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Sample records for randomly assigned participants

  1. Random Cell Identifiers Assignment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Bestak

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite integration of advanced functions that enable Femto Access Points (FAPs to be deployed in a plug-and-play manner, the femtocell concept still cause several opened issues to be resolved. One of them represents an assignment of Physical Cell Identifiers (PCIs to FAPs. This paper analyses a random based assignment algorithm in LTE systems operating in diverse femtocell scenarios. The performance of the algorithm is evaluated by comparing the number of confusions for various femtocell densities, PCI ranges and knowledge of vicinity. Simulation results show that better knowledge of vicinity can significantly reduce the number of confusions events.

  2. Recruiting Participants for Large-Scale Random Assignment Experiments in School Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roschelle, Jeremy; Feng, Mingyu; Gallagher, H. Alix; Murphy, Robert; Harris, Christopher; Kamdar, Danae; Trinidad, Gucci

    2014-01-01

    Recruitment is a key challenge for researchers conducting any large school-based study. Control is needed not only over the condition participants receive, but also over how the intervention is implemented, and may include restrictions in other areas of school and classroom functioning. We report here on our experiences in recruiting participants…

  3. The Random Quadratic Assignment Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Gerald; Shao, Jia; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2011-11-01

    The quadratic assignment problem, QAP, is one of the most difficult of all combinatorial optimization problems. Here, we use an abbreviated application of the statistical mechanics replica method to study the asymptotic behavior of instances in which the entries of at least one of the two matrices that specify the problem are chosen from a random distribution P. Surprisingly, the QAP has not been studied before using the replica method despite the fact that the QAP was first proposed over 50 years ago and the replica method was developed over 30 years ago. We find simple forms for C min and C max , the costs of the minimal and maximum solutions respectively. Notable features of our results are the symmetry of the results for C min and C max and their dependence on P only through its mean and standard deviation, independent of the details of P.

  4. Treatment Assignment Guesses by Study Participants in a Double-Blind Dose Escalation Clinical Trial of Saw Palmetto

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jeannette Y.; Moore, Page; Kusek, John; Barry, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: This report assesses participant perception of treatment assignment in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of saw palmetto for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BCM).

  5. A Search for Alternatives to Random Assignment to Treatment Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halasa, Ofelia

    In a public school setting administrators are frequently under local pressure to make a new project service available to all eligible children. However, comparable control groups for project evaluation are often absent, and although random assignment to treatment groups remains the most systematic method of providing controls, this is not often…

  6. A code reviewer assignment model incorporating the competence differences and participant preferences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yanqing

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A good assignment of code reviewers can effectively utilize the intellectual resources, assure code quality and improve programmers’ skills in software development. However, little research on reviewer assignment of code review has been found. In this study, a code reviewer assignment model is created based on participants’ preference to reviewing assignment. With a constraint of the smallest size of a review group, the model is optimized to maximize review outcomes and avoid the negative impact of “mutual admiration society”. This study shows that the reviewer assignment strategies incorporating either the reviewers’ preferences or the authors’ preferences get much improvement than a random assignment. The strategy incorporating authors’ preference makes higher improvement than that incorporating reviewers’ preference. However, when the reviewers’ and authors’ preference matrixes are merged, the improvement becomes moderate. The study indicates that the majority of the participants have a strong wish to work with reviewers and authors having highest competence. If we want to satisfy the preference of both reviewers and authors at the same time, the overall improvement of learning outcomes may be not the best.

  7. Sequential multiple assignment randomization trials with enrichment design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Wang, Yuanjia; Zeng, Donglin

    2017-06-01

    Sequential multiple assignment randomization trial (SMART) is a powerful design to study Dynamic Treatment Regimes (DTRs) and allows causal comparisons of DTRs. To handle practical challenges of SMART, we propose a SMART with Enrichment (SMARTER) design, which performs stage-wise enrichment for SMART. SMARTER can improve design efficiency, shorten the recruitment period, and partially reduce trial duration to make SMART more practical with limited time and resource. Specifically, at each subsequent stage of a SMART, we enrich the study sample with new patients who have received previous stages' treatments in a naturalistic fashion without randomization, and only randomize them among the current stage treatment options. One extreme case of the SMARTER is to synthesize separate independent single-stage randomized trials with patients who have received previous stage treatments. We show data from SMARTER allows for unbiased estimation of DTRs as SMART does under certain assumptions. Furthermore, we show analytically that the efficiency gain of the new design over SMART can be significant especially when the dropout rate is high. Lastly, extensive simulation studies are performed to demonstrate performance of SMARTER design, and sample size estimation in a scenario informed by real data from a SMART study is presented. © 2016, The International Biometric Society.

  8. The Effects of Participative versus Assigned Goal Setting on Intrinsic Motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Grace Shing-Yung; Lorenzi, Peter

    1983-01-01

    Investigated the effects of participative versus assigned goal setting on intrinsic motivation for interesting and boring tasks. Participative and assigned goal setting had no significantly different effects on performance if the goal was held consistently difficult, but had different effects on intrinsic motivation at different levels of task…

  9. Treatment assignment guesses by study participants in a double-blind dose escalation clinical trial of saw palmetto.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeannette Y; Moore, Page; Kusek, John; Barry, Michael

    2014-01-01

    This report assesses participant perception of treatment assignment in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of saw palmetto for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BCM). Participants randomized to receive saw palmetto were instructed to take one 320 mg gelcap daily for the first 24 weeks, two 320 mg gelcaps daily for the second 24 weeks, and three 320 mg gelcaps daily for the third 24 weeks. Study participants assigned to placebo were instructed to take the same number of matching placebo gelcaps in each time period. At 24, 48, and 72 weeks postrandomization, the American Urological Association Symptom Index (AUA-SI) was administered and participants were asked to guess their treatment assignment. The study was conducted at 11 clinical centers in North America. Study participants were men, 45 years and older, with moderate to low severe BPH symptoms, randomized to saw palmetto (N=151) or placebo (N=155). Treatment arms were compared with respect to the distribution of participant guesses of treatment assignment. For participants assigned to saw palmetto, 22.5%, 24.7%, and 29.8% correctly thought they were taking saw palmetto, and 37.3%, 40.0%, and 44.4% incorrectly thought they were on placebo at 24, 48, and 72 weeks, respectively. For placebo participants, 21.8%, 27.4%, and 25.2% incorrectly thought they were on saw palmetto, and 41.6%, 39.9%, and 42.6% correctly thought they were on placebo at 24, 48, and 72 weeks, respectively. The treatment arms did not vary with respect to the distributions of participants who guessed they were on saw palmetto (p=0.823) or placebo (p=0.893). Participants who experienced an improvement in AUA-SI were 2.16 times more likely to think they were on saw palmetto. Blinding of treatment assignment was successful in this study. Improvement in BPH-related symptoms was associated with the perception that participants were taking saw palmetto.

  10. Teacher-Child Interaction Training: A Pilot Study With Random Assignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Melanie A; Adelstein, Jonathan S; Miller, Samantha P; Areizaga, Margaret J; Gold, Dylann C; Sanchez, Amanda L; Rothschild, Sara A; Hirsch, Emily; Gudiño, Omar G

    2015-07-01

    Teacher-Child Interaction Training (TCIT), adapted from Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT), is a classroom-based program designed to provide teachers with behavior management skills that foster positive teacher-student relationships and to improve student behavior by creating a more constructive classroom environment. The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate TCIT in more classrooms than previously reported in the literature, with older children than previously reported, using random assignment of classrooms to TCIT or to a no-TCIT control condition and conducting all but two sessions within the classroom to enhance feasibility. Participants included 11 kindergarten and first grade classroom teachers and their 118 students from three urban, public schools in Manhattan, with five classrooms randomly assigned to receive TCIT and six to the no-TCIT control condition. Observations of teacher skill acquisition were conducted before, during, and after TCIT for all 11 teachers, and teacher reports of student behavior were obtained at these same time points. Teacher satisfaction with TCIT was assessed following training. Results suggested that after receiving TCIT, teachers increased rates of positive attention to students' appropriate behavior, decreased rates of negative attention to misbehavior, reported significantly less distress related to student disruptive behavior, and reported high satisfaction with the training program. Our study supports the growing evidence-base suggesting that TCIT is a promising approach for training teachers in positive behavior management strategies and for improving student disruptive behavior in the classroom. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Randomized Assignments for Barter Exchanges: Fairness vs Efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fang, Wenyi; Filos-Ratsikas, Aris; Frederiksen, Søren Kristoffer Stiil

    2015-01-01

    often restrict the maximum allowed cycle-length of the exchange and for randomized algorithms, this imposes constraints of the cycle-length of every realized exchange in their decomposition. We prove that standard fairness properties such as envy-freeness or symmetry are incompatible with even...... the weakest notion of economic efficiency in this setting. On the plus side, we adapt some well-known matching mechanisms to incorporate the restricted cycle constraint and evaluate their performance experimentally on instances of the kidney exchange problem, showing tradeoffs between fairness and efficiency....

  12. Algorithm for generation pseudo-random series with arbitrarily assigned distribution law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В.С. Єременко

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available  Method for generation pseudo-random series with arbitrarily assigned distribution law has been proposed. The praxis of using proposed method for generation pseudo-random series with anti-modal and approximate to Gaussian distribution law has been investigated.

  13. Study on MAX-MIN Ant System with Random Selection in Quadratic Assignment Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iimura, Ichiro; Yoshida, Kenji; Ishibashi, Ken; Nakayama, Shigeru

    Ant Colony Optimization (ACO), which is a type of swarm intelligence inspired by ants' foraging behavior, has been studied extensively and its effectiveness has been shown by many researchers. The previous studies have reported that MAX-MIN Ant System (MMAS) is one of effective ACO algorithms. The MMAS maintains the balance of intensification and diversification concerning pheromone by limiting the quantity of pheromone to the range of minimum and maximum values. In this paper, we propose MAX-MIN Ant System with Random Selection (MMASRS) for improving the search performance even further. The MMASRS is a new ACO algorithm that is MMAS into which random selection was newly introduced. The random selection is one of the edgechoosing methods by agents (ants). In our experimental evaluation using ten quadratic assignment problems, we have proved that the proposed MMASRS with the random selection is superior to the conventional MMAS without the random selection in the viewpoint of the search performance.

  14. The "Mentor Paper" Writing Assignment in One Community College Puente Class: Preliminary Report from a Participant Observer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazden, Courtney B.

    An educator participating in a community college Puente class as both participant and observer analyzes the structure and experience of one writing assignment representative of the program's objectives. The Puente program combines teaching, counseling, and mentoring to California community college students as a means of promoting learning,…

  15. Constrained Monopoly Pricing with Random Participation

    OpenAIRE

    Basaluzzo, Gabriel; Miravete, Eugenio J.

    2007-01-01

    We present a flexible model of monopoly nonlinear pricing with endogenous participation decisions of heterogeneous consumers. We make use of the moments that define the few self-selecting tariff options that are commonly used to implement the optimal nonlinear tariff to estimate how demand and cost variables affect the pricing strategies offered by incumbent monopolists in several early U.S. local cellular telephone markets through the different elements of the theoretical model: marginal cos...

  16. Collaborative group work: effects of group size and assignment structure on learning gain, student satisfaction and perceived participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooloos, Jan G M; Klaassen, Tim; Vereijken, Mayke; Van Kuppeveld, Sascha; Bolhuis, Sanneke; Vorstenbosch, Marc

    2011-01-01

    Collaborative group sessions in Nijmegen include 15 students who work all together on a group assignment. Sometimes, the group is split-up in three and every subgroup elaborates a part of the assignment. At the end, they peer-teach each other. It is believed that the split-up enhances participation and therefore learning gain. To establish the effect of group size and structure of the assignment on the perceived participation, the satisfaction and learning gain of collaborative group sessions. In this study, 27 groups of 15 students were equally divided into: A-group: all 15 students working on the complete assignment. B-group: subgroups of 5 students working on the complete assignment. C-group: subgroups of 5 students working on a smaller part, and peer-teaching each other at the end of the group session. All students took a pre-test, a post-test and a follow-up test and completed a questionnaire. Questionnaires were analyzed with a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and post hoc by multiple comparisons. Learning gain was analyzed using a repeated measures ANOVA. A group size effect is observed in favor of working in subgroups. Perceived participation of the students differs between A and B (p ≤ 0.001) and between A and C (p ≤ 0.001), but not between B and C. Also, an assignment effect is found in favor of the smaller assignment combined with peer-teaching. The students' satisfaction differs between A and C (p ≤ 0.003) and between B and C (p ≤ 0.001), but not between A and B. The C-group also shows higher test results (p ≤ 0.043). The students prefer smaller groups as well as smaller assignments including peer-teaching. A possible larger learning gain of this format needs to be re-investigated.

  17. Comparing cluster-level dynamic treatment regimens using sequential, multiple assignment, randomized trials: Regression estimation and sample size considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    NeCamp, Timothy; Kilbourne, Amy; Almirall, Daniel

    2017-08-01

    Cluster-level dynamic treatment regimens can be used to guide sequential treatment decision-making at the cluster level in order to improve outcomes at the individual or patient-level. In a cluster-level dynamic treatment regimen, the treatment is potentially adapted and re-adapted over time based on changes in the cluster that could be impacted by prior intervention, including aggregate measures of the individuals or patients that compose it. Cluster-randomized sequential multiple assignment randomized trials can be used to answer multiple open questions preventing scientists from developing high-quality cluster-level dynamic treatment regimens. In a cluster-randomized sequential multiple assignment randomized trial, sequential randomizations occur at the cluster level and outcomes are observed at the individual level. This manuscript makes two contributions to the design and analysis of cluster-randomized sequential multiple assignment randomized trials. First, a weighted least squares regression approach is proposed for comparing the mean of a patient-level outcome between the cluster-level dynamic treatment regimens embedded in a sequential multiple assignment randomized trial. The regression approach facilitates the use of baseline covariates which is often critical in the analysis of cluster-level trials. Second, sample size calculators are derived for two common cluster-randomized sequential multiple assignment randomized trial designs for use when the primary aim is a between-dynamic treatment regimen comparison of the mean of a continuous patient-level outcome. The methods are motivated by the Adaptive Implementation of Effective Programs Trial which is, to our knowledge, the first-ever cluster-randomized sequential multiple assignment randomized trial in psychiatry.

  18. Causal Effects of Single-Sex Schools on College Entrance Exams and College Attendance: Random Assignment in Seoul High Schools

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Hyunjoon; Behrman, Jere R.; Choi, Jaesung

    2013-01-01

    Despite the voluminous literature on the potentials of single-sex schools, there is no consensus on the effects of single-sex schools because of student selection of school types. We exploit a unique feature of schooling in Seoul—the random assignment of students into single-sex versus coeducational high schools—to assess causal effects of single-sex schools on college entrance exam scores and college attendance. Our validation of the random assignment shows comparable socioeconomic backgroun...

  19. Participant roles of bullying in adolescence: Status characteristics, social behavior, and assignment criteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pouwels, J.L.; Lansu, T.A.M.; Cillessen, A.H.N.

    2016-01-01

    This study had three goals. First, we examined the prevalence of the participant roles of bullying in middle adolescence and possible gender differences therein. Second, we examined the behavioral and status characteristics associated with the participant roles in middle adolescence. Third, we

  20. Improving participation rates by providing choice of participation mode: two randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heijmans, Naomi; van Lieshout, Jan; Wensing, Michel

    2015-04-02

    Low participation rates reduce effective sample size, statistical power and can increase risk for selection bias. Previous research suggests that offering choice of participation mode can improve participation rates. However, few head-to-head trials compared choice of participation mode using telephone interviews and postal questionnaires as modes of interest. Aiming to explore effects of choice of participation, two randomized controlled trials were performed comparing participation rates of patients provided with and without choice of participation mode, using interviews and questionnaires as participation modes. Two trials were embedded in a larger study on cardiovascular risk management in primary care. Patients with a chronic cardiovascular condition recruited for the larger study were invited to participate in an additional survey on social networks, using invitations with and without choice of participation mode. Primary outcome was participation rate. Other outcomes of interest were participation rate conditional on willingness to participate, and initial willingness to participate. In trial 1 we compared outcomes after choice of participation mode (interview or questionnaire) with invitations for participation in a telephone interview. In Trial 2 results for choice of participation mode were compared with postal questionnaires. In Trial 1 no differences were found in participation rates (65% vs 66%, p = 0.853) although conditional participation rate was highest for interviews (90% vs 72%, p choice of participation mode was provided (90% versus 73%, p choice of participation mode was provided (59% vs 46%, p choice of participation mode had benefit on participation rates compared to invitations to participate in questionnaires, but not when compared to invitations to participate in telephone interviews. Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN89237105 .

  1. Can response-adaptive randomization increase participation in acute stroke trials?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tehranisa, Jason S; Meurer, William J

    2014-07-01

    A response-adaptive randomization (RAR) trial design actively adjusts the ratio of participants assigned to each trial arm, favoring the better performing treatment by using outcome data from participants already in the trial. Compared with a standard clinical trial, an RAR study design has the potential to improve patient participation in acute stroke trials. This cross-sectional randomized survey included adult emergency department patients, age≥18, without symptoms of stroke or other critical illness. A standardized protocol was used, and subjects were randomized to either an RAR or standard hypothetical acute stroke trial. After viewing the video describing the hypothetical trial (http://youtu.be/cKIWduCaPZc), reviewing the consent form, and having questions answered, subjects indicated whether they would consent to the trial. A multivariable logistic regression model was fitted to estimate the impact of RAR while controlling for demographic factors and patient understanding of the design. A total of 418 subjects (210 standard and 208 RAR) were enrolled. All baseline characteristics were balanced between groups. There was significantly higher participation in the RAR trial (67.3%) versus the standard trial (54.5%), absolute increase: 12.8% (95% confidence interval, 3.7-22.2). The RAR group had a higher odds ratio of agreeing to research (odds ratio, 1.89; 95% confidence interval, 1.2-2.9) while adjusting for patient level factors. Trial designs were generally well understood by the participants. The hypothetical RAR trial attracted more research participation than standard randomization. RAR has the potential to increase recruitment and offer benefit to future trial participants. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  2. Is suicide assessment harmful to participants? Findings from a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Keith M; Goh, Melissa Ting-Ting

    2017-04-01

    There is considerable debate on whether suicide assessment carries an iatrogenic risk for participants/patients. A double-blind randomized controlled trial (registration: R000022314) tested the emotional impact of suicide assessment on participants (n = 259) randomly assigned to experimental (n = 122) or control conditions (n = 137). The experimental condition included the Suicidal Affect-Behavior-Cognition Scale and intensive death-related questions, the control condition a quality of life scale. Both included measures of depression, social support and loneliness. Affective states were assessed immediately before and after testing, and research biases minimized. Post-test debriefing interviews collected qualitative reactions. Experimental participants ranged from nonsuicidal to highly suicidal. Between-groups ANCOVAs and repeated measures ANOVAs showed no differences by study condition, and no pre-post-test affect changes for either condition or suicidal participants (P > 0.10), supporting the null hypothesis of no iatrogenic effects. However, depressive participants in both conditions showed significant decreases in positive affect (P suicidality or other factors, predicted negative affect changes, which was supported by qualitative findings. Social desirability bias was also found in qualitative survey responses. No evidence of iatrogenic effects of suicide assessment were found. Recommendations are made to counter possible negative assessment effects on depressive participants/patients, and nurses and other caregivers are encouraged to talk to patients about suicidal symptoms. © 2016 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  3. Random Assignment of Schools to Groups in the Drug Resistance Strategies Rural Project: Some New Methodological Twists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettigrew, Jonathan; Miller-Day, Michelle; Krieger, Janice L.; Zhou, Jiangxiu; Hecht, Michael L.

    2014-01-01

    Random assignment to groups is the foundation for scientifically rigorous clinical trials. But assignment is challenging in group randomized trials when only a few units (schools) are assigned to each condition. In the DRSR project, we assigned 39 rural Pennsylvania and Ohio schools to three conditions (rural, classic, control). But even with 13 schools per condition, achieving pretest equivalence on important variables is not guaranteed. We collected data on six important school-level variables: rurality, number of grades in the school, enrollment per grade, percent white, percent receiving free/assisted lunch, and test scores. Key to our procedure was the inclusion of school-level drug use data, available for a subset of the schools. Also, key was that we handled the partial data with modern missing data techniques. We chose to create one composite stratifying variable based on the seven school-level variables available. Principal components analysis with the seven variables yielded two factors, which were averaged to form the composite inflate-suppress (CIS) score which was the basis of stratification. The CIS score was broken into three strata within each state; schools were assigned at random to the three program conditions from within each stratum, within each state. Results showed that program group membership was unrelated to the CIS score, the two factors making up the CIS score, and the seven items making up the factors. Program group membership was not significantly related to pretest measures of drug use (alcohol, cigarettes, marijuana, chewing tobacco; smallest p>.15), thus verifying that pretest equivalence was achieved. PMID:23722619

  4. It Takes Two Shining Lights to Brighten the Room: Peer Effects with Random Roommate Assignments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liang; Pu, Shi

    2017-01-01

    We used housing assignment data from a college in China to investigate peer effects on college grades. Study results provided some evidence for peer effects in college housing units. First, peer effects through means occurred during both fall and spring semester of the first year in college, with estimated effect much larger than that in previous…

  5. Teaching reading to children with neurofibromatosis type 1: a clinical trial with random assignment to different approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barquero, Laura A; Sefcik, Angela M; Cutting, Laurie E; Rimrodt, Sheryl L

    2015-12-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a genetic disorder with a cognitive profile that includes visual-spatial perception deficits and a high incidence of reading disability. There is a paucity of information about how this cognitively complex population responds to mainstream reading interventions. The clinical trial goals were to determine whether children and adolescents with NF1 and reading deficits (NF+RD) benefit from mainstream remedial reading programs and whether responsiveness varies with differences in program-related visual-spatial demands. Forty-nine participants (28 males, 21 females; aged 8-14y) with either NF+RD (n=17, 11 males, six females) or idiopathic reading deficit (IRD) (n=32, 17 males, 15 females) were randomly assigned to intensive remedial teaching using one of two multisensory reading programs: one with greater kinesthetic demands and the other with greater visual-spatial demands. Two control groups - wait-list IRD (n=14, 11 males, three females) and typically developing readers (n=26, 13 males, 13 females) - received no treatment. Repeated measures and multivariate ANOVA analyses compared each group's growth in reading achievement from pre- to post-testing. Treated groups showed significant growth whereas untreated groups did not. Comparing treated groups, the IRD group responded equally well to both interventions, whereas the NF+RD group showed a better response to the more kinesthetic approach. Results suggest that multisensory remedial reading teaching that emphasizes kinesthetic demands more than visual-spatial demands is suitable for students with NF+RD. © 2015 Mac Keith Press.

  6. An assessment of health behavior peer effects in Peking University dormitories: a randomized cluster-assignment design for interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Changzheng; Lv, Jun; VanderWeele, Tyler J

    2013-01-01

    Relatively little is known about the peer influence in health behaviors within university dormitory rooms. Moreover, in China, the problem of unhealthy behaviors among university students has not yet been sufficiently recognized. We thus investigated health behavior peer influence in Peking University dormitories utilizing a randomized cluster-assignment design. Cross-sectional in-dormitory survey. Current students from Peking University Health Science Center from April to June, 2009. Self-reported questionnaire on health behaviors: physical activity (including bicycling), dietary intake and tobacco use. Use of bicycle, moderate-intensity exercise, frequency of sweet food and soybean milk intake, frequency of roasted/baked/toasted food intake were behaviors significantly or marginally significantly affected by peer influence. Health behavior peer effects exist within dormitory rooms among university students. This could provide guidance on room assignment, or inform intervention programs. Examining these may demand attention from university administrators and policy makers.

  7. Causal effects of single-sex schools on college entrance exams and college attendance: random assignment in Seoul high schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyunjoon; Behrman, Jere R; Choi, Jaesung

    2013-04-01

    Despite the voluminous literature on the potentials of single-sex schools, there is no consensus on the effects of single-sex schools because of student selection of school types. We exploit a unique feature of schooling in Seoul-the random assignment of students into single-sex versus coeducational high schools-to assess causal effects of single-sex schools on college entrance exam scores and college attendance. Our validation of the random assignment shows comparable socioeconomic backgrounds and prior academic achievement of students attending single-sex schools and coeducational schools, which increases the credibility of our causal estimates of single-sex school effects. The three-level hierarchical model shows that attending all-boys schools or all-girls schools, rather than coeducational schools, is significantly associated with higher average scores on Korean and English test scores. Applying the school district fixed-effects models, we find that single-sex schools produce a higher percentage of graduates who attended four-year colleges and a lower percentage of graduates who attended two-year junior colleges than do coeducational schools. The positive effects of single-sex schools remain substantial, even after we take into account various school-level variables, such as teacher quality, the student-teacher ratio, the proportion of students receiving lunch support, and whether the schools are public or private.

  8. Causal Effects of Single-Sex Schools on College Entrance Exams and College Attendance: Random Assignment in Seoul High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyunjoon; Behrman, Jere R.; Choi, Jaesung

    2012-01-01

    Despite the voluminous literature on the potentials of single-sex schools, there is no consensus on the effects of single-sex schools because of student selection of school types. We exploit a unique feature of schooling in Seoul—the random assignment of students into single-sex versus coeducational high schools—to assess causal effects of single-sex schools on college entrance exam scores and college attendance. Our validation of the random assignment shows comparable socioeconomic backgrounds and prior academic achievement of students attending single-sex schools and coeducational schools, which increases the credibility of our causal estimates of single-sex school effects. The three-level hierarchical model shows that attending all-boys schools or all-girls schools, rather than coeducational schools, is significantly associated with higher average scores on Korean and English test scores. Applying the school district fixed-effects models, we find that single-sex schools produce a higher percentage of graduates who attended four-year colleges and a lower percentage of graduates who attended two-year junior colleges than do coeducational schools. The positive effects of single-sex schools remain substantial, even after we take into account various school-level variables, such as teacher quality, the student-teacher ratio, the proportion of students receiving lunch support, and whether the schools are public or private. PMID:23073751

  9. Communication interventions for minimally verbal children with autism: a sequential multiple assignment randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasari, Connie; Kaiser, Ann; Goods, Kelly; Nietfeld, Jennifer; Mathy, Pamela; Landa, Rebecca; Murphy, Susan; Almirall, Daniel

    2014-06-01

    This study tested the effect of beginning treatment with a speech-generating device (SGD) in the context of a blended, adaptive treatment design for improving spontaneous, communicative utterances in school-aged, minimally verbal children with autism. A total of 61 minimally verbal children with autism, aged 5 to 8 years, were randomized to a blended developmental/behavioral intervention (JASP+EMT) with or without the augmentation of a SGD for 6 months with a 3-month follow-up. The intervention consisted of 2 stages. In stage 1, all children received 2 sessions per week for 3 months. Stage 2 intervention was adapted (by increased sessions or adding the SGD) based on the child's early response. The primary outcome was the total number of spontaneous communicative utterances; secondary measures were the total number of novel words and total comments from a natural language sample. Primary aim results found improvements in spontaneous communicative utterances, novel words, and comments that all favored the blended behavioral intervention that began by including an SGD (JASP+EMT+SGD) as opposed to spoken words alone (JASP+EMT). Secondary aim results suggest that the adaptive intervention beginning with JASP+EMT+SGD and intensifying JASP+EMT+SGD for children who were slow responders led to better posttreatment outcomes. Minimally verbal school-aged children can make significant and rapid gains in spoken spontaneous language with a novel, blended intervention that focuses on joint engagement and play skills and incorporates an SGD. Future studies should further explore the tailoring design used in this study to better understand children's response to treatment. Clinical trial registration information-Developmental and Augmented Intervention for Facilitating Expressive Language (CCNIA); http://clinicaltrials.gov/; NCT01013545. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Communication Interventions for Minimally Verbal Children With Autism: Sequential Multiple Assignment Randomized Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasari, Connie; Kaiser, Ann; Goods, Kelly; Nietfeld, Jennifer; Mathy, Pamela; Landa, Rebecca; Murphy, Susan; Almirall, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study tested the effect of beginning treatment with a speech-generating device in the context of a blended, adaptive treatment design for improving spontaneous, communicative utterances in school-aged, minimally verbal children with autism. Method Sixty-one minimally verbal children with autism, aged 5 to 8 years, were randomized to a blended developmental/behavioral intervention (JASP+EMT) with or without the augmentation of a speech-generating device (SGD) for 6 months with a 3-month follow-up. The intervention consisted of two stages. In Stage 1 all children received two sessions per week for 3 months. Stage 2 intervention was adapted (increased sessions or adding the SGD) based on the child’s early response. The primary outcome was the total number of spontaneous communicative utterances; secondary measures were total number of novel words and total comments from a natural language sample. Results Primary aim results found improvements in spontaneous communicative utterances, novel words, and comments that all favored the blended behavioral intervention that began by including an SGD (JASP+EMT+SGD) as opposed to spoken words alone (JASP+EMT). Secondary aim results suggest that the adaptive intervention beginning with JASP+EMT+SGD and intensifying JASP+EMT+SGD for children who were slow responders led to better post-treatment outcomes. Conclusion Minimally verbal school-aged children can make significant and rapid gains in spoken spontaneous language with a novel, blended intervention that focuses on joint engagement and play skills and incorporates an SGD. Future studies should further explore the tailoring design used in this study to better understand children’s response to treatment. Clinical trial registration information—Developmental and Augmented Intervention for Facilitating Expressive Language (CCNIA); http://clinicaltrials.gov/; NCT01013545. PMID:24839882

  11. Improving participation rates by providing choice of participation mode: two randomized controlled trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijmans, N.; Lieshout, J. van; Wensing, M.J.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Low participation rates reduce effective sample size, statistical power and can increase risk for selection bias. Previous research suggests that offering choice of participation mode can improve participation rates. However, few head-to-head trials compared choice of participation mode

  12. Peer Influence on Aggressive Behavior, Smoking, and Sexual Behavior: A Study of Randomly-assigned College Roommates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi; Guo, Guang

    2016-09-01

    Identifying casual peer influence is a long-standing challenge to social scientists. Using data from a natural experiment of randomly-assigned college roommates (N = 2,059), which removes the threat of friend selection, we investigate peer effects on aggressive behavior, smoking, and concurrent sexual partnering. The findings suggest that the magnitude and direction of peer influence depend on predisposition, gender, and the nature of the behavior. Peer effects on individuals predisposed toward a given behavior tend to be larger than peer effects on individuals without such a predisposition. We find that the influence of roommates on aggressive behavior is more pronounced among male students than among female students; roommate effects on smoking are negative among female students and male students who did not smoke before college. For concurrent sexual partnering, a highly private behavior, we find no evidence of peer effects. © American Sociological Association 2016.

  13. Separating boys and girls and increasing weight? Assessing the impacts of single-sex schools through random assignment in Seoul.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jaesung; Park, Hyunjoon; Behrman, Jere R

    2015-06-01

    A growing body of research reports associations of school contexts with adolescents' weight and weight-related behaviors. One interesting, but under-researched, dimension of school context that potentially matters for adolescents' weight is the gender composition. If boys and girls are separated into single-sex schools, they might be less concerned about physical appearance, which may result in increased weight. Utilizing a unique setting in Seoul, Korea where students are randomly assigned to single-sex and coeducational schools within school districts, we estimate causal effects of single-sex schools on weight and weight-related behaviors. Our results show that students attending single-sex schools are more likely to be overweight, and that the effects are more pronounced for girls. We also find that girls in single-sex schools are less likely to engage in strenuous activities than their coeducational counterparts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Random search for shared chromosomal regions in four affected individuals: the assignment of a new hereditary ataxia locus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikali, K.; Suomalainen, A.; Koskinen, T.; Peltonen, L. [Univ. of Helsinki (Finland); Terwilliger, J. [Univ. of Oxford (United Kingdom); Weissenbach, J. [Genethon, Evry (France)

    1995-05-01

    Infantile-onset spinocerebellar ataxia (IOSCA) is an autosomal recessively inherited progressive neurological disorder of unknown etiology. This ataxia, identified so far only in the genetically isolated Finnish population, does not share gene locus with any of the previously identified hereditary ataxias, and a random mapping approach was adopted to assign the IOSCA locus. Based on the assumption of one founder mutation, a primary screening of the genome was performed using samples from just four affected individuals in two consanguineous pedigrees. The identification of a shared chromosomal region in these four patients provided the first evidence that the IOSCA gene locus is on chromosome 10q23.3-q24.1, which was confirmed by conventional linkage analysis in the complete family material. Strong linkage disequilibrium observed between IOSCA and the linked markers was utilized to define accurately the critical chromosomal region. The results showed the power of linkage disequilibrium in the locus assignment of diseases with very limited family materials. 30 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. An assessment of health behavior peer effects in Peking University dormitories: a randomized cluster-assignment design for interference.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changzheng Yuan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Relatively little is known about the peer influence in health behaviors within university dormitory rooms. Moreover, in China, the problem of unhealthy behaviors among university students has not yet been sufficiently recognized. We thus investigated health behavior peer influence in Peking University dormitories utilizing a randomized cluster-assignment design. METHODS: STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional in-dormitory survey. STUDY POPULATION: Current students from Peking University Health Science Center from April to June, 2009. MEASUREMENT: Self-reported questionnaire on health behaviors: physical activity (including bicycling, dietary intake and tobacco use. RESULTS: Use of bicycle, moderate-intensity exercise, frequency of sweet food and soybean milk intake, frequency of roasted/baked/toasted food intake were behaviors significantly or marginally significantly affected by peer influence. CONCLUSION: Health behavior peer effects exist within dormitory rooms among university students. This could provide guidance on room assignment, or inform intervention programs. Examining these may demand attention from university administrators and policy makers.

  16. Peripheral Defocus and Myopia Progression in Myopic Children Randomly Assigned to Wear Single Vision and Progressive Addition Lenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berntsen, David A.; Barr, Christopher D.; Mutti, Donald O.; Zadnik, Karla

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. To determine the effect of progressive addition lenses (PALs) and single vision lenses (SVLs) on peripheral defocus in myopic children, and to compare the effect of myopic versus hyperopic peripheral defocus on foveal myopia progression. Methods. Eighty-four myopic children aged 6 to 11 years with spherical equivalent (SE) cycloplegic autorefraction between −0.75 diopters (D) and −4.50 D were randomly assigned to wear SVLs or PALs. Aberrometry measurements of the eye and spectacles were made centrally, 30° nasally, temporally, and superiorly, and 20° inferiorly on the retina using a Complete Ophthalmic Analysis System for Vision Research (COAS-VR). The association between peripheral defocus and the 1-year change in central myopia was investigated. Results. SVLs caused a hyperopic shift in peripheral defocus at all locations (all P ≤ 0.0003). PALs caused a myopic shift in peripheral defocus in three of four locations measured (all P ≤ 0.01) with the greatest shift superiorly due to the PAL addition (−1.04 ± 0.30 D). Superior retinal defocus when wearing either SVLs or PALs was associated with the 1-year change in central myopia. The adjusted 1-year change in central SE myopia was −0.38 D for children with absolute superior myopic defocus (n = 67) and −0.65 D for children with absolute superior hyperopic defocus (n = 17; difference = 0.27 D; P = 0.002). Conclusions. PALs caused a myopic shift in peripheral defocus. Superior myopic defocus was associated with less central myopia progression. These data support the continued investigation of optical designs that result in peripheral myopic defocus as a potential way to slow myopia progression. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00335049.) PMID:23838771

  17. The Effects of Therapist Competence in Assigning Homework in Cognitive Therapy with Cluster C Personality Disorders: Results from a Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryum, Truls; Stiles, Tore C.; Svartberg, Martin; McCullough, Leigh

    2010-01-01

    Therapist competence in assigning homework was used to predict mid- and posttreatment outcome for patients with Cluster C personality disorders in cognitive therapy (CT). Twenty-five patients that underwent 40 sessions of CT were taken from a randomized controlled trial (Svartberg, Stiles, & Seltzer, 2004). Therapist competence in assigning…

  18. Predictors of long-term benzodiazepine abstinence in participants of a randomized controlled benzodiazepine withdrawal program.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Voshaar, R.C.; Gorgels, W.J.M.J.; Mol, A.J.J.; Balkom, A.J.L.M. van; Mulder, J.; Lisdonk, E.H. van de; Breteler, M.H.M.; Zitman, F.G.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify predictors of resumed benzodiazepine use after participation in a benzodiazepine discontinuation trial. METHOD: We performed multiple Cox regression analyses to predict the long-term outcome of a 3-condition, randomized, controlled benzodiazepine discontinuation trial in

  19. Scalable and Cost-Effective Assignment of Mobile Crowdsensing Tasks Based on Profiling Trends and Prediction: The ParticipAct Living Lab Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Bellavista

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, sensor-rich smartphones potentially enable the harvesting of huge amounts of valuable sensing data in urban environments, by opportunistically involving citizens to play the role of mobile virtual sensors to cover Smart City areas of interest. This paper proposes an in-depth study of the challenging technical issues related to the efficient assignment of Mobile Crowd Sensing (MCS data collection tasks to volunteers in a crowdsensing campaign. In particular, the paper originally describes how to increase the effectiveness of the proposed sensing campaigns through the inclusion of several new facilities, including accurate participant selection algorithms able to profile and predict user mobility patterns, gaming techniques, and timely geo-notification. The reported results show the feasibility of exploiting profiling trends/prediction techniques from volunteers’ behavior; moreover, they quantitatively compare different MCS task assignment strategies based on large-scale and real MCS data campaigns run in the ParticipAct living lab, an ongoing MCS real-world experiment that involved more than 170 students of the University of Bologna for more than one year.

  20. Impact of a cancer clinical trials web site on discussions about trial participation: a cluster randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dear, R F; Barratt, A L; Askie, L M; Butow, P N; McGeechan, K; Crossing, S; Currow, D C; Tattersall, M H N

    2012-07-01

    Cancer patients want access to reliable information about currently recruiting clinical trials. Oncologists and their patients were randomly assigned to access a consumer-friendly cancer clinical trials web site [Australian Cancer Trials (ACT), www.australiancancertrials.gov.au] or to usual care in a cluster randomized controlled trial. The primary outcome, measured from audio recordings of oncologist-patient consultations, was the proportion of patients with whom participation in any clinical trial was discussed. Analysis was by intention-to-treat accounting for clustering and stratification. Thirty medical oncologists and 493 patients were recruited. Overall, 46% of consultations in the intervention group compared with 34% in the control group contained a discussion about clinical trials (P=0.08). The mean consultation length in both groups was 29 min (P=0.69). The proportion consenting to a trial was 10% in both groups (P=0.65). Patients' knowledge about randomized trials was lower in the intervention than the control group (mean score 3.0 versus 3.3, P=0.03) but decisional conflict scores were similar (mean score 42 versus 43, P=0.83). Good communication between patients and physicians is essential. Within this context, a web site such as Australian Cancer Trials may be an important tool to encourage discussion about clinical trial participation.

  1. Random responding from participants is a threat to the validity of social science research results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason W Osborne

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Research in the social sciences often relies upon the motivation and goodwill of research participants (e.g., teachers, students, minimally-compensated volunteers to do their best on low stakes assessments of the effects of interventions. Research participants who are unmotivated to perform well can engage in random responding on outcome measures, which can cause substantial mis-estimation of results, biasing results toward the null hypothesis. Data from a recent educational intervention study served as a clear example of this problem: participants identified as random responders showed substantially lower scores than other participants on tests during the study, and failed to show growth in scores from pre- to posttest, while those not engaging in random responding showed much higher scores and significant growth over time. This served to mask the hypothesized group differences across instructional method when random responders were retained in the sample (anticipated group differences were significant when these random responders were removed. We remind researchers to screen their data for random responding (and other response biases in their critical outcome measures in order to improve the odds of detecting effects of their interventions.

  2. The impact of financial incentives on participants' food purchasing patterns in a supermarket-based randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olstad, Dana Lee; Crawford, David A; Abbott, Gavin; McNaughton, Sarah A; Le, Ha Nd; Ni Mhurchu, Cliona; Pollard, Christina; Ball, Kylie

    2017-08-25

    The impacts of supermarket-based nutrition promotion interventions might be overestimated if participants shift their proportionate food purchasing away from their usual stores. This study quantified whether participants who received price discounts on fruits and vegetables (FV) in the Supermarket Healthy Eating for Life (SHELf) randomized controlled trial (RCT) shifted their FV purchasing into study supermarkets during the intervention period. Participants were 642 females randomly assigned to a 1) skill-building (n = 160), 2) price reduction (n = 161), 3) combined skill-building and price reduction (n = 160), or 4) control (n = 161) group. Participants self-reported the proportion of FV purchased in study supermarkets at baseline, 3- and 6-months post-intervention. Fisher's exact and χ2 tests assessed differences among groups in the proportion of FV purchased in study supermarkets at each time point. Multinomial logistic regression assessed differences among groups in the change in proportionate FV purchasing over time. Post-intervention, 49% of participants purchased ≥50% of their FV in study supermarkets. Compared to all other groups, the price reduction group was approximately twice as likely (RRR: 1.8-2.2) to have increased proportionate purchasing of FV in study supermarkets from baseline to post-intervention (ppurchasing from other stores into study supermarkets during the intervention period. Unless food purchasing data are available for all sources, differential changes in purchasing patterns can make it difficult to discern the true impacts of nutrition interventions. The SHELf trial is registered with Current Controlled Trials Registration ISRCTN39432901, Registered 30 June 2010, Retrospectively registered ( http://www.isrctn.com/ISRCTN39432901 ).

  3. Assignment refusal and its relation to outcome in a randomized controlled trial comparing Cognitive Therapy and Fluvoxamine in treatment-resistant patients with obsessive compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landsheer, Johannes A; Smit, Johannes H; van Oppen, Patricia; van Balkom, Anton J L M

    2015-03-30

    The effectiveness of Fluvoxamine was compared to that of Cognitive Therapy (CT) in a 12-week randomized controlled trial (RCT) in 48 patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), who were treatment-resistant to a previous behavior therapy (BT). A considerable amount of patients did not comply with the assigned treatment and switched treatments. The aim of this study was to identify patient characteristics predictive of assignment compliance and to study whether these characteristics were related to outcome. A logistic model, based on psychological and social patient characteristics, in addition to or in interaction with the assignment, was used for the explanation of compliance with treatment assignment. Especially patients who have a higher score on the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) tend to comply with the effective Fluvoxamine treatment. The same set of variables was related to both compliance and outcome of therapy received. Therefore, the logistic model of compliance could be used to reduce the positive bias of As-Treated analysis (AT). The difference between the results of Fluvoxamine and Cognitive Therapy remained statistically significant after correcting for the positive bias as the result of assignment refusal and after applying the assumption that two drop-out patients needed imputation of lesser results. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Effectiveness of energy conservation management on fatigue and participation in multiple sclerosis: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blikman, Lyan Jm; van Meeteren, Jetty; Twisk, Jos Wr; de Laat, Fred Aj; de Groot, Vincent; Beckerman, Heleen; Stam, Henk J; Bussmann, Johannes Bj

    2017-10-01

    Fatigue is a frequently reported and disabling symptom in multiple sclerosis (MS). To investigate the effectiveness of an individual energy conservation management (ECM) intervention on fatigue and participation in persons with primary MS-related fatigue. A total of 86 severely fatigued and ambulatory adults with a definite diagnosis of MS were randomized in a single-blind, two-parallel-arm randomized clinical trial to the ECM group or the information-only control group in outpatient rehabilitation departments. Blinded assessments were carried out at baseline and at 8, 16, 26 and 52 weeks after randomization. Primary outcomes were fatigue (fatigue subscale of Checklist Individual Strength - CIS20r) and participation (Impact on Participation and Autonomy scale - IPA). Modified intention-to-treat analysis was based on 76 randomized patients (ECM, n = 36; MS nurse, n=40). No significant ECM effects were found for fatigue (overall difference CIS20r between the groups = -0.81; 95% confidence interval (CI), -3.71 to 2.11) or for four out of five IPA domains. An overall unfavourable effect was found in the ECM group for the IPA domain social relations (difference between the groups = 0.19; 95% CI, 0.03 to 0.35). The individual ECM format used in this study did not reduce MS-related fatigue and restrictions in participation more than an information-only control condition.

  5. Randomized controlled trial assessing participation and quality of life in a supported speed treadmill training exercise program vs. a strengthening program for children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, P E; Banks, D; Johnston, T E; Campbell, S R; Gaughan, J P; Ross, S A; Engsberg, J R; Tucker, C

    2012-01-01

    A multi-site Randomized-Controlled Trial compared a home-based Supported Speed Treadmill Training Exercise Program (SSTTEP) with a strengthening exercise program in children with cerebral palsy (CP) on the following categories; Participation, quality of life (QOL), self-concept, goal attainment, and satisfaction. Twenty-six children with spastic cerebral palsy were assigned by site-based block randomization to the SSTTEP (n=14) or strengthening exercise (n=12) group. Both groups participated in a two week clinic-based induction period and continued the intervention at home for ten weeks. Data were collected at baseline, post-intervention (12 weeks), and follow-up (16 weeks). Assessments included the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure, Children's Assessment of Participation and Enjoyment Scale, Pediatric Quality of Life Cerebral Palsy Module, and Piers-Harris Children's Self-Concept Scale. Evaluators were blinded to group assignment at two sites. Satisfaction and performance on individual goals, participation, and parent-reported QOL improved in both groups with improvement maintained for four weeks post intervention. The hypothesis that the SSTTEP group would have better outcomes than the exercise group was not supported. However, both groups showed that children with CP can make gains in participation, individual goals, and satisfaction following a 12-week intensive exercise intervention, and these findings persisted for four weeks post intervention.

  6. Factors influencing participation in a vascular disease prevention lifestyle program among participants in a cluster randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laws, Rachel A; Fanaian, Mahnaz; Jayasinghe, Upali W; McKenzie, Suzanne; Passey, Megan; Davies, Gawaine Powell; Lyle, David; Harris, Mark F

    2013-05-31

    Previous research suggests that lifestyle intervention for the prevention of diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD) are effective, however little is known about factors affecting participation in such programs. This study aims to explore factors influencing levels of participation in a lifestyle modification program conducted as part of a cluster randomized controlled trial of CVD prevention in primary care. This concurrent mixed methods study used data from the intervention arm of a cluster RCT which recruited 30 practices through two rural and three urban primary care organizations. Practices were randomly allocated to intervention (n = 16) and control (n = 14) groups. In each practice up to 160 eligible patients aged between 40 and 64 years old, were invited to participate. Intervention practice staff were trained in lifestyle assessment and counseling and referred high risk patients to a lifestyle modification program (LMP) consisting of two individual and six group sessions over a nine month period. Data included a patient survey, clinical audit, practice survey on capacity for preventive care, referral and attendance records at the LMP and qualitative interviews with Intervention Officers facilitating the LMP. Multi-level logistic regression modelling was used to examine independent predictors of attendance at the LMP, supplemented with qualitative data from interviews with Intervention Officers facilitating the program. A total of 197 individuals were referred to the LMP (63% of those eligible). Over a third of patients (36.5%) referred to the LMP did not attend any sessions, with 59.4% attending at least half of the planned sessions. The only independent predictors of attendance at the program were employment status - not working (OR: 2.39 95% CI 1.15-4.94) and having high psychological distress (OR: 2.17 95% CI: 1.10-4.30). Qualitative data revealed that physical access to the program was a barrier, while GP/practice endorsement of the program and

  7. Soft-assignment random-forest with an application to discriminative representation of human actions in videos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burghouts, G.J.

    2013-01-01

    The bag-of-features model is a distinctive and robust approach to detect human actions in videos. The discriminative power of this model relies heavily on the quantization of the video features into visual words. The quantization determines how well the visual words describe the human action. Random

  8. Motivation for participating in a weight loss program and financial incentives: an analysis from a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Melissa M; Tate, Deborah F; Finkelstein, Eric A; Linnan, Laura A

    2012-01-01

    This analysis investigated if changes in autonomous or controlled motivation for participation in a weight loss program differed between individuals offered a financial incentive for weight loss compared to individuals not offered an incentive. Additionally, the same relationships were tested among those who lost weight and either received or did not receive an incentive. This analysis used data from a year-long randomized worksite weight loss program that randomly assigned employees in each worksite to either a low-intensity weight loss program or the same program plus small financial incentives for weight loss ($5.00 per percentage of initial weight lost). There were no differences in changes between groups on motivation during the study, however, increases in autonomous motivation were consistently associated with greater weight losses. This suggests that the small incentives used in this program did not lead to increases in controlled motivation nor did they undermine autonomous motivation. Future studies are needed to evaluate the magnitude and timing of incentives to more fully understand the relationship between incentives and motivation.

  9. Motivation for Participating in a Weight Loss Program and Financial Incentives: An Analysis from a Randomized Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa M. Crane

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This analysis investigated if changes in autonomous or controlled motivation for participation in a weight loss program differed between individuals offered a financial incentive for weight loss compared to individuals not offered an incentive. Additionally, the same relationships were tested among those who lost weight and either received or did not receive an incentive. This analysis used data from a year-long randomized worksite weight loss program that randomly assigned employees in each worksite to either a low-intensity weight loss program or the same program plus small financial incentives for weight loss ($5.00 per percentage of initial weight lost. There were no differences in changes between groups on motivation during the study, however, increases in autonomous motivation were consistently associated with greater weight losses. This suggests that the small incentives used in this program did not lead to increases in controlled motivation nor did they undermine autonomous motivation. Future studies are needed to evaluate the magnitude and timing of incentives to more fully understand the relationship between incentives and motivation.

  10. Motivation for Participating in a Weight Loss Program and Financial Incentives: An Analysis from a Randomized Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Melissa M.; Tate, Deborah F.; Finkelstein, Eric A.; Linnan, Laura A.

    2012-01-01

    This analysis investigated if changes in autonomous or controlled motivation for participation in a weight loss program differed between individuals offered a financial incentive for weight loss compared to individuals not offered an incentive. Additionally, the same relationships were tested among those who lost weight and either received or did not receive an incentive. This analysis used data from a year-long randomized worksite weight loss program that randomly assigned employees in each worksite to either a low-intensity weight loss program or the same program plus small financial incentives for weight loss ($5.00 per percentage of initial weight lost). There were no differences in changes between groups on motivation during the study, however, increases in autonomous motivation were consistently associated with greater weight losses. This suggests that the small incentives used in this program did not lead to increases in controlled motivation nor did they undermine autonomous motivation. Future studies are needed to evaluate the magnitude and timing of incentives to more fully understand the relationship between incentives and motivation. PMID:22577524

  11. Reasons for Participation and Nonparticipation in Colorectal Cancer Screening: A Randomized Trial of Colonoscopy and CT Colonography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wijkerslooth, Thomas R.; de Haan, Margriet C.; Stoop, Esther M.; Bossuyt, Patrick M.; Thomeer, Maarten; van Leerdam, Monique E.; Essink-Bot, Marie-Louise; Fockens, Paul; Kuipers, Ernst J.; Stoker, Jaap; Dekker, Evelien

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: We compared reported reasons for participation and nonparticipation in colorectal cancer (CRC) screening between colonoscopy and computed tomographic (CT) colonography in a randomized controlled trial. METHODS: We randomly invited 8,844 people for screening by colonoscopy or CT

  12. Comparing cluster-level dynamic treatment regimens using sequential, multiple assignment, randomized trials: Regression estimation and sample size considerations

    OpenAIRE

    NeCamp, Timothy; Kilbourne, Amy; Almirall, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Cluster-level dynamic treatment regimens can be used to guide sequential, intervention or treatment decision-making at the cluster level in order to improve outcomes at the individual or patient-level. In a cluster-level DTR, the intervention or treatment is potentially adapted and re-adapted over time based on changes in the cluster that could be impacted by prior intervention, including based on aggregate measures of the individuals or patients that comprise it. Cluster-randomized sequentia...

  13. Randomized Comparison of Mobile and Web-Tools to Provide Dementia Risk Reduction Education: Use, Engagement and Participant Satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Elodie; Farrow, Maree; Hatherly, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Encouraging middle-aged adults to maintain their physical and cognitive health may have a significant impact on reducing the prevalence of dementia in the future. Mobile phone apps and interactive websites may be one effective way to target this age group. However, to date there has been little research investigating the user experience of dementia risk reduction tools delivered in this way. The aim of this study was to explore participant engagement and evaluations of three different targeted smartphone and Web-based dementia risk reduction tools following a four-week intervention. Participants completed a Web-based screening questionnaire to collect eligibility information. Eligible participants were asked to complete a Web-based baseline questionnaire and were then randomly assigned to use one of the three dementia risk reduction tools for a period of four weeks: (1) a mobile phone application; (2) an information-based website; and (3) an interactive website. User evaluations were obtained via a Web-based follow-up questionnaire after completion of the intervention. Of 415 eligible participants, 370 (89.16%) completed the baseline questionnaire and were assigned to an intervention group; 200 (54.05%) completed the post-intervention questionnaire. The average age of participants was 52 years, and 149 (75%) were female. Findings indicated that participants from all three intervention groups reported a generally positive impression of the tools across a range of domains. Participants using the information-based website reported higher ratings of their overall impression of the tool, F2,191=4.12, P=.02; how interesting the information was, F2,189=3.53, P=.03; how helpful the information was, F2,192=4.15, P=.02; and how much they learned, F2,188=3.86, P=.02. Group differences were significant between the mobile phone app and information-based website users, but not between the interactive website users and the other two groups. Additionally, participants using the

  14. Participant characteristics associated with withdrawal from a large randomized trial of spermicide effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martens Mark

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In most recent large efficacy trials of barrier contraceptive methods, a high proportion of participants withdrew before the intended end of follow-up. The objective of this analysis was to explore characteristics of participants who failed to complete seven months of planned participation in a trial of spermicide efficacy. Methods Trial participants were expected to use the assigned spermicide for contraception for 7 months or until pregnancy occurred. In bivariable and multivariable analyses, we assessed the associations between failure to complete the trial and 17 pre-specified baseline characteristics. In addition, among women who participated for at least 6 weeks, we evaluated the relationships between failure to complete, various features of their first 6 weeks of experience with the spermicide, and characteristics of the study centers and population. Results Of the 1514 participants in this analysis, 635 (42% failed to complete the study for reasons other than pregnancy. Women were significantly less likely to complete if they were younger or unmarried, had intercourse at least 8 times per month, or were enrolled at a university center or at a center that enrolled fewer than 4 participants per month. Noncompliance with study procedures in the first 6 weeks was also associated with subsequent early withdrawal, but dissatisfaction with the spermicide was not. However, many participants without these risk factors withdrew early. Conclusions Failure to complete is a major problem in barrier method trials that seriously compromises the interpretation of results. Targeting retention efforts at women at high risk for early withdrawal is not likely to address the problem sufficiently.

  15. Comparison of mailed invitation strategies to improve fecal occult blood test participation in men: protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Amy; Zajac, Ian; Flight, Ingrid; Stewart, Benjamin J R; Wilson, Carlene; Turnbull, Deborah

    2013-07-31

    Men have a significantly increased risk of being diagnosed with, and dying from, colorectal cancer (CRC) than women. Men also participate in fecal occult blood test (FOBT) screening at a lower rate than women. This study will determine whether strategies that target men's attitudes toward screening, and matched to stage of readiness to screen, increase men's FOBT participation compared to a standard approach. Eligible trial participants will be a national sample of 9,200 men aged 50 to 74 years, living in urban Australia and randomly selected from the Australian electoral roll. Trial participants will be mailed an advance notification letter, followed 2 weeks later by an invitation letter and a free fecal immunochemical test (FIT) kit. The intervention is a factorial design, randomized controlled trial (RCT) with four trial arms, including a control. The content of the advance notification and invitation letters will differ by trial arm as follows: 1) standard advance notification and standard invitation (control arm); 2) targeted advance notification and standard invitation; 3) standard advance notification and targeted invitation; and 4) targeted advance notification and targeted invitation. The standard letters will replicate as closely as possible the letters included in the Australian National Bowel Cancer Screening Program (NBCSP). Modified advance notification and invitation letters will incorporate additional messages to target men in the precontemplation (advance notification) and contemplation stages (invitation). The primary outcome is return of the completed FIT within 12 weeks of invitation. Analysts will be blinded to trial assignment and participants will be blinded to the use of varying invitational materials. Subsamples from each trial arm will complete baseline and endpoint surveys to measure the psychological impact of the intervention, and qualitative interviews will be conducted to evaluate attitudes toward the intervention. The outcomes of

  16. A method of extracting the number of trial participants from abstracts describing randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Marie J; Rasmussen, Nana Ø; Chung, Grace

    2008-01-01

    We have developed a method for extracting the number of trial participants from abstracts describing randomized controlled trials (RCTs); the number of trial participants may be an indication of the reliability of the trial. The method depends on statistical natural language processing. The number of interest was determined by a binary supervised classification based on a support vector machine algorithm. The method was trialled on 223 abstracts in which the number of trial participants was identified manually to act as a gold standard. Automatic extraction resulted in 2 false-positive and 19 false-negative classifications. The algorithm was capable of extracting the number of trial participants with an accuracy of 97% and an F-measure of 0.84. The algorithm may improve the selection of relevant articles in regard to question-answering, and hence may assist in decision-making.

  17. A Randomized Trial to Measure the Efficacy of Applying Task Oriented Role Assignment to Improve Neonatal Resuscitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-06

    DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE 59TH MEDICAL W ING (AETC) JOINT BASE SAN ANTONIO - LACKLAND TEXAS MEMORANOUMFORSGVT ATTN: MAJ CARRIE LITKE-WAGER...Author Litke· Wager, Carrie 0-4/Major 959/CSPS/ 59MDW/SGVT b. Mu, Thornton 0-5/LTC MCH E-ZDP-N SA MMC c. Delaney, Heather 0-4/ MAJ MCHE-ZDP-N SA MMC d...78234-2715 15 June 2016 Maj Carrie Litke-Wager, MD Brooke Army Medical Center Institutional Review Board A Randomized Trial to Measure the

  18. Effects of Study Design and Allocation on participant behaviour - ESDA: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheeran Paschal

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background What study participants think about the nature of a study has been hypothesised to affect subsequent behaviour and to potentially bias study findings. In this trial we examine the impact of awareness of study design and allocation on participant drinking behaviour. Methods/Design A three-arm parallel group randomised controlled trial design will be used. All recruitment, screening, randomisation, and follow-up will be conducted on-line among university students. Participants who indicate a hazardous level of alcohol consumption will be randomly assigned to one of three groups. Group A will be informed their drinking will be assessed at baseline and again in one month (as in a cohort study design. Group B will be told the study is an intervention trial and they are in the control group. Group C will be told the study is an intervention trial and they are in the intervention group. All will receive exactly the same brief educational material to read. After one month, alcohol intake for the past 4 weeks will be assessed. Discussion The experimental manipulations address subtle and previously unexplored ways in which participant behaviour may be unwittingly influenced by standard practice in trials. Given the necessity of relying on self-reported outcome, it will not be possible to distinguish true behaviour change from reporting artefact. This does not matter in the present study, as any effects of awareness of study design or allocation involve bias that is not well understood. There has been little research on awareness effects, and our outcomes will provide an indication of the possible value of further studies of this type and inform hypothesis generation. Trial Registration Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trials Register (ANZCTR: ACTRN12610000846022

  19. Effects of interferential therapy parameter combinations upon experimentally induced pain in pain-free participants: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dounavi, Myrto D; Chesterton, Linda S; Sim, Julius

    2012-07-01

    Little evidence exists regarding parameter selection for hypoalgesia using interferential therapy (IFT). This study investigated segmental and extrasegmental hypoalgesic effects of different IFT parameter combinations upon experimentally induced pressure pain threshold (PPT) in pain-free volunteers. The participants were randomly assigned to 6 groups: control, placebo, bipolar constant amplitude modulation frequency (AMF), bipolar sweep AMF, quadripolar constant AMF, and quadripolar sweep AMF. The study was conducted in a university laboratory. One hundred eighty adults who were healthy and pain-free participated in the study. Interferential therapy was delivered to all groups at high, to-tolerance intensity and at high AMF. Stimulation to the dominant forearm was delivered for 30 minutes, with monitoring for a further 30 minutes. Pain pressure threshold was measured at the area of first dorsal interosseous muscle of the dominant and nondominant hands (segmental measurements) and over the tibialis anterior muscle (extrasegmental measurement) at baseline and at 10-minute intervals using a pressure algometer. Square root transformed PPT data were analyzed using repeated-measures analysis of variance. There was a significant change in PPT over time, but no significant between-subjects difference in segmental or extrasegmental PPT between any of the IFT groups and the placebo or control group. Thus, IFT delivered in any of these parameter combinations did not significantly affect the PPT of pain-free participants compared with the control or placebo group. Success of blinding was not evaluated. This study showed that IFT delivered at high, to-tolerance intensity and high AMF does not produce significant segmental and extrasegmental hypoalgesic effects on PPT in participants who were healthy compared with a control or placebo group. Further research is warranted to investigate the hypoalgesic effect of different IFT parameter combinations and to explain its possible

  20. Audio-recorded information to patients considering participation in cancer clinical trials - a randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergenmar, Mia; Johansson, Hemming; Wilking, Nils; Hatschek, Thomas; Brandberg, Yvonne

    2014-09-01

    Patient information in cancer clinical trial is challenging. The value of audio-recording interventions for patients considering participating in clinical trials is unclear. The primary aim of this randomized study was to investigate effects of audio-recorded information on knowledge and understanding in patients considering participation in a clinical trial. Patients scheduled for information about a phases 2 or 3 trial by one of the 13 participating oncologists at the Department of Oncology during the study period (2008-2013) were eligible. The intervention consisted of an audio-recording on compact disc (CD) of the information at the medical consultation in which the patients were informed about a trial. Knowledge and understanding was measured by the questionnaire, Quality of Informed Consent. A total of 130 patients were randomized, 70% of the calculated sample size (n = 186). Sixty-seven patients were randomized to the intervention. In total, 101 patients (78%) completed questionnaires. No statistical significant differences were found between the groups with respect to knowledge and understanding. The level of knowledge was relatively high, with the exceptions of the risks associated with, and the unproven nature of, the trial. Overall, patients who declined participation scored statistically significant lower on knowledge. The present study was underpowered and the results should therefore be interpreted with caution. Still, 130 patients were included with a response rate of 78%. A CD including the oral information about a clinical trial did not show any effects on knowledge or understanding. However, the levels of knowledge were high, possible due to the high levels of education in the study group. Information on risks associated with the trial is still an area for improvement.

  1. Medical student participation in a surgical outpatient clinic: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azher, Hinna; Lay, Jennifer; Stupart, Douglas A; Guest, Glenn D; Watters, David A K

    2013-06-01

    To determine the patient, doctor and student perceptions with different styles of student participation in a surgical outpatient clinic. A randomized controlled trial was conducted in surgical outpatients. Participants included patients scheduled to see one of four specialist general surgeons, the surgeons themselves and third-year medical students undertaking their general surgery rotation at the Geelong Hospital. A total of 151 consultations were randomized to one of three consultation styles between August 2011 and August 2012. (i) 'No Student', consultation without a student being present, (ii) 'Student with Doctor', consultation where the student accompanied the doctor throughout the consultation and (iii) 'Student before Doctor', consultation where the student interviewed the patient before the doctor and examined the patient in the doctor's presence. Participants' perceptions and experience of each of the consultations was assessed in the form of written questionnaires. There was no difference in overall patient satisfaction with different styles of student participation (P = 0.080). Students showed a clear preference for the 'Student before Doctor' consultation style (P = 0.023). There were no differences in consultation outcomes from the doctor's perspective (P = 0.88), except time (P consultation where students are actively involved in patient care as it has no adverse effects on patient satisfaction and it is the preferred participation style from the student's perspective. Doctors do not feel that active student involvement interferes with their ability to deliver healthcare except that it prolongs consultation time. © 2013 The Authors. ANZ Journal of Surgery © 2013 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  2. A multimedia consent tool for research participants in the Gambia: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afolabi, Muhammed Olanrewaju; McGrath, Nuala; D'Alessandro, Umberto; Kampmann, Beate; Imoukhuede, Egeruan B; Ravinetto, Raffaella M; Alexander, Neal; Larson, Heidi J; Chandramohan, Daniel; Bojang, Kalifa

    2015-05-01

    To assess the effectiveness of a multimedia informed consent tool for adults participating in a clinical trial in the Gambia. Adults eligible for inclusion in a malaria treatment trial (n = 311) were randomized to receive information needed for informed consent using either a multimedia tool (intervention arm) or a standard procedure (control arm). A computerized, audio questionnaire was used to assess participants' comprehension of informed consent. This was done immediately after consent had been obtained (at day 0) and at subsequent follow-up visits (days 7, 14, 21 and 28). The acceptability and ease of use of the multimedia tool were assessed in focus groups. On day 0, the median comprehension score in the intervention arm was 64% compared with 40% in the control arm (P = 0.042). The difference remained significant at all follow-up visits. Poorer comprehension was independently associated with female sex (odds ratio, OR: 0.29; 95% confidence interval, CI: 0.12-0.70) and residing in Jahaly rather than Basse province (OR: 0.33; 95% CI: 0.13-0.82). There was no significant independent association with educational level. The risk that a participant's comprehension score would drop to half of the initial value was lower in the intervention arm (hazard ratio 0.22, 95% CI: 0.16-0.31). Overall, 70% (42/60) of focus group participants from the intervention arm found the multimedia tool clear and easy to understand. A multimedia informed consent tool significantly improved comprehension and retention of consent information by research participants with low levels of literacy.

  3. Who benefits from emotional expression? An examination of personality differences among gynaecological cancer patients participating in a randomized controlled emotional disclosure intervention trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakowski, Sandra G; Herzer, Michele; Barrett, Sara Dittoe; Milligan, Jessica Gerfen; Beckman, Nancy

    2011-08-01

    The present study examined the role of neuroticism and extraversion in the effects of written emotional disclosure in patients diagnosed with gynaecological cancer. It was hypothesized that high levels of neuroticism would be associated with an increase in distress after emotional disclosure as mediated by heightened negative affect and avoidance post-disclosure. Conversely, we expected high extraversion to be associated with decreased distress as mediated by heightened positive moods and a decrease in avoidance. Eighty-eight participants were randomly assigned to participate in an expressive writing task versus a control writing task. Distress and avoidance were assessed at baseline and 6 months post-writing. Negative and positive mood were assessed immediately following writing. Multiple regression confirmed that neuroticism but not extraversion moderates the effects of emotional disclosure on distress, however no significant mediating relationships were found. ©2010 The British Psychological Society.

  4. The Sexunzipped trial: young people's views of participating in an online randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, Angela; Bailey, Julia V; Stevenson, Fiona; Murray, Elizabeth

    2013-12-12

    Incidence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among young people in the United Kingdom is increasing. The Internet can be a suitable medium for delivery of sexual health information and sexual health promotion, given its high usage among young people, its potential for creating a sense of anonymity, and ease of access. Online randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are increasingly being used to evaluate online interventions, but while there are many advantages to online methodologies, they can be associated with a number of problems, including poor engagement with online interventions, poor trial retention, and concerns about the validity of data collected through self-report online. We conducted an online feasibility trial that tested the effects of the Sexunzipped website for sexual health compared to an information-only website. This study reports on a qualitative evaluation of the trial procedures, describing participants' experiences and views of the Sexunzipped online trial including methods of recruitment, incentives, methods of contact, and sexual health outcome measurement. Our goal was to determine participants' views of the acceptability and validity of the online trial methodology used in the pilot RCT of the Sexunzipped intervention. We used three qualitative data sources to assess the acceptability and validity of the online pilot RCT methodology: (1) individual interviews with 22 participants from the pilot RCT, (2) 133 emails received by the trial coordinator from trial participants, and (3) 217 free-text comments from the baseline and follow-up questionnaires. Interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. An iterative, thematic analysis of all three data sources was conducted to identify common themes related to the acceptability and feasibility of the online trial methodology. Interview participants found the trial design, including online recruitment via Facebook, online registration, email communication with the researchers, and

  5. Associations of obesogenic behaviors in mothers and obese children participating in a randomized trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonneville, Kendrin R.; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L.; Kleinman, Ken; Gortmaker, Steven; Gillman, Matthew W.; Taveras, Elsie M.

    2013-01-01

    Relatively little research has assessed the association between obesogenic behaviors in parents and their children. The objective of the present analysis was to examine cross-sectional associations in television (TV)/video viewing, sugar-sweetened beverage intake, and fast food intake between mothers and their pre-school aged children. We studied baseline data among 428 participants in High Five for Kids, a randomized controlled trial of behavior change among overweight and obese children ages 2-6.9 years. The main exposures were whether mothers viewed TV/videos Obesogenic behaviors of mothers and pre-school aged children were strongly associated. Our findings lend support to obesity prevention strategies that target parental behavior and the family environment. PMID:22349735

  6. Recruiting participants for randomized controlled trials of music therapy: a practical illustration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Sam; McConnell, Tracey; Lynn, Fiona; McLaughlin, Katrina; Cardwell, Christopher; Holmes, Valerie

    2014-01-01

    Failure to recruit sufficient numbers of participants to randomized controlled trials is a common and serious problem. This problem may be additionally acute in music therapy research. To use the experience of conducting a large randomized controlled trial of music therapy for young people with emotional and behavioral difficulties to illustrate the strategies that can be used to optimize recruitment; to report on the success or otherwise of those strategies; and to draw general conclusions about the most effective approaches. Review of the methodological literature, and a narrative account and realist analysis of the recruitment process. The strategies adopted led to the achievement of the recruitment target of 250 subjects, but only with an extension to the recruitment period. In the pre-protocol stage of the research, these strategies included the engagement of non-music therapy clinical investigators, and extensive consultation with clinical stakeholders. In the protocol development and initial recruitment stages, they involved a search of systematic reviews of factors leading to under-recruitment and of interventions to promote recruitment, and the incorporation of their insights into the research protocol and practices. In the latter stages of recruitment, various stakeholders including clinicians, senior managers and participant representatives were consulted in an attempt to uncover the reasons for the low recruitment levels that the research was experiencing. The primary mechanisms to promote recruitment are education, facilitation, audit and feedback, and time allowed. The primary contextual factors affecting the effectiveness of these mechanisms are professional culture and organizational support. © the American Music Therapy Association 2014. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Promotion of healthy nutrition among students participating in a school food aid program: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zota, Dina; Dalma, Archontoula; Petralias, Athanassios; Lykou, Anastasia; Kastorini, Christina-Maria; Yannakoulia, Mary; Karnaki, Pania; Belogianni, Katerina; Veloudaki, Afroditi; Riza, Elena; Malik, Rhea; Linos, Athena

    2016-06-01

    To evaluate the potential benefits on students' eating habits, of incorporating healthy nutrition education as part of a school food aid program. 146 schools participating in the DIATROFI Program in Greece during the 2013-2014 school year were randomly allocated to the environmental intervention (received a healthy daily meal) and the multicomponent intervention (MI) group (in addition to the meal, a healthy nutrition educational program was applied). The analysis, based on 3627 pre-post intervention questionnaire pairs, was stratified for children (ages 4-11 years) and adolescents (ages 12-18 years). Children participating in the MI group displayed 25 % higher odds of increasing the weekly consumption of milk/yoghurt and fruits, 61 % higher odds of improving BMI from overweight/obese to normal and 2.5 times higher odds of improving from underweight to normal. For adolescents in the MI group, the odds of increasing the consumption of vegetables were 40 % higher. In both intervention groups, approximately one in four overweight/obese adolescents reached normal weight. Educational programs on healthy nutrition might be considered worth implementing in the framework of school food aid programs.

  8. Random sample community-based health surveys: does the effort to reach participants matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messiah, Antoine; Castro, Grettel; Rodríguez de la Vega, Pura; Acuna, Juan M

    2014-12-15

    Conducting health surveys with community-based random samples are essential to capture an otherwise unreachable population, but these surveys can be biased if the effort to reach participants is insufficient. This study determines the desirable amount of effort to minimise such bias. A household-based health survey with random sampling and face-to-face interviews. Up to 11 visits, organised by canvassing rounds, were made to obtain an interview. Single-family homes in an underserved and understudied population in North Miami-Dade County, Florida, USA. Of a probabilistic sample of 2200 household addresses, 30 corresponded to empty lots, 74 were abandoned houses, 625 households declined to participate and 265 could not be reached and interviewed within 11 attempts. Analyses were performed on the 1206 remaining households. Each household was asked if any of their members had been told by a doctor that they had high blood pressure, heart disease including heart attack, cancer, diabetes, anxiety/ depression, obesity or asthma. Responses to these questions were analysed by the number of visit attempts needed to obtain the interview. Return per visit fell below 10% after four attempts, below 5% after six attempts and below 2% after eight attempts. As the effort increased, household size decreased, while household income and the percentage of interviewees active and employed increased; proportion of the seven health conditions decreased, four of which did so significantly: heart disease 20.4-9.2%, high blood pressure 63.5-58.1%, anxiety/depression 24.4-9.2% and obesity 21.8-12.6%. Beyond the fifth attempt, however, cumulative percentages varied by less than 1% and precision varied by less than 0.1%. In spite of the early and steep drop, sustaining at least five attempts to reach participants is necessary to reduce selection bias. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  9. A multimedia consent tool for research participants in the Gambia: a randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Nuala; D’Alessandro, Umberto; Kampmann, Beate; Imoukhuede, Egeruan B; Ravinetto, Raffaella M; Alexander, Neal; Larson, Heidi J; Chandramohan, Daniel; Bojang, Kalifa

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To assess the effectiveness of a multimedia informed consent tool for adults participating in a clinical trial in the Gambia. Methods Adults eligible for inclusion in a malaria treatment trial (n = 311) were randomized to receive information needed for informed consent using either a multimedia tool (intervention arm) or a standard procedure (control arm). A computerized, audio questionnaire was used to assess participants’ comprehension of informed consent. This was done immediately after consent had been obtained (at day 0) and at subsequent follow-up visits (days 7, 14, 21 and 28). The acceptability and ease of use of the multimedia tool were assessed in focus groups. Findings On day 0, the median comprehension score in the intervention arm was 64% compared with 40% in the control arm (P = 0.042). The difference remained significant at all follow-up visits. Poorer comprehension was independently associated with female sex (odds ratio, OR: 0.29; 95% confidence interval, CI: 0.12–0.70) and residing in Jahaly rather than Basse province (OR: 0.33; 95% CI: 0.13–0.82). There was no significant independent association with educational level. The risk that a participant’s comprehension score would drop to half of the initial value was lower in the intervention arm (hazard ratio 0.22, 95% CI: 0.16–0.31). Overall, 70% (42/60) of focus group participants from the intervention arm found the multimedia tool clear and easy to understand. Conclusion A multimedia informed consent tool significantly improved comprehension and retention of consent information by research participants with low levels of literacy. PMID:26229203

  10. Effects of cervical spine manual therapy on range of motion, head repositioning, and balance in participants with cervicogenic dizziness: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Susan A; Callister, Robin; Katekar, Michael G; Rivett, Darren A

    2014-09-01

    To evaluate and compare the effects of 2 manual therapy interventions on cervical spine range of motion (ROM), head repositioning accuracy, and balance in patients with chronic cervicogenic dizziness. Randomized controlled trial with 12-week follow-up using blinded outcome assessment. University School of Health Sciences. Participants (N=86; mean age ± SD, 62.0 ± 12.7 y; 50% women) with chronic cervicogenic dizziness. Participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups: sustained natural apophyseal glides (SNAGs) with self-SNAG exercises, passive joint mobilization (PJM) with ROM exercises, or a placebo. Participants each received 2 to 6 treatments over 6 weeks. Cervical ROM, head repositioning accuracy, and balance. SNAG therapy resulted in improved (P ≤.05) cervical spine ROM in all 6 physiological cervical spine movement directions immediately posttreatment and at 12 weeks. Treatment with PJM resulted in improvement in 1 of the 6 cervical movement directions posttreatment and 1 movement direction at 12 weeks. There was a greater improvement (PManual therapy had no effect on balance or head repositioning accuracy. SNAG treatment improved cervical ROM, and the effects were maintained for 12 weeks after treatment. PJM had very limited impact on cervical ROM. There was no conclusive effect of SNAGs or PJMs on joint repositioning accuracy or balance in people with cervicogenic dizziness. Copyright © 2014 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of survey instrument on participation in a follow-up study: a randomization study of a mailed questionnaire versus a computer-assisted telephone interview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocheleau Carissa M

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many epidemiological and public health surveys report increasing difficulty obtaining high participation rates. We conducted a pilot follow-up study to determine whether a mailed or telephone survey would better facilitate data collection in a subset of respondents to an earlier telephone survey conducted as part of the National Birth Defects Prevention Study. Methods We randomly assigned 392 eligible mothers to receive a self-administered, mailed questionnaire (MQ or a computer-assisted telephone interview (CATI using similar recruitment protocols. If mothers gave permission to contact the fathers, fathers were recruited to complete the same instrument (MQ or CATI as mothers. Results Mothers contacted for the MQ, within all demographic strata examined, were more likely to participate than those contacted for the CATI (86.6% vs. 70.6%. The median response time for mothers completing the MQ was 17 days, compared to 29 days for mothers completing the CATI. Mothers completing the MQ also required fewer reminder calls or letters to finish participation versus those assigned to the CATI (median 3 versus 6, though they were less likely to give permission to contact the father (75.0% vs. 85.8%. Fathers contacted for the MQ, however, had higher participation compared to fathers contacted for the CATI (85.2% vs. 54.5%. Fathers recruited to the MQ also had a shorter response time (median 17 days and required fewer reminder calls and letters (median 3 reminders than those completing the CATI (medians 28 days and 6 reminders. Conclusions We concluded that offering a MQ substantially improved participation rates and reduced recruitment effort compared to a CATI in this study. While a CATI has the advantage of being able to clarify answers to complex questions or eligibility requirements, our experience suggests that a MQ might be a good survey option for some studies.

  12. Assignment of adverse event indexing terms in randomized clinical trials involving spinal manipulative therapy: an audit of records in MEDLINE and EMBASE databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorrell, Lindsay M; Engel, Roger M; Lystad, Reidar P; Brown, Benjamin T

    2017-03-14

    Reporting of adverse events in randomized clinical trials (RCTs) is encouraged by the authors of The Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) statement. With robust methodological design and adequate reporting, RCTs have the potential to provide useful evidence on the incidence of adverse events associated with spinal manipulative therapy (SMT). During a previous investigation, it became apparent that comprehensive search strategies combining text words with indexing terms was not sufficiently sensitive for retrieving records that were known to contain reports on adverse events. The aim of this analysis was to compare the proportion of articles containing data on adverse events associated with SMT that were indexed in MEDLINE and/or EMBASE and the proportion of those that included adverse event-related words in their title or abstract. A sample of 140 RCT articles previously identified as containing data on adverse events associated with SMT was used. Articles were checked to determine if: (1) they had been indexed with relevant terms describing adverse events in the MEDLINE and EMBASE databases; and (2) they mentioned adverse events (or any related terms) in the title or abstract. Of the 140 papers, 91% were MEDLINE records, 85% were EMBASE records, 81% were found in both MEDLINE and EMBASE records, and 4% were not in either database. Only 19% mentioned adverse event-related text words in the title or abstract. There was no significant difference between MEDLINE and EMBASE records in the proportion of available papers (p = 0.078). Of the 113 papers that were found in both MEDLINE and EMBASE records, only 3% had adverse event-related indexing terms assigned to them in both databases, while 81% were not assigned an adverse event-related indexing term in either database. While there was effective indexing of RCTs involving SMT in the MEDLINE and EMBASE databases, there was a failure of allocation of adverse event indexing terms in both databases. We

  13. Assignment of adverse event indexing terms in randomized clinical trials involving spinal manipulative therapy: an audit of records in MEDLINE and EMBASE databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay M. Gorrell

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reporting of adverse events in randomized clinical trials (RCTs is encouraged by the authors of The Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT statement. With robust methodological design and adequate reporting, RCTs have the potential to provide useful evidence on the incidence of adverse events associated with spinal manipulative therapy (SMT. During a previous investigation, it became apparent that comprehensive search strategies combining text words with indexing terms was not sufficiently sensitive for retrieving records that were known to contain reports on adverse events. The aim of this analysis was to compare the proportion of articles containing data on adverse events associated with SMT that were indexed in MEDLINE and/or EMBASE and the proportion of those that included adverse event-related words in their title or abstract. Methods A sample of 140 RCT articles previously identified as containing data on adverse events associated with SMT was used. Articles were checked to determine if: (1 they had been indexed with relevant terms describing adverse events in the MEDLINE and EMBASE databases; and (2 they mentioned adverse events (or any related terms in the title or abstract. Results Of the 140 papers, 91% were MEDLINE records, 85% were EMBASE records, 81% were found in both MEDLINE and EMBASE records, and 4% were not in either database. Only 19% mentioned adverse event-related text words in the title or abstract. There was no significant difference between MEDLINE and EMBASE records in the proportion of available papers (p = 0.078. Of the 113 papers that were found in both MEDLINE and EMBASE records, only 3% had adverse event-related indexing terms assigned to them in both databases, while 81% were not assigned an adverse event-related indexing term in either database. Conclusions While there was effective indexing of RCTs involving SMT in the MEDLINE and EMBASE databases, there was a failure of

  14. Strategy-Proof Stochastic Assignment

    OpenAIRE

    Erdil, A.

    2013-01-01

    I study strategy-proof assignment mechanisms where the agents reveal their preference rankings over the available objects. A stochastic mechanism returns lotteries over deterministic assignments, and mechanisms are compared according to first-order stochastic dominance. I show that non-wasteful strategy-proof mechanisms are not dominated by strategy-proof mechanisms, however nonwastefulness is highly restrictive when the mechanism involves randomization. In fact, the Random Priority mechanism...

  15. Expressive writing and positive writing for participants with mood disorders: an online randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baikie, Karen A; Geerligs, Liesbeth; Wilhelm, Kay

    2012-02-01

    Expressive writing--writing about traumatic, stressful or emotional events--often leads to improvements in physical and psychological health in non-clinical and clinical populations. Recent studies have shown that positive writing may also be beneficial. Research has not yet investigated whether either expressive writing or positive writing offers benefits for people with mood disorders. Participants were recruited online and were randomly allocated to expressive writing, positive writing or control writing. The following questionnaires were completed online: Centre for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D), Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS), Pennebaker Inventory of Limbic Languidness (PILL), overall health questions, Temperament and Personality Questionnaire (TPQ) and COPE Inventory (COPE). Participants then wrote for 20 min on 4 occasions, and then completed follow-up questionnaires. Linear mixed models with custom contrasts were conducted to assess differences between groups and over time. All 3 groups showed significant improvements over time on mental health and some physical health outcomes. There were no significant differences between groups and no significant group by time interactions. These results were not moderated by demographic factors, personality subtypes or coping styles. The expressive writing, positive writing and time management control writing groups all reported significantly fewer mental and physical symptoms for at least 4 months post-writing. When expressive and positive writing groups were combined, the resulting `emotional writing group' showed significantly lower scores on the DASS stress subscale than the control writing group at all time-points. Potential reasons are discussed and areas of further study identified. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Measles virus antibody responses in children randomly assigned to receive standard-titer edmonston-zagreb measles vaccine at 4.5 and 9 months of age, 9 months of age, or 9 and 18 months of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, Cesario; Garly, May-Lill; Bale, Carlitos

    2014-01-01

    The World Health Organization recommends administration of measles vaccine (MV) at age 9 months in low-income countries. We tested the measles virus antibody response at 4.5, 9, 18, and 24 months of age for children randomly assigned to receive standard-titer Edmonston-Zagreb MV at 4.5 and 9 months...

  17. Adolescent Substance Use in the Multimodal Treatment Study of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) (MTA) as a Function of Childhood ADHD, Random Assignment to Childhood Treatments, and Subsequent Medication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Brooke S. G.; Hinshaw, Stephen P.; Arnold, L. Eugene; Swanson, James M.; Pelham, William E.; Hechtman, Lily; Hoza, Betsy; Epstein, Jeffery N.; Wigal, Timothy; Abikoff, Howard B.; Greenhill, Laurence L.; Jensen, Peter S.; Wells, Karen C.; Vitiello, Benedetto; Gibbons, Robert D.; Howard, Andrea; Houck, Patricia R.; Hur, Kwan; Lu, Bo; Marcus, Sue

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine long-term effects on substance use and substance use disorder (SUD), up to 8 years after childhood enrollment, of the randomly assigned 14-month treatments in the multisite Multimodal Treatment Study of Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (MTA; n = 436); to test whether medication at follow-up, cumulative…

  18. More Than A Meal? A Randomized Control Trial Comparing the Effects of Home-Delivered Meals Programs on Participants' Feelings of Loneliness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Kali S; Akobundu, Ucheoma; Dosa, David

    2016-11-01

    Nutrition service providers are seeking alternative delivery models to control costs and meet the growing need for home-delivered meals. The objective of this study was to evaluate the extent to which the home-delivered meals program, and the type of delivery model, reduces homebound older adults' feelings of loneliness. This project utilizes data from a three-arm, fixed randomized control study conducted with 626 seniors on waiting lists at eight Meals on Wheels programs across the United States. Seniors were randomly assigned to either (i) receive daily meal delivery; (ii) receive once-weekly meal delivery; or (iii) remain on the waiting list. Participants were surveyed at baseline and again at 15 weeks. Analysis of covariance was used to test for differences in loneliness between groups, over time and logistic regression was used to assess differences in self-rated improvement in loneliness. Participants receiving meals had lower adjusted loneliness scores at follow-up compared with the control group. Individuals who received daily-delivered meals were more likely to self-report that home-delivered meals improved their loneliness than the group receiving once-weekly delivered meals. This article includes important implications for organizations that provide home-delivered meals in terms of cost, delivery modality, and potential recipient benefits. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Gerontological Society of America 2015. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  19. Predictors of long-term benzodiazepine abstinence in participants of a randomized controlled benzodiazepine withdrawal program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voshaar, Richard C Oude; Gorgels, Wim J; Mol, Audrey J; van Balkom, Anton J; Mulder, Jan; van de Lisdonk, Eloy H; Breteler, Marinus H; Zitman, Frans G

    2006-06-01

    To identify predictors of resumed benzodiazepine use after participation in a benzodiazepine discontinuation trial. We performed multiple Cox regression analyses to predict the long-term outcome of a 3-condition, randomized, controlled benzodiazepine discontinuation trial in general practice. Of 180 patients, we completed follow-up for 170 (94%). Of these, 50 (29%) achieved long-term success, defined as no use of benzodiazepines during follow-up. Independent predictors of success were as follows: offering a taper-off program with group therapy (hazard ratio [HR] 2.4; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.5 to 3.9) or without group therapy (HR 2.9; 95% CI, 1.8 to 4.8); a lower daily benzodiazepine dosage at the start of tapering off (HR 1.5; 95% CI, 1.2 to 1.9); a substantial dosage reduction by patients themselves just before the start of tapering off (HR 2.1; 95% CI, 1.4 to 3.3); less severe benzodiazepine dependence, as measured by the Benzodiazepine Dependence Self-Report Questionnaire Lack of Compliance subscale (HR 2.4; 95%CI, 1.1 to 5.2); and no use of alcohol (HR 1.7; 95% CI, 1.2 to 2.5). Patients who used over 10 mg of diazepam equivalent, who had a score of 3 or more on the Lack of Compliance subscale, or who drank more than 2 units of alcohol daily failed to achieve long-term abstinence. Benzodiazepine dependence severity affects long-term taper outcome independent of treatment modality, benzodiazepine dosage, psychopathology, and personality characteristics. An identifiable subgroup needs referral to specialized care.

  20. Barriers to participation in surgical randomized controlled trials in pediatric urology: A qualitative study of key stakeholder perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vemulakonda, Vijaya M; Jones, Jacqueline

    2016-06-01

    Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are considered the gold standard for assessing treatment efficacy. However, pediatric surgical RCTs have been limited in their ability to recruit patients. The purpose of this study was to identify barriers and motivators to pediatric participation in surgical RCTs. We conducted a series of two focus groups with parents and one focus group with urology providers for children aged ethical research by both parents and providers. While some parents are open to participation in surgical RCTs, providers and parents of children with hydronephrosis feel discomfort with the element of chance in surgical randomized trials. Parents and providers are more likely to participate in observational studies where treatment decisions may be made jointly by the physician and the parent. These findings suggest that pragmatic trial strategies with the option for participation in an observational cohort may improve recruitment of pediatric patients into surgical clinical trials. Copyright © 2015 Journal of Pediatric Urology Company. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Improving educational quality through enhancing community participation: results from a randomized field experiment in Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pradhan, M.; Suryadarma, D.; Beatty, A.; Wong, M.; Alishjabana, A.; Gaduh, A.

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluates the effect of four randomized interventions aimed at strengthening school committees, and subsequently improving learning outcomes, in public primary schools in Indonesia. All study schools were randomly allocated to either a control group receiving no intervention, or to

  2. Effects of Students' Participation in Authoring of Multimedia Materials on Student Acquisition of Vocabulary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolova, Ofelia R.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated the effects on vocabulary acquisition of student participation in authoring a multimedia institutional module. Sixty-two subjects were randomly assigned to two groups, and each group was randomly assigned to one of two treatments. Showed evidence that students learn vocabulary significantly better when they participate in the creation…

  3. Immediate Changes in Resting and Contracted Thickness of Transversus Abdominis After Dry Needling of Lumbar Multifidus in Healthy Participants: A Randomized Controlled Crossover Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puentedura, Emilio J; Buckingham, Sarah J; Morton, Daniella; Montoya, Crystal; Fernandez de Las Penas, Cesar

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate changes in resting and/or contraction thickness of the transversus abdominis (TrA) muscle after dry needling (DN) of the lumbar multifidus (LM) in asymptomatic participants. A randomized controlled laboratory trial with crossover design was performed. Forty-seven healthy individuals who had not experienced low back pain in the previous 6 months were randomly assigned to receive DN to the LM or a sham-DN intervention. Participants received both interventions separated at least 7 days apart. They were instructed on how to perform a concentric contraction of TrA. Resting and contraction thicknesses of the TrA were obtained through real-time ultrasound measurements before and immediately after each intervention by an assessor blinded to the intervention received. Data from 4 individuals had to be excluded because of poor image quality. Two-way analysis of variance revealed a significant contraction with treatment interaction (F[1,42] = 11.489; P = .002). Simple main effects using paired-samples t tests and a Bonferroni post hoc analysis revealed differences in contracted states of the TrA for DN vs sham-DN (P = .009) and between contracted and resting states for the DN group (P = .001): after DN, TrA thickness at rest exhibited a mean decrease of 0.03 cm and a mean increase of 0.05 cm during contraction. This study suggests that application of DN to LM was accompanied by a decreased resting thickness and an increased contraction thickness of the TrA in asymptomatic participants. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Effect of calorie or exercise labels on menus on calories and macronutrients ordered and calories from specific foods in Hispanic participants: a randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Meena; Bouza, Brooke; Adams-Huet, Beverley; Jaffery, Manall; Esposito, Phil; Dart, Lyn

    2016-12-01

    The effect of menu labels on food choices is unknown in Hispanics. This study evaluated the impact of menu labels on calories and macronutrients ordered in Hispanics. 372 Hispanics (18-65 years) were randomly assigned to menus with no labels (NL) (n=127), rank-ordered calorie labels plus a statement on energy needs per meal (CL) (n=123), or rank-ordered exercise labels showing minutes of brisk walking necessary to burn the food calories (EL) (n=122). The menus had identical food choices. Participants were instructed to select foods from the assigned menu as if having lunch in a fast food restaurant. One-way analysis of variance found no difference in calories ordered (median (25th and 75th centiles)) by menu condition (NL: 785.0 (465.0, 1010.0) kcal; CL: 790.0 (510.0, 1020.0) kcal; EL: 752.5 (520.0, 1033.8) kcal; p=0.75). Calories from specific foods and macronutrient intake were not different by menu condition. Menu label use was 26.8% in the CL and 25.4% in the EL condition. Calories ordered were not different between those who used and those who did not use the labels. Regression analysis showed that perception of being overweight (p=0.02), selecting foods based on health value (pcalories ordered. Logistic regression showed that selecting foods based on health value (p=0.01) was associated with higher food label use. Menu labels did not affect food choices in Hispanic participants. Future studies should determine if nutrition, exercise, and weight perception counseling prior to menu labels intervention would result in better food choices. NCT02804503; post-results. Copyright © 2016 American Federation for Medical Research.

  5. Blocked Randomization with Randomly Selected Block Sizes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimmy Efird

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available When planning a randomized clinical trial, careful consideration must be given to how participants are selected for various arms of a study. Selection and accidental bias may occur when participants are not assigned to study groups with equal probability. A simple random allocation scheme is a process by which each participant has equal likelihood of being assigned to treatment versus referent groups. However, by chance an unequal number of individuals may be assigned to each arm of the study and thus decrease the power to detect statistically significant differences between groups. Block randomization is a commonly used technique in clinical trial design to reduce bias and achieve balance in the allocation of participants to treatment arms, especially when the sample size is small. This method increases the probability that each arm will contain an equal number of individuals by sequencing participant assignments by block. Yet still, the allocation process may be predictable, for example, when the investigator is not blind and the block size is fixed. This paper provides an overview of blocked randomization and illustrates how to avoid selection bias by using random block sizes.

  6. Blocked randomization with randomly selected block sizes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efird, Jimmy

    2011-01-01

    When planning a randomized clinical trial, careful consideration must be given to how participants are selected for various arms of a study. Selection and accidental bias may occur when participants are not assigned to study groups with equal probability. A simple random allocation scheme is a process by which each participant has equal likelihood of being assigned to treatment versus referent groups. However, by chance an unequal number of individuals may be assigned to each arm of the study and thus decrease the power to detect statistically significant differences between groups. Block randomization is a commonly used technique in clinical trial design to reduce bias and achieve balance in the allocation of participants to treatment arms, especially when the sample size is small. This method increases the probability that each arm will contain an equal number of individuals by sequencing participant assignments by block. Yet still, the allocation process may be predictable, for example, when the investigator is not blind and the block size is fixed. This paper provides an overview of blocked randomization and illustrates how to avoid selection bias by using random block sizes.

  7. Perception of young adults with sickle cell disease or sickle cell trait about participation in the CHOICES randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershberger, Patricia E; Gallo, Agatha M; Molokie, Robert; Thompson, Alexis A; Suarez, Marie L; Yao, Yingwei; Wilkie, Diana J

    2016-06-01

    To gain an in-depth understanding of the perceptions of young adults with sickle cell disease and sickle cell trait about parenthood and participating in the CHOICES randomized controlled trial that used computer-based, educational programmes. In the USA, there is insufficient education to assure that all young adults with sickle cell disease or sickle cell trait understand genetic inheritance risks and reproductive options to make informed reproductive decisions. To address this educational need, we developed a computer-based, multimedia program (CHOICES) and reformatted usual care into a computer-based (e-Book) program. We then conducted a two-year randomized controlled trial that included a qualitative component that would deepen understanding of young adults' perceptions of parenthood and use of computer-based, educational programmes. A qualitative descriptive approach completed after a randomized controlled trial. Sixty-eight men and women of childbearing age participated in semi-structured interviews at the completion of the randomized controlled trial from 2012-2013. Thematic content analysis guided the qualitative description. Three main themes were identified: (1) increasing knowledge and new ways of thinking and behaving; (2) rethinking parenting plans; and (3) appraising the program design and delivery. Most participants reported increased knowledge and rethinking of their parenting plans and were supportive of computer-based learning. Some participants expressed difficulty in determining individual transmission risks. Participants perceived the computer programs as beneficial to their learning. Future development of an Internet-based educational programme is warranted, with emphasis on providing tailored education or memory boosters about individual transmission risks. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Participant-selected music and physical activity in older adults following cardiac rehabilitation: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Imogen N; Baker, Felicity A; Peiris, Casey L; Shoebridge, Georgie; Taylor, Nicholas F

    2017-03-01

    To evaluate effects of participant-selected music on older adults' achievement of activity levels recommended in the physical activity guidelines following cardiac rehabilitation. A parallel group randomized controlled trial with measurements at Weeks 0, 6 and 26. A multisite outpatient rehabilitation programme of a publicly funded metropolitan health service. Adults aged 60 years and older who had completed a cardiac rehabilitation programme. Experimental participants selected music to support walking with guidance from a music therapist. Control participants received usual care only. The primary outcome was the proportion of participants achieving activity levels recommended in physical activity guidelines. Secondary outcomes compared amounts of physical activity, exercise capacity, cardiac risk factors, and exercise self-efficacy. A total of 56 participants, mean age 68.2 years (SD = 6.5), were randomized to the experimental ( n = 28) and control groups ( n = 28). There were no differences between groups in proportions of participants achieving activity recommended in physical activity guidelines at Week 6 or 26. Secondary outcomes demonstrated between-group differences in male waist circumference at both measurements (Week 6 difference -2.0 cm, 95% CI -4.0 to 0; Week 26 difference -2.8 cm, 95% CI -5.4 to -0.1), and observed effect sizes favoured the experimental group for amounts of physical activity (d = 0.30), exercise capacity (d = 0.48), and blood pressure (d = -0.32). Participant-selected music did not increase the proportion of participants achieving recommended amounts of physical activity, but may have contributed to exercise-related benefits.

  9. Local radial basis function meshless scheme for vector radiative transfer in participating media with randomly oriented axisymmetric particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jie; Yi, Hong-Liang; Tan, He-Ping

    2016-02-20

    A local radial basis function meshless scheme (LRBFM) is developed to solve polarized radiative transfer in participating media containing randomly oriented axisymmetric particles in which radial basis functions augmented with polynomial basis are employed to construct the trial functions, and the vector radiative-transfer equation based on the discrete-ordinates approach is discretized directly by collocation method. The LRBFM belongs to a class of truly meshless methods that do not need any mesh or any numerical integration scheme. Performances of the LRBFM are verified with analytical solutions and other numerical results reported earlier in the literature via five various test cases. The predicted angular distribution of brightness temperature and Stokes vector by the LRBFM agree very well with the benchmark. It is demonstrated that the LRBFM is accurate to solve vector radiative transfer in participating media with randomly oriented axisymmetric particles.

  10. Use of participant focus groups to identify barriers and facilitators to worksite exercise therapy adherence in randomized controlled trials involving firefighters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayer JM

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available John M Mayer,1 James L Nuzzo,1 Simon Dagenais2 1School of Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation Sciences, College of Medicine, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, 2Palladian Health, West Seneca, NY, USA Background: Firefighters are at increased risk for back injuries, which may be mitigated through exercise therapy to increase trunk muscle endurance. However, long-term adherence to exercise therapy is generally poor, limiting its potential benefits. Focus groups can be used to identify key barriers and facilitators to exercise adherence among study participants. Objective: To explore barriers and facilitators to worksite exercise therapy adherence among firefighters to inform future randomized controlled trials (RCTs. Methods: Participants enrolled in a previous RCT requiring twice-weekly worksite exercise therapy for 24 weeks were asked to take part in moderated focus group discussions centered on eight open-ended questions related to exercise adherence. Responses were analyzed qualitatively using a social ecological framework to identify key intrapersonal, interpersonal, and institutional barriers and potential facilitators to exercise adherence. Results: A total of 27 participants were included in the four focus group discussions, representing 50% of those assigned to a worksite exercise therapy group in the previous RCT, in which only 67% of scheduled exercise therapy sessions were completed. Lack of self-motivation was cited as the key intrapersonal barrier to adherence, while lack of peer support was the key interpersonal barrier reported, and lack of time to exercise during work shifts was the key institutional barrier identified. Conclusion: Focus group discussions identified both key barriers and potential facilitators to increase worksite exercise therapy adherence among firefighters. Future studies should consider educating and reminding participants about the benefits of exercise, providing individual and group incentives based on

  11. Progestogens to prevent preterm birth in twin pregnancies: an individual participant data meta-analysis of randomized trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schuit Ewoud

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Preterm birth is the principal factor contributing to adverse outcomes in multiple pregnancies. Randomized controlled trials of progestogens to prevent preterm birth in twin pregnancies have shown no clear benefits. However, individual studies have not had sufficient power to evaluate potential benefits in women at particular high risk of early delivery (for example, women with a previous preterm birth or short cervix or to determine adverse effects for rare outcomes such as intrauterine death. Methods/design We propose an individual participant data meta-analysis of high quality randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials of progestogen treatment in women with a twin pregnancy. The primary outcome will be adverse perinatal outcome (a composite measure of perinatal mortality and significant neonatal morbidity. Missing data will be imputed within each original study, before data of the individual studies are pooled. The effects of 17-hydroxyprogesterone caproate or vaginal progesterone treatment in women with twin pregnancies will be estimated by means of a random effects log-binomial model. Analyses will be adjusted for variables used in stratified randomization as appropriate. Pre-specified subgroup analysis will be performed to explore the effect of progestogen treatment in high-risk groups. Discussion Combining individual patient data from different randomized trials has potential to provide valuable, clinically useful information regarding the benefits and potential harms of progestogens in women with twin pregnancy overall and in relevant subgroups.

  12. Effects of a Safe Transportation Educational Program for Older Drivers on Driving Exposure and Community Participation: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coxon, Kristy; Chevalier, Anna; Brown, Julie; Clarke, Elizabeth; Billot, Laurent; Boufous, Soufiane; Ivers, Rebecca; Keay, Lisa

    2017-03-01

    To ascertain whether a safe-transportation program can change driving exposure while maintaining community participation of older drivers. Randomized controlled trial. Northwest Sydney. Drivers aged 75 and older (mean 80 ± 4) (n = 380). Intervention group participated in an individualized, one-on-one safe-transportation program adapted from the Knowledge Enhances Your Safety curriculum. A registered occupational therapist delivered the intervention in two sessions held approximately 1 month apart. An in-vehicle monitoring device hardwired into participants' vehicles measured driving exposure. Community participation was measured using the Keele Assessment of Participation. A staging algorithm based on the Precaution Adoption Process Model measured behavior change toward increased and sustained driving self-regulation. Main outcomes were distance driven per week over 12 months and community participation. Secondary outcomes were behavior change, depressive symptoms, and alternate transportation use. Generalized estimating equations were used to model effect on driving exposure, adjusting for weekly measures, and ordinal regression was used to analyze differences in behavior change profiles between groups using an intention-to-treat approach. Participants were randomized after baseline assessment-190 each to the intervention and control groups. One hundred eighty-three of 190 completed the intervention and 366 of 380 completed the study. On average, participants drove 140 ± 167 km/wk. Although there was no significant difference between the groups in distance driven per week over 12 months (between-group difference -5.5 km, 95% confidence interval (CI) = -24.5-13.5 km, p = .57), intervention group participants showed greater readiness to engage in self-regulatory driving practices, such as reporting avoiding driving at night or at rush hours, than control group participants (odds ratio (OR) = 1.6, 95% CI = 1.1-2.3, P = .02). At 12 months, use of alternate

  13. Randomized, placebo-controlled trial of bupropion in methamphetamine-dependent participants with less than daily methamphetamine use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinzerling, Keith G; Swanson, Aimee-Noelle; Hall, Timothy M; Yi, Yi; Wu, Yingnian; Shoptaw, Steven J

    2014-11-01

    Two previous randomized trials found an effect for bupropion in reducing methamphetamine use in the subgroup with lower frequency of methamphetamine use at baseline. This study aimed to replicate these results by comparing bupropion versus placebo in methamphetamine-dependent participants with less than daily methamphetamine use at baseline. Methamphetamine-dependent volunteers reporting methamphetamine use on ≤29 of past 30 days were randomized to bupropion 150 mg twice daily (n = 41) or placebo (n = 43) and out-patient counseling for 12 weeks. The primary outcome was the proportion achieving end-of-treatment (EOT) methamphetamine abstinence (weeks 11 and 12) for bupropion versus placebo. A post-hoc analysis compared EOT abstinence by medication adherence assessed via plasma bupropion/hydroxybupropion level. There was no significant difference in EOT abstinence between bupropion (29%, 12 of 41) and placebo (14%, six of 43; P = 0.087). Among participants receiving bupropion, EOT abstinence was significantly higher in participants assessed as medication adherent by plasma bupropion/hydroxybupropion levels (54%, seven of 13) compared to non-adherent participants (18%, five of 28; P = 0.018). Medication adherence by plasma levels was low (32%). Bupropion may be efficacious for reducing methamphetamine in people with less than daily baseline methamphetamine use, but the evidence remains inconclusive. © 2014 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  14. Assigning agents to a line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Moreno-Ternero, Juan D.; Østerdal, Lars Peter Raahave

    2014-01-01

    minimizing modification of the classic random priority method to solve this class of problems. We also provide some logical relations in our setting among standard axioms in the literature on assignment problems, and explore the robustness of our results to several extensions of our setting....

  15. Music preferences of mechanically ventilated patients participating in a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiderscheit, Annie; Breckenridge, Stephanie J; Chlan, Linda L; Savik, Kay

    2014-01-01

    Mechanical ventilation (MV) is a life-saving measure and supportive modality utilized to treat patients experiencing respiratory failure. Patients experience pain, discomfort, and anxiety as a result of being mechanically ventilated. Music listening is a non-pharmacological intervention used to manage these psychophysiological symptoms associated with mechanical ventilation. The purpose of this secondary analysis was to examine music preferences of 107 MV patients enrolled in a randomized clinical trial that implemented a patient-directed music listening protocol to help manage the psychophysiological symptom of anxiety. Music data presented includes the music genres and instrumentation patients identified as their preferred music. Genres preferred include: classical, jazz, rock, country, and oldies. Instrumentation preferred include: piano, voice, guitar, music with nature sounds, and orchestral music. Analysis of three patients' preferred music received throughout the course of the study is illustrated to demonstrate the complexity of assessing MV patients and the need for an ongoing assessment process.

  16. Music preferences of mechanically ventilated patients participating in a randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiderscheit, Annie; Breckenridge, Stephanie J.; Chlan, Linda L.; Savik, Kay

    2014-01-01

    Mechanical ventilation (MV) is a life-saving measure and supportive modality utilized to treat patients experiencing respiratory failure. Patients experience pain, discomfort, and anxiety as a result of being mechanically ventilated. Music listening is a non-pharmacological intervention used to manage these psychophysiological symptoms associated with mechanical ventilation. The purpose of this secondary analysis was to examine music preferences of 107 MV patients enrolled in a randomized clinical trial that implemented a patient-directed music listening protocol to help manage the psychophysiological symptom of anxiety. Music data presented includes the music genres and instrumentation patients identified as their preferred music. Genres preferred include: classical, jazz, rock, country, and oldies. Instrumentation preferred include: piano, voice, guitar, music with nature sounds, and orchestral music. Analysis of three patients’ preferred music received throughout the course of the study is illustrated to demonstrate the complexity of assessing MV patients and the need for an ongoing assessment process. PMID:25574992

  17. Political science. Reverse-engineering censorship in China: randomized experimentation and participant observation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Gary; Pan, Jennifer; Roberts, Margaret E

    2014-08-22

    Existing research on the extensive Chinese censorship organization uses observational methods with well-known limitations. We conducted the first large-scale experimental study of censorship by creating accounts on numerous social media sites, randomly submitting different texts, and observing from a worldwide network of computers which texts were censored and which were not. We also supplemented interviews with confidential sources by creating our own social media site, contracting with Chinese firms to install the same censoring technologies as existing sites, and--with their software, documentation, and even customer support--reverse-engineering how it all works. Our results offer rigorous support for the recent hypothesis that criticisms of the state, its leaders, and their policies are published, whereas posts about real-world events with collective action potential are censored. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  18. Biomarker pattern of ARIA-E participants in phase 3 randomized clinical trials with bapineuzumab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Enchi; Wang, Dai; Sperling, Reisa; Salloway, Stephen; Fox, Nick C; Blennow, Kaj; Scheltens, Philip; Schmidt, Mark E; Streffer, Johannes; Novak, Gerald; Einstein, Steve; Booth, Kevin; Ketter, Nzeera; Brashear, H Robert

    2018-02-02

    To evaluate whether amyloid-related imaging abnormalities with edema/effusion (ARIA-E) observed in bapineuzumab clinical trials was associated with specific biomarker patterns. Bapineuzumab, an anti-β-amyloid monoclonal antibody, was evaluated in patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer disease. Amyloid PET imaging, CSF biomarkers, or volumetric MRI (vMRI) were assessed. A total of 1,512 participants underwent one or more biomarker assessments; 154 developed incident ARIA-E. No differences were observed at baseline between ARIA-E and non-ARIA-E participants in brain amyloid burden by PET, the majority of vMRI measures, or CSF biomarkers, with the exception of lower baseline CSF Aβ 42 in APOE ε4 noncarrier ARIA-E vs non-ARIA-E groups (bapineuzumab non-ARIA-E p = 0.027; placebo non-ARIA-E p = 0.012). At week 71, bapineuzumab-treated participants with ARIA-E vs non-ARIA-E showed greater reduction in brain amyloid PET, greater reductions in CSF phosphorylated tau (p-tau) (all comparisons p E versus both non-ARIA-E groups (bapineuzumab/placebo non-ARIA-E p = 0.015/0.049). No group differences were observed at week 71 for changes in whole brain volume or CSF Aβ 42 . Baseline biomarkers largely do not predict risk for developing ARIA-E. ARIA-E was associated with significant longitudinal changes in several biomarkers, with larger reductions in amyloid PET and CSF p-tau and t-tau concentrations, and paradoxically greater hippocampal volume reduction and ventricular enlargement, suggesting that ARIA-E in bapineuzumab-treated cases may be related to increased Aβ efflux from the brain and affecting downstream pathogenic processes. © 2018 American Academy of Neurology.

  19. Assignment refusal and its relation to outcome in a randomized controlled trial comparing Cognitive Therapy and Fluvoxamine in treatment-resistant patients with obsessive compulsive disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Landsheer, J.A.; Smit, J.H.; van Oppen, P.C.; van Balkom, A.J.L.M.

    2015-01-01

    The effectiveness of Fluvoxamine was compared to that of Cognitive Therapy (CT) in a 12-week randomized controlled trial (RCT) in 48 patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), who were treatment-resistant to a previous behavior therapy (BT). A considerable amount of patients did not comply

  20. Recruiting equal numbers of indigenous and non-indigenous participants to a ‘polypill’ randomized trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Māori are disproportionately affected by cardiovascular disease (CVD), which is the main reason for the eight year difference in life expectancy between Māori and non-Māori. The primary care-based IMPACT (IMProving Adherence using Combination Therapy) trial evaluates whether fixed dose combination therapy (a “polypill”) improves adherence to guideline-based therapy compared with current care among people at high risk of CVD. Interventions shown in trials to be effective do not necessarily reduce ethnic disparities, and may in fact widen them. Indigenous populations with poorer health outcomes are often under-represented in trials so the effect of interventions cannot be assessed for them, specifically. Therefore, the IMPACT trial aimed to recruit as many Māori as non-Māori to assess the consistency of the effect of the polypill. This paper describes the methods and results of the recruitment strategy used to achieve this. Methods Experienced Māori researchers were involved in trial governance throughout trial development and conduct. The trial Steering Committee included leading Māori researchers and was committed to equal recruitment of Māori and non-Māori. Additional funding and Māori research nurses were sought to allow home-based assessment, establishment of the relationship between research nurse and participant, more family involvement prior to enrollment, continuity of the research nurse-participant relationship, and acknowledgement of other Māori culturally important procedures, interactions, language and manners. Primary care practices with high enrollment of Māori were targeted, with over-sampling of potentially eligible Māori patients, lower thresholds for screening of Māori and 6 months continued Māori recruitment after non-Māori recruitment had finished. Results A total of 257 Māori and 256 non-Māori participants were randomized. Four Māori and eight non-Māori participants were randomized per research nurse per

  1. Importance of Active Participation in Obesity Management Through Mobile Health Care Programs: Substudy of a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Bumjo; Yi, Ga-Hye; Han, Min Kyu; Kim, Jong Seung; Lee, Chang Hee; Cho, Belong; Kang, Hee Cheol

    2018-01-03

    Due to the prevalence of the westernized dietary pattern and lack of physical activity, the numbers of overweight or obese individuals are increasing, resulting in a growing health burden because of various related diseases. A lifestyle modification approach has additional advantages compared with pharmacological therapies or bariatric surgery. In our randomized controlled trial conducted in 2015, we successfully used a ubiquitous health care (SmartCare) service for patients with metabolic syndrome to achieve a significant weight loss effect. Various useful apps have been developed for the SmartCare Service, which involves using a mobile phone to manage chronic diseases, minimizing time and space restrictions. Many studies have demonstrated weight loss effects using a SmartCare service, but limited data are available regarding the effect of active participation in relation to weight loss. We aimed to assess the weight loss effect achieved after using the SmartCare service in terms of adherence and participation. We divided the intervention group of the previous study according to participation level, and analyzed whether there was a significant difference in the outcome. We classified participants into 3 groups according to their adherence. Within the intervention group using the SmartCare service, the active group comprised those transmitting anthropometric measurement data using a mobile phone 3 or more times per week or who had a health consultation 5 or more times during a 24-week period. The passive group comprised those who did not adhere to these levels of engagement. The control group comprised those who did not use the SmartCare service. We compared changes in body weight, body mass index (BMI), body fat percentage, waist circumference, and lipid profile among the 3 groups. We identified 422 participants and analyzed 405, excluding 17 who were missing necessary data for analysis. The active group consisted of 116 participants, compared with 80 in the

  2. The Family Communication Study: A randomized trial of prospective pediatric palliative care consultation, study methodology and perceptions of participation burden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starks, Helene; Doorenbos, Ardith; Lindhorst, Taryn; Bourget, Erica; Aisenberg, Eugene; Oman, Natalie; Rue, Tessa; Curtis, J Randall; Hays, Ross

    2016-07-01

    To describe the study methods, baseline characteristics and burden of study procedures of an intervention designed to reduce family stress symptoms through early support from the palliative care team. Length of stay of ≥8days was the trigger for early palliative care involvement. Cluster-randomized trial with children as the unit of randomization. Up to 3 family members per child were recruited. Family stress symptoms were recorded at baseline, discharge from the ICU, and 3months post-enrollment. Questionnaire burden was assessed on a 1-10 point scale at each time point and open-ended comments were analyzed to describe the participants' experience in the study. 380 family members of 220 children (control=115 children and 204 family members; intervention=105 children and 176 family members) were recruited, which represented 50% of all eligible families. Most family participants were parents (86% control; 92% intervention) and female (66% both groups). Retention rates were high through the 3-month follow-up: 93% and 90% for the control and intervention groups respectively. Questionnaire burden was very low: mean (sd) scores were 1.1 (1.6), 0.7 (1.5), and 0.9 (1.6) for the baseline, discharge and follow-up questionnaires, respectively. Comments suggest that participation was beneficial by promoting reflection and self-awareness about stress, coping and resilience, and feeling cared for because the intervention and questionnaires focused on their own well-being. The participants' comments regarding the focus on them as the point of intervention reflects the value of conducting research with family members of seriously ill children during ICU stays. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The Adoption of Social Media to Recruit Participants for the Cool Runnings Randomized Controlled Trial in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Jacqueline D; Kimble, Roy M; Watt, Kerrianne; Cameron, Cate M

    2017-10-24

    Using social media to recruit specific populations for research studies is gaining popularity. Given that mothers of young children are the most active on social media, and young children are the most at risk of preventable burn injuries, social media was used to recruit mothers of young children to a burn prevention intervention. The aim of this paper was to describe the social media recruitment methods used to enroll mothers of young children to the app-based burn prevention intervention Cool Runnings. Participants were recruited via paid Facebook and Instagram advertisements to a 2-group, parallel, single-blinded, randomized controlled trial (RCT). The advertisements were targeted at women 18 years and older, living in Queensland, Australia, with at least 1 child aged 5 to 12 months at the time of recruitment. Over the 30-day recruitment period from January to February 2016, Facebook and Instagram advertisements reached 65,268 people, generating 2573 link clicks, 1161 app downloads, and 498 enrolled participants to the Cool Runnings RCT. The cost per enrolled participant was Aus $13.08. Saturdays were the most effective day of the week for advertising results. The most popular time of day for enrolments was between 5 to 11 PM. This recruitment strategy campaign resulted in a broad reach of participants from regional, rural, and remote Queensland. Participants were representative of the population in regard to age and education levels. To our knowledge, this is the first use of social media recruitment for an injury prevention campaign. This recruitment method resulted in the rapid and cost-effective recruitment of participants with social, geographic, and economic diversity that were largely representative of the population.

  4. Facilitation of fear extinction in phobic participants with a novel cognitive enhancer: a randomized placebo controlled trial of yohimbine augmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Mark B; Smits, Jasper A J; Otto, Michael W; Sanders, Carlijn; Emmelkamp, Paul M G

    2009-04-01

    Preliminary animal research suggests that yohimbine hydrochloride, a selective competitive alpha2-adrenergic receptor antagonist, accelerates fear extinction and converts ineffective extinction regimens (long intertrial intervals) to effective ones. This randomized placebo controlled study examined the potential exposure enhancing effect of yohimbine hydrochloride in claustrophobic humans. Participants (71% undergraduate students and 29% community volunteers) displaying marked claustrophobic fear (n=24) were treated with 2 1-h in vivo exposure sessions. Participants were randomly allocated to take 10.8mg yohimbine hydrochloride (n=12) or placebo (n=12) prior to each exposure session. Outcome measures included peak fear during a behavioral avoidance task, the Claustrophobia Questionnaire, and the Claustrophobic Concerns Questionnaire. Results showed that both conditions improved significantly at post-treatment with no significant difference between groups. Consistent with prediction the group that took yohimbine hydrochloride prior to exposure sessions showed significantly greater improvement in peak fear at the one-week follow-up behavioral assessment (d=1.68). This was also true across other outcome measures with large to very large effect sizes. These data provide initial support for exposure enhancing effect of single-dose yohimbine hydrochloride in a clinical application.

  5. Recruiting participants to a randomized controlled trial testing an intervention in palliative cancer care - The perspectives of health care professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Maja; Alvariza, Anette; Fürst, Carl-Johan; Wengström, Yvonne; Årestedt, Kristofer; Öhlen, Joakim; Goliath, Ida

    2017-12-01

    The recruitment of participants to randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in palliative cancer care by health care professionals is often unsuccessful, which could result in failure to achieve study power. The purpose of this paper is to describe how health care professionals experienced recruiting patients and family caregivers to an RCT in palliative cancer care. The study had a qualitative explorative design. Ten palliative home care settings were involved in the RCT and data were generated through focus group discussions and interviews with health care professionals who were responsible for the recruitment. The transcripts were analyzed with interpretive descriptive principles. The experiences of the health care professionals reveal that communicating the RCT-design to patients and family caregivers was a challenging part of the recruitment but was considered a process of learning over time. The delicate situation that participants were living under added to the challenge and health care professionals believed that the randomized design was contrary to their normal approach to always offer the best possible support. The results contribute valuable knowledge for future trials in palliative cancer care. To promote successful recruitment, health care professionals may be in need of more training to improve their communication skills and it may be necessary to consider other research designs than the RCT. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Keywords to recruit Spanish- and English-speaking participants: evidence from an online postpartum depression randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrera, Alinne Z; Kelman, Alex R; Muñoz, Ricardo F

    2014-01-09

    One of the advantages of Internet-based research is the ability to efficiently recruit large, diverse samples of international participants. Currently, there is a dearth of information on the behind-the-scenes process to setting up successful online recruitment tools. The objective of the study was to examine the comparative impact of Spanish- and English-language keywords for a Google AdWords campaign to recruit pregnant women to an Internet intervention and to describe the characteristics of those who enrolled in the trial. Spanish- and English-language Google AdWords campaigns were created to advertise and recruit pregnant women to a Web-based randomized controlled trial for the prevention of postpartum depression, the Mothers and Babies/Mamás y Bebés Internet Project. Search engine users who clicked on the ads in response to keyword queries (eg, pregnancy, depression and pregnancy) were directed to the fully automated study website. Data on the performance of keywords associated with each Google ad reflect Web user queries from February 2009 to June 2012. Demographic information, self-reported depression symptom scores, major depressive episode status, and Internet use data were collected from enrolled participants before randomization in the intervention study. The Google ads received high exposure (12,983,196 impressions) and interest (176,295 clicks) from a global sample of Web users; 6745 pregnant women consented to participate and 2575 completed enrollment in the intervention study. Keywords that were descriptive of pregnancy and distress or pregnancy and health resulted in higher consent and enrollment rates (i.e., high-performing ads). In both languages, broad keywords (eg, pregnancy) had the highest exposure, more consented participants, and greatest cost per consent (up to US $25.77 per consent). The online ads recruited a predominantly Spanish-speaking sample from Latin America of Mestizo racial identity. The English-speaking sample was also diverse

  7. Coping and health-related quality of life in men with prostate cancer randomly assigned to hormonal medication or close monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Heather J; Pakenham, Kenneth I; Headley, Betty C; Gardiner, Robert A

    2002-01-01

    Prostatic carcinoma and its treatment have been associated with adverse effects on health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Individual differences in appraisal and coping have been suggested to mediate these HRQoL outcomes. A randomized trial of 65 men with non-localized prostate cancer compared several treatments and tested associations between appraisal, coping, and HRQoL. These patients, and 16 community volunteers matched for age and general health, undertook psychosocial assessments before treatment and after 6 months of treatment. Compared with baseline assessments, men on hormonal treatments reported impaired sexual function. Groups did not differ on emotional distress, existential satisfaction, subjective cognitive function, physical symptoms, or social and role functioning. For individuals, hormonal treatments were more frequently associated with decreased sexual, social and role functioning, but were also associated with improved physical symptoms. In hierarchical regression analysis, HRQoL was lower for men who had more comorbid illnesses, a history of neurological dysfunction, higher threat appraisals, or higher use of coping strategies at baseline. These results showed that pharmacological hormonal ablation for prostate cancer can improve or decrease HRQoL in different domains. HRQoL in men with prostate cancer was associated more strongly with appraisal and coping than with medical variables. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Participant recruitment and retention in longitudinal preconception randomized trials: lessons learnt from the Calcium And Pre-eclampsia (CAP) trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrie, Theresa A; Betrán, Ana Pilar; Singata-Madliki, Mandisa; Ciganda, Alvaro; Hofmeyr, G Justus; Belizán, José M; Purnat, Tina Dannemann; Manyame, Sarah; Parker, Catherine; Cormick, Gabriela

    2017-10-26

    The preconception period has the potential to influence pregnancy outcomes and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are needed to evaluate a variety of potentially beneficial preconception interventions. However, RCTs commencing before pregnancy have significant participant recruitment and retention challenges. The Calcium And Pre-eclampsia trial (CAP trial) is a World Health Organization multi-country RCT of calcium supplementation commenced before pregnancy to prevent recurrent pre-eclampsia in which non-pregnant participants are recruited and followed up until childbirth. This sub-study explores recruitment methods and preconception retention of participants of the CAP trial to inform future trials. Recruiters at the study sites in Argentina, South Africa and Zimbabwe completed post-recruitment phase questionnaires on recruitment methods used. Qualitative data from these questionnaires and quantitative data on pre-pregnancy trial visit attendance and pregnancy rates up to September 2016 are reported in this paper. RStudio (Version 0.99.903 https://www.rstudio.org ) statistical software was used for summary statistics. Between July 2011 and 8 September 2016, 1354 women with previous pre-eclampsia were recruited. Recruitment took 2 years longer than expected and was facilitated mainly through medical record/register and maternity ward/clinic-based strategies. Recruiters highlighted difficulties associated with inadequate medical records, redundant patient contact details, and follow-up of temporarily ineligible women as some of the challenges faced. Whilst the attendance rates at pre-pregnancy visits were high (78% or more), visits often occurred later than scheduled. Forty-five percent of participants became pregnant (614/1354), 33.5% (454/1354) within 1 year of randomization. In preconception trials, both retrospective and prospective methods are useful for recruiting eligible women with certain conditions. However, these are time-consuming in low

  9. Randomized intervention trial on preventive home visits to older people: baseline and follow-up characteristics of participants and non-participants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vass, Mikkel; Avlund, Kirsten; Hendriksen, Carsten

    2007-01-01

    a significantly higher mortality rate and risk of admission to nursing home than participants, whereas the subgroups of non-participants describing themselves as "too healthy" and having "another reason for refusal" did not differ from the participants. There was no difference in mortality rates between non...

  10. Comparison of participants and non-participants in a randomized study of prevention of depression in patients with acute coronary syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Baiba; Hanash, Jamal A.; Rasmussen, Alice

    2011-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of depression and anxiety in patients after acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is higher than in the general population. In a study on prevention of post-ACS depression, more than half of eligible patients declined participation. Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate...... whether symptoms of depression and anxiety in participants and non-participants predicted participation in the study. Methods: This substudy was conducted between May 2005 and April 2007. Patients with ACS, eligible for the study (n=302) were asked four questions on depression and anxiety from the Primary...... (43.9%) participants and 55 (44%) non-participants were screened positive for anxiety (NS). Non-participants were older (P=0.002), while no significant differences in gender or cardiac diagnosis were found. Conclusions: Symptoms of depression and anxiety were highly prevalent in patients after ACS...

  11. Electrical Stimulation Following Botulinum Toxin A in Children With Spastic Diplegia: A Within-Participant Randomized Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudge, Anita; Harvey, Lisa A; Lancaster, Ann; Lowe, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    To determine whether electrical stimulation (ES) following botulinum toxin A (BoNT/A) injection increases passive extensibility of the hamstring muscles in children with spastic diplegia. Six children undergoing bilateral BoNT/A injections to the hamstrings participated in this within-participant single blind randomized controlled trial. One leg of each child was randomised to the experimental condition and the other to the control condition. The experimental leg received daily stretch and ES to the hamstrings for 12 weeks, while the control leg received only daily stretch. The primary outcome was passive hamstring extensibility reflected by popliteal angle measured with a standardised torque. Secondary outcomes were two goniometric measures of popliteal angle using the Modified Tardieu Scale (R1 and R2), and parents' perceptions of treatment effectiveness. Outcomes were measured at baseline, 4 weeks, 12 weeks and 6 months. The mean between-group difference (95% CI) at 4 weeks was 2° (-2 to 5) for popliteal angle measured with a standardised torque, favouring the experimental leg. Tardieu results for R1 and R2 were 0° (-4 to 3) and 7° (0 to 14), respectively. ES does not improve passive extensibility of the hamstring muscles at 4 weeks over any possible effects of BoNT/A alone.

  12. Effects of primary caregiver participation in vestibular rehabilitation for unilateral neglect patients with right hemispheric stroke: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Chin-Ying; Huang, Yu-Hui; Chou, Li-Wei; Wu, Shiao-Chi; Wang, Ray-Yau; Lin, Li-Chan

    2013-01-01

    The current study aims to investigate the effects of primary caregiver participation in vestibular rehabilitation (VR) on improving the measures of neglect, activities of daily living (ADL), balance, and falls of unilateral neglect (UN) patients. This study is a single-blind randomized controlled trial. Both experimental (n = 24) and control groups (n = 24) received conventional rehabilitation. The experimental group undertook VR for a month. During the first and second weeks, a registered nurse trained the experimental group in VR. The primary caregivers in the experimental group supervised and guided their patients in VR during the third and fourth weeks. The outcome measures were neglect, ADL, balance, and falls. The two groups of UN patients showed a significant improvement in neglect, ADL, and balance over time. Based on the generalized estimating equations model, an interaction was observed between groups and times. Significant interactions were observed between the VR group at days 14 and 28 in the areas of neglect, ADL, and balance. No significant difference was observed between the two groups in the number of falls. Neglect, ADL, and balance among UN patients with right hemispheric stroke can be improved through the participation of primary caregivers in VR. Trained informal caregivers were recommended to provide VR guidance and supervision to patients who suffer from UN.

  13. Psyllium supplementation in adolescents improves fat distribution & lipid profile: a randomized, participant-blinded, placebo-controlled, crossover trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bock, Martin; Derraik, José G B; Brennan, Christine M; Biggs, Janene B; Smith, Greg C; Cameron-Smith, David; Wall, Clare R; Cutfield, Wayne S

    2012-01-01

    We aimed to assess the effects of psyllium supplementation on insulin sensitivity and other parameters of the metabolic syndrome in an at risk adolescent population. This study encompassed a participant-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover trial. Subjects were 47 healthy adolescent males aged 15-16 years, recruited from secondary schools in lower socio-economic areas with high rates of obesity. Participants received 6 g/day of psyllium or placebo for 6 weeks, with a two-week washout before crossing over. Fasting lipid profiles, ambulatory blood pressure, auxological data, body composition, activity levels, and three-day food records were collected at baseline and after each 6-week intervention. Insulin sensitivity was measured by the Matsuda method using glucose and insulin values from an oral glucose tolerance test. 45 subjects completed the study, and compliance was very high: 87% of participants took >80% of prescribed capsules. At baseline, 44% of subjects were overweight or obese. 28% had decreased insulin sensitivity, but none had impaired glucose tolerance. Fibre supplementation led to a 4% reduction in android fat to gynoid fat ratio (p = 0.019), as well as a 0.12 mmol/l (6%) reduction in LDL cholesterol (p = 0.042). No associated adverse events were recorded. Dietary supplementation with 6 g/day of psyllium over 6 weeks improves fat distribution and lipid profile (parameters of the metabolic syndrome) in an at risk population of adolescent males. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12609000888268.

  14. Psyllium supplementation in adolescents improves fat distribution & lipid profile: a randomized, participant-blinded, placebo-controlled, crossover trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin de Bock

    Full Text Available AIMS: We aimed to assess the effects of psyllium supplementation on insulin sensitivity and other parameters of the metabolic syndrome in an at risk adolescent population. METHODS: This study encompassed a participant-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover trial. Subjects were 47 healthy adolescent males aged 15-16 years, recruited from secondary schools in lower socio-economic areas with high rates of obesity. Participants received 6 g/day of psyllium or placebo for 6 weeks, with a two-week washout before crossing over. Fasting lipid profiles, ambulatory blood pressure, auxological data, body composition, activity levels, and three-day food records were collected at baseline and after each 6-week intervention. Insulin sensitivity was measured by the Matsuda method using glucose and insulin values from an oral glucose tolerance test. RESULTS: 45 subjects completed the study, and compliance was very high: 87% of participants took >80% of prescribed capsules. At baseline, 44% of subjects were overweight or obese. 28% had decreased insulin sensitivity, but none had impaired glucose tolerance. Fibre supplementation led to a 4% reduction in android fat to gynoid fat ratio (p = 0.019, as well as a 0.12 mmol/l (6% reduction in LDL cholesterol (p = 0.042. No associated adverse events were recorded. CONCLUSIONS: Dietary supplementation with 6 g/day of psyllium over 6 weeks improves fat distribution and lipid profile (parameters of the metabolic syndrome in an at risk population of adolescent males. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12609000888268.

  15. Comparison of participants and non-participants in a randomized study of prevention of depression in patients with acute coronary syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Baiba; Hanash, Jamal A.; Rasmussen, Alice

    2011-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of depression and anxiety in patients after acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is higher than in the general population. In a study on prevention of post-ACS depression, more than half of eligible patients declined participation. Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate...... (43.9%) participants and 55 (44%) non-participants were screened positive for anxiety (NS). Non-participants were older (P=0.002), while no significant differences in gender or cardiac diagnosis were found. Conclusions: Symptoms of depression and anxiety were highly prevalent in patients after ACS...

  16. Triple-Combination therapy with olmesartan, amlodipine, and hydrochlorothiazide in black and non-black study participants with hypertension: the TRINITY randomized, double-blind, 12-week, parallel-group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrysant, Steven G; Littlejohn, Thomas; Izzo, Joseph L; Kereiakes, Dean J; Oparil, Suzanne; Melino, Michael; Lee, James; Fernandez, Victor; Heyrman, Reinilde

    2012-08-01

    Although awareness of hypertension in Black patients has increased, blood pressure (BP) is frequently inadequately controlled. This prespecified subgroup analysis of the TRINITY study evaluated the efficacy and safety of olmesartan medoxomil (OM) 40 mg, amlodipine besylate (AML) 10 mg, and hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) 25 mg triple-combination treatment compared with the component dual-combination treatments in Black and non-Black study participants. TRINITY was a 12-week, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group evaluation. The first patient was enrolled in May 2008 and the last patient completed the study in February 2009. The study consisted of a 3-week washout period for participants receiving antihypertensive therapy and a 12-week double-blind treatment period. For the treatment phase, all study participants were stratified by age, race, and diabetes mellitus status and randomized to a treatment sequence that led to their final treatment assignment, which they received from weeks 4 to 12 (OM 40 mg/AML 10 mg/HCTZ 25 mg, OM 40 mg/AML 10 mg, OM 40 mg/HCTZ 25 mg, or AML 10 mg/HCTZ 25 mg). In the first 2 weeks of the double-blind treatment period, all participants received either dual-combination treatment or placebo. Participants assigned to dual-combination treatment continued treatment until week 4, and participants receiving placebo were switched at week 2 to receive one of the dual-combination treatments until week 4. At week 4, participants either continued dual-combination treatment or randomly received triple-combination treatment until week 12. 317 clinical sites in the USA and Puerto Rico were included in the study. Study participants eligible for randomization (N = 2492) were ≥18 years of age with mean seated blood pressure (SeBP) ≥140/100 mmHg or ≥160/90 mmHg (off antihypertensive medication). The intervention was with dual- or triple-combination antihypertensive treatment: OM 40 mg/AML 10 mg/HCTZ 25 mg, OM 40 mg/AML 10 mg, OM 40 mg/HCTZ 25 mg, or

  17. Baseline participant characteristics and risk for dropout from ten obesity randomized controlled trials: a pooled analysis of individual level data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn Ann Kaiser

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Understanding participant demographic characteristics that inform the optimal design of obesity RCTs have been examined in few studies. The objective of this study was to investigate the association of individual participant characteristics and dropout rates (DORs in obesity randomized controlled trials (RCT by pooling data from several publicly available datasets for analyses. We comprehensively characterize DORs and patterns in obesity RCTs at the individual study level, and describe how such rates and patterns vary as a function of individual-level characteristics. Methods: We obtained and analyzed nine publicly-available, obesity RCT datasets that examined weight loss or weight gain prevention as a primary or secondary endpoint. Four risk factors for dropout were examined by Cox proportional hazards including sex, age, baseline BMI, and race/ethnicity. The individual study data were pooled in the final analyses with a random effect for study, and HR and 95% CIs were computed. Results: Results of the multivariate analysis indicated that the risk of dropout was significantly higher for females compared to males (HR= 1.24, 95% CI = 1.05, 1.46. Hispanics and Non-Hispanic blacks had a significantly higher dropout rate compared to non-Hispanic whites (HR= 1.62, 95% CI = 1.37, 1.91; HR= 1.22, 95% CI = 1.11, 1.35, respectively. There was a significantly increased risk of dropout associated with advancing age (HR= 1.02, 95% CI = 1.01, 1.02 and increasing BMI (HR= 1.03, 95% CI = 1.03, 1.04. Conclusion/Significance: As more studies may focus on special populations, researchers designing obesity RCTs may wish to oversample in certain demographic groups if attempting to match comparison groups based on generalized estimates of expected dropout rates, or otherwise adjust a priori power estimates. Understanding true reasons for dropout may require additional methods of data gathering not generally employed in obesity RCTs, e.g. time on

  18. Baseline Participant Characteristics and Risk for Dropout from 10 Obesity Randomized Controlled Trials: A Pooled Analysis of Individual Level Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Kathryn Ann; Affuso, Olivia; Desmond, Renee; Allison, David B.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Understanding participant demographic characteristics that inform the optimal design of obesity randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have been examined in few studies. The objective of this study was to investigate the association of individual participant characteristics and dropout rates (DORs) in obesity RCTs by pooling data from several publicly available datasets for analyses. We comprehensively characterize DORs and patterns in obesity RCTs at the individual study level, and describe how such rates and patterns vary as a function of individual level characteristics. Methods: We obtained and analyzed nine publicly available, obesity RCT datasets that examined weight loss or weight gain prevention as a primary or secondary endpoint. Four risk factors for dropout were examined by Cox proportional hazards including sex, age, baseline BMI, and race/ethnicity. The individual study data were pooled in the final analyses with a random effect for study, and HR and 95% CIs were computed. Results: Results of the multivariate analysis indicated that the risk of dropout was significantly higher for females compared to males (HR = 1.24, 95% CI = 1.05, 1.46). Hispanics and Non-Hispanic blacks had a significantly higher dropout rate compared to non-Hispanic whites (HR = 1.62, 95% CI = 1.37, 1.91; HR = 1.22, 95% CI = 1.11, 1.35, respectively). There was a significantly increased risk of dropout associated with advancing age (HR = 1.02, 95% CI = 1.01, 1.02) and increasing BMI (HR = 1.03, 95% CI = 1.03, 1.04). Conclusion/Significance: As more studies may focus on special populations, researchers designing obesity RCTs may wish to oversample in certain demographic groups if attempting to match comparison groups based on generalized estimates of expected DORs, or otherwise adjust a priori power estimates. Understanding true reasons for dropout may require additional methods of data gathering not generally employed in obesity

  19. Can survey participation alter household saving behaviour?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crossley, Thomas; de Bresser, Jochem; Delaney, L.; Winter, Joachim

    2017-01-01

    We document an effect of survey participation on household saving. Indentification comes from random assignment to modules within a population-representative internet panel. The saving measure is based on linked administrative wealth data. Households that responded to a detailed questionnaire on

  20. Scaffolding students’ assignments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slot, Marie Falkesgaard

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses scaffolding in typical student assignments in mother tongue learning materials in upper secondary education in Denmark and the United Kingdom. It has been determined that assignments do not have sufficient scaffolding end features to help pupils understand concepts and build...

  1. Features predicting weight loss in overweight or obese participants in a web-based intervention: randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brindal, Emily; Freyne, Jill; Saunders, Ian; Berkovsky, Shlomo; Smith, Greg; Noakes, Manny

    2012-12-12

    Obesity remains a serious issue in many countries. Web-based programs offer good potential for delivery of weight loss programs. Yet, many Internet-delivered weight loss studies include support from medical or nutritional experts, and relatively little is known about purely web-based weight loss programs. To determine whether supportive features and personalization in a 12-week web-based lifestyle intervention with no in-person professional contact affect retention and weight loss. We assessed the effect of different features of a web-based weight loss intervention using a 12-week repeated-measures randomized parallel design. We developed 7 sites representing 3 functional groups. A national mass media promotion was used to attract overweight/obese Australian adults (based on body mass index [BMI] calculated from self-reported heights and weights). Eligible respondents (n = 8112) were randomly allocated to one of 3 functional groups: information-based (n = 183), supportive (n = 3994), or personalized-supportive (n = 3935). Both supportive sites included tools, such as a weight tracker, meal planner, and social networking platform. The personalized-supportive site included a meal planner that offered recommendations that were personalized using an algorithm based on a user's preferences for certain foods. Dietary and activity information were constant across sites, based on an existing and tested 12-week weight loss program (the Total Wellbeing Diet). Before and/or after the intervention, participants completed demographic (including self-reported weight), behavioral, and evaluation questionnaires online. Usage of the website and features was objectively recorded. All screening and data collection procedures were performed online with no face-to-face contact. Across all 3 groups, attrition was high at around 40% in the first week and 20% of the remaining participants each week. Retention was higher for the supportive sites compared to the information-based site only

  2. Features Predicting Weight Loss in Overweight or Obese Participants in a Web-Based Intervention: Randomized Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freyne, Jill; Saunders, Ian; Berkovsky, Shlomo; Smith, Greg; Noakes, Manny

    2012-01-01

    Background Obesity remains a serious issue in many countries. Web-based programs offer good potential for delivery of weight loss programs. Yet, many Internet-delivered weight loss studies include support from medical or nutritional experts, and relatively little is known about purely web-based weight loss programs. Objective To determine whether supportive features and personalization in a 12-week web-based lifestyle intervention with no in-person professional contact affect retention and weight loss. Methods We assessed the effect of different features of a web-based weight loss intervention using a 12-week repeated-measures randomized parallel design. We developed 7 sites representing 3 functional groups. A national mass media promotion was used to attract overweight/obese Australian adults (based on body mass index [BMI] calculated from self-reported heights and weights). Eligible respondents (n = 8112) were randomly allocated to one of 3 functional groups: information-based (n = 183), supportive (n = 3994), or personalized-supportive (n = 3935). Both supportive sites included tools, such as a weight tracker, meal planner, and social networking platform. The personalized-supportive site included a meal planner that offered recommendations that were personalized using an algorithm based on a user’s preferences for certain foods. Dietary and activity information were constant across sites, based on an existing and tested 12-week weight loss program (the Total Wellbeing Diet). Before and/or after the intervention, participants completed demographic (including self-reported weight), behavioral, and evaluation questionnaires online. Usage of the website and features was objectively recorded. All screening and data collection procedures were performed online with no face-to-face contact. Results Across all 3 groups, attrition was high at around 40% in the first week and 20% of the remaining participants each week. Retention was higher for the supportive sites

  3. Randomized trial within a trial of yellow 'post-it notes' did not improve questionnaire response rates among participants in a trial of treatments for neck pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilbrook, Helen E; Becque, Taeko; Buckley, Hannah; MacPherson, Hugh; Bailey, Mathew; Torgerson, David J

    2015-04-01

    Attrition is a threat to the validity of randomized trials. Few randomized studies have been conducted within randomized trials to test methods of reducing attrition. To test whether using yellow post-it notes on follow-up questionnaires in the ATLAS treatment trial for neck pain reduces attrition. Nested trial within a trial. ATLAS participants were randomized to have their 6-month follow-up questionnaire have a 3' yellow post-it note with a handwritten message encouraging return of questionnaire. 499 participants were independently randomized using simple allocation to receive the post-it notes or not. Two hundred fifteen of the 256 (84.0%) participants in the intervention group returned their questionnaire compared with 205 of the 243 (84.4%) in the control group. There was no difference in time to response. Yellow post-it notes do not enhance questionnaire return rates for participants in a randomized trial of neck pain. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Integrating Online Assignments Checking in Introductory Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pundak, David; Shacham, Miri; Herscovitz, Orit

    2013-01-01

    Web technology offers lecturers the option of checking students' assignments online. Several systems have evolved to deliver personal assignments to each student in a multi-participant course. These systems provide students with immediate feedback, allowing them to correct erroneous answers and referring them to relevant literary sources that can…

  5. Historical WBAN ID Assignments

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — 4"x6" index cards represent the first written assignments of Weather Bureau Army Navy (WBAN) station identifier numbers by the National Climatic Data Center....

  6. My Favorite Assignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, Robert E.; Johnson, Jack E.

    1982-01-01

    Presents two assignments that show (1) how George Orwell's "Politics and the English Language" can be applied to business writing and (2) how structured student-teacher conferences can generate enthusiasm for oral expression in a business communication course. (AEA)

  7. Effects of primary caregiver participation in vestibular rehabilitation for unilateral neglect patients with right hemispheric stroke: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dai CY

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Chin-Ying Dai,1,2 Yu-Hui Huang,3,4 Li-Wei Chou,5,6 Shiao-Chi Wu,7 Ray-Yau Wang,8 Li-Chan Lin9 1School of Nursing, National Yang Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan; 2Department of Nursing, Central Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taichung, Taiwan; 3Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Chung Shan Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan; 4School of Medicine, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan; 5Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan; 6School of Chinese Medicine, College of Chinese Medicine, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan; 7Institute of Health and Welfare Policy, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan; 8Department of Physical Therapy and Assistive Technology, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan; 9Institute of Clinical and Community Health Nursing, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China Introduction: The current study aims to investigate the effects of primary caregiver participation in vestibular rehabilitation (VR on improving the measures of neglect, activities of daily living (ADL, balance, and falls of unilateral neglect (UN patients. Methods: This study is a single-blind randomized controlled trial. Both experimental (n = 24 and control groups (n = 24 received conventional rehabilitation. The experimental group undertook VR for a month. During the first and second weeks, a registered nurse trained the experimental group in VR. The primary caregivers in the experimental group supervised and guided their patients in VR during the third and fourth weeks. The outcome measures were neglect, ADL, balance, and falls. Results: The two groups of UN patients showed a significant improvement in neglect, ADL, and balance over time. Based on the generalized estimating equations model, an interaction was observed between groups and times. Significant interactions were observed between the VR group

  8. Empirically Assessing Participant Perceptions of the Research Experience in a Randomized Clinical Trial: The Women's Self-Defense Project as a Case Example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitlauf, Julie C; Ruzek, Josef I; Westrup, Darrah A; Lee, Tina; Keller, Jennifer

    2007-06-01

    A growing body of empirical literature has systematically documented the reactions to research participation among participants in traumafocused research. To date, the available data has generally presented an optimistic picture regarding participants' ability to tolerate and even find benefit from their participation. However, this literature has been largely limited to cross-sectional designs. No extant literature has yet examined the perceptions of participants with psychiatric illness who are participating in randomized clinical trials (RCTs) designed to evaluate the efficacy or effectiveness of novel trauma treatments. The authors posit that negative experiences of, or poor reactions to, the research experience in the context of a trauma-focused RCT may elevate the risk of participation. Indeed, negative reactions may threaten to undermine the potential therapeutic gains of participants and promoting early drop out from the trial. Empirically assessing reactions to research participation at the pilot-study phase of a clinical trial can both provide investigators and IRB members alike with empirical evidence of some likely risks of participation. In turn, this information can be used to help shape the design and recruitment methodology of the full-scale trial. Using data from the pilot study of the Women's Self-Defense Project as a case illustration, we provide readers with concrete suggestions for empirically assessing participants' perceptions of risk involved in their participation in behaviorally oriented clinical trials.

  9. Impact of different privacy conditions and incentives on survey response rate, participant representativeness, and disclosure of sensitive information: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdoch, Maureen; Simon, Alisha Baines; Polusny, Melissa Anderson; Bangerter, Ann Kay; Grill, Joseph Patrick; Noorbaloochi, Siamak; Partin, Melissa Ruth

    2014-07-16

    Anonymous survey methods appear to promote greater disclosure of sensitive or stigmatizing information compared to non-anonymous methods. Higher disclosure rates have traditionally been interpreted as being more accurate than lower rates. We examined the impact of 3 increasingly private mailed survey conditions-ranging from potentially identifiable to completely anonymous-on survey response and on respondents' representativeness of the underlying sampling frame, completeness in answering sensitive survey items, and disclosure of sensitive information. We also examined the impact of 2 incentives ($10 versus $20) on these outcomes. A 3X2 factorial, randomized controlled trial of 324 representatively selected, male Gulf War I era veterans who had applied for United States Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) disability benefits. Men were asked about past sexual assault experiences, childhood abuse, combat, other traumas, mental health symptoms, and sexual orientation. We used a novel technique, the pre-merged questionnaire, to link anonymous responses to administrative data. Response rates ranged from 56.0% to 63.3% across privacy conditions (p = 0.49) and from 52.8% to 68.1% across incentives (p = 0.007). Respondents' characteristics differed by privacy and by incentive assignments, with completely anonymous respondents and $20 respondents appearing least different from their non-respondent counterparts. Survey completeness did not differ by privacy or by incentive. No clear pattern of disclosing sensitive information by privacy condition or by incentive emerged. For example, although all respondents came from the same sampling frame, estimates of sexual abuse ranged from 13.6% to 33.3% across privacy conditions, with the highest estimate coming from the intermediate privacy condition (p = 0.007). Greater privacy and larger incentives do not necessarily result in higher disclosure rates of sensitive information than lesser privacy and lower incentives. Furthermore

  10. Protocol for a randomized controlled trial testing the impact of feedback on familial risk of chronic diseases on family-level intentions to participate in preventive lifestyle behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlene J. Wilson

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Common disease risk clusters in families due to shared genetics, exposure to environmental risk factors, and because many health behaviours are established and maintained in family environments. This randomised controlled trial will test whether the provision of a family health history (FHH risk assessment tool increases intentions and engagement in health behaviors. Message distribution and collective behavior change within family networks will be mapped using social network analysis. The relative intervention impact will be compared between families from different ethnic backgrounds. Methods One hundred and fifty mothers (50 Anglo-Australian, 50 Italian-Australian, 50 Vietnamese-Australian will be recruited, with four or more other family members across three generations, including a child (aged 10–18 years. Each family is randomly assigned to intervention or control. At baseline and 6-month follow-up, all participants complete surveys to assess dietary and physical activity intentions and behaviors, attitudes towards food, and perceived disease risk. Intervention families receive a visual pedigree detailing their FHH of diabetes, heart disease, breast and bowel cancer, a health education workbook to ascertain members’ disease risk (i.e. average or above average risk, and screening and primary prevention recommendations. After completion of follow-up assessments, controls will receive their pedigree and workbook. The primary hypothesis is that attitudes and lifestyle behaviors will improve more within families exposed to FHH feedback, although the extent of this improvement may vary between families from different ethnic backgrounds. Additionally, the extent of improvement in the treatment group will be moderated by the level of family disease risk, with above-average risk leading to greater improvement. A secondary aim will explore different family members’ roles in message distribution and collective responses to

  11. FLEET ASSIGNMENT MODELLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the airline scheduling process and methods of its modeling. This article describes the main stages of airline scheduling process (scheduling, fleet assignment, revenue management, operations, their features and interactions. The main part of scheduling process is fleet assignment. The optimal solution of the fleet assignment problem enables airlines to increase their incomes up to 3 % due to quality improving of connections and execution of the planned number of flights operated by less number of aircraft than usual or planned earlier. Fleet assignment of scheduling process is examined and Conventional Leg-Based Fleet Assignment Model is analyzed. Finally strong and weak aspects of the model (SWOT are released and applied. The article gives a critical analysis of FAM model, with the purpose of identi- fying possible options and constraints of its use (for example, in cases of short-term and long-term planning, changing the schedule or replacing the aircraft, as well as possible ways to improve the model.

  12. Decision Making in the PICU: An Examination of Factors Influencing Participation Decisions in Phase III Randomized Clinical Trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura E. Slosky

    2014-01-01

    participate were not related to enrollment. Conclusion. Decisions to participate in research by surrogates of children in the PICU appear to relate to child demographics and subtleties in communication; however, no modifiable characteristics were related to increased participation, indicating that the informed consent process may not be compromised in this population.

  13. Patient perspectives on participation in the ENABLE II randomized controlled trial of a concurrent oncology palliative care intervention: benefits and burdens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, Cristine; Lyons, Kathleen Doyle; Li, Zhongze; Hegel, Mark; Ahles, Tim A; Bakitas, Marie

    2013-04-01

    ENABLE (Educate, Nurture, Advise Before Life Ends) II was one of the first randomized controlled trials (RCTs) examining the effects of a concurrent oncology palliative care intervention on quality of life, mood, and symptom control for advanced cancer patients and their caregivers. However, little is known about how participants experience early palliative care and the benefits and burdens of participating in a palliative care clinical trial. To gain a deeper understanding of participants' perspectives of the intervention and palliative care trial participation. A qualitative descriptive study using thematic analysis to determine benefits and burdens of a new palliative care intervention and trial participation. Of the 72 participants who were alive when the study commenced, 53 agreed to complete an in-depth, semi-structured interview regarding the ENABLE II intervention and clinical trial participation. Participants' perceptions of intervention benefits were represented by four themes: enhanced problem-solving skills, better coping, feeling empowered, and feeling supported or reassured. Three themes related to trial participation: helping future patients and contributing to science, gaining insight through completion of questionnaires, and trial/intervention aspects to improve. The benefits of the intervention and the positive aspects of trial participation outweighed trial "burdens". This study raises additional important questions relevant to future trial design and intervention development: when should a palliative care intervention be initiated and what aspects of self-care and healthy living should be offered in addition to palliative content for advanced cancer patients when they are feeling well?

  14. Task assignment and coaching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dominguez-Martinez, S.

    2009-01-01

    An important task of a manager is to motivate her subordinates. One way in which a manager can give incentives to junior employees is through the assignment of tasks. How a manager allocates tasks in an organization, provides information to the junior employees about his ability. Without coaching

  15. Facilitation of fear extinction in phobic participants with a novel cognitive enhancer: A randomized placebo controlled trial of yohimbine augmentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Powers, M.B.; Smits, J.A.J.; Otto, M.W.; Sanders, C.; Emmelkamp, P.M.G.

    2009-01-01

    Preliminary animal research suggests that yohimbine hydrochloride, a selective competitive alpha2-adrenergic receptor antagonist, accelerates fear extinction and converts ineffective extinction regimens (long intertrial intervals) to effective ones. This randomized placebo controlled study examined

  16. Facilitation of fear extinction in phobic participants with a novel cognitive enhancer: a randomized placebo controlled trial of yohimbine augmentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Powers, M.B.; Smits, J.A.J.; Otto, M.W.; Sanders, C.; Emmelkamp, P.M.G.

    2009-01-01

    Preliminary animal research suggests that yohimbine hydrochloride, a selective competitive alpha2-adrenergic receptor antagonist, accelerates fear extinction and converts ineffective extinction regimens (long intertrial intervals) to effective ones. This randomized placebo controlled study examined

  17. Women's entrepreneurship and intimate partner violence: A cluster randomized trial of microenterprise assistance and partner participation in post-conflict Uganda (SSM-D-14-01580R1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Eric P; Blattman, Christopher; Jamison, Julian; Annan, Jeannie

    2015-05-01

    Intimate partner violence is widespread and represents an obstacle to human freedom and a significant public health concern. Poverty alleviation programs and efforts to economically "empower" women have become popular policy options, but theory and empirical evidence are mixed on the relationship between women's empowerment and the experience of violence. We study the effects of a successful poverty alleviation program on women's empowerment and intimate partner relations and violence from 2009 to 2011. In the first experiment, a cluster-randomized superiority trial, 15 marginalized people (86% women) were identified in each of 120 villages (n = 1800) in Gulu and Kitgum districts in Uganda. Half of villages were randomly assigned via public lottery to immediate treatment: five days of business training, $150, and supervision and advising. We examine intent-to-treat estimates of program impact and heterogeneity in treatment effects by initial quality of partner relations. 16 months after the initial grants, the program doubled business ownership and incomes (p < 0.01); we show that the effect on monthly income, however, is moderated by initial quality of intimate partner relations. We also find small increases in marital control (p < 0.05), self-reported autonomy (p < 0.10), and quality of partner relations (p < 0.01), but essentially no change in intimate partner violence. In a second experiment, we study the impact of a low-cost attempt to include household partners (often husbands) in the process. Participants from the 60 waitlist villages (n = 904) were randomly assigned to participate in the program as individuals or with a household partner. We observe small, non-significant decreases in abuse and marital control and large increases in the quality of relationships (p < 0.05), but no effects on women's attitudes toward gender norms and a non-significant reduction in autonomy. Involving men and changing framing to promote more inclusive programming

  18. Does implementing a development plan for user participation in a mental hospital change patients' experience? A non-randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rise, Marit B; Steinsbekk, Aslak

    2015-10-01

    Governments in several countries attempt to strengthen user participation through instructing health-care organizations to implement user participation initiatives. There is, however, little knowledge on the effect on patients' experience from comprehensive plans for enhancing user participation in whole health service organizations. To investigate whether implementing a development plan intending to enhance user participation in a mental hospital had any effect on the patients' experience of user participation. A non-randomized controlled study including patients in three mental hospitals in Central Norway, one intervention hospital and two control hospitals. A development plan intended to enhance user participation was implemented in the intervention hospital as a part of a larger reorganizational process. The plan included establishment of a patient education centre and a user office, purchase of user expertise, appointment of contact professionals for next of kin and improvement of the centre's information and the professional culture. Perceptions of Care, Inpatient Treatment Alliance Scale and questions made for this study. A total of 1651 patients participated. Implementing a development plan in a mental hospital intending to enhance user participation had no significant effect on the patients' experience of user participation. The lack of effect can be due to inappropriate initiatives or challenges in implementation processes. Further research should ensure that initiatives and implementation processes are appropriate to impact the patients' experience. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Trial participants' experiences of early enhanced speech and language therapy after stroke compared with employed visitor support: a qualitative study nested within a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Alys; Gomersall, Timothy; Bowen, Audrey

    2013-02-01

    To explore trial participants' experiences of the process and outcomes of early, enhanced speech and language therapy after stroke with support from an employed visitor. Qualitative study nested within a randomized controlled trial. Twney-two people who, after stroke, had a diagnosis of aphasia (12), dysarthria (5) or both (5) and who participated in the ACT NoW study. Eight English NHS usual care settings. Individual interviews. Thematic content analysis assisted by a bespoke data transformation protocol for incorporating non-verbal and semantically ambiguous data. Participants highly regarded regular and sustained contact with someone outside of immediate family/friends who engaged them in deliberate activities/communication in the early months after stroke. Participants identified differences in the process of intervention between speech and language therapists and employed visitors. But no major discriminations were made between the impact or value of this contact according to whether provided by a speech and language therapist or employed visitor. Participant-defined criteria for effectiveness of contact included: impact on mood and confidence, self-recognition of progress and the meeting of individual needs. As in the randomized controlled trial, participants reported no evidence of added benefit of early communication therapy beyond that from attention control. The findings do not imply that regular contact with any non-professional can have beneficial effects for someone with aphasia or dysarthria in the early weeks following a stroke. The study points to specific conditions that would have to be met for contact to have a positive effect.

  20. Parent reflections of experiences of participating in a randomized controlled trial of a behavioral intervention for infants at risk of autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freuler, Ashley C; Baranek, Grace T; Tashjian, Christene; Watson, Linda R; Crais, Elizabeth R; Turner-Brown, Lauren M

    2014-07-01

    Despite the mounting evidence of efficacy of early intervention for children with autism spectrum disorders, there is little research that considers the various perceptions and resources with which parents respond to the pressures and opportunities associated with participation in early intervention. Research is particularly lacking surrounding experiences of parents with infants who are at risk of autism spectrum disorders but do not (yet) have a diagnosed condition. This qualitative study aimed to explore the experiences of caregivers following their participation in a randomized controlled trial of Adapted Responsive Teaching, a parent-infant relationship-focused intervention for infants at risk of autism spectrum disorders in a community sample. Parents were randomized into either the treatment group, in which they participated in the Adapted Responsive Teaching intervention, or the community services group, in which they were provided with information regarding local early intervention services and were encouraged, but not required to, seek community services as part of their inclusion in the randomized controlled trial. Semistructured interviews were conducted with families following the completion of the randomized controlled trial. Participants consisted of 13 mothers and 4 fathers. Five dyads were interviewed together for a total of 14 families. Child ages ranged from 39 to 46 months at the time of interview. Analysis was conducted on 14 interviews from 10 families who were randomized into the treatment group and 4 families randomized into the community services group. Analysis was informed by a thematic analysis approach, which involved a systematic process of coding and theme identification both across and within groups. Themes that emerged across groups included Working against all odds, Value of the personal relationship, Getting the ball rolling, and Getting dad on board. One broad theme represented the data within the groups: Win-win (Adapted

  1. Assessing the Performance of the "Counterfactual as Self-Estimated by Program Participants": Results from a Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Christoph Emanuel; Gaus, Hansjoerg

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we test an alternative approach to creating a counterfactual basis for estimating individual and average treatment effects. Instead of using control/comparison groups or before-measures, the so-called Counterfactual as Self-Estimated by Program Participants (CSEPP) relies on program participants' self-estimations of their own…

  2. Gain weighted eigenspace assignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, John B.; Andrisani, Dominick, II

    1994-01-01

    This report presents the development of the gain weighted eigenspace assignment methodology. This provides a designer with a systematic methodology for trading off eigenvector placement versus gain magnitudes, while still maintaining desired closed-loop eigenvalue locations. This is accomplished by forming a cost function composed of a scalar measure of error between desired and achievable eigenvectors and a scalar measure of gain magnitude, determining analytical expressions for the gradients, and solving for the optimal solution by numerical iteration. For this development the scalar measure of gain magnitude is chosen to be a weighted sum of the squares of all the individual elements of the feedback gain matrix. An example is presented to demonstrate the method. In this example, solutions yielding achievable eigenvectors close to the desired eigenvectors are obtained with significant reductions in gain magnitude compared to a solution obtained using a previously developed eigenspace (eigenstructure) assignment method.

  3. [Study of the factors motivating refusal of women to participate to a randomized clinical trial in gynecological surgery. Retrospective observational bicentric study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen-Xuan, H-T; Thiollier, G; Ruault, O; Fauconnier, A; Lucot, J-P; Bader, G

    2016-11-01

    Randomized controlled trials (RCT) in surgery are often subject to difficulties inherent in the study design and recruitment of patients. Women's participation rate to RCTs in surgery is relatively low and varies from 30 to 70%. These recruitment problems might induce a weak scientific value and even stop the study. Thus, optimizing recruitment is a challenge for surgical research. In contemporary literature, we lack data on motivations and profile of women who refuse to participate in a RCT in surgery. To explore the potentially influential factors affecting women's decision to decline participation in PROSPERE trial, comparing laparoscopic sacrocolpopexy (LSCP) to vaginal mesh for cystocele repair. Retrospective, observational, qualitative, bicentric study conducted in the department of gynecology of Poissy and Lille hospitals. Patients included were those who refused to participate to PROSPERE trial in both centers. Factors of non-participation in the trial were recorded at the time of the first visit. A control group consisted of women who agreed to participate in the trial was also analyzed. In both centers, 139 were eligible to participate in the trial but 35 of them (25%) refused. Thirty-two women agreed to declare their refusal motivations. Vaginal mesh was finally performed in 18 (56,2%) patients and LSCP in 14 patients (43,8%). The control group consisted of 20 women, including 9 operated by vaginal mesh and 11 by LSCP. Patient's characteristics were similar in the both groups. Most influencing factor in refusal for participation was "previous choice of technique" in 50% cases (16/32), followed by "geographical remoteness and difficulties for additional visits" in 40.6% cases (13/32), and finally by "do not accept the concept of randomization" in 21.8% cases (7/32). The most influencing factor in women's acceptance was interest in helping others by "supporting medical research" in 100% cases (20/20), followed by "potential personal benefits and close

  4. Assignment Tracking Android Application

    OpenAIRE

    Akanni, Feranmi Timothy

    2016-01-01

    One of the common ways of checking that knowledge is impacted into students at every level of education is by giving various tasks to students and part of the responsibilities of the teacher is to give assignments to students and check the solution provided by the students. Increase in technology development involves a number of mobile applications that are being developed and released on a daily basis, out of which Android operating application is one of the dominant mobile application. T...

  5. Task assignment and coaching

    OpenAIRE

    Dominguez-Martinez, S.

    2009-01-01

    An important task of a manager is to motivate her subordinates. One way in which a manager can give incentives to junior employees is through the assignment of tasks. How a manager allocates tasks in an organization, provides information to the junior employees about his ability. Without coaching from a manager, the junior employee only has information about his past performance. Based on his past performance, a talented junior who has performed a difficult task sometimes decides to leave the...

  6. Long-term risk of carotid restenosis in patients randomly assigned to endovascular treatment or endarterectomy in the Carotid and Vertebral Artery Transluminal Angioplasty Study (CAVATAS): long-term follow-up of a randomised trial.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bonati, Leo H

    2009-10-01

    In the Carotid and Vertebral Artery Transluminal Angioplasty Study (CAVATAS), early recurrent carotid stenosis was more common in patients assigned to endovascular treatment than it was in patients assigned to endarterectomy (CEA), raising concerns about the long-term effectiveness of endovascular treatment. We aimed to investigate the long-term risks of restenosis in patients included in CAVATAS.

  7. Better futures: a randomized field test of a model for supporting young people in foster care with mental health challenges to participate in higher education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geenen, Sarah; Powers, Laurie E; Phillips, Lee Ann; Nelson, May; McKenna, Jessica; Winges-Yanez, Nichole; Blanchette, Linda; Croskey, Adrienne; Dalton, Lawrence D; Salazar, Amy; Swank, Paul

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of the study was to conduct a preliminary efficacy evaluation of the Better Futures model, which is focused on improving the postsecondary preparation and participation of youth in foster care with mental health challenges. Sixty-seven youth were randomized to either a control group that received typical services or an intervention group, which involved participation in a Summer Institute, individual peer coaching, and mentoring workshops. Findings indicate significant gains for the intervention group on measures of postsecondary participation, postsecondary and transition preparation, hope, self-determination, and mental health empowerment, as compared to the control group. Youth in the intervention group also showed positive trends in the areas of mental health recovery, quality of life, and high school completion. Implications for future research and practice are discussed, while emphasizing the capacities of youth in foster care with mental health conditions to successfully prepare for and participate fully in high education.

  8. Psychiatric treatment following participation in the CapOpus randomized trial for patients with comorbid cannabis use disorder and psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorthøj, Carsten Rygaard; Orlovska, Sonja; Fohlmann, Allan

    2013-01-01

    Randomized trials targeting cannabis use disorders in patients with psychosis have generally been unsuccessful. One of the largest such trials was the CapOpus trial, which had an impact on the number of monthly joints used, but not on the number of days with cannabis use or positive or negative...

  9. Online and In-Person Nutrition Education Improves Breakfast Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behaviors: A Randomized Trial of Participants in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au, Lauren E; Whaley, Shannon; Rosen, Nila J; Meza, Martha; Ritchie, Lorrene D

    2016-03-01

    Although in-person education is expected to remain central to the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) service delivery, effective online nutrition education has the potential for increased exposure to quality education and a positive influence on nutrition behaviors in WIC participants. Education focused on promoting healthy breakfast behaviors is an important topic for WIC participants because breakfast eating compared with breakfast skipping has been associated with a higher-quality diet and decreased risk for obesity. To examine the influences of online and in-person group nutrition education on changes in knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors related to breakfast eating. Randomized-controlled trial comparing the effectiveness of online and in-person nutrition education between March and September 2014. Five hundred ninety WIC participants from two Los Angeles, CA, WIC clinics were randomly assigned to receive in-person group education (n=359) or online education (n=231). Education focused on ways to reduce breakfast skipping and promoted healthy options at breakfast for parents and their 1- to 5-year-old children participating in WIC. Questionnaires assessing breakfast-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors were administered before and after education, and at a 2- to 4-month follow-up. Changes within and between in-person and online groups were compared using t tests and χ(2) tests. Analysis of covariance and generalized estimating equations were used to assess differences in change between groups. Changes in knowledge between pretest and follow-up at 2 to 4 months were similar between groups. Both groups reported reductions in barriers to eating breakfast due to time constraints, not having enough foods at home, and difficulty with preparation. Increases in the frequency of eating breakfast were greater for both the parent (P=0.0007) and child (P=0.01) in the online group compared with the in-person group during

  10. Minority participation in a school-based randomized clinical trial of tooth decay prevention in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Suchitra; Milgrom, Peter

    2012-01-01

    To describe the strategies-based on the social triad concept of a partnership of researchers, school personnel and community-employed to recruit low-income, minority parent/caregivers of kindergarten children into a school-based tooth decay prevention trial in the United States. The study site was an urban school district with five elementary schools. Recruitment was carried out once each year for three years. Recruitment involved strategies at the school district, school, classroom, and student-parent level. A coalition of researchers, school personnel and community individuals was established for communication and recruitment. Outreach workers from the community were hired to promote, recruit, and disseminate oral health information. Study promotion included both print materials (logos, flyers, pictorial story boards) and presentations at school and community events. The School District Superintendent and administrators approved the study, and all five school principals and kindergarten teachers participated. All children within the classrooms were eligible: the overall participation rate of was 86% (580/672). Community outreach workers actively facilitated the recruitment and participants were recruited at open house for parent-teacher meeting (37% of all participants), sending letters and consent forms home (31%), at a prearranged convenient time during drop off and pick up of the child at their respective schools (30%), curriculum nights and health fairs (2%). Utilizing the social triad concept led to success in planning and carrying out the recruitment of predominantly minority school children with high participation rates. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Client satisfaction among participants in a randomized trial comparing oral methadone and injectable diacetylmorphine for long-term opioid-dependency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brissette Suzanne

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Substitution with opioid-agonists (e.g., methadone has shown to be an effective treatment for chronic long-term opioid dependency. Patient satisfaction with treatment has been associated with improved addiction treatment outcomes. However, there is a paucity of studies evaluating patients' satisfaction with Opioid Substitution Treatment (OST. In the present study, participants' satisfaction with OST was evaluated at 3 and 12 months. We sought to test the relationship between satisfaction and patients' characteristics, the treatment modality received and treatment outcomes. Methods Data from a randomized controlled trial, the North American Opiate Medication Initiative (NAOMI, conducted in Vancouver and Montreal (Canada between 2005-2008, was analyzed. The NAOMI study compared the effectiveness of oral methadone vs. injectable diacetylmorphine over 12 months. A small sub-group of patients received injectable hydromorphone on a double blind basis with diacetylmorphine. The Client Satisfaction Questionnaire (CSQ-8 was used to measure satisfaction with treatment. CSQ-8 scores, as well as retention and response to treatment, did not differ between those receiving hydromorphone and diacetylmorphine at 3 or 12 months assessments; therefore, these two groups were analyzed together as the 'injectable' treatment group. Results A total of 232 (92% and 237 (94% participants completed the CSQ-8 at 3 and 12 months, respectively. Participants in both groups were highly satisfied with treatment. Independent of treatment group, participants satisfied with treatment at 3 months were more likely to be retained at 12 months. Multivariate analysis indicated that satisfaction was greater among those randomized to the injection group after controlling for treatment effectiveness. Participants who were retained, responded to treatment, and had fewer psychological symptoms were more satisfied with treatment. Finally, open-ended comments were made by

  12. The Effect of Participation in Support Groups on Depression, Anxiety and Stress in Family Caregivers of People with Alzheimers: Randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahimeh Taati

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study sought to determine the effect of participation in support groups on the depression, anxiety and stress level of caregivers of patients with Alzheimer. This study was a single blind randomized clinical controlled trial (RCT with 80 family caregivers of people with Alzheimer’s (per group=40. The intervention group participated in eight sessions 1.5- 2 hours in support groups. The tool used in this study was the DASS-21 questionnaire for measuring depression, anxiety and stress level of the caregivers, analysis of parametric data, using SPSS version 21. Findings showed, participation in support groups showed no significant difference on depression, anxiety and stress in family caregivers of Alzheimer patients in the control group and the intervention group. Given that caring for these patients by their family members are very sensitive and costly issues for policy makers and health service providers, community and families of these patients.

  13. Overcoming Addictions, a Web-Based Application, and SMART Recovery, an Online and In-Person Mutual Help Group for Problem Drinkers, Part 2: Six-Month Outcomes of a Randomized Controlled Trial and Qualitative Feedback From Participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, William; Hester, Reid K; Lenberg, Kathryn L; Delaney, Harold D

    2016-10-04

    Despite empirical evidence supporting the use of Web-based interventions for problem drinking, much remains unknown about factors that influence their effectiveness. We evaluated the performance of 2 resources for people who want to achieve and maintain abstinence: SMART Recovery (SR) and Overcoming Addictions (OA). OA is a Web application based on SR. We also examined participant and intervention-related factors hypothesized to impact clinical outcomes of Web-based interventions. We recruited 189 heavy drinkers through SR's website and in-person meetings throughout the United States. We began by randomly assigning participants to (1) SR meetings alone, (2) OA alone, and (3) OA and SR (OA+SR). Recruitment challenges compelled us to assign participants only to SR (n=86) or OA+SR (n=102). The experimental hypotheses were as follows: (1) Both groups will reduce their drinking and alcohol-related consequences at follow-up compared with their baseline levels, and (2) The OA+SR condition will reduce their drinking and alcohol or drug-related consequences more than the SR only condition. Additionally, we derived 3 groups empirically (SR, OA, and OA+SR) based on the participants' actual use of each intervention and conducted analyses by comparing them. Primary outcome measures included percent days abstinent (PDA), mean drinks per drinking day (DDD), and alcohol or drug-related consequences. Postbaseline assessments were conducted by phone at 3 and 6 months. Secondary analyses explored whether clinical issues (eg, severity of alcohol problems, level of distress, readiness to change) or intervention-related factors (eg, Internet fluency, satisfaction with site) affected outcomes. Both intent-to-treat analyses and the actual-use analyses showed highly significant improvement from baseline to follow-ups for all 3 groups. Mean within-subject effect sizes were large (d>0.8) overall. There was no significant difference between groups in the amount of improvement from baseline to

  14. Increasing participation in cervical cancer screening: offering a HPV self-test to long-term non-attendees as part of RACOMIP, a Swedish randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broberg, Gudrun; Gyrd-Hansen, Dorte; Miao Jonasson, Junmei; Ryd, Mare-Liis; Holtenman, Mikael; Milsom, Ian; Strander, Björn

    2014-05-01

    RACOMIP is a population-based, randomized trial of the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of different interventions aimed at increasing participation in a well-run cervical cancer screening program in western Sweden. In this article, we report results from one intervention, offering non-attendees a high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) self-test. Comparison was made with standard screening invitation routine or standard routine plus a telephone call. Women (8,800), aged 30-62, were randomly selected among women without a registered Pap smear in the two latest screening rounds. These women were randomized 1:5:5 to one of three arms: 800 were offered a high-risk HPV self-test, 4,000 were randomized to a telephone call (reported previously) and 4,000 constituted a control group (standard screening invitation routine). Results were based on intention to treat analysis and cost-effectiveness was calculated as marginal cost per cancer case prevented. The endpoint was the frequency of testing. The total response rate in the self-testing arm was 24.5%, significantly higher than in the telephone arm (18%, RR 1.36, 95% CI 1.19-1.57) and the control group (10.6%, RR 2.33, 95% CI 2.00-2.71). All nine women who tested positive for high-risk HPV attended for a cervical smear and colposcopy. From the health-care sector perspective, the intervention will most likely lead to no additional cost. Offering a self-test for HPV as an alternative to Pap smears increases participation among long-term non-attendees. Offering various screening options can be a successful method for increasing participation in this group. © 2013 UICC.

  15. Effects of krill oil on endothelial function and other cardiovascular risk factors in participants with type 2 diabetes, a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobraico, Jessika M; DiLello, Lauren C; Butler, Amber D; Cordisco, Marie Elena; Petrini, Joann R; Ahmadi, Ramin

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this trial was to evaluate the effect of krill oil supplementation, a source of ω-3 fatty acids, on cardiovascular disease risk factors and blood glucose control among participants with type 2 diabetes. A randomized, double-blind controlled cross-over trial was employed. Outcomes assessed were: endothelial function, blood lipids, glucose, glycated hemoglobin, serum antioxidant level, C peptide, and calculated Homeostatic Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) scores. Participants were randomized to either krill oil or olive oil supplementation for 4 weeks, underwent a 2-week washout period, and then crossed to the other supplementation for 4 weeks. All participants were then offered an additional 17 weeks of krill supplementation. Testing occurred at 3 time points: baseline, after first supplementation, and after second supplementation. Testing also occurred after an optional 17 weeks of krill oil supplementation. Difference scores were calculated for each participant in both sequences (ie, differences in outcome measures in the first and second period of the sequence). The mean and SD of the scores in the 2 sequence groups were used to test for differences between treatment effects at a significance level of pkrill oil for 4 weeks had an improvement in their endothelial function and a reduction in blood C peptide levels and HOMA scores as compared with the olive oil. A total of 34 participants completed the additional 17-week supplementation period. When compared with their respective baseline measures, these participants had a statistically significant improvement in endothelial function and blood high-density lipoprotein (HDL). Krill oil may lead to moderate improvement of cardiovascular risks, specifically endothelial dysfunction and HDL in patients with type 2 diabetes. Registered with ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02091193.

  16. Does aerobic training alleviate fatigue and improve societal participation in patients with multiple sclerosis? A randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heine, Martin; Verschuren, Olaf; Hoogervorst, Erwin LJ; van Munster, Erik; Hacking, Hub GA; Visser-Meily, Anne; Twisk, Jos WR; Beckerman, Heleen; de Groot, Vincent; Kwakkel, Gert

    2017-01-01

    Background: Evidence supporting the effectiveness of aerobic training, specific for fatigue, in severely fatigued patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) is lacking. Objective: To estimate the effectiveness of aerobic training on MS-related fatigue and societal participation in ambulant patients with severe MS-related fatigue. Methods: Patients (N = 90) with severe MS-related fatigue were allocated to 16-week aerobic training or control intervention. Primary outcomes were perceived fatigue (Checklist Individual Strength (CIS20r) fatigue subscale) and societal participation. An improvement of ⩾8 points on the CIS20r fatigue subscale was considered clinically relevant. Outcomes were assessed by a blinded observer at baseline, 2, 4, 6 and 12 months. Results: Of the 89 patients that started treatment (median Expanded Disability Status Scale (interquartile range), 3.0 (2.0–3.6); mean CIS20r fatigue subscale (standard deviation (SD)), 42.6 (8.0)), 43 received aerobic training and 46 received the control intervention. A significant post-intervention between-group mean difference (MD) on the CIS20r fatigue subscale of 4.708 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.003–8.412; p = 0.014) points was found in favour of aerobic training that, however, was not sustained during follow-up. No effect was found on societal participation. Conclusion: Aerobic training in MS patients with severe fatigue does not lead to a clinically meaningful reduction in fatigue or societal participation when compared to a low-intensity control intervention. PMID:28528566

  17. Exercise motivation and adherence in cancer survivors after participation in a randomized controlled trial: an attribution theory perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courneya, Kerry S; Friedenreich, Christine M; Sela, Rami A; Quinney, H Arthur; Rhodes, Ryan E; Jones, Lee W

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine postprogram exercise motivation and adherence in cancer survivors who participated in the Group Psychotherapy and Home-Based Physical Exercise (GROUP-HOPE; Courneya, Friedenreich, Sela, Quinney, & Rhodes, 2002) trial. At the completion of the GROUP-HOPE trial, 46 of 51 (90%) participants in the exercise group completed measures of attribution theory constructs. A 5-week follow-up self-report of exercise was then completed by 30 (65%) participants. Correlational analyses indicated that program exercise, perceived success, expected success, and affective reactions were strong predictors of postprogram exercise. In multivariate stepwise regression analyses, program exercise and perceived success were the strongest predictors of postprogram exercise. Additionally, perceived success was more important than objective success in understanding the attribution process, and it interacted with personal control to influence expected success and negative affect. Finally, postprogram quality of life and changes in physical fitness were correlates of perceived success. We concluded that attribution theory may have utility for understanding postprogram exercise motivation and adherence in cancer survivors.

  18. The Effects of Scenario Planning on Participant Reports of Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chermack, Thomas J.; Coons, Laura M.; O'barr, Gregory; Khatami, Shiva

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this research is to examine the effects of scenario planning on participant ratings of resilience. Design/methodology/approach: The research design is a quasi experimental pretest/posttest with treatment and control groups. Random selection or assignment was not achieved. Findings: Results show a significant difference in…

  19. The Building Wealth and Health Network: methods and baseline characteristics from a randomized controlled trial for families with young children participating in temporary assistance for needy families (TANF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Sun

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Families with children under age six participating in the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families Program (TANF must participate in work-related activities for 20 h per week. However, due to financial hardship, poor health, and exposure to violence and adversity, families may experience great difficulty in reaching self-sufficiency. The purpose of this report is to describe study design and baseline findings of a trauma-informed financial empowerment and peer support intervention meant to mitigate these hardships. Methods We conducted a randomized controlled trial of a 28-week intervention called Building Wealth and Health Network to improve financial security and maternal and child health among caregivers participating in TANF. Participants, recruited from County Assistance offices in Philadelphia, PA, were randomized into two intervention groups (partial and full and one control group. Participants completed questionnaires at baseline to assess career readiness, economic hardship, health and wellbeing, exposure to adversity and violence, and interaction with criminal justice systems. Results Baseline characteristics demonstrate that among 103 participants, there were no significant differences by group. Mean age of participants was 25 years, and youngest child was 30 months. The majority of participants were women (94.2 %, never married (83.5 %, unemployed (94.2 %, and without a bank account (66.0 %. Many reported economic hardship (32.0 % very low household food secure, 65.0 % housing insecure, and 31.1 % severe energy insecure, and depression (57.3 %. Exposure to adversity was prevalent, where 38.8 % reported four or more Adverse Childhood Experiences including abuse, neglect and household dysfunction. In terms of community violence, 64.7 % saw a seriously wounded person after an incident of violence, and 27.2 % had seen someone killed. Finally, 14.6 % spent time in an adult correctional institution, and 48

  20. Testing the effectiveness of a mentoring intervention to improve social participation of adolescents with visual impairments: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heppe, Eline C M; Kef, Sabina; Schuengel, Carlo

    2015-11-05

    Social participation is challenging for people with visual impairments. As a result, on average, social networks are smaller, romantic relationships formed later, educational achievements lower, and career prospects limited. Adolescents on their way towards achieving these goals may benefit from the knowledge and experience of adults who have overcome similar difficulties. Therefore, a mentoring intervention, called Mentor Support, will be set up and studied in which adolescents with visual impairments are matched with successfully social participating adults with and without visual impairments. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of Mentor Support. Secondary aims are to distinguish the importance of the disability-specific experience of mentors, predictors of success, and mediating factors. The effect of Mentor Support will be tested in a randomized clinical trial, using pre-test one week before starting, post-test after 12 months, and follow-up after 18 months. Participants will be referred to one of the experimental groups or the control group, and this randomization will be stratified according to country region. Three groups are included in the trial: 40 participants will receive Mentor Support by mentors with a visual impairment in combination with care-as-usual, 40 participants will receive Mentor Support by mentors without visual impairments in combination with care-as-usual, and 40 participants will receive care-as-usual only. Mentor Support consists of 12 face-to-face meetings of the mentee with a mentor with an overall time period of one year. On a weekly basis, dyads have contact via email, the Internet, or telephone. The primary outcome measure is improved social participation within three domains (work/school, leisure activities, and social relationships). Mediator variables are psychosocial functioning and self-determination. Predictors such as demographics and personality are also investigated in order to distinguish

  1. The Building Wealth and Health Network: methods and baseline characteristics from a randomized controlled trial for families with young children participating in temporary assistance for needy families (TANF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jing; Patel, Falguni; Kirzner, Rachel; Newton-Famous, Nijah; Owens, Constance; Welles, Seth L; Chilton, Mariana

    2016-07-16

    Families with children under age six participating in the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families Program (TANF) must participate in work-related activities for 20 h per week. However, due to financial hardship, poor health, and exposure to violence and adversity, families may experience great difficulty in reaching self-sufficiency. The purpose of this report is to describe study design and baseline findings of a trauma-informed financial empowerment and peer support intervention meant to mitigate these hardships. We conducted a randomized controlled trial of a 28-week intervention called Building Wealth and Health Network to improve financial security and maternal and child health among caregivers participating in TANF. Participants, recruited from County Assistance offices in Philadelphia, PA, were randomized into two intervention groups (partial and full) and one control group. Participants completed questionnaires at baseline to assess career readiness, economic hardship, health and wellbeing, exposure to adversity and violence, and interaction with criminal justice systems. Baseline characteristics demonstrate that among 103 participants, there were no significant differences by group. Mean age of participants was 25 years, and youngest child was 30 months. The majority of participants were women (94.2 %), never married (83.5 %), unemployed (94.2 %), and without a bank account (66.0 %). Many reported economic hardship (32.0 % very low household food secure, 65.0 % housing insecure, and 31.1 % severe energy insecure), and depression (57.3 %). Exposure to adversity was prevalent, where 38.8 % reported four or more Adverse Childhood Experiences including abuse, neglect and household dysfunction. In terms of community violence, 64.7 % saw a seriously wounded person after an incident of violence, and 27.2 % had seen someone killed. Finally, 14.6 % spent time in an adult correctional institution, and 48.5 % of the fathers of the youngest child spent

  2. The effectiveness of a physical activity stimulation programme for children with cerebral palsy on social participation, self-perception and quality of life: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Wely, Leontien; Balemans, Astrid Cj; Becher, Jules G; Dallmeijer, Annet J

    2014-10-01

    To determine the effects of a six-month physical activity stimulation programme on social participation, self-perception and quality of life in children with cerebral palsy. Multicentre randomized controlled trial with concealed allocation, blinded assessments and intention-to-treat analysis. Paediatric physiotherapy practices, special schools for children with a disability, and the child's own home. Forty-nine children with spastic cerebral palsy (28 male), aged 7-13 years, able to walk with and without walking aids. The intervention group followed a six-month physical activity stimulation programme involving counselling through motivational interviewing, home-based physiotherapy and four months of fitness training. The control group continued regular paediatric physiotherapy. Outcomes included social participation in domestic life, social participation in recreation and leisure (Life-Habits for Children questionnaire and Children's Assessment of Participation and Enjoyment questionnaire), self-perception (Harter's Self-Perception Profile for Children) and parent-reported quality of life (Cerebral Palsy Quality of Life Questionnaire). Assessments were performed at baseline, at six months (except quality of life) and at twelve months. Intervention resulted in a positive effect on social participation in domestic life at twelve months (mean between-group difference = 0.9, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.1 to 1.7 [1-10 scale], P = 0.03), but not at six months. No significant effects were found for social participation in recreation and leisure, self-perception at six months and twelve months or for quality of life at twelve months. The combination of counselling, home-based physiotherapy and fitness training was not effective in improving social participation in recreation and leisure, self-perception or quality of life, but did show a potential for improving social participation in domestic life over the longer term. © The Author(s) 2013.

  3. A systematic review of barriers and facilitators to participation in randomized controlled trials by Indigenous people from New Zealand, Australia, Canada and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glover, Marewa; Kira, Anette; Johnston, Vanessa; Walker, Natalie; Thomas, David; Chang, Anne B; Bullen, Chris; Segan, C J; Brown, Ngiare

    2015-03-01

    Many randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are conducted each year but only a small proportion is specifically designed for Indigenous people. In this review we consider the challenges of participation in RCTs for Indigenous peoples from New Zealand, Australia, Canada and the United States and the opportunities for increasing participation. The literature was systematically searched for published articles including information on the barriers and facilitators for Indigenous people's participation in health-related RCTs. Articles were identified using a key word search of electronic databases (Scopus, Medline and EMBASE). To be included, papers had to include in their published work at least one aspect of their RCT that was either a barrier and/or facilitator for participation identified from, for example, design of intervention, or discussion sections of articles. Articles that were reviews, discussions, opinion pieces or rationale/methodology were excluded. Results were analysed inductively, allowing themes to emerge from the data. Facilitators enabling Indigenous people's participation in RCTs included relationship and partnership building, employing Indigenous staff, drawing on Indigenous knowledge models, targeted recruitment techniques and adapting study material. Challenges for participation included both participant-level factors (such as a distrust of research) and RCT-level factors (including inadequately addressing likely participant barriers (phone availability, travel costs), and a lack of recognition or incorporation of Indigenous knowledge systems. The findings from our review add to the body of knowledge on elimination of health disparities, by identifying effective and practical strategies for conducting and engaging Indigenous peoples with RCTs. Future trials that seek to benefit Indigenous peoples should actively involve Indigenous research partners, and respect and draw on pertinent Indigenous knowledge and values. This review has the potential to

  4. Recruitment and Baseline Characteristics of Participants in the Finnish Geriatric Intervention Study to Prevent Cognitive Impairment and Disability (FINGER—A Randomized Controlled Lifestyle Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiia Ngandu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Our aim is to describe the study recruitment and baseline characteristics of the Finnish Geriatric Intervention Study to Prevent Cognitive Impairment and Disability (FINGER study population. Potential study participants (age 60–77 years, the dementia risk score ≥6 were identified from previous population-based survey cohorts and invited to the screening visit. To be eligible, cognitive performance measured at the screening visit had to be at the mean level or slightly lower than expected for age. Of those invited (n = 5496, 48% (n = 2654 attended the screening visit, and finally 1260 eligible participants were randomized to the intervention and control groups (1:1. The screening visit non-attendees were slightly older, less educated, and had more vascular risk factors and diseases present. The mean (SD age of the randomized participants was 69.4 (4.7 years, Mini-Mental State Examination 26.7 (2.0 points, systolic blood pressure 140.1 (16.2 mmHg, total serum cholesterol 5.2 (1.0 mmol/L for, and fasting glucose 6.1 (0.9 mmol/L for, with no difference between intervention and control groups. Several modifiable risk factors were present at baseline indicating an opportunity for the intervention. The FINGER study will provide important information on the effect of lifestyle intervention to prevent cognitive impairment among at risk persons.

  5. Democratization of Learning through Thematic Assignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medellu, Christophil S.; Lumingkewas, S.; Walangitan, J. F.

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the results of research on learning democratization in Sangihe. This study is the first year of a five-year plan. Long-term goal of this research is to create the democratic science learning in schools. Democratic learning model was developed through thematic assignment, involving the participation of parents and…

  6. Job Assignments under Moral Hazard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Alexander; Nafziger, Julia

    Inefficient job assignments are usually explained with incomplete information about employees' abilities or contractual imperfections. We show that inefficient assignments arise even without uncertainty about the employee's ability and with complete contracts. Building on this result we provide...

  7. Detection of random responding on the MMPI-A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baer, R A; Ballenger, J; Berry, D T; Wetter, M W

    1997-02-01

    We examined random responding on the MMPI-A in 106 adolescents from the general population. Participants were asked to report on the frequency, location, and reasons for any random responses occurring during a standard administration of the MMPI-A. Relationships between self-reported random responding and validity indices (F1, F2, F, and Variable Response Inconsistency [VRIN] scale) were examined. In addition, each participant was randomly assigned to 1 of 5 groups, with each group completing an assigned portion (0, 25%, 50%, 75%, or 100%) of an MMPI-A answer sheet without access to the test booklet, and the utility of the validity scales in discriminating standard protocols from all or partially random protocols was investigated. Most adolescents acknowledged one or more random responses correlated significantly with F but not VRIN. Validity scales were sensitive to all or partially random protocols, and produced high classification rates when discriminating among groups.

  8. Bone mineral density during pregnancy in women participating in a randomized controlled trial of vitamin D supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wei; Shary, Judith R; Garrett-Mayer, Elizabeth; Anderson, Betsy; Forestieri, Nina E; Hollis, Bruce W; Wagner, Carol L

    2017-12-01

    Background: Little is known about bone mineral density (BMD) during pregnancy. Advances in technology with lower radiation emissions by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry instruments now permit the safe measurement of BMD during pregnancy. Objective: We evaluated maternal BMD during pregnancy as a function of vitamin D status in women of diverse racial/ethnic backgrounds. Design: A total of 301 women who underwent BMD measurements at 12-20 wk of gestation and again at 0-14 wk postpartum were included in this analysis. Women were a subset of subjects who were recruited for a randomized, controlled, double-blind trial of vitamin D supplementation in pregnancy (400, 2000, or 4000 IU/d). Results: Treatment had no significant effect on changes in BMD that occurred between 12-20 wk of gestation and 0-14 wk postpartum. Similarly, changes in spine and femoral neck bone mineral contents (BMCs) were not significantly different in the treatment groups. In addition, vitamin D inadequacy (serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration, averaged across pregnancy, pregnancy bone health. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00292591. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  9. Practice Makes Progress? Homework Assignments and Outcome in Treatment of Cocaine Dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Kathleen M.; Nich, Charla; Ball, Samuel A.

    2005-01-01

    The relationship between treatment outcome and the extent to which participants completed homework assignments was evaluated among 60 cocaine-dependent individuals assigned to cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT). Homework was assigned in 72% of all sessions and initiated by participants in 48% of the sessions in which it was assigned. Completion of…

  10. Does different information disclosure on placebo control affect blinding and trial outcomes? A case study of participant information leaflets of randomized placebo-controlled trials of acupuncture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soyeon Cheon

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While full disclosure of information on placebo control in participant information leaflets (PILs in a clinical trial is ethically required during informed consent, there have been concerning voices such complete disclosures may increase unnecessary nocebo responses, breach double-blind designs, and/or affect direction of trial outcomes. Taking an example of acupuncture studies, we aimed to examine what participants are told about placebo controls in randomized, placebo-controlled trials, and how it may affect blinding and trial outcomes. Methods Authors of published randomized, placebo-controlled trials of acupuncture were identified from PubMed search and invited to provide PILs for their trials. The collected PILs were subjected to content analysis and categorized based on degree of information disclosure on placebo. Blinding index (BI as a chance-corrected measurement of blinding was calculated and its association with different information disclosure was examined. The impact of different information disclosure from PILs on primary outcomes was estimated using a random effects model. Results In 65 collected PILs, approximately 57% of trials fully informed the participants of placebo control, i.e. full disclosure, while the rest gave deceitful or no information on placebo, i.e. no disclosure. Placebo groups in the studies with no disclosure tended to make more opposite guesses on the type of received intervention than those with disclosure, which may reflect wishful thinking (BI −0.21 vs. −0.16; p = 0.38. In outcome analysis, studies with no disclosure significantly favored acupuncture than those with full disclosure (standardized mean difference − 0.43 vs. −0.12; p = 0.03, probably due to enhanced expectations. Conclusions How participants are told about placebos can be another potential factor that may influence participant blinding and study outcomes by possibly modulating patient expectation. As we

  11. Effects of intensified work-related multidisciplinary rehabilitation on occupational participation: a randomized-controlled trial in patients with chronic musculoskeletal disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streibelt, Marco; Bethge, Matthias

    2014-03-01

    This study examined the effects of work-related multidisciplinary rehabilitation (MR) on occupational participation in patients with chronic musculoskeletal disorders. A randomized-controlled trial was carried out. The sample included patients with chronic musculoskeletal disorders and severe restrictions of work ability (n=222). Participants in the intervention group received a work-related rehabilitation programme following a comprehensive functional capacity evaluation (FCE MR). Controls completed a conventional MR. The analysis was based on 1-year follow-up data. The primary outcome was stable occupational participation (SOP), defined as employment with at most 6 months of sick leave after rehabilitation. The secondary outcomes were the duration of sick leave, employment status and the Pain Disability Index. We included 102 patients in our analysis (intervention: n=55, control: n=47). Despite randomization there were group differences. Adjusting these differences, patients of the FCE MR had 3.5 times higher odds of SOP [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.2-9.8, P=0.018]. However, there was neither a significant difference in the duration of sick leave between both groups (b=-8.0 weeks, 95% CI: -17.4 to 1.4, P=0.095) nor higher odds of employment in favour of the FCE MR after 1 year (odds ratio=2.3, 95% CI: 0.9-5.8, P=0.088). Participants in the FCE MR reported less pain-related disabilities (b=-6.5, 95% CI: -12.6 to -0.4, P=0.038). The study had a limitation in terms of group balance. However, the findings indicate that the work-related FCE MR was more effective for SOP, but did not significantly affect employment rate and sick leave duration.

  12. Effect of diacerein on renal function and inflammatory cytokines in participants with type 2 diabetes mellitus and chronic kidney disease: A randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Piovesan

    Full Text Available Diacerein seems to improve metabolic control and reduce inflammatory marker levels in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (Type 2 DM, but for participants with chronic kidney disease (CKD its effect is unknown. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of diacerein vs. placebo on urinary albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR, glomerular filtration rate (GFR, and inflammatory cytokines in type 2 DM participants with CKD. Blood pressure (BP and metabolic control were secondary outcomes. This randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel trial of adjuvant treatment of type 2 DM with diacerein enrolled seventy-two participants with CKD, aged 30-80 years, with glycated hemoglobin levels from 53-97 mmol/mol (7.0-11.0%, receiving angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers and antidiabetic agents. Participants randomized to diacerein or placebo were followed-up up to 90 days. Both groups had a marked reduction in ACR, but there was no effect on glomerular filtration rate. While the diacerein group had reduced TNF-α levels at the 75th percentile with a borderline significance (P = 0.05, there were no changes in the IL levels at the 75th percentile. Diacerein prevented the increase in blood glucose to the level observed in the placebo group (P = 0.04, improving metabolic control by 74%, reducing 24-hour diastolic BP, nighttime systolic and diastolic BP compared to the placebo group. In conclusion, among patients with type 2 DM and CKD, diacerein does not have an effect on ACR or GFR, but slows metabolic control deterioration and is associated with lower nighttime systolic and diastolic blood pressure.Brazilian Clinical Trials Registry (Registro Brasileiro de Ensaios Clinicos; ReBeC U1111-1156-0255.

  13. A randomized clinical trial of diabetes self-management for Mexican Americans: Are there serendipitous health benefits for supporters of study participants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Sharon A; García, Alexandra A; Orlander, Philip R; Hanis, Craig L

    2017-01-01

    Studies of social support in diabetes have focused on the effects of support on the person with type 2 diabetes. We explored diabetes prevention effects of a culturally tailored diabetes self-management intervention in individuals without diabetes who were supporters of intervention participants. This is a secondary analysis of data from a randomized clinical trial that involved 256 Mexican Americans with diabetes. Each study participant designated a supporter-spouse, relative, friend-who attended intervention sessions and assisted participants in attaining effective diabetes self-management. Supporter's glycosylated hemoglobin (A1C) data were tracked for 1 year to determine diabetes conversion rates in supporters without diabetes at baseline. Fewer individuals in the intervention group (n = 9) converted to an A1C above the 7% threshold, compared to the 1-year wait-listed control group (n = 16). We found a statistically significant difference (p = .021) at 12 months in the number of individuals whose A1C was ⩽8%, with fewer supporters above threshold in the intervention group (reduction of 48%). Supporters in the intervention group with prediabetes, based on baseline A1C, experienced a slight reduction in A1C, while control group supporters with prediabetes experienced an increase. The results suggest that there are potential benefits for family members and other supporters of persons with diabetes who participated in diabetes self-management programs.

  14. A randomized clinical trial of diabetes self-management for Mexican Americans: Are there serendipitous health benefits for supporters of study participants?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon A Brown

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Studies of social support in diabetes have focused on the effects of support on the person with type 2 diabetes. We explored diabetes prevention effects of a culturally tailored diabetes self-management intervention in individuals without diabetes who were supporters of intervention participants. Methods: This is a secondary analysis of data from a randomized clinical trial that involved 256 Mexican Americans with diabetes. Each study participant designated a supporter—spouse, relative, friend—who attended intervention sessions and assisted participants in attaining effective diabetes self-management. Supporter’s glycosylated hemoglobin (A1C data were tracked for 1 year to determine diabetes conversion rates in supporters without diabetes at baseline. Results: Fewer individuals in the intervention group (n = 9 converted to an A1C above the 7% threshold, compared to the 1-year wait-listed control group (n = 16. We found a statistically significant difference (p = .021 at 12 months in the number of individuals whose A1C was ⩽8%, with fewer supporters above threshold in the intervention group (reduction of 48%. Supporters in the intervention group with prediabetes, based on baseline A1C, experienced a slight reduction in A1C, while control group supporters with prediabetes experienced an increase. Discussion: The results suggest that there are potential benefits for family members and other supporters of persons with diabetes who participated in diabetes self-management programs.

  15. Interactive Assignments for Online Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pam Lowry

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Students can experience first hand through interactive assignments what is involved in teaching an online course. Most students develop a whole new appreciation for the student learning process. Faculty are beginning to realize that online instruction is more than a series of readings posted to a course management system. This paper summarizes the faculty member's instructional strategies involved when creating student interaction assignments. The paper also summarizes the assignments, discussion board, and trends in education from the student's perspective. In summary, it concludes with the faculty's overall perspective concerning these assignments and how the assignments could be more effective for the student.

  16. Effect of virtual reality exposure therapy on social participation in people with a psychotic disorder (VRETp): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pot-Kolder, Roos; Veling, Wim; Geraets, Chris; van der Gaag, Mark

    2016-01-13

    Many patients with a psychotic disorder participate poorly in society. When psychotic disorders are in partial remission, feelings of paranoia, delusions of reference, social anxiety and self-stigmatization often remain at diminished severity and may lead to avoidance of places and people. Virtual reality exposure therapy (VRET) is an evidence-based treatment for several anxiety disorders. For patients with a psychotic disorder, the VRETp was developed to help them experience exposure to feared social situations. The present study aims to investigate the effects of VRETp on social participation in real life among patients with a psychotic disorder. The study is a single-blind randomized controlled trial with two conditions: the active condition, in which participants receive the virtual reality treatment together with treatment as usual (TAU), and the waiting list condition, in which participants receive TAU only. The two groups are compared at baseline, at 3 months posttreatment and at 6 months follow-up. All participants on the waiting list are also offered the virtual reality treatment after the follow-up measurements are completed. The primary outcome is social participation. Secondary outcomes are quality of life, interaction anxiety, depression and social functioning in general. Moderator and mediator analyses are conducted with stigma, cognitive schemata, cognitive biases, medication adherence, simulator sickness and presence in virtual reality. If effective, a cost-effectiveness analysis will be conducted. Results from the posttreatment measurement can be considered strong empirical indicators of the effectiveness of VRETp. The 6-month follow-up data may provide reliable documentation of the long-term effects of the treatment on the outcome variables. Data from pre-treatment and mid-treatment can be used to reveal possible pathways of change. Current Controlled Trials: ISRCTN12929657 . Date of registration: 8 September 2015.

  17. Credit assignment during movement reinforcement learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dam, Gregory; Kording, Konrad; Wei, Kunlin

    2013-01-01

    We often need to learn how to move based on a single performance measure that reflects the overall success of our movements. However, movements have many properties, such as their trajectories, speeds and timing of end-points, thus the brain needs to decide which properties of movements should be improved; it needs to solve the credit assignment problem. Currently, little is known about how humans solve credit assignment problems in the context of reinforcement learning. Here we tested how human participants solve such problems during a trajectory-learning task. Without an explicitly-defined target movement, participants made hand reaches and received monetary rewards as feedback on a trial-by-trial basis. The curvature and direction of the attempted reach trajectories determined the monetary rewards received in a manner that can be manipulated experimentally. Based on the history of action-reward pairs, participants quickly solved the credit assignment problem and learned the implicit payoff function. A Bayesian credit-assignment model with built-in forgetting accurately predicts their trial-by-trial learning.

  18. Individual- and area-level unemployment influence smoking cessation among African Americans participating in a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendzor, Darla E; Reitzel, Lorraine R; Mazas, Carlos A; Cofta-Woerpel, Ludmila M; Cao, Yumei; Ji, Lingyun; Costello, Tracy J; Vidrine, Jennifer Irvin; Businelle, Michael S; Li, Yisheng; Castro, Yessenia; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S; Cinciripini, Paul M; Wetter, David W

    2012-05-01

    African Americans suffer disproportionately from the adverse health consequences of smoking, and also report substantially lower socioeconomic status than Whites and other racial/ethnic groups in the U.S. Although socioeconomic disadvantage is known to have a negative influence on smoking cessation rates and overall health, little is known about the influence of socioeconomic status on smoking cessation specifically among African Americans. Thus, the purpose of the current study was to characterize the impact of several individual- and area-level indicators of socioeconomic status on smoking cessation among African Americans. Data were collected as part of a smoking cessation intervention study for African American smokers (N = 379) recruited from the Houston, Texas, metropolitan area, who participated in the study between 2005 and 2007. The separate and combined influences of individual-level (insurance status, unemployment, education, and income) and area-level (neighborhood unemployment, education, income, and poverty) indicators of socioeconomic status on continuous smoking abstinence were examined across time intervals using continuation ratio logit modeling. Individual-level analyses indicated that unemployment was significantly associated with reduced odds of smoking abstinence, while higher income was associated with greater odds of abstinence. However, only unemployment remained a significant predictor of abstinence when unemployment and income were included in the model together. Area-level analyses indicated that greater neighborhood unemployment and poverty were associated with reduced odds of smoking abstinence, while greater neighborhood education was associated with higher odds of abstinence. However, only neighborhood unemployment remained significantly associated with abstinence status when individual-level income and unemployment were included in the model. Overall, findings suggest that individual- and area-level unemployment have a negative

  19. A Four-Session Sleep Intervention Program Improves Sleep for Older Adult Day Health Care Participants: Results of a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jennifer L; Song, Yeonsu; Hughes, Jaime; Jouldjian, Stella; Dzierzewski, Joseph M; Fung, Constance H; Rodriguez Tapia, Juan Carlos; Mitchell, Michael N; Alessi, Cathy A

    2017-08-01

    To test the effectiveness of a 4-week behavioral Sleep Intervention Program (SIP: sleep compression, modified stimulus control, and sleep hygiene) compared to a 4-week information-only control (IC) among older adults attending a VA Adult Day Health Care (ADHC) program in a double-blind, randomized, clinical trial. Forty-two individuals (mean age: 77 years, 93% male) enrolled in a VA ADHC program were randomized to receive SIP or IC. All completed in-person sleep and health assessments at baseline, post-treatment and 4-months follow-up that included 3 days/nights of wrist actigraphy, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), and the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI). Mixed repeated measures analysis was used to compare sleep outcomes at post-treatment and 4-months follow-up, with baseline values as covariates. SIP participants (n = 21) showed significant improvement on actigraphy sleep efficiency (p = .007), number of nighttime awakenings (p = .016), and minutes awake at night (p = .001) at post-treatment, compared to IC participants (n = 21). Benefits were slightly attenuated but remained significant at 4-month follow-up (all p's sleep time between groups. There was significant improvement on PSQI factor 3 (daily disturbances) at 4-month follow-up (p = .016), but no differences were observed between SIP and IC on other PSQI components or ISI scores at post-treatment or 4-month follow-up. A short behavioral sleep intervention may have important benefits in improving objectively measured sleep in older adults participating in ADHC. Future studies are needed to study implementation of this intervention into routine clinical care within ADHC.

  20. Prospective Preference Assessment of Patients' Willingness to Participate in a Randomized Controlled Trial of Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy Versus Proton Therapy for Localized Prostate Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, Anand [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Efstathiou, Jason A.; Paly, Jonathan J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Halpern, Scott D. [Department of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Center for Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Center for Bioethics, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Leonard Davis Institute of Health Economics, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Bruner, Deborah W. [Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, GA (United States); Christodouleas, John P. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Coen, John J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Deville, Curtiland; Vapiwala, Neha [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Shipley, William U.; Zietman, Anthony L. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Hahn, Stephen M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Bekelman, Justin E., E-mail: bekelman@uphs.upenn.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Leonard Davis Institute of Health Economics, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: To investigate patients' willingness to participate (WTP) in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) comparing intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) with proton beam therapy (PBT) for prostate cancer (PCa). Methods and Materials: We undertook a qualitative research study in which we prospectively enrolled patients with clinically localized PCa. We used purposive sampling to ensure a diverse sample based on age, race, travel distance, and physician. Patients participated in a semi-structured interview in which they reviewed a description of a hypothetical RCT, were asked open-ended and focused follow-up questions regarding their motivations for and concerns about enrollment, and completed a questionnaire assessing characteristics such as demographics and prior knowledge of IMRT or PBT. Patients' stated WTP was assessed using a 6-point Likert scale. Results: Forty-six eligible patients (33 white, 13 black) were enrolled from the practices of eight physicians. We identified 21 factors that impacted patients' WTP, which largely centered on five major themes: altruism/desire to compare treatments, randomization, deference to physician opinion, financial incentives, and time demands/scheduling. Most patients (27 of 46, 59%) stated they would either 'definitely' or 'probably' participate. Seventeen percent (8 of 46) stated they would 'definitely not' or 'probably not' enroll, most of whom (6 of 8) preferred PBT before their physician visit. Conclusions: A substantial proportion of patients indicated high WTP in a RCT comparing IMRT and PBT for PCa.

  1. Effect of the provision of a cane on walking and social participation in individuals with stroke: protocol for a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avelino, Patrick Roberto; Nascimento, Lucas R; Menezes, Kênia K P; Scianni, Aline A; Ada, Louise; Teixeira-Salmela, Luci F

    2017-12-02

    Canes are usually prescribed for individuals with stroke with the purpose of improving walking and increasing safety. However, there is no consensus regarding the clinical effects of these aids on walking and participation. This study will examine the efficacy of the provision of a cane to improve walking and increase participation after stroke. This is a two-arm, prospectively registered, randomized trial with concealed allocation, blinded measurers, and intention-to-treat analysis. Fifty individuals with chronic stroke, categorized as slow or intermediate walkers (walking speeds ≤0.8m/s), will participate. The experimental group will receive a single-point cane and instructions to use the cane anytime they need to walk. The control group will receive a placebo intervention, consisting of self-stretching exercises of the lower limb muscles and instructions to not use assistive devices. The primary outcome will be comfortable walking speed. Secondary outcomes will include walking step length, walking cadence, walking capacity, walking confidence, and participation. Outcomes will be collected by a researcher blinded to group allocation at baseline (Week 0), after intervention (Week 4), and one month beyond intervention (Week 8). The provision of a single-point cane may help improving walking of slow and intermediate walkers after stroke. If walking is enhanced, the benefits may be carried over to participation, and individuals may experience greater free-living physical activity at home and in the community. Copyright © 2017 Associação Brasileira de Pesquisa e Pós-Graduação em Fisioterapia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  2. Practice Makes Progress? Homework Assignments and Outcome in Treatment of Cocaine Dependence

    OpenAIRE

    Carroll, Kathleen M.; Nich, Charla; Ball, Samuel A.

    2005-01-01

    The relationship between treatment outcome and the extent to which participants completed homework assignments was evaluated among 60 cocaine-dependent individuals assigned to cognitive–behavioral therapy (CBT). Homework was assigned in 72% of all sessions and initiated by participants in 48% of the sessions in which it was assigned. Completion of homework was unrelated to participants' baseline characteristics and several indicators of treatment compliance. Participants who completed more ho...

  3. Immediate changes in masticatory mechanosensitivity, mouth opening, and head posture after myofascial techniques in pain-free healthy participants: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heredia-Rizo, Alberto Marcos; Oliva-Pascual-Vaca, Angel; Rodríguez-Blanco, Cleofás; Piña-Pozo, Fernando; Luque-Carrasco, Antonio; Herrera-Monge, Patricia

    2013-06-01

    This study aimed to assess the immediate effects on masticatory muscle mechanosensitivity, maximal vertical mouth opening (VMO), and head posture in pain-free healthy participants after intervention with myofascial treatment in the temporalis and masseter muscles. A randomized, double-blind study was conducted. The sample group included 48 participants (n=48), with a mean age of 21±2.47 years (18-29). Two subgroups were defined: an intervention group (n=24), who underwent a fascial induction protocol in the masseter and temporalis muscles, and a control group (n=24), who underwent a sham (placebo) intervention. The pressure pain threshold in 2 locations in the masseter (M1, M2) and temporalis (T1, T2) muscles, maximal VMO, and head posture, by means of the craniovertebral angle, were all measured. Significant improvements were observed in the intragroup comparison in the intervention group for the craniovertebral angle with the participant in seated (P.05). Myofascial induction techniques in the masseter and temporalis muscles show no significant differences in maximal VMO, in the mechanical sensitivity of the masticatory muscles, and in head posture in comparison with a placebo intervention in which the therapist's hands are placed in the temporomandibular joint region without exerting any therapeutic pressure. Copyright © 2013 National University of Health Sciences. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Nurse Participation in Colonoscopy Observation versus the Colonoscopist Alone for Polyp and Adenoma Detection: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized, Controlled Trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Xu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of nurse participation (NP in colonoscopy observation for polyp and adenoma detection is unclear. This study aimed to evaluate whether nurse participation can improve polyp and adenoma detection. Patients and Methods. The PUBMED, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library databases were searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs published in English. The outcome measurements included (1 the polyp and adenoma detection rate (PDR and ADR; (2 the advanced lesions detection rate; and (3 the mean polyp and adenoma detection rate per colonoscopy. Results. Three RCTs with a total of 1676 patients were included. The pooled data showed a significantly higher ADR in the NP group than colonoscopist alone (CA (45.7% versus 39.3%; RR 1.16; 95% CI, 1.04–1.30. And it showed no significant difference in the PDR and advanced lesions detection rate between the two groups (RR: 1.14, 95% CI: 0.95–1.37; RR: 1.35, 95% CI: 0.91–2.00; resp.. Conclusions. Nurse participation during a colonoscopy can improve the ADR, whereas no benefit for the PDR and advanced lesions detection rate was observed. All RCTs included in the meta-analysis had high risk of bias. Thus, there is a need for new research that uses sound methodology to definitively address the research question under study.

  5. Preference option randomized design (PORD) for comparative effectiveness research: Statistical power for testing comparative effect, preference effect, selection effect, intent-to-treat effect, and overall effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Moonseong; Meissner, Paul; Litwin, Alain H; Arnsten, Julia H; McKee, M Diane; Karasz, Alison; McKinley, Paula; Rehm, Colin D; Chambers, Earle C; Yeh, Ming-Chin; Wylie-Rosett, Judith

    2017-01-01

    Comparative effectiveness research trials in real-world settings may require participants to choose between preferred intervention options. A randomized clinical trial with parallel experimental and control arms is straightforward and regarded as a gold standard design, but by design it forces and anticipates the participants to comply with a randomly assigned intervention regardless of their preference. Therefore, the randomized clinical trial may impose impractical limitations when planning comparative effectiveness research trials. To accommodate participants' preference if they are expressed, and to maintain randomization, we propose an alternative design that allows participants' preference after randomization, which we call a "preference option randomized design (PORD)". In contrast to other preference designs, which ask whether or not participants consent to the assigned intervention after randomization, the crucial feature of preference option randomized design is its unique informed consent process before randomization. Specifically, the preference option randomized design consent process informs participants that they can opt out and switch to the other intervention only if after randomization they actively express the desire to do so. Participants who do not independently express explicit alternate preference or assent to the randomly assigned intervention are considered to not have an alternate preference. In sum, preference option randomized design intends to maximize retention, minimize possibility of forced assignment for any participants, and to maintain randomization by allowing participants with no or equal preference to represent random assignments. This design scheme enables to define five effects that are interconnected with each other through common design parameters-comparative, preference, selection, intent-to-treat, and overall/as-treated-to collectively guide decision making between interventions. Statistical power functions for testing

  6. Sex difference in immune response to vaccination: A participant-level meta-analysis of randomized trials of IMVAMUNE smallpox vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troy, Jesse D; Hill, Heather R; Ewell, Marian G; Frey, Sharon E

    2015-10-05

    Previous research shows immune response to vaccination differs by sex but this has not been explored for IMVAMUNE, a replication-deficient smallpox vaccine developed in response to the potential for bioterrorism using smallpox. We conducted a participant-level meta-analysis (N=275, 136 men, 139 women) of 3 randomized trials of IMVAMUNE conducted at 13 centers in the US through a federally-funded extramural research program. Studies were eligible for inclusion if they tested the standard dose (1×10(8)TCID₅₀/mL on Days 0 and 28) of liquid formulation IMVAMUNE, were completed at the time of our search, and enrolled healthy vaccinia-naïve participants. Models of the peak log₂ ELISA and PRNT titers post-second vaccination were constructed for each study with sex as a covariate. Results from these models were combined into random effects meta-analyses of the sex difference in response to IMVAMUNE. We then compared this approach with fixed effects models using the combined participant level data. In each study the mean peak log₂ ELISA titer was higher in men than women but no single study demonstrated a statistically significant difference. Combination of the adjusted study-specific estimates into the random effects model showed a higher mean peak log₂-titer in men compared with women (absolute difference [men-women]: 0.32, 95% CI: 0.02-0.60). Fixed effects models controlling for study showed a similar result (log₂ ELISA titer, men-women: 0.34, 95% CI: 0.04-0.63). This equates to a geometric mean peak titer that is approximately 27% higher in men than women (95% CI: 3-55%). Peak log₂ PRNT titers were also higher (although not significantly) in men (men-women: 0.14, 95% CI: -0.30 to 0.58). Our results show statistically significant differences in response to IMVAMUNE comparing healthy, vaccinia-naïve men with women and suggest that sex should be considered in further development and deployment of IMVAMUNE and other MVA-based vaccines. Copyright © 2015

  7. An Online Health Prevention Intervention for Youth with Addicted or Mentally Ill Parents: Experiences and Perspectives of Participants and Providers from a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolderink, Marla; Bindels, Jill A P M; Evers, Silvia M A A; Paulus, Aggie T G; van Asselt, Antoinette D I; van Schayck, Onno C P

    2015-12-02

    Mental illnesses affect many people around the world, either directly or indirectly. Families of persons suffering from mental illness or addiction suffer too, especially their children. In the Netherlands, 864,000 parents meet the diagnostic criteria for a mental illness or addiction. Evidence shows that offspring of mentally ill or addicted parents are at risk for developing mental disorders or illnesses themselves. The Kopstoring course is an online 8-week group course with supervision by 2 trained psychologists or social workers, aimed to prevent behavioral and psychological problems for children (aged 16 to 25 years) of parents with mental health problems or addictions. The course addresses themes such as roles in the family and mastery skills. An online randomized controlled trial (RCT) was conducted to assess the effectiveness of the Kopstoring course. The aim was to gain knowledge about expectations, experiences, and perspectives of participants and providers of the online Kopstoring course. A process evaluation was performed to evaluate the online delivery of Kopstoring and the experiences and perspectives of participants and providers of Kopstoring. Interviews were performed with members from both groups. Participants were drawn from a sample from the Kopstoring RCT. Thirteen participants and 4 providers were interviewed. Five main themes emerged from these interviews: background, the requirements for the intervention, experience with the intervention, technical aspects, and research aspects. Overall, participants and providers found the intervention to be valuable because it was online; therefore, protecting their anonymity was considered a key component. Most barriers existed in the technical sphere. Additional barriers existed with conducting the RCT, namely gathering informed consent and gathering parental consent in the case of minors. This study provides valuable insight into participants' and providers' experiences and expectations with the online

  8. The bicriterion multimodal assignment problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Christian Roed; Nielsen, Lars Relund; Andersen, Kim Allan

    2008-01-01

    We consider the bicriterion multimodal assignment problem, which is a new generalization of the classical linear assignment problem. A two-phase solution method using an effective ranking scheme is presented. The algorithm is valid for generating all nondominated criterion points or an approximat......We consider the bicriterion multimodal assignment problem, which is a new generalization of the classical linear assignment problem. A two-phase solution method using an effective ranking scheme is presented. The algorithm is valid for generating all nondominated criterion points...

  9. Ant Colony Algorithm and Simulation for Robust Airport Gate Assignment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Airport gate assignment is core task for airport ground operations. Due to the fact that the departure and arrival time of flights may be influenced by many random factors, the airport gate assignment scheme may encounter gate conflict and many other problems. This paper aims at finding a robust solution for airport gate assignment problem. A mixed integer model is proposed to formulate the problem, and colony algorithm is designed to solve this model. Simulation result shows that, in consideration of robustness, the ability of antidisturbance for airport gate assignment scheme has much improved.

  10. Gambling Participation and Problem Gambling Severity in a Stratified Random Survey: Findings from the Second Social and Economic Impact Study of Gambling in Tasmania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Darren R; Dowling, Nicki A; Jackson, Alun C; Thomas, Shane A

    2015-12-01

    Demographic characteristics associated with gambling participation and problem gambling severity were investigated in a stratified random survey in Tasmania, Australia. Computer-assisted telephone interviews were conducted in March 2011 resulting in a representative sample of 4,303 Tasmanian residents aged 18 years or older. Overall, 64.8% of Tasmanian adults reported participating in some form of gambling in the previous 12 months. The most common forms of gambling were lotteries (46.5%), keno (24.3%), instant scratch tickets (24.3%), and electronic gaming machines (20.5%). Gambling severity rates were estimated at non-gambling (34.8%), non-problem gambling (57.4%), low risk gambling (5.3%), moderate risk (1.8%), and problem gambling (.7%). Compared to Tasmanian gamblers as a whole significantly higher annual participation rates were reported by couples with no children, those in full time paid employment, and people who did not complete secondary school. Compared to Tasmanian gamblers as a whole significantly higher gambling frequencies were reported by males, people aged 65 or older, and people who were on pensions or were unable to work. Compared to Tasmanian gamblers as a whole significantly higher gambling expenditure was reported by males. The highest average expenditure was for horse and greyhound racing ($AUD 1,556), double the next highest gambling activity electronic gaming machines ($AUD 767). Compared to Tasmanian gamblers as a whole problem gamblers were significantly younger, in paid employment, reported lower incomes, and were born in Australia. Although gambling participation rates appear to be falling, problem gambling severity rates remain stable. These changes appear to reflect a maturing gambling market and the need for population specific harm minimisation strategies.

  11. Tailored telephone counselling to increase participation of underusers in a population-based colorectal cancer-screening programme with faecal occult blood test: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denis, B; Broc, G; Sauleau, E A; Gendre, I; Gana, K; Perrin, P

    2017-02-01

    Despite the involvement of general practitioners, the mailing of several recall letters and of the faecal occult blood test (FOBT) kit, the uptake remains insufficient in the French colorectal cancer-screening programme. Some studies have demonstrated a greater efficacy of tailored telephone counselling over usual care, untailored invitation mailing and FOBT kit mailing. We evaluated the feasibility and the effectiveness of telephone counselling on participation in the population-based FOBT colorectal cancer-screening programme implemented in Alsace (France). Underusers were randomized into a control group with untailored invitation and FOBT kit mailing (n=19,756) and two intervention groups for either a computer-assisted telephone interview (n=9367), system for tailored promotion of colorectal cancer screening, or a telephone-based motivational interview (n=9374). Only 5691 (19.9%) people were actually counseled, so that there was no difference in participation between the intervention groups taken together (13.9%, 95% confidence interval [CI] [13.5-14.4]) and the control group (13.9%, 95% CI [13.4-14.4]) (P=1.0) in intent-to-treat analysis. However, in per-protocol analysis, participation was significantly higher in the two intervention groups than in the control group (12.9%, 95% CI [12.6-13.2]) (Pcounselling and untailored invitation and FOBT kit mailing on participation of underusers in an organized population-based colorectal cancer screening programme. A greater efficacy of telephone counselling, around twice that of invitation and FOBT kit mailing, was observed only in people who could actually be counseled, without difference between computer-assisted telephone interview and motivational interview. However, technical failures hampered telephone counselling, so that there was no difference in intent-to-treat analysis. The rate of technical success of telephone interviews should be evaluated, and enhanced if insufficient, before implementation of telephone

  12. Individuals with lumbar spinal stenosis seek education and care focused on self-management - results of focus groups among participants enrolled in a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Andrew D; Bove, Allyn M; Ammendolia, Carlo; Schneider, Michael

    2017-12-12

    The effectiveness of treatments for chronic, degenerative conditions of the lumbar spine can be influenced by patient perceptions and expectations regarding treatment. The primary purpose of this study was to understand the factors that are important to individuals with lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS) regarding different non-surgical treatments. These factors were considered within the context of each treatment received as a part of the parent randomized controlled trial (RCT). Focus Group study of RCT participants PATIENT SAMPLE: Convenience sample of 50 individuals with LSS (28 female, average age 73 ± 7.7 years) from an RCT participated in one of six focus groups. Focus groups consisted of patients previously randomized to one of three non-surgical treatments: 1) medical care; 2) community-based group exercise; and 3) clinic-based manual therapy and individualized exercise. Experiences, opinions, and preferences of individuals with LSS who participated in an RCT. Inter-coder agreement for qualitative analysis was conducted with kappa statistics. Participants discussed their experiences and perceptions regarding study treatment and their general experience with LSS using open-ended questions provided by a facilitator. Transcripts were coded according to modified grounded theory in an open approach, using codes that addressed the primary focus group discussion topics (primary coding) and codes for emerging topics (secondary coding). Secondary coding sought to identify themes concerning living with LSS and seeking treatment that were emergent from the focus groups. This study was funded by the Patient Centered Research Outcomes Institute. The authors report no conflicts of interest. Three themes related to medical treatment and symptom management arose from analyses - (1) an emotional response to LSS; (2) a desire for education about LSS and motivation to pursue education from any available source; and (3) a desire for individualized care based on self

  13. Sleep outcomes in youth with chronic pain participating in a randomized controlled trial of online cognitive-behavioral therapy for pain management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fales, Jessica; Palermo, Tonya M; Law, Emily F; Wilson, Anna C

    2015-01-01

    Sleep disturbances are commonly reported in youth with chronic pain. We examined whether online cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for pain management would impact youth's sleep. Subjective sleep quality and actigraphic sleep were evaluated in 33 youth (M = 14.8 years; 70% female) with chronic pain participating in a larger randomized controlled trial of online-CBT. The Internet treatment condition (n = 17) received 8-10 weeks of online-CBT + standard care, and the wait-list control condition (n = 16) continued with standard care. Although pain improved with online-CBT, no changes were observed in sleep outcomes. Shorter pretreatment sleep duration was associated with less improvement in posttreatment functioning. Findings underscore the need for further development in psychological therapies to more intensively target sleep loss in youth with chronic pain.

  14. Tailored message interventions versus typical messages for increasing participation in colorectal cancer screening among a non-adherent population: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirai, Kei; Ishikawa, Yoshiki; Fukuyoshi, Jun; Yonekura, Akio; Harada, Kazuhiro; Shibuya, Daisuke; Yamamoto, Seiichiro; Mizota, Yuri; Hamashima, Chisato; Saito, Hiroshi

    2016-05-24

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness and cost-efficiency of a tailored message intervention compared with a non-tailored message intervention for increasing colorectal cancer (CRC) screening rates among a non-adherent population, in a community-based client reminder program. After a baseline survey for psychological segmentation, 2140 eligible individuals were randomly assigned either to a group with a tailored matched-message condition (N = 356), a group with a non-tailored unmatched-message condition (N = 355), or to two control groups, one using a typical message with a professional design (N = 717) and one without a professional design (N = 712). The main outcome measure was attendance rates in a community-organized CRC screening program within five months of receiving a print reminder. There was a significant difference in fecal occult blood test (FOBT) attendance rates at follow-up assessments between the tailored matched-message condition (14.0 %) and the control (9.9 %; OR = 1.48, p = 0.026), while there was no significant difference between the unmatched-message condition (11.0 %) and the control (OR = 1.12, p = 0.558), and between the matched-message condition and the unmatched-message condition (OR = 1.32, p = 0.219). The cost of a one-person increase in FOBT screening was 3,740 JPY for the tailored matched-message condition, while it was 2,747 JPY for the control. A tailored-message intervention for segmented individuals designed to increase CRC screening rates in a community-based client reminder program was significantly effective compared to a usual reminder, but not more effective than an unmatched message in a randomized controlled trial, and was not sufficiently effective to highlight its value from a cost perspective. Therefore, the tailored intervention including target segmentation needs to be improved for future implementation in a CRC screening program for a non

  15. Neurological syndrome in an HIV-prevention trial participant randomized to daily tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (300 mg) and emtricitabine (200 mg) in Bondo, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owino, Fredrick; Mandala, Justin; Ambia, Julie; Agot, Kawango; Van Damme, Lut

    2013-01-01

    Side effects of antiretroviral drug use by HIV-positive patients have been extensively studied; however, there are limited data on the side effects of antiretroviral drugs used as an HIV prophylaxis among healthy, HIV-negative individuals. Here we report on an unusual neuropathy in a 24-year-old participant in the FEM-PrEP trial. This was a Phase III randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled trial to test the safety and effectiveness of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (300 mg) and emtricitabine (200 mg) (TDF-FTC) to prevent HIV. At the eighth week of taking TDF-FTC with moderate adherence, the participant complained of mild paresthesiae, numbness, and a tingling sensation in her upper limbs that was associated with pain and cold. After an additional 4 days, she developed a disabling weakness of her upper limbs and tremors in her hands. The study product was discontinued, and within 2 weeks she was free of all symptoms. One month after restarting the drug, she complained of posture-dependent numbness of her upper limbs. Results of clinical and neurological exams, laboratory tests, and magnetic resonance imaging are described here. PMID:24353443

  16. Neurological syndrome in an HIV-prevention trial participant randomized to daily tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (300 mg and emtricitabine (200 mg in Bondo, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Owino F

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Fredrick Owino,1 Justin Mandala,2 Julie Ambia,3 Kawango Agot,1 Lut Van Damme2 1Impact Research and Development Organization, Kisumu, Kenya; 2Department of Global Health, Population, and Nutrition, FHI 360, Washington, DC, USA; 3KAVI-Institute of Clinical Research, University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya Abstract: Side effects of antiretroviral drug use by HIV-positive patients have been extensively studied; however, there are limited data on the side effects of antiretroviral drugs used as an HIV prophylaxis among healthy, HIV-negative individuals. Here we report on an unusual neuropathy in a 24-year-old participant in the FEM-PrEP trial. This was a Phase III randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled trial to test the safety and effectiveness of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (300 mg and emtricitabine (200 mg (TDF-FTC to prevent HIV. At the eighth week of taking TDF-FTC with moderate adherence, the participant complained of mild paresthesiae, numbness, and a tingling sensation in her upper limbs that was associated with pain and cold. After an additional 4 days, she developed a disabling weakness of her upper limbs and tremors in her hands. The study product was discontinued, and within 2 weeks she was free of all symptoms. One month after restarting the drug, she complained of posture-dependent numbness of her upper limbs. Results of clinical and neurological exams, laboratory tests, and magnetic resonance imaging are described here. Keywords: pre-exposure prophylaxis, toxic neuropathy, NRTI

  17. Do Treatment Improvements in PTSD Severity Affect Substance Use Outcomes? A Secondary Analysis From a Randomized Clinical Trial in NIDA's Clinical Trials Network

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hien, Denise A; Jiang, Huiping; Campbell, Aimee N.C; Hu, Mei-Chen; Miele, Gloria M; Cohen, Lisa R; Brigham, Gregory S; Capstick, Carrie; Kulaga, Agatha; Robinson, James; Suarez-Morales, Lourdes; Nunes, Edward V

    2010-01-01

    ...) and substance use disorder among women in outpatient substance abuse treatment. MethodParticipants were 353 women randomly assigned to 12 sessions of either trauma-focused or health education group treatment...

  18. Family intervention for co-occurring substance use and severe psychiatric disorders: participant characteristics and correlates of initial engagement and more extended exposure in a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueser, Kim T; Glynn, Shirley M; Cather, Corinne; Zarate, Roberto; Fox, Lindy; Feldman, James; Wolfe, Rosemarie; Clark, Robin E

    2009-10-01

    Clients with severe mental illness and substance use disorder (i.e., dual disorders) frequently have contact with family members, who may provide valuable emotional and material support, but have limited skills and knowledge to promote recovery. Furthermore, high levels of family conflict and stress are related to higher rates of relapse. The present study was a two-site randomized controlled trial comparing a comprehensive, behaviorally-based family intervention for dual disorders program (FIDD) to a shorter-term family psychoeducational program (FPE). The modal family was a single male son in his early 30s diagnosed with both alcohol and drug problems and a schizophrenia-spectrum disorder participating with his middle-aged mother, with whom he lived. Initial engagement rates following consent to participate in the study and the family intervention programs were moderately high for both programs (88% and 84%, respectively), but rates of longer term retention and exposure to the core elements of each treatment model were lower (61% and 55%, respectively). Characteristics of the relatives were the strongest predictors of successful initial engagement in the family programs with the most important predictor being relatives who reported higher levels of benefit related to the relationship with the client. Subsequent successful exposure to the family treatment models was more strongly associated with client factors, including less severity of drug abuse and male client gender. The results suggest that attention to issues of motivating relatives to participate in family intervention, and more focused efforts to address the disruptive effects of drug abuse on the family could improve rates of engagement and retention in family programs for dual disorders.

  19. Game theory and traffic assignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Traffic assignment is used to determine the number of users on roadway links in a network. While this problem has : been widely studied in transportation literature, its use of the concept of equilibrium has attracted considerable interest : in the f...

  20. Relationship between hyperbaric oxygen therapy and quality of life in participants with chronic diabetic foot ulcers: data from a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guowei; Hopkins, Robert B; Levine, Mitchell A H; Jin, Xuejing; Bowen, James M; Thabane, Lehana; Goeree, Ron; Fedorko, Ludwik; O'Reilly, Daria J

    2017-06-12

    To investigate the effect of hyperbaric oxygen therapy on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in participants with diabetes and chronic foot ulcers. Using data from a randomized controlled trial, we included 103 participants (49 in hyperbaric oxygen therapy group and 54 in sham group) for analyses. The primary outcome was HRQoL as measured by the EQ-5D-3L instrument, while secondary outcomes included quality of life evaluated by the Short Form 36 (SF-36) and Diabetic Foot Ulcers Scale-Short Form (DFS-SF). We used the analysis of covariance to assess whether the EQ-5D index values in hyperbaric oxygen therapy group differed from the sham group. Logistic regression was used to assess the relationship between hyperbaric oxygen therapy and the responses of 'problems' for the EQ-5D health states. No significant differences in EQ-5D index values were found between the hyperbaric oxygen therapy and sham groups: 0.01 (95% CI -0.25, 0.28; p = 0.93) at week 12; 0.07 (95% CI -0.21, 0.34; p = 0.64) at week 6. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy was found to be associated with fewer participants reporting 'problems' in mobility (OR 0.24, 95% CI 0.07, 0.85 at week 12) and pain or discomfort (OR 0.20, 95% CI 0.07, 0.61 at week 6; OR 0.32, 95% CI 0.11, 0.97 at week 12), compared with the sham group. No significant differences in SF-36 or DFS-SF were observed. No significant effect of hyperbaric oxygen therapy on HRQoL measured by EQ-5D index value was found in this study. Due to the potential insufficient power to assess statistical difference, more large-scale research is needed to further evaluate the effect of hyperbaric oxygen therapy on HRQoL in participants with chronic diabetic foot ulcers.

  1. Comparative effects of artemisia vulgaris and charcoal moxa stimulating Zhongwan (CV 12) on body temperature in healthy participants: a cross-over single-blind randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Go, Ho-Yeon; Lee, Ju Ah; Park, Sunyoung; Park, Sunju; Park, Jeong-Su; Cheon, Chunhoo; Ko, Seong-Gyu; Kong, Kyung-Hwan; Jun, Chan-yong; Park, Jong-hyeong; Shin, Mi-Ran; Lee, Se-Hoon

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate the efficacy, safety, satisfaction, discomfort and patient preference of moxa cones of artemisia vulgaris and charcoal moxa. This comparative study of moxibustion treatment with Artemisia vulgaris and charcoal moxa cone stimulating Zhongwan (CV 12) is a cross-over single-blinded, randomized clinical trial. A total of 40 healthy subjects (24 males and 16 females) participated in this study. Two subjects dropped out of the trial. Thirty-eight subjects were treated with Artemisia vulgaris and charcoal moxa cones for 30 min in a cross-over design. After treatment, the patients underwent a 30 minute waiting period, and then the temperatures at Tanzhong (CV 17), Zhongwan (CV 12) and Guanyuan (CV 4) were measured using digital infrared thermal imaging. After the use of Artemisia vulgaris moxa, the patients' body temperatures were slightly lowered at Tanzhong (CV 17), Zhongwan (CV 12) and Guanyuan (CV 4), but the changes were not statistically significant. After the use of charcoal moxa, the patients' body temperatures were somewhat increased at Zhongwan (CV 12) and Guanyuan (CV 4), but the changes were not statistically significant. After Artemisia vulgaris moxa use, the body temperature difference between Zhongwan (CV 12) and Guanyuan (CV 4) was significantly increased. After charcoal moxa use, the body temperature difference between Tanzhong (CV 17) and Zhongwan (CV 12) was significantly decreased in males and in the whole group. This change was caused by the difference in the moxibustion type and by gender differences. This pilot study found that moxibustion did not raise the body temperature, but temperature differences between acupoints were affected. Further large-scale randomized controlled trials are needed for the effect of moxibustion on body temperature.

  2. An Assignment Sequence for Underprepared Writers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimmo, Kristi

    2000-01-01

    Presents a sequenced writing assignment on shopping to aid basic writers. Describes a writing assignment focused around online and mail-order shopping. Notes steps in preparing for the assignment, the sequence, and discusses responses to the assignments. (SC)

  3. Can informed choice invitations lead to inequities in intentions to make lifestyle changes among participants in a primary care diabetes screening programme? Evidence from a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellar, I; Mann, E; Kinmonth, A L; Prevost, A T; Sutton, S; Marteau, T M

    2011-09-01

    To test whether information about benefits and harms of screening for type 2 diabetes increases intentions to make lifestyle changes amongst attenders, predominantly among the socially advantaged and those with a strong future time orientation. Planned subgroup analysis of attenders for screening participating in a randomized controlled trial of an informed choice invitation vs a standard invitation to attend for type 2 diabetes screening. Potentially eligible participants were identified from practice registers using routine data which were used to calculate risk scores for diabetes for all aged 40-69 years without known type 2 diabetes and area deprivation based on post code. In total, 1272 individuals in the top 25% risk category were randomized to receive one of two invitations to attend their practices for screening: an informed choice invitation or a standard invitation. The subsequent attenders completed self-report measures of future time orientation and deprivation immediately before undergoing a screening test. Individual-level deprivation demonstrated a significant moderator effect [F (4,635) = 4.32, P = 0.002]: individuals who were high in deprivation had lower intentions to engage in lifestyle change following receipt of the informed choice invitation. However, intentions were not patterned by deprivation when it was assessed at the area-level using the Index of Multiple Deprivation 2007. The hypothesized moderating effect of future time orientation on invitation type was also supported [F(14,613) = 2.46, P = 0.002): individuals low in future time orientation had markedly lower intentions to engage in lifestyle change following receipt of an informed choice invitation compared with a standard invitation for screening. Efforts to enhance informed choice where the implications of diagnosis are a requirement for lifestyle change may require that the immediate benefits are communicated, and efforts to address the apparent barriers to diabetes self

  4. Effects on Symptoms of Agitation and Depression in Persons With Dementia Participating in Robot-Assisted Activity: A Cluster-Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jøranson, Nina; Pedersen, Ingeborg; Rokstad, Anne Marie Mork; Ihlebæk, Camilla

    2015-10-01

    To examine effects on symptoms of agitation and depression in nursing home residents with moderate to severe dementia participating in a robot-assisted group activity with the robot seal Paro. A cluster-randomized controlled trial. Ten nursing home units were randomized to either robot-assisted intervention or a control group with treatment as usual during 3 intervention periods from 2013 to 2014. Ten adapted units in nursing homes in 3 counties in eastern Norway. Sixty residents (67% women, age range 62-95 years) in adapted nursing home units with a dementia diagnosis or cognitive impairment (Mini-Mental State Examination score lower than 25/30). Group sessions with Paro took place in a separate room at nursing homes for 30 minutes twice a week over the course of 12 weeks. Local nurses were trained to conduct the intervention. Participants were scored on baseline measures (T0) assessing cognitive status, regular medication, agitation (BARS), and depression (CSDD). The data collection was repeated at end of intervention (T1) and at follow-up (3 months after end of intervention) (T2). Mixed models were used to test treatment and time effects. Statistically significant differences in changes were found on agitation and depression between groups from T0 to T2. Although the symptoms of the intervention group declined, the control group's symptoms developed in the opposite direction. Agitation showed an effect estimate of -5.51, CI 0.06-10.97, P = .048, and depression -3.88, CI 0.43-7.33, P = .028. There were no significant differences in changes on either agitation or depression between groups from T0 to T1. This study found a long-term effect on depression and agitation by using Paro in activity groups for elderly with dementia in nursing homes. Paro might be a suitable nonpharmacological treatment for neuropsychiatric symptoms and should be considered as a useful tool in clinical practice. Copyright © 2015 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care

  5. Responses to A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza vaccines in participants previously vaccinated with seasonal influenza vaccine: a randomized, observer-blind, controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy-Ghanta, Sumita; Van der Most, Robbert; Li, Ping; Vaughn, David W

    2014-11-01

    Prior receipt of a trivalent seasonal influenza vaccine (TIV) can affect hemagglutination inhibition (HI) antibody responses to pandemic influenza vaccines. We investigated the effect of TIV priming on humoral responses to AS03-adjuvanted and nonadjuvanted A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccines, the role of AS03 on cell-mediated immune (CMI) responses, and vaccine safety. Healthy adults (aged 19-40 years) were randomized 1:1:1:1 to receive TIV or saline followed 4 months later by 2 doses, 3 weeks apart, of adjuvanted or nonadjuvanted A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccine and followed up to study end (day 507). Pre- and postvaccination responses of HI and neutralizing antibody, CD4(+)/CD8(+) T cells, memory B cells, and plasmablasts were assessed. Ninety-nine of the 133 participants enrolled completed the study. No vaccine-related serious adverse events were recorded. In TIV-primed participants, A(H1N1)pdm09-specific antibody and CD4(+) T-cell and memory B-cell responses to the pandemic vaccine tended to be diminished. Vaccine adjuvantation led to increased responses of vaccine-homologous and -heterologous HI and neutralizing antibodies and CD4(+) T cells, homologous memory B cells, and plasmablasts. In healthy adults, prior TIV administration decreased humoral and CMI responses to A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccine. Adjuvantation of A(H1N1)pdm09 antigen helped to overcome immune interference between the influenza vaccines. No safety concerns were observed. Clinical Trials.gov identifier NCT00707967. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  6. Who participates in a randomized trial of mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) after breast cancer? A study of factors associated with enrollment among Danish breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Würtzen, Hanne; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg; Andersen, Klaus Kaae; Elsass, Peter; Flyger, Henrik Lavlund; Sumbundu, Antonia; Johansen, Christoffer

    2013-05-01

    Discussion regarding the necessity to identify patients with both the need and motivation for psychosocial intervention is ongoing. Evidence for an effect of mindfulness-based interventions among cancer patients is based on few studies with no systematic enrollment. We used Danish population-based registries and clinical databases to determine differences in demographics, breast cancer and co-morbidity among 1208 women eligible for a randomized controlled trial (www.clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT00990977) of mindfulness-based stress reduction MBSR. Participants (N = 336) were found to be younger (p < 0.001) and have a less recent diagnosis at invitation than decliners (N = 872; p < 0.001). After adjustment for age and time since diagnosis at invitation, a statistically significant difference was also found between the two groups in use of psychologist sessions (p < 0.05), whereas neither breast cancer variables nor co-morbidity was significantly different. Self-reported data obtained by use of validated psychometric scales from 169 decliners and 336 women who agreed to enroll in the trial showed statistically significant differences in level of education, distress, anxiety, depression, well being and symptom burden. No differences were observed with regard to marital status, children living at home, affiliation to the work market, psychiatric caseness or any lifestyle measure. Our findings indicate that participants are younger, have a less recent diagnosis and have a higher level of education than those who refuse. This should be taken into account in designing and evaluating trials of psychosocial interventions and in planning mindfulness-based interventions. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. A qualitative study of decision-making on Phase III randomized clinical trial participation in paediatric oncology: Adolescents' and parents' perspectives and preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingersgaard, Marianne Vie; Tulstrup, Morten; Schmiegelow, Kjeld; Larsen, Hanne Baekgaard

    2018-01-01

    To explore parents' and adolescents' motives for accepting/declining participation in the ALL2008 trials and adolescents' involvement in the decision-making process. Children and adolescents with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia treated on the Nordic Society of Paediatric Haematology and Oncology ALL2008 protocol were eligible for two randomizations testing 6-mercaptopurine treatment intensifications to improve efficacy and Asparaginase de-escalation to reduce toxicity. We recently reported that while adolescents favoured treatment reduction, parents of young children favoured treatment intensification. A qualitative, exploratory study. A maximum variation sampling strategy was used. Five adolescents aged 12-17 years, six parents of adolescents and five parents of children aged 1-12 years were interviewed in the period March-May 2015. Data were analysed using content analysis. Adolescents and parents emphasized the importance of adolescents' active participation in decisions regarding enrolment into clinical trials. A majority of adolescents were either final or collaborative decision-makers. Parents stated that in case of disagreement, they would overrule the adolescents' decision. There were no differences between motivations of preferences held by parents of children or adolescents, respectively. Decisions were based on subjective values attributed to cure contra toxicity and individual preferences for either standard or experimental treatment. The possibility of a negative outcome induced fear of decisional regret and distress by the parents, yet they invested considerable trust in the physician's expertise. Our findings highlight the importance of adolescents' active involvement in consent conferences. Research on management of disagreements between adolescents and parents in trial decisions is needed. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Agave Inulin Supplementation Affects the Fecal Microbiota of Healthy Adults Participating in a Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Crossover Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holscher, Hannah D; Bauer, Laura L; Gourineni, Vishnupriya; Pelkman, Christine L; Fahey, George C; Swanson, Kelly S

    2015-09-01

    Prebiotics resist digestion, providing fermentable substrates for select gastrointestinal bacteria associated with health and well-being. Agave inulin differs from other inulin type fibers in chemical structure and botanical origin. Preclinical animal research suggests these differences affect bacterial utilization and physiologic outcomes. Thus, research is needed to determine whether these effects translate to healthy adults. We evaluated agave inulin utilization by the gastrointestinal microbiota by measuring fecal fermentative end products and bacterial taxa. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 3-period, crossover trial was undertaken in healthy adults (n = 29). Participants consumed 0, 5.0, or 7.5 g agave inulin/d for 21 d with 7-d washouts between periods. Participants recorded daily dietary intake; fecal samples were collected during days 16-20 of each period and were subjected to fermentative end product analysis and 16S Illumina sequencing. Fecal Actinobacteria and Bifidobacterium were enriched (P inulin/d, respectively, compared with control. Desulfovibrio were depleted 40% with agave inulin compared with control. Agave inulin tended (P inulin (g/kcal) and Bifidobacterium (r = 0.41, P inulin/d) per kilocalorie was positively associated with fecal butyrate (r = 0.30, P = 0.005), tended to be positively associated with Bifidobacterium (r = 0.19, P = 0.08), and was negatively correlated with Desulfovibrio abundance (r = -0.31, P = 0.004). Agave inulin supplementation shifted the gastrointestinal microbiota composition and activity in healthy adults. Further investigation is warranted to determine whether the observed changes translate into health benefits in human populations. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01925560. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  9. Randomized Controlled Trial of the Resilience and Coping Intervention (RCI) with Undergraduate University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, J. Brian; First, Jennifer; Spialek, Matthew L.; Sorenson, Mary E.; Mills-Sandoval, Toby; Lockett, McKenzie; First, Nathan L.; Nitiéma, Pascal; Allen, Sandra F.; Pfefferbaum, Betty

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate the Resilience and Coping Intervention (RCI) with college students. Participants: College students (aged 18-23) from a large Midwest US university who volunteered for a randomized controlled trial during the 2015 spring semester. Methods: College students were randomly assigned to an…

  10. Can You Teach a Teen New Tricks? Problem Solving Skills Training Improves Oral Medication Adherence in Pediatric Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease Participating in a Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenley, Rachel N; Gumidyala, Amitha P; Nguyen, Eve; Plevinsky, Jill M; Poulopoulos, Natasha; Thomason, Molly M; Walter, Jennifer G; Wojtowicz, Andrea A; Blank, Ellen; Gokhale, Ranjana; Kirschner, Barbara S; Miranda, Adrian; Noe, Joshua D; Stephens, Michael C; Werlin, Steven; Kahn, Stacy A

    2015-11-01

    Medication nonadherence is associated with higher disease activity, greater health care utilization, and lower health-related quality of life in pediatric inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). Problem solving skills training (PSST) is a useful tool to improve adherence in patients with chronic diseases but has not been fully investigated in IBD. This study assessed feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary efficacy of PSST in pediatric IBD. Recruitment occurred during outpatient clinic appointments. After completion of baseline questionnaires, families were randomized to a treatment group or wait-list comparison group. The treatment group received either 2 or 4 PSST sessions. Youth health-related quality of life was assessed at 3 time points, and electronic monitoring of oral medication adherence occurred for the study duration. Seventy-six youth (ages 11-18 years) on an oral IBD maintenance medication participated. High retention (86%) and treatment fidelity rates (95%) supported feasibility. High satisfaction ratings (mean values ≥4.2 on 1-5 scale) supported intervention acceptability. Modest increases in adherence occurred after 2 PSST sessions among those with imperfect baseline adherence (d = 0.41, P 0.05). Phone-delivered PSST was feasible and acceptable. Efficacy estimates were similar to those of lengthier interventions conducted in other chronic illness populations. Older adolescents benefited more from the intervention than their younger counterparts.

  11. Protein Side-Chain Resonance Assignment and NOE Assignment Using RDC-Defined Backbones without TOCSY Data3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Jianyang; Zhou, Pei; Donald, Bruce Randall

    2011-01-01

    One bottleneck in NMR structure determination lies in the laborious and time-consuming process of side-chain resonance and NOE assignments. Compared to the well-studied backbone resonance assignment problem, automated side-chain resonance and NOE assignments are relatively less explored. Most NOE assignment algorithms require nearly complete side-chain resonance assignments from a series of through-bond experiments such as HCCH-TOCSY or HCCCONH. Unfortunately, these TOCSY experiments perform poorly on large proteins. To overcome this deficiency, we present a novel algorithm, called NASCA (NOE Assignment and Side-Chain Assignment), to automate both side-chain resonance and NOE assignments and to perform high-resolution protein structure determination in the absence of any explicit through-bond experiment to facilitate side-chain resonance assignment, such as HCCH-TOCSY. After casting the assignment problem into a Markov Random Field (MRF), NASCA extends and applies combinatorial protein design algorithms to compute optimal assignments that best interpret the NMR data. The MRF captures the contact map information of the protein derived from NOESY spectra, exploits the backbone structural information determined by RDCs, and considers all possible side-chain rotamers. The complexity of the combinatorial search is reduced by using a dead-end elimination (DEE) algorithm, which prunes side-chain resonance assignments that are provably not part of the optimal solution. Then an A* search algorithm is employed to find a set of optimal side-chain resonance assignments that best fit the NMR data. These side-chain resonance assignments are then used to resolve the NOE assignment ambiguity and compute high-resolution protein structures. Tests on five proteins show that NASCA assigns resonances for more than 90% of side-chain protons, and achieves about 80% correct assignments. The final structures computed using the NOE distance restraints assigned by NASCA have backbone RMSD 0

  12. Active learning in pre-class assignments: Exploring the use of interactive simulations to enhance reading assignments

    CERN Document Server

    Stang, Jared B; Perez, Sarah; Ives, Joss; Roll, Ido

    2016-01-01

    Pre-class reading assignments help prepare students for active classes by providing a first exposure to the terms and concepts to be used during class. We investigate if the use of inquiry-oriented PhET-based activities in conjunction with pre-class reading assignments can improve both the preparation of students for in-class learning and student attitudes towards and engagement with pre-class assignments. Over three course modules covering different topics, students were assigned randomly to complete either a textbook-only pre-class assignment or both a textbook pre-class assignment and a PhET-based activity. The assignments helped prepare students for class, as measured by performance on the pre-class quiz relative to a beginning-of-semester pre-test, but no evidence for increased learning due the PhET activity was observed. Students rated the assignments which included PhET as more enjoyable and, for the topic latest in the semester, reported engaging more with the assignments when PhET was included.

  13. Differences in motivation and adherence to a prescribed assignment after face-to-face and online psychoeducation: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonsson, Sven; Johansson, Karin; Uddling, Jonas; Hursti, Timo

    2017-01-26

    Adherence to treatment homework is associated with positive outcomes in behavioral psychotherapy but compliance to assignments is still often moderate. Whether adherence can be predicted by different types of motivation for the task and whether motivation plays different roles in face-to-face compared to online psychotherapy is unknown. If models of motivation, such as Self-determination theory, can be used to predict patients' behavior, it may facilitate further research into homework promotion. The aims of this study were, therefore, to investigate whether motivation variables could predict adherence to a prescribed assignment in face-to-face and online interventions using a psychotherapy analog model. A total of 100 participants were included in this study and randomized to either a face-to-face or online intervention. Participants in both groups received a psychoeducation session and were given an assignment for the subsequent week. The main outcome measurements were self-reported motivation and adherence to the assignment. Participant in the face-to-face condition reported significantly higher levels of motivation and showed higher levels of adherence compared to participants in the online condition. Adherence to the assignment was positively associated with intrinsic motivation and intervention credibility in the whole sample and especially in the online group. This study shows that intrinsic motivation and intervention credibility are strong predictors of adherence to assignments, especially in online interventions. The results indicate that intrinsic motivation may be partly substituted with face-to-face contact with a therapist. It may also be possible to identify patients with low motivation in online interventions who are at risk of dropping out. Methods for making online interventions more intrinsically motivating without increasing external pressure are needed. clinicaltrials.gov NCT02895308 . Retrospectively registered 30 August 2016.

  14. Alternative Assignment Incentive Pay Formats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-06-01

    300 dollars there was a 52% increase in applications and a 115 % increase in fill rates. This is extremely important to the Navy because it “suggest...Congress.” E-mail to Michael.T.Jones@navy.mil. 01 April 2005. 7. Nimon , W. R. and Hall, D. R. “An Experimental Analysis of the Relative Efficiency of...Scores (60 + 55 = 115 ). Accordingly, Bidder 1 is assigned to Job 1, Bidder 2 is unassigned, and Bidder 3 is assigned to Job 2. Payout in the

  15. Isotretinoin conundrum: a randomized, openlabel, crossover study in Mexico to evaluate the bioavailability and bioequivalence of three pharmaceutical preparations of isotretinoin in healthy participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñeyro-Garza, Everardo; Gómez-Silva, Magdalena; Gamino Peña, María Elena; Palmer, Jonathan; Berber, Arturo

    2015-10-01

    The oral retinoid agent isotretinoin (13-cis-retinoic acid) is approved for the treatment of severe recalcitrant cystic acne. For registrational renewal of Oratane® in Mexico (isotretinoin; Laboratorios Dermatologicos Darier S.A. de C.V., Mexico), it was necessary to establish bioequivalence to the reference product Roaccutan® (Isotretinoin; Roche, Mannheim, Germany). Three prior studies failed to establish the bioequivalence of Oratane to Mexican-sourced Roaccutan. However, 13 studies demonstrated the bioequivalence of Oratane to Roaccutane® from multiple sources. This study compared the bioavailability of Oratane with that of Mexicansourced Roaccutan and Australian-sourced Roaccutane. Study participants received each of the three agents in a randomized, open-label, 6-sequence, 3-way crossover study with a 2-week washout period between treatments. Pharmacokinetic analysis revealed that peak plasma concentration (Cmax) and area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time 0 (dosing) to infinite time (AUC0-∞) were lower for Roaccutan than for Roaccutane and Oratane (Cmax: 1,023.35, 1,223.08, and 1,224.25 ng/mL, respectively; AUC0-∞: 13,653.65, 15,681.35 and 15,733.55 ng/mL x h, respectively). The 90% CIs (test/reference) for the ratios of the geometric means indicated that Oratane was bioequivalent to Roaccutane but not to Roaccutan. In addition, Roaccutane (R2) was not bioequivalent to Roaccutan (R1; R1/R2 90% CIs: Cmax, 76.12 - 91.04; AUC0-t, 82.19 - 91.13; AUC0-∞, 82.94 - 91.57). Oratane and Australian-sourced Roaccutane could be considered bioequivalent, but neither formulation was found to be bioequivalent to Mexican-sourced Roaccutan.

  16. Manipulation of starch bioaccessibility in wheat endosperm to regulate starch digestion, postprandial glycemia, insulinemia, and gut hormone responses: a randomized controlled trial in healthy ileostomy participants12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Cathrina H; Grundy, Myriam ML; Grassby, Terri; Vasilopoulou, Dafni; Frost, Gary S; Butterworth, Peter J; Berry, Sarah EE; Sanderson, Jeremy; Ellis, Peter R

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cereal crops, particularly wheat, are a major dietary source of starch, and the bioaccessibility of starch has implications for postprandial glycemia. The structure and properties of plant foods have been identified as critical factors in influencing nutrient bioaccessibility; however, the physical and biochemical disassembly of cereal food during digestion has not been widely studied. Objectives: The aims of this study were to compare the effects of 2 porridge meals prepared from wheat endosperm with different degrees of starch bioaccessibility on postprandial metabolism (e.g., glycemia) and to gain insight into the structural and biochemical breakdown of the test meals during gastroileal transit. Design: A randomized crossover trial in 9 healthy ileostomy participants was designed to compare the effects of 55 g starch, provided as coarse (2-mm particles) or smooth (starch (RS) content of ileal effluent. Undigested food in the ileal output was examined microscopically to identify cell walls and encapsulated starch. Results: Blood glucose, insulin, C-peptide, and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide concentrations were significantly lower (i.e., 33%, 43%, 40%, and 50% lower 120-min incremental AUC, respectively) after consumption of the coarse porridge than after the smooth porridge (P starch digestion was slower in the coarse porridge than in the smooth porridge (33% less starch digested at 90 min, P starch from the periphery toward the particle core. The structure of the test meal had no effect on the amount or pattern of RS output. Conclusion: The structural integrity of wheat endosperm is largely retained during gastroileal digestion and has a primary role in influencing the rate of starch amylolysis and, consequently, postprandial metabolism. This trial was registered at isrctn.org as ISRCTN40517475. PMID:26333512

  17. Manipulation of starch bioaccessibility in wheat endosperm to regulate starch digestion, postprandial glycemia, insulinemia, and gut hormone responses: a randomized controlled trial in healthy ileostomy participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Cathrina H; Grundy, Myriam Ml; Grassby, Terri; Vasilopoulou, Dafni; Frost, Gary S; Butterworth, Peter J; Berry, Sarah Ee; Sanderson, Jeremy; Ellis, Peter R

    2015-10-01

    Cereal crops, particularly wheat, are a major dietary source of starch, and the bioaccessibility of starch has implications for postprandial glycemia. The structure and properties of plant foods have been identified as critical factors in influencing nutrient bioaccessibility; however, the physical and biochemical disassembly of cereal food during digestion has not been widely studied. The aims of this study were to compare the effects of 2 porridge meals prepared from wheat endosperm with different degrees of starch bioaccessibility on postprandial metabolism (e.g., glycemia) and to gain insight into the structural and biochemical breakdown of the test meals during gastroileal transit. A randomized crossover trial in 9 healthy ileostomy participants was designed to compare the effects of 55 g starch, provided as coarse (2-mm particles) or smooth (starch (RS) content of ileal effluent. Undigested food in the ileal output was examined microscopically to identify cell walls and encapsulated starch. Blood glucose, insulin, C-peptide, and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide concentrations were significantly lower (i.e., 33%, 43%, 40%, and 50% lower 120-min incremental AUC, respectively) after consumption of the coarse porridge than after the smooth porridge (P starch digestion was slower in the coarse porridge than in the smooth porridge (33% less starch digested at 90 min, P starch from the periphery toward the particle core. The structure of the test meal had no effect on the amount or pattern of RS output. The structural integrity of wheat endosperm is largely retained during gastroileal digestion and has a primary role in influencing the rate of starch amylolysis and, consequently, postprandial metabolism. This trial was registered at isrctn.org as ISRCTN40517475.

  18. The impact of escitalopram on vagally mediated cardiovascular function to stress and the moderating effects of vigorous physical activity: a randomized controlled treatment study in healthy participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Camilla S; Outhred, Tim; Brunoni, Andre R; Malhi, Gin S; Kemp, Andrew H

    2013-01-01

    Recent concerns over the impact of antidepressant medications, including the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), on cardiovascular function highlight the importance of research on the moderating effects of specific lifestyle factors such as physical activity. Studies in affective neuroscience have demonstrated robust acute effects of SSRIs, yet the impact of SSRIs on cardiovascular stress responses and the moderating effects of physical activity remain to be determined. This was the goal of the present study, which involved a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial of a single-dose of escitalopram (20 mg) in 44 healthy females; outcomes were heart rate (HR) and its variability. Participants engaging in at least 30 min of vigorous physical activity at least 3 times per week (regular exercisers) showed a more resilient cardiovascular stress response than irregular vigorous exercisers, a finding associated with a moderate effect size (Cohen's d = 0.48). Escitalopram attenuated the cardiovascular stress response in irregular exercisers only (HR decreased: Cohen's d = 0.80; HR variability increased: Cohen's d = 0.33). HR during stress under escitalopram in the irregular exercisers was similar to that during stress under placebo in regular exercisers. These findings highlight that the effects of regular vigorous exercise during stress are comparable to the effects of an acute dose of escitalopram, highlighting the beneficial effects of this particular antidepressant in irregular exercisers. Given that antidepressant drugs alone do not seem to protect patients from cardiovascular disease (CVD), longitudinal studies are needed to evaluate the impact of exercise on cardiovascular stress responses in patients receiving long-term antidepressant treatment.

  19. Students' Achievement and Homework Assignment Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Alonso, Rubén; Álvarez-Díaz, Marcos; Suárez-Álvarez, Javier; Muñiz, José

    2017-01-01

    The optimum time students should spend on homework has been widely researched although the results are far from unanimous. The main objective of this research is to analyze how homework assignment strategies in schools affect students' academic performance and the differences in students' time spent on homework. Participants were a representative sample of Spanish adolescents (N = 26,543) with a mean age of 14.4 (±0.75), 49.7% girls. A test battery was used to measure academic performance in four subjects: Spanish, Mathematics, Science, and Citizenship. A questionnaire allowed the measurement of the indicators used for the description of homework and control variables. Two three-level hierarchical-linear models (student, school, autonomous community) were produced for each subject being evaluated. The relationship between academic results and homework time is negative at the individual level but positive at school level. An increase in the amount of homework a school assigns is associated with an increase in the differences in student time spent on homework. An optimum amount of homework is proposed which schools should assign to maximize gains in achievement for students overall.

  20. Efficacy of a Universal Parent Training Program (HOPE-20): Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Cynthia; Tsang, Sandra; Kwan, H. W.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the efficacy of Hands-On Parent Empowerment-20 (HOPE-20) program. Methods: Eligible participants were parents residing in Hong Kong with target children aged 2 years attending nursery schools. Cluster randomized control trial was adopted, with 10 schools (110 participants) assigned to intervention group and 8 schools…

  1. Randomized Trial on the Effectiveness of Dexamethasone in TMJ Arthrocentesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huddleston-Slater, J.J.R.; Vos, L.M.; Stroy, L.P.P.; Stegenga, B.

    The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of dexamethasone administration following arthrocentesis of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) with a placebo (saline). Twenty-eight participants with TMJ arthralgia were randomly assigned to two groups of a parallel double-blind RCT. In both

  2. Effects and cost of glycyrrhizin in the treatment of upper respiratory tract infections in members of the Japanese maritime self-defense force: Preliminary report of a prospective, randomized, double-blind, controlled, parallel-group, alternate-day treatment assignment clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagawa, Youichi; Ogura, Masatsune; Fujimoto, Eita; Shono, Satoshi; Okuda, Eriya

    2004-01-01

    Upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) account for at least half of all acute illnesses. Specific antiviral therapy has not been developed against most respiratory viruses thought to cause URTIs. The pharmacologic action of glycyrrhizin has been shown to produce anti-inflammatory activity, modulation of the immune system, inhibition of virus growth, and inactivation of viruses. The aim of this study was to assess the tolerability, efficacy, and cost of glycyrrhizin in improving the severity and duration of signs and symptoms of URTIs. The primary end point was tolerability, and the secondary and points included improvement in signs and symptoms of URTI and cost. Members of the Japanese Maritime Self-Defense Force (SDF) treated for URTIs from January 2002 to May 2002 in the SDF Etajima Hospital (Hiroshima, Japan) were eligible for this prospective, randomized, double-blind, controlled, parallel-group, alternate-day treatment assignment study. All patients in this study fulfilled the following enrollment criteria: admitted to the hospital on the first arrival day as an outpatient; fever (body temperature women; mean [SD] age, 25.2 [1.5] years) were assigned to the glycyrrhizin group and 269 patients (24 men, 2 women; mean [SD] age, 22.6 [0.9] years) were assigned to the control group. The 2 groups were similar in terms of baseline characteristics. The mean duration of hospitalization was shorter (P = 0.01), the mean maximum body temperature 24 to 48 hours after admission was less (P = 0.05), and the cost of therapy (P = 0.03) was less in the glycyrrhizin group than the control group. No AEs were reported. In this study of hospitalized patients with URTIs, glycyrrhizin therapy was associated with a shorter hospitalization, lower-grade fever, and lower cost of therapy compared with controls, showing that it may be beneficial to patients with URTIs without acute bacterial infections.

  3. Characteristics of participants in a randomized trial of an Internet intervention for depression (EVIDENT in comparison to a national sample (DEGS1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Späth

    2017-09-01

    Conclusion: These findings indicate that participants in this Internet trial were not just internet savvy young males without significant impairment. Future studies should aim to recruit participants with lower educational status to increase the reach of Internet interventions.

  4. Dry cupping for plantar fasciitis: a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Ge, Weiqing; Leson, Chelsea; Vukovic, Corey

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of dry cupping on pain and function of patients with plantar fasciitis. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-nine subjects (age 15 to 59?years old, 20 females and 9 males), randomly assigned into the two groups (dry cupping therapy and electrical stimulation therapy groups), participated in this study. The research design was a randomized controlled trial (RCT). Treatments were provided to the subjects twice a week for 4 weeks. Outcome...

  5. Fleet Assignment Using Collective Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoine, Nicolas E.; Bieniawski, Stefan R.; Kroo, Ilan M.; Wolpert, David H.

    2004-01-01

    Product distribution theory is a new collective intelligence-based framework for analyzing and controlling distributed systems. Its usefulness in distributed stochastic optimization is illustrated here through an airline fleet assignment problem. This problem involves the allocation of aircraft to a set of flights legs in order to meet passenger demand, while satisfying a variety of linear and non-linear constraints. Over the course of the day, the routing of each aircraft is determined in order to minimize the number of required flights for a given fleet. The associated flow continuity and aircraft count constraints have led researchers to focus on obtaining quasi-optimal solutions, especially at larger scales. In this paper, the authors propose the application of this new stochastic optimization algorithm to a non-linear objective cold start fleet assignment problem. Results show that the optimizer can successfully solve such highly-constrained problems (130 variables, 184 constraints).

  6. Who benefits from homework assignments?

    OpenAIRE

    Rønning, Marte

    2008-01-01

    Abstract: Using Dutch data on pupils in elementary school this paper is the first empirical study that analyzes whether assigning homework has an heterogeneous impact on pupil achievement. Addressing potential biases that arise from unobserved school quality, pupil selection by exploiting different methods, I find that the test score gap is larger in classes where everybody gets homework than in classes where nobody gets homework. More precisely pupils belonging to the upper part of the so...

  7. Domiciliary VR-Based Therapy for Functional Recovery and Cortical Reorganization: Randomized Controlled Trial in Participants at the Chronic Stage Post Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballester, Belén Rubio; Nirme, Jens; Camacho, Irene; Duarte, Esther; Rodríguez, Susana; Cuxart, Ampar; Duff, Armin; Verschure, Paul F M J

    2017-08-07

    Most stroke survivors continue to experience motor impairments even after hospital discharge. Virtual reality-based techniques have shown potential for rehabilitative training of these motor impairments. Here we assess the impact of at-home VR-based motor training on functional motor recovery, corticospinal excitability and cortical reorganization. The aim of this study was to identify the effects of home-based VR-based motor rehabilitation on (1) cortical reorganization, (2) corticospinal tract, and (3) functional recovery after stroke in comparison to home-based occupational therapy. We conducted a parallel-group, controlled trial to compare the effectiveness of domiciliary VR-based therapy with occupational therapy in inducing motor recovery of the upper extremities. A total of 35 participants with chronic stroke underwent 3 weeks of home-based treatment. A group of subjects was trained using a VR-based system for motor rehabilitation, while the control group followed a conventional therapy. Motor function was evaluated at baseline, after the intervention, and at 12-weeks follow-up. In a subgroup of subjects, we used Navigated Brain Stimulation (NBS) procedures to measure the effect of the interventions on corticospinal excitability and cortical reorganization. Results from the system's recordings and clinical evaluation showed significantly greater functional recovery for the experimental group when compared with the control group (1.53, SD 2.4 in Chedoke Arm and Hand Activity Inventory). However, functional improvements did not reach clinical significance. After the therapy, physiological measures obtained from a subgroup of subjects revealed an increased corticospinal excitability for distal muscles driven by the pathological hemisphere, that is, abductor pollicis brevis. We also observed a displacement of the centroid of the cortical map for each tested muscle in the damaged hemisphere, which strongly correlated with improvements in clinical scales. These

  8. The Ethics of Randomized Controlled Trials in Social Settings: Can Social Trials Be Scientifically Promising and Must There Be Equipoise?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fives, Allyn; Russell, Daniel W.; Canavan, John; Lyons, Rena; Eaton, Patricia; Devaney, Carmel; Kearns, Norean; O'Brien, Aoife

    2015-01-01

    In a randomized controlled trial (RCT), treatments are assigned randomly and treatments are withheld from participants. Is it ethically permissible to conduct an RCT in a social setting? This paper addresses two conditions for justifying RCTs: that there should be a state of equipoise and that the trial should be scientifically promising.…

  9. Marital Status and Satisfaction Five Years Following a Randomized Clinical Trial Comparing Traditional versus Integrative Behavioral Couple Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Andrew; Atkins, David C.; Baucom, Brian; Yi, Jean

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To follow distressed married couples for 5 years after their participation in a randomized clinical trial. Method: A total of 134 chronically and seriously distressed married couples were randomly assigned to approximately 8 months of either traditional behavioral couple therapy (TBCT; Jacobson & Margolin, 1979) or integrative…

  10. Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment for Panic Disorder with Agoraphobia: A Randomized, Controlled Trial and Cost-Effectiveness Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberge, Pasquale; Marchand, Andre; Reinharz, Daniel; Savard, Pierre

    2008-01-01

    A randomized, controlled trial was conducted to examine the cost-effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral treatment (CBT) for panic disorder with agoraphobia. A total of 100 participants were randomly assigned to standard (n = 33), group (n = 35), and brief (n = 32) treatment conditions. Results show significant clinical and statistical improvement…

  11. Rationale and design of the participant, investigator, observer, and data-analyst-blinded randomized AGENDA trial on associations between gene-polymorphisms, endophenotypes for depression and antidepressive intervention: the effect of escitalopram versus placebo on the combined dexamethasone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knorr, Ulla; Vinberg, Maj; Klose, Marianne

    2009-01-01

    , a 60% power is obtained to detect a clinically relevant difference in the primary outcome between the intervention and the placebo group. Secondary outcome measures are changes from baseline to four weeks in scores of: 1) cognition and 2) neuroticism. Tertiary outcomes measures are changes from...... hypothesize that potential endophenotypes for depression may be affected by selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor antidepressants in healthy first-degree relatives of depressed patients. The primary outcome measure is the change in plasma cortisol in the dexamethasone-corticotrophin releasing hormone test...... from baseline to the end of intervention. METHODS: The AGENDA trial is designed as a participant, investigator, observer, and data-analyst-blinded randomized trial. Participants are 80 healthy first-degree relatives of patients with depression. Participants are randomized to escitalopram 10 mg per day...

  12. Practice Makes Progress? Homework Assignments and Outcome in Treatment of Cocaine Dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Kathleen M.; Nich, Charla; Ball, Samuel A.

    2008-01-01

    The relationship between treatment outcome and the extent to which participants completed homework assignments was evaluated among 60 cocaine-dependent individuals assigned to cognitive–behavioral therapy (CBT). Homework was assigned in 72% of all sessions and initiated by participants in 48% of the sessions in which it was assigned. Completion of homework was unrelated to participants' baseline characteristics and several indicators of treatment compliance. Participants who completed more homework assignments demonstrated significantly greater increases in the quantity and quality of their coping skills and used significantly less cocaine during treatment and through a 1-year follow-up. These data suggest that the extent to which participants are willing to complete extrasession assignments may be an important mediator of response to CBT. PMID:16173864

  13. A Statistical Programme Assignment Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosholm, Michael; Staghøj, Jonas; Svarer, Michael

    When treatment effects of active labour market programmes are heterogeneous in an observable way  across the population, the allocation of the unemployed into different programmes becomes a particularly  important issue. In this paper, we present a statistical model designed to improve the present...... duration of unemployment spells may result if a statistical programme assignment model is introduced. We discuss several issues regarding the  plementation of such a system, especially the interplay between the statistical model and  case workers....

  14. An algorithm for ranking assignments using reoptimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Christian Roed; Nielsen, Lars Relund; Andersen, Kim Allan

    2008-01-01

    We consider the problem of ranking assignments according to cost in the classical linear assignment problem. An algorithm partitioning the set of possible assignments, as suggested by Murty, is presented where, for each partition, the optimal assignment is calculated using a new reoptimization...... technique. Computational results for the new algorithm are presented...

  15. Moving beyond "Bookish Knowledge": Using Film-Based Assignments to Promote Deep Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Joann S.; Autry, Linda; Moe, Jeffry

    2016-01-01

    This article investigates the effectiveness of a film-based assignment given to adult learners in a graduate-level group counseling class. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with four students; data analysis suggested film-based assignments may promote deep approaches to learning (DALs). Participants indicated the assignment helped them…

  16. Impact of participation in randomized trials of reperfusion therapy on the time to reperfusion and hospital mortality in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction: A single-centre cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juliard, Jean-Michel; Golmard, Jean-Louis; Feldman, Laurent J; Himbert, Dominique; Nejjari, Mohammed; Ducrocq, Gregory; Sorbets, Emmanuel; Garbarz, Eric; Aubry, Pierre; Duchatelle, Valérie; Vahanian, Alec; Steg, Ph Gabriel

    2016-04-01

    There is uncertainty as to whether consenting and randomizing patients in randomized clinical trials (RCTs) in acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) delays reperfusion and increases mortality. The aim of this study was to determine whether participation of patients with STEMI in RCTs is associated with delay in implementation of reperfusion therapy and increased hospital mortality. A consecutive sample of 2523 patients, admitted within 6 hours of symptom onset without cardiogenic shock, was recruited from a single tertiary academic centre. They were categorized according to participation (n=392, 15.5%) or nonparticipation (n=2131, 84.5%) in RCTs of reperfusion therapy. Primary outcome was hospital mortality. Additional outcome was time from symptom onset to receipt of reperfusion therapy. Trial participants were more likely to receive fibrinolysis with a 37 min delay in comparison with patients not included in RCTs. Time from symptom onset to reperfusion (minutes) was longer for trial participants than nonparticipants (246 ± 85 vs 233 ± 93, p=0.01). Hospital mortality was 3.61% for nonparticipants. Expected mortality (based on risk modeling) for trial participants was 2.74% (p=0.014 vs nonparticipants). Observed mortality was 1.53% (p=0.034 vs nonparticipants; p=0.16 vs expected mortality). In a multivariable analysis using logistic regression, participation in a RCT was not an independent correlate of hospital mortality (odds ratio 0.54, 95% confidence interval 0.23-2.43, p=0.16). In this consecutive cohort, despite a longer delay to reperfusion, there was no indication that participation in a RCT, starting before initiation of reperfusion therapy, was associated with a detectable increase in risk of hospital mortality among patients with STEMI. These data suggest that it is possible to consent and randomize patients with STEMI into RCTs without jeopardizing their survival. © The European Society of Cardiology 2015.

  17. Optimization of demand assigned SCPC satellite networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laborde, E.

    1985-09-01

    This paper investigates various system aspects and price tradeoffs involved in providing cost-effective Demand Assignment (DA) satellite channel service. Those network characteristics which significantly affect the ultimate cost-based decision are discussed. The number of stations participating in the DA or PA system, the number of satellite channels, and the traffic are kept parametric within expected limits, covering most of the present and future applications. In particular, the interrelationships between the network requirements (e.g., grade of service) and network elements, and the impacts of different blocking assignment allocations on the number of modems in the network is examined. A cost model is then derived that allows the evaluation and comparison of both DA and PA networks. Absolute and differential costing of PA and DA networks is permitted using economic quantities available to the system planner. These include modem cost, satellite channel cost, network size, and defined efficiency factors. Based on the differential cost comparisons for several DA and PA network strategies, tradeoffs have been derived to aid the system designer in configuring the most cost-effective DA network.

  18. Evaluation of Subcutaneous Proleukin (interleukin-2) in a Randomized International Trial (ESPRIT): geographical and gender differences in the baseline characteristics of participants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pett, S. L.; Wand, H.; Law, M. G.; Arduino, R.; Lopez, J. C.; Knysz, B.; Pereira, L. C.; Pollack, S.; Reiss, P.; Tambussi, G.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: ESPRIT, is a phase III, open-label, randomized, international clinical trial evaluating the effects of subcutaneous recombinant interleukin-2 (rIL-2) plus antiretroviral therapy (ART) versus ART alone on HIV-disease progression and death in HIV-1-infected individuals with CD4+ T-cells >

  19. Testing the effectiveness of a mentoring intervention to improve social participation of adolescents with visual impairments: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Heppe, Eline C M; Kef, Sabina; Schuengel, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    Social participation is challenging for people with visual impairments. As a result, on average, social networks are smaller, romantic relationships formed later, educational achievements lower, and career prospects limited...

  20. Testing the effectiveness of a mentoring intervention to improve social participation of adolescents with visual impairments: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heppe, E.C.M.; Kef, S.; Schuengel, C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Social participation is challenging for people with visual impairments. As a result, on average, social networks are smaller, romantic relationships formed later, educational achievements lower, and career prospects limited. Adolescents on their way towards achieving these goals may

  1. The Effectiveness Of Social Media (Facebook) Compared With More Traditional Advertising Methods for Recruiting Eligible Participants To Health Research Studies: A Randomized, Controlled Clinical Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Frandsen, Mai; Thow, Megan; Ferguson, Stuart G.

    2016-01-01

    Background Recruiting participants for research studies can be difficult and costly. The popularity of social media platforms (eg, Facebook) has seen corresponding growth in the number of researchers turning to social networking sites and their embedded advertising frameworks to locate eligible participants for studies. Compared with traditional recruitment strategies such as print media, social media advertising has been shown to be favorable in terms of its reach (especially with hard-to-re...

  2. Ultrasound-Guided Percutaneous Electrolysis and Eccentric Exercises for Subacromial Pain Syndrome: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    OpenAIRE

    José L. Arias-Buría; Sebastián Truyols-Domínguez; Raquel Valero-Alcaide; Jaime Salom-Moreno; María A. Atín-Arratibel; César Fernández-de-las-Peñas

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To compare effects of ultrasound- (US-) guided percutaneous electrolysis combined with an eccentric exercise program of the rotator cuff muscles in subacromial pain syndrome. Methods. Thirty-six patients were randomized and assigned into US-guided percutaneous electrolysis (n = 17) group or exercise (n = 19) group. Patients were asked to perform an eccentric exercise program of the rotator cuff muscles twice every day for 4 weeks. Participants assigned to US-guided percutaneous ele...

  3. Recall and decay of consent information among parents of infants participating in a randomized controlled clinical trial using an audio-visual tool in The Gambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mboizi, Robert B; Afolabi, Muhammed O; Okoye, Michael; Kampmann, Beate; Roca, Anna; Idoko, Olubukola T

    2017-09-02

    Communicating essential research information to low literacy research participants in Africa is highly challenging, since this population is vulnerable to poor comprehension of consent information. Several supportive materials have been developed to aid participant comprehension in these settings. Within the framework of a pneumococcal vaccine trial in The Gambia, we evaluated the recall and decay of consent information during the trial which used an audio-visual tool called 'Speaking Book', to foster comprehension among parents of participating infants. The Speaking Book was developed in the 2 most widely spoken local languages. Four-hundred and 9 parents of trial infants gave consent to participate in this nested study and were included in the baseline assessment of their knowledge about trial participation. An additional assessment was conducted approximately 90 d later, following completion of the clinical trial protocol. All parents received a Speaking Book at the start of the trial. Trial knowledge was already high at the baseline assessment with no differences related to socio-economic status or education. Knowledge of key trial information was retained at the completion of the study follow-up. The Speaking Book (SB) was well received by the study participants. We hypothesize that the SB may have contributed to the retention of information over the trial follow-up. Further studies evaluating the impact of this innovative tool are thus warranted.

  4. Assignment Choice, Effort, and Assignment Completion: Does Work Ethic Predict Those Who Choose Higher-Effort Assignments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkhurst, John T.; Fleisher, Matthew S.; Skinner, Christopher H.; Woehr, David J.; Hawthorn-Embree, Meredith L.

    2011-01-01

    After completing the Multidimensional Work-Ethic Profile (MWEP), 98 college students were given a 20-problem math computation assignment and instructed to stop working on the assignment after completing 10 problems. Next, they were allowed to choose to finish either the partially completed assignment that had 10 problems remaining or a new…

  5. Behavior change communication activities improve infant and young child nutrition knowledge and practice of neighboring non-participants in a cluster-randomized trial in rural Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoddinott, John; Ahmed, Ishita; Ahmed, Akhter; Roy, Shalini

    2017-01-01

    To examine the impact on infant and young child nutrition knowledge and practice of mothers who were neighbors of mothers participating in a nutrition Behavior Change Communication (BCC) intervention in rural Bangladesh. We analyzed data from 300 mothers whose neighbor participated in a nutrition BCC intervention and 600 mothers whose neighbor participated in an intervention that did not include BCC. We constructed measures capturing mothers' knowledge of infant and young child nutrition (IYCN) and measures of food consumption by children 6-24m. The effect on these outcomes of exposure to a neighbor receiving a nutrition BCC intervention was estimated using ordinary least squares and probit regressions. The study was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (Study ID: NCT02237144). Having a neighboring mother participate in a nutrition BCC intervention increased non-participant mothers' IYCN knowledge by 0.17 SD (translating to 0.3 more correct answers). They were 14.1 percentage points more likely to feed their 6-24m children legumes and nuts; 11.6 percentage points more likely to feed these children vitamin A rich fruits and vegetables; and 10.0 percentage points more likely to feed these children eggs. Children of non-participant mothers who had a neighboring mother participate in a nutrition BCC intervention were 13.8 percentage points more likely to meet World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines for minimum diet diversity, 11.9 percentage points more likely to meet WHO guidelines for minimum acceptable diet, and 10.3 percentage points more likely to meet WHO guidelines for minimum meal frequency for children who continue to be breastfed after age 6m. Children aged 0-6m of non-participant mothers who are neighbors of mothers receiving BCC were 7.1 percentage points less likely to have ever consumed water-based liquids. Studies of nutrition BCC that do not account for information spillovers to non-participants may underestimate its benefits in terms of IYCN knowledge

  6. Design, and participant enrollment, of a randomized controlled trial evaluating effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a community-based case management intervention, for patients suffering from COPD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Sabrina Storgaard; Pedersen, Kjeld Møller; Weinreich, Ulla Møller

    2015-01-01

    controlled trial, conducted to evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a community-based case management model for patients suffering from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). With a focus on support for self-care and care coordination, the intervention was hypothesized to result...... in a reduced number of COPD-related hospital admissions. Patients and methods: The design was a randomized controlled trial conducted from 2012 to 2014 with randomization and intervention at patient level. The study took place in Aalborg Municipality, a larger municipality in Denmark. A total of 150 COPD......, effectiveness will be evaluated on COPD-related hospital admissions, mortality, health- related quality of life, and self-care. An economic evaluation will examine the cost-effectiveness of case management against current usual care from the perspective of the health care sector. Results: Baseline...

  7. Feasibility Study of a Randomized Controlled Trial of a Telephone-Delivered Problem Solving-Occupational Therapy Intervention to Reduce Participation Restrictions in Rural Breast Cancer Survivors Undergoing Chemotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegel, Mark T.; Lyons, Kathleen D.; Hull, Jay G.; Kaufman, Peter; Urquhart, Laura; Li, Zhongze; Ahles, Tim A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Breast cancer patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy often experience functional effects of treatment that limit participation in life activities. The purpose of this study was to examine the feasibility of conducting a randomized controlled trial (RCT) of a novel intervention for these restrictions, determine acceptability of the intervention, and preliminarily assess its effects. Methods A pilot RCT of a telephone-delivered Problem Solving and Occupational Therapy intervention (PST-OT) to improve participation restrictions in rural breast cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. Thirty-one participants with Stages 1-3 breast cancer were randomized to 6 weekly sessions of PST-OT (n=15) and Usual Care (n=16). The primary study outcome was the feasibility of conducting the trial. Secondary outcomes were functional, quality of life and emotional status as assessed at baseline, 6 weeks and 12 weeks. Results Of 46 patients referred 31 were enrolled (67% recruitment rate), of which 6 participants withdrew (81% retention rate). Twenty-four participants completed all study-related assessments (77%). Ninety-two percent of PST-OT participants were highly satisfied with the intervention, and 92% reported PST-OT to be helpful/very helpful for overcoming participation restrictions. Ninety-seven percent of planned PST-OT treatment sessions were completed. Completion rates for PST-OT homework tasks were high. Measures of functioning, quality of life and emotional state favored the PST-OT condition. Conclusion This pilot study suggests that an RCT of the PST-OT intervention is feasible to conduct with rural breast cancer patients undergoing adjuvant chemotherapy and that PST-OT may have positive effects on function, quality of life, and emotional state. PMID:20821373

  8. Feasibility study of a randomized controlled trial of a telephone-delivered problem-solving-occupational therapy intervention to reduce participation restrictions in rural breast cancer survivors undergoing chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegel, Mark T; Lyons, Kathleen D; Hull, Jay G; Kaufman, Peter; Urquhart, Laura; Li, Zhongze; Ahles, Tim A

    2011-10-01

    Breast cancer patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy often experience functional effects of treatment that limit participation in life activities. The purpose of this study was to examine the feasibility of conducting a randomized controlled trial (RCT) of a novel intervention for these restrictions, determine acceptability of the intervention, and preliminarily assess its effects. A pilot RCT of a telephone-delivered Problem-solving and Occupational Therapy intervention (PST-OT) to improve participation restrictions in rural breast cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. Thirty-one participants with Stages 1-3 breast cancer were randomized to 6 weekly sessions of PST-OT (n = 15) and usual care (n = 16). The primary study outcome was the feasibility of conducting the trial. Secondary outcomes were functional, quality of life and emotional status as assessed at baseline, 6 and 12 weeks. Of 46 patients referred 31 were enrolled (67% recruitment rate), of which 6 participants withdrew (81% retention rate). Twenty-four participants completed all study-related assessments (77%). Ninety-two percent of PST-OT participants were highly satisfied with the intervention, and 92% reported PST-OT to be helpful/very helpful for overcoming participation restrictions. Ninety-seven percent of planned PST-OT treatment sessions were completed. Completion rates for PST-OT homework tasks were high. Measures of functioning, quality of life, and emotional state favored the PST-OT condition. This pilot study suggests that an RCT of the PST-OT intervention is feasible to conduct with rural breast cancer patients undergoing adjuvant chemotherapy and that PST-OT may have positive effects on function, quality of life, and emotional state. 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. 28 CFR 544.74 - Work assignment limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... appointment and promotion apply to all inmates, including those exempted from required participation in the... incentive pay position. (3) If labor force needs require, an inmate who does not meet the literacy requirement may be assigned to an industrial non-graded incentive pay position if the inmate is simultaneously...

  10. Integrated assignment and path planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphey, Robert A.

    2005-11-01

    A surge of interest in unmanned systems has exposed many new and challenging research problems across many fields of engineering and mathematics. These systems have the potential of transforming our society by replacing dangerous and dirty jobs with networks of moving machines. This vision is fundamentally separate from the modern view of robotics in that sophisticated behavior is realizable not by increasing individual vehicle complexity, but instead through collaborative teaming that relies on collective perception, abstraction, decision making, and manipulation. Obvious examples where collective robotics will make an impact include planetary exploration, space structure assembly, remote and undersea mining, hazardous material handling and clean-up, and search and rescue. Nonetheless, the phenomenon driving this technology trend is the increasing reliance of the US military on unmanned vehicles, specifically, aircraft. Only a few years ago, following years of resistance to the use of unmanned systems, the military and civilian leadership in the United States reversed itself and have recently demonstrated surprisingly broad acceptance of increasingly pervasive use of unmanned platforms in defense surveillance, and even attack. However, as rapidly as unmanned systems have gained acceptance, the defense research community has discovered the technical pitfalls that lie ahead, especially for operating collective groups of unmanned platforms. A great deal of talent and energy has been devoted to solving these technical problems, which tend to fall into two categories: resource allocation of vehicles to objectives, and path planning of vehicle trajectories. An extensive amount of research has been conducted in each direction, yet, surprisingly, very little work has considered the integrated problem of assignment and path planning. This dissertation presents a framework for studying integrated assignment and path planning and then moves on to suggest an exact

  11. Effectiveness of a selective intervention program targeting personality risk factors for alcohol misuse among young adolescents: results of a cluster randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammers, J.; Goossens, F.; Conrod, P.; Engels, R.; Wiers, R.W.; Kleinjan, M.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The effectiveness of Preventure was tested on drinking behaviour of young adolescents in secondary education in the Netherlands. Design: A cluster randomized controlled trial was carried out, with participants assigned randomly to a two-session coping skills intervention or a control

  12. Managing voluntary turnover through challenging assignments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Preenen, P.T.Y.; de Pater, I.E.; van Vianen, A.E.M.; Keijzer, L.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines employees’ challenging assignments as manageable means to reduce turnover intentions, job search behaviors, and voluntary turnover. Results indicate that challenging assignments are negatively related to turnover intentions and job search behaviors and that these relationships

  13. Managing voluntary turnover through challenging assignments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Preenen, P.T.Y.; Pater, I.E. de; Vianen, A.E.M. van; Keijzer, L.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines employees' challenging assignments as manageable means to reduce turnover intentions, job search behaviors, and voluntary turnover. Results indicate that challenging assignments are negatively related to turnover intentions and job search behaviors and that these relationships

  14. Assigning historic responsibility for extreme weather events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Friederike E. L.; Skeie, Ragnhild B.; Fuglestvedt, Jan S.; Berntsen, Terje; Allen, Myles R.

    2017-11-01

    Recent scientific advances make it possible to assign extreme events to human-induced climate change and historical emissions. These developments allow losses and damage associated with such events to be assigned country-level responsibility.

  15. Redefining the Practice of Peer Review Through Intelligent Automation Part 2: Data-Driven Peer Review Selection and Assignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiner, Bruce I

    2017-12-01

    In conventional radiology peer review practice, a small number of exams (routinely 5% of the total volume) is randomly selected, which may significantly underestimate the true error rate within a given radiology practice. An alternative and preferable approach would be to create a data-driven model which mathematically quantifies a peer review risk score for each individual exam and uses this data to identify high risk exams and readers, and selectively target these exams for peer review. An analogous model can also be created to assist in the assignment of these peer review cases in keeping with specific priorities of the service provider. An additional option to enhance the peer review process would be to assign the peer review cases in a truly blinded fashion. In addition to eliminating traditional peer review bias, this approach has the potential to better define exam-specific standard of care, particularly when multiple readers participate in the peer review process.

  16. Do Effects of Social-Emotional Learning Programs Vary by Level of Parent Participation? Evidence from the Randomized Trial of INSIGHTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormick, Meghan P.; Cappella, Elise; O'Connor, Erin; Hill, Jennifer L.; McClowry, Sandee

    2016-01-01

    Social-Emotional Learning (SEL) programs aim to improve students' social-emotional competencies in order to enhance their achievement. Although SEL programs typically implement classroom curricula, some programs also include a component for parents. Yet, little is known about the types of parents likely to participate in services, and whether…

  17. Effect of virtual reality exposure therapy on social participation in people with a psychotic disorder (VRETp) : study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pot-Kolder, Roos; Veling, Wim; Geraets, Chris; van der Gaag, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Background: Many patients with a psychotic disorder participate poorly in society. When psychotic disorders are in partial remission, feelings of paranoia, delusions of reference, social anxiety and self-stigmatization often remain at diminished severity and may lead to avoidance of places and

  18. The Effectiveness Of Social Media (Facebook) Compared With More Traditional Advertising Methods for Recruiting Eligible Participants To Health Research Studies: A Randomized, Controlled Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thow, Megan; Ferguson, Stuart G

    2016-01-01

    Background Recruiting participants for research studies can be difficult and costly. The popularity of social media platforms (eg, Facebook) has seen corresponding growth in the number of researchers turning to social networking sites and their embedded advertising frameworks to locate eligible participants for studies. Compared with traditional recruitment strategies such as print media, social media advertising has been shown to be favorable in terms of its reach (especially with hard-to-reach populations), cost effectiveness, and usability. However, to date, no studies have examined how participants recruited via social media progress through a study compared with those recruited using more traditional recruitment strategies. Objectives (1) Examine whether visiting the study website prior to being contacted by researchers creates self-screened participants who are more likely to progress through all study phases (eligible, enrolled, completed); (2) compare conversion percentages and cost effectiveness of each recruitment method at each study phase; and, (3) compare demographic and smoking characteristics of participants recruited through each strategy to determine if they attract similar samples. Methods Participants recruited to a smoking cessation clinical trial were grouped by how they had become aware of the study: via social media (Facebook) or traditional media (eg, newspaper, flyers, radio, word of mouth). Groups were compared based on throughput data (conversion percentages and cost) as well as demographic and smoking characteristics. Results Visiting the study website did not result in individuals who were more likely to be eligible for (P=.24), enroll in (P=.20), or complete (P=.25) the study. While using social media was more cost effective than traditional methods when we examined earlier endpoints of the recruitment process (cost to obtain a screened respondent: AUD $22.73 vs $29.35; cost to obtain an eligible respondent: $37.56 vs $44.77), it was

  19. The Effectiveness Of Social Media (Facebook) Compared With More Traditional Advertising Methods for Recruiting Eligible Participants To Health Research Studies: A Randomized, Controlled Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frandsen, Mai; Thow, Megan; Ferguson, Stuart G

    2016-08-10

    Recruiting participants for research studies can be difficult and costly. The popularity of social media platforms (eg, Facebook) has seen corresponding growth in the number of researchers turning to social networking sites and their embedded advertising frameworks to locate eligible participants for studies. Compared with traditional recruitment strategies such as print media, social media advertising has been shown to be favorable in terms of its reach (especially with hard-to-reach populations), cost effectiveness, and usability. However, to date, no studies have examined how participants recruited via social media progress through a study compared with those recruited using more traditional recruitment strategies. (1) Examine whether visiting the study website prior to being contacted by researchers creates self-screened participants who are more likely to progress through all study phases (eligible, enrolled, completed); (2) compare conversion percentages and cost effectiveness of each recruitment method at each study phase; and, (3) compare demographic and smoking characteristics of participants recruited through each strategy to determine if they attract similar samples. Participants recruited to a smoking cessation clinical trial were grouped by how they had become aware of the study: via social media (Facebook) or traditional media (eg, newspaper, flyers, radio, word of mouth). Groups were compared based on throughput data (conversion percentages and cost) as well as demographic and smoking characteristics. Visiting the study website did not result in individuals who were more likely to be eligible for (P=.24), enroll in (P=.20), or complete (P=.25) the study. While using social media was more cost effective than traditional methods when we examined earlier endpoints of the recruitment process (cost to obtain a screened respondent: AUD $22.73 vs $29.35; cost to obtain an eligible respondent: $37.56 vs $44.77), it was less cost effective in later endpoints

  20. Assigning Homework to Couples and Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dattilio, Frank M.; Dickson, Jan

    2007-01-01

    Homework assignments, or "out-of-session assignments," have gained popularity among couple and family therapists due to their potential to solidify the work achieved during the course of therapy and to help clients take responsibility for their own change. Homework assignments also serve as a testing ground in therapy to determine what works and…

  1. Reflective practice: assessment of assignments in English for Specific Purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina Kavaliauskiené

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The construct alternative assessment has been widely used in higher education. It is often defined as any type of assessment of learners who provide a response to an assignment. The key features of alternative assessment are active participation of learners in self-evaluation of their performance, and the development of reflective thinking through reflective thinking (Schön, 1983. The success of alternative assessment in language teaching is predetermined by student’s performance and demonstrates learner’s language proficiency in contemporary communicative classrooms. This paper aims at researching the influence of students’ evaluations of various assignments for their linguistic development in English for Specific Purposes (ESP. The study uses learners’ assessment of different assignments and learners’ in-course and post-course written reflections on benefits to language mastery. Learners’ assignments included were contributions to portfolios (dossiers, such as essays and summaries, oral presentations, short impromptu talks, creative tasks, tests, and self-assessment notes (reflections on activities in learning ESP. Findings were obtained for two streams of the project participants. Results showed that self-assessment was beneficial for learners’ linguistic development. The context of learners’ reflections reveals that the attitudes to various assignments are affected by success or failure in students’ performance. Reflective practice might help teachers develop ways of dealing with previously identified difficulties and improve the quality of teaching.

  2. Methods and participant characteristics of a randomized intervention to promote physical activity and healthy eating among brazilian high school students: the Saude na Boa project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahas, Markus V; de Barros, Mauro V G; de Assis, Maria Alice A; Hallal, Pedro C; Florindo, Alex A; Konrad, Lisandra

    2009-03-01

    A cross-cultural, randomized study was proposed to observe the effects of a school-based intervention designed to promote physical activity and healthy eating among high school students in 2 cities from different regions in Brazil: Recife and Florianopolis. The objective of this article is to describe the methodology and subjects enrolled in the project. Ten schools from each region were matched and randomized into intervention and control conditions. A questionnaire and anthropometry were used to collect data in the first and last month of the 2006 school year. The sample (n=2155 at baseline; 55.7% females; 49.1% in the experimental group) included students 15 to 24 years, attending nighttime classes. The intervention focused on simple environmental/organizational changes, diet and physical activity education, and personnel training. The central aspects of the intervention have been implemented in all 10 intervention schools. Problems during the intervention included teachers' strikes in both sites and lack of involvement of the canteen owners in schools. The Saude na Boa study provides evidence that public high schools in Brazil represent an important environment for health promotion. Its design and simple measurements increase the chances of it being sustained and disseminated to similar schools in Brazil.

  3. Recruitment, screening, and baseline participant characteristics in the WALK 2.0 study: A randomized controlled trial using web 2.0 applications to promote physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina M. Caperchione

    2016-04-01

    Conclusion: The results of this recruitment process demonstrate the successful use of multiple strategies to obtain a diverse sample of adults eligible to take part in a web-based physical activity promotion intervention. The use of dual screening processes ensured safe participation in the intervention. This approach to recruitment and physical activity screening can be used as a model for further trials in this area.

  4. Evaluating the effectiveness of GP endorsement on increasing participation in the NHS Bowel Cancer Screening Programme in England: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damery Sarah

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The success and cost-effectiveness of bowel cancer screening depends on achieving and maintaining high screening uptake rates. The involvement of GPs in screening has been found to improve patient compliance. Therefore, the endorsement of screening by GPs may increase uptake rates amongst non-responders. Methods/Design A two-armed randomised controlled trial will evaluate the effectiveness of a GP endorsed reminder in improving patient participation in the NHS Bowel Cancer Screening Programme (NHSBCSP. Up to 30 general practices in the West Midlands with a screening uptake rate of less than 50% will be recruited and patients identified from the patient lists of these practices. Eligible patients will be those aged 60 to 74, who have previously been invited to participate in bowel screening but who have been recorded by the Midlands and North West Bowel Cancer Screening Hub as non-responders. Approximately 4,380 people will be randomised in equal numbers to either the intervention (GP letter and duplicate FOBt kit or control (no additional contact arms of the trial. The primary outcome measure will be the difference in the uptake rate of FOBt screening for bowel cancer between the intervention and control groups at 13 weeks after the GP endorsed reminder and duplicate FOBt kit are sent. Secondary outcome measures will be subgroup analyses of uptake according to gender, age and deprivation quartile, and the validation of methods for collecting GP, NHSBCSP and patient costs associated with the intervention. Qualitative work (30 to 40 semi-structured interviews will be undertaken with individuals in the intervention arm who return a FOBt kit, to investigate the relative importance of the duplicate FOBt kit, reminder to participate, and GP endorsement of that reminder in contributing to individuals' decisions to participate in screening. Discussion Implementing feasible, acceptable and cost-effective strategies to improve

  5. The Minnesota Green Tea Trial (MGTT), a randomized controlled trial of the efficacy of green tea extract on biomarkers of breast cancer risk: study rationale, design, methods, and participant characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samavat, Hamed; Dostal, Allison M; Wang, Renwei; Bedell, Sarah; Emory, Tim H; Ursin, Giske; Torkelson, Carolyn J; Gross, Myron D; Le, Chap T; Yu, Mimi C; Yang, Chung S; Yee, Douglas; Wu, Anna H; Yuan, Jian-Min; Kurzer, Mindy S

    2015-10-01

    The Minnesota Green Tea Trial (MGTT) was a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded trial investigating the effect of daily green tea extract consumption for 12 months on biomarkers of breast cancer risk. Participants were healthy postmenopausal women at high risk of breast cancer due to dense breast tissue with differing catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) genotypes. The intervention was a green tea catechin extract containing 843.0 ± 44.0 mg/day epigallocatechin gallate or placebo capsules for 1 year. Annual digital screening mammograms were obtained at baseline and month 12, and fasting blood and 24-h urine samples were provided at baseline and at months 6 and 12. Primary endpoints included changes in percent mammographic density, circulating endogenous sex hormones, and insulin-like growth factor axis proteins; secondary endpoints were changes in urinary estrogens and estrogen metabolites and circulating F2-isoprostanes, a biomarker of oxidative stress. The MGTT screened more than 100,000 mammograms and randomized 1,075 participants based on treatment (green tea extract vs. placebo), stratified by COMT genotype activity (high COMT vs. low/intermediate COMT genotype activity). A total of 937 women successfully completed the study and 138 dropped out (overall dropout rate = 12.8 %). In this paper we report the rationale, design, recruitment, participant characteristics, and methods for biomarker and statistical analyses.

  6. A Randomized Trial of Probation Case Management for Drug-Involved Women Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guydish, Joseph; Chan, Monica; Bostrom, Alan; Jessup, Martha A.; Davis, Thomas B.; Marsh, Cheryl

    2011-01-01

    This article reports findings from a clinical trial of a probation case management (PCM) intervention for drug-involved women offenders. Participants were randomly assigned to PCM (n = 92) or standard probation (n = 91) and followed for 12 months using measures of substance abuse, psychiatric symptoms, social support, and service utilization.…

  7. Efficacy of Creative Clay Work for Reducing Negative Mood: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimport, Elizabeth R.; Robbins, Steven J.

    2012-01-01

    Clay work has long been used in art therapy to achieve therapeutic goals. However, little empirical evidence exists to document the efficacy of such work. The present study randomly assigned 102 adult participants to one of four conditions following induction of a negative mood: (a) handling clay with instructions to create a pinch pot, (b)…

  8. A Body Image and Disordered Eating Intervention for Women in Midlife: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Sian A.; Paxton, Susan J.; Wertheim, Eleanor H.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the outcome of a body image and disordered eating intervention for midlife women. The intervention was specifically designed to address risk factors that are pertinent in midlife. Method: Participants were 61 women aged 30 to 60 years (M = 43.92, SD = 8.22) randomly assigned to intervention (n = 32) or (delayed…

  9. Learning Communities for Developmental Education Students: Early Results from Randomized Experiments at Three Community Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Michael J.; Visher, Mary; Weissman, Evan

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents results from a rigorous random assignment study of Learning Communities programs operated at three of six community colleges participating in the National Center for Postsecondary Research's (NCPR) Learning Communities Demonstration. The demonstration's focus is on determining whether Learning Communities are an effective…

  10. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Online versus Clinic-Based CBT for Adolescent Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, Susan H.; Donovan, Caroline L.; March, Sonja; Gamble, Amanda; Anderson, Renee E.; Prosser, Samantha; Kenardy, Justin

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The study examined the relative efficacy of online (NET) versus clinic (CLIN) delivery of cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) in the treatment of anxiety disorders in adolescents. Method: Participants included 115 clinically anxious adolescents aged 12 to 18 years and their parent(s). Adolescents were randomly assigned to NET, CLIN, or…

  11. Persuasive Effects of Linguistic Agency Assignments and Point of View in Narrative Health Messages About Colon Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Meng; McGlone, Matthew S; Bell, Robert A

    2015-08-01

    The authors explored the effects of linguistic agency and point of view on narrative force. Participants (N = 499) were randomly assigned to read one version of an article about colon cancer, defined by a 2 (disease agency: cancer, human) × 2 (temporal agency: death, human) × 2 (point of view: first person, third person) between-subjects design. Disease agency language assigned agency to cancer (e.g., "Cancer developed in me") or to humans (e.g., "I developed cancer"). Temporal agency language described death as approaching humans (e.g., "as death closes in on patients) or as being approached by humans (e.g., "as patients close in on death"). The narrative was presented from the first-person singular or third-person plural viewpoint. Participants then completed a questionnaire measuring threat perceptions, efficacy, transportation, and other study variables. Language assigning agency to humans rather than to cancer elevated susceptibility beliefs. Death-approach language led to greater fear than human-approach language without impacting efficacy perceptions. Human-approach language was rated more persuasive than death-approach language, but only in first-person point-of-view narratives. Transportation and identification were positively associated with ratings of threat severity and susceptibility, fear, efficacy, behavioral intentions, and message persuasiveness. Implications for message design are discussed.

  12. Medicare Part D Roulette, Potential Implications of Random..

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Medicare Part D Roulette, Potential Implications of Random Assignment and Plan Restrictions Dual-eligible (Medicare and Medicaid) beneficiaries are randomly assigned...

  13. Treatment Response in Enteric Fever in an Era of Increasing Antimicrobial Resistance: An Individual Patient Data Analysis of 2092 Participants Enrolled into 4 Randomized, Controlled Trials in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Corinne N; Karkey, Abhilasha; Dongol, Sabina; Arjyal, Amit; Wolbers, Marcel; Darton, Thomas; Farrar, Jeremy J; Thwaites, Guy E; Dolecek, Christiane; Basnyat, Buddha; Baker, Stephen

    2017-06-01

    Enteric fever, caused by Salmonella Typhi and Salmonella Paratyphi A, is the leading cause of bacterial febrile disease in South Asia. Individual data from 2092 patients with enteric fever randomized into 4 trials in Kathmandu, Nepal, were pooled. All trials compared gatifloxacin with 1 of the following comparator drugs: cefixime, chloramphenicol, ofloxacin, or ceftriaxone. Treatment outcomes were evaluated according to antimicrobial if S. Typhi/Paratyphi were isolated from blood. We additionally investigated the impact of changing bacterial antimicrobial susceptibility on outcome. Overall, 855 (41%) patients had either S. Typhi (n = 581, 28%) or S. Paratyphi A (n = 274, 13%) cultured from blood. There were 139 (6.6%) treatment failures with 1 death. Except for the last trial with ceftriaxone, the fluoroquinolone gatifloxacin was associated with equivalent or better fever clearance times and lower treatment failure rates in comparison to all other antimicrobials. However, we additionally found that the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) against fluoroquinolones have risen significantly since 2005 and were associated with increasing fever clearance times. Notably, all organisms were susceptible to ceftriaxone throughout the study period (2005-2014), and the MICs against azithromycin declined, confirming the utility of these alternative drugs for enteric fever treatment. The World Health Organization and local government health ministries in South Asia still recommend fluoroquinolones for enteric fever. This policy should change based on the evidence provided here. Rapid diagnostics are urgently required given the large numbers of suspected enteric fever patients with a negative culture.

  14. Library-Based Assignments That Enrich the Business Communication Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiemstra, Kathleen M.

    2002-01-01

    Reviews the benefits of library work (and some cautions) before describing four assignments that exploit library resources: a business report assignment; a professional journal assignment; a style manual format assignment; and an international business communication assignment. (SG)

  15. Unfolding Participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saad-Sulonen, Joanna; Halskov, Kim; Eriksson, Eva

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the Unfolding Participation workshop is to outline an agenda for the next 10 years of participatory design (PD) and participatory human computer interaction (HCI) research. We will do that through a double strategy: 1) by critically interrogating the concept of participation (unfolding...... the concept itself), while at the same time, 2) reflecting on the way that participation unfolds across different participatory configurations. We invite researchers and practitioners from PD and HCI and fields in which information technology mediated participation is embedded (e.g. in political studies......, urban planning, participatory arts, business, science and technology studies) to bring a plurality of perspectives and expertise related to participation....

  16. Simultaneous treatment to attain blood pressure and lipid goals and reduced CV risk burden using amlodipine/atorvastatin single-pill therapy in treated hypertensive participants in a randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Richard; Malik, Mobin; Yunis, Carla; Sutradhar, Santosh; Kursun, Attila

    2010-01-01

    TOGETHER investigated whether targeting multiple cardiovascular (CV) risk factors using single-pill amlodipine/atorvastatin (AML/ATO) and therapeutic lifestyle changes (TLC) results in greater blood pressure (BP)/lipid control and additional reduction in estimated cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk compared with blood pressure intervention only using amlodipine (AML) + TLC. TOGETHER was a 6-week, randomized, double-blind, double-dummy trial using hypertensive participants with additional CV risk factors without CVD/diabetes. Participants were randomized to either AML/ATO (5 to 10/20 mg) + TLC or AML (5 to 10 mg) + TLC. The primary end point was the difference in proportion of participants attaining both BP (<140/90 mm Hg) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) (<100 mg/dL) goals at week 6. At week 6, 67.8% of participants receiving AML/ATO + TLC attained the combined BP/LDL-C goal versus 9.6% with AML + TLC (RD [A–B]: 58.2; 95% CI [48.1 to 68.4] P < 0.001; OR: 19.0; 95% CI 9.1 to 39.6; P < 0.001). Significant reductions from baseline in LDL-C, total cholesterol and triglycerides and estimated 10-year Framingham risk were also observed. Treatment with AML/ATO was well tolerated. In conclusion, a multifactorial CV management approach is more effective in achieving combined BP/LDL-C targets as well as CV risk reduction compared with BP intervention only in this patient population. PMID:20479948

  17. Effect of holistic cares with family participation on attitude and preoperative anxiety of patients

    OpenAIRE

    Madarshahian F; Hassanabadi M; Khazaei S

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objective: Responding to holistic needs of patients can reduce anxiety. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of holistic cares with family participation on attitude and preoperative anxiety of patients. Materials and Method: This quasi-experimental study was conducted on all patients undergoing prostate surgery during 2012 at Emam Reza Hospital, Birjand, Iran. Therefore, 68 patients were assigned randomly to two groups of 34. In the intervention group, prior to...

  18. The effect of dietary intervention on paraffin-stimulated saliva and dental health of children participating in a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laine, M A; Tolvanen, M; Pienihäkkinen, K; Söderling, E; Niinikoski, H; Simell, O; Karjalainen, S

    2014-02-01

    The aim was to study the impact of dietary intervention on the properties of paraffin-stimulated saliva, and on dental caries. At 7 months of age 1062 infants (540 intervention; 522 controls) started in the prospective, randomized Special Turku Intervention Project (STRIP) aimed at restricting the child's saturated fat and cholesterol intake to prevent atherosclerosis of adult age (www.clinicaltrials.gov NCT 00223600). At 3 years of age, every fifth child was invited to an oral sub-study, and 148 (78 boys) children attended. At 6, 9, 12 and 16 years of age 135, 127, 114 and 88 children were restudied, respectively. Dietary intakes of carbohydrates, protein, saturated fat, calcium, phosphate, and fibre were regularly recorded using 4-day food records. Height and weight were regularly monitored. Paraffin-stimulated saliva samples were collected at 6, 9, 12 and 16 years of age, and analyzed for flow rate, buffer capacity, calcium, phosphate and proteins. Dental health was recorded and expressed as d3mft/D3MFT, and as time of caries onset. Dietary intakes of calcium, phosphate and fibre, and salivary flow rate increased with time in both groups (pChildren who did not have caries experience (d3mft/D3MFT=0) during the entire follow-up had higher salivary calcium than those who had caries already at 3 years of age. The association between salivary calcium and caries onset was significant up to 12 years of age. Toothbrushing frequency was statistically significantly associated with caries-onset at ages 6 (gamma statistic 0.457, p=0.046) and 12 years (gamma statistic 0.473, p=0.019). The current long-term dietary intervention increased children's paraffin-stimulated salivary flow rate. The concentration of salivary calcium was directly correlated to dental health. Higher salivary flow rate in the intervention group is believed to be due to higher fibre intake in the intervention group. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The efficacy of ticagrelor is maintained in women with acute coronary syndromes participating in the prospective, randomized, PLATelet inhibition and patient Outcomes (PLATO) trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husted, Steen; James, Stefan K; Bach, Richard G; Becker, Richard C; Budaj, Andrzej; Heras, Magda; Himmelmann, Anders; Horrow, Jay; Katus, Hugo A; Lassila, Riita; Morais, Joao; Nicolau, José C; Steg, Ph Gabriel; Storey, Robert F; Wojdyla, Daniel; Wallentin, Lars

    2014-06-14

    The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between sex and clinical outcomes and treatment-related complications in patients with ST-elevation or non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndromes (ACS) randomized to treatment with ticagrelor or clopidogrel in the PLATelet inhibition and patient Outcomes (PLATO) trial. The associations between sex subgroup and the primary composite outcomes, secondary outcomes, and major bleeding endpoints as well as interaction of sex subgroup with treatment effects were analysed using Cox proportional-hazards models. Sex was not significantly associated with the probability of the primary composite endpoint [adjusted hazard ratio (HR): 1.02 (0.91-1.16)], or other adverse cardiovascular endpoints. Ticagrelor was similarly more effective than clopidogrel in reducing rates of the primary endpoint in women 11.2 vs. 13.2% [adjusted HR: 0.88 (0.74-1.06)] and men 9.4 vs. 11.1% [adjusted HR: 0.86 (0.76-0.97)] (interaction P-value 0.78), all-cause death in women 5.8 vs. 6.8% [adjusted HR: 0.90 (0.69-1.16)] and men 4.0 vs. 5.7% [adjusted HR: 0.80 (0.67-0.96)] (interaction P-value 0.49), and definite stent thrombosis in women 1.2 vs. 1.4% [adjusted HR: 0.71 (0.36-1.38)] and men 1.4 vs. 2.1% [adjusted HR: 0.63 (0.45-0.89)] (interaction P-value 0.78). The treatments did not differ for PLATO-defined overall major bleeding complications in women [adjusted HR: 1.01 (0.83-1.23)] or men [adjusted HR: 1.10 (0.98-1.24)]. Sex had no significant association with these outcomes (interactions P = 0.43-0.88). Female sex is not an independent risk factor for adverse clinical outcomes in moderate-to-high risk ACS patients. Ticagrelor has a similar efficacy and safety profile in men and women. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology.

  20. Conceptualizing Participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simovska, Venka; Bruun Jensen, Bjarne

    Although participation is not a new issue, it would be fair to say that consequential participation, which implies young people engaging in meaningful dialogue with adults and institutions and influencing decision-making processes in matters that concern them, is still in its infancy. This document...... aims to set the scene for discussing young people's participation in different domains that have an impact on their lives. It outlines the meaning and different interpretations of the concept of "participation" before reviewing why participation is an important issue in relation to young people...... and society. It then describes different forms, modes or qualities of participation and proposes a specific model of facilitating participatory work with young people - the IVAC approach (Investigation-Vision-Action-Change). The concept of action, types of actions aimed at initiating change and corresponding...

  1. Enhanced functional and structural domain assignments using ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    biology of MTB, yet the functions of many MTB proteins are unknown. We have used sensitive profile-based search procedures to assign functional and structural domains to infer functions of gene products encoded in. MTB. These domain assignments have been made using a compendium of sequence and structural ...

  2. The Assessment of Students by Formal Assignments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassey, Michael

    New Zealand universities have been examining the possibilities of abolishing end-of-year examinations and placing more importance on coursework. This monograph offers the alternative of assessing students by formal assignments. The formal assignment system has 4 essential characteristics which distinguish it from other methods of assessment. (1) A…

  3. Protein secondary structure: category assignment and predictability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Claus A.; Bohr, Henrik; Brunak, Søren

    2001-01-01

    structures. Single sequence prediction of the new three category assignment gives an overall prediction improvement of 3.1% and 5.1%, compared to the DSSP assignment and schemes where the helix category consists of a-helix and 3(10)-helix, respectively. These results were achieved using a standard feed-forward...

  4. Assigning Elementary Pupils to Their Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monk, David H.

    1987-01-01

    Examines variation in the methods used to assign students to classrooms and teachers in a small but highly diversified sample of elementary schools. Gives explicit attention to parental influence on pupil assignments as well as to effects of having an unusually incompetent or excellent teacher at a particular grade level. (NH)

  5. Frequency assignment for satellite multilevel SCPC systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Yuk-Hong; Skellern, D. J.

    1991-01-01

    A method for searching the frequency assignment for satellite multilevel SCPC systems is proposed based on the method for the case of equal carrier systems. The quality of assignment improves significantly on published results. The method requires only very short computations times.

  6. Gapminder: An AP Human Geography Lab Assignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Kenneth H.

    2012-01-01

    This lesson is designed as a lab assignment for Advanced Placement (AP) Human Geography students wherein they use the popular Gapminder web site to compare levels of development in countries from different world regions. For this lesson, it is important for the teacher to practice with Gapminder before giving the assignment to students. (Contains…

  7. Detecting Plagiarism in MS Access Assignments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Anil

    2013-01-01

    Assurance of individual effort from students in computer-based assignments is a challenge. Due to digitization, students can easily use a copy of their friend's work and submit it as their own. Plagiarism in assignments puts students who cheat at par with those who work honestly and this compromises the learning evaluation process. Using a…

  8. Postgraduate diploma collaborative assignment: Implications for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Business groups remained intact across various diplomas and large focus areas, which would act as a pivot for the major group assignments, were forged using scenarios from three core courses. Each general topic thus included at least three separate yet complementary portfolio assignments that differed in genre, ...

  9. On the Bicriterion Multi Modal Assignment Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Christian Roed; Nielsen, L.R.; Andersen, K.A.

    2005-01-01

    We consider the bicriterion multi modal assignment problem which is a new generalization of the classical linear assignment problem. A two-phase solution method using an effective ranking scheme is presented. The algorithm is valid for generating all nondominated criterion points or an approximat......We consider the bicriterion multi modal assignment problem which is a new generalization of the classical linear assignment problem. A two-phase solution method using an effective ranking scheme is presented. The algorithm is valid for generating all nondominated criterion points...... or an approximation. Extensive computational results are conducted on a large library of test instances to test the performance of the algorithm and to identify hard test instances. Also, test results of the algorithm applied to the bicriterion assignment problem is given. Here our algorithm outperforms all...

  10. The Patient Deficit Model Overturned: a qualitative study of patients' perceptions of invitation to participate in a randomized controlled trial comparing selective bladder preservation against surgery in muscle invasive bladder cancer (SPARE, CRUK/07/011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moynihan Clare

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence suggests that poor recruitment into clinical trials rests on a patient ‘deficit’ model – an inability to comprehend trial processes. Poor communication has also been cited as a possible barrier to recruitment. A qualitative patient interview study was included within the feasibility stage of a phase III non-inferiority Randomized Controlled Trial (RCT (SPARE, CRUK/07/011 in muscle invasive bladder cancer. The aim was to illuminate problems in the context of randomization. Methods The qualitative study used a ‘Framework Analysis’ that included ‘constant comparison’ in which semi-structured interviews are transcribed, analyzed, compared and contrasted both between and within transcripts. Three researchers coded and interpreted data. Results Twenty-four patients agreed to enter the interview study; 10 decliners of randomization and 14 accepters, of whom 2 subsequently declined their allocated treatment. The main theme applying to the majority of the sample was confusion and ambiguity. There was little indication that confusion directly impacted on decisions to enter the SPARE trial. However, confusion did appear to impact on ethical considerations surrounding ‘informed consent’, as well as cause a sense of alienation between patients and health personnel. Sub-optimal communication in many guises accounted for the confusion, together with the logistical elements of a trial that involved treatment options delivered in a number of geographical locations. Conclusions These data highlight the difficulty of providing balanced and clear trial information within the UK health system, despite best intentions. Involvement of multiple professionals can impact on communication processes with patients who are considering participation in RCTs. Our results led us to question the ‘deficit’ model of patient behavior. It is suggested that health professionals might consider facilitating a context in which patients

  11. Authoring Participation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Papazu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Samsø, Denmark's Renewable Energy Island since 1997, is world renowned for being self-sufficient in renewable energy and for having achieved energy self-sufficiency and CO2 neutrality through successful processes of public participation. In this article I seek to show how these processes of public participation so central to the Renewable Energy Island project can be better understood as instances of material participation motivated first and foremost by a concern for the future of the island as a 'liveable' community; a community in which jobs and institutions are not constantly threatening to disappear. By turning to material participation, a concept inspired by Noortje Marres and Jennifer Gabrys, the efforts put into Samsø’s energy transformation by the islanders are given specificity. While much literature on public participation foregrounds public meetings and other spaces for deliberation and debate, material participation locates participation in everyday practice and work. On Samsø, the islanders’ participation was not an add-on to the project, it was an indispensable resource in itself. Building on extensive fieldwork I analyse how the islanders came to invest their time and resources in the Renewable Energy Island project, highlighting how, by materializing energy in concrete, local projects, energy and climate change-related projects can gain community-strengthening potentialities reaching beyond goals of energy self-sufficiency.

  12. Authoring Participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Papazu, Irina

    2016-01-01

    Samsø, Denmark's Renewable Energy Island since 1997, is world renowned for being self-sufficient in renewable energy and for having achieved energy self-sufficiency and CO2 neutrality through successful processes of public participation. In this article I seek to show how these processes of public...... participation so central to the Renewable Energy Island project can be better understood as instances of material participation motivated first and foremost by a concern for the future of the island as a 'liveable' community; a community in which jobs and institutions are not constantly threatening to disappear....... By turning to material participation, a concept inspired by Noortje Marres and Jennifer Gabrys, the efforts put into Samsø’s energy transformation by the islanders are given specificity. While much literature on public participation foregrounds public meetings and other spaces for deliberation and debate...

  13. Functional Stretching Exercise Submitted for Spastic Diplegic Children: A Randomized Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Elshafey, Mohamed Ali; Abd-Elaziem, Adel; Gouda, Rana Elmarzouki

    2014-01-01

    Objective. Studying the effect of the functional stretching exercise in diplegic children. Design. Children were randomly assigned into two matched groups. Setting. Outpatient Clinic of the Faculty of Physical Therapy, Cairo University. Participants. Thirty ambulant spastic diplegic children, ranging in age from five to eight years, participated in this study. Interventions. The control group received physical therapy program with traditional passive stretching exercises. The study group re...

  14. The Assignment Game : The Reduced Game

    OpenAIRE

    Guillermo OWEN

    1992-01-01

    Let v be an assignment game. For a given reference payoff vector (x; y), and a coalition S, bargaining within the coalition can be represented by either the reduced game or the derived game. It is known that the reduced game need not be an assignment game (in fact, it need not be super additive) while the derived game is another assignment game, with modified reservation prices. We prove that, when the reference vector is in the core of the game, the derived game is the super additive cover o...

  15. Prevention of Depressive Symptoms in Adolescents: A Randomized Trial of Cognitive-Behavioral and Interpersonal Prevention Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, Jason L.; Garber, Judy; Ciesla, Jeffrey A.; Young, Jami F.; Mufson, Laura

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of 2 programs for preventing depressive symptoms in adolescents. Participants were 380 high school students randomly assigned to a cognitive-behavioral program (CB), an interpersonal psychotherapy-adolescent skills training program (IPT-AST), or a no-intervention control. The interventions involved eight 90-min…

  16. A Randomized Controlled Trial of a Parent Training and Emotion Socialization Program for Families of Hyperactive Preschool-Aged Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, Sharonne D.; Harvey, Elizabeth A.; Roberts, Jasmin L.; Wichowski, Kayla; Lugo-Candelas, Claudia I.

    2013-01-01

    The present study evaluated the effectiveness of a parent training and emotion socialization program designed specifically for hyperactive preschoolers. Participants were 31 preschool-aged children whose parents were randomly assigned to a parent training (PT) or waitlist (WL) control group. PT parents took part in a 14-week parenting program that…

  17. Attachment as Moderator of Treatment Outcome in Major Depression: A Randomized Control Trial of Interpersonal Psychotherapy versus Cognitive Behavior Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Carolina; Atkinson, Leslie; Quilty, Lena C.; Bagby, R. Michael

    2006-01-01

    Anxiety and avoidance dimensions of adult attachment insecurity were tested as moderators of treatment outcome for interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) and cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT). Fifty-six participants with major depression were randomly assigned to these treatment conditions. Beck Depression Inventory-II, Six-Item Hamilton Rating Scale…

  18. Cost-effectiveness of 40-hour versus 100-hour vocational rehabilitation on work participation for workers on sick leave due to subacute or chronic musculoskeletal pain: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beemster, Timo T; van Velzen, Judith M; van Bennekom, Coen A M; Frings-Dresen, Monique H W; Reneman, Michiel F

    2015-07-28

    Although vocational rehabilitation is a widely advocated intervention for workers on sick leave due to subacute or chronic nonspecific musculoskeletal pain, the optimal dosage of effective and cost-effective vocational rehabilitation remains unknown. The objective of this paper is to describe the design of a non-inferiority trial evaluating the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of 40-h multidisciplinary vocational rehabilitation compared with 100-h multidisciplinary vocational rehabilitation on work participation for workers on sick leave due to subacute or chronic musculoskeletal pain. A non-inferiority study design will be applied. The study population consists of workers who are on part-time or full-time sick leave due to subacute or chronic nonspecific musculoskeletal pain. Two multidisciplinary vocational rehabilitation programs following the bio-psychosocial approach will be evaluated in this study: 40-h vocational rehabilitation and 100-h vocational rehabilitation, both delivered over a maximum of 15 weeks. The 100-h vocational rehabilitation comprises five modules: work participation coordination, graded activity, cognitive behavioral therapy, group education, and relaxation. The 40-h vocational rehabilitation comprises work participation coordination and a well-reasoned choice from the other four modules. Four rehabilitation centers will participate in this study, each delivering both interventions. Patients will be randomized into one of the interventions, stratified for the duration of sick leave (Cost outcomes are absenteeism, presenteeism, healthcare usage, and travelling costs. Cost-effectiveness will be evaluated from the societal and employer perspectives. The results obtained from this study will be useful for vocational rehabilitation practice and will provide stakeholders with relevant insights into two versions of vocational rehabilitation. Dutch Trial Register identifier: NTR4362 (registered 17 March 2014).

  19. Auditing the Assignments of Top-Level Semantic Types in the UMLS Semantic Network to UMLS Concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhe; Perl, Yehoshua; Elhanan, Gai; Chen, Yan; Geller, James; Bian, Jiang

    2017-11-01

    The Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) is an important terminological system. By the policy of its curators, each concept of the UMLS should be assigned the most specific Semantic Types (STs) in the UMLS Semantic Network (SN). Hence, the Semantic Types of most UMLS concepts are assigned at or near the bottom (leaves) of the UMLS Semantic Network. While most ST assignments are correct, some errors do occur. Therefore, Quality Assurance efforts of UMLS curators for ST assignments should concentrate on automatically detected sets of UMLS concepts with higher error rates than random sets. In this paper, we investigate the assignments of top-level semantic types in the UMLS semantic network to concepts, identify potential erroneous assignments, define four categories of errors, and thus provide assistance to curators of the UMLS to avoid these assignments errors. Human experts analyzed samples of concepts assigned 10 of the top-level semantic types and categorized the erroneous ST assignments into these four logical categories. Two thirds of the concepts assigned these 10 top-level semantic types are erroneous. Our results demonstrate that reviewing top-level semantic type assignments to concepts provides an effective way for UMLS quality assurance, comparing to reviewing a random selection of semantic type assignments.

  20. Dynamic traffic assignment : genetic algorithms approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Real-time route guidance is a promising approach to alleviating congestion on the nations highways. A dynamic traffic assignment model is central to the development of guidance strategies. The artificial intelligence technique of genetic algorithm...

  1. Homework assignments in couple and family therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dattilio, Frank M

    2002-05-01

    Homework has been cited as an integral part of a number of theoretical orientations and therapy formats; unfortunately, very little has been written about its use with couples and families. This is despite the fact that many couple and family therapists espouse the use of homework or out-of-session assignments in order to help the effects of therapy jell. This article reviews some of the empirical literature on homework assignments and their effectiveness in the domain of therapy for families and couples. It also highlights the effectiveness of and the need for out-of-session assignments in treatment. A case illustration is used to demonstrate how homework assignments may be used as a significant change agent in couple and family treatment. Copyright 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. On pole structure assignment in linear systems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Loiseau, J.-J.; Zagalak, Petr

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 82, č. 7 (2009), s. 1179-1192 ISSN 0020-7179 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA102/07/1596 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : linear systems * linear state feedback * pole structure assignment Subject RIV: BC - Control Systems Theory Impact factor: 1.124, year: 2009 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2009/AS/zagalak-on pole structure assignment in linear systems.pdf

  3. Economic benefit assignment in environmental cost allocation

    OpenAIRE

    Collins C. Ngwakwe

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to suggest a model to reward a dirty product which has the potential to offer sales promotion services to other clean products in a multiple product firm. The paper suggests a model economic benefit assignment (eba) for apportionment of direct waste costs where a polluting product offers a sales promotion benefit to other clean products of the same company, which proposes that benefiting products should be assigned a proportion of the direct waste cost of the polluting product...

  4. Impact of Open Data Policies on Consent to Participate in Human Subjects Research: Discrepancies between Participant Action and Reported Concerns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Jorden A; Zagrodney, Jessica M; Day, T Eugene

    2015-01-01

    Research outlets are increasingly adopting open data policies as a requisite for publication, including studies with human subjects data. We investigated whether open data policies influence participants' rate of consent by randomly assigning participants to view consent forms with and without discussion of open data policies. No participants declined to participate, regardless of condition, nor did rates of drop-out vs. completion vary between conditions. Furthermore, no significant change in potential consent rates was reported when participants were openly asked about the influence of open data policies on their likelihood of consent. However, follow-up analyses indicated possible poor attention to consent forms, consistent with previous research. Moreover, thematic analysis of participants' considerations of open data policy indicated multiple considerations such as concerns regarding confidentiality, anonymity, data security, and study sensitivity. The impact of open data policies on participation raises complex issues at the intersection of ethics and scientific innovation. We conclude by encouraging researchers to consider participants as stakeholders in open data policy and by providing recommendations for open data policies in human subjects research.

  5. Does Internet-based guided-self-help for depression cause harm? An individual participant data meta-analysis on deterioration rates and its moderators in randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebert, D D; Donkin, L; Andersson, G; Andrews, G; Berger, T; Carlbring, P; Rozenthal, A; Choi, I; Laferton, J A C; Johansson, R; Kleiboer, A; Lange, A; Lehr, D; Reins, J A; Funk, B; Newby, J; Perini, S; Riper, H; Ruwaard, J; Sheeber, L; Snoek, F J; Titov, N; Ünlü Ince, B; van Bastelaar, K; Vernmark, K; van Straten, A; Warmerdam, L; Salsman, N; Cuijpers, P

    2016-10-01

    Almost nothing is known about the potential negative effects of Internet-based psychological treatments for depression. This study aims at investigating deterioration and its moderators within randomized trials on Internet-based guided self-help for adult depression, using an individual patient data meta-analyses (IPDMA) approach. Studies were identified through systematic searches (PubMed, PsycINFO, EMBASE, Cochrane Library). Deterioration in participants was defined as a significant symptom increase according to the reliable change index (i.e. 7.68 points in the CES-D; 7.63 points in the BDI). Two-step IPDMA procedures, with a random-effects model were used to pool data. A total of 18 studies (21 comparisons, 2079 participants) contributed data to the analysis. The risk for a reliable deterioration from baseline to post-treatment was significantly lower in the intervention v. control conditions (3.36 v. 7.60; relative risk 0.47, 95% confidence interval 0.29-0.75). Education moderated effects on deterioration, with patients with low education displaying a higher risk for deterioration than patients with higher education. Deterioration rates for patients with low education did not differ statistically significantly between intervention and control groups. The benefit-risk ratio for patients with low education indicated that 9.38 patients achieve a treatment response for each patient experiencing a symptom deterioration. Internet-based guided self-help is associated with a mean reduced risk for a symptom deterioration compared to controls. Treatment and symptom progress of patients with low education should be closely monitored, as some patients might face an increased risk for symptom deterioration. Future studies should examine predictors of deterioration in patients with low education.

  6. Design and baseline characteristics of participants in the TRial of Economic Incentives to Promote Physical Activity (TRIPPA): a randomized controlled trial of a six month pedometer program with financial incentives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelstein, Eric A; Sahasranaman, Aarti; John, Geraldine; Haaland, Benjamin A; Bilger, Marcel; Sloan, Robert A; Nang, Ei Ei Khaing; Evenson, Kelly R

    2015-03-01

    Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are emerging as the predominant global health challenge of this century. Physical inactivity is one of the primary risk factors for NCDs. Therefore, increasing physical activity levels is a public health imperative. The arrival of affordable wearable technologies, such as wireless pedometers, provides one strategy for encouraging walking. However, the effectiveness of these technologies in promoting sustained behavior change has not been established. Insights from economics suggest that incentives may be a useful strategy for increasing maintenance and effectiveness of behavior change interventions, including physical activity interventions that rely on wearable technologies. The aim of this trial is to test the effectiveness of a common wireless pedometer with or without one of two types of incentives (cash or donations to charity) for reaching weekly physical activity goals. We present here the design and baseline characteristics of participants of this four arm randomized controlled trial. 800 full-time employees (desk-bound office workers) belonging to 15 different worksites (on average, 53 (sd: 37) employees at each worksite) were successfully randomized to one of four study arms. If shown to be effective, wearable technologies in concert with financial incentives may provide a scalable and affordable health promotion strategy for governments and employers seeking to increase the physical activity levels of their constituents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Competitive Traffic Assignment in Road Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krylatov Alexander Y.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently in-vehicle route guidance and information systems are rapidly developing. Such systems are expected to reduce congestion in an urban traffic area. This social benefit is believed to be reached by imposing the route choices on the network users that lead to the system optimum traffic assignment. However, guidance service could be offered by different competitive business companies. Then route choices of different mutually independent groups of users may reject traffic assignment from the system optimum state. In this paper, a game theoretic approach is shown to be very efficient to formalize competitive traffic assignment problem with various groups of users in the form of non-cooperative network game with the Nash equilibrium search. The relationships between the Wardrop’s system optimum associated with the traffic assignment problem and the Nash equilibrium associated with the competitive traffic assignment problem are investigated. Moreover, some related aspects of the Nash equilibrium and the Wardrop’s user equilibrium assignments are also discussed.

  8. Ambivalent participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groes-Green, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Participation in young peoples' sexual cultures in Maputo, Mozambique led to reflections about the field dynamics of power, participation, desire, and discomfort. Structural inequalities of race, gender, and educational status resulted in informants seeing me as a morally righteous person to whom...... they could not give open accounts about sexual practice. Attempting to overcome these barriers, I participated in excessive nightlife activities, and as a consequence they began viewing me as a more accepting and reliable person. Although breaking down these barriers provided invaluable insight...... into their sexual culture, it also caused anxiety and troubling desires vis-à-vis informants. I discuss how anthropologists, through fieldwork are transformed from powerful seducers of informants to objects of informants' seduction. This creates dilemmas for the anthropologist whose fieldwork depends on informants...

  9. 28 CFR 544.73 - Program participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Program participation. 544.73 Section 544... EDUCATION Literacy Program § 544.73 Program participation. (a) The Warden or designee shall assign to an... program review sessions shall meet with the inmate to encourage continued participation in the literacy...

  10. Claiming Participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabian, Louise; Samson, Kristine

    2015-01-01

    with participation are currently strong influential factors in Danish planning. The article explores the use of participatory DIY urban design in two cases: the relocation of beer drinkers in Enghave Square and the Carlsberg City development in Copenhagen, Denmark. Carlsberg City is the most thorough Danish example...

  11. Flexible taxonomic assignment of ambiguous sequencing reads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jansson Jesper

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To characterize the diversity of bacterial populations in metagenomic studies, sequencing reads need to be accurately assigned to taxonomic units in a given reference taxonomy. Reads that cannot be reliably assigned to a unique leaf in the taxonomy (ambiguous reads are typically assigned to the lowest common ancestor of the set of species that match it. This introduces a potentially severe error in the estimation of bacteria present in the sample due to false positives, since all species in the subtree rooted at the ancestor are implicitly assigned to the read even though many of them may not match it. Results We present a method that maps each read to a node in the taxonomy that minimizes a penalty score while balancing the relevance of precision and recall in the assignment through a parameter q. This mapping can be obtained in time linear in the number of matching sequences, because LCA queries to the reference taxonomy take constant time. When applied to six different metagenomic datasets, our algorithm produces different taxonomic distributions depending on whether coverage or precision is maximized. Including information on the quality of the reads reduces the number of unassigned reads but increases the number of ambiguous reads, stressing the relevance of our method. Finally, two measures of performance are described and results with a set of artificially generated datasets are discussed. Conclusions The assignment strategy of sequencing reads introduced in this paper is a versatile and a quick method to study bacterial communities. The bacterial composition of the analyzed samples can vary significantly depending on how ambiguous reads are assigned depending on the value of the q parameter. Validation of our results in an artificial dataset confirm that a combination of values of q produces the most accurate results.

  12. Metaphor use and health literacy: a pilot study of strategies to explain randomization in cancer clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieger, Janice L; Parrott, Roxanne L; Nussbaum, Jon F

    2011-01-01

    Patients often have difficulty understanding what randomization is and why it is needed in Phase III clinical trials. Physicians commonly report using metaphorical language to convey the role of chance in being assignment to treatment; however, the effectiveness of this strategy as an educational tool has not been explored. Guided by W. McGuire's (1972) information-processing model, the purpose of this pilot study was to explore effects of metaphors to explain randomization on message acceptance and behavioral intention to participate in a Phase III clinical trial among a sample of low-income, rural women (N = 64). Participants were randomly assigned to watch a video that explained randomization using 1 of 3 message strategies: a low-literacy definition, standard metaphor (i.e., flip of a coin), or a culturally derived metaphor (i.e., sex of a baby). The influence of attention on behavioral intentions to participate in clinical trials was partially moderated by message strategy. Under conditions of low attention, participants in the culturally derived metaphor condition experienced significantly higher intentions to participate in clinical trials compared with participants in the standard metaphor condition. However, as attention increased, differences in intentions among the conditions diminished. Having a positive affective response to the randomization message was a strong, positive predictor of behavioral intentions to participate in clinical trials. The authors discuss the theoretical and practical implications of these findings.

  13. A pilot randomized controlled trial of pioglitazone for the treatment of poorly controlled asthma in obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Anne E; Subramanian, Meenakumari; DeSarno, Michael; Black, Kendall; Lane, Lisa; Holguin, Fernando

    2015-11-26

    Obese asthmatics tend to have poorly controlled asthma, and resistance to standard asthma controller medications. The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of pioglitazone, an anti-diabetic medication which can alter circulating adipokines and have direct effects on asthmatic inflammation, in the treatment of asthma in obesity. A two-center, 12-week, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded trial. Treatments were randomly assigned with concealment of allocation. The primary outcome was difference in change in airway reactivity between participants assigned to pioglitazone versus placebo at 12 weeks. Twenty-three participants were randomized to treatment, 19 completed the study. Median airway reactivity, measured by PC20 to methacholine was 1.99 (IQR 3.08) and 1.60 (5.91) mg/ml in placebo and pioglitazone group at baseline, and 2.37 (15.22) and 5.08 (7.42) mg/ml after 12 weeks, p = 0.38. There was no difference in exhaled nitric oxide, asthma control or lung function between treatment groups over the 12 week trial. Participants assigned to pioglitazone gained a significant amount more weight than those assigned to placebo (pioglitazone group mean weight 113.6, CI 94.5-132.7 kg at randomization and 115.9, CI 96.9-135.1 at 12 weeks; placebo mean weight 127.5, CI 108.4 - 146.6 kg at randomization and 124.5, CI 105.4 - 143.6 kg at 12 weeks; p = 0.04). This pilot study suggests limited efficacy for pioglitazone in the treatment of poorly controlled asthma in obesity, and also the potential for harm, given the weight gain in those assigned to active treatment, and the association between increased weight and worse outcomes in asthma. Clinicaltrials.gov (NCT00634036).

  14. Protein secondary structure assignment revisited: a detailed analysis of different assignment methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Brevern Alexandre G

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A number of methods are now available to perform automatic assignment of periodic secondary structures from atomic coordinates, based on different characteristics of the secondary structures. In general these methods exhibit a broad consensus as to the location of most helix and strand core segments in protein structures. However the termini of the segments are often ill-defined and it is difficult to decide unambiguously which residues at the edge of the segments have to be included. In addition, there is a "twilight zone" where secondary structure segments depart significantly from the idealized models of Pauling and Corey. For these segments, one has to decide whether the observed structural variations are merely distorsions or whether they constitute a break in the secondary structure. Methods To address these problems, we have developed a method for secondary structure assignment, called KAKSI. Assignments made by KAKSI are compared with assignments given by DSSP, STRIDE, XTLSSTR, PSEA and SECSTR, as well as secondary structures found in PDB files, on 4 datasets (X-ray structures with different resolution range, NMR structures. Results A detailed comparison of KAKSI assignments with those of STRIDE and PSEA reveals that KAKSI assigns slightly longer helices and strands than STRIDE in case of one-to-one correspondence between the segments. However, KAKSI tends also to favor the assignment of several short helices when STRIDE and PSEA assign longer, kinked, helices. Helices assigned by KAKSI have geometrical characteristics close to those described in the PDB. They are more linear than helices assigned by other methods. The same tendency to split long segments is observed for strands, although less systematically. We present a number of cases of secondary structure assignments that illustrate this behavior. Conclusion Our method provides valuable assignments which favor the regularity of secondary structure segments.

  15. The Airport Gate Assignment Problem: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelghani Bouras

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The airport gate assignment problem (AGAP is one of the most important problems operations managers face daily. Many researches have been done to solve this problem and tackle its complexity. The objective of the task is assigning each flight (aircraft to an available gate while maximizing both conveniences to passengers and the operational efficiency of airport. This objective requires a solution that provides the ability to change and update the gate assignment data on a real time basis. In this paper, we survey the state of the art of these problems and the various methods to obtain the solution. Our survey covers both theoretical and real AGAP with the description of mathematical formulations and resolution methods such as exact algorithms, heuristic algorithms, and metaheuristic algorithms. We also provide a research trend that can inspire researchers about new problems in this area.

  16. The Airport Gate Assignment Problem: A Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaleb, Mageed A.; Salem, Ahmed M.

    2014-01-01

    The airport gate assignment problem (AGAP) is one of the most important problems operations managers face daily. Many researches have been done to solve this problem and tackle its complexity. The objective of the task is assigning each flight (aircraft) to an available gate while maximizing both conveniences to passengers and the operational efficiency of airport. This objective requires a solution that provides the ability to change and update the gate assignment data on a real time basis. In this paper, we survey the state of the art of these problems and the various methods to obtain the solution. Our survey covers both theoretical and real AGAP with the description of mathematical formulations and resolution methods such as exact algorithms, heuristic algorithms, and metaheuristic algorithms. We also provide a research trend that can inspire researchers about new problems in this area. PMID:25506074

  17. Assignment of fields from particles to mesh

    CERN Document Server

    Duque, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    In Computational Fluid Dynamics there have been many attempts to combine the power of a fixed mesh on which to carry out spatial calculations with that of a set of particles that moves following the velocity field. These ideas indeed go back to Particle-in-Cell methods, proposed about 60 years ago. Of course, some procedure is needed to transfer field information between particles and mesh. There are many possible choices for this "assignment", or "projection". Several requirements may guide this choice. Two well-known ones are conservativity and stability, which apply to volume integrals of the fields. An additional one is here considered: preservation of information. This means that mesh interpolation, followed by mesh assignment, should leave the field values invariant. The resulting methods are termed "mass" assignments due to their strong similarities with the Finite Element Method. We test several procedures, including the well-known FLIP, on three scenarios: simple 1D convection, 2D convection of Zales...

  18. Writing Assignments that Promote Active Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, M.

    2014-12-01

    Encourage students to write a detailed, analytical report correlating classroom discussions to an important historical event or a current event. Motivate students interview an expert from industry on a topic that was discussed in class. Ask the students to submit a report with supporting sketches, drawings, circuit diagrams and graphs. Propose that the students generate a complete a set of reading responses pertaining to an assigned topic. Require each student to bring in one comment or one question about an assigned reading. The assignment should be a recent publication in an appropriate journal. Have the students conduct a web search on an assigned topic. Ask them to generate a set of ideas that can relate to classroom discussions. Provide the students with a study guide. The study guide should provide about 10 or 15 short topics. Quiz the students on one or two of the topics. Encourage the students to design or develop some creative real-world examples based on a chapter discussed or a topic of interest. Require that students originate, develop, support and defend a viewpoint using a specifically assigned material. Make the students practice using or utilizing a set of new technical terms they have encountered in an assigned chapter. Have students develop original examples explaining the different terms. Ask the students to select one important terminology from the previous classroom discussions. Encourage the students to explain why they selected that particular word. Ask them to talk about the importance of the terminology from the point of view of their educational objectives and future career. Angelo, T. A. (1991). Ten easy pieces: Assessing higher learning in four dimensions. In T. A. Angelo (Ed.), Classroom research: Early lessons from success (pp. 17-31). New Directions for Teaching and Learning, No. 46. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

  19. Manganese Oxidation State Assignment for Manganese Catalase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beal, Nathan J; O'Malley, Patrick J

    2016-04-06

    The oxidation state assignment of the manganese ions present in the superoxidized manganese (III/IV) catalase active site is determined by comparing experimental and broken symmetry density functional theory calculated (14)N, (17)O, and (1)H hyperfine couplings. Experimental results have been interpreted to indicate that the substrate water is coordinated to the Mn(III) ion. However, by calculating hyperfine couplings for both scenarios we show that water is coordinated to the Mn(IV) ion and that the assigned oxidation states of the two manganese ions present in the site are the opposite of that previously proposed based on experimental measurements alone.

  20. Adapalene-benzoyl peroxide once-daily, fixed-dose combination gel for the treatment of acne vulgaris: a randomized, bilateral (split-face), dose-assessment study of cutaneous tolerability in healthy participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andres, Philippe; Pernin, Colette; Poncet, Michel

    2008-03-01

    Combination therapy is an effective approach to simultaneously target multiple pathogenic factors of acne. International consensus guidelines recommend the use of topical retinoids and benzoyl peroxide (BPO) for acne treatment. These drugs are often prescribed as a free combination without any safety concern associated with antibiotic use. A 3-week, randomized, controlled, investigator-blinded, single-center, bilateral (split-face), dose-assessment study was conducted comparing the cutaneous tolerability of 2 adapalene-BPO fixed-dose combination products versus various concentrations of BPO monotherapy applied once daily. Sixty healthy participants were randomized to one of the following treatment groups: adapalene 0.1%-BPO 2.5% combination product versus BPO 2.5% monotherapy; adapalene 0.1%-BPO 2.5% combination product versus BPO 5% monotherapy; adapalene 0.1%-BPO 5% combination product versus BPO 5% monotherapy; and adapalene 0.1%-BPO 5% combination product versus BPO 10% monotherapy. Assessments included total sum score (TSS) of irritation signs/ symptoms (erythema, scaling/desquamation, dryness, pruritus, stinging/burning) averaged over all postbaseline visits, individual irritation signs/symptoms (worst score), and adverse events. The overall cutaneous tolerability profile of the adapalene 0.1%-BPO 2.5% combination product was better than the combination with BPO 5% and similar to BPO 2.5% or 5% monotherapy. The combination product with BPO 5% induced significantly more irritation than BPO 5% monotherapy (P BPO 10% monotherapy (P = .001). In conclusion, the new fixed-dose adapalene 0.1%-BPO 2.5% combination product provided the best overall cutaneous tolerability profile relative to BPO monotherapy.

  1. 48 CFR 208.7002 - Assignment authority.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... activities concerned. (b) Under the Integrated Materiel Management Program, assignments are made by the... Secretary of Defense (Logistics); (2) To GSA, through agreement with GSA, by the Deputy Under Secretary of Defense (Logistics); (3) Outside the contiguous United States, by the Unified Commanders; and (4) For...

  2. Assigning sporadic tasks to unrelated machines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marchetti-Spaccamela, A.; Rutten, C.; van der Ster, S.L.; Wiese, A.

    2015-01-01

    We study the problem of assigning sporadic tasks to unrelated machines such that the tasks on each machine can be feasibly scheduled. Despite its importance for modern real-time systems, this problem has not been studied before. We present a polynomial-time algorithm which approximates the problem

  3. Generalised Assignment Matrix Methodology in Linear Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerome, Lawrence

    2012-01-01

    Discrete Mathematics instructors and students have long been struggling with various labelling and scanning algorithms for solving many important problems. This paper shows how to solve a wide variety of Discrete Mathematics and OR problems using assignment matrices and linear programming, specifically using Excel Solvers although the same…

  4. A Generalized Assignment Heuristic for Vehicle Routing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-08-01

    operating costs included in objective (1) of (VRP). This kind of parametric analysis would be useful, for example, in evaluating vehicle acquisition decisions...of solution qcuality and runnina time for the five methods. In terms of solution cualit -i, the Fisher-Jaikumar generalized assignment method clearly

  5. Tabu search for target-radar assignment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hindsberger, Magnus; Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui

    2000-01-01

    In the paper the problem of assigning air-defense illumination radars to enemy targets is presented. A tabu search metaheuristic solution is described and the results achieved are compared to those of other heuristic approaches, implementation and experimental aspects are discussed. It is argued...

  6. 47 CFR 74.702 - Channel assignments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... land mobile radio operations. (b) Changes in the TV Table of Allotments or Digital Television Table of..., AUXILIARY, SPECIAL BROADCAST AND OTHER PROGRAM DISTRIBUTIONAL SERVICES Low Power TV, TV Translator, and TV Booster Stations § 74.702 Channel assignments. (a) An applicant for a new low power TV or TV translator...

  7. Training the American Businessman for Foreign Assignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Philip R.; Harris, Dorothy L.

    1972-01-01

    Describes a program in cross cultural training for the American businessman about to go on foreign assignment which should increase employee effectiveness when serving outside one's own country or when working with minority groups within the United States." (Author/DR)

  8. Teachers' Grading Practices: Meaning and Values Assigned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Youyi; Cheng, Liying

    2014-01-01

    This study explores the meaning Chinese secondary school English language teachers associate with the grades they assign to their students, and the value judgements they make in grading. A questionnaire was issued to 350 junior and senior school English language teachers in China. The questionnaire data were analysed both quantitatively and…

  9. Enhanced functional and structural domain assignments using ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The sequencing of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) H37Rv genome has facilitated deeper insights into the biology of MTB, yet the functions of many MTB proteins are unknown. We have used sensitive profile-based search procedures to assign functional and structural domains to infer functions of gene products ...

  10. Teaching Historical Analysis through Creative Writing Assignments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Janine Larmon; Graham, Lea

    2015-01-01

    Incorporating creative writing exercises in history courses can heighten students' critical reading and analytical skills in an active learning model. We identify and define two types of possible assignments that use model texts as their locus: centripetal, which focuses on specific context and disciplinary terms, and centrifugal, which address…

  11. School Assignment, School Choice and Social Mobility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Simon; Briggs, Adam

    2010-01-01

    We estimate the chances of poor and non-poor children getting places in good schools, analysing the relationship between poverty, location and school assignment. Our dataset allows us to measure location and distance very precisely. The simple unconditional difference in probabilities of attending a good school is substantial. We run an analysis…

  12. 7 CFR 1437.104 - Assigned production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Assigned production. 1437.104 Section 1437.104 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS NONINSURED CROP DISASTER ASSISTANCE PROGRAM...

  13. income tax assignment under the ethiopian constitution

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eliasn

    Constitution from an income tax point of view. And finally, the article ends with some concluding remarks. 1. Theories of Fiscal Federalism In Income Tax Assignment. Few countries pursue the course of decentralization on grounds of its perceived economic efficiency or equity. Political, social, cultural or historical forces are.

  14. Politics, Internet Assignments, and Civic Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Vaughn

    2000-01-01

    Describes how one professor of American government fights the apathy and cynicism of college students toward politics by using the Internet to help students more fairly appraise the workings of the American political system. One assignment has students research and manage a particular public policy initiative through visits to Web sites…

  15. 47 CFR 74.602 - Frequency assignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES EXPERIMENTAL RADIO... 2450 and 2500 MHz are also shared with other communication services and exclusive channel assignments... Emerging Technologies licensee in accordance with § 74.690 or § 78.40. Licensees declining relocation may...

  16. Accounting for Sustainability: An Active Learning Assignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusc, Joanna; van Veen-Dirks, Paula

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Sustainability is one of the newer topics in the accounting courses taught in university teaching programs. The active learning assignment as described in this paper was developed for use in an accounting course in an undergraduate program. The aim was to enhance teaching about sustainability within such a course. The purpose of this…

  17. Incentivized optimal advert assignment via utility decomposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kelly, F.; Key, P.; Walton, N.

    2014-01-01

    We consider a large-scale Ad-auction where adverts are assigned over a potentially infinite number of searches. We capture the intrinsic asymmetries in information between advertisers, the advert platform and the space of searches: advertisers know and can optimize the average performance of their

  18. Semi-infinite assignment and transportation games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmer, Judith B.; Sánchez-Soriano, Joaqu´ın; Llorca, Navidad; Tijs, Stef; Goberna, Miguel A.; López, Marco A.

    2001-01-01

    Games corresponding to semi-infinite transportation and related assignment situations are studied. In a semi-infinite transportation situation, one aims at maximizing the profit from the transportation of a certain good from a finite number of suppliers to an infinite number of demanders. An

  19. On Online Assignments in a Calculus Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungic, Veselin; Kent, Deborah; Menz, Petra

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we describe our experience with the creation and utilization of online assignments for several calculus classes at Simon Fraser University (SFU). We present our findings regarding available software by considering the needs and perspectives of the instructors, students, and administrators. We provide a list of questions that guide…

  20. Assigning ethical weights to clinical signs observed during toxicity testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringblom, Joakim; Törnqvist, Elin; Hansson, Sven Ove; Rudén, Christina; Öberg, Mattias

    2017-01-01

    Reducing the number of laboratory animals used and refining experimental procedures to enhance animal welfare are fundamental questions to be considered in connection with animal experimentation. Here, we explored the use of cardinal ethical weights for clinical signs and symptoms in rodents by conducting trade-off interviews with members of Swedish Animal Ethics Committees in order to derive such weights for nine typical clinical signs of toxicity. The participants interviewed represent researchers, politically nominated political nominees and representatives of animal welfare organizations. We observed no statistically significant differences between these groups with respect to the magnitude of the ethical weights assigned, though the political nominees tended to assign lower weights. Overall, hunched posture was considered the most severe clinical sign and body weight loss the least severe. The ethical weights assigned varied considerably between individuals, from zero to infinite value, indicating discrepancies in prioritization of reduction and refinement. Cardinal ethical weights may be utilized to include both animal welfare refinement and reduction of animal use in designing as well as in retrospective assessment of animal experiments. Such weights may also be used to estimate ethical costs of animal experiments.

  1. Comparison of the efficacy and safety of 2% lidocaine HCl with different epinephrine concentration for local anesthesia in participants undergoing surgical extraction of impacted mandibular third molars: A multicenter, randomized, double-blind, crossover, phase IV trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karm, Myong-Hwan; Park, Fiona Daye; Kang, Moonkyu; Kim, Hyun Jeong; Kang, Jeong Wan; Kim, Seungoh; Kim, Yong-Deok; Kim, Cheul-Hong; Seo, Kwang-Suk; Kwon, Kyung-Hwan; Kim, Chul-Hwan; Lee, Jung-Woo; Hong, Sung-Woon; Lim, Mi Hyoung; Nam, Seung Kwan; Cho, Jae Min

    2017-05-01

    The most commonly impacted tooth is the third molar. An impacted third molar can ultimately cause acute pain, infection, tumors, cysts, caries, periodontal disease, and loss of adjacent teeth. Local anesthesia is employed for removing the third molar. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of 2% lidocaine with 1:80,000 or 1:200,000 epinephrine for surgical extraction of bilateral impacted mandibular third molars. Sixty-five healthy participants underwent surgical extraction of bilateral impacted mandibular third molars in 2 separate visits while under local anesthesia with 2% lidocaine with different epinephrine concentration (1:80,000 or 1:200,000) in a double-blind, randomized, crossover trial. Visual analog scale pain scores obtained immediately after surgical extraction were primarily evaluated for the 2 groups receiving different epinephrine concentrations. Visual analog scale pain scores were obtained 2, 4, and 6 hours after administering an anesthetic. Onset and duration of analgesia, onset of pain, intraoperative bleeding, operator's and participant's overall satisfaction, drug dosage, and hemodynamic parameters were evaluated for the 2 groups. There were no statistically significant differences between the 2 groups in any measurements except hemodynamic factors (P >.05). Changes in systolic blood pressure and heart rate following anesthetic administration were significantly greater in the group receiving 1:80,000 epinephrine than in that receiving 1:200,000 epinephrine (P ≤.01). The difference in epinephrine concentration between 1:80,000 and 1:200,000 in 2% lidocaine liquid does not affect the medical efficacy of the anesthetic. Furthermore, 2% lidocaine with 1:200,000 epinephrine has better safety with regard to hemodynamic parameters than 2% lidocaine with 1:80,000 epinephrine. Therefore, we suggest using 2% lidocaine with 1:200,000 epinephrine rather than 2% lidocaine with 1:80,000 epinephrine for surgical extraction of impacted

  2. Intensive lifestyle intervention in general practice to prevent type 2 diabetes among 18 to 60-year-old South Asians: 1-year effects on the weight status and metabolic profile of participants in a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Admiraal, Wanda M; Vlaar, Everlina M; Nierkens, Vera; Holleman, Frits; Middelkoop, Barend J C; Stronks, Karien; van Valkengoed, Irene G M

    2013-01-01

    To study 1-year effectiveness of an intensive, culturally targeted lifestyle intervention in general practice for weight status and metabolic profile of South-Asians at risk of type 2 diabetes. 536 South-Asians at risk of type 2 diabetes were randomized to an intervention (n = 283) or control (n = 253) group. The intervention, which was targeted culturally to the South-Asian population, consisted of individual lifestyle counselling, a family session, cooking classes, and supervised physical activity programme. All components of the intervention were carried out by professionals as part of their daily clinical practice. The control group received generic lifestyle advice. Change in weight status and metabolic profile were assessed after 1 year. After 1 year, 201 participants were lost to follow-up. Remaining participants in intervention (n = 177) and control (n = 158) group had similar baseline characteristics. Weight loss in the intervention group was 0.2±3.3 kg, weight gain in the control group was 0.4±3.1 kg (p = 0.08). Changes in other weight-related measurements did not differ significantly between groups. Furthermore, there were no differences between groups in changes of metabolic profile. All results remained similar after repeating analyses in a multiple imputed dataset. An intensive, culturally targeted, lifestyle intervention of 1 year did not improve weight status and metabolic profile of South-Asians at risk of type 2 diabetes. The laborious recruitment, high drop-out, and lack of effectiveness emphasise the difficulty of realising health benefits in practice and suggest that this strategy might not be the optimal approach for this population. Nederlands Trial Register NTR1499.

  3. On the expected number of assignments in reduced matrices for the linear assignment problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nawijn, W.M.; Dorhout, B.

    1989-01-01

    A linear n × n assignment problem is considered for which the elements of the cost matrix are sampled from a continuous probability distribution. Based on the zero entries of the reduced matrix the expectation of the maximum number of initial assignments is determined for general n, as well as an

  4. Olmesartan/amlodipine/hydrochlorothiazide in participants with hypertension and diabetes, chronic kidney disease, or chronic cardiovascular disease: a subanalysis of the multicenter, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group TRINITY study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kereiakes, Dean J; Chrysant, Steven G; Izzo, Joseph L; Littlejohn, Thomas; Melino, Michael; Lee, James; Fernandez, Victor; Heyrman, Reinilde

    2012-10-30

    Patients with hypertension and cardiovascular disease (CVD), diabetes, or chronic kidney disease (CKD) usually require two or more antihypertensive agents to achieve blood pressure (BP) goals. The efficacy/safety of olmesartan (OM) 40 mg, amlodipine besylate (AML) 10 mg, and hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) 25 mg versus the component dual-combinations (OM 40/AML 10 mg, OM 40/HCTZ 25 mg, and AML 10/HCTZ 25 mg) was evaluated in participants with diabetes, CKD, or chronic CVD in the Triple Therapy with Olmesartan Medoxomil, Amlodipine, and Hydrochlorothiazide in Hypertensive Patients Study (TRINITY). The primary efficacy end point was least squares (LS) mean reduction from baseline in seated diastolic BP (SeDBP) at week 12. Secondary end points included LS mean reduction in SeSBP and proportion of participants achieving BP goal (<130/80 mm Hg) at week 12 (double-blind randomized period), and LS mean reduction in SeBP and BP goal achievement at week 52/early termination (open-label period). At week 12, OM 40/AML 10/HCTZ 25 mg resulted in significantly greater SeBP reductions in participants with diabetes (-37.9/22.0 mm Hg vs -28.0/17.6 mm Hg for OM 40/AML 10 mg, -26.4/14.7 mm Hg for OM 40/HCTZ 25 mg, and -27.6/14.8 mm Hg for AML 10/HCTZ 25 mg), CKD (-44.3/25.5 mm Hg vs -39.5/23.8 mm Hg for OM 40/AML 10 mg, -25.3/17.0 mm Hg for OM 40/HCTZ 25 mg, and -33.4/20.6 mm Hg for AML 10/HCTZ 25 mg), and chronic CVD (-37.8/20.6 mm Hg vs -31.7/18.2 mm Hg for OM 40/AML 10 mg, -30.9/17.1 mm Hg for OM 40/HCTZ 25 mg, and -27.5/16.1 mm Hg for AML 10/HCTZ 25 mg) (P<0.05 for all subgroups vs dual-component treatments). BP goal achievement was greater for participants receiving triple-combination treatment compared with the dual-combination treatments, and was achieved in 41.1%, 55.0%, and 38.9% of participants with diabetes, CKD, and chronic CVD on OM 40/AML 10/HCTZ 25 mg, respectively. At week 52, there was sustained BP lowering with the OM/AML/HCTZ regimen. Overall, the triple combination was

  5. Stereospecific assignment of the asparagine and glutamine sidechain amide protons in proteins from chemical shift analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harsch, Tobias; Schneider, Philipp; Kieninger, Bärbel; Donaubauer, Harald; Kalbitzer, Hans Robert, E-mail: hans-robert.kalbitzer@biologie.uni-regensburg.de [University of Regensburg, Institute of Biophysics and Physical Biochemistry and Centre of Magnetic Resonance in Chemistry and Biomedicine (Germany)

    2017-02-15

    Side chain amide protons of asparagine and glutamine residues in random-coil peptides are characterized by large chemical shift differences and can be stereospecifically assigned on the basis of their chemical shift values only. The bimodal chemical shift distributions stored in the biological magnetic resonance data bank (BMRB) do not allow such an assignment. However, an analysis of the BMRB shows, that a substantial part of all stored stereospecific assignments is not correct. We show here that in most cases stereospecific assignment can also be done for folded proteins using an unbiased artificial chemical shift data base (UACSB). For a separation of the chemical shifts of the two amide resonance lines with differences ≥0.40 ppm for asparagine and differences ≥0.42 ppm for glutamine, the downfield shifted resonance lines can be assigned to H{sup δ21} and H{sup ε21}, respectively, at a confidence level >95%. A classifier derived from UASCB can also be used to correct the BMRB data. The program tool AssignmentChecker implemented in AUREMOL calculates the Bayesian probability for a given stereospecific assignment and automatically corrects the assignments for a given list of chemical shifts.

  6. Enhancing Civic Education through the Use of Assigned Advocacy, Argumentation, and Debate across the Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorwick, Leslie Wade; Wade, James M.

    2016-01-01

    Evidence shows that the skills and dispositions that lead to thoughtful and effective participation in civic life can be developed and promoted through participation in assigned advocacy, argumentation, and debate. We argue that debate and argumentation are uniquely well suited to be implemented across the curriculum, which means that students…

  7. What Makes Hotel Expatriates Remain in Their Overseas Assignments: A Grounded Theory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Zoe Ju-Yu

    2012-01-01

    In this study the researcher uses a qualitative research design to discover what makes hotel expatriates remain in their overseas assignments. In-depth interviews, participant observations, and personal documents are used as data collection methods. Four hotel expatriates are recruited as participants of the study. The collected interview…

  8. Long-term efficacy of a 0.07% cetylpyridinium chloride mouth rinse in relation to plaque and gingivitis : a 6-month randomized, vehicle-controlled clinical trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Leeuwen, M. P. C.; Rosema, N. A. M.; Versteeg, P. A.; Slot, D. E.; Van Winkelhoff, A. J.; Van der Weijden, G. A.

    ObjectiveTo evaluate the effectiveness of 0.07% cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) mouth rinse for reduction of gingival inflammation and inhibition of plaque compared to a vehicle control (VC) mouth rinse over a 6-month period. Materials & MethodsParticipants (n=62) used their randomly assigned product

  9. Effectiveness of a Treatment for Impairments in Social Cognition and Emotion Regulation (T-ScEmo) after traumatic brain injury : A randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhof-Evers, Herma J.; Visser-Keizer, Annemarie C.; Fasotti, Luciano; Schönherr, Marleen C.; Vink, Martie; van der Naalt, Joukje; Spikman, Jacoba M.

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of a multifaceted Treatment for Social cognition and Emotion regulation (T-ScEmo) in patients with a traumatic brain injury. PARTICIPANTS: Sixty-one patients with moderate to severe traumatic brain injury randomly assigned to an experimental T-ScEmo intervention or

  10. Mindfulness as an Intervention for Recalling Information from a Lecture as a Measure of Academic Performance in Higher Education: A Randomized Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Rebecca Iranzo; Egan, Helen; Cook, Amy; Mantzios, Michail

    2018-01-01

    Higher education students experience heightened levels of stress and anxiety, and report experiencing negative thoughts and emotions, which influence information retention and recall. In a randomized experiment, we assigned participants to either a mindfulness meditation or an audiobook listening condition, and recorded the information recalled…

  11. Effects of nurse-led motivational interviewing of patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain in preparation of rehabilitation treatment (PREPARE) on societal participation, attendance level, and cost-effectiveness: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertens, Vera-Christina; Goossens, Mariëlle E J B; Verbunt, Jeanine A; Köke, Albere J; Smeets, Rob J E M

    2013-04-02

    Non-adherence and drop-out are major problems in pain rehabilitation. For patients with various health problems, motivational interviewing (MI) has shown promising effects to tackle these problems. In chronic pain patients, the effectiveness of MI is however unknown. Therefore, a MI-based pre-pain rehabilitation intervention (MIP) addressing motivation, expectations, and beliefs has been developed to prepare eligible patients for rehabilitation treatment. A parallel randomized controlled trial including two interventions: a motivational interviewing pre-pain rehabilitation intervention (MIP) and a usual care (UC) control arm. Follow-up will be 6 months after completion of rehabilitation treatment. One hundred and sixty (n = 80 per arm) patients with chronic non-specific musculoskeletal pain visiting an outpatient rehabilitation department, who are eligible to participate in an outpatient cognitive behavioral pain rehabilitation program. MIP consists of two sessions to prepare and motivate the patient for pain rehabilitation treatment and its bio psychosocial approach. UC consists of information and education about the etiology and the general rehabilitation approach of chronic pain. Both the MIP and UC contain two sessions of 45 to 60 minutes each. The aim of the current study is to evaluate the effectiveness of MIP compared to UC in terms of an increase in the long-term level of societal participation and decrease of drop-out during rehabilitation treatment.Main study endpoints: Primary outcome is the change in level of participation (according to the ICF-definition: 'involvement in a life situation') 6 months after completion of rehabilitation treatment. Secondary outcomes are adherence and treatment drop-out, disability, pain intensity, self-reported main complaints, (pain-specific) self-efficacy, motivation, and quality of life. Costs are calculated including the costs of the pre-treatment intervention, productivity losses, and healthcare utilization. Potential

  12. A tracked approach for automated NMR assignments in proteins (TATAPRO)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atreya, H.S.; Sahu, S.C.; Chary, K.V.R.; Govil, Girjesh [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Department of Chemical Sciences (India)

    2000-06-15

    experimental data on a calcium binding protein from Entamoeba histolytica (Eh-CaBP, 15 kDa) having substantial internal sequence homology and using published data on four other proteins in the molecular weight range of 18-42 kDa. In all the cases, nearly complete sequence specific resonance assignments (> 95%) are obtained. Furthermore, the reliability of the program has been tested by deleting sets of chemical shifts randomly from the master{sub l}ist created for the test proteins.

  13. Using data mining techniques to characterize participation in observational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linden, Ariel; Yarnold, Paul R

    2016-12-01

    Data mining techniques are gaining in popularity among health researchers for an array of purposes, such as improving diagnostic accuracy, identifying high-risk patients and extracting concepts from unstructured data. In this paper, we describe how these techniques can be applied to another area in the health research domain: identifying characteristics of individuals who do and do not choose to participate in observational studies. In contrast to randomized studies where individuals have no control over their treatment assignment, participants in observational studies self-select into the treatment arm and therefore have the potential to differ in their characteristics from those who elect not to participate. These differences may explain part, or all, of the difference in the observed outcome, making it crucial to assess whether there is differential participation based on observed characteristics. As compared to traditional approaches to this assessment, data mining offers a more precise understanding of these differences. To describe and illustrate the application of data mining in this domain, we use data from a primary care-based medical home pilot programme and compare the performance of commonly used classification approaches - logistic regression, support vector machines, random forests and classification tree analysis (CTA) - in correctly classifying participants and non-participants. We find that CTA is substantially more accurate than the other models. Moreover, unlike the other models, CTA offers transparency in its computational approach, ease of interpretation via the decision rules produced and provides statistical results familiar to health researchers. Beyond their application to research, data mining techniques could help administrators to identify new candidates for participation who may most benefit from the intervention. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. The per-protocol effect of immediate vs. deferred ART initiation in the START randomized trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lodi, Sara; Sharma, Shweta; Lundgren, Jens D

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The START trial found a lower risk of a composite clinical outcome in HIV-positive individuals assigned to immediate initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) compared with those assigned to deferred initiation. However, 30% of those assigned to deferred initiation started ART earlier...... than the protocol specified. To supplement the published intention-to-treat effect estimates, here we estimate the per-protocol effect of immediate versus deferred ART initiation in START. DESIGN: The START trial randomized 4685 HIV-positive participants with CD4 counts > 500 /mm to start ART...... in the immediate and deferred initiation groups had all the trial participants adhered to the protocol. RESULTS: We estimated that the 5-year risk of the composite outcome would have been 3.2% under immediate ART initiation and 7.0% under deferred initiation. The difference of 3.8% (95% confidence interval 1...

  15. Random Versus Blocked Practice to Enhance Mental Representation in Golf Putting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazeli, Davoud; Taheri, HamidReza; Saberi Kakhki, Alireza

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate changes in mental representation from either random or blocked practice when engaged in golf putting. Thirty participants were randomly assigned to random practice, blocked practice, and no-practice groups. First, we measured novice golfers' initial mental representation levels and required them to perform 18 putting trials as a pre-test. We then asked random and blocked groups to practice in accordance with their group assignment for six consecutive days (10 blocks each day, 18 trials each). A week after the last practice session, we re-measured all participants' final mental representation levels and required them to perform 18 putting trials to evaluate learning retention through practice. While those engaged in the random practice method putted more poorly during acquisition (i.e., practice) than those in blocked practice, the random practice group experienced more accurate retention during the final putting trials, and they showed a more structured mental representation than those in blocked practice, one that was more similar to that of skilled golfers. These results support the acquisition of a rich mental representation through random versus blocked practice.

  16. 75 FR 55352 - Delegation of Authorities and Assignment of Responsibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-10

    ... of the Secretary Delegation of Authorities and Assignment of Responsibilities Secretary's Order 5-2010 Subject: Delegation of Authorities and Assignment of Responsibilities to the Administrator, Wage and Hour Division. 1. Purpose. To delegate authorities and assign responsibilities to the...

  17. Participative Mindscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Katan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In parallel with my social activism, I introduced architecture into my kinetic art and participatory activism into my architecture. Flexibility and participation in architectural design has been a permanent feature of my practice, bringing new opportunities for self-expression in urban living. To form follows function I opposed form follows movement because it is man oriented while function is object oriented. After my 1962–1964 Mecanographs, machine-made images based on an interaction between the movement, the artist and the machine, I joined forces with Len Lye to determine what kind of positive attributes a Museum of Kinetic Art should have, defining three aspects of kinetic movement: illumination, sound, and physical movement. Vasarely and other kinetic artists put their mark on their time by promoting a form of social art, accessible to all, suggesting movement without actual movement. Walking through my medieval village can be a kinetic experience. The sense of wonder you feel at every corner compares with that of optical art. In the past decade, I moved toward a new form of participatory kinetic expression using state-of-the-art technology (plastics, LED, wireless devices. I view my kinetic work as an architectural experience and architecture as a stimulating kinetic experience.

  18. Positive Psychology Interventions for Patients With Heart Disease: A Preliminary Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikrahan, Gholam Reza; Suarez, Laura; Asgari, Karim; Beach, Scott R; Celano, Christopher M; Kalantari, Mehrdad; Abedi, Mohammad Reza; Etesampour, Ali; Abbas, Rezaei; Huffman, Jeff C

    2016-01-01

    Positive psychologic characteristics have been linked to superior cardiac outcomes. Accordingly, in this exploratory study, we assessed positive psychology interventions in patients who had recently undergone a procedure to treat cardiovascular disease. Participants were randomly assigned to receive 1 of 3 different 6-week face-to-face interventions or a wait-list control condition. We assessed intervention feasibility and compared changes in psychologic outcome measures postintervention (7wk) and at follow-up (15wk) between intervention and control participants. Across the interventions, 74% of assigned sessions were completed. When comparing outcomes between interventions and control participants (N = 55 total), there were no between-group differences post-intervention, but at follow-up intervention participants had greater improvements in happiness (β = 14.43, 95% CI: 8.66-20.2, p positive psychology intervention for cardiac patients. Copyright © 2016 The Academy of Psychosomatic Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Assigning cause for sudden unexpected infant death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Carl E; Darnall, Robert A; McEntire, Betty L; Hyma, Bruce A

    2015-06-01

    We have reached a conundrum in assigning cause of death for sudden unexpected infant deaths. We summarize the discordant perspectives and approaches and how they have occurred, and recommend a pathway toward improved consistency. This lack of consistency affects pediatricians and other health care professionals, scientific investigators, medical examiners and coroners, law enforcement agencies, families, and support or advocacy groups. We recommend that an interdisciplinary international committee be organized to review current approaches for assigning cause of death, and to identify a consensus strategy for improving consistency. This effort will need to encompass intrinsic risk factors or infant vulnerability in addition to known environmental risk factors including unsafe sleep settings, and must be sufficiently flexible to accommodate a progressively expanding knowledge base.

  20. Solving Quadratic Assignment Problem with Fixed Assignment (QAPFA) using Branch and Bound Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuthairah Syed-Abdullah, Sharifah; Abdul-Rahman, Syariza; Mauziah Benjamin, Aida; Wibowo, Antoni; Ku-Mahamud, Ku-Ruhana

    2018-01-01

    Quadratic Assignment Problem (QAP) has been a very popular problem to be solved among researchers due to its practical applications. Several variants of QAP have been proposed by researchers in the past in order to reflect the real situations of QAP. One of the real problems of QAP is related with facilities which are required to be assigned to certain locations due to its function. In solving this problem, a fixed assignment has to be made thus allowing for the complexity of the problem to be reduced. Hence, this study introduces Quadratic Assignment Problem with Fixed Assignment (QAPFA) with the objective to minimize the assignment cost between the facility and location. This assignment takes into account the flow and distance between facility and location. QAPFA represents the real-world situation of the problem especially in dealing with specific requirement of some facilities to specific locations. Dataset of QAPFA is introduced and is solved using branch and bound approach. As for validation, the results of QAPFA are compared with QAP in terms of objective function and running time. The computational results show that the solution quality of QAPFA is lower when compared with the QAP, while the running time for QAPFA is lower than the QAP. Since the complexity of the problem is reduced by fixing the assignment, thus there is possibility that QAPFA has lower quality than QAP due to the fixed assignment. Nevertheless, in terms of running time QAPFA is better than QAP. It can be concluded that this problem reflect the real problem and practical to be used.

  1. Gender Assignment in Danish, Swedish and Norwegian: A Comparison of the Status of Assignment Criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Kilarski

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with gender assignment of English loanwords in Danish, Swedish and Norwegian. The following assignment criteria have been analysed: semantic (animate, mass, phonological (number of syllables, homonymy, and morphological (inflection, suffixation, deverbal monosyllables, compounds. Common gender in Danish and Swedish and masculine in Norwegian are overrepresented in comparison with the native lexicon. This is confirmed by discriminant function analysis, which shows that neuter nouns in the three languages and feminine nouns in Norwegian show fewer characteristic features. This analysis has also been used to measure the degree of regularity based on the postulated criteria: the percentage of correctly classified cases (from 67% in Swedish to 68% in Norwegian and 72% in Danish suggests only a partial regularity in gender assignment. The stronger pull of common or masculine gender is reflected in the contribution of selected assignment rules, particularly in the assignment of animates, where common or masculine nouns constitute 96% of assigned nouns. As regards phonological rules, monosyllables show a slightly better correlation with neuter gender, particularly in Danish. Homonymy is significant for nouns of both genders in Danish, while in Swedish and Norwegian nouns with a native neuter or feminine homonym are more likely to be assigned common or masculine gender. Likewise, most inflectional and derivational assignment rules contribute to the assignment of common or masculine genders, with the exception of zero plurals, Swedish n-plurals, suffixes such as -ment, -ery, deverbal monosyllables in Danish and Norwegian, and compounds whose base appears in the corpus with n. gender. Discriminant function analysis shows that plural inflection has the greatest discriminant power among the postulated criteria. Finally, it is suggested that these tendencies may indicate an ongoing expansion of common and masculine genders in the three

  2. Assignments, Details, and Transfers: Overseas Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-08-30

    contract will be served regardless of the prescribed tour length. This includes soldiers assigned to Technical Assistance Field Teams ( TAFTS ). r...PUERTO RICO (except as indicated) 36 24 2 Ponce (Ft Allen) and Isabela, Yauco, Cagus, Juana Diaz 36 18 Vieques Island NA 12 QATAR 24 12 40 AR 614–30...55AR 614–30 • 30 August 2001 TAADS The Army Authorization Document System TAFT Technical Assistance Field Team TAT turnaround time TDA table of

  3. Capacity constrained assignment in spatial databases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    U, Leong Hou; Yiu, Man Lung; Mouratidis, Kyriakos

    2008-01-01

    Given a point set P of customers (e.g., WiFi receivers) and a point set Q of service providers (e.g., wireless access points), where each q 2 Q has a capacity q.k, the capacity constrained assignment (CCA) is a matching M Q × P such that (i) each point q 2 Q (p 2 P) appears at most k times (at most...

  4. The adaptive approach for storage assignment by mining data of warehouse management system for distribution centres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming-Huang Chiang, David; Lin, Chia-Ping; Chen, Mu-Chen

    2011-05-01

    Among distribution centre operations, order picking has been reported to be the most labour-intensive activity. Sophisticated storage assignment policies adopted to reduce the travel distance of order picking have been explored in the literature. Unfortunately, previous research has been devoted to locating entire products from scratch. Instead, this study intends to propose an adaptive approach, a Data Mining-based Storage Assignment approach (DMSA), to find the optimal storage assignment for newly delivered products that need to be put away when there is vacant shelf space in a distribution centre. In the DMSA, a new association index (AIX) is developed to evaluate the fitness between the put away products and the unassigned storage locations by applying association rule mining. With AIX, the storage location assignment problem (SLAP) can be formulated and solved as a binary integer programming. To evaluate the performance of DMSA, a real-world order database of a distribution centre is obtained and used to compare the results from DMSA with a random assignment approach. It turns out that DMSA outperforms random assignment as the number of put away products and the proportion of put away products with high turnover rates increase.

  5. Assignment and Correspondence Tracking System - Tactical / Operational Reporting

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — Reporting data store for the Assignment and Correspondence Tracking System (ACT). ACT automates the assignment and tracking of correspondence processing within the...

  6. The Relevance of Living Supports on Antiplatelet Adherence and Trial Participation: The SPS3 Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Brandy L; Pearce, Lesly A; Field, Thalia S; White, Carole L; Benavente, Oscar R

    2014-01-01

    Background While living with others has been associated with improved functional outcome after acute stroke, it is unclear if this affects adherence to stroke prevention measures. We examined the relationship between living arrangement and adherence to antiplatelet therapy (AP) assignment and participation status in an international randomized trial for secondary stroke prevention. Methods AP therapy adherence, trial retention outcomes, and baseline characteristics for participants enrolled in the Secondary Prevention of Small Subcortical Strokes Study (SPS3) were compared between those who lived alone vs. with others (n=2374). Participant status at end-of-trial was categorized into (1)on assigned antiplatelet, (2)off assigned antiplatelet by participant request, or (3)participant withdrew consent/lost to follow-up. Multivariable multivariate logistic regression was used to identify patient features at entry predictive of participant status at trial end. Results Living arrangement, alone vs. with other(s), was not significantly associated with participant status. Participants enrolled in the US/Canada (OR 3.1, CI 2.0-5.0, vs. Latin America), taking more (7+) prescription medications (OR 1.7, CI 1.1-2.7, vs. 0-2 medications), and scoring lower on the Stroke Specific Quality of Life (SSQoL) scale (OR 1.3, CI 1.1-1.5, per 10 points) were more likely to withdraw or become lost-to-follow-up in the study versus completing the study on assigned AP. Participants enrolled in the US/Canada (OR 5.0, CI 2.4-10.0, vs. Latin America) and taking fewer (0-2) medications (OR 1.9, CI 1.2-3.1 vs. 3-6 medications) were more likely to request discontinuation of assigned antiplatelet medication vs. completing the study. Conclusions Living with others was not independently predictive of protocol adherence in this cohort. Number of medications and Stroke Specific Quality of Life (SSQoL) scale score may be more indicative of likelihood of trial participation and acceptance of long

  7. Effects of Mobile Phone-Based App Learning Compared to Computer-Based Web Learning on Nursing Students: Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Myung Kyung

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to determine the effect of mobile-based discussion versus computer-based discussion on self-directed learning readiness, academic motivation, learner-interface interaction, and flow state. Methods This randomized controlled trial was conducted at one university. Eighty-six nursing students who were able to use a computer, had home Internet access, and used a mobile phone were recruited. Participants were randomly assigned to either the mobile phone app-based discus...

  8. Treatment noncompliance in randomized experiments: statistical approaches and design issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagarin, Brad J; West, Stephen G; Ratnikov, Alexander; Homan, William K; Ritchie, Timothy D; Hansen, Edward J

    2014-09-01

    Treatment noncompliance in randomized experiments threatens the validity of causal inference and the interpretability of treatment effects. This article provides a nontechnical review of 7 approaches: 3 traditional and 4 newer statistical analysis strategies. Traditional approaches include (a) intention-to-treat analysis (which estimates the effects of treatment assignment irrespective of treatment received), (b) as-treated analysis (which reassigns participants to groups reflecting the treatment they actually received), and (c) per-protocol analysis (which drops participants who did not comply with their assigned treatment). Newer approaches include (d) the complier average causal effect (which estimates the effect of treatment on the subpopulation of those who would comply with their assigned treatment), (e) dose-response estimation (which uses degree of compliance to stratify participants, producing an estimate of a dose-response relationship), (f) propensity score analysis (which uses covariates to estimate the probability that individual participants will comply, enabling estimates of treatment effects at different propensities), and (g) treatment effect bounding (which calculates a range of possible treatment effects applicable to both compliers and noncompliers). The discussion considers the areas of application, the quantity estimated, the underlying assumptions, and the strengths and weaknesses of each approach. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  9. A combined strategy for solving quadratic assignment problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahyaningsih, Faiz

    2017-08-01

    The quadratic assignment problem is a combinatorial problem of deciding the placement of facilities in specified locations in such a way as to minimize a nonconvex objective function expressed in terms of flow between facilities, and distance between location. Due to the non-convexity nature of the problem, therefore to get a `good' starting point is necessary in order to obtain a better optimal solution. In this paper we propose a combined strategy (random point strategy to get initial starting point and then use forward exchange strategy and backward exchange strategy to get `optimal' solution). As a computational experience we've solved the problem of Esc 16b, Esc 16c and Esc 16h from QAPLIB. Finally, we present a comparative study between Combined Strategy and Data -Guided Lexisearch Algorithm. The computational study shows the effectiveness of our proposed combined strategy.

  10. Game theoretic target assignment approach in ballistic missile defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Mo; Chen, Genshe; Pham, Khanh; Blasch, Erik; Wu, Yingli

    2008-04-01

    In this paper, both Pareto game theory and learning theory algorithms are utilized in a resource management module for a practical missile interception system. The resource management module will determine how many and which antimissiles will be launched for interception. Such interception decisions are based on the number of invading missiles, availability of antimissiles, special capability of antimissiles, and realistic constraints on the movements of both invading missiles and antimissiles such as minimum turning radius, maximum velocity, fuel range, etc. Simulations demonstrate performance improvements when compared to existing strategies (i.e. random assignment), independent of guidance laws (i.e. Proportional Navigation (PN) or the Differential-Game-based Guidance Law (DGL) guidance laws) under end-game interception cases or midcourse interception situations.

  11. Optimisation of timetable-based, stochastic transit assignment models based on MSA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Otto Anker; Frederiksen, Rasmus Dyhr

    2006-01-01

    Public transport assignment models have increased in complexity in order to describe passengers' route choices as detailed and correctly as possible. Important trends in the development are (1) timetable-based assignment, (2) inclusion of feeder modes, (3) use of stochastic components to describe...... differences in passengers' preferences within and between purposes and classes (random coefficients), as well as to describe non-explained variation within a utility theory framework, and (4) consideration of capacity problems at coach level, system level and terminal level. In the Copenhagen-Ringsted Model...... (CRM), such a large-scale transit assignment model was developed and estimated. The Stochastic User Equilibrium problem was solved by the Method of Successive Averages (MSA). However, the model suffered from very large calculation times. The paper focuses on how to optimise transit assignment models...

  12. A randomized clinical trial of a standard versus vegetarian diet for weight loss: the impact of treatment preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, L E; Warziski, M; Styn, M A; Music, E; Hudson, A G; Sereika, S M

    2008-01-01

    With obesity rampant, methods to achieve sustained weight loss remain elusive. To compare the long-term weight-loss efficacy of 2 cal and fat-restricted diets, standard (omnivorous) versus lacto-ovo-vegetarian, and to determine the effect of a chosen diet versus an assigned diet. A randomized clinical trial was conducted with 176 adults who were sedentary and overweight (mean body mass index, 34.0 kg/m(2)). Participants were first randomly assigned to either receive their preferred diet or be assigned to a diet group and second, were given their diet of preference or randomly assigned to a standard weight-loss diet or a lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet. Participants underwent a university-based weight-control program consisting of daily dietary and exercise goals plus 12 months of behavioral counseling followed by a 6-month maintenance phase. Percentage change in body weight, body mass index, waist circumference, low- and high-density lipoprotein, glucose, insulin and macronutrient intake. The program was completed by 132 (75%) of the participants. At 18 months, mean percentage weight loss was greater (P=0.01) in the two groups that were assigned a diet (standard, 8.0% (s.d., 7.8%); vegetarian, 7.9% (s.d., 8.1%)) than in those provided the diet of their choice (standard, 3.9% (s.d., 6.1%); vegetarian, 5.3% (s.d., 6.2%)). No difference was observed in weight loss between the two types of diet. Over the 18-month program, all groups showed significant weight loss. Participants assigned to their dietary preference did not have enhanced treatment outcomes. However, all groups lost weight with losses ranging from 4 to 8% at 18 months.

  13. The use of the Gait Deviation Index for the evaluation of participants following total hip arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Carsten; Rosenlund, Signe; Nielsen, Dennis B

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: In this paper, the Gait Deviation Index (GDI) was used as a convenient method to evaluate pre-to-postoperative gait pattern changes after total hip arthroplasty and identify factors which might be predictive of outcome. DESIGN: Three-dimensional gait data from a randomized clinical...... trial was used to determine changes in gait quality in participants walking at self-selected speed. Upon completion of the first assessment, the participants were randomly assigned to either resurfacing hip arthroplasty or conventional hip arthroplasty. The outcome was changes in overall gait 'quality......-operated and the operated limbs; 0.3 [95%CI: -2.3 to 1.7]. However, the score for the two groups (pooled data) improved after surgery by 4.4 [95%CI: 1.8-7.0]. The single level regression analysis identified the preoperative GDI score as a strong predictor of outcome (p

  14. Participation as Pedagogy: Student and Librarian Experiences of an Open Access Publishing Assignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Alison

    2017-01-01

    Education for Instruction Librarians has traditionally centered upon the acquisition of practical classroom skills. While this approach has merit, from a sociocultural perspective of learning, student development emerges more completely through engagement with the communal activities and values that constitute professional practices rather than…

  15. Structural Encoding of Static Single Assignment Form

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gal, Andreas; Probst, Christian; Franz, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Static Single Assignment (SSA) form is often used as an intermediate representation during code optimization in Java Virtual Machines. Recently, SSA has successfully been used for bytecode verification. However, constructing SSA at the code consumer is costly. SSAbased mobile code transport formats...... have been shown to eliminate this cost by shifting SSA creation to the code producer. These new formats, however, are not backward compatible with the established Java class-file format. We propose a novel approach to transport SSA information implicitly through structural code properties of standard...

  16. Characteristic ratio assignment in fractional order systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabatabaei, Mohammad; Haeri, Mohammad

    2010-10-01

    In this paper the characteristic ratios and generalized time constant are defined for all-pole commensurate fractional order systems. The sufficient condition for stability of these systems in terms of their characteristic ratios is obtained. Also an analytical approach for characteristic ratio assignment (CRA) to have a non-overshooting fast closed loop step response is introduced. The proposed CRA method is then employed to design a fractional order controller. Computer simulation results are presented to illustrate the performance of the CRA based designed fractional order controllers. Copyright © 2010 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Fourth graders' reports of fruit and vegetable intake at school lunch: does treatment assignment affect accuracy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Kathleen Fleege; Kohler, Connie L; McClure, Leslie A; Franklin, Frank A

    2009-01-01

    Dietary interventions with children often use self-reported data to assess efficacy despite that objective methods rarely support self-report findings in validation studies. This study compared fourth graders' self-reported to observed lunch fruit and vegetable intake to determine if the accuracy of self-reported intake varied by treatment condition. Matched randomized follow-up design examined three treatment groups (high and low intensity interventions and control) post-intervention. Three hundred seventy-nine middle-school children participating in a randomized controlled trial of a school-based fruit and vegetable intervention were observed during school lunch one day and asked to recall intake the following day. Food items were coded as: "match," "omission," or "intrusion." Students were classified as accurate if all food items matched, otherwise inaccurate. Matched foods' portions were compared for accuracy. Servings were computed for total fruit and vegetable intake. Accuracy for fruits and vegetables were compared in separate analyses and tested for multiple potential associates: treatment condition, sex, race, body mass index, subsidized meal eligibility, school district, fruit/vegetable availability, age, and test scores. Fitted multivariable regression models included variables found to be significant in univariate or chi(2) analyses. Variables found to be significant for fruit item accuracy were availability at lunch, body mass index, and subsidized lunch eligibility. For vegetable item accuracy, availability at lunch was significant. No differences were found for food portions or for efficacy of the intervention between the two methods of dietary data collection: observation and self-report. Condition assignment did not bias recalled fruit and vegetable intakes among fourth graders.

  18. The effects of calcium channel blockers in the prevention of stroke in adults with hypertension: a meta-analysis of data from 273,543 participants in 31 randomized controlled trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gui Jv Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hypertension is a major risk factor for the development of stroke. It is well known that lowering blood pressure decreases the risk of stroke in people with moderate to severe hypertension. However, the specific effects of calcium channel blockers (CCBs against stroke in patients with hypertension as compared to no treatment and other antihypertensive drug classes are not known. METHODS AND FINDINGS: This systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs evaluated CCBs effect on stroke in patients with hypertension in studies of CCBs versus placebo, angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs, β-adrenergic blockers, and diuretics. The PUBMED, MEDLINE, EMBASE, OVID, CNKI, MEDCH, and WANFANG databases were searched for trials published in English or Chinese during the period January 1, 1996 to July 31, 2012. A total of 177 reports were collected, among them 31 RCTs with 273,543 participants (including 130,466 experimental subjects and 143,077 controls met the inclusion criteria. In these trials a total of 9,550 stroke events (4,145 in experimental group and 5,405 in control group were reported. CCBs significantly decreased the incidence of stroke compared with placebo (OR = 0.68, 95% CI 0.61-0.75, p<1×10(-5, β-adrenergic blockers combined with diuretics (OR = 0.89, 95% CI 0.83-0.95, p = 7×10(-5 and β-adrenergic blockers (OR = 0.79, 95% CI 0.72-0.87, p<1×10(-5, statistically significant difference was not found between CCBs and ACEIs (OR = 0.92, 95% CI 0.8-1.02, p = 0.12 or diuretics (OR = 0.95, 95% CI 0.84-1.07, p = 0.39. CONCLUSION: In a pooled analysis of data of 31 RCTs measuring the effect of CCBs on stroke, CCBs reduced stroke more than placebo and β-adrenergic blockers, but were not different than ACEIs and diuretics. More head to head RCTs are warranted.

  19. Do therapeutic homework assignments address areas of need for individuals with severe mental illness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Peter J; Deane, Frank P

    2011-04-01

    The current study explores the types of homework assignments used in a recovery orientated case management approach. It also examines the relationship between the types of homework used and the clients' area of need as rated on the CANSAS. There were 129 client and mental health case manager dyads that participated in the study. Written copies of all homework assignments administered during the 12-month research period were collected (N = 1,054). The homework assignments were categorised according to the 'type' and the 'need domain addressed by the task'. The majority of these tasks were behavioural in nature. On a group level homework tended to broadly address areas of need for clients in the study. Only 2 of the 1,054 homework assignments administered directly addressed areas of Intimate Relationships or Sexual Expression. The importance of addressing Intimate Relationship and Sexual Expression within mental health case management is discussed.

  20. Chiropractor interaction and treatment equivalence in a pilot randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salsbury, Stacie A; DeVocht, James W; Hondras, Maria

    2014-01-01

    and study participants regarding treatment group assignment. METHODS: We conducted an observational analysis of digital video-recordings derived from study visits conducted during a pilot randomized trial of conservative therapies for temporomandibular pain. A theory-based, iterative process developed...... the 13-item Chiropractor Interaction and Treatment Equivalence Instrument. A trained evaluator masked to treatment assignment coded video-recordings of clinical encounters between one chiropractor and multiple visits of 26 participants allocated to active or sham chiropractic treatment groups. Non......-parametric statistics were calculated. RESULTS: The trial ran from January 2010 to October 2011. We analyzed 111 complete video-recordings (54 active, 57 sham). Chiropractor interactions differed between the treatment groups in 7 categories. Active participants received more interactions with clinical information (8 vs...

  1. Rationalization of some genetic anticodonic assignments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacey, J. C., Jr.; Hall, L. M.; Mullins, D. W., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The hydrophobicity of most amino acids correlates well with that of their anticodon nucleotides, with Trp, Tyr, Ile, and Ser being the exceptions to this rule. Using previous data on hydrophobicity and binding constants, and new data on rates of esterification of polyadenylic acid with several N-acetylaminoacyl imidazolides, several of the anticodon assignments are rationalized. Chemical reasons are shown supporting the idea of the inclusion of the Ile in the catalog of biological amino acids late in the evolution, through a mutation of the existing tRNA and its aminoacyl-tRNA-synthetase. It was found that an addition of hexane increases the incorporation of hydrophobic Ac-Phe into poly-A, in support of the Fox (1965) and Oparin (1965) emphasis on the biogenetic importance of phase-separated systems.

  2. INDEXING WORKSHOP: HOW TO ASSIGN KEYWORDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sternberg, Virginia

    1979-09-01

    You have heard about issues surrounding indexing and retrieval of nuclear records and automation and micrographics of these records. Now we are going to get each of you involved in indexing and assigning keywords. The first part of this hands-on workshop will be a very basic, elementary step-by-step introduction, concentrating on how to assign keywords. It is a workshop for beginners, People who have never done it before. It is planned to demonstrate what an analyst has to do to index and assign keywords to a document. Then I will take some pages of a report and demonstrate how I choose keywords for it. Then each of you will have a chance to do the same thing with similar pages from another report. Then we will discuss the variations ln the keywords you individually assigned. There are many systems that can be used. In this particular workshop we will cover only a system of building your own keyword listing as you index your documents. We will be discussing keywords or descriptors or subject words, but first I want to point out a few other critical points about indexing. When developing an indexing project the most important thing to do first lS decide what elements you want to retrieve by. Whether you go into a large computer retrieval system or a small three-by-five card system, you have to decide in advance what you want to retrieve. Then you can go on from there. If you only need to search by equipment number or by purchase order or by contract number, then you can use a very simple retrieval system. But if you want to be able to retrieve a record by any combination of elements, then you have to consistently input these into your system. For example, if you want to be able to ask for the drawings of the piping in the secondary cooling system, level 3, manufactured by a certain vendor, then you must have put the information into the index by a retrieval file point, in advance. I want to stress that the time spent in deciding what has to be retrievable is never

  3. Diagnosis code assignment: models and evaluation metrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perotte, Adler; Pivovarov, Rimma; Natarajan, Karthik; Weiskopf, Nicole; Wood, Frank; Elhadad, Noémie

    2014-01-01

    The volume of healthcare data is growing rapidly with the adoption of health information technology. We focus on automated ICD9 code assignment from discharge summary content and methods for evaluating such assignments. We study ICD9 diagnosis codes and discharge summaries from the publicly available Multiparameter Intelligent Monitoring in Intensive Care II (MIMIC II) repository. We experiment with two coding approaches: one that treats each ICD9 code independently of each other (flat classifier), and one that leverages the hierarchical nature of ICD9 codes into its modeling (hierarchy-based classifier). We propose novel evaluation metrics, which reflect the distances among gold-standard and predicted codes and their locations in the ICD9 tree. Experimental setup, code for modeling, and evaluation scripts are made available to the research community. The hierarchy-based classifier outperforms the flat classifier with F-measures of 39.5% and 27.6%, respectively, when trained on 20,533 documents and tested on 2282 documents. While recall is improved at the expense of precision, our novel evaluation metrics show a more refined assessment: for instance, the hierarchy-based classifier identifies the correct sub-tree of gold-standard codes more often than the flat classifier. Error analysis reveals that gold-standard codes are not perfect, and as such the recall and precision are likely underestimated. Hierarchy-based classification yields better ICD9 coding than flat classification for MIMIC patients. Automated ICD9 coding is an example of a task for which data and tools can be shared and for which the research community can work together to build on shared models and advance the state of the art.

  4. Solving multiconstraint assignment problems using learning automata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Geir; Oommen, B John

    2010-02-01

    This paper considers the NP-hard problem of object assignment with respect to multiple constraints: assigning a set of elements (or objects) into mutually exclusive classes (or groups), where the elements which are "similar" to each other are hopefully located in the same class. The literature reports solutions in which the similarity constraint consists of a single index that is inappropriate for the type of multiconstraint problems considered here and where the constraints could simultaneously be contradictory. This feature, where we permit possibly contradictory constraints, distinguishes this paper from the state of the art. Indeed, we are aware of no learning automata (or other heuristic) solutions which solve this problem in its most general setting. Such a scenario is illustrated with the static mapping problem, which consists of distributing the processes of a parallel application onto a set of computing nodes. This is a classical and yet very important problem within the areas of parallel computing, grid computing, and cloud computing. We have developed four learning-automata (LA)-based algorithms to solve this problem: First, a fixed-structure stochastic automata algorithm is presented, where the processes try to form pairs to go onto the same node. This algorithm solves the problem, although it requires some centralized coordination. As it is desirable to avoid centralized control, we subsequently present three different variable-structure stochastic automata (VSSA) algorithms, which have superior partitioning properties in certain settings, although they forfeit some of the scalability features of the fixed-structure algorithm. All three VSSA algorithms model the processes as automata having first the hosting nodes as possible actions; second, the processes as possible actions; and, third, attempting to estimate the process communication digraph prior to probabilistically mapping the processes. This paper, which, we believe, comprehensively reports the

  5. Yield-aware mask assignment using positive semi-definite relaxation in LELECUT triple patterning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohira, Yukihide; Kodama, Chikaaki; Matsui, Tomomi; Takahashi, Atsushi; Nojima, Shigeki; Tanaka, Satoshi

    2015-03-01

    LELECUT type triple patterning lithography is one of the most promising techniques in the next generation lithography. To prevent yield loss caused by overlay error, LELECUT mask assignment which is tolerant to overlay error is desired. In this paper, we propose a method that obtains an LELECUT assignment which is tolerant to overlay error. The proposed method uses positive semide_nite relaxation and randomized rounding technique. In our method, the cost function that takes the length of boundary of features determined by the cut mask into account is introduced.

  6. An Accurate and Impartial Expert Assignment Method for Scientific Project Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingliang Yue

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This paper proposes an expert assignment method for scientific project review that considers both accuracy and impartiality. As impartial and accurate peer review is extremely important to ensure the quality and feasibility of scientific projects, enhanced methods for managing the process are needed. Design/methodology/approach: To ensure both accuracy and impartiality, we design four criteria, the reviewers’ fitness degree, research intensity, academic association, and potential conflict of interest, to express the characteristics of an appropriate peer review expert. We first formalize the expert assignment problem as an optimization problem based on the designed criteria, and then propose a randomized algorithm to solve the expert assignment problem of identifying reviewer adequacy. Findings: Simulation results show that the proposed method is quite accurate and impartial during expert assignment. Research limitations: Although the criteria used in this paper can properly show the characteristics of a good and appropriate peer review expert, more criteria/conditions can be included in the proposed scheme to further enhance accuracy and impartiality of the expert assignment. Practical implications: The proposed method can help project funding agencies (e.g. the National Natural Science Foundation of China find better experts for project peer review. Originality/value: To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first publication that proposes an algorithm that applies an impartial approach to the project review expert assignment process. The simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  7. Do research payments precipitate drug use or coerce participation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Festinger, David S; Marlowe, Douglas B; Croft, Jason R; Dugosh, Karen L; Mastro, Nicole K; Lee, Patricia A; Dematteo, David S; Patapis, Nicholas S

    2005-06-01

    Providing high-magnitude cash incentives to substance abuse clients to participate in research is frequently viewed as unethical based on the concerns that this might precipitate new drug use or be perceived as coercive. We randomly assigned consenting drug abuse outpatients to receive payments of 10 US dollars, 40 US dollars, or 70 US dollars in either cash or gift certificate for attending a 6-month research follow-up assessment. At the 6-month follow-up, participants received their randomly determined incentive and were then scheduled for a second follow-up appointment 3 days later to detect new instances of drug use. Findings indicated that neither the magnitude nor mode of the incentives had a significant effect on rates of new drug use or perceptions of coercion. Consistent with the contingency management literature, higher payments and cash payments were associated with increased follow-up rates. Finally, the results suggest that higher magnitude payments may be more cost-effective by reducing the need for more intensive follow-up efforts.

  8. Effectiveness of Facebook-Delivered Lifestyle Counselling and Physical Activity Self-Monitoring on Physical Activity and Body Mass Index in Overweight and Obese Adolescents: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Heidi Ruotsalainen; Helvi Kyngäs; Tuija Tammelin; Hanna Heikkinen; Maria Kääriäinen

    2015-01-01

    Background. The aim was to evaluate the effects of a 12-week, Facebook-delivered lifestyle counselling intervention, with or without physical activity self-monitoring, on physical activity and body mass index (BMI) in overweight and obese 13?16-year-old adolescents. Methods. Three-arm randomized controlled trial. Participants (n = 46) were randomly assigned to intervention and control groups: one group received Facebook-delivered lifestyle counselling and monitoring of their physical activity...

  9. The effects of structured writing assignments on processing stressful life events: an uncontroled study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoutrop, M.; Lange, A.; Hanewald, G.; Duurland, C.; Bermond, B.

    1997-01-01

    In the present study the effectiveness of writing assignments in the treatment of individuals who have suffered traumatic or stressful life events is investigated. Thirty-two undergraduates participated in the study. The treatment consisted of five writing sessions of 45 min duration that took place

  10. Case Alternations: The interaction of semi-lexicality and case assignment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klockmann, Heidi

    2014-01-01

    Polish numerals and negation participate in case alternations, a phenomenon in which their ability to trigger genitive case assignment is determined by the case environment of the nominal. In particular, oblique case contexts appear to block the genitive of numerals and negation. This phenomenon is

  11. Patterns in the Initial Teaching Assignments of Secondary English Teachers: Implications for Teacher Agency and Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieler, Deborah; Holmes, Stephen; Wolfe, Edward W.

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the teaching assignments of English teachers in 13 Mid-Atlantic high schools across five states. Data on the experience levels of 175 English teachers teaching 246 classes and surveys from 85 teacher participants were collected. Findings reveal that major agency-thwarting challenges face new English teachers: They typically are…

  12. Nutrition Students Improve Attitudes after a Guided Experiential Assignment with Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung-Yeon; Hoerr, Sharon L.; Weatherspoon, Lorraine; Schiffman, Rachel F.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Develop, implement, and evaluate an intervention (a guided experiential assignment) to improve nutrition students' attitudes toward working with older adults. Design: A quasi-experimental design with an additional qualitative component (mixed methods). Setting: A North Central land-grant university. Participants: 100 college students…

  13. 7 CFR 247.21 - Caseload assignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., infants, and children, and the elderly. Requests by State agencies to increase service to women, infants, and children receive priority over requests to increase service to the elderly. Eligibility for and... participation of women, infants, and children, and the elderly in the State, in the previous fiscal year; (B...

  14. Predicting Satisfaction with Group Work Assignments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdett, Jane; Hastie, Brianne

    2009-01-01

    Universities are increasingly using group based assessment tasks; however, as with work-place teams, such tasks often elicit mixed feelings from participants. This study investigated factors that may predict student satisfaction with group work at university. Final-year business students completed a questionnaire addressing experiences of group…

  15. Rapid, easy, and cheap randomization: prospective evaluation in a study cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parker Melissa J

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background When planning a randomized controlled trial (RCT, investigators must select randomization and allocation procedures based upon a variety of factors. While third party randomization is cited as being among the most desirable randomization processes, many third party randomization procedures are neither feasible nor cost-effective for small RCTs, including pilot RCTs. In this study we present our experience with a third party randomization and allocation procedure that utilizes current technology to achieve randomization in a rapid, reliable, and cost-effective manner. Methods This method was developed by the investigators for use in a small 48-participant parallel group RCT with four study arms. As a nested study, the reliability of this randomization procedure was prospectively evaluated in this cohort. The primary outcome of this nested study was the proportion of subjects for whom allocation information was obtained by the Research Assistant within 15 min of the initial participant randomization request. A secondary outcome was the average time for communicating participant group assignment back to the Research Assistant. Descriptive information regarding any failed attempts at participant randomization as well as costs attributable to use of this method were also recorded. Statistical analyses included the calculation of simple proportions and descriptive statistics. Results Forty-eight participants were successfully randomized and group allocation instruction was received for 46 (96% within 15 min of the Research Assistant placing the initial randomization request. Time elapsed in minutes until receipt of participant allocation instruction was Mean (SD 3.1 +/− 3.6; Median (IQR 2 (2,3; Range (1–20 for the entire cohort of 48. For the two participants for whom group allocation information was not received by the Research Assistant within the 15-min pass threshold, this information was obtained following a second

  16. Assigning Priorities for Fixed Priority Preemption Threshold Scheduling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saehwa Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Preemption threshold scheduling (PTS enhances real-time schedulability by controlling preemptiveness of tasks. This benefit of PTS highly depends on a proper algorithm that assigns each task feasible scheduling attributes, which are priority and preemption threshold. Due to the existence of an efficient optimal preemption threshold assignment algorithm that works with fully assigned priority orderings, we need an optimal priority assignment algorithm for PTS. This paper analyzes the inefficiency or nonoptimality of the previously proposed optimal priority assignment algorithms for PTS. We develop theorems for exhaustively but safely pruning infeasible priority orderings while assigning priorities to tasks for PTS. Based on the developed theorems, we correct the previously proposed optimal priority assignment algorithm for PTS. We also propose a performance improved optimal priority assignment algorithm for PTS proving its optimality. The empirical evaluation results clearly show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  17. An addendum on sensitivity analysis of the optimal assignment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Volgenant, A.

    2006-01-01

    We point out that sensitivity results for the linear assignment problem can be produced by a shortest path based approach in a straightforward manner and as efficient as finding an optimal solution. Keywords: Assignment; Sensitivity analysis

  18. Efficient Mechanisms to Allocate Assignment Incentives in the Navy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nimon, R. W; Hall, Ricky D; Zaki, Hossam

    2005-01-01

    .... All assignments, however, may not necessarily be voluntary. These assignments (jobs) have been labeled as "hard to fill" by Navy leadership, and the Navy has implemented market-based, cash stipends to attract Sailors to these jobs...

  19. A randomized, controlled clinical trial of standard, group and brief cognitive-behavioral therapy for panic disorder with agoraphobia: a two-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchand, André; Roberge, Pasquale; Primiano, Sandra; Germain, Vanessa

    2009-12-01

    A randomized controlled clinical trial with a wait-list control group was conducted to examine the effectiveness of three modalities (brief, group, and standard) of cognitive-behavioral treatment (CBT) for panic disorder with agoraphobia. A total of 100 participants meeting DSM-IV criteria were randomly assigned to each treatment condition: a 14-session standard CBT (n=33), a 14-session group CBT (n=35) and a 7-session brief CBT (n=32). Participants received a self-study manual and were assigned weekly readings and exercises. The results indicate that regardless of the treatment condition, CBT for moderate to severe PDA is beneficial in medium and long term. To this effect, all three-treatment conditions significantly reduced the intensity of symptoms, increased participants' quality of life, offered high effect sizes, superior maintenance of gains over time, and lower rates of relapse, compared to the wait-list control.

  20. Receipt of Preventive Services After Oregon's Randomized Medicaid Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, Miguel; Bailey, Steffani R; Gold, Rachel; Hoopes, Megan J; O'Malley, Jean P; Huguet, Nathalie; Heintzman, John; Gallia, Charles; McConnell, K John; DeVoe, Jennifer E

    2016-02-01

    It is predicted that gaining health insurance via the Affordable Care Act will result in increased rates of preventive health services receipt in the U.S., primarily based on self-reported findings from previous health insurance expansion studies. This study examined the long-term (36-month) impact of Oregon's 2008 randomized Medicaid expansion ("Oregon Experiment") on receipt of 12 preventive care services in community health centers using electronic health record data. Demographic data from adult (aged 19-64 years) Oregon Experiment participants were probabilistically matched to electronic health record data from 49 Oregon community health centers within the OCHIN community health information network (N=10,643). Intent-to-treat analyses compared receipt of preventive services over a 36-month (2008-2011) period among those randomly assigned to apply for Medicaid versus not assigned, and instrumental variable analyses estimated the effect of actually gaining Medicaid coverage on preventive services receipt (data collected in 2012-2014; analysis performed in 2014-2015). Intent-to-treat analyses revealed statistically significant differences between patients randomly assigned to apply for Medicaid (versus not assigned) for 8 of 12 assessed preventive services. In intent-to-treat analyses, Medicaid coverage significantly increased the odds of receipt of most preventive services (ORs ranging from 1.04 [95% CI=1.02, 1.06] for smoking assessment to 1.27 [95% CI=1.02, 1.57] for mammography). Rates of preventive services receipt will likely increase as community health center patients gain insurance through Affordable Care Act expansions. Continued effort is needed to increase health insurance coverage in an effort to decrease health disparities in vulnerable populations. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Comparison of audio vs. written feedback on clinical assignments of nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgault, Annette M; Mundy, Cynthia; Joshua, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    This pilot study explored using audio recordings as method of feedback for weekly clinical assignments of nursing students. Feedback that provides students with insight into their performance is an essential component of nursing education. Audio methods have been used to communicate feedback on written assignments in other disciplines, but this method has not been reported in the nursing literature. A survey and VARK questionnaire were completed by eight nursing students. Each student had randomly received written and audio feedback during an eight-week period. There were no differences between written and audio methods. Students perceived audio as the most personal, easy to understand, and positive method. Only one student expressed a preference for written feedback.There was no difference in instructor time. Audio feedback is an innovative method of feedback for clinical assignments of 'Net Generation' nursing students.

  2. How important is 'accuracy' of surrogate decision-making for research participation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Y H Kim

    Full Text Available There is a longstanding concern about the accuracy of surrogate consent in representing the health care and research preferences of those who lose their ability to decide for themselves. We sought informed, deliberative views of the older general public (≥50 years old regarding their willingness to participate in dementia research and to grant leeway to future surrogates to choose an option contrary to their stated wishes.503 persons aged 50+ recruited by random digit dialing were randomly assigned to one of three groups: deliberation, education, or control. The deliberation group attended an all-day education/peer deliberation session; the education group received written information only. Participants were surveyed at baseline, after the deliberation session (or equivalent time, and one month after the session, regarding their willingness to participate in dementia research and to give leeway to surrogates, regarding studies of varying risk-benefit profiles (a lumbar puncture study, a drug randomized controlled trial, a vaccine randomized controlled trial, and an early phase gene transfer trial. At baseline, 48% (gene transfer scenario to 92% (drug RCT were willing to participate in future dementia research. A majority of respondents (57-71% depending on scenario were willing to give leeway to future surrogate decision-makers. Democratic deliberation increased willingness to participate in all scenarios, to grant leeway in 3 of 4 scenarios (lumbar puncture, vaccine, and gene transfer, and to enroll loved ones in research in all scenarios. On average, respondents were more willing to volunteer themselves for research than to enroll their loved ones.Most people were willing to grant leeway to their surrogates, and this willingness was either sustained or increased after democratic deliberation, suggesting that the attitude toward leeway is a reliable opinion. Eliciting a person's current preferences about future research participation should

  3. 46 CFR 67.237 - Requirements for assignments of mortgages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements for assignments of mortgages. 67.237... MEASUREMENT OF VESSELS DOCUMENTATION OF VESSELS Filing and Recording of Instruments-Mortgages, Preferred Mortgages, and Related Instruments § 67.237 Requirements for assignments of mortgages. An assignment of...

  4. Solving the k-cardinality assignment problem by transformation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Volgenant, A.

    2004-01-01

    The k-cardinality Linear Assignment Problem (k-LAP) with k a given integer is a generalization of the linear assignment problem: one wants to assign k rows (a free choice out of more rows) to k columns (a free choice out of more columns) minimizing the sum of the corresponding costs. For this

  5. Learning through Writing: Teaching Critical Thinking Skills in Writing Assignments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavdar, Gamze; Doe, Sue

    2012-01-01

    Traditional writing assignments often fall short in addressing problems in college students' writing as too often these assignments fail to help students develop critical thinking skills and comprehension of course content. This article reports the use of a two-part (staged) writing assignment with postscript as a strategy for improving critical…

  6. 75 FR 55354 - Delegation of Authority and Assignment of Responsibilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-10

    ... of the Secretary Delegation of Authority and Assignment of Responsibilities Secretary's Order 3-2010 Subject: Delegation of Authority and Assignment of Responsibilities to the Employee Benefits Security Administration. 1. Purpose. To delegate authority and assign responsibilities for the administration of the...

  7. Targeting Type 2: Linguistic Agency Assignment in Diabetes Prevention Policy Messaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glowacki, Elizabeth M; McGlone, Matthew S; Bell, Robert A

    2016-01-01

    We explored the effects of linguistic agency assignment on the persuasive impact of a fictitious medical journal editorial about Type 2 diabetes. Participants (N = 422) read 1 of 4 versions of an editorial that differed in the language used to describe the health threat posed by the disease (threat agency) and to outline a program for preventing it (prevention agency). Threat agency was assigned either to the disease (e.g., diabetes puts individuals' lives at risk) or to humans (e.g., individuals who acquire diabetes put their lives at risk). Prevention agency was assigned either to the recommended prevention behaviors (e.g., a healthy diet and regular exercise protect children from Type 2) or to humans (e.g., children who eat a healthy diet and exercise regularly protect themselves from Type 2). Respondents' perceptions of disease severity were higher when threat agency was assigned to diabetes rather than humans. However, attitudes toward the proposed prevention program were higher when prevention agency was assigned to humans rather than to the recommended behaviors. The latter finding contrasts with agency effects observed in previous research on a viral threat, suggesting that the optimal pattern of agency assignment in prevention messaging may be different for acute and chronic lifestyle diseases.

  8. A randomized single blind crossover trial comparing leather and commercial wrist splints for treating chronic wrist pain in adults

    OpenAIRE

    Thiele, Jill; Nimmo, Rachel; Rowell, Wendy; Quinn, Stephen; Jones, Graeme

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background To compare the effectiveness of a custom-made leather wrist splint (LS) with a commercially available fabric splint (FS) in adults with chronic wrist pain. Methods Participants (N = 25, mean age = 54) were randomly assigned to treatment order in a 2-phase crossover trial. Splints were worn for 2 weeks, separated by a one-week washout period. Outcomes were assessed at baseline and after each splint phase using the Australian/Canadian Osteoarthritis Hand Index (AUSCAN), the ...

  9. Improvement in Social Competence Using a Randomized Trial of a Theatre Intervention for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbett, Blythe A.; Key, Alexandra P.; Qualls, Lydia; Fecteau, Stephanie; Newsom, Cassandra; Coke, Catherine; Yoder, Paul

    2016-01-01

    The efficacy of a peer-mediated, theatre-based intervention on social competence in participants with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) was tested. Thirty 8-to-14 year-olds with ASD were randomly assigned to the treatment (n = 17) or a wait-list control (n = 13) group. Immediately after treatment, group effects were seen on social ability,…

  10. A Brief, Web-based Personalized Feedback Selective Intervention for College Student Marijuana Use: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Christine M.; Neighbors, Clayton; Kilmer, Jason R; Larimer, Mary E.

    2010-01-01

    Despite clear need, brief web-based interventions for marijuana using college students have not been evaluated in the literature. The current study was designed to evaluate a brief, web-based personalized feedback intervention for at-risk marijuana users transitioning to college. All entering first-year students were invited to complete a brief questionnaire. Participants meeting criteria completed a baseline assessment (N = 341) and were randomly assigned to web-based personalized feedback o...

  11. Work assignments, delegation of tasks and job satisfaction among Danish dental hygienists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hach, M; Aaberg, K B; Lempert, S M; Danielsen, B

    2017-08-01

    Recent legislation in Denmark has made it possible for dentists to delegate their tasks to dental hygienists. Previous studies have shown that Danish dental hygienists primarily were performing assignments within their own work field. These assignments include prophylaxis or instructing patients in oral health care. However, studies have also shown that Danish dental hygienists performed dental nurse assignments such as chair-side assistance, unit cleaning and disinfection of instruments. The objectives of this study were to investigate (i) the range of work assignments performed by Danish dental hygienists, (ii) the types of dentist tasks performed by Danish dental hygienists and (iii) job satisfaction among Danish dental hygienists. Dental hygienists graduating in 2004-2007 were invited to participate in this study. Participants answered an email-distributed questionnaire. The questionnaire consisted of questions regarding job satisfaction, assignments performed, postgraduate course attendance, receiving assistance from a dental nurse and which work assignments Danish dental hygienists wish to perform in the future. The results of this study showed that 90% of Danish dental hygienists were satisfied with their job and 52% were performing dentists' tasks. Among dentists' tasks performed by Danish dental hygienists, invasive caries therapy was the most frequently performed task. The type of assignments performed by Danish dental hygienists today appears to be changing compared to previous studies. From initially performing prophylaxis and chair-side assistance for the dentist, Danish dental hygienists today are performing a wider range of tasks which includes dentists' tasks. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Effects of an Integrated Stress Management Program (ISMP) for Psychologically Distressed Students: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sunah; Lee, Hyangkyu; Kim, Hyunlye; Noh, Dabok; Lee, Hyunhwa

    2016-07-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of an integrated stress management program (ISMP) on college life stress, stress coping, psychological distress, and cortisol among male college students. Out of 137 initially enrolled students, 99 participants were identified as distressed subjects and randomly assigned to either the ISMP or control group. Ultimately, 84 participants (43: experimental, 41: control) completed pretest-posttest. The experimental group received eight 2-hr sessions over 4 weeks. Stress and psychological distress decreased significantly, whereas stress coping and cortisol did not improve significantly. Further studies with longer follow-up periods and physiological interventions are required. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Does Internet-based guided-self-help for depression cause harm? : An individual participant data meta-analysis on deterioration rates and its moderators in randomized controlled trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ebert, D.D.; Donkin, L.; Andersson, G.; Andrews, G.; Berger, T.; Carlbring, P.; Rozenthal, A.; Choi, I.; Laferton, J.A.C.; Johansson, R.; Kleiboer, A.; Lange, A.; Lehr, D.; Reins, J.A.; Funk, B.; Newby, J.; Perini, S.; Riper, H.; Ruwaard, J.; Sheeber, L.; Snoek, F.J.; Titov, N.; Ünlü Ince, B.; van Bastelaar, K.; Vernmark, K.; van Straten, A.; Warmerdam, L; Salsman, N.; Cuijpers, P.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Almost nothing is known about the potential negative effects of Internet-based psychological treatments for depression. This study aims at investigating deterioration and its moderators within randomized trials on Internet-based guided self-help for adult depression, using an individual

  14. Randomization tests

    CERN Document Server

    Edgington, Eugene

    2007-01-01

    Statistical Tests That Do Not Require Random Sampling Randomization Tests Numerical Examples Randomization Tests and Nonrandom Samples The Prevalence of Nonrandom Samples in Experiments The Irrelevance of Random Samples for the Typical Experiment Generalizing from Nonrandom Samples Intelligibility Respect for the Validity of Randomization Tests Versatility Practicality Precursors of Randomization Tests Other Applications of Permutation Tests Questions and Exercises Notes References Randomized Experiments Unique Benefits of Experiments Experimentation without Mani

  15. A Bayesian approach to simultaneously quantify assignments and linguistic uncertainty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chavez, Gregory M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Booker, Jane M [BOOKER SCIENTIFIC FREDERICKSBURG; Ross, Timothy J [UNM

    2010-10-07

    Subject matter expert assessments can include both assignment and linguistic uncertainty. This paper examines assessments containing linguistic uncertainty associated with a qualitative description of a specific state of interest and the assignment uncertainty associated with assigning a qualitative value to that state. A Bayesian approach is examined to simultaneously quantify both assignment and linguistic uncertainty in the posterior probability. The approach is applied to a simplified damage assessment model involving both assignment and linguistic uncertainty. The utility of the approach and the conditions under which the approach is feasible are examined and identified.

  16. 49 CFR 22.21 - Participation criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... of short-term loans made to companies listed in paragraph (a)(5) of § 22.11. The Participating Lender... administer the STLP loan portfolio; (g) It must have the ability to evaluate, process, close, disburse... checks paid to the borrower for performance under the assigned contract(s); (i) It must not currently be...

  17. Increasing Independent Seatwork: Breaking Large Assignments into Smaller Assignments and Teaching a Student with Retardation to Recruit Reinforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Monica A.; Cox, Elizabeth A.; Skinner, Christopher H.

    2003-01-01

    A withdrawal design was used to evaluate the effects of a multicomponent intervention on independent seatwork and student-teacher interactions in a student with mild mental retardation. During the intervention phase, long assignments were changed to multiple, briefer assignments. After completing each brief assignment, the student recruited social…

  18. SAGA: rapid automatic mainchain NMR assignment for large proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crippen, Gordon M., E-mail: gcrippen@umich.ed [University of Michigan, College of Pharmacy (United States); Rousaki, Aikaterini [University of Michigan, LSA Biophysics (United States); Revington, Matthew [University of Windsor, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry (Canada); Zhang Yongbo [Northwestern University, Department of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Cell Biology (United States); Zuiderweg, Erik R. P., E-mail: zuiderwe@umich.ed [University of Michigan Medical School, Department of Biological Chemistry (United States)

    2010-04-15

    Here we describe a new algorithm for automatically determining the mainchain sequential assignment of NMR spectra for proteins. Using only the customary triple resonance experiments, assignments can be quickly found for not only small proteins having rather complete data, but also for large proteins, even when only half the residues can be assigned. The result of the calculation is not the single best assignment according to some criterion, but rather a large number of satisfactory assignments that are summarized in such a way as to help the user identify portions of the sequence that are assigned with confidence, vs. other portions where the assignment has some correlated alternatives. Thus very imperfect initial data can be used to suggest future experiments.

  19. Automated sequence-specific protein NMR assignment using the memetic algorithm MATCH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volk, Jochen [ETH Zuerich, Institut fuer Molekularbiologie und Biophysik (Switzerland); Herrmann, Torsten [Universite de Lyon, CNRS/ENS Lyon/UCB-Lyon 1 (France); Wuethrich, Kurt [ETH Zuerich, Institut fuer Molekularbiologie und Biophysik (Switzerland)], E-mail: wuthrich@mol.biol.ethz.ch

    2008-07-15

    MATCH (Memetic Algorithm and Combinatorial Optimization Heuristics) is a new memetic algorithm for automated sequence-specific polypeptide backbone NMR assignment of proteins. MATCH employs local optimization for tracing partial sequence-specific assignments within a global, population-based search environment, where the simultaneous application of local and global optimization heuristics guarantees high efficiency and robustness. MATCH thus makes combined use of the two predominant concepts in use for automated NMR assignment of proteins. Dynamic transition and inherent mutation are new techniques that enable automatic adaptation to variable quality of the experimental input data. The concept of dynamic transition is incorporated in all major building blocks of the algorithm, where it enables switching between local and global optimization heuristics at any time during the assignment process. Inherent mutation restricts the intrinsically required randomness of the evolutionary algorithm to those regions of the conformation space that are compatible with the experimental input data. Using intact and artificially deteriorated APSY-NMR input data of proteins, MATCH performed sequence-specific resonance assignment with high efficiency and robustness.

  20. Likelihood of being seen within emergency departments’ assigned urgency times for poisoned and injured individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel L. Rosenthal

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study is to determine the likelihood of injured or poisoned patients in special populations, such as those patients that are elderly and self-injurious, being seen within an emergency department’s triage nurse assigned urgency. Data from the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (2007 was utilized in this study. Multi-level models and multivariate linear regression models were used; patient age, sex, reported pain levels, wait time, and injury type were examined as potential predictors of being seen within assigned urgency. From a random sample across all US Emergency Departments, 5616 patients nested in 312 hospital emergency departments were included into the study. Typically, approximately 1 in 5 emergency department patients were not seen within their triage nurse assigned urgencies. The typical patient in the average hospital had an 81% likelihood of being seen within their assigned urgency. P atients who were oldest [odds ratio (OR=0.0990] and had self-inflicted injuries (vs assault OR=1.246 and OR=1.596 had the least likelihood to be seen within their assigned urgencies. As actual wait-time increased for patients, they were less likely to be seen within their assigned urgencies. The most powerful predictors of the study’s outcome were injury type and age, indicating that patients from special populations such as the elderly or those with injuries resulting from deliberate self-harm are less likely to be actually priority patients independent of triage nurse assigned urgencies.

  1. Manipulation of pain catastrophizing: An experimental study of healthy participants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel E Bialosky

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Joel E Bialosky1*, Adam T Hirsh2,3, Michael E Robinson2,3, Steven Z George1,3*1Department of Physical Therapy; 2Department of Clinical and Health Psychology; 3Center for Pain Research and Behavioral Health, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida, USAAbstract: Pain catastrophizing is associated with the pain experience; however, causation has not been established. Studies which specifically manipulate catastrophizing are necessary to establish causation. The present study enrolled 100 healthy individuals. Participants were randomly assigned to repeat a positive, neutral, or one of three catastrophizing statements during a cold pressor task (CPT. Outcome measures of pain tolerance and pain intensity were recorded. No change was noted in catastrophizing immediately following the CPT (F(1,84 = 0.10, p = 0.75, partial η2 < 0.01 independent of group assignment (F(4,84 = 0.78, p = 0.54, partial η2 = 0.04. Pain tolerance (F(4 = 0.67, p = 0.62, partial η2 = 0.03 and pain intensity (F(4 = 0.73, p = 0.58, partial η2 = 0.03 did not differ by group. This study suggests catastrophizing may be difficult to manipulate through experimental pain procedures and repetition of specific catastrophizing statements was not sufficient to change levels of catastrophizing. Additionally, pain tolerance and pain intensity did not differ by group assignment. This study has implications for future studies attempting to experimentally manipulate pain catastrophizing.Keywords: pain, catastrophizing, experimental, cold pressor task, pain catastrophizing scale

  2. Effects of Mild Curvature on ANCOVA and Randomized Blocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klockars, Alan J.; Potter, Nina Salcedo

    The type I error control and power of a number of analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) and randomized block (RB) designs with curvilinear data were studied for tests of the additive treatment effect and interaction. For tests of additive effects, the analysis was also conducted using systematic assignment to treatments and using random assignment with…

  3. A single blind randomized control trial on support groups for Chinese persons with mild dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Daniel K W; Kwok, Timothy C Y; Ng, Petrus Y N

    2014-01-01

    Persons with mild dementia experience multiple losses and manifest depressive symptoms. This research study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a support group led by a social worker for Chinese persons with mild dementia. Participants were randomly assigned to either a ten-session support group or a control group. Standardized assessment tools were used for data collection at pretreatment and post-treatment periods by a research assistant who was kept blind to the group assignment of the participants. Upon completion of the study, 20 treatment group participants and 16 control group participants completed all assessments. At baseline, the treatment and control groups did not show any significant difference on all demographic variables, as well as on all baseline measures; over one-half (59%) of all the participants reported having depression, as assessed by a Chinese Geriatric Depression Scale score ≥8. After completing the support group, the depressive mood of the treatment group participants reduced from 8.83 (standard deviation =2.48) to 7.35 (standard deviation =2.18), which was significant (Wilcoxon signed-rank test; P=0.017, Pcontrol group's participants did not show any significant change. This present study supports the efficacy and effectiveness of the support group for persons with mild dementia in Chinese society. In particular, this present study shows that a support group can reduce depressive symptoms for participants.

  4. Mirtazapine to reduce methamphetamine use: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colfax, Grant N; Santos, Glenn-Milo; Das, Moupali; Santos, Deirdre McDermott; Matheson, Tim; Gasper, James; Shoptaw, Steve; Vittinghoff, Eric

    2011-11-01

    No approved pharmacologic treatments for methamphetamine dependence exist. Methamphetamine use is associated with high morbidity and is a major cofactor in the human immunodeficiency virus epidemic among men who have sex with men (MSM). To determine whether mirtazapine would reduce methamphetamine use among MSM who are actively using methamphetamine. Double-blind, randomized, controlled, 12-week trial of mirtazapine vs placebo conducted from September 5, 2007, to March 4, 2010. San Francisco Department of Public Health. Participants were actively using, methamphetamine-dependent, sexually active MSM seen weekly for urine sample collection and substance use counseling. Random assignment to daily oral mirtazapine (30 mg) or placebo; both arms included 30-minute weekly substance use counseling. The primary study outcome was reduction in methamphetamine-positive urine test results. Secondary outcomes were study medication adherence (by self-report and medication event monitoring systems) and sexual risk behavior. Sixty MSM were randomized, 85% of follow-up visits were completed, and 56 participants (93%) completed the final visit. In the primary intent-to-treat analysis, participants assigned to the mirtazapine group had fewer methamphetamine-positive urine test results compared with participants assigned to the placebo group (relative risk, 0.57; 95% CI, 0.35-0.93, P = .02). Urine positivity decreased from 67% (20 of 30 participants) to 63% (17 of 27) in the placebo arm and from 73% (22 of 30) to 44% (12 of 27) in the mirtazapine arm. The number needed to treat to achieve a negative weekly urine test result was 3.1. Adherence was 48.5% by medication event monitoring systems and 74.7% by self-report; adherence measures were not significantly different between arms (medication event monitoring systems, P = .82; self-report, P = .92). Most sexual risk behaviors decreased significantly more among participants taking mirtazapine compared with those taking placebo

  5. Pediatric Online Evidence-Based Medicine Assignment Is a Novel Effective Enjoyable Undergraduate Medical Teaching Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotb, Magd A.; Elmahdy, Hesham Nabeh; Khalifa, Nour El Deen Mahmoud; El-Deen, Mohamed Hamed Nasr; Lotfi, Mohamed Amr N.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Evidence-based medicine (EBM) is delivered through a didactic, blended learning, and mixed models. Students are supposed to construct an answerable question in PICO (patient, intervention, comparison, and outcome) framework, acquire evidence through search of literature, appraise evidence, apply it to the clinical case scenario, and assess the evidence in relation to clinical context. Yet these teaching models have limitations especially those related to group work, for example, handling uncooperative students, students who fail to contribute, students who domineer, students who have personal conflict, their impact upon progress of their groups, and inconsistent individual acquisition of required skills. At Pediatrics Department, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, we designed a novel undergraduate pediatric EBM assignment online system to overcome shortcomings of previous didactic method and aimed to assess its effectiveness by prospective follow-up during academic years 2012 to 2013 and 2013 to 2014. The novel web-based online interactive system was tailored to provide sequential single and group assignments for each student. Single assignment addressed a specific case scenario question, while group assignment was teamwork that addressed different questions of same case scenario. Assignment comprised scholar content and skills. We objectively analyzed students’ performance by criterion-based assessment and subjectively by anonymous student questionnaire. A total of 2879 were enrolled in 5th year Pediatrics Course consecutively, of them 2779 (96.5%) logged in and 2554 (88.7%) submitted their work. They were randomly assigned to 292 groups. A total of 2277 (89.15%) achieved ≥80% of total mark (4/5), of them 717 (28.1%) achieved a full mark. A total of 2178 (85.27%) and 2359 (92.36%) made evidence-based conclusions and recommendations in single and group assignment, respectively (P < 0.001). A total of 1102 (43.1%) answered student questionnaire

  6. Slope failure analysis using the random material point method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, B.; Hicks, M.A.; Vardon, P.J.

    2016-01-01

    The random material point method (RMPM), which combines random field theory and the material point method (MPM), is proposed. It differs from the random finite-element method (RFEM), by assigning random field (cell) values to material points that are free to move relative to the computational grid

  7. A community-based Argentine tango dance program is associated with increased activity participation among individuals with Parkinson disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Erin R.; Golden, Laura; Duncan, Ryan P.; Earhart, Gammon M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine the effect of a 12-month community-based tango dance program on activity participation among individuals with Parkinson disease (PD). Design Randomized controlled trial with assessment at baseline, 3, 6, and 12 months. Setting The intervention was administered in the community; assessments were completed in a university laboratory. Participants Sixty-two volunteers with PD enrolled in the study and were randomized to treatment group. Ten participants did not receive the allocated intervention, so the final analyzed sample included 52 participants. Intervention Participants were randomly assigned to the Tango group, which involved 12 months of twice weekly Argentine tango dance classes, or to the no intervention Control group (n = 26 per group). Main Outcome Measures Current, new and retained participation in instrumental, leisure and social activities as measured by the Activity Card Sort (with the “dance” activity removed). Results Total Current participation in the Tango group was higher at 3, 6, and 12 months compared to baseline (ps ≤ 0.008), while the Control group did not change (ps ≥ 0.11). Total Activity Retention (since onset of PD) in the Tango group increased from 77% to 90% (p = 0.006) over the course of the study, whereas the Control group remained around 80% (p = 0.60). These patterns were similar in the separate activity domains. The Tango group gained a significant number of New Social activities (p = 0.003), but the Control group did not (p = 0.71). Conclusions Individuals with PD who participated in a community-based Argentine tango class reported increased participation in complex daily activities, recovery of activities lost since the onset of PD, and engagement in new activities. Incorporating dance into the clinical management of PD may benefit participation and subsequently quality of life for this population. PMID:22902795

  8. Comparative Effectiveness of Two Walking Interventions on Participation, Step Counts, and Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-McLallen, Aaron; Heller, Debbie; Vernisi, Kristin; Gulick, Diana; Cruz, Samantha; Snyder, Richard L

    2017-03-01

    To (1) compare the effects of two worksite-based walking interventions on employee participation rates; (2) compare average daily step counts between conditions, and; (3) examine the effects of increases in average daily step counts on biometric and psychologic outcomes. We conducted a cluster-randomized trial in which six employer groups were randomly selected and randomly assigned to condition. Four manufacturing worksites and two office-based worksite served as the setting. A total of 474 employees from six employer groups were included. A standard walking program was compared to an enhanced program that included incentives, feedback, competitive challenges, and monthly wellness workshops. Walking was measured by self-reported daily step counts. Survey measures and biometric screenings were administered at baseline and 3, 6, and 9 months after baseline. Analysis used linear mixed models with repeated measures. During 9 months, participants in the enhanced condition averaged 726 more steps per day compared with those in the standard condition (p step increase in average daily steps was associated with significant weight loss for both men (-3.8 lbs.) and women (-2.1 lbs.), and reductions in body mass index (-0.41 men, -0.31 women). Higher step counts were also associated with improvements in mood, having more energy, and higher ratings of overall health. An enhanced walking program significantly increases participation rates and daily step counts, which were associated with weight loss and reductions in body mass index.

  9. A pilot randomized controlled trial of smoking cessation in an outpatient respirology clinic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakhale, Smita; Baron, Justine; Armstrong, Michael A; Garde, Avanti; Reid, Robert D; Alvarez, Gonzalo; Aitken, Debbie; Mullen, Kerri-Anne; Wells, George; Pipe, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the feasibility and potential effectiveness of a modified version of the Ottawa Model for Smoking Cessation in an outpatient respirology clinic. METHODS: Adult tobacco smokers attending the respirology clinic and willing to choose a quit date within one month of enrollment were randomly assigned to receive standard care or the intervention. Standard care participants received smoking cessation advice, a brochure and a prescription for smoking cessation medication if requested. Intervention participants received a $110 voucher to purchase smoking cessation pharmacotherapy and were registered to an automated calling system. Answers to automated calls determined which participants required nurse telephone counselling. Feasibility indicators included recruitment and retention rates, and intervention adherence. The effectiveness indicator was self-reported smoking status at 26 to 52 weeks. RESULTS: Forty-nine (54.4%) of 90 eligible smokers were randomly assigned to the intervention (n=23) or control (n=26) group. Self-reported smoking status at 26 to 52 weeks was available for 32 (65.3%) participants. The quit rate for intervention participants was 18.2% compared with 7.7% for controls (OR2.36 [95% CI 0.39 to 14.15]). CONCLUSION: It would be feasible to evaluate this intervention in a larger trial. Alternatives to face-to-face follow-up at the clinic are recommended. PMID:25647168

  10. The effects of patient characteristics and practice settings on students' participation in a primary care clerkship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurth, R J; Irigoyen, M M; Schmidt, H J; Li, S

    2000-06-01

    To explore the effects of practice, patient, and encounter variables on students' participation in a third-year primary care clerkship. In 1995-96, 154 students, randomly assigned to ambulatory teaching sites, completed for each patient encounter a scannable card indicating the patient's age range, gender, and insurance type, the setting of care, the type of visit, whether it was a repeat or first visit to the student, and the student's level of participation. Conventional measures of students' satisfaction (post-clerkship survey) and performance (preceptor ratings, USMLE Step 2, standardized-patient examination scores) were examined. The students reported significantly higher levels of participation for patient encounters taking place in clinic and emergency room settings than for those in private offices; for repeat rather than for first visits; for patients over 12 years old than for those 12 years old or younger; and for sick visits rather than for follow-ups or checkups. Students' participation had a modestly positive correlation with students' satisfaction and performance. Several practice and patient variables influence the level of students' participation in the care of ambulatory patients. The strongest predictor of active student participation is the clinical setting of the encounter. Monitoring students' self-reported levels of participation is an important tool for tracking the impact of practice variability on the quality of the learning environment in ambulatory clerkships.

  11. Socioeconomic position and participation in baseline and follow-up visits: the Inter99 study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Anne M; Jørgensen, Torben; Helbech, Bodil; Linneberg, Allan; Pisinger, Charlotta

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this paper was to identify the extent of socioeconomic inequality in participation at baseline and follow-up visits. The Inter99 study is a randomized intervention with the aim of investigating the effects of an individualized lifestyle consultation on ischaemic heart disease (IHD). The study comprised 61,301 persons of which 13,016 were assigned to the intervention group. The rest formed the control group. All those in the intervention group were invited to participate in health examinations, risk assessments, and lifestyle consultations. Participants at high risk of IHD were invited to follow-up visits after 1, 3, and 5 years. Data on five socioeconomic factors were retrieved from nationwide registers. For each socioeconomic factor we estimated the relative risks and relative index of inequality of participation at the baseline visit and among high-risk participants at follow-up visits. In addition, we conducted analyses of trends in socioeconomic inequality in participation across follow-up visits. Participation rates were 53% at baseline and 61-65% at the three follow-up visits. There was strong socioeconomic inequality in participation at baseline, with increasing probability of participation found with increasing level of socioeconomic position. This was smaller at follow-up visits. Except for education and housing tenure, there was an increase in socioeconomic inequality in participation across follow-up visits. We found strong socioeconomic inequality in participation at baseline and follow-up visits. Effort should be made to increase participation in individualized lifestyle interventions among persons of low socioeconomic position. Otherwise, the consequence may be increased socioeconomic inequality in IHD. © The European Society of Cardiology 2012 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  12. Delay functions in trip assignment for transport planning process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Lee Vien

    2017-10-01

    In transportation planning process, volume-delay and turn-penalty functions are the functions needed in traffic assignment to determine travel time on road network links. Volume-delay function is the delay function describing speed-flow relationship while turn-penalty function is the delay function associated to making a turn at intersection. The volume-delay function used in this study is the revised Bureau of Public Roads (BPR) function with the constant parameters, α and β values of 0.8298 and 3.361 while the turn-penalty functions for signalized intersection were developed based on uniform, random and overflow delay models. Parameters such as green time, cycle time and saturation flow were used in the development of turn-penalty functions. In order to assess the accuracy of the delay functions, road network in areas of Nibong Tebal, Penang and Parit Buntar, Perak was developed and modelled using transportation demand forecasting software. In order to calibrate the models, phase times and traffic volumes at fourteen signalised intersections within the study area were collected during morning and evening peak hours. The prediction of assigned volumes using the revised BPR function and the developed turn-penalty functions show close agreement to actual recorded traffic volume with the lowest percentage of accuracy, 80.08% and the highest, 93.04% for the morning peak model. As for the evening peak model, they were 75.59% and 95.33% respectively for lowest and highest percentage of accuracy. As for the yield left-turn lanes, the lowest percentage of accuracy obtained for the morning and evening peak models were 60.94% and 69.74% respectively while the highest percentage of accuracy obtained for both models were 100%. Therefore, can be concluded that the development and utilisation of delay functions based on local road conditions are important as localised delay functions can produce better estimate of link travel times and hence better planning for future

  13. Assessment of Factors Influencing Beneficiary Participation in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper investigated factors influencing beneficiary participation in Fadama II project in Niger State. Three LGAs out of eleven LGAs that benefited in Fadama II project were randomly selected for the study. To this end, one Fadama Community Association (FCA) and five Fadama User Groups (FUGs) were randomly ...

  14. Oral and written instruction of oral hygiene: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harnacke, Daniela; Beldoch, Magdalena; Bohn, Gertrude-Heidi; Seghaoui, Ouarda; Hegel, Nicole; Deinzer, Renate

    2012-10-01

    This randomized, evaluator-masked, controlled study evaluates the effectiveness of oral in contrast to written instruction of oral hygiene. Eighty-three students without clinical signs of periodontitis were randomly assigned to either a control group or one of three experimental conditions: 1) written instruction, 2) standardized oral instruction, or 3) individualized oral instruction. Plaque and bleeding indices were assessed to analyze intervention effects on oral health and oral hygiene skills. Measurements took place at baseline and 4 weeks after intervention. Groups differed significantly with respect to gingival bleeding and were tentatively significant with respect to oral hygiene skills. Participants who had received oral individualized instructions showed the best results. A gradient of effectiveness of the instruction methods was observed with most favorable results for the individualized instruction.

  15. Dynamic online peer evaluations to improve group assignments in nursing e-learning environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adwan, Jehad

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this research was to evaluate the use of online peer evaluation forms for online group activities in improving group project outcomes. The investigator developed and used a web-based Google Forms® self and peer evaluation form of 2 group assignments' rubric for junior and senior nursing students. The form covered elements of the assignments including: research activity, analysis of the literature, writing of report, participation in making of presentation, overall contribution to the project, and participation in the weekly group discussions. Items were rated from 1 (did not contribute) to 5 (outstanding contribution) in addition to NA when one activity did not apply. The self and peer evaluation process was conducted twice: once after group assignment 1 and once after group assignment 2. The group assignments final products were done in the form of VoiceThread online presentations that were shared with the rest of the class reflecting the groups' work on a health informatics topic of interest. Data collected as the students completed self and peer evaluations for group assignments 1 and 2. Also, optional comments regarding member performance were collected to add contextual information in addition to ratings. Students received credit for completing the peer evaluations and the grade for the particular assignment was affected by their performance based on peer evaluations of their contributions. Students' peer evaluations showed in a color-coded spreadsheet which enabled the course faculty to view real time results of students' ratings after each assignment. The faculty provided timely and tailored feedback to groups or individuals as needed, using positive feedback and commending high performance while urging struggling individual students and groups to improve lower ratings in specific areas. Comparing evaluations of both assignments, there were statistically significant improvements among all students. The mean scores of the entire sample were

  16. Rosuvastatin for Primary Prevention in Older Persons With Elevated C-Reactive Protein and Low to Average Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Levels: Exploratory Analysis of a Randomized Trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glynn, R.J.; Koenig, W.; Nordestgaard, B.G.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Randomized data on statins for primary prevention in older persons are limited, and the relative hazard of cardiovascular disease associated with an elevated cholesterol level weakens with advancing age. Objective: To assess the efficacy and safety of rosuvastatin in persons 70 years...... or older. Design: Secondary analysis of JUPITER ( Justification for the Use of statins in Prevention: an Intervention Trial Evaluating Rosuvastatin), a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Setting: 1315 sites in 26 countries randomly assigned participants in JUPITER. Participants: Among...... assigned in a 1: 1 ratio to receive 20 mg of rosuvastatin daily or placebo. Measurements: The primary end point was the occurrence of a first cardiovascular event ( myocardial infarction, stroke, arterial revascularization, hospitalization for unstable angina, or death from cardiovascular causes). Results...

  17. Impact of a personalized versus moderate-intensity exercise prescription: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Margaret; Schmalbach, Priel; Godkin, Sophia

    2017-04-01

    Effective approaches to promote adolescent physical activity are needed. Moreover, a one-size-fits-all approach has been minimally successful to date. This randomized controlled trial evaluates a theory-based personalized exercise prescription to enhance motivation for being active and physical activity participation among adolescent reluctant exercisers. Adolescents were characterized by affective style as reluctant (predisposed to negative affect during exercise) or latent (predisposed to positive affect during exercise) exercisers based on their affective response to an acute exercise task, and then randomly assigned to an exercise prescription of either a personalized or a moderate intensity. Assignment was double-blind. Assessments were pre- and post- the 8-week intervention. Participants were an ethnically diverse group of adolescents (19 % non-Latino White) in a public middle-school. The exercise intensity manipulation and assessments took place at the school site during regular Physical Education. Participants were assigned to either a moderate-intensity exercise prescription [target heart rate (HR) range 60-80 % of HR max] or a personalized exercise prescription corresponding to an intensity that "feels good" to the individual for 8 weeks during daily Physical Education. Outcome measures included exercise-related intrinsic motivation (via questionnaire), and daily moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA; via accelerometer). The exercise intensity manipulation did not yield actual differences in exercise intensity during PE, and had no effect on either Intrinsic Motivation or MVPA. There was no significant interaction between affective style and group assignment in predicting Intrinsic Motivation or MVPA. This study did not find support for a link between affective experiences during exercise and physical activity participation. Providing adolescents with a personalized exercise intensity prescription and asking them to follow the prescription

  18. C-reactive protein levels and body mass index: elucidating direction of causation through reciprocal Mendelian randomization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timpson, N J; Nordestgaard, B G; Harbord, R M

    2011-01-01

    Context:The assignment of direction and causality within networks of observational associations is problematic outside randomized control trials, and the presence of a causal relationship between body mass index (BMI) and C-reactive protein (CRP) is disputed.Objective:Using reciprocal Mendelian...... randomization, we aim to assess the direction of causality in relationships between BMI and CRP and to demonstrate this as a promising analytical technique.Participants and methods:The study was based on a large, cross-sectional European study from Copenhagen, Denmark. Genetic associates of BMI (FTO(rs9939609...

  19. Youth Early-intervention Study (YES) - group interventions targeting social participation and physical well-being as an adjunct to treatment as usual: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehue, Lillian Jean; Scott, Elizabeth; Hermens, Daniel Francis; Scott, Jan; Hickie, Ian

    2015-08-05

    It is increasingly acknowledged that clinical interventions for young persons with mental disorders need to optimize social, vocational and physical functioning, and take into account developmental needs, rather than focusing only on the traditional target of psychiatric symptom change. However, few interventions for youth presenting to mental health services offer a coherent rationale for multi-faceted approaches that efficiently address all these targets. This trial uses two facilitated group therapy modules (social and physical activity) as a vehicle for promoting clinical, cognitive, social and vocational change. The modules are an adjunct to usual treatments offered to youth attending mental health services in Sydney, Australia. The design is a 2-arm, parallel group cross-over, randomized clinical trial (RCT) that examines the efficacy of this adjunctive youth early intervention program (called "YES") for improving social, vocational, mental and physical health functioning in a trans-diagnostic sample of 120 young persons aged 14-25 years who are currently receiving a range of "usual treatments" for clinically diagnosed anxiety, affective and/or psychotic disorders. Individuals who provide written informed consent are offered 2 group therapy modules (each comprising 4 hours per week for 8 weeks) with a 3-week "pause" between modules. Randomization determines whether individuals commence with module A or module B. The sample will be assessed pre-randomization, and at week 1 and week 8 (after completion of the first module), and at week 11 (commencement of second module) and week 19 (completion of second module). Final follow-up is 1-year post trial entry. If the findings of this exploratory trial demonstrate benefits in the target domains, then it will be important to extend the research by undertaking: (a) a comparison of the YES program to a control intervention in a randomized controlled trial, (b) an explanatory study of putative mediators of change, and (c

  20. Exploring the statistical and clinical impact of two interim analyses on the Phase II design with option for direct assignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Ming-Wen; Mandrekar, Sumithra J; Edelman, Martin J; Sargent, Daniel J

    2014-07-01

    The primary goal of Phase II clinical trials is to understand better a treatment's safety and efficacy to inform a Phase III go/no-go decision. Many Phase II designs have been proposed, incorporating randomization, interim analyses, adaptation, and patient selection. The Phase II design with an option for direct assignment (i.e. stop randomization and assign all patients to the experimental arm based on a single interim analysis (IA) at 50% accrual) was recently proposed [An et al., 2012]. We discuss this design in the context of existing designs, and extend it from a single-IA to a two-IA design. We compared the statistical properties and clinical relevance of the direct assignment design with two IA (DAD-2) versus a balanced randomized design with two IA (BRD-2) and a direct assignment design with one IA (DAD-1), over a range of response rate ratios (2.0-3.0). The DAD-2 has minimal loss in power (designs, the direct assignment design, especially with two IA, provides a middle ground with desirable statistical properties and likely appeal to both clinicians and patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Mediterranean dietary pattern and depression: the PREDIMED randomized trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background A few observational studies have found an inverse association between adherence to a Mediterranean diet and the risk of depression. Randomized trials with an intervention based on this dietary pattern could provide the most definitive answer to the findings reported by observational studies. The aim of this study was to compare in a randomized trial the effects of two Mediterranean diets versus a low-fat diet on depression risk after at least 3 years of intervention. Methods This was a multicenter, randomized, primary prevention field trial of cardiovascular disease (Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea (PREDIMED Study)) based on community-dwelling men aged 55 to 80 years and women aged 60 to 80 years at high risk of cardiovascular disease (51% of them had type 2 diabetes; DM2) attending primary care centers affiliated with 11 Spanish teaching hospitals. Primary analyses were performed on an intention-to-treat basis. Cox regression models were used to assess the relationship between the nutritional intervention groups and the incidence of depression. Results We identified 224 new cases of depression during follow-up. There was an inverse association with depression for participants assigned to a Mediterranean diet supplemented with nuts (multivariate hazard ratio (HR) 0.78; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.55 to 1.10) compared with participants assigned to the control group, although this was not significant. However, when the analysis was restricted to participants with DM2, the magnitude of the effect of the intervention with the Mediterranean diet supplemented with nuts did reach statistical significance (multivariate HR = 0.59; 95% CI 0.36 to 0.98). Conclusions The result suggest that a Mediterranean diet supplemented with nuts could exert a beneficial effect on the risk of depression in patients with DM2. Trial registration This trial has been registered in the Current Controlled Trials with the number ISRCTN 35739639 PMID:24229349

  2. Community-based Argentine tango dance program is associated with increased activity participation among individuals with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Erin R; Golden, Laura; Duncan, Ryan P; Earhart, Gammon M

    2013-02-01

    To determine the effects of a 12-month community-based tango dance program on activity participation among individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD). Randomized controlled trial with assessment at baseline, 3, 6, and 12 months. Intervention was administered in the community; assessments were completed in a university laboratory. Volunteers with PD (n=62) enrolled in the study and were randomized to a treatment group; 10 participants did not receive the allocated intervention, and therefore the final analyzed sample included 52 participants. Participants were randomly assigned to the tango group, which involved 12 months of twice-weekly Argentine tango dance classes, or to the no intervention control group (n=26 per group). Current, new, and retained participation in instrumental, leisure, and social activities, as measured by the Activity Card Sort (with the dance activity removed). Total current participation in the tango group was higher at 3, 6, and 12 months compared with baseline (Ps≤.008), while the control group did not change (Ps≥.11). Total activity retention (since onset of PD) in the tango group increased from 77% to 90% (P=.006) over the course of the study, whereas the control group remained around 80% (P=.60). These patterns were similar in the separate activity domains. The tango group gained a significant number of new social activities (P=.003), but the control group did not (P=.71). Individuals with PD who participated in a community-based Argentine tango class reported increased participation in complex daily activities, recovery of activities lost since the onset of PD, and engagement in new activities. Incorporating dance into the clinical management of PD may benefit participation and subsequently quality of life for this population. Copyright © 2013 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Use acupuncture to treat functional constipation: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Ying

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Whether acupuncture is effective for patients with functional constipation is still unclear. Therefore, we report the protocol of a randomized controlled trial of using acupuncture to treat functional constipation. Design A randomized, controlled, four-arm design, large-scale trial is currently undergoing in China. Seven hundred participants are randomly assigned to three acupuncture treatment groups and Mosapride Citrate control group in a 1:1:1:1 ratio. Participants in acupuncture groups receive 16 sessions of acupuncture treatment, and are followed up for a period of 9 weeks after randomization. The acupuncture groups are: (1 Back-Shu and Front-Mu acupoints of Large Intestine meridians (Shu-Mu points group; (2 He-Sea and Lower He-Sea acupoints of Large Intestine meridians (He points group; (3 Combining used Back-Shu, Front-Mu, He-Sea, and Lower He-Sea acupoints of Large Intestine meridians (Shu-Mu-He points group. The control group is Mosapride Citrate group. The primary outcome is frequency of defecation per week at the fourth week after randomization. The secondary outcomes include Bristol stool scale, the extent of difficulty during defecating, MOS 36-item Short Form health survey (SF-36, Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS, and Self-rating Depression Scale (SDS. The first two of second outcomes are measured 1 week before randomization and 2, 4, and 8 weeks after randomization. Other second outcomes are measured 1 week before randomization and 2 and 4 weeks after randomization, but SF-36 is measured at randomization and 4 weeks after randomization. Discussion The result of this trial (which will be available in 2012 will confirm whether acupuncture is effective to treat functional constipation and whether traditional acupuncture theories play an important role in it. Trials registration Clinical Trials.gov NCT01411501

  4. The UNCITRAL Convention on the Assignment of Receivables in International Trade, assignment of future receivables and Turkish law.

    OpenAIRE

    Akseli, N. Orkun

    2006-01-01

    The Assignment of receivables is an important financing technique the regulation of which varies from legal system to legal system. In December 2001, the Convention on the Assignment of Receivables in International Trade made by the United Nations Commission on International Trade (“the UNCITRAL Convention”)1 was adopted by the General Assembly2. The UNCITRAL Convention was prepared for the purposes of establishing a model for the modernisation of domestic assignment law and as a first substa...

  5. Effects of Higher and Lower Level Writing-To-Learn Assignments on Higher and Lower Level Examination Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevid, Jeffrey S.; Ambrose, Michael A.; Pyun, Yea Seul

    2017-01-01

    Our study examined whether brief writing-to-learn assignments linked to lower and higher levels in Bloom's taxonomy affected performance differentially on examination performance in assessing these skill levels. Using a quasi-random design, 91 undergraduate students in an introductory psychology class completed eight lower level and eight higher…

  6. Participation in an Indian Adult Education Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blunt, Adrian; Thornton, James E.

    Differences between participants and nonparticipants in an on-reserve Indian adult education program in British Columbia were identified by interviewing 22.5 percent of the adult population in a random sample. Eight of 17 socioeconomic variables and 5 of 13 sociopsychological variables differentiated between the 42 participants and 44…

  7. Heuristic algorithms for a storage location assignment problem in a chaotic warehouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintanilla, Sacramento; Pérez, Ángeles; Ballestín, Francisco; Lino, Pilar

    2015-10-01

    The extensive application of emerging technologies is revolutionizing warehouse management. These technologies facilitate working with complex and powerful warehouse management models in which products do not have assigned fixed locations (random storage). Random storage allows the utilization of the available space to be optimized. In this context, and motivated by a real problem, this article presents a model that looks for the optimal allocation of goods in order to maximize the storage space availability within the restrictions of the warehouse. For the proposed model a construction method, a local search algorithm and different metaheuristics have been developed. The introduced algorithms can also be used for other purposes such as to assess when and how it is convenient to perform relocation of stored items to improve the current level of storage space availability. Computational tests performed on a set of randomly generated and real warehouse instances show the effectiveness of the proposed methods.

  8. Improving the quality of life of geriatric cancer patients with a structured multidisciplinary intervention: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapid, Maria I; Rummans, Teresa A; Brown, Paul D; Frost, Marlene H; Johnson, Mary E; Huschka, Mashele M; Sloan, Jeff A; Richardson, Jarrett W; Hanson, Jean M; Clark, Matthew M

    2007-06-01

    To examine the potential impact of elderly age on response to participation in a structured, multidisciplinary quality-of-life (QOL) intervention for patients with advanced cancer undergoing radiation therapy. Study design was a randomized stratified, two group, controlled clinical trial in the setting of a tertiary care comprehensive cancer center. Subjects with newly diagnosed cancer and an estimated 5-year survival rate of 0%-50% who required radiation therapy were recruited and randomly assigned to either an intervention group or a standard care group. The intervention consisted of eight 90-min sessions designed to address the five QOL domains of cognitive, physical, emotional, spiritual, and social functioning. QOL was measured using Spitzer uniscale and linear analogue self-assessment (LASA) at baseline and weeks 4, 8, and 27. Of the 103 study participants, 33 were geriatric (65 years or older), of which 16 (mean age 72.4 years) received the intervention and 17 (mean age 71.4 years) were assigned to the standard medical care. The geriatric participants who completed the intervention had higher QOL scores at baseline, at week 4 and at week 8, compared to the control participants. Our results demonstrate that geriatric patients with advanced cancer undergoing radiation therapy will benefit from participation in a structured multidisciplinary QOL intervention. Therefore, geriatric individuals should not be excluded from participating in a cancer QOL intervention, and, in fact, elderly age may be an indicator of strong response to a QOL intervention. Future research should further explore this finding.

  9. Extended use of Kinesiology Tape and Balance in Participants with Chronic Ankle Instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Kristen; Simon, Janet E; Docherty, Carrie L

    2016-01-01

    Participants with chronic ankle instability (CAI) have been shown to have balance deficits related to decreased proprioception and neuromuscular control. Kinesiology tape (KT) has been proposed to have many benefits, including increased proprioception. To determine if KT can help with balance deficits associated with CAI. Cohort study. Research laboratory. Thirty participants with CAI were recruited for this study. Balance was assessed using the Balance Error Scoring System (BESS). Participants were pretested and then randomly assigned to either the control or KT group. The participants in the KT group had 4 strips applied to the foot and lower leg and were instructed to leave the tape on until they returned for testing. All participants returned 48 hours later for another BESS assessment. The tape was then removed, and all participants returned 72 hours later to complete the final BESS assessment. Total BESS errors. Differences between the groups occurred at 48 hours post-application of the tape (mean difference = 4.7 ± 1.4 errors, P applied for 48 hours when compared with the pretest and with the control group. One of the most clinically important findings is that balance improvements were retained even after the tape had been removed for 72 hours.

  10. The Eco-Sculpture Assignment: Using Art to Scaffold Metacognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polegato, Rosemary

    2014-01-01

    The Eco-Sculpture Assignment demonstrates that art may be used as a conduit to scaffold metacognition in marketing courses. Theoretical underpinnings are drawn from the literature on pedagogy used in general, marketing, and art education contexts. The assignment is described in detail, followed by examples of learner response that illustrate…

  11. A Poster Assignment Connects Information Literacy and Writing Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Natalie

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the implementation of a poster assignment in a writing and information literacy course required for undergraduate Life Sciences and Environmental Biology majors with the Faculty of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences at McGill University. The assignment was introduced in response to weaknesses identified through course…

  12. 24 CFR 203.350 - Assignment of mortgage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Assignment of mortgage. 203.350... URBAN DEVELOPMENT MORTGAGE AND LOAN INSURANCE PROGRAMS UNDER NATIONAL HOUSING ACT AND OTHER AUTHORITIES SINGLE FAMILY MORTGAGE INSURANCE Contract Rights and Obligations Assignment of Mortgage § 203.350...

  13. A tri-objective, dynamic weapon assignment model for surface ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, a tri-objective, dynamic weapon assignment model is proposed by modelling the weapon assignment problem as a multi-objective variation of the celebrated vehicle routing problem with time windows. A multi-objective, evolutionary metaheuristic for solving the vehicle routing problem with time windows is ...

  14. 47 CFR 74.786 - Digital channel assignments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Translator, and TV Booster Stations § 74.786 Digital channel assignments. (a) An applicant for a new low... same TV channel and the adjacent channel within whose licensed geographic boundaries the digital LPTV... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Digital channel assignments. 74.786 Section 74...

  15. Evaluation of Automatically Assigned Job-Specific Interview Modules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Friesen, Melissa C; Lan, Qing; Ge, Calvin; Locke, Sarah J; Hosgood, Dean; Fritschi, Lin; Sadkowsky, Troy; Chen, Yu-Cheng; Wei, Hu; Xu, Jun; Lam, Tai Hing; Kwong, Yok Lam; Chen, Kexin; Xu, Caigang; Su, Yu-Chieh; Chiu, Brian C H; Ip, Kai Ming Dennis; Purdue, Mark P; Bassig, Bryan A; Rothman, Nat; Vermeulen, Roel

    OBJECTIVE: In community-based epidemiological studies, job- and industry-specific 'modules' are often used to systematically obtain details about the subject's work tasks. The module assignment is often made by the interviewer, who may have insufficient occupational hygiene knowledge to assign the

  16. Negotiating Languages and Cultures: Enacting Translingualism through a Translation Assignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiernan, Julia; Meier, Joyce; Wang, Xiqiao

    2016-01-01

    This collaborative project explores the affordances of a translation assignment in the context of a learner-centered pedagogy that places composition students' movement among languages and cultures as both a site for inquiry and subject of analysis. The translation assignment asks students to translate scholarly articles or culture stories from…

  17. SKU assignment to unidirectional picking lines using correlations

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The clustering storage assignment policy was further expanded as three sequential steps ... determine the next SKU to assign to a cluster, had a risk of generating correlated couplets of SKUs instead of ..... an order picking system: an application to the food service industry, International Journal of Logistics. Research and ...

  18. A tri-objective, dynamic weapon assignment model for surface ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-05-11

    May 11, 2015 ... Mateo (CA). [12] Hosein PA & Athans M, 1989, The dynamic weapon-target assignment problem, (Unpublished). Technical Report, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge (MA). [13] Huaiping C, Jingxu L, Yingwu C & Hao W, 2006, Survey of the research on dynamic weapon-target assignment ...

  19. Income Tax Assignment under the Ethiopian Constitution: Issues to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article uses the income tax assignment in the Ethiopian Constitution to highlight some of these questions and concerns. There is ample evidence to show that the assignment formula adopted by the Constitution, indeed its predecessor - the 1992 law - was motivated by the desire to divide the power of taxation over ...

  20. Case Assignment in the Inalienable Possession Construction in Korean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maling, Joan; Kim, Soowon

    1992-01-01

    Investigates principles for assigning case to the Noun Phrases (NP) in the Part-Whole Construction in Korean. It is shown that the case marking on the part-NP is a function of the case-assigning properties of the matrix verb, even when this is lexically governed. (41 references) (Author/LB)

  1. Determining Feasible Solutions of a Multicriteria Assignment Problem.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents an important research tool in operations research as it applies to a particular structure of the multicriteria assignment problem. The paper addresses the problem of effectiveness of feasible solutions of a multicriteria assignment problem and this was done in two steps. In the first step, we determine ...

  2. 48 CFR 1442.202 - Assignment of contract administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Assignment of contract administration. 1442.202 Section 1442.202 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR CONTRACT MANAGEMENT CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION AND AUDIT SERVICES Contract Administration Services 1442.202 Assignment of contract administration. ...

  3. 48 CFR 1342.202 - Assignment of contract administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Assignment of contract administration. 1342.202 Section 1342.202 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CONTRACT MANAGEMENT CONTRACT ADMINISTRATION Contract Administration Services 1342.202 Assignment of contract administration. The designee authorized...

  4. Frequency assignment with minimum intermodulation noise for satellite SCPC systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Y.-H.; Skellern, D. J.

    1991-01-01

    A simple, fast, and effective procedure for quasi-optimum frequency assignment of equal carrier systems is given. The quality of assignments is marginally the same as published results. The computation time has been reduced greatly; a conservative estimate shows that the reduction factor can be greater than N/2.

  5. 14 CFR 1245.109 - Assignment of title to NASA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Assignment of title to NASA. 1245.109... INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS Patent Waiver Regulations § 1245.109 Assignment of title to NASA. (a) The instrument of waiver set forth in § 1245.115(c) shall be voided by NASA with respect to the domestic title to...

  6. Key Issue: Teacher Hiring, Placement, and Assignment Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrstock, Ellen; Coggshall, Jane G.

    2009-01-01

    The literature on teacher hiring and assignment tends to omit definitions of these key terms. An exception in Cohen-Vogel and Osborne-Lampkin (277), who define teacher assignment as "the reciprocal process between school management and teachers to guide decisions about who will teach, where they will teach, and what they will teach." But the…

  7. On some special cases of the restricted assignment problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, C. (Chao); R.A. Sitters (René)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractWe consider some special cases of the restricted assignment problem. In this scheduling problem on parallel machines, any job j can only be assigned to one of the machines in its given subset Mj of machines. We give an LP-formulation for the problem with two job sizes and show that it

  8. 76 FR 34658 - The Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-14

    ... National Telecommunications and Information Administration The Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA.... ACTION: Further Notice of Inquiry. ] SUMMARY: Critical to the Internet Domain Name System (DNS) is the continued performance of the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) functions. The IANA functions have...

  9. Writing Assignments: What We Know We Don't Know.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beene, LynnDianne

    Questions raised by the misinterpretations evidenced in the final examination essays of a freshman English class should lead teachers to a new understanding of how the phrasing of writing assignments influences what students write. Some of the questions included: (1) How detailed must an assignment be to communicate its goals? (2) What type of…

  10. Scaffolding learners in designing investigation assignments for a computer simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vreman-de Olde, Cornelise; de Jong, Anthonius J.M.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the effect of scaffolding students who learned by designing assignments for a computer simulation on the physics topic of alternating circuits. We compared the students' assignments and the knowledge acquired in a scaffolded group (N=23) and a non-scaffolded group (N=19). The

  11. Challenging assignments and activating mood : the influence of goal orientation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Preenen, P.T.Y.; Vianen, A.E.M. van; Pater, I.E. de

    2014-01-01

    We examined the impact of induced goal orientation on individuals' positive- and negative-activating mood when taking part in high- or low-challenging assignments. Results indicated that performing a low-challenging assignment leads to a higher positive-activating mood with a performance-approach

  12. Challenging assignments and activating mood: the influence of goal orientation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Preenen, P.T.Y.; van Vianen, A.E.M.; de Pater, I.E.

    2014-01-01

    We examined the impact of induced goal orientation on individuals' positive- and negative-activating mood when taking part in high- or low-challenging assignments. Results indicated that performing a low-challenging assignment leads to a higher positive-activating mood with a performance-approach

  13. Scaffolding Assignments and Activities for Undergraduate Research Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Sarah; Justwan, Florian

    2018-01-01

    This article details assignments and lessons created for and tested in research methods courses at two different universities, a large state school and a small liberal arts college. Each assignment or activity utilized scaffolding. Students were asked to push beyond their comfort zone while utilizing concrete and/or creative examples,…

  14. 47 CFR 22.351 - Channel assignment policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Channel assignment policy. 22.351 Section 22... MOBILE SERVICES Operational and Technical Requirements Technical Requirements § 22.351 Channel assignment policy. The channels allocated for use in the Public Mobile Services are listed in the applicable...

  15. Text-Based Writing Assignments for College Readiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumura, Lindsay Clare; Wang, Elaine; Correnti, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Research shows that cognitively demanding text-based writing assignments increase students' reading comprehension skills and analytic writing competencies. In this article, we describe the steps that upper-elementary grade teachers can take to develop cognitively demanding assignments that build these higher-level literacy skills and put students…

  16. 28 CFR 545.23 - Inmate work/program assignment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Inmate work/program assignment. 545.23 Section 545.23 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT WORK AND COMPENSATION Inmate Work and Performance Pay Program § 545.23 Inmate work/program assignment...

  17. Graphical interpretation of Boolean operators for protein NMR assignments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verdegem, Dries; Dijkstra, Klaas; Hanoulle, Xavier; Lippens, Guy

    We have developed a graphics based algorithm for semi-automated protein NMR assignments. Using the basic sequential triple resonance assignment strategy, the method is inspired by the Boolean operators as it applies "AND"-, "OR"- and "NOT"-like operations on planes pulled out of the classical

  18. On the Use of Writing Assignments in Intermediate Microeconomic Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Patrick B.

    2009-01-01

    A typical writing assignment in upper level required courses is a term paper. However many economics majors, particularly those in business schools, need to develop skill at writing shorter pieces. In this paper I describe numerous examples of shorter writing assignments that I have incorporated into an Intermediate Microeconomic Theory course.…

  19. Conceptualizing Patient Barriers to Nonadherence with Homework Assignments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazantzis, Nikolaos; Shinkfield, Gregg

    2007-01-01

    Nonadherence with homework assignments and, by implication, "barriers" to homework assignments are a frequent occurrence in the practice of standard cognitive therapy (Beck, A. T., Rush, A. J., Shaw, B. F., Emery, G. (1979). "Cognitive therapy of depression." New York: The Guilford Press). The clinical examples in this article illustrate some of…

  20. Olmesartan/amlodipine/hydrochlorothiazide in participants with hypertension and diabetes, chronic kidney disease, or chronic cardiovascular disease: a subanalysis of the multicenter, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group TRINITY study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kereiakes Dean J

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients with hypertension and cardiovascular disease (CVD, diabetes, or chronic kidney disease (CKD usually require two or more antihypertensive agents to achieve blood pressure (BP goals. Methods The efficacy/safety of olmesartan (OM 40 mg, amlodipine besylate (AML 10 mg, and hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ 25 mg versus the component dual-combinations (OM 40/AML 10 mg, OM 40/HCTZ 25 mg, and AML 10/HCTZ 25 mg was evaluated in participants with diabetes, CKD, or chronic CVD in the Triple Therapy with Olmesartan Medoxomil, Amlodipine, and Hydrochlorothiazide in Hypertensive Patients Study (TRINITY. The primary efficacy end point was least squares (LS mean reduction from baseline in seated diastolic BP (SeDBP at week 12. Secondary end points included LS mean reduction in SeSBP and proportion of participants achieving BP goal ( Results At week 12, OM 40/AML 10/HCTZ 25 mg resulted in significantly greater SeBP reductions in participants with diabetes (−37.9/22.0 mm Hg vs −28.0/17.6 mm Hg for OM 40/AML 10 mg, −26.4/14.7 mm Hg for OM 40/HCTZ 25 mg, and −27.6/14.8 mm Hg for AML 10/HCTZ 25 mg, CKD (−44.3/25.5 mm Hg vs −39.5/23.8 mm Hg for OM 40/AML 10 mg, −25.3/17.0 mm Hg for OM 40/HCTZ 25 mg, and −33.4/20.6 mm Hg for AML 10/HCTZ 25 mg, and chronic CVD (−37.8/20.6 mm Hg vs −31.7/18.2 mm Hg for OM 40/AML 10 mg, −30.9/17.1 mm Hg for OM 40/HCTZ 25 mg, and −27.5/16.1 mm Hg for AML 10/HCTZ 25 mg (P Conclusions In patients with diabetes, CKD, or chronic CVD, short-term (12 weeks and long-term treatment with OM 40/AML 10/HCTZ 25 mg was well tolerated, lowered BP more effectively, and enabled more participants to reach BP goal than the corresponding 2-component regimens. Trial Identification Number NCT00649389

  1. Multiobjective Gate Assignment Based on Passenger Walking Distance and Fairness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Jiang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Passenger walking distance is an important index of the airport service quality. How to shorten the walking distance and balance the airlines' service quality is the focus of much research on airport gate assignment problems. According to the problems of airport passenger service quality, an optimization gate assignment model is established. The gate assignment model is based on minimizing the total walking distance of all passengers and balancing the average walking distance of passengers among different airlines. Lingo is used in the simulation of a large airport gate assignment. Test results show that the optimization model can reduce the average walking distance of passenger effectively, improve the number of flights assigned to gate, balance airline service quality, and enhance the overall service level of airports and airlines. The model provides reference for the airport gate preassignment.

  2. Wavelength Assignment in Hybrid Quantum-Classical Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrani, Sima; Razavi, Mohsen; Salehi, Jawad A

    2018-02-22

    Optimal wavelength assignment in dense-wavelength-division-multiplexing (DWDM) systems that integrate both quantum and classical channels is studied. In such systems, weak quantum key distribution (QKD) signals travel alongside intense classical signals on the same fiber, where the former can be masked by the background noise induced by the latter. Here, we investigate how optimal wavelength assignment can mitigate this problem. We consider different DWDM structures and various sources of crosstalk and propose several near-optimal wavelength assignment methods that maximize the total secret key rate of the QKD channels. Our numerical results show that the optimum wavelength assignment pattern is commonly consisted of several interspersed quantum and classical bands. Using our proposed techniques, the total secret key rate of quantum channels can substantially be improved, as compared to conventional assignment methods, in the noise dominated regimes. Alternatively, we can maximize the number of QKD users supported under certain key rate constraints.

  3. Further steps in TANGO: improved taxonomic assignment in metagenomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Alemany, Daniel; Barré, Aurélien; Beretta, Stefano; Bonizzoni, Paola; Nikolski, Macha; Valiente, Gabriel

    2014-01-01

    TANGO is one of the most accurate tools for the taxonomic assignment of sequence reads. However, because of the differences in the taxonomy structures, performing a taxonomic assignment on different reference taxonomies will produce divergent results. We have improved the TANGO pipeline to be able to perform the taxonomic assignment of a metagenomic sample using alternative reference taxonomies, coming from different sources. We highlight the novel pre-processing step, necessary to accomplish this task, and describe the improvements in the assignment process. We present the new TANGO pipeline in details, and, finally, we show its performance on four real metagenomic datasets and also on synthetic datasets. The new version of TANGO, including implementation improvements and novel developments to perform the assignment on different reference taxonomies, is freely available at http://sourceforge.net/projects/taxoassignment/.

  4. Efficacy of Visual-Acoustic Biofeedback Intervention for Residual Rhotic Errors: A Single-Subject Randomization Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister Byun, Tara

    2017-05-24

    This study documented the efficacy of visual-acoustic biofeedback intervention for residual rhotic errors, relative to a comparison condition involving traditional articulatory treatment. All participants received both treatments in a single-subject experimental design featuring alternating treatments with blocked randomization of sessions to treatment conditions. Seven child and adolescent participants received 20 half-hour sessions of individual treatment over 10 weeks. Within each week, sessions were randomly assigned to feature traditional or biofeedback intervention. Perceptual accuracy of rhotic production was assessed in a blinded, randomized fashion. Each participant's response to the combined treatment package was evaluated by using effect sizes and visual inspection. Differences in the magnitude of response to traditional versus biofeedback intervention were measured with individual randomization tests. Four of 7 participants demonstrated a clinically meaningful response to the combined treatment package. Three of 7 participants showed a statistically significant difference between treatment conditions. In all 3 cases, the magnitude of within-session gains associated with biofeedback exceeded the gains associated with traditional treatment. These results suggest that the inclusion of visual-acoustic biofeedback can enhance the efficacy of intervention for some individuals with residual rhotic errors. Further research is needed to understand which participants represent better or poorer candidates for biofeedback treatment.

  5. Effects of Computer-based Stress Management Training on Psychological Well-being and Work Performance in Japanese Employees: A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial

    OpenAIRE

    UMANODAN, Rino; SHIMAZU, Akihito; MINAMI, Masahide; KAWAKAMI, Norito

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of a computer-based stress management training (SMT) program in improving employees’ psychological well-being and work performance. A total of 12 work units (N=263) were randomly assigned to either an intervention group (8 work units, n=142) or to a wait-list control group (4 work units, n=121). All participants were requested to answer online questionnaires assessing psychological well-being as a primary outcome, and coping style, social support, and kn...

  6. The Comparison of the Effects of Three Physiotherapy Techniques on Hamstring Flexibility in Children: A Prospective, Randomized, Single-Blind Study

    OpenAIRE

    Czaprowski, Dariusz; Leszczewska, Justyna; Kolwicz, Aleksandra; Paw?owska, Paulina; K?dra, Agnieszka; Janusz, Piotr; Kotwicki, Tomasz

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate changes in hamstring flexibility in 120 asymptomatic children who participated in a 6-week program consisting of one physiotherapy session per week and daily home exercises. The recruitment criteria included age (10-13 years), no pain, injury or musculoskeletal disorder throughout the previous year, physical activity limited to school sport. Subjects were randomly assigned to one of the three groups: (1) post-isometric relaxation - PIR (n = 40), (2) static...

  7. Effect of integrated yoga therapy on pain, morning stiffness and anxiety in osteoarthritis of the knee joint: A randomized control study

    OpenAIRE

    John Ebnezar; Raghuram Nagarathna; Bali Yogitha; Hongasandra Ramarao Nagendra

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To study the effect of integrated yoga on pain, morning stiffness and anxiety in osteoarthritis of knees. Materials and Methods: Two hundred and fifty participants with OA knees (35-80 years) were randomly assigned to yoga or control group. Both groups had transcutaneous electrical stimulation and ultrasound treatment followed by intervention (40 min) for two weeks with follow up for three months. The integrated yoga consisted of yogic loosening and strengthening practices, asanas, r...

  8. Recalling Positive Events at Work Makes Employees Feel Happier, Move More, but Interact Less: A 6-Week Randomized Controlled Intervention at a Japanese Workplace

    OpenAIRE

    Chancellor, J; Layous, K; Lyubomirsky, S

    2015-01-01

    © 2014, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht. Simple self-administered activities, such as practicing gratitude or kindness, have been shown to increase happiness, yet only self-report measures have been used so far. Our study, conducted with a Japanese workplace sample, incorporated a novel technology to gather precise behavioral data reflecting participant movement and social interactions. Employees were randomly assigned to either recount three positive events at work (a positive acti...

  9. The effect of Food Stamp Nutrition Education on the food insecurity of low-income women participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eicher-Miller, Heather A; Mason, April C; Abbott, Angela R; McCabe, George P; Boushey, Carol J

    2009-01-01

    To determine the effect of Food Stamp Nutrition Education (FSNE) in Indiana on participants' food insecurity and food insufficiency. A single-blind randomized design. A randomized experimental group completed 5 FSNE lessons as an intervention between a pre- and posttest, whereas a control group completed a pre- and posttest without FSNE intervention. Client homes and community locations in 24 Indiana counties. Female head-of-household participants >or= 18 years old; n = 219. FSNE lessons targeting food insecurity and nutrition. Dependent variables food insecurity and food insufficiency were quantified with the 6-item United States Household Food Security Scale and United States Department of Agriculture Food Insufficiency Question, respectively. The independent variable was the randomly assigned treatment group. Participants' characteristics were compared with chi-square analysis. Analyses of covariance models were constructed to find the effect of treatment group on food insecurity and food insufficiency. Significance indicated at P successful in improving participants' food insecurity and food insufficiency, indicating nutrition education is an appropriate intervention for food insecurity.

  10. Text Messaging: An Intervention to Increase Physical Activity among African American Participants in a Faith-Based, Competitive Weight Loss Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela McCoy

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available African American adults are less likely to meet the recommended physical activity guidelines for aerobic and muscle-strengthening activity than Caucasian adults. The purpose of this study was to assess whether a text message intervention would increase physical activity in this population. This pilot study used a pre-/post-questionnaire non-randomized design. Participants in a faith-based weight loss competition who agreed to participate in the text messaging were assigned to the intervention group (n = 52. Participants who declined to participate in the intervention, but agreed to participate in the study, were assigned to the control group (n = 30. The text messages provided strategies for increasing physical activity and were based on constructs of the Health Belief Model and the Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills Model. Chi square tests determined the intervention group participants increased exercise time by approximately eight percent (p = 0.03, while the control group’s exercise time remained constant. The intervention group increased walking and running. The control group increased running. Most participants indicated that the health text messages were effective. The results of this pilot study suggest that text messaging may be an effective method for providing options for motivating individuals to increase physical activity.

  11. Sleep improvement for restless legs syndrome patients. Part III: effect of treatment assignment belief on sleep improvement in restless legs syndrome patients. A mediation analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burbank F

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Fred Burbank Director, Salt Creek International Women's Health Foundation, San Clemente, CA, USA Purpose: Two parallel-design, randomized, sham-controlled clinical trials were conducted to study the safety and efficacy of vibratory stimulation (VS on restless legs syndrome (RLS patients (Part I of this series of articles. Pooled data from the two studies was retroactively analyzed to compare the relative effects of actual pad assignment with therapeutic pad assignment belief on sleep improvement for patients with RLS. Patients and methods: One hundred fifty-eight patients with at least moderately severe RLS, as measured by a score of 15 points or greater on the International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group rating scale (IRLS, were enrolled in the study. Patients were randomly assigned to treatment (patient-controlled vibration or sham (patient-controlled sound or light-emitting pads. Patients and clinicians were blinded to pad assignment. The pad was placed under the patient's legs while in bed at night and activated during an RLS episode. Improvements in Medical Outcomes Study Sleep Problems Index II (MOS-II scores from baseline to week 4 were examined as a function of pad assignment (independent variable and therapeutic pad assignment belief held by each patient (mediator variable through mediation analysis. Results: Therapeutic pad assignment belief influenced change in MOS-II scores more than actual pad assignment. Patients who believed they had been assigned a therapeutic pad had substantially greater sleep improvement than those who concluded the opposite. When a patient believed that a therapeutic pad had been assigned, sleep improvement was comparable in magnitude, independent of the type of pad assigned (vibrating or sham. Patients assigned vibrating pads believed that they had been assigned a therapeutic pad 2.6 times more frequently than patients assigned sham pads. Consequently, vibrating pads were more efficient at improving

  12. Prompting participation in health: Fostering favorable attitudes toward personal health records through message design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glowacki, Elizabeth M

    2016-03-01

    Personal health records (PHRs) offer many benefits. However, a relatively small amount of individuals take advantage of PHRs. This study examined how message composition influences attitudes toward electronic PHRs. Participants (N=329) were randomly assigned to read one of two fictitious editorials proposing that all patients have PHRs. One version assigned linguistic agency (capacity for action) to PHRs (e.g.,PHRs can guard against long-term health problems) and the other to humans (e.g.,people can guard themselves against long-term health problems). One-way analyses of variance revealed significant main effects of agency on perceptions of PHR benefits. Respondents reported feeling more comfortable using PHRs and perceived them as more effective at protecting patients when agency was assigned to PHRs rather than to humans. Messages with PHRs as the primary acting agents elicited favorable reactions about PHR use. Patients may be more willing to engage with this technology if the emphasis is put on what PHRs can do for patients. Providers and staff can make strategic choices about wording when discussing PHRs and healthcare. Attention to linguistic agency can help providers better engage patients in discussions about this topic and enable patients to become more proactive. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A Phase 1, randomized, open-label crossover study to evaluate the safety and pharmacokinetics of 400 mg albaconazole administered to healthy participants as a tablet formulation versus a capsule formulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Rossem K

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Koen van Rossem,1 Jenny A Lowe21Stiefel, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA; 2Stiefel, Stockley Park West, Uxbridge, UKBackground: Albaconazole is a novel triazole being developed for the oral treatment of fungal diseases. Once-weekly oral dosing with 400 mg albaconazole for 24 or 36 weeks resulted in high rates of clinical and mycological resolution for distal subungual onychomycosis, as well as a favorable safety and tolerability profile.Purpose: To compare four 100-mg albaconazole capsules to one 400-mg albaconazole tablet for bioavailability, bioequivalence, tolerability, and safety.Patients and methods: Forty participants were enrolled in this Phase I, open-label, two-sequence crossover study. Twenty participants were exposed to a single 400-mg tablet dose of albaconazole before being crossed over to a single dose of four 100-mg albaconazole capsules. The second group of 20 participants received the study products in reverse order. Blood samples were taken over 15 days post-dose to assess the plasma concentrations and pharmacokinetic parameters of albaconazole and its primary metabolite, 6-hydroxyalbaconazole. Safety was assessed throughout the study.Results: The area under the curve (AUC and maximum measured plasma concentration (Cmax of the albaconazole tablet were approximately 10% and 22% lower, respectively, than for the albaconazole capsules. Statistical significance was reached for the Cmax but not for the AUC measurements (AUC0-t and AUC0-inf. Because the 90% confidence intervals based on the differences between the tablet and capsule were outside the 80%–125% range for both the Cmax and AUC, we concluded that the formulations were not bioequivalent with respect to the rate or extent of absorption. Both formulations were safe and well-tolerated in this study. All adverse events (AEs were generally mild and were mainly gastrointestinal- or nervous system-related (eg, dizziness, headache. No electrocardiogram findings were reported as

  14. Drop-out during a randomized trial with adolescents with intellectual disability was associated with participant burden, while drop-out at study exit was associated with carer and household characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ware, Robert S; McPherson, Lyn; Lennox, Nicholas G

    2017-12-01

    People with intellectual disability are difficult to retain in longitudinal studies. Research on determinants of study retention for individual-carer dyads, and their reasons for drop-out, are limited. To investigate characteristics associated with drop-out, and to investigate whether characteristics varied by stage of drop-out. Data are from an Australian randomized trial with adolescents with intellectual disability living in the community. Characteristics of both the adolescent and their nominated carer were collected at baseline. Carers were sent an exit questionnaire approximately two years after enrolment. Baseline information was available for 566 adolescents: 72(13.0%) withdrew during the study, and 96(17.3%) didn't return exit questionnaires. Characteristics associated with drop-out during the study were being in the intervention group, the carer being younger, and the carer not being one of the adolescent's parents. Characteristics associated with withdrawal at exit were carer having lower education and carer having lower socioeconomic status. No adolescent characteristic was associated with drop-out. Characteristics of drop-outs weren't related to the adolescent and differed according to timing. Drop-out during the study was associated with study burden, whereas characteristics of drop-outs at exit interview were associated with lower social position. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Validation of Reported Whole-Grain Intake from a Web-Based Dietary Record against Plasma Alkylresorcinol Concentrations in 8- to 11-Year-Olds Participating in a Randomized Controlled Trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biltoft-Jensen, Anja Pia; Damsgaard, Camilla T.; W. Andersen, Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Whole-grain (WG) intake is important for human health, but accurate intake estimation is challenging. Use of a biomarker for WG intake provides a possible way to validate dietary assessment methods. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to validate WG intake from 2 diets reported by children, using...... plasma alkylresorcinol (AR) concentrations, and to investigate the 3-mo reproducibility of AR concentrations and reported WG intake. METHODS: AR concentrations were analyzed in fasting blood plasma samples, and WG intake was estimated in a 7-d web-based diary by 750 participants aged 8-11 y in a 2 school...... meal × 3 mo crossover trial. Reported WG intake and plasma AR concentrations were compared when children ate their usual bread-based lunch (UBL) and when served a hot lunch meal (HLM). Correlations and cross-classification were used to rank subjects according to intake. The intraclass correlation...

  16. Shyness 3: randomized controlled trial of guided versus unguided Internet-based CBT for social phobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titov, Nickolai; Andrews, Gavin; Choi, Isabella; Schwencke, Genevieve; Mahoney, Alison

    2008-12-01

    In two previous randomized controlled trials Titov et al. demonstrated significant benefit from an Internet- and email-based treatment programme for social phobia. The present study (Shyness 3) explores whether participants are able to complete this programme independently. A total of 98 individuals with social phobia were randomly assigned to a clinician-assisted computerized cognitive behavioural treatment (CaCCBT) group, a self-guided computerized CBT (CCBT) group, or to a waitlist control group. CaCCBT group participants completed the usual Shyness programme consisting of six online lessons, cognitive behavioural homework assignments, email contact with a therapist, and participation in an online discussion forum. CCBT group participants accessed the same resources except for therapist emails. An intention-to-treat model was used for data analyses. A total of 77% of CaCCBT and 33% of CCBT group participants completed all lessons. Significant differences were found after treatment between CaCCBT and control groups (mean between-groups effect size (ES) for the social phobia measures=1.04), and between the CaCCBT and CCBT groups (mean between-groups ES for the social phobia measures=0.66). No significant differences were found after treatment between the CCBT and control groups (mean between-groups ES for the social phobia measures=0.38). CCBT participants, however, who completed the six lessons made good progress (mean within-group ES for the social phobia measures=0.62). Quantitative and qualitative data indicate that both the CaCCBT and CCBT procedures were acceptable to participants. The reliability of this Internet-based treatment programme for social phobia has been confirmed. The therapist-guided condition was superior to the self-guided condition, but a subgroup of participants still benefited considerably from the latter. These data confirm that self-guided education or treatment programmes for common anxiety disorders can result in significant

  17. Multichannel assignment using K-Means in cognitive radio networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Raul Marquez

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Context: The developed scheme allows carrying out the assignment of several frequency channels (both contiguous and not contiguous available to the secondary users that require a higher bandwidth, under an environment of equality. Objective: The following paper develops a multichannel assignment which allows taking in a more efficient way the spectral opportunities in cognitive radio networks. Method: The developed assignment model is composed by the K-Means algorithm, which is in charged of carrying out the grouping of channels through clusters for the best parameters, and another algorithm in charge of establishing an equal criteria for all the secondary users that wish to transmit. The reached results were evaluated with experimental spectral occupancy data taken from the GSM frequency band. The developed model was compared with the MFA-CRN algorithm. Results: The obtained measurements correspond to the average bandwidth, the average delay, and the fairness calculation in the assignment of several channels. The developed assignment model shows an improvement in the assignment of a higher transmission average bandwidth for each secondary user while maintaining the fairness criteria in the channel assignments. Conclusion: Despite the increasing in the number of handoffs, it is also observed that metrics such as average bandwidth, average throughput and average delay are never negatively impacted by this increase in handoffs.

  18. Heuristic for Task-Worker Assignment with Varying Learning Slopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wipawee Tharmmaphornphilas

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Fashion industry has variety products, so the multi-skilled workers are required to improve flexibility in production and assignment. Generally the supervisor will assign task to the workers based on skill and skill levels of worker. Since in fashion industry new product styles are launched more frequently and the order size tends to be smaller, the workers always learn when the raw material and the production process changes. Consequently they require less time to produce the succeeding units of a task based on their learning ability. Since the workers have both experience and inexperience workers, so each worker has different skill level and learning ability. Consequently, the assignment which assumed constant skill level is not proper to use. This paper proposes a task-worker assignment considering worker skill levels and learning abilities. Processing time of each worker changes along production period due to a worker learning ability. We focus on a task-worker assignment in a fashion industry where tasks are ordered in series; the number of tasks is greater than the number of workers. Therefore, workers can perform multiple assignments followed the precedence restriction as an assembly line balancing problem. The problem is formulated in an integer linear programming model with objective to minimize makespan. A heuristic is proposed to determine the lower bound (LB and the upper bound (UB of the problem and the best assignment is determined. The performance of the heuristic method is tested by comparing quality of solution and computational time to optimal solutions.

  19. Social networking technologies as an emerging tool for HIV prevention: a cluster randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Sean D; Cumberland, William G; Lee, Sung-Jae; Jaganath, Devan; Szekeres, Greg; Coates, Thomas

    2013-09-03

    Social networking technologies are an emerging tool for HIV prevention. To determine whether social networking communities can increase HIV testing among African American and Latino men who have sex with men (MSM). Randomized, controlled trial with concealed allocation. (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01701206). Online. 112 MSM based in Los Angeles, more than 85% of whom were African American or Latino. Sixteen peer leaders were randomly assigned to deliver information about HIV or general health to participants via Facebook groups over 12 weeks. After participants accepted a request to join the group, participation was voluntary. Group participation and engagement were monitored. Participants could request a free, home-based HIV testing kit and completed questionnaires at baseline and 12-week follow-up. Participant acceptance of and engagement in the intervention and social network participation, rates of home-based HIV testing, and sexual risk behaviors. Almost 95% of intervention participants and 73% of control participants voluntarily communicated using the social platform. Twenty-five of 57 intervention participants (44%) requested home-based HIV testing kits compared with 11 of 55 control participants (20%) (difference, 24 percentage points [95% CI, 8 to 41 percentage points]). Nine of the 25 intervention participants (36%) who requested the test took it and mailed it back compared with 2 of the 11 control participants (18%) who requested the test. Retention at study follow-up was more than 93%. Only 2 Facebook communities were included for each group. Social networking communities are acceptable and effective tools to increase home-based HIV testing among at-risk populations. National Institute of Mental Health.

  20. Consumer empowerment and self-advocacy outcomes in a randomized study of peer-led education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickett, Susan A; Diehl, Sita M; Steigman, Pamela J; Prater, Joy D; Fox, Anthony; Shipley, Patricia; Grey, Dennis D; Cook, Judith A

    2012-08-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of the Building Recovery of Individual Dreams and Goals (BRIDGES) peer-led education intervention in empowering mental health consumers to become better advocates for their own care. A total of 428 adults with mental illness were randomly assigned to BRIDGES (intervention condition) or a services as usual wait list (control condition). Interviews were conducted at enrollment, at the end of the intervention, and 6-months post-intervention. Random regression results indicate that, compared to controls, BRIDGES participants experienced significant increases in overall empowerment, empowerment-self-esteem, and self-advocacy-assertiveness, and maintained these improved outcomes over time. Peer-led education interventions may provide participants with the information, skills and support they need to become more actively involved in the treatment decision-making process.