 20 were randomized to one of two 6-month treatments: 1 static intervention (SI or 2 adaptive intervention (AI. Inactive overweight adults (85% women, M = 36.9 ± 9.2 years, 35% non-white in both groups received a pedometer, email and text message communication, brief health information, and biweekly motivational prompts. The AI group received daily step goals that adjusted up and down based on the percentile-rank algorithm and micro-incentives for goal attainment. This algorithm adjusted goals based on a moving window; an approach that responded to each individual's performance and ensured goals were always challenging but within participants' abilities. The SI group received a static 10,000 steps/day goal with incentives linked to uploading the pedometer's data.A random-effects repeated-measures model accounted for 180 repeated measures and autocorrelation. After adjusting for covariates, the treatment phase showed greater steps/day relative to the baseline phase (p<.001 and a group by study phase interaction was observed (p  .017. The SI group increased by 1,598 steps/day on average between baseline and treatment while the AI group increased by 2,728 steps/day on average between baseline and treatment; a significant between-group difference of 1,130 steps/day (Cohen's d = .74.The adaptive intervention outperformed the static intervention for increasing

  4. Temporal dynamics of attentional selection in adult male carriers of the fragile X premutation allele and adult controls

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    Ling Mei Wong

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Carriers of the fragile X premutation allele (fXPCs have an expanded CGG trinucleotide repeat size within the emph{FMR1} gene and are at increased risk of developing Fragile X-associated Tremor Ataxia Syndrome (FXTAS. Previous research has shown that male fXPCs with FXTAS exhibit cognitive decline, predominantly in executive functions such as inhibitory control and working memory. Recent evidence suggests fXPCs may also exhibit impairments in processing temporal information. The attentional blink (AB task is often used to examine the dynamics of attentional selection, but disagreements exist as to whether the AB is due to excessive or insufficient attentional control. In this study, we used a variant of the AB task and neuropsychological testing to explore the dynamics of attentional selection, relate AB performance to attentional control, and determine whether fXPCs exhibited temporal and/or attentional control impairments. Participants were adult male fXPCs, aged 18--48 years and asymptomatic for FXTAS (emph{n} = 19 and age-matched male controls (emph{n} = 20. We found that fXPCs did not differ from controls in the AB task, indicating that the temporal dynamics of attentional selection were intact. However, they were impaired in the letter-number sequencing task, a test of attentional control. In the combined fXPC and control group, letter-number sequencing performance correlated positively with AB magnitude. This finding supports models that posit the AB is due to excess attentional control. In our two-pronged analysis approach, we contribute to the theoretical literature in controls by extending the AB literature, and we enhance our understanding of fXPCs by demonstrating that at least some aspects of temporal processing may be spared.

  5. Effects of nurse-led child- and parent-focused violence intervention on mentally ill adult patients and victimized parents: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Gwo-Ching; Hsu, Mei-Chi

    2016-08-01

    Child-to-parent violence is an often hidden serious problem for parental caregivers of mentally ill adult children who experience violence toward them. To date, the comprehensive dyadic parent-adult child intervention to manage child-to-parent violence is scarce. To evaluate the effect of Child- and Parent-focused Violence Program, an adjunctive intervention involved with both violent adult children with mental illness and their victimized biological parent (parent-adult child dyads) on violence management. Open-label randomized controlled trial. A psychiatric ward in a teaching hospital and two mental hospitals in Southern Taiwan. Sixty-nine patients aged ≥20 years, with thought or mood disorders, having violent behavior in the past 6 months toward their biological parent of either gender were recruited. The violent patients' victimized biological parents who had a major and ongoing role in provision of care to these patients, living together with and being assaulted by their violent children were also recruited. The parent-adult child dyads were selected. The intervention was carried out from 2011 to 2013. The parent-adult child dyads were randomly assigned to either the experimental group (36 dyads), which received Child- and Parent-focused Violence Intervention Program, or to the control group (33 dyads), which received only routine psychiatric care. The intervention included two individualized sessions for each patient and parent, separately, and 2 conjoint sessions for each parental-child dyad for a total of 6 sessions. Each session lasted for at least 60-min. Data collection was conducted at 3 different time frames: pre-treatment, post-treatment, and treatment follow-up (one month after the completion of the intervention). Occurrence of violence prior to intervention was comparable between two groups: 88.9% (n=32) parents in the experimental group versus 93.9% (n=31) in the control group experienced verbal attack, and 50% (n=18) versus 48.5% (n=16

  6. Multi-Label Learning via Random Label Selection for Protein Subcellular Multi-Locations Prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao; Li, Guo-Zheng

    2013-03-12

    Prediction of protein subcellular localization is an important but challenging problem, particularly when proteins may simultaneously exist at, or move between, two or more different subcellular location sites. Most of the existing protein subcellular localization methods are only used to deal with the single-location proteins. In the past few years, only a few methods have been proposed to tackle proteins with multiple locations. However, they only adopt a simple strategy, that is, transforming the multi-location proteins to multiple proteins with single location, which doesn't take correlations among different subcellular locations into account. In this paper, a novel method named RALS (multi-label learning via RAndom Label Selection), is proposed to learn from multi-location proteins in an effective and efficient way. Through five-fold cross validation test on a benchmark dataset, we demonstrate our proposed method with consideration of label correlations obviously outperforms the baseline BR method without consideration of label correlations, indicating correlations among different subcellular locations really exist and contribute to improvement of prediction performance. Experimental results on two benchmark datasets also show that our proposed methods achieve significantly higher performance than some other state-of-the-art methods in predicting subcellular multi-locations of proteins. The prediction web server is available at http://levis.tongji.edu.cn:8080/bioinfo/MLPred-Euk/ for the public usage.

  7. Pesticides, selected elements, and other chemicals in adult total diet samples October 1979-September 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gartrell, M.J.; Craun, J.C.; Podrebarac, D.S.; Gunderson, E.L.

    1985-01-01

    The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) conducts Total Diet Studies to determine the dietary intake of selected pesticides, industrial chemicals, and elements (including radionuclides). These studies involve the retail purchase and analysis of foods representative of the diets of infants, toddlers, and adults. The individual food items are separated into a number of food groups, each of which is analyzed as a composite. This report summarizes the results for adult Total Diet samples collected in 20 cities between October 1979 and September 1980. The average concentration, range of concentrations, and calculated average daily intake of each chemical found are presented by food group. The average daily intakes of the chemicals are similar to those found in the several preceding years and are within acceptable limits. The results for samples collected during the same period that represent the diets of infants and toddlers are reported separately

  8. Facemasks, hand hygiene, and influenza among young adults: a randomized intervention trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison E Aiello

    Full Text Available Limited vaccine availability and the potential for resistance to antiviral medications have led to calls for establishing the efficacy of non-pharmaceutical measures for mitigating pandemic influenza. Our objective was to examine if the use of face masks and hand hygiene reduced rates of influenza-like illness (ILI and laboratory-confirmed influenza in the natural setting. A cluster-randomized intervention trial was designed involving 1,178 young adults living in 37 residence houses in 5 university residence halls during the 2007-2008 influenza season. Participants were assigned to face mask and hand hygiene, face mask only, or control group during the study. Discrete-time survival models using generalized estimating equations to estimate intervention effects on ILI and confirmed influenza A/B infection over a 6-week study period were examined. A significant reduction in the rate of ILI was observed in weeks 3 through 6 of the study, with a maximum reduction of 75% during the final study week (rate ratio [RR] = 0.25, [95% CI, 0.07 to 0.87]. Both intervention groups compared to the control showed cumulative reductions in rates of influenza over the study period, although results did not reach statistical significance. Generalizability limited to similar settings and age groups. Face masks and hand hygiene combined may reduce the rate of ILI and confirmed influenza in community settings. These non-pharmaceutical measures should be recommended in crowded settings at the start of an influenza pandemic.[corrected] Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00490633.

  9. Facemasks, Hand Hygiene, and Influenza among Young Adults: A Randomized Intervention Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiello, Allison E.; Perez, Vanessa; Coulborn, Rebecca M.; Davis, Brian M.; Uddin, Monica; Monto, Arnold S.

    2012-01-01

    Limited vaccine availability and the potential for resistance to antiviral medications have led to calls for establishing the efficacy of non-pharmaceutical measures for mitigating pandemic influenza. Our objective was to examine if the use of face masks and hand hygiene reduced rates of influenza-like illness (ILI) and laboratory-confirmed influenza in the natural setting. A cluster-randomized intervention trial was designed involving 1,178 young adults living in 37 residence houses in 5 university residence halls during the 2007–2008 influenza season. Participants were assigned to face mask and hand hygiene, face mask only, or control group during the study. Discrete-time survival models using generalized estimating equations to estimate intervention effects on ILI and confirmed influenza A/B infection over a 6-week study period were examined. A significant reduction in the rate of ILI was observed in weeks 3 through 6 of the study, with a maximum reduction of 75% during the final study week (rate ratio [RR] = 0.25, [95% CI, 0.07 to 0.87]). Both intervention groups compared to the control showed cumulative reductions in rates of influenza over the study period, although results did not reach statistical significance. Generalizability limited to similar settings and age groups. Face masks and hand hygiene combined may reduce the rate of ILI and confirmed influenza in community settings. These non-pharmaceutical measures should be recommended in crowded settings at the start of an influenza pandemic. Trail Registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT00490633 PMID:22295066

  10. A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial to Promote Immunosuppressant Adherence in Adult Kidney Transplant Recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cukor, Daniel; Ver Halen, Nisha; Pencille, Melissa; Tedla, Fasika; Salifu, Moro

    2017-01-01

    Nonadherence to immunosuppressant medication is a prevalent practice among kidney transplant recipients and has been associated with increased risk for graft failure and economic burden. The aim of this pilot study was to test whether a culturally sensitive cognitive-behavioral adherence promotion program could significantly improve medication adherence to tacrolimus prescription as measured by telephone pill counts among kidney transplant recipients. Thirty-three adult transplant recipients were less than 98% adherent to tacrolimus prescription based on 3 telephone pill counts and were randomized either to the 2-session cognitive-behavioral adherence promotion program or to standard care. The curriculum was developed from an iterative process with transplant recipients into a 2-session group program that provided psychoeducation, addressed barriers to adherence, fostered motivation to improve adherence behavior, and discussed cultural messages on adherence behavior. The intervention group displayed significantly higher levels of adherence when compared to the control group (t = 2.2, p = 0.04) and. similarly, when the amount of change was compared between the groups, the intervention group showed more change than the control condition (F (22,1) = 12.005, p = 0.003). Tacrolimus trough concentration levels were used as a secondary measure of adherence and, while there were no significant between-group differences for mean trough concentration levels, the variability in the trough levels did significantly decrease over time indicating more consistent pill-taking behavior in the intervention group. There is preliminary support for the pilot program as a successful intervention in helping patients with their immunosuppressant medication. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. A randomized controlled trial examining Iyengar yoga for young adults with rheumatoid arthritis: a study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sternlieb Beth

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic, disabling disease that can compromise mobility, daily functioning, and health-related quality of life, especially in older adolescents and young adults. In this project, we will compare a standardized Iyengar yoga program for young people with rheumatoid arthritis to a standard care wait-list control condition. Methods/Design Seventy rheumatoid arthritis patients aged 16-35 years will be randomized into either the 6-week Iyengar yoga program (12 - 1.5 hour sessions twice weekly or the 6-week wait-list control condition. A 20% attrition rate is anticipated. The wait-list group will receive the yoga program following completion of the first arm of the study. We will collect data quantitatively, using questionnaires and markers of disease activity, and qualitatively using semi-structured interviews. Assessments include standardized measures of general and arthritis-specific function, pain, mood, and health-related quality of life, as well as qualitative interviews, blood pressure/resting heart rate measurements, a medical exam and the assessment of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Data will be collected three times: before treatment, post-treatment, and two months following the treatment. Discussion Results from this study will provide critical data on non-pharmacologic methods for enhancing function in rheumatoid arthritis patients. In particular, results will shed light on the feasibility and potential efficacy of a novel intervention for rheumatoid arthritis symptoms, paving the way for a larger clinical trial. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01096823

  12. Electroacupuncture for older adults with mild cognitive impairment: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Albert Wing Nang; Lam, Linda Chiu Wa; Kwan, Andrew Ka Lun; Tsang, Celia Lai Lin; Zhang, Hong Wei; Guo, Yuan Qi; Xu, Chuan Shan

    2015-05-27

    Mild cognitive impairment is an intermediary state between normal aging and clinical Alzheimer's disease. Early intervention of mild cognitive impairment may be an important strategy in the management of Alzheimer's disease. The proposal aims to evaluate if electroacupuncture would optimize cognitive function in subjects with mild cognitive impairment and understand the role of electroacupuncture in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. A randomised patient- and assessor-blind sham-controlled trial is designed to assess whether electroacupuncture intervention decreases the rate of cognitive decline amongst older adults with mild cognitive impairment. One hundred and fifty subjects aged 65 years of age or over with a diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment are recruited from the community and elderly centre in Hong Kong. All subjects are randomly allocated into two groups (75 subjects each group): the electroacupuncture group and sham control. Participants in the electroacupuncture group receive electroacupuncture stimulation by sterile, disposable acupuncture needles inserted to the acupoints with a depth of 1 to 3 cm. The acupuncture needles are subjected to 2 Hz electroacupuncture with an intensity of 5 to 10 mA. Each participant receives electroacupuncture for 8 weeks (once a day, 3 days a week) and the treatment lasts for 30 minutes each time. For sham electroacupuncture, needles are inserted to a depth of 1 to 2 mm, and connected to the electroacupuncture device without any current passing through. Outcome measures (including primary and secondary outcome measures) are collected at baseline, at the end day of intervention, and months 4 and 6 after intervention. The primary outcome is measured by the Alzheimer Disease Assessment Scale-Cognitive subscale. Secondary outcomes are measured by the mini-mental state examination, category fluency text and the Short Form 12. The study will provide evidence for evaluating and understanding the role of electroacupuncture

  13. Effects of exercise on brain activity during walking in older adults: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Hiroyuki; Ishii, Kenji; Makizako, Hyuma; Ishiwata, Kiichi; Oda, Keiichi; Suzukawa, Megumi

    2017-05-30

    Physical activity may preserve neuronal plasticity, increase synapse formation, and cause the release of hormonal factors that promote neurogenesis and neuronal function. Previous studies have reported enhanced neurocognitive function following exercise training. However, the specific cortical regions activated during exercise training remain largely undefined. In this study, we quantitatively and objectively evaluated the effects of exercise on brain activity during walking in healthy older adults. A total of 24 elderly women (75-83 years old) were randomly allocated to either an intervention group or a control group. Those in the intervention group attended 3 months of biweekly 90-min sessions focused on aerobic exercise, strength training, and physical therapy. We monitored changes in regional cerebral glucose metabolism during walking in both groups using positron emission tomography (PET) and [ 18 F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG). All subjects completed the 3-month experiment and the adherence to the exercise program was 100%. Compared with the control group, the intervention group showed a significantly greater step length in the right foot after 3 months of physical activity. The FDG-PET assessment revealed a significant post-intervention increase in regional glucose metabolism in the left posterior entorhinal cortex, left superior temporal gyrus, and right superior temporopolar area in the intervention group. Interestingly, the control group showed a relative increase in regional glucose metabolism in the left premotor and supplemental motor areas, left and right somatosensory association cortex, and right primary visual cortex after the 3-month period. We found no significant differences in FDG uptake between the intervention and control groups before vs. after the intervention. Exercise training increased activity in specific brain regions, such as the precuneus and entorhinal cortices, which play an important role in episodic and spatial memory. Further

  14. Selective grazing by adults and larvae of the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha): application of flow cytometry to natural seston

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pires, L.M.D.; Jonker, R.M.; Van Donk, E.; Laanbroek, H.J.

    2004-01-01

    1. Selective grazing of adults and larvae of the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) on phytoplankton and detritus from both laboratory cultures and natural seston was quantified using flow cytometry. 2. Mean clearance rate of adult zebra mussels was higher on a mixture of the green alga Scenedesmus

  15. Selective grazing by adults and larvae of the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha): application of flow cytometry to natural seston

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dionisio Pires, L.M.; Jonker, R.R.; Donk, E.van; Laanbroek, H.J.

    2004-01-01

    1. Selective grazing of adults and larvae of the zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) on phytoplankton and detritus from both laboratory cultures and natural seston was quantified using flow cytometry. 2. Mean clearance rate of adult zebra mussels was higher on a mixture of the green

  16. Adult health study reference papers. Selection of the sample. Characteristics of the sample

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beebe, G W; Fujisawa, Hideo; Yamasaki, Mitsuru

    1960-12-14

    The characteristics and selection of the clinical sample have been described in some detail to provide information on the comparability of the exposure groups with respect to factors excluded from the matching criteria and to provide basic descriptive information potentially relevant to individual studies that may be done within the framework of the Adult Health Study. The characteristics under review here are age, sex, many different aspects of residence, marital status, occupation and industry, details of location and shielding ATB, acute radiation signs and symptoms, and prior ABCC medical or pathology examinations. 5 references, 57 tables.

  17. Avocado Consumption Increases Macular Pigment Density in Older Adults: A Randomized, Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tammy M. Scott

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Lutein is selectively incorporated into the macula and brain. Lutein levels in the macula (macular pigment; MP and the brain are related to better cognition. MP density (MPD is a biomarker of brain lutein. Avocados are a bioavailable source of lutein. This study tests the effects of the intake of avocado on cognition. This was a six-month, randomized, controlled trial. Healthy subjects consumed one avocado (n = 20, 0.5 mg/day lutein, AV vs. one potato or one cup of chickpeas (n = 20, 0 mg/day lutein, C. Serum lutein, MPD, and cognition were assessed at zero, three, and six months. Primary analyses were conducted according to intent-to-treat principles, with repeated-measures analysis. At six months, AV increased serum lutein levels by 25% from baseline (p = 0.001. C increased by 15% (p = 0.030. At six months, there was an increase in MPD from baseline in AV (p = 0.001 and no increase in C. For both groups, there was an improvement in memory and spatial working memory (p = 0.001; p = 0.032, respectively. For AV only there was improved sustained attention (p = 0.033, and the MPD increase was related to improved working memory and efficiency in approaching a problem (p = 0.036. Dietary recommendations including avocados may be an effective strategy for cognitive health.

  18. Avocado Consumption Increases Macular Pigment Density in Older Adults: A Randomized, Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Tammy M; Rasmussen, Helen M; Chen, Oliver; Johnson, Elizabeth J

    2017-08-23

    Lutein is selectively incorporated into the macula and brain. Lutein levels in the macula (macular pigment; MP) and the brain are related to better cognition. MP density (MPD) is a biomarker of brain lutein. Avocados are a bioavailable source of lutein. This study tests the effects of the intake of avocado on cognition. This was a six-month, randomized, controlled trial. Healthy subjects consumed one avocado ( n = 20, 0.5 mg/day lutein, AV) vs. one potato or one cup of chickpeas ( n = 20, 0 mg/day lutein, C). Serum lutein, MPD, and cognition were assessed at zero, three, and six months. Primary analyses were conducted according to intent-to-treat principles, with repeated-measures analysis. At six months, AV increased serum lutein levels by 25% from baseline ( p = 0.001). C increased by 15% ( p = 0.030). At six months, there was an increase in MPD from baseline in AV ( p = 0.001) and no increase in C. For both groups, there was an improvement in memory and spatial working memory ( p = 0.001; p = 0.032, respectively). For AV only there was improved sustained attention ( p = 0.033), and the MPD increase was related to improved working memory and efficiency in approaching a problem ( p = 0.036). Dietary recommendations including avocados may be an effective strategy for cognitive health.

  19. Effects of music and music video interventions on sleep quality: A randomized controlled trial in adults with sleep disturbances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chiung-Yu; Chang, En-Ting; Hsieh, Yuan-Mei; Lai, Hui-Ling

    2017-10-01

    The present study aimed to compare the effects of music and music video interventions on objective and subjective sleep quality in adults with sleep disturbances. A randomized controlled trial was performed on 71 adults who were recruited from the outpatient department of a hospital with 1100 beds and randomly assigned to the control, music, and music video groups. During the 4 test days (Days 2-5), for 30min before nocturnal sleep, the music group listened to Buddhist music and the music video group watched Buddhist music videos. They were instructed to not listen/watch to the music/MV on the first night (pretest, Day 1) and the final night (Day 6). The control group received no intervention. Sleep was assessed using a one-channel electroencephalography machine in their homes and self-reported questionnaires. The music and music video interventions had no effect on any objective sleep parameters, as measured using electroencephalography. However, the music group had significantly longer subjective total sleep time than the music video group did (Wald χ 2 =6.23, p=0.04). Our study results increase knowledge regarding music interventions for sleep quality in adults with sleep disturbances. This study suggested that more research is required to strengthen the scientific knowledge of the effects of music intervention on sleep quality in adults with sleep disturbances. (ISRCTN94971645). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Efficacy and safety of almorexant in adult chronic insomnia: a randomized placebo-controlled trial with an active reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Jed; Pillar, Giora; Hedner, Jan; Polo, Olli; Berkani, Ouali; Mangialaio, Sara; Hmissi, Abdel; Zammit, Gary; Hajak, Goran

    2017-08-01

    The orally active dual OX 1 R and OX 2 R antagonist, almorexant, targets the orexin system for the treatment of primary insomnia. This clinical trial assessed the effect of almorexant on sleep maintenance and other sleep endpoints, and its safety and tolerability in adults. Prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, active referenced trial in male and female adults aged 18-64 years with chronic, primary insomnia. Patients were randomized 1:1:1:1 to receive placebo, almorexant 100 mg, almorexant 200 mg, or zolpidem 10 mg (active reference) for 16 days. Primary efficacy assessments were objective (polysomnography-measured) and subjective (patient-recorded) wake time after sleep onset (WASO). Further sleep variables were also evaluated. From 709 randomized patients, 707 (mean age 45.4 years; 61.7% female) received treatment and 663 (93.8%) completed the study. A significant decrease versus placebo in median objective WASO was observed with almorexant 200 mg at the start and end of randomized treatment (-26.8 min and -19.5 min, respectively; both p system in insomnia disorder. CLINICALTRIALS. NCT00608985. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Differential privacy-based evaporative cooling feature selection and classification with relief-F and random forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Trang T; Simmons, W Kyle; Misaki, Masaya; Bodurka, Jerzy; White, Bill C; Savitz, Jonathan; McKinney, Brett A

    2017-09-15

    Classification of individuals into disease or clinical categories from high-dimensional biological data with low prediction error is an important challenge of statistical learning in bioinformatics. Feature selection can improve classification accuracy but must be incorporated carefully into cross-validation to avoid overfitting. Recently, feature selection methods based on differential privacy, such as differentially private random forests and reusable holdout sets, have been proposed. However, for domains such as bioinformatics, where the number of features is much larger than the number of observations p≫n , these differential privacy methods are susceptible to overfitting. We introduce private Evaporative Cooling, a stochastic privacy-preserving machine learning algorithm that uses Relief-F for feature selection and random forest for privacy preserving classification that also prevents overfitting. We relate the privacy-preserving threshold mechanism to a thermodynamic Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution, where the temperature represents the privacy threshold. We use the thermal statistical physics concept of Evaporative Cooling of atomic gases to perform backward stepwise privacy-preserving feature selection. On simulated data with main effects and statistical interactions, we compare accuracies on holdout and validation sets for three privacy-preserving methods: the reusable holdout, reusable holdout with random forest, and private Evaporative Cooling, which uses Relief-F feature selection and random forest classification. In simulations where interactions exist between attributes, private Evaporative Cooling provides higher classification accuracy without overfitting based on an independent validation set. In simulations without interactions, thresholdout with random forest and private Evaporative Cooling give comparable accuracies. We also apply these privacy methods to human brain resting-state fMRI data from a study of major depressive disorder. Code

  2. A randomized controlled trial of brain training with non-action video games in older adults: Results of the 3-month follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soledad eBallesteros

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This randomized controlled study (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02007616 investigated the maintenance of training effects of 20 1-hr non-action video game training sessions with selected games from a commercial package on several age-declining cognitive functions and subjective wellbeing after a 3-month no-contact period. Two groups of cognitively normal older adults participated in both the post-training (posttest and the present follow-up study, the experimental group who received training and the control group who attended several meetings with the research team during the study but did not receive training. Groups were similar at baseline on demographics, vocabulary, global cognition, and depression status. Significant improvements in the trained group, and no variation in the control group had been previously found at posttest, in processing speed, attention and visual recognition memory, as well as in two dimensions of subjective wellbeing. In the current study, improvement from baseline to 3 months follow-up was found only in wellbeing (Affection and Assertivity dimensions in the trained group whereas there was no change in the control group. Previous significant improvements in processing speed, attention and spatial memory become nonsignificant after the 3-month interval. Training older adults with non-action video games enhanced aspects of cognition just after training but this effect disappeared after a 3-month no-contact follow-up period. Cognitive plasticity can be induced in older adults by training, but to maintain the benefits periodic boosting sessions would be necessary.

  3. Bayesian dose selection design for a binary outcome using restricted response adaptive randomization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinzer, Caitlyn; Martin, Renee; Suarez, Jose I

    2017-09-08

    In phase II trials, the most efficacious dose is usually not known. Moreover, given limited resources, it is difficult to robustly identify a dose while also testing for a signal of efficacy that would support a phase III trial. Recent designs have sought to be more efficient by exploring multiple doses through the use of adaptive strategies. However, the added flexibility may potentially increase the risk of making incorrect assumptions and reduce the total amount of information available across the dose range as a function of imbalanced sample size. To balance these challenges, a novel placebo-controlled design is presented in which a restricted Bayesian response adaptive randomization (RAR) is used to allocate a majority of subjects to the optimal dose of active drug, defined as the dose with the lowest probability of poor outcome. However, the allocation between subjects who receive active drug or placebo is held constant to retain the maximum possible power for a hypothesis test of overall efficacy comparing the optimal dose to placebo. The design properties and optimization of the design are presented in the context of a phase II trial for subarachnoid hemorrhage. For a fixed total sample size, a trade-off exists between the ability to select the optimal dose and the probability of rejecting the null hypothesis. This relationship is modified by the allocation ratio between active and control subjects, the choice of RAR algorithm, and the number of subjects allocated to an initial fixed allocation period. While a responsive RAR algorithm improves the ability to select the correct dose, there is an increased risk of assigning more subjects to a worse arm as a function of ephemeral trends in the data. A subarachnoid treatment trial is used to illustrate how this design can be customized for specific objectives and available data. Bayesian adaptive designs are a flexible approach to addressing multiple questions surrounding the optimal dose for treatment efficacy

  4. A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial of Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761 in a sample of cognitively intact older adults: neuropsychological findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mix, Joseph A; Crews, W David

    2002-08-01

    There appears to be an absence of large-scaled clinical trials that have examined the efficacy of Ginkgo biloba extract on the neuropsychological functioning of cognitively intact older adults. The importance of such clinical research appears paramount in light of the plethora of products containing Ginkgo biloba that are currently being widely marketed to predominantly cognitively intact adults with claims of enhanced cognitive performances. The purpose of this research was to conduct the first known, large-scaled clinical trial of the efficacy of Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761) on the neuropsychological functioning of cognitively intact older adults. Two hundred and sixty-two community-dwelling volunteers (both male and female) 60 years of age and older, who reported no history of dementia or significant neurocognitive impairments and obtained Mini-Mental State Examination total scores of at least 26, were examined via a 6-week, randomized, double-blind, fixed-dose, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, clinical trial. Participants were randomly assigned to receive either Ginkgo biloba extract EGb 761(n = 131; 180 mg/day) or placebo (n = 131) for 6 weeks. Efficacy measures consisted of participants' raw change in performance scores from pretreatment baseline to those obtained just prior to termination of treatment on the following standardized neuropsychological measures: Selective Reminding Test (SRT), Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III Block Design (WAIS-III BD) and Digit Symbol-Coding (WAIS-III DS) subtests, and the Wechsler Memory Scale-III Faces I (WMS-III FI) and Faces II (WMS-III FII) subtests. A subjective Follow-up Self-report Questionnaire was also administered to participants just prior to termination of the treatment phase. Analyses of covariance indicated that cognitively intact participants who received 180 mg of EGb 761 daily for 6 weeks exhibited significantly more improvement on SRT tasks involving delayed (30 min) free recall (p visual material

  5. Using ArcMap, Google Earth, and Global Positioning Systems to select and locate random households in rural Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wampler, Peter J; Rediske, Richard R; Molla, Azizur R

    2013-01-18

    A remote sensing technique was developed which combines a Geographic Information System (GIS); Google Earth, and Microsoft Excel to identify home locations for a random sample of households in rural Haiti. The method was used to select homes for ethnographic and water quality research in a region of rural Haiti located within 9 km of a local hospital and source of health education in Deschapelles, Haiti. The technique does not require access to governmental records or ground based surveys to collect household location data and can be performed in a rapid, cost-effective manner. The random selection of households and the location of these households during field surveys were accomplished using GIS, Google Earth, Microsoft Excel, and handheld Garmin GPSmap 76CSx GPS units. Homes were identified and mapped in Google Earth, exported to ArcMap 10.0, and a random list of homes was generated using Microsoft Excel which was then loaded onto handheld GPS units for field location. The development and use of a remote sensing method was essential to the selection and location of random households. A total of 537 homes initially were mapped and a randomized subset of 96 was identified as potential survey locations. Over 96% of the homes mapped using Google Earth imagery were correctly identified as occupied dwellings. Only 3.6% of the occupants of mapped homes visited declined to be interviewed. 16.4% of the homes visited were not occupied at the time of the visit due to work away from the home or market days. A total of 55 households were located using this method during the 10 days of fieldwork in May and June of 2012. The method used to generate and field locate random homes for surveys and water sampling was an effective means of selecting random households in a rural environment lacking geolocation infrastructure. The success rate for locating households using a handheld GPS was excellent and only rarely was local knowledge required to identify and locate households. This

  6. Using ArcMap, Google Earth, and Global Positioning Systems to select and locate random households in rural Haiti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wampler Peter J

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A remote sensing technique was developed which combines a Geographic Information System (GIS; Google Earth, and Microsoft Excel to identify home locations for a random sample of households in rural Haiti. The method was used to select homes for ethnographic and water quality research in a region of rural Haiti located within 9 km of a local hospital and source of health education in Deschapelles, Haiti. The technique does not require access to governmental records or ground based surveys to collect household location data and can be performed in a rapid, cost-effective manner. Methods The random selection of households and the location of these households during field surveys were accomplished using GIS, Google Earth, Microsoft Excel, and handheld Garmin GPSmap 76CSx GPS units. Homes were identified and mapped in Google Earth, exported to ArcMap 10.0, and a random list of homes was generated using Microsoft Excel which was then loaded onto handheld GPS units for field location. The development and use of a remote sensing method was essential to the selection and location of random households. Results A total of 537 homes initially were mapped and a randomized subset of 96 was identified as potential survey locations. Over 96% of the homes mapped using Google Earth imagery were correctly identified as occupied dwellings. Only 3.6% of the occupants of mapped homes visited declined to be interviewed. 16.4% of the homes visited were not occupied at the time of the visit due to work away from the home or market days. A total of 55 households were located using this method during the 10 days of fieldwork in May and June of 2012. Conclusions The method used to generate and field locate random homes for surveys and water sampling was an effective means of selecting random households in a rural environment lacking geolocation infrastructure. The success rate for locating households using a handheld GPS was excellent and only

  7. Selected Food Consumption Mediates the Association between Education Level and Metabolic Syndrome in Korean Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Oh Yoen; Kwak, So-Young; Kim, Boeun; Kim, Young-Sun; Kim, Hye Young; Shin, Min-Jeong

    2017-01-01

    Low socioeconomic status (SES) is linked to higher incidence/mortality of cardiovascular disease, but emerging evidence inconsistently reported that education level, a proxy for SES, is related to cardiovascular risk and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in Koreans. Furthermore, limited information is available on whether dietary components would mediate the relationship between education level and cardiovascular risk. We hypothesized that selected food consumption mediates the association between education level and MetS prevalence. Data from the Korea National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (2008-2011) were included in cross-sectional analyses (n = 11,029, 30-64 years). The possible mediating effect of selected food groups (fruits, raw vegetables, red meat, milk, and soft drinks) on the association between education level and MetS was tested using a multiple mediation model. Education level was negatively associated with MetS prevalence. The association between lower education level and higher MetS prevalence was partially mediated by selected food consumption (lower intakes of fruit, red meat and milk; higher intakes of vegetable and soft drink) after adjusted for covariates. Gender also modified the association between education level and MetS prevalence that was more prominent in women than in men. Selected food consumption substantially contributes to the association between education level and MetS in Korean adults, especially among women. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Effect of adult weight and CT-based selection on rabbit meat quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zsolt Szendrő

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study compared the meat quality of different genotypes. Maternal (M; adult weight/AW/=4.0-4.5kg; selected for the number of kits born alive, Pannon White (P; AW=4.3-4.8kg and Large type (L; AW=4.8-5.4kg rabbits were analysed. P and L genotypes were selected for carcass traits based on CT/Computer tomography/data. Rabbits were slaughtered at 11wk of age and hindleg (HL meat and M. Longissimus dorsi (LD were analysed for proximate composition and fatty acid (FA profile. Proximate composition was unaffected by the selection programme, even though the meat of P rabbits was leaner and had higher ash content (P<0.10. The LD meat of P rabbits exhibited significantly lower MUFA contents compared to M and L rabbits (25.4 vs 28.0 vs 27.7%; P<0.01 and higher PUFA content compared to M rabbits (31.9 vs 24.9%; P<0.05. This study revealed that long-term CT-based selection is effective in increasing meat leanness and PUFA content.

  9. Postbreeding resource selection by adult black-footed ferrets in the Conata Basin, South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eads, D.A.; Millspaugh, J.J.; Biggins, D.E.; Livieri, T.M.; Jachowski, D.S.

    2011-01-01

    We investigated postbreeding resource selection by adult black-footed ferrets (Mustela nigripes) on a 452-ha black-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys ludovicianus) colony in the Conata Basin of South Dakota during 20072008. We used resource selection functions (RSFs) to evaluate relationships between numbers of ferret locations and numbers of prairie dog burrow openings (total or active), distances to colony edges, and connectivity of patches of burrow openings. In both years ferrets selected areas near edges of the prairie dog colony where active burrow openings were abundant. In the interior of the colony ferrets selected areas with low abundance of active burrow openings. At times, prairie dog productivity (i.e., pup abundance) might be greatest at colony edges often characterized by grasses; ferrets are likely to select areas where refuge and vulnerable prey are abundant. Ferrets could have used interior areas with few active burrow openings as corridors between edge areas with many active burrow openings. Also, in areas with few active burrow openings ferrets spend more time aboveground during movements and, thus, are likely to be more easily detected. These results complement previous studies demonstrating importance of refuge and prey in fine-scale resource selection by ferrets and provide insight into factors that might influence edge effects on ferret space use. Conservation and restoration of colonies with areas with high densities of burrow openings and prairie dogs, and corridors between such areas, are needed for continued recovery of the black-footed ferret. RSFs could complement coarse-scale habitat evaluations by providing finer-scale assessments of habitat for the black-footed ferret. ?? 2011 American Society of Mammalogists.

  10. Study protocol: effect of playful training on functional abilities of older adults - a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessen, Jari Due; Lund, Henrik Hautop

    2017-01-19

    Loss of functional capabilities due to inactivity is one of the most common reasons for fall accidents, and it has been well established that loss of capabilities can be effectively reduced by physical activity. Pilot studies indicate a possible improvement in functional abilities of community dwelling elderly as a result of short-term playing with an exergame system in the form of interactive modular tiles. Such playful training may be motivational to perform and viewed by the subjects to offer life-fulfilling quality, while providing improvement in physical abilities, e.g. related to prevent fall accidents. The RCT will test for a variety of health parameters of community-dwelling elderly playing on interactive modular tiles. The study will be a single blinded, randomized controlled trial with 60 community-dwelling adults 70+ years. The trial will consist an intervention group of 30 participants training with the interactive modular tiles, and a control group of 30 participants that will receive the usual care provided to non-patient elderly. The intervention period will be 12 weeks. The intervention group will perform group training (4-5 individuals for 1 h training session with each participant receiving 13 min training) on the interactive tiles twice a week. Follow-up tests include 6-min Walk Test (6MWT), the 8-ft Timed Up & Go Test (TUG), and the Chair-Stand Test (CS) from the Senior Fitness Test, along with balancing tests (static test on Wii Board and Line Walk test). Secondary outcomes related to adherence, motivation and acceptability will be investigated through semi-structured interviews. Data will be collected from pre- and post-tests. Data will be analyzed for statistically significant differences by checking that there is a Gaussian distribution and then using paired t-test, otherwise using Wilcoxon signed-rank test. "Intention to treat" analysis will be done. The trial tests for increased mobility, agility, balancing and general fitness of

  11. Peculiarities of the statistics of spectrally selected fluorescence radiation in laser-pumped dye-doped random media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuvchenko, S. A.; Ushakova, E. V.; Pavlova, M. V.; Alonova, M. V.; Zimnyakov, D. A.

    2018-04-01

    We consider the practical realization of a new optical probe method of the random media which is defined as the reference-free path length interferometry with the intensity moments analysis. A peculiarity in the statistics of the spectrally selected fluorescence radiation in laser-pumped dye-doped random medium is discussed. Previously established correlations between the second- and the third-order moments of the intensity fluctuations in the random interference patterns, the coherence function of the probe radiation, and the path difference probability density for the interfering partial waves in the medium are confirmed. The correlations were verified using the statistical analysis of the spectrally selected fluorescence radiation emitted by a laser-pumped dye-doped random medium. Water solution of Rhodamine 6G was applied as the doping fluorescent agent for the ensembles of the densely packed silica grains, which were pumped by the 532 nm radiation of a solid state laser. The spectrum of the mean path length for a random medium was reconstructed.

  12. The Mental Activity and eXercise (MAX) trial: a randomized controlled trial to enhance cognitive function in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Deborah E; Santos-Modesitt, Wendy; Poelke, Gina; Kramer, Arthur F; Castro, Cynthia; Middleton, Laura E; Yaffe, Kristine

    2013-05-13

    The prevalence of cognitive impairment and dementia are projected to rise dramatically during the next 40 years, and strategies for maintaining cognitive function with age are critically needed. Physical or mental activity alone result in relatively small, domain-specific improvements in cognitive function in older adults; combined interventions may have more global effects. To examine the combined effects of physical plus mental activity on cognitive function in older adults. Randomized controlled trial with a factorial design. San Francisco, California. A total of 126 inactive, community-residing older adults with cognitive complaints. All participants engaged in home-based mental activity (1 h/d, 3 d/wk) plus class-based physical activity (1 h/d, 3 d/wk) for 12 weeks and were randomized to either mental activity intervention (MA-I; intensive computer) or mental activity control (MA-C; educational DVDs) plus exercise intervention (EX-I; aerobic) or exercise control (EX-C; stretching and toning); a 2 × 2 factorial design was used so that there were 4 groups: MA-I/EX-I, MA-I/EX-C, MA-C/EX-1, and MA-C/EX-C. Global cognitive change based on a comprehensive neuropsychological test battery. Participants had a mean age of 73.4 years; 62.7% were women, and 34.9% were Hispanic or nonwhite. There were no significant differences between the groups at baseline. Global cognitive scores improved significantly over time (mean, 0.16 SD; P mental activity, P = .74), or across all 4 randomization groups (P = .26). In inactive older adults with cognitive complaints, 12 weeks of physical plus mental activity was associated with significant improvements in global cognitive function with no evidence of difference between intervention and active control groups. These findings may reflect practice effects or may suggest that the amount of activity is more important than the type in this subject population. clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00522899.

  13. A Randomized Controlled Trial on Effects of the Transcendental Meditation Program on Blood Pressure, Psychological Distress, and Coping in Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nidich, Sanford I.; Rainforth, Maxwell V.; Haaga, David A.F.; Hagelin, John; Salerno, John W.; Travis, Fred; Tanner, Melissa; Gaylord-King, Carolyn; Grosswald, Sarina; Schneider, Robert H.

    2009-01-01

    Background Psychological distress contributes to the development of hypertension in young adults. This trial assessed the effects of a mind–body intervention on blood pressure (BP), psychological distress, and coping in college students. Methods This was a randomized controlled trial (RCT) of 298 university students randomly allocated to either the Transcendental Meditation (TM) program or wait-list control. At baseline and after 3 months, BP, psychological distress, and coping ability were assessed. A subgroup of 159 subjects at risk for hypertension was analyzed similarly. Results Changes in systolic BP (SBP)/diastolic BP (DBP) for the overall sample were −2.0/−1.2 mm Hg for the TM group compared to +0.4/+0.5 mm Hg for controls (P = 0.15, P = 0.15, respectively). Changes in SBP/DBP for the hypertension risk subgroup were −5.0/−2.8 mm Hg for the TM group compared to +1.3/+1.2 mm Hg for controls (P = 0.014, P = 0.028, respectively). Significant improvements were found in total psychological distress, anxiety, depression, anger/hostility, and coping (P values < 0.05). Changes in psychological distress and coping correlated with changes in SBP (P values < 0.05) and DBP (P values < 0.08). Conclusions This is the first RCT to demonstrate that a selected mind–body intervention, the TM program, decreased BP in association with decreased psychological distress, and increased coping in young adults at risk for hypertension. This mind–body program may reduce the risk for future development of hypertension in young adults. PMID:19798037

  14. Perception of young adults with sickle cell disease or sickle cell trait about participation in the CHOICES randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershberger, Patricia E; Gallo, Agatha M; Molokie, Robert; Thompson, Alexis A; Suarez, Marie L; Yao, Yingwei; Wilkie, Diana J

    2016-06-01

    To gain an in-depth understanding of the perceptions of young adults with sickle cell disease and sickle cell trait about parenthood and participating in the CHOICES randomized controlled trial that used computer-based, educational programmes. In the USA, there is insufficient education to assure that all young adults with sickle cell disease or sickle cell trait understand genetic inheritance risks and reproductive options to make informed reproductive decisions. To address this educational need, we developed a computer-based, multimedia program (CHOICES) and reformatted usual care into a computer-based (e-Book) program. We then conducted a two-year randomized controlled trial that included a qualitative component that would deepen understanding of young adults' perceptions of parenthood and use of computer-based, educational programmes. A qualitative descriptive approach completed after a randomized controlled trial. Sixty-eight men and women of childbearing age participated in semi-structured interviews at the completion of the randomized controlled trial from 2012-2013. Thematic content analysis guided the qualitative description. Three main themes were identified: (1) increasing knowledge and new ways of thinking and behaving; (2) rethinking parenting plans; and (3) appraising the program design and delivery. Most participants reported increased knowledge and rethinking of their parenting plans and were supportive of computer-based learning. Some participants expressed difficulty in determining individual transmission risks. Participants perceived the computer programs as beneficial to their learning. Future development of an Internet-based educational programme is warranted, with emphasis on providing tailored education or memory boosters about individual transmission risks. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Internet cognitive behaviour therapy for depression in older adults with knee osteoarthritis : A randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O'Moore, K.A.; Newby, J.M.; Andrews, G.; Hunter, D.J.; Bennell, K.; Smith, J.; Williams, A.D.

    2018-01-01

    Objective To determine the efficacy of an internet-based cognitive behavioural therapy (iCBT) program for depression in older adults with osteoarthritis of the knee and comorbid major depressive disorder (MDD). We conducted a RCT in sixty-nine adults (≥ 50 years) meeting criteria for MDD and

  16. (Cost)effectiveness of life review for Older Adults: Design of a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pot, A.M.; Melenhorst, A.S.; Onrust, S.; Bohlmeijer, E.

    2008-01-01

    Background Depression in older adults is a serious health problem with a poor prognosis. There is a need for indicated preventive psychological interventions for older adults, that show to be promising in preventing depressive disorders. Methods/design This manuscript describes the design of a study

  17. (Cost)effectiveness of life review for Older Adults: Design of a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pot, A.M.; Melenhorst, A.S.; Onrust, S.; Bohlmeijer, E.

    2008-01-01

    Background. Depression in older adults is a serious health problem with a poor prognosis. There is a need for indicated preventive psychological interventions for older adults, that show to be promising in preventing depressive disorders. Methods/design. This manuscript describes the design of a

  18. (Cost)effectiveness of life review for older adults : design of a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pot, Anne Margriet; Melenhorst, Anne-Sophie; Onrust, Simone; Bohlmeijer, Ernst T.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Depression in older adults is a serious health problem with a poor prognosis. There is a need for indicated preventive psychological interventions for older adults, that show to be promising in preventing depressive disorders. Methods/design: This manuscript describes the design of a

  19. Association between Adult Height and Risk of Colorectal, Lung, and Prostate Cancer : Results from Meta-analyses of Prospective Studies and Mendelian Randomization Analyses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khankari, Nikhil K.; Shu, Xiao Ou; Wen, Wanqing; Kraft, Peter; Lindström, Sara; Peters, Ulrike; Schildkraut, Joellen; Schumacher, Fredrick; Bofetta, Paolo; Risch, Angela; Bickeböller, Heike; Amos, Christopher I.; Easton, Douglas; Eeles, Rosalind A.; Gruber, Stephen B.; Haiman, Christopher A.; Hunter, David J.; Chanock, Stephen J.; Pierce, Brandon L.; Zheng, Wei; Blalock, Kendra; Campbell, Peter T.; Casey, Graham; Conti, David V.; Edlund, Christopher K.; Figueiredo, Jane; James Gauderman, W.; Gong, Jian; Green, Roger C.; Harju, John F.; Harrison, Tabitha A.; Jacobs, Eric J.; Jenkins, Mark A.; Jiao, Shuo; Li, Li; Lin, Yi; Manion, Frank J.; Moreno, Victor; Mukherjee, Bhramar; Raskin, Leon; Schumacher, Fredrick R.; Seminara, Daniela; Severi, Gianluca; Stenzel, Stephanie L.; Thomas, Duncan C.; Hopper, John L.; Southey, Melissa C.; Makalic, Enes; Schmidt, Daniel F.; Fletcher, Olivia; Peto, Julian; Gibson, Lorna; dos Santos Silva, Isabel; Ahsan, Habib; Whittemore, Alice; Waisfisz, Quinten; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne; Adank, Muriel; van der Luijt, Rob B.; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Hofman, Albert; Meindl, Alfons; Schmutzler, Rita K.; Müller-Myhsok, Bertram; Lichtner, Peter; Nevanlinna, Heli; Muranen, Taru A.; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Blomqvist, Carl; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Hein, Rebecca; Dahmen, Norbert; Beckman, Lars; Crisponi, Laura; Hall, Per; Czene, Kamila; Irwanto, Astrid; Liu, Jianjun; Easton, Douglas F.; Turnbull, Clare; Rahman, Nazneen; Eeles, Rosalind; Kote-Jarai, Zsofia; Muir, Kenneth; Giles, Graham; Neal, David; Donovan, Jenny L.; Hamdy, Freddie C.; Wiklund, Fredrik; Gronberg, Henrik; Haiman, Christopher; Schumacher, Fred; Travis, Ruth; Riboli, Elio; Hunter, David; Gapstur, Susan; Berndt, Sonja; Chanock, Stephen; Han, Younghun; Su, Li; Wei, Yongyue; Hung, Rayjean J.; Brhane, Yonathan; McLaughlin, John; Brennan, Paul; McKay, James D.; Rosenberger, Albert; Houlston, Richard S.; Caporaso, Neil; Teresa Landi, Maria; Heinrich, Joachim; Wu, Xifeng; Ye, Yuanqing; Christiani, David C.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Observational studies examining associations between adult height and risk of colorectal, prostate, and lung cancers have generated mixed results. We conducted meta-analyses using data from prospective cohort studies and further carried out Mendelian randomization analyses, using

  20. Using Facebook to address smoking and heavy drinking in young adults: Protocol for a randomized, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramo, Danielle E; Kaur, Manpreet; Corpuz, Ella S; Satre, Derek D; Delucchi, Kevin; Brown, Sandra A; Prochaska, Judith J

    2018-05-01

    Tobacco and alcohol often are used simultaneously by young adults, and their co-use is associated with greater health consequences than from single use. Social media platforms offer low cost and highly accessible channels to reach and engage young people in substance use interventions. The current trial seeks to compare the Facebook Tobacco Status Project (TSP) smoking cessation intervention to an intervention targeting both tobacco use and heavy episodic drinking (TSP + ALC) among young adults who use both substances. This randomized clinical trial will evaluate the feasibility and initial efficacy of TSP + ALC compared to TSP with 225 US young adult smokers reporting heavy drinking. Participants will be recruited online and randomized to one of two conditions (TSP or TSP + ALC), both with assignment to a Facebook group tailored to readiness to quit smoking. Groups will receive a 90-day intervention including daily Facebook postings and weekly live counseling sessions. The TSP + ALC group will include content related to alcohol use. All participants will be offered a 2-week introductory supply of nicotine patch. Participants will complete baseline, 3-, 6-, and 12-month online assessments of substance use and other health risk behaviors. The primary efficacy outcome is biochemically-verified 7-day point prevalence abstinence. Secondary outcomes include alcohol and tobacco use, combined use, and thoughts about each substance. This trial examines an innovative and scalable approach to engaging young adults online in tobacco and alcohol use treatment. Study findings will inform digital health interventions and best practices for treating multiple substance use in young adults. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Outcome of systemic and analytic group psychotherapy for adult women with history of intrafamilial childhood sexual abuse: a randomized controlled study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lau, M; Kristensen, Ellids

    2007-01-01

    Research suggests that group psychotherapy for adults with a history of child sexual abuse (CSA) is generally beneficial. Only few studies have included random assignment. This study compared the effects of analytic (A) and systemic group psychotherapy (S) on CSA.......Research suggests that group psychotherapy for adults with a history of child sexual abuse (CSA) is generally beneficial. Only few studies have included random assignment. This study compared the effects of analytic (A) and systemic group psychotherapy (S) on CSA....

  2. Exercise for depression in older adults: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials adjusting for publication bias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe B. Schuch

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the antidepressant effects of exercise in older adults, using randomized controlled trial (RCT data. Methods: We conducted a meta-analysis of exercise in older adults, addressing limitations of previous works. RCTs of exercise interventions in older people with depression (≥ 60 years comparing exercise vs. control were eligible. A random-effects meta-analysis calculating the standardized mean difference (SMD (95% confidence interval [95%CI], meta-regressions, and trim, fill, and fail-safe number analyses were conducted. Results: Eight RCTs were included, representing 138 participants in exercise arms and 129 controls. Exercise had a large and significant effect on depression (SMD = -0.90 [95%CI -0.29 to -1.51], with a fail-safe number of 71 studies. Significant effects were found for 1 mixed aerobic and anaerobic interventions, 2 at moderate intensity, 3 that were group-based, 4 that utilized mixed supervised and unsupervised formats, and 5 in people without other clinical comorbidities. Conclusion: Adjusting for publication bias increased the beneficial effects of exercise in three subgroup analysis, suggesting that previous meta-analyses have underestimated the benefits of exercise due to publication bias. We advocate that exercise be considered as a routine component of the management of depression in older adults.

  3. Mindfulness meditation training effects on CD4+ T lymphocytes in HIV-1 infected adults: A small randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creswell, J. David; Myers, Hector F.; Cole, Steven W.; Irwin, Michael R.

    2009-01-01

    Mindfulness meditation training has stress reduction benefits in various patient populations, but its effects on biological markers of HIV-1 progression are unknown. The present study tested the efficacy of an 8-week Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) meditation program compared to a 1-day control seminar on CD4+ T lymphocyte counts in stressed HIV infected adults. A single-blind randomized controlled trial was conducted with enrollment and follow-up occurring between November 2005 and December 2007. A diverse community sample of 48 HIV-1 infected adults was randomized and entered treatment in either an 8-week MBSR or a 1-day control stress reduction education seminar. The primary outcome was circulating counts of CD4+ T lymphocytes. Participants in the 1-day control seminar showed declines in CD4+ T lymphocyte counts whereas counts among participants in the 8-week MBSR program were unchanged from baseline to post-intervention (time × treatment condition interaction, p = .02). This effect was independent of antiretroviral (ARV) medication use. Additional analyses indicated that treatment adherence to the mindfulness meditation program, as measured by class attendance, mediated the effects of mindfulness meditation training on buffering CD4+ T lymphocyte declines. These findings provide an initial indication that mindfulness meditation training can buffer CD4+ T lymphocyte declines in HIV-1 infected adults. PMID:18678242

  4. Dropouts and Compliance in Exercise Interventions Targeting Bone Mineral Density in Adults: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George A. Kelley

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Dropouts and compliance to exercise interventions targeting bone mineral density (BMD in adults are not well established. The purpose of this study was to address that gap. Methods. Meta-analysis of randomized controlled exercise intervention trials in adults ≥18 years of age. The primary outcomes were dropouts in the exercise and control groups as well as compliance to the exercise interventions. A random-effects model was used to pool results. Moderator analyses were conducted using mixed-effects ANOVA-like models and metaregression. Statistical significance was set at . Results. Thirty-six studies representing 3,297 participants (1,855 exercise, 1,442 control were included. Dropout rates in the exercise and control groups averaged 20.9% (95% CI 16.7%–25.9% and 15.9% (11.8%–21.1% while compliance to exercise was 76.3% (71.7%–80.3%. For both exercise and control groups, greater dropout rates were associated with studies conducted in the USA versus other countries, females versus males, premenopausal versus postmenopausal women, younger versus older participants, longer studies (controls only, and high- versus moderate-intensity training (exercisers only. Greater compliance to exercise was associated with being female, home- or facility-based exercise versus both, and shorter studies. Conclusion. These findings provide important information for researchers and practitioners with respect to exercise programs targeting BMD in adults.

  5. Multi-modal intervention to reduce cardiovascular risk among hypertensive older adults: Design of a randomized clinical trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buford, Thomas W.; Anton, Stephen D.; Bavry, Anthony; Carter, Christy S.; Daniels, Michael J.; Pahor, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Persons aged over 65 years account for over 75% of healthcare expenditures and deaths attributable to cardiovascular disease (CVD). Accordingly, reducing CVD risk among older adults is an important public health priority. Functional status, determined by measures of physical performance, is an important predictor of cardiovascular outcomes in older adults and declines more rapidly in seniors with hypertension. To date, physical exercise is the primary strategy for attenuating declines in functional status. Yet despite the general benefits of training, exercise alone appears to be insufficient for preventing this decline. Thus, alternative or adjuvant strategies are needed to preserve functional status among seniors with hypertension. Prior data suggest that angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEi) may be efficacious in enhancing exercise-derived improvements in functional status yet this hypothesis has not been tested in a randomized controlled trial. The objective of this randomized, double-masked pilot trial is to gather preliminary efficacy and safety data necessary for conducting a full-scale trial to test this hypothesis. Sedentary men and women ≥ 65 years of age with functional limitations and hypertension are being recruited into this 24 week intervention study. Participants are randomly assigned to one of three conditions: (1) ACEi plus exercise training, (2) thiazide diuretic plus exercise training, or (3) AT1 receptor antagonist plus exercise training. The primary outcome is change in walking speed and secondary outcomes consist of other indices of CV risk including exercise capacity, body composition, as well as circulating indices of metabolism, inflammation and oxidative stress. PMID:26115878

  6. Cost-Effectiveness of a Community Exercise and Nutrition Program for Older Adults: Texercise Select.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akanni, Olufolake Odufuwa; Smith, Matthew Lee; Ory, Marcia G

    2017-05-20

    The wide-spread dissemination of evidence-based programs that can improve health outcomes among older populations often requires an understanding of factors influencing community adoption of such programs. One such program is Texercise Select , a community-based health promotion program previously shown to improve functional health, physical activity, nutritional habits and quality of the life among older adults. This paper assesses the cost-effectiveness of Texercise Select in the context of supportive environments to facilitate its delivery and statewide sustainability. Participants were surveyed using self-reported instruments distributed at program baseline and conclusion. Program costs were based on actual direct costs of program implementation and included costs of recruitment and outreach, personnel costs and participant incentives. Program effectiveness was measured using quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gained, as well as health outcomes, such as healthy days, weekly physical activity and Timed Up-and-Go (TUG) test scores. Preference-based EuroQol (EQ-5D) scores were estimated from the number of healthy days reported by participants and converted into QALYs. There was a significant increase in the number of healthy days ( p nutrition-related outcomes among participants, this study supports the use of Texercise Select as an intervention with substantial health and cost benefits.

  7. Nutrient Intake During Diet-Induced Weight Loss and Exercise Interventions in a Randomized Trial in Older Overweight and Obese Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, G D; Beavers, D P; Hamm, D; Mihalko, S L; Messier, S P

    2017-01-01

    Dietary restriction in obese older adults undergoing weight loss may exacerbate nutrient deficiencies common in this group; the nutritional health of older adults is a factor in their quality of life, disability, and mortality. This study examined the effect of an 18-month weight loss program based in social cognitive theory incorporating partial meal replacements, on nutrient intake in older overweight and obese adults. The following analysis is from the Intensive Diet and Exercise for Arthritis (IDEA) trial, a single-blind, randomized controlled trial. Individuals were randomized into one of three 18-month interventions: exercise (E); intensive diet-induced weight loss (D); or intensive diet-induced weight loss plus exercise (D+E). The study setting was at a university research facility. Overweight and obese older adults (n=388; BMI=33.7±3.8 kg/m2; 65.8±6.1 years) were recruited. The D and D+E interventions (group mean goal of ≥10% loss by 18-months) utilized partial meal replacements (2 meal replacement shakes/day for 6-months). Exercise training for E and D+E was 3 days/week, 60 minutes/day. Three day food records were collected at baseline, 6-months, and 18-months and analyzed for total energy and macro- and micronutrient intake. Comparisons of dietary intake among treatment groups were performed at 6 and 18 months using mixed linear models. Weight loss at 18-months was 11.3±8.3% (D), 10.3±6.8% (D+E), and 1.2±4.2% (E). Meal replacements were used by more than 60% (6-months) and 50% (18-months) of D and D+E participants, compared to ≤15% for E. Both D and D+E consumed less energy and fat, and more carbohydrates and selected micronutrients than E during follow-up. More than 50% of all participants consumed less than the recommended intake of particular vitamins and minerals. The diet intervention improved intakes of several nutrients. However, inadequate intake of several vitamins and minerals of concern for older adults suggests they need further

  8. Pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and tolerability of verinurad, a selective uric acid reabsorption inhibitor, in healthy adult male subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen Z

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Zancong Shen,1 Michael Gillen,2 Jeffrey N Miner,1 Gail Bucci,1 David M Wilson,1 Jesse W Hall1 1Ardea Biosciences, Inc., San Diego, CA, 2AstraZeneca, Gaithersburg, MD, USA Purpose: Verinurad (RDEA3170 is a selective uric acid reabsorption inhibitor in clinical development for the treatment of gout and asymptomatic hyperuricemia. The aim of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and tolerability of verinurad in healthy adult males.Subjects and methods: This was a Phase I, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, single and multiple ascending dose study. Panels of eight male subjects received a single oral dose of verinurad or placebo in either a fasted or fed state; panels of 10–12 male subjects received ascending doses of once-daily verinurad or placebo in a fasted state for 10 days. Serial blood and urine samples were assayed for verinurad and uric acid. Safety was assessed by adverse event (AE reports, laboratory tests, vital signs, and electrocardiograms (ECGs.Results: A total of 81 adult males completed the study. Following single doses of verinurad, maximum observed plasma concentration (Cmax and area under the plasma concentration–time curve (AUC increased in a dose-proportional manner; Cmax occurred at 0.5–0.75 hours and 1.25 hours in the fasted and fed states, respectively. Food decreased AUC by 23% and Cmax by 37%-53%. There was a modest accumulation of verinurad following multiple daily doses. Verinurad reduced serum urate levels by up to 62% (40 mg, single dose and 61% (10 mg, multiple dose. The increase in urinary excretion of uric acid was greatest in the first 6 hours after dosing and was still evident ≥24 hours for verinurad doses ≥2 mg. Verinurad was well tolerated at all doses. No serious AEs, severe AEs, discontinuations due to AEs, or clinically significant laboratory or ECG abnormalities were reported.Conclusion: Single and multiple doses of verinurad were well tolerated

  9. The basic science and mathematics of random mutation and natural selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinman, Alan

    2014-12-20

    The mutation and natural selection phenomenon can and often does cause the failure of antimicrobial, herbicidal, pesticide and cancer treatments selection pressures. This phenomenon operates in a mathematically predictable behavior, which when understood leads to approaches to reduce and prevent the failure of the use of these selection pressures. The mathematical behavior of mutation and selection is derived using the principles given by probability theory. The derivation of the equations describing the mutation and selection phenomenon is carried out in the context of an empirical example. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. A randomized, placebo-controlled trial of three fixed dosages of prolonged-release OROS methylphenidate in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Medori, R.; Ramos-Quiroga, J.A.; Casas, M.; Kooij, J.J.S.; Niemela, A.; Trott, G.E.; Lee, E.; Buitelaar, J.K.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is increasing recognition of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults and the need to evaluate efficacy and safety of methylphenidate treatment in these patients. METHODS: In this double-blind trial, 401 adults with ADHD (218 men; 18-63 years) were randomly

  11. Social comparisons in adults with type 2 diabetes: Patients' reasons for target selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arigo, Danielle; Cornell, Max; Smyth, Joshua M

    2018-07-01

    To examine reasons for selecting a social comparison target (i.e. a specific other for relative self-evaluation), and their influence on affect and motivation for self-care, in type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Adults with T2DM (n = 180, M A1c  = 7.6%) chose to read about one of four targets. Participants rated five reasons for their choice (strongly disagree - strongly agree), and rated affect and self-care motivation before and after reading. To boost confidence in my ability to manage diabetes was rated highest overall (ps motivation (p motivation only among those who chose better-off targets (p = 0.01). Patients' reasons for a particular comparison are associated with short-term changes in affect and self-care motivation, and warrant greater empirical and clinical attention.

  12. Effect of a Counseling Session Bolstered by Text Messaging on Self-Selected Health Behaviors in College Students: A Preliminary Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandrick, Janice; Tracy, Doreen; Eliasson, Arn; Roth, Ashley; Bartel, Jeffrey; Simko, Melanie; Bowman, Tracy; Harouse-Bell, Karen; Kashani, Mariam; Vernalis, Marina

    2017-05-17

    The college experience is often the first time when young adults live independently and make their own lifestyle choices. These choices affect dietary behaviors, exercise habits, techniques to deal with stress, and decisions on sleep time, all of which direct the trajectory of future health. There is a need for effective strategies that will encourage healthy lifestyle choices in young adults attending college. This preliminary randomized controlled trial tested the effect of coaching and text messages (short message service, SMS) on self-selected health behaviors in the domains of diet, exercise, stress, and sleep. A second analysis measured the ripple effect of the intervention on health behaviors not specifically selected as a goal by participants. Full-time students aged 18-30 years were recruited by word of mouth and campuswide advertisements (flyers, posters, mailings, university website) at a small university in western Pennsylvania from January to May 2015. Exclusions included pregnancy, eating disorders, chronic medical diagnoses, and prescription medications other than birth control. Of 60 participants, 30 were randomized to receive a single face-to-face meeting with a health coach to review results of behavioral questionnaires and to set a health behavior goal for the 8-week study period. The face-to-face meeting was followed by SMS text messages designed to encourage achievement of the behavioral goal. A total of 30 control subjects underwent the same health and behavioral assessments at intake and program end but did not receive coaching or SMS text messages. The texting app showed that 87.31% (2187/2505) of messages were viewed by intervention participants. Furthermore, 28 of the 30 intervention participants and all 30 control participants provided outcome data. Among intervention participants, 22 of 30 (73%) showed improvement in health behavior goal attainment, with the whole group (n=30) showing a mean improvement of 88% (95% CI 39-136). Mean

  13. A Randomized Clinical Trial of Cognitive Enhancement Therapy for Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    life for more able individuals with autism or Asperger syndrome. Autism , 4(1), 63-83. Kanner, L. (1971). Follow-up study of eleven autistic...Enhancement Therapy for Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Nancy J. Minshew, M.D. & Shaun M. Each, Ph.D...Therapy for Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-11-1-0665 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR

  14. Evaluating Personalized Feedback Intervention Framing with a Randomized Controlled Trial to Reduce Young Adult Alcohol-Related Sexual Risk Taking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Melissa A; Rhew, Isaac C; Fairlie, Anne M; Swanson, Alex; Anderson, Judyth; Kaysen, Debra

    2018-03-06

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate personalized feedback intervention (PFI) framing with two web-delivered PFIs aimed to reduce young adult alcohol-related risky sexual behavior (RSB). Combined PFIs typically use an additive approach whereby independent components on drinking and components on RSB are presented without the discussion of the influence of alcohol on RSB. In contrast, an integrated PFI highlights the RSB-alcohol connection by presenting integrated alcohol and RSB components that focus on the role of intoxication as a barrier to risk reduction in sexual situations. In a randomized controlled trial, 402 (53.98% female) sexually active young adults aged 18-25 were randomly assigned to a combined PFI, an integrated PFI, or attention control. All assessment and intervention procedures were web-based. At the 1-month follow-up, those randomly assigned to the integrated condition had a lower likelihood of having any casual sex partners compared to those in the control group. At the 6-month follow-up, the combined condition had a lower likelihood of having any casual sex partners compared to those in the control group. When examining alcohol-related RSB, at the 1-month follow-up, both interventions showed a lower likelihood of any drinking prior to sex compared to the control group. When examining alcohol-related sexual consequences, results showed a reduction in the non-zero count of consequences in the integrated condition compared to the control at the 1-month follow-up. For typical drinks per week, those in the combined condition showed a greater reduction in the non-zero count of drinks than those in the control condition at the 1-month follow-up. While there were no significant differences between the two interventions, the current findings highlight the utility of two efficacious web-based alcohol and RSB interventions among a national sample of at-risk young adults.

  15. Adverse Events With Ketamine Versus Ketofol for Procedural Sedation on Adults: A Double-blind, Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemoel, Fabien; Contenti, Julie; Giolito, Didier; Boiffier, Mathieu; Rapp, Jocelyn; Istria, Jacques; Fournier, Marc; Ageron, François-Xavier; Levraut, Jacques

    2017-12-01

    The goal of our study was to compare the frequency and severity of recovery reactions between ketamine and ketamine-propofol 1:1 admixture ("ketofol"). We performed a multicentric, randomized, double-blind trial in which adult patients received emergency procedural sedations with ketamine or ketofol. Our primary outcome was the proportion of unpleasant recovery reactions. Other outcomes were frequency of interventions required by these recovery reactions, rates of respiratory or hemodynamic events, emesis, and satisfaction of patients as well as providers. A total of 152 patients completed the study, 76 in each arm. Compared with ketamine, ketofol determined a 22% reduction in recovery reactions incidence (p ketamine. We found a significant reduction in recovery reactions and emesis frequencies among adult patients receiving emergency procedural sedations with ketofol, compared with ketamine. © 2017 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

  16. Rationale for a randomized controlled trial comparing two prophylaxis regimens in adults with severe hemophilia A: the Hemophilia Adult Prophylaxis Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragni, Margaret V

    2011-01-01

    A major goal of comprehensive hemophilia care is to prevent occurrence of bleeds by prophylaxis or regular preventive factor, one or more times weekly. Although prophylaxis is effective in reducing bleeding and joint damage in children, whether it is necessary to continue into adulthood is not known. The purpose of this article is to describe a Phase III randomized controlled trial to evaluate prophylaxis comparing two dose regimens in adults with severe hemophilia A. I hypothesize that adults with mature cartilage and joints are less susceptible to joint bleeds and joint damage, and that once-weekly recombinant factor VIII prophylaxis, with up to two rescue doses per week, is as effective as thrice-weekly prophylaxis in reducing bleeding frequency, but less costly and more acceptable, with higher quality of life. The ultimate goal of this project is to determine whether once-weekly prophylaxis is any worse than thrice-weekly prophylaxis in reducing joint bleeding frequency, while potentially utilizing less factor, at lower cost, leading to a better quality of life. This is an innovative concept, as it challenges the current paradigm of thrice-weekly prophylaxis in adults, which is based on dosing in children. Furthermore, this trial will assess interdose thrombin generation, a novel tissue factor-based assay of hemostasis, to determine if individualized thrombin generation can predict more individualized prophylaxis dosing, which would be practice changing. PMID:21939418

  17. Effects of Tai Chi on Cognition and Fall Risk in Older Adults with Mild Cognitive Impairment: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sungkarat, Somporn; Boripuntakul, Sirinun; Chattipakorn, Nipon; Watcharasaksilp, Kanokwan; Lord, Stephen R

    2017-04-01

    To examine whether combined center- and home-based Tai Chi training can improve cognitive ability and reduce physiological fall risk in older adults with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (a-MCI). Randomized controlled trial. Chiang Mai, Thailand. Adults aged 60 and older who met Petersen's criteria for multiple-domain a-MCI (N = 66). Three weeks center-based and 12 weeks home-based Tai Chi (50 minutes per session, 3 times per week). Cognitive tests, including Logical Memory (LM) delayed recall, Block Design, Digit Span forward and backward, and Trail-Making Test Part B-A (TMT B-A), and fall risk index using the Physiological Profile Assessment (PPA). At the end of the trial, performance on LM, Block Design, and TMT B-A were significantly better for the Tai Chi group than the control group after adjusting for baseline test performance. The Tai Chi group also had significantly better composite PPA score and PPA parameter scores: knee extension strength, reaction time, postural sway, and lower limb proprioception. Combined center- and home-based Tai Chi training three times per week for 15 weeks significantly improved cognitive function and moderately reduced physiological fall risk in older adults with multiple-domain a-MCI. Tai Chi may be particularly beneficial to older adults with this condition. © 2016, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2016, The American Geriatrics Society.

  18. Outcomes of a Peer Mentor Implemented Fitness Program in Older Adults: A Quasi-Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorgo, Sandor; King, George A.; Bader, Julia O.; Limon, John S.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the effectiveness of different applications of mentoring in an older adult exercise program, this study compared the physical fitness scores, the retention and participation rates of older adults trained by student mentors, peer mentors, peer mentors working independently of the researchers, and a non-exercising control group. Methods 106 older adults were recruited and assigned to one of the groups using quasi-randomization. All three experimental groups completed a 14-week intervention. Pre- and post-training assessments of fitness were completed, and retention and participation rates were compared. Results High retention and participation rates, as well as significant improvements in fitness scores from baseline to post-test were observed in all three mentored groups. While the control group showed improvement only in one fitness test, subjects in the mentored groups improved similarly in all measures, regardless of the type of mentoring received. Discussion These findings indicated effectiveness of the peer mentor model and suggested that with adequate preparation peer mentors may be capable of guiding older adult participants effectively without assistance from professional staff. PMID:23279966

  19. Effect of moderate versus high intensity interval exercise training on vascular function in inactive latin-american adults: a randomized clinical trial

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández Quiñonez, Paula Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Exercise training is effective for improving cardiometabolic health and physical fitness in inactive adults. However, limited research has been conducted on the optimal exercise training intensity for this population. We investigate the effect of moderate versus high intensity interval exercise training on vascular function and physical fitness in physically inactive adults. Twenty inactive adults were randomly allocated to receive either moderate intensity training (MCT group) or high intens...

  20. Effects of physical exercise interventions in frail older adults: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials

    OpenAIRE

    de Labra, Carmen; Guimaraes-Pinheiro, Christyanne; Maseda, Ana; Lorenzo, Trinidad; Mill?n-Calenti, Jos? C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Low physical activity has been shown to be one of the most common components of frailty, and interventions have been considered to prevent or reverse this syndrome. The purpose of this systematic review of randomized, controlled trials is to examine the exercise interventions to manage frailty in older people. Methods The PubMed, Web of Science, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases were searched using specific keywords and Medical Subject Headings for random...

  1. Adult Congenital Heart Disease-Coping And REsilience (ACHD-CARE): Rationale and methodology of a pilot randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacs, Adrienne H; Bandyopadhyay, Mimi; Grace, Sherry L; Kentner, Amanda C; Nolan, Robert P; Silversides, Candice K; Irvine, M Jane

    2015-11-01

    One-third of North American adults with congenital heart disease (CHD) have diagnosable mood or anxiety disorders and most do not receive mental health treatment. There are no published interventions targeting the psychosocial needs of patients with CHD of any age. We describe the development of a group psychosocial intervention aimed at improving the psychosocial functioning, quality of life, and resilience of adults with CHD and the design of a study protocol to determine the feasibility of a potential full-scale randomized controlled trial (RCT). Drawing upon our quantitative and qualitative research, we developed the Adult CHD-Coping And REsilience (ACHD-CARE) intervention and designed a feasibility study that included a 2-parallel arm non-blinded pilot RCT. Eligible participants (CHD, age ≥ 18 years, no planned surgery, symptoms suggestive of a mood and/or anxiety disorder) were randomized to the ACHD-CARE intervention or Usual Care (1:1 allocation ratio). The group intervention was delivered during eight 90-minute weekly sessions. Feasibility will be assessed in the following domains: (i) process (e.g. recruitment and retention), (ii) resources, (iii) management, (iv) scientific outcomes, and (v) intervention acceptability. This study underscores the importance of carefully developing and testing the feasibility of psychosocial interventions in medical populations before moving to full-scale clinical trials. At study conclusion, we will be poised to make one of three determinations for a full-scale RCT: (1) feasible, (2) feasible with modifications, or (3) not feasible. This study will guide the future evaluation and provision of psychosocial treatment for adults with CHD. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Brain training game boosts executive functions, working memory and processing speed in the young adults: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouchi, Rui; Taki, Yasuyuki; Takeuchi, Hikaru; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Nozawa, Takayuki; Kambara, Toshimune; Sekiguchi, Atsushi; Miyauchi, Carlos Makoto; Kotozaki, Yuka; Nouchi, Haruka; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2013-01-01

    Do brain training games work? The beneficial effects of brain training games are expected to transfer to other cognitive functions. Yet in all honesty, beneficial transfer effects of the commercial brain training games in young adults have little scientific basis. Here we investigated the impact of the brain training game (Brain Age) on a wide range of cognitive functions in young adults. We conducted a double-blind (de facto masking) randomized controlled trial using a popular brain training game (Brain Age) and a popular puzzle game (Tetris). Thirty-two volunteers were recruited through an advertisement in the local newspaper and randomly assigned to either of two game groups (Brain Age, Tetris). Participants in both the Brain Age and the Tetris groups played their game for about 15 minutes per day, at least 5 days per week, for 4 weeks. Measures of the cognitive functions were conducted before and after training. Measures of the cognitive functions fell into eight categories (fluid intelligence, executive function, working memory, short-term memory, attention, processing speed, visual ability, and reading ability). Our results showed that commercial brain training game improves executive functions, working memory, and processing speed in young adults. Moreover, the popular puzzle game can engender improvement attention and visuo-spatial ability compared to playing the brain training game. The present study showed the scientific evidence which the brain training game had the beneficial effects on cognitive functions (executive functions, working memory and processing speed) in the healthy young adults. Our results do not indicate that everyone should play brain training games. However, the commercial brain training game might be a simple and convenient means to improve some cognitive functions. We believe that our findings are highly relevant to applications in educational and clinical fields. UMIN Clinical Trial Registry 000005618.

  3. Brain training game boosts executive functions, working memory and processing speed in the young adults: a randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Nouchi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Do brain training games work? The beneficial effects of brain training games are expected to transfer to other cognitive functions. Yet in all honesty, beneficial transfer effects of the commercial brain training games in young adults have little scientific basis. Here we investigated the impact of the brain training game (Brain Age on a wide range of cognitive functions in young adults. METHODS: We conducted a double-blind (de facto masking randomized controlled trial using a popular brain training game (Brain Age and a popular puzzle game (Tetris. Thirty-two volunteers were recruited through an advertisement in the local newspaper and randomly assigned to either of two game groups (Brain Age, Tetris. Participants in both the Brain Age and the Tetris groups played their game for about 15 minutes per day, at least 5 days per week, for 4 weeks. Measures of the cognitive functions were conducted before and after training. Measures of the cognitive functions fell into eight categories (fluid intelligence, executive function, working memory, short-term memory, attention, processing speed, visual ability, and reading ability. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Our results showed that commercial brain training game improves executive functions, working memory, and processing speed in young adults. Moreover, the popular puzzle game can engender improvement attention and visuo-spatial ability compared to playing the brain training game. The present study showed the scientific evidence which the brain training game had the beneficial effects on cognitive functions (executive functions, working memory and processing speed in the healthy young adults. CONCLUSIONS: Our results do not indicate that everyone should play brain training games. However, the commercial brain training game might be a simple and convenient means to improve some cognitive functions. We believe that our findings are highly relevant to applications in educational and clinical fields

  4. Selecting for Fast Protein-Protein Association As Demonstrated on a Random TEM1 Yeast Library Binding BLIP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen-Khait, Ruth; Schreiber, Gideon

    2018-04-27

    Protein-protein interactions mediate the vast majority of cellular processes. Though protein interactions obey basic chemical principles also within the cell, the in vivo physiological environment may not allow for equilibrium to be reached. Thus, in vitro measured thermodynamic affinity may not provide a complete picture of protein interactions in the biological context. Binding kinetics composed of the association and dissociation rate constants are relevant and important in the cell. Therefore, changes in protein-protein interaction kinetics have a significant impact on the in vivo activity of the proteins. The common protocol for the selection of tighter binders from a mutant library selects for protein complexes with slower dissociation rate constants. Here we describe a method to specifically select for variants with faster association rate constants by using pre-equilibrium selection, starting from a large random library. Toward this end, we refine the selection conditions of a TEM1-β-lactamase library against its natural nanomolar affinity binder β-lactamase inhibitor protein (BLIP). The optimal selection conditions depend on the ligand concentration and on the incubation time. In addition, we show that a second sort of the library helps to separate signal from noise, resulting in a higher percent of faster binders in the selected library. Fast associating protein variants are of particular interest for drug development and other biotechnological applications.

  5. Effect of interactive cognitive motor training on gait and balance among older adults: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Ching-Chiu; Chiu, Huei-Ling; Liu, Doresses; Chan, Pi-Tuan; Tseng, Ing-Jy; Chen, Ruey; Niu, Shu-Fen; Chou, Kuei-Ru

    2018-06-01

    Aging is a normal degenerative process that results in a decline in the gait and balance performance of older adults. Interactive cognitive motor training is an intervention that integrates cognitive and motor tasks to promote individuals' physical and cognitive fall risk factors. However, the additive effects of the interactive cognitive motor training on objective quantitative data and comprehensive descriptions of gait and balance warrants further investigation. To investigate the effect of interactive cognitive motor training on older adults' gait and balance from immediate to long-term time points. A double-blind randomized control trial. Four senior service centers and community service centers in Taiwan. 62 older adults who met the inclusion criteria. The study participants were older adults without cognitive impairment, and they were randomly allocated to the experimental group or active control group. In both groups, older adults participated in three sessions of 30-min training per week for a total of 8 weeks, with the total number of training sessions being 24. The primary outcome was gait performance, which was measured using objective and subjective indicators. iWALK was used as an objective indicator to measure pace and dynamic stability; the Functional Gait Assessment was employed as a subjective indicator. The secondary outcome was balance performance, which was measured using iSWAY. A generalized estimating equation was used to identify whether the results of the two groups differ after receiving different intervention measures; the results were obtained from immediate to long-term posttests. Stride length in the pace category of the experimental group improved significantly in immediate posttest (p = 0.01), 3-month follow-up (p = 0.01), and 6-month follow-up (p = 0.04). The range of motion of the leg exhibited significant improvement in immediate posttest (p = 0.04) and 3-month follow-up (p = 0.04). The Functional Gait

  6. Reduction in Vegetable Intake Disparities With a Web-Based Nutrition Education Intervention Among Lower-Income Adults in Japan: Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Saki; Inayama, Takayo; Harada, Kazuhiro; Arao, Takashi

    2017-11-24

    No existing Web-based nutrition education interventions have been evaluated in light of socioeconomic status just in Japan. The aim was to investigate the effect of a Web-based intervention program on reducing vegetable intake disparities between low- and middle-income Japanese adults. In this randomized controlled trial, participants were assessed at three time points-baseline, postintervention (5 weeks later), and a follow-up after 3 months-from October 2015 to March 2016. We collected data via a Japanese online research service company from 8564 adults aged 30 to 59 years. Participants were stratified according to national population statistics for gender and age, and randomly selected. They were then randomly allocated into intervention (n=900) and control (n=600) groups such that both groups contained an equal number of individuals with low and middle income. The intervention program encouraged behavior change using behavioral theories and techniques tailored to their assumed stage of change. The outcome was vegetable intake servings per day (1 serving being approximately 70 g). Out of 900 participants who started, 450 were from the middle income group (of which 386 or 85.7% completed the intervention), and 450 were from the low income group (of which 371 or 82.4% completed). In the intervention group, vegetable intake increased in the low-income participants from baseline to postintervention (0.42 servings, 95% CI 0.11-0.72). A two-way analysis of variance showed that low-income participants had significant main effects of group (η2=0.04, P=.01) and time (η2=0.01, Pincome participants also had a significant main effect of time (η2=0.01, P=.006) and a significant interaction (η2=0.01, P=.046). This Web-based nutritional education intervention could fill the vegetable intake gap between low- and middle-income adults in Japan, and is expected to prevent noncommunicable and lifestyle-related diseases. Further intervention program improvements are necessary to

  7. Efficacy of Lisdexamfetamine in Adults With Moderate to Severe Binge-Eating Disorder: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, James I; McElroy, Susan L; Ferreira-Cornwell, M Celeste; Radewonuk, Jana; Gasior, Maria

    2017-09-01

    The ability of pharmacotherapies to prevent relapse and maintain efficacy with long-term treatment in psychiatric conditions is important. To assess lisdexamfetamine dimesylate maintenance of efficacy in adults with moderate to severe binge-eating disorder. A multinational, phase 3, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized withdrawal study including 418 participants was conducted at 49 clinical research study sites from January 27, 2014, to April 8, 2015. Eligible adults met DSM-IV-R binge-eating disorder criteria and had moderate to severe binge eating disorder (≥3 binge-eating days per week for 14 days before open-label baseline; Clinical Global Impressions-Severity [CGI-S] scores ≥4 [moderate severity] at screening and open-label baseline). Following a 12-week, open-label phase (dose optimization, 4 weeks [lisdexamfetamine dimesylate, 50 or 70 mg]; dose maintenance, 8 weeks), lisdexamfetamine responders (≤1 binge eating day per week for 4 consecutive weeks and CGI-S scores ≤2 at week 12) were randomized to placebo or continued lisdexamfetamine during a 26-week, double-blind, randomized withdrawal phase. Lisdexamfetamine administration. The primary outcome variable, time to relapse (≥2 binge-eating days per week for 2 consecutive weeks and ≥2-point CGI-S score increases from randomized withdrawal baseline), was analyzed using a log-rank test (primary analysis); the analysis was stratified for dichotomized 4-week cessation status. Safety assessments included treatment-emergent adverse events. Of the 418 participants enrolled in the open-label phase of the study, 411 (358 [87.1%] women; mean [SD] age, 38.3 [10.4] years) were included in the safety analysis set. Of 275 randomized lisdexamfetamine responders (placebo, n = 138; lisdexamfetamine, n = 137), the observed proportions of participants meeting relapse criteria were 3.7% (5 of 136) for lisdexamfetamine and 32.1% (42 of 131) for placebo. Lisdexamfetamine demonstrated superiority over

  8. Health-social partnership intervention programme for community-dwelling older adults: a research protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Kwan Ching; Wong, Frances Kam Yuet; Chang, Katherine Ka Pik

    2015-11-01

    This paper aims to describe the research protocol that will be used to determine the effectiveness of a health-social partnership intervention programme among community-dwelling older adults. Ageing in place is a preferred option for overcoming challenges of the increasing prevalence of chronic diseases and the risk for hospitalization associated with the ageing population. Nevertheless, our knowledge of how to implement this concept is limited. The integrated efforts of health and social services may help to enable older adults to live with a sense of control over their daily life and to be independent to the fullest extent possible in the community. This is a randomized, controlled trial. Participants are community-dwelling older adults referred from a community centre. Sample size calculation was based on power analysis. The intervention group will receive the programme with the standard protocols guided by a comprehensive assessment-intervention-evaluation framework. Home visits and telephones follow-up will be employed as means of conducting the interventions and monitoring their progress. The customary care group will receive placebo social calls. The duration of the interventions will be 3 months. The study was funded by the School of Nursing in Hong Kong. Research Ethics Committee approval was obtained in September 2014. The results of this research are expected to enable older adults to stay in the community with optimal health and well-being. Health and social sciences are integrated into the practice in this research protocol. The scarce literature on this topic means that this study can also provide an opportunity to bridge the caring gap among older adults. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Relaxation therapy and anxiety, self-esteem, and emotional regulation among adults with intellectual disabilities: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouvet, Cyrille; Coulet, Aurélie

    2016-09-01

    This pilot study is a randomized controlled trial on the effects of relaxation on anxiety, self-esteem, and emotional regulation in adults with intellectual disabilities (ID) working in a center of supported employment in France. We studied 30 adults with mild or moderate ID who were split at random into a relaxation group (RG, 15 subjects), who completed 10 sessions of relaxation therapy, and a control group (CG, 15 subjects), who were on a waiting list. The method used is the pretest and posttest. Variables were assessed by the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory form Y scale, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem scale, and the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire. We found that in the RG, relaxation significantly reduced state anxiety, t(14, 15) = 17.8***, d = -0.72, and improved self-esteem, t(14, 15) = -7.7***, d = 1.03, and cognitive reappraisal, t(14, 15) = -6.3***, d = 1.3, while the CG showed no change for these variables. We conclude that relaxation seems to be an interesting therapeutic option for reducing anxiety in people with ID in a supported employment setting. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. 76 FR 43729 - Notice of Random Assignment Study To Evaluate Workforce Investment Act Adult and Dislocated...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-21

    ... prior employment and training service delivery systems. The recent recession, high unemployment rate and... Evaluate Workforce Investment Act Adult and Dislocated Worker Programs; Request for Comment AGENCY... estimates of the net impacts of intensive services and training provided under the Workforce Investment Act...

  11. r2VIM: A new variable selection method for random forests in genome-wide association studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymczak, Silke; Holzinger, Emily; Dasgupta, Abhijit; Malley, James D; Molloy, Anne M; Mills, James L; Brody, Lawrence C; Stambolian, Dwight; Bailey-Wilson, Joan E

    2016-01-01

    Machine learning methods and in particular random forests (RFs) are a promising alternative to standard single SNP analyses in genome-wide association studies (GWAS). RFs provide variable importance measures (VIMs) to rank SNPs according to their predictive power. However, in contrast to the established genome-wide significance threshold, no clear criteria exist to determine how many SNPs should be selected for downstream analyses. We propose a new variable selection approach, recurrent relative variable importance measure (r2VIM). Importance values are calculated relative to an observed minimal importance score for several runs of RF and only SNPs with large relative VIMs in all of the runs are selected as important. Evaluations on simulated GWAS data show that the new method controls the number of false-positives under the null hypothesis. Under a simple alternative hypothesis with several independent main effects it is only slightly less powerful than logistic regression. In an experimental GWAS data set, the same strong signal is identified while the approach selects none of the SNPs in an underpowered GWAS. The novel variable selection method r2VIM is a promising extension to standard RF for objectively selecting relevant SNPs in GWAS while controlling the number of false-positive results.

  12. The impact of life review on depression in older adults: a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pot, A.M.; Bohlmeijer, E.T.; Onrust, S.; Melenhorst, A.S.; Veerbeek, M.A.; de Vries, W.

    2010-01-01

    Background: We developed an indicated preventive life-review course, Looking for Meaning, based on the assumption that reminiscence styles influence coping with depressive symptoms. This study describes the impact of this course in a pragmatic randomized controlled trial. Methods: Inclusion criteria

  13. The impact of life review on depression in older adults: a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pot, Anne Margriet; Bohlmeijer, Ernst Thomas; Onrust, Simone; Melenhorst, Anne-Sophie; Veerbeek, Marjolein; de Vries, Wilma

    2010-01-01

    Background: We developed an indicated preventive life-review course, “Looking for Meaning”, based on the assumption that reminiscence styles influence coping with depressive symptoms. This study describes the impact of this course in a pragmatic randomized controlled trial. Methods: Inclusion

  14. NeuroD modulates opioid agonist-selective regulation of adult neurogenesis and contextual memory extinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Hui; Zhang, Yue; Li, Wen; Loh, Horace H; Law, Ping-Yee

    2013-04-01

    Addictive drugs, including opioids, modulate adult neurogenesis. In order to delineate the probable implications of neurogenesis on contextual memory associated with addiction, we investigated opioid agonist-selective regulation of neurogenic differentiation 1 (NeuroD) activities under the conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm. Training mice with equivalent doses of morphine and fentanyl produced different CPP extinction rates without measurable differences in the CPP acquisition rate or magnitude. Fentanyl-induced CPP required much longer time for extinction than morphine-induced CPP. We observed a parallel decrease in NeuroD activities and neurogenesis after morphine-induced CPP, but not after fentanyl-induced CPP. Increasing NeuroD activities with NeuroD-lentivirus (nd-vir) injection at the dentate gyrus before CPP training reversed morphine-induced decreases in NeuroD activities and neurogenesis, and prolonged the time required for extinction of morphine-induced CPP. On the other hand, decreasing NeuroD activities via injection of miRNA-190-virus (190-vir) reversed the fentanyl effect on NeuroD and neurogenesis and shortened the time required for extinction of fentanyl-induced CPP. Another contextual memory task, the Morris Water Maze (MWM), was affected similarly by alteration of NeuroD activities. The reduction in NeuroD activities either by morphine treatment or 190-vir injection decreased MWM task retention, while the increase in NeuroD activities by nd-vir prolonged MWM task retention. Thus, by controlling NeuroD activities, opioid agonists differentially regulate adult neurogenesis and subsequent contextual memory retention. Such drug-related memory regulation could have implications in eventual context-associated relapse.

  15. Effects of multicomponent exercise on cognitive function in older adults with amnestic mild cognitive impairment: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzuki Takao

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To examine the effects of a multicomponent exercise program on the cognitive function of older adults with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI. Methods Design: Twelve months, randomized controlled trial; Setting: Community center in Japan; Participants: Fifty older adults (27 men with aMCI ranging in age from 65 to 93 years (mean age, 75 years; Intervention: Subjects were randomized into either a multicomponent exercise (n = 25 or an education control group (n = 25. Subjects in the multicomponent exercise group exercised under the supervision of physiotherapists for 90 min/d, 2 d/wk, for a total of 80 times over 12 months. The exercises included aerobic exercises, muscle strength training, and postural balance retraining, and were conducted using multiple conditions to stimulate cognitive functions. Subjects in the control group attended three education classes regarding health during the 12-month period. Measurements were administered before, after the 6-month, and after the 12-month intervention period; Measurements: The performance measures included the mini-mental state examination, logical memory subtest of the Wechsler memory scale-revised, digit symbol coding test, letter and categorical verbal fluency test, and the Stroop color word test. Results The mean adherence to the exercise program was 79.2%. Improvements of cognitive function following multicomponent exercise were superior at treatment end (group × time interactions for the mini-mental state examination (P = 0.04, logical memory of immediate recall (P = 0.03, and letter verbal fluency test (P = 0.02. The logical memory of delayed recall, digit symbol coding, and Stroop color word test showed main effects of time, although there were no group × time interactions. Conclusions This study indicates that exercise improves or supports, at least partly, cognitive performance in older adults with aMCI.

  16. Randomized trial of amino acid mixture combined with physical activity promotion for abdominal fat reduction in overweight adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Keisuke; Sasai, Hiroyuki; Tsujimoto, Takehiko; Sanbongi, Chiaki; Ikegami, Shuji; Kobayashi, Hiroyuki; Shioya, Nobuhiko; Suzuki, Satoru; Nakata, Yoshio

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the efficacy of arginine, alanine, and phenylalanine mixture (A-mix) ingestion at 1,500 mg/day in combination with the promotion of physical activity for abdominal fat reduction in overweight adults. A placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel-group, randomized trial for 12 weeks combined with a 4-week follow-up period was conducted at a single center in Minato-ku, Tokyo, Japan, between December 2016 and May 2017. Data were analyzed between June and August 2017. The study participants were 200 overweight adults within the age range of 20-64 years. The participants were randomly assigned to the A-mix group (n=100) or a placebo group (n=100) and were administered 500 mL of test beverage containing 1,500 or 0 mg of A-mix, respectively, for 12 weeks. All participants maintained a physically active lifestyle between week 0 and week 12 through monthly sessions of physical activity. The primary outcomes were the 12-week changes in the abdominal total, subcutaneous, and visceral fat areas, as assessed by computed tomography. Of the 200 enrolled participants, 199 (99%) accomplished the 12-week intervention and 4-week follow-up period. The per-protocol-based analysis for 194 participants demonstrated that the abdominal total fat area decreased significantly in the A-mix group compared with that in the placebo group (difference, 10.0 cm 2 ; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.4-19.6 cm 2 ; P =0.041). Comparable outcomes were obtained for the abdominal subcutaneous fat area (difference, 7.4 cm 2 ; 95% CI: 0.1-14.7 cm 2 ; P =0.047). No study-related unfavorable events occurred. A-mix supplementation in combination with physical activity promotion facilitated abdominal fat reduction in overweight adults.

  17. Feature selection and classification of mechanical fault of an induction motor using random forest classifier

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, Raj Kumar; Giri, V.K.

    2016-01-01

    Fault detection and diagnosis is the most important technology in condition-based maintenance (CBM) system for rotating machinery. This paper experimentally explores the development of a random forest (RF) classifier, a recently emerged machine learning technique, for multi-class mechanical fault diagnosis in bearing of an induction motor. Firstly, the vibration signals are collected from the bearing using accelerometer sensor. Parameters from the vibration signal are extracted in the form of...

  18. Effect of Haloperidol on Survival Among Critically Ill Adults With a High Risk of Delirium: The REDUCE Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Boogaard, Mark; Slooter, Arjen J C; Brüggemann, Roger J M; Schoonhoven, Lisette; Beishuizen, Albertus; Vermeijden, J Wytze; Pretorius, Danie; de Koning, Jan; Simons, Koen S; Dennesen, Paul J W; Van der Voort, Peter H J; Houterman, Saskia; van der Hoeven, J G; Pickkers, Peter; van der Woude, Margaretha C. E.; Besselink, Anna; Hofstra, Lieuwe S; Spronk, Peter E; van den Bergh, Walter; Donker, Dirk W; Fuchs, Malaika; Karakus, Attila; Koeman, M; van Duijnhoven, Mirella; Hannink, Gerjon

    2018-02-20

    Results of studies on use of prophylactic haloperidol in critically ill adults are inconclusive, especially in patients at high risk of delirium. To determine whether prophylactic use of haloperidol improves survival among critically ill adults at high risk of delirium, which was defined as an anticipated intensive care unit (ICU) stay of at least 2 days. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled investigator-driven study involving 1789 critically ill adults treated at 21 ICUs, at which nonpharmacological interventions for delirium prevention are routinely used in the Netherlands. Patients without delirium whose expected ICU stay was at least a day were included. Recruitment was from July 2013 to December 2016 and follow-up was conducted at 90 days with the final follow-up on March 1, 2017. Patients received prophylactic treatment 3 times daily intravenously either 1 mg (n = 350) or 2 mg (n = 732) of haloperidol or placebo (n = 707), consisting of 0.9% sodium chloride. The primary outcome was the number of days that patients survived in 28 days. There were 15 secondary outcomes, including delirium incidence, 28-day delirium-free and coma-free days, duration of mechanical ventilation, and ICU and hospital length of stay. All 1789 randomized patients (mean, age 66.6 years [SD, 12.6]; 1099 men [61.4%]) completed the study. The 1-mg haloperidol group was prematurely stopped because of futility. There was no difference in the median days patients survived in 28 days, 28 days in the 2-mg haloperidol group vs 28 days in the placebo group, for a difference of 0 days (95% CI, 0-0; P = .93) and a hazard ratio of 1.003 (95% CI, 0.78-1.30, P=.82). All of the 15 secondary outcomes were not statistically different. These included delirium incidence (mean difference, 1.5%, 95% CI, -3.6% to 6.7%), delirium-free and coma-free days (mean difference, 0 days, 95% CI, 0-0 days), and duration of mechanical ventilation, ICU, and hospital length of stay (mean difference

  19. The Effect of Mulligan Mobilization Technique in Older Adults with Neck Pain: A Randomized Controlled, Double-Blind Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oznur Buyukturan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of Mulligan mobilization technique (MMT on pain, range of motion (ROM, functional level, kinesiophobia, depression, and quality of life (QoL in older adults with neck pain (NP. Methods. Forty-two older adults with NP were included in the study, and they were randomly divided into two groups: traditional physiotherapy (TP group and traditional physiotherapy-Mulligan mobilization (TPMM group. Treatment program was scheduled for 10 sessions. Participants were assessed in terms of pain, ROM, functional level, kinesiophobia, depression, and QoL both pre- and posttreatment. Results. Pain, ROM, functional level, kinesiophobia, depression, and QoL improved in both groups following treatment (p<0.05. When comparing effects of these two treatment programs, it was observed that the TPMM group had a better outcome (p<0.05 in terms of ROM, kinesiophobia, depression, and QoL. Conclusion. In older adults with NP, MMT has been found to have significant effects on pain, ROM, functional level, kinesiophobia, depression, and QoL as long as it is performed by a specialist. “This trial is registered with NCT03507907”.

  20. Effects of Exercise Intervention on Vascular Risk Factors in Older Adults with Mild Cognitive Impairment: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuki Uemura

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The purpose of this study is to clarify the effects of exercise intervention on vascular risk factors in older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI. Methods: Community-dwelling older adults who met the definition of MCI using the Petersen criteria (n = 100; mean age = 75.3 years were randomly allocated to the exercise (n = 50 or education control group (n = 50. Participants in the exercise group exercised under the supervision of physiotherapists for 90 min/day, 2 days/week, 80 times for 12 months. Anthropometric profiles, blood markers, blood pressure, and physical fitness (the 6-min walking test were measured. Total cholesterol (TC, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, and TC/HDL-C risk ratio measurements were taken from blood samples. Results: The exercise group showed significantly reduced TC and TC/HDL-C risk ratio after training compared with baseline levels (p Conclusion: Exercise intervention was associated with positive changes in important vascular risk factors related to cognitive decline and vascular disease in older adults with MCI.

  1. Feasibility and effects of a physical exercise programme in adults with myotonic dystrophy type 1: a randomized controlled pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kierkegaard, Marie; Harms-Ringdahl, Karin; Edström, Lars; Widén Holmqvist, Lotta; Tollbäck, Anna

    2011-07-01

    To investigate the feasibility and effects of a physical exercise programme on functioning and health-related quality of life in adults with myotonic dystrophy type 1. A randomized controlled trial. Thirty-five adults with myotonic dystrophy type 1. After stratification for level of functioning, study participants were assigned by lot to either a training group or a control group. Training-group participants attended a 60-minute comprehensive group-training programme, Friskis&Svettis® Open Doors, twice a week for 14 weeks. The six-minute walk test was the primary outcome measure and the timed-stands test, the timed up-and-go test, the Epworth sleepiness scale and the Short Form-36 health survey were secondary outcome measures. Intention-to-treat analyses revealed no significant differences in any outcome measures, except for an increased between-group difference after intervention in the Short Form-36 mental health subscale and a decrease in the vitality subscale for the control group. The programme was well tolerated and many training-group participants perceived subjective changes for the better. No negative effects were reported. The Friskis&Svettis® Open Doors programme was feasible for adults with myotonic dystrophy type 1 who had been screened for cardiac involvement, had distal or mild-to-moderate proximal muscle impairment, and no severe cognitive impairments. No beneficial or detrimental effects were evident.

  2. The Efficacy of Adapted MBCT on Core Symptoms and Executive Functioning in Adults With ADHD: A Preliminary Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepark, Sevket; Janssen, Lotte; de Vries, Alicia; Schoenberg, Poppy L A; Donders, Rogier; Kan, Cornelis C; Speckens, Anne E M

    2015-11-20

    The aim of this study was to examine the effectiveness of mindfulness as a treatment for adults diagnosed with ADHD. A 12-week-adapted mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) program is compared with a waiting list (WL) group. Adults with ADHD were randomly allocated to MBCT (n = 55) or waitlist (n = 48). Outcome measures included investigator-rated ADHD symptoms (primary), self-reported ADHD symptoms, executive functioning, depressive and anxiety symptoms, patient functioning, and mindfulness skills. MBCT resulted in a significant reduction of ADHD symptoms, both investigator-rated and self-reported, based on per-protocol and intention-to-treat analyses. Significant improvements in executive functioning and mindfulness skills were found. Additional analyses suggested that the efficacy of MBCT in reducing ADHD symptoms and improving executive functioning is partially mediated by an increase in the mindfulness skill "Act With Awareness." No improvements were observed for depressive and anxiety symptoms, and patient functioning. This study provides preliminary support for the effectiveness of MBCT for adults with ADHD. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. Acquisition of i.v. cocaine self-administration in adolescent and adult male rats selectively bred for high and low saccharin intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Jennifer L; Anderson, Marissa M; Nelson, Sarah E; Carroll, Marilyn E

    2007-05-16

    Adolescence and excessive intake of saccharin have each been previously associated with enhanced vulnerability to drug abuse. In the present study, we focused on the relationship between these two factors using male adolescent and adult rats selectively bred for high (HiS) and low (LoS) levels of saccharin intake. On postnatal day 25 (adolescents) or 150 (adults), rats were implanted with an intravenous catheter and trained to self-administer cocaine (0.4 mg/kg) using an autoshaping procedure that consisted of two 6-h sessions. In the first 6 h, rats were given non-contingent cocaine infusions at random intervals 10 times per hour, and during the second 6-h session, rats were allowed to self-administer cocaine under a fixed ratio 1 (FR 1) lever-response contingency. Acquisition was defined as a total of at least 250 infusions over 5 consecutive days, and rats were given 30 days to meet the acquisition criterion. Subsequently, saccharin phenotype scores were determined by comparing 24-h saccharin and water consumption in two-bottle tests to verify HiS/LoS status. Adolescent LoS rats had a faster rate of acquisition of cocaine self-administration than adult LoS rats; however, adolescent and adult HiS rats acquired at the same rate. Both HiS and LoS adolescents had significantly higher saccharin phenotype scores than HiS and LoS adults, respectively. Additionally, saccharin score was negatively correlated with the number of days to meet the acquisition criterion for cocaine self-administration, but this was mostly accounted for by the HiS adolescents. These results suggest that during adolescence, compared with adulthood, rats have both an increased avidity for sweets and vulnerability to initiate drug abuse.

  4. Agave Inulin Supplementation Affects the Fecal Microbiota of Healthy Adults Participating in a Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Crossover Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holscher, Hannah D; Bauer, Laura L; Gourineni, Vishnupriya; Pelkman, Christine L; Fahey, George C; Swanson, Kelly S

    2015-09-01

    Prebiotics resist digestion, providing fermentable substrates for select gastrointestinal bacteria associated with health and well-being. Agave inulin differs from other inulin type fibers in chemical structure and botanical origin. Preclinical animal research suggests these differences affect bacterial utilization and physiologic outcomes. Thus, research is needed to determine whether these effects translate to healthy adults. We evaluated agave inulin utilization by the gastrointestinal microbiota by measuring fecal fermentative end products and bacterial taxa. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 3-period, crossover trial was undertaken in healthy adults (n = 29). Participants consumed 0, 5.0, or 7.5 g agave inulin/d for 21 d with 7-d washouts between periods. Participants recorded daily dietary intake; fecal samples were collected during days 16-20 of each period and were subjected to fermentative end product analysis and 16S Illumina sequencing. Fecal Actinobacteria and Bifidobacterium were enriched (P inulin/d, respectively, compared with control. Desulfovibrio were depleted 40% with agave inulin compared with control. Agave inulin tended (P inulin (g/kcal) and Bifidobacterium (r = 0.41, P inulin/d) per kilocalorie was positively associated with fecal butyrate (r = 0.30, P = 0.005), tended to be positively associated with Bifidobacterium (r = 0.19, P = 0.08), and was negatively correlated with Desulfovibrio abundance (r = -0.31, P = 0.004). Agave inulin supplementation shifted the gastrointestinal microbiota composition and activity in healthy adults. Further investigation is warranted to determine whether the observed changes translate into health benefits in human populations. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01925560. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  5. Comparison of confirmed inactive and randomly selected compounds as negative training examples in support vector machine-based virtual screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikamp, Kathrin; Bajorath, Jürgen

    2013-07-22

    The choice of negative training data for machine learning is a little explored issue in chemoinformatics. In this study, the influence of alternative sets of negative training data and different background databases on support vector machine (SVM) modeling and virtual screening has been investigated. Target-directed SVM models have been derived on the basis of differently composed training sets containing confirmed inactive molecules or randomly selected database compounds as negative training instances. These models were then applied to search background databases consisting of biological screening data or randomly assembled compounds for available hits. Negative training data were found to systematically influence compound recall in virtual screening. In addition, different background databases had a strong influence on the search results. Our findings also indicated that typical benchmark settings lead to an overestimation of SVM-based virtual screening performance compared to search conditions that are more relevant for practical applications.

  6. The Effects of Service-Delivery Model and Purchase Price on Hearing-Aid Outcomes in Older Adults: A Randomized Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humes, Larry E; Rogers, Sara E; Quigley, Tera M; Main, Anna K; Kinney, Dana L; Herring, Christine

    2017-03-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine efficacy of hearing aids in older adults using audiology best practices, to evaluate the efficacy of an alternative over-the-counter (OTC) intervention, and to examine the influence of purchase price on outcomes for both service-delivery models. The design of this study was a single-site, prospective, double-blind placebo-controlled randomized trial with three parallel branches: (a) audiology best practices (AB), (b) consumer decides OTC model (CD), and (c) placebo devices (P). Outcome measures were obtained after a typical 6-week trial period with follow-up 4-week AB-based trial for those initially assigned to CD and P groups. Older adults from the general community were recruited via newspaper and community flyers to participate at a university research clinic. Participants were adults, ages 55-79 years, with mild-to-moderate hearing loss. There were 188 eligible participants: 163 enrolled as a volunteer sample, and 154 completed the intervention. All participants received the same high-end digital mini-behind-the-ear hearing aids fitted bilaterally. AB and P groups received best-practice services from audiologists; differing mainly in use of appropriate (AB) or placebo (P) hearing aid settings. CD participants self-selected their own pre-programmed hearing aids via an OTC model. Primary outcome measure was a 66-item self-report, Profile of Hearing Aid Benefit (Cox & Gilmore, 1990). Secondary outcome measure was the Connected Speech Test (Cox, Alexander, & Gilmore, 1987) benefit. Additional measures of hearing-aid benefit, satisfaction, and usage were also obtained. Per-protocol analyses were performed. AB service-delivery model was found to be efficacious for most of the outcome measures, with moderate or large effect sizes (Cohen's d). CD service-delivery model was efficacious, with similar effect sizes. However, CD group had a significantly (p purchase hearing aids after the trial. Hearing aids are efficacious in

  7. A Theoretical Basis for Adult Learning Facilitation: Review of Selected Articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muneja, Mussa S.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to synthesize a theoretical basis for adult learning facilitation in order to provide a valuable systematic resource in the field of adult education. The paper has reviewed 6 journal articles with topics ranging from theory of andragogy; the effect of globalization on adult learning; the contribution of Malcolm Knowles;…

  8. Gestational lead exposure selectively decreases retinal dopamine amacrine cells and dopamine content in adult mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Donald A; Hamilton, W Ryan; Johnson, Jerry E; Xiao, Weimin; Chaney, Shawntay; Mukherjee, Shradha; Miller, Diane B; O'Callaghan, James P

    2011-11-01

    Gestational lead exposure (GLE) produces supernormal scotopic electroretinograms (ERG) in children, monkeys and rats, and a novel retinal phenotype characterized by an increased number of rod photoreceptors and bipolar cells in adult mice and rats. Since the loss of dopaminergic amacrine cells (DA ACs) in GLE monkeys and rats contributes to supernormal ERGs, the retinal DA system was analyzed in mice following GLE. C57BL/6 female mice were exposed to low (27 ppm), moderate (55 ppm) or high (109 ppm) lead throughout gestation and until postnatal day 10 (PN10). Blood [Pb] in control, low-, moderate- and high-dose GLE was ≤ 1, ≤ 10, ~25 and ~40 μg/dL, respectively, on PN10 and by PN30 all were ≤ 1 μg/dL. At PN60, confocal-stereology studies used vertical sections and wholemounts to characterize tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) expression and the number of DA and other ACs. GLE dose-dependently and selectively decreased the number of TH-immunoreactive (IR) DA ACs and their synaptic plexus without affecting GABAergic, glycinergic or cholinergic ACs. Immunoblots and confocal revealed dose-dependent decreases in retinal TH protein expression and content, although monoamine oxidase-A protein and gene expression were unchanged. High-pressure liquid chromatography showed that GLE dose-dependently decreased retinal DA content, its metabolites and DA utilization/release. The mechanism of DA selective vulnerability is unknown. However, a GLE-induced loss/dysfunction of DA ACs during development could increase the number of rods and bipolar cells since DA helps regulate neuronal proliferation, whereas during adulthood it could produce ERG supernormality as well as altered circadian rhythms, dark/light adaptation and spatial contrast sensitivity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. A Randomized Clinical Trial of a Therapeutic Workplace for Chronically Unemployed, Homeless, Alcohol-Dependent Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Koffarnus, Mikhail N.; Wong, Conrad J.; Diemer, Karly; Needham, Mick; Hampton, Jacqueline; Fingerhood, Michael; Svikis, Dace S.; Bigelow, George E.; Silverman, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    Aims: To assess the efficacy of the Therapeutic Workplace, a substance abuse intervention that promotes abstinence while simultaneously addressing the issues of poverty and lack of job skills, in promoting abstinence from alcohol among homeless alcoholics. Methods: Participants (n = 124) were randomly assigned to conditions either requiring abstinence from alcohol to engage in paid job skills training (Contingent Paid Training group), offering paid job skills training with no abstinence conti...

  10. Group cognitive behavioral therapy targeting intolerance of uncertainty: a randomized trial for older Chinese adults with generalized anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Chen; Zhihui, Yang

    2017-12-01

    China has entered the aging society, but the social support systems for the elderly are underdeveloped, which may make the elderly feel anxiety about their health and life quality. Given the prevalence of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) in the elderly, it is very important to pay more attention to the treatment for old adults. Although cognitive behavioral therapy targeting intolerance of uncertainty (CBT-IU) has been applied to different groups of patients with GAD, few studies have been performed to date. In addition, the effects of CBT-IU are not well understood, especially when applied to older adults with GAD. Sixty-three Chinese older adults with a principal diagnosis of GAD were enrolled. Of these, 32 were randomized to receive group CBT-IU (intervention group) and 31 were untreated (control group). GAD and related symptoms were assessed using the Penn State Worry Questionnaire, Intolerance of Uncertainty Scale-Chinese Version, Beck Anxiety Inventory, Beck Depression Inventory, Why Worry-II scale, Cognitive Avoidance Questionnaire, Generalized Anxiety Disorder Questionnaire-IV, and Generalized Anxiety Disorder Severity Scale across the intervention. The changes between pre and after the intervention were collected, as well as the six-month follow-up. F test and repeated-measures ANOVA were conducted to analyze the data. Compared to control group, the measures' scores of experimental group decreased significantly after the intervention and six-month follow-up. Besides the main effects for time and group were significant, the interaction effect for group × time was also significant. These results indicated the improvement of the CBT-IU group and the persistence of effect after six months. Group CBT-IU is effective in Chinese older adults with GAD. The effects of CBT-IU on GAD symptoms persist for at least six months after treatment.

  11. Selegiline in Comparison with Methylphenidate in Treatment of Adults with Attention Deficit yperactivity Disorder: A Double-blind, Randomized Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farbod Fadai

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available  Objective: "n "nAttention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD is one of the most common mental disorders in childhood and it continues to adulthood without proper treatment. Stimulants have been used in treatment of ADHD for many years and the efficacy of methylphenidate (MPH in the treatment of adults with ADHD has been proven to be acceptable according to meta-analysis studies. However, there are some concerns about stimulants. Finding other effective medications for the treatment of adult ADHD seems necessary. We tried a monoamine oxidase inhibitor, Selegiline, as there are some theoretical and experimental evidences for the efficacy of this medication . "nMethod: Forty patients were randomized to receive Selegiline or methylphenidate in an equal ratio for an 8-week double-blind clinical trial. Each patient filled the CAARS self report screening form before starting to take the medication and in weeks 2-4-6 and 8. Patients were also assessed by a psychiatrist at the baseline and on each 14 days up to the 8 weeks period. "nResults: The mean score of the two groups- receiving Selegiline or methylphenidate- decreased over the 8 weeks. There was not a significant difference between the two groups. The most prevalent side-effect of methylphenidate was decrease of appetite and for Selegiline change in sleep pattern . "nConclusion: Selegiline is as effective as methylphenidate in the treatment of adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. Selegiline can be an alternative medication for the treatment of adult ADHD If its clinical efficacy is proven by other larger studies .

  12. Training of resistance to proactive interference and working memory in older adults: a randomized double-blind study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loosli, Sandra V; Falquez, Rosalux; Unterrainer, Josef M; Weiller, Cornelius; Rahm, Benjamin; Kaller, Christoph P

    2016-03-01

    Working memory (WM) performance is often decreased in older adults. Despite the growing popularity of WM trainings, underlying mechanisms are still poorly understood. Resistance to proactive interference (PI) constitutes a candidate process that contributes to WM performance and might influence training or transfer effects. Here, we investigated whether PI resistance can be enhanced in older adults using a WM training with specifically increased PI-demands. Further, we investigated whether potential effects of such a training were stable and entailed any transfer on non-trained tasks. Healthy old adults (N = 25, 68.8 ± 5.5 years) trained with a recent-probes and an n-back task daily for two weeks. Two different training regimens (high vs. low PI-amount in the tasks) were applied as between-participants manipulation, to which participants were randomly assigned. Near transfer tasks included interference tasks; far transfer tasks assessed fluid intelligence (gF) or speed. Immediate transfer was assessed directly after training; a follow-up measurement was conducted after two months. Both groups similarly improved in PI resistance in both training tasks. Thus, PI susceptibility was generally reduced in the two training groups and there was no difference between WM training with high versus low PI demands. Further, there was no differential near or far transfer on non-trained tasks, neither immediately after the training nor in the follow-up. PI-demands in WM training tasks do not seem critical for enhancing WM performance or PI resistance in older adults. Instead, improved resistance to PI appears to be an unspecific side-effect of a WM training.

  13. Novel Zn2+-chelating peptides selected from a fimbria-displayed random peptide library

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Kristian; Schembri, Mark; Klemm, Per

    2001-01-01

    The display of peptide sequences on the surface of bacteria is a technology that offers exciting applications in biotechnology and medical research. Type 1 fimbriae are surface organelles of Escherichia coli which mediate D-mannose-sensitive binding to different host surfaces by virtue of the Fim......H adhesin. FimH is a component of the fimbrial organelle that can accommodate and display a diverse range of peptide sequences on the E. coli cell surface. In this study we have constructed a random peptide library in FimH. The library, consisting of similar to 40 million individual clones, was screened...

  14. Reduction of intraspecific aggression in adult rats by neonatal treatment with a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manhães de Castro R.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Most studies suggest that serotonin exerts an inhibitory control on the aggression process. According to experimental evidence, this amine also influences growth and development of the nervous tissue including serotoninergic neurons. Thus, the possibility exists that increased serotonin availability in young animals facilitates a long-lasting effect on aggressive responses. The present study aimed to investigate the aggressive behavior of adult rats (90-120 days treated from the 1st to the 19th postnatal day with citalopram (CIT, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (20 mg/kg, sc, every 3 days. Aggressive behavior was induced by placing a pair of rats (matched by weight in a box (20 x 20 x 20 cm, and submitting them to a 20-min session of electric footshocks (five 1.6-mA - 2-s current pulses, separated by a 4-min intershock interval. When compared to the control group (rats treated for the same period with equivalent volumes of saline solution, the CIT group presented a 41.4% reduction in the duration of aggressive response. The results indicate that the repeated administration of CIT early in life reduces the aggressive behavior in adulthood and suggest that the increased brain serotoninergic activity could play a role in this effect.

  15. Genomic Selection for Quantitative Adult Plant Stem Rust Resistance in Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica E. Rutkoski

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Quantitative adult plant resistance (APR to stem rust ( f. sp. is an important breeding target in wheat ( L. and a potential target for genomic selection (GS. To evaluate the relative importance of known APR loci in applying GS, we characterized a set of CIMMYT germplasm at important APR loci and on a genome-wide profile using genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS. Using this germplasm, we describe the genetic architecture and evaluate prediction models for APR using data from the international Ug99 stem rust screening nurseries. Prediction models incorporating markers linked to important APR loci and seedling phenotype scores as fixed effects were evaluated along with the classic prediction models: Multiple linear regression (MLR, Genomic best linear unbiased prediction (G-BLUP, Bayesian Lasso (BL, and Bayes Cπ (BCπ. We found the region to play an important role in APR in this germplasm. A model using linked markers as fixed effects in G-BLUP was more accurate than MLR with linked markers (-value = 0.12, and ordinary G-BLUP (-value = 0.15. Incorporating seedling phenotype information as fixed effects in G-BLUP did not consistently increase accuracy. Overall, levels of prediction accuracy found in this study indicate that GS can be effectively applied to improve stem rust APR in this germplasm, and if genotypes at linked markers are available, modeling these genotypes as fixed effects could lead to better predictions.

  16. Loss of DNA mismatch repair imparts a selective advantage in planarian adult stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica P Hollenbach

    Full Text Available Lynch syndrome (LS leads to an increased risk of early-onset colorectal and other types of cancer and is caused by germline mutations in DNA mismatch repair (MMR genes. Loss of MMR function results in a mutator phenotype that likely underlies its role in tumorigenesis. However, loss of MMR also results in the elimination of a DNA damage-induced checkpoint/apoptosis activation barrier that may allow damaged cells to grow unchecked. A fundamental question is whether loss of MMR provides pre-cancerous stem cells an immediate selective advantage in addition to establishing a mutator phenotype. To test this hypothesis in an in vivo system, we utilized the planarian Schmidtea mediterranea which contains a significant population of identifiable adult stem cells. We identified a planarian homolog of human MSH2, a MMR gene which is mutated in 38% of LS cases. The planarian Smed-msh2 is expressed in stem cells and some progeny. We depleted Smed-msh2 mRNA levels by RNA-interference and found a striking survival advantage in these animals treated with a cytotoxic DNA alkylating agent compared to control animals. We demonstrated that this tolerance to DNA damage is due to the survival of mitotically active, MMR-deficient stem cells. Our results suggest that loss of MMR provides an in vivo survival advantage to the stem cell population in the presence of DNA damage that may have implications for tumorigenesis.

  17. Using the 4 Pillars™ Immunization Toolkit to Increase Pneumococcal Immunizations for Older Adults: A Cluster Randomized Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Richard K.; Brown, Anthony E.; Pavlik, Valory N.; Moehling, Krissy K.; Raviotta, Jonathan M.; Lin, Chyongchiou J.; Zhang, Song; Hawk, Mary; Kyle, Shakala; Patel, Suchita; Ahmed, Faruque; Nowalk, Mary Patricia

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Quality improvement in primary care has focused on improving adult immunization. OBJECTIVES Test the effectiveness of a step-by step, evidence-based guide, the 4 Pillars™ Immunization Toolkit, to increase adult pneumococcal vaccination. DESIGN Randomized controlled cluster trial (RCCT) in Year 1 (6/1/2013–5/31/2014) and a pre-post study in Year 2 (6/1/2014–1/31/2015) with data analyzed in 2016. Baseline year was 6/1/2012–5/31/2013. Demographic and vaccination data were derived from de-identified EMR extractions. SETTING 25 primary care practices stratified by city (Houston, Pittsburgh), location (rural, urban, suburban) and type (family medicine, internal medicine), randomized to receive the intervention in Year 1 (n=13) or Year 2 (n=12). PARTICIPANTS A cohort of 18,107 patients ≥65 years at baseline with a mean age of 74.2 years; 60.7% were women, 16.5% were non-white and 15.7% were Hispanic. INTERVENTION The Toolkit, provider education, and one-on-one coaching of practice-based immunization champions. Outcome measures were 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV) and pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) rates and percentage point (PP) changes. RESULTS In the RCCT, all intervention and control groups had significantly higher PPSV vaccination rates with average increases ranging from 6.5–8.7 PP (P<0.01). The intervention was not related to higher likelihood of PPSV vaccination. In the Year 2 pre-post study, the likelihood of PPSV and PCV vaccination was significantly higher in the active intervention sites than the maintenance sites in Pittsburgh, but not in Houston. CONCLUSION In a randomized controlled cluster trial, both intervention and control groups increased PPSV among adults ≥65 years. In a pre-post study, private primary care practices using the 4 Pillars™ Immunization Toolkit significantly improved PPSV and PCV uptake compared with practices that were in the maintenance phase of the study. PMID:27755655

  18. Effects of tai chi chuan on anxiety and sleep quality in young adults: lessons from a randomized controlled feasibility study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caldwell KL

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Karen L Caldwell,1 Shawn M Bergman,2 Scott R Collier,3 N Travis Triplett,3 Rebecca Quin,4 John Bergquist,5 Carl F Pieper6 1Department of Human Development and Psychological Counseling, 2Department of Psychology, 3Department of Health and Exercise Science, 4Department of Theatre and Dance, 5Department of Psychology, Appalachian State University, Boone, 6Department of Biostatistics and Bioinformatics, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA Objective: To determine feasibility and estimate the effect of a 10-week tai chi chuan (TCC intervention on anxiety and sleep quality in young adults. Participants: Seventy-five adults (18–40 years from a predominately undergraduate mid-sized university. Methods: This was an assessor blinded, randomized feasibility trial, and participants were randomized into one of three groups: 10 weeks of TCC meeting 2 times per week, 10 weeks of TCC with a DVD of the curriculum, and control group receiving a handout on anxiety management. Anxiety and sleep quality were assessed 4 times: baseline, 4 weeks, 10 weeks (immediate post-intervention, and 2 months post-intervention. Retention was defined as a participant attending the baseline assessment and at least one other assessment. Adherence to the intervention was set a priori as attendance at 80% of the TCC classes. Results: Eighty-five percent of participants were retained during the intervention and 70% completed the 2 month follow-up assessments. To increase statistical power, the two TCC groups were combined in the analyses of anxiety and sleep quality measures. No significant changes in anxiety were found in the control group, while levels of anxiety decreased significantly over time in the two TCC groups. Sleep quality scores improved across time for all three groups, but adherent TCC participants reported greater improvement than control participants. Conclusion: TCC may be an effective nonpharmaceutical means of improving anxiety and poor sleep quality

  19. Randomized trial of amino acid mixture combined with physical activity promotion for abdominal fat reduction in overweight adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ueda K

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Keisuke Ueda,1,2 Hiroyuki Sasai,3 Takehiko Tsujimoto,4 Chiaki Sanbongi,1 Shuji Ikegami,1 Hiroyuki Kobayashi,5 Nobuhiko Shioya,6 Satoru Suzuki,7 Yoshio Nakata5 1Food Science and Technology Research Laboratories, Meiji Co., Ltd, Hachiouji, 2Graduate School of Comprehensive Human Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, 3Department of Life Sciences, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, 4Faculty of Human Sciences, Shimane University, Matsue, 5Faculty of Medicine, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, 6KSO Corporation, Tokyo, 7Shinagawa Season Terrace Health Care Clinic, Tokyo, Japan Purpose: The purpose of this study was to test the efficacy of arginine, alanine, and phenylalanine mixture (A-mix ingestion at 1,500 mg/day in combination with the promotion of physical activity for abdominal fat reduction in overweight adults.Methods: A placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel-group, randomized trial for 12 weeks combined with a 4-week follow-up period was conducted at a single center in Minato-ku, Tokyo, Japan, between December 2016 and May 2017. Data were analyzed between June and August 2017. The study participants were 200 overweight adults within the age range of 20–64 years. The participants were randomly assigned to the A-mix group (n=100 or a placebo group (n=100 and were administered 500 mL of test beverage containing 1,500 or 0 mg of A-mix, respectively, for 12 weeks. All participants maintained a physically active lifestyle between week 0 and week 12 through monthly sessions of physical activity. The primary outcomes were the 12-week changes in the abdominal total, subcutaneous, and visceral fat areas, as assessed by computed tomography.Results: Of the 200 enrolled participants, 199 (99% accomplished the 12-week intervention and 4-week follow-up period. The per-protocol-based analysis for 194 participants demonstrated that the abdominal total fat area decreased significantly in the A-mix group compared with

  20. Gestational lead exposure selectively decreases retinal dopamine amacrine cells and dopamine content in adult mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, Donald A., E-mail: dafox@uh.edu [College of Optometry, University of Houston, Houston, TX (United States); Department of Biology and Biochemistry, University of Houston, Houston, TX (United States); Department of Pharmacology and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Houston, Houston, TX (United States); Hamilton, W. Ryan [Department of Biology and Biochemistry, University of Houston, Houston, TX (United States); Johnson, Jerry E. [Department of Natural Sciences, University of Houston-Downtown, Houston, TX (United States); Xiao, Weimin [College of Optometry, University of Houston, Houston, TX (United States); Chaney, Shawntay; Mukherjee, Shradha [Department of Biology and Biochemistry, University of Houston, Houston, TX (United States); Miller, Diane B.; O' Callaghan, James P. [Toxicology and Molecular Biology Branch, Health Effects Research Laboratory, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-NIOSH, Morgantown, WV USA (United States)

    2011-11-15

    Gestational lead exposure (GLE) produces supernormal scotopic electroretinograms (ERG) in children, monkeys and rats, and a novel retinal phenotype characterized by an increased number of rod photoreceptors and bipolar cells in adult mice and rats. Since the loss of dopaminergic amacrine cells (DA ACs) in GLE monkeys and rats contributes to supernormal ERGs, the retinal DA system was analyzed in mice following GLE. C57BL/6 female mice were exposed to low (27 ppm), moderate (55 ppm) or high (109 ppm) lead throughout gestation and until postnatal day 10 (PN10). Blood [Pb] in control, low-, moderate- and high-dose GLE was {<=} 1, {<=} 10, {approx} 25 and {approx} 40 {mu}g/dL, respectively, on PN10 and by PN30 all were {<=} 1 {mu}g/dL. At PN60, confocal-stereology studies used vertical sections and wholemounts to characterize tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) expression and the number of DA and other ACs. GLE dose-dependently and selectively decreased the number of TH-immunoreactive (IR) DA ACs and their synaptic plexus without affecting GABAergic, glycinergic or cholinergic ACs. Immunoblots and confocal revealed dose-dependent decreases in retinal TH protein expression and content, although monoamine oxidase-A protein and gene expression were unchanged. High-pressure liquid chromatography showed that GLE dose-dependently decreased retinal DA content, its metabolites and DA utilization/release. The mechanism of DA selective vulnerability is unknown. However, a GLE-induced loss/dysfunction of DA ACs during development could increase the number of rods and bipolar cells since DA helps regulate neuronal proliferation, whereas during adulthood it could produce ERG supernormality as well as altered circadian rhythms, dark/light adaptation and spatial contrast sensitivity. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Peak [BPb] in control, low-, moderate- and high-dose newborn mice with gestational lead exposure: {<=} 1, {<=} 10, 25 and 40 {mu}g/dL Black

  1. Gestational lead exposure selectively decreases retinal dopamine amacrine cells and dopamine content in adult mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, Donald A.; Hamilton, W. Ryan; Johnson, Jerry E.; Xiao, Weimin; Chaney, Shawntay; Mukherjee, Shradha; Miller, Diane B.; O'Callaghan, James P.

    2011-01-01

    Gestational lead exposure (GLE) produces supernormal scotopic electroretinograms (ERG) in children, monkeys and rats, and a novel retinal phenotype characterized by an increased number of rod photoreceptors and bipolar cells in adult mice and rats. Since the loss of dopaminergic amacrine cells (DA ACs) in GLE monkeys and rats contributes to supernormal ERGs, the retinal DA system was analyzed in mice following GLE. C57BL/6 female mice were exposed to low (27 ppm), moderate (55 ppm) or high (109 ppm) lead throughout gestation and until postnatal day 10 (PN10). Blood [Pb] in control, low-, moderate- and high-dose GLE was ≤ 1, ≤ 10, ∼ 25 and ∼ 40 μg/dL, respectively, on PN10 and by PN30 all were ≤ 1 μg/dL. At PN60, confocal-stereology studies used vertical sections and wholemounts to characterize tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) expression and the number of DA and other ACs. GLE dose-dependently and selectively decreased the number of TH-immunoreactive (IR) DA ACs and their synaptic plexus without affecting GABAergic, glycinergic or cholinergic ACs. Immunoblots and confocal revealed dose-dependent decreases in retinal TH protein expression and content, although monoamine oxidase-A protein and gene expression were unchanged. High-pressure liquid chromatography showed that GLE dose-dependently decreased retinal DA content, its metabolites and DA utilization/release. The mechanism of DA selective vulnerability is unknown. However, a GLE-induced loss/dysfunction of DA ACs during development could increase the number of rods and bipolar cells since DA helps regulate neuronal proliferation, whereas during adulthood it could produce ERG supernormality as well as altered circadian rhythms, dark/light adaptation and spatial contrast sensitivity. -- Highlights: ► Peak [BPb] in control, low-, moderate- and high-dose newborn mice with gestational lead exposure: ≤ 1, ≤ 10, 25 and 40 μg/dL ► Gestational lead exposure dose-dependently decreased the number of TH

  2. An Interactive Text Message Intervention to Reduce Binge Drinking in Young Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial with 9-Month Outcomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Suffoletto

    Full Text Available Binge drinking is associated with numerous negative consequences. The prevalence and intensity of binge drinking is highest among young adults. This randomized trial tested the efficacy of a 12-week interactive text message intervention to reduce binge drinking up to 6 months after intervention completion among young adults.Young adult participants (18-25 y; n = 765 drinking above the low-risk limits (AUDIT-C score >3/4 women/men, but not seeking alcohol treatment, were enrolled from 4 Emergency Departments (EDs in Pittsburgh, PA. Participants were randomized to one of three conditions in a 2:1:1 allocation ratio: SMS Assessments + Feedback (SA+F, SMS Assessments (SA, or control. For 12 weeks, SA+F participants received texts each Thursday querying weekend drinking plans and prompting drinking limit goal commitment and each Sunday querying weekend drinking quantity. SA+F participants received tailored feedback based on their text responses. To contrast the effects of SA+F with self-monitoring, SA participants received texts on Sundays querying drinking quantity, but did not receive alcohol-specific feedback. The control arm received standard care. Follow-up outcome data collected through web-based surveys were provided by 78% of participants at 3- months, 63% at 6-months and 55% at 9-months. Multiple imputation-derived, intent-to-treat models were used for primary analysis. At 9-months, participants in the SA+F group reported greater reductions in the number of binge drinking days than participants in the control group (incident rate ratio [IRR] 0.69; 95% CI .59 to.79, lower binge drinking prevalence (odds ratio [OR] 0.52; 95% CI 0.26 to 0.98], less drinks per drinking day (beta -.62; 95% CI -1.10 to -0.15 and lower alcohol-related injury prevalence (OR 0.42; 95% CI 0.21 to 0.88. Participants in the SA group did not reduce drinking or alcohol-related injury relative to controls. Findings were similar using complete case analyses.An interactive

  3. Intranasal oxytocin versus placebo in the treatment of adults with autism spectrum disorders: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anagnostou Evdokia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are no effective medications for the treatment of social cognition/function deficits in autism spectrum disorder (ASD, and adult intervention literature in this area is sparse. Emerging data from animal models and genetic association studies as well as early, single-dose intervention studies suggest that the oxytocin system may be a potential therapeutic target for social cognition/function deficits in ASD. The primary aim of this study was to examine the safety/therapeutic effects of intranasal oxytocin versus placebo in adults with ASD, with respect to the two core symptom domains of social cognition/functioning and repetitive behaviors. Methods This was a pilot, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel design trial of intranasal oxytocin versus placebo in 19 adults with ASD (16 males; 33.20 ± 13.29 years. Subjects were randomized to 24 IU intranasal oxytocin or placebo in the morning and afternoon for 6 weeks. Measures of social function/cognition (the Diagnostic Analysis of Nonverbal Accuracy and repetitive behaviors (Repetitive Behavior Scale Revised were administered. Secondary measures included the Social Responsiveness Scale, Reading-the-Mind-in-the-Eyes Test and the Yale Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale – compulsion subscale and quality of life (World Health Organization Quality of Life Questionnaire – emotional/social subscales. Full-information maximum-likelihood parameter estimates were obtained and tested using mixed-effects regression analyses. Results Although no significant changes were detected in the primary outcome measures after correcting for baseline differences, results suggested improvements after 6 weeks in measures of social cognition (Reading-the-Mind-in-the-Eyes Test, p = 0.002, d = 1.2, and quality of life (World Health Organization Quality of Life Questionnaire – emotion, p = 0.031, d = 0.84, both secondary measures. Oxytocin was well tolerated and no serious adverse

  4. Patient-centered professional practice models for managing low back pain in older adults: a pilot randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goertz, Christine M; Salsbury, Stacie A; Long, Cynthia R; Vining, Robert D; Andresen, Andrew A; Hondras, Maria A; Lyons, Kevin J; Killinger, Lisa Z; Wolinsky, Fredric D; Wallace, Robert B

    2017-10-13

    Low back pain is a debilitating condition for older adults, who may seek healthcare from multiple providers. Few studies have evaluated impacts of different healthcare delivery models on back pain outcomes in this population. The purpose of this study was to compare clinical outcomes of older adults receiving back pain treatment under 3 professional practice models that included primary medical care with or without chiropractic care. We conducted a pilot randomized controlled trial with 131 community-dwelling, ambulatory older adults with subacute or chronic low back pain. Participants were randomly allocated to 12 weeks of individualized primary medical care (Medical Care), concurrent medical and chiropractic care (Dual Care), or medical and chiropractic care with enhanced interprofessional collaboration (Shared Care). Primary outcomes were low back pain intensity rated on the numerical rating scale and back-related disability measured with the Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire. Secondary outcomes included clinical measures, adverse events, and patient satisfaction. Statistical analyses included mixed-effects regression models and general estimating equations. At 12 weeks, participants in all three treatment groups reported improvements in mean average low back pain intensity [Shared Care: 1.8; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.0 to 2.6; Dual Care: 3.0; 95% CI 2.3 to 3.8; Medical Care: 2.3; 95% CI 1.5 to 3.2)] and back-related disability (Shared Care: 2.8; 95% CI 1.6 to 4.0; Dual Care: 2.5; 95% CI 1.3 to 3.7; Medical Care: 1.5; 95% CI 0.2 to 2.8). No statistically significant differences were noted between the three groups on the primary measures. Participants in both models that included chiropractic reported significantly better perceived low back pain improvement, overall health and quality of life, and greater satisfaction with healthcare services than patients who received medical care alone. Professional practice models that included primary care and

  5. A Randomized Controlled Trial Comparing the Low FODMAP Diet vs. Modified NICE Guidelines in US Adults with IBS-D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eswaran, Shanti L; Chey, William D; Han-Markey, Theresa; Ball, Sarah; Jackson, Kenya

    2016-12-01

    There has been an increasing interest in the role of fermentable oligo-, di-, and monosaccharides and polyols (FODMAPs) in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). We report results from the first randomized controlled trial of the low FODMAP diet in US adults with IBS and diarrhea (IBS-D). The objectives were to compare the efficacy of the low FODMAP diet vs. a diet based upon modified National Institute for Health and Care Excellence guidelines (mNICE) on overall and individual symptoms in IBS-D patients. This was a single-center, randomized-controlled trial of adult patients with IBS-D (Rome III) which compared 2 diet interventions. After a 2-week screening period, eligible patients were randomized to a low FODMAP or mNICE diet for 4 weeks. The primary end point was the proportion of patients reporting adequate relief of IBS-D symptoms ≥50% of intervention weeks 3-4. Secondary outcomes included a composite end point which required response in both abdominal pain (≥30% reduction in mean daily pain score compared with baseline) and stool consistency (decrease in mean daily Bristol Stool Form of ≥1 compared with baseline), abdominal pain and stool consistency responders, and other key individual IBS symptoms assessed using daily questionnaires. After screening, 92 subjects (65 women, median age 42.6 years) were randomized. Eighty-four patients completed the study (45 low FODMAP, 39 mNICE). Baseline demographics, symptom severity, and nutrient intake were similar between groups. Fifty-two percent of the low FODMAP vs. 41% of the mNICE group reported adequate relief of their IBS-D symptoms (P=0.31). Though there was no significant difference in the proportion of composite end point responders (P=0.13), the low FODMAP diet resulted in a higher proportion of abdominal pain responders compared with the mNICE group (51% vs. 23%, P=0.008). Compared with baseline scores, the low FODMAP diet led to greater reductions in average daily scores of abdominal pain, bloating

  6. Improving preventive service delivery at adult complete health check-ups: the Preventive health Evidence-based Recommendation Form (PERFORM cluster randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moineddin Rahim

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To determine the effectiveness of a single checklist reminder form to improve the delivery of preventive health services at adult health check-ups in a family practice setting. Methods A prospective cluster randomized controlled trial was conducted at four urban family practice clinics among 38 primary care physicians affiliated with the University of Toronto. Preventive Care Checklist Forms© were created to be used by family physicians at adult health check-ups over a five-month period. The sex-specific forms incorporate evidence-based recommendations on preventive health services and documentation space for routine procedures such as physical examination. The forms were used in two intervention clinics and two control clinics. Rates and relative risks (RR of the performance of 13 preventive health maneuvers at baseline and post-intervention and the percentage of up-to-date preventive health services delivered per patient were compared between the two groups. Results Randomly-selected charts were reviewed at baseline (n = 509 and post-intervention (n = 608. Baseline rates for provision of preventive health services ranged from 3% (fecal occult blood testing to 93% (blood pressure measurement, similar to other settings. The percentage of up-to-date preventive health services delivered per patient at the end of the intervention was 48.9% in the control group and 71.7% in the intervention group. This is an overall 22.8% absolute increase (p = 0.0001, and 46.6% relative increase in the delivery of preventive health services per patient in the intervention group compared to controls. Eight of thirteen preventive health services showed a statistically significant change (p Conclusion This simple, low cost, clinically relevant intervention improves the delivery of preventive health services by prompting physicians of evidence-based recommendations in a checklist format that incorporates existing practice patterns. Periodic updates

  7. Structure-activity relationship of 9-methylstreptimidone, a compound that induces apoptosis selectively in adult T-cell leukemia cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeiri, Masatoshi; Ota, Eisuke; Nishiyama, Shigeru; Kiyota, Hiromasa; Umezawa, Kazuo

    2012-01-01

    We previously reported that 9-methylstreptimidone, a piperidine compound isolated from a culture filtrate of Streptomyces, induces apoptosis selectively in adult T-cell leukemia cells. It was screened for a compound that inhibits LPS-induced NF-kappaB and NO production in mouse macrophages. However, 9-methystreptimidone is poorly obtained from the producing microorganism and difficult to synthesize. Therefore, in the present research, we studied the structure-activity relationship to look for new selective inhibitors. We found that the structure of the unsaturated hydrophobic portion of 9-methylstreptimidone was essential for the inhibition of LPS-induced NO production. Among the 9-methylstreptimidone-related compounds tested, (+/-)-4,alpha-diepi-streptovitacin A inhibited NO production in macrophage-like cells as potently as 9-methylstreptimidone and without cellular toxicity. Moreover, this compound selectively induced apoptosis in adult T-cell leukemia MT-1 cells.

  8. Small individual loans and mental health: a randomized controlled trial among South African adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernald, Lia C H; Hamad, Rita; Karlan, Dean; Ozer, Emily J; Zinman, Jonathan

    2008-12-16

    In the developing world, access to small, individual loans has been variously hailed as a poverty-alleviation tool - in the context of "microcredit" - but has also been criticized as "usury" and harmful to vulnerable borrowers. Prior studies have assessed effects of access to credit on traditional economic outcomes for poor borrowers, but effects on mental health have been largely ignored. Applicants who had previously been rejected (n = 257) for a loan (200% annual percentage rate - APR) from a lender in South Africa were randomly assigned to a "second-look" that encouraged loan officers to approve their applications. This randomized encouragement resulted in 53% of applicants receiving a loan they otherwise would not have received. All subjects were assessed 6-12 months later with questions about demographics, socio-economic status, and two indicators of mental health: the Center for Epidemiologic Studies - Depression Scale (CES-D) and Cohen's Perceived Stress scale. Intent-to-treat analyses were calculated using multinomial probit regressions. Randomization into receiving a "second look" for access to credit increased perceived stress in the combined sample of women and men; the findings were stronger among men. Credit access was associated with reduced depressive symptoms in men, but not women. Our findings suggest that a mechanism used to reduce the economic stress of extremely poor individuals can have mixed effects on their experiences of psychological stress and depressive symptomatology. Our data support the notion that mental health should be included as a measure of success (or failure) when examining potential tools for poverty alleviation. Further longitudinal research is needed in South Africa and other settings to understand how borrowing at high interest rates affects gender roles and daily life activities. CCT: ISRCTN 10734925.

  9. Predictive Validity of an Empirical Approach for Selecting Promising Message Topics: A Randomized-Controlled Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Stella Juhyun; Brennan, Emily; Gibson, Laura Anne; Tan, Andy S. L.; Kybert-Momjian, Ani; Liu, Jiaying; Hornik, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Several message topic selection approaches propose that messages based on beliefs pretested and found to be more strongly associated with intentions will be more effective in changing population intentions and behaviors when used in a campaign. This study aimed to validate the underlying causal assumption of these approaches which rely on cross-sectional belief–intention associations. We experimentally tested whether messages addressing promising themes as identified by the above criterion were more persuasive than messages addressing less promising themes. Contrary to expectations, all messages increased intentions. Interestingly, mediation analyses showed that while messages deemed promising affected intentions through changes in targeted promising beliefs, messages deemed less promising also achieved persuasion by influencing nontargeted promising beliefs. Implications for message topic selection are discussed. PMID:27867218

  10. Oracle Efficient Variable Selection in Random and Fixed Effects Panel Data Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kock, Anders Bredahl

    This paper generalizes the results for the Bridge estimator of Huang et al. (2008) to linear random and fixed effects panel data models which are allowed to grow in both dimensions. In particular we show that the Bridge estimator is oracle efficient. It can correctly distinguish between relevant...... and irrelevant variables and the asymptotic distribution of the estimators of the coefficients of the relevant variables is the same as if only these had been included in the model, i.e. as if an oracle had revealed the true model prior to estimation. In the case of more explanatory variables than observations......, we prove that the Marginal Bridge estimator can asymptotically correctly distinguish between relevant and irrelevant explanatory variables. We do this without restricting the dependence between covariates and without assuming sub Gaussianity of the error terms thereby generalizing the results...

  11. Presence of psychoactive substances in oral fluid from randomly selected drivers in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, K. Wiese; Steentoft, A.; Hels, Tove

    2012-01-01

    . The percentage of drivers positive for medicinal drugs above the Danish legal concentration limit was 0.4%; while, 0.3% of the drivers tested positive for one or more illicit drug at concentrations exceeding the Danish legal limit. Tetrahydrocannabinol, cocaine, and amphetamine were the most frequent illicit......This roadside study is the Danish part of the EU-project DRUID (Driving under the Influence of Drugs, Alcohol, and Medicines) and included three representative regions in Denmark. Oral fluid samples (n = 3002) were collected randomly from drivers using a sampling scheme stratified by time, season......, and road type. The oral fluid samples were screened for 29 illegal and legal psychoactive substances and metabolites as well as ethanol. Fourteen (0.5%) drivers were positive for ethanol alone or in combination with drugs) at concentrations above 0.53 g/l (0.5 mg/g), which is the Danish legal limit...

  12. A Randomized, Double-Blind Placebo Controlled Trial of Balapiravir, a Polymerase Inhibitor, in Adult Dengue Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Nguyet Minh; Tran, Chau Nguyen Bich; Phung, Lam Khanh; Duong, Kien Thi Hue; Huynh, Huy le Anh; Farrar, Jeremy; Nguyen, Quyen Than Ha; Tran, Hien Tinh; Nguyen, Chau Van Vinh; Merson, Laura; Hoang, Long Truong; Hibberd, Martin L.; Aw, Pauline P. K.; Wilm, Andreas; Nagarajan, Niranjan; Nguyen, Dung Thi; Pham, Mai Phuong; Nguyen, Truong Thanh; Javanbakht, Hassan; Klumpp, Klaus; Hammond, Janet; Petric, Rosemary; Wolbers, Marcel; Nguyen, Chinh Tran; Simmons, Cameron P.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Dengue is the most common arboviral infection of humans. There are currently no specific treatments for dengue. Balapiravir is a prodrug of a nucleoside analogue (called R1479) and an inhibitor of hepatitis C virus replication in vivo. Methods. We conducted in vitro experiments to determine the potency of balapiravir against dengue viruses and then an exploratory, dose-escalating, randomized placebo-controlled trial in adult male patients with dengue with treatment. Conclusions. Although this trial, the first of its kind in dengue, does not support balapiravir as a candidate drug, it does establish a framework for antiviral treatment trials in dengue and provides the field with a clinically evaluated benchmark molecule. Clinical Trials Registration. NCT01096576. PMID:22807519

  13. Mindfulness-Oriented Recovery Enhancement for Internet Gaming Disorder in U.S. Adults: A Stage 1 Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen; Garland, Eric L.; McGovern, Patricia; O'Brien, Jennifer E.; Tronnier, Christine; Howard, Matthew O.

    2017-01-01

    Empirical studies have identified increasing rates of Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD) and associated adverse consequences. However, very few evidence-based interventions have been evaluated for IGD or problematic video gaming behaviors. This study evaluated Mindfulness-Oriented Recovery Enhancement (MORE) as a treatment for IGD. Thirty adults (M age = 25.0, SD = 5.4) with IGD or problematic video gaming behaviors were randomized to 8 weeks of group-based MORE or 8 weeks of a support group (SG) control condition. Outcome measures were administered at pre-and posttreatment, and 3-month following treatment completion using self-report instruments. Linear mixed models were used for outcome analyses. MORE participants had significantly greater reductions in the number of DSM-5 IGD criteria they met, craving for video gaming, and maladaptive cognitions associated with gaming than SG participants, and therapeutic benefits were maintained at 3-month follow-up. MORE is a promising treatment approach for IGD. PMID:28437120

  14. A randomized single blind crossover trial comparing leather and commercial wrist splints for treating chronic wrist pain in adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiele, Jill; Nimmo, Rachel; Rowell, Wendy; Quinn, Stephen; Jones, Graeme

    2009-01-01

    Background To compare the effectiveness of a custom-made leather wrist splint (LS) with a commercially available fabric splint (FS) in adults with chronic wrist pain. Methods Participants (N = 25, mean age = 54) were randomly assigned to treatment order in a 2-phase crossover trial. Splints were worn for 2 weeks, separated by a one-week washout period. Outcomes were assessed at baseline and after each splint phase using the Australian/Canadian Osteoarthritis Hand Index (AUSCAN), the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM) and Jamar dynamometer by an observer blinded to treatment allocation. Results Both styles of wrist splint significantly reduced pain (effect size LS 0.79, FS 0.43), improved hand function and increased grip strength compared to baseline (all p leather splint compared to the commercially available splint. Conclusion Leather wrist splints were superior to a commercially available fabric splint for the short-term relief of pain and dysfunction. PMID:19843345

  15. Thinking about a limited future enhances the positivity of younger and older adults' recall: Support for socioemotional selectivity theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Sarah J; Opitz, Philipp C; Martins, Bruna; Sakaki, Michiko; Mather, Mara

    2016-08-01

    Compared with younger adults, older adults have a relative preference to attend to and remember positive over negative information. This is known as the "positivity effect," and researchers have typically evoked socioemotional selectivity theory to explain it. According to socioemotional selectivity theory, as people get older they begin to perceive their time left in life as more limited. These reduced time horizons prompt older adults to prioritize achieving emotional gratification and thus exhibit increased positivity in attention and recall. Although this is the most commonly cited explanation of the positivity effect, there is currently a lack of clear experimental evidence demonstrating a link between time horizons and positivity. The goal of the current research was to address this issue. In two separate experiments, we asked participants to complete a writing activity, which directed them to think of time as being either limited or expansive (Experiments 1 and 2) or did not orient them to think about time in a particular manner (Experiment 2). Participants were then shown a series of emotional pictures, which they subsequently tried to recall. Results from both studies showed that regardless of chronological age, thinking about a limited future enhanced the relative positivity of participants' recall. Furthermore, the results of Experiment 2 showed that this effect was not driven by changes in mood. Thus, the fact that older adults' recall is typically more positive than younger adults' recall may index naturally shifting time horizons and goals with age.

  16. Meditation and Music Improve Memory and Cognitive Function in Adults with Subjective Cognitive Decline: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innes, Kim E; Selfe, Terry Kit; Khalsa, Dharma Singh; Kandati, Sahiti

    2017-01-01

    While effective therapies for preventing or slowing cognitive decline in at-risk populations remain elusive, evidence suggests mind-body interventions may hold promise. In this study, we assessed the effects of Kirtan Kriya meditation (KK) and music listening (ML) on cognitive outcomes in adults experiencing subjective cognitive decline (SCD), a strong predictor of Alzheimer's disease. Sixty participants with SCD were randomized to a KK or ML program and asked to practice 12 minutes/day for 3 months, then at their discretion for the ensuing 3 months. At baseline, 3 months, and 6 months we measured memory and cognitive functioning [Memory Functioning Questionnaire (MFQ), Trail-making Test (TMT-A/B), and Digit-Symbol Substitution Test (DSST)]. The 6-month study was completed by 53 participants (88%). Participants performed an average of 93% (91% KK, 94% ML) of sessions in the first 3 months, and 71% (68% KK, 74% ML) during the 3-month, practice-optional, follow-up period. Both groups showed marked and significant improvements at 3 months in memory and cognitive performance (MFQ, DSST, TMT-A/B; p's≤0.04). At 6 months, overall gains were maintained or improved (p's≤0.006), with effect sizes ranging from medium (DSST, ML group) to large (DSST, KK group; TMT-A/B, MFQ). Changes were unrelated to treatment expectancies and did not differ by age, gender, baseline cognition scores, or other factors. Findings of this preliminary randomized controlled trial suggest practice of meditation or ML can significantly enhance both subjective memory function and objective cognitive performance in adults with SCD, and may offer promise for improving outcomes in this population.

  17. Randomized Trial of Supported Employment Integrated With Assertive Community Treatment for Rural Adults With Severe Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Paul B; Meisler, Neil; Santos, Alberto B; Carnemolla, Mark A; Williams, Olivia H; Keleher, Jennie

    2006-01-01

    Urban-based randomized clinical trials of integrated supported employment (SE) and mental health services in the United States on average have doubled the employment rates of adults with severe mental illness (SMI) compared to traditional vocational rehabilitation. However, studies have not yet explored if the service integrative functions of SE will be effective in coordinating rural-based services that are limited, loosely linked, and geographically dispersed. In addition, SE's ability to replicate the work outcomes of urban programs in rural economies with scarce and less diverse job opportunities remains unknown. In a rural South Carolina county, we designed and implemented a program blending Assertive Community Treatment (ACT) with an SE model, Individual Placement and Support (IPS). The ACT-IPS program operated with ACT and IPS subteams that tightly integrated vocational with mental health services within each self-contained team. In a 24-month randomized clinical trial, we compared ACT-IPS to a traditional program providing parallel vocational and mental health services on competitive work outcomes for adults with SMI (N = 143; 69% schizophrenia, 77% African American). More ACT-IPS participants held competitive jobs (64 versus 26%; p < .001, effect size [ES] = 0.38) and earned more income (median [Mdn] = $549, interquartile range [IQR] = $0–$5,145, versus Mdn = $0, IQR = $0–$40; p < .001, ES = 0.70) than comparison participants. The competitive work outcomes of this rural ACT-IPS program closely resemble those of urban SE programs. However, achieving economic self-sufficiently and developing careers probably require increasing access to higher education and jobs imparting marketable technical skills. PMID:16177278

  18. Comparison of Ambu® AuraGain™ laryngeal mask and air-Q™ intubating laryngeal airway for blind tracheal intubation in adults: A randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Sameer Sethi; Souvik Maitra; Vikas Saini; Tanvir Samara

    2017-01-01

    Background: This study has been designed to compare the performance of Ambu® AuraGain™ laryngeal mask with the air-Q™ as a conduit for blind tracheal intubation in adult patients. Methods: In this prospective randomized controlled trial blind endotracheal intubation success rates were compared between Ambu® AuraGain™ and air-Q™ intubating laryngeal airway in 90 adult patients. Patients were randomized in two equal groups: Group Ambu® AuraGain™ (n = 45) and Group air-Q™ (n = 45). Results...

  19. A behavioral medicine intervention for community-dwelling older adults with chronic musculoskeletal pain: protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cederbom S

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Sara Cederbom,1 Eva Denison,2 Astrid Bergland1 1Department of Physiotherapy, Faculty of Health Sciences, Oslo and Akershus University College of Applied Sciences, Oslo, Norway; 2Department of Physiotherapy, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Mälardalen University, Västerås, Sweden Background: Chronic musculoskeletal pain is a major health problem among older adults, particularly those who live alone and/or those who are dependent on formal care. Chronic pain is associated with mobility problems, falls, fear of falling, catastrophizing thoughts, and a lower quality of life. Research shows that physical therapy interventions based on behavioral medicine approaches are beneficial for middle-aged adults with chronic pain. However, there appears to be no previous randomized controlled trials (RCTs based on this theoretical framework that have examined the effect on older adults with chronic musculoskeletal pain who live alone at home and are dependent on formal care to manage their everyday lives. The aim of the planned study is to evaluate the effect of an individually tailored integrated physical therapy intervention based on a behavioral medicine approach compared with the effect of standard care.Methods/design: The planned study is an RCT that will include one intervention and one control group involving a total of 150 adults aged ≥75 years with chronic musculoskeletal pain who live alone at home and are dependent on formal care to manage their everyday lives. The intervention will involve a 12-week home-based individually tailored intervention that will be designed to enhance the participants’ ability to perform everyday activities by improving physical function and reducing pain-related disability and beliefs. The control group will be given standard care, including general advice about physical activity. The participants will be assessed at baseline and at 3 and 6 months after baseline. The primary outcome will be pain

  20. Long term effect of depression care management on mortality in older adults: follow-up of cluster randomized clinical trial in primary care

    OpenAIRE

    Gallo, Joseph J; Morales, Knashawn H; Bogner, Hillary R; Raue, Patrick J; Zee, Jarcy; Bruce, Martha L; Reynolds, Charles F

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether an intervention to improve treatment of depression in older adults in primary care modified the increased risk of death associated with depression. Design Long term follow-up of multi-site practice randomized controlled trial (PROSPECT?Prevention of Suicide in Primary Care Elderly: Collaborative Trial). Setting 20 primary care practices in New York City, Philadelphia, and Pittsburgh, USA, randomized to intervention or usual care. Participants 1226 participants...

  1. Genome-wide association data classification and SNPs selection using two-stage quality-based Random Forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thanh-Tung; Huang, Joshua; Wu, Qingyao; Nguyen, Thuy; Li, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) selection and identification are the most important tasks in Genome-wide association data analysis. The problem is difficult because genome-wide association data is very high dimensional and a large portion of SNPs in the data is irrelevant to the disease. Advanced machine learning methods have been successfully used in Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for identification of genetic variants that have relatively big effects in some common, complex diseases. Among them, the most successful one is Random Forests (RF). Despite of performing well in terms of prediction accuracy in some data sets with moderate size, RF still suffers from working in GWAS for selecting informative SNPs and building accurate prediction models. In this paper, we propose to use a new two-stage quality-based sampling method in random forests, named ts-RF, for SNP subspace selection for GWAS. The method first applies p-value assessment to find a cut-off point that separates informative and irrelevant SNPs in two groups. The informative SNPs group is further divided into two sub-groups: highly informative and weak informative SNPs. When sampling the SNP subspace for building trees for the forest, only those SNPs from the two sub-groups are taken into account. The feature subspaces always contain highly informative SNPs when used to split a node at a tree. This approach enables one to generate more accurate trees with a lower prediction error, meanwhile possibly avoiding overfitting. It allows one to detect interactions of multiple SNPs with the diseases, and to reduce the dimensionality and the amount of Genome-wide association data needed for learning the RF model. Extensive experiments on two genome-wide SNP data sets (Parkinson case-control data comprised of 408,803 SNPs and Alzheimer case-control data comprised of 380,157 SNPs) and 10 gene data sets have demonstrated that the proposed model significantly reduced prediction errors and outperformed

  2. Development and Pilot Randomized Control Trial of a Drama Program to Enhance Well-being Among Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Raeanne C; Straus, Elizabeth; Dev, Sheena I; Parish, Steven M; Sueko, Seema; Eyler, Lisa T

    2017-02-01

    Develop a novel theatre-based program and test its feasibility, tolerability, and preliminary efficacy for improving empathy/compassion and well-being among older adults. Thirteen older adults were randomized to a 6-week Drama Workshop (DW) program or time-equivalent Backstage Pass (BP) control condition. Pre- and post-treatment measures included empathy, compassion, and mood scales. Additional post-treatment measures included self-rated change in empathy/compassion, confidence, and affect. Participants also rated their mood/affect after each session. The program was successfully completed and well-liked. No pre-to-post-treatment changes in empathy/compassion or mood symptoms were found in either group. Compared to BP, DW weekly ratings indicated higher levels of anxiety and lower happiness; however, the DW program had higher self-ratings of positive change in self-esteem, confidence, and happiness post-treatment. While the DW may not promote empathy/compassion and was personally challenging during the program, engagement in dramatic exercises and rehearsing and performing a dramatic piece was seen by participants as a positive growth experience, as indicated by the post-treatment ratings of enhanced self-esteem, confidence and happiness. Thus, such a program might be useful for counteracting some of the potential negative aspects of aging, including reduced self-efficacy due to physical limitations and negative affect due to losses.

  3. Physical Exercise with Multicomponent Cognitive Intervention for Older Adults with Alzheimer's Disease: A 6-Month Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Ji Kim

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Aims: This study aimed to investigate the effect of 6-month physical exercise with a multicomponent cognitive program (MCP on the cognitive function of older adults with moderate to severe Alzheimer's disease (AD. Methods: We included 33 participants with AD in a 6-month randomized controlled trial. The intervention group participated in physical exercise and received a MCP. The control group received only the MCP. Before and after the intervention, cognitive outcomes were assessed using the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-Cognitive Subscale (ADAS-cog, Mini-Mental State Examination, and the Clock Drawing Test. Physical performance was evaluated by exercise time, the number of pedal rotation, total load, grip strength, and the Berg Balance Scale (BBS. Results: In all cognitive measures, there were no significant improvements between the two groups after 6 months in the baseline value-adjusted primary analysis. However, the ADAS-cog score was significantly lower between the two groups in secondary analysis adjusted for baseline value, age, sex, and education years. All physical outcomes were significantly higher in the intervention group except for total load compared with baseline measurements. Conclusion: This study indicates that it is possible to improve cognitive function in older adults with moderate to severe AD through 6-month physical exercise with a multicomponent cognitive intervention.

  4. Physical Exercise with Multicomponent Cognitive Intervention for Older Adults with Alzheimer's Disease: A 6-Month Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min-Ji; Han, Chang-Wan; Min, Kyoung-Youn; Cho, Chae-Yoon; Lee, Chae-Won; Ogawa, Yoshiko; Mori, Etsuro; Kohzuki, Masahiro

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of 6-month physical exercise with a multicomponent cognitive program (MCP) on the cognitive function of older adults with moderate to severe Alzheimer's disease (AD). We included 33 participants with AD in a 6-month randomized controlled trial. The intervention group participated in physical exercise and received a MCP. The control group received only the MCP. Before and after the intervention, cognitive outcomes were assessed using the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-Cognitive Subscale (ADAS-cog), Mini-Mental State Examination, and the Clock Drawing Test. Physical performance was evaluated by exercise time, the number of pedal rotation, total load, grip strength, and the Berg Balance Scale (BBS). In all cognitive measures, there were no significant improvements between the two groups after 6 months in the baseline value-adjusted primary analysis. However, the ADAS-cog score was significantly lower between the two groups in secondary analysis adjusted for baseline value, age, sex, and education years. All physical outcomes were significantly higher in the intervention group except for total load compared with baseline measurements. This study indicates that it is possible to improve cognitive function in older adults with moderate to severe AD through 6-month physical exercise with a multicomponent cognitive intervention.

  5. Church-based social marketing to motivate older adults to take balance classes for fall prevention: cluster randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiGuiseppi, Carolyn G; Thoreson, Sallie R; Clark, Lauren; Goss, Cynthia W; Marosits, Mark J; Currie, Dustin W; Lezotte, Dennis C

    2014-10-01

    Determine whether a church-based social marketing program increases older adults' participation in balance classes for fall prevention. In 2009-10, 51 churches (7101 total members aged ≥ 60) in Colorado, U.S.A. were randomized to receive no intervention or a social marketing program. The program highlighted benefits of class participation (staying independent, building relationships), reduced potential barriers (providing convenient, subsidized classes), and communicated marketing messages through church leaders, trained "messengers," printed materials and church-based communication channels. Between-group differences in balance class enrollment and marketing message recall among congregants were compared using Wilcoxon Two-Sample Test and regression models. Compared to 25 control churches, 26 churches receiving the social marketing program had a higher median proportion (9.8% vs. 0.3%; psocial marketing effectively disseminated messages about preventing falls through balance classes and, by emphasizing benefits and reducing barriers and costs of participation, successfully motivated older adults to enroll in the classes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Driving performance in adults with ADHD: results from a randomized, waiting list controlled trial with atomoxetine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobanski, E; Sabljic, D; Alm, B; Dittmann, R W; Wehmeier, P M; Skopp, G; Strohbeck-Kühner, P

    2013-08-01

    To investigate effects of a 12-week treatment with atomoxetine (ATX) on driving performance in real traffic, driving-related neuropsychological performance tests and self-evaluation of driving in adult patients with ADHD compared to an untreated control group with ADHD. Parallel group design with an ATX and a waiting list group. At baseline and endpoint patients were evaluated with a standardized on-road driving test (SDBO), a driving-related neuropsychological test battery (Act and React Test System [ART2020]), and subjective measures of driving performance (one-week driving diary, Driver Coping Questionnaire). Forty-three of the 64 included patients completed the study (n=22 ATX, n=21 controls). Mean intervention period was 11.9±3.0 weeks, mean daily ATX dosage was 71.6±14.9mg. At endpoint, 60.1% of patients treated with ATX and 0% of waiting list group had reduced ADHD symptoms by greater or equal to 30%. In SDBO, ATX group reduced driving errors in three of four driving performance categories (attention, Pself-control, Pdriving errors remained stable in control group. At endpoint, 47.6% of control group and 18.2% of ATX group (Pdriving fitness criteria according to German Guidelines (percentile rank less or equal to 16 in one or more subtests in ART2020). Total number of self-reported critical traffic situations decreased from 12.0 to 6.8 per week in ATX group (Ptraffic situations did not change within both groups. Our study provides first evidence that treatment with ATX improves driving performance in real traffic in adults with ADHD. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Selective angiographic embolization of blunt splenic traumatic injuries in adults decreases failure rate of nonoperative management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhullar, Indermeet S; Frykberg, Eric R; Siragusa, Daniel; Chesire, David; Paul, Julia; Tepas, Joseph J; Kerwin, Andrew J

    2012-05-01

    To determine whether angioembolization (AE) in hemodynamically stable adult patients with blunt splenic trauma (BST) at high risk for failure of nonoperative management (NOM) (contrast blush [CB] on computed tomography, high-grade IV-V injuries, or decreasing hemoglobin) results in lower failure rates than reported. The records of patients with BST from July 2000 to December 2010 at a Level I trauma center were retrospectively reviewed using National Trauma Registry of the American College of Surgeons. Failure of NOM (FNOM) occurred if splenic surgery was required after attempted NOM. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with FNOM. A total of 1,039 patients with BST were found. Pediatric patients (age <17 years), those who died in the emergency department, and those requiring immediate surgery for hemodynamic instability were excluded. Of the 539 (64% of all BST) hemodynamically stable patients who underwent NOM, 104 (19%) underwent AE and 435 (81%) were observed without AE (NO-AE). FNOM for the various groups were as follows: overall NOM (4%), NO-AE (4%), and AE (4%). There was no significant difference in FNOM for NO-AE versus AE for grades I to III: grade I (1% vs. 0%, p = 1), grade II (2% vs. 0%, p = 0.318), and grade III (5% vs. 0%, p = 0.562); however, a significant decrease in FNOM was noted with the addition of AE for grades IV to V: grade IV (23% vs. 3%, p = 0.04) and grade V (63% vs. 9%, p = 0.03). Statistically significant independent risk factors for FNOM were grade IV to V injuries and CB. Application of strictly defined selection criteria for NOM and AE in patients with BST resulted in one of the lowest overall FNOM rates (4%). Hemodynamically stable BST patients are candidates for NOM with selective AE for high-risk patients with grade IV to V injuries, CB on initial computed tomography, and/or decreasing hemoglobin levels. III, therapeutic study.

  8. Randomized Trial of Hypnosis as a Pain and Symptom Management Strategy in Adults with Sickle Cell Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallen, Gwenyth R; Middleton, Kimberly R; Ames, Nancy; Brooks, Alyssa T; Handel, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Sickle cell disease (SCD) is the most common genetic disease in African-Americans, characterized by recurrent painful vaso-occlusive crises. Medical therapies for controlling or preventing crises are limited because of efficacy and/or toxicity. This is a randomized, controlled, single-crossover protocol of hypnosis for managing pain in SCD patients. Participants receive hypnosis from a trained hypnosis therapist followed by six weeks of self-hypnosis using digital media. Those in the control arm receive SCD education followed by a six-week waiting period before crossing over to the hypnosis arm of the study. Outcome measures include assessments of pain (frequency, intensity and quality), anxiety, coping strategies, sleep, depression, and health care utilization. To date, there are no published randomized, controlled trials evaluating the efficacy of hypnosis on SCD pain modulation in adults. Self-hypnosis for pain management may be helpful in modulating chronic pain, improving sleep quality, and decreasing use of narcotics in patients with SCD. TRIAL REGISTRATION ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00393250 PMID:25520557

  9. Metacognitive Interpersonal Therapy in group (MIT-G) for young adults with personality disorders: A pilot randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popolo, Raffaele; MacBeth, Angus; Canfora, Flaviano; Rebecchi, Daniela; Toselli, Cecilia; Salvatore, Giampaolo; Dimaggio, Giancarlo

    2018-04-06

    Young adults with personality disorders (PD) other than borderline are in urgent need of validated treatments to help them in managing important life transitions. Therapeutic interventions focused upon social and interpersonal difficulties may facilitate these individuals in maximizing opportunities for employment, forming stable romantic relationships, and belong to social groups. It is also important that they are offered evidence-based, first-line time-limited treatments in order to maximize effectiveness and reduce costs. We developed a 16-session programme of group-based Metacognitive Interpersonal Therapy (MIT-G) including psychoeducation on the main interpersonal motives, an experiential component enabling practice of awareness of mental states; and use of mentalistic knowledge for purposeful problem-solving. We report a feasibility, acceptability, and clinical significance randomized clinical trial. Participants meeting inclusion criteria were randomized to receive MIT-G (n = 10) or waiting list+TAU (n = 10). Dropout rate was low and session attendance high (92.19%). Participants in the MIT-G arm had symptomatic and functional improvements consistent with large effect sizes. In the MIT-G arm similarly large effects were noted for increased capacity to understand mental states and regulate social interactions using mentalistic knowledge. Results were sustained at follow-up. Our findings suggest potential for applying MIT-G in larger samples to further test its effectiveness in reducing PD-related symptoms and problematic social functioning. © 2018 The British Psychological Society.

  10. A double-blind, randomized, multicenter phase 2 study of prasugrel versus placebo in adult patients with sickle cell disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wun Ted

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Platelet activation has been implicated in the pathogenesis of sickle cell disease (SCD suggesting antiplatelet agents may be therapeutic. To evaluate the safety of prasugrel, a thienopyridine antiplatelet agent, in adult patients with SCD, we conducted a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study. Methods The primary endpoint, safety, was measured by hemorrhagic events requiring medical intervention. Patients were randomized to prasugrel 5 mg daily (n = 41 or placebo (n = 21 for 30 days. Platelet function by VerifyNow® P2Y12 and vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein assays at days 10 and 30 were significantly inhibited in prasugrel- compared with placebo-treated SCD patients. Results There were no hemorrhagic events requiring medical intervention in either study arm. Mean pain rate (percentage of days with pain and intensity in the prasugrel arm were decreased compared with placebo. However, these decreases did not reach statistical significance. Platelet surface P-selectin and plasma soluble P-selectin, biomarkers of in vivo platelet activation, were significantly reduced in SCD patients receiving prasugrel compared with placebo. In sum, prasugrel was well tolerated and not associated with serious hemorrhagic events. Conclusions Despite the small size and short duration of this study, there was a decrease in platelet activation biomarkers and a trend toward decreased pain.

  11. COMPARISON BETWEEN POST ISOMETRIC RELAXATION AND RECIPROCAL INHIBITION MANUEVERS ON HAMSTRING FLEXIBILITY IN YOUNG HEALTHY ADULTS: RANDOMIZED CLINICAL TRIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agrawal Sonal S

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & Purpose: Variations in the application of muscle energy technique (MET for increasing the extensibility of muscles have been advocated, but little evidence exists to support the relative merit of a particular approach. This study investigated two types of muscle energy techniques that have been advocated in the osteopathic literature that differ primarily in the muscle group targeted. Aim: To compare the efficacy of Post Isometric Relaxation (PIR and Reciprocal Inhibition (RI on hamstring length in young healthy adults Methodology: Randomized clinical trial 100 college students aged between 18-25 years were included. The subjects were randomly assigned to PIR and RI group. Each group consisted of 50 subjects (25 male, 25 female. Knee extension limitation was measured by using active knee extension test (AKET pre & post-intervention, i.e. after 3 weeks of stretching regimen, with the help of universal full circle goniometer. Results: There was significant improvement in hamstrings flexibility (p=0.000 in both PIR and RI groups. Statistical comparison of the results of both the technique showed that PIR group had greater improvement than the RI group (p=0.000 Conclusion: PIR and RI were both found to be effective in improving hamstring flexibility but, PIR is more effective therapeutic maneuver.

  12. Efficacy and Effectiveness of Exercise on Tender Points in Adults with Fibromyalgia: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George A. Kelley

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Fibromyalgia is a major public health problem affecting an estimated 200 to 400 million people worldwide. The purpose of this study was to use the meta-analytic approach to determine the efficacy and effectiveness of randomized controlled exercise intervention trials (aerobic, strength training, or both on tender points (TPs in adults with fibromyalgia. Using random effects models and 95% confidence intervals (CI, a statistically significant reduction in TPs was observed based on per-protocol analyses (8 studies representing 322 participants but not intention-to-treat analyses (5 studies representing 338 participants (per-protocol, , −0.68, 95% CI, −1.16, −0.20; intention-to-treat, , −0.24, 95% CI, −0.62, 0.15. Changes were equivalent to relative reductions of 10.9% and 6.9%, respectively, for per-protocol and intention-to-treat analyses. It was concluded that exercise is efficacious for reducing TPs in women with FM. However, a need exists for additional well-designed and reported studies on this topic.

  13. Randomized Trial of Hypnosis as a Pain and Symptom Management Strategy in Adults with Sickle Cell Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gwenyth R. Wallen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sickle cell disease (SCD is the most common genetic disease in African-Americans, characterized by recurrent painful vaso-occlusive crises. Medical therapies for controlling or preventing crises are limited because of efficacy and/or toxicity. This is a randomized, controlled, single-crossover protocol of hypnosis for managing pain in SCD patients. Participants receive hypnosis from a trained hypnosis therapist followed by six weeks of self-hypnosis using digital media. Those in the control arm receive SCD education followed by a six-week waiting period before crossing over to the hypnosis arm of the study. Outcome measures include assessments of pain (frequency, intensity and quality, anxiety, coping strategies, sleep, depression, and health care utilization. To date, there are no published randomized, controlled trials evaluating the efficacy of hypnosis on SCD pain modulation in adults. Self-hypnosis for pain management may be helpful in modulating chronic pain, improving sleep quality, and decreasing use of narcotics in patients with SCD. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00393250

  14. Auricular Point Acupressure to Manage Chronic Low Back Pain in Older Adults: A Randomized Controlled Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Hsing Yeh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This prospective, randomized clinical trial (RCT pilot study was designed to (1 assess the feasibility and tolerability of an easily administered, auricular point acupressure (APA intervention and (2 provide an initial assessment of effect size as compared to a sham treatment. Thirty-seven subjects were randomized to receive either the real or sham APA treatment. All participants were treated once a week for 4 weeks. Self-report measures were obtained at baseline, weekly during treatment, at end-of-intervention (EOI, and at a 1-month follow-up. A dropout rate of 26% in the real APA group and 50% in the sham group was observed. The reduction in worst pain from baseline to EOI was 41% for the real and 5% for the sham group with a Cohen’s effect size of 1.22 P<0.00. Disability scores on the Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMDQ decreased in the real group by 29% and were unchanged in the sham group (+3% P<0.00. Given the high dropout rate, results must be interpreted with caution; nevertheless, our results suggest that APA may provide an inexpensive and effective complementary approach for the management of back pain in older adults, and further study is warranted.

  15. Selective insulin resistance in homeostatic and cognitive control brain areas in overweight and obese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kullmann, Stephanie; Heni, Martin; Veit, Ralf; Scheffler, Klaus; Machann, Jürgen; Häring, Hans-Ulrich; Fritsche, Andreas; Preissl, Hubert

    2015-06-01

    Impaired brain insulin action has been linked to obesity, type 2 diabetes, and neurodegenerative diseases. To date, the central nervous effects of insulin in obese humans still remain ill defined, and no study thus far has evaluated the specific brain areas affected by insulin resistance. In 25 healthy lean and 23 overweight/obese participants, we performed magnetic resonance imaging to measure cerebral blood flow (CBF) before and 15 and 30 min after application of intranasal insulin or placebo. Additionally, participants explicitly rated pictures of high-caloric savory and sweet food 60 min after the spray for wanting and liking. In response to insulin compared with placebo, we found a significant CBF decrease in the hypothalamus in both lean and overweight/obese participants. The magnitude of this response correlated with visceral adipose tissue independent of other fat compartments. Furthermore, we observed a differential response in the lean compared with the overweight/obese group in the prefrontal cortex, resulting in an insulin-induced CBF reduction in lean participants only. This prefrontal cortex response significantly correlated with peripheral insulin sensitivity and eating behavior measures such as disinhibition and food craving. Behaviorally, we were able to observe a significant reduction for the wanting of sweet foods after insulin application in lean men only. Brain insulin action was selectively impaired in the prefrontal cortex in overweight and obese adults and in the hypothalamus in participants with high visceral adipose tissue, potentially promoting an altered homeostatic set point and reduced inhibitory control contributing to overeating behavior. © 2015 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  16. Randomized controlled trial of oatmeal consumption versus noodle consumption on blood lipids of urban Chinese adults with hypercholesterolemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian; Li, Lixiang; Song, Pengkun; Wang, Chunrong; Man, Qingqing; Meng, Liping; Cai, Jenny; Kurilich, Anne

    2012-08-06

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in China and worldwide. Whole grain oats can reduce risk of CVD by reducing total and LDL-cholesterol, major risk factors for CVD. While this association has been established in many populations, data from Asian populations is limited. Thus, this study investigated the impact of oat consumption on cholesterol levels in Chinese adults. Male and female data from this work were previously published separately in mandarin in two Chinese journals. The combined male and female data were reanalyzed and are presented here. A randomized, controlled, parallel-arm study was conducted at Beijing Hospital, Beijing china. Subjects were adults (men and women) with mild to moderate hypercholesterolemia. The oat group (n=85) consumed 100 grams of instant oat cereal versus the control group (n=81) who consumed 100 grams of wheat flour-based noodles daily for 6 weeks. Laboratory and anthropometric measurements were conducted at baseline and at the end of the 6-week intervention. Dietary fiber intake increased significantly in the oat group compared to the control group at the end of the 6-week intervention. Total-, LDL-cholesterol and waist circumference decreased significantly in the oat group compared to the control. HDL-cholesterol decreased significantly in the control group versus the oat group. There were no significant changes in blood pressure, other anthropometric or laboratory measures between the two groups at the end of the intervention. Instant oatmeal consumed daily for 6 weeks significantly increased fiber intake and decreased major risk factors for CVD in Chinese adults with hypercholesterolemia. Increased consumption of whole grains, including oats, should continue to be encouraged.

  17. Randomized controlled trial of oatmeal consumption versus noodle consumption on blood lipids of urban Chinese adults with hypercholesterolemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Jian

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiovascular disease (CVD is the leading cause of death in China and worldwide. Whole grain oats can reduce risk of CVD by reducing total and LDL-cholesterol, major risk factors for CVD. While this association has been established in many populations, data from Asian populations is limited. Thus, this study investigated the impact of oat consumption on cholesterol levels in Chinese adults. Male and female data from this work were previously published separately in mandarin in two Chinese journals. The combined male and female data were reanalyzed and are presented here. Methods A randomized, controlled, parallel-arm study was conducted at Beijing Hospital, Beijing china. Subjects were adults (men and women with mild to moderate hypercholesterolemia. The oat group (n=85 consumed 100grams of instant oat cereal versus the control group (n=81 who consumed 100grams of wheat flour-based noodles daily for 6weeks. Laboratory and anthropometric measurements were conducted at baseline and at the end of the 6-week intervention. Results Dietary fiber intake increased significantly in the oat group compared to the control group at the end of the 6-week intervention. Total-, LDL-cholesterol and waist circumference decreased significantly in the oat group compared to the control. HDL-cholesterol decreased significantly in the control group versus the oat group. There were no significant changes in blood pressure, other anthropometric or laboratory measures between the two groups at the end of the intervention. Conclusions Instant oatmeal consumed daily for 6 weeks significantly increased fiber intake and decreased major risk factors for CVD in Chinese adults with hypercholesterolemia. Increased consumption of whole grains, including oats, should continue to be encouraged.

  18. Inhaled budesonide for adults with mild-to-moderate asthma: a randomized placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Luisa Godoy Fernandes

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Budesonide is an inhaled corticosteroid with high topical potency and low systemic activity recommended in the treatment of chronic asthma. OBJECTIVE: This study was conducted to determine the efficacy and safety of inhaled budesonide via a breath-activated, multi-dose, dry-powder inhaler. TYPE OF STUDY: Multicenter randomized parallel-group, placebo-controlled, double-blind, clinical trial. SETTING: Multicenter study in the university units. PARTICIPANTS: Adult patients with mild-to-moderate asthma that was not controlled using bronchodilator therapy alone. PROCEDURES: Comparison of budesonide 400 µg administered twice daily via a breath-activated, multi-dose, dry-powder inhaler with placebo, in 43 adult patients (aged 15 to 78 years with mild-to-moderate asthma (FEV1 71% of predicted normal that was not controlled using bronchodilator therapy alone. MAIN MEASUREMENTS: Efficacy was assessed by pulmonary function tests and asthma symptom control (as perceived by the patients and the use of rescue medication. RESULTS: Budesonide 400 µg (bid was significantly more effective than placebo in improving morning peak expiratory flow (mean difference: 67.9 l/min; P < 0.005 and FEV1 (mean difference: 0.60 l; P < 0.005 over the 8-week treatment period. Onset of action, assessed by morning peak expiratory flow, occurred within the first two weeks of treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Budesonide via a breath-activated, multi-dose, dry-powder inhaler results in a rapid onset of asthma control, which is maintained over time and is well tolerated in adults with mild-to-moderate asthma.

  19. Childhood BMI and Adult Type 2 Diabetes, Coronary Artery Diseases, Chronic Kidney Disease, and Cardiometabolic Traits: A Mendelian Randomization Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Tingting; Smith, Caren E; Li, Changwei; Huang, Tao

    2018-05-01

    To test the causal effect of childhood BMI on adult cardiometabolic diseases using a Mendelian randomization analysis. We used 15 single nucleotide polymorphisms as instrumental variables for childhood BMI to test the causal effect of childhood BMI on cardiometabolic diseases using summary-level data from consortia. We found that a 1-SD increase in childhood BMI (kg/m 2 ) was associated with an 83% increase in risk of type 2 diabetes (odds ratio [OR] 1.83 [95% CI 1.46, 2.30]; P = 2.5 × 10 -7 ) and a 28% increase in risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) (OR 1.28 [95% CI 1.17, 1.39]; P = 2.1 × 10 -8 ) at the Bonferroni-adjusted level of significance ( P BMI was associated with a 0.587-SD increase in adulthood BMI (kg/m 2 ), a 0.062-SD increase in hip circumference (cm), a 0.602-SD increase in waist circumference (cm), a 0.111 pmol/L increase in log fasting insulin, a 0.068 increase in log-transformed HOMA of ß-cell function (%), a 0.126 increase in log-transformed HOMA of insulin resistance (%), and a 0.109-SD increase in triglyceride (mg/dL) but a 0.138-SD decrease in HDL (mg/dL) in adults at the Bonferroni-adjusted level of significance ( P BMI was associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes and CAD in adult life. These results provide evidence supportive of a causal association between childhood BMI and these outcomes. © 2018 by the American Diabetes Association.

  20. Motivational characteristics and resistance training in older adults: a randomized controlled trial and 1-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kekäläinen, Tiia; Kokko, Katja; Tammelin, Tuija; Sipilä, Sarianna; Walker, Simon

    2018-06-07

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a nine-month supervised resistance training intervention on motivational and volitional characteristics related to exercise, and whether the absolute level and/or intervention-induced change in these characteristics predict self-directed continuation of resistance training one year after the intervention. Community-dwelling older adults aged 65-75, who did not fulfill physical activity recommendations, were randomized into resistance training intervention groups: training once- (n=26), twice- (n=27), three-times-a-week (n=28) or non-training control group (n=25). Training groups participated in supervised resistance training for nine months: during months 1-3 all groups trained twice-a-week and then with allocated frequencies during months 4-9. Exercise-related motivation, self-efficacy and planning were measured with questionnaires at baseline, month-3 and month-9. The continuance of resistance training was determined by interviews six and twelve months after the end of the intervention. The intervention improved action and coping planning as well as intrinsic motivation (group×time p<.05). During one-year follow-up, 54% of participants did not continue self-directed regular resistance training, 22% continued regular resistance training once-a-week and 24% twice-a-week. Increases in exercise self-efficacy and intrinsic motivation related to training during the intervention predicted continuation of resistance training twice-a-week. Resistance training improved exercise-related motivational and volitional characteristics in older adults. These improvements were linked to continuing resistance training one year after the supervised intervention. The role of these characteristics should be taken into account when promoting long-term resistance training participation among older adults. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  1. Recruitment of young adults into a randomized controlled trial of weight gain prevention: message development, methods, and cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, Deborah F; LaRose, Jessica G; Griffin, Leah P; Erickson, Karen E; Robichaud, Erica F; Perdue, Letitia; Espeland, Mark A; Wing, Rena R

    2014-08-16

    Young adulthood (age 18 to 35) is a high-risk period for unhealthy weight gain. Few studies have recruited for prevention of weight gain, particularly in young adults. This paper describes the recruitment protocol used in the Study of Novel Approaches to Prevention (SNAP). We conducted extensive formative work to inform recruitment methods and message development. We worked with a professional marketing firm to synthesize major themes and subsequently develop age-appropriate messages for recruitment. A variety of approaches and channels were used across two clinical centers to recruit young adults who were normal or overweight (body mass index (BMI) 21 to 30 kg/m2) for a 3-year intervention designed to prevent weight gain. We tracked recruitment methods, yields, and costs by method. Logistic regression was used to identify recruitment methods that had the highest relative yield for subgroups of interest with covariate adjustments for clinic. The final sample of 599 participants (27% minority, 22% male) was recruited over a 19-month period of sustained efforts. About 10% of those who initially expressed interest via a screening website were randomized. The most common reason for ineligibility was already being obese (BMI >30 kg/m2). The top two methods for recruitment were mass mailing followed by email; together they were cited by 62% of those recruited. Television, radio, paid print advertising, flyers and community events each yielded fewer than 10% of study participants. Email was the most cost-effective method per study participant recruited. These findings can guide future efforts to recruit young adults and for trials targeting weight gain prevention. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01183689 (registered 13 August 2010).

  2. Trunk motion visual feedback during walking improves dynamic balance in older adults: Assessor blinded randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anson, Eric; Ma, Lei; Meetam, Tippawan; Thompson, Elizabeth; Rathore, Roshita; Dean, Victoria; Jeka, John

    2018-05-01

    Virtual reality and augmented feedback have become more prevalent as training methods to improve balance. Few reports exist on the benefits of providing trunk motion visual feedback (VFB) during treadmill walking, and most of those reports only describe within session changes. To determine whether trunk motion VFB treadmill walking would improve over-ground balance for older adults with self-reported balance problems. 40 adults (75.8 years (SD 6.5)) with self-reported balance difficulties or a history of falling were randomized to a control or experimental group. Everyone walked on a treadmill at a comfortable speed 3×/week for 4 weeks in 2 min bouts separated by a seated rest. The control group was instructed to look at a stationary bulls-eye target while the experimental group also saw a moving cursor superimposed on the stationary bulls-eye that represented VFB of their walking trunk motion. The experimental group was instructed to keep the cursor in the center of the bulls-eye. Somatosensory (monofilaments and joint position testing) and vestibular function (canal specific clinical head impulses) was evaluated prior to intervention. Balance and mobility were tested before and after the intervention using Berg Balance Test, BESTest, mini-BESTest, and Six Minute Walk. There were no significant differences between groups before the intervention. The experimental group significantly improved on the BESTest (p = 0.031) and the mini-BEST (p = 0.019). The control group did not improve significantly on any measure. Individuals with more profound sensory impairments had a larger improvement on dynamic balance subtests of the BESTest. Older adults with self-reported balance problems improve their dynamic balance after training using trunk motion VFB treadmill walking. Individuals with worse sensory function may benefit more from trunk motion VFB during walking than individuals with intact sensory function. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. A Randomized Controlled Study on the Effects of a Documentary on Students' Empathy and Attitudes towards Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laganá, Luciana; Gavrilova, Larisa; Carter, Delwin B; Ainsworth, Andrew T

    2017-01-01

    Despite the rapid increase in the size of the geriatric population, no current published literature is available based on the effects of viewing a documentary covering medical and psychosocial issues concerning older adults influencing young people's empathy and ageism. The aim of the current study was to test whether participants who viewed an original documentary about older adults experiencing physical pain would report lower ageism and higher empathy scores when compared to participants who watched a neutral documentary. Seventy-seven students (ages 18-29 years) were randomized to either the experimental (pain documentary) or the control (neutral documentary) conditions and given pre- and post-test measures of empathy and ageism. The results of a series of Profile Analyses (Multivariate Mixed ANOVAs) showed a significant interaction (Wilk's λ=0.933, F (1,75)=5.389, p =0.023, partial η 2 =0.067) between treatment and time (pre- vs . post-viewing the film) for the empathy measure that was confirmed by follow-up t -tests. The latter showed a significant increase in empathy scores for only the experimental group, t (37)=-2.999, p =0.005. However, contrary to the original prediction, this same treatment by time effect was not observed for ageism (Wilk's λ=0.994, F (1,75)=0.482, p =0.490, partial η 2 =0.006), as the experimental participants did not significantly reduce their ageism scores, t (38)=0.725, p =0.473. The results of these analyses, as well as those obtained by using the subscales of each questionnaire, have been discussed. The findings of this preliminary study indicate that showing a pain-based, anti-bias documentary feature film has the potential to significantly improve empathy towards older adults in university students.

  4. A Randomized Controlled Study on the Effects of a Documentary on Students’ Empathy and Attitudes towards Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laganá, Luciana; Gavrilova, Larisa; Carter, Delwin B.; Ainsworth, Andrew T.

    2017-01-01

    Background Despite the rapid increase in the size of the geriatric population, no current published literature is available based on the effects of viewing a documentary covering medical and psychosocial issues concerning older adults influencing young people’s empathy and ageism. The aim of the current study was to test whether participants who viewed an original documentary about older adults experiencing physical pain would report lower ageism and higher empathy scores when compared to participants who watched a neutral documentary. Method Seventy-seven students (ages 18–29 years) were randomized to either the experimental (pain documentary) or the control (neutral documentary) conditions and given pre- and post-test measures of empathy and ageism. Results The results of a series of Profile Analyses (Multivariate Mixed ANOVAs) showed a significant interaction (Wilk’s λ=0.933, F(1,75)=5.389, p=0.023, partial η2=0.067) between treatment and time (pre- vs. post-viewing the film) for the empathy measure that was confirmed by follow-up t-tests. The latter showed a significant increase in empathy scores for only the experimental group, t(37)=−2.999, p=0.005. However, contrary to the original prediction, this same treatment by time effect was not observed for ageism (Wilk’s λ=0.994, F(1,75)=0.482, p=0.490, partial η2=0.006), as the experimental participants did not significantly reduce their ageism scores, t(38)=0.725, p=0.473. The results of these analyses, as well as those obtained by using the subscales of each questionnaire, have been discussed. Conclusions The findings of this preliminary study indicate that showing a pain-based, anti-bias documentary feature film has the potential to significantly improve empathy towards older adults in university students. PMID:29399638

  5. Aromatherapy Versus Oral Ondansetron for Antiemetic Therapy Among Adult Emergency Department Patients: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    April, Michael D; Oliver, Joshua J; Davis, William T; Ong, David; Simon, Erica M; Ng, Patrick C; Hunter, Curtis J

    2018-02-17

    We compare aromatherapy with inhaled isopropyl alcohol versus oral ondansetron for treating nausea among emergency department (ED) patients not requiring immediate intravenous access. In a randomized, blinded, placebo-controlled trial, we enrolled a convenience sample of adults presenting to an urban tertiary care ED with chief complaints including nausea or vomiting. We randomized subjects to 1 of 3 arms: inhaled isopropyl alcohol and 4 mg oral ondansetron, inhaled isopropyl alcohol and oral placebo, and inhaled saline solution placebo and 4 mg oral ondansetron. The primary outcome was mean nausea reduction measured by a 0- to 100-mm visual analog scale from enrollment to 30 minutes postintervention. Secondary outcomes included receipt of rescue antiemetic medications and adverse events. We enrolled 122 subjects, of whom 120 (98.3%) completed the study. Of randomized subjects, 40 received inhaled isopropyl alcohol and oral ondansetron, 41 received inhaled isopropyl alcohol and oral placebo, and 41 received inhaled saline solution placebo and oral ondansetron. The mean decrease in nausea visual analog scale score in each arm was 30 mm (95% confidence interval [CI] 22 to 37 mm), 32 mm (95% CI 25 to 39 mm), and 9 mm (95% CI 5 to 14 mm), respectively. The proportions of subjects who received rescue antiemetic therapy in each arm were 27.5% (95% CI 14.6% to 43.9%), 25.0% (95% CI 12.7% to 41.2%), and 45.0% (95% CI 29.3% to 61.5%), respectively. There were no adverse events. Among ED patients with acute nausea and not requiring immediate intravenous access, aromatherapy with or without oral ondansetron provides greater nausea relief than oral ondansetron alone. Copyright © 2018 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Efficacy and safety of Citrus sudachi peel in obese adults: A randomized, double-blind, pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masashi Akaike

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was undertaken to explore the efficacy and safety of Citrus sudachi peel for metabolic risk factors in obese male and female adults. Background: Citrus sudachi Hort. ex Shirai (Rutaceae, called “sudachi”, is a small, round, green citrus fruit that is mainly cultivated in Tokushima Prefecture in Japan. Our group reported that Citrus sudachi peel powder improved glucose tolerance and dyslipidemia in Zucher-fatty rats and reduced hyperglycemia and hypertriglyceridemia in GK diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in 40 participants with abdominal obesity and metabolic risk factors including hypertension, impaired glucose tolerance and elevated triglyceride levels. Participants were randomized to receive either tablets that contained 1.3 g dried Citrus sudachi peel powder or placebo tablets for 12 weeks. The sudachi peel group included 14 males and 5 females with a mean age of 54.5 years, and the placebo group included 18 males and 2 females with a mean age of 51.9 years. Results: Physical status including body weight, waist circumference and blood pressure and laboratory markers including metabolic parameters were not different at any observation point between the two groups. However, among participants with serum triglyceride levels of more than 120 mg/dl, body weight, waist circumference and serum triglyceride levels were significantly decreased at several observation points after the start of treatment in the sudachi peel group but not in the placebo group. No serious adverse events were observed in the sudachi peel group. Conclusions: Citrus sudachi peel has the potential effect to safely improve abdominal obesity and lower serum levels of TG in obese individuals with hypertriglyceridemia. A large-scale randomized, double-blind clinical study targeting subjects with both abdominal obesity and high TG levels is needed to confirm the metabolic effects of

  7. Differentiating emotions across contexts: comparing adults with and without social anxiety disorder using random, social interaction, and daily experience sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashdan, Todd B; Farmer, Antonina S

    2014-06-01

    The ability to recognize and label emotional experiences has been associated with well-being and adaptive functioning. This skill is particularly important in social situations, as emotions provide information about the state of relationships and help guide interpersonal decisions, such as whether to disclose personal information. Given the interpersonal difficulties linked to social anxiety disorder (SAD), deficient negative emotion differentiation may contribute to impairment in this population. We hypothesized that people with SAD would exhibit less negative emotion differentiation in daily life, and these differences would translate to impairment in social functioning. We recruited 43 people diagnosed with generalized SAD and 43 healthy adults to describe the emotions they experienced over 14 days. Participants received palmtop computers for responding to random prompts and describing naturalistic social interactions; to complete end-of-day diary entries, they used a secure online website. We calculated intraclass correlation coefficients to capture the degree of differentiation of negative and positive emotions for each context (random moments, face-to-face social interactions, and end-of-day reflections). Compared to healthy controls, the SAD group exhibited less negative (but not positive) emotion differentiation during random prompts, social interactions, and (at trend level) end-of-day assessments. These differences could not be explained by emotion intensity or variability over the 14 days, or to comorbid depression or anxiety disorders. Our findings suggest that people with generalized SAD have deficits in clarifying specific negative emotions felt at a given point of time. These deficits may contribute to difficulties with effective emotion regulation and healthy social relationship functioning.

  8. Differentiating Emotions Across Contexts: Comparing Adults with and without Social Anxiety Disorder Using Random, Social Interaction, and Daily Experience Sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashdan, Todd B.; Farmer, Antonina S.

    2014-01-01

    The ability to recognize and label emotional experiences has been associated with well-being and adaptive functioning. This skill is particularly important in social situations, as emotions provide information about the state of relationships and help guide interpersonal decisions, such as whether to disclose personal information. Given the interpersonal difficulties linked to social anxiety disorder (SAD), deficient negative emotion differentiation may contribute to impairment in this population. We hypothesized that people with SAD would exhibit less negative emotion differentiation in daily life, and these differences would translate to impairment in social functioning. We recruited 43 people diagnosed with generalized SAD and 43 healthy adults to describe the emotions they experienced over 14 days. Participants received palmtop computers for responding to random prompts and describing naturalistic social interactions; to complete end-of-day diary entries, they used a secure online website. We calculated intraclass correlation coefficients to capture the degree of differentiation of negative and positive emotions for each context (random moments, face-to-face social interactions, and end-of-day reflections). Compared to healthy controls, the SAD group exhibited less negative (but not positive) emotion differentiation during random prompts, social interactions, and (at trend level) end-of-day assessments. These differences could not be explained by emotion intensity or variability over the 14 days, or to comorbid depression or anxiety disorders. Our findings suggest that people with generalized SAD have deficits in clarifying specific negative emotions felt at a given point of time. These deficits may contribute to difficulties with effective emotion regulation and healthy social relationship functioning. PMID:24512246

  9. Capturing the Flatness of a peer-to-peer lending network through random and selected perturbations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karampourniotis, Panagiotis D.; Singh, Pramesh; Uparna, Jayaram; Horvat, Emoke-Agnes; Szymanski, Boleslaw K.; Korniss, Gyorgy; Bakdash, Jonathan Z.; Uzzi, Brian

    Null models are established tools that have been used in network analysis to uncover various structural patterns. They quantify the deviance of an observed network measure to that given by the null model. We construct a null model for weighted, directed networks to identify biased links (carrying significantly different weights than expected according to the null model) and thus quantify the flatness of the system. Using this model, we study the flatness of Kiva, a large international crownfinancing network of borrowers and lenders, aggregated to the country level. The dataset spans the years from 2006 to 2013. Our longitudinal analysis shows that flatness of the system is reducing over time, meaning the proportion of biased inter-country links is growing. We extend our analysis by testing the robustness of the flatness of the network in perturbations on the links' weights or the nodes themselves. Examples of such perturbations are event shocks (e.g. erecting walls) or regulatory shocks (e.g. Brexit). We find that flatness is unaffected by random shocks, but changes after shocks target links with a large weight or bias. The methods we use to capture the flatness are based on analytics, simulations, and numerical computations using Shannon's maximum entropy. Supported by ARL NS-CTA.

  10. Safety and immunogenicity of an AMA-1 malaria vaccine in Malian adults: results of a phase 1 randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahamadou A Thera

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to evaluate the safety, reactogenicity and immunogenicity of the AMA-1-based blood-stage malaria vaccine FMP2.1/AS02A in adults exposed to seasonal malaria.A phase 1 double blind randomized controlled dose escalation trial was conducted in Bandiagara, Mali, West Africa, a rural town with intense seasonal transmission of Plasmodium falciparum malaria. The malaria vaccine FMP2.1/AS02A is a recombinant protein (FMP2.1 based on apical membrane antigen-1 (AMA-1 from the 3D7 clone of P. falciparum, adjuvanted with AS02A. The comparator vaccine was a cell-culture rabies virus vaccine (RabAvert. Sixty healthy, malaria-experienced adults aged 18-55 y were recruited into 2 cohorts and randomized to receive either a half dose or full dose of the malaria vaccine (FMP2.1 25 microg/AS02A 0.25 mL or FMP2.1 50 microg/AS02A 0.5 mL or rabies vaccine given in 3 doses at 0, 1 and 2 mo, and were followed for 1 y. Solicited symptoms were assessed for 7 d and unsolicited symptoms for 30 d after each vaccination. Serious adverse events were assessed throughout the study. Titers of anti-AMA-1 antibodies were measured by ELISA and P. falciparum growth inhibition assays were performed on sera collected at pre- and post-vaccination time points. Transient local pain and swelling were common and more frequent in both malaria vaccine dosage groups than in the comparator group. Anti-AMA-1 antibodies increased significantly in both malaria vaccine groups, peaking at nearly 5-fold and more than 6-fold higher than baseline in the half-dose and full-dose groups, respectively.The FMP2.1/AS02A vaccine had a good safety profile, was well-tolerated, and was highly immunogenic in malaria-exposed adults. This malaria vaccine is being evaluated in Phase 1 and 2 trials in children at this site.

  11. Effects of whole-body vibration on balance and mobility in institutionalized older adults: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Freddy Mh; Chan, Philip Fl; Liao, L R; Woo, Jean; Hui, Elsie; Lai, Charles Wk; Kwok, Timothy Cy; Pang, Marco Yc

    2018-04-01

    To investigate whether a comprehensive exercise program was effective in improving physical function among institutionalized older adults and whether adding whole-body vibration to the program conferred additional therapeutic benefits. A single-blinded randomized controlled trial was conducted. This study was carried out in residential care units. In total, 73 older adults (40 women, mean age: 82.3 ± 7.3 years) were enrolled into this study. Participants were randomly allocated to one of the three groups: strength and balance program combined with whole-body vibration, strength and balance program without whole-body vibration, and social and recreational activities consisting of upper limb exercises only. All participants completed three training sessions per week for eight weeks. Assessment of mobility, balance, lower limb strength, walking endurance, and self-perceived balance confidence were conducted at baseline and immediately after the eight-week intervention. Incidences of falls requiring medical attention were recorded for one year after the end of the training period. A significant time × group interaction was found for lower limb strength (five-times-sit-to-stand test; P = 0.048), with the exercise-only group showing improvement (pretest: 35.8 ± 16.1 seconds; posttest: 29.0 ± 9.8 seconds), compared with a decline in strength among controls (pretest: 27.1 ± 10.4 seconds; posttest: 28.7 ± 12.3 seconds; P = 0.030). The exercise with whole-body vibration group had a significantly better outcome in balance confidence (pretest: 39.2 ± 29.0; posttest: 48.4 ± 30.6) than the exercise-only group (pretest: 35.9 ± 24.8; posttest: 38.2 ± 26.5; P = 0.033). The exercise program was effective in improving lower limb strength among institutionalized older adults but adding whole-body vibration did not enhance its effect. Whole-body vibration may improve balance confidence without enhancing actual balance performance.

  12. Prevalence of at-risk genotypes for genotoxic effects decreases with age in a randomly selected population in Flanders: a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Delft Joost HM

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We hypothesized that in Flanders (Belgium, the prevalence of at-risk genotypes for genotoxic effects decreases with age due to morbidity and mortality resulting from chronic diseases. Rather than polymorphisms in single genes, the interaction of multiple genetic polymorphisms in low penetrance genes involved in genotoxic effects might be of relevance. Methods Genotyping was performed on 399 randomly selected adults (aged 50-65 and on 442 randomly selected adolescents. Based on their involvement in processes relevant to genotoxicity, 28 low penetrance polymorphisms affecting the phenotype in 19 genes were selected (xenobiotic metabolism, oxidative stress defense and DNA repair, respectively 13, 6 and 9 polymorphisms. Polymorphisms which, based on available literature, could not clearly be categorized a priori as leading to an 'increased risk' or a 'protective effect' were excluded. Results The mean number of risk alleles for all investigated polymorphisms was found to be lower in the 'elderly' (17.0 ± 2.9 than the 'adolescent' (17.6 ± 3.1 subpopulation (P = 0.002. These results were not affected by gender nor smoking. The prevalence of a high (> 17 = median number of risk alleles was less frequent in the 'elderly' (40.6% than the 'adolescent' (51.4% subpopulation (P = 0.002. In particular for phase II enzymes, the mean number of risk alleles was lower in the 'elderly' (4.3 ± 1.6 than the 'adolescent' age group (4.8 ± 1.9 P 4 = median number of risk alleles was less frequent in the 'elderly' (41.3% than the adolescent subpopulation (56.3%, P 8 = median number of risk alleles for DNA repair enzyme-coding genes was lower in the 'elderly' (37,3% than the 'adolescent' subpopulation (45.6%, P = 0.017. Conclusions These observations are consistent with the hypothesis that, in Flanders, the prevalence of at-risk alleles in genes involved in genotoxic effects decreases with age, suggesting that persons carrying a higher number of

  13. Feasibility and acceptability of a beverage intervention for Hispanic adults: a protocol for a pilot randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrill, Kristin E; Aceves, Benjamin; Valdez, Luis A; Thomson, Cynthia A; Hakim, Iman A; Bell, Melanie L; Martinez, Jessica A; Garcia, David O

    2018-02-09

    In the U.S., Hispanics have among the highest rates of overweight and obesity when compared to other racial/ethnic groups placing them at a greater risk for obesity-related disease. Identifying intervention strategies to reduce caloric intake and/or improve cardiometabolic health in Hispanics is critical to reducing morbidity and mortality among this large and growing population. Evidence exists to support diet-specific behavioral interventions, including beverage modifications, in reducing obesity-related health risks. However, the acceptability and feasibility of a beverage intervention in obese Hispanic adults has not been robustly evaluated. The objective of this pilot study is to assess the feasibility and acceptability of a randomized, controlled beverage intervention in 50 obese Hispanic adults ages 18-64 over 8-weeks. Eligible participants were obese (30-50.0 kg/m 2 ), between the ages 18-64, self-identified as Hispanic, and were able to speak, read, and write in either English and/or Spanish. Study recruitment was completed August 2017. Upon the completion of baseline assessments, participants will be randomized to either Mediterranean lemonade, Green Tea, or flavored water control. After completing a 2-week washout period, participants will be asked to consume 32 oz. per day of study beverage for 6-weeks while avoiding all other sources of tea, lemonade, citrus, juice, and other sweetened beverages; water is permissible. Primary outcomes will be recruitment, retention, and acceptability of the intervention strategies. Our study will also evaluate participant-reported tolerance and as an exploratory aim, assess safety/toxicity-related to renal and/or liver function. Fasting blood samples will be collected at baseline and 8-weeks to assess the primary efficacy outcomes: total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and low-density lipoprotein (LDL). Secondary outcomes include fasting glucose, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), and high-sensitivity C

  14. Selection, Inclusion, Evaluation and Defense of Transgender-Inclusive Fiction for Young Adults: A Resource Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockefeller, Elsworth I.

    2009-01-01

    An increasingly visible youth transgender population is emerging and the number of transgender-inclusive fiction texts for young adults is growing. Adults serving teens in schools, libraries, and community agencies must begin actively pursuing, utilizing, and incorporating these texts into resource collections. This article provides an overview of…

  15. Older adults' motivated choice for technological innovation: Evidence for benefit-driven selectivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melenhorst, Anne-Sophie; Rogers, Wendy A.; Bouwhuis, Don G.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined older adults' motivation to adopt technological innovation. Sixty-eight older e-mail users and nonusers discussed the use of e-mail and of traditional communication methods in 18 focus groups. The results show older adults' benefit-driven approach to new communication technology.

  16. Older adults motivated choice for technological innovation: evidence for benefit-driven selectivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melenhorst, A.S.; Rogers, W.A.; Bouwhuis, D.G.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined older adults' motivation to adopt technological innovation. Sixty-eight older e-mail users and nonusers discussed the use of e-mail and of traditional communication methods in 18 focus groups. The results show older adults' benefit-driven approach to new communication technology.

  17. Selection and Cataloging of Adult Pornography Web Sites for Academic Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilevko, Juris; Gottlieb, Lisa

    2004-01-01

    Pornography has become part of mainstream culture. As such, it has become a subject of academic research, and this, in turn, has implications for university libraries. Focusing on adult Internet pornography, this study suggests that academic libraries should provide access to adult pornographic Web sites by including them in their online catalogs.

  18. Selected Factors in Reading Comprehension for Deaf and Hearing Adults: Phonological Skills and Metacognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ye; Silvestri, Julia A.; Jahromi, Laudan B.

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to identify factors related to reading comprehension, and to compare similarities and differences in the reading processes of deaf and hearing adults. The sample included four groups, each consisting of 15 adults. The groups were identified as (a) deaf high-achieving readers, (b) deaf low-achieving readers, (c) hearing…

  19. Text Messaging for Exercise Promotion in Older Adults From an Upper-Middle-Income Country: Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Andre Matthias; Khoo, Selina; Morris, Tony

    2016-01-07

    Mobile technology to promote exercise is effective; however, most evidence is from studies of younger groups in high-income countries. Investigating if short message service (SMS) texting can affect exercise participation in older adults from an upper-middle-income country is important considering the proliferation of mobile phones in developing regions and the increased interest of older adults in using mobile phones. The main objective was to examine the short- and long-term effects of SMS text messaging on exercise frequency in older adults. Secondary objectives were to investigate how SMS text messages impact study participants' exercise frequency and the effects of the intervention on secondary outcomes. The Malaysian Physical Activity for Health Study (myPAtHS) was a 24-week, 2-arm, parallel randomized controlled trial conducted in urban Malaysia. Participants were recruited via health talks in resident associations and religious facilities. Older Malaysians (aged 55-70 years) who used mobile phones and did not exercise regularly were eligible to participate in the study. Participants randomly allocated to the SMS texting arm received an exercise booklet and 5 weekly SMS text messages over 12 weeks. The content of the SMS text messages was derived from effective behavior change techniques. The non-SMS texting arm participants received only the exercise booklet. Home visits were conducted to collect outcome data: (1) exercise frequency at 12 and 24 weeks, (2) secondary outcome data (exercise self-efficacy, physical activity-related energy expenditure, sitting time, body mass index, grip and leg strength) at baseline and at 12 and 24 weeks. Intention-to-treat procedures were applied for data analysis. Semistructured interviews focusing primarily on the SMS text messages and their impact on exercise frequency were conducted at weeks 12 and 24. In total, 43 participants were randomized into the SMS texting arm (n=22) and the non-SMS texting arm (n=21). Study

  20. Mirnacle: machine learning with SMOTE and random forest for improving selectivity in pre-miRNA ab initio prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Yuri Bento; de Paiva Oliveira, Alcione; Ribeiro Vasconcelos, Ana Tereza; Cerqueira, Fabio Ribeiro

    2016-12-15

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are key gene expression regulators in plants and animals. Therefore, miRNAs are involved in several biological processes, making the study of these molecules one of the most relevant topics of molecular biology nowadays. However, characterizing miRNAs in vivo is still a complex task. As a consequence, in silico methods have been developed to predict miRNA loci. A common ab initio strategy to find miRNAs in genomic data is to search for sequences that can fold into the typical hairpin structure of miRNA precursors (pre-miRNAs). The current ab initio approaches, however, have selectivity issues, i.e., a high number of false positives is reported, which can lead to laborious and costly attempts to provide biological validation. This study presents an extension of the ab initio method miRNAFold, with the aim of improving selectivity through machine learning techniques, namely, random forest combined with the SMOTE procedure that copes with imbalance datasets. By comparing our method, termed Mirnacle, with other important approaches in the literature, we demonstrate that Mirnacle substantially improves selectivity without compromising sensitivity. For the three datasets used in our experiments, our method achieved at least 97% of sensitivity and could deliver a two-fold, 20-fold, and 6-fold increase in selectivity, respectively, compared with the best results of current computational tools. The extension of miRNAFold by the introduction of machine learning techniques, significantly increases selectivity in pre-miRNA ab initio prediction, which optimally contributes to advanced studies on miRNAs, as the need of biological validations is diminished. Hopefully, new research, such as studies of severe diseases caused by miRNA malfunction, will benefit from the proposed computational tool.

  1. Reduced plasma aldosterone concentrations in randomly selected patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cronin, C C

    2012-02-03

    Abnormalities of the renin-angiotensin system have been reported in patients with diabetes mellitus and with diabetic complications. In this study, plasma concentrations of prorenin, renin, and aldosterone were measured in a stratified random sample of 110 insulin-dependent (Type 1) diabetic patients attending our outpatient clinic. Fifty-four age- and sex-matched control subjects were also examined. Plasma prorenin concentration was higher in patients without complications than in control subjects when upright (geometric mean (95% confidence intervals (CI): 75.9 (55.0-105.6) vs 45.1 (31.6-64.3) mU I-1, p < 0.05). There was no difference in plasma prorenin concentration between patients without and with microalbuminuria and between patients without and with background retinopathy. Plasma renin concentration, both when supine and upright, was similar in control subjects, in patients without complications, and in patients with varying degrees of diabetic microangiopathy. Plasma aldosterone was suppressed in patients without complications in comparison to control subjects (74 (58-95) vs 167 (140-199) ng I-1, p < 0.001) and was also suppressed in patients with microvascular disease. Plasma potassium was significantly higher in patients than in control subjects (mean +\\/- standard deviation: 4.10 +\\/- 0.36 vs 3.89 +\\/- 0.26 mmol I-1; p < 0.001) and plasma sodium was significantly lower (138 +\\/- 4 vs 140 +\\/- 2 mmol I-1; p < 0.001). We conclude that plasma prorenin is not a useful early marker for diabetic microvascular disease. Despite apparently normal plasma renin concentrations, plasma aldosterone is suppressed in insulin-dependent diabetic patients.

  2. Some regional variations in dietary patterns in a random sample of British adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whichelow, M J; Erzinclioglu, S W; Cox, B D

    1991-05-01

    Comparison was made of the reported frequency of consumption or choice of 30 food items by 8860 adults in the 11 standard regions of Great Britain, with the use of log-linear analysis to allow for the age, sex, social class and smoking habit variations between the regions. The South-East was taken as the base region against which the others were compared. The number of food items for which there were significant differences from the South-East were Scotland 23, North 25, North-West and Yorkshire/Humberside 20, Wales 19, West Midlands 15, East Midlands 10, East Anglia 8, South-West 7 and Greater London 9. Overall the findings confirm a North/South trend in relation to eating habits, even when demographic and smoking-habit variations are taken into account, with the frequent consumption of many fruit and vegetable products being much less common and of several high-fat foods (chips, processed meats and fried food) more common in Scotland, Wales and the northern part of England. In most regions there was a significantly lower frequency of consumption of fresh fruit, fruit juice, 'brown' bread, pasta/rice, poultry, skimmed/semi-skimmed milk, light desserts and nuts, and a higher consumption of red meat, fish and fried food than in the South-East.

  3. A Permutation Importance-Based Feature Selection Method for Short-Term Electricity Load Forecasting Using Random Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nantian Huang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The prediction accuracy of short-term load forecast (STLF depends on prediction model choice and feature selection result. In this paper, a novel random forest (RF-based feature selection method for STLF is proposed. First, 243 related features were extracted from historical load data and the time information of prediction points to form the original feature set. Subsequently, the original feature set was used to train an RF as the original model. After the training process, the prediction error of the original model on the test set was recorded and the permutation importance (PI value of each feature was obtained. Then, an improved sequential backward search method was used to select the optimal forecasting feature subset based on the PI value of each feature. Finally, the optimal forecasting feature subset was used to train a new RF model as the final prediction model. Experiments showed that the prediction accuracy of RF trained by the optimal forecasting feature subset was higher than that of the original model and comparative models based on support vector regression and artificial neural network.

  4. Fish oil-supplementation increases appetite in healthy adults. A randomized controlled cross-over trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damsbo-Svendsen, Signe; Rønsholdt, Mia Dybkjær; Lauritzen, Lotte

    2013-07-01

    Marine n-3 fatty acids are hypothesized to have beneficial effects on obesity and cancer cachexia possibly via an effect on appetite. The aim of this study was to investigate, if fish oil-supplementation affects appetite in healthy individuals. In a randomized cross-over study, 20 normal-weight subjects (50% females) were given ten 0.5-mL capsules/day of fish oil or soybean oil for 3 weeks separated by 1-week wash-out. In the end of each period, appetite was assessed by 10-cm visual analog scales immediately before and after a standardized breakfast. Results were analyzed in accordance with the paired design considering oil sequence and gender. All subjects completed both periods with a compliance of 96% and oil sequence did not affect the results. There was no difference between the two supplements in any pre-breakfast appetite scores, but the post-prandial sensation of being full was 1.21 cm (0.20; 2.22) lower after the fish oil-period. Furthermore, there was a supplement × gender-interaction on "desire to eat more" due to a score increase of 1.09 cm (0.28; 1.90) in women only. These results suggest that marine n-3 fatty acid may increase appetite. This finding would be potentially beneficial for patients with compromised nutritional status. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Nitrates and bone turnover (NABT) - trial to select the best nitrate preparation: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucur, Roxana C; Reid, Lauren S; Hamilton, Celeste J; Cummings, Steven R; Jamal, Sophie A

    2013-09-08

    comparisons with the best' approach for data analyses, as this strategy allows practical considerations of ease of use and tolerability to guide selection of the preparation for future studies. Data from this protocol will be used to develop a randomized, controlled trial of nitrates to prevent osteoporotic fractures. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01387672. Controlled-Trials.com: ISRCTN08860742.

  6. Effects of Physical-Cognitive Dual Task Training on Executive Function and Gait Performance in Older Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falbo, S; Condello, G; Capranica, L; Forte, R; Pesce, C

    2016-01-01

    Physical and cognitive training seem to counteract age-related decline in physical and mental function. Recently, the possibility of integrating cognitive demands into physical training has attracted attention. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of twelve weeks of designed physical-cognitive training on executive cognitive function and gait performance in older adults. Thirty-six healthy, active individuals aged 72.30 ± 5.84 years were assigned to two types of physical training with major focus on physical single task (ST) training ( n = 16) and physical-cognitive dual task (DT) training ( n = 20), respectively. They were tested before and after the intervention for executive function (inhibition, working memory) through Random Number Generation and for gait (walking with/without negotiating hurdles) under both single and dual task (ST, DT) conditions. Gait performance improved in both groups, while inhibitory performance decreased after exercise training with ST focus but tended to increase after training with physical-cognitive DT focus. Changes in inhibition performance were correlated with changes in DT walking performance with group differences as a function of motor task complexity (with/without hurdling). The study supports the effectiveness of group exercise classes for older individuals to improve gait performance, with physical-cognitive DT training selectively counteracting the age-related decline in a core executive function essential for daily living.

  7. Using the 4 Pillars™ Practice Transformation Program to increase adult Tdap immunization in a randomized controlled cluster trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowalk, Mary Patricia; Lin, Chyongchiou J; Pavlik, Valory N; Brown, Anthony E; Zhang, Song; Moehling, Krissy K; Raviotta, Jonathan M; South-Paul, Jeannette E; Hawk, Mary; Ricci, Edmund M; Middleton, Donald B; Patel, Suchita A; Ahmed, Faruque; Zimmerman, Richard K

    2016-09-22

    National adult Tdap vaccination rates are low, reinforcing the need to increase vaccination efforts in primary care offices. The 4 Pillars™ Practice Transformation Program is an evidence-based, step-by-step guide to improving primary care adult vaccination with an online implementation tracking dashboard. This study tested the effectiveness of an intervention to increase adult Tdap vaccination that included the 4 Pillars™ Program, provider education, and one-on-one coaching of practice-based immunization champions. 25 primary care practices participated in a randomized controlled cluster trial (RCCT) in Year 1 (6/1/2013-5/31/2014) and a pre-post study in Year 2 (6/1/2014-1/31/2015). Baseline year was 6/1/2012-5/31/2013, with data analyzed in 2016. Demographic and vaccination data were derived from de-identified electronic medical record (EMR) extractions. The primary outcomes were vaccination rates and percentage point (PP) changes/year. The cohort consisted of 70,549 patients ⩾18years who were seen in the practices ⩾1 time each year, with a baseline mean age=55years; 35% were men; 56% were non-white; 35% were Hispanic and 20% were on Medicare. Baseline vaccination rate averaged 35%. In the Year 1 RCCT, cumulative Tdap vaccination increased significantly in both intervention and control groups; in both cities, the percentage point increases in the intervention groups (7.7 PP in Pittsburgh and 9.9 PP in Houston) were significantly higher (P<0.001) than in the control groups (6.4 PP in Pittsburgh and 7.6 PP in Houston). In the Year 2 pre-post study, in both cities, active intervention groups increased rates significantly more (6.2 PP for both) than maintenance groups (2.2 PP in Pittsburgh and 4.1 PP in Houston; P<0.001). An intervention that includes the 4 Pillars™ Practice Transformation Program, staff education and coaching is effective for increasing adult Tdap immunization rates within primary care practices. Clinical Trial Registry Name/Number: NCT

  8. Community-based intervention to improve dietary habits and promote physical activity among older adults: a cluster randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimura Mika

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The fastest growing age group globally is older adults, and preventing the need for long-term nursing care in this group is important for social and financial reasons. A population approach to diet and physical activity through the use of social services can play an important role in prevention. This study examined the effectiveness of a social health program for community-dwelling older adults aimed at introducing and promoting physical activity in the home at each individual’s pace, helping participants maintain good dietary habits by keeping self-check sheets, and determining whether long-standing unhealthy or less-than-ideal physical and dietary habits can be changed. Method This cluster randomized trial conducted at 6 community centers in an urban community involved 92 community-dwelling older adults aged 65–90 years. The intervention group (3 community centers; n = 57 participated in the social health program “Sumida TAKE10!” which is an educational program incorporating the “TAKE10!® for Older Adults” program, once every 2 weeks for 3 months. The control group (3 community centers; n=35 was subsequently provided with the same program as a crossover intervention group. The main outcome measures were changes in food intake frequency, food frequency score (FFS, dietary variety score (DVS, and frequency of walking and exercise. The secondary outcome measures were changes in self-rated health, appetite, and the Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology (TMIG Index of Competence score. Results Compared to baseline, post-intervention food intake frequency for 6 of 10 food groups (meat, fish/shellfish, eggs, potatoes, fruits, and seaweed, FFS, and DVS were significantly increased in the intervention group, and interaction effects of FFS and DVS were seen between the two groups. No significant differences were observed between baseline and post-intervention in the control group. Frequency of walking and

  9. Efficiency of selection methods for increased ratio of pupal-larval to adult-larval weight gains in Tribolium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campo, J L; Cobos, P

    1994-01-12

    Four lines of Tribolium castaneum were selected in each of three replicates for increased ratio of (pupal-larval) to (adult-larval) weight gains, using selection for increased (pupal-larval) weight gain (PL), selection for decreased (adult-larval) weight gain (AL), direct selection for the ratio (R) and linear selection index of larval, pupal and adult weights (I), respectively, for four generations. Linear index was calculated with economic weights of m(2) -m(3) , m(3) -m(1) and m(1) -m(2) , respectively, with m(1) , m(2) and m(3) being the means for larval, pupal and adult weights. Selection to increase the ratio is considered to be a method to maximize the mean response in (adult-larval) weight while controlling the response in (pupal-adult) weight, and as a form of antagonistic selection to increase the weight gain during a given age period relative to the gain at another age period. Larval, pupal and adult weights were measured at 14, 21 and 28 days after adult emergence, respectively. The selected proportion was 20 % in all lines. The response observed for the ratio differed significantly among lines (p adulto-peso de larva en Tribolium Cuatro líneas de Tribolium castaneum fueron seleccionadas en cada una de tres repeticiones para incrementar el cociente (peso de pupa-peso de larva)/(peso de adulto-peso de larva); la línea PL fue seleccionada para aumentar la diferencia (peso de pupa-pesp de larva), la línea AL fue seleccionada para disminuir la diferencia (peso de adulto-peso de larva), fa línea R fue seleccionada directamente para el cociente, y la línea I fue seleccionada por medio de un índice lineal basado en los pesos de larva, pupa y adulto, durante cuatro generaciones. El índice lineal se calculó con pesos económicos de (m(2) -m(3) ), (m(3) -m(1) ), y (m(1) -m(2) ) respectivamentee, siendo m(1) , m(2) , y m(3) los valores medios para el peso de larva, pupa y adulto. La selección para aumentar el cociente indicado es un método para maximizar

  10. Conditional reduction of adult born doublecortin-positive neurons reversibly impairs selective behaviours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lillian eGarrett

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Adult neurogenesis occurs in the adult mammalian subventricular zone (SVZ along the walls of the lateral ventricles and the subgranular zone (SGZ of the hippocampal dentate gyrus. While a burgeoning body of research implicates adult neurogenesis in olfactory bulb (OB - and hippocampal-related behaviors, the precise function continues to elude. To further assess the behavioral importance of adult neurogenesis, we herein generated a novel inducible transgenic mouse model of adult neurogenesis reduction where mice with CreERT2 under doublecortin (DCX promoter control were crossed with mice where diphtheria toxin A (DTA was driven by the Rosa26 promoter. Activation of DTA, through the administration of tamoxifen (TAM, results in a specific reduction of DCX+ immature neurons in both the hippocampal dentate gyrus and OB. We show that the decrease of DCX+ cells causes impaired social discrimination ability in both young adult (from 3 months and middle (from 10 months aged mice. Furthermore, these animals showed an age-independent altered coping behavior in the Forced Swim Test without clear changes in anxiety-related behavior. Notably, these behavior changes were reversible on repopulating the neurogenic zones with DCX+ cells on cessation of the tamoxifen treatment, demonstrating the specificity of this effect. Overall, these results support the notion that adult neurogenesis plays a role in social memory and in stress coping but not necessarily in anxiety-related behavior.

  11. Non-Random Inversion Landscapes in Prokaryotic Genomes Are Shaped by Heterogeneous Selection Pressures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repar, Jelena; Warnecke, Tobias

    2017-08-01

    Inversions are a major contributor to structural genome evolution in prokaryotes. Here, using a novel alignment-based method, we systematically compare 1,651 bacterial and 98 archaeal genomes to show that inversion landscapes are frequently biased toward (symmetric) inversions around the origin-terminus axis. However, symmetric inversion bias is not a universal feature of prokaryotic genome evolution but varies considerably across clades. At the extremes, inversion landscapes in Bacillus-Clostridium and Actinobacteria are dominated by symmetric inversions, while there is little or no systematic bias favoring symmetric rearrangements in archaea with a single origin of replication. Within clades, we find strong but clade-specific relationships between symmetric inversion bias and different features of adaptive genome architecture, including the distance of essential genes to the origin of replication and the preferential localization of genes on the leading strand. We suggest that heterogeneous selection pressures have converged to produce similar patterns of structural genome evolution across prokaryotes. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  12. A randomized prospective pilot trial of Web-delivered epilepsy stigma reduction communications in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajatovic, Martha; Herrmann, Lynn K; Van Doren, Jamie R; Tatsuoka, Curtis; Welter, Elisabeth; Perzynski, Adam T; Bukach, Ashley; Needham, Kelley; Liu, Hongyan; Berg, Anne T

    2017-11-01

    Epilepsy is a common neurological condition that is often associated with stigmatizing attitudes and negative stereotypes among the general public. This randomized controlled trial (RCT) tested two new communication approaches targeting epilepsy stigma versus an education-alone approach. Two brief stigma-reduction videos were developed, informed by community stakeholder input; one highlighted role competency in people with epilepsy; the other highlighted social inclusion of people with epilepsy. A control video was also developed. A Web-based survey using a prospective RCT design compared effects of experimental videos and control on acceptability, perceived impact, epilepsy knowledge, and epilepsy stigma. Epilepsy knowledge and stigma were measured with the Epilepsy Knowledge Questionnaire (EKQ) and Attitudes and Beliefs about Living with Epilepsy (ABLE), respectively. A total of 295 participants completed the study. Mean age was 23.1 (standard deviation = 3.27) years; 59.0% were male, and 71.4% were white. Overall, respondents felt videos impacted their epilepsy attitudes. EKQ scores were similar across videos, with a trend for higher knowledge in experimental videos versus control (p = 0.06). The role competency and control videos were associated with slightly better perceived impact on attitudes. There were no differences between videos on ABLE scores (p = 0.568). There were subgroup differences suggesting that men, younger individuals, whites, and those with personal epilepsy experience had more stigmatizing attitudes. This RCT tested communication strategies to improve knowledge and attitudes about epilepsy. Although this initial effort will require follow-up, we have demonstrated the acceptability, feasibility, and potential of novel communication strategies to target epilepsy stigma, and a Web-based approach for assessing them. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 International League Against Epilepsy.

  13. A randomized controlled trial of hypnosis compared with biofeedback for adults with chronic low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, G; Rintala, D H; Jensen, M P; Fukui, T; Smith, D; Williams, W

    2015-02-01

    Chronic low back pain (CLBP) is common and results in significant costs to individuals, families and society. Although some research supports the efficacy of hypnosis for CLBP, we know little about the minimum dose needed to produce meaningful benefits, the roles of home practice and hypnotizability on outcome, or the maintenance of treatment benefits beyond 3 months. One hundred veterans with CLBP participated in a randomized, four-group design study. The groups were (1) an eight-session self-hypnosis training intervention without audio recordings for home practice; (2) an eight-session self-hypnosis training intervention with recordings; (3) a two-session self-hypnosis training intervention with recordings and brief weekly reminder telephone calls; and (4) an eight-session active (biofeedback) control intervention. Participants in all four groups reported significant pre- to post-treatment improvements in pain intensity, pain interference and sleep quality. The hypnosis groups combined reported significantly more pain intensity reduction than the control group. There was no significant difference among the three hypnosis conditions. Over half of the participants who received hypnosis reported clinically meaningful (≥ 30%) reductions in pain intensity, and they maintained these benefits for at least 6 months after treatment. Neither hypnotizability nor amount of home practice was associated significantly with treatment outcome. The findings indicate that two sessions of self-hypnosis training with audio recordings for home practice may be as effective as eight sessions of hypnosis treatment. If replicated in other patient samples, the findings have important implications for the application of hypnosis treatment for chronic pain management. © 2014 European Pain Federation - EFIC®

  14. Preoperative home-based physical therapy versus usual care to improve functional health of frail older adults scheduled for elective total hip arthroplasty: A pilot randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosting, E.; Jans, M.P.; Dronkers, J.J.; Naber, R.H.; Dronkers-Landman, C.M.; Appelman-De Vries, S.M.; Meeteren, N.L. van

    2012-01-01

    Preoperative home-based physical therapy versus usual care to improve functional health of frail older adults scheduled for elective total hip arthroplasty: a pilot randomized controlled trial. Objective: To investigate the feasibility and preliminary effectiveness of a home-based intensive exercise

  15. Characteristics of children and young adults with Marfan syndrome and aortic root dilation in a randomized trial comparing atenolol and losartan therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lacro, R.V.; Guey, L.T.; Dietz, H.C.; Pearson, G.D.; Yetman, A.T.; Gelb, B.D.; Loeys, B.L.; Benson, D.W.; Bradley, T.J.; Backer, J. de; Forbus, G.A.; Klein, G.L.; Lai, W.W.; Levine, J.C.; Lewin, M.B.; Markham, L.W.; Paridon, S.M.; Pierpont, M.E.; Radojewski, E.; Selamet Tierney, E.S.; Sharkey, A.M.; Wechsler, S.B.; Mahony, L.; et al.,

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Pediatric Heart Network designed a clinical trial to compare aortic root growth and other short-term cardiovascular outcomes in children and young adults with Marfan syndrome randomized to receive atenolol or losartan. We report here the characteristics of the screened population and

  16. Cost-Effectiveness of a Chronic Care Model for Frail Older Adults in Primary Care: Economic Evaluation Alongside a Stepped-Wedge Cluster-Randomized Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, K.M.; Bosmans, J.E.; Jansen, A.P.D.; Hoogendijk, E.O.; Muntinga, M.E.; van Hout, H.P.J.; Nijpels, G.; van der Horst, H.E.; van Tulder, M.W.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of the Geriatric Care Model (GCM), an integrated care model for frail older adults based on the Chronic Care Model, with that of usual care. Design Economic evaluation alongside a 24-month stepped-wedge cluster-randomized controlled trial. Setting

  17. Cost-Effectiveness of a Chronic Care Model for Frail Older Adults in Primary Care : Economic Evaluation Alongside a Stepped-Wedge Cluster-Randomized Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, Karen M; Bosmans, Judith E; Jansen, Aaltje P D; Hoogendijk, Emiel O; Muntinga, Maaike E; van Hout, Hein P J; Nijpels, Giel; van der Horst, Henriette E; van Tulder, Maurits W

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of the Geriatric Care Model (GCM), an integrated care model for frail older adults based on the Chronic Care Model, with that of usual care. DESIGN: Economic evaluation alongside a 24-month stepped-wedge cluster-randomized controlled trial. SETTING:

  18. Vitamin D3 supplementation increases spine bone mineral density in adolescents and young adults with HIV infection being treated with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate: a randomized, placebo controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) decreases bone mineral density (BMD). We hypothesized vitamin D3 (VITD3) would increase BMD in adolescents/young adults receiving TDF. Methods: Randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial of directly observed VITD3 50,000 IU vs. placebo every 4 ...

  19. Effects of exercise programs on falls and mobility in frail and pre-frail older adults: A multicenter randomized controlled trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faber, M.J.; Bosscher, R.J.; Chin A Paw, M.J.; Wieringen, P. van

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the effects of moderate intensity group-exercise programs on falls, functional performance, and disability in older adults; and to investigate the influence of frailty on these effects. DESIGN: A 20-week, multicenter randomized controlled trial, with 52-week follow-up.

  20. A randomized trial on the effect of a multimodal intervention on physical capacity, functional performance and quality of life in adult patients undergoing allogeneic SCT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jarden, M; Baadsgaard, M T; Hovgaard, D J

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this randomized controlled trial was to investigate the effect of a 4- to 6-week multimodal program of exercise, relaxation and psychoeducation on physical capacity, functional performance and quality of life (QOL) in allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) adult...

  1. Effects of exercise programs on falls and mobility in frail and pre-frail older adults: A multicenter randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faber, M.J.; Bosscher, R.J.; Chin, A.P.M.J.; van Wieringen, P.C.W.

    2006-01-01

    Faber MJ, Bosscher RJ, Chin A Paw MJ, van Wieringen PC. Effects of exercise programs on falls and mobility in frail and pre-frail older adults: a multicenter randomized controlled trial. Objectives: To determine the effects of moderate intensity group-exercise programs on falls, functional

  2. Predictors of placebo response in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: data from 2 randomized trials of osmotic-release oral system methylphenidate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buitelaar, J.K.; Sobanski, E.; Stieglitz, R.D.; Dejonckheere, J.; Waechter, S.; Schauble, B.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To find potential correlates of placebo response in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and gain insights into why placebo response may be high in clinical trials. METHOD: Post hoc analysis of placebo data from 2 randomized controlled trials of osmotic-release oral

  3. The effects of Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis B94 on gastrointestinal wellness in adults with Prader-Willi syndrome: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alyousif, Zainab; Miller, Jennifer L; Sandoval, Mariana Y; MacPherson, Chad W; Nagulesapillai, Varuni; Dahl, Wendy J

    2018-04-27

    Constipation is a frequent problem in adults with Prader-Willi syndrome. Certain probiotics have been shown to improve transit and gastrointestinal symptoms of adults with functional constipation. The aim of this study is to determine the effect of daily consumption of Bifidobacterium animalis ssp. lactis B94 (B. lactis B94) on stool frequency, stool form, and gastrointestinal symptoms in adults with Prader-Willi syndrome. Adults with Prader-Willi syndrome (18-75 years old, n = 36) will be recruited and enrolled in a 20-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study. Study subjects will be randomized to B. lactis B94 or placebo each for a 4-week period, preceded by a 4-week baseline and followed by 4-week washouts. Subjects will complete daily records of stool frequency and stool form (a proxy of transit time). Dietary intake data also will be collected. Stools, one in each period, will be collected for exploratory microbiota analyses. To our knowledge, this is the first randomized controlled trial evaluating the effectiveness of B. lactis in adults with Prader-Willi syndrome. The results of this study will provide evidence of efficacy for future clinical trials in patient populations with constipation. ClinicalTrials.gov ( NCT03277157 ). Registered on 08 September 2017.

  4. Fast selection of miRNA candidates based on large-scale pre-computed MFE sets of randomized sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warris, Sven; Boymans, Sander; Muiser, Iwe; Noback, Michiel; Krijnen, Wim; Nap, Jan-Peter

    2014-01-13

    Small RNAs are important regulators of genome function, yet their prediction in genomes is still a major computational challenge. Statistical analyses of pre-miRNA sequences indicated that their 2D structure tends to have a minimal free energy (MFE) significantly lower than MFE values of equivalently randomized sequences with the same nucleotide composition, in contrast to other classes of non-coding RNA. The computation of many MFEs is, however, too intensive to allow for genome-wide screenings. Using a local grid infrastructure, MFE distributions of random sequences were pre-calculated on a large scale. These distributions follow a normal distribution and can be used to determine the MFE distribution for any given sequence composition by interpolation. It allows on-the-fly calculation of the normal distribution for any candidate sequence composition. The speedup achieved makes genome-wide screening with this characteristic of a pre-miRNA sequence practical. Although this particular property alone will not be able to distinguish miRNAs from other sequences sufficiently discriminative, the MFE-based P-value should be added to the parameters of choice to be included in the selection of potential miRNA candidates for experimental verification.

  5. Selecting Optimal Random Forest Predictive Models: A Case Study on Predicting the Spatial Distribution of Seabed Hardness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jin; Tran, Maggie; Siwabessy, Justy

    2016-01-01

    Spatially continuous predictions of seabed hardness are important baseline environmental information for sustainable management of Australia’s marine jurisdiction. Seabed hardness is often inferred from multibeam backscatter data with unknown accuracy and can be inferred from underwater video footage at limited locations. In this study, we classified the seabed into four classes based on two new seabed hardness classification schemes (i.e., hard90 and hard70). We developed optimal predictive models to predict seabed hardness using random forest (RF) based on the point data of hardness classes and spatially continuous multibeam data. Five feature selection (FS) methods that are variable importance (VI), averaged variable importance (AVI), knowledge informed AVI (KIAVI), Boruta and regularized RF (RRF) were tested based on predictive accuracy. Effects of highly correlated, important and unimportant predictors on the accuracy of RF predictive models were examined. Finally, spatial predictions generated using the most accurate models were visually examined and analysed. This study confirmed that: 1) hard90 and hard70 are effective seabed hardness classification schemes; 2) seabed hardness of four classes can be predicted with a high degree of accuracy; 3) the typical approach used to pre-select predictive variables by excluding highly correlated variables needs to be re-examined; 4) the identification of the important and unimportant predictors provides useful guidelines for further improving predictive models; 5) FS methods select the most accurate predictive model(s) instead of the most parsimonious ones, and AVI and Boruta are recommended for future studies; and 6) RF is an effective modelling method with high predictive accuracy for multi-level categorical data and can be applied to ‘small p and large n’ problems in environmental sciences. Additionally, automated computational programs for AVI need to be developed to increase its computational efficiency and

  6. Close Contact Casting vs Surgery for Initial Treatment of Unstable Ankle Fractures in Older Adults: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willett, Keith; Keene, David J; Mistry, Dipesh; Nam, Julian; Tutton, Elizabeth; Handley, Robert; Morgan, Lesley; Roberts, Emma; Briggs, Andrew; Lall, Ranjit; Chesser, Timothy J S; Pallister, Ian; Lamb, Sarah E

    2016-10-11

    Ankle fractures cause substantial morbidity in older persons. Surgical fixation is the contemporary intervention but is associated with infection and other healing complications. To determine whether initial fracture treatment with close contact casting, a molded below-knee cast with minimal padding, offers outcome equivalent to that with immediate surgery, with fewer complications and less health resource use. This was a pragmatic, equivalence, randomized clinical trial with blinded outcome assessors. A pilot study commenced in May 2004, followed by multicenter recruitment from July 2010 to November 2013; follow-up was completed May 2014. Recruitment was from 24 UK major trauma centers and general hospitals. Participants were 620 adults older than 60 years with acute, overtly unstable ankle fracture. Exclusions were serious limb or concomitant disease or substantial cognitive impairment. Participants were randomly assigned to surgery (n = 309) or casting (n = 311). Casts were applied in the operating room under general or spinal anesthesia by a trained surgeon. The primary 6-month, per-protocol outcome was the Olerud-Molander Ankle Score at 6 months (OMAS; range, 0-100; higher scores indicate better outcomes and fewer symptoms), equivalence prespecified as ±6 points. Secondary outcomes were quality of life, pain, ankle motion, mobility, complications, health resource use, and patient satisfaction. Among 620 adults (mean age, 71 years; 460 [74%] women) who were randomized, 593 (96%) completed the study. Nearly all participants (579/620; 93%) received allocated treatment; 52 of 275 (19%) who initially received casting later converted to surgery, which was allowable in the casting treatment pathway to manage early loss of fracture reduction. At 6 months, casting resulted in ankle function equivalent to that with surgery (OMAS score, 66.0 [95% CI, 63.6-68.5] for surgery vs 64.5 [95% CI, 61.8-67.2] for casting; mean difference, -0.6 [95% CI, -3.9 to 2.6]; P

  7. A Randomized Controlled Trial to Improve Social Skills in Young Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder: The UCLA PEERS(®) Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laugeson, Elizabeth A; Gantman, Alexander; Kapp, Steven K; Orenski, Kaely; Ellingsen, Ruth

    2015-12-01

    Research suggests that impaired social skills are often the most significant challenge for those with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), yet few evidence-based social skills interventions exist for adults on the spectrum. This replication trial tested the effectiveness of PEERS, a caregiver-assisted social skills program for high-functioning young adults with ASD. Using a randomized controlled design, 22 young adults 18-24 years of age were randomly assigned to a treatment (n = 12) or delayed treatment control (n = 10) group. Results revealed that the treatment group improved significantly in overall social skills, frequency of social engagement, and social skills knowledge, and significantly reduced ASD symptoms related to social responsiveness following PEERS. Most treatment gains were maintained at a 16-week follow-up assessment with new improvements observed.

  8. Can a single session of motor imagery promote motor learning of locomotion in older adults? A randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholson VP

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Vaughan P Nicholson,1 Justin WL Keogh,2–4 Nancy L Low Choy1 1School of Physiotherapy, Australian Catholic University, Brisbane, QLD, Australia; 2Faculty of Health Sciences and Medicine, Bond University, Robina, QLD, Australia; 3Human Potential Centre, AUT University, Auckland, New Zealand; 4Cluster for Health Improvement, Faculty of Science, Health, Education and Engineering, University of the Sunshine Coast, Sunshine Coast, QLD, Australia Purpose: To investigate the influence of a single session of locomotor-based motor imagery training on motor learning and physical performance. Patients and methods: Thirty independent adults aged >65 years took part in the randomized controlled trial. The study was conducted within an exercise science laboratory. Participants were randomly divided into three groups following baseline locomotor testing: motor imagery training, physical training, and control groups. The motor imagery training group completed 20 imagined repetitions of a locomotor task, the physical training group completed 20 physical repetitions of a locomotor task, and the control group spent 25 minutes playing mentally stimulating games on an iPad. Imagined and physical performance times were measured for each training repetition. Gait speed (preferred and fast, timed-up-and-go, gait variability and the time to complete an obstacle course were completed before and after the single training session. Results: Motor learning occurred in both the motor imagery training and physical training groups. Motor imagery training led to refinements in motor planning resulting in imagined movements better matching the physically performed movement at the end of training. Motor imagery and physical training also promoted improvements in some locomotion outcomes as demonstrated by medium to large effect size improvements after training for fast gait speed and timed-up-and-go. There were no training effects on gait variability. Conclusion: A single session

  9. Phenobarbital Versus Valproate for Generalized Convulsive Status Epilepticus in Adults: A Prospective Randomized Controlled Trial in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yingying; Liu, Gang; Tian, Fei; Ren, Guoping; Jiang, Mengdi; Chun, Brian; Zhang, Yunzhou; Zhang, Yan; Ye, Hong; Gao, Daiquan; Chen, Weibi

    2016-12-01

    Although generalized convulsive status epilepticus (GCSE) is a life-threatening emergency, evidence-based data to guide initial drug treatment choices are lacking in the Chinese population. We conducted this prospective, randomized, controlled trial to evaluate the relative efficacy and safety of intravenous phenobarbital and valproate in patients with GCSE. After the failure of first-line diazepam treatment, Chinese adult patients with GCSE were randomized to receive either intravenous phenobarbital (standard doses, low rate) or valproate (standard). Successful treatment was considered when clinical and electroencephalographic seizure activity ceased. Adverse events following treatment, as well as the neurological outcomes at discharge and 3 months later, were also evaluated. Overall, 73 cases were enrolled in the study. Intravenous phenobarbital was successful in 81.1% of patients, and intravenous valproate was successful in 44.4% of patients (p phenobarbital (6.7%) was significantly lower than that in patients receiving valproate (31.3%), and the total number of adverse events did not differ significantly between the two groups (p > 0.05). In the phenobarbital group, two patients (5.4%) required ventilation and two patients (5.4%) developed serious hypotension. The neurological outcomes of the phenobarbital group were generally better than those of the valproate group; however, no significant differences were observed between phenobarbital and valproate with respect to mortality (8.1 vs. 16.6%) at discharge, or mortality (16.2 vs. 30.5%) and post-symptomatic epilepsy (26.3 vs. 42.8%) at 3-month follow-up. Intravenous phenobarbital appears to be more effective than intravenous valproate for Chinese adult patients with GCSE. The occurrence of serious respiratory depression and hypotension caused by phenobarbital was reduced by decreasing the intravenous infusion rate; however, even at a lower infusion rate than typically used in other institutions, intravenous

  10. Effectiveness of group reminiscence for improving wellbeing of institutionalized elderly adults: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaggioli, Andrea; Scaratti, Chiara; Morganti, Luca; Stramba-Badiale, Marco; Agostoni, Monica; Spatola, Chiara A M; Molinari, Enrico; Cipresso, Pietro; Riva, Giuseppe

    2014-10-25

    Group reminiscence therapy is a brief and structured intervention in which participants share personal past events with peers. This approach has been shown to be promising for improving wellbeing and reducing depressive symptoms among institutionalized older adults. However, despite the considerable interest in reminiscence group therapy, controlled studies to determine its specific benefits as compared to generic social interactions with peers (group conversations about everyday subjects) are still lacking. We have designed a randomized controlled trial aimed at comparing the effects of group reminiscence therapy with those of group recreational activity on the psychological wellbeing of an institutionalized sample of older adults. The study includes two groups of 20 hospitalized elderly participants: the experimental group and the control group. Participants included in the experimental group will receive six sessions of group reminiscence therapy, while the control group will participate in a recreational group discussion. A repeated-measures design will be used post-intervention and three months post-intervention to evaluate changes in self-reported outcome measures of depressive symptoms, self-esteem, life satisfaction, and quality of life from baseline. The protocol of a study aimed at examining the specific effects of group reminiscence therapy on psychological wellbeing, depression, and quality of life among institutionalized elderly people is described. It is expected that the outcomes of this trial will contribute to our knowledge about the process of group reminiscence, evaluate its effectiveness in improving psychological wellbeing of institutionalized individuals, and identify the best conditions for optimizing this approach. This trial was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (registration number: NCT02077153) on 31 January 2014.

  11. Effects of a DVD-delivered exercise program on patterns of sedentary behavior in older adults: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanning, J; Porter, G; Awick, E A; Wójcicki, T R; Gothe, N P; Roberts, S A; Ehlers, D K; Motl, R W; McAuley, E

    2016-06-01

    In the present study, we examined the influence of a home-based, DVD-delivered exercise intervention on daily sedentary time and breaks in sedentary time in older adults. Between 2010 and 2012, older adults (i.e., aged 65 or older) residing in Illinois (N = 307) were randomized into a 6-month home-based, DVD-delivered exercise program (i.e., FlexToBa; FTB) or a waitlist control. Participants completed measurements prior to the first week (baseline), following the intervention period (month 6), and after a 6 month no-contact follow-up (month 12). Sedentary behavior was measured objectively using accelerometers for 7 consecutive days at each time point. Differences in daily sedentary time and breaks between groups and across the three time points were examined using mixed-factor analysis of variance (mixed ANOVA) and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). Mixed ANOVA models revealed that daily minutes of sedentary time did not differ by group or time. The FTB condition, however, demonstrated a greater number of daily breaks in sedentary time relative to the control condition (p = .02). ANCOVA models revealed a non-significant effect favoring FTB at month 6, and a significant difference between groups at month 12 (p = .02). While overall sedentary time did not differ between groups, the DVD-delivered exercise intervention was effective for maintaining a greater number of breaks when compared with the control condition. Given the accumulating evidence emphasizing the importance of breaking up sedentary time, these findings have important implications for the design of future health behavior interventions.

  12. Lovastatin for the Treatment of Adult Patients With Dengue: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehorn, James; Nguyen, Chau Van Vinh; Khanh, Lam Phung; Kien, Duong Thi Hue; Quyen, Nguyen Than Ha; Tran, Nguyen Thi Thanh; Hang, Nguyen Thuy; Truong, Nguyen Thanh; Hue Tai, Luong Thi; Cam Huong, Nguyen Thi; Nhon, Vo Thanh; Van Tram, Ta; Farrar, Jeremy; Wolbers, Marcel; Simmons, Cameron P; Wills, Bridget

    2016-02-15

    Dengue endangers billions of people in the tropical world, yet no therapeutic is currently available. In part, the severe manifestations of dengue reflect inflammatory processes affecting the vascular endothelium. In addition to lipid lowering, statins have pleiotropic effects that improve endothelial function, and epidemiological studies suggest that outcomes from a range of acute inflammatory syndromes are improved in patients already on statin therapy. Following satisfactory review of a short pilot phase (40 mg lovastatin vs placebo in 30 cases), we performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of 5 days of 80 mg lovastatin vs placebo in 300 Vietnamese adults with a positive dengue NS1 rapid test presenting within 72 hours of fever onset. The primary outcome was safety. Secondary outcomes included comparisons of disease progression rates, fever clearance times, and measures of plasma viremia and quality of life between the treatment arms. Adverse events occurred with similar frequency in both groups (97/151 [64%] placebo vs 82/149 [55%] lovastatin; P = .13), and were in keeping with the characteristic clinical and laboratory features of acute dengue. We also observed no difference in serious adverse events or any of the secondary outcome measures. We found lovastatin to be safe and well tolerated in adults with dengue. However, although the study was not powered to address efficacy, we found no evidence of a beneficial effect on any of the clinical manifestations or on dengue viremia. Continuing established statin therapy in patients who develop dengue is safe.Chinese Clinical Trials Registration. ISRCTN03147572. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  13. Acute and second-meal effects of almond form in impaired glucose tolerant adults: a randomized crossover trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Considine Robert V

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nut consumption may reduce the risk of developing type 2 diabetes. The aim of the current study was to measure the acute and second-meal effects of morning almond consumption and determine the contribution of different nut fractions. Methods Fourteen impaired glucose tolerant (IGT adults participated in a randomized, 5-arm, crossover design study where whole almonds (WA, almond butter (AB, defatted almond flour (AF, almond oil (AO or no almonds (vehicle - V were incorporated into a 75 g available carbohydrate-matched breakfast meal. Postprandial concentrations of blood glucose, insulin, non-esterified free fatty acids (NEFA, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1 and appetitive sensations were assessed after treatment breakfasts and a standard lunch. Results WA significantly attenuated second-meal and daylong blood glucose incremental area under the curve (AUCI and provided the greatest daylong feeling of fullness. AB and AO decreased blood glucose AUCI in the morning period and daylong blood glucose AUCI was attenuated with AO. WA and AO elicited a greater second-meal insulin response, particularly in the early postprandial phase, and concurrently suppressed the second-meal NEFA response. GLP-1 concentrations did not vary significantly between treatments. Conclusions Inclusion of almonds in the breakfast meal decreased blood glucose concentrations and increased satiety both acutely and after a second-meal in adults with IGT. The lipid component of almonds is likely responsible for the immediate post-ingestive response, although it cannot explain the differential second-meal response to AB versus WA and AO.

  14. Design and implementation of a randomized controlled social and mobile weight loss trial for young adults (project SMART).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, K; Marshall, S J; Davila, E P; Kolodziejczyk, J K; Fowler, J H; Calfas, K J; Huang, J S; Rock, C L; Griswold, W G; Gupta, A; Merchant, G; Norman, G J; Raab, F; Donohue, M C; Fogg, B J; Robinson, T N

    2014-01-01

    To describe the theoretical rationale, intervention design, and clinical trial of a two-year weight control intervention for young adults deployed via social and mobile media. A total of 404 overweight or obese college students from three Southern California universities (M(age) = 22( ± 4) years; M(BMI) = 29( ± 2.8); 70% female) were randomized to participate in the intervention or to receive an informational web-based weight loss program. The intervention is based on behavioral theory and integrates intervention elements across multiple touch points, including Facebook, text messaging, smartphone applications, blogs, and e-mail. Participants are encouraged to seek social support among their friends, self-monitor their weight weekly, post their health behaviors on Facebook, and e-mail their weight loss questions/concerns to a health coach. The intervention is adaptive because new theory-driven and iteratively tailored intervention elements are developed and released over the course of the two-year intervention in response to patterns of use and user feedback. Measures of body mass index, waist circumference, diet, physical activity, sedentary behavior, weight management practices, smoking, alcohol, sleep, body image, self-esteem, and depression occur at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. Currently, all participants have been recruited, and all are in the final year of the trial. Theory-driven, evidence-based strategies for physical activity, sedentary behavior, and dietary intake can be embedded in an intervention using social and mobile technologies to promote healthy weight-related behaviors in young adults. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. A randomized trial of the efficacy and safety of quilizumab in adults with inadequately controlled allergic asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Jeffrey M; Maciuca, Romeo; Bradley, Mary S; Cabanski, Christopher R; Scheerens, Heleen; Lim, Jeremy; Cai, Fang; Kishnani, Mona; Liao, X Charlene; Samineni, Divya; Zhu, Rui; Cochran, Colette; Soong, Weily; Diaz, Joseph D; Perin, Patrick; Tsukayama, Miguel; Dimov, Dimo; Agache, Ioana; Kelsen, Steven G

    2016-03-18

    Quilizumab, a humanized IgG1 monoclonal antibody, targets the M1-prime segment of membrane-expressed IgE, leading to depletion of IgE-switched and memory B cells. In patients with mild asthma, quilizumab reduced serum IgE and attenuated the early and late asthmatic reaction following whole lung allergen challenge. This study evaluated the efficacy and safety of quilizumab in adults with allergic asthma, inadequately controlled despite high-dose inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) and a second controller. Five hundred seventy-eight patients were randomized to monthly or quarterly dosing regimens of subcutaneous quilizumab or placebo for 36 weeks, with a 48-week safety follow-up. Quilizumab was evaluated for effects on the rate of asthma exacerbations, lung function, patient symptoms, serum IgE, and pharmacokinetics. Exploratory analyses were conducted on biomarker subgroups (periostin, blood eosinophils, serum IgE, and exhaled nitric oxide). Quilizumab was well tolerated and reduced serum total and allergen-specific IgE by 30-40 %, but had no impact on asthma exacerbations, lung function, or patient-reported symptom measures. At Week 36, the 300 mg monthly quilizumab group showed a 19.6 % reduction (p = 0.38) in the asthma exacerbation rate relative to placebo, but this was neither statistically nor clinically significant. Biomarker subgroups did not reveal meaningful efficacy benefits following quilizumab treatment. Quilizumab had an acceptable safety profile and reduced serum IgE. However, targeting the IgE pathway via depletion of IgE-switched and memory B cells was not sufficient for a clinically meaningful benefit for adults with allergic asthma uncontrolled by standard therapy. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01582503.

  16. Safety and convenience of once-weekly somapacitan in adult GH deficiency: a 26-week randomized, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannsson, Gudmundur; Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla; Håkonsson, Ida Holme; Biering, Henrik; Rodien, Patrice; Tahara, Shigeyuki; Toogood, Andrew; Rasmussen, Michael Højby

    2018-05-01

    Somapacitan is a reversible albumin-binding growth hormone (GH) derivative, developed for once-weekly administration. This study aimed to evaluate the safety of once-weekly somapacitan vs once-daily Norditropin ® . Local tolerability and treatment satisfaction were also assessed. 26-week randomized, controlled phase 3 safety and tolerability trial in six countries (Nbib2382939). Male or female patients aged 18-79 years with adult GH deficiency (AGHD), treated with once-daily GH for ≥6 months, were randomized to once-weekly somapacitan ( n  = 61) or once-daily Norditropin ( n  = 31) administered subcutaneously by pen. Both treatments were dose titrated for 8 weeks to achieve insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) standard deviation score (SDS) levels within the normal range, and then administered at a fixed dose. Outcome measures were adverse events (AEs), including injection site reactions; occurrence of anti-somapacitan/anti-GH antibodies and change in treatment satisfaction, assessed using the Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire for Medication-9 (TSQM-9). Mean IGF-I SDS remained between 0 and 2 SDS throughout the trial in both groups. AEs were mostly mild or moderate and transient in nature. The most common AEs were nasopharyngitis, headache and fatigue in both groups. More than 1500 somapacitan injections were administered and no clinically significant injection site reactions were reported. No anti-somapacitan or anti-GH antibodies were detected. The TSQM-9 score for convenience increased significantly more with somapacitan vs Norditropin ( P  = 0.0171). In this 26-week trial in patients with AGHD, somapacitan was well tolerated and no safety issues were identified. Once-weekly somapacitan was reported to be more convenient than once-daily Norditropin. © 2018 The authors.

  17. Using the 4 Pillars Practice Transformation Program to Increase Pneumococcal Immunizations for Older Adults: A Cluster-Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Richard K; Brown, Anthony E; Pavlik, Valory N; Moehling, Krissy K; Raviotta, Jonathan M; Lin, Chyongchiou J; Zhang, Song; Hawk, Mary; Kyle, Shakala; Patel, Suchita; Ahmed, Faruque; Nowalk, Mary Patricia

    2017-01-01

    To test the effectiveness of a step-by step, evidence-based guide, the 4 Pillars Practice Transformation Program, to increase adult pneumococcal vaccination. Randomized controlled cluster trial (RCCT) in Year 1 (June 1, 2013 to May 31, 2014) and pre-post study in Year 2 (June 1, 2014 to January 31, 2015) with data analyzed in 2016. Baseline year was June 1, 2012, to May 31, 2013. Demographic and vaccination data were derived from deidentified electronic medical record extractions. Primary care practices (n = 25) stratified according to metropolitan area (Houston, Pittsburgh), location (rural, urban, suburban), and type (family medicine, internal medicine), randomized to receive the intervention in Year 1 (n = 13) or Year 2 (n = 12). Individuals aged 65 and older at baseline (N = 18,107; mean age 74.2; 60.7% female, 16.5% non-white, 15.7% Hispanic). The 4 Pillars Program, provider education, and one-on-one coaching of practice-based immunization champions. Outcome measures were 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV) and pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) vaccination rates and percentage point (PP) changes in vaccination rates. In the Year 1 RCCT, PPSV vaccination rates increased significantly in all intervention and control groups, with average increases ranging from 6.5 to 8.7 PP (P < .001). The intervention was not related to greater likelihood of PPSV vaccination. In the Year 2 pre-post study, the likelihood of PPSV and PCV vaccination was significantly higher in the active intervention sites than the maintenance sites in Pittsburgh but not in Houston. In a RCCT, PPSV vaccination rates increased in the intervention and control groups in Year 1. In a pre-post study, private primary care practices actively participating in the 4 Pillars Practice Transformation Program improved PPSV and PCV uptake significantly more than practices that were in the maintenance phase of the study. © 2016, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2016, The American

  18. Habit-based interventions for weight loss maintenance in adults with overweight and obesity: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleo, Gina; Glasziou, Paul; Beller, Elaine; Isenring, Elisabeth; Thomas, Rae

    2018-04-23

    The objective of this study was to determine whether habit-based interventions are clinically beneficial in achieving long-term (12-month) weight loss maintenance and explore whether making new habits or breaking old habits is more effective. Volunteer community members aged 18-75 years who had overweight or obesity (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m 2 ) were randomized in a single-blind, three-arm, randomized controlled trial. Ten Top Tips (TTT), Do Something Different (DSD), and the attention-only waitlist (WL) control groups were conducted for 12 weeks from July to October 2015. Participants were followed up post-intervention (all groups) and at 6 and 12-month post-intervention (Ten Top Tips and Do Something Different only). The primary outcome was weight-loss maintenance at 12-month follow-up. Secondary outcomes included weight loss at all time points, fruit and vegetable consumption, exercise, wellbeing, depression, anxiety, habit strength, and openness to change. Of the 130 participants assessed for eligibility, 75 adults (mean BMI 34.5 kg/m 2 [SD 6.2]), with a mean age of 51 years were recruited. Assessments were completed post-intervention by 66/75 (88%) of participants and by 43/50 (86%) at 12 months. At post-intervention, participants in the Ten Top Tips (-3.3 kg; 95% CI -5.2, -1.4) and Do Something Different (-2.9 kg; 95% CI -4.3, -1.4) interventions lost significantly more weight (P = Habit-based weight-loss interventions-forming new habits (TTT) and breaking old habits (DSD), resulted in clinically important weight-loss maintenance at 12-month follow-up.

  19. Treatment of clozapine-associated obesity and diabetes with exenatide in adults with schizophrenia: A randomized controlled trial (CODEX).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siskind, Dan J; Russell, Anthony W; Gamble, Clare; Winckel, Karl; Mayfield, Karla; Hollingworth, Sam; Hickman, Ingrid; Siskind, Victor; Kisely, Steve

    2018-04-01

    Clozapine causes obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists (e.g. exenatide) can counter clozapine-associated GLP-1 dysregulation in animals, and may be beneficial in people on clozapine. This randomized, controlled, open-label, pilot trial evaluated weekly exenatide for weight loss among clozapine-treated obese adults with schizophrenia, with or without T2DM. A total of 28 outpatients were randomized to once-weekly extended-release subcutaneous exenatide or usual care for 24 weeks. The primary outcome was proportion of participants with >5% weight loss. All 28 participants completed the study; 3/14 in the exenatide group and 2/14 in the usual care group had T2DM. Six people on exenatide achieved >5% weight loss vs one receiving usual care (P = .029). Compared with usual care, participants on exenatide had greater mean weight loss (-5.29 vs -1.12 kg; P = .015) and body mass index reduction (-1.78 vs -0.39 kg/m 2 ; P = .019), and reduced fasting glucose (-0.34 vs 0.39 mmol/L; P = .036) and glycated haemoglobin levels (-0.21% vs 0.03%; P = .004). There were no significant differences in other metabolic syndrome components. Exenatide may be a promising therapeutic agent for glycaemic control and weight loss in clozapine-treated people with obesity, and could assist in reducing clozapine-associated cardio-metabolic morbidity and mortality. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Effects of Mat Pilates on Physical Functional Performance of Older Adults: A Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno de Souza, Roberta Oliveira; Marcon, Liliane de Faria; Arruda, Alex Sandro Faria de; Pontes Junior, Francisco Luciano; Melo, Ruth Caldeira de

    2018-06-01

    The present meta-analysis aimed to examine evidence from randomized controlled trials to determine the effects of mat Pilates on measures of physical functional performance in the older population. A search was conducted in the MEDLINE/PubMed, Scopus, Scielo, and PEDro databases between February and March 2017. Only randomized controlled trials that were written in English, included subjects aged 60 yrs who used mat Pilates exercises, included a comparison (control) group, and reported performance-based measures of physical function (balance, flexibility, muscle strength, and cardiorespiratory fitness) were included. The methodological quality of the studies was analyzed according to the PEDro scale and the best-evidence synthesis. The meta-analysis was conducted with the Review Manager 5.3 software. The search retrieved 518 articles, nine of which fulfilled the inclusion criteria. High methodological quality was found in five of these studies. Meta-analysis indicated a large effect of mat Pilates on dynamic balance (standardized mean difference = 1.10, 95% confidence interval = 0.29-1.90), muscle strength (standardized mean difference = 1.13, 95% confidence interval = 0.30-1.96), flexibility (standardized mean difference = 1.22, 95% confidence interval = 0.39-2.04), and cardiorespiratory fitness (standardized mean difference = 1.48, 95% confidence interval = 0.42-2.54) of elderly subjects. There is evidence that mat Pilates improves dynamic balance, lower limb strength, hip and lower back flexibility, and cardiovascular endurance in elderly individuals. Furthermore, high-quality studies are necessary to clarify the effects of mat Pilates on other physical functional measurements among older adults.

  1. Unexpected perturbations training improves balance control and voluntary stepping times in older adults - a double blind randomized control trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurz, Ilan; Gimmon, Yoav; Shapiro, Amir; Debi, Ronen; Snir, Yoram; Melzer, Itshak

    2016-03-04

    Falls are common among elderly, most of them occur while slipping or tripping during walking. We aimed to explore whether a training program that incorporates unexpected loss of balance during walking able to improve risk factors for falls. In a double-blind randomized controlled trial 53 community dwelling older adults (age 80.1±5.6 years), were recruited and randomly allocated to an intervention group (n = 27) or a control group (n = 26). The intervention group received 24 training sessions over 3 months that included unexpected perturbation of balance exercises during treadmill walking. The control group performed treadmill walking with no perturbations. The primary outcome measures were the voluntary step execution times, traditional postural sway parameters and Stabilogram-Diffusion Analysis. The secondary outcome measures were the fall efficacy Scale (FES), self-reported late life function (LLFDI), and Performance-Oriented Mobility Assessment (POMA). Compared to control, participation in intervention program that includes unexpected loss of balance during walking led to faster Voluntary Step Execution Times under single (p = 0.002; effect size [ES] =0.75) and dual task (p = 0.003; [ES] = 0.89) conditions; intervention group subjects showed improvement in Short-term Effective diffusion coefficients in the mediolateral direction of the Stabilogram-Diffusion Analysis under eyes closed conditions (p = 0.012, [ES] = 0.92). Compared to control there were no significant changes in FES, LLFDI, and POMA. An intervention program that includes unexpected loss of balance during walking can improve voluntary stepping times and balance control, both previously reported as risk factors for falls. This however, did not transferred to a change self-reported function and FES. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01439451 .

  2. Phase I Randomized Study of a Tetravalent Dengue Purified Inactivated Vaccine in Healthy Adults from Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Clemente; Lin, Leyi; Martinez, Luis J; Eckels, Kenneth H; Campos, Maribel; Jarman, Richard G; De La Barrera, Rafael; Lepine, Edith; Toussaint, Jean-François; Febo, Irma; Innis, Bruce L; Thomas, Stephen J; Schmidt, Alexander C

    2018-05-01

    The safety and immunogenicity of four adjuvanted formulations of an investigational tetravalent dengue purified inactivated vaccine (DPIV) were evaluated in a predominantly dengue-primed population in Puerto Rico. In this placebo-controlled, randomized, observer-blind, phase I trial, 100 healthy adults were randomized 1:1:1:1:1 to receive DPIV at Day (D)0 and D28 (1 μg per dengue virus [DENV] type 1-4 adjuvanted with either alum, AS01 E or AS03 B , or 4 μg per DENV type adjuvanted with alum) or saline placebo. Functional antibody responses were assessed using a microneutralization assay at D56, Month (M)7, and M13. All DPIV formulations were well tolerated and no safety signals were identified through M13. The M13 according-to-protocol (ATP) immunogenicity cohort included 83 participants. The ATP analysis of immunogenicity was performed only on the 78 subjects seropositive for ≥ 1 DENV type at baseline: 69 tetravalent, three trivalent, two bivalent, and four monovalent. In all DPIV groups, geometric mean antibody titers (GMTs) increased from D0 to D56 and waned modestly through M13, while remaining well above prevaccination levels. The 4 μg + alum and the AS01 E - and AS03 B -adjuvanted formulations were highly immunogenic, with M13-neutralizing antibody GMTs against all four DENV types above 1,000. M13/D0 GMT ratios were highest in the 1 μg + AS03 B group (ranging 3.2-3.7 depending on the DENV type). These results encourage continued clinical development of DPIV (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01702857).

  3. Calorie restriction in overweight seniors: response of older adults to a dieting study: the CROSSROADS randomized controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Marilyn C; Bodner, Eric V; Brown, Cynthia J; Bryan, David; Buys, David R; Keita, Akilah Dulin; Flagg, Lee Anne; Goss, Amy; Gower, Barbara; Hovater, Martha; Hunter, Gary; Ritchie, Christine S; Roth, David L; Wingo, Brooks C; Ard, Jamy; Locher, Julie L

    2014-01-01

    We conducted a study designed to evaluate whether the benefits of intentional weight loss exceed the potential risks in a group of community-dwelling obese older adults who were at increased risk for cardiometabolic disease. The CROSSROADS trial used a prospective randomized controlled design to compare the effects of changes in diet composition alone or combined with weight loss with an exercise only control intervention on body composition and adipose tissue deposition (Specific Aim #1: To compare the effects of changes in diet composition alone or combined with weight loss with an exercise only control intervention on body composition, namely visceral adipose tissue), cardiometabolic disease risk (Specific Aim #2: To compare the effects of a change in diet composition alone or combined with weight loss with an exercise only control intervention on cardiometabolic disease risk), and functional status and quality of life (Specific Aim #3: To compare the effects of a change in diet composition alone or combined with weight loss with an exercise only control intervention on functional status and quality of life). Participants were randomly assigned to one of three groups: Exercise Only (Control) Intervention, Exercise + Diet Quality + Weight Maintenance Intervention, or Exercise + Diet Quality + Weight Loss Intervention. CROSSROADS utilized a lifestyle intervention approach consisting of exercise, dietary, and behavioral components. The development and implementation of the CROSSROADS protocol, including a description of the methodology, detailing specific elements of the lifestyle intervention, assurances of treatment fidelity, and participant retention; outcome measures and adverse event monitoring; as well as unique data management features of the trial results, are presented in this article.

  4. Effects of long-term balance training with vibrotactile sensory augmentation among community-dwelling healthy older adults: a randomized preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Tian; Carender, Wendy J; Kinnaird, Catherine; Barone, Vincent J; Peethambaran, Geeta; Whitney, Susan L; Kabeto, Mohammed; Seidler, Rachael D; Sienko, Kathleen H

    2018-01-18

    Sensory augmentation has been shown to improve postural stability during real-time balance applications. Limited long-term controlled studies have examined retention of balance improvements in healthy older adults after training with sensory augmentation has ceased. This pilot study aimed to assess the efficacy of long-term balance training with and without sensory augmentation among community-dwelling healthy older adults. Twelve participants (four males, eight females; 75.6 ± 4.9 yrs) were randomly assigned to the experimental group (n = 6) or control group (n = 6). Participants trained in their homes for eight weeks, completing three 45-min exercise sessions per week using smart phone balance trainers that provided written, graphic, and video guidance, and monitored trunk sway. During each session, participants performed six repetitions of six exercises selected from five categories (static standing, compliant surface standing, weight shifting, modified center of gravity, and gait). The experimental group received vibrotactile sensory augmentation for four of the six repetitions per exercise via the smart phone balance trainers, while the control group performed exercises without sensory augmentation. The smart phone balance trainers sent exercise performance data to a physical therapist, who recommended exercises on a weekly basis. Balance performance was assessed using a battery of clinical balance tests (Activity Balance Confidence Scale, Sensory Organization Test, Mini Balance Evaluation Systems Test, Five Times Sit to Stand Test, Four Square Step Test, Functional Reach Test, Gait Speed Test, Timed Up and Go, and Timed Up and Go with Cognitive Task) before training, after four weeks of training, and after eight weeks of training. Participants in the experimental group were able to use vibrotactile sensory augmentation independently in their homes. After training, the experimental group had significantly greater improvements in Sensory

  5. An evidence-based gamified mHealth intervention for overweight young adults with maladaptive eating habits: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podina, Ioana R; Fodor, Liviu A; Cosmoiu, Ana; Boian, Rareș

    2017-12-12

    Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) is the first-line of treatment for overweight and obesity patients whose problems originate in maladaptive eating habits (e.g., emotional eating). However, in-person CBT is currently difficult to access by large segments of the population. The proposed SIGMA intervention (i.e., the Self-help, Integrated, and Gamified Mobile-phone Application) is a mHealth intervention based on CBT principles. It specifically targets overweight young adults with underlying maladaptive behaviors and cognitions regarding food. The SIGMA app was designed as a serious game and intended to work as a standalone app for weight maintenance or alongside a calorie-restrictive diet for weight loss. It uses a complex and novel scoring system that allows points earned within the game to be supplemented by points earned during outdoor activities with the help of an embedded pedometer. The efficacy of the SIGMA mHealth intervention will be investigated within a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. The intervention will be set to last 2 months with a 3-month follow-up. Selected participants will be young overweight adults with non-clinical maladaptive eating habits embodied by food cravings, binge eating, and emotional eating. The primary outcomes will be represented by changes in (1) self-reported maladaptive thoughts related to eating and body weight, (2) self-reported maladaptive eating behaviors in the range of urgent food cravings, emotional eating or binge eating, (3) as well as biased attentional processing of food items as indexed by reaction times. Secondary outcomes will be represented by changes in weight, Body Mass Index, general mood, and physical activity as indexed by the number of steps per day. Through an evidence-based cognitive behavioral approach and a user-friendly game interface, the SIGMA intervention offers a significant contribution to the development of a cost-effective and preventive self-help tool for young overweight adults with

  6. Spanish normative studies in young adults (NEURONORMA young adults project): norms for the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure (copy and memory) and Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomo, R; Casals-Coll, M; Sánchez-Benavides, G; Quintana, M; Manero, R M; Rognoni, T; Calvo, L; Aranciva, F; Tamayo, F; Peña-Casanova, J

    2013-05-01

    The Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure (ROCF) and the Free and Cued Selective Reminding Test (FCSRT) are widely used in clinical practice. The ROCF assesses visual perception, constructional praxis, and visuo-spatial memory. The FCSRT assesses verbal learning and memory. In this study, as part of the Spanish normative studies project in young adults (NEURONORMA young adults), we present age- and education-adjusted normative data for both tests obtained by using linear regression techniques. The sample consisted of 179 healthy participants ranging in age from 18 to 49 years. We provide tables for converting raw scores to scaled scores in addition to tables with scores adjusted by socio-demographic factors. The results showed that education affects scores for some of the memory tests and the figure-copying task. Age was only found to have an effect on the performance of visuo-spatial memory tests, and the effect of sex was negligible. The normative data obtained will be extremely useful in the clinical neuropsychological evaluation of young Spanish adults. Copyright © 2011 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  7. Performance of Universal Adhesive in Primary Molars After Selective Removal of Carious Tissue: An 18-Month Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenzi, Tathiane Larissa; Pires, Carine Weber; Soares, Fabio Zovico Maxnuck; Raggio, Daniela Prócida; Ardenghi, Thiago Machado; de Oliveira Rocha, Rachel

    2017-09-15

    To evaluate the 18-month clinical performance of a universal adhesive, applied under different adhesion strategies, after selective carious tissue removal in primary molars. Forty-four subjects (five to 10 years old) contributed with 90 primary molars presenting moderately deep dentin carious lesions on occlusal or occluso-proximal surfaces, which were randomly assigned following either self-etch or etch-and-rinse protocol of Scotchbond Universal Adhesive (3M ESPE). Resin composite was incrementally inserted for all restorations. Restorations were evaluated at one, six, 12, and 18 months using the modified United States Public Health Service criteria. Survival estimates for restorations' longevity were evaluated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Multivariate Cox regression analysis with shared frailty to assess the factors associated with failures (Padhesion strategy did not influence the restorations' longevity (P=0.06; 72.2 percent and 89.7 percent with etch-and-rinse and self-etch mode, respectively). Self-etch and etch-and-rinse strategies did not influence the clinical behavior of universal adhesive used in primary molars after selective carious tissue removal; although there was a tendency for better outcome of the self-etch strategy.

  8. DNABP: Identification of DNA-Binding Proteins Based on Feature Selection Using a Random Forest and Predicting Binding Residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xin; Guo, Jing; Sun, Xiao

    2016-01-01

    DNA-binding proteins are fundamentally important in cellular processes. Several computational-based methods have been developed to improve the prediction of DNA-binding proteins in previous years. However, insufficient work has been done on the prediction of DNA-binding proteins from protein sequence information. In this paper, a novel predictor, DNABP (DNA-binding proteins), was designed to predict DNA-binding proteins using the random forest (RF) classifier with a hybrid feature. The hybrid feature contains two types of novel sequence features, which reflect information about the conservation of physicochemical properties of the amino acids, and the binding propensity of DNA-binding residues and non-binding propensities of non-binding residues. The comparisons with each feature demonstrated that these two novel features contributed most to the improvement in predictive ability. Furthermore, to improve the prediction performance of the DNABP model, feature selection using the minimum redundancy maximum relevance (mRMR) method combined with incremental feature selection (IFS) was carried out during the model construction. The results showed that the DNABP model could achieve 86.90% accuracy, 83.76% sensitivity, 90.03% specificity and a Matthews correlation coefficient of 0.727. High prediction accuracy and performance comparisons with previous research suggested that DNABP could be a useful approach to identify DNA-binding proteins from sequence information. The DNABP web server system is freely available at http://www.cbi.seu.edu.cn/DNABP/.

  9. A descriptive study on selected growth parameters and growth hormone receptor gene in healthy young adults from the American Midwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartin, Samantha N; Hossain, Waheeda A; Manzardo, Ann M; Brown, Shaquanna; Fite, Paula J; Bortolato, Marco; Butler, Merlin G

    2018-02-12

    The first study of growth hormone receptor (GHR) genotypes in healthy young adults in the United States attending a Midwestern university and impact on selected growth parameters. To describe the frequency of GHR genotypes in a sample of healthy young adults from the United States attending a university in the Midwest and analyze the relationship between GHR genotypes and selected growth parameters. Saliva was collected from 459 healthy young adults (237 females, 222 males; age range = 18-25 y) and DNA isolated for genotyping of GHR alleles (fl/fl, fl/d3, or d3/d3). Selected growth parameters were collected and GHR genotype data examined for previously reported associations (e.g., height, weight or bone mass density) or novel findings (e.g., % body water and index finger length). We found 219 participants (48%) homozygous for fl/fl, 203 (44%), heterozygous fl/d3 and 37 (8%) homozygous d3/d3. The distribution of GHR genotypes in our participants was consistent with previous reports of non-US populations. Several anthropometric measures differed by sex. The distribution of GHR genotypes did not significantly differ by sex, weight, or other anthropometric measures. However, the fl/d3 genotype was more common among African-Americans. Our study of growth and anthropometric parameters in relationship to GHR genotypes found no association with height, weight, right index finger length, BMI, bone mass density, % body fat or % body water in healthy young adults. We did identify sex differences with increased body fat, decreased bone density, body water and index finger length in females. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Dietary sodium influences the effect of mental stress on heart rate variability: a randomized trial in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Alexander R; Gullixson, Leah R; Wolhart, Sarah C; Kost, Susan L; Schroeder, Darrell R; Eisenach, John H

    2014-02-01

    Dietary sodium influences intermediate physiological traits in healthy adults independent of changes in blood pressure. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that dietary sodium affects cardiac autonomic modulation during mental stress. In a prospective, randomized cross-over design separated by 1 month between diets, 70 normotensive healthy young adults (F/M: 44/26, aged 18-38 years) consumed a 5-day low (10 mmol/day), normal (150 mmol), and high (400 mmol) sodium diet followed by heart rate variability (HRV) recordings at rest and during 5-min computerized mental arithmetic. Women were studied in the low hormone phase of the menstrual cycle following each diet. Diet did not affect resting blood pressure, but heart rate (HR) (mean ± SE) was 66 ± 1, 64 ± 1, and 63 ± 1 bpm in low, normal, and high sodium conditions, respectively (analysis of variance P = 0.02). For HRV, there was a main effect of sodium on resting SD of normalized RR intervals (SDNN), square root of the mean squared difference of successive normalized RR intervals (RMSSD), high frequency, low-frequency normalized units (LFnu), and high-frequency normalized units (HFnu) (P sodium was most marked and consistent with sympathetic activation and reduced vagal activity, with increased LFnu and decreased SDNN, RMSSD, and HFnu compared to both normal and high sodium conditions (P ≤0.05 for all). Dietary sodium-by-mental stress interactions were significant for mean NN, RMSSD, high-frequency power, LFnu, and low frequency/high frequency ratio (P sodium restriction evoked an increase in resting sympathetic activity and reduced vagal activity to the extent that mental stress caused modest additional disruptions in autonomic balance. Conversely, normal and high sodium evoked a reduction in resting sympathetic activity and incremental increase in resting vagal activity, which were disrupted to a greater extent during mental stress compared to low sodium. We conclude that autonomic control of

  11. The Healthy Steps Study: A randomized controlled trial of a pedometer-based Green Prescription for older adults. Trial protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schluter Philip J

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Graded health benefits of physical activity have been demonstrated for the reduction of coronary heart disease, some cancers, and type-2 diabetes, and for injury reduction and improvements in mental health. Older adults are particularly at risk of physical inactivity, and would greatly benefit from successful targeted physical activity interventions. Methods/Design The Healthy Steps study is a 12-month randomized controlled trial comparing the efficacy of a pedometer-based Green Prescription with the conventional time-based Green Prescription in increasing and maintaining physical activity levels in low-active adults over 65 years of age. The Green Prescription interventions involve a primary care physical activity prescription with 3 follow-up telephone counselling sessions delivered by trained physical activity counsellors over 3 months. Those in the pedometer group received a pedometer and counselling based around increasing steps that can be monitored on the pedometer, while those in the standard Green Prescription group received counselling using time-based goals. Baseline, 3 month (end of intervention, and 12 month measures were assessed in face-to-face home visits with outcomes measures being physical activity (Auckland Heart Study Physical Activity Questionnaire, quality of life (SF-36 and EQ-5D, depressive symptoms (Geriatric Depression Scale, blood pressure, weight status, functional status (gait speed, chair stands, and tandem balance test and falls and adverse events (self-report. Utilisation of health services was assessed for the economic evaluation carried out alongside this trial. As well, a process evaluation of the interventions and an examination of barriers and motives for physical activity in the sample were conducted. The perceptions of primary care physicians in relation to delivering physical activity counselling were also assessed. Discussion The findings from the Healthy Steps trial are due in late

  12. Managing knee osteoarthritis with yoga or aerobic/strengthening exercise programs in older adults: a pilot randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Corjena; Wyman, Jean F; Bronas, Ulf; McCarthy, Teresa; Rudser, Kyle; Mathiason, Michelle A

    2017-03-01

    Although exercise is often recommended for managing osteoarthritis (OA), limited evidence-based exercise options are available for older adults with OA. This study compared the effects of Hatha yoga (HY) and aerobic/strengthening exercises (ASE) on knee OA. Randomized controlled trial with three arms design was used: HY, ASE, and education control. Both HY and ASE groups involved 8 weekly 45-min group classes with 2-4 days/week home practice sessions. Control group received OA education brochures and weekly phone calls from study staff. Standardized instruments were used to measure OA symptoms, physical function, mood, spiritual health, fear of falling, and quality of life at baseline, 4 and 8 weeks. HY/ASE adherences were assessed weekly using class attendance records and home practice video recordings. Primary analysis of the difference in the change from baseline was based on intent-to-treat and adjusted for baseline values. Eight-three adults with symptomatic knee OA completed the study (84% female; mean age 71.6 ± 8.0 years; mean BMI 29.0 ± 7.0 kg/m 2 ). Retention rate was 82%. Compared to the ASE group at 8 weeks, participants in the HY group had a significant improvement from baseline in perception of OA symptoms (-9.6 [95% CI -15.3, -4]; p = .001), anxiety (-1.4 [95% CI -2.7, -0]; p = .04), and fear of falling (-4.6 [-7.5, -1.7]; p = .002). There were no differences in class/home practice adherence between HY and ASE. Three non-serious adverse events were reported from the ASE group. Both HY and ASE improved symptoms and function but HY may have superior benefits for older adults with knee OA. Trial registration The full trial protocol is available at clinicaltrials.gov (NCT02525341).

  13. Testing the efficacy of a brief sexual risk reduction intervention among high-risk American Indian adults: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Chambers

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background American Indian adults are more likely to experience co-occurring mental health and substance use disorders than adults of other racial/ethnic groups and are disproportionately burdened by the most common sexually transmitted infections, namely chlamydia and gonorrhea. Several behavioral interventions are proven efficacious in lowering risk for sexually transmitted infection in various populations and, if adapted to address barriers experienced by American Indian adults who suffer from mental health and substance use problems, may be useful for dissemination in American Indian communities. The proposed study aims to examine the efficacy of an adapted evidence-based intervention to increase condom use and decrease sexual risk-taking and substance use among American Indian adults living in a reservation-based community in the Southwestern United States. Methods/Design The proposed study is a randomized controlled trial to test the efficacy of an adapted evidence-based intervention compared to a control condition. Participants will be American Indian adults ages 18–49 years old who had a recent episode of binge substance use and/or suicide ideation. Participants will be randomized to the intervention, a two-session risk-reduction counseling intervention or the control condition, optimized standard care. All participants will be offered a self-administered sexually transmitted infection test. Participants will complete assessments at baseline, 3 and 6 months follow-up. The primary outcome measure is condom use at last sex. Discussion This is one of the first randomized controlled trials to assess the efficacy of an adapted evidence-based intervention for reducing sexual risk behaviors among AI adults with substance use and mental health problems. If proven successful, there will be an efficacious program for reducing risk behaviors among high-risk adults that can be disseminated in American Indian communities as well as other

  14. The causal role of breakfast in energy balance and health: a randomized controlled trial in obese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Enhad A; Richardson, Judith D; Holman, Geoffrey D; Tsintzas, Kostas; Thompson, Dylan; Betts, James A

    2016-03-01

    The causal nature of associations between breakfast and health remain unclear in obese individuals. We sought to conduct a randomized controlled trial to examine causal links between breakfast habits and components of energy balance in free-living obese humans. The Bath Breakfast Project is a randomized controlled trial with repeated measures at baseline and follow-up among a cohort in South West England aged 21-60 y with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry-derived fat mass indexes of ≥13 kg/m(2) for women (n = 15) and ≥9 kg/m(2) for men (n = 8). Components of energy balance (resting metabolic rate, physical activity thermogenesis, diet-induced thermogenesis, and energy intake) were measured under free-living conditions with random allocation to daily breakfast (≥700 kcal before 1100) or extended fasting (0 kcal until 1200) for 6 wk, with baseline and follow-up measures of health markers (e.g., hematology/adipose biopsies). Breakfast resulted in greater physical activity thermogenesis during the morning than when fasting during that period (difference: 188 kcal/d; 95% CI: 40, 335) but without any consistent effect on 24-h physical activity thermogenesis (difference: 272 kcal/d; 95% CI: -254, 798). Energy intake was not significantly greater with breakfast than fasting (difference: 338 kcal/d; 95% CI: -313, 988). Body mass increased across both groups over time but with no treatment effects on body composition or any change in resting metabolic rate (stable within 8 kcal/d). Metabolic/cardiovascular health also did not respond to treatments, except for a reduced insulinemic response to an oral-glucose-tolerance test over time with daily breakfast relative to an increase with daily fasting (P = 0.05). In obese adults, daily breakfast leads to greater physical activity during the morning, whereas morning fasting results in partial dietary compensation (i.e., greater energy intake) later in the day. There were no differences between groups in weight change and most

  15. A randomized controlled trial of telemonitoring in older adults with multiple chronic conditions: the Tele-ERA study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahashi Paul Y

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Older adults with multiple chronic illnesses are at risk for worsening functional and medical status and hospitalization. Home telemonitoring may help slow this decline. This protocol of a randomized controlled trial was designed to help determine the impact of home telemonitoring on hospitalization. The specific aim of the study reads as follows: to determine the effectiveness of home telemonitoring compared with usual care in reducing the combined outcomes of hospitalization and emergency department visits in an at-risk population 60 years of age or older. Methods/Design Two-hundred patients with the highest 10% Mayo Clinic Elder Risk Assessment scores will be randomly assigned to one of two interventions. Home telemonitoring involves the use of a computer device, the Intel Health Guide, which records biometric and symptom data from patients in their homes. This information is monitored by midlevel providers associated with a primary care medical practice. Under the usual care scenario, patients make appointments with their providers as problems arise and use ongoing support such as a 24-hour nurse line. Patients will have initial evaluations of gait and quality of life using instruments such as the SF-12 Health Survey, the Kokmen Short Test of Mental Status, and the PHQ-9 health questionnaire. Patients will be followed for 1 year for primary outcomes of hospitalizations and emergency department visits. Secondary analysis will include quality of life, compliance with the device, and attitudes about telemonitoring. Sample size is based on an 80% power to detect a 36% difference between the two groups. The primary analysis will involve Cox proportional time-to-event analysis. Secondary analysis will use t-test comparisons for continuous variables and the chi square test for proportional analysis. Discussion Patients randomized to home telemonitoring will have daily assessments of their health status using the device

  16. Weight loss on low-fat vs. low-carbohydrate diets by insulin resistance status among overweight adults and adults with obesity: A randomized pilot trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Christopher D; Offringa, Lisa C; Hartle, Jennifer C; Kapphahn, Kris; Cherin, Rise

    2016-01-01

    To test for differential weight loss response to low-fat (LF) vs. low-carbohydrate (LC) diets by insulin resistance status with emphasis on overall quality of both diets. Sixty-one adults, BMI 28-40 kg/m(2) , were randomized in a 2 × 2 design to LF or LC by insulin resistance status in this pilot study. Primary outcome was 6-month weight change. Participants were characterized as more insulin resistant (IR) or more insulin sensitive (IS) by median split of baseline insulin-area-under-the-curve from an oral glucose tolerance test. Intervention consisted of 14 one-hour class-based educational sessions. Baseline % carbohydrate:% fat:% protein was 44:38:18. At 6 months, the LF group reported 57:21:22 and the LC group reported 22:53:25 (IR and IS combined). Six-month weight loss (kg) was 7.4 ± 6.0 (LF-IR), 10.4 ± 7.8 (LF-IS), 9.6 ± 6.6 (LC-IR), and 8.6 ± 5.6 (LC-IS). No significant main effects were detected for weight loss by diet group or IR status; there was no significant diet × IR interaction. Significant differences in several secondary outcomes were observed. Substantial weight loss was achieved overall, but a significant diet × IR status interaction was not observed. Opportunity to detect differential response may have been limited by the focus on high diet quality for both diet groups and sample size. © 2015 The Obesity Society.

  17. Weight Loss on Low-Fat vs. Low-Carb Diets by Insulin Resistance Status Among Overweight Adults & Adults with Obesity: A Randomized Pilot Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Christopher D.; Offringa, Lisa; Hartle, Jennifer; Kapphahn, Kris; Cherin, Rise

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To test for differential weight loss response to Low-Fat (LF) vs. Low-Carbohydrate (LC) diets by insulin resistance status with emphasis on overall quality of both diets. METHODS Sixty-one adults, BMI 28-40 kg/m2, were randomized in a 2X2 design to LF or LC by insulin resistance status in this pilot study. Primary outcome was 6-month weight change. Participants were characterized as more insulin resistant (IR) or more insulin sensitive (IS) by median split of baseline insulin-area-under-the-curve from an oral glucose tolerance test. Intervention consisted of 14 one-hour class-based educational sessions. RESULTS Baseline % carb:% fat:% protein was 44:38:18. At 6m the LF group reported 57:21:22 and the LC group reported 22:53:25 (IR and IS combined). Six-month weight loss (kg) was 7.4 ± 6.0 (LF-IR), 10.4 ± 7.8 (LF-IS), 9.6 ± 6.6 (LC-IR), and 8.6 ± 5.6 (LC-IS). No significant main effects were detected for weight loss by diet group or IR status; no significant diet X IR interaction. Significant differences in several secondary outcomes were observed. CONCLUSION Substantial weight loss was achieved overall, but a significant diet X IR status interaction was not observed. Opportunity to detect differential response may have been limited by the focus on high diet quality for both diet groups and sample size. PMID:26638192

  18. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study of the efficacy and safety of lisdexamfetamine dimesylate in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: novel findings using a simulated adult workplace environment design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Joseph

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Duration of efficacy and safety of lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX was assessed in adults (18-55 years with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD using the simulated adult workplace environment. Methods After open-label dose optimization (4-week with LDX, 30-70 mg/d, subjects entered a 2-week randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover phase. Efficacy assessments included the Permanent Product Measure of Performance (PERMP total score (attempted+correct measured predose and from 2 to 14 hours postdose, averaged across postdose sessions (primary and at each time point vs placebo (secondary, and ADHD Rating Scale IV (ADHD-RS-IV with adult prompts at baseline and crossover visits. Safety assessments included treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs, vital signs, and electrocardiograms. Results Of 127 randomized subjects, 105 were in the intention-to-treat population and 103 completed the study. While receiving LDX vs placebo, adults had greater improvement (P P ≤ .0017 for each time point and change from predose (P P Conclusions LDX significantly improved PERMP scores vs placebo and maintained improvement throughout the day from the first (2 hours to last (14 hours postdose time point vs placebo in adults with ADHD. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00697515 Safety and Efficacy Workplace Environment Study of Lisdexamfetamine Dimesylate (LDX in Adults With Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00697515?term=NCT00697515&rank=1

  19. Can Adults Who Have Recovered from Selective Mutism in Childhood and Adolescence Tell Us Anything about the Nature of the Condition and/or Recovery from It?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omdal, Heidi

    2007-01-01

    The literature on selective mutism provides little information on the child's own perspective. Six adults who had been selectively mute were interviewed about their childhood and adolescence. Data analysis led to identification of five themes, each of which has potentially important implications for teachers. (1) Origins of selective mutism: all…

  20. A review of the relationship between leg power and selected chronic disease in older adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strollo, S. E.; Caserotti, Paolo; Ward, R. E.

    2015-01-01

    characterized. Importantly, individuals with these conditions have shown improved leg power with training. METHODS: A search was performed using PubMed to identify original studies published in English from January 1998 to August 2013. Leg power studies, among older adults ≥ 50 years of age, which assessed......OBJECTIVE: This review investigates the relationship between leg muscle power and the chronic conditions of osteoarthritis, diabetes mellitus, and cardiovascular disease among older adults. Current literature assessing the impact of chronic disease on leg power has not yet been comprehensively......), diabetes mellitus (n=5), and cardiovascular disease (n=6). Studies generally supported associations of lower leg power among older adults with chronic disease, although small sample sizes, cross-sectional data, homogenous populations, varied disease definitions, and inconsistent leg power methods limited...

  1. Randomized, controlled trial promotes physical activity and reduces consumption of sweets and sodium among overweight and obese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assunção, Maria Cecília F; Gigante, Denise P; Cardoso, Marly A; Sartorelli, Daniela S; Santos, Iná S

    2010-08-01

    The present study sought to assess the impact of an intervention to reduce weight and control risk factors of noncommunicable chronic diseases in overweight or obese adults who are users of primary and secondary healthcare units of the public health system of Pelotas, Brazil. We hypothesized that individuals who received an educational intervention regarding how to lose weight and prevent other noncommunicable chronic disease risk factors through nutrition would lose weight and acquire active habits during leisure time more frequently than individuals under regular care. Two hundred forty-one participants from the Nutrition Outpatient Clinic of the Medical Teaching Hospital of the Federal University of Pelotas, Brazil, aged 20 years or older and classified as overweight or obese were randomly allocated to either the intervention group (IG; n = 120) or control group (CG; n = 121). The IG received individualized nutritional care for 6 months, and the CG received individualized usual care of the health services. Intention-to-treat analyses showed that at 6 months, mean fasting glycemia and daily consumption of sweet foods and sodium were reduced, and the time spent on physical leisure activity was increased in IG. Analysis of adherence to the protocol of the study revealed that individuals from IG had lost more in body weight, waist circumference, and fasting glucose compared to the CG. Leisure time physical activity increased in IG. Individuals adhered equally to the dietetic recommendations, irrespective of the nutrition approach that was used. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. A randomized pilot study comparing zero-calorie alternate-day fasting to daily caloric restriction in adults with obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catenacci, Victoria A; Pan, Zhaoxing; Ostendorf, Danielle; Brannon, Sarah; Gozansky, Wendolyn S; Mattson, Mark P; Martin, Bronwen; MacLean, Paul S; Melanson, Edward L; Troy Donahoo, William

    2016-09-01

    To evaluate the safety and tolerability of alternate-day fasting (ADF) and to compare changes in weight, body composition, lipids, and insulin sensitivity index (Si) with those produced by a standard weight loss diet, moderate daily caloric restriction (CR). Adults with obesity (BMI ≥30 kg/m(2) , age 18-55) were randomized to either zero-calorie ADF (n = 14) or CR (-400 kcal/day, n = 12) for 8 weeks. Outcomes were measured at the end of the 8-week intervention and after 24 weeks of unsupervised follow-up. No adverse effects were attributed to ADF, and 93% completed the 8-week ADF protocol. At 8 weeks, ADF achieved a 376 kcal/day greater energy deficit; however, there were no significant between-group differences in change in weight (mean ± SE; ADF -8.2 ± 0.9 kg, CR -7.1 ± 1.0 kg), body composition, lipids, or Si. After 24 weeks of unsupervised follow-up, there were no significant differences in weight regain; however, changes from baseline in % fat mass and lean mass were more favorable in ADF. ADF is a safe and tolerable approach to weight loss. ADF produced similar changes in weight, body composition, lipids, and Si at 8 weeks and did not appear to increase risk for weight regain 24 weeks after completing the intervention. © 2016 The Obesity Society.

  3. A randomized pilot study comparing zero-calorie alternate-day fasting to daily caloric restriction in adults with obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catenacci, Victoria A.; Pan, Zhaoxing; Ostendorf, Danielle; Brannon, Sarah; Gozansky, Wendolyn S.; Mattson, Mark P.; Martin, Bronwen; MacLean, Paul S.; Melanson, Edward L.; Donahoo, William Troy

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the safety and tolerability of alternate-day fasting (ADF) and to compare changes in weight, body composition, lipids, and insulin sensitivity index (Si) to those produced by a standard weight loss diet, moderate daily caloric restriction (CR). Methods Adults with obesity (BMI ≥30 kg/m2, age 18-55) were randomized to either zero-calorie ADF (n=14) or CR (-400 kcal/day, n=12) for 8 weeks. Outcomes were measured at the end of the 8-week intervention and after 24 weeks of unsupervised follow-up. Results No adverse effects were attributed to ADF and 93% completed the 8-week ADF protocol. At 8 weeks, ADF achieved a 376 kcal/day greater energy deficit, however there were no significant between-group differences in change in weight (mean±SE; ADF -8.2±0.9 kg, CR -7.1±1.0 kg), body composition, lipids, or Si. After 24 weeks of unsupervised follow-up, there were no significant differences in weight regain, however changes from baseline in % fat mass and lean mass were more favorable in ADF. Conclusions ADF is a safe and tolerable approach to weight loss. ADF produced similar changes in weight, body composition, lipids and Si at 8 weeks and did not appear to increase risk for weight regain 24 weeks after completing the intervention. PMID:27569118

  4. A Pecan-Rich Diet Improves Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Overweight and Obese Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane L. McKay

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Evidence from observational and intervention studies has shown a high intake of tree nuts is associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD, mortality from type 2 diabetes (T2DM, and all-cause mortality. However, there is limited data regarding their effects on indicators of cardiometabolic risk other than hypercholesterolemia, and little is known about the demonstrable health benefits of pecans (Carya illinoensis (Wangenh. K.Koch. We conducted a randomized, controlled feeding trial to compare the effects of a pecan-rich diet with an isocaloric control diet similar in total fat and fiber content, but absent nuts, on biomarkers related to CVD and T2DM risk in healthy middle-aged and older adults who are overweight or obese with central adiposity. After 4 weeks on a pecan-rich diet, changes in serum insulin, insulin resistance (HOMA-IR and beta cell function (HOMA-β were significantly greater than after the control diet (p < 0.05. Pecan consumption also lowered the risk of cardiometabolic disease as indicated by a composite score reflecting changes in clinically relevant markers. Thus, compared to the control diet, the pecan intervention had a concurrent and clinically significant effect on several relevant markers of cardiometabolic risk.

  5. A Pecan-Rich Diet Improves Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Overweight and Obese Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Diane L; Eliasziw, Misha; Chen, C Y Oliver; Blumberg, Jeffrey B

    2018-03-11

    Evidence from observational and intervention studies has shown a high intake of tree nuts is associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), mortality from type 2 diabetes (T2DM), and all-cause mortality. However, there is limited data regarding their effects on indicators of cardiometabolic risk other than hypercholesterolemia, and little is known about the demonstrable health benefits of pecans ( Carya illinoensis (Wangenh.) K.Koch). We conducted a randomized, controlled feeding trial to compare the effects of a pecan-rich diet with an isocaloric control diet similar in total fat and fiber content, but absent nuts, on biomarkers related to CVD and T2DM risk in healthy middle-aged and older adults who are overweight or obese with central adiposity. After 4 weeks on a pecan-rich diet, changes in serum insulin, insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and beta cell function (HOMA-β) were significantly greater than after the control diet ( p Pecan consumption also lowered the risk of cardiometabolic disease as indicated by a composite score reflecting changes in clinically relevant markers. Thus, compared to the control diet, the pecan intervention had a concurrent and clinically significant effect on several relevant markers of cardiometabolic risk.

  6. Motivational Interviewing to prevent dropout from an education and employment program for young adults: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayegh, Caitlin S; Huey, Stanley J; Barnett, Elizabeth; Spruijt-Metz, Donna

    2017-07-01

    This study tested the efficacy of Motivational Interviewing for improving retention at a "second chance" program in the United States for unemployed young adults who had not graduated high school (ages 18-24; 60% male). We investigated how Motivational Interviewing effects might be mediated by change talk (i.e., arguments for change) and moderated by preference for consistency (PFC). Participants (N = 100) were randomly assigned to (1) Motivational Interviewing designed to elicit change talk, (2) placebo counseling designed not to elicit change talk, or (3) no additional treatment. Motivational Interviewing sessions increased change talk, but did not increase program retention or diploma earning. PFC was a significant moderator of Motivational Interviewing's impact on program retention; Motivational Interviewing was most effective at increasing 8 week retention for high PFC participants, and least effective for low PFC participants. These results suggest that Motivational Interviewing could be a useful tool for improving retention in education and employment programs, but clinicians should be attentive to how participant characteristics might enhance or diminish Motivational Interviewing effects. Copyright © 2017 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Dietary Patterns and Blood Pressure in Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndanuko, Rhoda N; Tapsell, Linda C; Charlton, Karen E; Neale, Elizabeth P; Batterham, Marijka J

    2016-01-01

    Hypertension is a major risk factor for developing cardiovascular disease, stroke, and kidney disease. To lower blood pressure (BP), several lifestyle changes are recommended such as weight loss, exercise, and following a healthy diet. Investigating the effect of single nutrients may have positive results, but food is consumed as part of a whole diet, resulting in nutrient interactions. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to assess the effect of dietary patterns on BP in adults. Studies that were published between January 1999 and June 2014 were retrieved using Scopus, Web of Science, and the MEDLINE database. Seventeen randomized controlled trials were included in the meta-analysis. The results suggest that healthy dietary patterns such as the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension diet, Nordic diet, and Mediterranean diet significantly lowered systolic BP and diastolic BP by 4.26 mm Hg and 2.38 mm Hg, respectively. These diets are rich in fruit, vegetables, whole grains, legumes, seeds, nuts, fish, and dairy and low in meat, sweets, and alcohol. Lifestyle factors such as exercise and weight loss in combination with dietary changes may also reduce BP. Further research is needed to establish the effect of dietary patterns on BP in different cultures other than those identified in this review. The review was registered on PROSPERO (International prospective register of systematic reviews) as CRD42015016272. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  8. Psychological, behavioral, and clinical effects of intra-oral camera: a randomized control trial on adults with gingivitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Mário-Rui; Alvarez, Maria-João; Godinho, Cristina A; Pereira, Cícero

    2016-12-01

    To evaluate the effects of using an intra-oral camera (IOC) during supportive periodontal therapy (SPT), on the psychological, behavioral, and clinical parameters of patients with gingivitis, outlined by evidence and a theory-based framework. A group of 78 adult patients with gingivitis receiving an SPT was randomized into two groups: IOC and control. Bleeding on Marginal Probing (BOMP), self-reported dental hygiene behaviors, and psychological determinants of behavior change (outcome expectancies, self-efficacy, and planning) and IOC opinion were evaluated 1 week before or during the appointment and 4 months later. Repeated-measures anova was used to compare groups over time. Almost all the patients brushed their teeth daily, while 78% either never or hardly ever used dental floss. The IOC group showed significant improvements in BOMP index (P < 0.001), self-reported flossing (P < 0.05), and self-efficacy (P < 0.05) compared to the control group. The use of IOC significantly improves clinical, behavioral, and psychological determinants of periodontal health 4 months after treatment. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Combining walking and relaxation for stress reduction-A randomized cross-over trial in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matzer, Franziska; Nagele, Eva; Lerch, Nikolaus; Vajda, Christian; Fazekas, Christian

    2018-04-01

    Both physical activity and relaxation have stress-relieving potential. This study investigates their combined impact on the relaxation response while considering participants' initial stress level. In a randomized cross-over trial, 81 healthy adults completed 4 types of short-term interventions for stress reduction, each lasting for 1 hr: (1) physical activity (walking) combined with resting, (2) walking combined with balneotherapy, (3) combined resting and balneotherapy, and (4) resting only. Saliva cortisol, blood pressure, state of mood, and relaxation were measured preintervention and postintervention. Stress levels were determined by validated questionnaires. All interventions were associated with relaxation responses in the variables saliva cortisol, blood pressure, state of mood, and subjective relaxation. No significant differences were found regarding the reduction of salivary cortisol (F = 1.30; p = .281). The systolic blood pressure was reduced best when walking was combined with balneotherapy or resting (F = 7.34; p stress levels (n = 25) felt more alert after interventions including balneotherapy, whereas they reported an increase of tiredness when walking was combined with resting (F = 3.20; p = .044). Results suggest that combining physical activity and relaxation (resting or balneotherapy) is an advantageous short-term strategy for stress reduction as systolic blood pressure is reduced best while similar levels of relaxation can be obtained. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Study protocol: cost-effectiveness of multidisciplinary nutritional support for undernutrition in older adults in nursing home and home-care: cluster randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck, Anne Marie; Gøgsig Christensen, Annette; Stenbæk Hansen, Birthe

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Older adults in nursing home and home-care are a particularly high-risk population for weight loss or poor nutrition. One negative consequence of undernutrition is increased health care costs. Several potentially modifiable nutritional risk factors increase the likelihood of weight loss......-effectiveness of nutritional support among undernourished older adults and none of these have used such a multidisciplinary approach. METHODS: An 11 week cluster randomized trial to assess the cost-effectiveness of multidisciplinary nutritional support for undernutrition in older adults in nursing home and home...... older adults in home-care and nursing home and contribute to important research. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov 2013 NCT01873456....

  11. Selectivity of flesh-footed shearwaters for plastic colour: Evidence for differential provisioning in adults and fledglings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavers, Jennifer L; Bond, Alexander L

    2016-02-01

    The ingestion of plastic by seabirds has been used as an indicator of population and ocean health. However, few studies have examined adults and juveniles of the same species concurrent with the availability of plastic in the local marine environment. In King George Sound (KGS), Western Australia, 13% of adult flesh-footed shearwaters (Ardenna carneipes) and 90% of fledglings contained plastic items in their digestive tract. On Lord Howe Island (LHI), New South Wales, 75% of adult shearwaters and 100% of fledglings contained plastic. Ingested items were assessed using Jaccard's Index (where J = 0 indicates complete dissimilarity and J = 1 complete similarity). The colour of items ingested by self- and chick-provisioning shearwaters from KGS exhibited broad overlap with plastic available in the local environment (J = 0.78-0.80), and plastic in adults and fledglings from LHI were less similar to those available (J = 0.31-0.58). Additional data on seabird colour selection would improve our understanding of the factors influencing the behaviour of ingesting plastic, and its contribution to the decline of some species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Differences in Health Care Costs and Utilization among Adults with Selected Lifestyle-Related Risk Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Larry A.; Clegg, Alan G.

    2002-01-01

    Examined the relationship between lifestyle-related health risks and health care costs and utilization among young adults. Data collected at a primarily white collar worksite in over 2 years indicated that health risks, particularly obesity, stress, and general lifestyle, were significant predictors of health care costs and utilization among these…

  13. Early prevention of antisocial personality: long-term follow-up of two randomized controlled trials comparing indicated and selective approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Stephen; Briskman, Jackie; O'Connor, Thomas G

    2014-06-01

    Antisocial personality is a common adult problem that imposes a major public health burden, but for which there is no effective treatment. Affected individuals exhibit persistent antisocial behavior and pervasive antisocial character traits, such as irritability, manipulativeness, and lack of remorse. Prevention of antisocial personality in childhood has been advocated, but evidence for effective interventions is lacking. The authors conducted two follow-up studies of randomized trials of group parent training. One involved 120 clinic-referred 3- to 7-year-olds with severe antisocial behavior for whom treatment was indicated, 93 of whom were reassessed between ages 10 and 17. The other involved 109 high-risk 4- to 6-year-olds with elevated antisocial behavior who were selectively screened from the community, 90 of whom were reassessed between ages 9 and 13. The primary psychiatric outcome measures were the two elements of antisocial personality, namely, antisocial behavior (assessed by a diagnostic interview) and antisocial character traits (assessed by a questionnaire). Also assessed were reading achievement (an important domain of youth functioning at work) and parent-adolescent relationship quality. In the indicated sample, both elements of antisocial personality were improved in the early intervention group at long-term follow-up compared with the control group (antisocial behavior: odds ratio of oppositional defiant disorder=0.20, 95% CI=0.06, 0.69; antisocial character traits: B=-4.41, 95% CI=-1.12, -8.64). Additionally, reading ability improved (B=9.18, 95% CI=0.58, 18.0). Parental expressed emotion was warmer (B=0.86, 95% CI=0.20, 1.41) and supervision was closer (B=-0.43, 95% CI=-0.11, -0.75), but direct observation of parenting showed no differences. Teacher-rated and self-rated antisocial behavior were unchanged. In contrast, in the selective high-risk sample, early intervention was not associated with improved long-term outcomes. Early intervention with

  14. Intensive client-centred occupational therapy in the home improves older adults' occupational performance. Results from a Danish randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Tove Lise; Andersen, Niels Trolle; Petersen, Kirsten Schultz; Polatajko, Helene; Nielsen, Claus Vinther

    2018-01-12

    There is growing interest in enabling older adults' occupational performance. We tested whether 11 weeks of intensive client-centred occupational therapy (ICC-OT) was superior to usual practice in improving the occupational performance of home-dwelling older adults. An assessor-masked randomized controlled trial among adults 60 + with chronic health issues, who received or applied for homecare services. Recruitment took place September 2012 to April 2014. All participants received practical and personal assistance and meal delivery as needed. In addition, they were randomized to receive either a maximum 22 sessions of occupation-based ICC-OT (N = 59) or to receive usual practice with a maximum three sessions of occupational therapy (N = 60). The primary outcome was self-rated occupational performance assessed with the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM). No important adverse events occurred. ICC-OT was accepted by 46 participants (88%), usual practice by 60 (100%). After 3 months, the ICC-OT-group had improved 1.86 points on COPM performance; the Usual-Practice group had improved 0.61 points. The between-group difference was statistically significant (95% confidence interval 0.50 to 2.02), t-test: p = 0.001. ICC-OT improved older adults' occupational performance more effectively than usual practice. This result may benefit older adults and support programmatic changes.

  15. Interactive Cognitive-Motor Step Training Improves Cognitive Risk Factors of Falling in Older Adults - A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Schoene

    Full Text Available Interactive cognitive-motor training (ICMT requires individuals to perform both gross motor movements and complex information processing. This study investigated the effectiveness of ICMT on cognitive functions associated with falls in older adults.A single-blinded randomized controlled trial was conducted in community-dwelling older adults (N = 90, mean age 81.5±7 without major cognitive impairment. Participants in the intervention group (IG played four stepping games that required them to divide attention, inhibit irrelevant stimuli, switch between tasks, rotate objects and make rapid decisions. The recommended minimum dose was three 20-minute sessions per week over a period of 16 weeks unsupervised at home. Participants in the control group (CG received an evidence-based brochure on fall prevention. Measures of processing speed, attention/executive function (EF, visuo-spatial ability, concerns about falling and depression were assessed before and after the intervention.Eighty-one participants (90% attended re-assessment. There were no improvements with respect to the Stroop Stepping Test (primary outcome in the intervention group. Compared to the CG, the IG improved significantly in measures of processing speed, visuo-spatial ability and concern about falling. Significant interactions were observed for measures of EF and divided attention, indicating group differences varied for different levels of the covariate with larger improvements in IG participants with poorer baseline performance. The interaction for depression showed no change for the IG but an increase in the CG for those with low depressive symptoms at baseline. Additionally, low and high-adherer groups differed in their baseline performance and responded differently to the intervention. Compared to high adherers, low adherers improved more in processing speed and visual scanning while high-adherers improved more in tasks related to EF.This study shows that unsupervised stepping

  16. A Web-Based, Social Networking Physical Activity Intervention for Insufficiently Active Adults Delivered via Facebook App: Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, Carol; Ferguson, Monika; Vandelanotte, Corneel; Plotnikoff, Ron; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Thomas, Samantha; Nelson-Field, Karen; Olds, Tim

    2015-07-13

    Online social networks offer considerable potential for delivery of socially influential health behavior change interventions. To determine the efficacy, engagement, and feasibility of an online social networking physical activity intervention with pedometers delivered via Facebook app. A total of 110 adults with a mean age of 35.6 years (SD 12.4) were recruited online in teams of 3 to 8 friends. Teams were randomly allocated to receive access to a 50-day online social networking physical activity intervention which included self-monitoring, social elements, and pedometers ("Active Team" Facebook app; n=51 individuals, 12 teams) or a wait-listed control condition (n=59 individuals, 13 teams). Assessments were undertaken online at baseline, 8 weeks, and 20 weeks. The primary outcome measure was self-reported weekly moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Secondary outcomes were weekly walking, vigorous physical activity time, moderate physical activity time, overall quality of life, and mental health quality of life. Analyses were undertaken using random-effects mixed modeling, accounting for potential clustering at the team level. Usage statistics were reported descriptively to determine engagement and feasibility. At the 8-week follow-up, the intervention participants had significantly increased their total weekly MVPA by 135 minutes relative to the control group (P=.03), due primarily to increases in walking time (155 min/week increase relative to controls, Plife or mental health quality of life at either time point. High levels of engagement with the intervention, and particularly the self-monitoring features, were observed. An online, social networking physical activity intervention with pedometers can produce sizable short-term physical activity changes. Future work is needed to determine how to maintain behavior change in the longer term, how to reach at-need populations, and how to disseminate such interventions on a mass scale. Australian New Zealand

  17. Prospective, double blind, randomized, controlled trial comparing vapocoolant spray versus placebo spray in adults undergoing intravenous cannulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mace, Sharon E

    2017-10-01

    Painful diagnostic and therapeutic procedures are common in the health care setting. Eliminating, or at least, minimizing the pain associated with various procedures should be a priority. Although there are many benefits of providing local/topical anesthesia prior to performing painful procedures, ranging from greater patient/family satisfaction to increased procedural success rates; local/topical anesthetics are frequently not used. Reasons include the need for a needlestick to administer local anesthetics such as lidocaine and the long onset for topical anesthetics. Vapocoolants eliminate the risks associated with needlesticks, avoids the tissue distortion with intradermal local anesthetics, eliminates needlestick pain, have a quick almost instantaneous onset, are easy to apply, require no skills or devices to apply, are convenient, and inexpensive. The aims of this study were to ascertain if peripheral intravenous (PIV) cannulation pain would be significantly decreased by using a vapocoolant (V) versus sterile water placebo (S) spray, as determined by a reduction of at least ≥1.8 points on numerical rating scale (NRS) after vapocoolant versus placebo spray, the side effects and incidence of side effects from a vapocoolant spray; and whether there were any long term visible skin abnormalities associated with the use of a vapocoolant spray. Prospective, randomized, double-blind controlled trial of 300 adults (ages 18-80) requiring PIV placement in a hospital ED, randomized to S (N=150) or V (N=150) prior to PIV. Efficacy outcome was the difference in PIV pain: NRS from 0 (none) to worst (10). Safety outcomes included a skin checklist for local adverse effects (i.e., redness, blanching, edema, ecchymosis, itching, changes in skin pigmentation), vital sign (VS) changes, and before/after photographs of the PIV site. Patient demographics (age, gender, race), comorbidity, medications, and vital signs; and PIV procedure variables (e.g., IV needle size, location

  18. Older adults' motivated choice for technological innovation: evidence for benefit-driven selectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melenhorst, Anne-Sophie; Rogers, Wendy A; Bouwhuis, Don G

    2006-03-01

    This study examined older adults' motivation to adopt technological innovation. Sixty-eight older e-mail users and nonusers discussed the use of e-mail and of traditional communication methods in 18 focus groups. The results show older adults' benefit-driven approach to new communication technology. Regardless of whether their decision about the new technology was positive or negative and irrespective of their e-mail experience, participants focused on benefits rather than costs. For traditional media, both costs and benefits were important. Results contradict the common belief that barriers such as usability problems determine whether older people use new technology and indicate the decisive role of perceived benefits for successful innovation. ((c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Engaging in Security Work: Selective Disclosure in Friendships of Korean and Mexican Undocumented Young Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Esther Y

    2017-01-01

    While much of the literature on undocumented immigrants has focused on employment and education outcomes, we know little about the effects of their precarious legal status on interpersonal relationships. Based on interviews with 50 Korean and Mexican undocumented young adults, I find that, regardless of ethnoracial background, undocumented immigrants approach relationships cautiously, engaging in "security work" to protect themselves and their loved ones. Security work is a negotiated process...

  20. Protein-enriched 'regular products' and their effect on protein intake in acute hospitalized older adults; a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stelten, S.; Dekker, I.M.; Ronday, E.M.; Thijs, A.; Boelsma, E.; Peppelenbos, H.W.; van Bokhorst-de van der Schueren, M.A.E.

    2015-01-01

    Background & aims: Especially in older adults, maintaining muscle mass is essential to perform activities of daily living. This requires a sufficient protein intake. However, protein intake in hospitalized older adults is often insufficient. Thus far different nutrition intervention strategies have

  1. Biased random key genetic algorithm with insertion and gender selection for capacitated vehicle routing problem with time windows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochman, Auliya Noor; Prasetyo, Hari; Nugroho, Munajat Tri

    2017-06-01

    Vehicle Routing Problem (VRP) often occurs when the manufacturers need to distribute their product to some customers/outlets. The distribution process is typically restricted by the capacity of the vehicle and the working hours at the distributor. This type of VRP is also known as Capacitated Vehicle Routing Problem with Time Windows (CVRPTW). A Biased Random Key Genetic Algorithm (BRKGA) was designed and coded in MATLAB to solve the CVRPTW case of soft drink distribution. The standard BRKGA was then modified by applying chromosome insertion into the initial population and defining chromosome gender for parent undergoing crossover operation. The performance of the established algorithms was then compared to a heuristic procedure for solving a soft drink distribution. Some findings are revealed (1) the total distribution cost of BRKGA with insertion (BRKGA-I) results in a cost saving of 39% compared to the total cost of heuristic method, (2) BRKGA with the gender selection (BRKGA-GS) could further improve the performance of the heuristic method. However, the BRKGA-GS tends to yield worse results compared to that obtained from the standard BRKGA.

  2. Sequence-Based Prediction of RNA-Binding Proteins Using Random Forest with Minimum Redundancy Maximum Relevance Feature Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Ma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The prediction of RNA-binding proteins is one of the most challenging problems in computation biology. Although some studies have investigated this problem, the accuracy of prediction is still not sufficient. In this study, a highly accurate method was developed to predict RNA-binding proteins from amino acid sequences using random forests with the minimum redundancy maximum relevance (mRMR method, followed by incremental feature selection (IFS. We incorporated features of conjoint triad features and three novel features: binding propensity (BP, nonbinding propensity (NBP, and evolutionary information combined with physicochemical properties (EIPP. The results showed that these novel features have important roles in improving the performance of the predictor. Using the mRMR-IFS method, our predictor achieved the best performance (86.62% accuracy and 0.737 Matthews correlation coefficient. High prediction accuracy and successful prediction performance suggested that our method can be a useful approach to identify RNA-binding proteins from sequence information.

  3. Optimal Subset Selection of Time-Series MODIS Images and Sample Data Transfer with Random Forests for Supervised Classification Modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Fuqun; Zhang, Aining

    2016-10-25

    Nowadays, various time-series Earth Observation data with multiple bands are freely available, such as Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) datasets including 8-day composites from NASA, and 10-day composites from the Canada Centre for Remote Sensing (CCRS). It is challenging to efficiently use these time-series MODIS datasets for long-term environmental monitoring due to their vast volume and information redundancy. This challenge will be greater when Sentinel 2-3 data become available. Another challenge that researchers face is the lack of in-situ data for supervised modelling, especially for time-series data analysis. In this study, we attempt to tackle the two important issues with a case study of land cover mapping using CCRS 10-day MODIS composites with the help of Random Forests' features: variable importance, outlier identification. The variable importance feature is used to analyze and select optimal subsets of time-series MODIS imagery for efficient land cover mapping, and the outlier identification feature is utilized for transferring sample data available from one year to an adjacent year for supervised classification modelling. The results of the case study of agricultural land cover classification at a regional scale show that using only about a half of the variables we can achieve land cover classification accuracy close to that generated using the full dataset. The proposed simple but effective solution of sample transferring could make supervised modelling possible for applications lacking sample data.

  4. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) for post-partum depression (PPD): a systematic review of randomized clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Crescenzo, Franco; Perelli, Federica; Armando, Marco; Vicari, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    The treatment of postpartum depression with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) has been claimed to be both efficacious and well tolerated, but no recent systematic reviews have been conducted. A qualitative systematic review of randomized clinical trials on women with postpartum depression comparing SSRIs to placebo and/or other treatments was performed. A comprehensive literature search of online databases, the bibliographies of published articles and grey literature were conducted. Data on efficacy, acceptability and tolerability were extracted and the quality of the trials was assessed. Six randomised clinical trials, comprising 595 patients, met quality criteria for inclusion in the analysis. Cognitive-behavioural intervention, psychosocial community-based intervention, psychodynamic therapy, cognitive behavioural therapy, a second-generation tricyclic antidepressant and placebo were used as comparisons. All studies demonstrated higher response and remission rates among those treated with SSRIs and greater mean changes on depression scales, although findings were not always statistically significant. Dropout rates were high in three of the trials but similar among treatment and comparison groups. In general, SSRIs were well tolerated and trial quality was good. There are few trials, patients included in the trials were not representative of all patients with postpartum depression, dropout rates in three trials were high, and long-term efficacy and tolerability were assessed in only two trials. SSRIs appear to be efficacious and well tolerated in the treatment of postpartum depression, but the available evidence fails to demonstrate a clear superiority over other treatments. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Mobile Phone Support for Diabetes Self-Care Among Diverse Adults: Protocol for a Three-Arm Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Lyndsay A; Wallston, Kenneth A; Kripalani, Sunil; Greevy Jr, Robert A; Elasy, Tom A; Bergner, Erin M; Gentry, Chad K

    2018-01-01

    Background Nonadherence to self-care is common among patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and often leads to severe complications. Moreover, patients with T2D who have low socioeconomic status and are racial/ethnic minorities disproportionately experience barriers to adherence and poor outcomes. Basic phone technology (text messages and phone calls) provides a practical medium for delivering content to address patients’ barriers to adherence; however, trials are needed to explore long-term and sustainable effects of mobile phone interventions among diverse patients. Objective The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of mobile phone–based diabetes support interventions on self-care and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) among adults with T2D using a 3-arm, 15-month randomized controlled trial with a Type 1 hybrid effectiveness-implementation approach. The intervention arms are (1) Rapid Encouragement/Education And Communications for Health (REACH) and (2) REACH + Family-focused Add-on for Motivating Self-care (FAMS). Methods We recruited primary care patients with T2D (N=512) from Federally Qualified Health Centers and an academic medical center, prioritizing recruitment of publicly insured and minority patients from the latter. Eligible patients were prescribed daily diabetes medication and owned a cell phone with text messaging capability. We excluded patients whose most recent HbA1c result within 12 months was <6.8% to support detection of intervention effects on HbA1c. Participants were randomly assigned to REACH only, REACH + FAMS, or the control condition. REACH provides text messages tailored to address patient-specific barriers to medication adherence based on the Information-Motivation-Behavioral skills model, whereas FAMS provides monthly phone coaching with related text message content focused on family and friend barriers to diet and exercise adherence. We collect HbA1c and self-reported survey data at baseline and at 3, 6, and 12 months, and again at 15

  6. Effect of mental imagery on performance elite athletes’ in youth and adult age groups: a randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tohid Seif-Barghi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Athletes are usually skilled in physical aspects of sports; they are widely involved in physical conditioning, technical and tactical training. However they usually ignore the psychological and cognitive skills linked to their performance. Sport imagery is a well known fundamental skill that has a critical role in how a player performs and shows his/her competency during a real world game. On the other hand football as a complex team sport includes several skills linked to physical and psychological properties. We aimed to study the effect of cognitive imagery on elite football players through league competitions in two separate studies.Methods: Twenty two youth players and Twenty two adult players randomly assigned to imagery and control groups. Players in intervention group received 12 weeks training program for specific cognitive imagery and general cognitive imagery. Imagery training program focused on an important component of football performance as “successful passing”. Players in control group were assigned to a waiting list with no intervention. In order to evaluate outcome variable we assessed successful passing in real compete-tions as player performance in both pre and post test occasions.Results: Findings of study in youth participants showed that young players in interven-tion group improved the performance of passing compared to control players (OR=1.41, P0.05, CI 95%: 0.82, 1.4(.Conclusion: These results showed that cognitive imagery intervention can affect elite soccer players’ performance. This effect is more prominent in youth age football players.

  7. Cognitive intervention through a training program for picture book reading in community-dwelling older adults: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Hiroyuki; Kuraoka, Masataka; Yasunaga, Masashi; Nonaka, Kumiko; Sakurai, Ryota; Takeuchi, Rumi; Murayama, Yoh; Ohba, Hiromi; Fujiwara, Yoshinori

    2014-11-21

    Non-pharmacological interventions are expected to be im