WorldWideScience

Sample records for randomly assigned students

  1. SCRAED - Simple and Complex Random Assignment in Experimental Designs

    OpenAIRE

    Alferes, Valentim R.

    2009-01-01

    SCRAED is a package of 37 self-contained SPSS syntax files that performs simple and complex random assignment in experimental designs. For between-subjects designs, SCRAED includes simple random assignment (no restrictions, forced equal sizes, forced unequal sizes, and unequal probabilities), block random assignment (simple and generalized blocks), and stratified random assignment (no restrictions, forced equal sizes, forced unequal sizes, and unequal probabilities). For within-subject...

  2. A Computerized Approach to Trickle-Process, Random Assignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braucht, G. Nicholas; Reichardt, Charles S.

    1993-01-01

    Procedures for implementing random assignment with trickle processing and ways they can be corrupted are described. A computerized method for implementing random assignment with trickle processing is presented as a desirable alternative in many situations and a way of protecting against threats to assignment validity. (SLD)

  3. Random Assignment: Practical Considerations from Field Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunford, Franklyn W.

    1990-01-01

    Seven qualitative issues associated with randomization that have the potential to weaken or destroy otherwise sound experimental designs are reviewed and illustrated via actual field experiments. Issue areas include ethics and legality, liability risks, manipulation of randomized outcomes, hidden bias, design intrusiveness, case flow, and…

  4. Student generated assignments about electrical circuits in a computer simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vreman-de Olde, Cornelise; de Jong, Anthonius J.M.

    2004-01-01

    In this study we investigated the design of assignments by students as a knowledge-generating activity. Students were required to design assignments for 'other students' in a computer simulation environment about electrical circuits. Assignments consisted of a question, alternatives, and feedback on

  5. The Presentation Assignment: Creating Learning Opportunities for Diverse Student Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Brenda H.; Bartle-Angus, Kathryn

    2000-01-01

    Finds the presentation assignment to be an effective method of providing students with the opportunity to apply the literacy skills they are learning in ways that are personally meaningful. Describes the presentation assignment framework and provides an example of an assignment that required students to analyze and interpret works of literature…

  6. Implementing Student-Level Random Assignment during Summer School: Lessons Learned from an Efficacy Study of Online Algebra I for Credit Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heppen, Jessica; Allensworth, Elaine; Walters, Kirk; Pareja, Amber Stitziel; Kurki, Anja; Nomi, Takako; Sorensen, Nicholas

    2011-01-01

    Credit recovery is one strategy to deal with high failure rates. The primary goal of credit recovery programs is to give students an opportunity to retake classes that they failed in an effort to get them back on track and keep them in school (Watson & Gemin, 2008). Most recently, as schools across the nation struggle to keep students on track…

  7. Music Activities as a Meaningful Context for Teaching Elementary Students Mathematics: A Quasi-Experiment Time Series Design with Random Assigned Control Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Song A.; Tillman, Daniel A.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the current research was to examine the effects of a sequence of classroom activities that integrated mathematics content with music elements aimed at providing teachers an alternative approach for teaching mathematics. Two classes of third grade students (n = 56) from an elementary school in the west coast of the United States…

  8. WebAssign: Assessing Your Students' Understanding Continuously

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risley, John S.

    1999-11-01

    Motivating students to learn is a constant challenge for faculty. Technology can play a significant role. One such solution is WebAssign — a web-based homework system that offers new teaching and learning opportunities for educators and their students. WebAssign delivers, collects, grades, and records customized homework assignments over the Internet. Students get immediate feedback with credit and instructors can implement "Just-in-Time" teaching. In this talk, I will describe how assignments can be generated with different numerical values for each question, giving each student a unique problem to solve. This feature encourages independent thinking with the benefit of collaborative learning. Example assignments taken from textbook questions and intellectually engaging Java applet simulations will be shown. Studies and first-hand experience on the educational impact of using WebAssign will also be discussed.

  9. Causal Effects of Single-Sex Schools on College Entrance Exams and College Attendance: Random Assignment in Seoul High Schools

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Hyunjoon; Behrman, Jere R.; Choi, Jaesung

    2013-01-01

    Despite the voluminous literature on the potentials of single-sex schools, there is no consensus on the effects of single-sex schools because of student selection of school types. We exploit a unique feature of schooling in Seoul—the random assignment of students into single-sex versus coeducational high schools—to assess causal effects of single-sex schools on college entrance exam scores and college attendance. Our validation of the random assignment shows comparable socioeconomic backgroun...

  10. Students' Evaluation of Writing Assignments in an Abnormal Psychology Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procidano, Mary E.

    1991-01-01

    Presents a study in which students in an abnormal psychology class rated the usefulness of drafts for two writing assignments. Reports that a research proposal was more effective than a case study in generating interest in psychology and opportunity for creativity. Concludes that writing assignments should reflect important aspects of a…

  11. submission of art studio-based assignments: students experience

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PUBLICATIONS1

    are reluctant to complete their studio assignments on time are critically ... tative and qualitative data, derived from survey and interviews were used to ... is therefore exploratory and studio based. It ... mogenous group of students who report pro- ... Assignment management .... The analyses in this study are based on data.

  12. Teacher-Child Interaction Training: A Pilot Study With Random Assignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Melanie A; Adelstein, Jonathan S; Miller, Samantha P; Areizaga, Margaret J; Gold, Dylann C; Sanchez, Amanda L; Rothschild, Sara A; Hirsch, Emily; Gudiño, Omar G

    2015-07-01

    Teacher-Child Interaction Training (TCIT), adapted from Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT), is a classroom-based program designed to provide teachers with behavior management skills that foster positive teacher-student relationships and to improve student behavior by creating a more constructive classroom environment. The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate TCIT in more classrooms than previously reported in the literature, with older children than previously reported, using random assignment of classrooms to TCIT or to a no-TCIT control condition and conducting all but two sessions within the classroom to enhance feasibility. Participants included 11 kindergarten and first grade classroom teachers and their 118 students from three urban, public schools in Manhattan, with five classrooms randomly assigned to receive TCIT and six to the no-TCIT control condition. Observations of teacher skill acquisition were conducted before, during, and after TCIT for all 11 teachers, and teacher reports of student behavior were obtained at these same time points. Teacher satisfaction with TCIT was assessed following training. Results suggested that after receiving TCIT, teachers increased rates of positive attention to students' appropriate behavior, decreased rates of negative attention to misbehavior, reported significantly less distress related to student disruptive behavior, and reported high satisfaction with the training program. Our study supports the growing evidence-base suggesting that TCIT is a promising approach for training teachers in positive behavior management strategies and for improving student disruptive behavior in the classroom. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Homework Assignments to Enhance Student Engagement in Secondary Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buijs, Maartje; Admiraal, Wilfried

    2013-01-01

    Secondary school teachers often complain that their students show a disengaged attitude in class. Students do not prepare for lessons, they show a passive attitude towards classroom activities and they have a limited awareness of their own learning process. Based on a pilot study, four homework assignments were designed, implemented, and evaluated…

  14. A career exploration assignment for first-year pharmacy students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sholy, Lydia; Zeenny, Rony

    2013-11-12

    To develop, implement, and assess student-learning outcomes from an assignment designed to expose first-year pharmacy students (P1) to a wide range of pharmacy career pathways. Students enrolled in a required Pharmacy Practice and Ethics course at the Lebanese American University chose 1 pharmacist career to investigate from a suggested list of 28 career pathways. Students completed a literature review on the selected career, interviewed a pharmacist practicing that career path in Lebanon, wrote a paper, and prepared and delivered a summary presentation to their classmates about the career pathway. Students peer evaluated their classmates after each presentation. More than 85% of the students scored ≥70% on the assignment based on their achievement of student learning outcomes. Responses on an anonymous questionnaire showed that more than 94.6% of students were satisfied with the extent to which the course allowed them to meet the established learning outcomes. A career exploration assignment provided pharmacy students with an opportunity to widen their knowledge and understanding of the different career pathways that are available for them.

  15. More Districts Factoring Poverty into Student-Assignment Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehr, Mary Ann

    2010-01-01

    A growing number of school districts are trying to break up concentrations of poverty on their campuses by taking students' family income into consideration in school assignments. Some of the districts replaced race with socioeconomic status as a determining indicator after the U.S. Supreme Court ruled in 2007 that using race as the primary factor…

  16. Randomized Assignments for Barter Exchanges: Fairness vs Efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fang, Wenyi; Filos-Ratsikas, Aris; Frederiksen, Søren Kristoffer Stiil

    2015-01-01

    We study fairness and efficiency properties of randomized algorithms for barter exchanges with direct applications to kidney exchange problems. It is well documented that randomization can serve as a tool to ensure fairness among participants. However, in many applications, practical constraints...

  17. Applications of random forest feature selection for fine-scale genetic population assignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylvester, Emma V A; Bentzen, Paul; Bradbury, Ian R; Clément, Marie; Pearce, Jon; Horne, John; Beiko, Robert G

    2018-02-01

    Genetic population assignment used to inform wildlife management and conservation efforts requires panels of highly informative genetic markers and sensitive assignment tests. We explored the utility of machine-learning algorithms (random forest, regularized random forest and guided regularized random forest) compared with F ST ranking for selection of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) for fine-scale population assignment. We applied these methods to an unpublished SNP data set for Atlantic salmon ( Salmo salar ) and a published SNP data set for Alaskan Chinook salmon ( Oncorhynchus tshawytscha ). In each species, we identified the minimum panel size required to obtain a self-assignment accuracy of at least 90% using each method to create panels of 50-700 markers Panels of SNPs identified using random forest-based methods performed up to 7.8 and 11.2 percentage points better than F ST -selected panels of similar size for the Atlantic salmon and Chinook salmon data, respectively. Self-assignment accuracy ≥90% was obtained with panels of 670 and 384 SNPs for each data set, respectively, a level of accuracy never reached for these species using F ST -selected panels. Our results demonstrate a role for machine-learning approaches in marker selection across large genomic data sets to improve assignment for management and conservation of exploited populations.

  18. Causal effects of single-sex schools on college entrance exams and college attendance: random assignment in Seoul high schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyunjoon; Behrman, Jere R; Choi, Jaesung

    2013-04-01

    Despite the voluminous literature on the potentials of single-sex schools, there is no consensus on the effects of single-sex schools because of student selection of school types. We exploit a unique feature of schooling in Seoul-the random assignment of students into single-sex versus coeducational high schools-to assess causal effects of single-sex schools on college entrance exam scores and college attendance. Our validation of the random assignment shows comparable socioeconomic backgrounds and prior academic achievement of students attending single-sex schools and coeducational schools, which increases the credibility of our causal estimates of single-sex school effects. The three-level hierarchical model shows that attending all-boys schools or all-girls schools, rather than coeducational schools, is significantly associated with higher average scores on Korean and English test scores. Applying the school district fixed-effects models, we find that single-sex schools produce a higher percentage of graduates who attended four-year colleges and a lower percentage of graduates who attended two-year junior colleges than do coeducational schools. The positive effects of single-sex schools remain substantial, even after we take into account various school-level variables, such as teacher quality, the student-teacher ratio, the proportion of students receiving lunch support, and whether the schools are public or private.

  19. Causal Effects of Single-Sex Schools on College Entrance Exams and College Attendance: Random Assignment in Seoul High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyunjoon; Behrman, Jere R.; Choi, Jaesung

    2012-01-01

    Despite the voluminous literature on the potentials of single-sex schools, there is no consensus on the effects of single-sex schools because of student selection of school types. We exploit a unique feature of schooling in Seoul—the random assignment of students into single-sex versus coeducational high schools—to assess causal effects of single-sex schools on college entrance exam scores and college attendance. Our validation of the random assignment shows comparable socioeconomic backgrounds and prior academic achievement of students attending single-sex schools and coeducational schools, which increases the credibility of our causal estimates of single-sex school effects. The three-level hierarchical model shows that attending all-boys schools or all-girls schools, rather than coeducational schools, is significantly associated with higher average scores on Korean and English test scores. Applying the school district fixed-effects models, we find that single-sex schools produce a higher percentage of graduates who attended four-year colleges and a lower percentage of graduates who attended two-year junior colleges than do coeducational schools. The positive effects of single-sex schools remain substantial, even after we take into account various school-level variables, such as teacher quality, the student-teacher ratio, the proportion of students receiving lunch support, and whether the schools are public or private. PMID:23073751

  20. Peer Influence on Aggressive Behavior, Smoking, and Sexual Behavior: A Study of Randomly-assigned College Roommates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi; Guo, Guang

    2016-09-01

    Identifying casual peer influence is a long-standing challenge to social scientists. Using data from a natural experiment of randomly-assigned college roommates (N = 2,059), which removes the threat of friend selection, we investigate peer effects on aggressive behavior, smoking, and concurrent sexual partnering. The findings suggest that the magnitude and direction of peer influence depend on predisposition, gender, and the nature of the behavior. Peer effects on individuals predisposed toward a given behavior tend to be larger than peer effects on individuals without such a predisposition. We find that the influence of roommates on aggressive behavior is more pronounced among male students than among female students; roommate effects on smoking are negative among female students and male students who did not smoke before college. For concurrent sexual partnering, a highly private behavior, we find no evidence of peer effects. © American Sociological Association 2016.

  1. Assessment of Random Assignment in Training and Test Sets using Generalized Cluster Analysis Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorana D. BOLBOACĂ

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The properness of random assignment of compounds in training and validation sets was assessed using the generalized cluster technique. Material and Method: A quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship model using Molecular Descriptors Family on Vertices was evaluated in terms of assignment of carboquinone derivatives in training and test sets during the leave-many-out analysis. Assignment of compounds was investigated using five variables: observed anticancer activity and four structure descriptors. Generalized cluster analysis with K-means algorithm was applied in order to investigate if the assignment of compounds was or not proper. The Euclidian distance and maximization of the initial distance using a cross-validation with a v-fold of 10 was applied. Results: All five variables included in analysis proved to have statistically significant contribution in identification of clusters. Three clusters were identified, each of them containing both carboquinone derivatives belonging to training as well as to test sets. The observed activity of carboquinone derivatives proved to be normal distributed on every. The presence of training and test sets in all clusters identified using generalized cluster analysis with K-means algorithm and the distribution of observed activity within clusters sustain a proper assignment of compounds in training and test set. Conclusion: Generalized cluster analysis using the K-means algorithm proved to be a valid method in assessment of random assignment of carboquinone derivatives in training and test sets.

  2. Modelling the Preferences of Students for Alternative Assignment Designs Using the Discrete Choice Experiment Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brendan Kennelly

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper outlines how a discrete choice experiment (DCE can be used to learn more about how students are willing to trade off various features of assignments such as the nature and timing of feedback and the method used to submit assignments. A DCE identifies plausible levels of the key attributes of a good or service and then presents the respondent with alternative bundles of these attributes and their levels and asks the respondent to choose between particular bundles. We report results from a DCE we conducted with undergraduate business students regarding their preferences for assignment systems. We find that the most important features of assignments are how relevant the assignments are for exam preparation and the nature of the feedback that students receive. We also find that students generally prefer online to paper assignments. We argue that the DCE approach has a lot of potential in education research.

  3. The "Post-Racial" Politics of Race: Changing Student Assignment Policy in Three School Districts

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Kathryn A.; Frankenberg, Erica; Diem, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Many school districts have recently revised, or tried to revise, their policies for assigning students to schools, because the legal and political status of racial and other kinds of diversity is uncertain, and the districts are facing fiscal austerity. This article presents case studies of politics and student assignment policy in three large…

  4. Strategies to Support PGCE Mathematics and Science Students Preparing for Assignments at Masters Level

    OpenAIRE

    Tas, Maarten; Forsythe, Sue

    2010-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to analyse and evaluate the effectiveness of support strategies being put into place for students who need to write assignments at Masters Level. In preparation for writing a 5000 word assignment on an aspect of teaching Mathematics or Science, 57 Science and Mathematics PGCE students were asked to write a 500 word synopsis which included an introduction, description of the main focus, questions that the assignment would address and possible strategies for teach...

  5. Assessment of Student Memo Assignments in Management Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Julie Ann Stuart; Stanny, Claudia J.; Reid, Randall C.; Hill, Christopher J.; Rosa, Katie Martin

    2015-01-01

    Frequently in Management Science courses, instructors focus primarily on teaching students the mathematics of linear programming models. However, the ability to discuss mathematical expressions in business terms is an important professional skill. The authors present an analysis of student abilities to discuss management science concepts through…

  6. Separating boys and girls and increasing weight? Assessing the impacts of single-sex schools through random assignment in Seoul.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jaesung; Park, Hyunjoon; Behrman, Jere R

    2015-06-01

    A growing body of research reports associations of school contexts with adolescents' weight and weight-related behaviors. One interesting, but under-researched, dimension of school context that potentially matters for adolescents' weight is the gender composition. If boys and girls are separated into single-sex schools, they might be less concerned about physical appearance, which may result in increased weight. Utilizing a unique setting in Seoul, Korea where students are randomly assigned to single-sex and coeducational schools within school districts, we estimate causal effects of single-sex schools on weight and weight-related behaviors. Our results show that students attending single-sex schools are more likely to be overweight, and that the effects are more pronounced for girls. We also find that girls in single-sex schools are less likely to engage in strenuous activities than their coeducational counterparts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. No Randomization? No Problem: Experimental Control and Random Assignment in Single Case Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledford, Jennifer R.

    2018-01-01

    Randomization of large number of participants to different treatment groups is often not a feasible or preferable way to answer questions of immediate interest to professional practice. Single case designs (SCDs) are a class of research designs that are experimental in nature but require only a few participants, all of whom receive the…

  8. Creative Writing Assignments in a Second Language Course: A Way to Engage Less Motivated Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arshavskaya, Ekaterina

    2015-01-01

    This article makes a case for using creative writing in a second language course. Creative writing increases students' enthusiasm for writing skills development and supports students' creativity, which is a fundamental aspect of education. In order to engage less motivated students, a series of creative writing assignments was implemented in a…

  9. Students, Please Turn to YouTube for Your Assignments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Graham

    2012-01-01

    Using the Flipped Classroom approach, the teacher "flips" the presentation of the material, the lesson, to non-class time by preparing a video that compresses the material and posting it on a website, such as YouTube, which the students can view at home or anywhere they choose. The teacher, in this case a Math teacher, is then free to…

  10. Using Game Elements to Increase Student Engagement in Course Assignments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armier, David Des, Jr.; Shepherd, Craig E.; Skrabut, Stan

    2016-01-01

    Gamification incorporates game-elements in non-gaming situations to enhance student engagement and desired behavior. This study examined participant's willingness to take part in gamified activities where reward systems were not directly tied to course grades. Participants enrolled in a technology integration course for preservice teachers, were…

  11. A First Assignment to Create Student Buy-In in an Introductory Business Statistics Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newfeld, Daria

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a sample assignment to be administered after the first two weeks of an introductory business focused statistics course in order to promote student buy-in. This assignment integrates graphical displays of data, descriptive statistics and cross-tabulation analysis through the lens of a marketing analysis study. A marketing sample…

  12. A Student-Led Feedback Protocol on Writing Assignments in a History of Mathematics Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Diana

    2014-01-01

    History of math courses are commonly offered in mathematics departments. Such courses naturally lend themselves to writing assignments, and a growing body of research supports writing as a means to learn mathematics. This article details two such assignments, providing an overview of the course in which they are situated, and a student-led…

  13. Psychology Students' Understanding of the Skill-Based Learning Fostered through University Assignments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martini, Tanya S.; Rail, Ashley; Norton, Cole

    2015-01-01

    We examined first-year psychology majors' (N = 195) beliefs about the relevance of two types of university assignments (individual essay and group wiki) and their connection to the development of career-related skills. Students reported that assignments were only somewhat relevant to their career goals, and relevance ratings were typically…

  14. The High/Scope Perry Preschool Study: A Case Study in Random Assignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweinhart, Lawrence J.

    2000-01-01

    Studied the long-term benefits of preschool programs for young children living in poverty in the High/Scope Perry Preschool Study, which examined the lives of 123 African Americans randomly divided into a preschool treatment group and a no-preschool comparison group. Cost-benefit analyses of data on these students to age 27 show beneficial effects…

  15. An efficient randomized algorithm for contact-based NMR backbone resonance assignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamisetty, Hetunandan; Bailey-Kellogg, Chris; Pandurangan, Gopal

    2006-01-15

    Backbone resonance assignment is a critical bottleneck in studies of protein structure, dynamics and interactions by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. A minimalist approach to assignment, which we call 'contact-based', seeks to dramatically reduce experimental time and expense by replacing the standard suite of through-bond experiments with the through-space (nuclear Overhauser enhancement spectroscopy, NOESY) experiment. In the contact-based approach, spectral data are represented in a graph with vertices for putative residues (of unknown relation to the primary sequence) and edges for hypothesized NOESY interactions, such that observed spectral peaks could be explained if the residues were 'close enough'. Due to experimental ambiguity, several incorrect edges can be hypothesized for each spectral peak. An assignment is derived by identifying consistent patterns of edges (e.g. for alpha-helices and beta-sheets) within a graph and by mapping the vertices to the primary sequence. The key algorithmic challenge is to be able to uncover these patterns even when they are obscured by significant noise. This paper develops, analyzes and applies a novel algorithm for the identification of polytopes representing consistent patterns of edges in a corrupted NOESY graph. Our randomized algorithm aggregates simplices into polytopes and fixes inconsistencies with simple local modifications, called rotations, that maintain most of the structure already uncovered. In characterizing the effects of experimental noise, we employ an NMR-specific random graph model in proving that our algorithm gives optimal performance in expected polynomial time, even when the input graph is significantly corrupted. We confirm this analysis in simulation studies with graphs corrupted by up to 500% noise. Finally, we demonstrate the practical application of the algorithm on several experimental beta-sheet datasets. Our approach is able to eliminate a large majority of noise edges and to

  16. Students' Understanding and Perceptions of Assigned Team Roles in a Classroom Laboratory Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Laura E.; Kephart, Kerrie; Stolle-McAllister, Kathleen; LaCourse, William R.

    2018-01-01

    Using a cooperative learning framework in a quantitative reasoning laboratory course, students were assigned to static teams of four in which they adopted roles that rotated regularly. The roles included: team leader, protocol manager, data recorder, and researcher. Using a mixed-methods approach, we investigated students' perceptions of the team…

  17. Comparing cluster-level dynamic treatment regimens using sequential, multiple assignment, randomized trials: Regression estimation and sample size considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    NeCamp, Timothy; Kilbourne, Amy; Almirall, Daniel

    2017-08-01

    Cluster-level dynamic treatment regimens can be used to guide sequential treatment decision-making at the cluster level in order to improve outcomes at the individual or patient-level. In a cluster-level dynamic treatment regimen, the treatment is potentially adapted and re-adapted over time based on changes in the cluster that could be impacted by prior intervention, including aggregate measures of the individuals or patients that compose it. Cluster-randomized sequential multiple assignment randomized trials can be used to answer multiple open questions preventing scientists from developing high-quality cluster-level dynamic treatment regimens. In a cluster-randomized sequential multiple assignment randomized trial, sequential randomizations occur at the cluster level and outcomes are observed at the individual level. This manuscript makes two contributions to the design and analysis of cluster-randomized sequential multiple assignment randomized trials. First, a weighted least squares regression approach is proposed for comparing the mean of a patient-level outcome between the cluster-level dynamic treatment regimens embedded in a sequential multiple assignment randomized trial. The regression approach facilitates the use of baseline covariates which is often critical in the analysis of cluster-level trials. Second, sample size calculators are derived for two common cluster-randomized sequential multiple assignment randomized trial designs for use when the primary aim is a between-dynamic treatment regimen comparison of the mean of a continuous patient-level outcome. The methods are motivated by the Adaptive Implementation of Effective Programs Trial which is, to our knowledge, the first-ever cluster-randomized sequential multiple assignment randomized trial in psychiatry.

  18. Pairing students in clinical assignments to develop collaboration and communication skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartges, Mali

    2012-01-01

    Skillful collaboration and communication among healthcare team members are associated with favorable patient outcomes. Student nurses need opportunities for supervised development of these crucial and intertwined skills. The author describes the implementation of a practice-change project for simultaneously developing collaboration and communication skills by pairing prelicensure student nurses in clinical assignments. This easily adapted strategy increases options for faculty looking to stimulate student acquisition of these professional skills.

  19. An active-learning assignment requiring pharmacy students to write medicinal chemistry examination questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolluru, Srikanth

    2012-08-10

    To implement and assess the effectiveness of an assignment requiring doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) students to write examination questions for the medicinal chemistry sections of a pharmacotherapeutics course. Students were divided into groups of 5-6 and given detailed instructions and grading rubrics for writing multiple-choice examination questions on medicinal chemistry topics. The compiled student-written questions for each examination were provided to the entire class as a study aid. Approximately 5% of the student-written questions were used in course examinations. Student appreciation of and performance in the medicinal chemistry portion of the course was significantly better than that of the previous year's class. Also, students' responses on a qualitative survey instrument indicated that the assignment provided students' guidance on which concepts to focus on, helped them retain knowledge better, and fostered personal exploration of the content, which led to better performance on examinations. Adding an active-learning assignment in which students write examination questions for the medicinal chemistry portion of a pharmacotherapeutics course was an effective means of increasing students engagement in the class and knowledge of the course material.

  20. Simulated annealing algorithm for solving chambering student-case assignment problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazali, Saadiah; Abdul-Rahman, Syariza

    2015-12-01

    The problem related to project assignment problem is one of popular practical problem that appear nowadays. The challenge of solving the problem raise whenever the complexity related to preferences, the existence of real-world constraints and problem size increased. This study focuses on solving a chambering student-case assignment problem by using a simulated annealing algorithm where this problem is classified under project assignment problem. The project assignment problem is considered as hard combinatorial optimization problem and solving it using a metaheuristic approach is an advantage because it could return a good solution in a reasonable time. The problem of assigning chambering students to cases has never been addressed in the literature before. For the proposed problem, it is essential for law graduates to peruse in chambers before they are qualified to become legal counselor. Thus, assigning the chambering students to cases is a critically needed especially when involving many preferences. Hence, this study presents a preliminary study of the proposed project assignment problem. The objective of the study is to minimize the total completion time for all students in solving the given cases. This study employed a minimum cost greedy heuristic in order to construct a feasible initial solution. The search then is preceded with a simulated annealing algorithm for further improvement of solution quality. The analysis of the obtained result has shown that the proposed simulated annealing algorithm has greatly improved the solution constructed by the minimum cost greedy heuristic. Hence, this research has demonstrated the advantages of solving project assignment problem by using metaheuristic techniques.

  1. Midwifery students' evaluation of team-based academic assignments involving peer-marking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parratt, Jenny A; Fahy, Kathleen M; Hastie, Carolyn R

    2014-03-01

    Midwives should be skilled team workers in maternity units and in group practices. Poor teamwork skills are a significant cause of adverse maternity care outcomes. Despite Australian and International regulatory requirements that all midwifery graduates are competent in teamwork, the systematic teaching and assessment of teamwork skills is lacking in higher education. How do midwifery students evaluate participation in team-based academic assignments, which include giving and receiving peer feedback? First and third year Bachelor of Midwifery students who volunteered (24 of 56 students). Participatory Action Research with data collection via anonymous online surveys. There was general agreement that team based assignments; (i) should have peer-marking, (ii) help clarify what is meant by teamwork, (iii) develop communication skills, (iv) promote student-to-student learning. Third year students strongly agreed that teams: (i) are valuable preparation for teamwork in practice, (ii) help meet Australian midwifery competency 8, and (iii) were enjoyable. The majority of third year students agreed with statements that their teams were effectively coordinated and team members shared responsibility for work equally; first year students strongly disagreed with these statements. Students' qualitative comments substantiated and expanded on these findings. The majority of students valued teacher feedback on well-developed drafts of the team's assignment prior to marking. Based on these findings we changed practice and created more clearly structured team-based assignments with specific marking criteria. We are developing supporting lessons to teach specific teamwork skills: together these resources are called "TeamUP". TeamUP should be implemented in all pre-registration Midwifery courses to foster students' teamwork skills and readiness for practice. Copyright © 2013 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The Impact of Color-Coding Freshmen Integrated-Science Assignments on Student Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturdivant Allen, Anita Kay

    Students in Grade 9 exhibit high rates of grade retention and absenteeism. Educators have used different strategies that will increase the achievement of those students. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a relationship existed between student achievement and the strategy to use colored paper for Grade 9 science assignments and tests. Itten's color theory provided the theoretical framework. Itten was one of the first researchers to explore the notion that the human eye can detect wavelengths as colors and that those colors can engage and create order in the human brain. A sample of students assigned to 4 classroom teachers at one high school who volunteered to take part in the study for 18 weeks were used in this quantitative study. Teachers administered student assessments on blue, green, yellow, and white paper. Each class was assigned 1 of the 4 colors for 4.5 weeks. The classes were then assigned a different color for the same length of time until each class had exposure to all 4 colors. Physical science exams given to students in the same grade or subject were used as the dependent variable. An ANOVA indicated that the groups using blue paper scored the highest on the physical science exams; students who used white paper earned the lowest scores. When comparing all 3 groups using colored paper (all three colored paper groups combined into one group) to the white paper groups, t-test results indicated that students using any colored paper scored higher than students using white paper. Further research on the impact of colored paper on student academic performance is necessary. Implications for positive social change indicate that new knowledge about instructional tools that impact student achievement deserves more attention.

  3. "Why bother so incredibly much?": student perspectives on PISA science assignments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serder, Margareta; Jakobsson, Anders

    2015-09-01

    Large-scale assessment, such as the Programme for International Assessment (PISA), plays an increasingly important role in current educational practice and politics. However, many scholars have questioned the validity and reliability of the tests and the extent to which they actually constitute trustworthy representations of students' knowledge. In the light of such critical voices the present article adopts a sociocultural perspective of human knowledge and action in order to explore the encounters between students and the science test assignments with which their knowledge is tested. Of particular interest in this study are the described "real-life situations" presented as the relevant background in which scientific literacy is assessed in PISA. According to the sociocultural theoretical onset the methodology used to approach the students' meaning making of the image of science as portrayed in the test were collaborative situations in which students work in small groups with units of PISA assignments, enabling a study of student-assignment encounters in action. The data we worked with consists of video-recordings from 71 Swedish 15-year-old students working with three released units from the PISA science test. According to our analysis, the "real-life situations" described in the test emerge as problematic in the students' meaning-making. This is demonstrated for instance by the students' positioning themselves as being different from and opposed to the fictional pictured students who appear in the backstories of the test. This article provides examples of how the scientific and academic language used by the fictional students in the assignments mediates distance and resistance among the students. The fictional students' use of strict scientific language and methods in day-to-day life situations leads them to be perceived as "little scientists" and as elite stereotypes of the scientific culture. We conclude that, by using assignments of this type, measurements of

  4. Neurocognitive profiles of preterm infants randomly assigned to lower or higher hematocrit thresholds for transfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Thomasin E; Conrad, Amy L; Richman, Lynn C; Lindgren, Scott D; Nopoulos, Peg C; Bell, Edward F

    2011-01-01

    Preterm infants are frequently transfused with red blood cells based on standardized guidelines or clinical concerns that anemia taxes infants' physiological compensatory mechanisms and thereby threatens their health and well-being. The impact of various transfusion guidelines on long-term neurocognitive outcome is not known. The purpose of this study is to evaluate long-term neurocognitive outcome on children born prematurely and treated at birth with different transfusion guidelines. Neurocognitive outcomes were examined at school age for 56 preterm infants randomly assigned to a liberal (n = 33) or restrictive (n = 23) transfusion strategy. Tests of intelligence, achievement, language, visual-spatial/motor, and memory skills were administered. Between-group differences were assessed. Those in the liberal transfusion group performed more poorly than those in the restrictive group on measures of associative verbal fluency, visual memory, and reading. Findings highlight possible long-term neurodevelopmental consequences of maintaining higher hematocrit levels.

  5. THE ANALYSIS OF INTERFERENCE ON WRITING ASSIGNMENTS OF THE MIDWIFERY STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I G. A. Agung Sintha Satwika

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This research aims at investigating and analyzing the interference which occurred in English text made by the students of Akademi Kebidanan Bali Wisnu Dharma. The data of this writing were collected from the writing assignment of the students at Akademi Kebidanan Bali Wisnu Dharma, which was divided into six groups. The data were obtained by reading intensively those texts and followed by applying the note taking technique. The result of this study indicates that the interference occurred on those writing assignments in terms of semantics level, spelling, copula, syntax, literal translation, redundancy, over generalization, and interference in terms of English pronoun.

  6. Sequential, Multiple Assignment, Randomized Trial Designs in Immuno-oncology Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidwell, Kelley M; Postow, Michael A; Panageas, Katherine S

    2018-02-15

    Clinical trials investigating immune checkpoint inhibitors have led to the approval of anti-CTLA-4 (cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4), anti-PD-1 (programmed death-1), and anti-PD-L1 (PD-ligand 1) drugs by the FDA for numerous tumor types. In the treatment of metastatic melanoma, combinations of checkpoint inhibitors are more effective than single-agent inhibitors, but combination immunotherapy is associated with increased frequency and severity of toxicity. There are questions about the use of combination immunotherapy or single-agent anti-PD-1 as initial therapy and the number of doses of either approach required to sustain a response. In this article, we describe a novel use of sequential, multiple assignment, randomized trial (SMART) design to evaluate immune checkpoint inhibitors to find treatment regimens that adapt within an individual based on intermediate response and lead to the longest overall survival. We provide a hypothetical example SMART design for BRAF wild-type metastatic melanoma as a framework for investigating immunotherapy treatment regimens. We compare implementing a SMART design to implementing multiple traditional randomized clinical trials. We illustrate the benefits of a SMART over traditional trial designs and acknowledge the complexity of a SMART. SMART designs may be an optimal way to find treatment strategies that yield durable response, longer survival, and lower toxicity. Clin Cancer Res; 24(4); 730-6. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  7. Improvement in Student Data Analysis Skills after Out-of-Class Assignments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen Lee Williams Walton

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The ability to understand and interpret data is a critical aspect of scientific thinking.  However, although data analysis is often a focus in biology majors classes, many textbooks for allied health majors classes are primarily content-driven and do not include substantial amounts of experimental data in the form of graphs and figures.  In a lower-division allied health majors microbiology class, students were exposed to data from primary journal articles as take-home assignments and their data analysis skills were assessed in a pre-/posttest format.  Students were given 3 assignments that included data analysis questions.  Assignments ranged from case studies that included a figure from a journal article to reading a short journal article and answering questions about multiple figures or tables.  Data were represented as line or bar graphs, gel photographs, and flow charts.  The pre- and posttest was designed incorporating the same types of figures to assess whether the assignments resulted in any improvement in data analysis skills.  The mean class score showed a small but significant improvement from the pretest to the posttest across three semesters of testing.  Scores on individual questions testing accurate conclusions and predictions improved the most.  This supports the conclusion that a relatively small number of out-of-class assignments through the semester resulted in a significant improvement in data analysis abilities in this population of students.

  8. Single-Sex Schools, Student Achievement, and Course Selection: Evidence from Rule-Based Student Assignments in Trinidad and Tobago

    OpenAIRE

    C. Kirabo Jackson

    2011-01-01

    Existing studies on single-sex schooling suffer from biases because students who attend single-sex schools differ in unmeasured ways from those who do not. In Trinidad and Tobago students are assigned to secondary schools based on an algorithm allowing one to address self-selection bias and estimate the causal effect of attending a single-sex school versus a similar coeducational school. While students (particularly females) with strong expressed preferences for single-sex schools benefit, mo...

  9. Medical Students' Empathy for Vulnerable Groups: Results From a Survey and Reflective Writing Assignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellbery, Caroline; Saunders, Pamela A; Kureshi, Sarah; Visconti, Adam

    2017-12-01

    As medical education curricula increasingly acknowledge the contributions of the social determinants of health to individual health, new methods of engaging students in the care of vulnerable groups are needed. Empathy is one way to connect students with patients, but little is known about how to nurture students' empathy on behalf of populations. This study examined the relationship between individual and social empathy as groundwork for cultivating students' empathy for vulnerable groups. In 2014-2015, first-year medical students completed the Social Empathy Index at the start and end of a two-semester population health course, and they completed a reflective writing assignment exploring the challenges of caring for vulnerable patients. Pre- and posttest mean survey scores were compared, and reflective writing assignments were analyzed for themes concerning social empathy. Data from 130 students were analyzed. Scores for the contextual understanding of systemic barriers domain increased significantly. There was a trend toward increased cumulative social empathy scores that did not reach statistical significance. Students' essays revealed three themes relating to individual empathy as the foundation for social empathy; civic and moral obligations; and the role of institutional practices in caring for vulnerable groups. This study extends understanding of empathy beyond care for the individual to include care for vulnerable groups. Thus, social empathy may function as a valuable concept in developing curricula to support students' commitment to care for the underserved. Educators first need to address the many barriers students cited that impede both individual and social empathy.

  10. Students' Understanding and Perceptions of Assigned Team Roles in a Classroom Laboratory Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Laura E.; Kephart, Kerrie; Stolle-McAllister, Kathleen; LaCourse, William R.

    2018-01-01

    Using a cooperative learning framework in a quantitative reasoning laboratory course, students were assigned to static teams of four in which they adopted roles that rotated regularly. The roles included: team leader, protocol manager, data recorder, and researcher. Using a mixed-methods approach, we investigated students' perceptions of the team roles and specifically addressed students' understanding of the roles, students' beliefs in their ability to enact the roles, and whether working with assigned team roles supported the teams to work effectively and cohesively. Although students expressed confidence in their understanding of the team roles, their understanding differed from the initial descriptions. This suggests that students' understanding of team roles may be influenced by a variety of factors, including their experiences within their teams. Students also reported that some roles appeared to lack a purpose, implying that for roles to be successful, they must have a clear purpose. Finally, the fact that many students reported ignoring the team roles suggests that students do not perceive roles as a requirement for team productivity and cohesion. On the basis of these findings, we provide recommendations for instructors wishing to establish a classroom group laboratory environment. PMID:29681667

  11. The Facebook-in-Action: Challenging, Harnessing and Enhancing Students Class Assignments and Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saifudin, Adam Mohd; Yacob, Aizan; Saad, Rohaizah

    2016-01-01

    Issues of universities students harnessing and capitalizing the usage of Facebook for their own learning capabilities and effective thinking is always the focus of education scholars, in assessing the quality class assignments and projects produced by them. Therefore, Facebook is now becoming unbearable influence since the internet activation in…

  12. Variability in Clinical Integration Achieved by Athletic Training Students across Different Clinical Sport Assignments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodge, Thomas M.; Mazerolle, Stephanie M.; Bowman, Thomas G.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Clinical integration impacts athletic training students' (ATSs) motivation and persistence. Research has yet to elucidate the manner in which different clinical placements can influence clinical integration. Objective: To examine differences in the levels of clinical integration achieved by ATSs across various clinical sport assignments.…

  13. Personal Reflection: Reflections on a Family Health History Assignment for Undergraduate Public Health and Nursing Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooks, Ronica N.; Ford, Cassandra

    2013-01-01

    This personal reflection describes our experiences with incorporating the scholarship of teaching and learning and problem-based techniques to facilitate undergraduate student learning and their professional development in the health sciences. We created a family health history assignment to discuss key concepts in our courses, such as health…

  14. Impact of reflective writing assignments on dental students' views of cultural competence and diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaac, Carol; Behar-Horenstein, Linda; Lee, Barbara; Catalanotto, Frank

    2015-03-01

    To respond to widespread disparities in access to oral health care, the Institute of Medicine, the Commission on Dental Accreditation (CODA), and the U.S. surgeon general have stressed that prospective dentists should become culturally competent, socially responsible practitioners. The aim of this study was to examine linguistic differences in dental students' reflective writing assignments before and after interviewing an individual who was culturally different from themselves. The authors analyzed 160 documents from 80 first-year dental students at the University of Florida in 2012. This cohort consisted of 36 male (45%) and 44 female (55%) students; 26 (32%) were from underrepresented minority (URM) groups and 54 (68%) were identified as white non-minority. Text analysis software identified word counts, categories, frequencies, and contexts. Significantly positive differences occurred for interviews between assignments 1 and 2 (p=0.005 to pcultural diversity. Differences were observed for Factor 1 ("important others' influence") between assignments (p<0.001), assignments by interview categories (p=0.033), and URM/majority participants by assignments by interview category (p=0.018). Factor 4 ("my social world in relation to others") was statistically different between assignments for URM/majority participants (p=0.019). Factor 5 ("wrong because") was statistically different for gender (p=0.041), suggesting that males may have experienced a rebound effect from stereotype suppression. The findings suggest that the use of reflective writing and interviews affected the students' awareness of how important others had influenced their lives and attitudes and facilitated their questioning preconceived assumptions. Reactions to coursework focusing on social and personal domains warrant further investigation.

  15. A Model for Random Student Drug Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Judith A.; Rose, Nancy L.; Lutz, Danielle

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this case study was to examine random student drug testing in one school district relevant to: (a) the perceptions of students participating in competitive extracurricular activities regarding drug use and abuse; (b) the attitudes and perceptions of parents, school staff, and community members regarding student drug involvement; (c)…

  16. A Web-based Peer Assessment System for Assigning Student Scores in Cooperative Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anon Sukstrienwong

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Working in groups has become increasingly important in order to develop students' skills. However, it can be more successful when peers cooperate and are involved in the assigned tasks. However, several educators firmly show disadvantages when all peers received the same reward, regardless of individual contribution. Some teachers also considering peer assessment to be time and effort consuming because preparation and monitoring are needed. In order to overcome these problems, we have developed a web-based peer assessment referred to as the ‘Scoring by Peer Assessment System’ (SPAS that allows teachers to set up the process of peer assessment, in order to assign scores that reflect the contribution of each student. Moreover, a web-based application allows students to evaluate their peers regarding their individual contribution where cooperative learning and peer assessment are used. The paper describes the system design and the implementation of our peer assessment application.

  17. Day hospital as an alternative to inpatient care for cancer patients: a random assignment trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mor, V; Stalker, M Z; Gralla, R; Scher, H I; Cimma, C; Park, D; Flaherty, A M; Kiss, M; Nelson, P; Laliberte, L

    1988-01-01

    A stratified, random-assignment trial of 442 cancer patients was conducted to evaluate medical, psychosocial, and financial outcomes of day hospital treatment as an alternative to inpatient care for certain cancer patients. Eligible patients required: a 4- to 8-hour treatment plan, including chemotherapy and other long-term intravenous (i.v.) treatment; a stable cardiovascular status; mental competence; no skilled overnight nursing; and a helper to assist with home care. Patients were ineligible if standard outpatient treatment was possible. No statistically significant (p less than 0.05) differences were found between the Adult Day Hospital (ADH) and Inpatient care in medical or psychosocial outcomes over the 60-day study period. The major difference was in medical costs--approximately one-third lower for ADH patients (p less than 0.001) than for the Inpatient group. The study demonstrates that day hospital care of medical oncology patients is clinically equivalent to Inpatient care, causes no negative psychosocial effects, and costs less than Inpatient care. Findings support the trend toward dehospitalization of medical treatment.

  18. Improving Geoscience Learning and Increasing Student Engagement Using Online Interactive Writing Assignments with Calibrated Peer Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbor, Jon

    2014-05-01

    Peer review is a hallmark of the publication process for scientific research, yet it is rarely used as a pedagogical approach in university geoscience courses. Learning outcomes for university geoscience courses include content knowledge and critical thinking and analysis skills, and often include written communication of scientific issues or concepts. Because lecture and memorization is not the most effective learning approach for many students, instructors are increasingly exploring teaching approaches that involve active engagement. In this context, writing assignments that engage students in using content, constructing arguments, and critiquing other students' work are highly desirable. However, many of us struggle with extensive writing requirements in our courses because the workload associated with having the instructor provide detailed comments on writing is daunting, especially in large-enrollment courses, and organizing effective peer review by students is very challenging. Calibrated Peer Review (CPR) is a web-based program that involves students in writing and in reviewing each other's writing. It is designed to allow for more involved writing and feedback experiences with much less instructor time. Here we report on the results of a qualitative-methods analysis of narrative survey responses from students using CPR in an introductory geoscience class. In addition to an impact on the students' writing and their understanding of what goes in to effective writing, the results indicate that CPR acted as reinforcement for content learning, and an impetus for gaining a deeper understanding of content material. It allowed students to see how other students explained and analyzed content, and to check their understanding of a topic in relation to other students in the class. Not surprisingly, the instructor reported that students performed far better on exam questions that tested knowledge covered by CPR assignments.

  19. Sequential Multiple Assignment Randomized Trials: An Opportunity for Improved Design of Stroke Reperfusion Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meurer, William J; Seewald, Nicholas J; Kidwell, Kelley

    2017-04-01

    Modern clinical trials in stroke reperfusion fall into 2 categories: alternative systemic pharmacological regimens to alteplase and "rescue" endovascular approaches using targeted thrombectomy devices and/or medications delivered directly for persistently occluded vessels. Clinical trials in stroke have not evaluated how initial pharmacological thrombolytic management might influence subsequent rescue strategy. A sequential multiple assignment randomized trial (SMART) is a novel trial design that can test these dynamic treatment regimens and lead to treatment guidelines that more closely mimic practice. To characterize a SMART design in comparison to traditional approaches for stroke reperfusion trials. We conducted a numerical simulation study that evaluated the performance of contrasting acute stroke clinical trial designs of both initial reperfusion and rescue therapy. We compare a SMART design where the same patients are followed through initial reperfusion and rescue therapy within 1 trial to a standard phase III design comparing 2 reperfusion treatments and a separate phase II futility design of rescue therapy in terms of sample size, power, and ability to address particular research questions. Traditional trial designs can be well powered and have optimal design characteristics for independent treatment effects. When treatments, such as the reperfusion and rescue therapies, may interact, commonly used designs fail to detect this. A SMART design, with similar sample size to standard designs, can detect treatment interactions. The use of SMART designs to investigate effective and realistic dynamic treatment regimens is a promising way to accelerate the discovery of new, effective treatments for stroke. Copyright © 2017 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The use of writing assignments to help students synthesize content in upper-level undergraduate biology courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks-Thissen, Rebecca L

    2017-02-01

    Biology education is undergoing a transformation toward a more student-centered, inquiry-driven classroom. Many educators have designed engaging assignments that are designed to help undergraduate students gain exposure to the scientific process and data analysis. One of these types of assignments is use of a grant proposal assignment. Many instructors have used these assignments in lecture-based courses to help students process information in the literature and apply that information to a novel problem such as design of an antiviral drug or a vaccine. These assignments have been helpful in engaging students in the scientific process in the absence of an inquiry-driven laboratory. This commentary discusses the application of these grant proposal writing assignments to undergraduate biology courses. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Longitudinal evaluation of the importance of homework assignment completion for the academic performance of middle school students with ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langberg, Joshua M; Dvorsky, Melissa R; Molitor, Stephen J; Bourchtein, Elizaveta; Eddy, Laura D; Smith, Zoe; Schultz, Brandon K; Evans, Steven W

    2016-04-01

    The primary goal of this study was to longitudinally evaluate the homework assignment completion patterns of middle school age adolescents with ADHD, their associations with academic performance, and malleable predictors of homework assignment completion. Analyses were conducted on a sample of 104 middle school students comprehensively diagnosed with ADHD and followed for 18 months. Multiple teachers for each student provided information about the percentage of homework assignments turned in at five separate time points and school grades were collected quarterly. Results showed that agreement between teachers with respect to students assignment completion was high, with an intraclass correlation of .879 at baseline. Students with ADHD were turning in an average of 12% fewer assignments each academic quarter in comparison to teacher-reported classroom averages. Regression analyses revealed a robust association between the percentage of assignments turned in at baseline and school grades 18 months later, even after controlling for baseline grades, achievement (reading and math), intelligence, family income, and race. Cross-lag analyses demonstrated that the association between assignment completion and grades was reciprocal, with assignment completion negatively impacting grades and low grades in turn being associated with decreased future homework completion. Parent ratings of homework materials management abilities at baseline significantly predicted the percentage of assignments turned in as reported by teachers 18 months later. These findings demonstrate that homework assignment completion problems are persistent across time and an important intervention target for adolescents with ADHD. Copyright © 2015 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Using Cloud collaboration for writing assignments by students with disabilities: a case study using action research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kjrsten Keane

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Though separated by geographical distance, a student with disabilities, his advisor, and his writing coach consorted in the Cloud using Google applications to achieve a writing goal. Our scenario demonstrates how emerging technologies can bridge transactional distance and “virtually” supplant face-to-face conferencing around a college writing assignment. Individual levels of technical acumen with digital technology evolved to bridge the psychological and communication space between the student and his instructors. As a result, the telecollaborators developed an efficient coaching process adaptable for all students who need assistance in revising college writing assignments at a distance. Action research frames our discussion of the Cloud collaboration and provides a scaffold for student autonomy. The advantages as well and disadvantages of Cloud collaboration are outlined with reference to the National Institute of Standards of Technology definition of Cloud Computing and the Seven Principles of Universal Course Design.http://dx.doi.org/10.5944/openpraxis.6.1.79

  3. Grouped to Achieve: Are There Benefits to Assigning Students to Heterogeneous Cooperative Learning Groups Based on Pre-Test Scores?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werth, Arman Karl

    Cooperative learning has been one of the most widely used instructional practices around the world since the early 1980's. Small learning groups have been in existence since the beginning of the human race. These groups have grown in their variance and complexity overtime. Classrooms are getting more diverse every year and instructors need a way to take advantage of this diversity to improve learning. The purpose of this study was to see if heterogeneous cooperative learning groups based on student achievement can be used as a differentiated instructional strategy to increase students' ability to demonstrate knowledge of science concepts and ability to do engineering design. This study includes two different groups made up of two different middle school science classrooms of 25-30 students. These students were given an engineering design problem to solve within cooperative learning groups. One class was put into heterogeneous cooperative learning groups based on student's pre-test scores. The other class was grouped based on random assignment. The study measured the difference between each class's pre-post gains, student's responses to a group interaction form and interview questions addressing their perceptions of the makeup of their groups. The findings of the study were that there was no significant difference between learning gains for the treatment and comparison groups. There was a significant difference between the treatment and comparison groups in student perceptions of their group's ability to stay on task and manage their time efficiently. Both the comparison and treatment groups had a positive perception of the composition of their cooperative learning groups.

  4. Developing a Rubric to Assess Student Learning Outcomes Using a Class Assignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaler, Nicholas; Kazemi, Ellie; Huscher, Crystal

    2009-01-01

    We developed a rubric to assess several of our department's undergraduate student learning outcomes (SLOs). Target SLOs include applications of principles of research methodology, using appropriate statistics, adherence to the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, and written communication skills. We randomly sampled 20…

  5. Random Assignment of Schools to Groups in the Drug Resistance Strategies Rural Project: Some New Methodological Twists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettigrew, Jonathan; Miller-Day, Michelle; Krieger, Janice L.; Zhou, Jiangxiu; Hecht, Michael L.

    2014-01-01

    Random assignment to groups is the foundation for scientifically rigorous clinical trials. But assignment is challenging in group randomized trials when only a few units (schools) are assigned to each condition. In the DRSR project, we assigned 39 rural Pennsylvania and Ohio schools to three conditions (rural, classic, control). But even with 13 schools per condition, achieving pretest equivalence on important variables is not guaranteed. We collected data on six important school-level variables: rurality, number of grades in the school, enrollment per grade, percent white, percent receiving free/assisted lunch, and test scores. Key to our procedure was the inclusion of school-level drug use data, available for a subset of the schools. Also, key was that we handled the partial data with modern missing data techniques. We chose to create one composite stratifying variable based on the seven school-level variables available. Principal components analysis with the seven variables yielded two factors, which were averaged to form the composite inflate-suppress (CIS) score which was the basis of stratification. The CIS score was broken into three strata within each state; schools were assigned at random to the three program conditions from within each stratum, within each state. Results showed that program group membership was unrelated to the CIS score, the two factors making up the CIS score, and the seven items making up the factors. Program group membership was not significantly related to pretest measures of drug use (alcohol, cigarettes, marijuana, chewing tobacco; smallest p>.15), thus verifying that pretest equivalence was achieved. PMID:23722619

  6. Two Years of Case Management: Final Findings from the Communities in Schools Random Assignment Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parise, Leigh M.; Corrin, William; Granito, Kelly; Haider, Zeest; Somers, Marie-Andrée; Cerna, Oscar

    2017-01-01

    While high school graduation rates are on the rise nationwide, too many students still never reach that milestone, with 7,000 on average dropping out every day. Recognizing that many students need additional support to succeed in school, Communities In Schools (CIS) works to provide and connect students with integrated support services to keep…

  7. Evolution of Various Library Instruction Strategies: Using Student Feedback to Create and Enhance Online Active Learning Assignments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcie Lynne Jacklin

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This case study traces the evolution of library assignments for biological science students from paper-based workbooks in a blended (hands-on workshop to blended learning workshops using online assignments to online active learning modules which are stand-alone without any face-to-face instruction. As the assignments evolved to adapt to online learning supporting materials in the form of PDFs (portable document format, screen captures and screencasting were embedded into the questions as teaching moments to replace face-to-face instruction. Many aspects of the evolution of the assignment were based on student feedback from evaluations, input from senior lab demonstrators and teaching assistants, and statistical analysis of the students’ performance on the assignment. Advantages and disadvantages of paper-based and online assignments are discussed. An important factor for successful online learning may be the ability to get assistance.

  8. Embedded Library Guides in Learning Management Systems Help Students Get Started on Research Assignments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominique Daniel

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To determine whether library guides embedded in learning management systems (LMS get used by students, and to identify best practices for the creation and promotion of these guides by librarians. Design – Mixed methods combining quantitative and qualitative data collection and analysis (survey, interviews, and statistical analysis. Setting – A large public university in the United States of America. Subjects – 100 undergraduate students and 14 librarians. Methods – The researchers surveyed undergraduate students who were participating in a Project Information Literacy study about their use of library guides in the learning management system (LMS for a given quarter. At that university, all course pages in the LMS are automatically assigned a library guide. In addition, web usage data about the course-embedded guides was analyzed and high use guides were identified, namely guides that received an average of at least two visits per student enrolled in a course. The researchers also conducted a qualitative analysis of the layout of the high use guides, including the number of widgets (or boxes and links. Finally, librarians who created high use library guides were interviewed. These mixed methods were designed to address four research questions: 1 Were students finding the guides in the LMS, and did they find the guides useful? 2 Did high use guides differ in design and composition? 3 Were the guides designed for a specific course, or for an entire department or college? and, 4 How did the librarians promote use? Main Results – Only 33% of the students said they noticed the library guide in the LMS course page, and 21% reported using the guide. Among those who used the guide, the majority were freshmen (possibly because embedding of library guides in the LMS had just started at the university. Library guides with high use in relation to class enrollment did not significantly differ from low use guides in terms of numbers of

  9. Digital Video as a Personalized Learning Assignment: A Qualitative Study of Student Authored Video Using the ICSDR Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Laurie O.; Cox, Thomas D.

    2018-01-01

    Students within this study followed the ICSDR (Identify, Conceptualize/Connect, Storyboard, Develop, Review/Reflect/Revise) development model to create digital video, as a personalized and active learning assignment. The participants, graduate students in education, indicated that following the ICSDR framework for student-authored video guided…

  10. Investigating Students' Use and Adoption of "With-Video Assignments": Lessons Learnt for Video-Based Open Educational Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, Ilias O.; Giannakos, Michail N.; Mikalef, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    The use of video-based open educational resources is widespread, and includes multiple approaches to implementation. In this paper, the term "with-video assignments" is introduced to portray video learning resources enhanced with assignments. The goal of this study is to examine the factors that influence students' intention to adopt…

  11. Investigating the Correlation Between Pharmacy Student Performance on the Health Science Reasoning Test and a Critical Thinking Assignment

    OpenAIRE

    Nornoo, Adwoa O.; Jackson, Jonathan; Axtell, Samantha

    2017-01-01

    Objective. To determine whether there is a correlation between pharmacy students? scores on the Health Science Reasoning Test (HSRT) and their grade on a package insert assignment designed to assess critical thinking.

  12. Investigating the Correlation Between Pharmacy Student Performance on the Health Science Reasoning Test and a Critical Thinking Assignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nornoo, Adwoa O; Jackson, Jonathan; Axtell, Samantha

    2017-03-25

    Objective. To determine whether there is a correlation between pharmacy students' scores on the Health Science Reasoning Test (HSRT) and their grade on a package insert assignment designed to assess critical thinking. Methods. The HSRT was administered to first-year pharmacy students during a critical-thinking course in the spring semester. In the same semester, a required package insert assignment was completed in a pharmacokinetics course. To determine whether there was a relationship between HSRT scores and grades on the assignment, a Spearman's rho correlation test was performed. Results. A very weak but significant positive correlation was found between students' grades on the assignment and their overall HSRT score (r=0.19, p critical-thinking skills in pharmacy students.

  13. A Random Assignment Evaluation of Learning Communities at Kingsborough Community College--Seven Years Later

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Michael J.; Mayer, Alexander K.; Cullinan, Dan; Ratledge, Alyssa; Sommo, Colleen; Diamond, John

    2015-01-01

    Community colleges play a vital role in higher education, enrolling more than one in every three postsecondary students. While their market share has grown over the past 50 years, students' success rates remain low. Consequently, community college stakeholders are searching with mounting urgency for strategies that increase rates of success. We…

  14. A Framework to Manage through Control and Automation a semester long student Project assignment in e-Learning Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Chaumun, Mamade Ajmal

    2013-01-01

    Managing semester-long project assignments is not always an easy task since teachers need to keep track of many elements of the project that will reflect in a proper assessment of the students’ work. Integrating an LMS into the educational process and therefore to assign, track, and assess the project may add to the complication, this can be very challenging and especially when students work in groups. Students expect support and guidance from teachers in all stages of the project...

  15. Determining the relationship between students' scores using traditional homework assignments to those who used assignments on a non-traditional interactive CD with tutor helps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinney, Charles Evan

    2007-12-01

    By using the book "Physics for Scientists and Engineers" by Raymond A. Serway as a guide, CD problem sets for teaching a calculus-based physics course were developed, programmed, and evaluated for homework assignments during the 2003-2004 academic year at Utah State University. These CD sets were used to replace the traditionally handwritten and submitted homework sets. They included a research-based format that guided the students through problem-solving techniques using responseactivated helps and suggestions. The CD contents were designed to help the student improve his/her physics problem-solving skills. The analyzed score results showed a direct correlation between the scores obtained on the homework and the students' time spent per problem, as well as the number of helps used per problem.

  16. Optimizing delivery of a behavioral pain intervention in cancer patients using a sequential multiple assignment randomized trial SMART.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelleher, Sarah A; Dorfman, Caroline S; Plumb Vilardaga, Jen C; Majestic, Catherine; Winger, Joseph; Gandhi, Vicky; Nunez, Christine; Van Denburg, Alyssa; Shelby, Rebecca A; Reed, Shelby D; Murphy, Susan; Davidian, Marie; Laber, Eric B; Kimmick, Gretchen G; Westbrook, Kelly W; Abernethy, Amy P; Somers, Tamara J

    2017-06-01

    Pain is common in cancer patients and results in lower quality of life, depression, poor physical functioning, financial difficulty, and decreased survival time. Behavioral pain interventions are effective and nonpharmacologic. Traditional randomized controlled trials (RCT) test interventions of fixed time and dose, which poorly represent successive treatment decisions in clinical practice. We utilize a novel approach to conduct a RCT, the sequential multiple assignment randomized trial (SMART) design, to provide comparative evidence of: 1) response to differing initial doses of a pain coping skills training (PCST) intervention and 2) intervention dose sequences adjusted based on patient response. We also examine: 3) participant characteristics moderating intervention responses and 4) cost-effectiveness and practicality. Breast cancer patients (N=327) having pain (ratings≥5) are recruited and randomly assigned to: 1) PCST-Full or 2) PCST-Brief. PCST-Full consists of 5 PCST sessions. PCST-Brief consists of one 60-min PCST session. Five weeks post-randomization, participants re-rate their pain and are re-randomized, based on intervention response, to receive additional PCST sessions, maintenance calls, or no further intervention. Participants complete measures of pain intensity, interference and catastrophizing. Novel RCT designs may provide information that can be used to optimize behavioral pain interventions to be adaptive, better meet patients' needs, reduce barriers, and match with clinical practice. This is one of the first trials to use a novel design to evaluate symptom management in cancer patients and in chronic illness; if successful, it could serve as a model for future work with a wide range of chronic illnesses. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. A Random Assignment Evaluation of Learning Communities Seven Years Later: Impacts on Education and Earnings Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Michael J.; Mayer, Alexander; Cullinan, Dan; Ratledge, Alyssa; Sommo, Colleen; Diamond, John

    2014-01-01

    Empirical evidence confirms that increased education is positively associated with higher earnings across a wide spectrum of fields and student demographics (Barrow & Rouse, 2005; Card, 2001; Carneiro, Heckman, & Vytlacil, 2011; Dadgar & Weiss, 2012; Dynarski, 2008; Jacobson & Mokher, 2009; Jepsen, Troske, & Coomes, 2009; Kane…

  18. The Context-Specific Conceptions of Learning in Case-Based Accounting Assignments, Students' Characteristics and Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moilanen, Sinikka

    2017-01-01

    The present study contributes to accounting education literature by describing context-specific conceptions of learning related to case assignments, and by exploring the associations between the conceptions of learning, students' characteristics and performance. The data analysed consist of 1320 learning diaries of 336 students, connected with…

  19. Developing and Evaluating Clinical Written Assignment in Clinical Teaching for the Senior B.S. Nursing Students: An action research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Valizadeh

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In a four-year undergraduate level , the nursing students have to get prepared in the patients education, designing care plans, applying nursing processes and exercise the clinical decisions, in addition to learning practical skills. Therefore, multiple clinical teaching strategies in nursing must be applied. In this study the sheets for the mentioned fields were designed and used. Methods: In this action research in Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, 64 nursing senior students and related instructors participated. Clinical written assignment included the patient’s health condition sheet, tables showing the used medicines and the precautions, the clinical and paraclinical tests and the results, identifying the patient problems, designing and implementing care plan and writing nursing reports with SOAPIE method. The instructors’ viewpoints were achieved through the group discussions and their notes taken. The perceived competency of the students was obtained through a questionnaire. The qualitative data was analyzed by the content analysis and quantitative using SPSS. Results: Both the students and the instructors agreed with the clinical written assignment. The desired care competency of the students before and after assignment was statistically significant (p<0.05. According to the instructors, intervention was useful for the senior students who have passed the courses needed for completing and using the different parts of these forms. Conclusion: Since a need is always felt in the trends of the nursing clinical teaching, the researchers recommend the clinical written assignment and their application along with other strategies for senior nursing students in clinical teaching.

  20. Use of prelecture assignment to enhance learning in pharmacology lectures for the 2nd year medical students

    OpenAIRE

    Ahsan, Marya; Mallick, Ayaz Khurram

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Majority of teaching hours allotted by the Medical Council of India in pharmacology are utilized in the form of didactic lecture. Although these lectures are an excellent tool to deliver the information to a large group of students, it usually ends up as a one-sided teaching session with most students being the passive listeners. To make these lectures interesting and effective, we introduced the students to prelecture assignment (PLA) in the form of clinical case before the deliv...

  1. Identifying and Remediating Student Misconceptions in Introductory Biology via Writing-to-Learn Assignments and Peer Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halim, Audrey S; Finkenstaedt-Quinn, Solaire A; Olsen, Laura J; Gere, Anne Ruggles; Shultz, Ginger V

    2018-06-01

    Student misconceptions are an obstacle in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics courses and unless remediated may continue causing difficulties in learning as students advance in their studies. Writing-to-learn assignments (WTL) are characterized by their ability to promote in-depth conceptual learning by allowing students to explore their understanding of a topic. This study sought to determine whether and what types of misconceptions are elicited by WTL assignments and how the process of peer review and revision leads to remediation or propagation of misconceptions. We examined four WTL assignments in an introductory biology course in which students first wrote about content by applying it to a realistic scenario, then participated in a peer-review process before revising their work. Misconceptions were identified in all four assignments, with the greatest number pertaining to protein structure and function. Additionally, in certain contexts, students used scientific terminology incorrectly. Analysis of the drafts and peer-review comments generated six profiles by which misconceptions were addressed through the peer-review process. The prevalent mode of remediation arose through directed peer-review comments followed by correction during revision. It was also observed that additional misconceptions were elicited as students revised their writing in response to general peer-review suggestions.

  2. Scientist Spotlight Homework Assignments Shift Students' Stereotypes of Scientists and Enhance Science Identity in a Diverse Introductory Science Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schinske, Jeffrey N.; Perkins, Heather; Snyder, Amanda; Wyer, Mary

    2016-01-01

    Research into science identity, stereotype threat, and possible selves suggests a lack of diverse representations of scientists could impede traditionally underserved students from persisting and succeeding in science. We evaluated a series of metacognitive homework assignments ("Scientist Spotlights") that featured counterstereotypical…

  3. The Effects of Source, Revision Possibility, and Amount of Feedback on Marketing Students' Impressions of Feedback on an Assignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, David S.; Dommeyer, Curt J.; Gross, Barbara L.

    2017-01-01

    This study examines how three factors affect students' reactions to critical feedback on an assignment--amount of feedback (none vs. low amount vs. high amount), source of feedback (instructor-provided feedback vs. peer-provided feedback), and the situational context of the feedback (revision of paper is or is not possible). An incomplete 3 × 2 ×…

  4. Single-Sex Schools, Student Achievement, and Course Selection: Evidence from Rule-Based Student Assignments in Trinidad and Tobago. NBER Working Paper No. 16817

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, C. Kirabo

    2011-01-01

    Existing studies on single-sex schooling suffer from biases due to student selection to schools and single-sex schools being better in unmeasured ways. In Trinidad and Tobago students are assigned to secondary schools based on an algorithm allowing one to address self-selection bias and cleanly estimate an upper-bound single-sex school effect. The…

  5. Developing critical thinking skills from clinical assignments: a pilot study on nursing students' self-reported perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchigiano, Gail; Eduljee, Nina; Harvey, Kimberly

    2011-01-01

    Clinical assignments in nursing education provide opportunities for students to develop thinking skills vital to the effective delivery of patient care. The purpose of the present study was to examine students' perceived levels of confidence for using thinking skills when completing two types of clinical assignments. Clinical educators and managers are challenged to develop teaching and learning strategies that help students think critically and reflectively and transfer these skills into sound nursing practice. This study is based on the theoretical framework of critical thinking within the nursing process framework. Undergraduate nursing students (n=51) completed surveys indicating their confidence in using seven thinking skills for nursing care. Students indicated significantly more confidence when implementing the journal format as compared with the care plan format when analysing information, determining relevance, making connections, selecting appropriate information, applying relevant knowledge and evaluating outcomes. The findings of the present study propose a new approach for enhancing students' thinking skills. Journaling is an effective strategy for enhancing students' thinking skills. Nursing managers are in key organisational positions for supporting and promoting the use of the journal format and building supportive and collaborative learning environments for students to develop thinking skills for managing patient care. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Seven Birds with One Magic Bullet: Designing Assignments that Encourage Student Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause-Jensen, Jakob

    2010-01-01

    At the Danish University School of Education we have experimented with a form of assessment called "active participation". A week before each class students are given reading guidelines and questions to help them approach the texts, and on the basis of one of those questions the students each write a two-page essay. The students are…

  7. Training Students to Steal: A Practical Assignment in Computer Security Education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dimkov, T.; Pieters, Wolter; Hartel, Pieter H.

    Practical courses in information security provide students with first-hand knowledge of technical security mechanisms and their weaknesses. However, teaching students only the technical side of information security leads to a generation of students that emphasize digital solutions, but ignore the

  8. Students' Perceptions of a Twitter-Based Assignment in a Graduate-Level Instructional Technology Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nygard, Shanda; Day, Micah; Fricke, Gretchen; Knowlton, Dave S.

    2014-01-01

    This article examines Twitter as an innovation to enhance student learning within an online graduate-level course. Specifically, this article includes 3 narratives from students who were charged with using Twitter as a medium for sharing photographs and accompanying analysis. Within each narrative, students' experiences and opinions are…

  9. "My Work Is Bleeding": Exploring Students' Emotional Responses to First-Year Assignment Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Sam

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the emotional responses that assignment feedback can provoke in first-year undergraduates. The literature on the link between emotions and learning is well established, but surprisingly research on the relationship between emotions and feedback is still relatively scarce. This article aims to make an additional contribution to…

  10. Using a Vaccine Proposal Assignment to Help Students Synthesize Topics Covered in an Undergraduate Immunology Course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca L. Sparks-Thissen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Undergraduate students often have difficulty keeping track of all the pieces of the immune response and how they relate to each other.  To help students synthesize the information in an upper-level, undergraduate immunology course, the students in my course investigate the immune response to pathogen of their choosing and then use that information to design a vaccine to that pathogen.

  11. The Effects of Therapist Competence in Assigning Homework in Cognitive Therapy with Cluster C Personality Disorders: Results from a Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryum, Truls; Stiles, Tore C.; Svartberg, Martin; McCullough, Leigh

    2010-01-01

    Therapist competence in assigning homework was used to predict mid- and posttreatment outcome for patients with Cluster C personality disorders in cognitive therapy (CT). Twenty-five patients that underwent 40 sessions of CT were taken from a randomized controlled trial (Svartberg, Stiles, & Seltzer, 2004). Therapist competence in assigning…

  12. Process Model Improvement for Source Code Plagiarism Detection in Student Programming Assignments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kermek, Dragutin; Novak, Matija

    2016-01-01

    In programming courses there are various ways in which students attempt to cheat. The most commonly used method is copying source code from other students and making minimal changes in it, like renaming variable names. Several tools like Sherlock, JPlag and Moss have been devised to detect source code plagiarism. However, for larger student…

  13. The Consumer Behavior Challenge: Designing an Assignment to Motivate Student Reflection and Self-Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravois, Renée; Lopez, Tará Burnthorne; Budden, Michael C.

    2017-01-01

    The tension caused by change pushes students to reflect on their new situation, examine preconceived ideas, and synthesize new with existing knowledge. In the Consumer Behavior Challenge, students are challenged to step outside of their comfort zone by changing a behavior or trying something new for a period of time. Through guided reflection…

  14. Creating a Learner-Centered Teaching Environment Using Student Choice in Assignments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanewicz, Cheryl; Platt, Angela; Arendt, Anne

    2017-01-01

    Learner-centered teaching (LCT) has been found to be a more effective pedagogy for online students, as traditional teaching methods do not work well in online courses. Professors in an upper-level technology management class revised their online introductory course to incorporate cafeteria-style grading. This LCT approach allowed students to…

  15. Teaching in Unfamiliar Terrain: Empowering Student and Teacher Learning through a Photography Assignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mount, Liz

    2018-01-01

    This article addresses a challenge for sociologists who teach at institutions located in unfamiliar cultural contexts through a photo elicitation project to develop students' sociological imaginations while teaching the instructor about students' social contexts. In introductory courses, we must present sociology as a field of study that is…

  16. Embedded Library Guides in Learning Management Systems Help Students Get Started on Research Assignments

    OpenAIRE

    Dominique Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Objective – To determine whether library guides embedded in learning management systems (LMS) get used by students, and to identify best practices for the creation and promotion of these guides by librarians. Design – Mixed methods combining quantitative and qualitative data collection and analysis (survey, interviews, and statistical analysis). Setting – A large public university in the United States of America. Subjects – 100 undergraduate students and 14 librarians. Met...

  17. Assigning poetry reading as a way of introducing students to qualitative data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raingruber, Bonnie

    2009-08-01

    The aim of the paper is to explain how poetry reading can be used to teach interpretive analysis of qualitative data. A number of studies were located in the nursing literature that focused on using poetry to help students develop empathy for patients, to teach students to reflect on their own practice, and to assist them in developing self-understanding. No studies were found that described the use of poetry reading as a way of teaching the skill of interpretive analysis. There are, however, a number of parallels between the principles of poetry reading and qualitative analysis that suggest that this method of teaching would be successful. International papers published on PubMed, Medline, and CINAHL were reviewed to identify challenges facing educators and ways of teaching the process of qualitative data analysis using poetry reading. Using poetry reading to teach skills of qualitative data analysis helps motivate students, cultivates a reflective mindset, and develops the skill of working as a member of an interpretive group. Framing interpretive work as being like reading poetry helps students pick up more quickly on the art that is a major component of the work. This approach also helps students learn the importance of cultural and contextual particulars as they begin analyzing qualitative data. Using poetry reading to introduce students to the complex skill of qualitative data analysis is an effective pedagogical strategy.

  18. Types of Sentences in EFL Students' Paragraph Assignments: A Quantitative Study on Teaching and Learning Writing at Higher Education Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syayid Sandi Sukandi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This research investigates Indonesian EFL students writing four types of English sentences in their paragraph writing assignments that were posted online in Writing 1 course of English Education at STKIP PGRI Sumatera Barat. The analysed types of sentences are Simple Sentence (code: S.S., Compound Sentence (code: C.S.1, Complex Sentence (code: C.S.2, and Compound-Complex Sentence (code: C.C.S. The percentage of each type of sentences that appears in the students’ writings within each five genres represents the students’ syntactical composition. Moreover, this research focuses on quantitatively analysing the above five types of sentences that appeared in students’ assignments in each type of following genres: argumentative, descriptive, process, cause-effect, and comparison-contrast. Data are taken from 10% samples of all population. The finding shows that writing Simple Sentence in paragraphs is a common type of sentence that is used by the students. It indicates that the guiding process to teaching students about writing paragraphs with varied sentence types is important for further development of teaching process of writing.

  19. Teaching Tip: Improving Students' Email Communication through an Integrated Writing Assignment in a Third-Year Toxicology Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kedrowicz, April A; Hammond, Sarah; Dorman, David C

    Client communication is important for success in veterinary practice, with written communication being an important means for veterinarian-client information sharing. Effective communication is adapted to clients' needs and wants, and presents information in a clear, understandable manner while accounting for varying degrees of client health literacy. This teaching tip describes the use of a mock electronic mail assignment as one way to integrate writing into a required veterinary toxicology course. As part of this project, we provide baseline data relating to students' written communication that will guide further development of writing modules in other curricula. Two independent raters analyzed students' writing using a coding scheme designed to assess adherence to the guidelines for effective written health communication. Results showed that the majority of students performed satisfactorily or required some development with respect to recommended guidelines for effective written health communication to facilitate client understanding. These findings suggest that additional instruction and practice should emphasize the importance of incorporating examples, metaphors, analogies, and pictures to create texts that are comprehensible and memorable to clients. Recommendations are provided for effective integration of writing assignments into the veterinary medicine curriculum.

  20. Drafting and acting on feedback supports student learning when writing essay assignments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freestone, Nicholas

    2009-06-01

    A diverse student population is a relatively recent feature of the higher education system in the United Kingdom. Consequently, it may be thought that more "traditional" types of assessment based around essay writing skills for science undergraduates may be of decreasing value and relevance to contemporary students. This article describes a study in which the process of feedback on, and associated redrafting of, an essay was closely supervised to improve essay writing skills and subsequent exam performance. The results of this study show that students can significantly improve their learning and academic performance, as assessed by final examination mark, by a process that more closely mimics a "real-world" situation of review and redrafting. Additionally, the data show that students benefit from feedback only when this is used appropriately by the student. The article also discusses the continuing importance and relevance of essay writing skills so that writing, and acting upon feedback to do with that writing, remains an integral part of the process of learning.

  1. Participation as Pedagogy: Student and Librarian Experiences of an Open Access Publishing Assignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Alison

    2017-01-01

    Education for Instruction Librarians has traditionally centered upon the acquisition of practical classroom skills. While this approach has merit, from a sociocultural perspective of learning, student development emerges more completely through engagement with the communal activities and values that constitute professional practices rather than…

  2. Using Cloud Collaboration for Writing Assignments by Students with Disabilities: A Case Study Using Action Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keane, Kjrsten; Russell, Miriam

    2014-01-01

    Though separated by geographical distance, a student with disabilities, his advisor, and his writing coach consorted in the Cloud using Google applications to achieve a writing goal. Our scenario demonstrates how emerging technologies can bridge transactional distance and "virtually" supplant face-to-face conferencing around a college…

  3. Academic Integrity and Student Plagiarism: Guided Instructional Strategies for Business Communication Assignments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okoro, Ephraim A.

    2011-01-01

    Maintaining academic integrity is critical to the sustainability of a civil society and to the democratic process. Educators across the disciplines are growing increasingly disturbed by the level of plagiarism on university campuses. The author contends that developing supportive ways of empowering students to become more independent writers in…

  4. Postgraduate Diploma Collaborative Assignment: Implications for ESL Students and Curriculum Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, T.

    2008-01-01

    The commerce faculty at the University of Cape Town (UCT) offers a 1-year, postgraduate management diploma that is regarded as a mini-MBA. It appeals to a wide variety of mainly English-as-second language (ESL) students. In the past, core course diploma lecturers in marketing, tourism and leisure, enterprise management and sport management…

  5. Preparing students towards the complexity of today's practice : start-up in a multidisciplinary assignment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moonen, S.P.G.; Veeger, T.T.; Dincyürek, Ö; Hoskara, S; Vural, S.M.

    2014-01-01

    Education in the Department of the Built Environment (of TU/e) aims to prepare students for multidisciplinary design teams. The Bachelor program offers a broad range incorporating essentials of urbanism, architecture, structure, building physics, real estate, construction, services et cetera. This

  6. Self-Regulated Assignment Attack Strategy: Evaluating the Effects of a Classroom-Level Intervention on Student Management of Curricular Activities in a Resource Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ness, Bryan M.; Sohlberg, McKay Moore

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of a classroom-based strategy instruction package grounded in self-regulated learning. The Self-Regulated Assignment Attack Strategy (SAAS) targeted self-regulation of assignment management and related academic-behavioral variables for 6th grade students in resource support classrooms. SAAS was…

  7. Learning About and Benefiting From Peer Review: A Course Assignment for Doctoral Students at Two Different Universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethares, Kristen A; Morris, Nancy S

    2016-06-01

    Peer review is an expectation of PhD-prepared nurses but a lack of evidence in the best methods to train students is of concern. Guided by the ADDIE (Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation, and Evaluation) model, faculty at two universities developed, implemented, and evaluated a peer review assignment for 22 second-year PhD nursing students. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected and analyzed using descriptive statistics and content analysis. Students reported the process of peer review was beneficial (82%) because it informed their own writing (59%), assisted them to read more critically (73%), and increased their appreciation of the role of peer review in the revision process (77%). Giving constructive feedback was difficult for students, but the feedback they received was helpful. Peer review is important to the development of science and an expectation of PhD-prepared nurses. Methods to include peer review in education are needed. [J Nurs Educ. 2016;55(6):342-344.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  8. The Impact of Classroom Physical Activity Breaks on Middle School Students' Health-Related Fitness: An Xbox One Kinetic Delivered 4-Week Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yli-Piipari, S.; Layne, T.; McCollins, T.; Knox, T.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the effect of a 4-week classroom physical activity break intervention on middle school students' health-related physical fitness. The study was a randomized controlled trial with students assigned to the experiment and control conditions. A convenience sample comprised 94 adolescents (experiment group n = 52;…

  9. Frequency of Examinations and Student Achievement in a Randomized Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Paola, Maria; Scoppa, Vincenzo

    2011-01-01

    We carry out a randomized experiment involving undergraduate students enrolled at an Italian University attending two introductory economics classes to evaluate the impact on achievement of examination frequency and interim feedback provision. Students in the treated group were allowed to undertake an intermediate exam and were informed about the…

  10. Scientist Spotlight Homework Assignments Shift Students' Stereotypes of Scientists and Enhance Science Identity in a Diverse Introductory Science Class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schinske, Jeffrey N; Perkins, Heather; Snyder, Amanda; Wyer, Mary

    2016-01-01

    Research into science identity, stereotype threat, and possible selves suggests a lack of diverse representations of scientists could impede traditionally underserved students from persisting and succeeding in science. We evaluated a series of metacognitive homework assignments ("Scientist Spotlights") that featured counterstereotypical examples of scientists in an introductory biology class at a diverse community college. Scientist Spotlights additionally served as tools for content coverage, as scientists were selected to match topics covered each week. We analyzed beginning- and end-of-course essays completed by students during each of five courses with Scientist Spotlights and two courses with equivalent homework assignments that lacked connections to the stories of diverse scientists. Students completing Scientist Spotlights shifted toward counterstereotypical descriptions of scientists and conveyed an enhanced ability to personally relate to scientists following the intervention. Longitudinal data suggested these shifts were maintained 6 months after the completion of the course. Analyses further uncovered correlations between these shifts, interest in science, and course grades. As Scientist Spotlights require very little class time and complement existing curricula, they represent a promising tool for enhancing science identity, shifting stereotypes, and connecting content to issues of equity and diversity in a broad range of STEM classrooms. © 2016 J. N. Schinske et al. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2016 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  11. Voluntary undergraduate technical skills training course to prepare students for clerkship assignment: tutees’ and tutors’ perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Skills lab training has become a widespread tool in medical education, and nowadays, skills labs are ubiquitous among medical faculties across the world. An increasingly prevalent didactic approach in skills lab teaching is peer-assisted learning (PAL), which has been shown to be not only effective, but can be considered to be on a par with faculty staff-led training. The aim of the study is to determine whether voluntary preclinical skills teaching by peer tutors is a feasible method for preparing medical students for effective workplace learning in clerkships and to investigate both tutees’ and tutors’ attitudes towards such an intervention. Methods A voluntary clerkship preparation skills course was designed and delivered. N = 135 pre-clinical medical students visited the training sessions. N = 10 tutors were trained as skills-lab peer tutors. Voluntary clerkship preparation skills courses as well as tutor training were evaluated by acceptance ratings and pre-post self-assessment ratings. Furthermore, qualitative analyses of skills lab tutors’ attitudes towards the course were conducted following principles of grounded theory. Results Results show that a voluntary clerkship preparation skills course is in high demand, is highly accepted and leads to significant changes in self-assessment ratings. Regarding qualitative analysis of tutor statements, clerkship preparation skills courses were considered to be a helpful and necessary asset to preclinical medical education, which benefits from the tutors’ own clerkship experiences and a high standardization of training. Tutor training is also highly accepted and regarded as an indispensable tool for peer tutors. Conclusions Our study shows that the demand for voluntary competence-oriented clerkship preparation is high, and a peer tutor-led skills course as well as tutor training is well accepted. The focused didactic approach for tutor training is perceived to be effective in preparing

  12. Voluntary undergraduate technical skills training course to prepare students for clerkship assignment: tutees' and tutors' perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blohm, Mats; Krautter, Markus; Lauter, Jan; Huber, Julia; Weyrich, Peter; Herzog, Wolfgang; Jünger, Jana; Nikendei, Christoph

    2014-04-04

    Skills lab training has become a widespread tool in medical education, and nowadays, skills labs are ubiquitous among medical faculties across the world. An increasingly prevalent didactic approach in skills lab teaching is peer-assisted learning (PAL), which has been shown to be not only effective, but can be considered to be on a par with faculty staff-led training. The aim of the study is to determine whether voluntary preclinical skills teaching by peer tutors is a feasible method for preparing medical students for effective workplace learning in clerkships and to investigate both tutees' and tutors' attitudes towards such an intervention. A voluntary clerkship preparation skills course was designed and delivered. N = 135 pre-clinical medical students visited the training sessions. N = 10 tutors were trained as skills-lab peer tutors. Voluntary clerkship preparation skills courses as well as tutor training were evaluated by acceptance ratings and pre-post self-assessment ratings. Furthermore, qualitative analyses of skills lab tutors' attitudes towards the course were conducted following principles of grounded theory. Results show that a voluntary clerkship preparation skills course is in high demand, is highly accepted and leads to significant changes in self-assessment ratings. Regarding qualitative analysis of tutor statements, clerkship preparation skills courses were considered to be a helpful and necessary asset to preclinical medical education, which benefits from the tutors' own clerkship experiences and a high standardization of training. Tutor training is also highly accepted and regarded as an indispensable tool for peer tutors. Our study shows that the demand for voluntary competence-oriented clerkship preparation is high, and a peer tutor-led skills course as well as tutor training is well accepted. The focused didactic approach for tutor training is perceived to be effective in preparing tutors for their teaching activity in this context. A

  13. Online supervision at the university - A comparative study of supervision on student assignments face-to-face and online

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søren Smedegaard Bengtsen

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Through an empirical study of supervision on student assignments at the university across face-to-face and online settings, we show firstly the limiting implications of traditional dichotomies between face-to-face and online supervision. Secondly we show that more attention must be given to the way different digital tools influence the supervisory dialogue. These findings illustrate a form of ‘torn pedagogy’; that online tools and platforms destabilize and tear traditional understandings of supervision pedagogy apart. Also we forge a new concept of “format supervision” that enables supervisors to understand and reflect their supervision practice as a deliberate choice between face-to-face and online formats.

  14. Online supervision at the university - A comparative study of supervision on student assignments face-to-face and online

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søren Smedegaard Bengtsen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Through an empirical study of supervision on student assignments at the university across face-to-face and online settings, we show firstly the limiting implications of traditional dichotomies between face-to-face and online supervision. Secondly we show that more attention must be given to the way different digital tools influence the supervisory dialogue. These findings illustrate a form of ‘torn pedagogy’; that online tools and platforms destabilize and tear traditional understandings of supervision pedagogy apart. Also we forge a new concept of “format supervision” that enables supervisors to understand and reflect their supervision practice as a deliberate choice between face-to-face and online formats.

  15. Plagiarism-Proofing Assignments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Doug

    2004-01-01

    Mr. Johnson has discovered that the higher the level of student engagement and creativity, the lower the probability of plagiarism. For teachers who would like to see such desirable results, he describes the characteristics of assignments that are most likely to produce them. Two scenarios of types of assignments that avoid plagiarism are…

  16. My Favorite Assignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ABCA Bulletin, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Describes three assignments for enticing business communication students to undertake library research: an analysis of a Fortune 500 company, a career choice report, and a report on an organization that offers potential employment. (AEA)

  17. A Randomized Trial to Measure the Efficacy of Applying Task Oriented Role Assignment to Improve Neonatal Resuscitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-06

    In an effort to address performance gaps we devised a teaching paradigm, called Task-Oriented Role Ass ignment’, in which we have delegated a...task delegation , thereby improving NRP performance. Health care professionals taking the NRP course were randomized to either the control group, which...such as leadership (mean = 4· control, s study; p = 0.05). However, both groups scored similarly in overall NRP task performance with mean scores of

  18. The Effects of an Interactive Nursing Skills Mobile Application on Nursing Students' Knowledge, Self-efficacy, and Skills Performance: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Hyunsun Kim, MSN, RN; Eunyoung E. Suh, PhD, FNP, RN

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: Clinical nursing practice is important because it helps nursing students experience realities of clinical nursing that cannot be learned through theoretical education. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of an interactive nursing skills mobile application for nursing students. Methods: Sixty-six senior nursing students were randomly assigned to experimental or control groups. The experimental group used an interactive nursing skills mobile application for 1 week. The control grou...

  19. The Impact of Using Randomized Homework Values on Student Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berardi, Victor

    2011-01-01

    Much of the recent research on homework focuses on using online, web-based, or computerized homework systems. These systems have many reported capabilities and benefits, including the ability to randomize values, which enables multiple attempts by a student or to reduce academic dishonesty. This study reports on the impact of using randomized…

  20. Robotics and STEM Learning: Students' Achievements in Assignments According to the P3 Task Taxonomy--Practice, Problem Solving, and Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barak, Moshe; Assal, Muhammad

    2018-01-01

    This study presents the case of development and evaluation of a STEM-oriented 30-h robotics course for junior high school students (n = 32). Class activities were designed according to the P3 Task Taxonomy, which included: (1) practice-basic closed-ended tasks and exercises; (2) problem solving--small-scale open-ended assignments in which the…

  1. The Impact of Support Services on Students' Test Anxiety and/or Their Ability to Submit Assignments: A Focus on Vision Impairment and Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Poulomee; Talukdar, Joy

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of the support services on the test anxiety of students and/or their ability to submit assignments in each of the two disability groups, those with vision impairment and those with intellectual disability, who were placed in specialist and mainstream educational settings in South Australia. Interviews were…

  2. The Relation between Academic Procrastination of University Students and Their Assignment and Exam Performances: The Situation in Distance and Face-to-Face Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, M. Betul

    2017-01-01

    The relation between assignment and exam performances of the university students and their academic procrastination behaviors in distance and face-to-face learning environments was investigated in this study. Empirical research carried out both in face-to-face and online environments have generally shown a negative correlation between academic…

  3. A Randomized Controlled Study of Art Observation Training to Improve Medical Student Ophthalmology Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurwin, Jaclyn; Revere, Karen E; Niepold, Suzannah; Bassett, Barbara; Mitchell, Rebecca; Davidson, Stephanie; DeLisser, Horace; Binenbaum, Gil

    2018-01-01

    Observation and description are critical to the practice of medicine, and to ophthalmology in particular. However, medical education does not provide explicit training in these areas, and medical students are often criticized for deficiencies in these skills. We sought to evaluate the effects of formal observation training in the visual arts on the general and ophthalmologic observational skills of medical students. Randomized, single-masked, controlled trial. Thirty-six first-year medical students, randomized 1:1 into art-training and control groups. Students in the art-training group were taught by professional art educators at the Philadelphia Museum of Art, during 6 custom-designed, 1.5-hour art observation sessions over a 3-month period. All subjects completed pre- and posttesting, in which they described works of art, retinal pathology images, and external photographs of eye diseases. Grading of written descriptions for observational and descriptive abilities by reviewers using an a priori rubric and masked to group assignment and pretesting/posttesting status. Observational skills, as measured by description testing, improved significantly in the training group (mean change +19.1 points) compared with the control group (mean change -13.5 points), P = 0.001. There were significant improvements in the training vs. control group for each of the test subscores. In a poststudy questionnaire, students reported applying the skills they learned in the museum in clinically meaningful ways at medical school. Art observation training for first-year medical students can improve clinical ophthalmology observational skills. Principles from the field of visual arts, which is reputed to excel in teaching observation and descriptive abilities, can be successfully applied to medical training. Further studies can examine the impact of such training on clinical care. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. A multisite randomized trial of social norms marketing campaigns to reduce college student drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeJong, William; Schneider, Shari Kessel; Towvim, Laura Gomberg; Murphy, Melissa J; Doerr, Emily E; Simonsen, Neal R; Mason, Karen E; Scribner, Richard A

    2006-11-01

    An 18-site randomized trial was conducted to determine the effectiveness of social norms marketing (SNM) campaigns in reducing college student drinking. The SNM campaigns are intended to correct misperceptions of subjective drinking norms and thereby drive down alcohol consumption. Institutions of higher education were randomly assigned to treatment and control groups. At the treatment group institutions, SNM campaigns delivered school-specific, data-driven messages through a mix of campus media venues. Cross-sectional student surveys were conducted by mail at baseline (n = 2,771) and at posttest 3 years later (n = 2,939). Hierarchical linear modeling was applied to examine multiple drinking outcomes, taking intraclass correlation into account. Controlling for other predictors, having an SNM campaign was significantly associated with lower perceptions of student drinking levels and lower alcohol consumption, as measured by a composite drinking scale, recent maximum consumption, blood alcohol concentration for recent maximum consumption, drinks consumed when partying, and drinks consumed per week. A moderate mediating effect of normative perceptions on student drinking was demonstrated by an attenuation of the Experimental Group x Time interaction, ranging from 16.4% to 39.5% across measures. Additional models that took into account the intensity of SNM campaign activity at the treatment institutions suggested that there was a dose-response relationship. This study is the most rigorous evaluation of SNM campaigns conducted to date. Analysis revealed that students attending institutions that implemented an SNM campaign had a lower relative risk of alcohol consumption than students attending control group institutions.

  5. Improving psychology students' attitudes toward people with schizophrenia: A quasi-randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magliano, Lorenza; Rinaldi, Angela; Costanzo, Regina; De Leo, Renata; Schioppa, Giustina; Petrillo, Miriam; Read, John

    2016-01-01

    Despite scientific evidence that the majority of people with schizophrenia (PWS) have personal histories of traumatic life events and adversities, their needs for psychological support often remain unmet. Poor availability of nonpharmacological therapies in schizophrenia may be partly because of professionals' attitudes toward people diagnosed with this disorder. As future health professionals, psychology students represent a target population for efforts to increase the probability that PWS will be offered effective psychological therapies. This quasi-randomized controlled study investigated the effect of an educational intervention, addressing common prejudices via scientific evidence and prerecorded audio-testimony from PWS, on the attitudes of psychology students toward PWS. Students in their fifth year of a master's degree in Psychology at the Second University of Naples, Italy were randomly assigned to an experimental group-which attended two 3-hr sessions a week apart-or to a control group. Compared with their baseline assessment, at 1-month reassessment the 76 educated students endorsed more psychosocial causes and more of them recommended psychologists in the treatment of schizophrenia. They were also more optimistic about recovery, less convinced that PWS are recognizable and unpredictable, and more convinced that treatments, pharmacological and psychological, are useful. No significant changes were found, from baseline to 1-month reassessment, in the 112 controls. At 1-month reassessment, educated students were more optimistic about recovery and less convinced that PWS are unpredictable than controls. These findings suggest that psychology students' attitudes toward PWS can be improved by training initiatives including education and indirect contact with users. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Student tutors for hands-on training in focused emergency echocardiography – a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kühl Matthias

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Focused emergency echocardiography performed by non-cardiologists has been shown to be feasible and effective in emergency situations. During resuscitation a short focused emergency echocardiography has been shown to narrow down potential differential diagnoses and to improve patient survival. Quite a large proportion of physicians are eligible to learn focused emergency echocardiography. Training in focused emergency echocardiography usually comprises a lecture, hands-on trainings in very small groups, and a practice phase. There is a shortage of experienced echocardiographers who can supervise the second step, the hands-on training. We thus investigated whether student tutors can perform the hands-on training for focused emergency echocardiography. Methods A total of 30 volunteer 4th and 5th year students were randomly assigned to a twelve-hour basic echocardiography course comprising a lecture followed by a hands-on training in small groups taught either by an expert cardiographer (EC or by a student tutor (ST. Using a pre-post-design, the students were evaluated by an OSCE. The students had to generate two still frames with the apical five-chamber view and the parasternal long axis in five minutes and to correctly mark twelve anatomical cardiac structures. Two blinded expert cardiographers rated the students’ performance using a standardized checklist. Students could achieve a maximum of 25 points. Results Both groups showed significant improvement after the training (p Conclusions Hands-on training by student tutors led to a significant gain in echocardiography skills, although inferior to teaching by an expert cardiographer.

  7. Learning cardiopulmonary resuscitation theory with face-to-face versus audiovisual instruction for secondary school students: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerezo Espinosa, Cristina; Nieto Caballero, Sergio; Juguera Rodríguez, Laura; Castejón-Mochón, José Francisco; Segura Melgarejo, Francisca; Sánchez Martínez, Carmen María; López López, Carmen Amalia; Pardo Ríos, Manuel

    2018-02-01

    To compare secondary students' learning of basic life support (BLS) theory and the use of an automatic external defibrillator (AED) through face-to-face classroom instruction versus educational video instruction. A total of 2225 secondary students from 15 schools were randomly assigned to one of the following 5 instructional groups: 1) face-to-face instruction with no audiovisual support, 2) face-to-face instruction with audiovisual support, 3) audiovisual instruction without face-to-face instruction, 4) audiovisual instruction with face-to-face instruction, and 5) a control group that received no instruction. The students took a test of BLS and AED theory before instruction, immediately after instruction, and 2 months later. The median (interquartile range) scores overall were 2.33 (2.17) at baseline, 5.33 (4.66) immediately after instruction (Paudiovisual instruction for learning BLS and AED theory were found in secondary school students either immediately after instruction or 2 months later.

  8. High School Students With Reading Comprehension Difficulties: Results of a Randomized Control Trial of a Two-Year Reading Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughn, Sharon; Roberts, Greg; Wexler, Jade; Vaughn, Michael G; Fall, Anna-Mária; Schnakenberg, Jennifer B

    2015-01-01

    A 2-year, randomized control trial with 9th to 10th grade students with significant reading problems was provided for 50 minutes a day in small groups. Comparison students were provided an elective class and treatment students the reading intervention. Students were identified as demonstrating reading difficulties through failure on their state accountability test and were randomly assigned to one of three treatment conditions and a business as usual (BAU) condition: reading without dropout prevention, reading with dropout prevention, dropout prevention without reading, or a BAU condition. Findings from the 2-year reading intervention (reading with and without dropout prevention combined and BAU) are reported in this article. Students in reading treatment compared to students in BAU demonstrated significant gains on reading comprehension (effect size = .43), and improved reading was associated with better grades in social studies. Findings from this study provide a rationale for further implementation and investigation of intensive intervention for high school students with reading difficulties. © Hammill Institute on Disabilities 2014.

  9. Setting Them up for Success: Assessing a Pre-Research Assignment for First-Year International Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery, Susan

    2017-01-01

    As the international student population continues to grow, librarians must adjust their instruction to meet the needs of students who are adapting to a new country, culture, and language. This study assesses first-year international students as they engage in the research process through the completion of concept maps that precede database…

  10. Note-Taking during Discussion: Using a Weekly Reflection Assignment to Motivate Students to Learn from Their Peers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravett, Emily O.

    2018-01-01

    The benefits of in-class discussion, a form of active learning, are well-documented; in particular, discussions allow students the opportunity to learn from their peers. Yet students often treat discussions as 'down' or 'free' time. If students are not taking notes during discussion and reviewing those notes later on, they may not be learning much…

  11. Promoting physical activity using a wearable activity tracker in college students: A cluster randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youngdeok; Lumpkin, Angela; Lochbaum, Marc; Stegemeier, Steven; Kitten, Karla

    2018-08-01

    This study examined the effects of utilizing a wearable activity tracker in a credit-based physical activity instructional program (PAIP) for promoting physical activity (PA) in college students. Fourteen PAIP courses in a large public university were randomly assigned into intervention (k = 7; n = 101) and control (k = 7; n = 86) groups. All courses focused on a core curriculum that covers basic exercise and behavioral science contents through lectures and activity sessions. A Misfit Flash activity tracker was provided to students in the intervention group. Objective PA assessments occurred at baseline, mid-, and end-of-semester during a 15-week academic semester. The control group showed a significant reduction in moderate- and vigorous-intensity PA (MVPA) minutes from baseline to the end-of-semester (P <.05), whereas the intervention group showed no changes in MVPA minutes over time. However, the intervention group also showed increased sedentary time and decreased time spent in light-intensity PA during the intervention period. Taken together, the present study found null effects of utilizing the wearable activity tracker in promoting PA in college students suggesting that intervention of primary using the wearable activity tracker as a behavior change strategy may not be effective to increase in PA in this setting.

  12. A study of a science-based peer reading assignment and its effects on first grade student understanding and use of describing words in science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Meghan Jeanne

    The first grade curriculum for science in Colorado requires students be able to use describing words to depict and compare objects and people; however, first graders struggle with using specific enough language to create strong descriptions. With science education research encouraging teachers to use alternative teaching methods to approach these challenging topics, it is important to provide teachers with resources appropriate to their students. One such alternative learning method is a reading partner. Reading partners have been shown to increase vocabulary, boost school performance, and improve self-esteem in children. This study analyzed the effectiveness of using a science-based peer reading assignment about describing words on increasing a first grader's understanding of the topic. The book required the class to work together to help the characters describe different images and characters in the book with the intent that students were engaged during the reading. In pre-interview and post-interview, students described pictures, and their responses were analyzed for quality of the describing words provided and the number of strong (specific and not opinion) describing words provided. In the post-interview, students had an overall increase in the number of strong describing words provided. The quantitative data was analyzed by comparing strong describing words used pre-reading and post-reading, and the effect size was very large. The results indicate reading the book explaining describing words that asked for student participation did increase students understanding and use of describing words.

  13. Developing Responsibility for Completing and Handing in Daily Homework Assignments for Students in Grades Three, Four, and Five.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepard, Joan M.

    This practicum was designed to increase responsibility for completing and handing in homework among students in grades three, four, and five in a mid-Atlantic school district. Of a total of 128 students in these grades, 28 were identified to learn strategies to aid in completing homework. Nine solution strategies were employed: (1) provide…

  14. Dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) applied to college students: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pistorello, Jacqueline; Fruzzetti, Alan E; Maclane, Chelsea; Gallop, Robert; Iverson, Katherine M

    2012-12-01

    College counseling centers (CCCs) are increasingly being called upon to treat highly distressed students with complex clinical presentations. This study compared the effectiveness of Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) for suicidal college students with an optimized control condition and analyzed baseline global functioning as a moderator. The intent-to-treat (ITT) sample included 63 college students between the ages of 18 and 25 years who were suicidal at baseline, reported at least 1 lifetime nonsuicidal self-injurious (NSSI) act or suicide attempt, and met 3 or more borderline personality disorder (BPD) diagnostic criteria. Participants were randomly assigned to DBT (n = 31) or an optimized treatment-as-usual (O-TAU) control condition (n = 32). Treatment was provided by trainees, supervised by experts in both treatments. Both treatments lasted 7-12 months and included both individual and group components. Assessments were conducted at pretreatment, 3 months, 6 months, 9 months, 12 months, and 18 months (follow-up). Mixed effects analyses (ITT sample) revealed that DBT, compared with the control condition, showed significantly greater decreases in suicidality, depression, number of NSSI events (if participant had self-injured), BPD criteria, and psychotropic medication use and significantly greater improvements in social adjustment. Most of these treatment effects were observed at follow-up. No treatment differences were found for treatment dropout. Moderation analyses showed that DBT was particularly effective for suicidal students who were lower functioning at pretreatment. DBT is an effective treatment for suicidal, multiproblem college students. Future research should examine the implementation of DBT in CCCs in a stepped care approach.

  15. Evaluating a Web-Based Social Anxiety Intervention Among University Students: Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCall, Hugh Cameron; Richardson, Chris G; Helgadottir, Fjola Dogg; Chen, Frances S

    2018-03-21

    Treatment rates for social anxiety, a prevalent and potentially debilitating condition, remain among the lowest of all major mental disorders today. Although computer-delivered interventions are well poised to surmount key barriers to the treatment of social anxiety, most are only marginally effective when delivered as stand-alone treatments. A new, Web-based cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) intervention called Overcome Social Anxiety was recently created to address the limitations of prior computer-delivered interventions. Users of Overcome Social Anxiety are self-directed through various CBT modules incorporating cognitive restructuring and behavioral experiments. The intervention is personalized to each user's symptoms, and automatic email reminders and time limits are used to encourage adherence. The purpose of this study was to conduct a randomized controlled trial to investigate the effectiveness of Overcome Social Anxiety in reducing social anxiety symptoms in a nonclinical sample of university students. As a secondary aim, we also investigated whether Overcome Social Anxiety would increase life satisfaction in this sample. Following eligibility screening, participants were randomly assigned to a treatment condition or a wait-list control condition. Only those assigned to the treatment condition were given access to Overcome Social Anxiety; they were asked to complete the program within 4 months. The social interaction anxiety scale (SIAS), the fear of negative evaluation scale (FNE), and the quality of life enjoyment and satisfaction questionnaire-short form (Q-LES-Q-SF) were administered to participants from both conditions during baseline and 4-month follow-up lab visits. Over the course of the study, participants assigned to the treatment condition experienced a significant reduction in social anxiety (SIAS: Psocial anxiety in the 2 conditions over the course of the study showed that those assigned to the treatment condition experienced significantly

  16. The effect of yoga in stress reduction for dental students performing their first periodontal surgery: A randomized controlled study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankarapillai, Rajesh; Nair, Manju Anathakrishnan; George, Roy

    2012-01-01

    Context: The dental students experience a lot of stress, which increase when they perform their first surgical procedure. Yoga as an anxiolytic tool in anxiety reduction has been practiced over centuries in India. Aim: To assess the efficacy of yoga in reducing the state trait anxiety of dental students before their first periodontal surgery performance. Settings and Design: A randomized controlled study using a two-way split plot design (pre-post-test) was conducted in the department of periodontics, Pacific Dental College, Udaipur, India. Materials and Methods: One hundred clinical dental students who were ready to perform their first periodontal surgery were selected. Students were randomly assigned to two groups and were given a 60-min session on stress reduction. Group A, yogic intervention group, were instructed to do yoga and their performances were monitored for a period of one week and Group B, control group, were given a lecture on stress reduction without any yoga instructions. The investigator who was unaware of the groups had taken the state trait anxiety score of the students three times a) before assigning them to each group, b) prior to the surgical procedure and c) immediately after the performance of surgery. Statistical Analysis Used: Analyses of variance (ANOVA) by SPSS V.16. Results: The statistical results showed a significant reduction in the VAS and state trait anxiety of Group A compared to Group B (ANOVA; P<0.001). Conclusions: This study concludes that Yogic breathing has a significant effect on the reduction of state trait anxiety level of dental students. PMID:22346066

  17. Scaffolding students’ assignments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slot, Marie Falkesgaard

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses scaffolding in typical student assignments in mother tongue learning materials in upper secondary education in Denmark and the United Kingdom. It has been determined that assignments do not have sufficient scaffolding end features to help pupils understand concepts and build...... objects. The article presents the results of empirical research on tasks given in Danish and British learning materials. This work is based on a further development of my PhD thesis: “Learning materials in the subject of Danish” (Slot 2010). The main focus is how cognitive models (and subsidiary explicit...... learning goals) can help students structure their argumentative and communica-tive learning processes, and how various multimodal representations can give more open-ended learning possibilities for collaboration. The article presents a short introduction of the skills for 21st century learning and defines...

  18. Preparing students towards the complexity of today’s practice : start-up in a multidisciplinary assignment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moonen, S.P.G.; Veeger, T.T.

    2015-01-01

    Education in the Department of the Built Environment (Eindhoven University of Technology) aims to prepare students for multidisciplinary design teams. The Bachelor program offers a broad range incorporating essentials of urbanism, architecture, structure, building physics, real estate, construction,

  19. Measles virus antibody responses in children randomly assigned to receive standard-titer edmonston-zagreb measles vaccine at 4.5 and 9 months of age, 9 months of age, or 9 and 18 months of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, Cesario; Garly, May-Lill; Bale, Carlitos

    2014-01-01

    The World Health Organization recommends administration of measles vaccine (MV) at age 9 months in low-income countries. We tested the measles virus antibody response at 4.5, 9, 18, and 24 months of age for children randomly assigned to receive standard-titer Edmonston-Zagreb MV at 4.5 and 9 months...

  20. Effects of structured education program on organ donor designation of nursing students and their families: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Minoru; Fukuma, Shingo; Ikezoe, Masaya; Iizuka, Chizuko; Izawa, Satoshi; Yamamoto, Yosuke; Yamazaki, Shin; Fukuhara, Shunichi

    2016-11-01

    Little is known about the effect of education programs on changing attitudes and behaviors of participants and their families toward deceased organ donation. The subjects of this randomized trial were Japanese nursing students who were not previously designated organ donors. They were randomly assigned to either the education program or information booklet group. The program comprised a lecture followed by group discussion and information booklet. The primary outcome was self-reported organ donor designation. Outcomes were assessed by questionnaire. Data of 203 (99.0%) students were analyzed. At study end, seven of 102 students (6.9%) of the program group and one of 101 students (1.0%) of the booklet group consented to donate organs (proportion ratio 6.93 [95% CI 0.87-55.32]). There were significant between-group differences in willingness to consent for donation (54.9% vs 39.6%; proportion ratio 1.39 [95% CI 1.03-1.87]), family discussion (31.4% vs 15.9%; 1.98 [1.16-3.38]), and organ donor designation of family members (11.8% vs 2.0%; 5.94 [1.36-25.88]). No group differences were found in willingness for organ donation by students and family members. Although there were no significant between-group differences in organ donor designation, the program seems to indirectly promote consent to organ donation by their families. © 2016 The Authors. Clinical Transplantation Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Teachers' Accounts of Their Perceptions and Practices of Providing Written Feedback to Nursing Students on Their Assignments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Sajid; Gul, Raisa; Lakhani, Arusa; Rizvi, Nusrat Fatima

    2014-01-01

    Written feedback can facilitate students' learning in several ways. However, the teachers' practices of written feedback may be affected by various factors. This study aimed to explore the nurse teachers' accounts of their perceptions and practices of providing written feedback. A descriptive exploratory design was employed in the study. A…

  2. Organizing Schools to Improve Student Achievement: Start Times, Grade Configurations, and Teacher Assignments. Discussion Paper 2011-08

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Brian A.; Rockoff, Jonah E.

    2011-01-01

    Education reform proposals are often based on high-profile or dramatic policy changes, many of which are expensive, politically controversial, or both. In this paper, we argue that the debates over these "flashy" policies have obscured a potentially important direction for raising student performance--namely, reforms to the management or…

  3. Assignment of Grades and Student Performance in a Hybrid Operations Management Course: What Works and Ideas for Improvements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houts, Lisa M.; Taylor, James C.

    2008-01-01

    The production and operations management class offered at California State University, Fresno underwent a transformation from being a four-unit, face-to-face course to a hybrid course. This hybrid course, which is required for all students in the Craig School of Business, includes two units of face-to-face instruction each week, with some coverage…

  4. A Randomized Crossover Design to Assess Learning Impact and Student Preference for Active and Passive Online Learning Modules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prunuske, Amy J; Henn, Lisa; Brearley, Ann M; Prunuske, Jacob

    Medical education increasingly involves online learning experiences to facilitate the standardization of curriculum across time and space. In class, delivering material by lecture is less effective at promoting student learning than engaging students in active learning experience and it is unclear whether this difference also exists online. We sought to evaluate medical student preferences for online lecture or online active learning formats and the impact of format on short- and long-term learning gains. Students participated online in either lecture or constructivist learning activities in a first year neurologic sciences course at a US medical school. In 2012, students selected which format to complete and in 2013, students were randomly assigned in a crossover fashion to the modules. In the first iteration, students strongly preferred the lecture modules and valued being told "what they need to know" rather than figuring it out independently. In the crossover iteration, learning gains and knowledge retention were found to be equivalent regardless of format, and students uniformly demonstrated a strong preference for the lecture format, which also on average took less time to complete. When given a choice for online modules, students prefer passive lecture rather than completing constructivist activities, and in the time-limited environment of medical school, this choice results in similar performance on multiple-choice examinations with less time invested. Instructors need to look more carefully at whether assessments and learning strategies are helping students to obtain self-directed learning skills and to consider strategies to help students learn to value active learning in an online environment.

  5. Retention of laparoscopic and robotic skills among medical students: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlando, Megan S; Thomaier, Lauren; Abernethy, Melinda G; Chen, Chi Chiung Grace

    2017-08-01

    Although simulation training beneficially contributes to traditional surgical training, there are less objective data on simulation skills retention. To investigate the retention of laparoscopic and robotic skills after simulation training. We present the second stage of a randomized single-blinded controlled trial in which 40 simulation-naïve medical students were randomly assigned to practice peg transfer tasks on either laparoscopic (N = 20, Fundamentals of Laparoscopic Surgery, Venture Technologies Inc., Waltham, MA) or robotic (N = 20, dV-Trainer, Mimic, Seattle, WA) platforms. In the first stage, two expert surgeons evaluated participants on both tasks before (Stage 1: Baseline) and immediately after training (Stage 1: Post-training) using a modified validated global rating scale of laparoscopic and robotic operative performance. In Stage 2, participants were evaluated on both tasks 11-20 weeks after training. Of the 40 students who participated in Stage 1, 23 (11 laparoscopic and 12 robotic) underwent repeat evaluation. During Stage 2, there were no significant differences between groups in objective or subjective measures for the laparoscopic task. Laparoscopic-trained participants' performances on the laparoscopic task were improved during Stage 2 compared to baseline measured by time to task completion, but not by the modified global rating scale. During the robotic task, the robotic-trained group demonstrated superior economy of motion (p = .017), Tissue Handling (p = .020), and fewer errors (p = .018) compared to the laparoscopic-trained group. Robotic skills acquisition from baseline with no significant deterioration as measured by modified global rating scale scores was observed among robotic-trained participants during Stage 2. Robotic skills acquired through simulation appear to be better maintained than laparoscopic simulation skills. This study is registered on ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT02370407).

  6. Evaluating the Use of Random Distribution Theory to Introduce Statistical Inference Concepts to Business Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larwin, Karen H.; Larwin, David A.

    2011-01-01

    Bootstrapping methods and random distribution methods are increasingly recommended as better approaches for teaching students about statistical inference in introductory-level statistics courses. The authors examined the effect of teaching undergraduate business statistics students using random distribution and bootstrapping simulations. It is the…

  7. Randomized controlled trial of computerized alcohol intervention for college students: role of class level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strohman, Ashleigh Sweet; Braje, Sopagna Eap; Alhassoon, Omar M; Shuttleworth, Sylvie; Van Slyke, Jenna; Gandy, Sharareh

    2016-01-01

    Because of their ability to reach a much wider audience than face-to-face counseling or psychoeducation, computer-delivered interventions for risky or potentially problematic use have been increasing on college campuses. However, there are very few studies that examine who benefits most from such interventions. The purpose of this study was to determine if participation in Alcohol-Wise, a computerized intervention, is associated with changes in alcohol drinking behavior and its consequences, perceptions of college drinking norms, and expectancies. It was hypothesized that class level (i.e. freshman/sophomore versus junior/senior) would moderate the effectiveness of Alcohol-Wise. College students (n = 58) were randomly assigned to one of two conditions: (i) the computer-delivered intervention or (ii) wait-list control. Measures were completed at baseline and approximately 30-days later. At follow-up, freshman and sophomore students in the intervention group showed significant reduction in peak number of standard drinks and blood alcohol concentration, but the effect was not observed for juniors and seniors. The intervention group reported more accurate estimates of drinking norms at follow-up relative to controls. There were no significant changes over time in alcohol expectancies in either group. This study provides support for the potential usefulness of Alcohol-Wise intervention at reducing short-term drinking among underclassmen but not upperclassmen in a 4-year college setting. These findings suggest that computerized interventions may be more effective when provided early, but not later, in a student's college career.

  8. Effective Homework Assignments. Research Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Harris

    2008-01-01

    Perhaps more than any question other than "How much time should students spend doing homework?" parents and educators want to know, "What kinds of homework assignments are most effective?" Clearly, the answers to this question vary according to many factors, especially the developmental level of students and the topic area. Generally, answers are…

  9. Detecting Plagiarism in MS Access Assignments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Anil

    2013-01-01

    Assurance of individual effort from students in computer-based assignments is a challenge. Due to digitization, students can easily use a copy of their friend's work and submit it as their own. Plagiarism in assignments puts students who cheat at par with those who work honestly and this compromises the learning evaluation process. Using a…

  10. Voluntary, Randomized, Student Drug-Testing: Impact in a Rural, Low-Income, Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrington, Kyle D.

    2008-01-01

    Illegal drug use and abuse by the nation's secondary school students is a continuing public health issue and this is especially true for students living in rural, low-income areas where access to intervention and treatment services is often limited. To address this issue, some school districts have implemented voluntary, randomized, student

  11. Internet-based guided self-help for university students with anxiety, depression and stress: a randomized controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Victor; McGrath, Patrick J; Wojtowicz, Magdalena

    2013-07-01

    Anxiety, depression and stress, often co-occurring, are the psychological problems for which university students most often seek help. Moreover there are many distressed students who cannot, or choose not to, access professional help. The present study evaluated the efficacy of an internet-based guided self-help program for moderate anxiety, depression and stress. The program was based on standard cognitive behavior therapy principles and included 5 core modules, some of which involved options for focusing on anxiety and/or depression and/or stress. Trained student coaches provided encouragement and advice about using the program via e-mail or brief weekly phone calls. Sixty-six distressed university students were randomly assigned to either Immediate Access or a 6-week Delayed Access condition. Sixty-one percent of Immediate Access participants completed all 5 core modules, and 80% of all participants completed the second assessment. On the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scales-21, Immediate Access participants reported significantly greater reductions in depression (ηp(2)=. 07), anxiety (ηp(2)=. 08) and stress (ηp(2)=. 12) in comparison to participants waiting to do the program, and these improvements were maintained at a six month follow-up. The results suggest that the provision of individually-adaptable, internet-based, self-help programs can reduce psychological distress in university students. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Impact of a Mental Health Curriculum on Knowledge and Stigma Among High School Students: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milin, Robert; Kutcher, Stanley; Lewis, Stephen P; Walker, Selena; Wei, Yifeng; Ferrill, Natasha; Armstrong, Michael A

    2016-05-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of a school-based mental health literacy intervention for adolescents on knowledge and stigma. A total of 24 high schools and 534 students in the regional area of Ottawa, Ontario, Canada participated in this randomized controlled trial. Schools were randomly assigned to either the curriculum or control condition. The curriculum was integrated into the province's grade 11 and 12 "Healthy Living" courses and was delivered by teachers. Changes in mental health knowledge and stigma were measured using pre- and posttest questionnaires. Descriptive analyses were conducted to provide sample characteristics, and multilevel modeling was used to examine study outcomes. For the curriculum condition, there was a significant change in stigma scores over time (p = .001), with positive attitudes toward mental illness increasing from pre to post. There was also a significant change in knowledge scores over time (p mental health (p mental health literacy of an integrated, manualized mental health educational resource for high school students on knowledge and stigma. Findings also support the applicability by teachers and suggest the potential for broad-based implementation of the educational curriculum in high schools. Replication and further studies are warranted. Clinical trial registration information-Impact of a Mental Health Curriculum for High School Students on Knowledge and Stigma; http://clinicaltrials.gov/; NCT02561780. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of Students' Participation in Authoring of Multimedia Materials on Student Acquisition of Vocabulary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolova, Ofelia R.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated the effects on vocabulary acquisition of student participation in authoring a multimedia institutional module. Sixty-two subjects were randomly assigned to two groups, and each group was randomly assigned to one of two treatments. Showed evidence that students learn vocabulary significantly better when they participate in the creation…

  14. Random sets and random fuzzy sets as ill-perceived random variables an introduction for Ph.D. students and practitioners

    CERN Document Server

    Couso, Inés; Sánchez, Luciano

    2014-01-01

    This short book provides a unified view of the history and theory of random sets and fuzzy random variables, with special emphasis on its use for representing higher-order non-statistical uncertainty about statistical experiments. The authors lay bare the existence of two streams of works using the same mathematical ground, but differing form their use of sets, according to whether they represent objects of interest naturally taking the form of sets, or imprecise knowledge about such objects. Random (fuzzy) sets can be used in many fields ranging from mathematical morphology, economics, artificial intelligence, information processing and statistics per se, especially in areas where the outcomes of random experiments cannot be observed with full precision. This book also emphasizes the link between random sets and fuzzy sets with some techniques related to the theory of imprecise probabilities. This small book is intended for graduate and doctoral students in mathematics or engineering, but also provides an i...

  15. Assigning agents to a line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Moreno-Ternero, Juan D.; Østerdal, Lars Peter Raahave

    2014-01-01

    minimizing modification of the classic random priority method to solve this class of problems. We also provide some logical relations in our setting among standard axioms in the literature on assignment problems, and explore the robustness of our results to several extensions of our setting....

  16. Short-Term-Effectiveness of a Relationship Education Program for Distressed Military Couples, in the Context of Foreign Assignments for the German Armed Forces. Preliminary Findings From a Randomized Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kröger, Christoph; Kliem, Sören; Zimmermann, Peter; Kowalski, Jens

    2018-04-01

    This study examines the short-term effectiveness of a relationship education program designed for military couples. Distressed couples were randomly placed in either a wait-list control group or an intervention group. We conducted training sessions before a 3-month foreign assignment, and refresher courses approximately 6-week post-assignment. We analyzed the dyadic data of 32 couples, using hierarchical linear modeling in a two-level model. Reduction in unresolved conflicts was found in the intervention group, with large pre-post effects for both partners. Relationship satisfaction scores were improved, with moderate-to-large effects only for soldiers, rather than their partners. Post-follow-up effect sizes suggested further improvement in the intervention group. Future research should examine the long-term effectiveness of this treatment. © 2017 American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy.

  17. Assignment refusal and its relation to outcome in a randomized controlled trial comparing Cognitive Therapy and Fluvoxamine in treatment-resistant patients with obsessive compulsive disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Landsheer, Johannes A.; Smit, Johannes H.; van Oppen, Patricia; van Balkom, Anton J L M

    2015-01-01

    The effectiveness of Fluvoxamine was compared to that of Cognitive Therapy (CT) in a 12-week randomized controlled trial (RCT) in 48 patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), who were treatment-resistant to a previous behavior therapy (BT). A considerable amount of patients did not comply

  18. An Interactive Computer Model for Improved Student Understanding of Random Particle Motion and Osmosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kottonau, Johannes

    2011-01-01

    Effectively teaching the concepts of osmosis to college-level students is a major obstacle in biological education. Therefore, a novel computer model is presented that allows students to observe the random nature of particle motion simultaneously with the seemingly directed net flow of water across a semipermeable membrane during osmotic…

  19. The effect of financial rewards on students' achievement: Evidence from a randomized experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leuven, E.; Oosterbeek, H.; van der Klaauw, B.

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports on a randomized field experiment in which first-year university students could earn financial rewards for passing all first-year requirements within one year. Financial incentives turn out to have positive effects on achievement of high-ability students, whereas they have a

  20. Financial Incentives and Student Achievement: Evidence from Randomized Trials. NBER Working Paper No. 15898

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryer, Roland G., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a series of school-based randomized trials in over 250 urban schools designed to test the impact of financial incentives on student achievement. In stark contrast to simple economic models, our results suggest that student incentives increase achievement when the rewards are given for inputs to the educational production…

  1. Random Variation in Student Performance by Class Size: Implications of NCLB in Rural Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetz, Stephan J.

    2005-01-01

    Schools that fail to make "adequate yearly progress" under NCLB face sanctions and may lose students to other schools. In smaller schools, random yearly variation in innate student ability and behavior can cause changes in scores that are beyond the influence of teachers. This study examines changes in reading and math scores across…

  2. Immersive and interactive virtual reality to improve learning and retention of neuroanatomy in medical students: a randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekstrand, Chelsea; Jamal, Ali; Nguyen, Ron; Kudryk, Annalise; Mann, Jennifer; Mendez, Ivar

    2018-02-23

    Spatial 3-dimensional understanding of the brain is essential to learning neuroanatomy, and 3-dimensional learning techniques have been proposed as tools to enhance neuroanatomy training. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of immersive virtual-reality neuroanatomy training and compare it to traditional paper-based methods. In this randomized controlled study, participants consisted of first- or second-year medical students from the University of Saskatchewan recruited via email and posters displayed throughout the medical school. Participants were randomly assigned to the virtual-reality group or the paper-based group and studied the spatial relations between neural structures for 12 minutes after performing a neuroanatomy baseline test, with both test and control questions. A postintervention test was administered immediately after the study period and 5-9 days later. Satisfaction measures were obtained. Of the 66 participants randomly assigned to the study groups, 64 were included in the final analysis, 31 in the virtual-reality group and 33 in the paper-based group. The 2 groups performed comparably on the baseline questions and showed significant performance improvement on the test questions following study. There were no significant differences between groups for the control questions, the postintervention test questions or the 7-day postintervention test questions. Satisfaction survey results indicated that neurophobia was decreased. Results from this study provide evidence that training in neuroanatomy in an immersive and interactive virtual-reality environment may be an effective neuroanatomy learning tool that warrants further study. They also suggest that integration of virtual-reality into neuroanatomy training may improve knowledge retention, increase study motivation and decrease neurophobia. Copyright 2018, Joule Inc. or its licensors.

  3. The influence of socioeconomic environment on the effectiveness of alcohol prevention among European students: a cluster randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faggiano Fabrizio

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although social environments may influence alcohol-related behaviours in youth, the relationship between neighbourhood socioeconomic context and effectiveness of school-based prevention against underage drinking has been insufficiently investigated. We study whether the social environment affects the impact of a new school-based prevention programme on alcohol use among European students. Methods During the school year 2004-2005, 7079 students 12-14 years of age from 143 schools in nine European centres participated in this cluster randomised controlled trial. Schools were randomly assigned to either control or a 12-session standardised curriculum based on the comprehensive social influence model. Randomisation was blocked within socioeconomic levels of the school environment. Alcohol use and alcohol-related problem behaviours were investigated through a self-completed anonymous questionnaire at baseline and 18 months thereafter. Data were analysed using multilevel models, separately by socioeconomic level. Results At baseline, adolescents in schools of low socioeconomic level were more likely to report problem drinking than other students. Participation in the programme was associated in this group with a decreased odds of reporting episodes of drunkenness (OR = 0.60, 95% CI = 0.44-0.83, intention to get drunk (OR = 0.60, 95% CI = 0.45-0.79, and marginally alcohol-related problem behaviours (OR = 0.70, 95% CI = 0.46-1.06. No significant programme's effects emerged for students in schools of medium or high socioeconomic level. Effects on frequency of alcohol consumption were also stronger among students in disadvantaged schools, although the estimates did not attain statistical significance in any subgroup. Conclusions It is plausible that comprehensive social influence programmes have a more favourable effect on problematic drinking among students in underprivileged social environments. Trial registration ISRCTN: ISRCTN

  4. Implementation and evaluation of an interprofessional simulation-based education program for undergraduate nursing students in operating room nursing education: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rongmei; Shi, Nianke; Bai, Jinbing; Zheng, Yaguang; Zhao, Yue

    2015-07-09

    The present study was designed to implement an interprofessional simulation-based education program for nursing students and evaluate the influence of this program on nursing students' attitudes toward interprofessional education and knowledge about operating room nursing. Nursing students were randomly assigned to either the interprofessional simulation-based education or traditional course group. A before-and-after study of nursing students' attitudes toward the program was conducted using the Readiness for Interprofessional Learning Scale. Responses to an open-ended question were categorized using thematic content analysis. Nursing students' knowledge about operating room nursing was measured. Nursing students from the interprofessional simulation-based education group showed statistically different responses to four of the nineteen questions in the Readiness for Interprofessional Learning Scale, reflecting a more positive attitude toward interprofessional learning. This was also supported by thematic content analysis of the open-ended responses. Furthermore, nursing students in the simulation-based education group had a significant improvement in knowledge about operating room nursing. The integrated course with interprofessional education and simulation provided a positive impact on undergraduate nursing students' perceptions toward interprofessional learning and knowledge about operating room nursing. Our study demonstrated that this course may be a valuable elective option for undergraduate nursing students in operating room nursing education.

  5. The reliability of randomly selected final year pharmacy students in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Employing ANOVA, factorial experimental analysis, and the theory of error, reliability studies were conducted on the assessment of the drug product chloroquine phosphate tablets. The G–Study employed equal numbers of the factors for uniform control, and involved three analysts (randomly selected final year Pharmacy ...

  6. The impact of expert- and peer feedback on communication skills of undergraduate dental students - a single-blinded, randomized, controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Felix; Schmalz, Gerhard; Haak, Rainer; Rockenbauch, Katrin

    2017-12-01

    To evaluate the effect of peer- and expert feedback on communication skills of undergraduate dental students. All students of the first clinical treatment course (n=46) were randomly assigned into two groups. For three times a medical-dental interview/consultation of each student with a real patient was videotaped. After every consultation the videos were assessed either by a person experienced in communication (expert group) or by a fellow student (peer group), giving the students feedback regarding their chairside performed communication skills. Before and after the feedback-interventions all students conducted an interview with simulated patients, which was rated using a validated global rating and analyzed statistically. Global ratings mean scores after feedback-intervention were significantly improved (p0.05). During this study students improved their communication skills in dentist-patient interactions. The communication experience of the feedback provider seems not to have any impact on the communication skills in undergraduate dental students. The clinical courses in dentistry offer the opportunity to implement peer-feedback interventions in real treatment situation as part of communication training to longitudinally improve communication skills. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Studying Student Benefits of Assigning a Service-Learning Project Compared to a Traditional Final Project in a Business Statistics Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelps, Amy L.; Dostilio, Lina

    2008-01-01

    The present study addresses the efficacy of using service-learning methods to meet the GAISE guidelines (http://www.amstat.org/education/gaise/GAISECollege.htm) in a second business statistics course and further explores potential advantages of assigning a service-learning (SL) project as compared to the traditional statistics project assignment.…

  8. Adolescent substance use in the multimodal treatment study of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (MTA) as a function of childhood ADHD, random assignment to childhood treatments, and subsequent medication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Brooke S G; Hinshaw, Stephen P; Eugene Arnold, L; Swanson, James M; Pelham, William E; Hechtman, Lily; Hoza, Betsy; Epstein, Jeffery N; Wigal, Timothy; Abikoff, Howard B; Greenhill, Laurence L; Jensen, Peter S; Wells, Karen C; Vitiello, Benedetto; Gibbons, Robert D; Howard, Andrea; Houck, Patricia R; Hur, Kwan; Lu, Bo; Marcus, Sue

    2013-03-01

    To determine long-term effects on substance use and substance use disorder (SUD), up to 8 years after childhood enrollment, of the randomly assigned 14-month treatments in the multisite Multimodal Treatment Study of Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (MTA; n = 436); to test whether medication at follow-up, cumulative psychostimulant treatment over time, or both relate to substance use/SUD; and to compare substance use/SUD in the ADHD sample to the non-ADHD childhood classmate comparison group (n = 261). Mixed-effects regression models with planned contrasts were used for all tests except the important cumulative stimulant treatment question, for which propensity score matching analysis was used. The originally randomized treatment groups did not differ significantly on substance use/SUD by the 8-year follow-up or earlier (mean age = 17 years). Neither medication at follow-up (mostly stimulants) nor cumulative stimulant treatment was associated with adolescent substance use/SUD. Substance use at all time points, including use of two or more substances and SUD, were each greater in the ADHD than in the non-ADHD samples, regardless of sex. Medication for ADHD did not protect from, or contribute to, visible risk of substance use or SUD by adolescence, whether analyzed as randomized treatment assignment in childhood, as medication at follow-up, or as cumulative stimulant treatment over an 8-year follow-up from childhood. These results suggest the need to identify alternative or adjunctive adolescent-focused approaches to substance abuse prevention and treatment for boys and girls with ADHD, especially given their increased risk for use and abuse of multiple substances that is not improved with stimulant medication. Clinical trial registration information-Multimodal Treatment Study of Children With Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder (MTA); http://clinical trials.gov/; NCT00000388. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Child and Adolescent

  9. Writing Assignments that Promote Active Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, M.

    2014-12-01

    Encourage students to write a detailed, analytical report correlating classroom discussions to an important historical event or a current event. Motivate students interview an expert from industry on a topic that was discussed in class. Ask the students to submit a report with supporting sketches, drawings, circuit diagrams and graphs. Propose that the students generate a complete a set of reading responses pertaining to an assigned topic. Require each student to bring in one comment or one question about an assigned reading. The assignment should be a recent publication in an appropriate journal. Have the students conduct a web search on an assigned topic. Ask them to generate a set of ideas that can relate to classroom discussions. Provide the students with a study guide. The study guide should provide about 10 or 15 short topics. Quiz the students on one or two of the topics. Encourage the students to design or develop some creative real-world examples based on a chapter discussed or a topic of interest. Require that students originate, develop, support and defend a viewpoint using a specifically assigned material. Make the students practice using or utilizing a set of new technical terms they have encountered in an assigned chapter. Have students develop original examples explaining the different terms. Ask the students to select one important terminology from the previous classroom discussions. Encourage the students to explain why they selected that particular word. Ask them to talk about the importance of the terminology from the point of view of their educational objectives and future career. Angelo, T. A. (1991). Ten easy pieces: Assessing higher learning in four dimensions. In T. A. Angelo (Ed.), Classroom research: Early lessons from success (pp. 17-31). New Directions for Teaching and Learning, No. 46. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

  10. Self-Reported Drug and Alcohol Use and Attitudes toward Drug Testing in High Schools with Random Student Drug Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuPont, Robert L.; Campbell, Michael D.; Campbell, Teresa G.; Shea, Corinne L.; DuPont, Helen S.

    2013-01-01

    Many schools implement random student drug testing (RSDT) programs as a drug prevention strategy. This study analyzes self-report surveys of students in eight secondary schools with well-established RSDT programs, comparing students who understood they were subject to testing and students who understood they were not subject to testing. Students…

  11. High School Students with Reading Comprehension Difficulties: Results of a Randomized Control Trial of a Two-Year Reading Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughn, Sharon; Roberts, Greg; Wexler, Jade; Vaughn, Michael G.; Fall, Anna-Mária; Schnakenberg, Jennifer B.

    2015-01-01

    A 2-year, randomized control trial with 9th to 10th grade students with significant reading problems was provided for 50 minutes a day in small groups. Comparison students were provided an elective class and treatment students the reading intervention. Students were identified as demonstrating reading difficulties through failure on their state…

  12. An Examination of Secondary School Students' Academic Achievement in Science Course and Achievement Scores in Performance Assignments with Regard to Different Variables: A Boarding School Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozdogan, Aykut Emre; Günaydin, Esra; Okur, Alperen

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study is to explore the academic achievement and performance tasks of students studying in a regional primary boarding school in science course with regard to different variables. The study was carried out via survey method and total 96 students, 57 of them boarding students and 39 of them non-boarding students studying in the 5th,…

  13. Effects of Assertiveness Training and Expressive Writing on Acculturative Stress in International Students: A Randomized Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakoli, Shedeh; Lumley, Mark A.; Hijazi, Alaa M.; Slavin-Spenny, Olga M.; Parris, George P.

    2009-01-01

    International university students often experience acculturative stress, and culturally appropriate techniques to manage stress are needed. This randomized trial tested the effects of group assertiveness training, private expressive writing, their combination, and a wait-list control on the acculturative stress, affect, and health of 118…

  14. Mainstreaming Remedial Mathematics Students in Introductory Statistics: Results Using a Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logue, Alexandra W.; Watanabe-Rose, Mari

    2014-01-01

    This study used a randomized controlled trial to determine whether students, assessed by their community colleges as needing an elementary algebra (remedial) mathematics course, could instead succeed at least as well in a college-level, credit-bearing introductory statistics course with extra support (a weekly workshop). Researchers randomly…

  15. Postgraduate diploma collaborative assignment: Implications for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Postgraduate diploma collaborative assignment: Implications for ESL students ... and collaborative teaching/learning model involving the major course convenors. ... The quality of the work and mood of all concerned improved tremendously.

  16. PBL and critical thinking disposition in Chinese medical students – A randomized cross-sectional stu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XiangYun Du

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship of problem-based learning (PBL and the development of critical thinking disposition (CT and academic achievement in Chinese medical students using a cross-sectional randomized design. Medical students from China Medical University (CMU were randomized to PBL or non-PBL teaching at the commencement of the study. After five years of study, CT was scored by a Chinese version of the California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory (CCTDI-CV. The score achieved on a Computer Case Simulation (CCS test evaluated academic performance. Total CT score was higher in PBL students (n=170 than non-PBL students (n=83 (304.7±36.8 vs. 279.2±39.4, p < 0.01. Subscale CT-scores were significant in favor of PBL in six of the seven subscales (truth seeking, open-mindedness, analyticity, systematicity, inquisitiveness, maturity. There was no significant difference in terms of gender on the total CT score, though minor differences were seen in subscales favoring female PBL students. PBL students had higher CCS scores than non-PBL students, but not significantly (112.8±20.6 vs. 107.3±16.5; p=0.11. There was no significant correlation between CCS scores and CCTDI-CV results. Male students scored slightly higher on the CCS test compared to female students (male 113.4±18.9 vs. female 109.7±19.7, but the difference was not significant. This study concludes that in Chinese medical students, PBL teaching was related to a higher disposition of critical thinking, but not to improved academic skills.

  17. On the density of the sum of two independent Student t-random vectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Christian; Vignat, Christophe

    2010-01-01

    -vector. In both cases the density is given as an infinite series $\\sum_{n=0}^\\infty c_nf_n$ where f_n is a sequence of probability densities on R^d and c_n is a sequence of positive numbers of sum 1, i.e. the distribution of a non-negative integer-valued random variable C, which turns out to be infinitely......In this paper, we find an expression for the density of the sum of two independent d-dimensional Student t-random vectors X and Y with arbitrary degrees of freedom. As a byproduct we also obtain an expression for the density of the sum N+X, where N is normal and X is an independent Student t...... divisible for d=1 and d=2.  When d=1 and the degrees of freedom of the Student variables are equal, we recover an old result of Ruben.  ...

  18. Comprehensive self-control training benefits depressed college students: A six-month randomized controlled intervention trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xueling; Zhao, Jiubo; Chen, Yu; Zu, Simeng; Zhao, Jingbo

    2018-01-15

    Depressive disorder was associated with dysfunctional self-regulation. The current study attempted to design and test a comprehensive self-control training (CSCT) program with an overall emphasis on behaviral activation in depressed Chinese college students. Participants included 74 students who had diagnosed with major depression, they were randomly assigned to one of the two groups: intervention group (n=37), and control group (n=37). The intervention participants received an eight-week CSCT and four-month follow-up consolidation program, as compared to the control group who received only pre-post-and-follow-up measurements. All participants measured Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-Ⅱ) and Self-control Scale (SCS) at three time points: baseline, post-training, and four-month follow-up. The dropout rates were 6 (8.1%) in the intervention group and 3 (4.1%) in the control group at the end of six-month intervention. The general linear model repeated measures analysis of variance revealed that comparing with the control group, the intervention group participants had more increase in their trait self-control score, at the meantime, their depressive symptoms had significantly improved. Univariate and logistic regression analyses revealed that participants with milder baseline depressive symptoms were more likely to benefit from CSCT interventions; depression improvement was also associated with the number of sessions attended. The main limitation was related to the small sample size which consisted of college students who were relatively young and well educated. The current study demonstrates that CSCT program could temporarily enhance self-control capacity as well as improve depressive symptoms; participants who are mildly to moderately depressed, and who could adhere to the training protocol are more likely to benefit from the intervention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Pilot randomized controlled trial of dialectical behavior therapy group skills training for ADHD among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Andrew P; McMahon, Robert J; Moran, Lyndsey R; Peterson, A Paige; Dreessen, Anthony

    2015-03-01

    ADHD affects between 2% and 8% of college students and is associated with broad functional impairment. No prior randomized controlled trials with this population have been published. The present study is a pilot randomized controlled trial evaluating dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) group skills training adapted for college students with ADHD. Thirty-three undergraduates with ADHD between ages 18 and 24 were randomized to receive either DBT group skills training or skills handouts during an 8-week intervention phase. ADHD symptoms, executive functioning (EF), and related outcomes were assessed at baseline, post-treatment, and 3-month follow-up. Participants receiving DBT group skills training showed greater treatment response rates (59-65% vs. 19-25%) and clinical recovery rates (53-59% vs. 6-13%) on ADHD symptoms and EF, and greater improvements in quality of life. DBT group skills training may be efficacious, acceptable, and feasible for treating ADHD among college students. A larger randomized trial is needed for further evaluation. © 2014 SAGE Publications.

  20. Dental Students' Perceptions of Digital and Conventional Impression Techniques: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zitzmann, Nicola U; Kovaltschuk, Irina; Lenherr, Patrik; Dedem, Philipp; Joda, Tim

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this randomized controlled trial was to analyze inexperienced dental students' perceptions of the difficulty and applicability of digital and conventional implant impressions and their preferences including performance. Fifty undergraduate dental students at a dental school in Switzerland were randomly divided into two groups (2×25). Group A first took digital impressions in a standardized phantom model and then conventional impressions, while the procedures were reversed for Group B. Participants were asked to complete a VAS questionnaire (0-100) on the level of difficulty and applicability (user/patient-friendliness) of both techniques. They were asked which technique they preferred and perceived to be more efficient. A quotient of "effective scan time per software-recorded time" (TRIOS) was calculated as an objective quality indicator for intraoral optical scanning (IOS). The majority of students perceived IOS as easier than the conventional technique. Most (72%) preferred the digital approach using IOS to take the implant impression to the conventional method (12%) or had no preference (12%). Although total work was similar for males and females, the TRIOS quotient indicated that male students tended to use their time more efficiently. In this study, dental students with no clinical experience were very capable of acquiring digital tools, indicating that digital impression techniques can be included early in the dental curriculum to help them catch up with ongoing development in computer-assisted technologies used in oral rehabilitation.

  1. Fair Package Assignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahaie, Sébastien; Parkes, David C.

    We consider the problem of fair allocation in the package assignment model, where a set of indivisible items, held by single seller, must be efficiently allocated to agents with quasi-linear utilities. A fair assignment is one that is efficient and envy-free. We consider a model where bidders have superadditive valuations, meaning that items are pure complements. Our central result is that core outcomes are fair and even coalition-fair over this domain, while fair distributions may not even exist for general valuations. Of relevance to auction design, we also establish that the core is equivalent to the set of anonymous-price competitive equilibria, and that superadditive valuations are a maximal domain that guarantees the existence of anonymous-price competitive equilibrium. Our results are analogs of core equivalence results for linear prices in the standard assignment model, and for nonlinear, non-anonymous prices in the package assignment model with general valuations.

  2. Historical WBAN ID Assignments

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — 4"x6" index cards represent the first written assignments of Weather Bureau Army Navy (WBAN) station identifier numbers by the National Climatic Data Center....

  3. Dynamic Sequence Assignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-12-01

    D-136 548 DYNAMIIC SEQUENCE ASSIGNMENT(U) ADVANCED INFORMATION AND 1/2 DECISION SYSTEMS MOUNTAIN YIELW CA C A 0 REILLY ET AL. UNCLSSIIED DEC 83 AI/DS...I ADVANCED INFORMATION & DECISION SYSTEMS Mountain View. CA 94040 84 u ,53 V,..’. Unclassified _____ SCURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE REPORT...reviews some important heuristic algorithms developed for fas- ter solution of the sequence assignment problem. 3.1. DINAMIC MOGRAMUNIG FORMULATION FOR

  4. The influence of fidelity of implementation on teacher-student interaction quality in the context of a randomized controlled trial of the Responsive Classroom approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abry, Tashia; Rimm-Kaufman, Sara E; Larsen, Ross A; Brewer, Alexis J

    2013-08-01

    This study examined the direct and indirect effects between training in the Responsive Classroom® (RC) approach, teachers' uptake of RC practices, and teacher-student interaction quality, using a structural equation modeling framework. A total of 24 schools were randomly assigned to experimental or control conditions. Third- and fourth-grade teachers in treatment schools (n=132) received training in the RC approach, whereas teachers in control schools (n=107) continued "business as usual." Observers rated teachers' fidelity of implementation (FOI) of RC practices 5 times throughout the year using the Classroom Practices Observation Measure. In addition, teachers completed self-report measures of FOI, the Classroom Practices Teacher Survey and Classroom Practices Frequency Survey, at the end of the school year. Teacher-student interactions were rated during classroom observations using the Classroom Assessment Scoring System. Controlling for teachers' grade level and teacher-student interaction quality at pretest, RC training was expected to predict posttest teacher-student interaction quality directly and indirectly through FOI. Results supported only a significant indirect effect, β=0.85, p=.002. Specifically, RC teachers had higher levels of FOI of RC practices, β=1.62, pteacher-student interaction quality, β=0.52, p=.001, R2=.32. Discussion highlights factors contributing to variability in FOI and school administrators roles in supporting FOI. Copyright © 2013 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. A Randomized Controlled Trial Comparing the Attention Training Technique and Mindful Self-Compassion for Students With Symptoms of Depression and Anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ragni B. Haukaas

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The Attention Training Technique (ATT and Mindful Self-Compassion (MSC are two promising psychological interventions. ATT is a 12-min auditory exercise designed to strengthen attentional control and promote external focus of attention, while MSC uses guided meditation and exercises designed to promote self-compassion. In this randomized controlled trial (RCT, a three-session intervention trial was conducted in which university students were randomly assigned to either an ATT-group (n = 40 or a MSC-group (n = 41. The students were not assessed with diagnostic interviews but had self-reported symptoms of depression, anxiety, or stress. Participants listened to audiotapes of ATT or MSC before discussing in groups how to apply these principles for their everyday struggles. Participants also listened to audiotapes of ATT and MSC as homework between sessions. Participants in both groups showed significant reductions in symptoms of anxiety and depression accompanied by significant increases in mindfulness, self-compassion, and attention flexibility post-intervention. These results were maintained at 6-month follow-up. Improvement in attention flexibility was the only significant unique predictor of treatment response. The study supports the use of both ATT and MSC for students with symptoms of depression and anxiety. Further, it suggests that symptom improvement is related to changes in attention flexibility across both theoretical frameworks. Future studies should focus on how to strengthen the ability for attention flexibility to optimize treatment for emotional disorder.

  6. Autogenic training to reduce anxiety in nursing students: randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanji, Nasim; White, Adrian; Ernst, Edzard

    2006-03-01

    This paper reports a study to determine the effectiveness of autogenic training in reducing anxiety in nursing students. Nursing is stressful, and nursing students also have the additional pressures and uncertainties shared with all academic students. Autogenic training is a relaxation technique consisting of six mental exercises and is aimed at relieving tension, anger and stress. Meta-analysis has found large effect sizes for autogenic trainings intervention comparisons, medium effect sizes against control groups, and no effects when compared with other psychological therapies. A controlled trial with 50 nursing students found that the number of certified days off sick was reduced by autogenic training compared with no treatment, and a second trial with only 18 students reported greater improvement in Trait Anxiety, but not State Anxiety, compared with untreated controls. A randomized controlled trial with three parallel arms was completed in 1998 with 93 nursing students aged 19-49 years. The setting was a university college in the United Kingdom. The treatment group received eight weekly sessions of autogenic training, the attention control group received eight weekly sessions of laughter therapy, and the time control group received no intervention. The outcome measures were the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, the Maslach Burnout Inventory, blood pressure and pulse rate completed at baseline, 2 months (end of treatment), and 5, 8, and 11 months from randomization. There was a statistically significantly greater reduction of State (Pautogenic training group than in both other groups immediately after treatment. There were no differences between the groups for the Maslach Burnout Inventory. The autogenic training group also showed statistically significantly greater reduction immediately after treatment in systolic (PAutogenic training has at least a short-term effect in alleviating stress in nursing students.

  7. Effects of Higher and Lower Level Writing-To-Learn Assignments on Higher and Lower Level Examination Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevid, Jeffrey S.; Ambrose, Michael A.; Pyun, Yea Seul

    2017-01-01

    Our study examined whether brief writing-to-learn assignments linked to lower and higher levels in Bloom's taxonomy affected performance differentially on examination performance in assessing these skill levels. Using a quasi-random design, 91 undergraduate students in an introductory psychology class completed eight lower level and eight higher…

  8. Effectiveness of an Internet- and App-Based Intervention for College Students With Elevated Stress: Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrer, Mathias; Adam, Sophia Helen; Fleischmann, Rebecca Jessica; Baumeister, Harald; Auerbach, Randy; Bruffaerts, Ronny; Cuijpers, Pim; Kessler, Ronald C; Berking, Matthias; Lehr, Dirk; Ebert, David Daniel

    2018-04-23

    Mental health problems are highly prevalent among college students. Most students with poor mental health, however, do not receive professional help. Internet-based self-help formats may increase the utilization of treatment. The aim of this randomized controlled trial was to evaluate the efficacy of an internet-based, app-supported stress management intervention for college students. College students (n=150) with elevated levels of stress (Perceived Stress Scale 4-item version, PSS-4 ≥8) were randomly assigned to either an internet- and mobile-based stress intervention group with feedback on demand or a waitlist control group. Self-report data were assessed at baseline, posttreatment (7 weeks), and 3-month follow-up. The primary outcome was perceived stress posttreatment (PSS-4). Secondary outcomes included mental health outcomes, modifiable risk and protective factors, and college-related outcomes. Subgroup analyses were conducted in students with clinically relevant symptoms of depression (Center for Epidemiological Studies' Depression Scale >17). A total of 106 participants (76.8%) indicated that they were first-time help-seekers, and 77.3% (intervention group: 58/75; waitlist control group: 58/75) showed clinically relevant depressive symptoms at baseline. Findings indicated significant effects of the intervention compared with the waitlist control group for stress (d=0.69; 95% CI 0.36-1.02), anxiety (d=0.76; 95% CI 0.43-1.09), depression (d=0.63; 95% CI 0.30-0.96), college-related productivity (d=0.33; 95% CI 0.01-0.65), academic work impairment (d=0.34; 95% CI 0.01-0.66), and other outcomes after 7 weeks (posttreatment). Response rates for stress symptoms were significantly higher for the intervention group (69%, 52/75) compared with the waitlist control group (35%, 26/75, P<.001; number needed to treat=2.89, 95% CI 2.01-5.08) at posttest (7 weeks). Effects were sustained at 3-month follow-up, and similar findings emerged in students with symptoms of

  9. FLEET ASSIGNMENT MODELLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the airline scheduling process and methods of its modeling. This article describes the main stages of airline scheduling process (scheduling, fleet assignment, revenue management, operations, their features and interactions. The main part of scheduling process is fleet assignment. The optimal solution of the fleet assignment problem enables airlines to increase their incomes up to 3 % due to quality improving of connections and execution of the planned number of flights operated by less number of aircraft than usual or planned earlier. Fleet assignment of scheduling process is examined and Conventional Leg-Based Fleet Assignment Model is analyzed. Finally strong and weak aspects of the model (SWOT are released and applied. The article gives a critical analysis of FAM model, with the purpose of identi- fying possible options and constraints of its use (for example, in cases of short-term and long-term planning, changing the schedule or replacing the aircraft, as well as possible ways to improve the model.

  10. Solution-Focused Wellness: A Randomized Controlled Trial of College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchemin, James D

    2018-05-01

    Heightened stress levels and compromised well-being are common among college students. Current trends on college campuses include an increase in the number of students experiencing mental health issues and an increase in students seeking help, illustrating a need for evidence-based brief interventions that improve student wellness. This research study used a randomized controlled study design to examine the effects of a short-term (seven-week), solution-focused wellness intervention on perceived stress and wellness of college students. Repeated measures analysis of variance results demonstrated that the effect of group membership across time was significant for both perceived wellness and stress (p < .01). Effect sizes using partial eta2 statistics were large for both outcome variables. Findings indicate that a brief solution-focused wellness intervention can significantly improve perceptions of wellness and reduce stress among college students and is more effective than treatment as usual. Intervention replicability allows for dissemination across varied academic groups and locations, and potential generalization across populations.

  11. My Favorite Assignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ABCA Bulletin, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Presents three ideas for use in business communication courses: (1) using advertisements to teach sales writing, (2) establishing strong student-teacher relationships, and (3) using proposal writing to increase student interest in business communication. (FL)

  12. Reducing absenteeism from gastrointestinal and respiratory illness in elementary school students: a randomized, controlled trial of an infection-control intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandora, Thomas J; Shih, Mei-Chiung; Goldmann, Donald A

    2008-06-01

    Students often miss school because of gastrointestinal and respiratory illnesses. We assessed the effectiveness of a multifactorial intervention, including alcohol-based hand-sanitizer and surface disinfection, in reducing absenteeism caused by gastrointestinal and respiratory illnesses in elementary school students. We performed a school-based cluster-randomized, controlled trial at a single elementary school. Eligible students in third to fifth grade were enrolled. Intervention classrooms received alcohol-based hand sanitizer to use at school and quaternary ammonium wipes to disinfect classroom surfaces daily for 8 weeks; control classrooms followed usual hand-washing and cleaning practices. Parents completed a preintervention demographic survey. Absences were recorded along with the reason for absence. Swabs of environmental surfaces were evaluated by bacterial culture and polymerase chain reaction for norovirus, respiratory syncytial virus, influenza, and parainfluenza 3. The primary outcomes were rates of absenteeism caused by gastrointestinal or respiratory illness. Days absent were modeled as correlated Poisson variables and compared between groups by using generalized estimating equations. Analyses were adjusted for family size, race, health status, and home sanitizer use. We also compared the presence of viruses and the total bacterial colony counts on several classroom surfaces. A total of 285 students were randomly assigned; baseline demographics were similar in the 2 groups. The adjusted absenteeism rate for gastrointestinal illness was significantly lower in the intervention-group subjects compared with control subjects. The adjusted absenteeism rate for respiratory illness was not significantly different between groups. Norovirus was the only virus detected and was found less frequently on surfaces in intervention classrooms compared with control classrooms (9% vs 29%). A multifactorial intervention including hand sanitizer and surface disinfection

  13. Comparison of the effectiveness of two styles of case-based learning implemented in lectures for developing nursing students' critical thinking ability: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Shaohua; Yu, Ping

    2017-03-01

    To explore and compare the effectiveness of two styles of case-based learning methods, unfolding nursing case and usual nursing case, implemented in lectures for developing nursing students' critical thinking ability. 122 undergraduate nursing students in four classes were taught the subject of medical nursing for one year. Two classes were randomly assigned as the experimental group and the other two the control group. The experimental group received the lectures presenting unfolding nursing cases and the control group was taught the usual cases. Nineteen case-based lectures were provided in 8 months in two semesters to each group. The two groups started with a similar level of critical thinking ability as tested by the instrument of Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory-Chinese version (CTDI-CV). After receiving 19 case-based learning lectures for 8 months, both groups of students significantly improved their critical thinking ability. The improvement in the experimental group was significantly higher than that in the control group (with the average total score of 303.77±15.24 vs. 288.34±13.94, plearning in lectures. Unfolding nursing cases appear to be significantly more effective than the usual nursing cases in developing undergraduate nursing students' critical thinking ability in the subject of medical nursing. Further research can implement the unfolding nursing cases in other nursing subjects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Task assignment and coaching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dominguez-Martinez, S.

    2009-01-01

    An important task of a manager is to motivate her subordinates. One way in which a manager can give incentives to junior employees is through the assignment of tasks. How a manager allocates tasks in an organization, provides information to the junior employees about his ability. Without coaching

  15. Measles virus antibody responses in children randomly assigned to receive standard-titer edmonston-zagreb measles vaccine at 4.5 and 9 months of age, 9 months of age, or 9 and 18 months of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Cesario; Garly, May-Lill; Bale, Carlitos; Rodrigues, Amabelia; Njie-Jobe, Jainaba; Benn, Christine S; Whittle, Hilton; Aaby, Peter

    2014-09-01

    The World Health Organization recommends administration of measles vaccine (MV) at age 9 months in low-income countries. We tested the measles virus antibody response at 4.5, 9, 18, and 24 months of age for children randomly assigned to receive standard-titer Edmonston-Zagreb MV at 4.5 and 9 months, at 9 months, or at 9 and 18 months of age. At 4.5 months of age, 75% had nonprotective measles virus antibody levels. Following receipt of MV at 4.5 months of age, 77% (316/408) had protective antibody levels at 9 months of age; after a second dose at 9 months of age, 97% (326/337) had protective levels at 24 months of age. In addition, the response at both 9 and 24 months of age was inversely correlated with the antibody level at receipt of the first dose of MV, and the second dose of MV, received at 9 months of age, provided a significant boost in antibody level to children who had low antibody levels. In the group of 318 children who received MV at 9 months of age, with or without a second dose at 18 months of age, 99% (314) had protective levels at 24 months of age. The geometric mean titer at 24 months of age was significantly lower in the group that received MV at 4.5 and 9 months of age than in the group that received MV at 9 months of age (P = .0001). In conclusion, an early 2-dose MV schedule was associated with protective measles virus antibody levels at 24 months of age in nearly all children. Clinical Trials Registration. NCT00168558. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Effects of Music Therapy on the Cardiovascular and Autonomic Nervous System in Stress-Induced University Students: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyoung Soon; Jeong, Hyeon Cheol; Yim, Jong Eun; Jeon, Mi Yang

    2016-01-01

    Stress is caused when a particular relationship between the individual and the environment emerges. Specifically, stress occurs when an individual's abilities are challenged or when one's well-being is threatened by excessive environmental demands. The aim of this study was to measure the effects of music therapy on stress in university students. Randomized controlled trial. Sixty-four students were randomly assigned to the experimental group (n = 33) or the control group (n = 31). Music therapy. Initial measurement included cardiovascular indicators (blood pressure and pulse), autonomic nervous activity (standard deviation of the normal-to-normal intervals [SDNN], normalized low frequency, normalized high frequency, low/high frequency), and subjective stress. After the first measurement, participants in both groups were exposed to a series of stressful tasks, and then a second measurement was conducted. The experimental group then listened to music for 20 minutes and the control group rested for 20 minutes. A third and final measurement was then taken. There were no significant differences between the two groups in the first or second measurement. However, after music therapy, the experimental group and the control group showed significant differences in all variables, including systolic blood pressure (p = .026), diastolic blood pressure (p = .037), pulse (p music tends to relax the body and may stimulate the parasympathetic nervous system. These results suggest music therapy as an intervention for stress reduction.

  17. Using Sleep Interventions to Engage and Treat Heavy-Drinking College Students: A Randomized Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fucito, Lisa M.; DeMartini, Kelly S.; Hanrahan, Tess H.; Yaggi, Henry Klar; Heffern, Christina; Redeker, Nancy S.

    2017-01-01

    Background Continued high alcohol consumption levels by college students highlight the need for more effective alcohol interventions and novel treatment engagement strategies. The purpose of this study was to investigate a behavioral sleep intervention as a means to engage heavy-drinking college students in treatment and reduce alcohol use and alcohol-related consequences. Methods Heavy-drinking college students (N=42) were assigned to 1 of 2 web-based interventions comprised of 4 modules delivered over 4 weeks. The experimental intervention focused primarily on sleep and included evidence-based sleep content (i.e., stimulus control instructions, sleep scheduling (consistent bed/rise times; ideal sleep duration for adolescents/young adults), sleep hygiene advice, relaxation training, cognitive strategies to target sleep-disruptive beliefs) and alcohol content (i.e., normative and blood alcohol level feedback, moderate drinking guidelines, controlled drinking strategies, effects of alcohol on sleep and the body, advice to moderate drinking for improved sleep) in young adults. The healthy behaviors control condition provided basic advice about nutrition, exercise, sleep (i.e., good sleep hygiene only) and drinking (i.e., effects of alcohol on the body, moderate drinking guidelines, advice to moderate drinking for sleep). Participants in both conditions monitored their sleep using daily web-based diaries and a wrist-worn sleep tracker. Results Recruitment ads targeting college students with sleep concerns effectively identified heavy-drinking students. The program generated a high number of inquiries and treatment completion rates were high. Both interventions significantly reduced typical week drinking and alcohol-related consequences and improved sleep quality and sleep-related impairment ratings. The control condition yielded greater reductions in total drinks in a heaviest drinking week. The effects on drinking were larger than those observed in typical brief

  18. One of My Favorite Assignments: Automated Teller Machine Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberman, Paul S.

    2001-01-01

    Describes an assignment for an introductory computer science class that requires the student to write a software program that simulates an automated teller machine. Highlights include an algorithm for the assignment; sample file contents; language features used; assignment variations; and discussion points. (LRW)

  19. Long-term risk of carotid restenosis in patients randomly assigned to endovascular treatment or endarterectomy in the Carotid and Vertebral Artery Transluminal Angioplasty Study (CAVATAS): long-term follow-up of a randomised trial.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bonati, Leo H

    2009-10-01

    In the Carotid and Vertebral Artery Transluminal Angioplasty Study (CAVATAS), early recurrent carotid stenosis was more common in patients assigned to endovascular treatment than it was in patients assigned to endarterectomy (CEA), raising concerns about the long-term effectiveness of endovascular treatment. We aimed to investigate the long-term risks of restenosis in patients included in CAVATAS.

  20. Personnel dose assignment practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fix, J.J.

    1993-04-01

    Implementation of DOE N 5480.6 Radiological Control Manual Article 511(3) requirements, to minimize the assignment of personnel dosimeters, should be done only under a broader context ensuring that capabilities are in place to monitor and record personnel exposure both for compliance and for potential litigation. As noted in NCRP Report No. 114, personnel dosimetry programs are conducted to meet four major objectives: radiation safety program control and evaluation; regulatory compliance; epidemiological research; and litigation. A change to Article 511(3) is proposed that would require that minimizing the assignment of personnel dosimeters take place only following full evaluation of overall capabilities (e.g., access control, area dosimetry, etc.) to meet the NCRP objectives

  1. Effects of Brief Psychoeducational Program on Stigma in Malaysian Pre-clinical Medical Students: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Aaron; Tan, Kit-Aun; Knaak, Stephanie; Chew, Boon How; Ghazali, Sazlina Shariff

    2016-12-01

    If presented with serious mental illness (SMI), individuals' low help-seeking behaviors and poor adherence to treatment are associated with negative stereotypes and attitudes of healthcare providers. In this study, we examined the effects of a brief psychoeducational program on reducing stigma in pre-clinical medical students. One hundred and two pre-clinical medical students (20-23 years old) were randomly assigned to face-to-face contact + educational lecture (n = 51) condition or video-based contact + educational lecture (n = 51) condition. Measures of pre-clinical medical students' mental illness-related stigma using the Opening Minds Stigma Scale for Health Care Providers (OMS-HC) were administered at pre-, post-treatment, and 1-month follow-up. A 2 (condition: face-to-face contact + educational lecture, video-based contact + educational lecture) by 3 (time: pre-treatment, post-treatment, and 1-month follow-up) mixed model MANOVA was conducted on the Attitudes, Disclosure and Help-Seeking, and Social Distance OMS-HC subscales. Participants' scores on all subscales changed significantly across time, regardless of conditions. To determine how participants' scores changed significantly over time on each subscale, Bonferroni follow-up comparisons were performed to access pairwise differences for the main effect of time. Specifically, pairwise comparisons produced a significant reduction in Social Distance subscale between pre-treatment and post-treatment and between pre-treatment and 1-month follow-up, and a significant increase between post-treatment and 1-month follow-up, regardless of conditions. With respect to the Attitudes and Disclosure and Help-Seeking subscales, pairwise comparisons produced a significant reduction in scores between pre-treatment and post-treatment and a significant increase between post-treatment and 1-month follow-up. Our findings provide additional evidence that educational lecture on mental illness, coupled

  2. Effectiveness of an internet- and app-based intervention for college students with elevated stress : Randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harrer, Mathias; Adam, Sophia Helen; Fleischmann, Rebecca Jessica; Baumeister, Harald; Auerbach, Randy; Bruffaerts, Ronny; Cuijpers, Pim; Kessler, Ronald C.; Berking, Matthias; Lehr, Dirk; Ebert, David Daniel

    2018-01-01

    Background: Mental health problems are highly prevalent among college students. Most students with poor mental health, however, do not receive professional help. Internet-based self-help formats may increase the utilization of treatment. Objective: The aim of this randomized controlled trial was to

  3. A Multisite Randomized Trial of Social Norms Marketing Campaigns to Reduce College Student Drinking: A Replication Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeJong, William; Schneider, Shari Kessel; Towvim, Laura Gomberg; Murphy, Melissa J.; Doerr, Emily E.; Simonsen, Neal R.; Mason, Karen E.; Scribner, Richard A.

    2009-01-01

    A 14-site randomized trial tested the effectiveness of social norms marketing (SNM) campaigns, which present accurate student survey data in order to correct misperceptions of subjective drinking norms and thereby drive down alcohol use. Cross-sectional student surveys were conducted by mail at baseline and at posttest 3 years later. Hierarchical…

  4. All4You! A Randomized Trial of an HIV, Other STDs, and Pregnancy Prevention Intervention for Alternative School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyle, Karin K.; Kirby, Douglas B.; Robin, Leah E.; Banspach, Stephen W.; Baumler, Elizabeth; Glassman, Jill R.

    2006-01-01

    This study evaluated All4You!, a theoretically based curriculum designed to reduce sexual risk behaviors associated with HIV, other STDs, and unintended pregnancy among students in alternative schools. The study featured a randomized controlled trial involving 24 community day schools in northern California. A cohort of 988 students was assessed…

  5. Task assignment and coaching

    OpenAIRE

    Dominguez-Martinez, S.

    2009-01-01

    An important task of a manager is to motivate her subordinates. One way in which a manager can give incentives to junior employees is through the assignment of tasks. How a manager allocates tasks in an organization, provides information to the junior employees about his ability. Without coaching from a manager, the junior employee only has information about his past performance. Based on his past performance, a talented junior who has performed a difficult task sometimes decides to leave the...

  6. The Use of Online Pre-Lab Assessments Compared with Written Pre-Lab Assignments Requiring Experimental Result Prediction Shows No Difference in Student Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Erica L. Suchman

    2015-01-01

    Exam performance was compared for students who hand wrote questions designed to prepare them for daily lab activities in a senior level virology laboratory course versus those who answered questions created to mirror the written questions on-line.  No significant difference was noted in exam scores on any of the three midterms, written final exam, nor the practical exam.  Neither was there a significant difference in the quality of the laboratory reports turned in as evidenced by similar aver...

  7. Mobile phone brief intervention applications for risky alcohol use among university students: a randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajecki, Mikael; Berman, Anne H; Sinadinovic, Kristina; Rosendahl, Ingvar; Andersson, Claes

    2014-07-02

    Brief interventions via the internet have been shown to reduce university students' alcohol intake. This study tested two smartphone applications (apps) targeting drinking choices on party occasions, with the goal of reducing problematic alcohol intake among Swedish university students. Students were recruited via e-mails sent to student union members at two universities. Those who gave informed consent, had a smartphone, and showed risky alcohol consumption according to the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) were randomized into three groups. Group 1 had access to the Swedish government alcohol monopoly's app, Promillekoll, offering real-time estimated blood alcohol concentration (eBAC) calculation; Group 2 had access to a web-based app, PartyPlanner, developed by the research group, offering real-time eBAC calculation with planning and follow-up functions; and Group 3 participants were controls. Follow-up was conducted at 7 weeks. Among 28574 students offered participation, 4823 agreed to join; 415 were excluded due to incomplete data, and 1932 fulfilled eligibility criteria for randomization. Attrition was 22.7-39.3 percent, higher among heavier drinkers and highest in Group 2. Self-reported app use was higher in Group 1 (74%) compared to Group 2 (41%). Per-protocol analyses revealed only one significant time-by-group interaction, where Group 1 participants increased the frequency of their drinking occasions compared to controls (p = 0.001). Secondary analyses by gender showed a significant difference among men in Group 1 for frequency of drinking occasions per week (p = 0.001), but not among women. Among all participants, 29 percent showed high-risk drinking, over the recommended weekly drinking levels of 9 (women) and 14 (men) standard glasses. Smartphone apps can make brief interventions available to large numbers of university students. The apps studied using eBAC calculation did not, however, seem to affect alcohol consumption among

  8. Randomized Control Trial of COMPASS for Improving Transition Outcomes of Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruble, Lisa A; McGrew, John H; Toland, Michael; Dalrymple, Nancy; Adams, Medina; Snell-Rood, Claire

    2018-06-01

    The postsecondary outcomes of individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are significantly worse than peers with other disabilities. One problem is the lack of empirically-supported transition planning interventions to guide services and help produce better outcomes. We applied an implementation science approach to adapt and modify an evidence-based consultation intervention originally tested with young children called the Collaborative Model for Promoting Competence and Success (COMPASS; Ruble et al., The collaborative model for promoting competence and success for students with ASD. Springer, New York, 2012a) and evaluate it for efficacy in a randomized controlled trial for transition-age youth. Results replicated findings with younger students with ASD that IEP outcomes were higher for COMPASS compared to the placebo control group (d = 2.1). Consultant fidelity was high and teacher adherence improved over time, replicating the importance of ongoing teacher coaching.

  9. Alcohol Use and Problems in Mandated College Students: A Randomized Clinical Trial Using Stepped Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borsari, Brian; Hustad, John T.P.; Mastroleo, Nadine R.; Tevyaw, Tracy O’Leary; Barnett, Nancy P.; Kahler, Christopher W.; Short, Erica Eaton; Monti, Peter M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Over the past two decades, colleges and universities have seen a large increase in the number of students referred to the administration for alcohol policies violations. However, a substantial portion of mandated students may not require extensive treatment. Stepped care may maximize treatment efficiency and greatly reduce the demands on campus alcohol programs. Method Participants in the study (N = 598) were college students mandated to attend an alcohol program following a campus-based alcohol citation. All participants received Step 1: a 15-minute Brief Advice session that included the provision of a booklet containing advice to reduce drinking. Participants were assessed six weeks after receiving the Brief Advice, and those who continued to exhibit risky alcohol use (n = 405) were randomized to Step 2, a 60–90 minute brief motivational intervention (BMI) (n = 211) or an assessment-only control (n = 194). Follow-up assessments were conducted 3, 6, and 9 months after Step 2. Results Results indicated that the participants who received a BMI significantly reduced the number of alcohol-related problems compared to those who received assessment-only, despite no significant group differences in alcohol use. In addition, low risk drinkers (n = 102; who reported low alcohol use and related harms at 6-week follow-up and were not randomized to stepped care) showed a stable alcohol use pattern throughout the follow-up period, indicating they required no additional intervention. Conclusion Stepped care is an efficient and cost-effective method to reduce harms associated with alcohol use by mandated students. PMID:22924334

  10. Teaching of evidence-based medicine to medical students in Mexico: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez-Mendiola Melchor

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM is an important competency for the healthcare professional. Experimental evidence of EBM educational interventions from rigorous research studies is limited. The main objective of this study was to assess EBM learning (knowledge, attitudes and self-reported skills in undergraduate medical students with a randomized controlled trial. Methods The educational intervention was a one-semester EBM course in the 5th year of a public medical school in Mexico. The study design was an experimental parallel group randomized controlled trial for the main outcome measures in the 5th year class (M5 EBM vs. M5 non-EBM groups, and quasi-experimental with static-groups comparisons for the 4th year (M4, not yet exposed and 6th year (M6, exposed 6 months to a year earlier groups. EBM attitudes, knowledge and self-reported skills were measured using Taylor’s questionnaire and a summative exam which comprised of a 100-item multiple-choice question (MCQ test. Results 289 Medical students were assessed: M5 EBM=48, M5 non-EBM=47, M4=87, and M6=107. There was a higher reported use of the Cochrane Library and secondary journals in the intervention group (M5 vs. M5 non-EBM. Critical appraisal skills and attitude scores were higher in the intervention group (M5 and in the group of students exposed to EBM instruction during the previous year (M6. The knowledge level was higher after the intervention in the M5 EBM group compared to the M5 non-EBM group (pd=0.88 with Taylor's instrument and 3.54 with the 100-item MCQ test. M6 Students that received the intervention in the previous year had a knowledge score higher than the M4 and M5 non-EBM groups, but lower than the M5 EBM group. Conclusions Formal medical student training in EBM produced higher scores in attitudes, knowledge and self-reported critical appraisal skills compared with a randomized control group. Data from the concurrent groups add validity evidence to the

  11. The Effects of an Interactive Nursing Skills Mobile Application on Nursing Students' Knowledge, Self-efficacy, and Skills Performance: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyunsun Kim, MSN, RN

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Clinical nursing practice is important because it helps nursing students experience realities of clinical nursing that cannot be learned through theoretical education. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of an interactive nursing skills mobile application for nursing students. Methods: Sixty-six senior nursing students were randomly assigned to experimental or control groups. The experimental group used an interactive nursing skills mobile application for 1 week. The control group was provided with a mobile application containing noninteractive nursing video contents for 1 week. Before (pre-test and 1 week after (post-test using the mobile application, participants' knowledge of clinical nursing skills, self-efficacy of nursing practice, and nursing skills performance were assessed. Results: The experimental group showed a significantly higher value for knowledge after 1 week of treatment via their mobile application than the control group (t = 3.34, p = .001. In addition, they showed significantly improved self-efficacy before and after intervention (t = 2.46, p = .017 than the control group. The experimental group's nursing skills performance was also significantly enhanced after intervention (t = 7.05, p < .001, with a significant difference in the degree of improvement (t = 4.47, p < .001. Conclusion: The interactive learner-centered nursing education mobile application with systematic contents was an effective method for students to experience practical nursing skills. Developing and applying a mobile application with other nursing contents that can be effectively used across all range of nursing students is recommended. Keywords: interactive learning, mobile applications, nursing education, nursing student, practical nursing

  12. Active Learning Not Associated with Student Learning in a Random Sample of College Biology Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, T. M.; Leonard, M. J.; Colgrove, C. A.; Kalinowski, S. T.

    2011-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that adding active learning to traditional college science lectures substantially improves student learning. However, this research predominantly studied courses taught by science education researchers, who are likely to have exceptional teaching expertise. The present study investigated introductory biology courses randomly selected from a list of prominent colleges and universities to include instructors representing a broader population. We examined the relationship between active learning and student learning in the subject area of natural selection. We found no association between student learning gains and the use of active-learning instruction. Although active learning has the potential to substantially improve student learning, this research suggests that active learning, as used by typical college biology instructors, is not associated with greater learning gains. We contend that most instructors lack the rich and nuanced understanding of teaching and learning that science education researchers have developed. Therefore, active learning as designed and implemented by typical college biology instructors may superficially resemble active learning used by education researchers, but lacks the constructivist elements necessary for improving learning. PMID:22135373

  13. A randomized trial of Internet-delivered treatment for social anxiety disorder in high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillfors, Maria; Andersson, Gerhard; Ekselius, Lisa; Furmark, Tomas; Lewenhaupt, Susanne; Karlsson, Anders; Carlbring, Per

    2011-01-01

    Internet-based cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) has been shown effective for university students with social anxiety disorder (SAD) and public speaking fears. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the promising results can be transferred to high school students suffering from this condition. A total of 19 speech-anxious high school students with SAD were randomized either into 9 weeks of Internet-delivered CBT or to a wait-list control group. Significant improvements were found on measures of social anxiety, general anxiety, and depression. Effects were maintained at 1-year follow-up. The average within- and between-group effect sizes (Cohen's d) for the primary social anxiety scales at posttest were 0.98 and 1.38, respectively. However, the average number of completed modules in the CBT program was low. Although compliance can be improved, the results suggest that Internet-based guided self-help is effective in the treatment of high school students with SAD.

  14. Effects of High-Intensity Hatha Yoga on Cardiovascular Fitness, Adipocytokines, and Apolipoproteins in Healthy Students: A Randomized Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papp, Marian E; Lindfors, Petra; Nygren-Bonnier, Malin; Gullstrand, Lennart; Wändell, Per E

    2016-01-01

    Yoga exercises are often used as a form of body and mind exercise to increase performance. However, knowledge about the physiologic effects of performing high-intensity Hatha yoga exercises over a longer time period remains limited. To investigate the effects of high-intensity yoga (HIY) on cardiovascular fitness (maximal oxygen consumption, estimated from the Cooper running test), ratings of perceived exertion (RPE), heart rate (HR), heart rate recovery (HRR), blood pressure (BP), adipocytokines, apolipoprotein A1 (ApoA1), apolipoprotein B (ApoB), and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) in healthy students. The 44 participants (38 women and 6 men; median age, 25 years [range, 20-39 years]) were randomly assigned to an HIY or a control group. The HIY program was held for 6 weeks (60 minutes once a week). Cardiovascular fitness, RPE, HR, HRR, BP, adipocytokines, HbA1c, ApoA1, and ApoB were measured at baseline and after 6 weeks in both groups. HIY had no significant effects on cardiovascular fitness (mean dose: 390 minutes [range, 210-800 minutes]), HR, HRR, BP, or any of the blood parameters. However, ApoA1 (1.47 ± 0.17 to 1.55 ± 0.16 g/L; p = 0.03) and adiponectin (8.32 ± 3.32 to 9.68 ± 3.83 mg/L; p = 0.003) levels increased significantly in the HIY group after 6 weeks. Six weeks of HIY did not significantly improve cardiovascular fitness. However, ApoA1 and adiponectin levels increased significantly in the HIY group. This finding suggests that HIY may have positive effects on blood lipids and an anti-inflammatory effect.

  15. Cognitive Style and Mobile E-Learning in Emergent Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery Disorders for Millennial Undergraduate Medical Students: Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Li-Ang; Chao, Yi-Ping; Huang, Chung-Guei; Fang, Ji-Tseng; Wang, Shu-Ling; Chuang, Cheng-Keng; Kang, Chung-Jan; Hsin, Li-Jen; Lin, Wan-Ni; Fang, Tuan-Jen; Li, Hsueh-Yu

    2018-02-13

    Electronic learning (e-learning) through mobile technology represents a novel way to teach emergent otorhinolaryngology-head and neck surgery (ORL-HNS) disorders to undergraduate medical students. Whether a cognitive style of education combined with learning modules can impact learning outcomes and satisfaction in millennial medical students is unknown. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of cognitive styles and learning modules using mobile e-learning on knowledge gain, competence gain, and satisfaction for emergent ORL-HNS disorders. This randomized controlled trial included 60 undergraduate medical students who were novices in ORL-HNS at an academic teaching hospital. The cognitive style of the participants was assessed using the group embedded figures test. The students were randomly assigned (1:1) to a novel interactive multimedia (IM) group and conventional Microsoft PowerPoint show (PPS) group matched by age, sex, and cognitive style. The content for the gamified IM module was derived from and corresponded to the textbook-based learning material of the PPS module (video lectures). The participants were unblinded and used fully automated courseware containing the IM or PPS module on a 7-inch tablet for 100 min. Knowledge and competence were assessed using multiple-choice questions and multimedia situation tests, respectively. Each participant also rated their global satisfaction. All of the participants (median age 23 years, range 22-26 years; 36 males and 24 females) received the intended intervention after randomization. Overall, the participants had significant gains in knowledge (median 50%, interquartile range [IQR]=17%-80%, Plearning modules (IM or PPS) had significant effects on both knowledge gain (both adjusted Plearning is an effective modality to improve knowledge of emergent ORL-HNS in millennial undergraduate medical students. Our findings suggest the necessity of developing various modules for undergraduate medical students with

  16. Negotiating Languages and Cultures: Enacting Translingualism through a Translation Assignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiernan, Julia; Meier, Joyce; Wang, Xiqiao

    2016-01-01

    This collaborative project explores the affordances of a translation assignment in the context of a learner-centered pedagogy that places composition students' movement among languages and cultures as both a site for inquiry and subject of analysis. The translation assignment asks students to translate scholarly articles or culture stories from…

  17. Automating Formative and Summative Feedback for Individualised Assignments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Ian Robert

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report on the rationale behind the use of a unique paper-based individualised accounting assignment, which automated the provision to students of immediate formative and timely summative feedback. Design/methodology/approach: As students worked towards completing their assignment, the package provided…

  18. Generalised Assignment Matrix Methodology in Linear Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerome, Lawrence

    2012-01-01

    Discrete Mathematics instructors and students have long been struggling with various labelling and scanning algorithms for solving many important problems. This paper shows how to solve a wide variety of Discrete Mathematics and OR problems using assignment matrices and linear programming, specifically using Excel Solvers although the same…

  19. Promoting fruit and vegetable consumption among students: a randomized controlled trial based on social cognitive theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najimi, Arash; Ghaffari, Mohtasham

    2013-10-01

    To assess the effectiveness of an educational intervention based on social cognitive theory on increasing consumption of fruit and vegetable among Grade 4 students. The randomised study was conducted in Isfahan, Iran, during 2011 and comprised 138 students, who were randomly divided into intervention and control groups. Data was collected at the beginning and three months after the intervention. A self-administered questionnaire based on constructs of social cognitive theory and food consumption was used. Theory-based nutrition education was imparted on the intervention group. Data was analysed using SPSS 15 and appropriate statistical tests. The intervention group had 68 (49.27%) subjects, while there were 70 (50.72%) controls. After the intervention, mean scores of behavioural capability (p social support (p = 0.03), and observational learning (p = 0.002) had significantly improved in the intervention group. Nutritional behaviour also showed significant improvement on mean daily intake of fruits and vegetables in the intervention group (p social cognitive theory led to increase in the consumption of fruits and vegetables among students, which confirmed the efficiency of social cognitive theory for such interventions.

  20. A pilot randomized controlled trial of the effects of cognitive-behavioral therapy for insomnia on sleep and daytime functioning in college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Daniel J; Zimmerman, Marian R; Gardner, Christie E; Williams, Jacob M; Grieser, Emily A; Tatum, Jolyn I; Bramoweth, Adam D; Francetich, Jade M; Ruggero, Camilo

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to pilot test if cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I) is an effective intervention for insomnia and daytime functioning in college students. College students' developmental stage and lifestyle are significantly different than the general adult population, yet there have been no studies of CBT-I in this age group. Thirty-four college students (ages 18-27; M=19.71, SD=2.10) were randomly assigned to and completed either six sessions of CBT-I or a 6-week wait list control (WLC). All participants completed 1-week sleep diaries and actigraphy, as well as sleep and daytime functioning questionnaires at baseline and posttreatment. The treatment group repeated all measures at 3-month follow-up. Students who received CBT-I showed greater baseline to posttreatment improvements in sleep efficiency, sleep onset latency, number of awakenings, time awake after sleep onset, sleep quality, insomnia severity, dysfunctional beliefs about sleep, general fatigue, and global sleep quality than the WLC group. These improvements were durable at 3-month follow-up. Ninety-four percent of participants in the CBT-I condition completed at least 4 sessions of treatment. Significantly more participants in the CBT-I group than the WLC group responded (68.8% vs 7.7%, respectively) and remitted (68.8% vs 15.4%, respectively). CBT-I is an effective treatment for insomnia in college students. This study found that treatment responses were similar to results from studies in the general population. The treatment appeared to be well tolerated based on very low attrition rates. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. The Effects of an Interactive Nursing Skills Mobile Application on Nursing Students' Knowledge, Self-efficacy, and Skills Performance: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyunsun; Suh, Eunyoung E

    2018-03-01

    Clinical nursing practice is important because it helps nursing students experience realities of clinical nursing that cannot be learned through theoretical education. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of an interactive nursing skills mobile application for nursing students. Sixty-six senior nursing students were randomly assigned to experimental or control groups. The experimental group used an interactive nursing skills mobile application for 1 week. The control group was provided with a mobile application containing noninteractive nursing video contents for 1 week. Before (pre-test) and 1 week after (post-test) using the mobile application, participants' knowledge of clinical nursing skills, self-efficacy of nursing practice, and nursing skills performance were assessed. The experimental group showed a significantly higher value for knowledge after 1 week of treatment via their mobile application than the control group (t = 3.34, p = .001). In addition, they showed significantly improved self-efficacy before and after intervention (t = 2.46, p = .017) than the control group. The experimental group's nursing skills performance was also significantly enhanced after intervention (t = 7.05, p mobile application with systematic contents was an effective method for students to experience practical nursing skills. Developing and applying a mobile application with other nursing contents that can be effectively used across all range of nursing students is recommended. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Linking neuroscientific research on decision making to the educational context of novice students assigned to a multiple-choice scientific task involving common misconceptions about electrical circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrice ePotvin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to identify the brain-based mechanisms of uncertainty and certainty associated with answers to multiple-choice questions involving common misconceptions about electric circuits. Twenty-two (22 scientifically novice participants (humanities and arts college students were asked, in an fMRI study, whether or not they thought the light bulbs in images presenting electric circuits were lighted up correctly, and if they were certain or uncertain of their answers. When participants reported that they were unsure of their responses, analyses revealed significant activations in brain areas typically involved in uncertainty (anterior cingulate cortex, anterior insula cortex, and superior/dorsomedial frontal cortex and in the left middle/superior temporal lobe. Certainty was associated with large bilateral activations in the occipital and parietal regions usually involved in visuospatial processing. Correct-and-certain answers were associated with activations that suggest a stronger mobilization of visual attention resources when compared to incorrect-and-certain answers. These findings provide insights into brain-based mechanisms of uncertainty that are activated when common misconceptions, identified as such by science education research literature, interfere in decision making in a school-like task. We also discuss the implications of these results from an educational perspective.

  3. The design of instructional tools affects secondary school students' learning of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) in reciprocal peer learning: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iserbyt, Peter; Byra, Mark

    2013-11-01

    Research investigating design effects of instructional tools for learning Basic Life Support (BLS) is almost non-existent. To demonstrate the design of instructional tools matter. The effect of spatial contiguity, a design principle stating that people learn more deeply when words and corresponding pictures are placed close (i.e., integrated) rather than far from each other on a page was investigated on task cards for learning Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) during reciprocal peer learning. A randomized controlled trial. A total of 111 students (mean age: 13 years) constituting six intact classes learned BLS through reciprocal learning with task cards. Task cards combine a picture of the skill with written instructions about how to perform it. In each class, students were randomly assigned to the experimental group or the control. In the control, written instructions were placed under the picture on the task cards. In the experimental group, written instructions were placed close to the corresponding part of the picture on the task cards reflecting application of the spatial contiguity principle. One-way analysis of variance found significantly better performances in the experimental group for ventilation volumes (P=.03, ηp2=.10) and flow rates (P=.02, ηp2=.10). For chest compression depth, compression frequency, compressions with correct hand placement, and duty cycles no significant differences were found. This study shows that the design of instructional tools (i.e., task cards) affects student learning. Research-based design of learning tools can enhance BLS and CPR education. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The Impact of a Randomized Sleep Education Intervention for College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershner, Shelley; O'Brien, Louise M

    2018-03-15

    Sleep deprivation can impair attention, mood, and performance; however, few effective sleep education programs are available. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of a sleep education website, Sleep to Stay Awake (sleeptostayawake.org), on sleep behaviors of college students. College students (age 18 years or older) attending a public Midwestern university were randomized to control or intervention groups. All subjects completed baseline surveys that included demographics, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, Patient Health Questionnaire, sleep knowledge, and measures of sleepiness and circadian rhythm. The intervention group then undertook the online intervention. Surveys were repeated at 1 week and at 8 weeks. Students who participated included 295 controls and 254 intervention subjects. The mean age was 21.9 ± 4.1 years and 41.7% were male. Survey results at 8 weeks showed that more intervention subjects reported improved sleep behaviors (50.3% versus 39.5%, P = .04). Intervention subjects were more likely to stop electronics use earlier (odds ratio [95% confidence interval] = 1.5 [1.0-2.4]), keep a more regular sleep schedule (1.6 [1.06-2.4]), have an earlier weekday rise time (2.4 [1.3-4.4]), and have a lower likelihood of insufficient sleep prior to examinations (0.46 [0.28-0.76]). The intervention group had improvement in mean sleep quality (odds ratio = 5.8 versus 6.6, P sleep education intervention improved sleep behaviors, sleep quality, and depressions scores. This novel approach to address sleep deprivation, poor sleep habits, and mood among college students may offer an effective and inexpensive remedy. © 2018 American Academy of Sleep Medicine.

  5. A randomized trial of a brief intervention for obesity in college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buscemi, J; Yurasek, A M; Dennhardt, A A; Martens, M P; Murphy, J G

    2011-08-01

    •  Brief motivational interventions have been found to be efficacious for obesity in older adult populations. •  Brief motivational interventions including delivery of personalized feedback have been found to be efficacious for reducing college student drinking. •  First study to test the efficacy of a one-session, brief motivational intervention for obesity among college students. •  One session brief motivational interventions may have an impact on the reduction of calorie-dense foods and beverages. •  A brief, one-session motivational interview with personalized feedback may not be an intensive enough intervention for obesity treatment among college students. Young adults are at an increased risk for weight gain as they begin college and this has implications for the onset of future health consequences. Brief motivational interventions (BMIs) have been found to be effective with college students for reducing risky health behaviours such as alcohol consumption, but have not been developed and tested with a primary goal of reducing obesity. BMIs have been developed and tested for the treatment of obesity and weight-related health behaviours (WRHB) in other populations, such as adults and adolescents, with promising results. The purpose of the following study was to develop and test the efficacy of a BMI for weight loss among overweight and obese college students. Seventy undergraduate students (85.7% female, 57.1% African-American) completed an assessment about WRHBs and then were randomized to either receive a single 60-min BMI plus a booster phone call or to assessment only. At 3 months post-intervention, effect sizes within the intervention group were twice as large as within the assessment-only group on reductions in high-calorie foods and beverages. However, there were no statistically significant differences between groups on body mass index or WRHBs. The one-session nature of the session might not have been enough to produce

  6. Student-peer mentoring on a drug information response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodis, Jennifer Lin; Backo, Jennifer; Schmidt, Brittany M; Pruchnicki, Maria C

    2014-03-12

    To implement a student peer-mentoring program with a drug information response assignment in an introductory pharmacy practice course. Second-year student pharmacists (P2 mentors) enrolled in an independent study course were randomly assigned first-year student pharmacists (P1 mentees) to mentor on a drug information assignment. The P2 mentors provided feedback to P1 mentees' assignment drafts. The P1 mentees had the opportunity to revise the draft prior to turning in the completed assignment to course faculty members for grading. Both P1 mentees and P2 mentors agreed the mentorship improved their ability to prepare a drug information response (76% and 100%, respectively). A majority of the student pharmacists would choose to be involved in the program again. The student peer-mentoring program was successful in improving student pharmacists' perceptions of ability to compose a drug information response.

  7. Effects of Rosmarinus officinalis L. on memory performance, anxiety, depression, and sleep quality in university students: A randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nematolahi, Pouya; Mehrabani, Mitra; Karami-Mohajeri, Somayyeh; Dabaghzadeh, Fatemeh

    2018-02-01

    To evaluate the effects of oral rosemary on memory performance, anxiety, depression, and sleep quality in university students. In this double-blinded randomized controlled trial, the 68 participating students randomly received 500 mg rosemary and placebo twice daily for one month. Prospective and retrospective memory performance, depression, anxiety and sleep quality of the students were measured using Prospective and Retrospective Memory Questionnaire, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Inventory at baseline and after one month. The scores of all the scales and subscales except the sleep latency and sleep duration components of Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Inventory were significantly decreased in the rosemary group in comparison with the control group after one month. Rosemary as a traditional herb could be used to boost prospective and retrospective memory, reduce anxiety and depression, and improve sleep quality in university students. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Job Assignments under Moral Hazard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Alexander; Nafziger, Julia

    Inefficient job assignments are usually explained with incomplete information about employees' abilities or contractual imperfections. We show that inefficient assignments arise even without uncertainty about the employee's ability and with complete contracts. Building on this result we provide...

  9. Promoting mental health and preventing substance abuse and violence in elementary students: a randomized control study of the Michigan Model for Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'neill, James M; Clark, Jeffrey K; Jones, James A

    2011-06-01

    In elementary grades, comprehensive health education curricula mostly have demonstrated effectiveness in addressing singular health issues. The Michigan Model for Health (MMH) was implemented and evaluated to determine its impact on multiple health issues, including social and emotional skills, prosocial behavior, and drug use and aggression. Schools (N = 52) were randomly assigned to intervention and control conditions. Participants received 24 lessons in grade 4 (over 12 weeks) and 28 more lessons in grade 5 (over 14 weeks), including material focusing on social and emotional health, interpersonal communication, social pressure resistance skills, drug use prevention, and conflict resolution skills. The 40-minute lessons were taught by the classroom or health teacher who received curriculum training and provided feedback on implementation fidelity. Self-report survey data were collected from the fourth-grade students (n = 2512) prior to the intervention, immediately after the intervention, and 6 weeks after the intervention, with the same data collection schedule repeated in fifth grade. Students who received the curriculum had better interpersonal communication skills, social and emotional skills, and drug refusal skills than the control group students. Intervention students also reported lower intentions to use alcohol and tobacco, less alcohol and tobacco use initiated during the study and in the past 30 days, and reduced levels of aggression. The effectiveness of the MMH in promoting mental health and preventing drug use and aggression supports the call for integrated strategies that begin in elementary grades, target multiple risk behaviors, and result in practical and financial benefits to schools. © 2011, American School Health Association.

  10. Auricular Acupuncture for Exam Anxiety in Medical Students-A Randomized Crossover Investigation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catharina Klausenitz

    Full Text Available Auricular acupuncture (AA is effective in the treatment of preoperative anxiety. The aim was to investigate whether AA can reduce exam anxiety as compared to placebo and no intervention. Forty-four medical students were randomized to receive AA, placebo, or no intervention in a crossover manner and subsequently completed three comparable oral anatomy exams with an interval of 1 month between the exams/interventions. AA was applied using indwelling fixed needles bilaterally at points MA-IC1, MA-TF1, MA-SC, MA-AT1 and MA-TG one day prior to each exam. Placebo needles were used as control. Levels of anxiety were measured using a visual analogue scale before and after each intervention as well as before each exam. Additional measures included the State-Trait-Anxiety Inventory, duration of sleep at night, blood pressure, heart rate and the extent of participant blinding. All included participants finished the study. Anxiety levels were reduced after AA and placebo intervention compared to baseline and the no intervention condition (p < 0.003. AA was better at reducing anxiety than placebo in the evening before the exam (p = 0.018. Participants were able to distinguish between AA and placebo intervention. Both AA and placebo interventions reduced exam anxiety in medical students. The superiority of AA over placebo may be due to insufficient blinding of participants.

  11. Yoga and Emotion Regulation in High School Students: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie A. Daly

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Middle adolescents (15–17 years old are prone to increased risk taking and emotional instability. Emotion dysregulation contributes to a variety of psychosocial difficulties in this population. A discipline such as yoga offered during school may increase emotion regulation, but research in this area is lacking. This study was designed to evaluate the impact of a yoga intervention on the emotion regulation of high school students as compared to physical education (PE. In addition, the potential mediating effects of mindful attention, self-compassion, and body awareness on the relationship between yoga and emotion regulation were examined. High school students were randomized to participate in a 16-week yoga intervention (n=19 or regular PE (n=18. Pre-post data analyses revealed that emotion regulation increased significantly in the yoga group as compared to the PE group (F (1,32 = 7.50, p=.01, and eta2 = .19. No significant relationship was discovered between the changes in emotion regulation and the proposed mediating variables. Preliminary results suggest that yoga increases emotion regulation capacities of middle adolescents and provides benefits beyond that of PE alone.

  12. Skills Training via Smartphone App for University Students with Excessive Alcohol Consumption: a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajecki, Mikael; Andersson, Claes; Rosendahl, Ingvar; Sinadinovic, Kristina; Fredriksson, Morgan; Berman, Anne H

    2017-10-01

    University students in a study on estimated blood alcohol concentration (eBAC) feedback apps were offered participation in a second study, if reporting continued excessive consumption at 6-week follow-up. This study evaluated the effects on excessive alcohol consumption of offering access to an additional skills training app. A total of 186 students with excessive alcohol consumption were randomized to an intervention group or a wait list group. Both groups completed online follow-ups regarding alcohol consumption after 6 and 12 weeks. Wait list participants were given access to the intervention at 6-week follow-up. Assessment-only controls (n = 144) with excessive alcohol consumption from the ongoing study were used for comparison. The proportion of participants with excessive alcohol consumption declined in both intervention and wait list groups compared to controls at first (p effects of app use from emailed feedback on excessive alcohol consumption and study participation. NCT02064998.

  13. Alcohol interventions for mandated students: behavioral outcomes from a randomized controlled pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Diane E; Kilmer, Jason R; King, Kevin M; Larimer, Mary E

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of three single-session interventions with high-risk mandated students while considering the influence of motivational interviewing (MI) microskills. This randomized, controlled pilot trial evaluated single-session interventions: Alcohol Skills Training Program (ASTP), Brief Alcohol Screening and Intervention for College Students (BASICS) feedback sessions, and treatment-as-usual Alcohol Diversion Program (ADP) educational groups. Participants were 61 full-time undergraduates at a southern U.S. campus sanctioned to a clinical program following violation of an on-campus alcohol policy (Mage = 19.16 years; 42.6% female). RESULTS revealed a significant effect of time for reductions in estimated blood alcohol concentration (eBAC) and number of weekly drinks but not in alcohol-related consequences. Although ASTP and BASICS participants reported significant decreases in eBAC over time, ADP participant levels did not change (with no intervention effects on quantity or consequences). MI microskills were not related to outcomes. RESULTS from this study suggest equivalent behavioral impacts for the MI-based interventions, although individual differences in outcome trajectories suggest that research is needed to further customize mandated interventions. Given the overall decrease in eBAC following the sanction, the lack of reduction in the ADP condition warrants caution when using education-only interventions.

  14. School intervention to improve mental health of students in Santiago, Chile: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araya, Ricardo; Fritsch, Rosemarie; Spears, Melissa; Rojas, Graciela; Martinez, Vania; Barroilhet, Sergio; Vöhringer, Paul; Gunnell, David; Stallard, Paul; Guajardo, Viviana; Gaete, Jorge; Noble, Sian; Montgomery, Alan A

    2013-11-01

    Depression can have devastating effects unless prevented or treated early and effectively. Schools offer an excellent opportunity to intervene with adolescents presenting emotional problems. There are very few universal school-based depression interventions conducted in low- and middle-income countries. To assess the effectiveness of a school-based, universal psychological intervention to reduce depressive symptoms among adolescents from low-income families. A 2-arm, parallel, cluster, randomized clinical trial was conducted in secondary schools in deprived socioeconomic areas of Santiago, Chile. Almost all students registered in the selected schools consented to take part in the study. A total of 2512 secondary school students from 22 schools and 66 classes participated. Students in the intervention arm attended 11 one-hour weekly and 2 booster classroom sessions of an intervention based on cognitive-behavioral models. The intervention was delivered by trained nonspecialists. Schools in the control arm received the standard school curriculum. Scores on the self-administered Beck Depression Inventory-II at 3 months (primary) and 12 months (secondary) after completing the intervention. There were 1291 participants in the control arm and 1221 in the intervention arm. Primary outcome data were available for 82.1% of the participants. There was no evidence of any clinically important difference in mean depression scores between the groups (adjusted difference in mean, -0.19; 95% CI, -1.22 to 0.84) or for any of the other outcomes 3 months after completion of the intervention. No significant differences were found in any of the outcomes at 12 months. A well-designed and implemented school-based intervention did not reduce depressive symptoms among socioeconomically deprived adolescents in Santiago, Chile. There is growing evidence that universal school interventions may not be sufficiently effective to reduce or prevent depressive symptoms. isrctn.org Identifier: ISRCTN

  15. Do Students Using Electronic Books Display Different Reading Comprehension and Motivation Levels than Students Using Traditional Print Books?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Casey L.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of electronic books on the reading comprehension of middle and high school students was examined using an experimental posttest-only control-group design. A convenience sample of 140 randomly assigned middle and high school English students at an independent school in eastern North Carolina participated. Half of the students used…

  16. My Student Body: Effects of an Internet-Based Prevention Program to Decrease Obesity among College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaChausse, Robert G.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine the impact of My Student Body (MSB)-Nutrition, an Internet-based obesity prevention program for college students. Participants: Three hundred and twenty ethnically diverse undergraduate students were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 conditions: MSB-Nutrition program, an on-campus weight management course, and a comparison group.…

  17. Effect of Play-based Therapy on Meta-cognitive and Behavioral Aspects of Executive Function: A Randomized, Controlled, Clinical Trial on the Students With Learning Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamali Esmaili, Samaneh; Shafaroodi, Narges; Hassani Mehraban, Afsoon; Parand, Akram; Zarei, Masoume; Akbari-Zardkhaneh, Saeed

    2017-01-01

    Although the effect of educational methods on executive function (EF) is well known, training this function by a playful method is debatable. The current study aimed at investigating if a play-based intervention is effective on metacognitive and behavioral skills of EF in students with specific learning disabilities. In the current randomized, clinical trial, 49 subjects within the age range of 7 to 11 years with specific learning disabilities were randomly assigned into the intervention (25 subjects; mean age 8.5±1.33 years) and control (24 subjects; mean age 8.7±1.03 years) groups. Subjects in the intervention group received EF group training based on playing activities; subjects in the control group received no intervention. The behavior rating inventory of executive function (BRIEF) was administered to evaluate the behavioral and cognitive aspects of EF. The duration of the intervention was 6 hours per week for 9 weeks. Multivariate analysis of covariance was used to compare mean changes (before and after) in the BRIEF scores between the groups. The assumptions of multivariate analysis of covariance were examined. After controlling pre-test conditions, the intervention and control groups scored significantly differently on both the metacognition (P=0.002; effect size=0.20) and behavior regulation indices (P=0.01; effect size=0.12) of BRIEF. Play-based therapy is effective on the metacognitive and behavioral aspects of EF in students with specific learning disabilities. Professionals can use play-based therapy rather than educational approaches in clinical practice to enhance EF skills.

  18. Randomized Evaluation of Peer Support Arrangements to Support the Inclusion of High School Students with Severe Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Erik W.; Asmus, Jennifer; Moss, Colleen K.; Biggs, Elizabeth E.; Bolt, Dan M.; Born, Tiffany L.; Brock, Matthew E.; Cattey, Gillian N.; Chen, Rui; Cooney, Molly; Fesperman, Ethan; Hochman, Julia M.; Huber, Heartley B.; Lequia, Jenna L.; Lyons, Gregory; Moyseenko, Kerrie A.; Riesch, Lindsay M.; Shalev, Rebecca A.; Vincent, Lori B.; Weir, Katie

    2016-01-01

    Enhancing the social and learning experiences of students with severe disabilities in inclusive classrooms has been a long-standing focus of research, legislative, and advocacy efforts. The authors used a randomized controlled experimental design to examine the efficacy of peer support arrangements to improve academic and social outcomes for 51…

  19. Emotion Regulation Enhancement of Cognitive Behavior Therapy for College Student Problem Drinkers: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Julian D.; Grasso, Damion J.; Levine, Joan; Tennen, Howard

    2018-01-01

    This pilot randomized clinical trial tested an emotion regulation enhancement to cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) with 29 college student problem drinkers with histories of complex trauma and current clinically significant traumatic stress symptoms. Participants received eight face-to-face sessions of manualized Internet-supported CBT for problem…

  20. Yoga Improves Academic Performance in Urban High School Students Compared to Physical Education: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagins, Marshall; Rundle, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Yoga programs within schools have become more widespread but research regarding the potential effect on academic achievement remains limited. This study cluster-randomized 112 students within a single New York City public high school to participate in either school-based yoga or physical education (PE) for an entire academic year. The primary…

  1. Assessing Fun Items' Effectiveness in Increasing Learning of College Introductory Statistics Students: Results of a Randomized Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesser, Lawrence M.; Pearl, Dennis K.; Weber, John J., III

    2016-01-01

    There has been a recent emergence of scholarship on the use of fun in the college statistics classroom, with at least 20 modalities identified. While there have been randomized experiments that suggest that fun can enhance student achievement or attitudes in statistics, these studies have generally been limited to one particular fun modality or…

  2. The effects of a digital formative assessment tool on mathematics achievement and student motivation : Results of a randomized experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faber, Janke; Luyten, Johannes W.; Visscher, Arend J.

    2017-01-01

    In this study a randomized experimental design was used to examine the effects of a digital formative assessment tool on mathematics achievement and motivation in grade three primary education (n schools = 79, n students = 1808). Experimental schools used a digital formative assessment tool whereas

  3. Effectiveness of a mobile cooperation intervention during the clinical practicum of nursing students: a parallel group randomized controlled trial protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strandell-Laine, Camilla; Saarikoski, Mikko; Löyttyniemi, Eliisa; Salminen, Leena; Suomi, Reima; Leino-Kilpi, Helena

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to describe a study protocol for a study evaluating the effectiveness of a mobile cooperation intervention to improve students' competence level, self-efficacy in clinical performance and satisfaction with the clinical learning environment. Nursing student-nurse teacher cooperation during the clinical practicum has a vital role in promoting the learning of students. Despite an increasing interest in using mobile technologies to improve the clinical practicum of students, there is limited robust evidence regarding their effectiveness. A multicentre, parallel group, randomized, controlled, pragmatic, superiority trial. Second-year pre-registration nursing students who are beginning a clinical practicum will be recruited from one university of applied sciences. Eligible students will be randomly allocated to either a control group (engaging in standard cooperation) or an intervention group (engaging in mobile cooperation) for the 5-week the clinical practicum. The complex mobile cooperation intervention comprises of a mobile application-assisted, nursing student-nurse teacher cooperation and a training in the functions of the mobile application. The primary outcome is competence. The secondary outcomes include self-efficacy in clinical performance and satisfaction with the clinical learning environment. Moreover, a process evaluation will be undertaken. The ethical approval for this study was obtained in December 2014 and the study received funding in 2015. The results of this study will provide robust evidence on mobile cooperation during the clinical practicum, a research topic that has not been consistently studied to date. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. The NARCONON™ drug education curriculum for high school students: A non-randomized, controlled prevention trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecchini Marie A

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An estimated 13 million youths aged 12 to 17 become involved with alcohol, tobacco and other drugs annually. The number of 12- to 17-year olds abusing controlled prescription drugs increased an alarming 212 percent between 1992 and 2003. For many youths, substance abuse precedes academic and health problems including lower grades, higher truancy, drop out decisions, delayed or damaged physical, cognitive, and emotional development, or a variety of other costly consequences. For thirty years the Narconon program has worked with schools and community groups providing single educational modules aimed at supplementing existing classroom-based prevention activities. In 2004, Narconon International developed a multi-module, universal prevention curriculum for high school ages based on drug abuse etiology, program quality management data, prevention theory and best practices. We review the curriculum and its rationale and test its ability to change drug use behavior, perceptions of risk/benefits, and general knowledge. Methods After informed parental consent, approximately 1000 Oklahoma and Hawai'i high school students completed a modified Center for Substance Abuse Prevention (CSAP Participant Outcome Measures for Discretionary Programs survey at three testing points: baseline, one month later, and six month follow-up. Schools assigned to experimental conditions scheduled the Narconon curriculum between the baseline and one-month follow-up test; schools in control conditions received drug education after the six-month follow-up. Student responses were analyzed controlling for baseline differences using analysis of covariance. Results At six month follow-up, youths who received the Narconon drug education curriculum showed reduced drug use compared with controls across all drug categories tested. The strongest effects were seen in all tobacco products and cigarette frequency followed by marijuana. There were also significant

  5. Increasing students' physical activity during school physical education: rationale and protocol for the SELF-FIT cluster randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Amy S; Lonsdale, Chris; Lubans, David R; Ng, Johan Y Y

    2017-07-11

    The Self-determined Exercise and Learning For FITness (SELF-FIT) is a multi-component school-based intervention based on tenets of self-determination theory. SELF-FIT aims to increase students' moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) during physical education lessons, and enhance their autonomous motivation towards fitness activities. Using a cluster randomized controlled trial, we aim to examine the effects of the intervention on students' MVPA during school physical education. Secondary 2 students (approximately aged 14 years) from 26 classes in 26 different schools will be recruited. After baseline assessments, students will be randomized into either the experimental group or wait-list control group using a matched-pair randomization. Teachers allocated to the experimental group will attend two half-day workshops and deliver the SELF-FIT intervention for 8 weeks. The main intervention components include training teachers to teach in more need supportive ways, and conducting fitness exercises using a fitness dice with interchangeable faces. Other motivational components, such as playing music during classes, are also included. The primary outcome of the trial is students' MVPA during PE lessons. Secondary outcomes include students' leisure-time MVPA, perceived need support from teachers, need satisfaction, autonomous motivation towards physical education, intention to engage in physical activity, psychological well-being, and health-related fitness (cardiorespiratory and muscular fitness). Quantitative data will be analyzed using multilevel modeling approaches. Focus group interviews will also be conducted to assess students' perceptions of the intervention. The SELF-FIT intervention has been designed to improve students' health and well-being by using high-intensity activities in classes delivered by teachers who have been trained to be autonomy needs supportive. If successful, scalable interventions based on SELF-FIT could be applied in physical

  6. The effect of Baduanjin exercise for physical and psychological wellbeing of college students: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Guohua; Li, Moyi; Lan, Xiulu; Yan, Xinghui; Lin, Qiu; Chen, Lidian; Tao, Jing; Zheng, Xin; Li, Junzhe; Chen, Bai; Fang, Qianying

    2013-12-05

    The physical and mental health of college students tends to continuously decline around the world. Since they are in a significant transition period which presents opportunities and challenges in health promotion, it is important to improve their health in this period. As a traditional Chinese exercise form which combines movements with breath and mind, Baduanjin may be one of the selectable effective exercises. However, evidence of Baduanjin exercise for college students has not been completely established. The primary aim of this trial is to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of Baduanjin exercise for physical and mental health of college students through a rigorous randomization, parallel-controlled design. We will conduct a randomized, single-blind, parallel-controlled trial. A total of 222 college students from Fujian University of Traditional Chinese Medicine who meet the eligibility criteria will be recruited and randomly allocated into Baduanjin training or usual exercise control group. Baduanjin training will last 12 weeks (1 h per day, 5 days per week). The physical and psychological outcomes, including lumbar muscle strength, lumbar proprioception function, physical fitness, as well as self-reported symptom intensity, stress, self-esteem, mood, quality of life, quality of sleep, and adverse events, will be evaluated by blinded outcome assessors at baseline, 13 weeks (at the end of intervention), and 25 weeks (after the 12-week follow-up period). This protocol presents an objective design of a randomized, single-blind trial that aims to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of Baduanjin exercise for physical and mental health of college students. If the outcome is positive, the results will provide higher-quality evidence to better inform the college students regarding their selection about whether to receive such exercise. Chinese Clinical Trial Registry: ChiCTR-TRC-13003329. Registration date: 18 July, 2013.

  7. Working Memory Training in Post-Secondary Students with ADHD: A Randomized Controlled Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karizma Mawjee

    Full Text Available To determine whether standard-length computerized training enhances working memory (WM, transfers to other cognitive domains and shows sustained effects, when controlling for motivation, engagement, and expectancy.97 post-secondary students (59.8% female aged 18-35 years with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, were randomized into standard-length adaptive Cogmed WM training (CWMT; 45-min/session, a shortened-length adaptive version of CWMT (15 min/session that controlled for motivation, engagement and expectancy of change, or into a no training group (waitlist-control group. All three groups received weekly telephone calls from trained coaches, who supervised the CWMT and were independent from the research team. All were evaluated before and 3 weeks post-training; those in the two CWMT groups were also assessed 3 months post-training. Untrained outcome measures of WM included the WAIS-IV Digit Span (auditory-verbal WM, CANTAB Spatial Span (visual-spatial WM and WRAML Finger Windows (visual-spatial WM. Transfer-of-training effects included measures of short-term memory, cognitive speed, math and reading fluency, complex reasoning, and ADHD symptoms.Performance on 5/7 criterion measures indicated that shortened-length CWMT conferred as much benefit on WM performance as did standard-length training, with both CWMT groups improving more than the waitlist-control group. Only 2 of these findings remained robust after correcting for multiple comparisons. Follow-up analyses revealed that post-training improvements on WM performance were maintained for at least three months. There was no evidence of any transfer effects but the standard-length group showed improvement in task-specific strategy use.This study failed to find robust evidence of benefits of standard-length CWMT for improving WM in college students with ADHD and the overall pattern of findings raise questions about the specificity of training effects.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01657721.

  8. Reducing anti-fat prejudice in preservice health students: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Kerry S; Puhl, Rebecca M; Latner, Janet D; Mir, Azeem S; Hunter, John A

    2010-11-01

    Anti-fat sentiment is increasing, is prevalent in health professionals, and has health and social consequences. There is no evidence for effective obesity prejudice reduction techniques in health professionals. The present experiment sought to reduce implicit and explicit anti-fat prejudice in preservice health students. Health promotion/public health bachelor degree program students (n = 159) were randomized to one of three tutorial conditions. One condition presented an obesity curriculum on the controllable reasons for obesity (i.e., diet/exercise). A prejudice reduction condition presented evidence on the uncontrollable reasons for obesity (i.e., genes/environment); whereas a neutral (control) curriculum focused on alcohol use in young people. Measures of implicit and explicit anti-fat prejudice, beliefs about obese people, and dieting, were taken at baseline and postintervention. Repeated measures analyses showed decreases in two forms of implicit anti-fat prejudice (decreases of 27 and 12%) in the genes/environment condition relative to other conditions. The diet/exercise condition showed a 27% increase in one measure of implicit anti-fat prejudice. Reductions in explicit anti-fat prejudice were also seen in the genes/environment condition (P = 0.006). No significant changes in beliefs about obese people or dieting control beliefs were found across conditions. The present results show that anti-fat prejudice can be reduced or exacerbated depending on the causal information provided about obesity. The present results have implications for the training of health professionals, especially given their widespread negativity toward overweight and obesity.

  9. Scaffolding Assignments and Activities for Undergraduate Research Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Sarah; Justwan, Florian

    2018-01-01

    This article details assignments and lessons created for and tested in research methods courses at two different universities, a large state school and a small liberal arts college. Each assignment or activity utilized scaffolding. Students were asked to push beyond their comfort zone while utilizing concrete and/or creative examples,…

  10. Preventing halo bias in grading the work of university students

    OpenAIRE

    John M. Malouff; Sarah J. Stein; Lodewicka N. Bothma; Kimberley Coulter; Ashley J. Emmerton

    2014-01-01

    Experts have advocated anonymous marking as a means of minimizing bias in subjective student assessment. In the present study, 159 faculty members or teaching assistants across disciplines were randomly assigned (1) to grade a poor oral presentation of a university student, (2) to grade a good oral presentation of the same student, or (3) not to grade any oral presentation of the student. All graders then assessed the same written work by the student. A linear-contrasts analysis showed that, ...

  11. A randomized control study of psychological intervention to reduce anxiety, amotivation and psychological distress among medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coumaravelou Saravanan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Test anxiety aggravates psychological distress and reduces the motivation among graduate students. This study aimed to identify psychological intervention for test anxiety, which reduces the level of psychological distress, amotivation and increases the intrinsic and extrinsic motivation among medical students. Materials and Methods: Westside test anxiety scale, Kessler Perceived Stress Scale and Academic Motivation Scale were used to measure test anxiety, psychological distress and motivation on 436 1 st year medical students. Out of 436 students, 74 students who exhibited moderate to high test anxiety were randomly divided into either experimental or waiting list group. In this true randomized experimental study, 32 participants from the intervention group received five sessions of psychological intervention consist of psychoeducation, relaxation therapy and systematic desensitization. Thirty-three students from waiting list received one session of advice and suggestions. Results: After received psychological intervention participants from the intervention group experienced less anxiety, psychological distress, and amotivation (P < 0.01 and high intrinsic and extrinsic motivation (P < 0.01 in the postassessment compared with their preassessment scores. Conclusion: Overall psychological intervention is effective to reduce anxiety scores and its related variables.

  12. A randomized control study of psychological intervention to reduce anxiety, amotivation and psychological distress among medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravanan, Coumaravelou; Kingston, Rajiah

    2014-05-01

    Test anxiety aggravates psychological distress and reduces the motivation among graduate students. This study aimed to identify psychological intervention for test anxiety, which reduces the level of psychological distress, amotivation and increases the intrinsic and extrinsic motivation among medical students. Westside test anxiety scale, Kessler Perceived Stress Scale and Academic Motivation Scale were used to measure test anxiety, psychological distress and motivation on 436 1(st) year medical students. Out of 436 students, 74 students who exhibited moderate to high test anxiety were randomly divided into either experimental or waiting list group. In this true randomized experimental study, 32 participants from the intervention group received five sessions of psychological intervention consist of psychoeducation, relaxation therapy and systematic desensitization. Thirty-three students from waiting list received one session of advice and suggestions. After received psychological intervention participants from the intervention group experienced less anxiety, psychological distress, and amotivation (P < 0.01) and high intrinsic and extrinsic motivation (P < 0.01) in the postassessment compared with their preassessment scores. Overall psychological intervention is effective to reduce anxiety scores and its related variables.

  13. Repeated testing improves achievement in a blended learning approach for risk competence training of medical students: results of a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spreckelsen, C; Juenger, J

    2017-09-26

    Adequate estimation and communication of risks is a critical competence of physicians. Due to an evident lack of these competences, effective training addressing risk competence during medical education is needed. Test-enhanced learning has been shown to produce marked effects on achievements. This study aimed to investigate the effect of repeated tests implemented on top of a blended learning program for risk competence. We introduced a blended-learning curriculum for risk estimation and risk communication based on a set of operationalized learning objectives, which was integrated into a mandatory course "Evidence-based Medicine" for third-year students. A randomized controlled trial addressed the effect of repeated testing on achievement as measured by the students' pre- and post-training score (nine multiple-choice items). Basic numeracy and statistical literacy were assessed at baseline. Analysis relied on descriptive statistics (histograms, box plots, scatter plots, and summary of descriptive measures), bootstrapped confidence intervals, analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), and effect sizes (Cohen's d, r) based on adjusted means and standard deviations. All of the 114 students enrolled in the course consented to take part in the study and were assigned to either the intervention or control group (both: n = 57) by balanced randomization. Five participants dropped out due to non-compliance (control: 4, intervention: 1). Both groups profited considerably from the program in general (Cohen's d for overall pre vs. post scores: 2.61). Repeated testing yielded an additional positive effect: while the covariate (baseline score) exhibits no relation to the post-intervention score, F(1, 106) = 2.88, p > .05, there was a significant effect of the intervention (repeated tests scenario) on learning achievement, F(1106) = 12.72, p blended learning approach can be improved significantly by implementing a test-enhanced learning design, namely repeated testing. As

  14. Effectiveness of a Test-Taking Strategy on Achievement in Essay Tests for Students with Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Therrien, William J.; Hughes, Charles; Kapelski, Cory; Mokhtari, Kouider

    2009-01-01

    Research was conducted to ascertain if an essay-writing strategy was effective at improving the achievement on essay tests for 7th- and 8th-grade students with reading and writing disabilities. Students were assigned via a stratified random sample to treatment or control group. Student scores were also compared to students without learning…

  15. Calibrated peer review assignments for the earth sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudd, J.A.; Wang, V.Z.; Cervato, C.; Ridky, R.W.

    2009-01-01

    Calibrated Peer Review ??? (CPR), a web-based instructional tool developed as part of the National Science Foundation reform initiatives in undergraduate science education, allows instructors to incorporate multiple writing assignments in large courses without overwhelming the instructor. This study reports successful implementation of CPR in a large, introductory geology course and student learning of geoscience content. For each CPR assignment in this study, students studied web-based and paper resources, wrote an essay, and reviewed seven essays (three from the instructor, three from peers, and their own) on the topic. Although many students expressed negative attitudes and concerns, particularly about the peer review process of this innovative instructional approach, they also recognized the learning potential of completing CPR assignments. Comparing instruction on earthquakes and plate boundaries using a CPR assignment vs. an instructional video lecture and homework essay with extensive instructor feedback, students mastered more content via CPR instruction.

  16. Ant Colony Algorithm and Simulation for Robust Airport Gate Assignment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Airport gate assignment is core task for airport ground operations. Due to the fact that the departure and arrival time of flights may be influenced by many random factors, the airport gate assignment scheme may encounter gate conflict and many other problems. This paper aims at finding a robust solution for airport gate assignment problem. A mixed integer model is proposed to formulate the problem, and colony algorithm is designed to solve this model. Simulation result shows that, in consideration of robustness, the ability of antidisturbance for airport gate assignment scheme has much improved.

  17. Web-based alcohol screening and brief intervention for university students: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kypri, Kypros; Vater, Tina; Bowe, Steven J; Saunders, John B; Cunningham, John A; Horton, Nicholas J; McCambridge, Jim

    2014-03-26

    Unhealthy alcohol use is a leading contributor to the global burden of disease, particularly among young people. Systematic reviews suggest efficacy of web-based alcohol screening and brief intervention and call for effectiveness trials in settings where it could be sustainably delivered. To evaluate a national web-based alcohol screening and brief intervention program. A multisite, double-blind, parallel-group, individually randomized trial was conducted at 7 New Zealand universities. In April and May of 2010, invitations containing hyperlinks to the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test-Consumption (AUDIT-C) screening test were e-mailed to 14,991 students aged 17 to 24 years. Participants who screened positive (AUDIT-C score ≥4) were randomized to undergo screening alone or to 10 minutes of assessment and feedback (including comparisons with medical guidelines and peer norms) on alcohol expenditure, peak blood alcohol concentration, alcohol dependence, and access to help and information. A fully automated 5-month follow-up assessment was conducted that measured 6 primary outcomes: consumption per typical occasion, drinking frequency, volume of alcohol consumed, an academic problems score, and whether participants exceeded medical guidelines for acute harm (binge drinking) and chronic harm (heavy drinking). A Bonferroni-corrected significance threshold of .0083 was used to account for the 6 comparisons and a sensitivity analysis was used to assess possible attrition bias. Of 5135 students screened, 3422 scored 4 or greater and were randomized, and 83% were followed up. There was a significant effect on 1 of the 6 prespecified outcomes. Relative to control participants, those who received intervention consumed less alcohol per typical drinking occasion (median 4 drinks [interquartile range {IQR}, 2-8] vs 5 drinks [IQR 2-8]; rate ratio [RR], 0.93 [99.17% CI, 0.86-1.00]; P = .005) but not less often (RR, 0.95 [99.17% CI, 0.88-1.03]; P = .08) or less

  18. Game-Based Learning as a Vehicle to Teach First Aid Content: A Randomized Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlier, Nathalie; De Fraine, Bieke

    2013-01-01

    Background: Knowledge of first aid (FA), which constitutes lifesaving treatments for injuries or illnesses, is important for every individual. In this study, we have set up a group-randomized controlled trial to assess the effectiveness of a board game for learning FA. Methods: Four class groups (120 students) were randomly assigned to 2…

  19. The "Outsider/Insider" Assignment: A Pedagogical Innovation for Teaching Cross-Cultural Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Angela Cora

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, I describe an innovative assignment for teaching undergraduate students cross-cultural understanding. The Outsider/Insider assignment simultaneously teaches facts about cultural difference and skills for managing cross-cultural encounters. Briefly, the assignment is to write two short papers, one in which the student describes a…

  20. Class Schedule Assignment Based on Students Learning Rhythms Using A Genetic Algorithm Asignación de horarios de clase basado en los ritmos de aprendizaje de los estudiantes usando un algoritmo genético

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor F. Suarez Chilma

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this proposal is to implement a school day agenda focused on the learning rhythms of students of elementary and secondary schools using a genetic algorithm. The methodology of this proposal takes into account legal requirements and constraints on the assignment of teachers and classrooms in public educational institutions in Colombia. In addition, this proposal provides a set of constraints focused on cognitive rhythms and subjects are scheduled at the most convenient times according to the area of knowledge. The genetic algorithm evolves through a process of mutation and selection and builds a total solution based on the best solutions for each group. Sixteen groups in a school are tested and the results of class schedule assignments are presented. The quality of the solution obtained through the established approach is validated by comparing the results to the solutions obtained using another algorithm.El objetivo de esta propuesta es implementar un horario escolar que tenga en cuenta los ritmos de aprendizaje en los estudiantes de educación primaria y secundaria, utilizando un algoritmo genético. La metodología considera los requerimientos legales y las restricciones necesarias para la asignación de maestros y aulas en instituciones educativas públicas de Colombia. Adicionalmente, se establecen un conjunto de restricciones relacionadas con el enfoque en los ritmos cognitivos, determinando las horas de la jornada en las que es más conveniente la ubicación de ciertas materias de acuerdo al área del conocimiento al que pertenecen. El algoritmo genético evoluciona mediante un proceso de mutación y selección, a través del cual se construye una solución completa a partir de la búsqueda de las mejores soluciones por grupo. Se presentan los resultados de las pruebas realizadas para la asignación de una institución con 16 grupos. La calidad de las soluciones obtenidas de acuerdo al enfoque establecido es validada

  1. Cognitive Style and Mobile E-Learning in Emergent Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery Disorders for Millennial Undergraduate Medical Students: Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Yi-Ping; Huang, Chung-Guei; Fang, Ji-Tseng; Wang, Shu-Ling; Chuang, Cheng-Keng; Kang, Chung-Jan; Hsin, Li-Jen; Lin, Wan-Ni; Fang, Tuan-Jen; Li, Hsueh-Yu

    2018-01-01

    Background Electronic learning (e-learning) through mobile technology represents a novel way to teach emergent otorhinolaryngology-head and neck surgery (ORL-HNS) disorders to undergraduate medical students. Whether a cognitive style of education combined with learning modules can impact learning outcomes and satisfaction in millennial medical students is unknown. Objective The aim of this study was to assess the impact of cognitive styles and learning modules using mobile e-learning on knowledge gain, competence gain, and satisfaction for emergent ORL-HNS disorders. Methods This randomized controlled trial included 60 undergraduate medical students who were novices in ORL-HNS at an academic teaching hospital. The cognitive style of the participants was assessed using the group embedded figures test. The students were randomly assigned (1:1) to a novel interactive multimedia (IM) group and conventional Microsoft PowerPoint show (PPS) group matched by age, sex, and cognitive style. The content for the gamified IM module was derived from and corresponded to the textbook-based learning material of the PPS module (video lectures). The participants were unblinded and used fully automated courseware containing the IM or PPS module on a 7-inch tablet for 100 min. Knowledge and competence were assessed using multiple-choice questions and multimedia situation tests, respectively. Each participant also rated their global satisfaction. Results All of the participants (median age 23 years, range 22-26 years; 36 males and 24 females) received the intended intervention after randomization. Overall, the participants had significant gains in knowledge (median 50%, interquartile range [IQR]=17%-80%, P<.001) and competence (median 13%, IQR=0%-33%, P=.006). There were no significant differences in knowledge gain (40%, IQR=13%-76% vs 60%, IQR=20%-100%, P=.42) and competence gain (0%, IQR= −21% to 38% vs 25%, IQR=0%-33%, P=.16) between the IM and PPS groups. However, the IM group had

  2. Working Memory Training in Post-Secondary Students with ADHD: A Randomized Controlled Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mawjee, Karizma; Woltering, Steven; Tannock, Rosemary

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To determine whether standard-length computerized training enhances working memory (WM), transfers to other cognitive domains and shows sustained effects, when controlling for motivation, engagement, and expectancy. Methods 97 post-secondary students (59.8% female) aged 18–35 years with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, were randomized into standard-length adaptive Cogmed WM training (CWMT; 45-min/session), a shortened-length adaptive version of CWMT (15 min/session) that controlled for motivation, engagement and expectancy of change, or into a no training group (waitlist-control group). All three groups received weekly telephone calls from trained coaches, who supervised the CWMT and were independent from the research team. All were evaluated before and 3 weeks post-training; those in the two CWMT groups were also assessed 3 months post-training. Untrained outcome measures of WM included the WAIS-IV Digit Span (auditory-verbal WM), CANTAB Spatial Span (visual-spatial WM) and WRAML Finger Windows (visual-spatial WM). Transfer-of-training effects included measures of short-term memory, cognitive speed, math and reading fluency, complex reasoning, and ADHD symptoms. Results Performance on 5/7 criterion measures indicated that shortened-length CWMT conferred as much benefit on WM performance as did standard-length training, with both CWMT groups improving more than the waitlist-control group. Only 2 of these findings remained robust after correcting for multiple comparisons. Follow-up analyses revealed that post-training improvements on WM performance were maintained for at least three months. There was no evidence of any transfer effects but the standard-length group showed improvement in task-specific strategy use. Conclusions This study failed to find robust evidence of benefits of standard-length CWMT for improving WM in college students with ADHD and the overall pattern of findings raise questions about the specificity of training effects

  3. The Utility of Writing Assignments in Undergraduate Bioscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libarkin, Julie; Ording, Gabriel

    2012-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that engagement in a few, brief writing assignments in a nonmajors science course can improve student ability to convey critical thought about science. A sample of three papers written by students (n = 30) was coded for presence and accuracy of elements related to scientific writing. Scores for different aspects of scientific writing were significantly correlated, suggesting that students recognized relationships between components of scientific thought. We found that students' ability to write about science topics and state conclusions based on data improved over the course of three writing assignments, while the abilities to state a hypothesis and draw clear connections between human activities and environmental impacts did not improve. Three writing assignments generated significant change in student ability to write scientifically, although our results suggest that three is an insufficient number to generate complete development of scientific writing skills. PMID:22383616

  4. Contact replacement for NMR resonance assignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Fei; Pandurangan, Gopal; Bailey-Kellogg, Chris

    2008-07-01

    Complementing its traditional role in structural studies of proteins, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is playing an increasingly important role in functional studies. NMR dynamics experiments characterize motions involved in target recognition, ligand binding, etc., while NMR chemical shift perturbation experiments identify and localize protein-protein and protein-ligand interactions. The key bottleneck in these studies is to determine the backbone resonance assignment, which allows spectral peaks to be mapped to specific atoms. This article develops a novel approach to address that bottleneck, exploiting an available X-ray structure or homology model to assign the entire backbone from a set of relatively fast and cheap NMR experiments. We formulate contact replacement for resonance assignment as the problem of computing correspondences between a contact graph representing the structure and an NMR graph representing the data; the NMR graph is a significantly corrupted, ambiguous version of the contact graph. We first show that by combining connectivity and amino acid type information, and exploiting the random structure of the noise, one can provably determine unique correspondences in polynomial time with high probability, even in the presence of significant noise (a constant number of noisy edges per vertex). We then detail an efficient randomized algorithm and show that, over a variety of experimental and synthetic datasets, it is robust to typical levels of structural variation (1-2 AA), noise (250-600%) and missings (10-40%). Our algorithm achieves very good overall assignment accuracy, above 80% in alpha-helices, 70% in beta-sheets and 60% in loop regions. Our contact replacement algorithm is implemented in platform-independent Python code. The software can be freely obtained for academic use by request from the authors.

  5. Can Written Disclosure Reduce Psychological Distress and Increase Objectively Measured Injury Mobility of Student-Athletes? A Randomized Controlled Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Duncan, Elaine; Gidron, Yori; Lavallee, David

    2013-01-01

    Injured students-athletes took part in a randomized controlled trial to test whether written disclosure could reduce psychological distress and improve injury mobility. Writing took place alongside prescribed physical rehabilitation and consisted of three 20-minute writing sessions, once a week for three consecutive weeks. Participants in the experimental injury-writing group followed a structured form of written disclosure, called the guided disclosure protocol (GDP). They firstly, wrote abo...

  6. Effects of mobile phone-based app learning compared to computer-based web learning on nursing students: pilot randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Myung Kyung

    2015-04-01

    This study aimed to determine the effect of mobile-based discussion versus computer-based discussion on self-directed learning readiness, academic motivation, learner-interface interaction, and flow state. This randomized controlled trial was conducted at one university. Eighty-six nursing students who were able to use a computer, had home Internet access, and used a mobile phone were recruited. Participants were randomly assigned to either the mobile phone app-based discussion group (n = 45) or a computer web-based discussion group (n = 41). The effect was measured at before and after an online discussion via self-reported surveys that addressed academic motivation, self-directed learning readiness, time distortion, learner-learner interaction, learner-interface interaction, and flow state. The change in extrinsic motivation on identified regulation in the academic motivation (p = 0.011) as well as independence and ability to use basic study (p = 0.047) and positive orientation to the future in self-directed learning readiness (p = 0.021) from pre-intervention to post-intervention was significantly more positive in the mobile phone app-based group compared to the computer web-based discussion group. Interaction between learner and interface (p = 0.002), having clear goals (p = 0.012), and giving and receiving unambiguous feedback (p = 0.049) in flow state was significantly higher in the mobile phone app-based discussion group than it was in the computer web-based discussion group at post-test. The mobile phone might offer more valuable learning opportunities for discussion teaching and learning methods in terms of self-directed learning readiness, academic motivation, learner-interface interaction, and the flow state of the learning process compared to the computer.

  7. Mindfulness Training for Health Profession Students-The Effect of Mindfulness Training on Psychological Well-Being, Learning and Clinical Performance of Health Professional Students: A Systematic Review of Randomized and Non-randomized Controlled Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConville, Janet; McAleer, Rachael; Hahne, Andrew

    High levels of stress have been identified in medical students and increasingly in other health profession student population groups. As stress can affect psychological well-being and interfere with learning and clinical performance, there is a clear argument for universities to include health professional student well-being as an outcome in core curriculum. Mindfulness training is a potential construct to manage stress and enhance academic success. The aims of this systematic review were to assess the effectiveness of mindfulness training in medical and other health professional student population groups and to compare the effectiveness of the different mindfulness-based programs. A literature search was completed using The Cochrane library, Medline, Cinahl, Embase, Psychinfo, and ERIC (proquest) electronic databases from inception to June 2016. Randomized and non-randomized controlled trials were included. Of the potential 5355 articles, 19 met the inclusion criteria. Studies focused on medical (n = 10), nursing (n = 4), social work (n = 1), psychology (n = 1), and medical plus other health (n = 3) students. Interventions were based on mindfulness. The 19 studies included 1815 participants. Meta-analysis was performed evaluating the effect of mindfulness training on mindfulness, anxiety, depression, stress, mood, self-efficacy, and empathy. The effect of mindfulness on academic performance was discussed. Mindfulness-based interventions decrease stress, anxiety, and depression and improve mindfulness, mood, self-efficacy, and empathy in health profession students. Due to the range of presentation options, mindfulness training can be relatively easily adapted and integrated into health professional training programs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The Effects of Browse Time on the Internet on Students' Essay Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doan, Kim; Bloomfield, Aaron

    2014-01-01

    This study examined how 30 minutes of search time on the Web affected students' essay scores in response to a writing prompt. Expository essays were obtained from 49 fourth- and fifth-grade students enrolled in an elementary school in Virginia, in the United States. Students were placed by random assignment into three groups with the same writing…

  9. Evaluation of a Cardio Pulmonary Resuscitation Curriculum for Junior and Senior High School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderschmidt, Hannelore Falk

    An adaptation of the standard American Heart Association training program was utilized to teach secondary school students cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR) procedures. Students, at both junior and senior high levels, were randomly assigned to practice and no-practice groups, of ten students each. All were taught CPR procedures didactically, but…

  10. Tagclouds and Group Cognition: Effect of Tagging Support on Students' Reflective Learning in Team Blogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Ying; Lin, Shu-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the effects of supported tagging (a prompting mechanism for students to stop and think about their writing) for team blogging on undergraduate students' reflective learning and the relationship between tagclouds and group cognition. Thirty-nine students were randomly assigned to six groups and blogged for 5 weeks. Three groups were…

  11. Effects of an Informational Text Reading Comprehension Intervention for Fifth-Grade Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchey, Kristen D.; Palombo, Kimberly; Silverman, Rebecca D.; Speece, Deborah L.

    2017-01-01

    Upper elementary school students who have reading problems may have difficulty in one or more areas of reading, each requiring specific types of interventions. This study evaluated a short-term reading intervention for 46 fifth-grade students with poor reading comprehension. Students were randomly assigned to an intervention or no treatment…

  12. Game theory and traffic assignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Traffic assignment is used to determine the number of users on roadway links in a network. While this problem has : been widely studied in transportation literature, its use of the concept of equilibrium has attracted considerable interest : in the f...

  13. Information Literacy Skills: Teacher and Student Viewpoints. A review of: Herring, James E. “A Critical Investigation of Students’ and Teachers’ View of the Use of Information Literacy Skills in School Assignments.” School Library Media Research 9 (2006. 14 May 2007 .

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Stephens

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To examine student and teacher views of information literacy skills in school assignments in order to determine: 1 To what extent did students value the use of a research model booklet (PLUS? 2 How confident were the students about doing a good assignment and did the PLUS booklet affect their confidence? 3What benefits and limitations did students identify from individual brainstorming and concept mapping in relation to learning more about their topic and producing a good assignment? 4 To what extent did students see value in doing preliminary reading to revise their initial keywords and concept maps? 5 What reading and note‐taking strategies did students adopt when using print and electronic resources? 6 To what extent (and why did students prefer to use electronic rather than print resources? 7 What are the implications for teachers and school library media specialists (SLMS?Design – Qualitative, action research; collaborative inquiry.Setting – Ripon Grammar School, Yorkshire, United Kingdom (high school/coeducational.Subjects – Fifty‐two students in the second year of high school (year 8 enrolled in a science class studying sound technology; the school library media specialist (SLMS; science teachers.Methods – Students in this study had previously been taught a variety of information skills and had been introduced to a research model called PLUS (Purpose, Location, Use, Self‐Evaluation. Students were given a PLUS model booklet, were required to select a topic in the area of sound technology, and were expected to do brainstorming and concept mapping and to produce a 600‐word essay. After the assignment was completed, three methods of data collection were employed to determine students’ and teachers’ views: 1 post‐assignment questionnaire 2 group interviews with students and teachers 3semi‐structured interview with the school librarian.Main results – Responses indicated that students were

  14. The effectiveness of a simulated scenario to teach nursing students how to perform a bed bath: A randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Renata Pinto Ribeiro; de Cássia Lopes Chaves, Érika; Silva Lima, Rogério; Braga, Cristiane Giffoni; Simões, Ivandira Anselmo Ribeiro; Fava, Silvana Maria Coelho Leite; Iunes, Denise Hollanda

    2017-10-01

    Simulation allows students to develop several skills during a bed bath that are difficult to teach only in traditional classroom lectures, such as problem-solving, student interactions with the simulator (patient), reasoning in clinical evaluations, evaluation of responses to interventions, teamwork, communication, security and privacy. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a simulated bed bath scenario on improving cognitive knowledge, practical performance and satisfaction among nursing students. Randomized controlled clinical trial. Nursing students that were in the fifth period from two educational institutions in Brazil. Nursing students (n=58). The data were collected using the assessments of cognitive knowledge, practical performance and satisfaction were made through a written test about bed baths, an Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) and a satisfaction questionnaire. We identified that the acquisition and assimilation of cognitive knowledge was significantly higher in the simulation group (p=0.001). The performance was similar in both groups regardless of the teaching strategy (p=0.435). At follow-up, the simulation group had significantly more satisfaction with the teaching method than the control group (p=0.007). The teaching strategy based on a simulated scenario of a bed bath proved to be effective for the acquisition of cognitive knowledge regarding bed baths in clinical practice and improved student satisfaction with the teaching process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Training auscultatory skills: computer simulated heart sounds or additional bedside training? A randomized trial on third-year medical students

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background The present study compares the value of additional use of computer simulated heart sounds, to conventional bedside auscultation training, on the cardiac auscultation skills of 3rd year medical students at Oslo University Medical School. Methods In addition to their usual curriculum courses, groups of seven students each were randomized to receive four hours of additional auscultation training either employing a computer simulator system or adding on more conventional bedside training. Cardiac auscultation skills were afterwards tested using live patients. Each student gave a written description of the auscultation findings in four selected patients, and was rewarded from 0-10 points for each patient. Differences between the two study groups were evaluated using student's t-test. Results At the auscultation test no significant difference in mean score was found between the students who had used additional computer based sound simulation compared to additional bedside training. Conclusions Students at an early stage of their cardiology training demonstrated equal performance of cardiac auscultation whether they had received an additional short auscultation course based on computer simulated training, or had had additional bedside training. PMID:20082701

  16. UOP LDR 300 All Assignments New

    OpenAIRE

    ADMIN

    2018-01-01

    UOP LDR 300 All Assignments New Check this A+ tutorial guideline at http://www.ldr300assignment.com/ldr-300-uop/ldr-300-all-assignments-latest For more classes visit http://www.ldr300assignment.com LDR 300 Week 1 Assignment Leadership Assessment (2 Papers) LDR 300 Week 2 Assignment Leadership Theories Matrix (2 Set) LDR 300 Week 2 Assignment Formulating Leadership Part I (2 Papers) LDR 300 Week 3 Assignment Interaction and Influence Amo...

  17. Randomized Controlled Evaluation of the "Too Good for Drugs" Prevention Program: Impact on Adolescents at Different Risk Levels for Drug Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Bruce W.; Bacon, Tina P.; Ferron, John M.

    2013-01-01

    Sixth graders participating in the "Too Good for Drugs" (TGFD) prevention program in comparison to 6th graders not participating show different results by student risk level. Sixth graders from 20 middle schools were randomly assigned to receive the intervention and those from 20 paired middle schools assigned to serve as controls (N =…

  18. Resource-oriented coaching for reduction of examination-related stress in medical students: an exploratory randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kötter, Thomas; Niebuhr, Frank

    2016-01-01

    The years spent in acquiring medical education is considered a stressful period in the life of many students. Students whose mental health deteriorates during this long period of study are less likely to become empathic and productive physicians. In addition to other specific stressors, academic examinations seem to further induce medical school-related stress and anxiety. Combined group and individual resource-oriented coaching early in medical education might reduce examination-related stress and anxiety and, consequently, enhance academic performance. Good quality evidence, however, remains scarce. In this study, therefore, we explored the question of whether coaching affects examination-related stress and health in medical students. We conducted a randomized controlled trial. Students who registered for the first medical academic examination in August 2014 at the University of Lübeck were recruited and randomized into three groups. The intervention groups 1 and 2 received a 1-hour psychoeducative seminar. Group 1 additionally received two 1-hour sessions of individual coaching during examination preparation. Group 3 served as a control group. We compared changes in self-rated general health (measured by a single item), anxiety and depression (measured by the hospital anxiety and depression scale), as well as medical school stress (measured by the perceived medical school stress instrument). In order to further investigate the influence of group allocation on perceived medical school stress, we conducted a linear regression analysis. We saw a significant deterioration of general health and an increase in anxiety and depression scores in medical students while preparing for an examination. We found a small, but statistically significant, effect of group allocation on the development of perceived medical school stress. However, we could not differentiate between the effects of group coaching only and group coaching in combination with two sessions of individual

  19. Developing Team Skills through a Collaborative Writing Assignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Theda Ann

    2014-01-01

    Employers want students who are able to work effectively as members of a team, and expect universities to develop this ability in their graduates. This paper proposes a framework for a collaborative writing assignment that specifically develops students' ability to work in teams. The framework has been tested using two iterations of an action…

  20. Unintended Cognitive, Affective, and Behavioral Consequences of Group Assignments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neu, Wayne A.

    2012-01-01

    Pedagogical strategies can be thought of as a set of stimuli placed in students' environment to influence their cognition, affect, and behavior. The design of strategies such as group assignments and a comprehensive understanding of their consequences for students should then include an analysis of all three of these elements and the…

  1. Python Source Code Plagiarism Attacks on Introductory Programming Course Assignments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnalim, Oscar

    2017-01-01

    This paper empirically enlists Python plagiarism attacks that have been found on Introductory Programming course assignments for undergraduate students. According to our observation toward 400 plagiarism-suspected cases, there are 35 plagiarism attacks that have been conducted by students. It starts with comment & whitespace modification as…

  2. Evoked Feelings, Assigned Meanings and Constructed Knowledge Based on Mistakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciane Guimarães Batistella Bianchini

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available By means of Piaget's critical clinical method, the study investigated the meanings assigned to mistakes by four students in different activities and interactive situations. The research also analyzed the results of using self-regulatory situations in understanding mistakes initially committed by the students. Data collection instruments consisted of games, video recordings, diaries and interviews. Following intervention, the students were able to recognize their competence, establish positive interactions within the group, and avoid viewing mistakes as obstacles to learning. We concluded that the meanings assigned to mistakes depend on certain variables, among them feelings nurtured by the individuals about themselves, the other, and the object of knowledge.

  3. Evaluating a Serious Gaming Electronic Medication Administration Record System Among Nursing Students: Protocol for a Pragmatic Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Richard; Sinclair, Barbara; McMurray, Josephine; Strudwick, Gillian; Watson, Gavan; Ladak, Hanif; Zwarenstein, Merrick; McBride, Susan; Chan, Ryan; Brennan, Laura

    2018-05-28

    Although electronic medication administration record systems have been implemented in settings where nurses work, nursing students commonly lack robust learning opportunities to practice the skills and workflow of digitalized medication administration during their formative education. As a result, nursing students' performance in administering medication facilitated by technology is often poor. Serious gaming has been recommended as a possible intervention to improve nursing students' performance with electronic medication administration in nursing education. The objectives of this study are to examine whether the use of a gamified electronic medication administration simulator (1) improves nursing students' attention to medication administration safety within simulated practice, (2) increases student self-efficacy and knowledge of the medication administration process, and (3) improves motivational and cognitive processing attributes related to student learning in a technology-enabled environment. This study comprised the development of a gamified electronic medication administration record simulator and its evaluation in 2 phases. Phase 1 consists of a prospective, pragmatic randomized controlled trial with second-year baccalaureate nursing students at a Canadian university. Phase 2 consists of qualitative focus group interviews with a cross-section of nursing student participants. The gamified medication administration simulator has been developed, and data collection is currently under way. If the gamified electronic medication administration simulator is found to be effective, it could be used to support other health professional simulated education and scaled more widely in nursing education programs. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03219151; https://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT03219151 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6yjBROoDt). RR1-10.2196/9601. ©Richard Booth, Barbara Sinclair, Josephine McMurray, Gillian Strudwick, Gavan Watson, Hanif Ladak

  4. Promoting STI testing among senior vocational students in Rotterdam, the Netherlands: effects of a cluster randomized study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfers Mireille

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adolescents are a risk group for acquiring sexually transmitted infections (STIs. In the Netherlands, senior vocational school students are particular at risk. However, STI test rates among adolescents are low and interventions that promote testing are scarce. To enhance voluntary STI testing, an intervention was designed and evaluated in senior vocational schools. The intervention combined classroom health education with sexual health services at the school site. The purpose of this study was to assess the combined and single effects on STI testing of health education and school-based sexual health services. Methods In a cluster-randomized study the intervention was evaluated in 24 schools, using three experimental conditions: 1 health education, 2 sexual health services; 3 both components; and a control group. STI testing was assessed by self reported behavior and registrations at regional sexual health services. Follow-up measurements were performed at 1, 3, and 6-9 months. Of 1302 students present at baseline, 739 (57% completed at least 1 follow-up measurement, of these students 472 (64% were sexually experienced, and considered to be susceptible for the intervention. Multi-level analyses were conducted. To perform analyses according to the principle of intention-to-treat, missing observations at follow-up on the outcome measure were imputed with multiple imputation techniques. Results were compared with the complete cases analysis. Results Sexually experienced students that received the combined intervention of health education and sexual health services reported more STI testing (29% than students in the control group (4% (OR = 4.3, p Conclusions Despite a low dose of intervention that was received by the students and a high attrition, we were able to show an intervention effect among sexually experienced students on STI testing. This study confirmed our hypothesis that offering health education to vocational students

  5. Design and rationale of the medical students learning weight management counseling skills (MSWeight) group randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ockene, Judith K; Ashe, Karen M; Hayes, Rashelle B; Churchill, Linda C; Crawford, Sybil L; Geller, Alan C; Jolicoeur, Denise; Olendzki, Barbara C; Basco, Maria Theresa; Pendharkar, Jyothi A; Ferguson, Kristi J; Guck, Thomas P; Margo, Katherine L; Okuliar, Catherine A; Shaw, Monica A; Soleymani, Taraneh; Stadler, Diane D; Warrier, Sarita S; Pbert, Lori

    2018-01-01

    Physicians have an important role addressing the obesity epidemic. Lack of adequate teaching to provide weight management counseling (WMC) is cited as a reason for limited treatment. National guidelines have not been translated into an evidence-supported, competency-based curriculum in medical schools. Weight Management Counseling in Medical Schools: A Randomized Controlled Trial (MSWeight) is designed to determine if a multi-modal theoretically-guided WMC educational intervention improves observed counseling skills and secondarily improve perceived skills and self-efficacy among medical students compared to traditional education (TE). Eight U.S. medical schools were pair-matched and randomized in a group randomized controlled trial to evaluate whether a multi-modal education (MME) intervention compared to traditional education (TE) improves observed WMC skills. The MME intervention includes innovative components in years 1-3: a structured web-course; a role play exercise, WebPatientEncounter, and an enhanced outpatient internal medicine or family medicine clerkship. This evidence-supported curriculum uses the 5As framework to guide treatment and incorporates patient-centered counseling to engage the patient. The primary outcome is a comparison of scores on an Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) WMC case among third year medical students. The secondary outcome compares changes in scores of medical students from their first to third year on an assessment of perceived WMC skills and self-efficacy. MSWeight is the first RCT in medical schools to evaluate whether interventions integrated into the curriculum improve medical students' WMC skills. If this educational approach for teaching WMC is effective, feasible and acceptable it can affect how medical schools integrate WMC teaching into their curriculum. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Treating Speech Comprehensibility in Students with Down Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoder, Paul J.; Camarata, Stephen; Woynaroski, Tiffany

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined whether a particular type of therapy (Broad Target Speech Recasts, BTSR) was superior to a contrast treatment in facilitating speech comprehensibility in conversations of students with Down syndrome who began treatment with initially high verbal imitation. Method: We randomly assigned 51 5- to 12-year-old students to…

  7. Teaching Complaint and Adjustment Letters--And Tact (My Favorite Assignment).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deimling, Paula

    1992-01-01

    Describes a three-part assignment in which each student writes a complaint letter and an adjustment letter responding to another student's complaint letter. Discusses how the third part of the assignment--journal entries--allows students to formulate their own criteria for excellent letters based upon their reactions to the letters they receive.…

  8. The Automatic Sweetheart: An Assignment in a History of Psychology Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibicky, Mark E.

    2007-01-01

    This article describes an assignment in a History of Psychology course used to enhance student retention of material and increase student interest and discussion of the long-standing debate between humanistic and mechanistic models in psychology. Adapted from William James's (1955) automatic sweetheart question, the assignment asks students to…

  9. A Case-Study Assignment to Teach Theoretical Perspectives in Abnormal Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, David V.

    1991-01-01

    Describes an assignment that requires students to organize, prepare, and revise a case study in abnormal behavior. Explains that students employ a single theoretical perspective in preparing a report on a figure from history, literature, the arts, or current events. Discusses the value of the assignment for students. (SG)

  10. Final Evaluation of Assignment: Media Literacy. A Report to the Discovery Channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubey, Robert; Serafin, Gina Marcello

    The Assignment: Media Literacy curriculum is a 6-module media literacy curriculum developed by Renee Hobbs of Babson College and her staff in collaboration with the Discovery Channel. There are three versions of Assignment: Media Literacy, one for elementary school students, one for middle school students, and one for high school students. Close…

  11. An Empirical Examination of the Roles of Ability and Gender in Collaborative Homework Assignments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Jeffrey

    2010-01-01

    The author investigates how ability and gender affect grades on homework projects performed by assigned pairs of students in an undergraduate macroeconomics course. The assignment grade is found to depend on the ability of both students, and the relative importance of the stronger and weaker student differs in predictable ways depending on the…

  12. Students are almost as effective as professors in university teaching

    OpenAIRE

    Feld, Jan; Salamanca, Nicolas; Zölitz, Ulf

    2017-01-01

    Many universities around the world rely on student instructors—current bachelor’s and master’s degree students—for tutorial teaching, yet we know nothing about their effectiveness. In a setting with random assignment of instructors to students, we show that student instructors are almost as effective as senior instructors at improving their students’ short- and longer-run academic achievement and labor market outcomes. We find little heterogeneity across different course types, student charac...

  13. A mindfulness-based stress prevention training for medical students (MediMind): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhlmann, Sophie Merle; Bürger, Arne; Esser, Günter; Hammerle, Florian

    2015-02-08

    Medical training is very demanding and associated with a high prevalence of psychological distress. Compared to the general population, medical students are at a greater risk of developing a psychological disorder. Various attempts of stress management training in medical school have achieved positive results on minimizing psychological distress; however, there are often limitations. Therefore, the use of a rigorous scientific method is needed. The present study protocol describes a randomized controlled trial to examine the effectiveness of a specifically developed mindfulness-based stress prevention training for medical students that includes selected elements of cognitive behavioral strategies (MediMind). This study protocol presents a prospective randomized controlled trial, involving four assessment time points: baseline, post-intervention, one-year follow-up and five-year follow-up. The aims include evaluating the effect on stress, coping, psychological morbidity and personality traits with validated measures. Participants are allocated randomly to one of three conditions: MediMind, Autogenic Training or control group. Eligible participants are medical or dental students in the second or eighth semester of a German university. They form a population of approximately 420 students in each academic term. A final total sample size of 126 (at five-year follow-up) is targeted. The trainings (MediMind and Autogenic Training) comprise five weekly sessions lasting 90 minutes each. MediMind will be offered to participants of the control group once the five-year follow-up is completed. The allotment is randomized with a stratified allocation ratio by course of studies, semester, and gender. After descriptive statistics have been evaluated, inferential statistical analysis will be carried out with a repeated measures ANOVA-design with interactions between time and group. Effect sizes will be calculated using partial η-square values. Potential limitations of this study

  14. School-Based Smoking Prevention Programs for Middle School Students in Nowshahr- Iran: a Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Khazaee-Pool

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Smoking among youths is a main public health concern, and detecting predictors of smoking is essential for designing preventive programs. Any interventional program should plan with highlighting on behavioral change models and based on operative interventional program. So, this study aimed to investigate school-based smoking prevention programs for middle school students in Nowshahr, Iran.Materials and Methods: A quasi-experimental study was performed with 280 male students aged 15-17 years selected by multistage sampling. For this purpose, 6 middle schools were randomly recruited from male students in Nowshahr- Iran. Then, 140 students were randomly chosen for each the experimental and the control groups. After pretest, educational program based on Health Belief Model were performed in experimental group. Also, post-test was applied four months after interventional program in both experimental and control group.Results: Based on the results, the prevalence of smoking was higher at age 14 old in both experimental (38.7% and control (30 % groups. About 35% of participants in the experimental group and 33.6% in control group had smoker father. Additionally, 10% in experimental group and 7.8% in control group had smoker mother. Most main cause for smoking in 57.9% of the experimental group and 52.63% of the control group was reducing anxiety. Results also shown that there was a significant difference between students in the experimental and control groups after performing educational program in the mean scores of perceived susceptibility, perceived severity, perceived benefits, perceived barriers, perceived self-efficacy, and preventive behaviors of smoking (P < 0.05.Conclusion: By performing educational program, it was found that the prevalence of cigarette smoking was decreased in the intervention group. So, with a better understanding of factors affecting on this complex behavior (cigarette smoking, it can be a valuable phase to

  15. Practical Homework Assignments As Part Of Chemistry Teaching And Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Dragica Trivic; Mirjana Markovi; Miomir Randjelovi

    2010-01-01

    The paper presents two examples of classroom practices when practical research tasks in primary and secondary school are assigned as homework. The task for primary school students was aimed at developing divergent thinking, which is evidenced and illustrated by some examples of students’ solutions. The task for secondary school students illustrates how these students are able to apply their classroom knowledge of acids, bases and indicators on the substances they can find in everyday life. Th...

  16. The Impact of Incorporating Student Confidence Items into an Intelligent Tutor: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Charles; Heffernan, Neil; Ostrow, Korinn; Wang, Yutao

    2015-01-01

    For at least the last century researchers have advocated the use of student confidence as a form of educational assessment and the growth of online and mobile educational software has made the implementation of this measurement far easier. The following short paper discusses our first study of the dynamics of student confidence in an online math…

  17. Exploiting Lexical Ambiguity to Help Students Understand the Meaning of "Random"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Jennifer J.; Rogness, Neal T.; Fisher, Diane G.

    2014-01-01

    Words that are part of colloquial English but used differently in a technical domain may possess lexical ambiguity. The use of such words by instructors may inhibit student learning if incorrect connections are made by students between the technical and colloquial meanings. One fundamental word in statistics that has lexical ambiguity for students…

  18. The Economic Naturalist Writing Assignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Robert H.

    2006-01-01

    Several months after having completed an introductory economics course, most students are no better able to answer simple economic questions than students who never took the course. The problem seems to be that principles courses try to teach students far too much, with the result that everything goes by in a blur. The good news is that a…

  19. Effect of handoff skills training for students during the medicine clerkship: a quasi-randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Juan A; Greenberg, Larrie; Amdur, Richard; Gehring, James; Lesky, Linda G

    2016-03-01

    Continuity is critical for safe patient care and its absence is associated with adverse outcomes. Continuity requires handoffs between physicians, but most published studies of educational interventions to improve handoffs have focused primarily on residents, despite interns expected to being proficient. The AAMC core entrustable activities for graduating medical students includes handoffs as a milestone, but no controlled studies with students have assessed the impact of training in handoff skills. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of an educational intervention to improve third-year medical student handoff skills, the durability of learned skills into the fourth year, and the transfer of skills from the simulated setting to the clinical environment. Trained evaluators used standardized patient cases and an observation tool to assess verbal handoff skills immediately post intervention and during the student's fourth-year acting internship. Students were also observed doing real time sign-outs during their acting internship. Evaluators assessed untrained control students using a standardized case and performing a real-time sign-out. Intervention students mean score demonstrated improvement in handoff skills immediately after the workshop (2.6-3.8; p < 0.0001) that persisted into their fourth year acting internship when compared to baseline performance (3.9-3.5; p = 0.06) and to untrained control students (3.5 vs. 2.5; p < 0.001, d = 1.2). Intervention students evaluated in the clinical setting also scored higher than control students when assessed doing real-time handoffs (3.8 vs. 3.3; p = 0.032, d = 0.71). These findings should be useful to others considering introducing handoff teaching in the undergraduate medical curriculum in preparation for post-graduate medical training. Trial Registration Number NCT02217241.

  20. Designing Internet research assignments: building a framework for instructor collaboration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Ward

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Internet knowledge is increasing steadily among instructors in the academic world. As courses incorporate more instructional technology, traditional undergraduate research assignments are adapting to reflect the changing world of information and information access. New library assignments reflect this shift as well, with term papers and research projects asking students to use Web sites as an information resource, in addition to the standard literature of periodicals and monographs. But the many pitfalls the library profession has learned in its own metamorphosis during the past decade are often repeated in these newer course assignments. The authors in this paper present a framework for librarians to interact with instructors to incorporate Internet resources into traditional term paper and research assignments. They suggest a framework for creating sample assignments librarians can take to campus instructional units, to show the teaching community at large what the library profession has learned from first-hand experience.

  1. Random number generation in bilingual Balinese and German students: preliminary findings from an exploratory cross-cultural study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strenge, Hans; Lesmana, Cokorda Bagus Jaya; Suryani, Luh Ketut

    2009-08-01

    Verbal random number generation is a procedurally simple task to assess executive function and appears ideally suited for the use under diverse settings in cross-cultural research. The objective of this study was to examine ethnic group differences between young adults in Bali (Indonesia) and Kiel (Germany): 50 bilingual healthy students, 30 Balinese and 20 Germans, attempted to generate a random sequence of the digits 1 to 9. In Balinese participants, randomization was done in Balinese (native language L1) and Indonesian (first foreign language L2), in German subjects in the German (L1) and English (L2) languages. 10 of 30 Balinese (33%), but no Germans, were unable to inhibit habitual counting in more than half of the responses. The Balinese produced significantly more nonrandom responses than the Germans with higher rates of counting and significantly less occurrence of the digits 2 and 3 in L1 compared with L2. Repetition and cycling behavior did not differ between the four languages. The findings highlight the importance of taking into account culture-bound psychosocial factors for Balinese individuals when administering and interpreting a random number generation test.

  2. Engaging medical students in the feedback process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, David A; Boehler, Margaret L; Schwind, Cathy J; Meier, Andreas H; Wall, Jarrod C H; Brenner, Michael J

    2012-01-01

    There are potential advantages to engaging medical students in the feedback process, but efforts to do so have yielded mixed results. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a student-focused feedback instructional session in an experimental setting. Medical students were assigned randomly to either the intervention or control groups and then assigned randomly to receive either feedback or compliments. Tests of knowledge, skills, and attitudes were given before and after the intervention. There was a significant gain of knowledge and skill in the group that received instruction. Satisfaction was higher after compliments in the control group but higher after feedback in the instructional group. There was no change in the subject's willingness to seek feedback. A student-focused component should be carefully included as part of an overall effort to improve feedback in surgical education. The role of medical student attitudes about feedback requires further investigation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Mobile Phone Apps for University Students With Hazardous Alcohol Use: Study Protocol for Two Consecutive Randomized Controlled Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Anne H; Gajecki, Mikael; Fredriksson, Morgan; Sinadinovic, Kristina; Andersson, Claes

    2015-12-22

    About 50% of university students overconsume alcohol, and drinking habits in later adulthood are to some extent established during higher educational studies. Several studies have demonstrated that Internet-based interventions have positive effects on drinking habits among university students. Our recent study evaluated two mobile phone apps targeting drinking choices at party occasions via personalized feedback on estimated blood alcohol concentration (eBAC) for students with hazardous drinking. No changes in drinking parameters were found over a seven-week period apart from an increase in number of drinking occasions among men for one of the apps tested. Up to 30% of the study participants drank at potentially harmful levels: higher than the national recommended number of standard drinks per week (a maximum of 9 for women and 14 for men) in Sweden. (1) To evaluate improved versions of the two mobile phone apps tested in our prior trial, in a new, 3-armed randomized controlled trial among university students with at least hazardous drinking habits according to the Alcohol Use Disorders Identifications Test (AUDIT; Study 1). (2) After 6 weeks, to target study participants showing alcohol consumption higher than the national recommended levels for standard drinks per week by offering them participation in a second, 2-armed randomized trial evaluating an additional mobile phone app with skill enhancement tasks (Study 2). (3) To follow participants at 6, 12 and 18 weeks after recruitment to Study 1 and at 6 and 12 weeks after recruitment to Study 2. Two randomized controlled trials are conducted. Study 1: Students are recruited at four Swedish universities, via direct e-mail and advertisements on Facebook and student union web sites. Those who provide informed consent, have a mobile phone, and show at least hazardous alcohol consumption according to the AUDIT (≥6 for women; ≥8 points for men) are randomized into three groups. Group 1 has access to the Swedish

  4. The Influence of Mathematics Vocabulary Instruction Embedded within Addition Tutoring for First-Grade Students with Mathematics Difficulty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Sarah R.; Driver, Melissa K.

    2015-01-01

    Researchers and practitioners indicate students require explicit instruction on mathematics vocabulary terms, yet no study has examined the effects of an embedded vocabulary component within mathematics tutoring for early elementary students. First-grade students with mathematics difficulty (MD; n = 98) were randomly assigned to addition tutoring…

  5. Assessing the Impact of ADHD Coaching Services on University Students' Learning Skills, Self-Regulation, and Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Sharon; Parker, David R.; Sawilowsky, Shlomo; Rolands, Laura

    2013-01-01

    The effects of coaching on learning and study skills, self-regulation, and subjective well-being of students with ADHD attending 2- and 4-year colleges or universities was examined. Students were randomly assigned to participate in coaching or comparison groups. Coaching students received weekly phone-based coaching sessions and additional…

  6. Exercise as an Intervention to Reduce Study-Related Fatigue among University Students: A Two-Arm Parallel Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juriena D de Vries

    Full Text Available Many university students experience high levels of study-related fatigue. This high prevalence, and the negative impact of fatigue on health and academic performance, call for prevention and reduction of these symptoms. The primary aim of the current study was to investigate to what extent an exercise intervention is effective in reducing three indicators of study-related fatigue (emotional exhaustion, overall fatigue, and need for recovery. Effects of exercise on secondary outcomes (sleep quality, self-efficacy, physical fitness, and cognitive functioning were also investigated.Participants were students with high levels of study-related fatigue, currently not exercising or receiving other psychological or pharmacological treatments, and with no medical cause of fatigue. They were randomly assigned to either a six-week exercise intervention (low-intensity running three times a week, n = 49 or wait list (no intervention, n = 48. All participants were measured before the intervention (T0, and immediately after the intervention (T1. Exercisers were also investigated 4 weeks (T2 and 12 weeks (T3 after the intervention.Participants in the exercise condition showed a larger decrease in two of the three indicators of study-related fatigue (i.e., overall fatigue and need for recovery as compared to controls. Additionally, sleep quality and some indicators of cognitive functioning improved more among exercisers than among controls. No effects were found for self-efficacy, and physical fitness. The initial effects of the exercise intervention lasted at follow-up (T2 and T3. At 12-week follow up (T3, 80% of participants in the exercise condition still engaged in regular exercise, and further enhancements were seen for emotional exhaustion, overall fatigue, and sleep quality.These results underline the value of low-intensity exercise for university students with high levels of study-related fatigue. The follow-up effects that were found in this study imply

  7. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Simulation-Based Teaching versus Traditional Instruction in Medicine: A Pilot Study among Clinical Medical Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, James A.; Shaffer, David W.; Raemer, Daniel B.; Pawlowski, John; Hurford, William E.; Cooper, Jeffrey B.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To compare simulator-based teaching with traditional instruction among clinical medical students. Methods: Randomized controlled trial with written pre-post testing. Third-year medical students (n = 38) received either a myocardial infarction (MI) simulation followed by a reactive airways disease (RAD) lecture, or a RAD simulation…

  8. Resource-oriented coaching for reduction of examination-related stress in medical students: an exploratory randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kötter T

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Thomas Kötter,1 Frank Niebuhr2 1Institute of Social Medicine and Epidemiology, 2Institute of Family Medicine, University of Lübeck, Lübeck, Germany Introduction: The years spent in acquiring medical education is considered a stressful period in the life of many students. Students whose mental health deteriorates during this long period of study are less likely to become empathic and productive physicians. In addition to other specific stressors, academic examinations seem to further induce medical school-related stress and anxiety. Combined group and individual resource-oriented coaching early in medical education might reduce examination-related stress and anxiety and, consequently, enhance academic performance. Good quality evidence, however, remains scarce. In this study, therefore, we explored the question of whether coaching affects examination-related stress and health in medical students.Methods: We conducted a randomized controlled trial. Students who registered for the first medical academic examination in August 2014 at the University of Lübeck were recruited and randomized into three groups. The intervention groups 1 and 2 received a 1-hour psychoeducative seminar. Group 1 additionally received two 1-hour sessions of individual coaching during examination preparation. Group 3 served as a control group. We compared changes in self-rated general health (measured by a single item, anxiety and depression (measured by the hospital anxiety and depression scale, as well as medical school stress (measured by the perceived medical school stress instrument. In order to further investigate the influence of group allocation on perceived medical school stress, we conducted a linear regression analysis.Results: We saw a significant deterioration of general health and an increase in anxiety and depression scores in medical students while preparing for an examination. We found a small, but statistically significant, effect of group allocation on

  9. Undergraduate student drinking and related harms at an Australian university: web-based survey of a large random sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hallett Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is considerable interest in university student hazardous drinking among the media and policy makers. However there have been no population-based studies in Australia to date. We sought to estimate the prevalence and correlates of hazardous drinking and secondhand effects among undergraduates at a Western Australian university. Method We invited 13,000 randomly selected undergraduate students from a commuter university in Australia to participate in an online survey of university drinking. Responses were received from 7,237 students (56%, who served as participants in this study. Results Ninety percent had consumed alcohol in the last 12 months and 34% met criteria for hazardous drinking (AUDIT score ≥ 8 and greater than 6 standard drinks in one sitting in the previous month. Men and Australian/New Zealand residents had significantly increased odds (OR: 2.1; 95% CI: 1.9-2.3; OR: 5.2; 95% CI: 4.4-6.2 of being categorised as dependent (AUDIT score 20 or over than women and non-residents. In the previous 4 weeks, 13% of students had been insulted or humiliated and 6% had been pushed, hit or otherwise assaulted by others who were drinking. One percent of respondents had experienced sexual assault in this time period. Conclusions Half of men and over a third of women were drinking at hazardous levels and a relatively large proportion of students were negatively affected by their own and other students' drinking. There is a need for intervention to reduce hazardous drinking early in university participation. Trial registration ACTRN12608000104358

  10. Short message service (SMS)-based intervention targeting alcohol consumption among university students: study protocol of a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Kristin; Bendtsen, Marcus; Linderoth, Catharina; Karlsson, Nadine; Bendtsen, Preben; Müssener, Ulrika

    2017-04-04

    Despite significant health risks, heavy drinking of alcohol among university students is a widespread problem; excessive drinking is part of the social norm. A growing number of studies indicate that short message service (SMS)-based interventions are cost-effective, accessible, require limited effort by users, and can enable continuous, real-time, brief support in real-world settings. Although there is emerging evidence for the effect of SMS-based interventions in reducing alcohol consumption, more research is needed. This study aims to test the effectiveness of a newly developed SMS-based intervention targeting excessive alcohol consumption among university and college students in Sweden. The study is a two-arm randomized controlled trial with an intervention (SMS programme) and a control (treatment as usual) group. Outcome measures will be investigated at baseline and at 3-month follow up. The primary outcome is total weekly alcohol consumption. Secondary outcomes are frequency of heavy episodic drinking, highest estimated blood alcohol concentration and number of negative consequences due to excessive drinking. This study contributes knowledge on the effect of automatized SMS support to reduce excessive drinking among students compared with existing support such as Student Health Centres. ISRCTN.com, ISRCTN95054707 . Registered on 31 August 2016.

  11. Moving beyond "Bookish Knowledge": Using Film-Based Assignments to Promote Deep Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Joann S.; Autry, Linda; Moe, Jeffry

    2016-01-01

    This article investigates the effectiveness of a film-based assignment given to adult learners in a graduate-level group counseling class. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with four students; data analysis suggested film-based assignments may promote deep approaches to learning (DALs). Participants indicated the assignment helped them…

  12. Risk moderation of a parent and student preventive alcohol intervention by adolescent and family factors: a cluster randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdurmen, Jacqueline E E; Koning, Ina M; Vollebergh, Wilma A M; van den Eijnden, Regina J J M; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2014-03-01

    To examine risk moderation of an alcohol intervention targeting parents and adolescents. A cluster randomized trial including 2937 Dutch early adolescents (m=12.68years, SD=0.51) and their parents randomized over four conditions: parent intervention, student intervention, combined parent-student intervention, and control group. 152 classes of 19 high schools in The Netherlands (2006). Moderators at baseline (adolescent: gender, educational level and externalizing behavior; parent: educational level and heavy alcohol use) were used to examine the differential effects of the interventions on onset of (heavy) weekly drinking at 22-month follow-up. The combined intervention effectively delayed the onset of weekly drinking in the general population of adolescents, and was particularly effective in delaying the onset of heavy weekly drinking in a higher-risk subsample of adolescents (i.e. those attending lower levels of education and reporting higher levels of externalizing behavior). Present and previous results have established the combined intervention to be universally effective in postponing weekly alcohol use among Dutch adolescents, with an added effect on postponing heavy weekly drinking in high risk subgroups. Therefore, implementation of this intervention in the general population of schools in The Netherlands is advised. NTR649. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of modafinil on attention performance, short-term memory and executive function in university students: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Alejandro; Mascayano, Franco; Lips, Walter; Painel, Andrés; Norambuena, Jonathan; Madrid, Eva

    2015-06-30

    Modafinil is a drug developed and used for the treatment of excessive lethargy. Even though very effective for sleep disorders, it is still controversial whether modafinil can improve performance in high-order cognitive processes such as memory and executive function. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial was designed to evaluate the effect of modafinil (compared to placebo) on the cognitive functions of healthy students. 160 volunteers were recruited and allocated randomly to modafinil or placebo group, and were assessed using the Stroop Test, BCET test and Digit span test. We found a significant difference in favor of modafinil compared to placebo in the proportion of correct answers of Stroop Test in congruent situation. A significant shorter latency of modafinil group in the incongruent situation of Stroop test was also found. No differences were found in Digit Span, or BCET tests. The study demonstrated that modafinil does not enhance the global cognitive performance of healthy non-sleep deprived students, except regarding non-demanding tasks. In particular, this drug does not seem to have positive effects on mental processes that sustain studying tasks in the college population under normal conditions. We expect these findings to demystify the use of this drug and help decision making concerning pharmacological public policies.

  14. A Randomized Trial of Two Promising Computer-Based Interventions for Students with Attention Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabiner, David L.; Murray, Desiree W.; Skinner, Ann T; Malone, Patrick S.

    2010-01-01

    Few studies have examined whether attention can be improved with training, even though attention difficulties adversely affect academic achievement. The present study was a randomized-controlled trial evaluating the impact of Computerized Attention Training (CAT) and Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI) on attention and academic performance in 77…

  15. The effect of adaptive versus static practicing on student learning - evidence from a randomized field experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Klaveren, Chris; Vonk, Sebastiaan; Cornelisz, Ilja

    2017-01-01

    Schools and governments are increasingly investing in adaptive practice software. To date, the evidence whether adaptivity improves learning outcomes is limited and mixed. A large-scale randomized control trial is conducted in Dutch secondary schools to evaluate the effectiveness of an adaptive

  16. Using a videogame to facilitate nursing and medical students' first visit to the operating theatre. A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Blanco, Ángel; Torrente, Javier; Fernández-Manjón, Baltasar; Ruiz, Pedro; Giner, Manuel

    2017-08-01

    First experiences in the operating theatre with real patients are always stressful and intimidating for students. We hypothesized that a game-like simulation could improve perceptions and performance of novices. A videogame was developed, combining pictures and short videos, by which students are interactively instructed on acting at the surgical block. Moreover, the game includes detailed descriptive information. After playing, students are given feedback on their performance. A randomized controlled trial was conducted with 132 nursing and medical students with no previous experience in surgery. Sixty two (47.0%) were allocated to a control group (CG) and 70 (53.0%) to an experimental group (EG). Subjects in EG played the game the day prior to their first experience in the theatre; CG had no access to the application. On the day after their experience at surgery, all students filled in a questionnaire in a 7-point Likert format collecting subjective data about their experience in the surgical block. Four constructs related to students' feelings, emotions and attitudes were measured through self-reported subjective scales, i.e. C1: fear to make mistakes, C2: perceived knowledge on how to behave, C3: perceived errors committed, and C4: attitude/behaviour towards patients and staff. The main research question was formulated as follows: do students show differences in constructs C1-C4 by exposure to the game? EG reported statistically significant higher scores on the four aspects measured than CG (p<0.05; Mann-Whitney U tests; Cohen's d standardized effect size d1=0.30; d2=1.05; d3=0.39; d4=0.49). Results show clear evidence that the exposure to the game-like simulation had a significant positive effect on all the constructs. After their first visit to the theatre, students in EG showed less fear (C1) and also perceived to have committed fewer errors (C3), while they showed higher perceived knowledge (C2) and a more collaborative attitude (C4). Copyright © 2017

  17. A randomized trial of cardiopulmonary resuscitation training for medical students: voice advisory mannequin compared to guidance provided by an instructor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díez, Nieves; Rodríguez-Díez, María-Cristina; Nagore, David; Fernández, Secundino; Ferrer, Marta; Beunza, Juan-Jose

    2013-08-01

    Current European Resuscitation Guidelines 2010 recommend the use of prompt/feedback devices when training for cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). We aimed to assess the quality of CPR training among second-year medical students with a voice advisory mannequin (VAM) compared to guidance provided by an instructor. Forty-three students received a theoretical reminder about CPR followed by a 2-minute pretest on CPR (compressions/ventilations cycle) with Resusci Anne SkillReporter (Laerdal Medical). They were then randomized into a control group (n = 22), trained by an instructor for 4 minutes per student, and an intervention group (n = 21) trained individually with VAM CPR mannequin for 4 minutes. After training, the students performed a 2-minute posttest, with the same method as the pretest. Participants in the intervention group (VAM) performed more correct hand position (73% vs. 37%; P = 0.014) and tended to display better compression rate (124 min vs. 135 min; P = 0.089). In a stratified analyses by sex we found that only among women trained with VAM was there a significant improvement in compression depth before and after training (36 mm vs. 46 mm, P = 0.018) and in the percentage of insufficient compressions before and after training (56% vs. 15%; P = 0.021). In comparison to the traditional training method involving an instructor, training medical students in CPR with VAM improves the quality of chest compressions in hand position and in compression rate applied to mannequins. Only among women was VAM shown to be superior in compression depth training. This technology reduces costs in 14% in our setup and might potentially release instructors' time for other activities.

  18. Randomized trials of alcohol-use interventions with college students and their parents: lessons from the Transitions Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, A C; Wood, M D; Laforge, R; Black, J T

    2011-04-01

    Matriculation from high school to college is typified by an increase in alcohol use and related harm for many students. Therefore, this transition period is an ideal time for preventive interventions to target alcohol use and related problems. The purpose of this report is to describe the design and methods used in the Transitions Project, a randomized controlled trial of two interventions designed to prevent and reduce heavy episodic drinking and alcohol-related negative consequences among incoming college students. This study used a 2 × 2 factorial design to investigate the effects of a two-session brief motivational intervention delivered to students and a handbook-based parent intervention. Interventions were administered to students and parents. Follow-up assessment took place at 10- and 22-months post-baseline. The Transitions Project successfully recruited and retained participants across a major transition period (i.e., entering college), administered and compared two distinct but complementary interventions, and collected and analyzed highly skewed data. The application of a factorial design and two-part latent growth curve modeling allowed us to examine main and interactive intervention effects in terms of both initiation and growth in heavy drinking and alcohol-related problems. While we conducted successful tests of our primary and secondary study hypotheses over a lengthy follow-up period, our study design did not permit full interpretation of null findings. We suggest that researchers carefully consider assessment timing, tests of assessment reactivity, and ensure objective tests of intervention efficacy when conducting clinical trials of motivational interventions. The lessons we learned while conducting this trial have the potential to assist other researchers designing and conducting future preventive interventions targeting parents and college students. The data analytic procedures presented can also help guide trials that plan to analyze

  19. Examining Teacher Effectiveness Using Classroom Observation Scores: Evidence from the Randomization of Teachers to Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Rachel; Steinberg, Matthew P.

    2015-01-01

    Despite policy efforts to encourage multiple measures of performance in newly developing teacher evaluation systems, practical constraints often result in evaluations based predominantly on formal classroom observations. Yet there is limited knowledge of how these observational measures relate to student achievement. This article leverages the…

  20. Effect of High-Fidelity Simulation on Medical Students' Knowledge about Advanced Life Support: A Randomized Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Cortegiani

    Full Text Available High-fidelity simulation (HFS is a learning method which has proven effective in medical education for technical and non-technical skills. However, its effectiveness for knowledge acquisition is less validated. We performed a randomized study with the primary aim of investigating whether HFS, in association with frontal lessons, would improve knowledge about advanced life support (ALS, in comparison to frontal lessons only among medical students. The secondary aims were to evaluate the effect of HFS on knowledge acquisition of different sections of ALS and personal knowledge perception. Participants answered a pre-test questionnaire consisting of a subjective (evaluating personal perception of knowledge and an objective section (measuring level of knowledge containing 100 questions about algorithms, technical skills, team working/early warning scores/communication strategies according to ALS guidelines. All students participated in 3 frontal lessons before being randomized in group S, undergoing a HFS session, and group C, receiving no further interventions. After 10 days from the end of each intervention, both groups answered a questionnaire (post-test with the same subjective section but a different objective one. The overall number of correct answers of the post-test was significantly higher in group S (mean 74.1, SD 11.2 than in group C (mean 65.5, SD 14.3, p = 0.0017, 95% C.I. 3.34 - 13.9. A significantly higher number of correct answers was reported in group S than in group C for questions investigating knowledge of algorithms (p = 0.0001; 95% C.I 2.22-5.99 and team working/early warning scores/communication strategies (p = 0.0060; 95% C.I 1.13-6.53. Students in group S showed a significantly higher score in the post-test subjective section (p = 0.0074. A lower proportion of students in group S confirmed their perception of knowledge compared to group C (p = 0.0079. HFS showed a beneficial effect on knowledge of ALS among medical students

  1. Effectiveness of applying flipped learning to clinical nursing practicums for nursing students in Korea: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Sook; Kim, Mi Young; Cho, Mi-Kyoung; Jang, Sun Joo

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop flipped learning models for clinical practicums and compare their effectiveness regarding learner motivation toward learning, satisfaction, and confidence in performing core nursing skills among undergraduate nursing students in Korea. This study was a randomized clinical trial designed to compare the effectiveness of 2 flipped learning models. Data were collected for 3 days from October 21 to 23, 2015 before the clinical practicum was implemented and for 2 weeks from October 26 to December 18, 2015 during the practicum period. The confidence of the students in performing core nursing skills was likely to increase after they engaged in the clinical practicum in both study groups. However, while learner confidence and motivation were not affected by the type of flipped learning, learner satisfaction did differ between the 2 groups. The findings indicate that applying flipped learning allows students to conduct individualized learning with a diversity of clinical cases at their own level of understanding and at their own pace before they participate in real-world practicums. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  2. A Physical Activity Intervention for Brazilian Students From Low Human Development Index Areas: A Cluster-Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filho, Valter C Barbosa; da Silva, Kelly Samara; Mota, Jorge; Beck, Carmem; da Silva Lopes, Adair

    2016-11-01

    Promoting physical activity (PA) in low- and middle-income countries is an important public health topic as well as a challenge for practice. This study aimed to assess the effect of a school-based intervention on different PA-related variables among students. This cluster-randomized-controlled trial included 548 students in the intervention group and 537 in the control group (11-18 years-old) from 6 schools in neighborhoods with low Human Development Index (0.170-0.491) in Fortaleza, Brazil. The intervention included strategies focused on training teachers, opportunities for PA in the school environment and health education. Variables measured at baseline and again at the 4-months follow-up included the weekly time in different types of moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA), preference for PA during leisure-time, PA behavioral change stage and active commuting to school. Generalized linear models and binary logistic regressions were used. An intervention effect was found by increasing the weekly time in MVPA (effect size = 0.17), popular games (effect size = 0.35), and the amount of PA per week (effect size = 0.27) among students (all P effective in promoting improvements in some PA outcomes, but the changes were not sufficient to increase the proportion of those meeting PA recommendations.

  3. Effect of Simulation on the Confidence of University Nursing Students in Applying Cardiopulmonary Assessment Skills: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawalbeh, Loai I

    2017-08-01

    Simulation is an effective teaching strategy. However, no study in Jordan has examined the effect of simulation on the confidence of university nursing students in applying heart and lung physical examination skills. The current study aimed to test the effect of simulation on the confidence of university nursing students in applying heart and lung physical examination skills. A randomized controlled trial design was applied. The researcher introduced the simulation scenario regarding cardiopulmonary examination skills. This scenario included a 1-hour PowerPoint presentation and video for the experimental group (n= 35) and a PowerPoint presentation and a video showing a traditional demonstration in the laboratory for the control group (n = 34). Confidence in applying cardiopulmonary physical examination skills was measured for both groups at baseline and at 1 day and 3 months posttest. A paired t test showed that confidence was significantly higher in the posttest than in the pretest for both groups. An independent t test showed a statistically significant difference (t(67) = -42.95, p skills. Both simulation and traditional training in the laboratory significantly improved the confidence of participants in applying cardiopulmonary assessment skills. However, the simulation training had a more significant effect than usual training in enhancing the confidence of nursing students in applying physical examination skills.

  4. Burn and earn: a randomized controlled trial incentivizing exercise during fall semester for college first-year students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Lizzy; Harvey-Berino, Jean

    2013-03-01

    To examine the viability of monetary incentives to increase fitness-center use and maintain/improve the Body Mass Indexes (BMIs) of first-year students over the fall semester. Randomized-controlled trial with no-treatment and incentive conditions involving 117 first-year students. For 12 weeks, students in the incentive condition received monetary payments ranging from $10 to $38.75 for meeting researcher-set fitness-center use goals that were identical across conditions. Fitness-center use was monitored through electronic ID-card check-in and check-out records at the campus fitness center. 63% of incentive-condition participants met the weekly fitness-center use goals on average compared to only 13% of control-condition participants, a significant difference, pstudents meeting weekly fitness-center use goals. However, the increased fitness-center use by the incentive condition did not prevent an increase in BMI during fall semester. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Comparing Examples: WebAssign versus Textbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Evan; Polak, Jeff; Hardin, Ashley; Risley, John, , Dr.

    2005-11-01

    Research shows students can learn from worked examples.^1 This pilot study compared two groups of students' performance (10 each) in solving physics problems. One group had access to interactive examples^2 released in WebAssign^3, while the other group had access to the counterpart textbook examples. Verbal data from students in problem solving sessions was collected using a think aloud protocol^4 and the data was analyzed using Chi's procedures.^5 An explanation of the methodology and results will be presented. Future phases of this pilot study based upon these results will also be discussed. ^1Atkinson, R.K., Derry, S.J., Renkl A., Wortham, D. (2000). ``Learning from Examples: Instructional Principles from the Worked Examples Research'', Review of Educational Research, vol. 70, n. 2, pp. 181-214. ^2Serway, R.A. & Faughn, J.S. (2006). College Physics (7^th ed.). Belmont, CA: Thomson Brooks/Cole. ^3 see www.webassign.net ^4 Ericsson, K.A. & Simon, H.A. (1984). Protocol Analysis: Verbal Reports as Data. Cambridge, Massachusetts: The MIT Press. ^5 Chi, Michelene T.H. (1997). ``Quantifying Qualitative Analyses of Verbal Data: A Practical Guide,'' The Journal of the Learning Sciences, vol. 6, n. 3, pp. 271-315.

  6. Are All Hands-On Activities Equally Effective? Effect of Using Plastic Models, Organ Dissections, and Virtual Dissections on Student Learning and Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardi, Sara A.; Hicks, Reimi E.; Thompson, Katerina V.; Marbach-Ad, Gili

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of three commonly used cardiovascular model-assisted activities on student learning and student attitudes and perspectives about science. College students enrolled in a Human Anatomy and Physiology course were randomly assigned to one of three experimental groups (organ dissections, virtual dissections, or…

  7. Effects of random study checks and guided notes study cards on middle school special education students' notetaking accuracy and science vocabulary quiz scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Charles L.

    Federal legislation mandates that all students with disabilities have meaningful access to the general education curriculum and that students with and without disabilities be held equally accountable to the same academic standards (IDEIA, 2004; NCLB, 2001). Many students with disabilities, however, perform poorly in academic content courses, especially at the middle and secondary school levels. Previous research has reported increased notetaking accuracy and quiz scores over lecture content when students completed guided notes compared to taking their own notes. This study evaluated the effects of a pre-quiz review procedure and specially formatted guided notes on middle school special education students' learning of science vocabulary. This study compared the effects of three experimental conditions. (a) Own Notes (ON), (b) Own Notes+Random Study Checks (ON+RSC), and (c) Guided Notes Study Cards+Random Study Checks (GNSC+RSC) on each student's accuracy of notes, next-day quiz scores, and review quiz scores. Each session, the teacher presented 12 science vocabulary terms and definitions during a lecture and students took notes. The students were given 5 minutes to study their notes at the end of each session and were reminded to study their notes at home and in study hall period. In the ON condition students took notes on a sheet of paper with numbered lines from 1 to 12. Just before each next-day quiz in the ON+RSC condition students used write-on response cards to answer two teacher-posed questions over randomly selected vocabulary terms from the previous day's lecture. If the answer on a randomly selected student's response card was correct, that student earned a lottery ticket for inexpensive prizes and a quiz bonus point for herself and each classmate. In the GNSC+RSC condition students took notes on specially formatted guided notes that after the lecture they cut into a set of flashcards that could used for study. The students' mean notetaking accuracy was 75

  8. Evaluation of a Brief Homework Assignment Designed to Reduce Citation Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuetze, Pamela

    2004-01-01

    I evaluated a brief homework assignment designed to reduce citation problems in research-based term papers. Students in 2 developmental psychology classes received a brief presentation and handout defining plagiarism with tips on how to cite sources to avoid plagiarizing. In addition, students in 1 class completed 2 brief homework assignments in…

  9. The (digital) natives are restless: designing and implementing an interactive digital media assignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voge, Catherine; Hirvela, Kari; Jarzemsky, Paula

    2012-01-01

    To create an opportunity for students to connect with the Quality and Safety Education for Nurses competencies and demonstrate learning via knowledge transference, the authors piloted a digital media assignment. Students worked in small groups to create an unfolding patient care scenario with embedded decision points, using presentation software. The authors discuss the assignment and its outcomes.

  10. The Effect of Herrmann Whole Brain Teaching Method on Students' Understanding of Simple Electric Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bawaneh, Ali Khalid Ali; Nurulazam Md Zain, Ahmad; Salmiza, Saleh

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of Herrmann Whole Brain Teaching Method over conventional teaching method on eight graders in their understanding of simple electric circuits in Jordan. Participants (N = 273 students; M = 139, F = 134) were randomly selected from Bani Kenanah region-North of Jordan and randomly assigned to…

  11. A Statistical Programme Assignment Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosholm, Michael; Staghøj, Jonas; Svarer, Michael

    When treatment effects of active labour market programmes are heterogeneous in an observable way  across the population, the allocation of the unemployed into different programmes becomes a particularly  important issue. In this paper, we present a statistical model designed to improve the present...... duration of unemployment spells may result if a statistical programme assignment model is introduced. We discuss several issues regarding the  plementation of such a system, especially the interplay between the statistical model and  case workers....

  12. A note on ranking assignments using reoptimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Christian Roed; Nielsen, L.R.; Andersen, K.A.

    2005-01-01

    We consider the problem of ranking assignments according to cost in the classical linear assignment problem. An algorithm partitioning the set of possible assignments, as suggested by Murty, is presented where, for each partition, the optimal assignment is calculated using a new reoptimization...

  13. An algorithm for ranking assignments using reoptimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Christian Roed; Nielsen, Lars Relund; Andersen, Kim Allan

    2008-01-01

    We consider the problem of ranking assignments according to cost in the classical linear assignment problem. An algorithm partitioning the set of possible assignments, as suggested by Murty, is presented where, for each partition, the optimal assignment is calculated using a new reoptimization...... technique. Computational results for the new algorithm are presented...

  14. Comparison of participatively set and assigned goals in the reduction of alcohol use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano, Brian E; Stephens, Robert S

    2010-12-01

    The effects of setting goals on goal commitment, self-efficacy for goal achievement, and goal achievement in the context of an alcohol use intervention were examined using an experimental design in which participants were randomized to participatively set goals, assigned goals, and no goal conditions. One hundred and twenty-six heavy-drinking college students received a single cognitive-behavioral assessment/intervention session and completed measures of goal commitment, self-efficacy for goal achievement, and alcohol use. Results were consistent with, and expanded upon, previous research by demonstrating that having a goal for limiting alcohol consumption was predictive of lower quantity and frequency of alcohol use relative to not having a goal. Participation in goal setting yielded greater goal commitment and self-efficacy for goal achievement than assigned goals, but did not result in significantly greater reductions in alcohol use relative to assigned goals. Goal commitment and self-efficacy explained unique variance in the prediction of alcohol use at follow-up. Findings support the importance of goal setting in alcohol interventions and suggest areas for further research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Effectiveness of a Randomized Controlled Lifestyle Intervention to Prevent Obesity among Chinese Primary School Students: CLICK-Obesity Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Xu

    Full Text Available Childhood obesity has been increasing rapidly worldwide. There is limited evidence for effective lifestyle interventions to prevent childhood obesity worldwide, especially in developing countries like China. The objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a school-based multi-component lifestyle childhood obesity prevention program (the CLICK-Obesity study in Mainland China.A cluster randomized controlled trial was developed among grade 4 students from 8 urban primary schools (638 students in intervention, 544 as control in Nanjing City, China. Students were randomly allocated to the control or intervention group at school-level. A one-year multi-component intervention program (classroom curriculum, school environment support, family involvement and fun programs/events together with routine health education was provided to the intervention group, while the control group received routine health education only. The main outcome variables assessed were changes in body mass index, obesity occurrence, obesity-related lifestyle behaviors and knowledge.Overall, 1108 (93.7% of the 1182 enrolled students completed the intervention study. The intervention group had a larger marginal reduction than did the control group in overall mean BMI value (-0.32±1.36 vs. -0.29±1.40, p = 0.09, although this was not significant. Compared with the control group, the intervention group was more likely to decrease their BMI (OR = 1.44, 95%CI = 1.10, 1.87 by 0.5 kg/m2 or above, increase the frequency of jogging/running (OR = 1.55, 95%CI = 1.18, 2.02, decrease the frequency of TV/computer use (OR = 1.41, 95%CI = 1.09, 1.84 and of red meat consumption (OR = 1.50, 95%CI = 1.15, 1.95, change commuting mode to/from school from sedentary to active mode (OR = 2.24, 95%CI = 1.47, 3.40, and be aware of the harm of selected obesity risk factors.The school-based lifestyle intervention program was practical and effective in improving health behaviors and obesity

  16. The Value of Interactive Assignments in the Online Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florenthal, Bela

    2016-01-01

    The offerings of Web-based supplemental material for textbooks have been increasingly growing. When deciding to adopt a textbook, instructors examine the added value of the associated supplements, also called "e-learning tools," to enhance students' learning of course concepts. In this study, one such supplement, interactive assignments,…

  17. Benefits of Structured After-School Literacy Tutoring by University Students for Struggling Elementary Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindo, Endia J.; Weiser, Beverly; Cheatham, Jennifer P.; Allor, Jill H.

    2018-01-01

    This study examines the effectiveness of minimally trained tutors providing a highly structured tutoring intervention for struggling readers. We screened students in Grades K-6 for participation in an after-school tutoring program. We randomly assigned those students not meeting the benchmark on a reading screening measure to either a tutoring…

  18. Encouraging Sixth-Grade Students' Problem-Solving Performance by Teaching through Problem Solving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostic, Jonathan D.; Pape, Stephen J.; Jacobbe, Tim

    2016-01-01

    This teaching experiment provided students with continuous engagement in a problem-solving based instructional approach during one mathematics unit. Three sections of sixth-grade mathematics were sampled from a school in Florida, U.S.A. and one section was randomly assigned to experience teaching through problem solving. Students' problem-solving…

  19. The Role of Co-Regulated Learning during Students' Understanding of Complex Systems with Hypermedia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, Roger; Cromley, Jennifer G.; Seibert, Diane; Tron, Myriam

    This study examined the role of different scaffolding instructional interventions in facilitating students' shift to more sophisticated mental models as indicated by both performance and process data. Undergraduate students (n=51) were randomly assigned to use of one of three scaffolding conditions (adaptive scaffolding (AS), fixed scaffolding…

  20. Online Process Scaffolding and Students' Self-Regulated Learning with Hypermedia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, Roger; Cromley, Jennifer G.; Thomas, Leslie; Seibert, Diane; Tron, Myriam

    This study examined the role of different scaffolding instructional interventions in facilitating students' shift to more sophisticated mental models as indicated by both performance and process data. Undergraduate students (n=53) were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 scaffolding conditions (adaptive content and process scaffolding (ACPS), adaptive…

  1. The Impact of Framing Effect on Student Preferences for University Grading Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jeffrey K.; Smith, Lisa F.

    2009-01-01

    Kahneman and Tversky's (1979, 2000; Tversky & Kahneman, 1981) work in decision-making was applied to student preferences for grading practices. Undergraduate psychology students (n = 240) were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 framing conditions related to how a university course might be graded: a 100 point system, a percentage system, and an open…

  2. The Effect of Music Videos on College Students' Perceptions of Rape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Melinda C. R.; Burpo, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    This paper examined the effect of sexualized portrayals of female artists in music videos on college students' perceptions of date rape. 132 college students were randomly assigned to view a music video that contained either high or low levels of sexuality and sexual objectification and were then asked to rate the guilt of the male in a scenario…

  3. Are Teachers Biased When Nominating Students for Gifted Services? Evidence from Kazakhstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Torrano, Daniel; Tursunbayeva, Xeniya

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this experimental, vignette study was to analyze whether certain demographic characteristics of students (i.e. gender, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status) influence secondary education teachers in referring students for gifted services in Kazakhstan. A sample of 132 teachers were randomly assigned to one of eight profiles…

  4. Examining the Impact of Technology on Primary Students' Revision of Written Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisy, Jennifer Garrette

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have examined the revision processes of second grade students and even fewer have explored the impact of digital writing on young students' revisions. This study utilized a within subject crossover trial using randomized block assignment (AB | BA) for counterbalancing. This study sought to determine (1) whether revising on paper versus…

  5. The Effect of Choosing versus Receiving Feedback on College Students' Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutumisu, Maria; Schwartz, Daniel L.

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the effect of choosing versus receiving feedback on the learning performance of n = 98 post-secondary students from California on a digital poster design task. The study employs a yoked experimental design where college students are randomly assigned to play a choice-based assessment game, Posterlet, in one of two conditions,…

  6. Effect of Worksheet Scaffolds on Student Learning in Problem-Based Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, Serene S. Y.; Rotgans, Jerome I.; Yew, Elaine H. J.; Schmidt, Henk G.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of worksheets as a scaffolding tool on students' learning achievement in a problem-based learning (PBL) environment. Seventeen PBL classes (N = 241) were randomly assigned to two experimental groups--one with a worksheet provided and the other without. Students' learning of the topic at hand…

  7. Teacher and Student Thoughts on Effectiveness of Cooperative Learning in Geography Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kus, Metin; Filiz, Erkan; Altun, Sertel

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine teachers' and students?' opinions on the effectiveness of cooperative learning. This study was conducted in Istanbul Lycee and it had a qualitative research design. The participant of the study assigned randomly among ninth grade students who were studying in Istanbul Lycee in the year of 2012 to 2013. Among…

  8. Using History of Science to Teach Nature of Science to Elementary Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouad, Khadija E.; Masters, Heidi; Akerson, Valarie L.

    2015-01-01

    Science lessons using inquiry only or history of science with inquiry were used for explicit reflective nature of science (NOS) instruction for second-, third-, and fourth-grade students randomly assigned to receive one of the treatments. Students in both groups improved in their understanding of creative NOS, tentative NOS, empirical NOS, and…

  9. The Effect of Digital Video Games on EFL Students' Language Learning Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimzadeh, Mohsen; Alavi, Sepideh

    2017-01-01

    The study examined the effect of a commercial digital video game on high school students' language learning motivation. Participants were 241 male students randomly assigned to one of the following three treatments: Readers, who intensively read the game's story; Players, who played the digital video game; and Watchers, who watched two classmates…

  10. A Program to Improve Student Engagement at Research-Focused Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whillans, Ashley V.; Hope, Sally E.; Wylie, Lauren J.; Zhao, Bob; Souza, Michael J.

    2018-01-01

    Promoting undergraduate engagement is an important and challenging obstacle at large research-focused universities. Thus, the current study evaluated whether a peer-led program of student-geared events could improve engagement among a diverse group of psychology students early on in their degrees. We randomly assigned interested second-year…

  11. Blending Individual and Group Assessment: A Model for Measuring Student Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiser, Elana

    2017-01-01

    Two sections of a college discrete mathematics class were taught using cooperative learning techniques throughout the semester. The 33 students attending these sections were randomly assigned into groups of three. Their final examination consisted of an individual and group blended examination where students worked in their groups and discussed…

  12. Effects of a Brief Video Intervention on White University Students' Racial Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soble, Jason R.; Spanierman, Lisa B.; Liao, Hsin-Ya

    2011-01-01

    The authors investigated the effects of a brief video intervention on the racial attitudes of White university students. One hundred thirty-eight self-identified White students were randomly assigned to either an experimental condition in which they viewed a video documenting the pervasiveness of institutional racism and White privilege in the…

  13. Designing assignment using authentic assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arlianty, Widinda Normalia; Febriana, Beta Wulan; Diniaty, Artina; Fauzi'ah, Lina

    2017-12-01

    This research is conducted to get an overview of the use of authentic assessment in the department of chemistry education, Islamic University of Indonesia. This research was conducted on the students of semester five, odd semester of academic year 2016/2017. Authentic assessment is an assessment process that is capable of measuring the knowledge, attitudes and skills of learners. Chemistry teacher candidates are required to be equipped with teaching and judging skills. Teachers were required can design and carry out assessment of the process and learning outcomes of students in an objective, accountable, and informative. Teacher creativity is required in the assessment. Therefore, authentic assessment is very appropriate used to improve the competence of students in education department as teachers candidates in the preparation of learning assessments.

  14. Effect of exercise on depression in university students: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Shi; Jin, YinZhe; Oh, YongSeok; Choi, YoungJun

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of exercise on depression in university students. A systematic literature search was conducted in PubMed, EMBASE and the Cochrane library from their inception through December 10, 2014 to identify relevant articles. The heterogeneity across studies was examined by Cochran's Q statistic and the I2 statistic. Standardized mean difference (SMD) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were pooled to evaluate the effect of exercise on depression. Then, sensitivity and subgroup analyses were performed. In addition, publication bias was assessed by drawing a funnel plot. A total of 352 participants (154 cases and 182 controls) from eight included trials were included. Our pooled result showed a significant alleviative depression after exercise (SMD=-0.50, 95% CI: -0.97 to -0.03, P=0.04) with significant heterogeneity (P=0.003, I2=67%). Sensitivity analyses showed that the pooled result may be unstable. Subgroup analysis indicated that sample size may be a source of heterogeneity. Moreover, no publication bias was observed in this study. Exercise may be an effective therapy for treating depression in university students. However, further clinical studies with strict design and large samples focused on this specific population should be warranted in the future.

  15. Using HL7 in hospital staff assignments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unluturk, Mehmet S

    2014-02-01

    Hospital staff assignments are the instructions that allocate the hospital staff members to the hospital beds. Currently, hospital administrators make the assignments without accessing the information regarding the occupancy of the hospital beds and the acuity of the patient. As a result, administrators cannot distinguish between occupied and unoccupied beds, and may therefore assign staff to unoccupied beds. This gives rise to uneven and inefficient staff assignments. In this paper, the hospital admission-discharge-transfer (ADT) system is employed both as a data source and an assignment device to create staff assignments. When the patient data is newly added or modified, the ADT system updates the assignment software client with the relevant data. Based on the relevant data, the assignment software client is able to construct staff assignments in a more efficient way. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A method to assign failure rates for piping reliability assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamble, R.M.; Tagart, S.W. Jr.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on a simplified method that has been developed to assign failure rates that can be used in reliability and risk studies of piping. The method can be applied on a line-by-line basis by identifying line and location specific attributes that can lead to piping unreliability from in-service degradation mechanisms and random events. A survey of service experience for nuclear piping reliability also was performed. The data from this survey provides a basis for identifying in-service failure attributes and assigning failure rates for risk and reliability studies

  17. Randomized trial of two e-learning programs for oral health students on secondary prevention of eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBate, Rita D; Severson, Herbert H; Cragun, Deborah; Bleck, Jennifer; Gau, Jeff; Merrell, Laura; Cantwell, Carley; Christiansen, Steve; Koerber, Anne; Tomar, Scott L; Brown, Kelli McCormack; Tedesco, Lisa A; Hendricson, William; Taris, Mark

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test whether an interactive, web-based training program is more effective than an existing, flat-text, e-learning program at improving oral health students' knowledge, motivation, and self-efficacy to address signs of disordered eating behaviors with patients. Eighteen oral health classes of dental and dental hygiene students were randomized to either the Intervention (interactive program; n=259) or Alternative (existing program; n=58) conditions. Hierarchical linear modeling assessed for posttest differences between groups while controlling for baseline measures. Improvement among Intervention participants was superior to those who completed the Alternative program for three of the six outcomes: benefits/barriers, self-efficacy, and skills-based knowledge (effect sizes ranging from 0.43 to 0.87). This study thus suggests that interactive training programs may be better than flat-text e-learning programs for improving the skills-based knowledge and self-efficacy necessary for behavior change.

  18. Art for the Smart: Paper and oral presentation assignments for an Earth Materials course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetzel, L. R.

    2011-12-01

    A letter from the fictional Art for the Smart company addresses students in the Earth Materials course: "You might be wondering why an artist needs a geology consultant. I am creating a sculpture garden filled with mythical beings. I would like each student to recommend two unique minerals for one of these sculptures..." For this project students randomly select a mythical being, two mineral groups, and a mineral characteristic. For example, a student might be assigned the goddess Freya, a sulfate, a vanadate, and twinning. Students then choose a specific mineral from each group, describe their physical and chemical characteristics, and recommend how the minerals could be incorporated into the sculpture. Reports are presented in short oral presentations and two-page business letters with accompanying bibliography and illustrations. The letter format provides a concise way to communicate results to the Art for the Smart "client" while preparing students for their job-hunting days ahead. The oral presentations are structured as features for a news program. Talks are limited to three to five minutes and four slides: title page, mineral #1, mineral #2, and mythical being. The strict limits help students concentrate on scientific content and smooth delivery rather than flashy visual aids. The student audience and the professor evaluate each in-class presentation. This has become a popular assignment because it engages student imaginations to relate minerals to mythical beings and creatively design a sculpture. Each project is unique and therefore more interesting for both students and faculty to evaluate. The projects are nearly impossible to plagiarize from previous years or from internet sources. Earth Materials is a sophomore level course for Geoscience and Marine Science majors at Eckerd College. The Art for the Smart project leads into an assignment for the second half of the semester featuring building stones. A new "client" sends a letter to the class explaining

  19. Applying team-based learning of diagnostics for undergraduate students: assessing teaching effectiveness by a randomized controlled trial study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Rui; Xiang, Lian-Rui; Zeng, Jing; Zuo, Chuan

    2017-01-01

    We aimed to introduce team-based learning (TBL) as one of the teaching methods for diagnostics and to compare its teaching effectiveness with that of the traditional teaching methods. We conducted a randomized controlled trial on diagnostics teaching involving 111 third-year medical undergraduates, using TBL as the experimental intervention, compared with lecture-based learning as the control, for teaching the two topics of symptomatology. Individual Readiness Assurance Test (IRAT)-baseline and Group Readiness Assurance Test (GRAT) were performed in members of each TBL subgroup. The scores in Individual Terminal Test 1 (ITT1) immediately after class and Individual Terminal Test 2 (ITT2) 1 week later were compared between the two groups. The questionnaire and interview were also implemented to survey the attitude of students and teachers toward TBL. There was no significant difference between the two groups in ITT1 (19.85±4.20 vs 19.70±4.61), while the score of the TBL group was significantly higher than that of the control group in ITT2 (19.15±3.93 vs 17.46±4.65). In the TBL group, the scores of the two terminal tests after the teaching intervention were significantly higher than the baseline test score of individuals. IRAT-baseline, ITT1, and ITT2 scores of students at different academic levels in the TBL teaching exhibited significant differences, but the ITT1-IRAT-baseline and ITT2-IRAT-baseline indicated no significant differences among the three subgroups. Our TBL in symptomatology approach was highly accepted by students in the improvement of interest and self-directed learning and resulted in an increase in knowledge acquirements, which significantly improved short-term test scores compared with lecture-based learning. TBL is regarded as an effective teaching method worthy of promoting.

  20. Effects of Oral Vitamin C Supplementation on Anxiety in Students: A Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Ivaldo Jesus Lima; de Souza, Victor Vasconcelos; Motta, Vitor; Da-Silva, Sérgio Leme

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin C ascorbic acid) is a well-known antioxidant that is involved in anxiety, stress, depression, fatigue and mood state in humans. Studies have suggested that oxidative stress may trigger neuropsychological disorders. Antioxidants may play an important therapeutic role in combating the damage caused by oxidative stress in individuals that suffer from anxiety. In this context, it was hypothesized that oral vitamin C supplementation would reduce anxiety. However, few up to date studies have evaluated the consequences of oral vitamin C supplementation on anxiety in humans. The present study examined the effects of oral vitamin C supplements in 42 high school students, in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. The students were given either vitamin C (500 mg day(-1)) or placebo. Plasma concentrations of vitamin C and blood pressure were measured before the intervention and then one day after the intervention. Anxiety levels were evaluated for each student before and after 14 days following supplementation with the Beck Anxiety Inventory. Results showed that vitamin C reduced anxiety levels and led to higher plasma vitamin C concentration compared to the placebo. The mean heart rates were also significantly different between vitamin C group and placebo control group. Present study results not only provide evidence that vitamin C plays an important therapeutic role for anxiety but also point a possible use for antioxidants in the prevention or reduction of anxiety. This suggests that a diet rich in vitamin C may be an effective adjunct to medical and psychological treatment of anxiety and improve academic performance.

  1. A Medical Student-Delivered Smoking Prevention Program, Education Against Tobacco, for Secondary Schools in Germany: Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinker, Titus Josef; Owczarek, Andreas Dawid; Seeger, Werner; Groneberg, David Alexander; Brieske, Christian Martin; Jansen, Philipp; Klode, Joachim; Stoffels, Ingo; Schadendorf, Dirk; Izar, Benjamin; Fries, Fabian Norbert; Hofmann, Felix Johannes

    2017-06-06

    More than 8.5 million Germans suffer from chronic diseases attributable to smoking. Education Against Tobacco (EAT) is a multinational network of medical students who volunteer for school-based prevention in the classroom setting, amongst other activities. EAT has been implemented in 28 medical schools in Germany and is present in 13 additional countries around the globe. A recent quasi-experimental study showed significant short-term smoking cessation effects on 11-to-15-year-old adolescents. The aim of this study was to provide the first randomized long-term evaluation of the optimized 2014 EAT curriculum involving a photoaging software for its effectiveness in reducing the smoking prevalence among 11-to-15-year-old pupils in German secondary schools. A randomized controlled trial was undertaken with 1504 adolescents from 9 German secondary schools, aged 11-15 years in grades 6-8, of which 718 (47.74%) were identifiable for the prospective sample at the 12-month follow-up. The experimental study design included measurements at baseline (t1), 6 months (t2), and 12 months postintervention (t3), via questionnaire. The study groups consisted of 40 randomized classes that received the standardized EAT intervention (two medical student-led interactive modules taking 120 minutes total) and 34 control classes within the same schools (no intervention). The primary endpoint was the difference in smoking prevalence from t1 to t3 in the control group versus the difference from t1 to t3 in the intervention group. The differences in smoking behavior (smoking onset, quitting) between the two groups, as well as gender-specific effects, were studied as secondary outcomes. None of the effects were significant due to a high loss-to-follow-up effect (52.26%, 786/1504). From baseline to the two follow-up time points, the prevalence of smoking increased from 3.1% to 5.2% to 7.2% in the control group and from 3.0% to 5.4% to 5.8% in the intervention group (number needed to treat [NNT

  2. Mapping Learning Outcomes and Assignment Tasks for SPIDER Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyn Brodie

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Modern engineering programs have to address rapidly changing technical content and have to enable students to develop transferable skills such as critical evaluation, communication skills and lifelong learning. This paper introduces a combined learning and assessment activity that provides students with opportunities to develop and practice their soft skills, but also extends their theoretical knowledge base. Key tasks included self directed inquiry, oral and written communication as well as peer assessment. To facilitate the SPIDER activities (Select, Prepare and Investigate, Discuss, Evaluate, Reflect, a software tool has been implemented in the learning management system Moodle. Evidence shows increased student engagement and better learning outcomes for both transferable as well as technical skills. The study focuses on generalising the relationship between learning outcomes and assignment tasks as well as activities that drive these tasks. Trail results inform the approach. Staff evaluations and their views of assignments and intended learning outcomes also supported this analysis.

  3. A randomized controlled trial of a brief online intervention to reduce alcohol consumption in new university students: Combining self-affirmation, theory of planned behaviour messages, and implementation intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Paul; Cameron, David; Epton, Tracy; Webb, Thomas L; Harris, Peter R; Millings, Abigail; Sheeran, Paschal

    2018-02-01

    Excessive alcohol consumption increases when students enter university. This study tests whether combining (1) messages that target key beliefs from the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) that underlie binge drinking, (2) a self-affirmation manipulation to reduce defensive processing, and (3) implementation intentions (if-then plans to avoid binge drinking) reduces alcohol consumption in the first 6 months at university. A 2 (self-affirmation) × 2 (TPB messages) × 2 (implementation intention) between-participants randomized controlled trial with 6-month follow-up. Before starting university, students (N = 2,951) completed measures of alcohol consumption and were randomly assigned to condition in a full-factorial design. TPB cognitions about binge drinking were assessed immediately post-intervention (n = 2,682). Alcohol consumption was assessed after 1 week (n = 1,885), 1 month (n = 1,389), and 6 months (n = 892) at university. TPB cognitions were assessed again at 1 and 6 months. Participants who received the TPB messages had significantly less favourable cognitions about binge drinking (except perceived control), consumed fewer units of alcohol, engaged in binge drinking less frequently, and had less harmful patterns of alcohol consumption during their first 6 months at university. The other main effects were non-significant. The findings support the use of TPB-based interventions to reduce students' alcohol consumption, but question the use of self-affirmation and implementation intentions before starting university when the messages may not represent a threat to self-identity and when students may have limited knowledge and experience of the pressures to drink alcohol at university. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Alcohol consumption increases when young people enter university. Significant life transitions represent potential teachable moments to change behaviour. Interventions with a strong theoretical

  4. Integrated assignment and path planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphey, Robert A.

    2005-11-01

    A surge of interest in unmanned systems has exposed many new and challenging research problems across many fields of engineering and mathematics. These systems have the potential of transforming our society by replacing dangerous and dirty jobs with networks of moving machines. This vision is fundamentally separate from the modern view of robotics in that sophisticated behavior is realizable not by increasing individual vehicle complexity, but instead through collaborative teaming that relies on collective perception, abstraction, decision making, and manipulation. Obvious examples where collective robotics will make an impact include planetary exploration, space structure assembly, remote and undersea mining, hazardous material handling and clean-up, and search and rescue. Nonetheless, the phenomenon driving this technology trend is the increasing reliance of the US military on unmanned vehicles, specifically, aircraft. Only a few years ago, following years of resistance to the use of unmanned systems, the military and civilian leadership in the United States reversed itself and have recently demonstrated surprisingly broad acceptance of increasingly pervasive use of unmanned platforms in defense surveillance, and even attack. However, as rapidly as unmanned systems have gained acceptance, the defense research community has discovered the technical pitfalls that lie ahead, especially for operating collective groups of unmanned platforms. A great deal of talent and energy has been devoted to solving these technical problems, which tend to fall into two categories: resource allocation of vehicles to objectives, and path planning of vehicle trajectories. An extensive amount of research has been conducted in each direction, yet, surprisingly, very little work has considered the integrated problem of assignment and path planning. This dissertation presents a framework for studying integrated assignment and path planning and then moves on to suggest an exact

  5. A Web-Based Telehealth Training Platform Incorporating Automated Nonverbal Behavior Feedback for Teaching Communication Skills to Medical Students: A Randomized Crossover Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chunfeng; Lim, Renee L; McCabe, Kathryn L; Taylor, Silas; Calvo, Rafael A

    2016-09-12

    In the interests of patient health outcomes, it is important for medical students to develop clinical communication skills. We previously proposed a telehealth communication skills training platform (EQClinic) with automated nonverbal behavior feedback for medical students, and it was able to improve medical students' awareness of their nonverbal communication. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of EQClinic to improve clinical communication skills of medical students. We conducted a 2-group randomized crossover trial between February and June 2016. Participants were second-year medical students enrolled in a clinical communication skills course at an Australian university. Students were randomly allocated to complete online EQClinic training during weeks 1-5 (group A) or to complete EQClinic training during weeks 8-11 (group B). EQClinic delivered an automated visual presentation of students' nonverbal behavior coupled with human feedback from a standardized patient (SP). All students were offered two opportunities to complete face-to-face consultations with SPs. The two face-to-face consultations were conducted in weeks 6-7 and 12-13 for both groups, and were rated by tutors who were blinded to group allocation. Student-Patient Observed Communication Assessment (SOCA) was collected by blinded assessors (n=28) at 2 time points and also by an SP (n=83). Tutor-rated clinical communications skill in face-to-face consultations was the primary outcome and was assessed with the SOCA. We used t tests to examine the students' performance during face-to-face consultations pre- and postexposure to EQClinic. We randomly allocated 268 medical students to the 2 groups (group A: n=133; group B: n=135). SOCA communication skills measures (score range 4-16) from the first face-to-face consultation were significantly higher for students in group A who had completed EQClinic training and reviewed the nonverbal behavior feedback, compared with group B, who had completed

  6. Managing voluntary turnover through challenging assignments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Preenen, P.T.Y.; de Pater, I.E.; van Vianen, A.E.M.; Keijzer, L.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines employees’ challenging assignments as manageable means to reduce turnover intentions, job search behaviors, and voluntary turnover. Results indicate that challenging assignments are negatively related to turnover intentions and job search behaviors and that these relationships

  7. Managing voluntary turnover through challenging assignments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Preenen, P.T.Y.; Pater, I.E. de; Vianen, A.E.M. van; Keijzer, L.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines employees' challenging assignments as manageable means to reduce turnover intentions, job search behaviors, and voluntary turnover. Results indicate that challenging assignments are negatively related to turnover intentions and job search behaviors and that these relationships

  8. Effects of Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction on the Mental Health of Clinical Clerkship Students: A Cluster-Randomized Controlled Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, I. van; Lucassen, P.L.B.J.; Akkermans, R.P.; Engelen, B.G.M. van; Weel, C. van; Speckens, A.E.M.

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: To examine the effect of mindfulness-based stress reduction training (MBSR) on the mental health of medical students during clinical clerkships. METHOD: Between February 2011 and May 2014, the authors conducted a cluster-randomized controlled trial of clerkships as usual (CAU) and

  9. Effect of Peer-Led Team Learning (PLTL) on Student Achievement, Attitude, and Self-Concept in College General Chemistry in Randomized and Quasi Experimental Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Julia Y. K.; Bauer, Christopher F.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated exam achievement and affective characteristics of students in general chemistry in a fully-randomized experimental design, contrasting Peer-Led Team Learning (PLTL) participation with a control group balanced for time-on-task and study activity. This study population included two independent first-semester courses with…

  10. 24 CFR 221.255 - Assignment option.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Assignment option. 221.255 Section... Assignment option. (a) A mortgagee holding a mortgage insured pursuant to a conditional or firm commitment issued on or before November 30, 1983 has the option to assign, transfer and deliver to the Commissioner...

  11. 24 CFR 221.770 - Assignment option.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Assignment option. 221.770 Section... § 221.770 Assignment option. A mortgagee holding a conditional or firm commitment issued on or before... mortgagee's approved underwriter on or before November 30, 1983) has the option to assign, transfer and...

  12. Solving the rectangular assignment problem and applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijsterbosch, J.; Volgenant, A.

    2010-01-01

    The rectangular assignment problem is a generalization of the linear assignment problem (LAP): one wants to assign a number of persons to a smaller number of jobs, minimizing the total corresponding costs. Applications are, e.g., in the fields of object recognition and scheduling. Further, we show

  13. Effects of a stand-alone web-based electronic screening and brief intervention targeting alcohol use in university students of legal drinking age: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganz, Thomas; Braun, Michael; Laging, Marion; Schermelleh-Engel, Karin; Michalak, Johannes; Heidenreich, Thomas

    2018-02-01

    Many intervention efforts targeting student drinking were developed to address US college students, which usually involves underage drinking. It remains unclear, if research evidence from these interventions is generalizable to university and college students of legal drinking age, e.g., in Europe. To evaluate the effectiveness of a translated and adapted version of the eCHECKUP TO GO, applied as stand-alone web-based electronic screening and brief intervention (e-SBI), in German university students at risk for hazardous drinking. A fully automated web-based two-arm parallel-group randomized controlled trial was conducted. Participants were randomized to an e-SBI or assessment-only (AO) condition. The current paper analyzed students with baseline AUDIT-C scores ≥3 for women and ≥4 for men (sample at baseline: e-SBI [n=514], AO [n=467]; 3-month follow-up: e-SBI [n=194], AO [n=231]; 6-month follow-up: e-SBI [n=146], AO [n=200]). The primary outcome was prior four weeks' alcohol consumption. Secondary outcomes were frequency of heavy drinking occasions, peak blood alcohol concentration, and number of alcohol-related problems. Mixed linear model analyses revealed significant interaction effects between groups and time points on the primary outcome after 3 and 6months. Compared to students in the AO condition, students in the e-SBI condition reported consuming 4.11 fewer standard drinks during the previous four weeks after 3months, and 4.78 fewer standard drinks after 6months. Mixed results were found on secondary outcomes. The results indicate that evidence on and knowledge of web-based e-SBIs based on US college student samples is transferable to German university students of legal drinking age. However, knowledge of what motivates students to complete programs under voluntary conditions, although rare, is needed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of a skill demonstration video delivered by smartphone on facilitating nursing students' skill competencies and self-confidence: A randomized controlled trial study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Yeu-Hui; Lai, Fu-Chih; Chang, Chia-Chi; Wan, Hsu-Tien

    2018-07-01

    The correct and appropriate performance of nursing skills by students can ensure patient safety and care quality. However, developing appropriate teaching and learning strategies to enhance nursing students' nursing skills and knowledge are challenging tasks for nursing faculty members. Nowadays, smartphones are popular mobile devices that are used on campuses by students and could be considered a potential tool to deliver learning materials to nursing students. This study aimed to examine the effects of a skill demonstration video delivered by smartphone on facilitating nursing students' nursing skill competency and confidence. A randomized controlled trial study design was used. A convenience sample of nursing students at a university was recruited. After receiving a regular nursing skills lab demonstration, pre-test data were collected from nursing students in an intervention group (n = 44) and a comparison group (n = 43). Then, students in the intervention group downloaded the skill demonstration video onto their smartphones, while the comparison group did not. Post-test data were collected at 2 weeks after the intervention. There were significant differences in students' urinary catheterization knowledge (F = 4.219, p = 0.04) and skills (F = 6.739, p = 0.013), but there was no difference in students' confidence level (F = 2.201, p = 0.142) between the two groups after the intervention. Furthermore, the average score of the satisfaction level regarding the intervention was 4.46 (SD = 0.43) on a scale of 1-5. This study found that delivering learning materials through smartphones to nursing students is suitable. Although there was no significant difference in students' self-confidence level, students' knowledge and skills were improved by the intervention. Smartphones can serve as a supplemental tool for learning nursing skills. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The Influence of Personalization of Online Texts on Elementary School Students' Reading Comprehension and Attitudes toward Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertem, Ihsan Seyit

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine the role of personalized and non-personalized online texts on elementary school fifth grade students' comprehension and their attitudes toward reading. Participants were 47 fifth-grade students from a rural elementary school in north Florida. The subjects were randomly assigned into two (personalized…

  16. Measuring Student Growth within a Merit-Pay Evaluation System: Perceived Effects on Music Teacher Motivation Career Commitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munroe, Angela

    2017-01-01

    In this experimental study, music teachers from a large school district were randomly assigned to one of two hypothetical conditions reflecting different methods for measuring student growth under a merit pay compensation system. In Scenario A, half of a teacher's effectiveness rating was based on student standardized test scores in reading,…

  17. The Effects of Digital Storytelling on Student Achievement, Social Presence, and Attitude in Online Collaborative Learning Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Chang Woo

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of digital storytelling on student achievement, social presence, and attitude in online collaborative learning environments. Students in one middle school course were randomly assigned to one of the two treatment groups after they received initial general instruction regarding teamwork skills. The "digital…

  18. Effects of Classroom Technology Policies on Students' Perceptions of Instructors: What Is Your Syllabus Saying about You?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stowell, Jeffrey R.; Addison, William E.; Clay, Samuel L.

    2018-01-01

    The technology policies included on instructors' syllabi vary greatly and, in some cases, may unfavorably influence students' perceptions of the instructor. To examine this hypothesis, we randomly assigned college students enrolled in psychology courses at two different institutions (N = 163) to groups in which they viewed different syllabi for a…

  19. The Effects of Quality Books for Children and the Metacognitive Strategy on Students' Self-Esteem Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cer, Erkan; Sahin, Ertugrul

    2017-01-01

    Using a quasi-experimental design with pre-test and post-test control groups, 93 eighth grade students were randomly assigned either to the experimental or to the control group and responded to the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale two weeks before and after the intervention. While the students in the experimental group were instructed in quality books…

  20. Motivating EFL Students: E-Learning Enjoyment as a Predictor of Vocabulary Learning through Digital Video Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimzadeh, Mohsen; Alavi, Sepideh

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined e-learning enjoyment to see if it could predict high school students' vocabulary learning through a digital video game. Furthermore, the difference between those who played and those who watched the game was assessed. Participants of the study were male, high school, EFL students (N = 136, age 12-18) randomly assigned to…

  1. A Randomized Controlled Study on the Effects of a Documentary on Students' Empathy and Attitudes towards Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laganá, Luciana; Gavrilova, Larisa; Carter, Delwin B; Ainsworth, Andrew T

    2017-01-01

    Despite the rapid increase in the size of the geriatric population, no current published literature is available based on the effects of viewing a documentary covering medical and psychosocial issues concerning older adults influencing young people's empathy and ageism. The aim of the current study was to test whether participants who viewed an original documentary about older adults experiencing physical pain would report lower ageism and higher empathy scores when compared to participants who watched a neutral documentary. Seventy-seven students (ages 18-29 years) were randomized to either the experimental (pain documentary) or the control (neutral documentary) conditions and given pre- and post-test measures of empathy and ageism. The results of a series of Profile Analyses (Multivariate Mixed ANOVAs) showed a significant interaction (Wilk's λ=0.933, F (1,75)=5.389, p =0.023, partial η 2 =0.067) between treatment and time (pre- vs . post-viewing the film) for the empathy measure that was confirmed by follow-up t -tests. The latter showed a significant increase in empathy scores for only the experimental group, t (37)=-2.999, p =0.005. However, contrary to the original prediction, this same treatment by time effect was not observed for ageism (Wilk's λ=0.994, F (1,75)=0.482, p =0.490, partial η 2 =0.006), as the experimental participants did not significantly reduce their ageism scores, t (38)=0.725, p =0.473. The results of these analyses, as well as those obtained by using the subscales of each questionnaire, have been discussed. The findings of this preliminary study indicate that showing a pain-based, anti-bias documentary feature film has the potential to significantly improve empathy towards older adults in university students.

  2. Effect of Constructivist - Based Instructional Model on Students ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A quasi-experimental, non-equivalent group control design involving two intact ... Students from two schools – (one male and the other female) were randomly assigned to ... Pre-test was administrated to both groups to determine their entry level. At the end of the treatment Post-test was administered to both groups to ...

  3. Effects of Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction on the Mental Health of Clinical Clerkship Students: A Cluster-Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, Inge; Lucassen, Peter L B J; Akkermans, Reinier P; van Engelen, Baziel G M; van Weel, Chris; Speckens, Anne E M

    2017-07-01

    To examine the effect of mindfulness-based stress reduction training (MBSR) on the mental health of medical students during clinical clerkships. Between February 2011 and May 2014, the authors conducted a cluster-randomized controlled trial of clerkships as usual (CAU) and clerkships with additional MBSR in medical students during their first year of clinical clerkships at a Dutch university medical center. MBSR consisted of eight weekly two-hour sessions, comprising didactic teaching, meditation exercises, and group dialogues. Students completed online assessments at baseline and after 3, 7, 12, 15, and 20 months. Outcome measures were psychological distress, positive mental health, life satisfaction, physician empathy, mindfulness skills, and dysfunctional cognitions as measured by validated tools. Of 232 eligible students, 167 students (72%) participated and were randomized by clerkship group into MBSR (n = 83) or CAU (n = 84). The MBSR group reported a small reduction of psychological distress (P = .03, Cohen's d = 0.20) and dysfunctional cognitions (P = .05, Cohen's d = 0.18) and a moderate increase of positive mental health (P = .002, Cohen's d = 0.44), life satisfaction (P = .01, Cohen's d = 0.51), and mindfulness skills (P = .05, Cohen's d = 0.35) compared with CAU during the 20-month follow-up. The authors detected no significant effect on physician empathy (P = .18, Cohen's d = 0.27). MBSR appeared feasible and acceptable to medical clerkship students and resulted in a small to moderate improvement of mental health compared with CAU over the 20-month follow-up.

  4. An open randomized controlled study comparing an online text-based scenario and a serious game by Belgian and Swiss pharmacy students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Jérôme; Bawab, Noura; De Mooij, Jeremy; Sutter Widmer, Denise; Szilas, Nicolas; De Vriese, Carine; Bugnon, Olivier

    2018-03-01

    To compare online learning tools, looped, branch serious game (SG) and linear text-based scenario (TBS), among a sample of Belgian and Swiss pharmacy students. Open randomized controlled study. The lesson was based on the case of a benign cough in a healthy child. A randomized sample of 117 students: only the Swiss students had attended a previous lecture on coughs. Participation rate, pre- and post-experience Likert scales and students' clinical knowledge were measured. Our primary hypothesis was demonstrated: students favored the SG even if navigation was rated as more complex, and students who performed the SG better understood the aim of pharmacist triage in case of cough. The influence of the SG appeared to be linked to the presence of a previous lecture in the curriculum. SG and TBS are effective to teach pharmacist triage. Higher SG complexity should be used to teach the aim of pharmacist triage in the case of a specific disease and could be an alternative to simulated patients. A simpler TBS does not require a previous lecture and a debriefing to be fully effective. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Instructor Clarity and Student Motivation: Academic Performance as a Product of Students' Ability and Motivation to Process Instructional Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolkan, San; Goodboy, Alan K.; Kelsey, Dawn M.

    2016-01-01

    This study tested the notion that the effect of instructor clarity on learning is conditioned upon students' motivation. We randomly assigned 128 participants to a video of a clear or an unclear lecture and asked them to report their motivation to deeply process lecture material. Results indicated that even with clear instruction, test scores were…

  6. Effect of mindfulness and yoga on quality of life for elementary school students and teachers: results of a randomized controlled school-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazzano, Alessandra N; Anderson, Christopher E; Hylton, Chelsea; Gustat, Jeanette

    2018-01-01

    To assess the impact of a yoga curriculum in an elementary school on student quality of life, and to assess teacher and staff perception of potential barriers to, and benefits of, introducing yoga and mindfulness into the classroom. A randomized controlled trial was utilized to assess the impact of a brief intervention on third-grade students who screened positive for symptoms of anxiety. Students were randomized to an intervention group of 20 students receiving small-group yoga/mindfulness activities for 8 weeks between October 2016 and February 2017, and a control group of 32 students receiving care as usual. The Brief Multidimensional Students' Life Satisfaction Scale-Peabody Treatment Progress Battery and the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL) served as outcomes. Teachers were invited to participate in two professional development sessions about introducing yoga and mindfulness into the classroom, and completed a survey following each of the sessions. In generalized estimating equation models adjusted for time, the yoga-based intervention was associated with a 14.17 unit increase in student emotional PedsQL ( p -value 0.001) and a 7.43 unit increase in psychosocial PedsQL ( p -value 0.01). Results were not attenuated by adjustment. Teachers and staff reported using yoga more frequently in the classroom following the second of two professional development sessions ( p -value classroom were similar at two data collection time points, while perceived benefits remained high. The intervention was associated with a significant improvement in emotional and psychosocial quality of life in the intervention group when compared to the control group, suggesting that yoga/mindfulness interventions may improve symptoms of anxiety among students. Yoga/mindfulness activities may facilitate stress management among elementary school students and may be added as a complement to social and emotional learning activities.

  7. Applying team-based learning of diagnostics for undergraduate students: assessing teaching effectiveness by a randomized controlled trial study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeng R

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Rui Zeng,1,* Lian-rui Xiang,2,* Jing Zeng,3 Chuan Zuo4 1Department of Cardiovascular Diseases, 2Department of Public Affairs Development, 3Department of Internal Medicine, 4Department of Rheumatology and Immunology, West China Hospital, School of Clinic Medicine, Sichuan University, Chengdu, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: We aimed to introduce team-based learning (TBL as one of the teaching methods for diagnostics and to compare its teaching effectiveness with that of the traditional teaching methods.Methods: We conducted a randomized controlled trial on diagnostics teaching involving 111 third-year medical undergraduates, using TBL as the experimental intervention, compared with lecture-based learning as the control, for teaching the two topics of symptomatology. Individual Readiness Assurance Test (IRAT-baseline and Group Readiness Assurance Test (GRAT were performed in members of each TBL subgroup. The scores in Individual Terminal Test 1 (ITT1 immediately after class and Individual Terminal Test 2 (ITT2 1 week later were compared between the two groups. The questionnaire and interview were also implemented to survey the attitude of students and teachers toward TBL.Results: There was no significant difference between the two groups in ITT1 (19.85±4.20 vs 19.70±4.61, while the score of the TBL group was significantly higher than that of the control group in ITT2 (19.15±3.93 vs 17.46±4.65. In the TBL group, the scores of the two terminal tests after the teaching intervention were significantly higher than the baseline test score of individuals. IRAT-baseline, ITT1, and ITT2 scores of students at different academic levels in the TBL teaching exhibited significant differences, but the ITT1-IRAT-baseline and ITT2-IRAT-baseline indicated no significant differences among the three subgroups.Conclusion: Our TBL in symptomatology approach was highly accepted by students in the improvement

  8. Transfer of training in the development of intracorporeal suturing skill in medical student novices: a prospective randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muresan, Claude; Lee, Tommy H; Seagull, Jacob; Park, Adrian E

    2010-10-01

    To help optimize the use of limited resources in trainee education, we developed a prospective randomized trial to determine the most effective means of teaching laparoscopic suturing to novices. Forty-one medical students received rudimentary instruction in intracorporeal suturing, then were pretested on a pig enterotomy model. They then were posttested after completion of 1 of 4 training arms: laparoscopic suturing, laparoscopic drills, open suturing, and virtual reality (VR) drills. Tests were scored for speed, accuracy, knot quality, and mental workload (National Aeronautics and Space Administration [NASA] Task Load Index). Paired t tests were used. Task time was improved in all groups except the VR group. Knot quality improved only in the open or laparoscopic suturing groups. Mental workload improved only for those practicing on a physical laparoscopic trainer. For novice trainees, the efficacy of VR training is questionable. In contrast, the other training methods had benefits in terms of time, quality, and perceived workload. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The Effect of Aromatherapy Abdominal Massage on Alleviating Menstrual Pain in Nursing Students: A Prospective Randomized Cross-Over Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzouk, Tyseer M. F.; El-Nemer, Amina M. R.; Baraka, Hany N.

    2013-01-01

    Dysmenorrhea is a common cause of sickness absenteeism from both classes and work. This study investigated the effect of aromatherapy massage on a group of nursing students who are suffering of primary dysmenorrhea. A randomized blind clinical trial of crossover design was used. In the first treatment phase, group 1 (n = 48) received aromatherapy abdominal massage once daily for seven days prior to menstruation using the essential oils (cinnamon, clove, rose, and lavender in a base of almond oil). Group 2 (n = 47) received the same intervention but with placebo oil (almond oil). In the second treatment phase, the two groups switched to alternate regimen. Level and duration of pain and the amount of menstrual bleeding were evaluated at the baseline and after each treatment phase. During both treatment phases, the level and duration of menstrual pain and the amount of menstrual bleeding were significantly lower in the aromatherapy group than in the placebo group. These results suggests that aromatherapy is effective in alleviating menstrual pain, its duration and excessive menstrual bleeding. Aromatherapy can be provided as a nonpharmacological pain relief measure and as a part of nursing care given to girls suffering of dysmenorrhea, or excessive menstrual bleeding. PMID:23662151

  10. The Effect of Aromatherapy Abdominal Massage on Alleviating Menstrual Pain in Nursing Students: A Prospective Randomized Cross-Over Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyseer M. F. Marzouk

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dysmenorrhea is a common cause of sickness absenteeism from both classes and work. This study investigated the effect of aromatherapy massage on a group of nursing students who are suffering of primary dysmenorrhea. A randomized blind clinical trial of crossover design was used. In the first treatment phase, group 1 ( received aromatherapy abdominal massage once daily for seven days prior to menstruation using the essential oils (cinnamon, clove, rose, and lavender in a base of almond oil. Group 2 ( received the same intervention but with placebo oil (almond oil. In the second treatment phase, the two groups switched to alternate regimen. Level and duration of pain and the amount of menstrual bleeding were evaluated at the baseline and after each treatment phase. During both treatment phases, the level and duration of menstrual pain and the amount of menstrual bleeding were significantly lower in the aromatherapy group than in the placebo group. These results suggests that aromatherapy is effective in alleviating menstrual pain, its duration and excessive menstrual bleeding. Aromatherapy can be provided as a nonpharmacological pain relief measure and as a part of nursing care given to girls suffering of dysmenorrhea, or excessive menstrual bleeding.

  11. Medicare Part D Roulette, Potential Implications of Random..

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Medicare Part D Roulette, Potential Implications of Random Assignment and Plan Restrictions Dual-eligible (Medicare and Medicaid) beneficiaries are randomly assigned...

  12. Critical thinking and reflection exercises in a biochemistry course to improve prospective health professions students' attitudes toward physician-pharmacist collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Winkle, Lon J; Cornell, Susan; Fjortoft, Nancy; Bjork, Bryan C; Chandar, Nalini; Green, Jacalyn M; La Salle, Sophie; Viselli, Susan M; Burdick, Paulette; Lynch, Sean M

    2013-10-14

    To determine the impact of performing critical-thinking and reflection assignments within interdisciplinary learning teams in a biochemistry course on pharmacy students' and prospective health professions students' collaboration scores. Pharmacy students and prospective medical, dental, and other health professions students enrolled in a sequence of 2 required biochemistry courses. They were randomly assigned to interdisciplinary learning teams in which they were required to complete case assignments, thinking and reflection exercises, and a team service-learning project. Students were asked to complete the Scale of Attitudes Toward Physician-Pharmacist Collaboration prior to the first course, following the first course, and following the second course. The physician-pharmacist collaboration scores of prospective health professions students increased significantly (p<0.001). Having prospective health professions students work in teams with pharmacy students to think and reflect in and outside the classroom improves their attitudes toward physician-pharmacist collaboration.

  13. A Comparative Analysis of Pair-work and Individual Assignments In two ELT Grammar Classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olcay Sert

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Assignments prepared in pair-work have long been evaluated to be more successful whencompared to individually prepared assignments in many respects in foreign language learningcontexts. However, there is not much research conducted to reveal the advantages of pair-work in preparing assignments and the linguistic characteristics of the finished texts. In this paper, depending upon an experimental study with the first year students in Department of EnglishLanguage Teaching at Hacettepe University, quality of pair-work assignments and the factors affecting the preparation process are discussed and compared to individual assignments. Results indicate a variety of advantages of student collaboration in preparing written work since outputsare far more grammatical, include less spelling mistakes, and indicate a higher level ofgrammatical awareness. Additionally, pair-work helps students build positive interpersonalrelationships and create a high level of academic solidarity and confidence.

  14. Promoting Discussion in Peer Instruction: Discussion Partner Assignment and Accountability Scoring Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Chih-Yueh; Lin, Pin-Hsun

    2015-01-01

    Peer instruction (PI) involves students answering questions and peer discussion learning activities. PI can enhance student performance and engagement in classroom instruction. However, some students do not engage in the discussions. This study proposes two mechanisms, discussion partner assignment and accountability scoring mechanisms, to form…

  15. Developing Problem Solving and Communication Skills through Memo Assignments in a Management Science Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Julie Ann Stuart; Reid, Randall C.

    2010-01-01

    The authors describe how to structure a memo format for homework assignments in which a manager requests analysis of a particular issue from the student. The student must respond with a memo stating a recommendation and describing the solution approach. The results from using the memo format include improved student performance and professional…

  16. A Cluster Randomized Trial of the Social Skills Improvement System-Classwide Intervention Program (SSIS-CIP) in First Grade

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiPerna, James Clyde; Lei, Puiwa; Cheng, Weiyi; Hart, Susan Crandall; Bellinger, Jillian

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a universal social skills program, the Social Skills Improvement System Classwide Intervention Program (SSIS-CIP; Elliott & Gresham, 2007), for students in first grade. Classrooms from 6 elementary schools were randomly assigned to treatment or business-as-usual control conditions.…

  17. Learning Historical Thinking with Oral History Interviews: A Cluster Randomized Controlled Intervention Study of Oral History Interviews in History Lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertram, Christiane; Wagner, Wolfgang; Trautwein, Ulrich

    2017-01-01

    The present study examined the effectiveness of the oral history approach with respect to students' historical competence. A total of 35 ninth-grade classes (N = 900) in Germany were randomly assigned to one of four conditions--live, video, text, or a (nontreated) control group--in a pretest, posttest, and follow-up design. Comparing the three…

  18. WWC Review of the Report "Accommodations for English Language Learner Students: The Effect of Linguistic Modification of Math Test Item Sets"

    Science.gov (United States)

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The research described in this report is a randomized controlled trial in which seventh- and eighth-grade students were randomly assigned to complete a set of 25 math questions delivered with either standard language or language that had undergone "linguistic modification" by the research team. The purpose of the study was to assess the…

  19. College Students' Underestimation of Blood Alcohol Concentration from Hypothetical Consumption of Supersized Alcopops: Results from a Cluster-Randomized Classroom Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossheim, Matthew E; Thombs, Dennis L; Krall, Jenna R; Jernigan, David H

    2018-05-30

    Supersized alcopops are a class of single-serving beverages popular among underage drinkers. These products contain large quantities of alcohol. This study examines the extent to which young adults recognize how intoxicated they would become from consuming these products. The study sample included 309 undergraduates who had consumed alcohol within the past year. Thirty-two sections of a college English course were randomized to 1 of 2 survey conditions, based on hypothetical consumption of supersized alcopops or beer of comparable liquid volume. Students were provided an empty can of 1 of the 2 beverages to help them answer the survey questions. Equation-calculated blood alcohol concentrations (BACs)-based on body weight and sex-were compared to the students' self-estimated BACs for consuming 1, 2, and 3 cans of the beverage provided to them. In adjusted regression models, students randomized to the supersized alcopop group greatly underestimated their BAC, whereas students randomized to the beer group overestimated it. The supersized alcopop group underestimated their BAC by 0.04 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.034, 0.053), 0.09 (95% CI: 0.067, 0.107), and 0.13 g/dl (95% CI: 0.097, 0.163) compared to the beer group. When asked how much alcohol they could consume before it would be unsafe to drive, students in the supersized alcopop group had 7 times the odds of estimating consumption that would generate a calculated BAC of at least 0.08 g/dl, compared to those making estimates based on beer consumption (95% CI: 3.734, 13.025). Students underestimated the intoxication they would experience from consuming supersized alcopops. Revised product warning labels are urgently needed to clearly identify the number of standard drinks contained in a supersized alcopop can. Moreover, regulations are needed to limit alcohol content of single-serving products. Copyright © 2018 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  20. Web-Based Problem-Solving Assignment and Grading System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brereton, Giles; Rosenberg, Ronald

    2014-11-01

    In engineering courses with very specific learning objectives, such as fluid mechanics and thermodynamics, it is conventional to reinforce concepts and principles with problem-solving assignments and to measure success in problem solving as an indicator of student achievement. While the modern-day ease of copying and searching for online solutions can undermine the value of traditional assignments, web-based technologies also provide opportunities to generate individualized well-posed problems with an infinite number of different combinations of initial/final/boundary conditions, so that the probability of any two students being assigned identical problems in a course is vanishingly small. Such problems can be designed and programmed to be: single or multiple-step, self-grading, allow students single or multiple attempts; provide feedback when incorrect; selectable according to difficulty; incorporated within gaming packages; etc. In this talk, we discuss the use of a homework/exam generating program of this kind in a single-semester course, within a web-based client-server system that ensures secure operation.

  1. Written Assignments for Abnormal Psychology at Howard Community College, Fall 1988.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, James

    Designed for students enrolled in an Abnormal Psychology course at Howard Community College (Maryland), this booklet explains the requirements for the course's writing assignments, which are designed to teach the skills of comparison and contrast, analysis, critical thinking, and synthesis. Following an overview of class assignments and…

  2. Integrating Graphing Assignments into a Money and Banking Course Using FRED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staveley-O'Carroll, James

    2018-01-01

    Over the course of one semester, six empirical assignments that utilize FRED are used to introduce students of money and banking courses to the economic analysis required for the conduct of monetary policy. The first five assignments cover the following topics: inflation, bonds and stocks, monetary aggregates, the Taylor rule, and employment.…

  3. Integrating the Liberal Arts and Chemistry: A Series of General Chemistry Assignments to Develop Science Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Diane M.; Chengelis Czegan, Demetra A.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes assignments that have been implemented in a General Chemistry I course to promote science literacy. This course was chosen in particular because it reaches a broad audience, which includes nonscience majors. The assignment series begins with several discussions and tasks to develop information literacy, in which students find…

  4. A Web-Based Telehealth Training Platform Incorporating Automated Nonverbal Behavior Feedback for Teaching Communication Skills to Medical Students: A Randomized Crossover Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Background In the interests of patient health outcomes, it is important for medical students to develop clinical communication skills. We previously proposed a telehealth communication skills training platform (EQClinic) with automated nonverbal behavior feedback for medical students, and it was able to improve medical students’ awareness of their nonverbal communication. Objective This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of EQClinic to improve clinical communication skills of medical students. Methods We conducted a 2-group randomized crossover trial between February and June 2016. Participants were second-year medical students enrolled in a clinical communication skills course at an Australian university. Students were randomly allocated to complete online EQClinic training during weeks 1–5 (group A) or to complete EQClinic training during weeks 8–11 (group B). EQClinic delivered an automated visual presentation of students’ nonverbal behavior coupled with human feedback from a standardized patient (SP). All students were offered two opportunities to complete face-to-face consultations with SPs. The two face-to-face consultations were conducted in weeks 6–7 and 12–13 for both groups, and were rated by tutors who were blinded to group allocation. Student-Patient Observed Communication Assessment (SOCA) was collected by blinded assessors (n=28) at 2 time points and also by an SP (n=83). Tutor-rated clinical communications skill in face-to-face consultations was the primary outcome and was assessed with the SOCA. We used t tests to examine the students’ performance during face-to-face consultations pre- and postexposure to EQClinic. Results We randomly allocated 268 medical students to the 2 groups (group A: n=133; group B: n=135). SOCA communication skills measures (score range 4–16) from the first face-to-face consultation were significantly higher for students in group A who had completed EQClinic training and reviewed the nonverbal behavior

  5. A randomized comparison of video demonstration versus hands-on training of medical students for vacuum delivery using Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skills (OSATS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilal, Ziad; Kumpernatz, Anne K; Rezniczek, Günther A; Cetin, Cem; Tempfer-Bentz, Eva-Katrin; Tempfer, Clemens B

    2017-03-01

    To compare medical students' skills for vaginal operative delivery by vacuum extraction (VE) after hands-on training versus video demonstration. We randomized medical students to an expert demonstration (group 1) or a hands-on (group 2) training using a standardized VE algorithm on a pelvic training model. Students were tested with a 40-item Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skills (OSATS) scoring system after training and 4 days later. OSATS scores were the primary outcome. Performance time, self-assessment, confidence, and global rating scale were secondary outcomes. We assessed the constructive validity of OSATS in this VE model comparing metric scores of experts and students. In all, 137 students were randomized. OSATS scores were higher in group 2 (n = 63) compared with group 1 (n = 74) (32.89 ± 6.39 vs 27.51 ± 10.27, respectively; P training is superior to video demonstration for teaching VE on a pelvic model.

  6. Ultrasound simulator-assisted teaching of cardiac anatomy to preclinical anatomy students: A pilot randomized trial of a three-hour learning exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canty, David Jeffrey; Hayes, Jenny A; Story, David Andrew; Royse, Colin Forbes

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasound simulation allows students to virtually explore internal anatomy by producing accurate, moving, color, three-dimensional rendered slices from any angle or approach leaving the organs and their relationships intact without requirement for consumables. The aim was to determine the feasibility and efficacy of self-directed learning of cardiac anatomy with an ultrasound simulator compared to cadavers and plastic models. After a single cardiac anatomy lecture, fifty university anatomy students participated in a three-hour supervised self-directed learning exposure in groups of five, randomized to an ultrasound simulator or human cadaveric specimens and plastic models. Pre- and post-tests were conducted using pictorial and non-pictorial multiple-choice questions (MCQs). Simulator students completed a survey on their experience. Four simulator and seven cadaver group students did not attend after randomization. Simulator use in groups of five students was feasible and feedback from participants was very positive. Baseline test scores were similar (P = 0.9) between groups. After the learning intervention, there was no difference between groups in change in total test score (P = 0.37), whether they were pictorial (P = 0.6) or non-pictorial (P = 0.21). In both groups there was an increase in total test scores (simulator +19.8 ±12.4%% and cadaver: +16.4% ± 10.2, P human cadaveric prosections for learning cardiac anatomy. © 2014 American Association of Anatomists.

  7. Predicting Assignment Submissions in a Multiclass Classification Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Drăgulescu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Predicting student failure is an important task that can empower educators to counteract the factors that affect student performance. In this paper, a part of the bigger problem of predicting student failure is addressed: predicting the students that do not complete their assignment tasks. For solving this problem, real data collected by our university’s educational platform was used. Because the problem consisted of predicting one of three possible classes (multi-class classification, the appropriate algorithms and methods were selected. Several experiments were carried out to find the best approach for this prediction problem and the used data set. An approach of time segmentation is proposed in order to facilitate the prediction from early on. Methods that address the problems of high dimensionality and imbalanced data were also evaluated. The outcome of each approach is shown and compared in order to select the best performing classification algorithm for the problem at hand.

  8. Overweight and obesity in Slovak high school students and body composition indicators: a non-randomized cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bibiana Vadasova

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical development can be considered as an indicator of the overall health status of the youth population. Currently, it appears that the increasing trend of the prevalence of obesity among children and youths has stopped in a number of countries worldwide. Studies point to the fact that adolescence is a critical period for the development of obesity. Body mass index (BMI seems to be an orientation parameter in the assessment of prevalence of obesity which is not sufficient for more accurate identification of at risk individuals. The purpose of this study was to evaluate association between BMI percentile zones as health-risk for being overweight and obese and body composition indicators in high-school students from the Prešov (Slovakia region. Methods A non-randomized cross-sectional study in high school students from the Prešov (Slovakia region was conducted. The research sample consisted of 1014 participants (boys n = 466, girls n = 549. Body composition was measured using direct segmental multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance analysis (DSM-BIA. To examine the association between obesity and selected body composition indicators, Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA and Eta2 were used. The relationship between selected body composition indicators and percentile BMI zones was determined using the Kendall tau correlation. Results In groups with different BMI percentile zones (normal weight, overweight, obese, ANOVA showed significant differences for girls and boys (p ˂.05 with high effect size (η2 ˂.26 in body weight, body fat mass index, body fat percentage, fat free mass index, fat-free mass percentage, visceral fat area, waist-to-hip ratio, waist circumference, protein mass and mineral mass. The highest degree of correlation among boys was between BMI values indicating overweight and obesity and fat free mass index and waist circumference, respectively (τ = .71, τ = .70, respectively. In girls, the highest

  9. Blocked Randomization with Randomly Selected Block Sizes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimmy Efird

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available When planning a randomized clinical trial, careful consideration must be given to how participants are selected for various arms of a study. Selection and accidental bias may occur when participants are not assigned to study groups with equal probability. A simple random allocation scheme is a process by which each participant has equal likelihood of being assigned to treatment versus referent groups. However, by chance an unequal number of individuals may be assigned to each arm of the study and thus decrease the power to detect statistically significant differences between groups. Block randomization is a commonly used technique in clinical trial design to reduce bias and achieve balance in the allocation of participants to treatment arms, especially when the sample size is small. This method increases the probability that each arm will contain an equal number of individuals by sequencing participant assignments by block. Yet still, the allocation process may be predictable, for example, when the investigator is not blind and the block size is fixed. This paper provides an overview of blocked randomization and illustrates how to avoid selection bias by using random block sizes.

  10. The Impact of an Online Educational Video and a Medical Amnesty Policy on College Students' Intentions to Seek Help in the Presence of Alcohol Poisoning Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oster-Aaland, Laura; Thompson, Kevin; Eighmy, Myron

    2011-01-01

    This study analyzed the impact of a medical amnesty policy and an online alcohol poisoning video on college students' intentions to seek help when witnessing alcohol poisoning symptoms. Students were randomly assigned to receive an amnesty policy, alcohol poisoning video, or both. The group that received both treatments was most likely to seek…

  11. Transdisciplinary assignments in graduate health education as a model for future collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christie, Catherine; Smith, A Russell; Bednarzyk, Michele

    2007-01-01

    Transdisciplinary health care continues to be at the forefront of patient treatment in the medical arena, in part due to escalating health care costs, an increasing aging population, and the development of multiple chronic diseases. Gaining the knowledge, experience, and principles associated with transdisciplinary teamwork to successfully prepare for modern-day practice is therefore essential for individuals of various health care professions. This report describes an assignment developed and implemented to facilitate professional interaction between graduate physical therapy, nutrition, and nursing students. The objectives of this assignment were to determine through student evaluation the effects of a transdisciplinary experience on students' understanding of the role of another discipline and students' communication skills across disciplines. When evaluating the assignment, students most often remarked that they developed a greater understanding of the roles of the included disciplines and reported a significant increase in communication skills. However, some students did not concur that this assignment was effective due to the scheduling conflicts and lack of teamwork that can occur during a collaborative project. The students' reports of their experiences in completing the assignment provide valuable insights for implementing and/or updating a preparatory transdisciplinary education component in other settings. Additional research can focus on the challenges faced by the majority of the students venturing into actual health care or "real-world" settings for comparative studies.

  12. Automated grading of homework assignments and tests in introductory and intermediate statistics courses using active server pages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockburger, D W

    1999-05-01

    Active server pages permit a software developer to customize the Web experience for users by inserting server-side script and database access into Web pages. This paper describes applications of these techniques and provides a primer on the use of these methods. Applications include a system that generates and grades individualized homework assignments and tests for statistics students. The student accesses the system as a Web page, prints out the assignment, does the assignment, and enters the answers on the Web page. The server, running on NT Server 4.0, grades the assignment, updates the grade book (on a database), and returns the answer key to the student.

  13. Effects of Mobile Augmented Reality Learning Compared to Textbook Learning on Medical Students: Randomized Controlled Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background By adding new levels of experience, mobile Augmented Reality (mAR) can significantly increase the attractiveness of mobile learning applications in medical education. Objective To compare the impact of the heightened realism of a self-developed mAR blended learning environment (mARble) on learners to textbook material, especially for ethically sensitive subjects such as forensic medicine, while taking into account basic psychological aspects (usability and higher level of emotional involvement) as well as learning outcomes (increased learning efficiency). Methods A prestudy was conducted based on a convenience sample of 10 third-year medical students. The initial emotional status was captured using the “Profile of Mood States” questionnaire (POMS, German variation); previous knowledge about forensic medicine was determined using a 10-item single-choice (SC) test. During the 30-minute learning period, the students were randomized into two groups: the first group consisted of pairs of students, each equipped with one iPhone with a preinstalled copy of mARble, while the second group was provided with textbook material. Subsequently, both groups were asked to once again complete the POMS questionnaire and SC test to measure changes in emotional state and knowledge gain. Usability as well as pragmatic and hedonic qualities of the learning material was captured using AttrakDiff2 questionnaires. Data evaluation was conducted anonymously. Descriptive statistics for the score in total and the subgroups were calculated before and after the intervention. The scores of both groups were tested against each other using paired and unpaired signed-rank tests. An item analysis was performed for the SC test to objectify difficulty and selectivity. Results Statistically significant, the mARble group (6/10) showed greater knowledge gain than the control group (4/10) (Wilcoxon z=2.232, P=.03). The item analysis of the SC test showed a difficulty of P=0.768 (s=0.09) and a

  14. Effects of mobile augmented reality learning compared to textbook learning on medical students: randomized controlled pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, Urs-Vito; Folta-Schoofs, Kristian; Behrends, Marianne; von Jan, Ute

    2013-08-20

    By adding new levels of experience, mobile Augmented Reality (mAR) can significantly increase the attractiveness of mobile learning applications in medical education. To compare the impact of the heightened realism of a self-developed mAR blended learning environment (mARble) on learners to textbook material, especially for ethically sensitive subjects such as forensic medicine, while taking into account basic psychological aspects (usability and higher level of emotional involvement) as well as learning outcomes (increased learning efficiency). A prestudy was conducted based on a convenience sample of 10 third-year medical students. The initial emotional status was captured using the "Profile of Mood States" questionnaire (POMS, German variation); previous knowledge about forensic medicine was determined using a 10-item single-choice (SC) test. During the 30-minute learning period, the students were randomized into two groups: the first group consisted of pairs of students, each equipped with one iPhone with a preinstalled copy of mARble, while the second group was provided with textbook material. Subsequently, both groups were asked to once again complete the POMS questionnaire and SC test to measure changes in emotional state and knowledge gain. Usability as well as pragmatic and hedonic qualities of the learning material was captured using AttrakDiff2 questionnaires. Data evaluation was conducted anonymously. Descriptive statistics for the score in total and the subgroups were calculated before and after the intervention. The scores of both groups were tested against each other using paired and unpaired signed-rank tests. An item analysis was performed for the SC test to objectify difficulty and selectivity. Statistically significant, the mARble group (6/10) showed greater knowledge gain than the control group (4/10) (Wilcoxon z=2.232, P=.03). The item analysis of the SC test showed a difficulty of P=0.768 (s=0.09) and a selectivity of RPB=0.2. For m

  15. 32 CFR 884.2 - Assigned responsibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... OF PERSONNEL TO UNITED STATES CIVILIAN AUTHORITIES FOR TRIAL § 884.2 Assigned responsibilities. (a... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Assigned responsibilities. 884.2 Section 884.2... requests for return of members to the United States for delivery to civilian authorities when the request...

  16. 12 CFR 563e.28 - Assigned ratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Assigned ratings. 563e.28 Section 563e.28 Banks... for Assessing Performance § 563e.28 Assigned ratings. (a) Ratings in general. Subject to paragraphs (b... performance under the lending, investment and service tests, the community development test, the small savings...

  17. Stress Assignment in Reading Italian Polysyllabic Pseudowords

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulpizio, Simone; Arduino, Lisa S.; Paizi, Despina; Burani, Cristina

    2013-01-01

    In 4 naming experiments we investigated how Italian readers assign stress to pseudowords. We assessed whether participants assign stress following distributional information such as stress neighborhood (the proportion and number of existent words sharing orthographic ending and stress pattern) and whether such distributional information affects…

  18. Assignment of element and isotope factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    Element and isotope factors are assigned in the NICS internal accounting system at the Exxon Fuel Fabrication Facility on the basis of coded information included on the material transfer documents. This paper explains more fully the manner in which NICS assigns these factors

  19. The effects of computer-based mindfulness training on Self-control and Mindfulness within Ambulatorily assessed network Systems across Health-related domains in a healthy student population (SMASH): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Zarah; Wenzel, Mario; Kubiak, Thomas

    2016-12-01

    Self-control is an important ability in everyday life, showing associations with health-related outcomes. The aim of the Self-control and Mindfulness within Ambulatorily assessed network Systems across Health-related domains (SMASH) study is twofold: first, the effectiveness of a computer-based mindfulness training will be evaluated in a randomized controlled trial. Second, the SMASH study implements a novel network approach in order to investigate complex temporal interdependencies of self-control networks across several domains. The SMASH study is a two-armed, 6-week, non-blinded randomized controlled trial that combines seven weekly laboratory meetings and 40 days of electronic diary assessments with six prompts per day in a healthy undergraduate student population at the Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Germany. Participants will be randomly assigned to (1) receive a computer-based mindfulness intervention or (2) to a wait-list control condition. Primary outcomes are self-reported momentary mindfulness and self-control assessed via electronic diaries. Secondary outcomes are habitual mindfulness and habitual self-control. Further measures include self-reported behaviors in specific self-control domains: emotion regulation, alcohol consumption and eating behaviors. The effects of mindfulness training on primary and secondary outcomes are explored using three-level mixed models. Furthermore, networks will be computed with vector autoregressive mixed models to investigate the dynamics at participant and group level. This study was approved by the local ethics committee (reference code 2015_JGU_psychEK_011) and follows the standards laid down in the Declaration of Helsinki (2013). This randomized controlled trial combines an intensive Ambulatory Assessment of 40 consecutive days and seven laboratory meetings. By implementing a novel network approach, underlying processes of self-control within different health domains will be identified. These results will

  20. Real life working shift assignment problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sze, San-Nah; Kwek, Yeek-Ling; Tiong, Wei-King; Chiew, Kang-Leng

    2017-07-01

    This study concerns about the working shift assignment in an outlet of Supermarket X in Eastern Mall, Kuching. The working shift assignment needs to be solved at least once in every month. Current approval process of working shifts is too troublesome and time-consuming. Furthermore, the management staff cannot have an overview of manpower and working shift schedule. Thus, the aim of this study is to develop working shift assignment simulation and propose a working shift assignment solution. The main objective for this study is to fulfill manpower demand at minimum operation cost. Besides, the day off and meal break policy should be fulfilled accordingly. Demand based heuristic is proposed to assign working shift and the quality of the solution is evaluated by using the real data.

  1. Mars - robust automatic backbone assignment of proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Young-Sang; Zweckstetter, Markus

    2004-01-01

    MARS a program for robust automatic backbone assignment of 13 C/ 15 N labeled proteins is presented. MARS does not require tight thresholds for establishing sequential connectivity or detailed adjustment of these thresholds and it can work with a wide variety of NMR experiments. Using only 13 C α / 13 C β connectivity information, MARS allows automatic, error-free assignment of 96% of the 370-residue maltose-binding protein. MARS can successfully be used when data are missing for a substantial portion of residues or for proteins with very high chemical shift degeneracy such as partially or fully unfolded proteins. Other sources of information, such as residue specific information or known assignments from a homologues protein, can be included into the assignment process. MARS exports its result in SPARKY format. This allows visual validation and integration of automated and manual assignment

  2. The surfacing of past assessment strategies within interdisciplinary teams when encountering an open-ended assignment in an undergraduate sustainability course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, K.; Dzulkifli, D. D. B.; Moynihan, M. A.; Salman, R.; Goodkin, N.

    2017-12-01

    267 undergraduate students in an interdisciplinary environmental sustainability course were divided into 66 groups for the duration of the semester. The formation of the groups proceeded by first assigning all of the science majors to groups in a random order. This was followed by assigning the engineering majors, the liberal arts majors, and finally the business majors in turn. After all of the students had been assigned to a group, every group had at least one engineering student and one science student. 11 groups had a liberal arts student but no business student. 26 groups had a business student but no liberal arts student. 29 groups were composed of students from all four majors. During the semester, the groups created an environmental action plan to address one of Singapore's major sustainability concerns: food. In service of the course's emphasis on interdisciplinary communication, the groups were required to create a video to support their environmental action plan. The evaluation method for the videos built on our prior work with rubrics (Hartman & Goodkin, 2016). While we provided a number of examples of videos communicating environmental action plans, students were not prescribed a particular format for their video. To the consternation of some students, the instructor deliberately left the video assessment open-ended. After the semester ended, a researcher coded all 66 videos for the food sustainability issues they identified, their proposed solutions, and their video approach. Approaches included animations, virtual handwriting/drawing, role-playing, PowerPoint presentations, and picture slideshows. Given the open-ended nature of the video project, we hypothesized that groups would converge on approaches that at least one team member was familiar with. We knew from prior work with the business school, that its students engage in role-play activities fairly frequently. Teams with a business major and without a liberal arts major adopted the role

  3. Randomizing Roaches: Exploring the "Bugs" of Randomization in Experimental Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagler, Amy; Wagler, Ron

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the roles of random selection and random assignment in experimental design is a central learning objective in most introductory statistics courses. This article describes an activity, appropriate for a high school or introductory statistics course, designed to teach the concepts, values and pitfalls of random selection and assignment…

  4. Short-term effects of a rights-based sexuality education curriculum for high-school students: a cluster-randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantine, Norman A; Jerman, Petra; Berglas, Nancy F; Angulo-Olaiz, Francisca; Chou, Chih-Ping; Rohrbach, Louise A

    2015-03-26

    An emerging model for sexuality education is the rights-based approach, which unifies discussions of sexuality, gender norms, and sexual rights to promote the healthy sexual development of adolescents. A rigorous evaluation of a rights-based intervention for a broad population of adolescents in the U.S. has not previously been published. This paper evaluates the immediate effects of the Sexuality Education Initiative (SEI) on hypothesized psychosocial determinants of sexual behavior. A cluster-randomized trial was conducted with ninth-grade students at 10 high schools in Los Angeles. Classrooms at each school were randomized to receive either a rights-based curriculum or basic sex education (control) curriculum. Surveys were completed by 1,750 students (N = 934 intervention, N = 816 control) at pretest and immediate posttest. Multilevel regression models examined the short-term effects of the intervention on nine psychosocial outcomes, which were hypothesized to be mediators of students' sexual behaviors. Compared with students who received the control curriculum, students receiving the rights-based curriculum demonstrated significantly greater knowledge about sexual health and sexual health services, more positive attitudes about sexual relationship rights, greater communication about sex and relationships with parents, and greater self-efficacy to manage risky situations at immediate posttest. There were no significant differences between the two groups for two outcomes, communication with sexual partners and intentions to use condoms. Participation in the rights-based classroom curriculum resulted in positive, statistically significant effects on seven of nine psychosocial outcomes, relative to a basic sex education curriculum. Longer-term effects on students' sexual behaviors will be tested in subsequent analyses. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02009046.

  5. Effects of formative assessments to develop self-regulation among sixth grade students: Results from a randomized controlled intervention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meusen-Beekman, Kelly; Joosten-ten Brinke, Desirée; Boshuizen, Els

    2018-01-01

    This article presents the results of a formative assessment intervention in writing assignments in sixth grade. We examined whether formative assessments would improve self-regulation, motivation and self-efficacy among sixth graders, and whether differential effects exist between formative

  6. Interactive Level Design for iOS Assignment Delivery: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anson Brown

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an application of an iOS-based online gaming assignment in a real classroom. The core concept of the project is a gameplay environment involving two players that have full control over creation and modification of levels. This level design mechanism was implemented in an iOS-based game in the area of genetics and based on an existing written assignment. The game includes support for both instructors, who have the ability to create and post assignments and students, who can take the assignments. Two trials of the iOS application consisted of in-class testing of twenty- one students. Students first took the original paper assignment, followed by the iOS version. Start times, end times, and grades were recorded for both versions. A comprehensive study of the grades and times for the iOS version of the assignment versus the paper version was conducted and is presented in this paper. Our Study showed that the iOS version was completed much faster in nearly every case while a strong delivery mechanism is needed to ensure student grades and completion of the assignment will not be affected. These results are not unexpected due to some major difference between the two formats. Future updates and additions will address any currently existing issues.

  7. Effectiveness of Short Message Service Text-Based Smoking Cessation Intervention Among University Students: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müssener, Ulrika; Bendtsen, Marcus; Karlsson, Nadine; White, Ian R; McCambridge, Jim; Bendtsen, Preben

    2016-03-01

    Smoking is globally the most important preventable cause of ill health and death. Mobile telephone interventions and, in particular, short message service (SMS) text messaging, have the potential to overcome access barriers to traditional health services, not least among young people. To determine the effectiveness of a text-based smoking cessation intervention among young people. A single-blind, 2-arm, randomized clinical trial (Nicotine Exit [NEXit]) was conducted from October 23, 2014, to April 17, 2015; data analysis was performed from April 23, 2014, to May 22, 2015. Participants included daily or weekly smokers willing to set a quit date within 1 month of enrollment. The study used email to invite all college and university students throughout Sweden to participate. The NEXit core program is initiated with a 1- to 4-week motivational phase during which participants can choose to set a stop date. The intervention group then received 157 text messages based on components of effective smoking cessation interventions for 12 weeks. The control group received 1 text every 2 weeks thanking them for participating in the study, with delayed access to the intervention. The primary outcomes were self-reported prolonged abstinence (not having smoked >5 cigarettes over the past 8 weeks) and 4-week point prevalence of complete smoking cessation shortly after the completion of the intervention (approximately 4 months after the quit date). A total of 1590 participants, mainly between 21 and 30 years of age, were randomized into the study; 827 (573 [69.3%] women) were allocated to the intervention group and 763 (522 [68.4%] women) were included in the control group. Primary outcome data were available for 783 (94.7%) of the intervention group and 719 (94.2%) of the control group. At baseline, participants were smoking a median (range) of 63 (1-238) and 70 (2-280) cigarettes per week, respectively. Eight-week prolonged abstinence was reported by 203 participants (25.9%) in the

  8. Comparison of the Impact of Wikipedia, UpToDate, and a Digital Textbook on Short-Term Knowledge Acquisition Among Medical Students: Randomized Controlled Trial of Three Web-Based Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaffidi, Michael A; Khan, Rishad; Wang, Christopher; Keren, Daniela; Tsui, Cindy; Garg, Ankit; Brar, Simarjeet; Valoo, Kamesha; Bonert, Michael; de Wolff, Jacob F; Heilman, James; Grover, Samir C

    2017-10-31

    Web-based resources are commonly used by medical students to supplement curricular material. Three commonly used resources are UpToDate (Wolters Kluwer Inc), digital textbooks, and Wikipedia; there are concerns, however, regarding Wikipedia's reliability and accuracy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of Wikipedia use on medical students' short-term knowledge acquisition compared with UpToDate and a digital textbook. This was a prospective, nonblinded, three-arm randomized trial. The study was conducted from April 2014 to December 2016. Preclerkship medical students were recruited from four Canadian medical schools. Convenience sampling was used to recruit participants through word of mouth, social media, and email. Participants must have been enrolled in their first or second year of medical school at a Canadian medical school. After recruitment, participants were randomized to one of the three Web-based resources: Wikipedia, UpToDate, or a digital textbook. During testing, participants first completed a multiple-choice questionnaire (MCQ) of 25 questions emulating a Canadian medical licensing examination. During the MCQ, participants took notes on topics to research. Then, participants researched topics and took written notes using their assigned resource. They completed the same MCQ again while referencing their notes. Participants also rated the importance and availability of five factors pertinent to Web-based resources. The primary outcome measure was knowledge acquisition as measured by posttest scores. The secondary outcome measures were participants' perceptions of importance and availability of each resource factor. A total of 116 medical students were recruited. Analysis of variance of the MCQ scores demonstrated a significant interaction between time and group effects (P<.001, η g 2 =0.03), with the Wikipedia group scoring higher on the MCQ posttest compared with the textbook group (P<.001, d=0.86). Access to hyperlinks, search

  9. A Peer-Led, Social Media-Delivered, Safer Sex Intervention for Chinese College Students: Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wai Han; Wong, Carlos King Ho; Wong, William Chi Wai

    2017-08-09

    The peer-led, social media-delivered intervention is an emerging method in sexual health promotion. However, no research has yet investigated its effectiveness as compared with other online channels or in an Asian population. The objective of this study is to compare a peer-led, social media-delivered, safer sex intervention with a sexual health website. Both conditions target Chinese college students in Hong Kong. A randomized controlled trial was conducted with a peer-led, safer sex Facebook group as the intervention and an existing online sexual health website as the control. The intervention materials were developed with peer input and followed the information-motivation-behavioral skills model; the intervention was moderated by peer educators. The participants filled out the online questionnaires before and after the 6-week intervention period. Outcome evaluations included safer sex attitudes, behavioral skills, and behaviors, while process evaluation focused on online experience, online-visiting frequency, and online engagement. The effect of online-visiting frequency and online engagement on outcome variables was investigated. Of 196 eligible participants-100 in the control group and 96 in the intervention group-who joined the study, 2 (1.0%) control participants joined the Facebook group and 24 of the remaining 194 participants (12.4%) were lost to follow-up. For the process evaluation, participants in the intervention group reported more satisfying online experiences (Psocial media-delivered, safer sex intervention was found to be feasible and effective in improving attitudes toward condom use and behavioral skills, but was not significantly more effective than a website. Future research may focus on the long-term effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of this popular method, as well as the potential cultural differences of using social media between different countries. Chinese Clinical Trial Registry (ChiCTR): ChiCTR-IOR-16009495; http

  10. Screening and Brief Interventions for Hazardous and Harmful Alcohol Use among University Students in South Africa: Results from a Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendry van der Heever

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of Screening and Brief Intervention (SBI for alcohol problems among university students in South Africa. The study design for this efficacy study is a randomized controlled trial with 6- and 12-month follow-ups to examine the effects of a brief alcohol intervention to reduce alcohol use by hazardous and harmful drinkers in a university setting. The unit of randomization is the individual university student identified as a hazardous or harmful drinker attending public recruitment venues in a university campus. University students were screened for alcohol problems, and those identified as hazardous or harmful drinkers were randomized into an experimental or control group. The experimental group received one brief counseling session on alcohol risk reduction, while the control group received a health education leaflet. Results indicate that of the 722 screened for alcohol and who agreed to participate in the trial 152 (21.1% tested positive for the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT (score 8 or more. Among the 147 (96.7% university students who also attended the 12-month follow-up session, the intervention effect on the AUDIT score was −1.5, which was statistically significant (P = 0.009. Further, the depression scores marginally significantly decreased over time across treatment groups, while other substance use (tobacco and cannabis use, self-rated health status and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD scores did not change over time across treatment groups. The study provides evidence of effective brief intervention by assistant nurses with hazardous and harmful drinkers in a university setting in South Africa. The short duration of the brief intervention makes it a realistic candidate for use in a university setting.

  11. Auditing the Assignments of Top-Level Semantic Types in the UMLS Semantic Network to UMLS Concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhe; Perl, Yehoshua; Elhanan, Gai; Chen, Yan; Geller, James; Bian, Jiang

    2017-11-01

    The Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) is an important terminological system. By the policy of its curators, each concept of the UMLS should be assigned the most specific Semantic Types (STs) in the UMLS Semantic Network (SN). Hence, the Semantic Types of most UMLS concepts are assigned at or near the bottom (leaves) of the UMLS Semantic Network. While most ST assignments are correct, some errors do occur. Therefore, Quality Assurance efforts of UMLS curators for ST assignments should concentrate on automatically detected sets of UMLS concepts with higher error rates than random sets. In this paper, we investigate the assignments of top-level semantic types in the UMLS semantic network to concepts, identify potential erroneous assignments, define four categories of errors, and thus provide assistance to curators of the UMLS to avoid these assignments errors. Human experts analyzed samples of concepts assigned 10 of the top-level semantic types and categorized the erroneous ST assignments into these four logical categories. Two thirds of the concepts assigned these 10 top-level semantic types are erroneous. Our results demonstrate that reviewing top-level semantic type assignments to concepts provides an effective way for UMLS quality assurance, comparing to reviewing a random selection of semantic type assignments.

  12. Using a digital storytelling assignment to teach public health advocacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro, A B; Levesque, Salem

    2018-03-01

    The need and expectation for advocacy is central to public health nursing practice. Advocacy efforts that effectively call attention to population health threats and promote the well-being of communities rely on strategies that deliver influential messaging. The digital story is a lay method to capture meaningful, impactful stories that can be used to advocate for public health concerns. Readily available, user-friendly digital technologies allow engagement in digital media production to create digital stories. This paper describes how digital story making can be utilized as an academic assignment to teach public health advocacy within an undergraduate nursing curriculum. Providing nursing students this artistic outlet can facilitate meeting academic learning goals, while also equipping them with creative skills that can be applied in future professional practice. Nursing educators can take advantage of institutional resources and campus culture to support the use of novel digital media assignments that facilitate application of advocacy concepts. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Inferential backbone assignment for sparse data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitek, Olga; Bailey-Kellogg, Chris; Craig, Bruce; Vitek, Jan

    2006-01-01

    This paper develops an approach to protein backbone NMR assignment that effectively assigns large proteins while using limited sets of triple-resonance experiments. Our approach handles proteins with large fractions of missing data and many ambiguous pairs of pseudoresidues, and provides a statistical assessment of confidence in global and position-specific assignments. The approach is tested on an extensive set of experimental and synthetic data of up to 723 residues, with match tolerances of up to 0.5 ppm for C α and C β resonance types. The tests show that the approach is particularly helpful when data contain experimental noise and require large match tolerances. The keys to the approach are an empirical Bayesian probability model that rigorously accounts for uncertainty in the data at all stages in the analysis, and a hybrid stochastic tree-based search algorithm that effectively explores the large space of possible assignments

  14. Dynamic traffic assignment : genetic algorithms approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Real-time route guidance is a promising approach to alleviating congestion on the nations highways. A dynamic traffic assignment model is central to the development of guidance strategies. The artificial intelligence technique of genetic algorithm...

  15. The Effect of Acupressure at the 3rd Point of liver Channel on Quality of Life of Female Students with Primary Dysmenorrhea in Tehran Teacher Training Center in 2008: A Randomize Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    f Bazarganipour

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Background and Objectives: Dysmenorrhea affects women’s quality of life; moreover it results in physical, mental, social and economical problems. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of acupressure at the third point of liver channel (liv3 on quality of life in female students of Tehran Teaching Training (Tarbiat Moallem Center with primary dysmenorrhea. Methods: This single-blind randomized clinical trial was conducted on 194 female students of Nasibeh Tarbiat Moallem center in Tehran who had had inclusion criteria. In the first cycle, the severity and duration of pain and quality of life were determined. Therefore, the participants were randomly assigned to either experimental or control group. In the second, third and fourth cycles, acupressure at liv3 and placebo point during 3-7 days before menstruation for 20 minute were carried out. In the fourth cycle, participants completed SF-36 questionnaire after menstruation again. Data-gathering Instruments used in this study included wrong-Baker faces pain scale,Beck-21 questionarre, SF-36 questionnaire, clock, Acuhealth tens pro 900 set, force guage. Data were analyzed with SPSS 16 and x2 test, Man Whitney U, independent and paired test. P values were set as 0.05(p<0.05. Results: There was no significant difference in mean quality of life dimension between two groups in the first cycle (p>0.05 but there was a significant difference in mean quality of life dimension between two groups in the fourth cycle (p<0.05. The comparison between the first and the fourth cycle in two group showed a significant difference in all dimension (p<0.05 but there was not any significant difference between two cycles in Role Emotional functioning dimension in experimental group (p>0.05. Moreover, there was no significant difference between two cycles in Role Emotional functioning and social functioning dimensions

  16. Statistical aspects of optimal treatment assignment

    OpenAIRE

    van der Linden, Willem J.

    1980-01-01

    The issues of treatment assignment is ordinarily dealt with within the framework of testing aptitude treatment interaction (ATI) hypothesis. ATI research mostly uses linear regression techniques, and an ATI exists when the aptitude treatment (AT) regression lines cross each other within the relevant interval of the aptitude variable. Consistent with this approach is the use of the points of interaction of AT regression lines as treatment-assignment rule. The replacement of such rules by monot...

  17. On pole structure assignment in linear systems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Loiseau, J.-J.; Zagalak, Petr

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 82, č. 7 (2009), s. 1179-1192 ISSN 0020-7179 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA102/07/1596 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : linear systems * linear state feedback * pole structure assignment Subject RIV: BC - Control Systems Theory Impact factor: 1.124, year: 2009 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2009/AS/zagalak-on pole structure assignment in linear systems.pdf

  18. E-Learning in Urology: Implementation of the Learning and Teaching Platform CASUS® - Do Virtual Patients Lead to Improved Learning Outcomes? A Randomized Study among Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Anna-Teresa; Albers, Peter; Müller-Mattheis, Volker

    2015-01-01

    E-learning is playing an increasing role in medical education, supporting a problem-based and practical oriented education without putting patients at risk and compensating for the decrease in instructor-centered teaching. Not much research has been done concerning learning effects and reaction on behalf of the students. We created computer-based cases for four important diagnoses in urology using the authoring system CASUS®. Fourth-year medical school students were randomized into two groups: (1) the CASUS® group, using the online cases for preparation, and (2) the book group, using a textbook. A multiple-choice test referring to the prepared topic had to be completed at the beginning of each lecture and the results were analyzed. Evaluation of the students concerning the acceptance of the program was done at the end of the semester. Members of the CASUS® group scored significantly higher with an average of 20% better test results than students using textbooks for preparation. Evaluation regarding the program showed a highly positive rating. Limitations include the small study population and the possibly biased test performance of the students. Computerized patient cases facilitate practice-oriented teaching and result in an interesting and engaging learning model with improved learning outcomes. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. The effects of an educational program on depression literacy and stigma among students of secondary schools in Jazan city, 2016: A cluster-randomized controlled trial study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darraj, Hussain; Mahfouz, Mohamed Salih; Al Sanosi, Rashad; Badedi, Mohammed; Sabai, Abdullah

    2018-05-01

    Depression is a serious mental health disorder and characterized by sadness, loss of interest in activities, and decreased energy. The aim of this study is to assess the effectiveness of the school intervention program on depression literacy and stigma among students of secondary schools. A cluster randomized trial will be conducted on sample of 360 students to assess the depression literacy and stigma towards depression before and after a designed intervention educational program. The intervention consists of a package of 2 lectures, 1 video contact, and group discussion of 5 myths about depression, posters, and brochure. The target population consists of all secondary school students in Jazan, where there are 13 secondary schools will be stratified according to sex (6 schools for boys and 7 schools for girls). The results of the study will provide evidence of the efficacy of educational intervention programs on increasing depression literacy among students of secondary schools in Jazan City. The expected outcome of this study is to increase the depression literacy rate among high school students in the intervention group.

  20. Recognizing and managing a deteriorating patient: a randomized controlled trial investigating the effectiveness of clinical simulation in improving clinical performance in undergraduate nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stayt, Louise Caroline; Merriman, Clair; Ricketts, Barry; Morton, Sean; Simpson, Trevor

    2015-11-01

    To report the results of a randomized controlled trial which explored the effectiveness of clinical simulation in improving the clinical performance of recognizing and managing an adult deteriorating patient in hospital. There is evidence that final year undergraduate nurses may lack knowledge, clinical skills and situation awareness required to manage a deteriorating patient competently. The effectiveness of clinical simulation as a strategy to teach the skills required to recognize and manage the early signs of deterioration needs to be evaluated. This study was a two centre phase II single, randomized, controlled trial with single blinded assessments. Data were collected in July 2013. Ninety-eight first year nursing students were randomized either into a control group, where they received a traditional lecture, or an intervention group where they received simulation. Participants completed a pre- and postintervention objective structured clinical examination. General Perceived Self Efficacy and Self-Reported Competency scores were measured before and after the intervention. Student satisfaction with teaching was also surveyed. The intervention group performed significantly better in the post-objective structured clinical examination. There was no significant difference in the postintervention General Perceived Self Efficacy and Self-Reported Competency scores between the control and intervention group. The intervention group was significantly more satisfied with their teaching method. Simulation-based education may be an effective educational strategy to teach nurses the skills to effectively recognize and manage a deteriorating patient. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Mindfulness as an Intervention for Recalling Information from a Lecture as a Measure of Academic Performance in Higher Education: A Randomized Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Rebecca Iranzo; Egan, Helen; Cook, Amy; Mantzios, Michail

    2018-01-01

    Higher education students experience heightened levels of stress and anxiety, and report experiencing negative thoughts and emotions, which influence information retention and recall. In a randomized experiment, we assigned participants to either a mindfulness meditation or an audiobook listening condition, and recorded the information recalled…

  2. Competitive Traffic Assignment in Road Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krylatov Alexander Y.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently in-vehicle route guidance and information systems are rapidly developing. Such systems are expected to reduce congestion in an urban traffic area. This social benefit is believed to be reached by imposing the route choices on the network users that lead to the system optimum traffic assignment. However, guidance service could be offered by different competitive business companies. Then route choices of different mutually independent groups of users may reject traffic assignment from the system optimum state. In this paper, a game theoretic approach is shown to be very efficient to formalize competitive traffic assignment problem with various groups of users in the form of non-cooperative network game with the Nash equilibrium search. The relationships between the Wardrop’s system optimum associated with the traffic assignment problem and the Nash equilibrium associated with the competitive traffic assignment problem are investigated. Moreover, some related aspects of the Nash equilibrium and the Wardrop’s user equilibrium assignments are also discussed.

  3. The Impact of Conferencing Assessment on EFL Students' Grammar Learning (Impacto de la evaluación mediante conferencias en el aprendizaje de la gramática en estudiantes de inglés como lengua extranjera)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baleghizadeh, Sasan; Zarghami, Zahra

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on a study that was carried out in order to examine the impact of conferencing assessment on students' learning of English grammar. Forty-two Iranian intermediate university students were randomly assigned to an experimental and a control group. The participants in the experimental group took part in four individual and four…

  4. Effect of mindfulness and yoga on quality of life for elementary school students and teachers: results of a randomized controlled school-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bazzano AN

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Alessandra N Bazzano,1 Christopher E Anderson,2 Chelsea Hylton,3 Jeanette Gustat2 1Department of Global Community Health and Behavioral Sciences, Tulane University School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, New Orleans, LA, USA; 2Department of Epidemiology, Tulane University School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, New Orleans, LA, USA; 3Project Peaceful Warriors, New Orleans, LA, USA Objective: To assess the impact of a yoga curriculum in an elementary school on student quality of life, and to assess teacher and staff perception of potential barriers to, and benefits of, introducing yoga and mindfulness into the classroom.Methods: A randomized controlled trial was utilized to assess the impact of a brief intervention on third-grade students who screened positive for symptoms of anxiety. Students were randomized to an intervention group of 20 students receiving small-group yoga/mindfulness activities for 8 weeks between October 2016 and February 2017, and a control group of 32 students receiving care as usual. The Brief Multidimensional Students’ Life Satisfaction Scale-Peabody Treatment Progress Battery and the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL served as outcomes. Teachers were invited to participate in two professional development sessions about introducing yoga and mindfulness into the classroom, and completed a survey following each of the sessions.Results: In generalized estimating equation models adjusted for time, the yoga-based intervention was associated with a 14.17 unit increase in student emotional PedsQL (p-value 0.001 and a 7.43 unit increase in psychosocial PedsQL (p-value 0.01. Results were not attenuated by adjustment. Teachers and staff reported using yoga more frequently in the classroom following the second of two professional development sessions (p-value <0.05. Perceived barriers to introducing yoga to the classroom were similar at two data collection time points, while perceived benefits remained high

  5. A randomized controlled trial comparing traditional training in cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) to self-directed CPR learning in first year medical students: The two-person CPR study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roppolo, Lynn P; Heymann, Rahm; Pepe, Paul; Wagner, James; Commons, Bradford; Miller, Ronna; Allen, Emilie; Horne, Leyla; Wainscott, Michael P; Idris, Ahamed H

    2011-03-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to compare two, shorter, self-directed methods of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) education for healthcare professionals (HCP) to traditional training with a focus on the trainee's ability to perform two-person CPR. First-year medical students with either no prior CPR for HCP experience or prior training greater than 5 years were randomized to complete one of three courses: 1) HeartCode BLS System, 2) BLS Anytime, or 3) Traditional training. Only data from the adult CPR skills testing station was reviewed via video recording by certified CPR instructors and the Laerdal PC Skill Reporter software program (Laerdal Medical, Stavanger, Norway). There were 180 first-year medical students who met inclusion criteria: 68 were HeartCode BLS System, 53 BLS Anytime group, and 59 traditional group Regarding two-person CPR, 57 (84%) of Heartcode BLS students and 43 (81%) of BLS Anytime students were able to initiate the switch compared to 39 (66%) of traditional course students (p = 0.04). There were no significant differences in the quality of chest compressions or ventilations between the three groups. There was a trend for a much higher CPR skills testing pass rate for the traditional course students. However, failure to "clear to analyze or shock" while using the AED was the most common reason for failure in all groups. The self-directed learning groups not only had a high level of success in initiating the "switch" to two-person CPR, but were not significantly different from students who completed traditional training. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effectiveness of Schema-Based Instruction for Improving Seventh-Grade Students' Proportional Reasoning: A Randomized Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jitendra, Asha K.; Star, Jon R.; Dupuis, Danielle N.; Rodriguez, Michael C.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effect of schema-based instruction (SBI) on 7th-grade students' mathematical problem-solving performance. SBI is an instructional intervention that emphasizes the role of mathematical structure in word problems and also provides students with a heuristic to self-monitor and aid problem solving. Using a…

  7. Impact of Project-Based Curriculum Materials on Student Learning in Science: Results of a Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Christopher J.; Penuel, William R.; D'Angelo, Cynthia M.; DeBarger, Angela Haydel; Gallagher, Lawrence P.; Kennedy, Cathleen A.; Cheng, Britte Haugen; Krajcik, Joseph S.

    2015-01-01

    The "Framework for K-12 Science Education" (National Research Council, 2012) sets an ambitious vision for science learning by emphasizing that for students to achieve proficiency in science they will need to participate in the authentic practices of scientists. To realize this vision, all students will need opportunities to learn from…

  8. Justifying the Use of Internet Sources in School Assignments on Controversial Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikkonen, Teemu

    2018-01-01

    Introduction: This study concerns students' criteria in the evaluation of Internet sources for a school assignment requiring reflections on a controversial issue. The findings are elaborated by analysing students' discursive accounts in justifying the use or non-use of sources. Method: The interview data was collected in a Finnish upper secondary…

  9. Using Pinterest in Undergraduate Social Work Education: Assignment Development and Pilot Survey Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Lisa R.; Hitchcock, Laurel Iverson

    2017-01-01

    This article describes the development, implementation, and assessment of a social media assignment using Pinterest as a tool for student engagement and professional development in two undergraduate social work courses. Twenty-one undergraduate students enrolled in Human Behavior and the Social Environment (HBSE) courses completed the assignment…

  10. Teachers grading practices : an analysis of the reliability of teacher-assigned grade point average (GPA)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Lans, R. M.; van de Grift, W. J. C. M.; van Veen, K.

    2015-01-01

    In previous research, teachers report that they use a hodgepodge of factors when grading students. This has led researchers to suspect that teacher-assigned grades are inflated by teacher-student interactions; the hodgepodge hypothesis. Teachers also are reported to differ in grading leniency; the

  11. Librarian-Faculty Collaboration on a Library Research Assignment and Module for College Experience Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyes, Anne; Barbier, Pat

    2013-01-01

    A librarian and faculty member collaborated on creating a library research module for students in the faculty member's college success classes to help them learn the fundamentals of information literacy. Using the assignment "My Ideal Job," the students met four or more times with the librarian in a computer classroom to learn how to do…

  12. A General Chemistry Assignment Analyzing Environmental Contamination for the Depue, IL, National Superfund Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saslow Gomez, Sarah A.; Faurie-Wisniewski, Danielle; Parsa, Arlen; Spitz, Jeff; Spitz, Jennifer Amdur; Loeb, Nancy C.; Geiger, Franz M.

    2015-01-01

    The classroom exercise outlined here is a self-directed assignment that connects students to the environmental contamination problem surrounding the DePue Superfund site. By connecting chemistry knowledge gained in the classroom with a real-world problem, students are encouraged to personally connect with the problem while simultaneously…

  13. Big Data on a Smaller Scale: A Social Media Analytics Assignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischbach, Sarah; Zarzosa, Jennifer

    2018-01-01

    It is truly important for students to understand how to monitor online marketing buzz. This assignment, social media analytics, utilizes the content analysis research method to build student's in-depth understanding on how to evaluate and interpret user-generated content (UGC) to create social media campaigns. The authors adapted Resnik and…

  14. Thinking Like a Psychologist Introductory Psychology Writing Assignments: Encouraging Critical Thinking and Resisting Plagiarism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wentworth, Diane Keyser; Whitmarsh, Lona

    2017-01-01

    Teaching the general psychology course provides instructors with the opportunity to invite students to explore the dynamics of behavior and mental processes through the lens of theory and research. Three innovative writing assignments were developed to teach students to think like a psychologist, operationalized as enhancing critical thinking,…

  15. Using Content Reading Assignments in a Psychology Course to Teach Critical Reading Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Camp, Debbie; Van Camp, Wesley

    2013-01-01

    Liberal arts students are expected to graduate college with fully developed critical reading and writing skills. However, for a variety of reasons these skills are not always as well developed as they might be--both during and upon completion of college. This paper describes a reading assignment that was designed to increase students'…

  16. Impact of school-based vegetable garden and physical activity coordinated health interventions on weight status and weight-related behaviors of ethnically diverse, low-income students: Study design and baseline data of the Texas, Grow! Eat! Go! (TGEG cluster-randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Evans

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coordinated, multi-component school-based interventions can improve health behaviors in children, as well as parents, and impact the weight status of students. By leveraging a unique collaboration between Texas AgriLife Extension (a federal, state and county funded educational outreach organization and the University of Texas School of Public Health, the Texas Grow! Eat! Go! Study (TGEG modeled the effectiveness of utilizing existing programs and volunteer infrastructure to disseminate an enhanced Coordinated School Health program. The five-year TGEG study was developed to assess the independent and combined impact of gardening, nutrition and physical activity intervention(s on the prevalence of healthy eating, physical activity and weight status among low-income elementary students. The purpose of this paper is to report on study design, baseline characteristics, intervention approaches, data collection and baseline data. Methods The study design for the TGEG study consisted of a factorial group randomized controlled trial (RCT in which 28 schools were randomly assigned to one of 4 treatment groups: (1 Coordinated Approach to Child Health (CATCH only (Comparison, (2 CATCH plus school garden intervention [Learn, Grow, Eat & Go! (LGEG], (3 CATCH plus physical activity intervention [Walk Across Texas (WAT], and (4 CATCH plus LGEG plus WAT (Combined. The outcome variables include student’s weight status, vegetable and sugar sweetened beverage consumption, physical activity, and sedentary behavior. Parents were assessed for home environmental variables including availability of certain foods, social support of student health behaviors, parent engagement and behavior modeling. Results Descriptive data are presented for students (n = 1369 and parents (n = 1206 at baseline. The sample consisted primarily of Hispanic and African American (53 % and 18 %, respectively and low-income (i.e., 78 % eligible for Free and

  17. Guided Instruction Improves Elementary Student Learning and Self-Efficacy in Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hushman, Carolyn J.; Marley, Scott C.

    2015-01-01

    The authors investigated whether the amount of instructional guidance affects science learning and self-efficacy. Sixty 9- and 10-year-old children were randomly assigned to one of the following three instructional conditions: (a) guided instruction consisting of examples and student-generated explanations, (b) direct instruction consisting of a…

  18. Comparison of Computer-Based Versus Counselor-Based Occupational Information Systems with Disadvantaged Vocational Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maola, Joseph; Kane, Gary

    1976-01-01

    Subjects, who were Occupational Work Experience students, were randomly assigned to individual guidance from either a computerized occupational information system, to a counselor-based information system or to a control group. Results demonstrate a hierarchical learning effect: The computer group learned more than the counseled group, which…

  19. The Effect of the Type of Achievement Grouping on Students' Question Generation in Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Sibel

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the influence of different types of achievement grouping on question generation. There were 46 participants from two Grade 5 classrooms. Students completed a test to determine their achievement levels. One of the classrooms was randomly assigned, to work in homogeneous achievement groups and the other one in…

  20. Collaborative Strategic Reading for Students with Learning Disabilities in Upper Elementary Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boardman, Alison G.; Vaughn, Sharon; Buckley, Pamela; Reutebuch, Colleen; Roberts, Greg; Klingner, Janette

    2016-01-01

    Sixty fourth- and fifth-grade general education teachers were randomly assigned to teach Collaborative Strategic Reading (CSR; Klingner, Vaughn, Boardman, & Swanson, 2012), a set of reading comprehension strategies, or to a business-as-usual comparison group. Results demonstrate that students with learning disabilities (LD) who received CSR…

  1. College Students' Preferences for Psychotherapy across Depression, Anxiety, Relationship, and Academic Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Aaron W.; Ross, Michael J.; Vander Wal, Jillon S.; Austin, Chammie C.

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined differences in college students' preferences for processes of change across four kinds of problems: academic, relationship, depression, and anxiety. Two hundred eighteen undergraduates were randomly assigned to complete either an academic problems, relationship problems, depression, or anxiety Processes of Change…

  2. Attributional Retraining, Self-Esteem, and the Job Interview: Benefits and Risks for College Student Employment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Nathan C.; Jackson Gradt, Shannan E.; Goetz, Thomas; Musu-Gillette, Lauren E.

    2011-01-01

    The present study evaluated the effectiveness of an attributional retraining program for helping upper-level undergraduates perform better in employment interviews as moderated by self-esteem levels. The sample consisted of 50 co-operative education students preparing for actual job interviews who were randomly assigned to an attributional…

  3. Impacts of Professional Development in Classroom Assessment on Teacher and Student Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randel, Bruce; Apthorp, Helen; Beesley, Andrea D.; Clark, Tedra F.; Wang, Xin

    2016-01-01

    The authors describe an impact study of Classroom Assessment for Student Learning (CASL), a widely used professional development program in classroom and formative assessment. Researchers randomly assigned 67 elementary schools to receive CASL materials or continue with regularly scheduled professional development. Teachers in CASL schools formed…

  4. The Impact of Complexity on the Expertise Reversal Effect: Experimental Evidence from Testing Accounting Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blayney, Paul; Kalyuga, Slava; Sweller, John

    2016-01-01

    Element interactivity is a central concept of cognitive load theory that defines the complexity of a learning task. The reduction of task complexity through a temporary segmentation or isolation of interacting elements was investigated with 104 students randomly assigned to an interacting elements group, where participants were required to deal…

  5. Readers, Players, and Watchers: EFL Students' Vocabulary Acquisition through Digital Video Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimzadeh, Mohsen

    2017-01-01

    The present study investigated vocabulary acquisition through a commercial digital video game compared to a traditional pencil-and-paper treatment. Chosen through cluster sampling, 241 male high school students (age 12-18) participated in the study. They were randomly assigned to one of the following groups. The first group, called Readers,…

  6. Effect of worksheet scaffolds on student learning in problem-based learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.S.Y. Choo (Serene); J.I. Rotgans (Jerome); E.H.J. Yew (Elaine); H.G. Schmidt (Henk)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThe purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of worksheets as a scaffolding tool on students' learning achievement in a problem-based learning (PBL) environment. Seventeen PBL classes (N = 241) were randomly assigned to two experimental groups-one with a worksheet provided and

  7. The Effects of Handwriting Instruction on Reading for Students in Grades 1 and 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroik, Linda R.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative quasi-experimental group comparison study using a repeated measures comparison group design with random assignment of subjects to groups was to investigate the effects of handwriting instruction on reading progress for learners in grade 1 and grade 2. At three points in time, the number of words each student read…

  8. Interactivity of Question Prompts and Feedback on Secondary Students' Science Knowledge Acquisition and Cognitive Load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kun; Chen, Ching-Huei; Wu, Wen-Shiuan; Chen, Wei-Yu

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated how question prompts and feedback influenced knowledge acquisition and cognitive load when learning Newtonian mechanics within a web-based multimedia module. Participants were one hundred eighteen 9th grade students who were randomly assigned to one of four experimental conditions, forming a 2 x 2 factorial design with the…

  9. Effect of Instruction in Story Grammar on the Narrative Writing of EFL Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Koumy, Abdel Salam A.

    A study investigated the effects of explicit versus implicit instruction in story grammar on the narrative writing skills of English-as-a-Foreign-Language (EFL) students at the university level. Subjects were 83 freshmen enrolled in English at the Faculty of Education at Suez Canal University (Egypt). The subjects were randomly assigned to…

  10. Effects of a Case-Based Reasoning System on Student Performance in a Java Programming Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Cecil

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if a case-based reasoning tool would improve a student's understanding of the complex concepts in a Java programming course. Subjects for the study were randomly assigned from two sections of an introductory Java programming course. Posttests were used to measure the effects of the case-based reasoning…

  11. The Effects of Cuento Therapy on Reading Achievement and Psychological Outcomes of Mexican-American Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Sylvia Z.; Jain, Sachin; Flores-Torres, Leila L.; Perez, Roxanna; Carlson, Ralph

    2009-01-01

    This investigation evaluated the effects of cuento therapy (an intervention using Spanish-language tales) on children's self-esteem, affect, and reading test performance. The sample was composed of 58 third-grade Mexican-American students who were randomly assigned to the treatment and control groups. The results showed a mean self-esteem gain…

  12. Effectiveness of Word Solving: Integrating Morphological Problem-Solving within Comprehension Instruction for Middle School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Amanda P.

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the effectiveness of integrating morphological instruction within comprehension strategy instruction. Participants were 203 students (N = 117 fifth-grade; 86 sixth-grade) from four urban schools who were randomly assigned to the intervention (N = 110; morphological problem-solving within comprehension strategy instruction) or…

  13. Flexible taxonomic assignment of ambiguous sequencing reads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jansson Jesper

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To characterize the diversity of bacterial populations in metagenomic studies, sequencing reads need to be accurately assigned to taxonomic units in a given reference taxonomy. Reads that cannot be reliably assigned to a unique leaf in the taxonomy (ambiguous reads are typically assigned to the lowest common ancestor of the set of species that match it. This introduces a potentially severe error in the estimation of bacteria present in the sample due to false positives, since all species in the subtree rooted at the ancestor are implicitly assigned to the read even though many of them may not match it. Results We present a method that maps each read to a node in the taxonomy that minimizes a penalty score while balancing the relevance of precision and recall in the assignment through a parameter q. This mapping can be obtained in time linear in the number of matching sequences, because LCA queries to the reference taxonomy take constant time. When applied to six different metagenomic datasets, our algorithm produces different taxonomic distributions depending on whether coverage or precision is maximized. Including information on the quality of the reads reduces the number of unassigned reads but increases the number of ambiguous reads, stressing the relevance of our method. Finally, two measures of performance are described and results with a set of artificially generated datasets are discussed. Conclusions The assignment strategy of sequencing reads introduced in this paper is a versatile and a quick method to study bacterial communities. The bacterial composition of the analyzed samples can vary significantly depending on how ambiguous reads are assigned depending on the value of the q parameter. Validation of our results in an artificial dataset confirm that a combination of values of q produces the most accurate results.

  14. Individual and school level effects of perceived harm, perceived availability, and community size on marijuana use among 12th-grade students: a random effects model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaim, Randall C

    2003-06-01

    A hierarchical linear model was used to estimate the individual and school level effects for marijuana use among a national sample of 12th-grade students. School effects were small in comparison to individual level effects, accounting for 2.9% of the variance in marijuana use. At the individual level, perceived harm, perceived availability, and their interaction were significant predictors, each of which varied randomly across schools. Among two school-level predictors, the normative environment for perceived harm was not significant, but normative perceived availability predicted level of marijuana use. The effect of perceived availability on marijuana use was stronger in larger, compared to smaller communities. Results are discussed in light of the use of random regression methods for identifying school-specific patterns of risk and protection for prevention planning.

  15. Performance evaluation of distributed wavelength assignment in WDM optical networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashiguchi, Tomohiro; Wang, Xi; Morikawa, Hiroyuki; Aoyama, Tomonori

    2004-04-01

    In WDM wavelength routed networks, prior to a data transfer, a call setup procedure is required to reserve a wavelength path between the source-destination node pairs. A distributed approach to a connection setup can achieve a very high speed, while improving the reliability and reducing the implementation cost of the networks. However, along with many advantages, several major challenges have been posed by the distributed scheme in how the management and allocation of wavelength could be efficiently carried out. In this thesis, we apply a distributed wavelength assignment algorithm named priority based wavelength assignment (PWA) that was originally proposed for the use in burst switched optical networks to the problem of reserving wavelengths of path reservation protocols in the distributed control optical networks. Instead of assigning wavelengths randomly, this approach lets each node select the "safest" wavelengths based on the information of wavelength utilization history, thus unnecessary future contention is prevented. The simulation results presented in this paper show that the proposed protocol can enhance the performance of the system without introducing any apparent drawbacks.

  16. The Kinetics of Chirality Assignment in Catalytic Single Walled Carbon Nanotube Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Ziwei; Yan, Tianying; Ding, Feng

    2014-01-01

    Chirality-selected single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) ensure a great potential of building ~1 nm sized electronics. However, the reliable method for chirality-selected SWCNT is still pending. Here we present a theoretical study on the SWCNT's chirality assignment and control during the catalytic growth. This study reveals that the chirality of a SWCNT is determined by the kinetic incorporation of the pentagon formation during SWCNT nucleation. Therefore, chirality is randomly assigned on...

  17. Research Knowledge Transfer through Business-Driven Student Assignment

    OpenAIRE

    Sas, Corina

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a knowledge transfer method which capitalises on both research and teaching dimensions of academic work. It also proposes a framework for evaluating the impact of such a method on the involved stakeholders.

  18. First Trimester Fetal Gender Assignment by Ultrasound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabahattin Altunyurt

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the efficiency of genital tubercule angle on detecting fetal gender in first trimester by ultrasonography. Material-Method: Fetal sex assignment by ultrasound was carried out in 172 pregnancies at 11-13+6 weeks between 2007 June and 2007 December. Gestational age was determined by the measurement of crown-rump length (CRL. The ultrasound predictions were compared with actual sex at birth. Mid-sagittal planes of a section of the fetal genital tubercle were performed to identify the gender. Results: 155 of 172 patients’ data were achieved. The overall success rate was 92.3 % in sonographic assignment of fetal sex. The correct assignment rate in female fetuses was significantly higher than males (95.9 % - 88.8 % [p=0,001]. The correct identification of fetal sex improved with advancing gestational age from 89.3 % between 11-11+6 weeks, 92.5 % between 12-12+6 weeks and 93.4 % between 13-13+6 weeks (p=0,96. Conclusion: The fetal sex assignment by ultrasonography between 11-13+6 weeks had high success rate. The sensitivity of fetal sex assignment was not affected with fetus position and gestational age.

  19. Using cooperative learning for a drug information assignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earl, Grace L

    2009-11-12

    To implement a cooperative learning activity to engage students in analyzing tertiary drug information resources in a literature evaluation course. The class was divided into 4 sections to form expert groups and each group researched a different set of references using the jigsaw technique. Each member of each expert group was reassigned to a jigsaw group so that each new group was composed of 4 students from 4 different expert groups. The jigsaw groups met to discuss search strategies and rate the usefulness of the references. In addition to group-based learning, teaching methods included students' writing an independent research paper to enhance their abilities to search and analyze drug information resources. The assignment and final course grades improved after implementation of the activity. Students agreed that class discussions were a useful learning experience and 75% (77/102) said they would use the drug information references for other courses. The jigsaw technique was successful in engaging students in cooperative learning to improve critical thinking skills regarding drug information.

  20. ERROR ANALYSIS ON INFORMATION AND TECHNOLOGY STUDENTS’ SENTENCE WRITING ASSIGNMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rentauli Mariah Silalahi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Students’ error analysis is very important for helping EFL teachers to develop their teaching materials, assessments and methods. However, it takes much time and effort from the teachers to do such an error analysis towards their students’ language. This study seeks to identify the common errors made by 1 class of 28 freshmen students studying English in their first semester in an IT university. The data is collected from their writing assignments for eight consecutive weeks. The errors found were classified into 24 types and the top ten most common errors committed by the students were article, preposition, spelling, word choice, subject-verb agreement, auxiliary verb, plural form, verb form, capital letter, and meaningless sentences. The findings about the students’ frequency of committing errors were, then, contrasted to their midterm test result and in order to find out the reasons behind the error recurrence; the students were given some questions to answer in a questionnaire format. Most of the students admitted that careless was the major reason for their errors and lack understanding came next. This study suggests EFL teachers to devote their time to continuously check the students’ language by giving corrections so that the students can learn from their errors and stop committing the same errors.

  1. Effects of a brief mindfulness-based intervention program for stress management among medical students: the Mindful-Gym randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phang, Cheng Kar; Mukhtar, Firdaus; Ibrahim, Normala; Keng, Shian-Ling; Mohd Sidik, Sherina

    2015-12-01

    Pursuing undergraduate medical training can be very stressful and academically challenging experience. A 5-week mindfulness-based stress management (MBSM/Mindful-Gym) program was developed to help medical students cope with stress. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the intervention in reducing stress among students in a medical school in Malaysia. Seventy-five medical students participated in the program. They were stratified according to years of studies and randomly allocated to intervention (N = 37) and control groups (N = 38). The following outcome variables were measured at pre- and post-intervention: mindfulness (with Mindful Awareness Attention Scale); perceived stress (with Perceived Stress Scale); mental distress (with General Health Questionnaire), and self-efficacy (with General Self-efficacy Scale). Hierarchical multiple regressions were used to analyse the effect of group (intervention vs. control) on changes in the outcome variables. There were significant improvements at one week post-intervention in all outcome variables: mindfulness (β = 0.19, ΔR2 = 0.04, p = .040, f (2) = 0.05), perceived stress (β = -0.26, ΔR2 = 0.07, p = .009, f (2) = 0.10); mental distress (β = -0.28, ΔR2 = 0.10, p = .003, f (2) = 0.15); and self-efficacy (β = 0.30, ΔR2 = 0.09, p students in Malaysia.

  2. A randomized control study of psychological intervention to reduce anxiety, amotivation and psychological distress among medical students

    OpenAIRE

    Coumaravelou Saravanan; Rajiah Kingston

    2014-01-01

    Background: Test anxiety aggravates psychological distress and reduces the motivation among graduate students. This study aimed to identify psychological intervention for test anxiety, which reduces the level of psychological distress, amotivation and increases the intrinsic and extrinsic motivation among medical students. Materials and Methods: Westside test anxiety scale, Kessler Perceived Stress Scale and Academic Motivation Scale were used to measure test anxiety, psychological distress a...

  3. Protein secondary structure assignment revisited: a detailed analysis of different assignment methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Brevern Alexandre G

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A number of methods are now available to perform automatic assignment of periodic secondary structures from atomic coordinates, based on different characteristics of the secondary structures. In general these methods exhibit a broad consensus as to the location of most helix and strand core segments in protein structures. However the termini of the segments are often ill-defined and it is difficult to decide unambiguously which residues at the edge of the segments have to be included. In addition, there is a "twilight zone" where secondary structure segments depart significantly from the idealized models of Pauling and Corey. For these segments, one has to decide whether the observed structural variations are merely distorsions or whether they constitute a break in the secondary structure. Methods To address these problems, we have developed a method for secondary structure assignment, called KAKSI. Assignments made by KAKSI are compared with assignments given by DSSP, STRIDE, XTLSSTR, PSEA and SECSTR, as well as secondary structures found in PDB files, on 4 datasets (X-ray structures with different resolution range, NMR structures. Results A detailed comparison of KAKSI assignments with those of STRIDE and PSEA reveals that KAKSI assigns slightly longer helices and strands than STRIDE in case of one-to-one correspondence between the segments. However, KAKSI tends also to favor the assignment of several short helices when STRIDE and PSEA assign longer, kinked, helices. Helices assigned by KAKSI have geometrical characteristics close to those described in the PDB. They are more linear than helices assigned by other methods. The same tendency to split long segments is observed for strands, although less systematically. We present a number of cases of secondary structure assignments that illustrate this behavior. Conclusion Our method provides valuable assignments which favor the regularity of secondary structure segments.

  4. Grouping puts figure-ground assignment in context by constraining propagation of edge assignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Joseph L; Brook, Joseph L; Driver, Jon

    2010-05-01

    Figure-ground organization involves the assignment of edges to a figural shape on one or the other side of each dividing edge. Established visual cues for edge assignment primarily concern relatively local rather than contextual factors. In the present article, we show that an assignment for a locally unbiased edge can be affected by an assignment of a remote contextual edge that has its own locally biased assignment. We find that such propagation of edge assignment from the biased remote context occurs only when the biased and unbiased edges are grouped. This new principle, whereby grouping constrains the propagation of figural edge assignment, emerges from both subjective reports and an objective short-term edge-matching task. It generalizes from moving displays involving grouping by common fate and collinearity, to static displays with grouping by similarity of edge-contrast polarity, or apparent occlusion. Our results identify a new contextual influence on edge assignment. They also identify a new mechanistic relation between grouping and figure-ground processes, whereby grouping between remote elements can constrain the propagation of edge assignment between those elements. Supplemental materials for this article may be downloaded from http://app.psychonomic-journals.org/content/supplemental.

  5. Articles as Assignments - Modalities and Experiences of Wikipedia Use in University Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wannemacher, Klaus

    In spite of perceived quality deficits, Wikipedia is a popular information resource among students. Instructors increasingly take advantage of the positive student attitude through actively integrating Wikipedia as a learning tool into university courses. The contribution raises the question if Wikipedia assignments in university courses are suited to make complex research, editing and bibliographic processes through which scholarship is produced transparent to students and to effectively improve their research and writing skills.

  6. Fast and Rigorous Assignment Algorithm Multiple Preference and Calculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ümit Çiftçi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The goal of paper is to develop an algorithm that evaluates students then places them depending on their desired choices according to dependant preferences. The developed algorithm is also used to implement software. The success and accuracy of the software as well as the algorithm are tested by applying it to ability test at Beykent University. This ability test is repeated several times in order to fill all available places at Fine Art Faculty departments in every academic year. It has been shown that this algorithm is very fast and rigorous after application of 2008-2009 and 2009-20010 academic years.Key Words: Assignment algorithm, student placement, ability test

  7. THE ORTHOGRAPHIC NORM IN SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS’ WRITTEN ASSIGNMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Đorđev

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of research conducted with the primary objective to determine in which areas secondary school students usually make orthographic mistakes when writing (official written assignments. Starting from the hypothesis that the punctuation writing of whole and split words are areas in which secondary school students (regardless of age and school orientation achieved the weakest achievements an (exploratory research was conducted on a corpus of 3,135 written assignments written in the school year of 2010/11. The research sample was intentional, descriptive and analytical methods were used for the description and the analysis of the results. The results showed the following (1 secondary school students usually make mistakes in punctuation of written assignments - we recorded 4,487 errors in the use of signs to denote intonation and meaning of a text (errors of this type make 53.93% of the total number of spelling errors reported in the corpus of research; by frequency of errors the second are errors related to writing whole and split words (11.02%, the third error is in the use of the capital letter (9.34%; (2 most problems in orthography have second grade students, quantum of mistakes is almost the same with first graders and seniors, but in all grades the most frequent errors are in punctuation, writing of whole and split words and the use of capital letters; (3 Although school orientation affects the spelling skills of pupils, the weakest orthographic achievements are also recorded in punctuation, writing of whole and split words and capitalization, so those are areas that need to be thoroughly addressed in teaching and methodology literature. The results are, on the one hand, a picture of the current status of teaching orthography and grammar knowledge of secondary school students. On the other hand, the research results can be applied in all phases of methodical practical work in teaching orthography, the upgrading the

  8. Treatment Assignment Guesses by Study Participants in a Double-Blind Dose Escalation Clinical Trial of Saw Palmetto

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jeannette Y.; Moore, Page; Kusek, John; Barry, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: This report assesses participant perception of treatment assignment in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of saw palmetto for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BCM).

  9. Dynamic online peer evaluations to improve group assignments in nursing e-learning environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adwan, Jehad

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this research was to evaluate the use of online peer evaluation forms for online group activities in improving group project outcomes. The investigator developed and used a web-based Google Forms® self and peer evaluation form of 2 group assignments' rubric for junior and senior nursing students. The form covered elements of the assignments including: research activity, analysis of the literature, writing of report, participation in making of presentation, overall contribution to the project, and participation in the weekly group discussions. Items were rated from 1 (did not contribute) to 5 (outstanding contribution) in addition to NA when one activity did not apply. The self and peer evaluation process was conducted twice: once after group assignment 1 and once after group assignment 2. The group assignments final products were done in the form of VoiceThread online presentations that were shared with the rest of the class reflecting the groups' work on a health informatics topic of interest. Data collected as the students completed self and peer evaluations for group assignments 1 and 2. Also, optional comments regarding member performance were collected to add contextual information in addition to ratings. Students received credit for completing the peer evaluations and the grade for the particular assignment was affected by their performance based on peer evaluations of their contributions. Students' peer evaluations showed in a color-coded spreadsheet which enabled the course faculty to view real time results of students' ratings after each assignment. The faculty provided timely and tailored feedback to groups or individuals as needed, using positive feedback and commending high performance while urging struggling individual students and groups to improve lower ratings in specific areas. Comparing evaluations of both assignments, there were statistically significant improvements among all students. The mean scores of the entire sample were

  10. Semi-infinite assignment and transportation games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmer, Judith B.; Sánchez-Soriano, Joaqu´ın; Llorca, Navidad; Tijs, Stef; Goberna, Miguel A.; López, Marco A.

    2001-01-01

    Games corresponding to semi-infinite transportation and related assignment situations are studied. In a semi-infinite transportation situation, one aims at maximizing the profit from the transportation of a certain good from a finite number of suppliers to an infinite number of demanders. An

  11. Capacity constrained assignment in spatial databases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    U, Leong Hou; Yiu, Man Lung; Mouratidis, Kyriakos

    2008-01-01

    large to fit in main memory. Motivated by this fact, we propose efficient algorithms for optimal assignment that employ novel edge-pruning strategies, based on the spatial properties of the problem. Additionally, we develop approximate (i.e., suboptimal) CCA solutions that provide a trade-off between...

  12. Statistical aspects of optimal treatment assignment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Linden, Willem J.

    The issues of treatment assignment is ordinarily dealt with within the framework of testing aptitude treatment interaction (ATI) hypothesis. ATI research mostly uses linear regression techniques, and an ATI exists when the aptitude treatment (AT) regression lines cross each other within the relevant

  13. Tabu search for target-radar assignment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hindsberger, Magnus; Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui

    2000-01-01

    In the paper the problem of assigning air-defense illumination radars to enemy targets is presented. A tabu search metaheuristic solution is described and the results achieved are compared to those of other heuristic approaches, implementation and experimental aspects are discussed. It is argued ...

  14. Strategy-Proof Assignment Of Multiple Resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erlanson, Albin; Szwagrzak, Karol

    2015-01-01

    We examine the strategy-proof allocation of multiple resources; an application is the assignment of packages of tasks, workloads, and compensations among the members of an organization. In the domain of multidimensional single-peaked preferences, we find that any allocation mechanism obtained by ...

  15. Optimal Processor Assignment for Pipeline Computations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-10-01

    the use of ratios: initially each task is assigned a procesbuor2 the remaining proceborb are distributed in proportion to the quantities f,(1), 1 < i...algorithmns. IEEE Trans. onl Parallel and Distributed Systemns, 1 (4):470-499, October 1990. [26] P. Al. Kogge. The Architeture of Pipelined Comnputers

  16. Incentivized optimal advert assignment via utility decomposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kelly, F.; Key, P.; Walton, N.

    2014-01-01

    We consider a large-scale Ad-auction where adverts are assigned over a potentially infinite number of searches. We capture the intrinsic asymmetries in information between advertisers, the advert platform and the space of searches: advertisers know and can optimize the average performance of their

  17. A game theoretic approach to assignment problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klijn, F.

    2000-01-01

    Game theory deals with the mathematical modeling and analysis of conflict and cooperation in the interaction of multiple decision makers. This thesis adopts two game theoretic methods to analyze a range of assignment problems that arise in various economic situations. The first method has as

  18. 7 CFR 1437.104 - Assigned production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) Irrigation equipment is not capable of supplying adequate water to sustain the expected production of a... practice is not used. (7) For normal irrigated annual and biennial crops, the supply of available water at... determining losses under this section, assigned production will be used to offset the loss of production when...

  19. Accounting for Sustainability: An Active Learning Assignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusc, Joanna; van Veen-Dirks, Paula

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Sustainability is one of the newer topics in the accounting courses taught in university teaching programs. The active learning assignment as described in this paper was developed for use in an accounting course in an undergraduate program. The aim was to enhance teaching about sustainability within such a course. The purpose of this…

  20. Effectiveness of Cognitive- behavioral Group Therapy on Insomnia Symptoms in Students

    OpenAIRE

    A Abollahi; AM Nazar; J Hasani; M Darharaj; A Behnam Moghadam

    2015-01-01

    Background & aim: Insomnias is associated with considerable problems in educational, vocational, social and familial performance. The purpose of present research was to investigate the effectiveness of Cognitive-Behavior group therapy on improvement of insomnia symptoms in students. Methods: The present clinical trial study was conducted on twenty-four students who were randomly assigned into two groups of case and the control (n = 12). The experimental group was participated in eight se...