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Sample records for random source dogs

  1. 9 CFR 2.133 - Certification for random source dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Miscellaneous § 2.133 Certification for random source... of birth or, if unknown, then the approximate age; (iv) The color and any distinctive markings; and...

  2. Glucose and lipid profile of obese dogs fed with different starchy sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Lorenção Feitosa

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Among the health disorders caused by obesity in dogs stand out hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia. Glycemic responses are directly related to the amount and type of starch. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of different sources of starch on glycemic and lipid levels in obese dogs. These dogs were distributed in a completely randomized design in a factorial 3x2x2 (three sources starchy - corn (60%, sorghum (60% and corn: sorghum (30:30%, two breeds - Beagle and Dachshund and males and females. After 28 days of experiment, dogs fed with corn had higher amounts of glucose (93.79A mg dL-1 (P0.05. Thus, dogs that consumed corn had a higher glycemic peak in a shorter time compared with dogs that ingested sorghum. Furthermore, the dogs fed with diet containing sorghum showed lower levels of fructosamine that dogs that ingested corn diet (P<0.05 demonstrating that the diet containing sorghum maintained blood glucose over a longer time period that reduces the fluctuation of glucose in dogs. At 56 and 112 days of the experiment, a positive correlation between glucose levels and body weight (P<0.05 was also observed. At 28, 56, 84 and 112 days, Beagle dogs showed higher serum concentrations of total cholesterol compared with Dachshund dogs (P<0.05. It was concluded that the starchy source and breed can interfere with metabolic rates of obese dogs.

  3. Evaluation of the Dogs, Physical Activity, and Walking (Dogs PAW) Intervention: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Elizabeth A; Ogata, Niwako; Cheng, Ching-Wei

    2016-01-01

    To facilitate physical activity (PA) adoption and maintenance, promotion of innovative population-level strategies that focus on incorporating moderate-intensity lifestyle PAs are needed. The purpose of this randomized controlled trial was to evaluate the Dogs, Physical Activity, and Walking intervention, a 3-month, social cognitive theory (SCT), e-mail-based PA intervention. In a longitudinal, repeated-measures design, 49 dog owners were randomly assigned to a control (n = 25) or intervention group (n = 24). The intervention group received e-mail messages (twice weekly for 4 weeks and weekly for 8 weeks) designed to influence SCT constructs of self-efficacy, self-regulation, outcome expectations and expectancies, and social support. At baseline and every 3 months through 1 year, participants completed self-reported questionnaires of individual, interpersonal, and PA variables. Linear mixed models were used to assess for significant differences in weekly minutes of dog walking and theoretical constructs between groups (intervention and control) across time. To test self-efficacy as a mediator of social support for dog walking, tests for mediation were conducted using the bootstrapping technique. With the exception of Month 9, participants in the intervention group accumulated significantly more weekly minutes of dog walking than the control group. On average, the intervention group accumulated 58.4 more minutes (SD = 18.1) of weekly dog walking than the control group (p dog walking. Results indicate that a simple SCT-based e-mail intervention is effective in increasing and maintaining an increase in dog walking among dog owners at 12-month follow-up. In light of these findings, it may be advantageous to design dog walking interventions that focus on increasing self-efficacy for dog walking by fostering social support.

  4. Stray dogs and cats as potential sources of soil contamination with zoonotic parasites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Szwabe

    2017-03-01

    Cat faeces represent a more important potential source of environmental contamination with zoonotic parasites than dog faeces. Among the detected parasites of stray dogs and cats, Toxocara present an important zoonotic risk for the local human population, especially children.

  5. Source-Independent Quantum Random Number Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Zhu; Zhou, Hongyi; Yuan, Xiao; Ma, Xiongfeng

    2016-01-01

    Quantum random number generators can provide genuine randomness by appealing to the fundamental principles of quantum mechanics. In general, a physical generator contains two parts—a randomness source and its readout. The source is essential to the quality of the resulting random numbers; hence, it needs to be carefully calibrated and modeled to achieve information-theoretical provable randomness. However, in practice, the source is a complicated physical system, such as a light source or an atomic ensemble, and any deviations in the real-life implementation from the theoretical model may affect the randomness of the output. To close this gap, we propose a source-independent scheme for quantum random number generation in which output randomness can be certified, even when the source is uncharacterized and untrusted. In our randomness analysis, we make no assumptions about the dimension of the source. For instance, multiphoton emissions are allowed in optical implementations. Our analysis takes into account the finite-key effect with the composable security definition. In the limit of large data size, the length of the input random seed is exponentially small compared to that of the output random bit. In addition, by modifying a quantum key distribution system, we experimentally demonstrate our scheme and achieve a randomness generation rate of over 5 ×103 bit /s .

  6. Source-Independent Quantum Random Number Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Cao

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Quantum random number generators can provide genuine randomness by appealing to the fundamental principles of quantum mechanics. In general, a physical generator contains two parts—a randomness source and its readout. The source is essential to the quality of the resulting random numbers; hence, it needs to be carefully calibrated and modeled to achieve information-theoretical provable randomness. However, in practice, the source is a complicated physical system, such as a light source or an atomic ensemble, and any deviations in the real-life implementation from the theoretical model may affect the randomness of the output. To close this gap, we propose a source-independent scheme for quantum random number generation in which output randomness can be certified, even when the source is uncharacterized and untrusted. In our randomness analysis, we make no assumptions about the dimension of the source. For instance, multiphoton emissions are allowed in optical implementations. Our analysis takes into account the finite-key effect with the composable security definition. In the limit of large data size, the length of the input random seed is exponentially small compared to that of the output random bit. In addition, by modifying a quantum key distribution system, we experimentally demonstrate our scheme and achieve a randomness generation rate of over 5×10^{3}  bit/s.

  7. Randomized, controlled clinical trial evaluating the efficacy of pulsed signal therapy in dogs with osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Meghan O; Gordon-Evans, Wanda J; Knap, Kim E; Evans, Richard B

    2013-04-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of pulsed signal therapy (PST) in reducing pain and increasing function in dogs with osteoarthritis (OA) using a randomized, blinded, controlled clinical trial. Randomized, controlled, blinded clinical trial. Adult dogs (n = 60) with moderate-to-severe clinical signs of OA. Dogs were randomized by age into 2 groups: dogs ≥ 9 years and dogs Goniometry and gait analysis were performed, and the Canine Brief Pain Inventory (CBPI) questionnaire was given to the owners to fill out without supervision. Outcome measures were repeated at the end of treatment (Day 11) and 6 weeks after beginning treatment (Day 42). The PST group performed significantly better than the control group as measured by the CBPI Severity and Interference scores (P Veterinary Surgeons.

  8. Deterministic extraction from weak random sources

    CERN Document Server

    Gabizon, Ariel

    2011-01-01

    In this research monograph, the author constructs deterministic extractors for several types of sources, using a methodology of recycling randomness which enables increasing the output length of deterministic extractors to near optimal length.

  9. Dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Digital Press Kit Connect With Us New & Noteworthy Dogs Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Overview Diseases ... healthy. Diseases The most common diseases associated with dogs that can cause human illness are: Campylobacteriosis ( Campylobacter ...

  10. Random matrix theory with an external source

    CERN Document Server

    Brézin, Edouard

    2016-01-01

    This is a first book to show that the theory of the Gaussian random matrix is essential to understand the universal correlations with random fluctuations and to demonstrate that it is useful to evaluate topological universal quantities. We consider Gaussian random matrix models in the presence of a deterministic matrix source. In such models the correlation functions are known exactly for an arbitrary source and for any size of the matrices. The freedom given by the external source allows for various tunings to different classes of universality. The main interest is to use this freedom to compute various topological invariants for surfaces such as the intersection numbers for curves drawn on a surface of given genus with marked points, Euler characteristics, and the Gromov–Witten invariants. A remarkable duality for the average of characteristic polynomials is essential for obtaining such topological invariants. The analysis is extended to nonorientable surfaces and to surfaces with boundaries.

  11. Stray dogs and cats as potential sources of soil contamination with zoonotic parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szwabe, Katarzyna; Blaszkowska, Joanna

    2017-03-22

    The main source of many zoonoses is soil contaminated with feline and canine faeces. Thus, the aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of intestinal parasites in stray dogs and cats adopted in Lodz shelter (Poland). In total, 163 faecal samples were collected from 95 dogs and 68 cats from 2011 to 2012. The samples were processed by sedimentation techniques using Mini Parasep®SF. Six parasite genera belonging to protozoa, cestoda, and nematoda, were found in dogs, while eight were found in cats. Out of the 163 fecal samples, 37.4% were positive for the presence at least one species of intestinal parasites. The majority of positive dog samples contained eggs from Toxocara and Trichuris genera, and the family Ancylostomatidae, while Toxocara and Taenia eggs, as well as Cystoisospora oocysts, predominated in cat faeces. A significantly higher prevalence of parasites was noted in cats (48.5%) than in dogs (29.5%) (χ2=6.15, P=0.013). The Toxocara genus was the most prevalent parasite in both populations; eggs were found in 27.9% and 16.8% of cats and dogs, respectively. Animals younger than 12 months of age showed higher infection rates with Toxocara, but differences were not statistically significant. The average numbers of Toxocara eggs/gram of faeces in positive puppy and kitten samples were over 5 and 7 times higher than in older dogs and cats, respectively. Mixed infection were found in dogs (5.3%) and cats (8.8%). Cat faeces represent a more important potential source of environmental contamination with zoonotic parasites than dog faeces. Among the detected parasites of stray dogs and cats, Toxocara present an important zoonotic risk for the local human population, especially children.

  12. Evaluating a Website to Teach Children Safety with Dogs: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David C. Schwebel

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Dog bites represent a significant threat to child health. Theory-driven interventions scalable for broad dissemination are sparse. A website was developed to teach children dog safety via increased knowledge, improved cognitive skills in relevant domains, and increased perception of vulnerability to bites. A randomized controlled trial was conducted with 69 children aged 4–5 randomly assigned to use the dog safety website or a control transportation safety website for ~3 weeks. Assessment of dog safety knowledge and behavior plus skill in three relevant cognitive constructs (impulse control, noticing details, and perspective-taking was conducted both at baseline and following website use. The dog safety website incorporated interactive games, instructional videos including testimonials, a motivational rewards system, and messaging to parents concerning child lessons. Our results showed that about two-thirds of the intervention sample was not adherent to website use at home, so both intent-to-treat and per-protocol analyses were conducted. Intent-to-treat analyses yielded mostly null results. Per-protocol analyses suggested children compliant to the intervention protocol scored higher on knowledge and recognition of safe behavior with dogs following the intervention compared to the control group. Adherent children also had improved scores post-intervention on the cognitive skill of noticing details compared to the control group. We concluded that young children’s immature cognition can lead to dog bites. Interactive eHealth training on websites shows potential to teach children relevant cognitive and safety skills to reduce risk. Compliance to website use is a challenge, and some relevant cognitive skills (e.g., noticing details may be more amenable to computer-based training than others (e.g., impulse control.

  13. Spatial and simultaneous seroepidemiology of anti-Leishmania spp. antibodies in dog owners and their dogs from randomly selected households in a major city of southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benitez, Aline do Nascimento; Martins, Felippe Danyel Cardoso; Mareze, Marcelle; Nino, Beatriz de Souza Lima; Caldart, Eloiza Teles; Ferreira, Fernanda Pinto; Mitsuka-Breganó, Regina; Freire, Roberta Lemos; Galhardo, Juliana Arena; Martins, Camila Marinelli; Biondo, Alexander Welker; Navarro, Italmar Teodorico

    2018-06-01

    Although leishmaniasis has been described as a classic example of a zoonosis requiring a comprehensive approach for control, to date, no study has been conducted on the spatial distribution of simultaneous Leishmania spp. seroprevalence in dog owners and dogs from randomly selected households in urban settings. Accordingly, the present study aimed to simultaneously identify the seroprevalence, spatial distribution and associated factors of infection with Leishmania spp. in dog owners and their dogs in the city of Londrina, a county seat in southern Brazil with a population of half a million people and ranked 18th in population and 145th in the human development index (HDI) out of 5570 Brazilian cities. Overall, 564 households were surveyed and included 597 homeowners and their 729 dogs. Anti-Leishmania spp. antibodies were detected by ELISA in 9/597 (1.50%) dog owners and in 32/729 (4.38%) dogs, with significantly higher prevalence (p = 0.0042) in dogs. Spatial analysis revealed associations between seropositive dogs and households located up to 500 m from the local railway. No clusters were found for either owner or dog case distributions. In summary, the seroepidemiological and spatial results collectively show a lack of association of the factors for infection, and the results demonstrated higher exposure for dogs than their owners. However, railway areas may provide favorable conditions for the maintenance of infected phlebotomines, thereby causing infection in nearby domiciled dogs. In such an urban scenario, local sanitary barriers should be focused on the terrestrial routes of people and surrounding areas, particularly railways, via continuous vector surveillance and identification of phlebotomines infected by Leishmania spp. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. The effect of age and carbohydrate and protein sources on digestibility, fecal microbiota, fermentation products, fecal IgA, and immunological blood parameters in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maria, A P J; Ayane, L; Putarov, T C; Loureiro, B A; Neto, B P; Casagrande, M F; Gomes, M O S; Glória, M B A; Carciofi, A C

    2017-06-01

    The present study compared the effects of diets formulated with fibers of different fermentability and protein sources of animal or vegetable origins on old and adult dogs. The experiment was organized in a 3 (diets) × 2 (ages) factorial arrangement, totaling 6 treatments. Thirty-six Beagle dogs were used (18 old dogs [10.2 ± 1.0 yr] and 18 young adult dogs [2.6 ± 0.9 yr]), with 6 dogs per treatment. Three diets with similar compositions were used: a nonfermentable insoluble fiber source (sugarcane fiber) and chicken byproduct meal (nonfermentable fiber [NFF] diet), a fermentable fiber source (beet pulp) and chicken byproduct meal (fermentable fiber [FF] diet), and soybean meal as a protein and fiber source (soybean meal [SM] diet). Data were evaluated using the MIXED procedure and considering the effects and interactions of block, animal, diets, and age. Means were compared using Tukey's test ( dogs had a reduced coefficient of total tract apparent digestibility of DM, which was explained by the age and diet interaction of CP and fat digestibility that was lower for old than for adult dogs fed the FF diet ( dogs fed the NFF diet had increased DM content ( dogs fed the FF and SM diets compared with dogs fed the NFF diet ( dogs compared with adult dogs fed the FF diet ( dogs compared with adult dogs ( dogs fed the SM diet regardless of age ( dogs had reduced peripheral T and B lymphocytes ( dogs fed the SM diet had increased IgA in feces compared with animals fed the NFF and FF diets ( dogs, both the FF and SM diets induced increased IgA compared with the NFF diet ( dogs. The protein and oligosaccharides of soybean meal are digestible by dogs, induce the production of SCFA and spermidine, and increase fecal IgA. Old dogs had increased putrecine, cadaverine, and spermine fecal concentrations.

  15. Carprofen provides better post-operative analgesia than tramadol in dogs after enucleation: A randomized, masked clinical trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Cherlene; Bentley, Ellison; Hetzel, Scott; Smith, Lesley J

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare analgesia provided by carprofen or tramadol in dogs after enucleation. Design Randomized, masked trial Animals Forty-three dogs Procedures Client-owned dogs admitted for routine enucleation were randomly assigned to receive either carprofen or tramadol orally 2 hours prior to surgery and 12 hours after the first dose. Dogs were scored for pain at baseline, and postoperatively at 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 24, and 30 hours after extubation. Dogs received identical premedication and inhalation anesthesia regimens, including premedication with hydromorphone. If the total pain score was ≥9, if there was a score ≥ 3 in any one category, or if the visual analog scale score (VAS) was ≥35 combined with a palpation score of >0, rescue analgesia (hydromorphone) was administered and treatment failure was recorded. Characteristics between groups were compared with a Student’s t-test and Fisher’s exact test. The incidence of rescue was compared between groups using a log rank test. Pain scores and VAS scores between groups were compared using repeated measures ANOVA. Results There was no difference in age (p=0.493), gender (p=0.366) or baseline pain scores (p=0.288) between groups. Significantly more dogs receiving tramadol required rescue analgesia (6/21) compared to dogs receiving carprofen (1/22; p=0.035). Pain and VAS scores decreased linearly over time (p=0.038, ppain (p=0.915) or VAS scores (p=0.372) between groups at any time point (dogs were excluded from analysis after rescue). Conclusions and Clinical Relevance This study suggests that carprofen, with opioid premedication, provides more effective post-operative analgesia than tramadol in dogs undergoing enucleation. PMID:25459482

  16. Urban domestic dog populations as a source of canine distemper virus for wild carnivores in the Coquimbo region of Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta-Jamett, G; Chalmers, W S K; Cunningham, A A; Cleaveland, S; Handel, I G; Bronsvoort, B M deC

    2011-09-28

    Urban areas can support dog populations dense enough to maintain canine distemper virus (CDV) and can be a source of infection for rural dogs and free-ranging carnivores. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between urban and rural domestic dog and wild carnivore populations and their effects on the epidemiology of CDV to explain retrospectively a CD outbreak in wild foxes in 2003. From 2005 to 2007 a cross-sectional household questionnaire survey was conducted in Coquimbo and Ovalle cities, in three towns and in rural sites along two transects from these cities to the Fray Jorge National Park (FJNP) in the Coquimbo region, Chile. Blood samples were collected from unvaccinated dogs at surveyed households and from free-ranging foxes in rural areas along the transects. The seroprevalence of CDV in domestic dogs was higher in urban than in rural areas and in the later was highest in dogs born before 2001-2002. The seroprevalence of CDV in foxes was higher in areas closer to human settlements. A high seroprevalence in dogs born before 2001-2002 further supports a link between CDV patterns in rural dog and fox populations. In our study area, urban dogs are proposed to be the source of CDV infection to wild carnivores. The large dog population size and density detected in Coquimbo and Ovalle provides optimal conditions for maintaining a large and dense susceptible population of dogs, which can act as a reservoir for highly infectious diseases and could have been the source of infection in the CD outbreak in wild foxes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of Benazepril on Survival of Dogs with Chronic Kidney Disease: A Multicenter, Randomized, Blinded, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, J N; Font, A; Rousselot, J-F; Ash, R A; Bonfanti, U; Brovida, C; Crowe, I D; Lanore, D; Pechereau, D; Seewald, W; Strehlau, G

    2017-07-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in dogs. To evaluate the efficacy in prolonging survival and safety of benazepril administration to dogs with CKD. Forty-nine client-owned dogs with CKD. Dogs were randomized to benazepril (0.25 to benazepril versus placebo was detected for renal survival time in all dogs; median (95% confidence interval (CI)) survival times were 305 (53-575) days in the benazepril group and 287 (152-not available) in the placebo group (P = .53). Renal survival times were not significantly longer with benazepril compared to placebo for subgroups: hazard ratios (95% CI) were 0.50 (0.21-1.22) with P = .12 for initial urine protein-to-creatinine ratio (UPC) >0.5, and 0.38 (0.12-1.19) with P = .080 for initial UPC >0.5 plus plasma creatinine ≤440 μmol/L. Proteinuria, assessed from the UPC, was significantly (P = .0032) lower after treatment with benazepril compared to placebo. There were no significant differences between groups for clinical signs or frequencies of adverse events. Benazepril significantly reduced proteinuria in dogs with CKD. Insufficient numbers of dogs were recruited to allow conclusions on survival time. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  18. Food-specific sublingual immunotherapy is well tolerated and safe in healthy dogs: a blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maina, E; Pelst, M; Hesta, M; Cox, E

    2017-01-18

    Food allergies are increasing in prevalence but no treatment strategies are currently available to cure dogs with food allergy. Over the past decade, experimental food allergen-specific sublingual immunotherapy (FA-SLIT) has emerged as a potential treatment for food allergies in human medicine. However, FA-SLIT has not been investigated in dogs. Therefore, the objective of this study was to prospectively evaluate the safety, tolerability and dispenser sterility of FA-SLIT in healthy dogs before testing it in food allergic dogs. Eight experimental healthy beagle dogs, never orally exposed to peanut, were randomized in two groups to receive SLIT with peanut or placebo for 4 months. Subjects were monitored daily for local and systemic adverse effects. Blood samples for complete blood count and serum biochemistry, and urine for urinalysis were collected and the dogs' body weight was recorded at day 0, 35 and 119 of the SLIT treatment. Sera for the determination of peanut-specific IgG and IgE were collected at day 0, 35, 49, 70, 91, 105 and 119. Intradermal tests were performed before (day 0) and after (day 119) the experiment. The content of each dispenser used to administer treatment or placebo was tested for sterility after usage. In order to assess the presence or absence of sensitization, dogs were challenged 6 months after the end of the study with 2000 μg of peanut extract daily for 7 to 14 days. All dogs completed the study. The treatment did not provoke either local or systemic side-effects. Peanut-specific IgG significantly increased in treatment group. Even though a significant increase in peanut-specific IgE was also seen, intradermal tests were negative in all dogs before and after the experiment, and the challenge test did not trigger any adverse reactions in the treated dogs, which shows the protocol did not cause sensitization to peanut, but nevertheless primed the immune system as indicated by the humoral immune response. All dispenser solutions

  19. One pair of hands is not like another: caudate BOLD response in dogs depends on signal source and canine temperament

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter F. Cook

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Having previously used functional MRI to map the response to a reward signal in the ventral caudate in awake unrestrained dogs, here we examined the importance of signal source to canine caudate activation. Hand signals representing either incipient reward or no reward were presented by a familiar human (each dog’s respective handler, an unfamiliar human, and via illustrated images of hands on a computer screen to 13 dogs undergoing voluntary fMRI. All dogs had received extensive training with the reward and no-reward signals from their handlers and with the computer images and had minimal exposure to the signals from strangers. All dogs showed differentially higher BOLD response in the ventral caudate to the reward versus no reward signals, and there was a robust effect at the group level. Further, differential response to the signal source had a highly significant interaction with a dog’s general aggressivity as measured by the C-BARQ canine personality assessment. Dogs with greater aggressivity showed a higher differential response to the reward signal versus no-reward signal presented by the unfamiliar human and computer, while dogs with lower aggressivity showed a higher differential response to the reward signal versus no-reward signal from their handler. This suggests that specific facets of canine temperament bear more strongly on the perceived reward value of relevant communication signals than does reinforcement history, as each of the dogs were reinforced similarly for each signal, regardless of the source (familiar human, unfamiliar human, or computer. A group-level psychophysiological interaction (PPI connectivity analysis showed increased functional coupling between the caudate and a region of cortex associated with visual discrimination and learning on reward versus no-reward trials. Our findings emphasize the sensitivity of the domestic dog to human social interaction, and may have other implications and applications

  20. The corpus luteum of the dog: source and target of steroid hormones?

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    Papa, P C; Hoffmann, B

    2011-08-01

    Aim of this paper is to review our present understanding on the endocrine control of luteal function in the bitch and to add some new data generated in our laboratories in support of the hypothesis of a paracrine/autocrine role of corpus luteum (CL) derived steroid hormones. Luteal lifespan in non-pregnant dogs often exceeds that of pregnant dogs, where luteal regression terminates in a rapid luteolysis, immediately prior to parturition. In non-pregnant dogs, luteal regression occurs independently of a uterine luteolysin and in spite of increased gonadotropic support during the last third of dioestrus. The CL is the only source of progesterone (P(4)) maintaining pregnancy, and they have the capacity to synthesize oestrogens as substantiated by expression of the CYP19 (aromatase) gene observed in this study. Our data demonstrated that lutein and non-lutein cells of the canine CL express in a rather constant manner the progesterone receptor (PR) and the oestrogen receptor, classifying them as targets for an autocrine/paracrine activity of CL-derived steroids. Therefore, a functional role of P(4) within a positive loop feedback system, including StAR and 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, has been postulated. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  1. Can therapy dogs improve pain and satisfaction after total joint arthroplasty? A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Carl M; Dong, Yan; Thornhill, Thomas S; Wright, John; Ready, John; Brick, Gregory W; Dyer, George

    2015-01-01

    The use of animals to augment traditional medical therapies was reported as early as the 9th century but to our knowledge has not been studied in an orthopaedic patient population. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of animal-assisted therapy using therapy dogs in the postoperative recovery of patients after THA and TKA. We asked: (1) Do therapy dogs have an effect on patients' perception of pain after total joint arthroplasty as measured by the VAS? (3) Do therapy dogs have an effect on patients' satisfaction with their hospital stay after total joint arthroplasty as measured by the Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (HCAHPS)? A randomized controlled trial of 72 patients undergoing primary unilateral THA or TKA was conducted. Patients were randomized to a 15-minute visitation with a therapy dog before physical therapy or standard postoperative physical therapy regimens. Both groups had similar demographic characteristics. Reduction in pain was assessed using the VAS after each physical therapy session, beginning on postoperative Day 1 and continuing for three consecutive sessions. To ascertain patient satisfaction, the proportion of patients selecting top-category ratings in each subsection of the HCAHPS was compared. Patients in the treatment group had lower VAS scores after each physical therapy session with a final VAS score difference of 2.4 units (animal-assisted therapy VAS, 1.7; SD, 0.97 [95% CI, 1.4-2.0] versus control VAS, 4.1; SD, 0.97 [95% CI, 3.8-4.4], pphysical therapy session. Patients in the treatment group had a higher proportion of top-box HCAHPS scores in the following fields: nursing communication (33 of 36, 92% [95% CI, 78%-98%] versus 69%, 25 of 36 [95% CI, 52%-84%], p=0.035; risk ratio, 1.3 [95% CI of risk ratio, 1.0-1.7]; risk difference, 23% [95% CI of risk difference, 5%-40%]), pain management (34 of 36, 94% [95% CI, 81%-99%], versus 26 of 36, 72% [95% CI, 55%-86%], p=0.024; risk ratio, 1.3 [95

  2. Different but overlapping populations of Strongyloides stercoralis in dogs and humans-Dogs as a possible source for zoonotic strongyloidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaleta, Tegegn G; Zhou, Siyu; Bemm, Felix M; Schär, Fabian; Khieu, Virak; Muth, Sinuon; Odermatt, Peter; Lok, James B; Streit, Adrian

    2017-08-01

    Strongyloidiasis is a much-neglected soil born helminthiasis caused by the nematode Strongyloides stercoralis. Human derived S. stercoralis can be maintained in dogs in the laboratory and this parasite has been reported to also occur in dogs in the wild. Some authors have considered strongyloidiasis a zoonotic disease while others have argued that the two hosts carry host specialized populations of S. stercoralis and that dogs play a minor role, if any, as a reservoir for zoonotic S. stercoralis infections of humans. We isolated S. stercoralis from humans and their dogs in rural villages in northern Cambodia, a region with a high incidence of strongyloidiasis, and compared the worms derived from these two host species using nuclear and mitochondrial DNA sequence polymorphisms. We found that in dogs there exist two populations of S. stercoralis, which are clearly separated from each other genetically based on the nuclear 18S rDNA, the mitochondrial cox1 locus and whole genome sequence. One population, to which the majority of the worms belong, appears to be restricted to dogs. The other population is indistinguishable from the population of S. stercoralis isolated from humans. Consistent with earlier studies, we found multiple sequence variants of the hypervariable region I of the 18 S rDNA in S. stercoralis from humans. However, comparison of mitochondrial sequences and whole genome analysis suggest that these different 18S variants do not represent multiple genetically isolated subpopulations among the worms isolated from humans. We also investigated the mode of reproduction of the free-living generations of laboratory and wild isolates of S. stercoralis. Contrary to earlier literature on S. stercoralis but similar to other species of Strongyloides, we found clear evidence of sexual reproduction. Overall, our results show that dogs carry two populations, possibly different species of Strongyloides. One population appears to be dog specific but the other one is

  3. A randomized, blinded, prospective clinical trial of postoperative rehabilitation in dogs after surgical decompression of acute thoracolumbar intervertebral disc herniation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zidan, Natalia; Sims, Cory; Fenn, Joe; Williams, Kim; Griffith, Emily; Early, Peter J; Mariani, Chris L; Munana, Karen R; Guevar, Julien; Olby, Natasha J

    2018-05-01

    Experimental evidence shows benefit of rehabilitation after spinal cord injury (SCI) but there are limited objective data on the effect of rehabilitation on recovery of dogs after surgery for acute thoracolumbar intervertebral disc herniations (TL-IVDH). Compare the effect of basic and intensive post-operative rehabilitation programs on recovery of locomotion in dogs with acute TL-IVDH in a randomized, blinded, prospective clinical trial. Thirty non-ambulatory paraparetic or paraplegic (with pain perception) dogs after decompressive surgery for TL-IVDH. Blinded, prospective clinical trial. Dogs were randomized (1:1) to a basic or intensive 14-day in-house rehabilitation protocol. Fourteen-day open field gait score (OFS) and coordination (regulatory index, RI) were primary outcomes. Secondary measures of gait, post-operative pain, and weight were compared at 14 and 42 days. Of 50 dogs assessed, 32 met inclusion criteria and 30 completed the protocol. There were no adverse events associated with rehabilitation. Median time to walking was 7.5 (2 - 37) days. Mean change in OFS by day 14 was 6.13 (confidence intervals: 4.88, 7.39, basic) versus 5.73 (4.94, 6.53, intensive) representing a treatment effect of -0.4 (-1.82, 1.02) which was not significant, P=.57. RI on day 14 was 55.13 (36.88, 73.38, basic) versus 51.65 (30.98, 72.33, intensive), a non-significant treatment effect of -3.47 (-29.81, 22.87), P = .79. There were no differences in secondary outcomes between groups. Early postoperative rehabilitation after surgery for TL-IVDH is safe but doesn't improve rate or level of recovery in dogs with incomplete SCI. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  4. A blinded randomized controlled trial evaluating the usefulness of a novel diet (aminoprotect care) in dogs with spontaneous food allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivry, Thierry; Kurata, Keigo; Paps, Judy S; Masuda, Kenichi

    2007-10-01

    Aminoprotect Care (APC) is a novel diet composed of aminoacids, potato proteins and corn starch. The objectives of this study were to determine whether Maltese-Beagle atopic (MBA) dogs hypersensitive to corn exhibited clinical signs and changes in immunological markers after being fed APC. The study was designed as a blinded randomized controlled crossover experiment. Ten MBA dogs with signs of allergy within five days of ingesting corn were selected. Dogs were randomized to be fed either their maintenance diet with corn or APC for five days. After a washout of two weeks, diets were switched. Before and daily during each intervention, skin lesions were graded by an investigator while pruritus was assessed by another. Before and at the end of each intervention, the percentage of circulating CD4+CCR4+, corn-activated CD4+ T-lymphocytes and serum corn-specific IgE levels were measured and ratios of post:pre values calculated. During this trial, pruritus and skin lesions increased significantly in MBA dogs when ingesting corn while no such increase occurred when fed APC. Total, median and maximal pruritus values were significantly higher in MBA dogs ingesting corn compared to APC. There were no significant differences between interventions in the immunological parameters assessed. In summary, even though APC contains corn starch to which corn-sensitive MBA dogs often react, the ingestion of APC did not lead to significant increases in skin lesions or pruritus. Aminoprotect Care might prove valuable for management of food allergies. These experimental observations must be validated in large field studies.

  5. Serological and demographic evidence for domestic dogs as a source of canine distemper virus infection for Serengeti wildlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleaveland, S; Appel, M G; Chalmers, W S; Chillingworth, C; Kaare, M; Dye, C

    2000-03-15

    Following an epidemic of canine distemper virus (CDV) in Serengeti lions in 1994, the role of domestic dogs in the epidemiology of the disease was investigated by serological and demographic analyses. From 1992 to 1994, data were collected from two domestic dog populations bordering the Serengeti National Park. Several lines of evidence indicated that patterns of CDV infection differed significantly between higher-density dog populations of Serengeti District to the west of the park and lower-density populations of Ngorongoro District to the south-east: (a) CDV age-seroprevalence patterns differed significantly between years in Ngorongoro District populations but not in Serengeti District populations; (b) CDV seropositive pups (Ngorongoro District only in 1994, whereas a proportion of pups in Serengeti District were seropositive in each year of the study; (c) in Ngorongoro District, the proportion of deaths attributed to disease was significantly higher in 1994 than in 1993, whereas in Serengeti District, there was no significant difference in disease-related mortality between years; (d) in Ngorongoro District, significantly more CDV seronegative dogs than seropositive dogs died in 1994, whereas there was no difference in survival of CDV seropositives and seronegatives between years in Serengeti District. We concluded that, between 1992 and 1994, CDV persisted in higher-density dog populations of Serengeti District, but occurred only sporadically in lower-density Ngorongoro District populations. Data from Ngorongoro District are consistent with exposure of dogs to CDV in 1991 and 1994, but not in 1992 and 1993. These findings suggest that higher-density domestic dog populations to the west of the Serengeti National Park were a more likely source of CDV infection for wildlife during 1994 than lower-density pastoralist dogs to the south and east of the park.

  6. 9 CFR 2.132 - Procurement of dogs, cats, and other animals; dealers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Procurement of dogs, cats, and other... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Miscellaneous § 2.132 Procurement of dogs, cats, and other animals; dealers. (a) A class “B” dealer may obtain live random source dogs and cats...

  7. Comparison of oral robenacoxib and carprofen for the treatment of osteoarthritis in dogs: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edamura, Kazuya; King, Jonathan N; Seewald, Wolfgang; Sakakibara, Nobuhiro; Okumura, Masahiro

    2012-09-01

    The efficacy and tolerability of robenacoxib for the treatment of osteoarthritis in dogs were evaluated in a prospective, multicenter, randomized, noninferiority design clinical trial. A total of 32 dogs presenting with osteoarthritis were allocated randomly to receive, orally once daily for 28 days, either 1-2 mg/kg robenacoxib (n=21) or 3.5-5 mg/kg carprofen (n=11). Dogs were assessed by clinicians and owners using numerical rating scale scores at baseline and days 14 and 28. The primary efficacy endpoint was the global functional disability score, which was the sum of clinician scores for standing posture, lameness at walk, lameness at trot, willingness to raise the contralateral limb and pain at palpation. There was a good to excellent level of efficacy in both treatment groups. Differences between days 14 and 28 compared to day 0 were significant for all 11 clinician and owner scores for robenacoxib, and for 6 of 11 scores for carprofen. The efficacy of robenacoxib was numerically superior to carprofen for all 13 endpoints, but differences were not statistically significant. For the global functional disability score, the estimated efficacy of robenacoxib was 1.244 (95% confidence interval 0.555-2.493) relative to carprofen. The tolerability of both treatments was good as assessed from adverse events, clinical signs, and hematology and serum biochemistry variables. In conclusion, once daily administration of robenacoxib tablets had noninferior efficacy and tolerability compared to carprofen for the treatment of the clinical signs of osteoarthritis in dogs.

  8. Relationship between sources of pet acquisition and euthanasia of cats and dogs in an animal shelter: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbe Montoya, A I; Rand, J S; Greer, R M; Alberthsen, C; Vankan, D

    2017-06-01

    Approximately 140,000 unwanted dogs and cats are culled in Australia annually. There is a paucity of information linking sources of pet acquisition with subsequent euthanasia, which may inform evidence-based strategies to reduce euthanasia rates. This pilot study aimed to determine whether there is a higher risk of euthanasia related to the source of acquisition for pets surrendered to an animal shelter. Data for 5391 dogs and 5581 cats surrendered to one Queensland shelter between January 2006 and December 2009 were analysed. The main sources of acquisition for owner-surrendered dogs were 'shelter' and 'pet shop' and for owner-surrendered cats were 'own litter' and 'shelter'. Euthanasia rates for different sources varied. For adult dogs, acquisition through newspaper advertisements was associated with the highest euthanasia rate. Adult cats obtained as gifts (from friend or family member) had the highest euthanasia rate. For junior cats, the overwhelming source was the owner's own litter (68% of intake) and only kittens acquired as strays were at significantly higher risk of euthanasia. For both dogs and cats, animals acquired from shelters had lower rates of euthanasia than most other sources, which suggests that shelter-sourced animals may be considered a preferred source for pet acquisition to assist in reducing the number of adoptable pets euthanased. There was evidence from the study animal shelter that the risk of euthanasia was related to acquisition source. These findings should be confirmed by prospective studies, which should also investigate the interaction between acquisition source and other factors, using larger data sets from a variety of shelters. © 2017 Australian Veterinary Association.

  9. A randomized controlled clinical trial of the use of benazepril and heparin for the treatment of chronic kidney disease in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenhündfeld, Jörg; Wefstaedt, Patrick; Nolte, Ingo J A

    2009-04-15

    To investigate the effects of benazepril and heparin on renal function and blood pressure in dogs with chronic kidney disease. Randomized controlled clinical trial. 26 dogs with chronic kidney disease. Dogs were randomly assigned to receive benazepril hydrochloride (0.5 mg/kg [0.23 mg/lb], PO, q 24 h; n = 10), benazepril and heparin (150 U/kg [68 U/lb], SC, q 8 h, for the first 6 days; 10), or a placebo (6) and were followed up for 180 days. Health status score at the end of the study (ie, day 180) was significantly higher for dogs in the 2 treatment groups than for dogs in the placebo group. In addition, glomerular filtration rate was significantly increased and the urine protein-to-creatinine ratio was significantly decreased, compared with baseline rates, at the end of the study for dogs in both treatment groups but not for dogs in the placebo group. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures were significantly decreased on day 6 for dogs in both treatment groups. Results suggested that administration of benazepril had beneficial effects in dogs with chronic kidney disease but that short-term administration of heparin in conjunction with benazepril did not appear to provide any additional benefit.

  10. Preoperative low level laser therapy in dogs undergoing tibial plateau levelling osteotomy: A blinded, prospective, randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogatko, Cleo P; Baltzer, Wendy I; Tennant, Rachel

    2017-01-16

    To evaluate the influence of preoperative low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on therapeutic outcomes of dogs undergoing tibial plateau levelling osteotomy (TPLO). Healthy dogs undergoing TPLO were randomly assigned to receive either a single preoperative LLLT treatment (800-900 nm dual wavelength, 6 W, 3.5 J/cm 2 , 100 cm 2 area) or a sham treatment. Lameness assessment and response to manipulation, as well as force plate analysis, were performed preoperatively, then again at 24 hours, two weeks, and eight weeks postoperatively. Radiographic signs of healing of the osteo-tomy were assessed at eight weeks postoperatively. Twenty-seven dogs (27 stifles) were included and no major complications occurred. At eight weeks postoperatively, a significant difference in peak vertical force analysis was noted between the LLLT (39.6% ± 4.7%) and sham groups (28.9% ± 2.6%), (p dogs in the LLLT group (6.6 ± 1.6 years) was greater than that for the sham group (4.5 ± 2.0, p dogs (5/8) had healed at the eight-week time point than in the sham group (3/12) despite the age difference (p = 0.11) Clinical significance: The results of this study demonstrate that improved peak vertical force could be related to the preoperative use of LLLT for dogs undergoing TPLO at eight weeks postoperatively. The use of LLLT may improve postoperative return to function following canine osteotomies and its use is recommended.

  11. The effect of maropitant on intraoperative isoflurane requirements and postoperative nausea and vomiting in dogs: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swallow, Adam; Rioja, Eva; Elmer, Tim; Dugdale, Alex

    2017-07-01

    To establish if preoperative maropitant significantly reduced intraoperative isoflurane requirements and reduced clinical signs associated with postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) in dogs. Randomized clinical trial. Twenty-four healthy, client-owned dogs undergoing routine ovariohysterectomy. Premedication involved acepromazine (0.03 mg kg -1 ) combined with methadone (0.3 mg kg -1 ) intramuscularly 45 minutes before anaesthetic induction with intravenous (IV) propofol, dosed to effect. Meloxicam (0.2 mg kg -1 ) was administered intravenously. Dogs were randomly assigned to administration of saline (group S; 0.1 mL kg -1 , n=12) or maropitant (group M; 1 mg kg -1 , n=12) subcutaneously at time of premedication. Methadone (0.1 mg kg -1 IV) was repeated 4 hours later. Anaesthesia was maintained with isoflurane in oxygen, dosed to effect by an observer unaware of group allocation. The dogs were assessed hourly, starting 1 hour postoperatively, using the short form of the Glasgow Composite Pain Score (GCPS), and for ptyalism and signs attributable to PONV [score from 0 (none) to 3 (severe)] by blinded observers. Owners completed a questionnaire at the postoperative recheck. Overall mean±standard deviation end-tidal isoflurane percentage was lower in group M (1.19±0.26%) than group S (1.44±0.23%) (p=0.022), but was not significantly different between groups at specific noxious events (skin incision, ovarian pedicle clamp application, cervical clamp application, wound closure). Cardiorespiratory variables and postoperative GCPS were not significantly different between groups. Overall, 50% of dogs displayed signs attributable to PONV, with no difference in PONV scores between groups (p=0.198). No difference in anaesthetic recovery was noted by owners between groups. Maropitant reduced overall intraoperative isoflurane requirements but did not affect the incidence of PONV. Maropitant provided no significant benefits to dogs undergoing ovariohysterectomy

  12. Design and challenges for a randomized, multi-site clinical trial comparing the use of service dogs and emotional support dogs in Veterans with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Gabrielle H; Biswas, Kousick; Serpi, Tracey; McGovern, Stephanie; Groer, Shirley; Stock, Eileen M; Magruder, Kathryn M; Storzbach, Daniel; Skelton, Kelly; Abrams, Thad; McCranie, Mark; Richerson, Joan; Dorn, Patricia A; Huang, Grant D; Fallon, Michael T

    2017-11-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a leading cause of impairments in quality of life and functioning among Veterans. Service dogs have been promoted as an effective adjunctive intervention for PTSD, however published research is limited and design and implementation flaws in published studies limit validated conclusions. This paper describes the rationale for the study design, a detailed methodological description, and implementation challenges of a multisite randomized clinical trial examining the impact of service dogs on the on the functioning and quality of life of Veterans with PTSD. Trial design considerations prioritized participant and intervention (dog) safety, selection of an intervention comparison group that would optimize enrollment in all treatment arms, pragmatic methods to ensure healthy well-trained dogs, and the selection of outcomes for achieving scientific and clinical validity in a Veteran PTSD population. Since there is no blueprint for conducting a randomized clinical trial examining the impact of dogs on PTSD of this size and scope, it is our primary intent that the successful completion of this trial will set a benchmark for future trial design and scientific rigor, as well as guiding researchers aiming to better understand the role that dogs can have in the management of Veterans experiencing mental health conditions such as PTSD. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Randomized phase III trial of piroxicam in combination with mitoxantrone or carboplatin for first-line treatment of urogenital tract transitional cell carcinoma in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allstadt, S D; Rodriguez, C O; Boostrom, B; Rebhun, R B; Skorupski, K A

    2015-01-01

    Reported response rates of transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) in dogs to piroxicam in combination with either mitoxantrone or carboplatin are similar; however, it is unknown whether either drug might provide superior duration of response. To determine if the progression-free interval (PFI) of dogs with TCC treated with mitoxantrone and piroxicam was different than that of dogs receiving carboplatin and piroxicam. The hypothesis was that the efficacy of mitoxantrone is no different from carboplatin. Fifty dogs with TCC without azotemia. Prospective open-label phase III randomized study. Either mitoxantrone or carboplatin was administered every 3 weeks concurrently with piroxicam with restaging at 6-week intervals. Twenty-four dogs received carboplatin and 26 received mitoxantrone. Response was not different between groups (P = .56). None of the dogs showed complete response. In the mitoxantrone group, there were 2 (8%) partial responses (PR) and 18 (69%) dogs with stable disease (SD). In the carboplatin group, there were 3 PR (13%) and 13 (54%) dogs with SD. The PFI was not significantly different between groups (mitoxantrone = 106 days; carboplatin = 73.5 days; P = .62; hazard ratio 0.86; 95% confidence interval 0.47-1.56). Dogs with prostatic involvement experienced a shorter survival (median, 109 days) compared to dogs with urethral, trigonal, or apically located tumors; this difference was significant (median 300, 190, and 645 days, respectively; P = .005). This study did not detect a different in outcome in dogs with TCC treated with either mitoxantrone or carboplatin in combination with piroxicam. Copyright © 2015 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  14. Random laser illumination: an ideal source for biomedical polarization imaging?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Mariana T.; Lotay, Amrit S.; Kenny, Fiona M.; Girkin, John M.; Gomes, Anderson S. L.

    2016-03-01

    Imaging applications increasingly require light sources with high spectral density (power over spectral bandwidth. This has led in many cases to the replacement of conventional thermal light sources with bright light-emitting diodes (LEDs), lasers and superluminescent diodes. Although lasers and superluminescent diodes appear to be ideal light sources due to their narrow bandwidth and power, however, in the case of full-field imaging, their spatial coherence leads to coherent artefacts, such as speckle, that corrupt the image. LEDs, in contrast, have lower spatial coherence and thus seem the natural choice, but they have low spectral density. Random Lasers are an unconventional type of laser that can be engineered to provide low spatial coherence with high spectral density. These characteristics makes them potential sources for biological imaging applications where specific absorption and reflection are the characteristics required for state of the art imaging. In this work, a Random Laser (RL) is used to demonstrate speckle-free full-field imaging for polarization-dependent imaging in an epi-illumination configuration. We compare LED and RL illumination analysing the resulting images demonstrating that the RL illumination produces an imaging system with higher performance (image quality and spectral density) than that provided by LEDs.

  15. A Centralized Source of Information for the Military Working Dog Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-06-01

    experience have proven very helpful. They Include: outside drainage, sloped flooring, rounded edges and corners, water and pressure-resistant surfaces, 10...reward system is very important in motivating the dog to work. 4) Must be confident walking on slippery floors. He states that this important because...papers (pink), unless both parents have earned either a Schutzhund I or a herding dog title.Q Olsen, Patricia N. "Concerned About Euthanasia of

  16. A randomized, controlled study to assess the efficacy and safety of lotilaner (Credelio™ in controlling ticks in client-owned dogs in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Cavalleri

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oral administration of lotilaner flavoured chewable tablets (Credelio™, Elanco to dogs has been shown to provide a rapid onset of killing activity of infesting ticks, with sustained efficacy for at least 35 days. A study was undertaken in Europe to confirm lotilaner’s safety and anti-tick efficacy in client-owned dogs. Methods In this assessor-blinded study, dogs were enrolled at 19 clinics in Germany, Hungary and Portugal. Qualifying households with no more than three dogs were randomized in an approximate 2:1 ratio to a lotilaner or fipronil/(S-methoprene (FSM (Frontline® Combo Spot-on, Merial treatment group. One household dog with at least three live attached ticks was the primary dog. Treatments were dispensed Days 0, 28 (± 2 and 56 (± 2 for owner administration to all household dogs. Tick counts were performed on primary dogs Days 7 (± 1, and ±2 days on Days 14, 21, 28, 42, 56, 70 and 84; supplementary dogs were assessed for safety ± 2 days on Days 28, 56 and 84. Efficacy was assessed by comparing mean Day 0 live attached tick counts with subsequent counts. Results The most frequently retrieved ticks were Ixodes ricinus, Dermacentor reticulatus and Rhipicephalus sanguineus (sensu lato, with Ixodes hexagonus also present. In the lotilaner group (n = 127 geometric mean tick count reductions were at least 98% from the first post-treatment visit (Day 7 through Day 56, when efficacy was 100%. For FSM (n = 68, efficacy remained at least 96% through Day 84, but at no point were all dogs free of live attached ticks. Mean counts in lotilaner-treated dogs were significantly lower than FSM-treated dogs on Days 7, 42, 70 and 84 (P  98% effective in eliminating live ticks from the first post-treatment assessment (Day 7 through Day 56 and maintained 100% of dogs tick-free on Days 70 and 84. Lotilaner was safe, providing superior tick control to FSM administered according to the same schedule.

  17. Hip Osteoarthritis in Dogs: A Randomized Study Using Mesenchymal Stem Cells from Adipose Tissue and Plasma Rich in Growth Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belen Cuervo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy and safety of a single intra-articular injection of adipose mesenchymal stem cells (aMSCs versus plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF as a treatment for reducing symptoms in dogs with hip osteoarthritis (OA. Methods: This was a randomized, multicenter, blinded, parallel group. Thirty-nine dogs with symptomatic hip OA were assigned to one of the two groups, to receive aMSCs or PRGF. The primary outcome measures were pain and function subscales, including radiologic assessment, functional limitation and joint mobility. The secondary outcome measures were owners’ satisfaction questionnaire, rescue analgesic requirement and overall safety. Data was collected at baseline, then, 1, 3 and 6 months post-treatment. Results: OA degree did not vary within groups. Functional limitation, range of motion (ROM, owner’s and veterinary investigator visual analogue scale (VAS, and patient’s quality of life improved from the first month up to six months. The aMSCs group obtained better results at 6 months. There were no adverse effects during the study. Our findings show that aMSCs and PRGF are safe and effective in the functional analysis at 1, 3 and 6 months; provide a significant improvement, reducing dog’s pain, and improving physical function. With respect to basal levels for every parameter in patients with hip OA, aMSCs showed better results at 6 months.

  18. Hip Osteoarthritis in Dogs: A Randomized Study Using Mesenchymal Stem Cells from Adipose Tissue and Plasma Rich in Growth Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuervo, Belen; Rubio, Monica; Sopena, Joaquin; Dominguez, Juan Manuel; Vilar, Jose; Morales, Manuel; Cugat, Ramón; Carrillo, Jose Maria

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy and safety of a single intra-articular injection of adipose mesenchymal stem cells (aMSCs) versus plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF) as a treatment for reducing symptoms in dogs with hip osteoarthritis (OA). Methods: This was a randomized, multicenter, blinded, parallel group. Thirty-nine dogs with symptomatic hip OA were assigned to one of the two groups, to receive aMSCs or PRGF. The primary outcome measures were pain and function subscales, including radiologic assessment, functional limitation and joint mobility. The secondary outcome measures were owners’ satisfaction questionnaire, rescue analgesic requirement and overall safety. Data was collected at baseline, then, 1, 3 and 6 months post-treatment. Results: OA degree did not vary within groups. Functional limitation, range of motion (ROM), owner’s and veterinary investigator visual analogue scale (VAS), and patient’s quality of life improved from the first month up to six months. The aMSCs group obtained better results at 6 months. There were no adverse effects during the study. Our findings show that aMSCs and PRGF are safe and effective in the functional analysis at 1, 3 and 6 months; provide a significant improvement, reducing dog’s pain, and improving physical function. With respect to basal levels for every parameter in patients with hip OA, aMSCs showed better results at 6 months. PMID:25089877

  19. Validation of orthopedic postoperative pain assessment methods for dogs: a prospective, blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascale Rialland

    Full Text Available In the context of translational research, there is growing interest in studying surgical orthopedic pain management approaches that are common to humans and dogs. The validity of postoperative pain assessment methods is uncertain with regards to responsiveness and the potential interference of analgesia. The hypothesis was that video analysis (as a reference, electrodermal activity, and two subjective pain scales (VAS and 4A-VET would detect different levels of pain intensity in dogs after a standardized trochleoplasty procedure. In this prospective, blinded, randomized study, postoperative pain was assessed in 25 healthy dogs during a 48-hour time frame (T. Pain was managed with placebo (Group 1, n = 10, preemptive and multimodal analgesia (Group 2, n = 5, or preemptive analgesia consisting in oral tramadol (Group 3, n = 10. Changes over time among groups were analyzed using generalized estimating equations. Multivariate regression tested the significance of relationships between pain scales and video analysis. Video analysis identified that one orthopedic behavior, namely 'Walking with full weight bearing' of the operated leg, decreased more in Group 1 at T24 (indicative of pain, whereas three behaviors indicative of sedation decreased in Group 2 at T24 (all p<0.004. Electrodermal activity was higher in Group 1 than in Groups 2 and 3 until T1 (p<0.0003. The VAS was not responsive. 4A-VET showed divergent results as its orthopedic component (4A-VETleg detected lower pain in Group 2 until T12 (p<0.0009, but its interactive component (4A-VETbeh was increased in Group 2 from T12 to T48 (p<0.001. Concurrent validity established that 4A-VETleg scores the painful orthopedic condition accurately and that pain assessment through 4A-VETbeh and VAS was severely biased by the sedative side-effect of the analgesics. Finally, the video analysis offered a concise template for assessment in dogs with acute orthopedic pain. However, subjective pain

  20. Effect of analgesic therapy on clinical outcome measures in a randomized controlled trial using client-owned dogs with hip osteoarthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Pain and impaired mobility because of osteoarthritis (OA) is common in dogs and humans. Efficacy studies of analgesic drug treatment of dogs with naturally occurring OA may be challenging, as a caregiver placebo effect is typically evident. However, little is known about effect sizes of common outcome-measures in canine clinical trials evaluating treatment of OA pain. Forty-nine client-owned dogs with hip OA were enrolled in a randomized, double-blinded placebo-controlled prospective trial. After a 1 week baseline period, dogs were randomly assigned to a treatment (ABT-116 – transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) antagonist, Carprofen – non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), Tramadol - synthetic opiate, or Placebo) for 2 weeks. Outcome-measures included physical examination parameters, owner questionnaire, activity monitoring, gait analysis, and use of rescue medication. Results Acute hyperthermia developed after ABT-116 treatment (P carprofen (P ≤ 0.01) and tramadol (P ≤ 0.001) led to improved mobility assessed by owner questionnaire. Nighttime activity was increased after ABT-116 treatment (P = 0.01). Kinetic gait analysis did not reveal significant treatment effects. Use of rescue treatment decreased with treatment in the ABT-116 and Carprofen groups (P carprofen or tramadol for treatment of hip arthritis pain in client-owned dogs. PMID:23035739

  1. Adjuvant therapy for melanoma in dogs: results of randomized clinical trials using surgery, liposome-encapsulated muramyl tripeptide, and granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacEwen, E G; Kurzman, I D; Vail, D M; Dubielzig, R R; Everlith, K; Madewell, B R; Rodriguez, C O; Phillips, B; Zwahlen, C H; Obradovich, J; Rosenthal, R C; Fox, L E; Rosenberg, M; Henry, C; Fidel, J

    1999-12-01

    Spontaneous canine oral melanoma (COM) is a highly metastatic cancer, resistant to chemotherapy, and can serve as a model for cancer immunotherapy. Liposome-encapsulated muramyl tripeptide-phosphatidylethanolamine (L-MTP-PE) can activate the tumoricidal activity of the monocyte-macrophage system following i.v. injection. The objective of these studies was to evaluate the therapeutic effectiveness of L-MTP-PE administered alone and combined with recombinant canine granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (rcGM-CSF) in dogs undergoing surgery for oral melanoma. Ninety-eight dogs with histologically confirmed, clinically staged, oral melanoma were entered into two randomized, double-blind, surgical adjuvant trials. In trial 1, 50 dogs were stratified based on clinical stage and randomized to once a week L-MTP-PE or lipid equivalent (control). When all of the clinical stages were combined, no difference in disease-free survival or in survival time (ST) were detected. However, within stage I, dogs receiving L-MTP-PE had a significant increase in ST compared with control, with 80% of the dogs treated with L-MTP-PE still alive at >2 years. Within each stage II and stage III, there was no difference detected between the treatment groups. In trial 2, 48 dogs were stratified on the basis of clinical stage and extent of surgery (simple resection or radical excision), treated with L-MTP-PE two times a week, and randomized to rcGM-CSF or saline (placebo) given s.c. daily for 9 weeks. Within each stage and when all of the stages were combined, there was no difference between the treatment groups. In both studies, stage I COM is associated with a better prognosis. No effect on survival was observed with regard to tumor location in the oral cavity, sex, type/extent of surgery, or age. In a subset of dogs tested, pulmonary alveolar macrophage cytotoxicity was enhanced with combined rcGM-CSF and L-MTP-PE but not in dogs treated with L-MTP-PE alone. The present study

  2. Two randomized, controlled studies to assess the efficacy and safety of lotilaner (Credelio™ in preventing Dermacentor reticulatus transmission of Babesia canis to dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Cavalleri

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dogs worldwide are at risk of Babesia spp. infections. Preventive efficacy of lotilaner tablets (Credelio™, Elanco against Babesia canis was evaluated in two studies. Methods Sixteen dogs in Study 1 and 12 dogs in Study 2, all seronegative and polymerase chain reaction (PCR negative for B. canis, were randomized to a sham-treated control group or a lotilaner (20–43 mg/kg treatment group, administered on Day 0 (Study 1: n = 8/group; Study 2: n = 6/group. Dogs were each infested with 50 Dermacentor reticulatus, a percentage of which (Study 1: 8.0–30.0%; Study 2: 12.2% were infected with B. canis, in Study 1 on Days 2, 7, 14, 21 and 28, and in Study 2 on Day 28. Ticks were removed and counted on Day 30 in Study 1, and Day 34 in Study 2. Blood was collected for Babesia detection via smear, PCR and immunofluorescence assay (IFA in Study 1 on Day 2, then approximately weekly through Day 56, and in Study 2 at weekly intervals between Days 28 to 49, and on Days 63 and 91. Additional samples were collected from dogs with body temperature > 39.4 °C (measured three times weekly, from Days 7 to 56 in Study 1 and from Days 35 to 56 in Study 2 and positive for B. canis on blood smear. Dogs with confirmed infections were rescue-treated, removed from the study and, in Study 1, replaced. Results Across both studies B. canis infection of ticks ranged between 8.0–30.0%. In Study 1, all control dogs were positive for B. canis on blood smear and PCR on Day 10 and IFA on Day 21; on Day 21 seven of eight replacement control dogs were B. canis-positive; no replacement dogs were B. canis-positive following tick removal on Day 30. In Study 2, all control dogs were B. canis-positive on Day 56. All lotilaner-treated dogs remained B. canis-negative at all assessments in both studies. Conclusion Lotilaner efficacy was 100% in preventing establishment of B. canis infection, despite post-treatment challenge with infected ticks on Days 2, 7

  3. Olfaction-based Detection Distance: A Quantitative Analysis of How Far Away Dogs Recognize Tortoise Odor and Follow It to Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cindee Valentin

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of detector dogs has been demonstrated to be effective and safe for finding Mojave desert tortoises and provides certain advantages over humans in field surveys. Unlike humans who rely on visual cues for target identification, dogs use primarily olfactory cues and can therefore locate targets that are not visually obvious. One of the key benefits of surveying with dogs is their efficiency at covering ground and their ability to detect targets from long distances. Dogs may investigate potential targets using visual cues but confirm the presence of a target based on scent. Everything that emits odor does so via vapor-phase molecules and the components comprising a particular scent are carried primarily though bulk movement of the atmosphere. It is the ability to search for target odor and then go to its source that makes dogs ideal for rapid target recognition in the field setting. Using tortoises as targets, we quantified distances that dogs detected tortoise scent, followed it to source, and correctly identified tortoises as targets. Detection distance data were collected during experimental trials with advanced global positioning system (GPS technology and then analyzed using geographic information system (GIS modeling techniques. Detection distances ranged from 0.5 m to 62.8 m for tortoises on the surface. We did not observe bias with tortoise size, age class, sex or the degree to which tortoises were handled prior to being found by the dogs. The methodology we developed to quantify olfaction-based detection distance using dogs can be applied to other targets that dogs are trained to find.

  4. Raw mechanically separated chicken meat and salmon protein hydrolysate as protein sources in extruded dog food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tjernsbekk, M. T.; Tauson, A. H.; Kraugerud, O. F.

    2017-01-01

    Protein quality was evaluated for mechanically separated chicken meat (MSC) and salmon protein hydrolysate (SPH), and for extruded dog foods where MSC or SPH partially replaced poultry meal (PM). Apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of crude protein (CP) and amino acids (AA) in the protein...

  5. Targeting the Sources of Fecal Contamination using Dog-, Human-, and Ruminant- Specific Markers in the Lake Herrick Watershed, Georgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saintil, T.; Radcliffe, D. E.; Rasmussen, T. C.; Habteselassie, M.; Sowah, R.; Kannan, A.

    2016-12-01

    The Lake Herrick Watershed is about 1.5 km2 and covers portions of the University of Georgia's East campus, the Oconee Forest, residential and commercial landuse. Lake Herrick, a recreational site on the University of Georgia campus, was closed in 2002 due to fecal contamination. Subsequent monitoring confirmed persistent contamination, which led to a permanent closure to swimming, boating, and fishing. While fecal coliform abundance is a standard metric for determining human health risks, Geldreich (1970) showed that fecal abundance does not necessarily correlate with the presence of pathogens. Nor does it identify pollution sources, which are needed to mitigate health risks. Two inflow tributaries and the outlet stream were monitored for discharge, fecal coliform, forms of nitrogen and phosphorus and other water-quality data to quantify lake influent and effluent bacteria loads. Fecal sources were identified using the human HF183 genetic marker (Seurinck et al., 2005), the ruminant BacR marker (Reischer et al., 2006), and the dog mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) marker (Tambalo et al., 2012). Preliminary results confirm high concentrations of E. coli and Enterococci, above the State's limit of 124 MPN/100 mL, in both baseflows and stormflows. The findings also suggest that the E. coli and Enterococci loads from the inlet tributaries are on average higher compared to the bacteria loads coming out of the outlet stream. The human markers were detectable at all three sites but most of the samples were not quantifiable. The ruminant markers were quantifiable at both inlets but no ruminant markers were found at the outlet. The dog markers were detectable but not quantifiable at both inlets and no dog markers were detected at the outlet. Statistical analyses will be used to establish relationships between the nutrients data, the fecal concentrations, and the gene-specific markers.

  6. The effects of a topical lipid complex therapy on dogs with atopic dermatitis: a double blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobi, Stefan; Klinger, Christoph; Classen, Janine; Mueller, Ralf S

    2017-08-01

    Canine atopic dermatitis is a common clinical presentation. The skin barrier seems to play a fundamental role in the pathogenesis. Therefore a topical spot-on product containing a mixture of lipids may improve clinical signs without adverse effects if it were to improve stratum corneum barrier function. Twenty six privately owned atopic dogs of different breed, age, gender and weight were included in a double blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study. To evaluate potential clinical benefits and influence on skin barrier function of a topical lipid-containing product applied to the skin of atopic dogs. Atopic dermatitis was diagnosed by adequate testing and the exclusion of other possible pruritic diseases. Dogs were randomly allocated to two treatment groups. A spot-on product containing different types of lipids was applied twice weekly to predisposed and affected areas. The placebo preparation contained only the excipients. The clinical effects were regularly verified with a Visual Analog Score and the Canine Atopic Dermatitis Extent and Severity Index. A medication score was calculated and barrier function was evaluated by means of transepidermal water loss and pH measurements. Twenty three dogs completed the study. There were no significant differences between the groups for any of the evaluated parameters. Adverse effects were not noted. This study could not confirm significant clinical improvement when using the product compared to the placebo, although its use was not associated with adverse effects. © 2017 ESVD and ACVD.

  7. Molecular confirmation of shampoo as the putative source of Pseudomonas aeruginosa-induced postgrooming furunculosis in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tham, Heng L; Jacob, Megan E; Bizikova, Petra

    2016-08-01

    An acute onset furunculosis due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa following grooming is a well recognized entity. Although contaminated shampoos have been suspected to be the source of the infection, a molecular confirmation of this association has been missing. This case report describes a dog with postgrooming furunculosis in which Pseudomonas aeruginosa with an identical genetic fingerprint was isolated from the skin lesions as well as from the shampoo used prior to the disease onset. The dog presented for lethargy, anorexia, pain and rapidly progressing skin lesions consistent with haemorrhagic papules, pustules, coalescing ulcers and crusts localized to the dorsal and lateral aspects of the thorax and gluteal region, which developed within 24 h after a bath. Cytology demonstrated suppurative inflammation with occasional intracellular rod-shaped bacteria. Bacterial culture from skin lesions and the shampoo bottle yielded Pseudomonas aeruginosa with an identical pulsed-field gel electrophoresis pattern. Treatment with oral ciprofloxacin and topical antimicrobial shampoo resulted in a complete resolution of skin lesions within eight weeks. Our clinical investigation suggests a link between Pseudomonas-contaminated shampoo and development of postgrooming furunculosis, and underscores the need for hygienic management of shampoos to help limit this disease. © 2016 ESVD and ACVD.

  8. Assessing adverse effects of intra-articular botulinum toxin A in healthy Beagle dogs: A placebo-controlled, blinded, randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikkilä, Helka M; Jokinen, Tarja S; Syrjä, Pernilla; Junnila, Jouni; Hielm-Björkman, Anna; Laitinen-Vapaavuori, Outi

    2018-01-01

    To investigate the clinical, cytological, and histopathological adverse effects of intra-articularly injected botulinum toxin A in dogs and to study whether the toxin spreads from the joint after the injection. A longitudinal, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial was conducted with six healthy laboratory Beagle dogs. Stifle joints were randomized to receive either 30 IU of onabotulinum toxin A or placebo in a 1:1 ratio. Adverse effects and spread of the toxin were examined by evaluating dynamic and static weight-bearing of the injected limbs, by assessing painless range of motion and pain on palpation of joints, and by performing synovial fluid analysis, neurological examination, and electrophysiological recordings at different examination time-points in a 12-week period after the injections. The dogs were then euthanized and autopsy and histopathological examination of joint structures and adjacent muscles and nerves were performed. Intra-articular botulinum toxin A did not cause local weakness or injection site pain. Instead, static weight-bearing and painless range of motion of stifle joints decreased in the placebo limbs. No clinically significant abnormalities associated with intra-articular botulinum toxin A were detected in the neurological examinations. Electrophysiological recordings showed low compound muscle action potentials in two dogs in the botulinum toxin A-injected limb. No significant changes were detected in the synovial fluid. Autopsy and histopathological examination of the joint and adjacent muscles and nerves did not reveal histopathological adverse effects of the toxin. Intra-articular botulinum toxin A does not produce significant clinical, cytological, or histopathological adverse effects in healthy dogs. Based on the electrophysiological recordings, the toxin may spread from the joint, but its clinical impact seems to be low.

  9. A randomized controlled trial to establish effects of short-term rapamycin treatment in 24 middle-aged companion dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urfer, Silvan R; Kaeberlein, Tammi L; Mailheau, Susan; Bergman, Philip J; Creevy, Kate E; Promislow, Daniel E L; Kaeberlein, Matt

    2017-04-01

    Age is the single greatest risk factor for most causes of morbidity and mortality in humans and their companion animals. As opposed to other model organisms used to study aging, dogs share the human environment, are subject to similar risk factors, receive comparable medical care, and develop many of the same age-related diseases humans do. In this study, 24 middle-aged healthy dogs received either placebo or a non-immunosuppressive dose of rapamycin for 10 weeks. All dogs received clinical and hematological exams before, during, and after the trial and echocardiography before and after the trial. Our results showed no clinical side effects in the rapamycin-treated group compared to dogs receiving the placebo. Echocardiography suggested improvement in both diastolic and systolic age-related measures of heart function (E/A ratio, fractional shortening, and ejection fraction) in the rapamycin-treated dogs. Hematological values remained within the normal range for all parameters studied; however, the mean corpuscular volume (MCV) was decreased in rapamycin-treated dogs. Based on these results, we will test rapamycin on a larger dog cohort for a longer period of time in order to validate its effects on cardiac function and to determine whether it can significantly improve healthspan and reduce mortality in companion dogs.

  10. Molecular characterization and potential sources of aqueous humor bacterial contamination during phacoemulsification with intraocular lens implantation in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacerda, Luciana C C; de Souza-Pollo, Andressa; Padua, Ivan Ricardo M; Conceição, Luciano F; da Silveira, Camila P Balthazar; Silva, Germana A; Maluta, Renato P; Laus, José L

    2018-01-01

    Bacterial contamination of the anterior chamber during cataract surgery is one of the main responsible for endophthalmitis postoperative. Phacoemulsification is a less invasive technique for cataract treatment, although it does not exclude the possibility of contamination. In this study, bacterial contaminants of aqueous humor collected pre- and post-phacoemulsification with intraocular lens implantation (IOL) of twenty dogs were identified. As the conjunctival microbiota constitute a significant source of anterior chamber contamination, bacterial isolates from aqueous humor were genetically compared with those present in the conjunctival surface of the patients. Three dogs presented bacterial growth in both aqueous humor and conjunctival surface samples. Bacterial isolates from these samples were grouped according to their genetic profiles by repetitive-element PCR (rep-PCR) and their representatives were identified by 16S rRNA sequencing. Isolates from conjunctival surface were identified as Enterobacter spp., Staphylococcus spp. and S. aureus; and from aqueous humor samples as Enterobacter spp., Pantoea spp., Streptococcus spp. and Staphylococcus spp., respectively in decreasing order of prevalence. According to the rep-PCR analysis, 16.6% of Enterobacter spp. isolates from conjunctival surface were genetically similar to those from aqueous humor. The rest of isolates encountered in aqueous humor were genetically distinct from those of conjunctival surface. The significant genetic diversity of bacterial isolates found in the aqueous humor samples after surgery denoted the possibility of anterior chamber contamination during phacoemulsification by bacteria not only from conjunctival surface but also from different sources related to surgical environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Creatine and creatinine contents in different diet types for dogs - effects of source and processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobenecker, B; Braun, U

    2015-12-01

    The concentrations of creatine and its degradation product creatinine were determined in a variety of unprocessed as well as processed feedstuffs suitable for dogs. Unprocessed feedstuffs were categorised as single feedstuffs, bone and raw food diets (BARF), and small vertebrates, for example prey animals. Processed feedstuffs were categorised as meat/meat and bone meals, complete wet diets and complete dry diets. The feedstuffs were chosen to cover a broad range of each of the three defined processed and unprocessed feed categories available on the market without further subclustering. The creatine content of the samples was compared on a dry matter, protein and energy basis. The relation of creatine to crude protein permitted a rating of the meat quality in terms of muscle tissue. We found no difference in creatine concentrations between the three categories of unprocessed feedstuffs (raw single feedstuffs, prey and BARF diets), neither on a dry matter basis nor when expressed relative to crude protein and metabolisable energy respectively. Significantly lower levels were determined in meat/meat and bone meal and commercial dry diets (e.g. 303 mg creatine/MJ ME in unprocessed vs. 6 mg/MJ ME in processed feedstuffs; p creatine which is a natural compound of the diet of this carnivorous and omnivorous species. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition Published by Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  12. Effect of analgesic therapy on clinical outcome measures in a randomized controlled trial using client-owned dogs with hip osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malek Sarah

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pain and impaired mobility because of osteoarthritis (OA is common in dogs and humans. Efficacy studies of analgesic drug treatment of dogs with naturally occurring OA may be challenging, as a caregiver placebo effect is typically evident. However, little is known about effect sizes of common outcome-measures in canine clinical trials evaluating treatment of OA pain. Forty-nine client-owned dogs with hip OA were enrolled in a randomized, double-blinded placebo-controlled prospective trial. After a 1 week baseline period, dogs were randomly assigned to a treatment (ABT-116 – transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1 antagonist, Carprofen – non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID, Tramadol - synthetic opiate, or Placebo for 2 weeks. Outcome-measures included physical examination parameters, owner questionnaire, activity monitoring, gait analysis, and use of rescue medication. Results Acute hyperthermia developed after ABT-116 treatment (P P ≤ 0.01 and tramadol (P ≤ 0.001 led to improved mobility assessed by owner questionnaire. Nighttime activity was increased after ABT-116 treatment (P = 0.01. Kinetic gait analysis did not reveal significant treatment effects. Use of rescue treatment decreased with treatment in the ABT-116 and Carprofen groups (P R ≥ ±0.40, P ≤ 0.005. Placebo treatment effects were evident with all variables studied. Conclusion Treatment of hip OA in client-owned dogs is associated with a placebo effect for all variables that are commonly used for efficacy studies of analgesic drugs. This likely reflects caregiver bias or the phenomenon of regression to the mean. In the present study, outcome measures with significant effects also varied between groups, highlighting the value of using multiple outcome measures, as well as an a priori analysis of effect size associated with each measure. Effect size data from the present study could be used to inform design of future trials studying

  13. Food-specific sublingual immunotherapy is well tolerated and safe in healthy dogs : a blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study

    OpenAIRE

    Maina, Elisa; Pelst, Michael; Hesta, Myriam; Cox, Eric

    2017-01-01

    Background: Food allergies are increasing in prevalence but no treatment strategies are currently available to cure dogs with food allergy. Over the past decade, experimental food allergen-specific sublingual immunotherapy (FA-SLIT) has emerged as a potential treatment for food allergies in human medicine. However, FA-SLIT has not been investigated in dogs. Therefore, the objective of this study was to prospectively evaluate the safety, tolerability and dispenser sterility of FA-SLIT in healt...

  14. Golden Ratio Versus Pi as Random Sequence Sources for Monte Carlo Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, S. K.; Agarwal, Ravi P.; Shaykhian, Gholam Ali

    2007-01-01

    We discuss here the relative merits of these numbers as possible random sequence sources. The quality of these sequences is not judged directly based on the outcome of all known tests for the randomness of a sequence. Instead, it is determined implicitly by the accuracy of the Monte Carlo integration in a statistical sense. Since our main motive of using a random sequence is to solve real world problems, it is more desirable if we compare the quality of the sequences based on their performances for these problems in terms of quality/accuracy of the output. We also compare these sources against those generated by a popular pseudo-random generator, viz., the Matlab rand and the quasi-random generator ha/ton both in terms of error and time complexity. Our study demonstrates that consecutive blocks of digits of each of these numbers produce a good random sequence source. It is observed that randomly chosen blocks of digits do not have any remarkable advantage over consecutive blocks for the accuracy of the Monte Carlo integration. Also, it reveals that pi is a better source of a random sequence than theta when the accuracy of the integration is concerned.

  15. Sharp lower bounds on the extractable randomness from non-uniform sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skoric, B.; Obi, C.; Verbitskiy, E.A.; Schoenmakers, B.

    2011-01-01

    Extraction of uniform randomness from (noisy) non-uniform sources is an important primitive in many security applications, e.g. (pseudo-)random number generators, privacy-preserving biometrics, and key storage based on Physical Unclonable Functions. Generic extraction methods exist, using universal

  16. Evaluation of a fixed-dose combination of benazepril and pimobendan in dogs with congestive heart failure: a randomized non-inferiority clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Jonathan N; Hirakawa, Atsushi; Sonobe, Junko; Otaki, Hiroshi; Sakakibara, Nobuhiro; Seewald, Wolfgang; Forster, Sophie

    2018-01-31

    A fixed-dose combination tablet of benazepril and pimobendan (Fortekor Plus; Elanco Animal Health) was tested in dogs with congestive heart failure (CHF) caused by myxomatous mitral valve disease (MMVD) in a three-arm, masked, randomized, non-inferiority clinical trial in Japan. The test group (n = 34) received Fortekor Plus twice daily. Two control groups received registered formulations of benazepril (Fortekor; Elanco Animal Health) and pimobendan (Vetmedin; Boehringer Ingelheim Vetmedica) with administration of Vetmedin twice daily and Fortekor twice (Control I, n = 14) or once (Control II, n = 19) daily. Diuretics were used in 22 dogs (32.8%). Global clinical scores decreased significantly from baseline in all groups; there were no significant differences between groups, and non-inferiority of Fortekor Plus compared to Control I, Control II, and combined Control I + II groups was demonstrated. There were no significant differences between groups for relevant clinical chemistry and hematology variables or frequency of all adverse events. Frequency of emesis was significantly ( p = 0.0042) lower in the Fortekor Plus (8.8%) group than in the Control I + II (39.4%) group. In conclusion, Fortekor Plus had non-inferior efficacy and was associated with significantly less emesis compared to Fortekor and Vetmedin in dogs with CHF caused by MMVD.

  17. AUTOCLASSIFICATION OF THE VARIABLE 3XMM SOURCES USING THE RANDOM FOREST MACHINE LEARNING ALGORITHM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrell, Sean A.; Murphy, Tara; Lo, Kitty K.

    2015-01-01

    In the current era of large surveys and massive data sets, autoclassification of astrophysical sources using intelligent algorithms is becoming increasingly important. In this paper we present the catalog of variable sources in the Third XMM-Newton Serendipitous Source catalog (3XMM) autoclassified using the Random Forest machine learning algorithm. We used a sample of manually classified variable sources from the second data release of the XMM-Newton catalogs (2XMMi-DR2) to train the classifier, obtaining an accuracy of ∼92%. We also evaluated the effectiveness of identifying spurious detections using a sample of spurious sources, achieving an accuracy of ∼95%. Manual investigation of a random sample of classified sources confirmed these accuracy levels and showed that the Random Forest machine learning algorithm is highly effective at automatically classifying 3XMM sources. Here we present the catalog of classified 3XMM variable sources. We also present three previously unidentified unusual sources that were flagged as outlier sources by the algorithm: a new candidate supergiant fast X-ray transient, a 400 s X-ray pulsar, and an eclipsing 5 hr binary system coincident with a known Cepheid.

  18. Inverse random source scattering for the Helmholtz equation in inhomogeneous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming; Chen, Chuchu; Li, Peijun

    2018-01-01

    This paper is concerned with an inverse random source scattering problem in an inhomogeneous background medium. The wave propagation is modeled by the stochastic Helmholtz equation with the source driven by additive white noise. The goal is to reconstruct the statistical properties of the random source such as the mean and variance from the boundary measurement of the radiated random wave field at multiple frequencies. Both the direct and inverse problems are considered. We show that the direct problem has a unique mild solution by a constructive proof. For the inverse problem, we derive Fredholm integral equations, which connect the boundary measurement of the radiated wave field with the unknown source function. A regularized block Kaczmarz method is developed to solve the ill-posed integral equations. Numerical experiments are included to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  19. sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Yin Chiang

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study the simplified models of the ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode multiplexer network with Bernoulli random traffic sources. Based on the model, the performance measures are analyzed by the different output service schemes.

  20. Dual resonant structure for energy harvesting from random vibration sources at low frequency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanshan Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a design with dual resonant structure which can harvest energy from random vibration sources at low frequency range. The dual resonant structure consists of two spring-mass subsystems with different frequency responses, which exhibit strong coupling and broad bandwidth when the two masses collide with each other. Experiments with piezoelectric elements show that the energy harvesting device with dual resonant structure can generate higher power output than the sum of the two separate devices from random vibration sources.

  1. Interpolating between random walks and optimal transportation routes: Flow with multiple sources and targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guex, Guillaume

    2016-05-01

    In recent articles about graphs, different models proposed a formalism to find a type of path between two nodes, the source and the target, at crossroads between the shortest-path and the random-walk path. These models include a freely adjustable parameter, allowing to tune the behavior of the path toward randomized movements or direct routes. This article presents a natural generalization of these models, namely a model with multiple sources and targets. In this context, source nodes can be viewed as locations with a supply of a certain good (e.g. people, money, information) and target nodes as locations with a demand of the same good. An algorithm is constructed to display the flow of goods in the network between sources and targets. With again a freely adjustable parameter, this flow can be tuned to follow routes of minimum cost, thus displaying the flow in the context of the optimal transportation problem or, by contrast, a random flow, known to be similar to the electrical current flow if the random-walk is reversible. Moreover, a source-targetcoupling can be retrieved from this flow, offering an optimal assignment to the transportation problem. This algorithm is described in the first part of this article and then illustrated with case studies.

  2. A systematic examination of a random sampling strategy for source apportionment calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, August

    2011-12-15

    Estimating the relative contributions from multiple potential sources of a specific component in a mixed environmental matrix is a general challenge in diverse fields such as atmospheric, environmental and earth sciences. Perhaps the most common strategy for tackling such problems is by setting up a system of linear equations for the fractional influence of different sources. Even though an algebraic solution of this approach is possible for the common situation with N+1 sources and N source markers, such methodology introduces a bias, since it is implicitly assumed that the calculated fractions and the corresponding uncertainties are independent of the variability of the source distributions. Here, a random sampling (RS) strategy for accounting for such statistical bias is examined by investigating rationally designed synthetic data sets. This random sampling methodology is found to be robust and accurate with respect to reproducibility and predictability. This method is also compared to a numerical integration solution for a two-source situation where source variability also is included. A general observation from this examination is that the variability of the source profiles not only affects the calculated precision but also the mean/median source contributions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The Blue Dog: evaluation of an interactive software program to teach young children how to interact safely with dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwebel, David C; Morrongiello, Barbara A; Davis, Aaron L; Stewart, Julia; Bell, Melissa

    2012-04-01

    Pre-post-randomized design evaluated The Blue Dog, a dog safety software program. 76 children aged 3.5-6 years completed 3 tasks to evaluate dog safety pre- and postintervention: (a) pictures (recognition of safe/risky behavior), (b) dollhouse (recall of safe behavior via simulated dollhouse scenarios), and (c) live dog (actual behavior with unfamiliar live dog). Following preintervention evaluation, children were randomly assigned to dog or fire safety conditions, each involving 3 weeks of home computer software use. Children using Blue Dog had greater change in recognition of risky dog situations than children learning fire safety. No between-group differences emerged in recall (dollhouse) or engagement (live-dog) in risky behavior. Families enjoyed using the software. Blue Dog taught children knowledge about safe engagement with dogs, but did not influence recall or implementation of safe behaviors. Dog bites represent a significant pediatric injury concern and continued development of effective interventions is needed.

  4. Preemptive carprofen for peri-operative analgesia in dogs undergoing Tibial Plateau Leveling Osteotomy (TPLO): a prospective, randomized, blinded, placebo controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bufalari, A; Maggio, C; Cerasoli, I; Morath, U; Adami, C

    2012-03-01

    Eighteen client-owned dogs undergoing Tibial Plateau Leveling Osteotomy (TPLO) were included in this blinded clinical study and randomly assigned to one of two treatment groups. Group C (carprofen) received intravenous (IV) carprofen, 4 mg/kg, prior to anesthesia, whereas group P (placebo) received IV saline. General anesthesia was maintained with isoflurane in oxygen and a constant rate infusion (CRI) of sufentanyl IV. Intra-operatively, assessment of nociception was based on changes in physiological parameters and on the analgesics requirement, whereas in the post-operative period evaluation of pain was performed by using a Hellyer and Gaynor pain score and by comparing the doses of rescue buprenorphine required by the two treatment groups. Although no statistically significant differences in intra-operative sufentanyl doses were found between treatment groups, group C had superior cardiovascular stability, and lower post-operative pain scores and rescue buprenorphine doses than group P. Our results indicate that administration of carprofen prior to surgery was effective in improving peri-operative analgesia in dogs undergoing TPLO.

  5. Evaluation of S-adenosyl l-methionine in a double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled, clinical trial for treatment of presumptive osteoarthritis in the dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imhoff, Darren J; Gordon-Evans, Wanda J; Evans, Richard B; Johnson, Ann L; Griffon, Dominique J; Swanson, Kelly S

    2011-02-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of S-adenosyl l-methionine (SAMe) in the treatment of clinically inferred canine osteoarthritis (OA). Six weeks, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, clinical trial. Dogs (n=33) with clinical signs, history, and orthopedic exams consistent with OA. Dogs were block randomized by body condition score (goniometry, and the Canine Brief Pain Inventory (CBPI) at the time of study entrance and at 3 and 6 weeks after entry. Groups were compared using parametric and nonparametric paired tests as appropriate, and numbers needed to treat (NNT) were calculated for the CBPI and peak vertical force (PVF). Both groups (n=15 placebo, n=18 SAMe) had a reduction in mean PVF (P=.02) and vertical impulse (VI; P=.06) from the 1st to 3rd visit. There was no significant difference between the placebo group and SAMe group for PVF, VI, or either part of the CBPI (Severity or Impact). The NNT at 6 weeks for the Severity score was 3, Impact score was 25, and PVF was 45. These data do not support the use of SAMe as an effective stand alone treatment for reducing clinical signs of OA, as measured by PVF, VI, goniometry, CBPI (both Severity and Impact), and examination score within 6 weeks of treatment. © Copyright 2011 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  6. Fabrication of Random Microwell Arrays as Pseudo-Thermal Speckle Light Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axiu Cao

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Quantum correlated imaging using the intensity fluctuations of thermal light possesses advantages of high resolution and strong anti-interference ability. The common method to produce pseudo-thermal light source is using a rotary ground glass and transmission of laser beam. In the present work, we propose a method for the fabrication of microwell arrays with randomly varied diameters, which could be used as a new structural element for pseudo-thermal speckle light source. If these are etched with random sizes then they may also have random and complex varying curvatures (diffusion limited etching leading to random destructive interference of the coherent beam which could be a good thing. The microwell arrays, with diameters randomly varying from 5 μm to 40 μm, height varying from 200 nm to 20 μm, were fabricated by photolithography combined with acid etching. The experimental conditions are simple and can be scaled up to for large structures. The produced microwell arrays can transform the laser beam to a pseudo-thermal light source with a certain divergent angle by rational designing of mask and adjustable process parameters.

  7. Do Dogs Provide Information Helpfully?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrizia Piotti

    Full Text Available Dogs are particularly skilful during communicative interactions with humans. Dogs' abilities to use human communicative cues in cooperative contexts outcompete those of other species, and might be the result of selection pressures during domestication. Dogs also produce signals to direct the attention of humans towards outside entities, a behaviour often referred to as showing behaviour. This showing behaviour in dogs is thought to be something dogs use intentionally and referentially. However, there is currently no evidence that dogs communicate helpfully, i.e. to inform an ignorant human about a target that is of interest to the human but not to the dog. Communicating with a helpful motive is particularly interesting because it might suggest that dogs understand the human's goals and need for information. In study 1, we assessed whether dogs would abandon an object that they find interesting in favour of an object useful for their human partner, a random novel distractor, or an empty container. Results showed that it was mainly self-interest that was driving the dogs' behaviour. The dogs mainly directed their behaviour towards the object they had an interest in, but dogs were more persistent when showing the object relevant to the human, suggesting that to some extent they took the humans interest into account. Another possibility is that dogs' behaviour was driven by an egocentric motivation to interact with novel targets and that the dogs' neophila might have masked their helpful tendencies. Therefore, in study 2 the dogs had initial access to both objects, and were expected to indicate only one (relevant or distractor. The human partner interacted with the dog using vocal communication in half of the trials, and remaining silent in the other half. Dogs from both experimental groups, i.e. indicating the relevant object or indicating the distractor, established joint attention with the human. However, the human's vocal communication and the

  8. Do Dogs Provide Information Helpfully?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotti, Patrizia; Kaminski, Juliane

    2016-01-01

    Dogs are particularly skilful during communicative interactions with humans. Dogs' abilities to use human communicative cues in cooperative contexts outcompete those of other species, and might be the result of selection pressures during domestication. Dogs also produce signals to direct the attention of humans towards outside entities, a behaviour often referred to as showing behaviour. This showing behaviour in dogs is thought to be something dogs use intentionally and referentially. However, there is currently no evidence that dogs communicate helpfully, i.e. to inform an ignorant human about a target that is of interest to the human but not to the dog. Communicating with a helpful motive is particularly interesting because it might suggest that dogs understand the human's goals and need for information. In study 1, we assessed whether dogs would abandon an object that they find interesting in favour of an object useful for their human partner, a random novel distractor, or an empty container. Results showed that it was mainly self-interest that was driving the dogs' behaviour. The dogs mainly directed their behaviour towards the object they had an interest in, but dogs were more persistent when showing the object relevant to the human, suggesting that to some extent they took the humans interest into account. Another possibility is that dogs' behaviour was driven by an egocentric motivation to interact with novel targets and that the dogs' neophila might have masked their helpful tendencies. Therefore, in study 2 the dogs had initial access to both objects, and were expected to indicate only one (relevant or distractor). The human partner interacted with the dog using vocal communication in half of the trials, and remaining silent in the other half. Dogs from both experimental groups, i.e. indicating the relevant object or indicating the distractor, established joint attention with the human. However, the human's vocal communication and the presence of the

  9. Random source generating far field with elliptical flat-topped beam profile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yongtao; Cai, Yangjian

    2014-01-01

    Circular and rectangular multi-Gaussian Schell-model (MGSM) sources which generate far fields with circular and rectangular flat-topped beam profiles were introduced just recently (Sahin and Korotkova 2012 Opt. Lett. 37 2970; Korotkova 2014 Opt. Lett. 39 64). In this paper, a random source named an elliptical MGSM source is introduced. An analytical expression for the propagation factor of an elliptical MGSM beam is derived. Furthermore, an analytical propagation formula for an elliptical MGSM beam passing through a stigmatic ABCD optical system is derived, and its propagation properties in free space are studied. It is interesting to find that an elliptical MGSM source generates a far field with an elliptical flat-topped beam profile, being qualitatively different from that of circular and rectangular MGSM sources. The ellipticity and the flatness of the elliptical flat-topped beam profile in the far field are determined by the initial coherence widths and the beam index, respectively. (paper)

  10. Technology Learning Activities. Design Brief--Measuring Inaccessible Distances. Alternative Energy Sources: Designing a Wind Powered Generator. Alternative Energy Sources: Designing a Hot Dog Heater Using Solar Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Technology Teacher, 1991

    1991-01-01

    These three learning activities are on measuring accessible distances, designing a wind powered generator, and designing a hot dog heater using solar energy. Each activity includes description of context, objectives, list of materials and equipment, challenge to students, and evaluation questions. (SK)

  11. How does a carnivore guild utilise a substantial but unpredictable anthropogenic food source? Scavenging on hunter-shot ungulate carcasses by wild dogs/dingoes, red foxes and feral cats in south-eastern Australia revealed by camera traps.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M Forsyth

    Full Text Available There is much interest in understanding how anthropogenic food resources subsidise carnivore populations. Carcasses of hunter-shot ungulates are a potentially substantial food source for mammalian carnivores. The sambar deer (Rusa unicolor is a large (≥ 150 kg exotic ungulate that can be hunted throughout the year in south-eastern Australia, and hunters are not required to remove or bury carcasses. We investigated how wild dogs/dingoes and their hybrids (Canis lupus familiaris/dingo, red foxes (Vulpes vulpes and feral cats (Felis catus utilised sambar deer carcasses during the peak hunting seasons (i.e. winter and spring. We placed carcasses at 1-km intervals along each of six transects that extended 4-km into forest from farm boundaries. Visits to carcasses were monitored using camera traps, and the rate of change in edible biomass estimated at ∼ 14-day intervals. Wild dogs and foxes fed on 70% and 60% of 30 carcasses, respectively, but feral cats seldom (10% fed on carcasses. Spatial and temporal patterns of visits to carcasses were consistent with the hypothesis that foxes avoid wild dogs. Wild dog activity peaked at carcasses 2 and 3 km from farms, a likely legacy of wild dog control, whereas fox activity peaked at carcasses 0 and 4 km from farms. Wild dog activity peaked at dawn and dusk, whereas nearly all fox activity occurred after dusk and before dawn. Neither wild dogs nor foxes remained at carcasses for long periods and the amount of feeding activity by either species was a less important predictor of the loss of edible biomass than season. Reasons for the low impacts of wild dogs and foxes on sambar deer carcass biomass include the spatially and temporally unpredictable distribution of carcasses in the landscape, the rapid rate of edible biomass decomposition in warm periods, low wild dog densities and the availability of alternative food resources.

  12. How does a carnivore guild utilise a substantial but unpredictable anthropogenic food source? Scavenging on hunter-shot ungulate carcasses by wild dogs/dingoes, red foxes and feral cats in south-eastern Australia revealed by camera traps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsyth, David M; Woodford, Luke; Moloney, Paul D; Hampton, Jordan O; Woolnough, Andrew P; Tucker, Mark

    2014-01-01

    There is much interest in understanding how anthropogenic food resources subsidise carnivore populations. Carcasses of hunter-shot ungulates are a potentially substantial food source for mammalian carnivores. The sambar deer (Rusa unicolor) is a large (≥ 150 kg) exotic ungulate that can be hunted throughout the year in south-eastern Australia, and hunters are not required to remove or bury carcasses. We investigated how wild dogs/dingoes and their hybrids (Canis lupus familiaris/dingo), red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and feral cats (Felis catus) utilised sambar deer carcasses during the peak hunting seasons (i.e. winter and spring). We placed carcasses at 1-km intervals along each of six transects that extended 4-km into forest from farm boundaries. Visits to carcasses were monitored using camera traps, and the rate of change in edible biomass estimated at ∼ 14-day intervals. Wild dogs and foxes fed on 70% and 60% of 30 carcasses, respectively, but feral cats seldom (10%) fed on carcasses. Spatial and temporal patterns of visits to carcasses were consistent with the hypothesis that foxes avoid wild dogs. Wild dog activity peaked at carcasses 2 and 3 km from farms, a likely legacy of wild dog control, whereas fox activity peaked at carcasses 0 and 4 km from farms. Wild dog activity peaked at dawn and dusk, whereas nearly all fox activity occurred after dusk and before dawn. Neither wild dogs nor foxes remained at carcasses for long periods and the amount of feeding activity by either species was a less important predictor of the loss of edible biomass than season. Reasons for the low impacts of wild dogs and foxes on sambar deer carcass biomass include the spatially and temporally unpredictable distribution of carcasses in the landscape, the rapid rate of edible biomass decomposition in warm periods, low wild dog densities and the availability of alternative food resources.

  13. How Does a Carnivore Guild Utilise a Substantial but Unpredictable Anthropogenic Food Source? Scavenging on Hunter-Shot Ungulate Carcasses by Wild Dogs/Dingoes, Red Foxes and Feral Cats in South-Eastern Australia Revealed by Camera Traps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsyth, David M.; Woodford, Luke; Moloney, Paul D.; Hampton, Jordan O.; Woolnough, Andrew P.; Tucker, Mark

    2014-01-01

    There is much interest in understanding how anthropogenic food resources subsidise carnivore populations. Carcasses of hunter-shot ungulates are a potentially substantial food source for mammalian carnivores. The sambar deer (Rusa unicolor) is a large (≥150 kg) exotic ungulate that can be hunted throughout the year in south-eastern Australia, and hunters are not required to remove or bury carcasses. We investigated how wild dogs/dingoes and their hybrids (Canis lupus familiaris/dingo), red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) and feral cats (Felis catus) utilised sambar deer carcasses during the peak hunting seasons (i.e. winter and spring). We placed carcasses at 1-km intervals along each of six transects that extended 4-km into forest from farm boundaries. Visits to carcasses were monitored using camera traps, and the rate of change in edible biomass estimated at ∼14-day intervals. Wild dogs and foxes fed on 70% and 60% of 30 carcasses, respectively, but feral cats seldom (10%) fed on carcasses. Spatial and temporal patterns of visits to carcasses were consistent with the hypothesis that foxes avoid wild dogs. Wild dog activity peaked at carcasses 2 and 3 km from farms, a likely legacy of wild dog control, whereas fox activity peaked at carcasses 0 and 4 km from farms. Wild dog activity peaked at dawn and dusk, whereas nearly all fox activity occurred after dusk and before dawn. Neither wild dogs nor foxes remained at carcasses for long periods and the amount of feeding activity by either species was a less important predictor of the loss of edible biomass than season. Reasons for the low impacts of wild dogs and foxes on sambar deer carcass biomass include the spatially and temporally unpredictable distribution of carcasses in the landscape, the rapid rate of edible biomass decomposition in warm periods, low wild dog densities and the availability of alternative food resources. PMID:24918425

  14. Home - DOG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newsroom Services Information Why Alaska? DOG 101 Director & Deputy Bios Division Experts Applications — Give Feedback Thanks for giving feedback! The captcha entered is not valid. Send Close DOG DOA DNR

  15. On characteristic polynomials for a generalized chiral random matrix ensemble with a source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fyodorov, Yan V.; Grela, Jacek; Strahov, Eugene

    2018-04-01

    We evaluate averages involving characteristic polynomials, inverse characteristic polynomials and ratios of characteristic polynomials for a N× N random matrix taken from a L-deformed chiral Gaussian Unitary Ensemble with an external source Ω. Relation to a recently studied statistics of bi-orthogonal eigenvectors in the complex Ginibre ensemble, see Fyodorov (2017 arXiv:1710.04699), is briefly discussed as a motivation to study asymptotics of these objects in the case of external source proportional to the identity matrix. In particular, for an associated complex bulk/chiral edge scaling regime we retrieve the kernel related to Bessel/Macdonald functions.

  16. Faecal Campylobacter shedding among dogs in animal shelters across Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leahy, A M; Cummings, K J; Rodriguez-Rivera, L D; Hamer, S A; Lawhon, S D

    2017-12-01

    Epidemiologic studies on faecal Campylobacter shedding among dogs in the United States have been limited, despite evidence that the incidence of human campylobacteriosis has increased over the last decade. Our objectives were to estimate the prevalence of faecal Campylobacter shedding among shelter dogs in Texas, to estimate the specific prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli shedding, and to identify risk factors for Campylobacter-positive status. Using a cross-sectional study design, we collected faecal samples from dogs in six animal shelters across Texas between May and December, 2014. Quantitative PCR protocols were used to detect Campylobacter in samples and to specifically identify C. jejuni and C. coli. The prevalence of faecal Campylobacter shedding among sampled dogs was 75.7% (140/185). Prevalence varied significantly by shelter (p = .03), ranging from 57% to 93%. There was a marginal association (p = .06) between abnormal faecal consistency and positive Campylobacter status, after controlling for shelter as a random effect. However, approximately 70% of Campylobacter-positive dogs had grossly normal faeces. Campylobacter prevalence did not vary significantly by age group or sex. The prevalence of C. jejuni-positive samples was 5.4% (10/185), but C. coli was not detected in any samples. Dogs are a potential source of zoonotic Campylobacter transmission. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  17. Apixaban for treatment of embolic stroke of undetermined source (ATTICUS randomized trial): Rationale and study design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geisler, Tobias; Poli, Sven; Meisner, Christoph; Schreieck, Juergen; Zuern, Christine S; Nägele, Thomas; Brachmann, Johannes; Jung, Werner; Gahn, Georg; Schmid, Elisabeth; Bäezner, Hansjörg; Keller, Timea; Petzold, Gabor C; Schrickel, Jan-Wilko; Liman, Jan; Wachter, Rolf; Schön, Frauke; Schabet, Martin; Lindner, Alfred; Ludolph, Albert C; Kimmig, Hubert; Jander, Sebastian; Schlegel, Uwe; Gawaz, Meinrad; Ziemann, Ulf

    2017-12-01

    Rationale Optimal secondary prevention of embolic stroke of undetermined source is not established. The current standard in these patients is acetylsalicylic acid, despite high prevalence of yet undetected paroxysmal atrial fibrillation. Aim The ATTICUS randomized trial is designed to determine whether the factor Xa inhibitor apixaban administered within 7 days after embolic stroke of undetermined source, is superior to acetylsalicylic acid for prevention of new ischemic lesions documented by brain magnetic resonance imaging within 12 months after index stroke. Design Prospective, randomized, blinded, parallel-group, open-label, German multicenter phase III trial in approximately 500 patients with embolic stroke of undetermined source. A key inclusion criterion is the presence or the planned implantation of an insertable cardiac monitor. Patients are 1:1 randomized to apixaban or acetylsalicylic acid and treated for a 12-month period. It is an event-driven trial aiming for core-lab adjudicated primary outcome events. Study outcomes The primary outcome is the occurrence of at least one new ischemic lesion identified by axial T2-weighted FLAIR magnetic resonance imaging and/or axial DWI magnetic resonance imaging at 12 months when compared with the baseline magnetic resonance imaging. Key secondary outcomes are the combination of recurrent ischemic strokes, hemorrhagic strokes, systemic embolism; combination of MACE including recurrent stroke, myocardial infarction, and cardiovascular death and combination of major and clinically relevant non-major bleeding defined according to ISTH, and change of cognitive function and quality of life (EQ-5D, Stroke Impact Scale). Discussion Embolic stroke of undetermined source is caused by embolic disease and associated with a high risk of recurrent ischemic strokes and clinically silent cerebral ischemic lesions. ATTICUS will investigate the impact of atrial fibrillation detected by insertable cardiac monitor and the effects of

  18. Biological effects of implanted nuclear energy sources for artificial heart devices. Progress report, September 1, 1975--August 31, 1976. [Heat dissipation from /sup 238/Pu power sources implanted in dogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kallfelz, F.A.; Wentworth, R.A.; Cady, K.B.

    1976-01-01

    A total of sixty dogs were implanted with radioisotope-powered artificial heart systems producing radiation fluxes similar to that of plutonium-238, but having no associated heat, at levels of from one to seventy times the radiation flux expected from a 30-watt plutonium-238 source. Results from studies lasting up to 6 years after implantation indicate that these animals, and by inference human beings, may be able to tolerate the radiation flux from 30-watt /sup 238/Pu power sources. Results of heat dissipation studies in calves indicate that it may be possible to induce a vascularized connective tissue capsule sufficient to dissipate 30 watts of additional heat from a surface area of approximately 500 cm sq., allowing a heat flux of 0.06 watts per cm sq.

  19. Electrostatic energy harvesting device with dual resonant structure for wideband random vibration sources at low frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yulong; Wang, Tianyang; Zhang, Ai; Peng, Zhuoteng; Luo, Dan; Chen, Rui; Wang, Fei

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, we present design and test of a broadband electrostatic energy harvester with a dual resonant structure, which consists of two cantilever-mass subsystems each with a mass attached at the free edge of a cantilever. Comparing to traditional devices with single resonant frequency, the proposed device with dual resonant structure can resonate at two frequencies. Furthermore, when one of the cantilever-masses is oscillating at resonance, the vibration amplitude is large enough to make it collide with the other mass, which provides strong mechanical coupling between the two subsystems. Therefore, this device can harvest a decent power output from vibration sources at a broad frequency range. During the measurement, continuous power output up to 6.2-9.8 μW can be achieved under external vibration amplitude of 9.3 m/s 2 at a frequency range from 36.3 Hz to 48.3 Hz, which means the bandwidth of the device is about 30% of the central frequency. The broad bandwidth of the device provides a promising application for energy harvesting from the scenarios with random vibration sources. The experimental results indicate that with the dual resonant structure, the vibration-to-electricity energy conversion efficiency can be improved by 97% when an external random vibration with a low frequency filter is applied.

  20. Do Dogs Provide Information Helpfully?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotti, Patrizia; Kaminski, Juliane

    2016-01-01

    Dogs are particularly skilful during communicative interactions with humans. Dogs’ abilities to use human communicative cues in cooperative contexts outcompete those of other species, and might be the result of selection pressures during domestication. Dogs also produce signals to direct the attention of humans towards outside entities, a behaviour often referred to as showing behaviour. This showing behaviour in dogs is thought to be something dogs use intentionally and referentially. However, there is currently no evidence that dogs communicate helpfully, i.e. to inform an ignorant human about a target that is of interest to the human but not to the dog. Communicating with a helpful motive is particularly interesting because it might suggest that dogs understand the human’s goals and need for information. In study 1, we assessed whether dogs would abandon an object that they find interesting in favour of an object useful for their human partner, a random novel distractor, or an empty container. Results showed that it was mainly self-interest that was driving the dogs’ behaviour. The dogs mainly directed their behaviour towards the object they had an interest in, but dogs were more persistent when showing the object relevant to the human, suggesting that to some extent they took the humans interest into account. Another possibility is that dogs’ behaviour was driven by an egocentric motivation to interact with novel targets and that the dogs’ neophila might have masked their helpful tendencies. Therefore, in study 2 the dogs had initial access to both objects, and were expected to indicate only one (relevant or distractor). The human partner interacted with the dog using vocal communication in half of the trials, and remaining silent in the other half. Dogs from both experimental groups, i.e. indicating the relevant object or indicating the distractor, established joint attention with the human. However, the human’s vocal communication and the presence

  1. Avaliação de dietas com diferentes fontes protéicas para cães adultos Evaluation of diets with different protein sources for adult dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aulus Cavalieri Carciofi

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Foram comparados os coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente (CDA de quatro alimentos secos extrusados para cães, cada um formulado com um dos ingredientes protéicos em estudo: farelo de soja (FS; farelo de glúten de milho (GM; farinha de carne e ossos (FCO; e farinha de vísceras de frango (FV. O experimento foi realizado em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com quatro tratamentos (ingredientes protéicos e seis repetições, totalizando 24 animais. As médias dos tratamentos foram comparadas pelo teste Tukey. O CDA da PB (média ± erro-padrão da média foi maior na ração à base de GM (88,13±0,40%, seguida pelas dietas com FS (86,31±0,34%, FCO (85,88±0,16% e FV (84,84±0,15%. O CDA da MS foi maior para a ração com FV (83,69±0,09%, intermediário para GM (82,41±0,23% e FCO (82,76±0,11% e menor para FS (81,10±0,16%. As rações à base de proteína animal apresentaram os maiores CDA dos extrativos não-nitrogenados. O teor de MS das fezes dos cães foi elevado na ração com FCO, intermediário naquela com FV e GM e baixo naquela à base de FS. As quatro fontes protéicas estudadas apresentaram bons CDA e, portanto, podem ser utilizadas em rações para cães adultos.The coefficient of apparent digestibility (CAD of four dry extruded dog foods was compared, each one formulated with a different protein source: soybean meal (SM, corn gluten meal (GM, meat and bone meal (MBM and poultry meal (PM. A completely randomized design was used, with four treatments (protein source and six repetitions per treatment, in a total of 24 animals. Tukey test was used to compare treatments means. The diet based on GM showed the highest CAD of crude protein (88.13±0.40%, followed by SM (86.31±0.34%, MBM (85.88±0.16%, and PM (83.69±0.09%, with the lowest results. The CAD of dry matter was highest for PM (83.69±0.09%, intermediary for GM (82.41±0.23% and MBM (82.76±0.11%, and lowest for SM (81.10±0.16% The rations based on animal protein

  2. Characteristics of randomized trials published in Latin America and the Caribbean according to funding source.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludovic Reveiz

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Few studies have assessed the nature and quality of randomized controlled trials (RCTs in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The aims of this systematic review are to evaluate the characteristics (including the risk of bias assessment of RCT conducted in LAC according to funding source. A review of RCTs published in 2010 in which the author's affiliation was from LAC was performed in PubMed and LILACS. Two reviewers independently extracted data and assessed the risk of bias. The primary outcomes were risk of bias assessment and funding source. A total of 1,695 references were found in PubMed and LILACS databases, of which 526 were RCTs (N = 73.513 participants. English was the dominant publication language (93% and most of the RCTs were published in non-LAC journals (84.2%. Only five of the 19 identified countries accounted for nearly 95% of all RCTs conducted in the region (Brazil 70.9%, Mexico 10.1%, Argentina 5.9%, Colombia 3.8%, and Chile 3.4%. Few RCTs covered priority areas related with Millennium Development Goals like maternal health (6.7% or high priority infectious diseases (3.8%. Regarding children, 3.6% and 0.4% RCT evaluated nutrition and diarrhea interventions respectively but none pneumonia. As a comparison, aesthetic and sport related interventions account for 4.6% of all trials. A random sample of RCTs (n = 358 was assessed for funding source: exclusively public (33.8%; private (e.g. pharmaceutical company (15.3%; other (e.g. mixed, NGO (15.1%; no funding (35.8%. Overall assessments for risk of bias showed no statistically significant differences between RCTs and type of funding source. Statistically significant differences favoring private and others type of funding was found when assessing trial registration and conflict of interest reporting. CONCLUSION: Findings of this study could be used to provide more direction for future research to facilitate innovation, improve health

  3. Characteristics of randomized trials published in Latin America and the Caribbean according to funding source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reveiz, Ludovic; Sangalang, Stephanie; Glujovsky, Demian; Pinzon, Carlos E; Asenjo Lobos, Claudia; Cortes, Marcela; Cañón, Martin; Bardach, Ariel; Bonfill, Xavier

    2013-01-01

    Few studies have assessed the nature and quality of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC). The aims of this systematic review are to evaluate the characteristics (including the risk of bias assessment) of RCT conducted in LAC according to funding source. A review of RCTs published in 2010 in which the author's affiliation was from LAC was performed in PubMed and LILACS. Two reviewers independently extracted data and assessed the risk of bias. The primary outcomes were risk of bias assessment and funding source. A total of 1,695 references were found in PubMed and LILACS databases, of which 526 were RCTs (N = 73.513 participants). English was the dominant publication language (93%) and most of the RCTs were published in non-LAC journals (84.2%). Only five of the 19 identified countries accounted for nearly 95% of all RCTs conducted in the region (Brazil 70.9%, Mexico 10.1%, Argentina 5.9%, Colombia 3.8%, and Chile 3.4%). Few RCTs covered priority areas related with Millennium Development Goals like maternal health (6.7%) or high priority infectious diseases (3.8%). Regarding children, 3.6% and 0.4% RCT evaluated nutrition and diarrhea interventions respectively but none pneumonia. As a comparison, aesthetic and sport related interventions account for 4.6% of all trials. A random sample of RCTs (n = 358) was assessed for funding source: exclusively public (33.8%); private (e.g. pharmaceutical company) (15.3%); other (e.g. mixed, NGO) (15.1%); no funding (35.8%). Overall assessments for risk of bias showed no statistically significant differences between RCTs and type of funding source. Statistically significant differences favoring private and others type of funding was found when assessing trial registration and conflict of interest reporting. Findings of this study could be used to provide more direction for future research to facilitate innovation, improve health outcomes or address priority health problems.

  4. Dog bite histories and response to incidents in canine rabies-enzootic KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melinda Hergert

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to report evaluated observations from survey records captured through a cross-sectional observational study regarding canine populations and dog owners in rabies enzootic KwaZulu-Natal province, South Africa. Our aim was to evaluate respondent knowledge of canine rabies and response to dog bite incidents towards improved rabies control. Six communities consisting of three land use types were randomly sampled from September 2009 to January 2011, using a cluster design. A total of 1992 household records were analyzed using descriptive statistics and regression modeling to evaluate source of rabies knowledge, experiences with dog bites, and factors affecting treatment received within respective households that occurred within the 365 day period prior to the surveys. 86% of the population surveyed had heard of rabies. Non-dog owners were 1.6 times more likely to have heard of rabies than dog owners; however, fear of rabies was not a reason for not owning a dog. Government veterinary services were reported most frequently as respondent source of rabies knowledge. Nearly 13% of households had a member bitten by a dog within the year prior to the surveys with 82% of the victims visiting a clinic as a response to the bite. 35% of these clinic visitors received at least one rabies vaccination. Regression modeling determined that the only response variable that significantly reflected the likelihood of a patient receiving rabies vaccination or not was the term for the area surveyed. Overall the survey showed that most respondents have heard of dog associated rabies and seek medical assistance at a clinic in response to a dog bite regardless of offending dog identification. An in-depth study involving factors associated within area clinics may highlight the area dependency for patients receiving rabies post exposure prophylaxis shown by this model.

  5. Bias analysis applied to Agricultural Health Study publications to estimate non-random sources of uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lash, Timothy L

    2007-11-26

    The associations of pesticide exposure with disease outcomes are estimated without the benefit of a randomized design. For this reason and others, these studies are susceptible to systematic errors. I analyzed studies of the associations between alachlor and glyphosate exposure and cancer incidence, both derived from the Agricultural Health Study cohort, to quantify the bias and uncertainty potentially attributable to systematic error. For each study, I identified the prominent result and important sources of systematic error that might affect it. I assigned probability distributions to the bias parameters that allow quantification of the bias, drew a value at random from each assigned distribution, and calculated the estimate of effect adjusted for the biases. By repeating the draw and adjustment process over multiple iterations, I generated a frequency distribution of adjusted results, from which I obtained a point estimate and simulation interval. These methods were applied without access to the primary record-level dataset. The conventional estimates of effect associating alachlor and glyphosate exposure with cancer incidence were likely biased away from the null and understated the uncertainty by quantifying only random error. For example, the conventional p-value for a test of trend in the alachlor study equaled 0.02, whereas fewer than 20% of the bias analysis iterations yielded a p-value of 0.02 or lower. Similarly, the conventional fully-adjusted result associating glyphosate exposure with multiple myleoma equaled 2.6 with 95% confidence interval of 0.7 to 9.4. The frequency distribution generated by the bias analysis yielded a median hazard ratio equal to 1.5 with 95% simulation interval of 0.4 to 8.9, which was 66% wider than the conventional interval. Bias analysis provides a more complete picture of true uncertainty than conventional frequentist statistical analysis accompanied by a qualitative description of study limitations. The latter approach is

  6. Bias analysis applied to Agricultural Health Study publications to estimate non-random sources of uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lash Timothy L

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The associations of pesticide exposure with disease outcomes are estimated without the benefit of a randomized design. For this reason and others, these studies are susceptible to systematic errors. I analyzed studies of the associations between alachlor and glyphosate exposure and cancer incidence, both derived from the Agricultural Health Study cohort, to quantify the bias and uncertainty potentially attributable to systematic error. Methods For each study, I identified the prominent result and important sources of systematic error that might affect it. I assigned probability distributions to the bias parameters that allow quantification of the bias, drew a value at random from each assigned distribution, and calculated the estimate of effect adjusted for the biases. By repeating the draw and adjustment process over multiple iterations, I generated a frequency distribution of adjusted results, from which I obtained a point estimate and simulation interval. These methods were applied without access to the primary record-level dataset. Results The conventional estimates of effect associating alachlor and glyphosate exposure with cancer incidence were likely biased away from the null and understated the uncertainty by quantifying only random error. For example, the conventional p-value for a test of trend in the alachlor study equaled 0.02, whereas fewer than 20% of the bias analysis iterations yielded a p-value of 0.02 or lower. Similarly, the conventional fully-adjusted result associating glyphosate exposure with multiple myleoma equaled 2.6 with 95% confidence interval of 0.7 to 9.4. The frequency distribution generated by the bias analysis yielded a median hazard ratio equal to 1.5 with 95% simulation interval of 0.4 to 8.9, which was 66% wider than the conventional interval. Conclusion Bias analysis provides a more complete picture of true uncertainty than conventional frequentist statistical analysis accompanied by a

  7. Allegheny County Dog Licenses

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — A list of dog license dates, dog breeds, and dog name by zip code. Currently this dataset does not include City of Pittsburgh dogs.

  8. Observations on some renal function indices in dogs under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was done to evaluate the effect of an increased dose of ketamine on some renal function indices of Ketamine−Xylazine anaesthetised dogs. Five adult female mongrel dogs assigned to two different treatment groups in a randomized cross over design were used for this study. Each of the dogs received either ...

  9. OxMaR: open source free software for online minimization and randomization for clinical trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher A O'Callaghan

    Full Text Available Minimization is a valuable method for allocating participants between the control and experimental arms of clinical studies. The use of minimization reduces differences that might arise by chance between the study arms in the distribution of patient characteristics such as gender, ethnicity and age. However, unlike randomization, minimization requires real time assessment of each new participant with respect to the preceding distribution of relevant participant characteristics within the different arms of the study. For multi-site studies, this necessitates centralized computational analysis that is shared between all study locations. Unfortunately, there is no suitable freely available open source or free software that can be used for this purpose. OxMaR was developed to enable researchers in any location to use minimization for patient allocation and to access the minimization algorithm using any device that can connect to the internet such as a desktop computer, tablet or mobile phone. The software is complete in itself and requires no special packages or libraries to be installed. It is simple to set up and run over the internet using online facilities which are very low cost or even free to the user. Importantly, it provides real time information on allocation to the study lead or administrator and generates real time distributed backups with each allocation. OxMaR can readily be modified and customised and can also be used for standard randomization. It has been extensively tested and has been used successfully in a low budget multi-centre study. Hitherto, the logistical difficulties involved in minimization have precluded its use in many small studies and this software should allow more widespread use of minimization which should lead to studies with better matched control and experimental arms. OxMaR should be particularly valuable in low resource settings.

  10. OxMaR: open source free software for online minimization and randomization for clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Callaghan, Christopher A

    2014-01-01

    Minimization is a valuable method for allocating participants between the control and experimental arms of clinical studies. The use of minimization reduces differences that might arise by chance between the study arms in the distribution of patient characteristics such as gender, ethnicity and age. However, unlike randomization, minimization requires real time assessment of each new participant with respect to the preceding distribution of relevant participant characteristics within the different arms of the study. For multi-site studies, this necessitates centralized computational analysis that is shared between all study locations. Unfortunately, there is no suitable freely available open source or free software that can be used for this purpose. OxMaR was developed to enable researchers in any location to use minimization for patient allocation and to access the minimization algorithm using any device that can connect to the internet such as a desktop computer, tablet or mobile phone. The software is complete in itself and requires no special packages or libraries to be installed. It is simple to set up and run over the internet using online facilities which are very low cost or even free to the user. Importantly, it provides real time information on allocation to the study lead or administrator and generates real time distributed backups with each allocation. OxMaR can readily be modified and customised and can also be used for standard randomization. It has been extensively tested and has been used successfully in a low budget multi-centre study. Hitherto, the logistical difficulties involved in minimization have precluded its use in many small studies and this software should allow more widespread use of minimization which should lead to studies with better matched control and experimental arms. OxMaR should be particularly valuable in low resource settings.

  11. Automatic classification of endogenous seismic sources within a landslide body using random forest algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provost, Floriane; Hibert, Clément; Malet, Jean-Philippe; Stumpf, André; Doubre, Cécile

    2016-04-01

    Different studies have shown the presence of microseismic activity in soft-rock landslides. The seismic signals exhibit significantly different features in the time and frequency domains which allow their classification and interpretation. Most of the classes could be associated with different mechanisms of deformation occurring within and at the surface (e.g. rockfall, slide-quake, fissure opening, fluid circulation). However, some signals remain not fully understood and some classes contain few examples that prevent any interpretation. To move toward a more complete interpretation of the links between the dynamics of soft-rock landslides and the physical processes controlling their behaviour, a complete catalog of the endogeneous seismicity is needed. We propose a multi-class detection method based on the random forests algorithm to automatically classify the source of seismic signals. Random forests is a supervised machine learning technique that is based on the computation of a large number of decision trees. The multiple decision trees are constructed from training sets including each of the target classes. In the case of seismic signals, these attributes may encompass spectral features but also waveform characteristics, multi-stations observations and other relevant information. The Random Forest classifier is used because it provides state-of-the-art performance when compared with other machine learning techniques (e.g. SVM, Neural Networks) and requires no fine tuning. Furthermore it is relatively fast, robust, easy to parallelize, and inherently suitable for multi-class problems. In this work, we present the first results of the classification method applied to the seismicity recorded at the Super-Sauze landslide between 2013 and 2015. We selected a dozen of seismic signal features that characterize precisely its spectral content (e.g. central frequency, spectrum width, energy in several frequency bands, spectrogram shape, spectrum local and global maxima

  12. Nonpoint source solute transport normal to aquifer bedding in heterogeneous, Markov chain random fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hua; Harter, Thomas; Sivakumar, Bellie

    2006-06-01

    Facies-based geostatistical models have become important tools for analyzing flow and mass transport processes in heterogeneous aquifers. Yet little is known about the relationship between these latter processes and the parameters of facies-based geostatistical models. In this study, we examine the transport of a nonpoint source solute normal (perpendicular) to the major bedding plane of an alluvial aquifer medium that contains multiple geologic facies, including interconnected, high-conductivity (coarse textured) facies. We also evaluate the dependence of the transport behavior on the parameters of the constitutive facies model. A facies-based Markov chain geostatistical model is used to quantify the spatial variability of the aquifer system's hydrostratigraphy. It is integrated with a groundwater flow model and a random walk particle transport model to estimate the solute traveltime probability density function (pdf) for solute flux from the water table to the bottom boundary (the production horizon) of the aquifer. The cases examined include two-, three-, and four-facies models, with mean length anisotropy ratios for horizontal to vertical facies, ek, from 25:1 to 300:1 and with a wide range of facies volume proportions (e.g., from 5 to 95% coarse-textured facies). Predictions of traveltime pdfs are found to be significantly affected by the number of hydrostratigraphic facies identified in the aquifer. Those predictions of traveltime pdfs also are affected by the proportions of coarse-textured sediments, the mean length of the facies (particularly the ratio of length to thickness of coarse materials), and, to a lesser degree, the juxtapositional preference among the hydrostratigraphic facies. In transport normal to the sedimentary bedding plane, traveltime is not lognormally distributed as is often assumed. Also, macrodispersive behavior (variance of the traveltime) is found not to be a unique function of the conductivity variance. For the parameter range

  13. Application of random-point processes to the detection of radiation sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woods, J.W.

    1978-01-01

    In this report the mathematical theory of random-point processes is reviewed and it is shown how use of the theory can obtain optimal solutions to the problem of detecting radiation sources. As noted, the theory also applies to image processing in low-light-level or low-count-rate situations. Paralleling Snyder's work, the theory is extended to the multichannel case of a continuous, two-dimensional (2-D), energy-time space. This extension essentially involves showing that the data are doubly stochastic Poisson (DSP) point processes in energy as well as time. Further, a new 2-D recursive formulation is presented for the radiation-detection problem with large computational savings over nonrecursive techniques when the number of channels is large (greater than or equal to 30). Finally, some adaptive strategies for on-line ''learning'' of unknown, time-varying signal and background-intensity parameters and statistics are present and discussed. These adaptive procedures apply when a complete statistical description is not available a priori

  14. Production planning and backup sourcing strategy of a buyer-dominant supply chain with random yield and demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kebing; Xiao, Tiaojun

    2015-11-01

    This paper studies the backup sourcing strategy of the buyer and the production planning of the supplier in presence of both random yield and random demand. Since the production is susceptible to the randomness of yield beyond the control of the supplier, the buyer may access to a backup sourcing option for the finished items. We analyse the value of backup sourcing for both the decentralised and centralised channels. Backup sourcing strategy of the buyer may lower the supply chain's performance. We show that the order quantity of the buyer does not change the stocking factor of the supplier's input. Meanwhile, compared with the centralised operation, the decentralised operation is more dependent on the backup sourcing to reduce supply shortage of the contracting supplier. From the channel's perspective, an incentive scheme is developed to facilitate the coordination of both the buyer and the contracting supplier, we show that the proposed option contract can allow the supply chain members to share the respective risks involved in the production and selling processes. Finally, we also provide qualitative insights based on numerical examples of the centralised and decentralised solutions.

  15. Frequency of Lost Dogs and Cats in the United States and the Methods Used to Locate Them

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Emily; Slater, Margaret; Lord, Linda

    2012-01-01

    Simple Summary Dogs and cats are a common member of the family in homes across the US. No population-based data exist on the frequency of pets getting lost from the home and lost pets can be a source of human and animal suffering. Our primary objective was to determine the percentage of owned dogs and cats that were lost, and of these, what percentages of pets were recovered. We examined the recovery success for dogs compared to cats and the methods used as well as the relationship between lost or found pets and pet and owner demographics. While 15% of dog and cat owners lost their pets, dogs had higher recovery rates (93%) than cats (75%) as well as being returned using different search methods. Abstract A cross-sectional national random digit dial telephone interview was conducted between September and November 2010. There were 1,015 households that had owned a dog or cat within the past five years. Of these 817 households owned dogs and 506 owned cats. Fourteen percent of dogs (95% Confidence Interval (CI): 11–16%) and 15% (95% CI: 12–18%) of cats were lost in the past five years. No owner demographic variables were associated with losing a pet. Ninety three percent (95% CI: 86–97%) of dogs and 75% (95% CI: 64–85%) of cats were recovered. For dogs, searching the neighborhood and returning on their own were the most common methods of finding the dog; 14% were found through an identification tag. For cats, returning on their own was most common. Dogs were more likely than cats to be lost more than once. Cats were less likely than dogs to have any type of identification. Knowledge of the successful methods of finding dogs and cats can provide invaluable help for owners of lost pets. Since 25% of lost cats were not found, other methods of reuniting cats and their owners are needed. Collars and ID tags or humane trapping could be valuable approaches. PMID:26486923

  16. Size and demography pattern of the domestic dog population in Bhutan: Implications for dog population management and disease control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinzin, Karma; Tenzin, Tenzin; Robertson, Ian

    2016-04-01

    Understanding the demography of domestic dogs is essential to plan the dog population management and rabies control program. In this study, we estimated the owned and stray dog population and the proportion of owned dogs that are free-roaming in Bhutan. For this, a cross-sectional household surveys were conducted in six districts (both urban and rural areas) and two border towns in southern Bhutan. The population estimation was done by extrapolation of the mean number of dogs per household and dogs per person, whilst mark-resight survey was conducted to estimate the proportion of owned dogs that were free-roaming. A total of 1,301 (rural:585; urban:716) respondents (one per household) were interviewed of which 173 households (24.4%) in urban areas owned 237 dogs whilst 238 households (40.8%) in rural areas owned 353 dogs. The mean number of dogs per dog owning household was estimated to be 1.44 (urban:1.37 dogs; rural:1.48 dogs) and dogs per household was estimated to be 0.45 (urban:0.33; rural:0.60). The dog: human ratio was 1:16.30 (0.06 dogs per person) in urban areas and 1:8.43 (0.12 dogs per person) in rural areas. The total owned dog population based on the mean number of dogs per household and dogs per person were estimated to be 65,312 and 71,245 in the country, respectively. The male: female ratio of the owned dog was 1.31:1 in urban areas and 2.05:1 in rural areas. Majority of the dogs were local non-descript breeds in both urban (60.8%) and rural (78%) areas, and the most common source was acquisition from friends or family (44.7%). The stray dog population in Bhutan was estimated to be 48,379 (urban:22,772; rural:25,607). Of the total estimated owned dog population in the two border towns, the proportion that were found free-roaming was estimated to be 31%. The different dog population estimation methods were compared and discussed in this paper. This study generated baseline data on the demographic patterns of the owned and stray dogs in Bhutan which

  17. Effect of feeding on the pharmacokinetics of oral minocycline in healthy research dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hnot, Melanie L; Cole, Lynette K; Lorch, Gwendolen; Rajala-Schultz, Paivi J; Papich, Mark G

    2015-12-01

    The effect of food on minocycline oral absorption in dogs is unknown. The objective was to determine the pharmacokinetics of minocycline after administration of a single oral dose in fed and fasted dogs. Ten research hounds were administered oral minocycline (approximately 5 mg/kg) with and without food, in a crossover study, with a one-week wash-out between treatments. Blood samples were collected immediately prior to minocycline administration and over 24 h. Minocycline plasma drug concentrations were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography using ultraviolet detection and were analysed with compartmental modelling to determine primary pharmacokinetic parameters. Each dog was analysed independently, followed by calculation of means and variation of the dogs. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test [analysing secondary pharmacokinetic parameters - peak concentration (CMAX ), area under the concentration versus time curve (AUC)] was used to compare the two groups. A population pharmacokinetic modelling approach was performed using nonlinear mixed effects modelling of primary parameters for the population as fixed effects and the difference between subjects as a random effect. Covariate analysis was used to identify the source of variability in the population. No significant difference was found between treatments for AUC (P = 0.0645), although AUC was higher in fasted dogs. A significant difference was found for CMAX (P = 0.0059), with fasted dogs attaining a higher CMAX . The covariate of fed versus fasted accounted for a significant variation in the pharmacokinetics. Because feeding was a significant source of variation for the population's primary pharmacokinetic parameters and fasted dogs had higher minocycline concentrations, we recommend administering minocycline without food. © 2015 ESVD and ACVD.

  18. Media Use and Source Trust among Muslims in Seven Countries: Results of a Large Random Sample Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven R. Corman

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite the perceived importance of media in the spread of and resistance against Islamist extremism, little is known about how Muslims use different kinds of media to get information about religious issues, and what sources they trust when doing so. This paper reports the results of a large, random sample survey among Muslims in seven countries Southeast Asia, West Africa and Western Europe, which helps fill this gap. Results show a diverse set of profiles of media use and source trust that differ by country, with overall low trust in mediated sources of information. Based on these findings, we conclude that mass media is still the most common source of religious information for Muslims, but that trust in mediated information is low overall. This suggests that media are probably best used to persuade opinion leaders, who will then carry anti-extremist messages through more personal means.

  19. Metodologias para determinação da digestibilidade de dietas contendo fontes proteicas vegetal ou animal em cães Methodology for determination of digestibility of diets containing vegetable or animal protein sources in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Pedro Zanatta

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar diferentes metodologias de determinação da digestibilidade em cães, alimentados com duas dietas contendo fontes proteicas animal (farinha de vísceras de aves - FVA e vegetal (farelo de soja - FS. As metodologias avaliadas foram: colheita total de fezes (CTF e os indicadores cinza insolúvel em ácido (CIA, fibra em detergente ácido (FDA e fibra bruta (FB. Foram utilizados 8 cães adultos, em delineamento Cross over, em parcela subdividida no tempo (parcela: fontes proteicas; e subparcela: metodologias de digestibilidade. O período experimental foi constituído por cinco dias de adaptação, com cinco dias de colheita total de fezes. A dieta contendo FS apresentou maior CDA da PB, enquanto a dieta contendo FVA apresentou maior CDA dos demais nutrientes e energia metabolizável (EM. Os CDA e EM determinados pela CTF e pelos indicadores não diferiram entre si, podendo ser determinados pelos indicadores FB, FDA e CIA, independentemente da fonte proteica da dieta.The objective was to evaluate different methods of measuring digestibility in dogs fed two diets containing animal (poultry by products - PBP and vegetable (soybean meal - SBM protein sources. The methods evaluated were: total fecal collection (TFC and indicators: acid insoluble ash (AIA, acid detergent fiber (ADF and crude fiber (CF. Eight dogs were distributed in Cross Over in split plots (plot: sources of protein; subplot: methods for digestibility, fed by five days of adaptation and five days of total fecal collection. The diet containing SBM had a higher ADC of CP, while the diet containing POM showed higher ADC of all nutrients and metabolizable energy (ME. The ADC and ME determined by the TFC and the indicators did not differ. Thus, the ADC of diets in dogs can be determined by TFC and CF, ADF and AIA indicators, regardless of source of dietary protein.

  20. Prediction of broadband ground-motion time histories: Hybrid low/high-frequency method with correlated random source parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, P.; Archuleta, R.J.; Hartzell, S.H.

    2006-01-01

    We present a new method for calculating broadband time histories of ground motion based on a hybrid low-frequency/high-frequency approach with correlated source parameters. Using a finite-difference method we calculate low- frequency synthetics (structure. We also compute broadband synthetics in a 1D velocity model using a frequency-wavenumber method. The low frequencies from the 3D calculation are combined with the high frequencies from the 1D calculation by using matched filtering at a crossover frequency of 1 Hz. The source description, common to both the 1D and 3D synthetics, is based on correlated random distributions for the slip amplitude, rupture velocity, and rise time on the fault. This source description allows for the specification of source parameters independent of any a priori inversion results. In our broadband modeling we include correlation between slip amplitude, rupture velocity, and rise time, as suggested by dynamic fault modeling. The method of using correlated random source parameters is flexible and can be easily modified to adjust to our changing understanding of earthquake ruptures. A realistic attenuation model is common to both the 3D and 1D calculations that form the low- and high-frequency components of the broadband synthetics. The value of Q is a function of the local shear-wave velocity. To produce more accurate high-frequency amplitudes and durations, the 1D synthetics are corrected with a randomized, frequency-dependent radiation pattern. The 1D synthetics are further corrected for local site and nonlinear soil effects by using a 1D nonlinear propagation code and generic velocity structure appropriate for the site’s National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program (NEHRP) site classification. The entire procedure is validated by comparison with the 1994 Northridge, California, strong ground motion data set. The bias and error found here for response spectral acceleration are similar to the best results that have been published by

  1. First study on domestic dog ecology, demographic structure and dynamics in Bamako, Mali.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauti, Stephanie; Traoré, Abdallah; Sery, Amadou; Bryssinckx, Ward; Hattendorf, Jan; Zinsstag, Jakob

    2017-10-01

    For the planning of an effective dog mass vaccination campaign against rabies in Africa, it is crucial to know more about the dog population. In this paper we describe for the first time the dog ecology, demographic structure and population dynamics of a domestic dog population in Bamako, Mali. In 2010 and 2011, we visited 2956 randomly selected compounds. Questionnaire data was collected on the compound and household level and on each dog individually. Dog-owning households were followed every six months during one (dog-owning households identified in 2011) or two years (dog-owning households identified in 2010) for the successive collection of dog demography data. We recorded 379 dogs in 279 compounds. The dog human ratio was estimated at 1:121, and the extrapolation of the domestic dog population in Bamako results in an estimate of 14 906 dogs (95% CI 13 041-17 037). The female male ratio was 1:2.8. A high proportion of young dogs was found as a result of a high turnover rate in the population. Mortality within the first year of life was high, and dogs had a life expectancy at birth of 2.5 years. Using a Leslie matrix, we estimated the annual dog population growth to be 20%. Christians were more likely to be dog owners than Muslims. Another factor favouring dog ownership was belonging to the ethnic group of Bobo or Malinke. Dogs were mainly used as watchdogs and fed with household leftovers and garbage. They were most often obtained and given away without remuneration. This work contributes vital information towards planning effective and sustainable dog rabies control programmes for the district of Bamako. Due to the high turnover rate, we recommend repeated mass-vaccination campaigns of at least 70% of the owned dogs at yearly intervals. In addition, dog-owners need to be educated on good dog management. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Bias in random forest variable importance measures: Illustrations, sources and a solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hothorn Torsten

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Variable importance measures for random forests have been receiving increased attention as a means of variable selection in many classification tasks in bioinformatics and related scientific fields, for instance to select a subset of genetic markers relevant for the prediction of a certain disease. We show that random forest variable importance measures are a sensible means for variable selection in many applications, but are not reliable in situations where potential predictor variables vary in their scale of measurement or their number of categories. This is particularly important in genomics and computational biology, where predictors often include variables of different types, for example when predictors include both sequence data and continuous variables such as folding energy, or when amino acid sequence data show different numbers of categories. Results Simulation studies are presented illustrating that, when random forest variable importance measures are used with data of varying types, the results are misleading because suboptimal predictor variables may be artificially preferred in variable selection. The two mechanisms underlying this deficiency are biased variable selection in the individual classification trees used to build the random forest on one hand, and effects induced by bootstrap sampling with replacement on the other hand. Conclusion We propose to employ an alternative implementation of random forests, that provides unbiased variable selection in the individual classification trees. When this method is applied using subsampling without replacement, the resulting variable importance measures can be used reliably for variable selection even in situations where the potential predictor variables vary in their scale of measurement or their number of categories. The usage of both random forest algorithms and their variable importance measures in the R system for statistical computing is illustrated and

  3. Random sequences are an abundant source of bioactive RNAs or peptides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neme, Rafik; Amador, Cristina; Yildirim, Burcin

    2017-01-01

    It is generally assumed that new genes arise through duplication and/or recombination of existing genes. The probability that a new functional gene could arise out of random non-coding DNA is so far considered to be negligible, as it seems unlikely that such an RNA or protein sequence could have ...

  4. Active control on high-order coherence and statistic characterization on random phase fluctuation of two classical point sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Peilong; Li, Liming; Liu, Jianji; Zhang, Guoquan

    2016-03-29

    Young's double-slit or two-beam interference is of fundamental importance to understand various interference effects, in which the stationary phase difference between two beams plays the key role in the first-order coherence. Different from the case of first-order coherence, in the high-order optical coherence the statistic behavior of the optical phase will play the key role. In this article, by employing a fundamental interfering configuration with two classical point sources, we showed that the high- order optical coherence between two classical point sources can be actively designed by controlling the statistic behavior of the relative phase difference between two point sources. Synchronous position Nth-order subwavelength interference with an effective wavelength of λ/M was demonstrated, in which λ is the wavelength of point sources and M is an integer not larger than N. Interestingly, we found that the synchronous position Nth-order interference fringe fingerprints the statistic trace of random phase fluctuation of two classical point sources, therefore, it provides an effective way to characterize the statistic properties of phase fluctuation for incoherent light sources.

  5. Cat and Dog Bites

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Wellness Staying Healthy Pets and Animals Cat and Dog Bites Cat and Dog Bites Share Print Cat and dog bites are common injuries. A family pet or ... bites. Path to safety If a cat or dog bites you, you should: Wash the wound gently ...

  6. DogPulse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Christoffer; Thomsen, Josephine Raun; Verdezoto, Nervo

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents DogPulse, an ambient awareness system to support the coordination of dog walking among family members at home. DogPulse augments a dog collar and leash set to activate an ambient shape-changing lamp and visualize the last time the dog was taken for a walk. The lamp gradually...... changes its form and pulsates its lights in order to keep the family members aware of the dog walking activity. We report the iterative prototyping of DogPulse, its implementation and its preliminary evaluation. Based on our initial findings, we present the limitations and lessons learned as well...

  7. Modeling urban coastal flood severity from crowd-sourced flood reports using Poisson regression and Random Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadler, J. M.; Goodall, J. L.; Morsy, M. M.; Spencer, K.

    2018-04-01

    Sea level rise has already caused more frequent and severe coastal flooding and this trend will likely continue. Flood prediction is an essential part of a coastal city's capacity to adapt to and mitigate this growing problem. Complex coastal urban hydrological systems however, do not always lend themselves easily to physically-based flood prediction approaches. This paper presents a method for using a data-driven approach to estimate flood severity in an urban coastal setting using crowd-sourced data, a non-traditional but growing data source, along with environmental observation data. Two data-driven models, Poisson regression and Random Forest regression, are trained to predict the number of flood reports per storm event as a proxy for flood severity, given extensive environmental data (i.e., rainfall, tide, groundwater table level, and wind conditions) as input. The method is demonstrated using data from Norfolk, Virginia USA from September 2010 to October 2016. Quality-controlled, crowd-sourced street flooding reports ranging from 1 to 159 per storm event for 45 storm events are used to train and evaluate the models. Random Forest performed better than Poisson regression at predicting the number of flood reports and had a lower false negative rate. From the Random Forest model, total cumulative rainfall was by far the most dominant input variable in predicting flood severity, followed by low tide and lower low tide. These methods serve as a first step toward using data-driven methods for spatially and temporally detailed coastal urban flood prediction.

  8. Bi-resonant structure with piezoelectric PVDF films for energy harvesting from random vibration sources at low frequency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liang, Shanshan; Crovetto, Andrea; Peng, Zhuoteng

    2016-01-01

    and experiments with piezoelectric elements show that the energy harvesting device with the bi-resonant structure can generate higher power output than that of the sum of the two separate devices from random vibration sources at low frequency, and hence significantly improves the vibration-to- electricity......This paper reports on a bi-resonant structure of piezoelectric PVDF films energy harvester (PPEH), which consists of two cantilevers with resonant frequencies of 15 Hz and 22 Hz. With increased acceleration, the vibration amplitudes of the two cantilever-mass structures are increased and collision...

  9. Dogs catch human yawns

    OpenAIRE

    Joly-Mascheroni, Ramiro M; Senju, Atsushi; Shepherd, Alex J

    2008-01-01

    This study is the first to demonstrate that human yawns are possibly contagious to domestic dogs (Canis familiaris). Twenty-nine dogs observed a human yawning or making control mouth movements. Twenty-one dogs yawned when they observed a human yawning, but control mouth movements did not elicit yawning from any of them. The presence of contagious yawning in dogs suggests that this phenomenon is not specific to primate species and may indicate that dogs possess the capacity for a rudimentary f...

  10. Intestinal Helminthoses in Dogs in Kaduna Metropolis, Kaduna State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umar YA

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Intestinal helminths in dogs provide a potential source of infection in humans due to the close contact be­tween humans and dogs. Due to the limited information on parasites infecting dogs in Kaduna State, Nigeria, a cross sec­tional study was conducted with the aim of determining the diversity and prevalence of intestinal helminths of dogs in the area."nMethods: During the survey, 160 gastrointestinal tracts of dogs killed for meat selected by simple sampling technique were collected and examined for helminths in Kaduna metropolis, latitude 100 50I  N and longitude 70 50I E."nResults: Of the helminths found, Dipylidium caninum (75.0%, Taenia hydatigena (43.8%, Diphyllobothrium latum (6.3%, Ancylostoma caninum (6.3% and Toxocara canis (6.3% were the most common. Female dogs were more likely of contacting intestinal helminths than male dogs (RR = 1.125. Higher mean worm burden was recorded for dogs infected by T. hydatigena and D. caninum than dogs infected by T. canis, D. latum or A. caninum."nConclusion: The presence of these parasites in dogs examined indicates a potential public health problem in Kaduna me­tropolis. Mass enlightenment of dog keepers on the need for periodic veterinary care and restriction of stray dogs through legislation formulation and enforcement are recommended as possible control measures.

  11. The γ-ray self-absorption correction for sources with random geometrical shape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Xiangdong

    2003-01-01

    The regularities followed by γ-ray self-absorption corrections of nuclear materials under common geometry conditions have been studied by the numeric simulation. Many models were adopted. The results show that the self-absorption corrections are not related to shape and size of the sources. The method is succinct, and the conclusions are useful for actual situation and offer bases for data analyzing. The component of a sample is analyzed by means of the self-absorption correction

  12. Threshold disorder as a source of diverse and complex behavior in random nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McGuire, P.C.; Bohr, Henrik; Clark, J.W.

    2002-01-01

    We study the diversity of complex spatio-temporal patterns in the behavior of random synchronous asymmetric neural networks (RSANNs). Special attention is given to the impact of disordered threshold values on limit-cycle diversity and limit-cycle complexity in RSANNs which have 'normal' thresholds...... systems. In order to reach beyond this seemingly disabling 'stable and small' aspect of the limit-cycle repertoire of RSANNs, we have found that if an RSANN has threshold disorder above a critical level, then there is a rapid increase of the size of the repertoire of patterns. The repertoire size...... initially follows a power-law function of the magnitude of the threshold disorder. As the disorder increases further, the limit-cycle patterns themselves become simpler until at a second critical level most of the limit cycles become simple fixed points. Nonetheless, for moderate changes in the threshold...

  13. Single-Use Energy Sources and Operating Room Time for Laparoscopic Hysterectomy: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloran-Schwartz, M Brigid; Gavard, Jeffrey A; Martin, Jared C; Blaskiewicz, Robert J; Yeung, Patrick P

    2016-01-01

    To compare the intraoperative direct costs of a single-use energy device with reusable energy devices during laparoscopic hysterectomy. A randomized controlled trial (Canadian Task Force Classification I). An academic hospital. Forty-six women who underwent laparoscopic hysterectomy from March 2013 to September 2013. Each patient served as her own control. One side of the uterine attachments was desiccated and transected with the single-use device (Ligasure 5-mm Blunt Tip LF1537 with the Force Triad generator). The other side was desiccated and transected with reusable bipolar forceps (RoBi 5 mm), and transected with monopolar scissors using the same Covidien Force Triad generator. The instrument approach used was randomized to the attending physician who was always on the patient's left side. Resident physicians always operated on the patient's right side and used the converse instruments of the attending physician. Start time was recorded at the utero-ovarian pedicle and end time was recorded after transection of the uterine artery on the same side. Costs included the single-use device; amortized costs of the generator, reusable instruments, and cords; cleaning and packaging of reusable instruments; and disposal of the single-use device. Operating room time was $94.14/min. We estimated that our single use-device cost $630.14 and had a total time savings of 6.7 min per case, or 3.35 min per side, which could justify the expense of the device. The single-use energy device had significant median time savings (-4.7 min per side, p energy device that both desiccates and cuts significantly reduced operating room time to justify its own cost, and it also reduced total intraoperative direct costs during laparoscopic hysterectomy in our institution. Operating room cost per minute varies between institutions and must be considered before generalizing our results. Copyright © 2016 AAGL. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. A pilot study evaluating the prognostic utility of platelet indices in dogs with septic peritonitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llewellyn, Efa A; Todd, Jeffrey M; Sharkey, Leslie C; Rendahl, Aaron

    2017-09-01

    To characterize platelet indices at time of diagnosis of septic peritonitis in dogs and to assess the relationship between platelet parameter data and survival to discharge in dogs treated surgically. Retrospective, observational, descriptive pilot study from 2009 to 2014. University teaching hospital. Forty-eight dogs diagnosed with septic peritonitis were included in this study. Thirty-six dogs had surgical source control. Blood samples from 46 healthy control dogs were used for reference interval (RI) generation. None. Dogs with septic peritonitis had significantly increased mean values for mean platelet volume (MPV), plateletcrit (PCT), and platelet distribution width (PDW) with increased proportions of dogs having values above the RI compared to healthy dogs. A significantly increased proportion of dogs with septic peritonitis had platelet counts above (12.5%) and below (8.3%) the RI, with no significant difference in mean platelet count compared to healthy dogs. No significant differences in the mean platelet count, MPV, PCT, or PDW were found between survivors and nonsurvivors in dogs with surgical source control; however, dogs with MPV values above the RI had significantly increased mortality compared to dogs within the RI (P = 0.025). Values outside the RI for other platelet parameters were not associated with significant differences in mortality. Dogs with septic peritonitis have increased frequency of thrombocytosis and thrombocytopenia with increased MPV, PCT, and PDW. An increased MPV may be a useful indicator of increased risk of mortality in dogs treated surgically. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2017.

  15. Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffy, L.P.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses the sources of radiation in the narrow perspective of radioactivity and the even narrow perspective of those sources that concern environmental management and restoration activities at DOE facilities, as well as a few related sources. Sources of irritation, Sources of inflammatory jingoism, and Sources of information. First, the sources of irritation fall into three categories: No reliable scientific ombudsman to speak without bias and prejudice for the public good, Technical jargon with unclear definitions exists within the radioactive nomenclature, and Scientific community keeps a low-profile with regard to public information. The next area of personal concern are the sources of inflammation. This include such things as: Plutonium being described as the most dangerous substance known to man, The amount of plutonium required to make a bomb, Talk of transuranic waste containing plutonium and its health affects, TMI-2 and Chernobyl being described as Siamese twins, Inadequate information on low-level disposal sites and current regulatory requirements under 10 CFR 61, Enhanced engineered waste disposal not being presented to the public accurately. Numerous sources of disinformation regarding low level radiation high-level radiation, Elusive nature of the scientific community, The Federal and State Health Agencies resources to address comparative risk, and Regulatory agencies speaking out without the support of the scientific community

  16. Digestibilidade de dietas com diferentes fontes de carboidratos e sua influência na glicemia e insulinemia de cães Digestibility of diets with different sources of carbohydrates and your influence in the blood glucose and blood insulin in health dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Walter da Silva Júnior

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de estudar a influência das dietas com diferentes fontes de carboidratos na glicemia e insulinemia pós-prandial de cães, foi conduzido, no Departamento de Zootecnia da Universidade Federal de Lavras (UFLA, um experimento com cães da raça Foxhound Americano. Foram utilizados 24 cães machos com peso médio de 34,61 ± 3,42 kg, distribuídos em delineamento em blocos casualizados, com parcela subdividida no tempo, com quatro tratamentos, e um animal por unidade experimental. Os tratamentos consistiram em três dietas, formuladas para conterem as mesmas quantidades (63% dos cereais avaliados (milho, sorgo e arroz e uma quarta dieta constituindo uma mistura em partes iguais de cada cereal. As dietas foram isoenergéticas e isoprotéicas. Os animais foram alimentados uma vez ao dia, pela manhã, e as quantidades ingeridas foram estabelecidas de acordo com a equação de predição de Heusner (1982 para energia de manutenção acrescidas em 10%. Foram avaliadas a digestibilidade da matéria seca, a digestibilidade do amido total, a energia digestível, a glicemia e a insulinemia. Para a diferenciação das médias, foi utilizado o teste de Scott-Knott (PIn order to evaluate the influence of the diets with different carbohydrates sources in blood glucose and blood insulin in dogs, were conducted, in Animal Science Department of Federal University of Lavras (UFLA, a experiment with dogs of breed American Foxhound. Were utilized 24 males dogs with average weight of the 34,61 ± 3,42 kg, allotted in randomized blocks design with subdivided piece in time, with four treatments, and one animal per unit experimental. The treatments were three diets formulated to contain the same amount (63% of the cereals evaluate (corn, sorghum and rice and a forth diet being a blend in equal parts of each cereal. The animals were fed once per day, for the morning, and the consume established agreed with the prediction equation of the Heusner (1982 for

  17. Radiation toxicity in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norris, W.P.

    1975-01-01

    Three related, but separate, studies are in progress. In the first, young adult beagles of both sexes are placed in the γ-ray field, to be kept there for duration of life at one of a number of daily exposure rates. In the second, young adult beagles are exposed in a similar fashion until they have accumulated predetermined amounts of total exposure ranging up to 4000 R, delivered at various daily exposure rates. They are then removed from the radiation field and kept for the rest of their lives to allow development of late effects attributable to radiation exposure. In the third study, pregnant beagles are irradiated, at one of four daily exposure rates, for all or part of their gestation periods, to produce an evaluation of the effects of continuous irradiation in the developing fetus. All of these studies are done by arranging dogs at various distances from a calibrated 60 Co γ-ray source, where they are irradiated during 22 hours of each day. The remaining 2 hours are used for animal care, maintenance, and clinical evaluation of the dogs. The combined results demonstrate that the cellular and organ systems of the dog respond predictably, and in a differential manner, depending on exposure rate. Exposure rates in excess of 17 R/day destroy the blood-cell producing elements of bone marrow and cause death, therefore, within 1 to 2 months. Minimally sublethal exposure rates to bone marrow (5-17 R/day), however, produce a very high (50-75 percent) incidence of anemia or myeloid leukemia. Furthermore, at exposure rates of 5 R/day or below, bone marrow appears to function in an essentially normal fashion, and causes of death appear, from preliminary data, to be related to degenerative disease and malignancies of other tissues

  18. Presence of a dog reduces subjective but not physiological stress responses to an analogue trauma

    OpenAIRE

    Johanna eLass-Hennemann; Peter ePeyk; Markus eStreb; Elena eHolz; Tanja eMichael

    2014-01-01

    Dogs are known to have stress and anxiety reducing effects. Several studies have shown that dogs are able to calm people during cognitive and performance stressors. Recently, therapy dogs have been proposed as a treatment adjunct for PTSD patients. In this study we aimed to investigate, whether dogs also have anxiety- and stress reducing effect during traumatic stressors. 80 healthy female participants were randomly assigned to one of 4 conditions. They were exposed to a traumatic film clip (...

  19. Presence of a dog reduces subjective but not physiological stress responses to an analog trauma

    OpenAIRE

    Lass-Hennemann, Johanna; Peyk, Peter; Streb, Markus; Holz, Elena; Michael, Tanja

    2014-01-01

    Dogs are known to have stress and anxiety reducing effects. Several studies have shown that dogs are able to calm people during cognitive and performance stressors. Recently, therapy dogs have been proposed as a treatment adjunct for post-traumatic stress disorder patients. In this study we aimed to investigate, whether dogs also have anxiety- and stress reducing effect during “traumatic stressors.” 80 healthy female participants were randomly assigned to one of four conditions. They were exp...

  20. Behavioral and physiological reactions in dogs to a veterinary examination: Owner-dog interactions improve canine well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csoltova, Erika; Martineau, Michaël; Boissy, Alain; Gilbert, Caroline

    2017-08-01

    In order to improve well-being of dogs during veterinary visits, we aimed to investigate the effect of human social interactions on behavior and physiology during routine examination. Firstly, we assessed the impact of a standardized veterinary examination on behavioral and physiological indicators of stress in dogs. Secondly, we examined whether the owner's tactile and verbal interactions with the dog influenced behavioral and physiological stress-associated parameters. A randomized within-subjects crossover design was used to examine behavior (n=33), rectal temperature (n=33), heart rate (HR) (n=18), maximal ocular surface temperature (max OST) (n=13) and salivary cortisol concentrations (n=10) in healthy privately owned pet dogs. The study consisted of two experimental conditions: a) "contact" - owner petting and talking to the dog during the examination; b) "non-contact" - owner present during the examination but not allowed to interact with the dog. Our findings showed that the veterinary examinations produced acute stress responses in dogs during both "contact" and "non-contact" conditions, with significant increases in lip licking, HR, and max OST. A significant decrease in attempts to jump off the examination table (p=0.002) was observed during the examination in the "contact" compared to the "non-contact" condition. In addition, interactions of owners showed an attenuating effect on HR (p=0.018) and max OST (p=0.011) in their dogs. The testing order (first vs. second visit) had no impact on behavioral and physiological parameters, suggesting that dogs did not habituate or sensitize to the examination procedure. Moreover, the duration of the owner-dog interactions had no significant impact on the behavioral and physiological responses of their dogs. This study demonstrates that owner-dog interactions improve the well-being of dogs during a veterinary examination. Future research may assist in further understanding the mechanisms associated with reducing

  1. Automated classification of seismic sources in a large database: a comparison of Random Forests and Deep Neural Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibert, Clement; Stumpf, André; Provost, Floriane; Malet, Jean-Philippe

    2017-04-01

    In the past decades, the increasing quality of seismic sensors and capability to transfer remotely large quantity of data led to a fast densification of local, regional and global seismic networks for near real-time monitoring of crustal and surface processes. This technological advance permits the use of seismology to document geological and natural/anthropogenic processes (volcanoes, ice-calving, landslides, snow and rock avalanches, geothermal fields), but also led to an ever-growing quantity of seismic data. This wealth of seismic data makes the construction of complete seismicity catalogs, which include earthquakes but also other sources of seismic waves, more challenging and very time-consuming as this critical pre-processing stage is classically done by human operators and because hundreds of thousands of seismic signals have to be processed. To overcome this issue, the development of automatic methods for the processing of continuous seismic data appears to be a necessity. The classification algorithm should satisfy the need of a method that is robust, precise and versatile enough to be deployed to monitor the seismicity in very different contexts. In this study, we evaluate the ability of machine learning algorithms for the analysis of seismic sources at the Piton de la Fournaise volcano being Random Forest and Deep Neural Network classifiers. We gather a catalog of more than 20,000 events, belonging to 8 classes of seismic sources. We define 60 attributes, based on the waveform, the frequency content and the polarization of the seismic waves, to parameterize the seismic signals recorded. We show that both algorithms provide similar positive classification rates, with values exceeding 90% of the events. When trained with a sufficient number of events, the rate of positive identification can reach 99%. These very high rates of positive identification open the perspective of an operational implementation of these algorithms for near-real time monitoring of

  2. Be your dog

    OpenAIRE

    Bartram, Angela

    2016-01-01

    Be Your Dog is about establishing relationships beyond the hierarchies of pet and owner. This saw participants and their dogs attend workshops over two consecutive weekends to learn how to establish empathy, equality and connection. This included learning strategies for dog and human to ‘be’ equals with each other. A concluding public event was staged at KARST (Plymouth) following the workshops on 6 November 2016 where all participants, human and dog, performed as collaborators. This proj...

  3. Radiation toxicity in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fritz, T.E.; Lombard, L.S.; Poole, C.M.

    1981-01-01

    The overall goal of this project is measurement of the late effects of low doses of ionizing radiation in a large, relatively long-lived animal, the dog, to aid in assessing hazards and understanding mechanisms of radiaton damage in man. Young adult beagles are given whole-body exposures to protracted irradiation (22 hours/day, 7 days/week) from 60 Co gamma ray sources. They are exposed: (1) until they die; or (2) until they accumulate predetermined total doses of irradiation. The dogs are monitored regularly by clinical, hematological, and pathological examinations. End points determined are times to death (life shortening), causes of death, and characterization of all pathological processes. Monitoring of the hematopoietic system is emphasized because of the importance of myelogenous leukemia and related myeloproliferative disorders as shown by data in other experimental species and in man. Earlier exposures, given continuously until death or terminated at predetermined total ic fields associated with energy transmission. Proteins in human urine and selected tissues are examined by two-dimensional electrophoresis to detect disease and pollutant related changes. Assessment of human risk associated with nuclearing collective dose commitment will result in more attention being paid to potential releases of radionuclides at relatively short times after disposal

  4. Effect of disrupted mitochondria as a source of damage-associated molecular patterns on the production of tumor necrosis factor α by splenocytes from dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedenberg, Steven G; Strange, Heather R; Guillaumin, Julien; VanGundy, Zachary C; Crouser, Elliott D; Papenfuss, Tracey L

    2016-06-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effects of damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) derived from disrupted mitochondria on canine splenocytes and other immune cells. SAMPLES Liver, spleen, and bone marrow samples obtained from 8 cadavers of healthy research Beagles that had been euthanized for other purposes. PROCEDURES Mitochondria were obtained from canine hepatocytes, and mitochondrial DAMPs (containing approx 75% mitochondrial proteins) were prepared. Mitochondrial DAMPs and the nuclear cytokine high-mobility group box protein 1 were applied to splenocytes, bone marrow-differentiated dendritic cells, and a canine myelomonocytic cell (DH82) line for 6 or 24 hours. Cell culture supernatants from splenocytes, dendritic cells, and DH82 cells were assayed for tumor necrosis factor α with an ELISA. Expression of tumor necrosis factor α mRNA in splenocytes was evaluated with a quantitative real-time PCR assay. RESULTS In all cell populations evaluated, production of tumor necrosis factor α was consistently increased by mitochondrial DAMPs at 6 hours (as measured by an ELISA). In contrast, high-mobility group box protein 1 did not have any independent proinflammatory effects in this experimental system. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE The study revealed an in vitro inflammatory effect of mitochondrial DAMPs (containing approx 75% mitochondrial proteins) in canine cells and validated the use of an in vitro splenocyte model to assess DAMP-induced inflammation in dogs. This experimental system may aid in understanding the contribution of DAMPs to sepsis and the systemic inflammatory response syndrome in humans. Further studies in dogs are needed to validate the biological importance of these findings and to evaluate the in vivo role of mitochondrial DAMPs in triggering and perpetuating systemic inflammatory states.

  5. Disentangling random thermal motion of particles and collective expansion of source from transverse momentum spectra in high energy collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Hua-Rong; Liu, Fu-Hu; Lacey, Roy A.

    2016-12-01

    In the framework of a multisource thermal model, we describe experimental results of the transverse momentum spectra of final-state light flavor particles produced in gold-gold (Au-Au), copper-copper (Cu-Cu), lead-lead (Pb-Pb), proton-lead (p-Pb), and proton-proton (p -p) collisions at various energies, measured by the PHENIX, STAR, ALICE, and CMS Collaborations, by using the Tsallis-standard (Tsallis form of Fermi-Dirac or Bose-Einstein), Tsallis, and two- or three-component standard distributions which can be in fact regarded as different types of ‘thermometers’ or ‘thermometric scales’ and ‘speedometers’. A central parameter in the three distributions is the effective temperature which contains information on the kinetic freeze-out temperature of the emitting source and reflects the effects of random thermal motion of particles as well as collective expansion of the source. To disentangle both effects, we extract the kinetic freeze-out temperature from the intercept of the effective temperature (T) curve as a function of particle’s rest mass (m 0) when plotting T versus m 0, and the mean transverse flow velocity from the slope of the mean transverse momentum ( ) curve as a function of mean moving mass (\\overline{m}) when plotting versus \\overline{m}.

  6. Diagnostic accuracy of 128-slice dual-source CT coronary angiography: a randomized comparison of different acquisition protocols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neefjes, Lisan A.; Kate, Gert-Jan R. ten; Rossi, Alexia; Nieman, Koen; Papadopoulou, Stella L.; Dharampal, Anoeshka S.; Dedic, Admir; Feyter, Pim J. de; Mollet, Nico R.; Genders, Tessa S.S.; Hunink, M.G.M.; Schultz, Carl J.; Weustink, Annick C.; Dijkshoorn, Marcel L.; Straten, Marcel van; Cademartiri, Filippo; Krestin, Gabriel P.

    2013-01-01

    To compare the diagnostic performance and radiation exposure of 128-slice dual-source CT coronary angiography (CTCA) protocols to detect coronary stenosis with more than 50 % lumen obstruction. We prospectively included 459 symptomatic patients referred for CTCA. Patients were randomized between high-pitch spiral vs. narrow-window sequential CTCA protocols (heart rate below 65 bpm, group A), or between wide-window sequential vs. retrospective spiral protocols (heart rate above 65 bpm, group B). Diagnostic performance of CTCA was compared with quantitative coronary angiography in 267 patients. In group A (231 patients, 146 men, mean heart rate 58 ± 7 bpm), high-pitch spiral CTCA yielded a lower per-segment sensitivity compared to sequential CTCA (89 % vs. 97 %, P = 0.01). Specificity, PPV and NPV were comparable (95 %, 62 %, 99 % vs. 96 %, 73 %, 100 %, P > 0.05) but radiation dose was lower (1.16 ± 0.60 vs. 3.82 ± 1.65 mSv, P 0.05). Radiation dose of sequential CTCA was lower compared to retrospective CTCA (6.12 ± 2.58 vs. 8.13 ± 4.52 mSv, P < 0.001). Diagnostic performance was comparable in both groups. Sequential CTCA should be used in patients with regular heart rates using 128-slice dual-source CT, providing optimal diagnostic accuracy with as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) radiation dose. circle 128-slice dual-source CT coronary angiography offers several different acquisition protocols. (orig.)

  7. Why do people buy dogs with potential welfare problems related to extreme conformation and inherited disease? A representative study of Danish owners of four small dog breeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandøe, Peter; Kondrup, Sara Vincentzen; Bennett, P.C.

    2017-01-01

    a nationwide Danish dog registry and invited to participate. Of these, 911 responded, giving a final sample of 846. There were clear differences between owners of the four breeds with respect to degree of planning prior to purchase, with owners of Chihuahuas exhibiting less. Motivations behind choice of dog...... and motivational factors behind acquisition of the dogs, and whether levels of experienced health and behavior problems were associated with the quality of the owner-dog relationship and the intention to re-procure a dog of the same breed. Owners of each of the four breeds (750/breed) were randomly drawn from...

  8. Reporting funding source or conflict of interest in abstracts of randomized controlled trials, no evidence of a large impact on general practitioners' confidence in conclusions, a three-arm randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffel du Vaure, Céline; Boutron, Isabelle; Perrodeau, Elodie; Ravaud, Philippe

    2014-04-28

    Systematic reporting of funding sources is recommended in the CONSORT Statement for abstracts. However, no specific recommendation is related to the reporting of conflicts of interest (CoI). The objective was to compare physicians' confidence in the conclusions of abstracts of randomized controlled trials of pharmaceutical treatment indexed in PubMed. We planned a three-arm parallel-group randomized trial. French general practitioners (GPs) were invited to participate and were blinded to the study's aim. We used a representative sample of 75 abstracts of pharmaceutical industry-funded randomized controlled trials published in 2010 and indexed in PubMed. Each abstract was standardized and reported in three formats: 1) no mention of the funding source or CoI; 2) reporting the funding source only; and 3) reporting the funding source and CoI. GPs were randomized according to a computerized randomization on a secure Internet system at a 1:1:1 ratio to assess one abstract among the three formats. The primary outcome was GPs' confidence in the abstract conclusions (0, not at all, to 10, completely confident). The study was planned to detect a large difference with an effect size of 0.5. Between October 2012 and June 2013, among 605 GPs contacted, 354 were randomized, 118 for each type of abstract. The mean difference (95% confidence interval) in GPs' confidence in abstract findings was 0.2 (-0.6; 1.0) (P = 0.84) for abstracts reporting the funding source only versus no funding source or CoI; -0.4 (-1.3; 0.4) (P = 0.39) for abstracts reporting the funding source and CoI versus no funding source and CoI; and -0.6 (-1.5; 0.2) (P = 0.15) for abstracts reporting the funding source and CoI versus the funding source only. We found no evidence of a large impact of trial report abstracts mentioning funding sources or CoI on GPs' confidence in the conclusions of the abstracts. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01679873.

  9. Dietary hyperthyroidism in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, B; Stengel, C; Neiger, R

    2012-03-01

    Evaluation of dogs with elevated plasma thyroxine concentration fed raw food before and after changing the diet. Between 2006 and 2011 all dogs presented with an elevated plasma thyroxine concentration and a dietary history of feeding raw food were included. Thyroxine (reference interval: 19·3 to 51·5 nmol/L) and in many cases also thyroid-stimulating hormone concentrations (reference interval: weight loss, aggressiveness, tachycardia, panting and restlessness while six dogs had no clinical signs. After changing the diet eight dogs were examined: thyroxine concentration normalised in all dogs and clinical signs resolved. Dietary hyperthyroidism can be seen in dogs on a raw meat diet or fed fresh or dried gullets. Increased plasma thyroxine concentration in a dog, either with or without signs of hyperthyroidism, should prompt the veterinarian to obtain a thorough dietary history. © 2012 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  10. Review of the Research: Are Therapy Dogs in Classrooms Beneficial?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kropp, Jerri J.; Shupp, Mikaela M.

    2017-01-01

    Research findings on the presence of a therapy dog in the classroom are summarized. The authors reviewed 30 articles, book chapters, and other sources on the topic of the various uses of dogs in classrooms, published between 2001 and 2017. Ages studied ranged from 3 years to adolescence (high school). In our analysis, three categories of…

  11. Dogs recognize dog and human emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albuquerque, Natalia; Guo, Kun; Wilkinson, Anna; Savalli, Carine; Otta, Emma; Mills, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The perception of emotional expressions allows animals to evaluate the social intentions and motivations of each other. This usually takes place within species; however, in the case of domestic dogs, it might be advantageous to recognize the emotions of humans as well as other dogs. In this sense, the combination of visual and auditory cues to categorize others' emotions facilitates the information processing and indicates high-level cognitive representations. Using a cross-modal preferential looking paradigm, we presented dogs with either human or dog faces with different emotional valences (happy/playful versus angry/aggressive) paired with a single vocalization from the same individual with either a positive or negative valence or Brownian noise. Dogs looked significantly longer at the face whose expression was congruent to the valence of vocalization, for both conspecifics and heterospecifics, an ability previously known only in humans. These results demonstrate that dogs can extract and integrate bimodal sensory emotional information, and discriminate between positive and negative emotions from both humans and dogs. © 2016 The Author(s).

  12. Effect of the particle size of maize, rice, and sorghum in extruded diets for dogs on starch gelatinization, digestibility, and the fecal concentration of fermentation products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazolli, R S; Vasconcellos, R S; de-Oliveira, L D; Sá, F C; Pereira, G T; Carciofi, A C

    2015-06-01

    The influence of rice, maize, and sorghum raw material particle size in extruded dry dog food on the digestibility of nutrients and energy and the fecal concentration of fermentation products was investigated. Three diets with similar nutrient compositions were formulated, each with 1 starch source. Before incorporation into diets, the cereals were ground into 3 different particle sizes (approximately 300, 450, and 600 µm); therefore, a total of 9 diets were in a 3 × 3 factorial arrangement (3 cereals and 3 particle sizes). Fifty-four beagle dogs (12.0 ± 0.1 kg BW) were randomly assigned to the diets, with 6 dogs per diet. The digestibility was measured with the chromium oxide method. The data were evaluated with ANOVA considering the carbohydrate source, grinding effect, and interactions. The means were compared with the Tukey test and polynomial contrasts (P 0.05); only GE digestibility was reduced at the largest MGD (P production of feces with less lactate (P dogs fed maize and sorghum foods, an increase in propionate and butyrate concentrations were observed as MGD increased (P dogs fed different particle sizes of the cereal starches in the extruded diets, the digestibility and fecal characteristics were affected, and this effect was ingredient dependent.

  13. Barriers and motivators for owners walking their dog: results from qualitative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutt, Hayley E; Giles-Corti, Billie; Wood, Lisa J; Knuiman, Matthew W; Burke, Valerie

    2008-08-01

    This qualitative research explored the relationship between dog ownership and dog-related, social environmental and physical environmental factors associated with walking with a dog. Seven focus groups with dog owners (n=51) were conducted. A pre-determined discussion guide was used and transcripts were analysed as group data, using content analysis to identify common themes. Many of the physical environmental barriers and facilitators that influenced dog owners to walk were similar to those found in the literature for general walking. However, a number of key motivators for walking, specific to dog owners, were identified. Dog owners reported that their dog was a strong source of motivation, companionship and social support that encouraged them to walk with their dog. The availability and accessibility of public open space (POS) for dogs and the provision of dog-related infrastructure within POS were also important environmental factors that affected whether owners walked with their dog. Results from this qualitative study were used to develop the Dogs and Physical Activity (DAPA) tool which is now being used to measure the walking behaviour of dog owners.

  14. Efficacy of afoxolaner in a clinical field study in dogs naturally infested with Sarcoptes scabiei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beugnet, Frédéric; de Vos, Christa; Liebenberg, Julian; Halos, Lénaïg; Larsen, Diane; Fourie, Josephus

    2016-01-01

    The acaricidal efficacy of afoxolaner (NexGard(®), Merial) was evaluated against Sarcoptes scabiei var. canis in a field efficacy study, when administered orally at a minimum dose of 2.5 mg/kg to dogs naturally infested with the mites. Twenty mixed-breed dogs of either sex (6 males and 14 females), aged over 6 months and weighing 4-18 kg, were studied in this randomised controlled field efficacy trial. Dogs, naturally infested with Sarcoptes scabiei var. canis confirmed by skin scrapings collected prior to allocation, were randomly divided into two equal groups. Dogs in Group 1 were not treated. Dogs in Group 2 were treated on Days 0 and 28. On Days 0 (pre-treatment), 28 (pre-treatment) and 56, five skin scrapings of similar size were taken from different sites with lesions suggestive of sarcoptic mange. The extent of lesions was also recorded on Days 0, 28 and 56, and photographs were taken. Dogs treated orally with afoxolaner had significantly (p dogs at these times (100% efficacy based on mite counts). In addition, dogs treated with NexGard had significantly (p dog showed pruritus compared to 7/10 dogs in the control group, 1/9 treated dogs had crusts compared to 5/10 controls and 8/9 dogs recovered 90% of hairs on lesions compared to 0/10 control dogs. © F. Beugnet et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2016.

  15. Canine echinococcosis in northern Jordan: increased prevalence and dominance of sheep/dog strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Qaoud, Khaled M; Abdel-Hafez, Sami K; Craig, Philip S

    2003-06-01

    A total of 112 stray and semi-stray dogs (Canis familiaris) from four different geographical areas in northern and middle Jordan were necropsied to evaluate the prevalence and intensity of intestinal helminthiasis. Of these, 33 dogs (29.5%) were infected with Echinococcus granulosus and 61 (54.5%) with other Taenia species. Other cestodes found included Dipylidium caninum in 36 dogs (32.1%), Diplopylidium in 6 dogs (5.4%), Mesocestoides sp. in 3 dogs (2.7%) and Joyuexiella in 1 dog (0.9%). Toxocara nematodes were found in 10 dogs (9.2%) and only 1 dog was positive for acanthocephalans. Among the dogs infected with E. granulosus, 8 dogs (24.2%) had a worm load higher than 1,000 worms. The ratio of infected male to female dogs was 1.9:1.0. Strain analysis of E. granulosus using random primers revealed the dominance of the G1 strain (sheep/dog strain) in the region. Only one dog harbored another E. granulosus strain, which resembled the G4 strain pattern.

  16. A Systematic Review of Surgical Randomized Controlled Trials: Part 2. Funding Source, Conflict of Interest, and Sample Size in Plastic Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voineskos, Sophocles H; Coroneos, Christopher J; Ziolkowski, Natalia I; Kaur, Manraj N; Banfield, Laura; Meade, Maureen O; Chung, Kevin C; Thoma, Achilleas; Bhandari, Mohit

    2016-02-01

    The authors examined industry support, conflict of interest, and sample size in plastic surgery randomized controlled trials that compared surgical interventions. They hypothesized that industry-funded trials demonstrate statistically significant outcomes more often, and randomized controlled trials with small sample sizes report statistically significant results more frequently. An electronic search identified randomized controlled trials published between 2000 and 2013. Independent reviewers assessed manuscripts and performed data extraction. Funding source, conflict of interest, primary outcome direction, and sample size were examined. Chi-squared and independent-samples t tests were used in the analysis. The search identified 173 randomized controlled trials, of which 100 (58 percent) did not acknowledge funding status. A relationship between funding source and trial outcome direction was not observed. Both funding status and conflict of interest reporting improved over time. Only 24 percent (six of 25) of industry-funded randomized controlled trials reported authors to have independent control of data and manuscript contents. The mean number of patients randomized was 73 per trial (median, 43, minimum, 3, maximum, 936). Small trials were not found to be positive more often than large trials (p = 0.87). Randomized controlled trials with small sample size were common; however, this provides great opportunity for the field to engage in further collaboration and produce larger, more definitive trials. Reporting of trial funding and conflict of interest is historically poor, but it greatly improved over the study period. Underreporting at author and journal levels remains a limitation when assessing the relationship between funding source and trial outcomes. Improved reporting and manuscript control should be goals that both authors and journals can actively achieve.

  17. Complex segregation analysis of craniomandibular osteopathy in Deutsch Drahthaar dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vagt, J; Distl, O

    2018-01-01

    This study investigated familial relationships among Deutsch Drahthaar dogs with craniomandibular osteopathy and examined the most likely mode of inheritance. Sixteen Deutsch Drahthaar dogs with craniomandibular osteopathy were diagnosed using clinical findings, radiography or computed tomography. All 16 dogs with craniomandibular osteopathy had one common ancestor. Complex segregation analyses rejected models explaining the segregation of craniomandibular osteopathy through random environmental variation, monogenic inheritance or an additive sex effect. Polygenic and mixed major gene models sufficiently explained the segregation of craniomandibular osteopathy in the pedigree analysis and offered the most likely hypotheses. The SLC37A2:c.1332C>T variant was not found in a sample of Deutsch Drahthaar dogs with craniomandibular osteopathy, nor in healthy controls. Craniomandibular osteopathy is an inherited condition in Deutsch Drahthaar dogs and the inheritance seems to be more complex than a simple Mendelian model. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Amelioration of Sarcoptic Mange-Induced Oxidative Stress and Apoptosis in Dogs by Using Calendula officinalis Flower Extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Shanker K.; Dimri, Umesh

    2013-01-01

    Twenty-four clinically Sarcoptes-infested dogs were randomly enrolled into three groups (groups A, B, and C), 8 dogs in each group. Group A was treated with ivermectin + Calendula officinalis flower extract (CFE). Group B was treated with ivermectin + N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) (standard positive controls), while group C (negative control) was treated with ivermectin alone. Another eight healthy dogs were used as healthy controls (group D). By day 28 after therapy, the dogs treated adjunctly wit...

  19. Comparing energy sources for surgical ablation of atrial fibrillation: a Bayesian network meta-analysis of randomized, controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Kevin; Xie, Ashleigh; Kumar, Narendra; Wong, Sophia; Medi, Caroline; La Meir, Mark; Yan, Tristan D

    2015-08-01

    Simplified maze procedures involving radiofrequency, cryoenergy and microwave energy sources have been increasingly utilized for surgical treatment of atrial fibrillation as an alternative to the traditional cut-and-sew approach. In the absence of direct comparisons, a Bayesian network meta-analysis is another alternative to assess the relative effect of different treatments, using indirect evidence. A Bayesian meta-analysis of indirect evidence was performed using 16 published randomized trials identified from 6 databases. Rank probability analysis was used to rank each intervention in terms of their probability of having the best outcome. Sinus rhythm prevalence beyond the 12-month follow-up was similar between the cut-and-sew, microwave and radiofrequency approaches, which were all ranked better than cryoablation (respectively, 39, 36, and 25 vs 1%). The cut-and-sew maze was ranked worst in terms of mortality outcomes compared with microwave, radiofrequency and cryoenergy (2 vs 19, 34, and 24%, respectively). The cut-and-sew maze procedure was associated with significantly lower stroke rates compared with microwave ablation [odds ratio <0.01; 95% confidence interval 0.00, 0.82], and ranked the best in terms of pacemaker requirements compared with microwave, radiofrequency and cryoenergy (81 vs 14, and 1, <0.01% respectively). Bayesian rank probability analysis shows that the cut-and-sew approach is associated with the best outcomes in terms of sinus rhythm prevalence and stroke outcomes, and remains the gold standard approach for AF treatment. Given the limitations of indirect comparison analysis, these results should be viewed with caution and not over-interpreted. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  20. Splenitis in 33 Dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferri, F; Zini, E; Auriemma, E; Castagnaro, M; Coppola, L M; Peano, A; Martella, V; Decaro, N; Kuhnert, P; Ferro, S

    2017-01-01

    Splenitis is uncommonly reported in dogs. Herein, the authors describe its prevalence, clinical findings and outcomes, histologic patterns, and causes. Splenic samples of dogs diagnosed with splenitis between 2005 and 2013 were collected and stained with hematoxylin and eosin, Gram, green-Gram, Giemsa, periodic acid-Schiff, and Ziehl-Neelsen. Samples were processed for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect bacteria, fungi, and protozoa ( Leishmania infantum, Hepatozoon canis). Thirty-three of 660 splenic samples (5%) had splenitis. Clinical findings and outcomes were available in 19 dogs (58%); 49% had weakness, 33% had fever, and 84% survived. The most frequent inflammatory patterns included purulent splenitis (27%), pyogranulomatous splenitis (24%), and neutrophilic perisplenitis (15%). One dog had a putative diagnosis of primary splenitis; in 8 dogs, microorganisms were identified histologically or by PCR in the spleen without obvious comorbidities. Twenty-four dogs (73%) had concurrent diseases; a permissive role in the development of splenitis was suspected in 21 of these cases. Histologic examination identified the cause of splenitis in 10 dogs. Bacteria were identified by PCR in 23 cases, but the bacteria were confirmed histologically in only 6 of these. Leishmania was detected with PCR in 6 dogs. Leishmania was identified in 1 dog and H. canis in another histologically, but both were PCR negative. Fungi were identified in 8 spleens by PCR and in 1 by histology. This study suggests that splenitis is uncommon in dogs and is frequently associated with systemic diseases. Prognosis is favorable in most cases. Identification of bacteria, fungi, and protozoa in the spleens of affected dogs with PCR should be interpreted cautiously, because the findings are not confirmed histologically in many cases.

  1. Meals based on vegetable protein sources (beans and peas) are more satiating than meals based on animal protein sources (veal and pork) - a randomized cross-over meal test study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Marlene Dahlwad; Bendsen, Nathalie Tommerup; Christensen, Sheena M

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recent nutrition recommendations advocate a reduction in protein from animal sources (pork, beef) because of environmental concerns. Instead, protein from vegetable sources (beans, peas) should be increased. However, little is known about the effect of these vegetable protein sources...... on appetite regulation. OBJECTIVE: To examine whether meals based on vegetable protein sources (beans/peas) are comparable to meals based on animal protein sources (veal/pork) regarding meal-induced appetite sensations. DESIGN: In total, 43 healthy, normal-weight, young men completed this randomized, double......-Legume compared to HP-Meat or LP-Legume (pVegetable-based meals (beans/peas) influenced appetite sensations favorably compared to animal-based meals (pork/veal) with similar energy and protein content, but lower fiber content. Interestingly, a vegetable-based meal with low protein content...

  2. Sensitization to cat and dog allergen molecules in childhood and prediction of symptoms of cat and dog allergy in adolescence: A BAMSE/MeDALL study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asarnoj, Anna; Hamsten, Carl; Wadén, Konrad; Lupinek, Christian; Andersson, Niklas; Kull, Inger; Curin, Mirela; Anto, Josep; Bousquet, Jean; Valenta, Rudolf; Wickman, Magnus; van Hage, Marianne

    2016-03-01

    Sensitization to individual cat and dog allergen molecules can contribute differently to development of allergy to these animals. We sought to investigate the association between sensitization patterns to cat and dog allergen molecules during childhood and symptoms to these furry animals up to age 16 years. Data from 779 randomly collected children from the Barn/Children Allergy/Asthma Milieu Stockholm Epidemiologic birth cohort at 4, 8, and 16 years were used. IgE levels to cat and dog were determined by using ImmunoCAP, and levels to allergen molecules were determined by using an allergen chip based on ISAC technology (Mechanisms for the Development of Allergy chip). Allergy was defined as reported rhinitis, conjunctivitis, or asthma at exposure to cat or dog. Cross-sectionally, IgE to Fel d 1 and cat extract had similar positive predictive values for cat allergy. IgE to Can f 1 showed a higher positive predictive value for dog allergy than dog extract IgE. Sensitizations to Fel d 1 and Can f 1 in childhood were significantly associated with symptoms to cat or dog at age 16 years. Polysensitization to 3 or more allergen molecules from cat or dog was a better longitudinal predictor of cat or dog symptoms than results of IgE tests with cat or dog allergen extract, respectively. Cross-sectionally, cat/dog-polysensitized children had higher IgE levels and more frequent symptoms to cat and dog than monosensitized children. Sensitization to Fel d 1 and Can f 1 in childhood and polysensitization to either cat or dog allergen molecules predict cat and dog allergy cross-sectionally and longitudinally significantly better than IgE to cat or dog extract. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Antibody response to an anti-rabies vaccine in a dog population under field conditions in Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, K; González, E T; Ascarrunz, G; Loza, A; Pérez, M; Ruiz, G; Rojas, L; Mancilla, K; Pereira, J A C; Guzman, J A; Pecoraro, M R

    2008-10-01

    Rabies remains an important public health issue in Bolivia, South America. Public concern and fears are most focussed on dogs as the source of rabies. The objective of the present study was to assess immunity of an inactivated suckling mouse brain vaccine against canine rabies used for the official vaccination campaigns under field conditions in an endemic area of rabies in Bolivia. A total of 236 vaccinated and 44 unvaccinated dogs in Santa Cruz de la Sierra, selected using stratified random sampling, were investigated in order to obtain owned dog characteristics and antibody titres against rabies in April 2007. The proportion of vaccinated dogs with an antibody titre exceeded the protection threshold value of 0.5 EU/ml was 58% [95% confidence intervals (CI): 52-65], indicating that vaccination is likely to elicit an antibody response (odds ratio 6.3, 95% CI: 1.2-11.5). The range of geometric mean of antibody titre for vaccinated dogs (0.89 EU/ml; 95% CI: 0.75-1.04) was considered to meet the minimal acceptable level indicating an adequate immune response to the vaccine. However, the titre level was not satisfactory in comparison with the results from other field investigations with inactivated tissue culture vaccines. It is recommended for public health authorities to (1) consider modernizing their vaccine manufacturing method because the level of immunity induced by the current vaccine is comparably low, (2) conduct frequent vaccination campaigns to maintain high levels of vaccination coverage, and (3) actively manage the domestic dog population in the study area, which is largely responsible for rabies maintenance.

  4. High detection rate of dog circovirus in diarrheal dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Han-Siang; Lin, Ting-Han; Wu, Hung-Yi; Lin, Lee-Shuan; Chung, Cheng-Shu; Chiou, Ming-Tang; Lin, Chao-Nan

    2016-06-17

    Diarrhea is one of the most common clinical symptoms reported in companion animal clinics. Dog circovirus (DogCV) is a new mammalian circovirus that is considered to be a cause of alimentary syndromes such as diarrhea, vomiting and hemorrhagic enteritis. DogCV has previously only been identified in the United States, Italy, Germany (GeneBank accession number: KF887949) and China (GeneBank accession number: KT946839). Therefore, the aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of DogCV in Taiwan and to explore the correlation between diarrhea and DogCV infection. Clinical specimens were collected between 2012 and 2014 from 207 dogs suffering from diarrhea and 160 healthy dogs. In this study, we developed a sensitive and specific SYBR Green-based real-time PCR assays to detected DogCV in naturally infected animals. Of the analyzed fecal samples from diarrheal dogs and health dogs, 58 (28.0 %) and 19 (11.9 %), respectively, were DogCV positive. The difference in DogCV prevalence was highly significant (P = 0.0002755) in diarrheal dogs. This is the first study to reveal that DogCV is currently circulating in domestic dogs in Taiwan and to demonstrate its high detection rate in dogs with diarrhea.

  5. Dominance in domestic dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borg, Van Der J.A.M.; Schilder, M.B.H.; Vinke, C.M.; Vries, De Han; Petit, Odile

    2015-01-01

    A dominance hierarchy is an important feature of the social organisation of group living animals. Although formal and/or agonistic dominance has been found in captive wolves and free-ranging dogs, applicability of the dominance concept in domestic dogs is highly debated, and quantitative data are

  6. Effects of dietary calcium fructoborate supplementation on joint comfort and flexibility and serum inflammatory markers in dogs with osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, A K; de Godoy, M R C; Harper, T A; Knap, K E; Joslyn, S; Pietrzkowski, Z; Cross, B K; Detweiler, K B; Swanson, K S

    2017-07-01

    Our objective was to evaluate the short-term effects of calcium fructoborate (CFB) on gait, joint range of motion, serum inflammatory markers, and owner perception of pain in client-owned dogs. We used 59 osteoarthritic dogs with impairment, with dogs being randomly assigned to 4 treatments: placebo (60 mg fructose; = 15), low dose (69 mg CFB; = 14), high dose (127 mg CFB; = 14), or combination (69 mg CFB, 500 mg glucosamine hydrochloride and 200 mg chondroitin sulfate; = 16). Dogs up to 22.9 kg received 1 capsule/d, while dogs weighing 23 to 50 kg received 2 capsules/d. A physical examination, radiographs, goniometry measurements, gait analysis, blood sample collection, and a canine brief pain inventory questionnaire were performed on d 0 and 28. Change from baseline values were statistically analyzed among groups. After 28 d, dogs fed the low and high doses had an improved ( Dogs fed the high dose also had a greater ( = 0.05) increase in soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products concentration than dogs fed the placebo. Sub-analysis of only large dogs (> 23 kg) showed that dogs fed the low dose had decreased ( dogs fed the placebo. Large dogs fed the low dose also were shown to improve ( dogs fed the placebo. Overall, CFB supplementation was well-tolerated and may aid in mitigating joint discomfort in dogs.

  7. Exact distribution of a pattern in a set of random sequences generated by a Markov source: applications to biological data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regad Leslie

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In bioinformatics it is common to search for a pattern of interest in a potentially large set of rather short sequences (upstream gene regions, proteins, exons, etc.. Although many methodological approaches allow practitioners to compute the distribution of a pattern count in a random sequence generated by a Markov source, no specific developments have taken into account the counting of occurrences in a set of independent sequences. We aim to address this problem by deriving efficient approaches and algorithms to perform these computations both for low and high complexity patterns in the framework of homogeneous or heterogeneous Markov models. Results The latest advances in the field allowed us to use a technique of optimal Markov chain embedding based on deterministic finite automata to introduce three innovative algorithms. Algorithm 1 is the only one able to deal with heterogeneous models. It also permits to avoid any product of convolution of the pattern distribution in individual sequences. When working with homogeneous models, Algorithm 2 yields a dramatic reduction in the complexity by taking advantage of previous computations to obtain moment generating functions efficiently. In the particular case of low or moderate complexity patterns, Algorithm 3 exploits power computation and binary decomposition to further reduce the time complexity to a logarithmic scale. All these algorithms and their relative interest in comparison with existing ones were then tested and discussed on a toy-example and three biological data sets: structural patterns in protein loop structures, PROSITE signatures in a bacterial proteome, and transcription factors in upstream gene regions. On these data sets, we also compared our exact approaches to the tempting approximation that consists in concatenating the sequences in the data set into a single sequence. Conclusions Our algorithms prove to be effective and able to handle real data sets with

  8. Exact distribution of a pattern in a set of random sequences generated by a Markov source: applications to biological data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuel, Gregory; Regad, Leslie; Martin, Juliette; Camproux, Anne-Claude

    2010-01-26

    In bioinformatics it is common to search for a pattern of interest in a potentially large set of rather short sequences (upstream gene regions, proteins, exons, etc.). Although many methodological approaches allow practitioners to compute the distribution of a pattern count in a random sequence generated by a Markov source, no specific developments have taken into account the counting of occurrences in a set of independent sequences. We aim to address this problem by deriving efficient approaches and algorithms to perform these computations both for low and high complexity patterns in the framework of homogeneous or heterogeneous Markov models. The latest advances in the field allowed us to use a technique of optimal Markov chain embedding based on deterministic finite automata to introduce three innovative algorithms. Algorithm 1 is the only one able to deal with heterogeneous models. It also permits to avoid any product of convolution of the pattern distribution in individual sequences. When working with homogeneous models, Algorithm 2 yields a dramatic reduction in the complexity by taking advantage of previous computations to obtain moment generating functions efficiently. In the particular case of low or moderate complexity patterns, Algorithm 3 exploits power computation and binary decomposition to further reduce the time complexity to a logarithmic scale. All these algorithms and their relative interest in comparison with existing ones were then tested and discussed on a toy-example and three biological data sets: structural patterns in protein loop structures, PROSITE signatures in a bacterial proteome, and transcription factors in upstream gene regions. On these data sets, we also compared our exact approaches to the tempting approximation that consists in concatenating the sequences in the data set into a single sequence. Our algorithms prove to be effective and able to handle real data sets with multiple sequences, as well as biological patterns of

  9. Prevalence of Dirofilaria immitis infection in dogs in Henan province, central China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Shuai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The heartworm Dirofilaria immitis is the causative agent of cardiopulmonary dirofilariosis in dogs and cats, and also infects humans. However, there has been no study on dirofilariasis in dogs in central China. From March 2015 to February 2016, sera from 1176 randomly selected household dogs from Henan province, central China were examined for D. immitis antigen using the Canine Heartworm Antigen Test Kit. The overall seroprevalence of D. immitis in dogs in Henan province was 13% (155/1176. The prevalence was significantly higher in older dogs and dogs kept outdoors, compared to the younger ones and those sheltered indoors. No significant difference of prevalence was observed between sexes. The results suggest that the risk of exposure to D. immitis in dogs is high in Henan, and prophylaxis against the parasite is advisable to decrease the incidence of canine dirofilariosis in this region.

  10. Digestibility and fecal characteristics of dogs fed with Bacillus subtilis in diet

    OpenAIRE

    Félix,Ananda Portella; Netto,Marina Volanski Teixeira; Murakami,Fabiane Yukiko; Brito,Cleusa Bernardete Marcon de; Oliveira,Simone Gisele de; Maiorka,Alex

    2010-01-01

    Considering the benefice demonstrated by the modulating action of probiotics on the host intestinal microbiota, this study aimed to evaluate diet digestibility and fecal characteristics of dogs fed with diets supplemented with Bacillus subtilis (C-3102). Twelve young Beagle dogs were distributed in a completely randomized experimental design consisting of two treatments: diet with no addition or with the addition of 0.01% Bacillus subtilis (C-3102). Dogs passed through 25 days of adaptation t...

  11. Estimate of the size and demographic structure of the owned dog and cat population living in Veneto region (north-eastern Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capello, Katia; Bortolotti, Laura; Lanari, Manuela; Baioni, Elisa; Mutinelli, Franco; Vascellari, Marta

    2015-01-01

    The knowledge of the size and demographic structure of animal populations is a necessary prerequisite for any population-based epidemiological study, especially to ascertain and interpret prevalence data, to implement surveillance plans in controlling zoonotic diseases and, moreover, to provide accurate estimates of tumours incidence data obtained by population-based registries. The main purpose of this study was to provide an accurate estimate of the size and structure of the canine population in Veneto region (north-eastern Italy), using the Lincoln-Petersen version of the capture-recapture methodology. The Regional Canine Demographic Registry (BAC) and a sample survey of households of Veneto Region were the capture and recapture sources, respectively. The secondary purpose was to estimate the size and structure of the feline population in the same region, using the same survey applied for dog population. A sample of 2465 randomly selected households was drawn and submitted to a questionnaire using the CATI technique, in order to obtain information about the ownership of dogs and cats. If the dog was declared to be identified, owner's information was used to recapture the dog in the BAC. The study was conducted in Veneto Region during 2011, when the dog population recorded in the BAC was 605,537. Overall, 616 households declared to possess at least one dog (25%), with a total of 805 dogs and an average per household of 1.3. The capture-recapture analysis showed that 574 dogs (71.3%, 95% CI: 68.04-74.40%) had been recaptured in both sources, providing a dog population estimate of 849,229 (95% CI: 814,747-889,394), 40% higher than that registered in the BAC. Concerning cats, 455 of 2465 (18%, 95% CI: 17-20%) households declared to possess at least one cat at the time of the telephone interview, with a total of 816 cats. The mean number of cats per household was equal to 1.8, providing an estimate of the cat population in Veneto region equal to 663,433 (95% CI: 626

  12. Gold Bead Implantation in Acupoints for Coxofemoral Arthrosis in Dogs: Method Description and Adverse Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Moe

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Gold bead implantation has been used for years as an alternative method to improve function in chronic joint disease both in humans and dogs. The aims of the present study were to describe the technique of implanting 24-karat gold beads around the hip joints of dogs with chronic hip dysplasia, and to record any side effects or complications of such treatment. A prospective placebo-controlled double-blinded clinical trial was performed. Eighty dogs were randomly allocated to treatment or placebo, with 38 in the gold implantation group and 42 in the placebo group, and followed intensely for six months. The implantation technique was simple to perform, using fluoroscopy and with the dogs under inhalation anesthesia for about 30 minutes. Adverse effects, measured as pain or discomfort, were seen for a period of up to four weeks in 15 of the dogs in the gold implantation group, compared to six dogs in the placebo group. During implantation, a technical difficulty occurred as 82% of the dogs showed leakage of blood and/or synovia from the needles. The dogs in the gold implantation group were radiographed 18 months later. Of the 30 dogs that were radiographed at both inclusion and 24 months, 80% (24 dogs showed a deterioration of the coxofemoral arthrosis, the other six had stable disease evaluated by radiography. Migration of gold beads was only observed in one dog.

  13. Dog and owner demographic characteristics and dog personality trait associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubinyi, Eniko; Turcsán, Borbála; Miklósi, Adám

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the relationships between four personality traits (calmness, trainability, dog sociability and boldness) of dogs (Canis familiaris) and dog and owner demographics on a large sample size with 14,004 individuals. German speaking dog owners could characterize their dog by filling out a form on the Internet. There were five demographic variables for dogs and nine for owners. Two statistical methods were used for investigating the associations between personality and demographic traits: the more traditional general linear methods and regression trees that are ideal for analyzing non-linear relationships in the structure of the data. The results showed that calmness is influenced primarily by the dog's age, the neutered status, the number of different types of professional training courses (e.g. obedience, agility) the dog had experienced and the age of acquisition. The least calm dogs were less than 2.5 years old, neutered and acquired after the first 12 weeks of age, while the calmest dogs were older than 6.9 years. Trainability was affected primarily by the training experiences, the dog's age, and the purpose of keeping the dog. The least trainable dogs had not received professional training at all and were older than 3 years. The most trainable dogs were those who participated in three or more types of professional training. Sociability toward conspecifics was mainly determined by the age, sex, training experience and time spent together. The least sociable dogs were older than 4.8 years and the owners spent less than 3h with the dog daily. The most sociable dogs were less than 1.5 years old. Males were less sociable toward their conspecifics than females. Boldness was affected by the sex and age of the dog and the age of acquisition. The least bold were females acquired after the age of 1 year or bred by the owner. The boldest dogs were males, acquired before the age of 12 weeks, and were younger than 2 years old. Other variables

  14. Jealousy in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Christine R; Prouvost, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    It is commonly assumed that jealousy is unique to humans, partially because of the complex cognitions often involved in this emotion. However, from a functional perspective, one might expect that an emotion that evolved to protect social bonds from interlopers might exist in other social species, particularly one as cognitively sophisticated as the dog. The current experiment adapted a paradigm from human infant studies to examine jealousy in domestic dogs. We found that dogs exhibited significantly more jealous behaviors (e.g., snapping, getting between the owner and object, pushing/touching the object/owner) when their owners displayed affectionate behaviors towards what appeared to be another dog as compared to nonsocial objects. These results lend support to the hypothesis that jealousy has some "primordial" form that exists in human infants and in at least one other social species besides humans.

  15. Platelet function in dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Line A.; Zois, Nora Elisabeth; Pedersen, Henrik D.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Clinical studies investigating platelet function in dogs have had conflicting results that may be caused by normal physiologic variation in platelet response to agonists. Objectives: The objective of this study was to investigate platelet function in clinically healthy dogs of 4...... different breeds by whole-blood aggregometry and with a point-of-care platelet function analyzer (PFA-100), and to evaluate the effect of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) administration on the results from both methods. Methods: Forty-five clinically healthy dogs (12 Cavalier King Charles Spaniels [CKCS], 12...... applied. However, the importance of these breed differences remains to be investigated. The PFA-100 method with Col + Epi as agonists, and ADP-induced platelet aggregation appear to be sensitive to ASA in dogs....

  16. Sniffer dogs unleashed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-07

    A 10-year conservation project to restore the native bird populations of South Georgia has involved eradicating invasive rodent species. As Daniel Gillett explains, specially trained sniffer dogs are an important part of 'team rat'. British Veterinary Association.

  17. How dogs drink water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gart, Sean; Socha, Jake; Vlachos, Pavlos; Jung, Sunghwan

    2014-11-01

    Animals with incomplete cheeks (i.e. dogs and cats) need to move fluid against gravity into the body by means other than suction. They do this by lapping fluid with their tongue. When a dog drinks, it curls its tongue posteriorly while plunging it into the fluid and then quickly withdraws its tongue back into the mouth. During this fast retraction fluid sticks to the ventral part of the curled tongue and is drawn into the mouth due to inertia. We show several variations of this drinking behavior among many dog breeds, specifically, the relationship between tongue dynamics and geometry, lapping frequency, and dog weight. We also compare the results with the physical experiment of a rounded rod impact onto a fluid surface. Supported by NSF PoLS #1205642.

  18. Odor Perception by Dogs: Evaluating Two Training Approaches for Odor Learning of Sniffer Dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer-Tenhagen, Carola; Johnen, Dorothea; Heuwieser, Wolfgang; Becker, Roland; Schallschmidt, Kristin; Nehls, Irene

    2017-06-01

    In this study, a standardized experimental set-up with various combinations of herbs as odor sources was designed. Two training approaches for sniffer dogs were compared; first, training with a pure reference odor, and second, training with a variety of odor mixtures with the target odor as a common denominator. The ability of the dogs to identify the target odor in a new context was tested. Six different herbs (basil, St. John's wort, dandelion, marjoram, parsley, ribwort) were chosen to produce reference materials in various mixtures with (positive) and without (negative) chamomile as the target odor source. The dogs were trained to show 1 of 2 different behaviors, 1 for the positive, and 1 for the negative sample as a yes/no task. Tests were double blind with one sample presented at a time. In both training approaches, dogs were able to detect chamomile as the target odor in any presented mixture with an average sensitivity of 72% and a specificity of 84%. Dogs trained with odor mixture containing the target odor had more correct indications in the transfer task. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Limit to mass sensitivity of nanoresonators with random rough surfaces due to intrinsic sources and interactions with the surrounding gas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palasantzas, G.

    2008-01-01

    We investigate initially the influence of thermomechanical and momentum exchange noise on the limit to mass sensitivity Delta m of nanoresonators with random rough surfaces, which are characterized by the roughness amplitude w, the correlation length xi, and the roughness exponent 0

  20. Radiation toxicity in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norris, W.P.

    1975-01-01

    Progress is reported on studies of the effects of continuous (22 hr/day), whole-body γ-irradiation in the pure-bred beagle dog. Dogs were exposed continuously until death at one of four different exposure rates ranging from 5 to 35 R/day. The study is still 2441 days (approximately 6.7 yr) of irradiation. The experiment has narrowed to the dogs receiving 5 R/day and the controls. A group of dogs receiving one of these relatively low daily exposure rates may exhibit remarkably varied responses, both in survival times in the γ field and in ultimate causes of death. The basis for these large differences in responses of individual dogs remains mostly unexplained, but is presumed to reside in their genetic composition. The composite result in the study, however, demonstrates an orderly, step-wise appearance of clinical end points resulting from radiation-induced damage to the blood-forming tissues. About one-half the dogs exposed continuously to 10 R/day develop bone marrow aplasia and die of anemia, while the other one-half develop bone marrow hyperplasias and die of malignancies, usually myelogenous leukemias. In dogs exposed at rates greater than 10 R/day, aplastic bone marrows predominate; while hyperplastic responses are the dominant cause of death at 5 R/day. Only among the most recent deaths of dogs exposed continuously to either 10 or 5 R/day, have there appeared terminal causes of death unrelated to hematopoietic injury. These causes (degenerative and/or inflammatory disease and cancers of tissue other than bone marrow) suggest that we are now beginning to define the combinations of exposure rate and time of exposure that allow expressions of damage by tissues outside the hematopoietic system. (U.S.)

  1. Cordless ultrasonic dissector versus advanced bipolar vessel sealing device for laparoscopic ovariectomy in dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spillebeen, Anneleen L; Janssens, Sara S D S; Thomas, Rachel E; Kirpensteijn, Jolle; van Nimwegen, Sebastiaan A

    OBJECTIVE: To compare Sonicision cordless ultrasonic dissector (SCUD) to LigaSure vessel sealing device (LVSD) for laparoscopic ovariectomy (Lap OVE) in dogs. STUDY DESIGN: Randomized, paired prospective clinical trial. ANIMALS: Client-owned dogs (n = 22) presented for elective Lap OVE. METHODS:

  2. Radial shock wave therapy in dogs with hip osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Alexandre N A; Ferreira, Marcio P; Hagen, Stefano C F; Patrício, Geni C F; Matera, Julia M

    2016-01-01

    The study aims were to evaluate the effects of radial shock wave therapy (RSWT) in dogs with hip osteoarthritis (OA) using clinical assessment and kinetic analysis. Thirty dogs diagnosed with bilateral hip OA and 30 healthy dogs were used. In OA dogs, one limb was randomly selected for treatment with RSWT while the contralateral limb served as an untreated control. Dogs were evaluated while walking on a pressure walkway. Peak vertical force (PVF) and vertical impulse (VI) were documented; symmetry index (SI) was also calculated. Blinded clinical evaluation was performed using a visual analogue scale (VAS). Owner perception data regarding levels of physical activity were also collected. The RSWT protocol (2000 pulses, 10 Hz, 2-3.4 bars) consisted of three weekly treatment sessions (days 1, 8 and 16). Follow-up data were collected 30, 60 and 90 days after the first session. Data were compared between time points, groups and limbs pairs. At the end of the experimental period, mean PVF and VI values had increased (25.9 to 27.6%BW and 2.1 to 12.7%BW × s respectively) in treated limbs, with no significant differences in control limbs; SI values suggest improvement. Mean PVF and VI remained lower in the treated compared to the healthy group following treatment. The VAS scores suggested improvement in pain and lameness in treated dogs. Owner perception data suggested improved levels of physical activity following treatment. Outcomes of this study suggested beneficial effects of RSWT in dogs with hip osteoarthritis.

  3. Seropositivity for Trypanosoma cruzi in domestic dogs from Sonora, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arce-Fonseca, Minerva; Carrillo-Sánchez, Silvia C; Molina-Barrios, Ramón M; Martínez-Cruz, Mariana; Cedillo-Cobián, Jesús R; Henao-Díaz, Yuly A; Rodríguez-Morales, Olivia

    2017-09-05

    Chagas disease is an important health problem in Latin America due to its incapacitating effects and associated mortality. Studies on seropositivity for Trypanosoma cruzi in Mexican dogs have demonstrated a direct correlation between seropositivity in humans and dogs, which can act as sentinels for the disease in this region. The objective of this study was to determine the seropositivity for T.cruzi infection in dogs from Sonora, a northern borderstate of Mexico. Responsible pet owners were selected at random from an urban area of Empalme municipality, Sonora, Mexico, and from there, 180 dog samples were collected. Anti-T. cruzi antibodies were determined using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. Reactive ELISA sera were processed by indirect immunofluorescence to confirm the presence of anti-T. cruzi antibodies. For the statistical analysis, chi-square tests were conducted. Dogs' sera showed a seropositivity rate of 4.44%. The rate of seropositivity was not associated with the dogs' age, sex, or socioeconomics pertaining to the geographical area. One sample (1/180, 0.55%) showed the acute state of the disease. The study found a presence of anti-T. cruzi antibodies in dogs in this area, which suggests vector transmission. There is a need for active surveillance programs throughout the state of Sonora and vector control strategies should also be implemented in endemic regions.

  4. Cystic meningiomas in 2 dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagley, R.S.; Kornegay, J.N.; Lane, S.B.; Thrall, D.L.; Page, R.L.

    1996-01-01

    Two dogs with signs of forebrain disease had hypodense lesions on computed tomography evaluation. Magnetic resonance imaging of the first dog showed a hypointense lesion on the T1-weighted scan and a hyperintense lesion on T2-weighted scanning. At surgery, both dogs had a primary cystic intracranial lesion, and the abnormal tissue adjacent to the cyst had histological features of meningioma. Each dog underwent whole brain irradiation after surgery, and 1 dog lived for 3 years after treatment. While uncommon, meningioma should be considered as a differential diagnosis in dogs with cystic intracranial lesions

  5. Multiple-host pathogens in domestic hunting dogs in Nicaragua's Bosawás Biosphere Reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorello, Christine V; Straub, Mary H; Schwartz, Laura M; Liu, James; Campbell, Amanda; Kownacki, Alexa K; Foley, Janet E

    2017-03-01

    Nicaragua's Bosawás Biosphere Reserve is a vast forested area inhabited largely by indigenous Mayangna and Miskitu people. Most Bosawás residents rely on subsistence hunting and swidden agriculture, and hunting dogs are important for finding and securing wild game. We investigated the health of hunting dogs in three communities differing in location, size, and economy. Dogs in all communities were nutritionally compromised and experienced a heavy burden of disease. Seroprevalence of canine distemper, canine parvovirus, Rickettsia rickettsii, and Leptospira spp. exceeded 50% of dogs. At least one dog was actively shedding leptospires in urine, and many dogs were anemic and/or dehydrated. These dogs interact with wildlife in the forest and humans and domestic livestock in the communities, and may therefore serve as sources of zoonotic and wildlife diseases. Bosawás represents one of the largest intact tracts of habitat for jaguars (Panthera onca) in Central America, and given that these communities are located within the forest, jaguars may be at risk from disease spillover from hunting dogs. Dog owners reported that four of 49 dogs had been attacked and killed by jaguars in the past year, and that retaliatory killing of jaguars was sometimes practiced. Disease spillover from dogs to wildlife could occur both in the course of dogs' hunting activities as well as during jaguar attacks. A better understanding of dog depredation by jaguars, pathogen exposure in jaguars, and a management strategy for the hunting dog population, are urgently needed to mitigate these dual threats to jaguars, improve the lives of hunting dogs, and safeguard the health of their owners. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Dental wax decreases calculus accumulation in small dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Mark M; Smithson, Christopher W

    2014-01-01

    A dental wax was evaluated after unilateral application in 20 client-owned, mixed and purebred small dogs using a clean, split-mouth study model. All dogs had clinical signs of periodontal disease including plaque, calculus, and/or gingivitis. The wax was randomly applied to the teeth of one side of the mouth daily for 30-days while the contralateral side received no treatment. Owner parameters evaluated included compliance and a subjective assessment of ease of wax application. Gingivitis, plaque and calculus accumulation were scored at the end of the study period. Owners considered the wax easy to apply in all dogs. Compliance with no missed application days was achieved in 8 dogs. The number of missed application days had no effect on wax efficacy. There was no significant difference in gingivitis or plaque accumulation scores when comparing treated and untreated sides. Calculus accumulation scores were significantly less (22.1 %) for teeth receiving the dental wax.

  7. Historical analysis of Newfoundland dog fur colour genetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Bondeson

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article makes use of digitized historic newspapers to analyze Newfoundland dog fur colour genetics, and fur colour variations over time. The results indicate that contrary to the accepted view, the ‘Solid’ gene was introduced into the British population of Newfoundland dogs in the 1840s. Prior to that time, the dogs were white and black (Landseer or white and brown, and thus spotted/spotted homozygotes. Due to ‘Solid’ being dominant over ‘spotted’, and selective breeding, today the majority of Newfoundland dogs are solid black. Whereas small white marks on the chest and/or paw appears to be a random event, the historical data supports the existence of an ‘Irish spotted’ fur colour pattern, with white head blaze, breast, paws and tail tip, in spotted/spotted homozygotes.

  8. Pathogenic strains of Yersinia enterocolitica isolated from domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) belonging to farmers are of the same subtype as pathogenic Y. enterocolitica strains isolated from humans and may be a source of human infection in Jiangsu Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Cui, Zhigang; Wang, Hua; Tang, Liuying; Yang, Jinchuan; Gu, Ling; Jin, Dong; Luo, Longze; Qiu, Haiyan; Xiao, Yuchun; Xiong, Haiping; Kan, Biao; Xu, Jianguo; Jing, Huaiqi

    2010-05-01

    We isolated 326 Yersinia enterocolitica strains from 5,919 specimens from patients with diarrhea at outpatient clinics, livestock, poultry, wild animals, insect vectors, food, and the environment in the cities of Nantong and Xuzhou in Jiangsu Province, China, from 2004 to 2008. The results showed that the 12 pathogenic strains were of the O:3 serotype. Six strains were isolated from domestic dogs (Canis familiaris) belonging to farmers and were found to be the primary carriers of pathogenic Y. enterocolitica strains, especially in Xuzhou. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis of the pathogenic strains from dogs belonging to farmers showed that they shared the same patterns as strains from diarrhea patients isolated in 1994. This indicates that the strains from domestic dogs have a close correlation with the strains causing human infections.

  9. Continuous-Time Random Walk Models of DNA Electrophoresis in a Post Array: II. Mobility and Sources of Band Broadening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Daniel W.; Dutta, Sarit; Laachi, Nabil; Tian, Mingwei; Dorfman, Kevin D.

    2011-01-01

    Using the two-state, continuous-time random walk model, we develop expressions for the mobility and the plate height during DNA electrophoresis in an ordered post array that delineate the contributions due to (i) the random distance between collisions and (ii) the random duration of a collision. These contributions are expressed in terms of the means and variances of the underlying stochastic processes, which we evaluate from a large ensemble of Brownian dynamics simulations performed using different electric fields and molecular weights in a hexagonal array of 1 μm posts with a 3 μm center-to-center distance. If we fix the molecular weight, we find that the collision frequency governs the mobility. In contrast, the average collision duration is the most important factor for predicting the mobility as a function of DNA size at constant Péclet number. The plate height is reasonably well-described by a single post rope-over-pulley model, provided that the extension of the molecule is small. Our results only account for dispersion inside the post array and thus represent a theoretical lower bound on the plate height in an actual device. PMID:21290387

  10. Uptake of Rabies Control Measures by Dog Owners in Flores Island, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wera, Ewaldus; Mourits, Monique C. M.; Hogeveen, Henk

    2015-01-01

    Background Rabies has been a serious public health threat in Flores Island, Indonesia since it was introduced in 1997. To control the disease, annual dog vaccination campaigns have been implemented to vaccinate all dogs free of charge. Nevertheless, the uptake rate of the vaccination campaigns has been low. The objective of this paper is to identify risk factors associated with the uptake of rabies control measures by individual dog owners in Flores Island. Methodology/principal findings A total of 450 dog owners from 44 randomly selected villages in the Sikka and Manggarai regencies were interviewed regarding their socio-demographic factors, knowledge of rabies, and their uptake of rabies control measures. The majority of dog owners surveyed (>90%) knew that rabies is a fatal disease and that it can be prevented. Moreover, 68% of the dog owners had a high level of knowledge about available rabies control measures. Fifty-two percent of the dog owners had had at least one of their dogs vaccinated during the 2012 vaccination campaign. Vaccination uptake was significantly higher for dog owners who resided in Sikka, kept female dogs for breeding, had an income of more than one million Rupiah, and had easy access to their village. The most important reasons not to join the vaccination campaign were lack of information about the vaccination campaign schedule (40%) and difficulty to catch the dog during the vaccination campaign (37%). Conclusions/significance Dog owners in Flores Island had a high level of knowledge of rabies and its control, but this was not associated with uptake of the 2012 vaccination campaign. Geographical accessibility was one of the important factors influencing the vaccination uptake among dog owners. Targeted distribution of information on vaccination schedules and methods to catch and restrain dogs in those villages with poor accessibility may increase vaccination uptake in the future. PMID:25782019

  11. Dog Ownership, Dog Walking, and Children's and Parents' Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, Jo; Timperio, Anna; Chu, Binh; Veitch, Jenny

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to determine cross-sectional associations of dog ownership, dog walking, and physical activity (PA) among children and their parents. Objective measures of PA were obtained for children ages 5-6 and 10-12 years from 19 primary schools across Melbourne, Australia. Parents self-reported their PA, dog ownership, and frequency of dog…

  12. Improving guide dog team play with accessible dog toys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hauser, S.; Wakkary, R.L.; Neustaedter, C.

    2014-01-01

    People with vision impairment have been a longstanding well-recognized user group addressed in HCI. Despite the recent interest in studying sighted dog owners and their pets in HCI, there is a noticeable gap in the field with regards to research on visually impaired owners and their dogs (guide dog

  13. Impact of Toceranib/Piroxicam/Cyclophosphamide Maintenance Therapy on Outcome of Dogs with Appendicular Osteosarcoma following Amputation and Carboplatin Chemotherapy: A Multi-Institutional Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl A London

    Full Text Available We hypothesized that the addition of toceranib to metronomic cyclophosphamide/piroxicam therapy would significantly improve disease-free interval (DFI and overall survival (OS in dogs with appendicular osteosarcoma (OSA following amputation and carboplatin chemotherapy.This was a randomized, prospective clinical trial in which dogs with OSA free of gross metastatic disease (n = 126 received carboplatin chemotherapy (4 doses following amputation. On study entry, dogs were randomized to receive piroxicam/cyclophosphamide with or without toceranib (n = 63 each after completing chemotherapy. Patient demographics were not significantly different between both groups. During or immediately following carboplatin chemotherapy, 32 dogs (n = 13 toceranib; n = 19 control developed metastatic disease, and 13 dogs left the study due to other medical conditions or owner preference. Following carboplatin chemotherapy, 81 dogs (n = 46 toceranib; n = 35 control received the metronomic treatment; 35 dogs (n = 20 toceranib; n = 15 control developed metastatic disease during the maintenance therapy, and 26 dogs left the study due to other medical conditions or owner preference. Nine toceranib-treated and 11 control dogs completed the study without evidence of metastatic disease 1-year following amputation. Toceranib-treated dogs experienced more episodes of diarrhea, neutropenia and weight loss than control dogs, although these toxicities were low-grade and typically resolved with supportive care. More toceranib-treated dogs (n = 8 were removed from the study for therapy-associated adverse events compared to control dogs (n = 1. The median DFI for control and toceranib treated dogs was 215 and 233 days, respectively (p = 0.274; the median OS for control and toceranib treated dogs was 242 and 318 days, respectively (p = 0.08. The one year survival rate for control dogs was 35% compared to 38% for dogs receiving toceranib.The addition of toceranib to metronomic

  14. Impact of Toceranib/Piroxicam/Cyclophosphamide Maintenance Therapy on Outcome of Dogs with Appendicular Osteosarcoma following Amputation and Carboplatin Chemotherapy: A Multi-Institutional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    London, Cheryl A; Gardner, Heather L; Mathie, Tamra; Stingle, Nicole; Portela, Roberta; Pennell, Michael L; Clifford, Craig A; Rosenberg, Mona P; Vail, David M; Williams, Laurel E; Cronin, Kim L; Wilson-Robles, Heather; Borgatti, Antonella; Henry, Carolyn J; Bailey, Dennis B; Locke, Jennifer; Northrup, Nicole C; Crawford-Jakubiak, Martin; Gill, Virginia L; Klein, Mary K; Ruslander, David M; Thamm, Doug H; Phillips, Brenda; Post, Gerald

    2015-01-01

    We hypothesized that the addition of toceranib to metronomic cyclophosphamide/piroxicam therapy would significantly improve disease-free interval (DFI) and overall survival (OS) in dogs with appendicular osteosarcoma (OSA) following amputation and carboplatin chemotherapy. This was a randomized, prospective clinical trial in which dogs with OSA free of gross metastatic disease (n = 126) received carboplatin chemotherapy (4 doses) following amputation. On study entry, dogs were randomized to receive piroxicam/cyclophosphamide with or without toceranib (n = 63 each) after completing chemotherapy. Patient demographics were not significantly different between both groups. During or immediately following carboplatin chemotherapy, 32 dogs (n = 13 toceranib; n = 19 control) developed metastatic disease, and 13 dogs left the study due to other medical conditions or owner preference. Following carboplatin chemotherapy, 81 dogs (n = 46 toceranib; n = 35 control) received the metronomic treatment; 35 dogs (n = 20 toceranib; n = 15 control) developed metastatic disease during the maintenance therapy, and 26 dogs left the study due to other medical conditions or owner preference. Nine toceranib-treated and 11 control dogs completed the study without evidence of metastatic disease 1-year following amputation. Toceranib-treated dogs experienced more episodes of diarrhea, neutropenia and weight loss than control dogs, although these toxicities were low-grade and typically resolved with supportive care. More toceranib-treated dogs (n = 8) were removed from the study for therapy-associated adverse events compared to control dogs (n = 1). The median DFI for control and toceranib treated dogs was 215 and 233 days, respectively (p = 0.274); the median OS for control and toceranib treated dogs was 242 and 318 days, respectively (p = 0.08). The one year survival rate for control dogs was 35% compared to 38% for dogs receiving toceranib. The addition of toceranib to metronomic piroxicam

  15. Treating Cushing's Disease in Dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Consumers Consumer Updates Treating Cushing's Disease in Dogs Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... FDA Consumer Health Information Your 9-year old dog has been drinking a lot more lately and ...

  16. Augmented collar for assistance dog

    OpenAIRE

    Lemasson , Germain; Lucidarme , Philippe; Pesty , Sylvie; Duhaut , Dominique

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we present briefly our reflexion on how to communicate with a dog using embedded devices. We also present the prototype collar we made in order to improve the communication between an assistance dog and his disabled master.

  17. Comparison of carprofen and tramadol for postoperative analgesia in dogs undergoing enucleation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Cherlene; Bentley, Ellison; Hetzel, Scott; Smith, Lesley J

    2014-12-15

    To compare analgesia provided by carprofen and tramadol in dogs after enucleation. Randomized, masked clinical trial. 43 dogs. Client-owned dogs admitted for routine enucleation were randomly assigned to receive either carprofen or tramadol orally 2 hours prior to surgery and 12 hours after the first dose. Dogs were scored for signs of pain at baseline (ie, before carprofen or tramadol administration) and at 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 24, and 30 hours after extubation. Dogs received identical premedication and inhalation anesthesia regimens, including premedication with hydromorphone. If the total pain score was ≥ 9 (maximum possible score of 20), there was a score ≥ 3 in any of 5 behavioral categories (highest score possible per category was 3 or 4), or the visual analog scale (VAS) score was ≥ 35 (maximum possible score of 100) combined with a palpation score > 0, rescue analgesia (hydromorphone) was administered and treatment failure was recorded. No differences were found in age, sex, or baseline pain scores between groups. Significantly more dogs receiving tramadol required rescue analgesia (6/21), compared with dogs receiving carprofen (1/22). Pain and VAS scores decreased linearly over time. No significant differences were found in pain or VAS scores between groups at any time point (dogs were excluded from analysis after rescue). Results of this study suggested that carprofen, with opioid premedication, may provide more effective postoperative analgesia than tramadol in dogs undergoing enucleation.

  18. Effects of a transdermal lidocaine patch on indicators of postoperative pain in dogs undergoing midline ovariohysterectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merema, Danielle K; Schoenrock, Emily K; Le Boedec, Kevin; McMichael, Maureen A

    2017-05-15

    OBJECTIVE To determine the effects of a transdermal lidocaine patch (TLP) on indicators of postoperative pain in healthy dogs following ovariohysterectomy. DESIGN Randomized, blinded controlled trial. ANIMALS 40 healthy shelter-owned female dogs admitted to a student surgery program for ovariohysterectomy. PROCEDURES Dogs were randomly assigned to receive after ovariohysterectomy a 5-cm-wide strip of TLP applied topically on both sides of the incision, for the full length of the incision and a wound dressing (n = 19) or a placebo patch (nonmedicated wound dressing; 21). All dogs underwent midline ovariohysterectomy. Immediately afterward, dogs received 2 IM morphine injections, carprofen (SC, q 12 h for 2 days), and the assigned patch (left in place for 18 hours). Postoperative comfort was evaluated by use of the short form of the Glasgow Composite Measures Pain Scale and serum cortisol concentrations measured prior to premedication and 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 18 hours after surgery. RESULTS No significant difference in pain scores or serum cortisol concentrations was identified between dogs that received the TLP and dogs that received a placebo patch after ovariohysterectomy. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE The TLP provided no additional analgesic benefit to dogs treated concurrently with recommended doses of morphine and carprofen following ovariohysterectomy. Additional studies are needed to investigate whether similar results might be achieved in dogs treated concurrently with other analgesics. (J Am Vet Med Assoc 2017;250:1140-1147).

  19. Upper Airway Injury in Dogs Secondary to Trauma: 10 Dogs (2000-2011).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basdani, Eleni; Papazoglou, Lysimachos G; Patsikas, Michail N; Kazakos, Georgios M; Adamama-Moraitou, Katerina K; Tsokataridis, Ioannis

    2016-01-01

    Ten dogs that presented with trauma-induced upper airway rupture or stenosis were reviewed. Tracheal rupture was seen in seven dogs, tracheal stenosis in one dog, and laryngeal rupture in two dogs. Clinical abnormalities included respiratory distress in five dogs, subcutaneous emphysema in eight, air leakage through the cervical wound in seven, stridor in three dogs, pneumomediastinum in four and pneumothorax in one dog. Reconstruction with simple interrupted sutures was performed in four dogs, tracheal resection and end-to-end anastomosis in five dogs, and one dog was euthanized intraoperatively. Complications were seen in three dogs including aspiration pneumonia in one and vocalization alterations in two dogs.

  20. Prediction of digestible and metabolizable energy content and standardized ileal amino Acid digestibility in wheat shorts and red dog for growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Q; Piao, X S; Ren, P; Li, D F

    2012-12-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of chemical composition of wheat shorts and red dog on energy and amino acid digestibility in growing pigs and to establish prediction models to estimate their digestible (DE) and metabolizable (ME) energy content and as well as their standardized ileal digestible (SID) amino acid content. For Exp. 1, sixteen diets were fed to thirty-two growing pigs according to a completely randomized design during three successive periods. The basal diet was based on corn and soybean meal while the other fifteen diets contained 28.8% wheat shorts (N = 7) or red dog (N = 8), added at the expense of corn and soybean meal. Over the three periods, each diet was fed to six pigs with each diet being fed to two pigs during each period. The apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of energy in wheat shorts and red dog averaged 75.1 and 87.9%. The DE values of wheat shorts and red dog averaged 13.8 MJ/kg (range 13.1 to 15.0 MJ/kg) and 15.1 MJ/kg (range 13.3 to 16.6 MJ/kg) of dry matter, respectively. For Exp. 2, twelve growing pigs were allotted to two 6×6 Latin Square Designs with six periods. Ten of the diets were formulated based on 60% wheat shorts or red dog and the remaining two diets were nitrogen-free diets based on cornstarch and sucrose. Chromic oxide (0.3%) was used as an indigestible marker in all diets. There were no differences (p>0.05) in SID values for the amino acids in wheat shorts and red dog except for lysine and methionine. Apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and SID values for lysine in different sources of wheat shorts or red dog, which averaged 78.1 and 87.8%, showed more variation than either methionine or tryptophan. A stepwise regression was performed to establish DE, ME and amino acid digestibility prediction models. Data indicated that fiber content and amino acid concentrations were good indicators to predict energy values and amino acid digestibility, respectively. The present study confirms the large

  1. Bone densitometry in dogs using gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, A.L.B.; Costa, V.E.; Rezende, M.A.; Grossklauss, D.B.B.F.; Oliveira, T.B.

    2010-01-01

    Full text. The purpose of this work came from the possibility of joining similar methodologies for determination of density, used in different areas, and provide more precise values of bone density by analyzing the mass attenuation coefficient. For over 20 years, The Applied Physics Laboratory, Department of Physics and Biophysics, IBB- UNESP, Botucatu campus, has been working in the determination of density in different areas, using the methods of immersion and gamma radiation attenuation. The results presented have excellent precision, due to the facility in obtaining and preparing samples, coupled to the large experience in the area. This study aims to determine the bone density of samples of mongrel dogs (dogs without defined breed) by the immersion method; to determine the mass attenuation coefficient of bones samples of mongrel dogs with a gamma radiation source; to discuss and to evaluate the methodological aspects involved in the optic densitometry used nowadays, presenting its advantages and disadvantages and, finally, to examine the effect of animal weight, age and sex on bone densitometry of medium-sized dogs. For this study, we use upper limbs samples, at the joint region humerus-radio-ulnar of after death mongrel dogs, assigned by the Department of Pathology, Faculty of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine (UNESP-Botucatu) and by the Kennel of the city of Araras, Sao Paulo. This work is performed in three stages. In the first step is determined the density by the method of immersion in water, in the second step, is obtained the mass coefficient attenuation and, finally, in the third step are discussed the implemented methods and evaluate the density bone samples to establish correlations with the age, weight and sex parameters of each group of animals. Based on this methodology , we can find the average value for the mass attenuation coefficient of gamma radiation with energy 59,6, find variations in the values of bone densitometry in the same bone

  2. Cutaneous leishmaniosis in naturally infected dogs in Paraná, Brazil, and the epidemiological implications of Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis detection in internal organs and intact skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquez, Ellen de Souza; de Castro, Edilene Alcântara; Nabut, Luciene Biazono; da Costa-Ribeiro, Magda Clara Vieira; Dela Coletta Troiano Araújo, Ludmilla; Poubel, Saloe Bispo; Gonçalves, André Luiz; Cruz, Mariza Fordellone Rosa; Dos Santos Trad, Ana Paula Millet Evangelista; Dias, Rafael Andre Ferreira; Navarro, Italmar Teodorico; Thomaz-Soccol, Vanete

    2017-08-30

    Environmental changes have occurred over the years, altering the eco-epidemiological pattern of leishmaniosis in the State of Paraná, Brazil, involving the pillars of the cycle (parasite, vectors, reservoir, and environment) and their interaction. Much has been discussed about the dog's role as a reservoir of the Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis Vianna, 1911 transmission cycle. However, this question remains unanswered. The purpose of this study was to investigate, using parasitological and molecular methods, different samples in eight naturally infected dogs from an endemic rural locality where only L. (V.) braziliensis is present, and where human cases have been previously notified. Blood and biopsied organ samples from naturally infected dogs were analyzed by culture media, PCR, random amplified polymorphic DNA and sequencing methodologies. Only skin lesions from all dogs yielded positive cultures and when PCR was performed, L. (V.) braziliensis DNA was amplified from intact skin, peripheral blood, bone marrow, spleen, liver and lymph nodes. RAPD was also applied to isolates from the skin lesions, exhibiting the genetic variability of the parasite identified. To confirm which species of Leishmania was amplified in PCR, the sequencing method was performed, verifying 100% similarity with the Viannia subgenus. This study showed that L. (V.) braziliensis can spread to other sites besides the ulcerous lesions, such as intact skin, peripheral blood and internal organs, making it possibility for dogs to serve as active sources of parasite transmission. For definitive proof, xenodiagnostic test on intact skin of infected dogs, should be done. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Brief communication: DNA from early Holocene American dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tito, Raul Y; Belknap, Samuel L; Sobolik, Kristin D; Ingraham, Robert C; Cleeland, Lauren M; Lewis, Cecil M

    2011-08-01

    We present the oldest genetically identified dog in the Americas, directly dated to 9,260 ± 170 Cal. B.P. The DNA was extracted from an occipital condyle imbedded in a human paleofecal sample from Hinds Cave in southwest Texas. A 368 base pair fragment of the mitochondrial genome control region was sequenced. These data were analyzed with comparable data, which included other ancient dogs and extant dogs, wolves and coyotes from around the world. Compiled with published data, our results characterize ancient American dogs within clades rooted by Eurasian wolves. In the Americas, these data provide no evidence of local interbreeding with wolves. This is a departure from the genetic pattern in other areas of the world where interbreeding with local wolf populations is apparent. Our discovery of domestic dog bone in a human paleofecal sample provides the earliest direct evidence for human consumption of dogs in the New World. These data support the hypothesis that dogs were a food source for early Paleoamericans. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Dog and owner characteristics affecting the dog-owner relationship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Iben Helene Coakley; Forkman, Björn

    2014-01-01

    The nature of the relationship between companion dogs and their owners has important impact on the effect of life for both dog and owner. Identifying factors that affect the dogeowner relationship will assist the understanding of how the successful relationship is achieved and how the less...... successful relationship is mended, with potential benefits for the welfare of both species. In the present study, we investigated the effect of several dog and owner characteristics, including the personality of the dog, on the dogeowner relationship as measured by the Monash Dog Owner Relationship Scale...... (MDORS). Data were collected by inviting owners of dogs that had been tested on the Danish Dog Mentality Assessment (DMA) to answer an online questionnaire. We were able to match 421 owner answers with their dogs’ DMA test results. The questionnaire consisted of the 28 items of the MDORS, as well...

  5. Directionality of dog vocalizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frommolt, Karl-Heinz; Gebler, Alban

    2004-07-01

    The directionality patterns of sound emission in domestic dogs were measured in an anechoic environment using a microphone array. Mainly long-distance signals from four dogs were investigated. The radiation pattern of the signals differed clearly from an omnidirectional one with average differences in sound-pressure level between the frontal and rear position of 3-7 dB depending from the individual. Frequency dependence of directionality was shown for the range from 250 to 3200 Hz. The results indicate that when studying acoustic communication in mammals, more attention should be paid to the directionality pattern of sound emission.

  6. Lead poisoning in dogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, M R; Lewis, G

    1963-08-03

    Within a short period, 14 cases of lead poisoning in the dogs have been encountered. A detailed record appears justified as no published reference can be found to this condition occurring in Britain and because reports from other countries stress the similarity of the clinical manifestations of lead poisoning to those of the common infections of the dog. Five of the 14 clinical cases of lead poisoning are described. The available literature is reviewed and the diagnosis and significance of the condition discussed. 19 references, 2 tables.

  7. Efficacy of afoxolaner in a clinical field study in dogs naturally infested with Sarcoptes scabiei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beugnet Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The acaricidal efficacy of afoxolaner (NexGard®, Merial was evaluated against Sarcoptes scabiei var. canis in a field efficacy study, when administered orally at a minimum dose of 2.5 mg/kg to dogs naturally infested with the mites. Twenty mixed-breed dogs of either sex (6 males and 14 females, aged over 6 months and weighing 4–18 kg, were studied in this randomised controlled field efficacy trial. Dogs, naturally infested with Sarcoptes scabiei var. canis confirmed by skin scrapings collected prior to allocation, were randomly divided into two equal groups. Dogs in Group 1 were not treated. Dogs in Group 2 were treated on Days 0 and 28. On Days 0 (pre-treatment, 28 (pre-treatment and 56, five skin scrapings of similar size were taken from different sites with lesions suggestive of sarcoptic mange. The extent of lesions was also recorded on Days 0, 28 and 56, and photographs were taken. Dogs treated orally with afoxolaner had significantly (p < 0.001 lower mite counts than untreated control animals at Days 28 and 56 with no mites recovered from treated dogs at these times (100% efficacy based on mite counts. In addition, dogs treated with NexGard had significantly (p < 0.05 better lesion resolution at Day 56 than Day 0; no treated dog showed pruritus compared to 7/10 dogs in the control group, 1/9 treated dogs had crusts compared to 5/10 controls and 8/9 dogs recovered 90% of hairs on lesions compared to 0/10 control dogs.

  8. Responses of Juvenile Black-tailed Prairie Dogs ( Cynomys ludovicianus ) to a Commercially Produced Oral Plague Vaccine Delivered at Two Doses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárdenas-Canales, Elsa M; Wolfe, Lisa L; Tripp, Daniel W; Rocke, Tonie E; Abbott, Rachel C; Miller, Michael W

    2017-10-01

    We confirmed safety and immunogenicity of mass-produced vaccine baits carrying an experimental, commercial-source plague vaccine (RCN-F1/V307) expressing Yersinia pestis V and F1 antigens. Forty-five juvenile black-tailed prairie dogs ( Cynomys ludovicianus ) were randomly divided into three treatment groups (n=15 animals/group). Animals in the first group received one standard-dose vaccine bait (5×10 7 plaque-forming units [pfu]; STD). The second group received a lower-dose bait (1×10 7 pfu; LOW). In the third group, five animals received two standard-dose baits and 10 were left untreated but in contact. Two vaccine-treated and one untreated prairie dogs died during the study, but laboratory analyses ruled out vaccine involvement. Overall, 17 of 33 (52%; 95% confidence interval for binomial proportion [bCI] 34-69%) prairie dogs receiving vaccine-laden bait showed a positive anti-V antibody response on at least one sampling occasion after bait consumption, and eight (24%; bCI 11-42%) showed sustained antibody responses. The STD and LOW groups did not differ (P≥0.78) in their proportions of overall or sustained antibody responses after vaccine bait consumption. Serum from one of the nine (11%; bCI 0.3-48%) surviving untreated, in-contact prairie dogs also had detectable antibody on one sampling occasion. We did not observe any adverse effects related to oral vaccination.

  9. The association of funding source on effect size in randomized controlled trials: 2013-2015 - a cross-sectional survey and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk Delgado, Alberto; Falk Delgado, Anna

    2017-03-14

    Trials financed by for-profit organizations have been associated with favorable outcomes of new treatments, although the effect size of funding source impact on outcome is unknown. The aim of this study was to estimate the effect size for a favorable outcome in randomized controlled trials (RCTs), stratified by funding source, that have been published in general medical journals. Parallel-group RCTs published in The Lancet, New England Journal of Medicine, and JAMA between 2013 and 2015 were identified. RCTs with binary primary endpoints were included. The primary outcome was the OR of patients' having a favorable outcome in the intervention group compared with the control group. The OR of a favorable outcome in each trial was calculated by the number of positive events that occurred in the intervention and control groups. A meta-analytic technique with random effects model was used to calculate summary OR. Data were stratified by funding source as for-profit, mixed, and nonprofit. Prespecified sensitivity, subgroup, and metaregression analyses were performed. Five hundred nine trials were included. The OR for a favorable outcome in for-profit-funded RCTs was 1.92 (95% CI 1.72-2.14), which was higher than mixed source-funded RCTs (OR 1.34, 95% CI 1.25-1.43) and nonprofit-funded RCTs (OR 1.32, 95% CI 1.26-1.39). The OR for a favorable outcome was higher for both clinical and surrogate endpoints in for-profit-funded trials than in RCTs with other funding sources. Excluding drug trials lowered the OR for a favorable outcome in for-profit-funded RCTs. The OR for a favorable surrogate outcome in drug trials was higher in for-profit-funded trials than in nonprofit-funded trials. For-profit-funded RCTs have a higher OR for a favorable outcome than nonprofit- and mixed source-funded RCTs. This difference is associated mainly with the use of surrogate endpoints in for-profit-financed drug trials.

  10. Zoonoses from dogs with special reference to Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabry, Abdel-Hameed A; Morsy, Ayman T A; Morsy, Tosson A

    2012-12-01

    A zoonosis is an animal disease that is transmissible to humans. Humans are usually an accidental host that acquires disease through close contact with an infected animal, who may or may not be symptomatic. Children are at highest risk for infection because they are more likely to have close contact with pets. Dogs are responsible for transmission of an extensive array of bacterial and parasitic zoonotic pathogens. The route of transmission can be through the feces, urine, saliva (eg, bites or contaminated scratches), or respiratory secretions of the animal, or by the dog or cat acting as a vehicle and source of tick or flea exposure or reservoir for vector borne disease. Although dogs have been implicated in transmission of zoonoses to their owners, risk of transmission from contact with dogs is low and may be further reduced by simple precautions.

  11. Lessons learned from cloning dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, M J; Oh, H J; Kim, G A; Park, J E; Park, E J; Jang, G; Ra, J C; Kang, S K; Lee, B C

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this article is to review dog cloning research and to suggest its applications based on a discussion about the normality of cloned dogs. Somatic cell nuclear transfer was successfully used for production of viable cloned puppies despite limited understanding of in vitro dog embryo production. Cloned dogs have similar growth characteristics to those born from natural fertilization, with no evidence of serious adverse effects. The offspring of cloned dogs also have similar growth performance and health to those of naturally bred puppies. Therefore, cloning in domestic dogs can be applied as an assisted reproductive technique to conserve endangered species, to treat sterile canids or aged dogs, to improve reproductive performance of valuable individuals and to generate disease model animals. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  12. Genetic variation analysis of the Bali street dog using microsatellites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilton Alan N

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Approximately 800,000 primarily feral dogs live on the small island of Bali. To analyze the genetic diversity in this population, forty samples were collected at random from dogs in the Denpasar, Bali region and tested using 31 polymorphic microsatellites. Australian dingoes and 28 American Kennel Club breeds were compared to the Bali Street Dog (BSD for allelic diversity, heterozygosities, F-statistics, GST estimates, Nei's DA distance and phylogenetic relationships. Results The BSD proved to be the most heterogeneous, exhibiting 239 of the 366 total alleles observed across all groups and breeds and had an observed heterozygosity of 0.692. Thirteen private alleles were observed in the BSD with an additional three alleles observed only in the BSD and the Australian dingo. The BSD was related most closely to the Chow Chow with a FST of 0.088 and also with high bootstrap support to the Australian dingo and Akita in the phylogenetic analysis. Conclusions This preliminary study into the diversity and relationship of the BSD to other domestic and feral dog populations shows the BSD to be highly heterogeneous and related to populations of East Asian origin. These results indicate that a viable and diverse population of dogs existed on the island of Bali prior to its geographic isolation approximately 12,000 years ago and has been little influenced by domesticated European dogs since that time.

  13. Intention of dog owners to participate in rabies control measures in Flores Island, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wera, Ewaldus; Mourits, Monique C M; Hogeveen, Henk

    2016-04-01

    The success of a rabies control strategy depends on the commitment and collaboration of dog owners. In this study the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) was used to identify the factors, which are associated with the intention of dog owners to participate in rabies control measures in the Manggarai and Sikka regencies of Flores Island, Indonesia. Questionnaires were administered to 450 dog owners from 44 randomly selected villages in the two regencies. Ninety-six percent of the dog owners intended to participate in a free-of-charge vaccination campaign. The intention decreased to 24% when dog owners were asked to pay a vaccination fee equal to the market price of the vaccine (Rp 18.000 per dose=US$2). Approximately 81% of the dog owners intended to keep their dogs inside their house or to leash them day and night during a period of at least three months in case of an incidence of rabies in the dog population within their village. Only 40% intended to cull their dogs in case of a rabies incident within their village. Using multivariable logistic regression analysis, the attitude item 'vaccinating dogs reduces rabies cases in humans', and the perceived behavioural control items 'availability of time' and 'ability to confine dogs' were shown to be significantly associated with the intention to participate in a free-of-charge vaccination campaign. The attitude item 'culling dogs reduces rabies cases in humans' was significantly associated with the intention to participate in a culling measure. The attitude item 'leashing of dogs reduces human rabies cases' and perceived behavioural controls 'availability of time' and 'money to buy a leash' were associated with the intention to leash dogs during a rabies outbreak. As the attitude variables were often significantly associated with intention to participate in a rabies control measure, an educational rabies campaign focusing on the benefit of rabies control measures is expected to increase the intention of dog owners to

  14. Dogs on the Move: Factors Impacting Animal Shelter and Rescue Organizations’ Decisions to Accept Dogs from Distant Locations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaitlyn E. Simmons

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Long-distance dog transfer programs are a topic of burgeoning interest in the animal welfare community, but little research has focused on such programs. This exploratory study, which surveyed 193 individuals associated with animal shelter and rescue organizations in the United States, evaluated factors that impacted organizations’ decisions to transfer in dogs over long distances (>100 miles and assessed what criteria were commonly valued by destination organizations. Specifically, we examined the following aspects of long-distance transfer programs: (1 logistics of long-distance dog transfers; (2 factors impacting dog selection; (3 medical requirements; (4 partnerships formed between source and destination organizations; and (5 perceptions of long-distance dog transfer programs by individuals affiliated with the destination organizations. This study revealed that many logistical considerations factor into transfer decisions and the formation of healthy partnerships between source and destination organizations. Participants indicated their organization’s willingness to receive dogs of various sizes, coat colors and ages, but organizations often had restrictions regarding the breeds they would accept. Study findings indicate some organizations have strict quarantine policies and pre-transfer medical requirements, while others have no such requirements.

  15. Gameplay as a source of intrinsic motivation in a randomized controlled trial of auditory training for tinnitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoare, Derek J; Van Labeke, Nicolas; McCormack, Abby; Sereda, Magdalena; Smith, Sandra; Al Taher, Hala; Kowalkowski, Victoria L; Sharples, Mike; Hall, Deborah A

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies of frequency discrimination training (FDT) for tinnitus used repetitive task-based training programmes relying on extrinsic factors to motivate participation. Studies reported limited improvement in tinnitus symptoms. To evaluate FDT exploiting intrinsic motivations by integrating training with computer-gameplay. Sixty participants were randomly assigned to train on either a conventional task-based training, or one of two interactive game-based training platforms over six weeks. Outcomes included assessment of motivation, tinnitus handicap, and performance on tests of attention. Participants reported greater intrinsic motivation to train on the interactive game-based platforms, yet compliance of all three groups was similar (∼ 70%) and changes in self-reported tinnitus severity were not significant. There was no difference between groups in terms of change in tinnitus severity or performance on measures of attention. FDT can be integrated within an intrinsically motivating game. Whilst this may improve participant experience, in this instance it did not translate to additional compliance or therapeutic benefit. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02095262.

  16. Gameplay as a source of intrinsic motivation in a randomized controlled trial of auditory training for tinnitus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek J Hoare

    Full Text Available Previous studies of frequency discrimination training (FDT for tinnitus used repetitive task-based training programmes relying on extrinsic factors to motivate participation. Studies reported limited improvement in tinnitus symptoms.To evaluate FDT exploiting intrinsic motivations by integrating training with computer-gameplay.Sixty participants were randomly assigned to train on either a conventional task-based training, or one of two interactive game-based training platforms over six weeks. Outcomes included assessment of motivation, tinnitus handicap, and performance on tests of attention.Participants reported greater intrinsic motivation to train on the interactive game-based platforms, yet compliance of all three groups was similar (∼ 70% and changes in self-reported tinnitus severity were not significant. There was no difference between groups in terms of change in tinnitus severity or performance on measures of attention.FDT can be integrated within an intrinsically motivating game. Whilst this may improve participant experience, in this instance it did not translate to additional compliance or therapeutic benefit.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02095262.

  17. Gameplay as a Source of Intrinsic Motivation in a Randomized Controlled Trial of Auditory Training for Tinnitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoare, Derek J.; Van Labeke, Nicolas; McCormack, Abby; Sereda, Magdalena; Smith, Sandra; Taher, Hala Al; Kowalkowski, Victoria L.; Sharples, Mike; Hall, Deborah A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Previous studies of frequency discrimination training (FDT) for tinnitus used repetitive task-based training programmes relying on extrinsic factors to motivate participation. Studies reported limited improvement in tinnitus symptoms. Purpose To evaluate FDT exploiting intrinsic motivations by integrating training with computer-gameplay. Methods Sixty participants were randomly assigned to train on either a conventional task-based training, or one of two interactive game-based training platforms over six weeks. Outcomes included assessment of motivation, tinnitus handicap, and performance on tests of attention. Results Participants reported greater intrinsic motivation to train on the interactive game-based platforms, yet compliance of all three groups was similar (∼70%) and changes in self-reported tinnitus severity were not significant. There was no difference between groups in terms of change in tinnitus severity or performance on measures of attention. Conclusion FDT can be integrated within an intrinsically motivating game. Whilst this may improve participant experience, in this instance it did not translate to additional compliance or therapeutic benefit. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02095262 PMID:25215617

  18. Is your dog empathic? Developing a Dog Emotional Reactivity Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szánthó, Flóra; Miklósi, Ádám; Kubinyi, Enikő

    2017-01-01

    Dogs' seemingly empathic behaviour attracts general and scientific attention alike. Behaviour tests are usually not sufficiently realistic to evoke empathic-like behaviour; therefore we decided to ask owners about their experiences with their dogs in emotionally loaded situations. Owners from Hungary (N = 591) and from Germany (N = 2283) were asked to rate their level of agreement on a 1-5 Likert scale with statements about the reactivity of their dogs to their emotions and to other dogs' behaviour. We created two scales with satisfactory internal reliability: reactivity to the owner's emotion and reactivity to other dogs' behaviour. Based on an owner-dog personality matching theory, we hypothesised that the owner's empathy, as measured by the subscale on the cooperativeness character factor of the human personality, will correlate with their dog's emotional reactivity in emotionally loaded situations. In addition we also examined how anthropomorphism, contagious yawning, attitude toward the dog are related to emotional reactivity in dogs as perceived by the owner. In addition we examined how owners rate dog pictures. We found that the scale scores were largely independent from demographic and environmental variables like breed, sex, age, age at acquiring, keeping practices, training experiences and owner's age. However, anthropomorphic and emotional attitude of the owners probably biased the responses. In the German sample more empathic owners reported to have more emotionally reactive dog, as expected by the personality matching theory. More empathic owners reported to have fewer problems with their dogs and they rated a puppy picture as more cute in both countries. 62% of owners from Hungary and 36% of owner from Germany agreed with the statement "My dog is more important for me than any human being". In Germany, more empathic owners agreed less with this statement and indicated that their dogs have a tendency for contagious yawning. Owners whose attitudes

  19. Investigation into knowledge about dogs, dog ownership and the behavior of dog owners living in Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Brengelmann, Nathaly

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this work was to find out the level of knowledge of dog owners living in Germany; covering various aspects of dog handling, which personal and social circumstances have influence on this, and in which areas and which groups of people possible knowledge gaps exist. For this purpose, a multiple choice test was developed. This contained eight subject areas: “man-dog-relationship”, “puppy purchase and raising”, “learning behavior and training”, “dog behavior”, “keeping”, “dog and th...

  20. Serological studies on the infection of dogs in Ontario with Borrelia burgdorferi, the etiological agent of Lyme disease

    OpenAIRE

    Artsob, Harvey; Barker, Ian K.; Fister, Richard; Sephton, Gregory; Dick, Daryl; Lynch, John A.; Key, Doug

    1993-01-01

    A serological study was undertaken to determine whether dogs in Ontario are being exposed to Borrelia burgdorferi, the etiological agent of Lyme disease. This study consisted of a survey of randomly selected dogs and testing of diagnostic submissions from candidate Lyme disease cases. The survey of 1,095 dogs, bled between January 1988 and August 1989, revealed a total of 65 (5.9%) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) reactors, of which 22 had immuno-fluorescent antibody assay (IFA) tite...

  1. Meals based on vegetable protein sources (beans and peas) are more satiating than meals based on animal protein sources (veal and pork) – a randomized cross-over meal test study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, Marlene D.; Bendsen, Nathalie T.; Christensen, Sheena M.; Astrup, Arne; Raben, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Background Recent nutrition recommendations advocate a reduction in protein from animal sources (pork, beef) because of environmental concerns. Instead, protein from vegetable sources (beans, peas) should be increased. However, little is known about the effect of these vegetable protein sources on appetite regulation. Objective To examine whether meals based on vegetable protein sources (beans/peas) are comparable to meals based on animal protein sources (veal/pork) regarding meal-induced appetite sensations. Design In total, 43 healthy, normal-weight, young men completed this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, three-way, cross-over meal test. The meals (all 3.5 MJ, 28 energy-% (E%) fat) were either high protein based on veal and pork meat, HP-Meat (19 E% protein, 53 E% carbohydrate, 6 g fiber/100 g); high protein based on legumes (beans and peas), HP-Legume (19 E% protein, 53 E% carbohydrate, 25 g fiber/100 g); or low-protein based on legumes, LP-Legume (9 E% protein, 62 E% carbohydrate, 10 g fiber/100 g). Subjective appetite sensations were recorded at baseline and every half hour using visual analog scales until the ad libitum meal 3 h after the test meal. Repeated measurements analyses and summary analyses were performed using ANCOVA (SAS). Results HP-Legume induced lower composite appetite score, hunger, prospective food consumption, and higher fullness compared to HP-Meat and LP-Legume (ppeas) influenced appetite sensations favorably compared to animal-based meals (pork/veal) with similar energy and protein content, but lower fiber content. Interestingly, a vegetable-based meal with low protein content was as satiating and palatable as an animal-based meal with high protein content. PMID:27765144

  2. Neosporosis in dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neospora caninum is a protozoan parasite of animals. Until 1988, it was misdiagnosed as Toxoplasma gondii. Since its first recognition in 1984 and the description of a new genus and species Neospora caninum in 1988, neosporosis has emerged as a serious disease of dogs and cattle worldwide. Additiona...

  3. Comparison of rectal and axillary temperatures in dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goic, Joana B; Reineke, Erica L; Drobatz, Kenneth J

    2014-05-15

    To compare rectal versus axillary temperatures in dogs and cats. Prospective observational study. 94 dogs and 31 cats. Paired axillary and rectal temperatures were measured in random order with a standardized method. Animal signalment, initial complaint, blood pressure, blood lactate concentration, and variables associated with vascular perfusion and coat were evaluated for associations with axillary and rectal temperatures. Axillary temperature was positively correlated with rectal temperature (ρ = 0.75 in both species). Median axillary temperature (38.4°C [101.1°F] in dogs, and 38.4°C [101.2°F] in cats) was significantly different from median rectal temperature in dogs (38.9°C [102.0°F]) but not in cats (38.6°C [101.5°F]). Median rectal-axillary gradient (difference) was 0.4°C (0.7°F; range, -1.3° to 2.3°C [-2.4° to 4.1°F]) in dogs and 0.17°C (0.3°F; range -1.1° to 1.6°C [-1.9° to 3°F]) in cats. Sensitivity and specificity for detection of hyperthermia with axillary temperature were 57% and 100%, respectively, in dogs and 33% and 100%, respectively, in cats; sensitivity and specificity for detection of hypothermia were 86% and 87%, respectively, in dogs and 80% and 96%, respectively, in cats. Body weight (ρ = 0.514) and body condition score (ρ = 0.431) were correlated with rectal-axillary gradient in cats. Although axillary and rectal temperatures were correlated in dogs and cats, a large gradient was present between rectal temperature and axillary temperature, suggesting that axillary temperature should not be used as a substitute for rectal temperature.

  4. Bioavailability of suppository acetaminophen in healthy and hospitalized ill dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikina, E R; Bach, J F; Lin, Z; Gehring, R; KuKanich, B

    2018-05-13

    To determine the plasma pharmacokinetics of suppository acetaminophen (APAP) in healthy dogs and clinically ill dogs. This prospective study used six healthy client-owned and 20 clinically ill hospitalized dogs. The healthy dogs were randomized by coin flip to receive APAP orally or as a suppository in crossover study design. Blood samples were collected up to 10 hr after APAP dosing. The hospitalized dogs were administered APAP as a suppository, and blood collected at 2 and 6 hr after dosing. Plasma samples were analyzed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry. In healthy dogs, oral APAP maximal concentration (C MAX =2.69 μg/ml) was reached quickly (T MAX =1.04 hr) and eliminated rapidly (T1/2 = 1.81 hr). Suppository APAP was rapidly, but variably absorbed (C MAX =0.52 μg/ml T MAX =0.67 hr) and eliminated (T 1/2  = 3.21 hr). The relative (to oral) fraction of the suppository dose absorbed was 30% (range <1%-67%). In hospitalized ill dogs, the suppository APAP mean plasma concentration at 2 hr and 6 hr was 1.317 μg/ml and 0.283 μg/ml. Nonlinear mixed-effects modeling did not identify significant covariates affecting variability and was similar to noncompartmental results. Results supported that oral and suppository acetaminophen in healthy and clinical dogs did not reach or sustain concentrations associated with efficacy. Further studies performed on different doses are needed. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Canine parvovirus infection, canine distemper and infectious canine hepatitis: inclination to vaccinate and antibody response in the Swedish dog population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, P; Hedhammar, A; Klingeborn, B

    1996-01-01

    The inclination of dog owners to vaccinate was investigated by sending a questionnaire to randomly selected Swedish dog-owning households. According to the owners (n = 538), 86.7% of the dogs had been vaccinated against CPV and 95.8% had been vaccinated against CD/ICH. The inclination to vaccinate mixed breeds was significantly lower than the inclination to vaccinate pure-bred dogs. In a second study titres of CPV, CD and CAV-1 virus antibodies were measured in 176 randomly selected dogs with known vaccination histories. CPV antibody titres > or = 1:80 were detected in 70.9% of the CPV vaccinated dogs. There was a significant difference in the fraction of dogs with CPV titre > or = 1:80 between the group last vaccinated with live attenuated vaccine and the group last vaccinated with inactivated vaccine. Titres of CD and CAV-1 virus antibodies > or = 1:16 were found in 86.1% and 91.6% of the vaccinated dogs respectively. The fraction of dogs with CAV-1 antibody titres > or = 1:16 was significantly greater in the group that received inactivated CAV-1 vaccine than in the group vaccinated with attenuated live CAV-2 vaccine. Approximately 50% of the dogs were booster vaccinated against all 3 diseases at one year of age.

  6. Clinical Toxoplasma gondii, Hammondia heydorni, and Sarcocystis spp. infections in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, J P; Ross, A D; Fritz, D

    2003-12-01

    Concurrent infections with coccidians Toxoplasma gondii, Sarcocystis spp., and a Hammondia heydorni-like parasite were identified in tissues of three littermate pups on a Kelpie dog breeding farm in Australia. In total, 20 pups in four litters had died following vaccination with an attenuated distemper virus vaccine. Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites were identified immunohistochemically in tissues of two dogs. Sarcocystis sp. sporocysts were seen in the intestinal lamina propria of two dogs. Asexual and sexual stages of H. heydorni-like parasite were found in enterocytes of the small intestine of two dogs. Ultrastructural development of schizonts and gamonts of this parasite is described. None of the protozoa in these dogs reacted with antibodies to Neospora caninum. Feeding of uncooked tissue of sheep was considered to be the likely source of infection for these coccidians in dogs.

  7. Efficacy and safety of selamectin against Sarcoptes scabiei on dogs and Otodectes cynotis on dogs and cats presented as veterinary patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Six, R H; Clemence, R G; Thomas, C A; Behan, S; Boy, M G; Watson, P; Benchaoui, H A; Clements, P J; Rowan, T G; Jernigan, A D

    2000-08-23

    A series of randomized, controlled and masked field studies was conducted in veterinary patients to evaluate the efficacy of selamectin, a novel avermectin, in the treatment of naturally occurring Sarcoptes scabiei infestations on dogs and Otodectes cynotis infestations on dogs and cats. A total of 342 dogs and 237 cats participated in these studies, which were conducted at 40 veterinary practices in the USA and Europe. Animals were randomly assigned to treatment with selamectin or a positive-control product (existing approved products). Selamectin was administered as a unit dose providing a minimum of 6mgkg(-1) (range: 6-12mgkg(-1)) in a topical preparation applied to the skin in a single spot on day 0 (O. cynotis in cats, n=144), or on days 0 and 30 (O. cynotis and S. scabiei in dogs, n=83 and n=122, respectively). The presence of parasites was assessed before treatment and at 30 days (for all studies) and 60 days (for O. cynotis and S. scabiei dog studies) after first treatment. The animals were also evaluated clinically at each assessment period. Based on skin scrapings, the efficacy of selamectin against S. scabiei infestations on dogs was >95% by day 30, and 100% by day 60. Against O. cynotis, selamectin eliminated mites in 94-100% of cats by day 30, and in 90% of dogs by day 60. The positive-control products achieved similar results. Thus, selamectin was safe and effective against ear mites in dogs and cats and sarcoptic mange in dogs when used in field (veterinary patient) studies in dogs and cats of a wide variety of ages and breeds.

  8. Strategies Used by Pet Dogs for Solving Olfaction-Based Problems at Various Distances.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zita Polgár

    Full Text Available The olfactory acuity of domestic dogs has been well established through numerous studies on trained canines, however whether untrained dogs spontaneously utilize this ability for problem solving is less clear. In the present paper we report two studies that examine what strategies family dogs use in two types of olfaction-based problems as well as their success at various distances. In Study 1, thirty dogs were tasked with distinguishing a target, either their covered owner (Exp 1 or baited food (Exp 2, from three visually identical choices at distances of 0m (touching distance, 1m, and 3m. There were nine consecutive trials for each target. We found that in Exp 1 the dogs successfully chose their owners over strangers at 0m and 1m, but not at 3m, where they used a win-stay strategy instead. In Exp 2 the dogs were only successful in choosing the baited pot at 0m. They used the win-stay strategy at 1m, but chose randomly at 3m. In Study 2, a different group of dogs was tested with their owners (Exp 1 and baited food (Exp 2 at just the 3m distance with two possible targets in 10-10 trials. In Exp 1 the dogs' overall performance was at chance level; however, when analyzed by trial, we noticed that despite tending to find their owners on the first trial, they generally switched to a win-stay strategy in subsequent trials, only to return to correctly choosing their owners based on olfaction in the later trials. In Exp 2, the dogs chose randomly throughout. We also found that dogs who relied on visual information in the warm-up trials were less successful in the olfaction-based test. Our results suggest that despite their ability to successfully collect information through olfaction, family dogs often prioritize other strategies to solve basic choice tasks.

  9. Mitral stenosis in 15 dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehmkuhl, L.B.; Ware, W.A.; Bonagura, J.D.

    1994-01-01

    Mitral stenosis was diagnosed in 15 young to middle-aged dogs. There were 5 Newfoundlands and 4 bull terriers affected, suggesting a breed predisposition for this disorder. Clinical signs included cough, dyspnea, exercise intolerance, and syncope. Soft left apical diastolic murmurs were heard only in 4 dogs, whereas 8 dogs had systolic murmurs characteristic of mitral regurgitation. Left atrial enlargement was the most prominent radiographic feature. Left-sided congestive heart failure was detected by radiographs in 11 dogs within 1 year of diagnosis. Electrocardiographic abnormalities varied among dogs and included atrial and ventricular enlargement, as well as atrial and ventricular arrhythmias. Abnormalities on M-mode and two-dimensional echocardiograms included abnormal diastolic motion of the mitral valve characterized by decreased leaflet separation, valve doming, concordant motion of the parietal mitral valve leaflet, and a decreased E-to-F slope. Increased mitral valve inflow velocities and prolonged pressure half-times were detected by Doppler echocardiography. Cardiac catheterization, performed in 8 dogs, documented a diastolic pressure gradient between the left atrial, pulmonary capillary wedge, or pulmonary artery diastolic pressures and the left ventricular diastolic pressure. Necropsy showed mitral stenosis caused by thickened, fused mitral valve leaflets in 5 dogs and a supramitral ring in another dog. The outcome in affected dogs was poor; 9 of 15 dogs were euthanatized or died by 2 1/2 years of age

  10. Evaluation of a novel dog adoption program in two US communities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather Mohan-Gibbons

    Full Text Available Millions of dogs enter animal welfare organizations every year and only a fraction of them are adopted. Despite the most recent American Pet Products Association (APPA data that nearly half the US population owns a dog, only 20% acquired their dog from an animal welfare organization. Studies show that people consider adopting from an animal shelter more often than they actually do, which indicates a potential market increase if programs can make shelter dogs more visible to adopters. This research focused on a novel adoption program where shelter dogs were transferred into foster homes who were tasked with finding an adopter. Shelter dogs were placed in the path of potential adopters and bypassed the need for the adopter to go to the shelter. The results show that this novel program was effective in a variety of ways including getting dogs adopted. Although length of stay was significantly longer for dogs in the program, the dogs were in a home environment, not taking up kennel space in the shelter. The program also had a lower rate of returns than dogs adopted at the shelter. The foster program tapped adopters in different geographical segments of the community than the dogs adopted from the shelter. By bringing shelter dogs to where adopters spend their time (ex: restaurants, parks, hair salons, the program potentially captured a segment of the population who might have obtained their dog from other sources besides the shelter (such as breeders or pet stores. This novel approach can be an effective method for adoption, has many benefits for shelters, and can tap into a new adopter market by engaging their community in a new way.

  11. Evaluation of a Novel Dog Adoption Program in Two US Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan-Gibbons, Heather; Weiss, Emily; Garrison, Laurie; Allison, Meg

    2014-01-01

    Millions of dogs enter animal welfare organizations every year and only a fraction of them are adopted. Despite the most recent American Pet Products Association (APPA) data that nearly half the US population owns a dog, only 20% acquired their dog from an animal welfare organization. Studies show that people consider adopting from an animal shelter more often than they actually do, which indicates a potential market increase if programs can make shelter dogs more visible to adopters. This research focused on a novel adoption program where shelter dogs were transferred into foster homes who were tasked with finding an adopter. Shelter dogs were placed in the path of potential adopters and bypassed the need for the adopter to go to the shelter. The results show that this novel program was effective in a variety of ways including getting dogs adopted. Although length of stay was significantly longer for dogs in the program, the dogs were in a home environment, not taking up kennel space in the shelter. The program also had a lower rate of returns than dogs adopted at the shelter. The foster program tapped adopters in different geographical segments of the community than the dogs adopted from the shelter. By bringing shelter dogs to where adopters spend their time (ex: restaurants, parks, hair salons), the program potentially captured a segment of the population who might have obtained their dog from other sources besides the shelter (such as breeders or pet stores). This novel approach can be an effective method for adoption, has many benefits for shelters, and can tap into a new adopter market by engaging their community in a new way. PMID:24663804

  12. Evaluation of a novel dog adoption program in two US communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan-Gibbons, Heather; Weiss, Emily; Garrison, Laurie; Allison, Meg

    2014-01-01

    Millions of dogs enter animal welfare organizations every year and only a fraction of them are adopted. Despite the most recent American Pet Products Association (APPA) data that nearly half the US population owns a dog, only 20% acquired their dog from an animal welfare organization. Studies show that people consider adopting from an animal shelter more often than they actually do, which indicates a potential market increase if programs can make shelter dogs more visible to adopters. This research focused on a novel adoption program where shelter dogs were transferred into foster homes who were tasked with finding an adopter. Shelter dogs were placed in the path of potential adopters and bypassed the need for the adopter to go to the shelter. The results show that this novel program was effective in a variety of ways including getting dogs adopted. Although length of stay was significantly longer for dogs in the program, the dogs were in a home environment, not taking up kennel space in the shelter. The program also had a lower rate of returns than dogs adopted at the shelter. The foster program tapped adopters in different geographical segments of the community than the dogs adopted from the shelter. By bringing shelter dogs to where adopters spend their time (ex: restaurants, parks, hair salons), the program potentially captured a segment of the population who might have obtained their dog from other sources besides the shelter (such as breeders or pet stores). This novel approach can be an effective method for adoption, has many benefits for shelters, and can tap into a new adopter market by engaging their community in a new way.

  13. Mast cell stabilization decreases cardiomyocyte and LV function in dogs with isolated mitral regurgitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pat, Betty; Killingsworth, Cheryl; Chen, Yuanwen; Gladden, James D; Walcott, Greg; Powell, Pamela C; Denney, Thomas; Gupta, Himanshu; Desai, Ravi; Tillson, Michael; Dillon, A Ray; Dell'italia, Louis J

    2010-09-01

    Mast cells are increased in isolated mitral regurgitation (MR) in the dog and may mediate extracellular matrix loss and left ventricular (LV) dilatation. We tested the hypothesis that mast cell stabilization would attenuate LV remodeling and improve function in the MR dog. MR was induced in adult dogs randomized to no treatment (MR, n = 5) or to the mast cell stabilizer, ketotifen (MR + MCS, n = 4) for 4 months. LV hemodynamics were obtained at baseline and after 4 months of MR and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed at sacrifice. MRI-derived, serial, short-axis LV end-diastolic (ED) and end-systolic (ES) volumes, LVED volume/mass ratio, and LV 3-dimensional radius/wall thickness were increased in MR and MR + MCS dogs compared with normal dogs (n = 6) (P < .05). Interstitial collagen was decreased by 30% in both MR and MR + MCS versus normal dogs (P < .05). LV contractility by LV maximum time-varying elastance was significantly depressed in MR and MR + MCS dogs. Furthermore, cardiomyocyte fractional shortening was decreased in MR versus normal dogs and further depressed in MR + MCS dogs (P < .05). In vitro administration of ketotifen to normal cardiomyocytes also significantly decreased fractional shortening and calcium transients. Chronic mast cell stabilization did not attenuate eccentric LV remodeling or collagen loss in MR. However, MCS therapy had a detrimental effect on LV function because of a direct negative inotropic effect on cardiomyocyte function. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Autologous bone marrow transplantation following chemotherapy and irradiation in dogs with spontaneous lymphomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowles, C.A.; Bull, M.; McCormick, K.; Kadin, M.; Lucas, D.

    1980-01-01

    Thirty dogs with spontaneous lymphomas were administered two to six cycles of chemotherapy and were randomized into 3 groups to receive 800 rads of total body irradiation and autologous bone marrow transplantation. Of 10 dogs irradiated after chemotherapy-induced remission and infused with remission marrow (group 1), 8 (80%) had successful grafts and experienced remissions lasting 62 to 1024 days. Of 9 dogs irradiated during remission and infused with remission marrow mixed with autologous tumor cells (group 2), 6 (66%) had remission lasting 15 to 45 days. Eleven dogs with progressive tumor growth (relapse) following chemotherapy were irradiated and infused with remission marrow (group 3). Tumor remission lasting 39 to 350 days was observed in 5 dogs (45%) in this group, and 6 dogs died in less than 30 days. Dogs in groups 1 to 3 had median survival times of 216, 60, and 45 days, respectively. The prolonged survival times for dogs in group 1 compared to dogs in groups 2 and 3 suggest that protocols involving irradiation and autologous marrow grafting in this model would be most effective when these protocols are applied to animals having a minimum tumor burden at the time of irradiation and when the grafting is done with tumor-free autologous marrow

  15. Presence of a dog reduces subjective but not physiological stress responses to an analog trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lass-Hennemann, Johanna; Peyk, Peter; Streb, Markus; Holz, Elena; Michael, Tanja

    2014-01-01

    Dogs are known to have stress and anxiety reducing effects. Several studies have shown that dogs are able to calm people during cognitive and performance stressors. Recently, therapy dogs have been proposed as a treatment adjunct for post-traumatic stress disorder patients. In this study we aimed to investigate, whether dogs also have anxiety- and stress reducing effect during "traumatic stressors." 80 healthy female participants were randomly assigned to one of four conditions. They were exposed to a "traumatic" film clip (trauma-film-paradigm). For one group of participants a friendly dog was present during the film, one group of participants was accompanied by a friendly human, another control group watched the film with a toy animal and the last group watched the film clip alone. Participants that were accompanied by the dog during the film reported lower anxiety ratings and less negative affect after the film clip as compared to the "toy dog group" and the "alone group." Results of the "dog group" were comparable to the group that was accompanied by a friendly human. There were no differences in physiological stress responses between the four conditions. Our results show that dogs are able to lessen subjectively experienced stress and anxiety during a "traumatic" stress situation. This effect was comparable to that of social support by a friendly person. Implications for PTSD patients are discussed.

  16. Effect of prewarming on the body temperature of small dogs undergoing inhalation anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigotti, Clara F; Jolliffe, Colette T; Leece, Elizabeth A

    2015-10-01

    To investigate whether prewarming affects body temperature of small dogs (weighing dogs weighing temperature was recorded. Before IM administration of buprenorphine hydrochloride and acepromazine maleate, dogs were randomly assigned to be placed in a pediatric incubator at 33°C (91.4°F) for approximately 30 to 60 minutes (prewarming group) or to receive no prewarming (control group); subsequently, dogs underwent inhalation anesthesia with isoflurane in oxygen. Rectal, esophageal, and ambient temperatures were measured every 5 minutes from induction of anesthesia (IOA) for > 1 hour by an observer who was unaware of treatment. If a dog became hypothermic (esophageal temperature dogs, anesthesia, temperatures, hypothermia, and study withdrawal were compared between groups. 1 dog was excluded from the prewarming group after becoming excessively excited in the incubator. Between groups, age, weight, body condition score, degree of preanesthesia sedation, interval from sedation to IOA, duration of anesthesia, baseline rectal temperature, rectal temperatures immediately prior to IOA, esophageal temperature following IOA, ambient temperature during the first 70 minutes of anesthesia, esophageal or rectal temperature during the first 90 minutes of anesthesia, and incidence of hypothermia and study withdrawal (5 dogs/group) did not differ significantly. Prewarming in an incubator prior to IOA failed to improve or maintain body temperature of dogs weighing < 10 kg during inhalation anesthesia.

  17. Presence of a dog reduces subjective but not physiological stress responses to an analogue trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna eLass-Hennemann

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Dogs are known to have stress and anxiety reducing effects. Several studies have shown that dogs are able to calm people during cognitive and performance stressors. Recently, therapy dogs have been proposed as a treatment adjunct for PTSD patients. In this study we aimed to investigate, whether dogs also have anxiety- and stress reducing effect during traumatic stressors. 80 healthy female participants were randomly assigned to one of 4 conditions. They were exposed to a traumatic film clip (trauma-film-paradigm. For one group of participants a friendly dog was present during the film, one group of participants was accompanied by a friendly human, another control group watched the film with a toy animal and the last group watched the film clip alone. Participants that were accompanied by the dog during the film reported lower anxiety ratings and less negative affect after the film clip as compared to the toy dog group and the alone group. Results of the dog group were comparable to the group that was accompanied by a friendly human. There were no differences in physiological stress responses between the four conditions. Our results show that dogs are able to lessen subjectively experienced stress and anxiety during a traumatic stress situation. This effect was comparable to that of social support by a friendly person. Implications for PTSD patients are discussed.

  18. Radiographic liver size in Pekingese dogs versus other dog breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jihye; Keh, Seoyeon; Kim, Hyunwook; Kim, Junyoung; Yoon, Junghee

    2013-01-01

    Differential diagnoses for canine liver disease are commonly based on radiographic estimates of liver size, however little has been published on breed variations. Aims of this study were to describe normal radiographic liver size in Pekingese dogs and to compare normal measurements for this breed with other dog breeds and Pekingese dogs with liver disease. Liver measurements were compared for clinically normal Pekingese (n = 61), normal non-Pekingese brachycephalic (n = 45), normal nonbrachycephalic (n = 71), and Pekingese breed dogs with liver disease (n = 22). For each dog, body weight, liver length, T11 vertebral length, thoracic depth, and thoracic width were measured on right lateral and ventrodorsal abdominal radiographs. Liver volume was calculated using a formula and ratios of liver length/T11 vertebral length and liver volume/body weight ratio were determined. Normal Pekingese dogs had a significantly smaller liver volume/body weight ratio (16.73 ± 5.67, P dogs (19.54 ± 5.03) and normal nonbrachycephalic breed dogs (18.72 ± 6.52). The liver length/T11 vertebral length ratio in normal Pekingese (4.64 ± 0.65) was significantly smaller than normal non-Pekingese brachycephalic breed dogs (5.16 ± 0.74) and normal nonbrachycephalic breed dogs (5.40 ± 0.74). Ratios of liver volume/body weight and liver length/T11 vertebral length in normal Pekingese were significantly different from Pekingese with liver diseases (P dogs have a smaller normal radiographic liver size than other breeds. We recommend using 4.64× the length of the T11 vertebra as a radiographic criterion for normal liver length in Pekingese dogs. © 2012 Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound.

  19. Efficacy of fipronil, amitraz and (S)-methoprene combination spot-on for dogs against adult dog fleas (Ctenocephalides canis, Curtis, 1826).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouhsira, Emilie; Yoon, Stephen S; Roques, Martine; Manavella, Coralie; Vermot, Solange; Cramer, Luiz G; Ollagnier, Catherine; Franc, Michel

    2011-07-15

    A novel spot-on formulation combining fipronil, amitraz and (S)-methoprene (CERTIFECT™, Merial Limited, GA, USA) was evaluated in adult Beagle dogs in a study to determine its adulticidal efficacy against the dog flea (Ctenocephalides canis, Curtis, 1826). Sixteen dogs were randomly allocated to treatment groups: 8 dogs served as untreated controls, and 8 dogs were treated once. Treatment consisted of applying a new combination formulation to deliver at least 6.7mg fipronil/kg body weight (bw), 8.0mg amitraz/kg bw, and 6.0mg (S)-methoprene/kg bw. The combination was designed to enhance the efficacy against ticks of the original fipronil/(S)-methoprene combination. Each dog was infested with 100 adult unfed dog fleas within 24h prior to treatment and then at weekly intervals for 8 weeks after treatment. At 24h after treatment or after each subsequent infestation, each dog was combed thoroughly to remove live fleas to be counted. A single treatment with CERTIFECT provided excellent knock-down of fleas within 24h after treatment and controlled re-infestations for up to 7 weeks (efficacy ≥96.5%, p<0.05). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Collagenase chemonucleolysis: a long term radiographic study in normal dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atilola, M.A.O.; Cockshutt, J.R.; Mclaughlin, R.; Cochrane, S.M.; Pennock, P.W.

    1993-01-01

    Five clinically normal five year old dogs were used in this study. From a randomized table intervertebral discs were each injected with either collagenase or calcium chloride diluent. The surgically exposed cervical discs were injected with 50 units whereas thoracic and lumbar discs were injected under fluoroscopic guidance with 100 units of the enzyme. Postinjection radiographs revealed significant (p ltoreq .05) disc space narrowing in enzyme injected discs. The cervical discs had the highest frequency of radiographic narrowing (87%) followed by the thoracic (70%) and lumbar (53%) discs. Spondylosis deformans developed at the sites of cervical enzyme injections. None of the dogs had neurologic abnormalities one year postinjection

  1. Xylitol and Your Dog: Danger, Paws Off

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Xylitol and Your Dog: Danger, Paws Off Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it ... vitamins mouthwash toothpaste Why is Xylitol Dangerous to Dogs, but Not People? In both people and dogs, ...

  2. Looking after chronically ill dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Stine B.; Kristensen, Annemarie Thuri; Sandøe, Peter

    2013-01-01

    thus face similar challenges when caring for their animals. This qualitative study uncovers impacts on an owner's life, when attending to the care of an aged or chronically ill dog and reflects on the differing roles of caregivers with animal and human patients. Twelve dog owners were selected for in......-depth interviews based on the dogs' diagnoses, and the choice of treatments and care expected to affect the owner's life. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed qualitatively. The dog owners reported several changes in their lives due to their dog's condition: practicalities like extra care, changes...... in use of the home, and restrictions relating to work, social life, and finances. These were time-consuming, tough, and annoying, but could often be dealt with through planning and prioritizing. Changes in the human–dog relationship and activities caused sadness and frustration, which in turn led...

  3. Health care of hunting dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Spasojević-Kosić, Ljubica; Savić, Sara

    2013-01-01

    There are two basic aspects of hunting dog’s health care: infectious diseases of hunting dogs and dog’s hunting performance. Concerning infectious diseases of hunting dogs, special attention is paid to public health, preventing possible dangers that could possibly arise. On the other hand, hunting performance of dogs depends on their nutrition. A complete analysis of hunting dogs’ health care in our country requires an assessment of awareness level in hunte...

  4. Paraquat poisoning in the dog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Sullivan, S.P.

    1989-01-01

    Recovery from paraquat poisoning in the dog is rare. This is a report of a case of recovery from confirmed paraquat poisoning in a clinical setting. The dog exhibited the usual signs of paraquat poisoning. The diagnosis was confirmed on toxicological analysis of urine using an ion exchange technique. The dog was treated with frusemide, nicotinamide, corticosteroids, α-tocopherol, vitamin A, etamiphylline camsylate and ampicillin. He recovered after seven weeks of intensive therapy. Alternative treatments are discussed

  5. Miastenia gravis diagnostic in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Patricia Suraniti

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Miastenia Gravis is a neuromuscular disease caused by auto antibodies. Early Clinical and biochemical diagnosis and treatment is demanded in the assurementof quality and time of life in all dogs. In this study we describe the conventional diagnosis methods and therapy in 32 dogs with suspected myasthenia gravis and propose the administration of bromide of piridostigmin as another use full diagnosis method in dogs.

  6. Feed the dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Gry Høngsmark; Bajde, Domen

    2016-01-01

    MedieKultur | Journal of media and communication research | ISSN 1901-9726Article – Open sectionPublished by SMID | Society of Media researchers In Denmark | www.smid.dkTh e online version of this text can be found open access at www.mediekultur.dk196Feed the dogsA case of humanitarian communicat......MedieKultur | Journal of media and communication research | ISSN 1901-9726Article – Open sectionPublished by SMID | Society of Media researchers In Denmark | www.smid.dkTh e online version of this text can be found open access at www.mediekultur.dk196Feed the dogsA case of humanitarian...

  7. "... Formanden dog det dobbelte"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werlauff, Erik

    2013-01-01

    Artiklen analyserer, hvorvidt den traditionsbestemte honorargrundsætning i aktieselskaber ”... formanden dog det dobbelte” gennemsyrer både ret- og pligtsiden for formanden, således at forstå, at ikke blot rettighedssiden med retten til honorar og andre goder forøges for en formand, men også...... næppe er urimeligt at genbruge talemåden ”... formanden dog det dobbelte”, her forstået som: en generelt øget ansvarsrisiko, uanset om dette udspringer af ansvarsstandarden, af den bevismæssige nærhed ved beslutningerne eller en kombination af begge disse faktorer. Artiklen foretager en gennemgang af de...

  8. CARDIAC LYMPHOMA IN DOG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. D. Cruz

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Lymphoma is a lymphoid tumor that originates in hematopoietic organs such as lymph node, spleen or liver. In dogs, the overall prevalence of cardiac tumors was estimated to be only 0.19% based on the results of the survey of a large database, and lymphomas accounts for approximately 2% of all cardiac tumors. In general, the involvement of the myocardium is rarely described in canine lymphoma. Currently, there is no evidence of a viral association with primary cardiac lymphoma in dogs, but other types of immunosuppression may contribute to abnormal events, such as involvement primary cardiac. The aim of this study was to analyze a case of sudden death of a bitch, SRD, aged 10, who had the final diagnosis of cardiac lymphoma.

  9. Ecology and Demography of Free-Roaming Domestic Dogs in Rural Villages near Serengeti National Park in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czupryna, Anna M; Brown, Joel S; Bigambo, Machunde A; Whelan, Christopher J; Mehta, Supriya D; Santymire, Rachel M; Lankester, Felix J; Faust, Lisa J

    2016-01-01

    Free-roaming dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) are of public health and conservation concern because of their potential to transmit diseases, such as rabies, to both people and wildlife. Understanding domestic dog population dynamics and how they could potentially be impacted by interventions, such as rabies vaccination, is vital for such disease control efforts. For four years, we measured demographic data on 2,649 free-roaming domestic dogs in four rural villages in Tanzania: two villages with and two without a rabies vaccination campaign. We examined the effects of body condition, sex, age and village on survivorship and reproduction. Furthermore, we compared sources of mortality among villages. We found that adult dogs (>12mos) had higher survival than puppies in all villages. We observed a male-biased sex ratio across all age classes. Overall survival in one non-vaccination village was lower than in the other three villages, all of which had similar survival probabilities. In all villages, dogs in poor body condition had lower survival than dogs in ideal body condition. Sickness and spotted hyena (Crocuta crocuta) predation were the two main causes of dog death. Within vaccination villages, vaccinated dogs had higher survivorship than unvaccinated dogs. Dog population growth, however, was similar in all the villages suggesting village characteristics and ownership practices likely have a greater impact on overall dog population dynamics than vaccination. Free-roaming domestic dogs in rural communities exist in the context of their human owners as well as the surrounding wildlife. Our results did not reveal a clear effect of vaccination programs on domestic dog population dynamics. An investigation of the role of dogs and their care within these communities could provide additional insight for planning and implementing rabies control measures such as mass dog vaccination.

  10. Psychosocial and Environmental Factors Associated with Dog

    OpenAIRE

    Richards, Elizabeth; McDonough, Megan H; Edwards, Nancy E; Lyle, RM; Troped, Philip J

    2013-01-01

    Dog walking is associated with higher levels of physical activity (PA). However, not all dog owners walk their dog(s) at a level sufficient for health benefits. Therefore, identifying correlates of dog walking may help to inform the design of more effective interventions to promote this specific form of PA. The purpose of this study was to examine psychosocial and environmental correlates of dog walking and relationships of dog walking with overall PA. In 2010, 391 dog owners (Mage= 43.6±12.3...

  11. Noise Phobia in Dog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mangle

    Full Text Available Fear of thunderstorms and other forms of noise phobia are common problems in dogs. Administering medications along with changing the pet’s environment, and using behavior modification techniques can help ease the fear. Above all, do not give your pet any attention or reward when he is showing signs of fear; this will only reinforce the fearful behavior. [Veterinary World 2008; 1(11.000: 351-352

  12. Lead poisoning in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zook, B.C.; Carpenter, J.L.; Leeds, E.B.

    1969-01-01

    Lead poisoning was diagnosed and studied in 60 dogs. It was found that lead poisoning is a common disease of young dogs, especially in the summer and fall, and is related to their chewing and eating habits resulting in the ingestion of paint, linoleum, or other lead-containing materials. The signs were characterized by gastrointestinal dysfunction (colic, vomiting, and diarrhea) and nervous disorders (convulsions, hysteria, nervousness, behavioral changes). The blood findings, which the authors consider nearly pathognomonic, consisted of numerous stippled and immature (especially nucleated) erythrocytes in the absence of severe anemia. Protein and casts were frequently found in the urine. Radiography sometimes revealed lead-containing particles in the gastro-intestinal tract, and lead lines were occasionally detected in the metaphysis of long bones in immature dogs. Treatment with calcium ethylenediamine-tetraacetic acid resulted in rapid and often dramatic recoveries in nearly all instances. Removal of lead from the gastrointestinal tract and treatment to relieve pronounced central nervous disorders was sometimes necessary. 40 references, 6 figures, 7 tables

  13. Efficacy of fluralaner flavored chews (Bravecto) administered to dogs against the adult cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis felis and egg production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dryden, Michael W; Smith, Vicki; Bennett, Tashina; Math, Lisa; Kallman, James; Heaney, Kathleen; Sun, Fangshi

    2015-07-11

    Fluralaner is a potent insecticide and acaricide with rapid and persistent efficacy. This study measured the efficacy of fluralaner flavored chews (Bravecto®, Merck Animal Health) administered to dogs against adult Ctenocephalides felis felis and egg production. Twelve purpose-bred dogs were randomly allocated to two groups of six dogs each. Dogs in treatment group 1 were administered a single fluralaner flavored chew to achieve a minimum dose of at least 25 mg/kg while treatment group 2 served as untreated controls. On Days -2, 28, 56, 84, 91, 98, 105, 112, and 120 post-treatment, each dog was infested with approximately 200 unfed cat fleas, C. felis felis (KS1 strain). Forty-eight hours after treatment and 48 h after each infestation, eggs were collected over a 3-h period, counted and viability determined. Dogs were combed to remove any remaining fleas. Treatment of dogs with oral fluralaner provided a 100% reduction in flea counts 48 h after treatment and within 48 h of every post-treatment infestation through Day122. Egg production from fluralaner treated dogs was reduced by 99.9% (two eggs from one dog) within 48 h after treatment and not a single egg (100% efficacy) was thereafter collected from treated dogs. Adult flea counts and egg production from the fluralaner-treated dogs were significantly lower than for non-treated controls at all post-treatment evaluations (P dog 48 h after treatment did not produce any adult fleas. As no additional eggs were collected from treated dogs, no viability assessment was performed. A single oral dose of fluralaner flavored chews provided 100% efficacy against repeated flea infestations on dogs for 4 months. Fluralaner reduced egg production of activity reproducing female fleas by 99.9% and then killed every single female flea before any eggs could be produced following each subsequent re-infestation for the entire 122-day evaluation period.

  14. Effects of feeding polydextrose on faecal characteristics, microbiota and fermentative end products in healthy adult dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beloshapka, Alison N; Wolff, Amanda K; Swanson, Kelly S

    2012-08-01

    Polydextrose is a potential prebiotic, but has not been well tested in dogs. Thus, the objective of the present study was to determine the effects of polydextrose on faecal characteristics, microbial populations and fermentative end products in healthy adult dogs. A total of eight adult hound dogs (3.5 (sem 0.5) years; 20 (sem 0.5) kg) were randomly allotted to one of four test diets containing the following concentrations of polydextrose: (1) 0 % (control); (2) 0.5 %; (3) 1.0 %; or (4) 1.5 %. A Latin square design was used, with each treatment period lasting 14 d (days 0-10 adaptation; days 11-14 fresh and total faecal collection). All dogs were fed to maintain body weight. Data were evaluated for linear and quadratic effects using SAS software. Although apparent total tract DM digestibility was unaffected, total tract crude protein digestibility tended to decrease (P dogs.

  15. Meals based on vegetable protein sources (beans and peas are more satiating than meals based on animal protein sources (veal and pork – a randomized cross-over meal test study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlene D. Kristensen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recent nutrition recommendations advocate a reduction in protein from animal sources (pork, beef because of environmental concerns. Instead, protein from vegetable sources (beans, peas should be increased. However, little is known about the effect of these vegetable protein sources on appetite regulation. Objective: To examine whether meals based on vegetable protein sources (beans/peas are comparable to meals based on animal protein sources (veal/pork regarding meal-induced appetite sensations. Design: In total, 43 healthy, normal-weight, young men completed this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, three-way, cross-over meal test. The meals (all 3.5 MJ, 28 energy-% (E% fat were either high protein based on veal and pork meat, HP-Meat (19 E% protein, 53 E% carbohydrate, 6 g fiber/100 g; high protein based on legumes (beans and peas, HP-Legume (19 E% protein, 53 E% carbohydrate, 25 g fiber/100 g; or low-protein based on legumes, LP-Legume (9 E% protein, 62 E% carbohydrate, 10 g fiber/100 g. Subjective appetite sensations were recorded at baseline and every half hour using visual analog scales until the ad libitum meal 3 h after the test meal. Repeated measurements analyses and summary analyses were performed using ANCOVA (SAS. Results: HP-Legume induced lower composite appetite score, hunger, prospective food consumption, and higher fullness compared to HP-Meat and LP-Legume (p<0.05. Furthermore, satiety was higher after HP-Legume than HP-Meat (p<0.05. When adjusting for palatability, HP-Legume still resulted in lower composite appetite scores, hunger, prospective consumption, and higher fullness compared to HP-Meat (p<0.05. Furthermore, HP-Legume induced higher fullness than LP-Legume (p<0.05. A 12% and 13% lower energy intake, respectively, was seen after HP-Legume compared to HP-Meat or LP-Legume (p<0.01. Conclusion: Vegetable-based meals (beans/peas influenced appetite sensations favorably compared to animal-based meals

  16. A cryptic mitochondrial DNA link between North European and West African dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeola, Adeniyi C; Ommeh, Sheila C; Song, Jiao-Jiao; Olaogun, S Charles; Sanke, Oscar J; Yin, Ting-Ting; Wang, Guo-Dong; Wu, Shi-Fang; Zhou, Zhong-Yin; Lichoti, Jacqueline K; Agwanda, Bernard R; Dawuda, Philip M; Murphy, Robert W; Peng, Min-Sheng; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2017-03-20

    Domestic dogs have an ancient origin and a long history in Africa. Nevertheless, the timing and sources of their introduction into Africa remain enigmatic. Herein, we analyse variation in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) D-loop sequences from 345 Nigerian and 37 Kenyan village dogs plus 1530 published sequences of dogs from other parts of Africa, Europe and West Asia. All Kenyan dogs can be assigned to one of three haplogroups (matrilines; clades): A, B, and C, while Nigerian dogs can be assigned to one of four haplogroups A, B, C, and D. None of the African dogs exhibits a matrilineal contribution from the African wolf (Canis lupus lupaster). The genetic signal of a recent demographic expansion is detected in Nigerian dogs from West Africa. The analyses of mitochondrial genomes reveal a maternal genetic link between modern West African and North European dogs indicated by sub-haplogroup D1 (but not the entire haplogroup D) coalescing around 12,000 years ago. Incorporating molecular anthropological evidence, we propose that sub-haplogroup D1 in West African dogs could be traced back to the late-glacial dispersals, potentially associated with human hunter-gatherer migration from southwestern Europe. Copyright © 2016 Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, and Genetics Society of China. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Identification of Helicobacter and Wolinella spp. in Oral Cavity of Toy Breed Dogs With Periodontal Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowroozilarki, Negar; Jamshidi, Shahram; Zahraei Salehi, Taghi; Kolahian, Saeed

    2017-09-01

    Periodontal diseases are the most common oral cavity infectious diseases in adult dogs. We aimed in this study to identify Helicobacter and Wolinella spp. in saliva and dental plaque of dogs with periodontitis. Sixty-two small-breed pet dogs, aged more than 6 years from both sexes, were categorized into healthy and periodontitis groups. Samples from saliva and dental plaques were collected, and Helicobacter and Wolinella were identified on genus and species levels using polymerase chain reaction. Our results showed significant increase in infection rate of Wolinella spp. in periodontitis compared with healthy dogs (P = .002). Furthermore, infection rate of Helicobacter genus was significantly higher in periodontitis compared with healthy dogs (P = .007). Infection with Wolinella spp. showed higher rate than Helicobacter spp. in dogs with periodontitis. According to species-specific polymerase chain reaction results, Helicobacter felis (9.76%) was the main Helicobacter spp. in dogs with periodontitis compared with healthy dogs (P dogs with periodontitis could be considered as an important source of Wolinella and Helicobacter spp. infections. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Prevalence of antibodies to Chlamydiaceae in pet dogs in Shenzhen, Guangdong Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of chlamydiosis in pet dogs was surveyed in Shenzhen, Guangdong Province, China. A total of 442 serum samples were collected from three districts of Shenzhen, namely the Futian, Nanshan, and Luohu Districts, and assayed for Chlamydiaceae antibodies by indirect haemagglutination assay. The results showed that the mean positive rate was 6.11%, and the positive rate for the Futian District was the highest (9.52%, followed by the Nanshan District (7.08%, and the Luohu District (4.02%. The positive rate for male dogs was 6.08%, and for female dogs 6.16%. Out of all the 38 breeds of dogs examined, 14 breeds were positive. The positive rate for the Cocker Spaniel dog was the highest (14.2%, followed by the Pekinese dog (10.71%, and the Border Collie dog (10.34%. This is the first time that the seroprevalence of Chlamydiaceae infection in pet dogs in Shenzhen, Guangdong province, China was reported, and the results indicated that pet dogs may be an important source for human infection by Chlamydiaceae in Shenzhen and other areas of China.

  19. Tear ferning in normal dogs and dogs with keratoconjunctivitis sicca ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study evaluates tear ferning as an ancillary technique for the evaluation of the canine tear film in normal eyes and eyes affected by keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS). Thirty dogs with KCS and 50 control dogs with normal tear film were evaluated with a full ophthalmoscopic examination and a Schirmer tear test type 1 ...

  20. Brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato, infestation of susceptible dog hosts is reduced by slow release of semiochemicals from a less susceptible host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Filho, Jaires Gomes; Ferreira, Lorena Lopes; Sarria, André Lucio Franceschini; Pickett, John A; Birkett, Michael A; Mascarin, Gabriel Moura; de León, Adalberto A Pérez; Borges, Lígia Miranda Ferreira

    2017-01-01

    Domestic dog breeds are hosts for the brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato, but infestation levels vary among breeds. Beagles are less susceptible to tick infestations than English cocker spaniels due to enhanced production of 2-hexanone and benzaldehyde that act as volatile tick repellents. We report the use of prototype slow-release formulations of these compounds to reduce the burden of R. sanguineus s. l. on English cocker spaniel dogs. Twelve dogs were randomly assigned to two groups with six dogs each. The treated group received collars with slow-release formulations of the compounds attached, while the control group received collars with clean formulations attached. Five environmental infestations were performed, with the number of ticks (at all stages) on the dogs being counted twice a day for 45days. The counts on the number of tick stages found per dog were individually fitted to linear mixed effects models with repeated measures and normal distribution for errors. The mean tick infestation in the treated group was significantly lower than in the control group. For larvae and nymphs, a decrease in tick infestation was observed at the fifth count, and for adults, lower average counts were observed in all counts. The compounds did not interfere with the distribution of the ticks on the body of the dogs, as a similar percentage of ticks was found on the anterior half of the dogs (54.5% for the control group and 56.2% for the treated group). The biological and reproductive parameters of the ticks were not affected by the repellents. This study highlights for the first time the potential use of a novel allomone (repellent)-based formulation for reduction of tick infestation on susceptible dogs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Why do people buy dogs with potential welfare problems related to extreme conformation and inherited disease? A representative study of Danish owners of four small dog breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandøe, P; Kondrup, S V; Bennett, P C; Forkman, B; Meyer, I; Proschowsky, H F; Serpell, J A; Lund, T B

    2017-01-01

    A number of dog breeds suffer from welfare problems due to extreme phenotypes and high levels of inherited diseases but the popularity of such breeds is not declining. Using a survey of owners of two popular breeds with extreme physical features (French Bulldog and Chihuahua), one with a high load of inherited diseases not directly related to conformation (Cavalier King Charles Spaniel), and one representing the same size range but without extreme conformation and with the same level of disease as the overall dog population (Cairn Terrier), we investigated this seeming paradox. We examined planning and motivational factors behind acquisition of the dogs, and whether levels of experienced health and behavior problems were associated with the quality of the owner-dog relationship and the intention to re-procure a dog of the same breed. Owners of each of the four breeds (750/breed) were randomly drawn from a nationwide Danish dog registry and invited to participate. Of these, 911 responded, giving a final sample of 846. There were clear differences between owners of the four breeds with respect to degree of planning prior to purchase, with owners of Chihuahuas exhibiting less. Motivations behind choice of dog were also different. Health and other breed attributes were more important to owners of Cairn Terriers, whereas the dog's personality was reported to be more important for owners of French Bulldogs and Cavalier King Charles Spaniels but less important for Chihuahua owners. Higher levels of health and behavior problems were positively associated with a closer owner-dog relationship for owners of Cavalier King Charles Spaniels and Chihuahuas but, for owners of French Bulldogs, high levels of problems were negatively associated with an intention to procure the same breed again. In light of these findings, it appears less paradoxical that people continue to buy dogs with welfare problems.

  2. Factors associated with Leishmania chagasi infection in domestic dogs from Teresina, State of Piauí, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Pereira da Silva

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Many studies have evaluated risk factors for human visceral leishmaniasis, but few have focused on the infection among dogs. The objective of this study was to assess the association between peridomestic socioeconomic and environmental factors and the presence of dogs seropositive for Leishmania chagasi in the City of Teresina, Brazil. METHODS: This case-control study was based on the results of a routine seroepidemiological survey among domestic dogs carried out in 2007. Serological tests were performed by means of indirect immunofluorescence antibody test. All dwellings in which at least one seropositive dog was detected were considered cases, and controls were a random sample of dwellings in which only seronegative dogs were identified. Associations between variables were expressed as odds ratios (OR and their respective 95% confidence intervals (95%CI estimated using multivariate logistic regression. RESULTS: Dwellings with a history of dogs removed by the visceral leishmaniasis control program in the last 12 months had five-fold higher odds of having at least one seropositive dog as compared with dwellings having no history of dog removal (OR = 5.19; 95%CI = 3.20-8.42. Dwellings with cats had 58% increased odds of dog infection as compared with those having no cats (OR = 1.58; 95%CI = 1.01-2.47. CONCLUSIONS: Identification of factors associated with canine visceral leishmaniasis might be used for the delimitation of areas of higher risk for human visceral leishmaniasis, since infection in dogs generally precedes the appearance of human cases.

  3. Osteoarticular sporotrichosis in a dog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goad, D.L.; Goad, M.E.P.

    1986-01-01

    Osteoarticular sporotrichosis was diagnosed in a dog referred for evaluation of hindlimb lameness. There was radiographic evidence of osteopenia of the fourth tarsal and proximal aspects of the metatarsal bones. The diagnosis was based on histologic findings and results of physical examination, radiography, fungal culturing, and serologic tests. The dog was treated successfully with ketoconazole for 3 1/2 months

  4. Electroencephalography in dogs with epilepsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berendt, Martin Ole; Høgenhaven, H; Flagstad, Annette Borgbjerg

    1999-01-01

    To investigate the diagnostic value of electroencephalography (EEG) in dogs with epilepsy, applying human criteria for EEG abnormalities observed with this disorder.......To investigate the diagnostic value of electroencephalography (EEG) in dogs with epilepsy, applying human criteria for EEG abnormalities observed with this disorder....

  5. Dog Mathematics: Exploring Base-4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurz, Terri L.; Yanik, H. Bahadir; Lee, Mi Yeon

    2016-01-01

    Using a dog's paw as a basis for numerical representation, sixth grade students explored how to count and regroup using the dog's four digital pads. Teachers can connect these base-4 explorations to the conceptual meaning of place value and regrouping using base-10.

  6. Village Dogs in Coastal Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiz Izaguirre, Eliza; Hebinck, P.G.M.; Eilers, C.H.A.M.

    2018-01-01

    Village dogs are important for households in coastal Mexico, yet they are seen as out of place by etic stakeholders (public health and wildlife experts, and animal welfarists). Caregivers of village dogs are considered irresponsible, a view that is reinforced by Mexican policy. We describe two

  7. The effects of intrathecal administration of betamethasone over the dogs' spinal cord and meninges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Guilherme Antonio Moreira de; Marques, Mariângela Esther Alencar; Ganem, Eliana Marisa

    2007-01-01

    To determinate the potential clinical and histological changes due the injection of betamethasone, when administered into the canine intrathecal space. Twenty one animals were included in a random and blind manner in the study. After general anesthesia, intrathecal puncture was performed and 1 ml of the random solution was injected. The G1 dogs received 0.9% saline solution, the G2 dogs received 1.75 mg betamethasone and the G3 dogs received 3.5 mg of betamethasone. The animals were clinically evaluated for 21 days and then sacrificed. The lumbar and sacral portions of the spinal cord were removed for light microscopy histological analyses. No clinical changes were observed in any of the animals included in this study. No histological changes were observed in G1 animals. Inflammatory infiltration was observed in two dogs, one in G2, another in G3. Hemorrhage and necrosis were also seen in the G2 dog which inflammatory infiltration was detected. In other two dogs, one from G2 and another from G3, there was discreet fibrosis and thickness of the arachnoid layer which was focal in one and diffuse in the other. Intrathecal administration of betamethasone caused histological changes in the spinal cord and meninges in some of the dogs involved in this study.

  8. Comparative population genetics of the German shepherd dog in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. J. Coutts

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern breeding practices strive to achieve distinctive phenotypic uniformity in breeds of dogs, but these strategies are associated with the inevitable loss of genetic diversity. Thus, in parallel with the morphological variation displayed by breeds, purebred dogs commonly express genetic defects as a result of the inbreeding associated with artificial selection and the reduction of selection against disease phenotypes. Microsatellite marker analyses of 15 polymorphic canine loci were used to investigate measures of genetic diversity and population differentiation within and between German-bred and South African-bred German shepherd dogs. These data were quantified by comparison with typically outbred mongrel or crossbred dogs. Both the imported and locally-bred German shepherd dogs exhibited similar levels of genetic diversity. The breed is characterised by only a moderate loss of genetic diversity relative to outbred dogs, despite originating from a single founding sire and experiencing extensive levels of inbreeding throughout the history of the breed. Non-significant population differentiation between the ancestral German and derived South African populations indicates sufficient contemporary gene flow between these populations, suggesting that migration resulting from the importation of breeding stock has mitigated the effects of random genetic drift and a population bottleneck caused by the original founder event in South Africa. Significant differentiation between the combined German shepherd dog population and the outbred dogs illustrates the effects of selection and genetic drift on the breed since its establishment just over 100 years ago.

  9. Accurate external localization of the left frontal cortex in dogs by using pointer based frameless neuronavigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robrecht Dockx

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background In humans, non-stereotactic frameless neuronavigation systems are used as a topographical tool for non-invasive brain stimulation methods such as Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS. TMS studies in dogs may provide treatment modalities for several neuropsychological disorders in dogs. Nevertheless, an accurate non-invasive localization of a stimulation target has not yet been performed in this species. Hypothesis This study was primarily put forward to externally locate the left frontal cortex in 18 healthy dogs by means of a human non-stereotactic neuronavigation system. Secondly, the accuracy of the external localization was assessed. Animals A total of 18 healthy dogs, drawn at random from the research colony present at the faculty of Veterinary Medicine (Ghent University, were used. Methods Two sets of coordinates (X, Y, Z and X″, Y″, Z″ were compared on each dog their tomographical dataset. Results The non-stereotactic neuronavigation system was able to externally locate the frontal cortex in dogs with accuracy comparable with human studies. Conclusion and clinical importance This result indicates that a non-stereotactic neuronavigation system can accurately externally locate the left frontal cortex and paves the way to use guided non-invasive brain stimulation methods as an alternative treatment procedure for neurological and behavioral disorders in dogs. This technique could, in analogy with human guided non-invasive brain stimulation, provide a better treatment outcome for dogs suffering from anxiety disorders when compared to its non-guided alternative.

  10. Comparison of heparinized saline and 0.9% sodium chloride for maintaining peripheral intravenous catheter patency in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Yu; Odunayo, Adesola; Mann, F A

    2013-01-01

    To determine whether heparinized saline would be more effective in maintaining the patency of peripheral IV catheters in dogs compared to 0.9% sodium chloride. Prospective blinded randomized study. University Veterinary Teaching Hospital. Thirty healthy purpose bred dogs, intended for use in the junior surgery laboratory, were utilized. The dogs were randomized into 1 of 3 groups, 2 treatment groups and a control group. An 18-Ga cephalic catheter was placed in the cephalic vein of each dog. Each dog in the treatment group had their catheter flushed with either 10 IU/mL heparinized saline or 0.9% sodium chloride every 6 hours for 42 hours. The dogs in the control group did not have their catheters flushed until the end of the study period. Immediately prior to flushing catheters, each catheter was evaluated for patency by aspiration of blood and the catheter site was evaluated for phlebitis. All dogs in the heparinized saline and 0.9% sodium chloride group had catheters that flushed easily at each evaluation point. More dogs in the saline group had catheters from which blood could not be aspirated, but there was no significant difference between these groups. All dogs in the control group had catheters that flushed easily at the end of the assigned 6 hour interval except in 1 dog. Phlebitis was not detected in any dog. Flushes of 0.9% sodium chloride were found to be as effective as 10 IU/mL heparinized saline flushes in maintaining patency of 18-Ga peripheral venous catheters in dogs for up to 42 hours. For peripheral catheters placed with the intention of performing serial blood draws, heparinized flushes may be warranted. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2013.

  11. Responses of dogs with food allergies to single-ingredient dietary provocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffers, J G; Meyer, E K; Sosis, E J

    1996-08-01

    To characterize specific food ingredients causing allergic reactions in dogs and to assess cross-reactivity between proteins derived from a single animal source or from different plant products. Prospective study. 25 dogs with histories and cutaneous signs consistent with food-allergic dermatitis. Dogs were fed a food-elimination diet until resolution of clinical signs and then challenged with their original diet. A diagnosis of food allergy was made if there was complete return of pruritus within 14 days of challenge exposure. After diagnosis, dogs were fed the food-elimination diet until signs related to dietary challenge abated. The dogs then were fed beef, chicken, chicken eggs, cows' milk, wheat, soy, and corn in single-ingredient provocation trials for 1 week. Any cutaneous reactions to these food ingredients were recorded by their owners. Beef and soy most often caused adverse cutaneous reactions, although all ingredients induced clinical signs in at least 1 dog. Mean number of allergens per dog was 2.4, with 80% reacting to 1 or 2 proteins and 64% reacting to 2 or more of the proteins tested. A significant difference was found between dogs reacting to beef versus cows' milk and between dogs reacting to soy versus wheat; thus, the hypothesis of cross-reactivity to ingredients derived from a single animal source or to different plant products was not supported. Similar differences between chicken meat and eggs were not identified. Long-term management of dogs with food allergies is facilitated by identification of the most commonly encountered food allergens. Because cross-reactivity cannot be verified, each protein source should be included separately in food-provocation trials.

  12. Do Dog Behavioral Characteristics Predict the Quality of the Relationship between Dogs and Their Owners?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Christy L; Chen, Pan; Serpell, James A; Jacobson, Kristen C

    This paper explores whether dog behavioral characteristics predict the quality of the relationship between dogs and their owners (i.e., owner attachment to dog), and whether relations between dog behavior and owner attachment are moderated by demographic characteristics. In this study, N = 92 children and N = 60 adults from 60 dog-owning families completed questionnaires about their attachment to their pet dog, their level of responsibility for that dog, and their general attitudes toward pets. They also rated their dogs on observable behavioral characteristics. Individuals who held positive attitudes about pets and who provided much of their dog's care reported stronger attachments to their dogs. The strength of owners' attachments to their dogs was associated with dog trainability and separation problems. Relationships between owner attachment and both dog excitability and attention-seeking behavior were further moderated by demographic characteristics: for Caucasians but not for non-Caucasians, dog excitability was negatively associated with owner attachment to dog; and for adults, dog attention-seeking behavior was positively associated with owner attachment, but children tended to be highly attached to their dogs, regardless of their dogs' attention-seeking behaviors. This study demonstrates that certain dog behavioral traits are indeed associated with the strength of owners' attachments to their dogs.

  13. A village dog is not a stray : human-dog interactions in coastal Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiz Izaguirre, E.

    2013-01-01

    Dogs (Canis familiaris) are considered one of the most numerous carnivores worldwide. Although in the Global North dogs are popular companions, that live inside homes, about 80% of the dogs in the world are village dogs. Village dogs are typically free-roaming, scavenge refuse around

  14. Does the hybrid light source (LED/laser) influence temperature variation on the enamel surface during 35% hydrogen peroxide bleaching? A randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Freitas, Patricia Moreira; Menezes, Andressa Nery; da Mota, Ana Carolina Costa; Simões, Alyne; Mendes, Fausto Medeiros; Lago, Andrea Dias Neves; Ferreira, Leila Soares; Ramos-Oliveira, Thayanne Monteiro

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated how a hybrid light source (LED/laser) influences temperature variation on the enamel surfaces during 35% hydrogen peroxide (HP) bleaching. Effects on the whitening effectiveness and tooth sensitivity were analyzed. Twenty-two volunteers were randomly assigned to two different treatments in a split-mouth experimental model: group 1 (control), 35% HP; group 2 (experimental), 35% HP + LED/laser. Color evaluation was performed before treatment, and 7 and 14 days after completion of bleaching, using a color shade scale. Tooth sensitivity was assessed using a visual analog scale (VAS; before, immediately, and 24 hours after bleaching). During the bleaching treatment, thermocouple channels positioned on the tooth surfaces recorded the temperature. Data on color and temperature changes were subjected to statistical analysis (α = 5%). Tooth sensitivity data were evaluated descriptively. Groups 1 and 2 showed mean temperatures (± standard deviation) of 30.7 ± 1.2 °C and 34.1 ± 1.3 °C, respectively. It was found that there were statistically significant differences between the groups, with group 2 showing higher mean variation (P enamel surface. The color change results showed no differences in bleaching between the two treatment groups (P = .177). The variation of the average temperature during the treatments was not statistically associated with color variation (P = .079). Immediately after bleaching, it was found that 36.4% of the subjects in group 2 had mild to moderate sensitivity. In group 1, 45.5% showed moderate sensitivity. In both groups, the sensitivity ceased within 24 hours. Hybrid light source (LED/ laser) influences temperature variation on the enamel surface during 35% HP bleaching and is not related to greater tooth sensitivity.

  15. The effects of indwelling transurethral catheterization and tube cystostomy on urethral anastomoses in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooley, A J; Waldron, D R; Smith, M M; Saunders, G K; Troy, G C; Barber, D L

    1999-01-01

    The influence of urinary diversion procedures on urethral healing was studied in 15 male dogs following transection and anastomosis of the intrapelvic portions of their urethras. Dogs were randomly assigned to one of three treatment groups and had urine diverted from the surgical site by indwelling transurethral catheter, cystostomy catheter, or a combination of transurethral catheter and cystostomy catheter. There were no statistically significant differences in urethral healing when considering the different diversion methods, based on clinical, radiographic, and urodynamic parameters evaluated.

  16. Comparison of laparoscopic and conventional surgery of intestinal anastomosis in dogs

    OpenAIRE

    O. J. Ali; B. T. Abass

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate operative laparoscopy in comparison with conventional laparotomy for intestinal resection and anastomosis in dogs. Eighteen adult dogs were equally and randomly divided into 3 groups: Group I: Intestinal anastomosis was performed extracorporeally, by laparoscopic-assisted surgery, in which a 5cm loop of small bowel was exteriorized through a mini-laparotomy opening (an enlarged trocar incision 1.5-2 cm in length), then surgically resected and anastomosed ...

  17. Hendra Virus Infection in Dog, Australia, 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Kirkland, Peter D.; Gabor, Melinda; Poe, Ian; Neale, Kristie; Chaffey, Kim; Finlaison, Deborah S.; Gu, Xingnian; Hick, Paul M.; Read, Andrew J.; Wright, Therese; Middleton, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    Hendra virus occasionally causes severe disease in horses and humans. In Australia in 2013, infection was detected in a dog that had been in contact with an infected horse. Abnormalities and viral RNA were found in the dog?s kidney, brain, lymph nodes, spleen, and liver. Dogs should be kept away from infected horses.

  18. Going to the dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Petsko, Gregory A

    2008-01-01

    The article analyses the fourth detective novel by Julian Barnes «Going to the Dogs» written under an assumed name Dan Kavanagh. Appealing to the genre of classic English detective fiction, Barnes proceedes with the veiled experiments with genre. Furthermore the author manages with the canonical elements of the comprised «formula» of English detective fiction in a postmodern way, which in the atmosphere of questionable morality and overall criminal setting of London at the end of the XXth cen...

  19. Public Perceptions of Service Dogs, Emotional Support Dogs, and Therapy Dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenfeld-Tacher, Regina; Hellyer, Peter; Cheung, Louana; Kogan, Lori

    2017-06-15

    As service dogs, emotional support dogs, and therapy dogs have become more prevalent in the USA, so too has the controversy surrounding their legitimacy. Yet, there is a lack of objective data regarding the public's understanding of the role played by each of these types of animals, as well as their perceptions regarding the legitimacy of their integration. An anonymous, online survey was distributed to examine the perceptions of US adults who do not own any type of assistance animal. A total of 505 individuals responded to the online survey, yielding 284 usable responses. Results suggest widespread misconceptions about definitions, rules, regulations, and rights associated with each type of assistance dog. In general, service dogs are more likely to be perceived as helping with a legitimate need, and their access to public spaces is viewed favorably. While there are some concerns about the legitimacy and necessary access rights for emotional support dogs, members of the public correctly identified the roles and rights of therapy dogs. Despite the media's focus on abuses and false representation of these dogs, most participants reported feeling the majority of people are not taking advantage of the system.

  20. Svetlana Suktueva, The Dog in Kalmyk Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Terbish, Baasanjav

    2015-01-01

    If a dog comes to your house, it is forbidden to chase it away or kill it. There is a belief that such dogs are the reincarnation of your ancestors. Such dogs should be fed and taken care of. The Kalmyks are superstitious about dogs. In Kalmykia there are three types of dog, (1) barg noha or watchdogs, (2) shurg noha or hounds, and (3) gavsh noha or mongrels. Watchdogs are considered to be helpers of herders. These dogs are also referred to as ‘dogs with 4 eyes’ (because they have spots abov...

  1. A Prospective Randomized, Double-Blind, Two-Period Crossover Pharmacokinetic Trial Comparing Green Coffee Bean Extract-A Botanically Sourced Caffeine-With a Synthetic USP Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Kayce; Knight, Katelin; Kalman, Douglas; Hewlings, Susan

    2018-04-16

    Coffee is a primary dietary source of the chlorogenic acids (CGAs) of phenolic compounds. Coffee contains caffeine and other phytonutrients, including CGAs. Caffeine on its own has been well characterized and descried pharmacokinetically in the literature, less so for CGAs. The purpose of this double-blind crossover study was to determine the comparative pharmacokinetics of CGAs with caffeine (natural extract) with synthetic caffeine (US Pharmacopeia [USP] standard). Sixteen healthy male subjects were randomly assigned to take 1 dose of product 1, 60 mg of botanically sourced caffeine from 480 mg of green coffee bean extract, or product 2, 60 mg of synthetic USP caffeine, with 5 days between. Blood analysis was done to determine the levels of CGA compounds, more specifically 3-, 4-, and 5-caffeoylquinic acid (CQA), and serum caffeine. The natural caffeine extract exhibited mean peak concentrations (C max ) of 3-CQA (11.4 ng/mL), 4-CQA (6.84 ng/mL), and 5-CQA (7.20 ng/mL). The mean systemic 4-hour exposure (AUC 0-4 h ) was 3-CQA (27.3 ng·h/mL), 4-CQA (16.1 ng·h/mL), and 5-CQA (15.7 ng·h/mL). The median t max was 3-CQA (1.00 hour), 4-CQA (1.00 hour), and 5-CQA (1.50 hours). The t max of caffeine was 0.75 hours (natural extract) and 0.63 hours (synthetic caffeine). C max and AUC 0-4 h of serum caffeine were statistically equivalent between products. The geometric least-squares mean ratios (GMRs) of C max and AUC 0-4 h of caffeine were 97.77% (natural extract) and 98.33% (synthetic caffeine). It would appear that CGA compounds from the natural caffeine extract are bioavailable, and 3-CGA may be the compound most absorbed. In addition, caffeine sourced from natural extract versus synthetic were statistically similar for pharmacokinetic parameters. There were no adverse events or safety concerns. © 2018 The Authors. Clinical Pharmacology in Drug Development Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  2. Effect of sucralfate on gastric permeability in an ex vivo model of stress-related mucosal disease in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Tracy L; Lascelles, B Duncan X; Blikslager, Anthony T

    2018-03-01

    Sucralfate is a gastroprotectant with no known systemic effects. The efficacy of sucralfate for prevention and treatment of stress-related mucosal diseases (SRMD) in dogs is unknown. To develop a canine ex vivo model of SRMD and to determine the effect of sucralfate on mucosal barrier function in this model. Gastric antral mucosa was collected immediately postmortem from 29 random-source apparently healthy dogs euthanized at a local animal control facility. Randomized experimental trial. Sucralfate (100 mg/mL) was applied to ex vivo canine gastric mucosa concurrent with and after acid injury. Barrier function was assessed by measurement of transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) and radiolabeled mannitol flux. Application of acidified Ringers solution to the mucosal side of gastric antrum caused a reduction in gastric barrier function, and washout of acidified Ringers solution allowed recovery of barrier function (TER: 34.0 ± 2.8% of control at maximum injury, 71.3 ± 5.5% at recovery, P < .001). Sucralfate application at the time of injury or after injury significantly hastened recovery of barrier function (TER: 118.0 ± 15.2% of control at maximum injury, P < .001 and 111.0 ± 15.5% at recovery, P = .35). Sucralfate appeared effective at restoring defects in gastric barrier function induced by acid and accelerating repair of tissues subjected to acid in this model, suggesting that sucralfate could have utility for the treatment and prevention of SRMD in dogs. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  3. Precedent names with the sphere-source «literature» in the Russian-speaked media discourse (on the example of M.A. Bulgakov's story " A dog's heart"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kravchuk D.S.

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available the article is devoted to the study of precedent name in Russian-language media texts on the example of the story of M.A. Bulgakov "A Dog's Heart." The purpose of this study is to determine the implementation features of the precedent name Professor Preobrazhensky in the Russian-language media discourse. The study was conducted on the basis of journalistic texts of the National Corps of the Russian language. In classification and generalization of the material, the following methods were used: descriptive, lexicographical, interpretative, methods of component and contextual analysis, method of controlled selection. An analysis of practical material showed that the authors of journalistic texts resort to the use of precedent names in order to create a figurative characterization of a particular person or a description of a specific situation. Appeal to the personality of Professor Preobrazhensky helps the journalist influence emotionally the addressee and stimulates the reader to use his own erudition and background knowledge.

  4. Apparent total tract macronutrient digestibility, fecal characteristics, and fecal fermentative end-product concentrations of healthy adult dogs fed bioprocessed soy protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beloshapka, A N; de Godoy, M R C; Detweiler, K B; Newcomb, M; Ellegård, K H; Fahey, G C; Swanson, K S

    2016-09-01

    Animal proteins are commonly used in extruded dog foods. Plant-based proteins have a more consistent nutrient profile than animal sources but may contain antinutritional factors, including trypsin inhibitors and oligosaccharides. Bioprocessed soy protein (SP; HP-300; Hamlet Protein, Inc., Findlay, OH) is a processed soy-based product with low antinutritional factor concentrations and high protein quality. The objective was to evaluate the effects of SP on apparent total tract macronutrient digestibility, fecal characteristics, and fecal fermentative end products. Furthermore, this study aimed to identify if SP can be a replacement for poultry byproduct meal (PBPM) in dog food and determine if there are practical limits to its use. Three palatability experiments were conducted to evaluate 1) 0 vs. 12% SP, 2) 0 vs. 48% SP, and 3) 12 vs. 48% SP. For digestibility, 48 healthy adult Beagle dogs (20 females and 28 males; 3.4 yr mean age and 10.0 kg mean BW) were randomly allotted to 1 of 6 dietary treatments, 0 (control), 4, 8, 12, 24, and 48% SP, in a completely randomized design. All diets were formulated to meet Association of American Feed Control Officials nutrient profiles and contained approximately 30% CP and 16% fat. The treatment period consisted of a 10-d diet adaptation phase followed by a 4-d fresh and total fecal collection phase. The palatability results suggest that of the 3 inclusion levels tested (0, 12, or 48% SP), the best inclusion of SP is 12%, which was preferred over 0 and 48% SP. Digestibility and fecal data were evaluated for linear and quadratic effects using SAS. Stool output (on both an as-is and a DM basis) did not differ from the control except for the 48% SP treatment ( dogs fed 24 and 48% SP compared with the control. Conversely, branched-chain fatty acid concentrations were lower ( dogs fed 8 to 48% SP compared with the control. These data suggest that SP is a suitable replacement for PBPM in dog diets up to a 24% inclusion level.

  5. Complex population structure in African village dogs and its implications for inferring dog domestication history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyko, Adam R; Boyko, Ryan H; Boyko, Corin M; Parker, Heidi G; Castelhano, Marta; Corey, Liz; Degenhardt, Jeremiah D; Auton, Adam; Hedimbi, Marius; Kityo, Robert; Ostrander, Elaine A; Schoenebeck, Jeffrey; Todhunter, Rory J; Jones, Paul; Bustamante, Carlos D

    2009-08-18

    High genetic diversity of East Asian village dogs has recently been used to argue for an East Asian origin of the domestic dog. However, global village dog genetic diversity and the extent to which semiferal village dogs represent distinct, indigenous populations instead of admixtures of various dog breeds has not been quantified. Understanding these issues is critical to properly reconstructing the timing, number, and locations of dog domestication. To address these questions, we sampled 318 village dogs from 7 regions in Egypt, Uganda, and Namibia, measuring genetic diversity >680 bp of the mitochondrial D-loop, 300 SNPs, and 89 microsatellite markers. We also analyzed breed dogs, including putatively African breeds (Afghan hounds, Basenjis, Pharaoh hounds, Rhodesian ridgebacks, and Salukis), Puerto Rican street dogs, and mixed breed dogs from the United States. Village dogs from most African regions appear genetically distinct from non-native breed and mixed-breed dogs, although some individuals cluster genetically with Puerto Rican dogs or United States breed mixes instead of with neighboring village dogs. Thus, African village dogs are a mosaic of indigenous dogs descended from early migrants to Africa, and non-native, breed-admixed individuals. Among putatively African breeds, Pharaoh hounds, and Rhodesian ridgebacks clustered with non-native rather than indigenous African dogs, suggesting they have predominantly non-African origins. Surprisingly, we find similar mtDNA haplotype diversity in African and East Asian village dogs, potentially calling into question the hypothesis of an East Asian origin for dog domestication.

  6. The sedative and behavioral effects of nalbuphine in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, Patrick A; Gaynor, James S; Hellyer, Peter W; Mama, Khursheed; Wagner, Ann E

    2003-07-01

    We compared the degree of sedation and frequency and intensity of adverse behaviors in dogs associated with nalbuphine when combined with acepromazine or xylazine compared with those of acepromazine or xylazine alone. Twenty-four dogs (13 female, 11 male) undergoing routine ovariohysterectomy or castration were randomly assigned to one of four groups. Group NX received 0.5 mg/kg nalbuphine and 0.5 mg/kg xylazine subcutaneously (s.c.). Group X received 0.5 mg/kg xylazine s.c. Group NA received 0.5 mg/kg nalbuphine and 0.05 mg/kg acepromazine s.c. Group A received 0.05 mg/kg acepromazine s.c. All dogs received 0.01 mg/kg glycopyrrolate s.c. All doses were administered preoperatively. Preoperative resting measurements of heart rate, respiratory rate, rectal temperature, and body weight were obtained. Sedation was scored both inside and outside a kennel prior to drug administration and at 10, 20, and 30 min after drug administration. Dogs were assessed for behavioral responses (leg withdrawal, shivering, rigidity, orienting, panting, struggling, vocalization, wide-eyed facial expression, breath holding, salivating, hiding, biting, or requiring a muzzle) during three time periods: placing the dog on the table, clipping and prepping of forelimb, and intravenous catheterization. Postoperative recovery behaviors were scored. Expired halothane concentrations were recorded at 15, 30, and 45 min postinduction. Significant differences occurred in the level of sedation at 30 min between dogs receiving nalbuphine and xylazine or xylazine only compared with dogs receiving acepromazine. There was a significant difference in behavioral scores with respect to leg withdrawal and orienting during clipping/prepping between dogs receiving nalbuphine and xylazine compared with dogs receiving xylazine. The combination of nalbuphine and xylazine is a useful premedicant which provided greater sedation than acepromazine and reduced some anxiety behaviors more than did xylazine alone

  7. An evidence-based decision assistance model for predicting training outcome in juvenile guide dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Naomi D; Craigon, Peter J; Blythe, Simon A; England, Gary C W; Asher, Lucy

    2017-01-01

    Working dog organisations, such as Guide Dogs, need to regularly assess the behaviour of the dogs they train. In this study we developed a questionnaire-style behaviour assessment completed by training supervisors of juvenile guide dogs aged 5, 8 and 12 months old (n = 1,401), and evaluated aspects of its reliability and validity. Specifically, internal reliability, temporal consistency, construct validity, predictive criterion validity (comparing against later training outcome) and concurrent criterion validity (comparing against a standardised behaviour test) were evaluated. Thirty-nine questions were sourced either from previously published literature or created to meet requirements identified via Guide Dogs staff surveys and staff feedback. Internal reliability analyses revealed seven reliable and interpretable trait scales named according to the questions within them as: Adaptability; Body Sensitivity; Distractibility; Excitability; General Anxiety; Trainability and Stair Anxiety. Intra-individual temporal consistency of the scale scores between 5-8, 8-12 and 5-12 months was high. All scales excepting Body Sensitivity showed some degree of concurrent criterion validity. Predictive criterion validity was supported for all seven scales, since associations were found with training outcome, at at-least one age. Thresholds of z-scores on the scales were identified that were able to distinguish later training outcome by identifying 8.4% of all dogs withdrawn for behaviour and 8.5% of all qualified dogs, with 84% and 85% specificity. The questionnaire assessment was reliable and could detect traits that are consistent within individuals over time, despite juvenile dogs undergoing development during the study period. By applying thresholds to scores produced from the questionnaire this assessment could prove to be a highly valuable decision-making tool for Guide Dogs. This is the first questionnaire-style assessment of juvenile dogs that has shown value in predicting

  8. "She's a dog at the end of the day": Guide dog owners' perspectives on the behaviour of their guide dog.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter J Craigon

    Full Text Available A guide dog is a domestic dog (Canis familiaris that is specifically educated to provide mobility support to a blind or visually impaired owner. Current dog suitability assessments focus on behavioural traits, including: trainability, reactivity or attention to environmental stimuli, low aggressiveness, fearfulness and stress behaviour, energy levels, and attachment behaviour. The aim of this study was to find out which aspects of guide dog behaviour are of key importance to guide dog owners themselves. Sixty-three semi-structured interview surveys were carried out with guide dog owners. Topics included the behaviour of their guide dog both within and outside their working role, and also focused on examples of behaviour which might be considered outside a guide dog owner's typical expectations. Both positive and negative examples and situations were covered. This allowed for the discovery of new perspectives and emerging themes on living and working with a guide dog. Thematic analysis of the results reveals that a dog's safe behaviour in the face of traffic was the most important positive aspect of a guide dog's behaviour and pulling or high tension on the lead and /or harness was the most discussed negative aspect. Other aspects of guide dog behaviour were highlighted as particularly pleasing or disappointing by owners including attentiveness to the task, work, environment and owner; confidence in work and decision making (with confident dogs resulting in confident owners obedience and control; calmness and locating objectives. The results reveal important areas of behaviour that are not currently considered priorities in guide dog assessments; these key areas were consistency of behaviour, the dog's maturity and the dog's behaviour in relation to children. The survey revealed a large range in what owners considered problematic or pleasing behaviours and this highlights the heterogeneity in guide dog owners and the potential multifarious roles

  9. Occurrence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococci in surgically treated dogs and the environment in a Swedish animal hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergström, A; Gustafsson, C; Leander, M; Fredriksson, M; Grönlund, U; Trowald-Wigh, G

    2012-07-01

    To investigate whether hospitalised dogs treated surgically may become culture positive for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius or methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Surgically treated dogs (n=45) were sampled for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius or methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus on admission, before and after surgery and at the time of removal of surgical stitches. The hospital environment (n=57), including healthy dogs in the veterinary hospital environment (n=34), were sampled for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius or methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Genetic variations among methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius or methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates were identified through detection of restriction fragment polymorphisms. No dogs developed a wound infection due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius or methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. However, there was a significant increase in the number of dogs carrying methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius after hospitalisation compared to admission (Ppresent in the environment. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius isolates were recovered from environmental surfaces and hospitalised animals, but not from healthy dogs. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius isolates representing nine different restriction endonuclease digestion patterns were found, with two of these occurring in both the environment and on dogs. Dogs may contract methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius in association with surgery and hospitalisation. Resistant bacteria may be transmitted between dogs, staff and the environment. Dogs colonised with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius may be a source for hospital- and community-acquired infections. © 2012 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  10. Complex population structure in African village dogs and its implications for inferring dog domestication history

    OpenAIRE

    Boyko, Adam R.; Boyko, Ryan H.; Boyko, Corin M.; Parker, Heidi G.; Castelhano, Marta; Corey, Liz; Degenhardt, Jeremiah D.; Auton, Adam; Hedimbi, Marius; Kityo, Robert; Ostrander, Elaine A.; Schoenebeck, Jeffrey; Todhunter, Rory J.; Jones, Paul; Bustamante, Carlos D.

    2009-01-01

    High genetic diversity of East Asian village dogs has recently been used to argue for an East Asian origin of the domestic dog. However, global village dog genetic diversity and the extent to which semiferal village dogs represent distinct, indigenous populations instead of admixtures of various dog breeds has not been quantified. Understanding these issues is critical to properly reconstructing the timing, number, and locations of dog domestication. To address these questions, we sampled 318...

  11. Self-disclosure with dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Evans-Wilday, Aislinn

    2016-01-01

    There exists an abundance of literature on the health benefits of dog-ownership and the health benefits of self-disclosure however, there has been no research into the potential health benefits of self-disclosure to dogs. This thesis addresses that gap in the literature. Among the literature on the health benefits of dog-ownership there is often a focus on the benefits to people with clinical conditions or living in care facilities – much less investigated are the benefits to ‘normally-fun...

  12. A study on protozoan infections (Giardia, Entamoeba, Isoapora and Cryptosporidium in stray dogs in Ilam province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Kakekhani

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Giardia, Entamoeba, Isospora and Cryptosporidium are important protozoan parastites that caused diarrhea in human and animals. In the present study, fecal samples were collected fresh, directly from the rectum of 112 stray dogs in Ilam province. Giardia and Entamoeba were concentrated by using the formalin ether sedimentation method followed by the trichrome and iodine staining technique andCryptosporidium  oocysts  were  concentrated  by  using  the  formalin  ether  sedimentation  method  followed by the modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining technique. Of 112 stray dogs, protozoan infections were detected from feces of 46 dogs (41.07% that Giardia infection was detected from feces of 21 dogs (18.75%, Isospora 17 (15.17%, Cryptosporidium 8 (7.14% and synchronization infection to 2 protozoan in 9 dogs (8.03% and to 3 protozoan in 3 (2.67%. In the present study not observed to Entamoeba. No statistically significant differences in prevalence of protozoan parasites occurred between female (34.21 % and male (55.5 % stray dogs (p>0/05. But statistically significant differences in prevalence occurred between 1≥0 and 0 ≥1 stray dogs (p>0/05. So that stray dogs of Ilam province can cause infection of human water and food sources.

  13. Bacterial colonization of the ovarian bursa in dogs with clinically suspected pyometra and in controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, Alejandro; Boyen, Filip; Tas, Olaf; Kitshoff, Adriaan; Polis, Ingeborgh; Van Goethem, Bart; de Rooster, Hilde

    2014-10-15

    Septic peritonitis occurs relatively commonly in dogs. Secondary septic peritonitis is usually associated with perforation of intestines or infected viscera, such as the uterus in pyometra cases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the bacterial flora in the ovarian bursae of intact bitches as a potential source of contamination. One hundred forty dogs, clinically suspected of pyometra, were prospectively enrolled. The control group consisted of 26 dogs that underwent elective ovariohysterectomies and 18 dogs with mammary gland tumors that were neutered at the time of mastectomy. Bacteriology samples were taken aseptically at the time of surgery from the bursae and the uterus in all dogs. Twenty-two dogs that were clinically suspected of pyometra had sterile uterine content ("mucometra" cases); the remaining 118 had positive uterine cultures ("pyometra" cases) and septic peritoneal fluid was present in 10% of these cases. Of the 118 pyometra cases, 9 had unilateral and 15 had bilateral bacterial colonization of their ovarian bursae. However, the bacteria from the ovarian bursa were similar to those recovered from the uterine pus in only half of the cases. Furthermore, positive bursae were also seen in one mucometra dog (unilateral) and in four control dogs (two unilateral and two bilateral). The data illustrate that the canine ovarian bursa can harbor bacteria. The biological importance of these isolations remains unclear. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Persistence and resistance to extinction in the domestic dog: Basic research and applications to canine training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Nathaniel J

    2017-08-01

    This review summarizes the research investigating behavioral persistence and resistance to extinction in the dog. The first part of this paper reviews Behavioral Momentum Theory and its applications to Applied Behavior Analysis and training of pet dogs with persistent behavioral problems. I also highlight how research on Behavioral Momentum Theory can be applied to the training of detection dogs in an attempt to enhance detection performance in the presence of behavioral disruptors common in operational settings. In the second part of this review, I highlight more basic research on behavioral persistence with dogs, and how breed differences and experiences with humans as alternative sources of reinforcement can influence dogs' resistance to extinction of a target behavior. Applied Behavior Analysis and Behavior Momentum Theory have important applications for behavioral treatments to reduce the persistence of problem behavior in dogs and for the development of enhanced training methods that enhance the persistence of working dogs. Dogs can also be leveraged as natural models of stereotypic behavior and for exploring individual differences in behavioral persistence by evaluating breed and environmental variables associated with differences in canine persistance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Heading for the hills: risk avoidance drives den site selection in African wild dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Craig R; Power, R John; Groom, Rosemary J; Masenga, Emmanuel H; Mjingo, Ernest E; Fyumagwa, Robert D; Røskaft, Eivin; Davies-Mostert, Harriet

    2014-01-01

    Compared to their main competitors, African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) have inferior competitive abilities and interspecific competition is a serious fitness-limiting factor. Lions (Panthera leo) are the dominant large carnivore in African savannah ecosystems and wild dogs avoid them both spatially and temporally. Wild dog young are particularly vulnerable and suffer high rates of mortality from lions. Since lions do not utilize all parts of the landscape with an equal intensity, spatial variation in lion densities can be exploited by wild dogs both during their general ranging behaviour, but more specifically when they are confined to a den with vulnerable young. Since patches of rugged terrain are associated with lower lion densities, we hypothesized that these comparatively safe habitats should be selected by wild dogs for denning. We investigated the relationship between the distribution of 100 wild dog den sites and the occurrence of rugged terrain in four wild dog populations located in Tanzania, Zimbabwe and South Africa. A terrain ruggedness index was derived from a 90 m digital elevation model and used to map terrain ruggedness at each site. We compared characteristics of actual and potential (random) den sites to determine how wild dogs select den sites. The distributions of wild dog dens were strongly associated with rugged terrain and wild dogs actively selected terrain that was more rugged than that available on average. The likelihood of encountering lions is reduced in these habitats, minimizing the risk to both adults and pups. Our findings have important implications for the conservation management of the species, especially when assessing habitat suitability for potential reintroductions. The simple technique used to assess terrain ruggedness may be useful to investigate habitat suitability, and even predict highly suitable denning areas, across large landscapes.

  16. Heading for the hills: risk avoidance drives den site selection in African wild dogs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig R Jackson

    Full Text Available Compared to their main competitors, African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus have inferior competitive abilities and interspecific competition is a serious fitness-limiting factor. Lions (Panthera leo are the dominant large carnivore in African savannah ecosystems and wild dogs avoid them both spatially and temporally. Wild dog young are particularly vulnerable and suffer high rates of mortality from lions. Since lions do not utilize all parts of the landscape with an equal intensity, spatial variation in lion densities can be exploited by wild dogs both during their general ranging behaviour, but more specifically when they are confined to a den with vulnerable young. Since patches of rugged terrain are associated with lower lion densities, we hypothesized that these comparatively safe habitats should be selected by wild dogs for denning. We investigated the relationship between the distribution of 100 wild dog den sites and the occurrence of rugged terrain in four wild dog populations located in Tanzania, Zimbabwe and South Africa. A terrain ruggedness index was derived from a 90 m digital elevation model and used to map terrain ruggedness at each site. We compared characteristics of actual and potential (random den sites to determine how wild dogs select den sites. The distributions of wild dog dens were strongly associated with rugged terrain and wild dogs actively selected terrain that was more rugged than that available on average. The likelihood of encountering lions is reduced in these habitats, minimizing the risk to both adults and pups. Our findings have important implications for the conservation management of the species, especially when assessing habitat suitability for potential reintroductions. The simple technique used to assess terrain ruggedness may be useful to investigate habitat suitability, and even predict highly suitable denning areas, across large landscapes.

  17. Serological survey of Brucella canis in dogs in urban Harare and selected rural communities in Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simbarashe Chinyoka

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional study was conducted in order to detect antibodies for Brucella canis (B. canis in dogs from urban Harare and five selected rural communities in Zimbabwe. Sera from randomly selected dogs were tested for antibodies to B. canis using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Overall, 17.6% of sera samples tested (57/324, 95% CI: 13.5–21.7 were positive for B. canis antibodies. For rural dogs, seroprevalence varied from 11.7% – 37.9%. Rural dogs recorded a higher seroprevalence (20.7%, 95% CI: 15.0–26.4 compared with Harare urban dogs (12.7%, 95% CI: 6.9–18.5 but the difference was not significant (p = 0.07. Female dogs from both sectors had a higher seroprevalence compared with males, but the differences were not significant (p > 0.05. Five and two of the positive rural dogs had titres of 1:800 and 1:1600, respectively, whilst none of the positive urban dogs had a titre above 1:400. This study showed that brucellosis was present and could be considered a risk to dogs from the studied areas. Further studies are recommended in order to give insight into the epidemiology of brucellosis in dogs and its possible zoonotic consequences in Zimbabwe. Screening for other Brucella spp. (Brucella abortus, Brucella melitensis and Brucella suis other than B. canis is also recommended.

  18. Sutureless choledochoduodenostomy with an intraluminal degradable stent in dog model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Ling-hua; LIANG Xiao; LIN Hui; WANG Yi-fan; ZHU Yi-ping; CAI Xiu-jun

    2011-01-01

    Background It is difficult and time-consuming for carrying out conventional hand-sewn bilioenteric anastomosis, especially for small bile duct anastomosis and laparoscopic procedure. In order to simplify it, we have developed a novel procedure of sutureless bilioenteric anastomosis with an intraluminal degradable stent. This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility and safety of this technique with cholangioduodenostomy in dog model.Methods A patent intraluminal degradable stent tube for sutureless choledochoduodenostomy in dog model was made with polylactic acid in diameter of 3 mm or 4 mm. Thirty-eight dogs were randomly divided into to a stent group (SG, n=20) and a control group (CG, n=18). Dogs in the SG underwent sutureless choledochoduodenostomy with intraluminal stent, while the CG underwent conventional choledochoduodenostomy (single layer discontinuous anastomosis with absorbable suture). Dogs of each group were divided into 4 subgroups according to time of death (1,3,6, and 12 months postoperatively) to evaluate the healing of anastomosis. Operation time, intraoperative tolerance pressure of anastomosis, rate of postoperative bile leakage, bursting pressure of anastomosis were compared between the two groups. Anastomosis tissue was observed afterwards by pathology evaluation, hydroxyproline content, serum bilirubin, liver enzyme level and magnetic resonance cholangio-pancreatography (MRCP) to assess the stricture.Results All procedures were completed successfully. The surgical time of the SG was significantly less than the CG (SG: (19.2±4.3) minutes, vs. CG: (29.2±7.1) minutes, P=0.000). One bile leakage was occurred in either group. No significant difference of intraoperative tolerance pressure of anastomosis, rate of bile leakage and postoperative bursting pressure of anastomosis, anastomotic stricture, hydroxyproline content, serum bilirubin and liver enzyme level was found between the two groups. MRCP showed no anastomosis stricture and obstruction

  19. [The German Ophthalmological Society (DOG) during the Period of National Socialism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrbach, J M

    2006-11-01

    Sixty-one years after the end of the Hitler dictatorship, the history of the German Ophthalmological Society (DOG) has still hardly been investigated. According to different sources, especially the reports of the DOG congresses 1934, 1936, 1938, and 1940, the following picture can be drawn: 1. The seizure of power ("Machtergreifung") of Adolf Hitler was appreciated by most of the DOG members. 2. After a change of the constitution the DOG came under the control of the "Reichsinnenministerium". However, it escaped the egalitarianism ("Gleichschaltung") and remained relatively independent. 3. Approximately 40 % of the heads of the German university eye clinics who were the most influential DOG representatives were members of the national socialistic German working party (NSDAP). Almost all of these joined the party in 1933 or later. 4. Up to the last congress in Dresden, 1940, the DOG activities were quite extensive. After that time the activities strongly declined. 5. The "Law for the prevention of genetically disabled offspring" ("Gesetz zur Verhütung erbkranken Nachwuchses") from January 1st 1934 was intensely discussed by the DOG. Some prominent ophthalmologists and DOG members were at least in part responsible for the sterilisations because of "congenital blindness". However, as far as it is known, the DOG itself did not intervene directly concerning the practice of sterilisation. 6. Between 1932 and 1940, the DOG lost approximately 12 % of its members. Many of these stemmed from foreign countries, and many were German Jews. The latter left the DOG, as Walther Löhlein stated after the end of the war, "voluntarily". However, a main reason for leaving the DOG was very likely the feeling of being unwanted. The national socialism had several disastrous effects on ophthalmology. Although single DOG members participated in the excesses, the DOG as an organization was not directly involved. However, taking into consideration that more than 10 % of the members of the

  20. Do Dog Behavioral Characteristics Predict the Quality of the Relationship between Dogs and Their Owners?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Christy L.; Chen, Pan; Serpell, James A.; Jacobson, Kristen C.

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores whether dog behavioral characteristics predict the quality of the relationship between dogs and their owners (i.e., owner attachment to dog), and whether relations between dog behavior and owner attachment are moderated by demographic characteristics. In this study, N = 92 children and N = 60 adults from 60 dog-owning families completed questionnaires about their attachment to their pet dog, their level of responsibility for that dog, and their general attitudes toward pets. They also rated their dogs on observable behavioral characteristics. Individuals who held positive attitudes about pets and who provided much of their dog’s care reported stronger attachments to their dogs. The strength of owners’ attachments to their dogs was associated with dog trainability and separation problems. Relationships between owner attachment and both dog excitability and attention-seeking behavior were further moderated by demographic characteristics: for Caucasians but not for non-Caucasians, dog excitability was negatively associated with owner attachment to dog; and for adults, dog attention-seeking behavior was positively associated with owner attachment, but children tended to be highly attached to their dogs, regardless of their dogs’ attention-seeking behaviors. This study demonstrates that certain dog behavioral traits are indeed associated with the strength of owners’ attachments to their dogs. PMID:25685855

  1. Relationship Between Scarring and Dog Aggression in Pit Bull-Type Dogs Involved in Organized Dogfighting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine A. Miller

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available When pit bull-type dogs are seized in an investigation of organized dogfighting, heavily scarred dogs are often assumed to be highly dog aggressive due to a history of fighting. These dogs may be deemed dangerous and euthanized based on scarring alone. We analyzed our existing data on dogs seized from four dogfighting investigations, examining the relationship between the dogs’ scars with aggression towards other dogs. Scar and wound data were tallied in three body zones where dogfighting injuries tend to be concentrated. Dog aggression was assessed using a model dog and a friendly stimulus dog in a standardized behavior evaluation. Scarring and dog aggression were significantly related, more strongly among male (Fisher’s Exact p < 0.001 than female dogs (Fisher’s Exact p = 0.05. Ten or more scars in the three body zones was a reasonable threshold with which to classify a dog as high risk for dog aggression: 82% of males and 60% of females with such scarring displayed dog aggression. However, because many unscarred dogs were dog aggressive while some highly scarred dogs were not, we recommend collecting behavioral information to supplement scar counts when making disposition decisions about dogs seized in dogfighting investigations.

  2. Quantified Dog: Supporting Dog Health through Persuasive Technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Hanell, Jenny

    2017-01-01

    In collaboration with HappyTail, a Swedish company developing a mobile application for dog owners, this qualitative research study examines and identifies important factors, for developers or other stakeholders, to have in mind when developing mobile applications that aim to support dog health. According to behavioural scientists, there needs to be a bridge between health themed mobile applications and behavioural change theories in order to achieve desirable results. Therefore, literature on...

  3. Hypomagnesemia in brachycephalic dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellema, M S; Hoareau, G L

    2014-01-01

    Brachycephalic dogs are at risk for arterial hypertension and obstructive sleep apnea, which are both associated with chronic magnesium (Mg) depletion. To compare the period prevalence of hypomagnesemia between Boxers and Bulldogs presented to a referral teaching hospital. To screen a group of Bulldogs for evidence of hypomagnesemia, and to obtain pilot data regarding the utility of parenteral Mg tolerance testing (PMgTT) in the diagnosis of whole-body Mg deficiency. Chemistry laboratory submissions were retrospectively analyzed for serum total Mg (tMg) in Boxers and Bulldogs. Prospectively, 16 healthy client-owned Bulldogs were enrolled. Retrospective case study. tMg concentrations were compared between Boxers and Bulldogs. Dogs with low serum albumin or high serum creatinine concentrations were excluded. Prospectively, ionized Mg (iMg), tMg, and arterial blood pressure were measured and iMg-to-tMg ratio (iMg : tMg) was calculated. Parenteral Mg tolerance testing (PMgTT) was performed in 3/16 dogs. In the retrospective study, period prevalence of hypomagnesemia was 4.7% in Boxers and 15% in Bulldogs (P = .02). The risk ratio for hypomagnesemia in Bulldogs was 1.8 when compared to Boxers (CI: 1.3-2.7). In the prospective study, iMg was [median (interquartile)] 0.43 (0.42-0.46) mmol/L (reference range 0.4-0.52), tMg was 1.9 (1.8-1.9) mg/dL (reference range 1.9-2.5). iMg : tMg was [mean (±SD)] 0.59 ± 0.04. Percentage retention after PMgTT were 55%, 95%, and 67%, respectively. Mg deficiency is common in Bulldogs and could contribute to comorbidities often observed in this breed. iMg : tMg and PMgTT might prove helpful in detecting chronic subclinical Mg deficiency. Copyright © 2014 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  4. Insights and efforts to control rabies in Zambia: Evaluation of determinants and barriers to dog vaccination in Nyimba district.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolyn Patricia Mulipukwa

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The current rabies control strategy in Zambia is based on dog vaccination, dog population control and dog movement restrictions. In Nyimba district of Zambia, dog vaccination coverage is low but the incidence of dog bites is high which places the community at risk of rabies infection. The renewed global interest eliminating rabies in developing countries has spurred interest to identify determinants and barriers of dog vaccination in an effort to reduce the overall disease burden.A mixed methods cross sectional design was used in the study. This consisted of three parts: Evaluation of medical records regarding dog bite injuries, implementation and analysis of a household survey and in-depth review of key informant interviews. Data was collected into a Microsoft Excel database and subsequently transferred to STATA for descriptive, inferential and thematic analysis.Dog vaccination coverage overall was 8.7% (57/655, with 3.4% (22/655 in urban areas, 1.8% (12/655 in peri-urban and 3.5 (23/655 in the rural regions. Financially stable households were more likely to have their dogs vaccinated. Only 10.3% (31/300 of the respondents had vaccinated their dogs and these had a reliable source of income as 6% (18/300 were peasant farmers, 2% (6/300 were dependants whose guardians were financially stable and 2.3% (7/300 were in steady employment. Important barriers to dog vaccination included cost, limited awareness of vaccination program and access.Current rabies control strategies in Nyimba district, Zambia, appear quite limited. Improvements in the regional dog vaccination program may provide benefits. Enhancement of educational efforts targeting behavioural factors may also prove useful. Finally, the cost of dog vaccination can be reduced with scaled up production of a local vaccine.

  5. Insights and efforts to control rabies in Zambia: Evaluation of determinants and barriers to dog vaccination in Nyimba district.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulipukwa, Carolyn Patricia; Mudenda, Boyd; Mbewe, Allan Rabson

    2017-10-01

    The current rabies control strategy in Zambia is based on dog vaccination, dog population control and dog movement restrictions. In Nyimba district of Zambia, dog vaccination coverage is low but the incidence of dog bites is high which places the community at risk of rabies infection. The renewed global interest eliminating rabies in developing countries has spurred interest to identify determinants and barriers of dog vaccination in an effort to reduce the overall disease burden. A mixed methods cross sectional design was used in the study. This consisted of three parts: Evaluation of medical records regarding dog bite injuries, implementation and analysis of a household survey and in-depth review of key informant interviews. Data was collected into a Microsoft Excel database and subsequently transferred to STATA for descriptive, inferential and thematic analysis. Dog vaccination coverage overall was 8.7% (57/655), with 3.4% (22/655) in urban areas, 1.8% (12/655) in peri-urban and 3.5 (23/655) in the rural regions. Financially stable households were more likely to have their dogs vaccinated. Only 10.3% (31/300) of the respondents had vaccinated their dogs and these had a reliable source of income as 6% (18/300) were peasant farmers, 2% (6/300) were dependants whose guardians were financially stable and 2.3% (7/300) were in steady employment. Important barriers to dog vaccination included cost, limited awareness of vaccination program and access. Current rabies control strategies in Nyimba district, Zambia, appear quite limited. Improvements in the regional dog vaccination program may provide benefits. Enhancement of educational efforts targeting behavioural factors may also prove useful. Finally, the cost of dog vaccination can be reduced with scaled up production of a local vaccine.

  6. Efficacy and Safety of Injectable Robenacoxib for the Treatment of Pain Associated With Soft Tissue Surgery in Dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friton, G; Thompson, C; Karadzovska, D; King, S; King, J N

    2017-05-01

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are used routinely to control pain and inflammation after surgery in dogs. Robenacoxib is a cyclooxygenase-2 selective NSAID. Assess the clinical efficacy and safety of an injectable formulation of robenacoxib in dogs undergoing surgery. Three hundred and seventeen client-owned dogs (N = 159 robenacoxib or N = 158 placebo). In this prospective, multicenter, randomized, masked, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study, dogs received a SC injection of either robenacoxib, at a target dose of 2.0 mg/kg, or placebo once prior to surgery and for 2 additional days postoperatively. Pain assessments were performed using the short form of the Glasgow Composite Measure Pain Scale (CMPS-SF). The primary efficacy variable was treatment success/failure, with failure defined as the need for rescue therapy to control pain or withdrawal of the dog from the study due to an adverse event. Significantly (P = .006) more dogs administered robenacoxib were considered treatment successes (108 of 151, 73.7%) compared to dogs given placebo (85 of 152, 58.1%). Total pain scores (P dogs receiving robenacoxib versus placebo. Robenacoxib administered by SC injection prior to surgery and for 2 additional days postoperatively was effective and well tolerated in the control of postoperative pain and inflammation associated with soft tissue surgery in dogs. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  7. The effect of body position on the 'hanging drop' method for identifying the extradural space in anaesthetized dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naganobu, Kiyokazu; Hagio, Mitsuyoshi

    2007-01-01

    To assess the accuracy of the 'hanging drop method' for identifying the extradural space in anaesthetized dogs positioned in sternal or lateral recumbency. Prospective randomized-experimental study. Seventeen clinically healthy adult dogs, 10 females and seven males weighing 8.4-26.2 kg. Dogs were positioned in either sternal (n = 8) or lateral (n = 9) recumbency under general anaesthesia. A 20 SWG spinal needle pre-filled with 0.9% saline was advanced through the skin into the lumbosacral extradural space and the response of the saline drop recorded, i.e. whether it: 1) was aspirated from the hub into the needle; 2) remained within the hub, or 3) moved synchronously with i) spontaneous respiration, ii) heart beat or iii) manual lung inflation. The position of the needle tip was ultimately determined by positive contrast radiography. One dog positioned in lateral recumbency was excluded from the study because bleeding occurred from the needle hub. Saline was aspirated into the needle in seven of eight dogs held in sternal recumbency but in none of the dogs positioned in lateral recumbency. Accurate needle tip placement in the extradural space was confirmed by positive contrast radiography in all dogs. The 'hanging drop' method, when performed with a spinal needle, appears to be a useful technique for identifying the location of the extradural space in anaesthetized medium-sized dogs positioned in sternal, but not in lateral recumbency. The technique may yield 'false negative' results when performed in dogs positioned in sternal recumbency.

  8. Transmission of visceral leishmaniasis in dogs in a risk area of the metropolitan region of Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.G.P. Lopes

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Visceral leishmaniasis (VL has spread rapidly across cities in the metropolitan region of Belo Horizonte. The aim of this study was to investigate VL dynamics in a prospective cohort study of dogs in Juatuba, between 2010 and 2011, to confirm the incidence of Leishmania infantum, and to assess possible risk factors associated with infection. An observational and prospective closed cohort study was performed using serology testing in dogs, randomly selected from the whole municipality. All seronegative dogs, or dogs with inconclusive results were monitored using indirect immunofluorescence (IIF at 6-month intervals. The dog's owners completed a semi-structured questionnaire to assess possible causal factors of seroconversion, and the responses were assessed using logistic regression. The canine incidence coefficient was 206/1,000 dogs per year (CI: 178-238, and a cluster was identified in an area with a high concentration of seropositive dogs, but a low overall canine population. Large dogs were identified as a risk factor and the following variables were identified as protection factors: dogs aged over 4 years, daily peridomicile cleaning, and better socioeconomic conditions. VL is spreading over a large area in Juatuba in a short period of time.

  9. 9 CFR 3.8 - Exercise for dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Cats 1 Animal Health and Husbandry Standards § 3.8 Exercise for dogs. Dealers, exhibitors, and research... dog(s); or (3) Any dog exhibits aggressive or vicious behavior. (c) Methods and period of providing...

  10. Nonverbal Communication and Human–Dog Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Iben Helene Coakley; Forkman, Björn

    2014-01-01

    Human–dog interaction relies to a large extent on nonverbal communication, and it is therefore plausible that human sensitivity to nonverbal signals affects interactions between human and dog. Experience with dogs is also likely to influence human–dog interactions, and it has been suggested...... and answered a questionnaire on their experience with dogs. The data obtained were then used to investigate the relationship between experience with dogs and sensitivity to human nonverbal communication. The results did not indicate that experience with dogs improves human nonverbal sensitivity. In study 2, 16...... that it influences human social skills. The present study investigated possible links between human nonverbal sensitivity, experience with dogs, and the quality of human–dog interactions. Two studies are reported. In study 1, 97 veterinary students took a psychometric test assessing human nonverbal sensitivity...

  11. Degenerative lumbosacral stenosis in dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suwankong, N.

    2007-01-01

    Degenerative lumbosacral stenosis (DLS) is now recognized as a significant cause of caudal lumbar pain and pelvic limb lameness in dogs. The condition includes lumbosacral intervertebral disc degeneration and protrusion, spondylosis deformans, sclerosis of the vertebral end plates, osteoarthrosis of

  12. Cause, setting and ownership analysis of dog bites in Bay County, Florida from 2009 to 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthias, J; Templin, M; Jordan, M M; Stanek, D

    2015-02-01

    Emergency room and hospital discharge data have been used to describe the risk factors and public health impact of dog bites. These data sets are based on financial charges for severe bites and underestimates dog bite burdens within communities. This study expands both the source of information and risk factor data collected to provide demographic analysis of dog bite injury risk factors reported in Bay County, Florida in 2009-2010. Extended data for dog bites reported by various sources from January 1, 2009 to December 31, 2010 were collected by Florida Department of Health in Bay County. Data collected included bite victim's age and gender, primary reported cause of bite, setting, dog's restraint status and relationship between the victim and the dog. A total of 799 bites were reported. Most bites (55%) were reported first by healthcare practitioners, particularly bites involving childrenmanagement was the most common cause of bites (26%), followed by protective behaviour (24%). Bites of unknown cause were 2.5 times more likely in childrenrisks by age group or gender provides an opportunity to implement targeted interventions to prevent dog bites. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  13. Environmental contamination with Toxocara eggs: a quantitative approach to estimate the relative contributions of dogs, cats and foxes, and to assess the efficacy of advised interventions in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijsse, Rolf; Mughini-Gras, Lapo; Wagenaar, Jaap A; Franssen, Frits; Ploeger, Harm W

    2015-07-28

    Environmental contamination with Toxocara eggs is considered the main source of human toxocariasis. The contribution of different groups of hosts to this contamination is largely unknown. Current deworming advices focus mainly on dogs. However, controversy exists about blind deworming regimens for >6-month-old dogs, as most of them do not actually shed Toxocara eggs. We aim to estimate the contribution of different non-juvenile hosts to the environmental Toxocara egg contamination and to assess the effects of different Toxocara-reducing interventions for dogs. A stochastic model was developed to quantify the relative contribution to the environmental contamination with Toxocara eggs of household dogs, household cats, stray cats, and foxes, all older than 6 months in areas with varying urbanization degrees. The model was built upon an existing model developed by Morgan et al. (2013). We used both original and published data on host density, prevalence and intensity of infection, coprophagic behaviour, faeces disposal by owners, and cats' outdoor access. Scenario analyses were performed to assess the expected reduction in dogs' egg output according to different deworming regimens and faeces clean-up compliances. Estimates referred to the Netherlands, a country free of stray dogs. Household dogs accounted for 39% of the overall egg output of >6-month-old hosts in the Netherlands, followed by stray cats (27%), household cats (19%), and foxes (15%). In urban areas, egg output was dominated by stray cats (81%). Intervention scenarios revealed that only with a high compliance (90%) to the four times a year deworming advice, dogs' contribution would drop from 39 to 28%. Alternatively, when 50% of owners would always remove their dogs' faeces, dogs' contribution would drop to 20%. Among final hosts of Toxocara older than 6 months, dogs are the main contributors to the environmental egg contamination, though cats in total (i.e. both owned and stray) transcend this

  14. Why do adult dogs 'play'?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, John W S; Pullen, Anne J; Rooney, Nicola J

    2015-01-01

    Among the Carnivora, play behaviour is usually made up of motor patterns characteristic of predatory, agonistic and courtship behaviour. Domestic dogs are unusual in that play is routinely performed by adults, both socially, with conspecifics and with humans, and also asocially, with objects. This enhanced playfulness is commonly thought to be a side effect of paedomorphosis, the perpetuation of juvenile traits into adulthood, but here we suggest that the functions of the different types of play are sufficiently distinct that they are unlikely to have arisen through a single evolutionary mechanism. Solitary play with objects appears to be derived from predatory behaviour: preferred toys are those that can be dismembered, and a complex habituation-like feedback system inhibits play with objects that are resistant to alteration. Intraspecific social play is structurally different from interspecific play and may therefore be motivationally distinct and serve different goals; for example, dogs often compete over objects when playing with other dogs, but are usually more cooperative when the play partner is human. The majority of dogs do not seem to regard competitive games played with a human partner as "dominance" contests: rather, winning possession of objects during games appears to be simply rewarding. Play may be an important factor in sociality, since dogs are capable of extracting social information not only from games in which they participate, but also from games that they observe between third parties. We suggest that the domestic dog's characteristic playfulness in social contexts is an adaptive trait, selected during domestication to facilitate both training for specific purposes, and the formation of emotionally-based bonds between dog and owner. Play frequency and form may therefore be an indicator of the quality of dog-owner relationships. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Roentgenologic anatomy of dog arteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehak, J.; Hlava, A.; Bavor, J.

    1984-01-01

    In catheter methods in dogs the knowledge of the roentgenologic anatomy of blood vessels is very important. Because of lacking in such roentgenologic anatomic schemes 5 arterial schemes in relation to the skeleton were elaborated. The system of arteries was divided into five regions: chest, head and neck in submentooccipital and lateral projection, abdomen and pelvis. The schemes comprise 75 of the main arteries of the dog. (author)

  16. Spontaneous ischaemic stroke in dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gredal, Hanne Birgit; Skerritt, G. C.; Gideon, P.

    2013-01-01

    Translation of experimental stroke research into the clinical setting is often unsuccessful. Novel approaches are therefore desirable. As humans, pet dogs suffer from spontaneous ischaemic stroke and may hence offer new ways of studying genuine stroke injury mechanisms.......Translation of experimental stroke research into the clinical setting is often unsuccessful. Novel approaches are therefore desirable. As humans, pet dogs suffer from spontaneous ischaemic stroke and may hence offer new ways of studying genuine stroke injury mechanisms....

  17. Swiss legislation on dog ownership

    CERN Multimedia

    DSU Department

    2008-01-01

    The Swiss Permanent Mission in Geneva has requested CERN to inform the members of its personnel that a notice relating to Swiss legislation on dog ownership has been published on-line at the following address: http://www.eda.admin.ch/eda/en/home/topics/intorg/un/unge/gepri/pet.html This legislation is applicable to all international civil servants who own a dog. Relations with the Host States Service mailto:relations.secretariat@cern.ch http://www.cern.ch/relations/

  18. Estimation of the number and demographics of companion dogs in the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asher Lucy

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Current estimates of the UK dog population vary, contain potential sources of bias and are based on expensive, large scale, public surveys. Here, we evaluate the potential of a variety of sources for estimation and monitoring of the companion dog population in the UK and associated demographic information. The sources considered were: a public survey; veterinary practices; pet insurance companies; micro-chip records; Kennel Club registrations; and the Pet Travel Scheme. The public survey and subpopulation estimates from veterinary practices, pet insurance companies and Kennel Club registrations, were combined to generate distinct estimates of the UK owned dog population using a Bayesian approach. Results We estimated there are 9.4 (95% CI: 8.1-11.5 million companion dogs in the UK according to the public survey alone, which is similar to other recent estimates. The population was judged to be over-estimated by combining the public and veterinary surveys (16.4, 95% CI: 12.5-21.5 million and under-estimated by combining the public survey and insured dog numbers (4.8, 95% CI: 3.6-6.9 million. An estimate based on combining the public survey and Kennel Club registered dogs was 7.1 (95% CI: 4.5-12.9 million. Based on Bayesian estimations, 77 (95% CI: 62-92% of the UK dog population were registered at a veterinary practice; 42 (95% CI: 29-55% of dogs were insured; and 29 (95% CI: 17-43% of dogs were Kennel Club registered. Breed demographics suggested the Labrador was consistently the most popular breed registered in micro-chip records, with the Kennel Club and with J. Sainsbury's PLC pet insurance. A comparison of the demographics between these sources suggested that popular working breeds were under-represented and certain toy, utility and miniature breeds were over- represented in the Kennel Club registrations. Density maps were produced from micro-chip records based on the geographical distribution of dogs. Conclusions A list

  19. Buster-Jangle Shot Dog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaul, Dean C.

    1987-01-01

    Shot Dog of the Buster-Jangle Series used a device which had a high-explosive configuration virtually identical to that of the Nagasaki bomb, though with different fissionable components. Dog was detonated at a height of 431.9 m with the mean atmospheric conditions between burst and ground being dry air density 1.027 mg/cc and atmospheric moisture density 0.006 mg/cc. The ground was taken to be that of Nevada test site (NTS) area 9 with a water content of 8% by weight. The yield of the weapon was 21 kt. Results shown here for Buster-Jangle Shot Dog have been scaled from those calculated for Ranger Shot Fox. The design features and burst geometries of the two devices were deemed sufficiently similar to make this substitution in the absence of a radiation leakage spectrum calculated explicitly for Buster-Jangle Shot Dog. However, while the relative atmospheric contents of the two shots were very similar, Shot Fox took place in air of approximately 10% greater density than Shot Dog. Thus, scaled calculated results could not be obtained to compare with the three closest measurement points at Shot Dog

  20. Renal effects of carprofen and etodolac in euvolemic and volume-depleted dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surdyk, Kathryn K; Sloan, Dawn L; Brown, Scott A

    2012-09-01

    To determine the effects of carprofen and etodolac on renal function in euvolemic dogs and dogs with extracellular fluid volume depletion induced via administration of furosemide. 12 female Beagles. Dogs received a placebo, furosemide, carprofen, etodolac, furosemide and carprofen, and furosemide and etodolac. The order in which dogs received treatments was determined via a randomization procedure. Values of urine specific gravity, various plasma biochemical variables, glomerular filtration rate (GFR [urinary clearance of creatinine]), and renal plasma flow (urinary clearance of para-aminohippuric acid) were determined before and after 8 days of drug administration. A washout time of approximately 12 days was allowed between treatment periods. Administration of furosemide, furosemide and carprofen, and furosemide and etodolac caused changes in urine specific gravity and values of plasma biochemical variables. Administration of carprofen or etodolac alone did not have a significant effect on renal plasma flow or GFR. Concurrent administration of furosemide and carprofen or furosemide and etodolac caused a significant decrease in GFR. After 12-day washout periods, mean values of GFR were similar to values before drug administration for all treatments. Results indicated GFR decreased after 8 days of concurrent administration of furosemide and carprofen or furosemide and etodolac to dogs. Administration of preferential cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors to dogs with extracellular fluid volume depletion or to dogs treated with diuretics may transiently impair renal function.

  1. Effect of the use of carprofen in dogs undergoing intense rehabilitation after lateral fabellar suture stabilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon-Evans, Wanda J; Dunning, Diane; Johnson, Ann L; Knap, Kim E

    2011-07-01

    To determine whether carprofen, a commercially available NSAID, would decrease perceived exertion and signs of pain in dogs and therefore increase muscle mass and hind limb function without decreasing range of motion after lateral fabellar suture stabilization. Randomized, blinded, controlled clinical trial. 35 dogs with cranial cruciate ligament rupture and lateral fabellar suture stabilization followed by rehabilitation. All dogs underwent surgical stabilization of cranial cruciate ligament rupture by placement of a lateral fabellar suture. Dogs received carprofen (2.2 mg/kg [1 mg/lb], PO, q 12 h) for the first 7 days after surgery and underwent concentrated rehabilitation exercises during weeks 3, 5, and 7 after surgery. Eighteen dogs also received carprofen (2.2 mg/kg, PO, q 12 h) during the weeks of concentrated rehabilitation. Outcomes were measured by a single investigator, who was blinded to group assignments, using pressure platform gait analysis, goniometry, thigh circumference, and mean workout speed at a consistent level of exertion. There were no differences between the 2 groups in ground reaction forces, thigh circumference, or exertion (mean workout speed) over time or at any individual time point. However, both groups improved significantly over time for all outcome measures. Providing carprofen to dogs during concentrated rehabilitation after lateral fabellar suture stabilization did not improve hind limb function, range of motion, or thigh circumference, nor did it decrease perceived exertion, compared with control dogs. Carprofen was not a compulsory component of a physical therapy regimen after lateral fabellar suture stabilization.

  2. An Observational Study of Service Dogs for Veterans With Posttraumatic Stress Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarborough, Bobbi Jo H; Owen-Smith, Ashli A; Stumbo, Scott P; Yarborough, Micah T; Perrin, Nancy A; Green, Carla A

    2017-07-01

    This study examined needs related to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), assistance by service dogs, and feasibility of data collection among veterans receiving service dogs. Questionnaires assessed PTSD-related needs and services performed or expected to be performed by service dogs among 78 veterans who had or were on a wait list for a service dog (average age, 42; women, 31%). Analyses compared pre-post characteristics among 22 veterans who received a service dog as part of the study (91% follow-up; average follow-up=3.37±2.57 months). Veterans reported that the most important services performed were licking or nudging veterans to help them "stay present," preventing panic, and putting space between veterans and strangers. High follow-up rates and improvements in outcomes with moderate to large effect sizes among recipients of study-provided dogs suggest further study is warranted. Service dogs may be feasible supports for veterans with PTSD; randomized clinical trials are needed to assess effectiveness.

  3. The Buffer Effect of Therapy Dog Exposure on Stress Reactivity in Undergraduate Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra J. Fiocco

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Stress is an insidious health risk that is commonly reported among university students. While research suggests that dog exposure may facilitate recovery from a stress response, little is known about the buffer effect of dog exposure on the stress response to a future stressor. This study examined whether interaction with a therapy dog could reduce the strength of the physiological stress response when exposed to a subsequent stressor. Sixty-one university students were randomly assigned to either a therapy dog (TD, n = 31 or a no-dog control (C, n = 30 group. The stress response was measured by electrodermal activity (EDA in response to the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT. Participants also completed questionnaires that assessed pet attitude, general stress levels, and affect. Analyses of covariance (ANCOVAs showed that increase in EDA was significantly more pronounced in the C group than in the TD group (p < 0.01. Pet attitudes did not modulate the buffer effect of therapy dog exposure. Results suggest that therapy dog exposure may buffer the stress response in university students, which has implications for the promotion of a viable stress management program on university campuses.

  4. Auditory stimulus discrimination recorded in dogs, as indicated by mismatch negativity (MMN).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Tiffani J; Conduit, Russell; Toukhsati, Samia; Bennett, Pauleen

    2012-01-01

    Dog cognition research tends to rely on behavioural response, which can be confounded by obedience or motivation, as the primary means of indexing dog cognitive abilities. A physiological method of measuring dog cognitive processing would be instructive and could complement behavioural response. Electroencephalogram (EEG) has been used in humans to study stimulus processing, which results in waveforms called event-related potentials (ERPs). One ERP component, mismatch negativity (MMN), is a negative deflection approximately 160-200 ms after stimulus onset, which may be related to change detection from echoic sensory memory. We adapted a minimally invasive technique to record MMN in dogs. Dogs were exposed to an auditory oddball paradigm in which deviant tones (10% probability) were pseudo-randomly interspersed throughout an 8 min sequence of standard tones (90% probability). A significant difference in MMN ERP amplitude was observed after the deviant tone in comparison to the standard tone, t5 = -2.98, p = 0.03. This difference, attributed to discrimination of an unexpected stimulus in a series of expected stimuli, was not observed when both tones occurred 50% of the time, t1 = -0.82, p > 0.05. Dogs showed no evidence of pain or distress at any point. We believe this is the first illustration of MMN in a group of dogs and anticipate that this technique may provide valuable insights in cognitive tasks such as object discrimination. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of low-dose preoperative irradiation on low anterior anastomosis in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schauer, R.M.; Bubrick, M.P.; Feeney, D.A.; Johnston, G.R.; Rolfsmeyer, E.S.; Strom, R.L.; Hitchcock, C.R.

    1982-01-01

    Twenty mongrel dogs underwent preoperative radiation therapy to the colon and rectum using the Nominal Standard Dose Equation to simulate treatment with 2000 rads. Each dog then underwent anterior resection of the rectosigmoid, and reconstruction was randomized into two groups consisting of either handsewn or EEA-stapled anastomoses. Anastomoses were examined digitally and radiographically on the day of surgery and on the seventh postoperative day. There were three radiographic leaks among the ten dogs having the handsewn anastomoses and one radiographic leak among the ten dogs having the EEA-stapled anastomoses. There was one clinically significant leak which occurred in a dog having an EEA-stapled anastomosis and was associated with peritonitis and death. The overall leak rate was 30 per cent among dogs having handsewn anastomoses and 20 per cent among dogs with stapled anastomoses. The data suggest that an anterior resection in low colorectal anastomosis can be done safely after low-dose radiation using either handsewn or stapling techniques

  6. First Molecular Detection of Babesia gibsoni in Dogs from Wuhan, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan He

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Canine piroplasmosis is a significant disease in dogs caused by Babesia and Theileria parasites. The clinical manifestations range from mild illness to serious disease depending on the parasite species and the physical condition of the infected dog. Canine piroplasmosis has been reported to be prevalent in China. However, no molecular evidence of the disease has been reported in pet dogs from Wuhan. In this study, 118 blood samples were randomly collected from pet dogs in veterinary clinics. The blood samples were subjected to both microscopic examination and reverse line blot (RLB hybridization assays to detect piroplasm infection. Parasites were observed in 10 blood samples via microscopic examination, whereas there were 14 Babesia gibsoni-positive RLB tests. Phylogenetic analysis was performed after the 18S rRNA and ITS gene sequences from the 14 positive samples were cloned and sequenced. The results confirmed the existence of B. gibsoni in this area. This is the first molecular report of canine babesiosis in pet dogs from Wuhan, China. Pet dogs are companion animals, and the prevalence of babesiosis will be of concern in daily life. This study will help veterinarians better understand the prevalence of canine babesiosis and provide a guide for disease control in pet dogs.

  7. Effects of low-dose preoperative irradiation on low anterior anastomosis in dogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schauer, R.M.; Bubrick, M.P.; Feeney, D.A.; Johnston, G.R.; Rolfsmeyer, E.S.; Strom, R.L.; Hitchcock, C.R.

    Twenty mongrel dogs underwent preoperative radiation therapy to the colon and rectum using the Nominal Standard Dose Equation to simulate treatment with 2000 rads. Each dog then underwent anterior resection of the rectosigmoid, and reconstruction was randomized into two groups consisting of either handsewn or EEA-stapled anastomoses. Anastomoses were examined digitally and radiographically on the day of surgery and on the seventh postoperative day. There were three radiographic leaks among the ten dogs having the handsewn anastomoses and one radiographic leak among the ten dogs having the EEA-stapled anastomoses. There was one clinically significant leak which occurred in a dog having an EEA-stapled anastomosis and was associated with peritonitis and death. The overall leak rate was 30 per cent among dogs having handsewn anastomoses and 20 per cent among dogs with stapled anastomoses. The data suggest that an anterior resection in low colorectal anastomosis can be done safely after low-dose radiation using either handsewn or stapling techniques.

  8. Effects of low-dose preoperative irradiation on low anterior anastomosis in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauer, R M; Bubrick, M P; Feeney, D A; Johnston, G R; Rolfsmeyer, E S; Strom, R L; Hitchcock, C R

    1982-01-01

    Twenty mongrel dogs underwent preoperative radiation therapy to the colon and rectum using the Nominal Standard Dose Equation to simulate treatment with 2000 rads. Each dog then underwent anterior resection of the rectosigmoid, and reconstruction was randomized into two groups consisting of either handsewn or EEA-stapled anastomoses. Anastomoses were examined digitally and radiographically on the day of surgery and on the seventh postoperative day. There were three radiographic leaks among the ten dogs having the handsewn anastomoses and one radiographic leak among the ten dogs having the EEA-stapled anastomoses. There was one clinically significant leak which occurred in a dog having an EEA-stapled anastomosis and was associated with peritonitis and death. The overall leak rate was 30 per cent among dogs having handsewn anastomoses and 20 per cent among dogs with stapled anastomoses. The data suggest that an anterior resection in low colorectal anastomosis can be done safely after low-dose radiation using either handsewn or stapling techniques.

  9. Random Measurement Error as a Source of Discrepancies between the Reports of Wives and Husbands Concerning Marital Power and Task Allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quarm, Daisy

    1981-01-01

    Findings for couples (N=119) show wife's work, money, and spare time low between-spouse correlations are due in part to random measurement error. Suggests that increasing reliability of measures by creating multi-item indices can also increase correlations. Car purchase, vacation, and child discipline were not accounted for by random measurement…

  10. Service Dogs in the Perioperative Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levey, Janet A; Chappy, Sharon L

    2017-04-01

    Service dogs are critical for the independence of individuals with disabilities because they assist with daily living activities and help these individuals navigate society. Perioperative nurses need a working knowledge of disability laws pertaining to service dogs to provide patient-centered care for individuals using service dogs. This article provides information on the Americans With Disabilities Act regulations regarding service dogs, makes recommendations for the care of patients with service dogs across the perioperative continuum, and offers policy directives to ensure that safe, high-quality care is delivered to patients using service dogs. Copyright © 2017 AORN, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Bisphenol A (BPA) in the serum of pet dogs following short-term consumption of canned dog food and potential health consequences of exposure to BPA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koestel, Zoe L; Backus, Robert C; Tsuruta, Kaoru; Spollen, William G; Johnson, Sarah A; Javurek, Angela B; Ellersieck, Mark R; Wiedmeyer, Charles E; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Xue, Jingchuan; Bivens, Nathan J; Givan, Scott A; Rosenfeld, Cheryl S

    2017-02-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a widely present endocrine disruptor chemical found in many household items. Moreover, this chemical can bioaccumulate in various terrestrial and aquatic sources; thereby ensuring continual exposure of animals and humans. For most species, including humans, diet is considered the primary route of exposure. However, there has been little investigation whether commercial-brands of dog foods contain BPA and potential health ramifications of BPA-dietary exposure in dogs. We sought to determine BPA content within dog food, whether short-term consumption of these diets increases serum concentrations of BPA, and potential health consequences, as assessed by potential hematological, serum chemistry, cortisol, DNA methylation, and gut microbiome changes, in dogs associated with short-term dietary exposure to BPA. Fourteen healthy privately-owned dogs were used in this study. Blood and fecal samples were collected prior to dogs being placed for two-weeks on one of two diets (with one considered to be BPA-free), and blood and fecal samples were collected again. Serum/plasma samples were analyzed for chemistry and hematology profiles, cortisol concentrations, 5-methylcytosine in lymphocytes, and total BPA concentrations. Fecal samples were used for microbiome assessments. Both diets contained BPA, and after two-weeks of being on either diet, dogs had a significant increase in circulating BPA concentrations (pre-samples=0.7±0.15ng/mL, post-samples=2.2±0.15ng/mL, pfood increased circulating BPA concentrations in dogs comparable to amounts detected in humans, and greater BPA concentrations were associated with serum chemistry and microbiome changes. Dogs, who share our internal and external environments with us, are likely excellent indicators of potential human health concerns to BPA and other environmental chemicals. These findings may also have relevance to aquatic and terrestrial wildlife. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Molecular detection of vector-borne bacteria and protozoa in healthy hunting dogs from Central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Virginia Ebani

    2015-02-01

    Conclusions:: The results demonstrated that several vector-borne pathogens were circulating in this region and dogs infected by these agents were usually asymptomatic. A relevant finding was the presence of DNA of C. burnetii, a severe zoonotic agent, in the 5.1% of tested dogs, which can be source of infection for their owners not only through tick bites, but also directly with urine, feces and birth products.

  13. A survey of public attitudes towards barking dogs in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint, E L; Minot, E O; Perry, P E; Stafford, K J

    2014-11-01

    To investigate public attitudes towards barking dogs in New Zealand in order to quantify the extent to which people perceive barking dogs to be a problem, to compare tolerance of barking with that of other common suburban noises, to assess the level of public understanding about the function of barking, to determine risk factors for intolerance of barking and to assess knowledge of possible strategies for the investigation and management of problem barking. A 12-page questionnaire was sent to 2,000 people throughout New Zealand randomly selected from the electoral roll. Risk factors for being bothered by barking were examined using logistic regression analysis. A total of 1,750 questionnaires were successfully delivered; of these, 727 (42%) were returned. Among respondents, 356/727 (49.0%) indicated that frequent barking during the day would bother them while 545/727 (75.0%) would be bothered by barking at night. Barking and howling were ranked above other suburban noises as a cause of annoyance. Risk factors for being bothered by daytime barking were not being home during the day, not owning a dog, and considering a dog bite to be a serious health risk. Risk factors for being bothered by night-time barking were not being home during the day, marital status, considering dog bites to pose a serious health risk, and having been frightened by a dog. Overall, 510/699 (73%) respondents understood that barking was a form of communication. Action likely to be taken by 666 respondents hearing frequent barking included notifying and offering to help the owner (119; 17.8%), complaining to the owner (127; 19.1%) or the authorities (121; 18.2%), or doing nothing (299; 48%). Possible responses by 211 dog owners if they had a barking dog included seeking help from dog trainers (59; 28%) or behaviourists (54; 26%), buying an anti-barking device (33; 15%) or getting rid of the dog (20; 10%). Barking was considered to be potentially disturbing by respondents to this survey

  14. Assisting Handlers Following Attacks on Dog Guides: Implications for Dog Guide Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godley, Cheryl A.; Gillard, Marc A.

    2011-01-01

    Attacks by dogs on dog guides are traumatic for dog guide teams. One variable that affects a team's recovery is how handlers cope with emotional responses to the attack. This article presents a three-stage model for assisting handlers that is useful for handlers and dog guide instructors.

  15. Evaluation of pulsatile plasma concentrations of growth hormone in healthy dogs and dogs with dilated cardiomyopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beijerink, N.J.; Lee, W.M.; Stokhof, A.A.; Voorhout, G.; Mol, J.A.; Kooistra, H.S.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract OBJECTIVE: To evaluate plasma concentrations of growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) in healthy dogs and large-breed dogs with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). ANIMALS: 8 dogs with DCM and 8 healthy control dogs of comparable age and body weight. PROCEDURES: Blood

  16. Barium toxicosis in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Fiona H; Noble, Peter J M; Swift, Simon T; Higgins, Brent M; Sieniawska, Christine E

    2010-09-01

    A 2-year-old 14.9-kg (32.8-lb) neutered female Shetland Sheepdog was admitted to the University of Liverpool Small Animal Teaching Hospital for evaluation of acute collapse. At admission, the dog was tachypneic and had reduced limb reflexes and muscle tone in all limbs consistent with diffuse lower motor neuron dysfunction. The dog was severely hypokalemic (1.7 mEq/L; reference range, 3.5 to 5.8 mEq/L). Clinical status of the dog deteriorated; there was muscle twitching, flaccid paralysis, and respiratory failure, which was considered a result of respiratory muscle weakness. Ventricular arrhythmias and severe acidemia (pH, 7.18; reference range, 7.35 to 7.45) developed. Intoxication was suspected, and plasma and urine samples submitted for barium analysis had barium concentrations comparable with those reported in humans with barium toxicosis. Analysis of barium concentrations in 5 control dogs supported the diagnosis of barium toxicosis in the dog. Fluids and potassium supplementation were administered IV. The dog recovered rapidly. Electrolyte concentrations measured after recovery were consistently unremarkable. Quantification of plasma barium concentration 56 days after the presumed episode of intoxication revealed a large decrease; however, the plasma barium concentration remained elevated, compared with that in control dogs. To our knowledge, this case represented the first description of barium toxicosis in the veterinary literature. Barium toxicosis can cause life-threatening hypokalemia; however, prompt supportive treatment can yield excellent outcomes. Barium toxicosis is a rare but important differential diagnosis in animals with hypokalemia and appropriate clinical signs.

  17. A Novel Self-Expandable, Radioactive Airway Stent Loaded with 125I Seeds: A Feasibility and Safety Study in Healthy Beagle Dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong; Guo, Jin-He; Zhu, Guang-Yu; Zhu, Hai-Dong; Chen, Li; Lu, Jian; Wang, Chao; Teng, Gao-Jun

    2017-07-01

    Airway stent placement is an effective treatment for the immediate palliation of malignant airway obstruction. However, restenosis caused by tumor ingrowth and/or overgrowth after stenting is common. The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility and safety of a novel self-expandable stent loaded with 125 I seeds in healthy beagle dog. Under fluoroscopic guidance, forty-eight self-expandable airway stents loaded with 125 I seeds were perorally placed in the main trachea of 48 healthy beagle dogs, who were randomly divided into four groups (Group A: 0.3 mCi; Group B: 0.6 mCi; Group C: 0.9 mCi; Control group: 0 mCi). The estimated radiation dose was calculated using the isotropic point source approximation. Radiological follow-up examinations and histopathological examinations of stented tracheal segments and their adjacent organs and tissues were performed at 2, 4, 8, and 16 weeks following the stenting. All stents were successfully deployed in the targeted tracheal segment in the beagle dogs without procedure-related complications. Tracheal stenosis became severe gradually in all the four groups, which was not associated with the radioactivity of 125 I seeds (p > 0.05). The tracheal injury scores increased along with the higher dose of radioactive seeds which reached peak at 8 weeks and then turned back slightly at 16 weeks. The adjacent tissue did not show pathohistological changes under microscope, while mild and reversible ultrastructure changes were showed under electronic microscope. This study demonstrates that it is feasible and safe to insert this novel self-expandable airway stent loaded with 125 I seeds in healthy beagle dog.

  18. Relationship Between Scarring and Dog Aggression in Pit Bull-Type Dogs Involved in Organized Dogfighting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Katherine A.; Touroo, Rachel; Spain, C. Victor; Jones, Kelly; Reid, Pamela; Lockwood, Randall

    2016-01-01

    Simple Summary Organizations responsible for placing dogs seized from dogfighting investigations often must determine if a particular dog should be euthanized because it is too dangerous or if it is safe to place the dog in an adoptive home. In this study, we examine whether the extent of scarring from dog fighting is a reliable predictor of aggression towards other dogs and therefore could be used to help make that decision. We found that dogs with 10 or more scars in the three body zones where dogfighting injuries tend to be concentrated were more likely, on average, to show aggression to other dogs. The relationship is imperfect, however. Many unscarred dogs were dog aggressive while some highly scarred dogs were not. Therefore, we recommend also assessing a dog’s behavior before making decisions about its disposition. Abstract When pit bull-type dogs are seized in an investigation of organized dogfighting, heavily scarred dogs are often assumed to be highly dog aggressive due to a history of fighting. These dogs may be deemed dangerous and euthanized based on scarring alone. We analyzed our existing data on dogs seized from four dogfighting investigations, examining the relationship between the dogs’ scars with aggression towards other dogs. Scar and wound data were tallied in three body zones where dogfighting injuries tend to be concentrated. Dog aggression was assessed using a model dog and a friendly stimulus dog in a standardized behavior evaluation. Scarring and dog aggression were significantly related, more strongly among male (Fisher’s Exact p < 0.001) than female dogs (Fisher’s Exact p = 0.05). Ten or more scars in the three body zones was a reasonable threshold with which to classify a dog as high risk for dog aggression: 82% of males and 60% of females with such scarring displayed dog aggression. However, because many unscarred dogs were dog aggressive while some highly scarred dogs were not, we recommend collecting behavioral information to

  19. Ability of the Canine Brief Pain Inventory to detect response to treatment in dogs with osteoarthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boston, Raymond C.; Coyne, James C.; Farrar, John T.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To determine whether the Canine Brief Pain Inventory (CBPI) can detect changes in dogs with osteoarthritis treated with an NSAID or a placebo. Design Double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Animals 70 dogs with osteoarthritis. Procedures Owners completed the CBPI on day 0. Dogs received carprofen or a placebo on days 1 through 14. Owners completed the CBPI again on day 14. Pain severity and pain interference scores from the CBPI were calculated, and the change from day 0 to day 14 was assessed within each group and between groups. Results No significant differences were detected in median scores for pain severity (3.50 and 3.25 on days 0 and 14, respectively) and pain interference (3.92 and 3.25 on days 0 and 14, respectively) in dogs receiving the placebo. Dogs receiving carprofen had significant changes in median scores for pain severity (4.25 to 2.25 on days 0 and 14, respectively) and pain interference (4.33 to 2.67 on days 0 and 14, respectively). There was a significantly greater improvement in pain severity and pain interference scores in dogs treated with carprofen, compared with improvement in scores for dogs receiving the placebo. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance The CBPI was able to detect improvements in pain scores in dogs with osteoarthritis treated with an NSAID or a placebo. These results, in combination with previous reliability and validity testing, support the use of the CBPI to obtain quantifiable assessments from owners regarding the severity and impact of chronic pain and treatment for dogs with osteoarthritis. PMID:19180716

  20. Use of an activity monitor to detect response to treatment in dogs with osteoarthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Dorothy Cimino; Boston, Raymond C.; Farrar, John T.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To determine whether an activity monitor (AM) could be used to detect changes in activity in dogs with osteoarthritis treated with carprofen or a placebo. Design Randomized controlled trial. Animals 70 dogs with no clinically important abnormalities other than osteoarthritis for which they were not currently being treated. Procedures Dogs wore an AM continuously for 21 days. On days 8 through 21, the dogs were treated with carprofen (n = 35) or a placebo (35). Total activity counts for days 1 through 7 (baseline) were compared with total activity counts for days 15 through 21 (endpoint). The change in total activity count from baseline to endpoint was assessed within each treatment group as well as between groups. Linear regression analysis was performed to test for an association between treatment and percentage change in activity counts while controlling for other variables. Results For placebo-treated dogs, median baseline total activity count was not significantly different from median endpoint total activity count (1,378,408 vs 1,310,112, respectively). For dogs receiving carprofen, there was a significant increase in median activity count from baseline to endpoint (1,276,427 vs 1,374,133). When age and baseline activity counts were controlled for, dogs in the carpofen-treated group had a 20% increase in activity counts, compared with placebo-treated dogs (95% confidence interval, 10% to 26%). Conclusions and Clinical Relevance Results suggested that the AM used in the present study may be a valid outcome assessment tool for documenting improved activity associated with treatment in dogs with osteoarthritis. PMID:20590496

  1. Genetic testing of canine degenerative myelopathy in the South African Boxer dog population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gareth E. Zeiler

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Canine degenerative myelopathy (DM is a progressive disease process that is diagnosed late in life and mainly affects the pelvic limbs. Factors that make an ante-mortem definitive diagnosis of DM include: an insidious onset and clinical manifestation that mimics other disease processes of the pelvic limbs (hip dysplasia, cranial cruciate ligament rupture, etc. or there may even be concurrent disease processes, old-age onset and lack of reliable diagnostic methods. Until recently, South African dog owners had to submit samples to laboratories overseas for genetic testing in order to confirm an affected dog (homozygous A/A and to aid in the ante-mortem diagnosis of DM. Only affected dogs have been confirmed to manifest the clinical signs of DM. This study aimed to verify whether genetic testing by a local genetic laboratory was possible in order to detect a missense mutation of the superoxide dismutase gene (SOD1 that is implicated in causing the clinical signs of DM. The study also aimed to detect and map the inheritance of this disease process in a local Boxer dog population where the pedigree of the sampled population was known. Venous blood collected from Boxer dogs using a simple random sampling technique. The samples were genotyped for the SOD1:c.118G>A polymorphism. Carrier and affected Boxer dogs were detected. A pedigree that demonstrated the significance of inheriting a carrier or affected state in the population was mapped. The present study concludes that genotyping of the missense mutation in Boxer dogs is possible in South Africa. There are carrier and affected Boxer dogs in the local population, making DM a plausible diagnosis in aged dogs presenting with pelvic limb pathology.

  2. Population genetic study of 10 short tandem repeat loci from 600 domestic dogs in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Seo Hyun; Jang, Yoon-Jeong; Han, Myun Soo; Cho, Myung-Haing

    2016-09-30

    Dogs have long shared close relationships with many humans. Due to the large number of dogs in human populations, they are often involved in crimes. Occasionally, canine biological evidence such as saliva, bloodstains and hairs can be found at crime scenes. Accordingly, canine DNA can be used as forensic evidence. The use of short tandem repeat (STR) loci from biological evidence is valuable for forensic investigations. In Korea, canine STR profiling-related crimes are being successfully analyzed, leading to diverse crimes such as animal cruelty, dog-attacks, murder, robbery, and missing and abandoned dogs being solved. However, the probability of random DNA profile matches cannot be analyzed because of a lack of canine STR data. Therefore, in this study, 10 STR loci were analyzed in 600 dogs in Korea (344 dogs belonging to 30 different purebreds and 256 crossbred dogs) to estimate canine forensic genetic parameters. Among purebred dogs, a separate statistical analysis was conducted for five major subgroups, 97 Maltese, 47 Poodles, 31 Shih Tzus, 32 Yorkshire Terriers, and 25 Pomeranians. Allele frequencies, expected (Hexp) and observed heterozygosity (Hobs), fixation index (F), probability of identity (P(ID)), probability of sibling identity (P(ID)sib) and probability of exclusion (PE) were then calculated. The Hexp values ranged from 0.901 (PEZ12) to 0.634 (FHC2079), while the P(ID)sib values were between 0.481 (FHC2079) and 0.304 (PEZ12) and the P(ID)sib was about 3.35 × 10(-)⁵ for the combination of all 10 loci. The results presented herein will strengthen the value of canine DNA to solving dog-related crimes.

  3. Dog Ecology and Barriers to Canine Rabies Control in the Republic of Haiti, 2014-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schildecker, S; Millien, M; Blanton, J D; Boone, J; Emery, A; Ludder, F; Fenelon, N; Crowdis, K; Destine, A; Etheart, M; Wallace, R M

    2017-10-01

    An estimated 59 000 persons die annually of infection with the rabies virus worldwide, and dog bites are responsible for 95% of these deaths. Haiti has the highest rate of animal and human rabies in the Western Hemisphere. This study describes the status of animal welfare, animal vaccination, human bite treatment, and canine morbidity and mortality in Haiti in order to identify barriers to rabies prevention and control. An epidemiologic survey was used for data collection among dog owners during government-sponsored vaccination clinics at fourteen randomly selected sites from July 2014 to April 2015. A total of 2005 surveys were collected and data were analysed using parametric methods. Over 50% of owned dogs were allowed to roam freely, a factor associated with rabies transmission. More than 80% of dog owners reported experiencing barriers to accessing rabies vaccination for their dogs. Nearly one-third of the dog population evaluated in this study died in the year preceding the survey (32%) and 18% of these deaths were clinically consistent with rabies. Dog bites were commonly reported, with more than 3% of the study population bitten within the year preceding the survey. The incidence of canine rabies in Haiti is high and is exacerbated by low access to veterinary care, free-roaming dog populations and substandard animal welfare practices. Programmes to better understand the dog ecology and development of methods to improve access to vaccines are needed. Rabies deaths are at historical lows in the Western Hemisphere, but Haiti and the remaining canine rabies endemic countries still present a significant challenge to the goal of rabies elimination in the region. Published 2016. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  4. Radiographic diagnosis of mechanical obstruction in dogs based on relative small intestinal external diameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finck, Cyrielle; D'Anjou, Marc-André; Alexander, Kate; Specchi, Swan; Beauchamp, Guy

    2014-01-01

    Mechanical obstruction is a frequent cause of acute vomiting in dogs requiring prompt diagnosis to improve patient management and prognosis. The purpose of this retrospective study was to compare small intestinal radiographic characteristics in dogs with versus without mechanical intestinal obstruction. Fifty dogs with gastrointestinal clinical signs and abdominal radiographs were recruited from hospital record archives and assigned to groups (group 1, obstructive, n = 25; group 2, nonobstructive n = 25). Abdominal radiographs were randomized and independently interpreted by three examiners who were unaware of group status. Intestinal dilation was subjectively scored based on distribution (segmental, regional or diffuse), and severity (absent, mild, moderate or severe). Small intestinal maximal diameter (SImax), L5 vertebral body height, small intestinal minimal diameter (SImin), and an estimated average of small intestinal diameters (SIave) were measured and three ratios were calculated: SImax/L5, SImax/SImin, and SImax/SIave. Segmental dilation was more prevalent in obstructed dogs for all examiners (P ≤ 0.03) and most nonobstructed dogs had no dilation (P ≤ 0.05). All ratios were higher in obstructed dogs (P dogs with SImax/L5 ≤ 1.4, SImax/SImin ≤ 2, and SImax/SIave ≤ 1.3 values are very unlikely to be mechanically obstructed; dogs with SImax/L5 ≥ 2.4, SImax/SImin ≥ 3.4 and SImax/SIave ≥ 1.9 are very likely obstructed, particularly if segmental dilation (less than 25% of the small intestine) is present. Dogs with ratios falling between these thresholds may need further testing unless other signs justify surgical exploration or endoscopy. © 2014 American College of Veterinary Radiology.

  5. Plasma Creatinine Clearance in the Dog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, Loy W.

    1977-01-01

    Lists materials and methods for an experiment that demonstrates the concept of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) using anesthesized dogs. In the dog, GFR is equivalent to the renal plasma clearance of exogenous creatinine. (CS)

  6. Characterisation of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus clinical isolates from animals in New Zealand, 2012-2013, and subclinical colonisation in dogs and cats in Auckland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karkaba, A; Benschop, J; Hill, K E; Grinberg, A

    2017-03-01

    To characterise methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates from infection sites in animals in New Zealand and assess the prevalence of subclinical MRSA colonisation in dogs and cats attending veterinary clinics in Auckland. MRSA isolates from clinical specimens obtained by the main New Zealand veterinary diagnostic laboratories between June 2012 and June 2013, were genotypically characterised by DNA microarray hybridisation analysis and spa typing. In addition, nasal or perineal skin swabs collected from a cross-sectional sample of dogs (n=361) and cats (n=225) attending 29 veterinary clinics in Auckland during the same period were analysed for MRSA by culture. Eight MRSA clinical isolates were submitted for characterisation by the participating laboratories. The isolates originated from five dogs, including two isolates from the same dog, one foal, and one isolate had no identification of the source. The strain-types identified were AK3 (ST-5 SCCmecIV t045; n=1), USA500 (ST8 SCCmecIV t064; n=1), WSPP (ST30 SCCmecIV t019; n=1), Rhine Hesse (ST5 SCCmecII t002; n=2), and EMRSA-15 (ST22 SCCmecIV t032; n=3). No MRSA were isolated from 586 cultured swabs. Methicillin-susceptible S. aureus were detected in 9/257 (3.5%) swabs and non-aureus staphylococci in 22/257 (8.5%) swabs. The estimated true MRSA subclinical colonisation prevalence was 0%, with an upper 95% CI boundary of 1.9% for cats and 1.4% for dogs. The modest number of MRSA isolates submitted for this study by the participating laboratories suggests clinical MRSA infection in animals in New Zealand continues to be sporadic. The wide variety of strain-types found mirrored the evolving strain-type diversity observed in humans. We cannot rule out bias due to the non-random sampling of dogs and cats, but the apparent colonisation prevalence of 0% was consistent with the low prevalence of subclinical colonisation in humans in New Zealand. These similarities indicate the epidemiology of animal and

  7. A multicenter study of the effect of dietary supplementation with fish oil omega-3 fatty acids on carprofen dosage in dogs with osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritsch, Dale A; Allen, Timothy A; Dodd, Chadwick E; Jewell, Dennis E; Sixby, Kristin A; Leventhal, Phillip S; Brejda, John; Hahn, Kevin A

    2010-03-01

    To determine the effects of feeding a diet supplemented with fish oil omega-3 fatty acids on carprofen dosage in dogs with osteoarthritis. Randomized, controlled, multisite clinical trial. 131 client-owned dogs with stable chronic osteoarthritis examined at 33 privately owned veterinary hospitals in the United States. In all dogs, the dosage of carprofen was standardized over a 3-week period to approximately 4.4 mg/kg/d (2 mg/lb/d), PO. Dogs were then randomly assigned to receive a food supplemented with fish oil omega-3 fatty acids or a control food with low omega-3 fatty acid content, and 3, 6, 9, and 12 weeks later, investigators made decisions regarding increasing or decreasing the carprofen dosage on the basis of investigator assessments of 5 clinical signs and owner assessments of 15 signs. Linear regression analysis indicated that over the 12-week study period, carprofen dosage decreased significantly faster among dogs fed the supplemented diet than among dogs fed the control diet. The distribution of changes in carprofen dosage for dogs in the control group was significantly different from the distribution of changes in carprofen dosage for dogs in the test group. Results suggested that in dogs with chronic osteoarthritis receiving carprofen because of signs of pain, feeding a diet supplemented with fish oil omega-3 fatty acids may allow for a reduction in carprofen dosage.

  8. Three-year duration of immunity in dogs following vaccination against canine adenovirus type-1, canine parvovirus, and canine distemper virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gore, Thomas C; Lakshmanan, Nallakannu; Duncan, Karen L; Coyne, Michael J; Lum, Melissa A; Sterner, Frank J

    2005-01-01

    A challenge-of-immunity study was conducted to demonstrate immunity in dogs 3 years after their second vaccination with a new multivalent, modified-live vaccine containing canine adenovirus type 2 (CAV-2), canine parvovirus (CPV), and canine distemper virus (CDV). Twenty-three seronegative pups were vaccinated at 7 and 11 weeks of age. Eighteen seronegative pups, randomized into groups of six dogs, served as challenge controls. Dogs were kept in strict isolation for 3 years following the vaccination and then challenged sequentially with virulent canine adenovirus type 1 (CAV-1), CPV, and CDV. For each viral challenge, a separate group of six control dogs was also challenged. Clinical signs of CAV-1, CPV, and CDV infections were prevented in 100% of vaccinated dogs, demonstrating that the multivalent, modified-live test vaccine provided protection against virulent CAV-1, CPV, and CDV challenge in dogs 7 weeks of age or older for a minimum of 3 years following second vaccination.

  9. Craniological parameters of Yugoslav shepherd dog sharplanina

    OpenAIRE

    UROŠEVIĆ, Milivoje M.; DROBNJAK, Darko; STOJIĆ, Petar; UROŠEVIĆ, Milan B.

    2017-01-01

    Yugoslav Shepherd Dog Sharplanina is among the oldest dog breeds on the Balkan Peninsula. Since ancient times, dogs of this breed have been bred in the mountainous regions in the southeast of the former Yugoslavia, primarily in the Shara Mountain, based on which the breed was named the Yugoslav Shepherd Dog Sharplanina. Today, according to the FCI classification the breed belongs to Group 2. Countries of origin of this breed are Macedonia and Serbia. The goal of this paper is to evaluate and ...

  10. Bone tumors in R30 dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, J.P.; Pool, R.R.

    1980-01-01

    Radiographic and histologic findings from a mid-level group (38 dogs) of radium toxicity dogs showed 49 primary bone tumors with a high frequency of tumors within the axial skeleton. Additional primary bone tumors, bone tumors metastatic to bone, soft tissue metastases, and lung metastases were detected. No bone tumors were identified in 3 dogs. Lesions described as radiation osteodystrophy were found in all but 2 dogs

  11. Energy requirements for racing endurance sled dogs*

    OpenAIRE

    Loftus, John P.; Yazwinski, Molly; Milizio, Justin G.; Wakshlag, Joseph J.

    2014-01-01

    Endurance sled dogs have unique dietary energy requirements. At present, there is disparity in the literature regarding energy expenditure and thus energy requirements of these dogs. We sought to further elucidate energy requirements for endurance sled dogs under field conditions. Three sled dog teams completing the 2011 Yukon Quest volunteered to provide diet history. Nutritional content was evaluated and a mock meal was analysed for each team. Race data were obtained from www.yukonquest.com...

  12. Control of Hemotropic Diseases of Dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-12-31

    isolant. Inoculated dogs develo- ped signs of the disease which included fever , weight loss, lym- phodenopathy, corneal opacity, and pancytopenia. Of...in Alsatian dogs infected with E. canis, was not seen in thesedogs; however, 2 dogs devel- oped cutaneous petechial and ecchymotic hemorrhages at...included fever , weight loss, lymphadenopathy, - -- 19 corneal opacity, and pancytopenia. Of 3 dogs that died during the course of the study, one died with

  13. Spontaneous cholecystocutaneous fistula in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquardt, Shelly A; Rochat, Mark C; Johnson-Neitman, Jennifer L

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this case report was to describe the surgical correction of a cholecystocutaneous fistula in a dog. A 6 yr old Vizsla presented with a 2 mo history of a chronic draining wound on the right ventral thorax. Diagnostics revealed numerous fistulous tracts opening at a single site on the right ventrolateral chest wall, extending caudodorsally through the chest wall and diaphragm to the region of the right medial liver lobe. Exploratory laparotomy revealed the apex of the gallbladder adhered to the diaphragm with a tract of fibrous tissue extending along the diaphragm laterally to the right thoracic wall. Cholecystectomy was performed. The fistulous tract was incised to expose the lumen of the fistula, and the fistula was omentalized. Twenty-eight months after surgery, the dog had had no recurrence of the fistulous tract. Exploratory laparotomy allowed excellent visualization of the intra-abdominal path of the fistula and facilitated the ease of resection of the source. Cholecystectomy resulted in rapid and complete resolution of the fistula without the need for excision of the fistula. Although rare, gallbladder disease should be a differential for chronic fistulous tracts.

  14. VizieR Online Data Catalog: FIR data of IR-bright dust-obscured galaxies (DOGs) (Toba+, 2017)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toba, Y.; Nagao, T.; Wang, W.-H.; Matsuhara, H.; Akiyama, M.; Goto, T.; Koyama, Y.; Ohyama, Y.; Yamamura, I.

    2017-11-01

    We investigate the star-forming activity of a sample of infrared (IR)-bright dust-obscured galaxies (DOGs) that show an extreme red color in the optical and IR regime, (i-[22])AB>7.0. Combining an IR-bright DOG sample with the flux at 22μm>3.8mJy discovered by Toba & Nagao (2016ApJ...820...46T) with the IRAS faint source catalog version 2 and AKARI far-IR (FIR) all-sky survey bright source catalog version 2, we selected 109 DOGs with FIR data. For a subsample of seven IR-bright DOGs with spectroscopic redshifts (0.07DOGs and (2) the contribution of the active galactic nucleus to IR luminosity increases with IR luminosity. By comparing the stellar mass and SFR relation for our DOG sample and the literature, we found that most of the IR-bright DOGs lie significantly above the main sequence of star-forming galaxies at similar redshift, indicating that the majority of IRAS- or AKARI-detected IR-bright DOGs are starburst galaxies. (1 data file).

  15. Enhanced therapeutic effect of APAVAC immunotherapy in combination with dose-intense chemotherapy in dogs with advanced indolent B-cell lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marconato, L; Stefanello, D; Sabattini, S; Comazzi, S; Riondato, F; Laganga, P; Frayssinet, P; Pizzoni, S; Rouquet, N; Aresu, L

    2015-09-22

    The aim of this non-randomized controlled trial was to compare time to progression (TTP), lymphoma-specific survival (LSS), and safety of an autologous vaccine (consisting of hydroxyapatite ceramic powder and Heat Shock Proteins purified from the dogs' tumors, HSPPCs-HA) plus chemotherapy versus chemotherapy alone in dogs with newly diagnosed, clinically advanced, histologically confirmed, multicentric indolent B-cell lymphoma. The vaccine was prepared from dogs' resected lymph nodes and administered as an intradermal injection. Forty-five client-owned dogs were enrolled: 20 dogs were treated with dose-intense chemotherapy, and 25 received concurrent immunotherapy. Both treatment arms were well tolerated, with no exacerbated toxicity in dogs also receiving the vaccine. TTP was significantly longer for dogs treated with chemo-immunotherapy versus those receiving chemotherapy only (median, 209 versus 85 days, respectively, P=0.015). LSS was not significantly different between groups: dogs treated with chemo-immunotherapy had a median survival of 349 days, and those treated with chemotherapy only had a median survival of 200 days (P=0.173). Among vaccinated dogs, those mounting an immune response had a significantly longer TTP and LSS than those with no detectable response (P=0.012 and P=0.003, respectively). Collectively these results demonstrate that vaccination with HSPPCs-HA may produce clinical benefits with no increased toxicity, thereby providing a strategy for enhancing chemotherapy in dogs with advanced indolent lymphoma. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Experimental Chagas' disease in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta de Lana

    1992-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the development of experimental Chagas' disease in 64 out-bred young dogs. Twenty-nine animals were inoculated with the Be-62 and 35 with Be-78 Trypanosoma cruzi strains. Twenty-six were infected with blood trypomastigotes by different inoculation routes and 38 with metacyclic trypomastigotes from the vector via the conjunctival route. Twenty of the 26 dogs infected with blood trypomastigotes were autopsied during the acute phase. Eleven died spontaneously and nine were sacrificed. Six remained alive until they died suddenly (two or were autopsied (four. Twelve of the 38 dogs infected with metacyclic trypomastigotes evolved naturally to the chronic phase and remained alive for 24-48 months. The parasitemia, clinical aspects and serology (IgM and IgG as well as electrocardiogram, hemogram and heart anatomo-histopathologic patterns of acute and chronic cardiac forms of Chagas' disease as seen in human infections, were reproduced. The most important finding is the reproductibility of diffuse fibrosing chronic chagasic cardiopathy in all dogs infected with Be-78 T. cruzi strain autopsied between the 90th and 864th days of infection. Thus, the dog can be considered as a suitable experimental model to study Chagas' disease according to the requisites of the World Health Organization (1984. Futhermore the animal is easily obtained and easy to handle and maintain in experimental laboratory conditions.

  17. REVIEW: DOG, MASTER, AND RELATIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reviewed by Caihua Dorji (Tshe dpal rdo rje ཚེ་དཔལ་རྡོ་རྗེ། Caihuan Duojie 才还多杰

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Stag 'bum rgyal (b. 1966 is from a herding family in Mang ra (Guinan County, Mtsho lho (Hainan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Mtsho sngon (Qinghai Province. A member of the China Writers' Association and the Standing Committee of Mtsho lho Writers' Association, Stag 'bum rgyal teaches the Tibetan language at Mang ra Nationalities Middle School. He graduated from Mtsho lho Nationalities Normal School in 1986 and began his teaching career in the same year. Later in 1988, he attended a training program at Northwest Nationalities University and earned a graduation certificate. Stag 'bum rgyal has published more than sixty short stories, novellas, and novels since 1980s. Among his novellas, Sgo khyi 'The Watch Dog', Khyi rgan 'The Old Dog', h+'a pa gsos pa'i zin bris 'The Story of Dog Adoption', Mi tshe'i glu dbyangs 'The Song of Life', and khyi dang bdag po/ da dung gnyen tshan dag 'Dog, Master, and Relatives' have been translated into Chinese and published in such magazines as Xizang Wenxue 'Tibet Literature', Minzu Wenxue 'Nationalities Literature', and Qinghai Hu 'Qinghai Lake'. Rnam shes 'The Soul', Rgud 'Degeneration', and khyi dang bdag po/ da dung gnyen tshan dag 'Dog, Master, and Relatives', won the Sbrang char Literature Prize in 1999, 2003, and 2006, respectively. ..........

  18. Epidemiological study on periodontal diseases and some other dental disorders in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isogai, H.; Isogai, E.; Okamoto, H.; Shirakawa, H.; Nakamura, F.; Matsumoto, T.; Watanabe, T.; Miura, H.; Aoi, Y.; Kagota, W.; Takano, K.

    1989-01-01

    The prevalence of dental disorders in dogs was studied by applying index systems for human with some modifications. A total of 251 mongrel dogs including 143 stray dogs kept in the Animal Protection Offices in Tokyo and Hokkaido and 108 pet dogs visiting veterinary clinicians in Chiba Prefecture and Hokkaido were used. Periodontitis was prevalent among these dogs regardless of their sources and its incidence was increased with age. The lesion was more severe and more frequent in the premolar and molar regions than in the maxillary and mandibular incisor regions. Missing of teeth was observed at a high and increasing incidence with age. The tooth most commonly lost was the first premolar, followed by the other premolars and molars, where severe periodontitis was frequently found. Calculus was seen on many teeth, and aging agravated its prevalence and severity. Dental caries was observed in stray dogs, but neither to a serious degree nor at a significant level. These findings emphasize the necessity of dental hygiene, proper dental care and continuous periodical survey for dogs

  19. Some effects of sarcoptic mange on dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arlian, L G; Morgan, M S; Rapp, C M; Vyszenski-Moher, D L

    1995-10-01

    Sequential changes in pathology were examined for scabies-infested dogs to determine the effects of infestation with Sarcoptes scabiei var. canis. During 8 wk of infestation with S. scabiei, the progression of the disease was evaluated weekly by skin scrape, clinical examination, and blood analyses. At 8 wk, selected organs were microscopically examined for histopathology. All infested dogs developed an advanced level of scabies infestation by 8 wk. Of the 36 blood parameters evaluated, only values for erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) deviated significantly from the normal ranges for dogs. However, infested dogs had significantly (P dogs. Red blood cell levels for infested dogs dropped significantly (P dogs compared to controls, some individual infested dogs exhibited eosinophilia at 4-8 wk of infestation. The ESRs for infested dogs were significantly (P dogs prior to infestation or control dogs. All parameters except neutrophils had returned to preinfestation levels by 2 wk after treatment for scabies. Neutrophil concentrations were no longer significantly different by 4 wk posttreatment. There were no significant differences in serum enzyme, biochemical and electrolyte concentrations between infested and control dogs.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. 50 CFR 216.82 - Dogs prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dogs prohibited. 216.82 Section 216.82... Pribilof Islands Administration § 216.82 Dogs prohibited. In order to prevent molestation of fur seal herds, the landing of any dogs at Pribilof Islands is prohibited. [41 FR 49488, Nov. 9, 1976. Redesignated at...

  1. So Your Child Wants a Dog

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-04-27

    Our question this week is from a mom whose child is begging to get a dog. She's concerned that having a dog is unsafe because she's heard so much in the news about dog bites.  Created: 4/27/2009 by National Center for Health Marketing.   Date Released: 4/27/2009.

  2. 49 CFR 236.743 - Dog, swing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dog, swing. 236.743 Section 236.743 Transportation... OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.743 Dog, swing. A locking dog mounted in such a manner that it is free to rotate on a trunnion which is riveted to a locking...

  3. Dipylidium (Dog and Cat Flea Tapeworm) FAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the most common kind of tapeworm dogs and cats get? The most common tapeworm of dogs and cats in the United States is called Dipylidium caninum . ... infected with a tapeworm larvae. A dog or cat may swallow a flea while self-grooming. Once ...

  4. Chronic mesenteric volvulus in a dog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spevakow, Andrea B.; Nibblett, Belle Marie D.; Carr, Anthony P.; Linn, Kathleen A.

    2010-01-01

    A chronic, partial mesenteric volvulus was found on laparotomy of an adult Bernese mountain dog with a 4-month history of intermittent vomiting, diarrhea, and weight loss. The dog had elevated cholestatic and hepatocellular leakage enzymes, increased bile acids, azotemia, isosthenuria, and a hypokalemic, hypochloremic, metabolic alkalosis. The dog recovered fully following reduction of the volvulus. PMID:20357947

  5. Effect of cisplatin on bone transport osteogenesis in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrhart, Nicole; Eurell, Jo Ann C; Tommasini, Matteo; Constable, Peter D; Johnson, Ann L; Feretti, Antonio

    2002-05-01

    To document effects of cisplatin on regenerate bone formation during the distraction and consolidation phases of bone transport osteogenesis. 10 skeletally mature hounds. Bone transport osteogenesis was performed to reconstruct a 3-cm defect in the radius of each dog. Five dogs were randomly selected to receive cisplatin (70 mg/m2, IV, q 21 d for 4 cycles), and 5 were administered saline (0.9% NaCl) solution. Bone mineral density was measured by use of dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) on days 24, 55, and 90 after surgery. Dogs were euthanatized 90 days after surgery. Histomorphometry was performed on nondecalcified sections of regenerate bone. Bone mineral density and histomorphometric indices of newly formed bone were compared between groups. Densitometric differences in regenerate bone mineral density were not detected between groups at any time period. Cisplatin-treated dogs had decreased mineralized bone volume, decreased percentage of woven bone volume, decreased percentage of osteoblast-covered bone, increased porosity, and increased percentage of osteoblast-covered surfaces, compared with values for control dogs. Lamellar bone volume and osteoid volume did not differ significantly between groups. Regenerate bone will form and remodel during administration of cisplatin. Results of histomorphometric analysis suggest that bone formation and resorption may be uncoupled in cisplatin-treated regenerate bone as a result of increased osteoclast activity or delayed secondary bone formation during remodeling. These histomorphometric differences were modest in magnitude and did not result in clinically observable complications or decreased bone mineral density as measured by use of DEXA.

  6. Dog-directed speech: why do we use it and do dogs pay attention to it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Aderet, Tobey; Gallego-Abenza, Mario; Reby, David; Mathevon, Nicolas

    2017-01-11

    Pet-directed speech is strikingly similar to infant-directed speech, a peculiar speaking pattern with higher pitch and slower tempo known to engage infants' attention and promote language learning. Here, we report the first investigation of potential factors modulating the use of dog-directed speech, as well as its immediate impact on dogs' behaviour. We recorded adult participants speaking in front of pictures of puppies, adult and old dogs, and analysed the quality of their speech. We then performed playback experiments to assess dogs' reaction to dog-directed speech compared with normal speech. We found that human speakers used dog-directed speech with dogs of all ages and that the acoustic structure of dog-directed speech was mostly independent of dog age, except for sound pitch which was relatively higher when communicating with puppies. Playback demonstrated that, in the absence of other non-auditory cues, puppies were highly reactive to dog-directed speech, and that the pitch was a key factor modulating their behaviour, suggesting that this specific speech register has a functional value in young dogs. Conversely, older dogs did not react differentially to dog-directed speech compared with normal speech. The fact that speakers continue to use dog-directed with older dogs therefore suggests that this speech pattern may mainly be a spontaneous attempt to facilitate interactions with non-verbal listeners. © 2017 The Author(s).

  7. Comparison of lateral fabellar suture and tibial plateau leveling osteotomy techniques for treatment of dogs with cranial cruciate ligament disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon-Evans, Wanda J; Griffon, Dominique J; Bubb, Carrie; Knap, Kim M; Sullivan, Meghan; Evans, Richard B

    2013-09-01

    To compare 1-year outcomes after lateral fabellar suture stabilization (LFS) and tibial plateau leveling osteotomy (TPLO) for the treatment of dogs with cranial cruciate ligament disease. Randomized blinded controlled clinical trial. 80 dogs with naturally occurring unilateral cranial cruciate ligament disease. All dogs were randomly assigned to undergo LFS (n = 40) or TPLO (40). Clinical data collected included age, weight, body condition score, history information, stifle joint instability, radiographic findings, surgical findings, and complications. Outcome measures were determined prior to surgery and at 6 and 12 weeks and 6 and 12 months after surgery, including values of pressure platform gait analysis variables, Canine Brief Pain Inventory scores, owner satisfaction ratings, thigh circumference, and stifle joint goniometry values. Signalment and data for possible confounding variables were similar between groups. Peak vertical force of affected hind limbs at a walk and trot was 5% to 11% higher for dogs in the TPLO group versus those in the LFS group during the 12 months after surgery. Canine Brief Pain Inventory, goniometry, and thigh circumference results indicated dogs in both groups improved after surgery, but significant differences between groups were not detected. Owner satisfaction ratings at 12 months after surgery were significantly different between groups; 93% and 75% of owners of dogs in the TPLO and LFS groups indicated a satisfaction score ≥ 9 (scale, 1 to 10), respectively. Kinematic and owner satisfaction results indicated dogs that underwent TPLO had better outcomes than those that underwent LFS.

  8. Efficacy and safety of imidacloprid/moxidectin spot-on solution and fenbendazole in the treatment of dogs naturally infected with Angiostrongylus vasorum (Baillet, 1866)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willesen, Jakob Lundgren; Kristensen, Annemarie Thuri; Jensen, Asger Lundorff

    2007-01-01

    A randomized, blinded, controlled multicentre field trial study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of imidacloprid 10%/moxidectin 2.5% spot-on solution and fenbendazole in treating dogs naturally infected with Angiostrongylus vasorum. Dogs were randomly treated either with a single...... dose of 0.1 ml/kg bodyweight of imidacloprid 10%/moxidectin 2.5% spot-on solution or with 25 mg/kg bodyweight fenbendazole per os for 20 days. The study period was 42 days with dogs being examined on days 0, 7 and 42. The primary efficacy parameter was the presence of L1 larvae in faecal samples...... evaluated by a Baermann test from three consecutive days. Thoracic radiographs performed on each visit were being taken as a paraclinical parameter to support the results of the Baermann test. Twenty-seven dogs in the imidacloprid/moxidectin group and 23 dogs in the fenbendazole group completed the study...

  9. Prevalence of protective antibody titers for canine distemper virus and canine parvovirus in dogs entering a Florida animal shelter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechner, Elizabeth S; Crawford, P Cynda; Levy, Julie K; Edinboro, Charlotte H; Dubovi, Edward J; Caligiuri, Randy

    2010-06-15

    To determine the proportion of dogs entering an animal shelter with protective antibody titers (PATs) for canine distemper virus (CDV) and canine parvovirus (CPV) and identify factors associated with having a PAT. Cross-sectional study. 431 dogs admitted to an open-admission municipal animal shelter in north central Florida with a history of infectious disease outbreaks. Blood was collected from dogs on the day of admission to the shelter. Antibody titers for CDV and CPV were measured by virus neutralization and hemagglutination inhibition, respectively. Age, sex, neuter status, address of origin, source (stray or previously owned), health status (healthy or not healthy), and outcome (adoption, euthanasia, or reclaimed by owner) data were also collected. Overall, 64.5% (278/431) of dogs had insufficient titers for antibodies against CDV, CPV, or both. A total of 153 (35.5%) dogs had PATs for both CDV and CPV, 33 (7.7%) had PATs for CDV but not CPV, 136 (31.5%) had PATs for CPV but not CDV, and 109 (25.3%) did not have PATs for either virus. Older dogs were more likely to have PATs for CDV and CPV. Neutered dogs were more likely to have PATs for CDV. Factors not associated with having a PAT included source, health status, and type of community from which the dog originated. Most dogs had insufficient antibody titers for CDV, CPV, or both at the time of admission to the animal shelter. Findings support current guidelines recommending vaccination of all dogs immediately upon admission to shelters, regardless of source or physical condition.

  10. [Dog (Canis familiaris) infectivity to Lutzomyia youngi in Trujillo, Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Dalila; Rojas, Elina; Scorza, José Vicente; Jorquera, Alicia

    2006-10-01

    In Trujillo, Venezuela the prevalence for American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) is 38 per 100,000 inhabitants. In a periurban, rural settlement of the capital city Trujillo, we studied the potential capability of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris) as a source of infection for Lutzomyia youngi, a phlebotomine sand fly species abundant in the study area and whose domestic vectorial activity has been proven. Dogs with dermal lesions suggestive of ATL and parasitological confirmation of infection, were selected for xenodiagnosis by allowing sylvatic phlebotomines from a ATL free area, to feed ad libitum over each animal's entire body surface. The insects' intestinal tracts were dissected 5 days after the blood meal in order to look for flagellate forms. When these were found, parasitological identification was performed by the multiplex-PCR technique. Four hundred and fifty five sand flies engorged over two dogs in three different assays; promastigotes were found in 4 (0.88%) of the specimens on only one occasion. PCR identified DNA of the Leishmania Viannia subgenus. The household dog has the potential of being a domestic risk factor in the ATL transmission cycle.

  11. Stimultion by angiotensin of prostacyclin biosynthesis in rats and dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusting, G J; Mullins, E M

    1980-01-01

    1. Stimulation of prostanoid release by angiotensins (AI and AII) in rat isolated mesenteric vasculature and in the circulation of anaesthetized dogs has been investigated by bioassay. 2. AI and AII released a PGI2-like substance into rat mesenteric effluent and arterial blood of dogs; PGE2, PGF2 alpha, or TXA2 were not detected. 3. AI stimulated PGI2 release in both systems largely as a result of its conversion to AII, since PGI2 release was much reduced after treatment with captorpril. 3. AI stimulated PGI2 release in both systems largely as a result of its conversion to AII, since PGI2 release was much reduced after treatment with captopril. 4. Intravenous AII (0.02-1.0 microgram kg-1min-1) in dogs released PGI2 mainly from the lungs since right atrial blood contained much less than arterial blood. 5. Indomethacin (1 microgram/ml) abolished AII-induced PGI2 release from the memestery preparation, but intravenous idomethacin (10 mg/kg), meclofenamate (2 mg/kg) or aspirin (100 mg/kg) did not eliminate the pulmonary source of PGI2 in dogs. These findings highlight the dangers of assuming in vivo treatment with cyclo-oxygenase inhibitors abolished biosynthesis of all prostanoids.

  12. Zoonotic microsporidia in dogs and cats in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piekarska, Jolanta; Kicia, Marta; Wesołowska, Maria; Kopacz, Żaneta; Gorczykowski, Michał; Szczepankiewicz, Barbara; Kváč, Martin; Sak, Bohumil

    2017-11-15

    This study investigated the prevalence, genetic diversity, and zoonotic concerns of microsporidia in household dogs and cats in Poland. A total of 126 (82 dogs and 44 cats) fecal specimens were analyzed for the presence of specific DNA of Enterocytozoon bieneusi and Encephalitozoon spp. using a nested PCR protocol amplifying the internal transcribed spacer region of the rRNA gene. Microsporidia were found in 10 (7.9%) out of the 126 examined stool samples. Of the 82 dogs, 4 (4.9%) and 2 (2.4%) were positive for E. bieneusi (genotypes D and PtEbIX) and Encephalitozoon cuniculi genotype II, respectively. Of the 44 cats, 4 (9.1%) were positive for E. bieneusi (genotypes PtEbIX and eb52). Additionally, one cat (2.3%) was concurrently infected with E. bieneusi (PtEbIX) and E. cuniculi (genotype II). Considering that all detected microsporidia in dogs and cats have been previously associated with human microsporidiosis, companion animals may be a potential source of microsporidia infections in humans. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Staphylococcus pseudintermedius in the dog

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bannoehr, Jeanette; Guardabassi, Luca

    2012-01-01

    The dog is the natural host of Staphylococcus pseudintermedius. Many research efforts are currently being undertaken to expand our knowledge and understanding of this important canine commensal and opportunistic pathogen. The objective of this review is to summarize the current knowledge of the s......The dog is the natural host of Staphylococcus pseudintermedius. Many research efforts are currently being undertaken to expand our knowledge and understanding of this important canine commensal and opportunistic pathogen. The objective of this review is to summarize the current knowledge...... consequences for clinical practice. Staphylococcus pseudintermedius carriage in the dog is more frequent and genetically heterogeneous compared with that of Staphylococcus aureus in man. It appears that these staphylococcal species have evolved separately through adaptation to their respective natural hosts...

  14. Inhaled plutonium oxide in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J.F.

    1982-01-01

    This project is concerned with long-term experiments to determine the lifespan dose-effect relationships of inhaled 239 PuO 2 and 238 PuO 2 in beagles. Beagle dogs given a single exposure to 239 PuO 2 or 238 PuO 2 aerosols are being observed for lifespan dose-effect relationships. The 239 Pu body burden of the nine dogs that died of pulmonary-fibrosis-induced respiratory insufficiency during the first 3 yr after exposure was 1 to 12μCi. Nineteen of the dogs exposed to 238 Pu haved died during the first 7-1/2 yr after exposure due to bone and/or lung tumors; their body burdens at death ranged from 0.7 to 10μCi. Chronic lymphopenia was the earliest observed effect after inhalation of 239 PuO 2 or 238 PuO 2

  15. The effect of renal diet in association with enalapril or benazepril on proteinuria in dogs with proteinuric chronic kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Zatelli

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Treating proteinuria in dogs reduces the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD; renal diets and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE-inhibitors are cornerstones of treatment. Whether different ACE-inhibitors have distinct kidney protective effects is unknown; it is therefore hypothesized that renal diets and enalapril or benazepril have different beneficial effects in proteinuric CKD dogs. Forty-four dogs with proteinuric CKD (IRIS stages 1-4 were enrolled in the study and were fed renal diet for 30 days. Thereafter, they were randomly assigned to one of 2 groups. Dogs in group A (n=22 received enalapril (0.5 mg/kg, q12h and in group B (n=22 benazepril (0.5 mg/kg, q24h; in both groups, dogs were fed the same renal diet. After randomization, dogs were monitored for 120 days. Body weight and body condition score (BCS, serum concentrations of creatinine, blood urea nitrogen (BUN, albumin and total proteins, and urine protein-to-creatinine (UPC ratio were compared at different time-points. After 30 days of renal diet, creatinine, BUN and UPC ratio decreased significantly (p<0.0001. Compared to randomization, body weight, BCS, albumin, total proteins, creatinine and BUN did not vary during follow-up in the 44 dogs and differences between group A and B were not observed. However, the UPC ratio of group A at day 60, 90 and 150 was significantly lower than in group B and compared to randomization (p<0.05. In group B it did not vary overtime. It is concluded that the renal diet is beneficial to decrease creatinine, BUN and UPC ratio in proteinuric CKD dogs. Enalapril further ameliorates proteinuria if administered along with renal diet.

  16. The effect of renal diet in association with enalapril or benazepril on proteinuria in dogs with proteinuric chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zatelli, A; Roura, X; D'Ippolito, P; Berlanda, M; Zini, E

    2016-01-01

    Treating proteinuria in dogs reduces the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD); renal diets and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitors are cornerstones of treatment. Whether different ACE-inhibitors have distinct kidney protective effects is unknown; it is therefore hypothesized that renal diets and enalapril or benazepril have different beneficial effects in proteinuric CKD dogs. Forty-four dogs with proteinuric CKD (IRIS stages 1-4) were enrolled in the study and were fed renal diet for 30 days. Thereafter, they were randomly assigned to one of 2 groups. Dogs in group A (n=22) received enalapril (0.5 mg/kg, q12h) and in group B (n=22) benazepril (0.5 mg/kg, q24h); in both groups, dogs were fed the same renal diet. After randomization, dogs were monitored for 120 days. Body weight and body condition score (BCS), serum concentrations of creatinine, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), albumin and total proteins, and urine protein-to-creatinine (UPC) ratio were compared at different time-points. After 30 days of renal diet, creatinine, BUN and UPC ratio decreased significantly (p<0.0001). Compared to randomization, body weight, BCS, albumin, total proteins, creatinine and BUN did not vary during follow-up in the 44 dogs and differences between group A and B were not observed. However, the UPC ratio of group A at day 60, 90 and 150 was significantly lower than in group B and compared to randomization (p<0.05). In group B it did not vary overtime. It is concluded that the renal diet is beneficial to decrease creatinine, BUN and UPC ratio in proteinuric CKD dogs. Enalapril further ameliorates proteinuria if administered along with renal diet.

  17. Prevalence of Giardia and Cryptosporidium species in dog park attending dogs compared to non-dog park attending dogs in one region of Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Andrea; Ruch-Gallie, Rebecca; Scorza, Valeria; Lin, Philip; Lappin, Michael R

    2012-03-23

    Dog parks are very popular in urban areas, but there are no current studies attempting to correlate visits to dog parks and risk of colonization by enteric parasites. The purpose of this study was to determine whether dog park visitation is associated with an increased prevalence of enteric parasites or an increase in prevalence of gastrointestinal signs in dogs in northern Colorado. Feces from dogs owned by veterinary students or Veterinary Teaching Hospital staff members were submitted with a completed survey form detailing dog park attendance rates, fecal character scores, and other clinical information. Feces were examined microscopically for parasites after sugar centrifugation, for Giardia spp. cysts and Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts by a commercially available immunofluorescence assay (FA) and the FA positive samples were genotyped after PCR amplification. The Giardia assemblages were determined using the glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) β-giardin and triose phosphate isomerase (TPI) genes and the Cryptosporidium species were determined using the heat shock protein-70 gene. A total of 129 fecal samples were assayed; 66 were from dog park attending dogs and 63 were from non-dog park-attending dogs. The overall parasite prevalence rate was 7.0% (9 of 129 samples). Dog park attending dogs were more likely to be positive for Giardia or Cryptosporidium than non-dog park-attending dogs (p=0.0279), but there was no association of gastrointestinal signs with dog park attendance or with fecal flotation or FA results. The five Giardia isolates were assemblage C and/or D and the one Cryptosporidium isolate was Ctenocephalides canis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Pharmacokinetics of thiamphenicol in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castells, G; Intorre, L; Franquelo, C; Cristòfol, C; Pérez, B; Martí, G; Arboix, M

    1998-11-01

    To determine pharmacokinetic parameters of thiamphenicol (TAP) after IV and IM administration in dogs. 6 healthy 2- to 3-year-old male Beagles. IN a crossover design study, 3 dogs were given TAP IV, and 3 dogs were given TAP IM, each at a dosage of 40 mg/kg of body weight. Three weeks later, the same dogs were given a second dose by the opposite route. At preestablished times after TAP administration, blood samples were collected through a catheter placed in the cephalic vein, and TAP concentration was determined by use of a high-performance liquid chromatography. Results-Kinetics of TAP administered IV were fitted by a biexponential equation with a rapid first disposition phase followed by a slower disposition phase. Elimination half-life was short (1.7+/-0.3 hours), volume of distribution at steady state was 0.66+/-0.05 L/kg, and plasma clearance was 5.3+/-0.7 ml/min/kg. After IM administration, absorption was rapid. Peak plasma concentration (25.1+/-10.3 microg/ml) was reached about 45 minutes after drug administration. The apparent elimination half-life after IM administration (5.6+/-4.6 hours) was longer than that after IV administration probably because of the slow absorption rate from the muscle. Mean bioavailability after IM administration was 96+/-7%. The pharmacokinetic profile of TAP in dogs suggests that it may be therapeutically useful against susceptible microorganisms involved in the most common infections in dogs, such as tracheobronchitis, enterocolitis, mastitis, and urinary tract infections.

  19. K-9 Police Dog Bite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vy Han

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available History of present illness: A 30-year-old male who was brought into the emergency department (ED by police officers after being bitten in the right lower extremity by a police German Shepard after attempting to flee authorities on foot. The patient stated that the dog immediately bit down on his right calf and proceeded to violently shake its head side to side without releasing its grip until police manually pulled the dog off of him. Upon arrival to the ED, he was tachycardic in the 120’s, complaining of severe, throbbing, sharp pain in the right lower extremity, and was neurovascular intact on exam. Significant findings: The photograph is of the anterior compartment of the right lower leg demonstrating multiple deep lacerations with exposed and torn muscle. X-ray showed no foreign body. Discussion: Police dog bites should be treated more cautiously than typical dog bites because these highly-trained dogs are generally larger breeds which are taught to subdue suspects with a bite-and-hold technique rather than bite and release. This can lead to extensive crush injuries, fractures, large caliber lacerations with associated muscle tissue injury and/or severe neurovascular compromise.1 Hence, police dog bites often require provocative diagnostic testing, specialist consultation for possible operative repair, and aggressive irrigation and ultimately admission for intravenous antibiotics.1 This patient’s wound was aggressively irrigated and evaluated by plastic surgery in the ED. He was ultimately admitted for intravenous antibiotics, pain control, wound care, and healing by secondary intention.

  20. Efficacy of fluralaner against Otodectes cynotis infestations in dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taenzler, Janina; de Vos, Christa; Roepke, Rainer K A; Frénais, Régis; Heckeroth, Anja R

    2017-01-16

    The efficacy of fluralaner for the treatment of Otodectes cynotis infestations in dogs and cats was evaluated after oral (dogs) or topical administration (dogs and cats). Twenty-four dogs and sixteen cats were experimentally infested with O. cynotis and randomly allocated to equal sized groups (n = 8/group). Dog groups were treated once, either orally with fluralaner at a minimum dose of 25 mg/kg body weight, topically with fluralaner at a dose of 25 mg/kg body weight or topically with saline solution (control). Cat groups were treated once, either topically with fluralaner at a dose of 40 mg/kg body weight or topically with saline solution. Ears of all animals were examined otoscopically for live visible mites and the amount of debris and cerumen before, and 14 and 28 days after treatment. Twenty-eight days after treatment, animals were sedated and both ears were flushed to obtain the total number of live mites per animal. The efficacy was calculated, based on the results of the ear flushing, by comparing mean live mite counts in the fluralaner treated groups versus the saline solution treated group. A single topical treatment of cats with fluralaner reduced the mean mite counts by 100% (P dogs with fluralaner reduced the mean mite counts by 99.8% (P Cats treated topically with fluralaner had no mites visible during otoscopic examination at either 14 or 28 days after treatment. All dogs treated orally or topically with fluralaner had no mites visible during otoscopic examination at 28 days after treatment. At 14 days after treatment, only 1-2 mites were visible in three dogs (oral treatment: 2 dogs, topical treatment: 1 dog). All fluralaner-treated animals showed improvement in the amount of cerumen exudation compared with observations performed before treatment. No treatment related adverse events were observed in any dogs or cats enrolled in these studies. In this study, fluralaner administered topically to cats and orally or topically to dogs was

  1. Job-Related Stress in Forensic Interviewers of Children with Use of Therapy Dogs Compared with Facility Dogs or No Dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Diane; Yamamoto, Mariko; Willits, Neil H; Hart, Lynette A

    2018-01-01

    Sexually abused children providing essential testimony regarding crimes in forensic interviews now sometimes are provided facility dogs or therapy dogs for comfort. Facility dogs are extensively trained to work with forensic interviewers; when using therapy dogs in interviews, volunteers are the dog handlers. Interviews can impact child welfare workers' mental health causing secondary traumatic stress (STS). To investigate this stress, first data were gathered on stress retrospectively for when interviewers initially started the job prior to working with a dog, and then currently, from forensic interviewers using a facility dog, a therapy or pet dog, or no dog. These retrospective and secondary traumatic stress scale (STSS) data compared job stress among interviewers of children using: a certified, workplace facility dog ( n  = 16), a volunteer's trained therapy dog or the interviewer's pet dog ( n  = 13/3), or no dog ( n  = 198). Retrospective scores of therapy dog and no dog interviewers' stress were highest for the first interviewing year 1 and then declined. Extremely or very stressful retrospective scores differed among the three groups in year 1 ( p  therapy dog group as compared with the facility dog group ( p  therapy dog users than no dog users ( p  dog users more consistently used dogs during interviews and conducted more interviews than therapy/pet dog users; both groups favored using dogs. Interviewers currently working with therapy dogs accompanied by their volunteers reported they had experienced heightened stress when they began their jobs; their high stress levels still persisted, indicating lower inherent coping skills and perhaps greater empathy among interviewers who later self-selected to work with therapy dogs. Results reveal extreme avoidant stress for interviewers witnessing children who are suffering and their differing coping approaches.

  2. Owned dog ecology and demography in Villa de Tezontepec, Hidalgo, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisiel, Luz Maria; Jones-Bitton, Andria; Sargeant, Jan M; Coe, Jason B; Flockhart, D T Tyler; Reynoso Palomar, Alejandro; Canales Vargas, Erick J; Greer, Amy L

    2016-12-01

    Dog overpopulation in developing countries has negative implications for the health and safety of people, including the transmission of zoonotic diseases, physical attacks and intimidation to humans and animals, as well as impacts on canine welfare. Understanding the ecology and demographic characteristics of a dog population can help in the planning and monitoring of canine population control programs. Little data exist regarding demography and dynamics of domestic dog populations in semi-urban areas in Mexico. A cross-sectional study was carried out between October 21 and November 7, 2015, to characterize the dog ecology and demography in Villa de Tezontepec, Hidalgo, Mexico. A face-to-face survey was used to collect data from randomly selected households in four contiguous communities using stratified two-stage cluster sampling. Within each household, adults answered questions related to their dogs and their experiences with dog bites and aggression. A total of 328 households were interviewed, representing a participation rate of 90.9% (328/361) and 1,450 people. Approximately 65.2% of the households owned one or more dogs, with a mean of 1.3 (SD=1.5) and 2.0 (SD=1.5) owned dogs in all participant households and dog-owning households, respectively. The human: owned dog ratio for all participant households was 3.4:1 (1450/428), and for the dog-owning households was 2.3:1 (984/428). The owned dog male: female ratio was 1.4:1 (249/179). Approximately 74.4% (95.0% CI=69.8% - 78.7%) of the owned dogs were older than one year (mean age: 2.9 years; SD=2.5). The mean age of owned female dogs at first litter was 1.9 years (SD=1.2) and the mean litter size was 4.2 puppies (SD=2.1). Approximately 36.9% (95.0% CI=31.8% - 46.4%) of the females were spayed, and 14.1% (95.0% CI=10.7% - 19.7%) of the males were neutered. Only 44.9% (95.0% CI=40.1% - 49.7%) were always confined when unsupervised. Approximately 84.4% (95.0% CI=80.6% - 87.7%) were reported to have been vaccinated

  3. Inhaled plutonium nitrate in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dagle, G.E.; Cannon, W.C.; Ragan, H.A.; Watson, C.R.; Stevens, D.L.; Cross, F.T.; Dionne, P.J.; Harrington, T.P.

    1978-01-01

    Beagle dogs given a single inhalation exposure to 239 Pu(NO 3 ) 4 are being observed for life-span dose-effect relationships. Lymphopenia occurred at the two highest dosage levels as early as 1 mo following exposure and was associated with neutropenia and reduction in numbers of circulatory monocytes by 4 mo postexposure. Radiation pneumonitis developed in one dog at the highest dosage level at 14 mo postexposure. More rapid translocation to skeleton and liver occurred following inhalation of 238 Pu(NO 3 ) 4 than after 239 Pu(NO 3 ) 4 inhalation

  4. K-9 Police Dog Bite

    OpenAIRE

    Vy Han; John R. Marshall

    2017-01-01

    History of present illness: A 30-year-old male who was brought into the emergency department (ED) by police officers after being bitten in the right lower extremity by a police German Shepard after attempting to flee authorities on foot. The patient stated that the dog immediately bit down on his right calf and proceeded to violently shake its head side to side without releasing its grip until police manually pulled the dog off of him. Upon arrival to the ED, he was tachycardic in the 120’...

  5. Inhaled plutonium nitrate in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dagle, G.E.

    1987-01-01

    The major objective of this project is to determine dose-effect relationships of inhaled plutonium nitrate in dogs to aid in predicting health effects of accidental exposure in man. For lifespan dose-effect studies, beagle dogs were given a single inhalation exposure to 239 Pu(NO 3 ) 4 , in 1976 and 1977. The earliest biological effect was on the hematopoietic system; lymphopenia and neutropenia occurred at the two highest dose levels. They have also observed radiation pneumonitis, lung cancer, and bone cancer at the three highest dose levels. 1 figure, 3 tables

  6. Inhaled plutonium nitrate in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dagle, G.E.

    1986-01-01

    The major objective of this project is to determine dose-effect relationships of inhaled plutonium nitrate in dogs to aid in predicting health effects of accidental exposure in man. For lifespan dose-effect studies, beagle dogs were given a single inhalation exposure to 239 Pu(NO 3 ) 4 , in 1976 and 1977. The earliest biological effect was on the hematopoietic system; lymphopenia and neutropenia occurred at the two highest dose levels. The authors have also observed radiation pneumonitis, lung cancer, and bone cancer at the three highest dose levels. 1 figure, 4 tables

  7. Inhaled plutonium nitrate in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dagle, G.E.

    1982-01-01

    The major objective of this project is to determine dose-effect relationships of inhaled plutonium nitrate in dogs to aid in the prediction of health effects of accidental exposure in man. For lifespan dose-effect studies, beagle dogs were given a single inhalation exposure to 239 Pu(NO 3 ) 4 , in 1976 and 1977. The earliest biological effect was on the hematopoietic system; as described in previous Annual Reports, lymphopenia and neutropenia occurred at the two highest dose levels. Radiation pneumonitis, lung cancer, and bone cancer have been observed at the highest dose levels

  8. Disseminated phaeohyphomycosis in a dog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lana S. Rothenburg

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Phaeohyphomycosis is a rare but emerging disease caused by dematiaceous fungi. Here we describe the case of an immunosuppressed dog with disseminated phaeohyphomycosis secondary to Bipolaris spicifera infection. Regionally extensive infiltration of the paw pads, skin, myocardium, liver, renal interstitium and diaphragm was identified on histopathology. Candida glabrata and Fusarium oxysporum were also cultured from multiple sites post-mortem. The dog was treated with fluconazole, itraconazole, terbinafine and liposomal amphotericin B, but was euthanized due to its poor prognosis after 12 days of therapy.

  9. Fluorescein angiogram in diabetic dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, K.; Yasuda, K.; Iwata, H.; Nakayama, H.; Hasegawa, A.; Tomoda, I.

    1986-01-01

    Fluorescein angiography was carried out see retinal vascular changes of the ocular fundus in 4 spontaneously occurring diabetic dogs. In all 4 cases, several hypofluorescent areas were determined to be filling defects of the retinal capillary bed of the tapetal fundi during the arteriovenous phase. Around these hypofluorescent areas, many dots of hyperfluorescence were also observed to be microaneurysms. However, no leaking of fluorescein was detected during angiography. These findings of 4 diabetic dogs were similar to those reported in man with non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy

  10. CONTROLLING STREET DOG POPULATION IN MOSCOW

    OpenAIRE

    ZHULENKO A.S.; POLYNOVA G.V.

    2016-01-01

    The issue represents the analysis of the fundamentals and world-wide best practices of controlling street dog population in Moscow and other global cities. Actions proposed to improve the strategy of managing free-ranging dogs in Moscow.Some reasons of increase in number of stray dogs and “pet overpopulation” ware studied. There are ecological types of stray dogs characterized the types of running wild of dogs and foraging (food procurement) strategy of animals.The analysis of the basic princ...

  11. Acute satiety response of mammalian, avian and fish proteins in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vester Boler, Brittany M; Faber, Trevor A; Bauer, Laura L; Swanson, Kelly S; Smiley, Scott; Bechtel, Peter J; Fahey, George C

    2012-01-01

    Fish proteins have been reported to be more satiating than meat proteins. The objective was to determine the effect of different animal protein pre-meals on satiety. A total of ten intact female hounds were fed pork loin, beef loin, chicken breast, salmon fillet or pollock fillet. Each pre-meal was fed to contain 100 g protein. Blood was collected at 0, 5, 15, 30, 60, 90 and 120 min postprandially and analysed for glucose, insulin, total ghrelin, active glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and plasma amino acids (AA). Dogs were fed 2 ×  metabolisable energy, 3 h following the pre-meal, and intake was determined 30, 60, 180 and 1440 min after food presentation. Glucose decreased over time (P dogs consumed pollock or chicken. Insulin increased (P dogs consumed salmon. GLP-1 increased (P dogs consumed beef. Ghrelin decreased (P dogs consumed pork, salmon and pollock. Different protein sources may influence blood markers in dogs, but it does not appear that fish substrates have different satiating abilities than mammalian or avian sources.

  12. CD4+FOXP3+ cells produce IL-10 in the spleens of dogs with visceral leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Kathlenn Liezbeth Oliveira; de Andrade, Mariana M C; Melo, Larissa M; Perosso, Juliana; Vasconcelos, Rosemeri O; Munari, Danisio P; Lima, Valéria M F

    2014-05-28

    Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) is caused by intracellular parasites of the genus Leishmania that affect humans and several animal species. Dogs are one of the main urban reservoirs of the parasite and play a central role in the transmission cycle to humans via sandflies. Studies concerning the immune response in dogs with VL have demonstrated that protective immunity is associated with cellular immune response, while disease progression is associated with humoral response and IL-10 and TGF-β production. The study aimed to evaluate IL-10 and TGF-β production by regulatory T (Treg) cells in the blood and spleen of dogs naturally infected by Leishmania spp. and correlate this with parasite load. Five healthy dogs and 29 dogs with proven infection were selected for the study group. Real-time PCR was used to quantify parasite load and confirm infection by Leishmania spp. Treg cells producing IL-10 and TGF-β were quantified using flow cytometry. An increase in IL-10 production by Treg cells was verified in the spleen of dogs naturally infected by Leishmania spp. Concurrently, a decrease in the total number of T cells in these dogs was verified compared with healthy dogs. No association was determined between parasite load and the percentage of spleen Treg cells producing IL-10 and TGF-β. These findings suggest that Treg cells are an important source of IL-10 in the spleen, participating in immune response modulation, while the reduced percentage of these cells in infected dogs could be attributed to persistent immune activation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Pathological features of polyneuropathy in three dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuboi, Masaya; Uchida, Kazuyuki; Ide, Tetsuya; Ogawa, Mizue; Inagaki, Takehiko; Tamura, Shinji; Saito, Miyoko; Chambers, James K; Nakayama, Hiroyuki

    2013-01-01

    Canine polyneuropathy is a neurological disorder characterized by a dysfunction of multiple peripheral nerves. The etiology of the disease is diverse; it may occur in cases of infectious, immune-mediated, or hereditary conditions or in association with endocrinopathy, neoplasm, or chemical intoxication. It is often difficult to determine the etiology through clinical symptoms. The aim of this study is to investigate pathological differences among three canine polyneuropathy cases with each presumably having a different etiology. Cases included a 13-month-old female border collie (Dog No.1), a 21-month-old male chihuahua (Dog No.2) and an 11-year-old male beagle (Dog No.3). Clinical examinations revealed hindlimb ataxia and sensory loss in Dog No.1, forelimb paralysis and vertebral pain in Dog No.2, and paddling-gait and hypothyroidism in Dog No.3. Histopathologically, axonal swelling and pale myelin were observed in Dog No.1. Giant axons mimicking giant axonal neuropathy were obvious in Dog No.2. Dog No.3 showed atrophic axons and severe interstitial edema. Distributions of peripheral nerve lesions coincided with respective clinical symptoms. According to their clinical and pathological features, Dogs No.1 and No.2 were suspected of hereditary polyneuropathy, while Dog No.3 seemed to have hypothyroidism-associated polyneuropathy. As each case demonstrated unique pathological features, different pathogeneses of peripheral nerve dysfunction were suggested.

  14. Incidence and impact of dog attacks on guide dogs in the UK: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moxon, R; Whiteside, H; England, G C W

    2016-04-09

    Data on dog attacks on Guide Dogs' stock were reviewed to investigate the characteristics of the attacks. An average of 11.2 attacks occurred each month. Nearly all of the attacks occurred in public areas, 68.4 per cent of victim dogs were qualified guide dogs and 55.5 per cent of victim dogs were working in harness when they were attacked. Guide Dogs' stock were injured in 43.2 per cent of attacks and veterinary costs for attacks were estimated at £34,514.30. Over 40 per cent of qualified guide dogs' working ability was affected and >20 per cent of qualified guide dogs required some time off from working after a dog attack. Twenty dogs were permanently withdrawn from the Guide Dogs' programme as a result of dog attacks, 13 of which were qualified and working with guide dog owners at the time of the withdrawal; this resulted in a financial cost of >£600,000 to the charity. More importantly perhaps, temporary and permanent withdrawals have a significant impact upon the mobility and independence of guide dog owners and in many cases significantly impacted their emotional well-being. British Veterinary Association.

  15. Comparison between cranial thoracic intervertebral disc herniations in German Shepherd dogs and other large breed dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaitero, Luis; Nykamp, Stephanie; Daniel, Rob; Monteith, Gabrielle

    2013-01-01

    Cranial thoracic intervertebral disc herniations have been reported to be rare in dogs due to the presence of the intercapital ligament, however some studies have proposed they may not be uncommon in German Shepherd dogs. The purpose of this retrospective study was to compare cranial thoracic intervertebral disc herniations in German Shepherd dogs and other large breed dogs (control group). Medical records at the Ontario Veterinary College were searched for German Shepherd dogs and other large breed dogs that had magnetic resonance imaging studies including the T1-T9 region. For each dog and each disc space from T1-T9, three variables (compression, disc degeneration, and herniation) were recorded and graded based on review of sagittal T2-weighted images. Twenty-three German Shepherd dogs and 47 other large breed dogs met inclusion criteria. The German Shepherd dog group had higher scores than the control group for compression (P = 0.0099) and herniation (P dog group, intervertebral discs T2-T3 and T4-T5 had an increased risk for compression and T3-T4 had an increased risk for compression and herniation. Findings from this study indicated that German Shepherd dogs may be more likely than other large breed dogs to have spinal cord compression due to cranial thoracic disc herniations. Imaging of the cranial thoracic spine, including T2-T3, is recommended for German Shepherd dogs with T3-L3 neurological signs. © 2012 Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound.

  16. Helminth infections in domestic dogs from Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. Moskvina

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Dogs are the hosts for a wide helminth spectrum including tapeworms, flatworms, and nematodes. These parasites affect the dog health and cause morbidity and mortality, especially in young and old animals. Some species, as Toxocara canis, Ancylostoma caninum, Dipylidium caninum, and Echinococcus spp. are well-known zoonotic parasites worldwide, resulting in high public health risks. Poor data about canine helminth species and prevalence are available in Russia, mainly due to the absence of official guidelines for the control of dog parasites. Moreover, the consequent low quality of veterinary monitoring and use of preventive measures, the high rate of environmental contamination by dog feces and the increase of stray dog populations, make the control of the environmental contamination by dog helminths very difficult in this country. This paper reviews the knowledge on canine helminth fauna and prevalence in Russia. Practical aspects related to diagnosis, treatment, and control of parasitic diseases of dogs in Russia are discussed.

  17. Helminth infections in domestic dogs from Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskvina, T. V.; Ermolenko, A. V.

    2016-01-01

    Dogs are the hosts for a wide helminth spectrum including tapeworms, flatworms, and nematodes. These parasites affect the dog health and cause morbidity and mortality, especially in young and old animals. Some species, as Toxocara canis, Ancylostoma caninum, Dipylidium caninum, and Echinococcus spp. are well-known zoonotic parasites worldwide, resulting in high public health risks. Poor data about canine helminth species and prevalence are available in Russia, mainly due to the absence of official guidelines for the control of dog parasites. Moreover, the consequent low quality of veterinary monitoring and use of preventive measures, the high rate of environmental contamination by dog feces and the increase of stray dog populations, make the control of the environmental contamination by dog helminths very difficult in this country. This paper reviews the knowledge on canine helminth fauna and prevalence in Russia. Practical aspects related to diagnosis, treatment, and control of parasitic diseases of dogs in Russia are discussed. PMID:27956777

  18. Dog and human inflammatory bowel disease rely on overlapping yet distinct dysbiosis networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Baeza, Yoshiki; Hyde, Embriette R; Suchodolski, Jan S; Knight, Rob

    2016-10-03

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is an autoimmune condition that is difficult to diagnose, and animal models of this disease have questionable human relevance 1 . Here, we show that the dysbiosis network underlying IBD in dogs differs from that in humans, with some bacteria such as Fusobacterium switching roles between the two species (as Bacteroides fragilis switches roles between humans and mice) 2 . For example, a dysbiosis index trained on humans fails when applied to dogs, but a dog-specific dysbiosis index achieves high correlations with the overall dog microbial community diversity patterns. In addition, a random forest classifier trained on dog-specific samples achieves high discriminatory power, even when using stool samples rather than the mucosal biopsies required for high discriminatory power in humans 2 . These relationships were not detected in previously published dog IBD data sets due to their limited sample size and statistical power 3 . Taken together, these results reveal the need to train host-specific dysbiosis networks and point the way towards a generalized understanding of IBD across different mammalian models.

  19. Seroepidemiological survey of Neospora caninum and its risk factors in farm dogs in Nakuru district, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tequiero Abuom Okumu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The objective of this study was to determine the seroprevalence of Neospora caninum (NC and its risk factors in farm dogs in Kenya. Materials and Methods: As part of a longitudinal study on dairy cattle abortion in 2010 in Kenya, serum samples were collected from 84 dogs in 53 randomly selected dairy cattle farms to determine the seroprevalence and risk factors of seropositivity for NC. Results: 15 (17.9% of the dogs were seropositive to NC antibodies, and at least one seropositive dog was found in 12 (22.6% of the 53 farms. The final multivariable logistic regression model identified free-roaming as the only factor significantly associated with seropositivity (odds ratio=4.48; p=0.03. Conclusion: The findings of this study indicate that canine neosporosis does exist in Kenya and that farmers should restrict their dogs from roaming to reduce the risk of their dogs becoming a reservoir for NC. More studies need to be carried out to determine the reproductive effects of NC on dairy cattle in Kenya.

  20. Basic interrupted versus continuous suturing techniques in bronchial anastomosis following sleeve lobectomy in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayram, Ahmet Sami; Erol, Mehmet Muharrem; Salci, Hakan; Ozyiğit, Ozgür; Görgül, Sacit; Gebitekin, Cengiz

    2007-12-01

    Sleeve resection with or without lung resection is a valid conservative operation for patients with benign or malignant tumors; it enables the preservation of lung parenchyma. The aim of this prospective randomized study was to compare complications, operating time, and bronchial healing between the techniques of interrupted and continuous suturing for bronchial anastomosis in dogs. Twenty adult mongrel dogs each weighing 18-22 kg (average: 20 kg) were divided into two groups according to the anastomosis technique performed: group A, interrupted suturing and group B, continuous suturing. Each group comprised of 10 dogs. Following right thoracotomy, sleeve resection of the right cranial lobe was performed in all dogs. Basic interrupted sutures using 4/0 Vicryl (Ethicon, USA) were used in group A, and continuous sutures were used in group B. The median anastomosis time was 15.2 min (range: 13-21 min) in group A and 9.6 min (range: 8-13 min) in group B. In all dogs, the anastomosis line was resected via right pneumonectomy for histopathological investigation 1 month after sleeve resection. Histopathological examination revealed that the healing of the anastomosis was not affected by the suturing technique applied. One dog from each group died on the fourth postoperative day; Fisher's exact test, p=0.763. Our research revealed that the healing of the anastomosis was not affected by the suturing technique performed.

  1. Urban dogs in rural areas: Human-mediated movement defines dog populations in southern Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villatoro, Federico J; Sepúlveda, Maximiliano A; Stowhas, Paulina; Silva-Rodríguez, Eduardo A

    2016-12-01

    Management strategies for dog populations and their diseases include reproductive control, euthanasia and vaccination, among others. However, the effectiveness of these strategies can be severely affected by human-mediated dog movement. If immigration is important, then the location of origin of dogs imported by humans will be fundamental to define the spatial scales over which population management and research should apply. In this context, the main objective of our study was to determine the spatial extent of dog demographic processes in rural areas and the proportion of dogs that could be labeled as immigrants at multiple spatial scales. To address our objective we conducted surveys in households located in a rural landscape in southern Chile. Interviews allowed us to obtain information on the demographic characteristics of dogs in these rural settings, human influence on dog mortality and births, the localities of origin of dogs living in rural areas, and the spatial extent of human-mediated dog movement. We found that most rural dogs (64.1%) were either urban dogs that had been brought to rural areas (40.0%), or adopted dogs that had been previously abandoned in rural roads (24.1%). Some dogs were brought from areas located as far as ∼700km away from the study area. Human-mediated movement of dogs, especially from urban areas, seems to play a fundamental role in the population dynamics of dogs in rural areas. Consequently, local scale efforts to manage dog populations or their diseases are unlikely to succeed if implemented in isolation, simply because dogs can be brought from surrounding urban areas or even distant locations. We suggest that efforts to manage or study dog populations and related diseases should be implemented using a multi-scale approach. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The role of domestic dogs in the transmission of zoonotic helminthes in a rural area of Mekong river basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otake Sato, Marcello; Sato, Megumi; Yoonuan, Tippayarat; Pongvongsa, Tiengkham; Sanguankiat, Surapol; Kounnavong, Sengchanh; Maipanich, Wanna; Chigusa, Yuichi; Moji, Kazuhiko; Waikagul, Jitra

    2017-06-01

    Dogs have been bred since ancient times for companionship, hunting, protection, shepherding and other human activities. Some canine helminth parasites can cause significant clinical diseases in humans as Opisthorchis viverrini causing cholangiocarcinoma in Southeast Asian Countries. In this study, socio-cultural questionnaire, canine parasitological analysis, necropsy, parasite molecular confirmation and dog roaming data were evaluated in Savannakhet, Lao-PDR, a typical Mekong Basin area. Dog owners comprised 48.8% of the studied population, with 61.2% owning one dog, 25.1% 2 dogs, 8.5% 3 dogs and 1.8% owning more than 4 dogs. Data from GPS logger attached to dogs showed they walked from 1.4 to 13.3 km per day, covering an area of 3356.38m2 average, with a routine of accessing water sources. Thirteen zoonotic helminth species were observed. Causative agents of visceral and cutaneous larva migrans occurred in 44.1% and 70% of the samples respectively. Spirometra erinaceieuropaei was detected in 44.1% of samples. Importantly, O. viverrini was found in 8.8% of samples. Besides the known importance of dogs in the transmission of Ancylostoma spp., Toxocara spp. and S. erinaceieuropaei, the observed roaming pattern of dogs confirmed it as an important host perpetuating O. viverrini in endemic areas; their routine access to waterbodies may spread O. viverrini eggs in a favorable environment for the fluke development, facilitating the infection of fishes, and consequently infecting humans living in the same ecosystem. Therefore, parasitic NTDs control programs in humans should be done in parallel with parasite control in animals, especially dogs, in the Mekong River basin area.

  3. Ureterocolonic anastomosis in clinically normal dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, E.A.; Walter, M.C.; Goldschmidt, M.H.; Biery, D.N.; Bovee, K.C.

    1988-01-01

    Ureterocolonic anastomosis was evaluated in 13 clinically normal dogs. Urinary continence was maintained after surgery, and the procedure was completed without technique errors in all but 2 dogs. Three dogs died within 5 weeks (2 of undetermined causes and 1 of aspiration pneumonia and neurologic disease), and 1 dog was euthanatized 4 months after surgery because of neurologic signs. Two healthy dogs were euthanatized 3 months after surgery for light microscopic evaluation of their kidneys. Five dogs were euthanatized 6 months after surgery for light microscopic evaluation of their kidneys. Gastrointestinal and neurologic disturbances developed in 4 dogs at various postoperative intervals. Plasma ammonia concentration measured in 2 dogs with neurologic signs was increased. Plasma ammonia concentration measured in 5 dogs without neurologic signs was within normal limits. All 5 dogs, in which metabolic acidosis was diagnosed, had high normal or above normal serum chloride concentration. Serum urea nitrogen values were increased after surgery because of colonic absorption of urea. Serum creatinine concentration was increased in 1 dog 6 months after surgery. Individual kidney glomerular filtration rate was reduced in 38% (3/8) of the kidneys from 4 other dogs at 6 months after surgery. Of 5 dogs euthanatized at 3 to 4 months after surgery, 4 had bilateral pyelitis, and 1 had unilateral pyelonephritis. Six months after surgery, pyelonephritis was diagnosed in 40% (4/10) of the kidneys from 5 dogs. The ureterocolonic anastomosis procedure is a salvage procedure that should allow complete cystectomy. However, variable degress of metabolic acidosis, hyperammonemia, and neurologic disease may result

  4. Metabolism of methylphenidate in dog and rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egger, H.; Bartlett, F.; Dreyfuss, R.; Karliner, J.

    1981-01-01

    The urinary metabolites of methylphenidate in the dog and rat were investigated. After oral administration of 14C-labeled methylphenidate, approximately 86% and 63% of the dose was recovered in the urine of the dog and rat, respectively. Less than 1% of the dose was excreted as unchanged drug. Metabolism involved oxidation, hydrolysis, and conjugation processes. The primary hydrolytic product was alpha-phenyl-2-piperidineacetic acid (24%, dog; 35-40%, rat). The primary metabolites of oxidation were methyl 6-oxo-alpha-phenyl-2-piperidineacetate (3%, dog; 1.5%, rat) and the glucuronide of alpha-(p-hydroxyphenyl)-2-piperidineacetic acid (10%, rat). The former also underwent extensive biotransformation, including: 1) hydrolysis to the lactam acid (27%, dog; 7-10%, rat) and subsequent carboxylic acid O-glucuronidation (15%, dog); or 2) hydroxylation at the 5-position (1%, dog; 2%, rat) and subsequent hydrolysis (4%, dog; 15-17%, rat); or 3) 5-O-glucuronidation (12%, dog). Additional minor metabolites from methyl-6-oxo-alpha-phenyl-2-piperidineacetate were the phenolic O-glucuronide of methyl alpha-(p-hydroxyphenyl)-6-oxo-2-piperidineacetate (1%, dog), and the 4-O-glucuronide of methyl 4-hydroxy-6-oxo-alpha-phenyl-2-piperidineacetate (1%, dog), and the taurine amide conjugate of alpha-(p-hydroxyphenyl)-6-oxo-2-piperidineacetic acid (1%, dog). Additional products from methylphenidate conjugation included methyl 1-carbamoyl-alpha-phenyl-2-piperidineacetate (1%, dog or rat) and its carboxylic acid hydrolysis product (1%, rat). The chirality of the major metabolites isolated from dog urine showed that metabolism was partially stereoselective in all investigated cases, except in the formation of alpha-phenyl-2-piperidineacetic acid

  5. Toxicity of inhaled 91YCl3 in Beagle dogs. XV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, F.F.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Boecker, B.B.; Jones, R.K.; Kusewitt, D.F.; McClellan, R.O.; Pickrell, J.A.

    1981-01-01

    The metabolism, dosimetry and biological effects of inhaled 91 YCl 3 in Beagle dogs are being studied. Forty-two dogs with initial 91 Y body burdens from 14 to 1300 μCi per kilogram body weight and 12 control dogs are being maintained for lifetime observation. Four additional dogs with a mean initial body burden of 180 μCi per kilogram body weight were placed in a sacrifice study. Forty-three of the exposed dogs and 11 of the control dogs have died. Dogs with the highest initial body burdens died with bone marrow damage and pancytopenia. Three dogs died with nasal cavity carcinomas, three dogs died with pulmonary carcinomas and one dog died with hepatic hemangiosarcoma; these cancers all appeared to be related to radiation injury. Control dogs died of miscellaneous neoplastic and chronic diseases. Observations are continuing on three surviving exposed dogs and one surviving unexposed dog

  6. Influence of suturing material on wound healing: Experimental study in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gazivoda Dragan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. The most common materials implanted in the human organism are suture materials that are classified on the basis of several criteria, usually the origin, structure, and properties. The properties of suture materials are related to its absorbability and non-absorbability. When using resorbable materials it is of great importance to determine whether its absorbability and tensile strength help wound healing in function of time. Sutures themselves can become a source of inflammation, that may reduce or compromise the potential of reparation and regeneration. The aim of this experimental study on dogs was to ascertain whether the absorption rate and the degree of local tissue reactions differ from information provided by the manufacturers, whether there are differences between the applied suture materials and which of the used suture materials have better effect on wound healing. Methods. Experimental testing of the selected suture materials basic characteristics was performed on 6 German Shepherd dogs, which, after induction of general anesthesia, were made 3 identical incisions each in all 4 quadrants (left and right side of the upper and lower jaws, so that 12 horizontal incisions were formed, 10 mm long, 20-25 mm distant from one another, on each animal. Randomly, incisions were stitched up in the following order, starting from back to front: catgut, Dexon®, Vicryl-Rapid®. The experiment was terminated by histopathological examination of tissue samples, taken on postoperative day 3, 7, 14 and 21 in order to identify the effect of healing and the degree of local reaction. Results. The obtained results suggest that catgut has the highest absorption rate, while Dexon® the lowest. Vicryl-Rapid® causes the lowest level of local reactions, while Dexon® the highest. Conclusion. There is no ideal suture material because various patient factors also influence the wound healing process.

  7. A systematic review and meta-analysis of the proportion of dogs surrendered for dog-related and owner-related reasons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Kim; Coe, Jason; Niel, Lee; Dewey, Cate; Sargeant, Jan M

    2015-01-01

    Companion-animal relinquishment is a worldwide phenomenon that leaves companion animals homeless. Knowing why humans make the decision to end their relationship with a companion-animal can help in our understanding of this complex societal issue and can help to develop preventive strategies. A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to summarize reasons why dogs are surrendered, and determine if certain study characteristics were associated with the reported proportions of reasons for surrender. Articles investigating one or more reasons for dog surrender were selected from the references of a published scoping review. Two reviewers assessed the titles and abstracts of these articles, identifying 39 relevant articles. From these, 21 articles were further excluded because of ineligible study design, insufficient data available for calculating a proportion, or no data available for dogs. Data were extracted from 18 articles and meta-analysis was conducted on articles investigating reasons for dog surrender to a shelter (n=9) or dog surrender for euthanasia (n=5). Three studies were excluded from meta-analysis because they were duplicate populations. Other reasons for excluding studies from meta-analysis were, (1) the study only investigated reasons for dog re-relinquishment (n=2) and (2) the study sample size was dog surrender to a shelter and dog surrender for euthanasia. Results of meta-analysis found owner health/illness as a reason for dog surrender to a shelter had an overall estimate of 4.6% (95% CI: 4.1%, 5.2%). For all other identified reasons for surrender there was significant variation in methodology among studies preventing further meta-analysis. Univariable meta-regression was conducted to explore sources of variation among these studies. Country was identified as a significant source of variation (pdog surrender for euthanasia. The overall estimate for studies from Australia was 10% (95% CI: 8.0%, 12.0%; I(2)=15.5%), compared to 16% (95% CI

  8. No evidence of horizontal infection in horses kept in close contact with dogs experimentally infected with canine influenza A virus (H3N8

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamanaka Takashi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since equine influenza A virus (H3N8 was transmitted to dogs in the United States in 2004, the causative virus, which is called canine influenza A virus (CIV, has become widespread in dogs. To date, it has remained unclear whether or not CIV-infected dogs could transmit CIV to horses. To address this, we tested whether or not close contact between horses and dogs experimentally infected with CIV would result in its interspecies transmission. Methods Three pairs of animals consisting of a dog inoculated with CIV (108.3 egg infectious dose50/dog and a healthy horse were kept together in individual stalls for 15 consecutive days. During the study, all the dogs and horses were clinically observed. Virus titres in nasal swab extracts and serological responses were also evaluated. In addition, all the animals were subjected to a gross pathological examination after euthanasia. Results All three dogs inoculated with CIV exhibited clinical signs including, pyrexia, cough, nasal discharge, virus shedding and seroconversion. Gross pathology revealed lung consolidations in all the dogs, and Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus was isolated from the lesions. Meanwhile, none of the paired horses showed any clinical signs, virus shedding or seroconversion. Moreover, gross pathology revealed no lesions in the respiratory tracts including the lungs of the horses. Conclusions These findings may indicate that a single dog infected with CIV is not sufficient to constitute a source of CIV infection in horses.

  9. Clinical pharmacology of methadone in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingvast-Larsson, Carina; Holgersson, Anja; Bondesson, Ulf; Lagerstedt, Anne-Sofie; Olsson, Kerstin

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the pharmacokinetics and effects of methadone on behaviour and plasma concentrations of cortisol and vasopressin in healthy dogs. Randomized, cross-over, experimental trial. Nine adult dogs (beagle and beagle cross breeds), four males and five females. Methadone hydrochloride, 0.4 mg kg(-1), was administered intravenously (IV) and subcutaneously (SC) with a crossover design. Drug and hormone analyses in plasma were performed using Liquid Chromatography-Electrospray Ionization-Tandem Mass Spectrometry and radioimmunoassay respectively. Behavioural data were collected using a standardized protocol. After IV administration, the plasma concentration of methadone at 10 minutes was 82.1 +/- 9.2 ng mL(-1) (mean +/- SD), the terminal half-life was 3.9 +/- 1.0 hours, the volume of distribution 9.2 +/- 3.3 L kg(-1) and plasma clearance 27.9 +/- 7.6 mL minute(-1) kg(-1). After SC administration, time to maximal plasma concentration was 1.26 +/- 1.04 hours and maximal plasma concentration of methadone was 23.9 +/- 14.4 ng mL(-1), the terminal half-life was 10.7 +/- 4.3 hours and bioavailability was 79 +/- 22%. Concentrations of both cortisol and vasopressin were increased for an hour following IV methadone. The observed behavioural effects of methadone were decreased licking and swallowing and an increase in whining after SC administration. The latter finding is notable as it can be misinterpreted as pain when methadone is used as an analgesic. When methadone was administered by the SC route, the half-life was longer, but the individual variation in plasma concentrations was greater compared with IV administration. Increased frequency of whining occurred after administration of methadone and may be a drug effect and not a sign of pain. Cortisol and vasopressin concentrations in plasma may not be suitable for evaluating analgesia after methadone treatment.

  10. Retinal astrocytoma in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroki, Keiichi; Kice, Nathan; Ota-Kuroki, Juri

    2017-09-01

    A miniature schnauzer dog presenting with hyphema and glaucoma of the right eye had a retinal neoplasm. Neoplastic cells stained positively for glial fibrillary acidic protein, vimentin, and S-100 and largely negatively for oligodendrocyte transcription factor 2 by immunohistochemistry. The clinical and histopathological features of canine retinal astrocytomas are discussed.

  11. 76 FR 35162 - Service Dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-16

    ... veterans diagnosed with mental health conditions. Upon the completion of the study and analysis of its...), this proposed rule is exempt from the initial and final regulatory flexibility analysis requirements of..., SENSORY, AND REHABILITATIVE AIDS'', to read as follows: Sec. 17.148 Service dogs. (a) Definitions. For the...

  12. SlideDog / Siim Sein

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sein, Siim

    2015-01-01

    SlideDog on multimeediumi esitluse tööriist, mis võimaldab ühendada PowerPointi esitlused, PDF-failid, Prezi esitlused, videoklipid, helifailid, veebilehed ja palju muud üheks sujuvaks esitluskogemuseks konverentsil, seminaril või muul üritusel

  13. Nasal capillariasis in a dog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, R.R.; Greiner, E.C.; Ackerman, N.; Woodard, J.C.

    1990-01-01

    A five-year-old dog was evaluated for chronic nasal discharge. Nasal infection caused by Capillaria aerophila was diagnosed by identification of adult nematodes and eggs in the nasal flush sediment and by nasal biopsy samples and eggs in faecal flotations. Reinfection occurred following treatment with fenbendazole and ivermectin, probably because of a contaminated housing area

  14. Intervertebral disc degeneration in dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergknut, N.

    2011-01-01

    Back pain is common in both dogs and humans, and is often associated with intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration. The IVDs are essential structures of the spine and degeneration can ultimately result in diseases such as IVD herniation or spinal instability. In order to design new treatments halting

  15. Intervertebral disc degeneration in dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergknut, Niklas

    Back pain is common in both dogs and humans, and is often associated with intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration. The IVDs are essential structures of the spine and degeneration can ultimately result in diseases such as IVD herniation or spinal instability. In order to design new treatments halting

  16. Clinical evaluation of the safety and efficacy of 10% imidacloprid + 2.5% moxidectin topical solution for the treatment of ear mite (Otodectes cynotis) infestations in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arther, R G; Davis, W L; Jacobsen, J A; Lewis, V A; Settje, T L

    2015-05-30

    A clinical field investigation was conducted to evaluate the safety and efficacy of 10% imidacloprid/2.5% moxidectin for the treatment of ear mites (Otodectes cynotis) in dogs. The study was a multi-centered, blinded, positive controlled, randomized clinical trial conducted under field conditions with privately owned pets. A total of 17 veterinary clinics enrolled cases for the study. An otoscopic examination was performed to confirm the presence of O. cynotis residing in the ear of the dog prior to enrollment. A single-dog household was enrolled in the study if the dog had 5 or more ear mites and an acceptable physical examination. A multi-dog household was eligible if at least one dog in the household had 5 or more mites and all dogs in the household had acceptable physical exams and met the inclusion criteria. Qualified households were randomly assigned to treatments to receive either 10% imidacloprid+2.5% moxidectin topical solution or topical selamectin solution (positive control product) according to a pre-designated enrollment ratio of 2:1, respectively. If more than one dog in a multiple dog household had adequate numbers of ear mites, one dog was randomly selected to represent the household for efficacy evaluation prior to treatment. Treatments were administered twice per label and dose banding directions for each product approximately 28 days apart (Days 0 and 28), by the dog's owner at the study site. All dogs in a household were treated on the same day and with the same product. The owners completed a post-treatment observation form one day after each treatment. Post-treatment otoscopic examinations were performed by the investigators or attending veterinarian on Days 28 and 56. Physical examinations were performed on Days 0 and 56. One hundred and four (104) households were evaluated for efficacy on SD 28, and 102 households were evaluated for efficacy on SD 56. The dogs' ages ranged from 2 months to 16 years. A total of 247 dogs were evaluated for

  17. Prevalence of genetic disorders in dog breeds: a literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wirth, J.

    2015-01-01

    Genetic disorders are common in dogs and in the media it is reported that genetic disorders are more frequent in pedigree dogs than in look-a-likes or in mixed-breed dogs. Here, we consider pedigree dogs as purebred dogs (i.e. matching a breed-specific morphology) with a registered and certified

  18. Sokoto Journal of Veterinary Sciences Dog population and ecology ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADEYEYE

    of dog movements constitute a great public health risk to human populations in terms of dog bites and rabies outbreaks. Keywords: Dog, Ecology, Nigeria, Rabies, Vaccination. Introduction. Dog population dynamics have major impacts on the effectiveness of rabies control strategies. An understanding of the domestic dog ...

  19. Identification of Zoonotic Parasites isolated from Stray Dogs in Bojnurd County Located in North-East of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kourosh Arzamani

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Dog can represent as an important source of zoonotic disease and important health problem for human. They can carry dangerous parasitic diseases such as hydatidosis, toxocariasis and Coenurus cerebralis to humans and animals. This study was performed in order to determine the prevalence and intensity of zoonotic parasites among stray dogs from Bojnurd, the capital city of North Khorasan province in North West of Iran. During a program performing by Bojnurd municipal on the slow killing of stray dogs, 32 dogs from Jun 2013 till March 2015 were selected. At necropsy their alimentary canals were removed and to identify the species of helminthes, the nematodes were cleared in lactophenol and cestodes were stained using carmine acid. Intestinal protozoan parasites were detected with parasitological methods. 28 (87.5% of 32 stray dogs infected at least with one helminth. Seven species of cestodes were isolated from examined dogs and three species of nematode were detected. Giardia sp. and Cryptosporidium sp. detected from fecal samples. This is the first study of the prevalence of intestinal zoonotic parasites in dogs in this area. It seems control of bearing stray dogs can help human health and reduction economic losses caused by stray dog’s zoonotic parasites.

  20. Immediate physical therapy in dogs with rupture of the cranial cruciate ligament submitted to extracapsular surgical stabilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Berté

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The study evaluated the influence of immediate physical therapy on the functional recovery of hind limbs of dogs with experimental cranial cruciate ligament rupture which underwent surgical extracapsular stabilization as well as to verify its interference in joint stability. Eight dogs were randomly divided into two groups: GI (control (n=4 and GII (physical therapy (n=4. The dogs in GII underwent the following therapeutic treatments in the postoperative period: cryotherapy, passive joint movement, massage, passive straightening, neuromuscular electrical stimulation, hydrotherapy (bath and aquatic mat and therapeutic exercises. We performed evaluations of the thigh circumference, goniometry, X-ray, and knee stability (drawer test. Results did not demonstrate a significant difference between the groups nor between different post-operative times. Regarding gait analysis, we found that the 4 dogs in GI remained in degree 3 of lameness 45 and 90 days postoperatively. However, in GII, one dog remained in degree 3 45 and 90 days after surgery; one dog changed from degree 3 to 4 90 days after surgery and the other 2 dogs changed from degree 3 to 5 90 days after surgery. It is possible to conclude that dogs with CCL rupture that undergo immediate physical therapy demonstrate better results in regards to functional gait recovery. The therapeutic modalities used in the immediate post-operative period did not cause instability of the operated knee. Further studies are needed with a larger number of dogs to indicate the immediate physical therapy in dogs with CCL ligament rupture which underwent extracapsular stabilization.

  1. Randomization tests

    CERN Document Server

    Edgington, Eugene

    2007-01-01

    Statistical Tests That Do Not Require Random Sampling Randomization Tests Numerical Examples Randomization Tests and Nonrandom Samples The Prevalence of Nonrandom Samples in Experiments The Irrelevance of Random Samples for the Typical Experiment Generalizing from Nonrandom Samples Intelligibility Respect for the Validity of Randomization Tests Versatility Practicality Precursors of Randomization Tests Other Applications of Permutation Tests Questions and Exercises Notes References Randomized Experiments Unique Benefits of Experiments Experimentation without Mani

  2. The effect of platelet-rich plasma on osseous healing in dogs undergoing high tibial osteotomy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel P Franklin

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate whether platelet-rich plasma (PRP enhances osseous healing in conjunction with a high tibial osteotomy in dogs.Randomized controlled trial.Sixty-four client-owned pet dogs with naturally occurring rupture of the anterior cruciate ligament and that were to be treated with a high tibial osteotomy (tibial plateau leveling osteotomy were randomized into the treatment or control group. Dogs in the treatment group received autologous platelet-rich plasma activated with calcium chloride and bovine thrombin to produce a well-formed PRP gel that was placed into the osteotomy at the time of surgery. Dogs in the control group received saline lavage of the osteotomy. All dogs had the osteotomy stabilized with identical titanium alloy implants and all aspects of the surgical procedure and post-operative care were identical among dogs of the two groups. Bone healing was assessed at exactly 28, 49, and 70 days after surgery with radiography and ultrasonography and with MRI at day 28. The effect of PRP on bone healing was assessed using a repeated measures analysis of covariance with radiographic and ultrasonographic data and using a t-test with the MRI data.Sixty dogs completed the study. There were no significant differences in age, weight, or gender distribution between the treatment and control groups. Twenty-seven dogs were treated with PRP and 33 were in the control group. The average platelet concentration of the PRP was 1.37x106 platelets/μL (±489x103 with a leukocyte concentration of 5.45x103/μL (±3.5x103. All dogs demonstrated progressive healing over time and achieved clinically successful outcomes. Time since surgery and patient age were significant predictors of radiographic healing and time since surgery was a significant predictor of ultrasonographic assessment of healing. There was no significant effect of PRP treatment as assessed radiographically, ultrasonographically, or with MRI.The PRP used

  3. Impact of an auditory stimulus on baseline cortisol concentrations in clinically normal dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gin, T E; Puchot, M L; Cook, A K

    2018-03-19

    Baseline cortisol concentrations are routinely used to screen dogs for hypoadrenocorticism (HOC); this diagnosis must then be confirmed with an ACTH stimulation test. A baseline cortisol concentration less than 55 nmol/L (2 μg/dL) is highly sensitive for HOC but lacks specificity, with a false positive rate >20%. Many dogs with nonadrenal disease are therefore subjected to unnecessary additional testing. It was hypothesized that exposure to an unpleasant auditory stimulus before sample collection would improve the specificity of baseline cortisol measurements in dogs with nonadrenal disease by triggering cortisol production. Twenty-eight healthy client-owned dogs were included in the study, with a median age of 4 yr (range 2-9 yr) and a median weight of 20 kg (range 10-27 kg). Dogs were ineligible for inclusion if they had received short- or long-acting glucocorticoids within the previous 30 and 90 d, respectively. Dogs were randomly assigned to group 1 (control; no noise; n = 7), group 2 (brief noise: n = 10), or group 3 (long noise: n = 11). Each dog and owner were directed to a secluded area for approximately 15 min. Group 1 sat in relative quiet, exposed only to the background sounds of a veterinary hospital. Group 2 were exposed to the sound of a wet-dry vacuum in an adjacent hallway during the first 3 min of this period. Group 3 were exposed to random bursts of wet-dry vacuum noise during this period. At the end of the test interval, each dog was escorted to an adjacent examination room for blood collection. Samples were processed within 15 min; serum was frozen at -80°C before measurement of cortisol concentrations. Median serum cortisol concentrations and the proportion of dogs with results dogs with apparently normal adrenal function was therefore rejected. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Does getting a dog increase recreational walking?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knuiman Matthew W

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study examines changes in socio-demographic, environmental and intrapersonal factors associated with dog acquisition in non-dog owners at baseline to 12-months follow-up and the effect of dog acquisition on minutes per week of recreational walking. Methods RESIDE study participants completed self-administered questionnaires (baseline and 12-months follow-up measuring physical activity, dog ownership, dog walking behavior as well as environmental, intrapersonal and socio-demographic factors. Analysis was restricted to 'Continuing non-owners' (i.e., non-owners at both baseline and follow-up; n = 681 and 'New dog owners' (i.e., non-owners who acquired a dog by follow-up; n = 92. Results Overall, 12% of baseline non-owners had acquired a dog at follow-up. Dog acquisition was associated with working and having children at home. Those who changed from single to couple marital status were also more likely to acquire a dog. The increase in minutes of walking for recreation within the neighborhood from baseline to follow-up was 48 minutes/week for new dog owners compared with 12 minutes/week for continuing non-owners (p p p > 0.05 after further adjustment for change in baseline to follow-up variables. Increase in intention to walk was the main factor contributing to attenuation of the effect of dog acquisition on recreational walking. Conclusion This study used a large representative sample of non-owners to examine the relationship between dog acquisition and recreational walking and provides evidence to suggest that dog acquisition leads to an increase in walking. The most likely mechanism through which dog acquisition facilitates increased physical activity is through behavioral intention via the dog's positive effect on owner's cognitive beliefs about walking, and through the provision of motivation and social support for walking. The results suggest that behavioral intention mediates the relationship between dog acquisition

  5. [Lens luxation in dogs: a retrospective study of 134 dogs (2000-2011)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betschart; Hässig; Spiess

    2014-03-01

    This retrospective study evaluated cases of lens luxation in dogs that were documented at the University of Zurich Veterinary Teaching Hospital between 2000 and 2011. A total 134 dogs were included in the study. This population of dogs with lens luxation represents 0.41 % of all dogs presented to the Zurich Veterinary Teaching Hospital (32'523) and 3.02 % of all dogs presented to the ophthalmology service during the same time period. The 134 dogs represented over 40 different breeds, including mixed breeds. 63 of the dogs were male, 71 were female. The 134 dogs were divided in primary lens luxation (86 of the 134 dogs, 64 %) and secondary lens luxation (48 dogs, 36 %). The most frequent causes for secondary lens luxation were glaucoma (58 %), cataract (19 %) and trauma (17 %). This study shows the predisposition for primary lens luxations in terrier breeds, Chinese Crested dogs, Pinscher and Spitz. In contrast, Siberian Huskies, Basset Hounds, Bearded Collies, Cairn Terriers, mixed breed dogs, Bolonka Zwetna, Boston Terriers, Borzoi, Doberman, Eurasian, Leonberg, Luzerner Niederlaufhund and Weimaraner suffered significantly more often from secondary lens luxation. There was no sex predilection for primary or secondary lens luxation. Dogs with primary lens luxation were on average 7.39 ± 3.02 years old, which is significantly younger than the dogs with secondary lens luxation (9.12 ± 3.38 years). Dogs with primary lens luxation showed a significantly higher rate of a bilateral development than those with secondary lens luxation (85.5 % of the dogs with primary lens luxation and only 14.5 % of the dogs with secondary lens luxation showed it in both their eyes).

  6. Dog ownership, dog walking, and leisure-time walking among Taiwanese metropolitan and nonmetropolitan older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yung; Huang, Pin-Hsuan; Chen, Yi-Ling; Hsueh, Ming-Chun; Chang, Shao-Hsi

    2018-04-04

    This study examined the prevalence of dog ownership and dog walking and its association with leisure-time walking among metropolitan and nonmetropolitan older adults. A telephone-based cross-sectional survey targeting Taiwanese older adults was conducted in November 2016. Data related to dog ownership, time spent dog walking (categorized as non-dog owner, non-dog walkers, and dog walkers), and sociodemographic variables were obtained from 1074 older adults. Adjusted binary logistic regression was then performed. In this sample, 12% of Taiwanese older adults owned a dog and 31% of them walked their dogs for an average of 232.13 min over 5.9 days/week (standard deviation = 2.03). Older adults living in nonmetropolitan areas were more likely to own a dog (14.7% vs. 9.1%) but less likely to walk their dog (25.9% vs. 39.6%) than were those living in metropolitan areas. Compared with non-dog owners, only older adults living in nonmetropolitan areas who were dog walkers achieved 150 min of leisure-time walking (odds ratio: 3.03, 95% confidence interval: 1.05-8.77), after adjustment for potential confounders. Older Taiwanese adults living in nonmetropolitan areas who owned and walked their dogs were more likely to achieve health-enhancing levels of leisure-time walking. Tailored physical activity interventions for promoting dog walking should be developed for older adults who are dog owners living in nonmetropolitan areas and who do not engage in dog walking.

  7. Nasal carriage of Staphylococcus schleiferi from healthy dogs and dogs with otitis, pyoderma or both.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Elizabeth R; Kinyon, Joann M; Noxon, James O

    2012-12-07

    In veterinary medicine, Staphylococcus schleiferi was previously assumed to be an inhabitant of carnivore skin, however, more recently, it has been repeatedly documented in the literature as both an inhabitant and as a pathogen. In order to determine the frequency of nasal carriage, and the methicillin susceptibility pattern of S. schleiferi from healthy dogs as well as dogs with otitis and/or pyoderma, a prospective study including 24 dogs with healthy ears and skin, 27 dogs with healthy ears and pyoderma, 15 dogs with otitis without pyoderma and 20 dogs with both otitis and pyoderma was performed. Specimens were obtained and cultured and isolates were identified as S. schleiferi based on growth and biochemical characteristics. S. schleiferi was isolated from the nares of 1 healthy dog, 3 dogs with recurrent pyoderma, 2 dogs with recurrent otitis, and 1 dog with both recurrent otitis and pyoderma. One of the S. schleiferi isolates was methicillin resistant. Nasal carriage of S. schleiferi does occur in healthy dogs as well as dogs with otitis and pyoderma. Methicillin resistant and sensitive S. schleiferi can be found in the nares of dogs with diseased ears and skin. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Electroretinography in dogs using a fiber electrode prototype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.L. Pereira

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We compared two electroretinography (ERG electrodes in dogs using ERG standards of the International Society for Clinical Electrophysiology of Vision (ISCEV. Ten healthy Yorkshire terrier dogs (mean age, 2.80 ± 1.42 years; 6 females weighing 5.20 ± 1.56 kg were evaluated using an ERG system for veterinary use. Dark- and light-adapted ERG responses were recorded using an ERG-Jet electrode and a fiber electrode prototype. The examinations were performed during 2 visits, 3 weeks apart. Both electrodes (ERG-Jet or fiber prototype were used on each animal and the first eye to be recorded (OD × OS was selected randomly. Three weeks later the examination was repeated on the same animal switching the type of electrode to be used that day and the first eye to be examined. The magnitude and waveform quality obtained with the two electrode types were similar for all ERG responses. ERG amplitudes and implicit times obtained from dogs using the fiber electrode prototype were comparable to those obtained with the ERG-Jet electrode for rod, maximal rod-cone summed, cone, and 30-Hz flicker responses. The fiber electrode prototype is a low-cost device, available as an alternative instrument for clinical veterinary ERG recording for retinal function assessment.

  9. Electroretinography in dogs using a fiber electrode prototype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.L. Pereira

    Full Text Available We compared two electroretinography (ERG electrodes in dogs using ERG standards of the International Society for Clinical Electrophysiology of Vision (ISCEV. Ten healthy Yorkshire terrier dogs (mean age, 2.80 ± 1.42 years; 6 females weighing 5.20 ± 1.56 kg were evaluated using an ERG system for veterinary use. Dark- and light-adapted ERG responses were recorded using an ERG-Jet electrode and a fiber electrode prototype. The examinations were performed during 2 visits, 3 weeks apart. Both electrodes (ERG-Jet or fiber prototype were used on each animal and the first eye to be recorded (OD × OS was selected randomly. Three weeks later the examination was repeated on the same animal switching the type of electrode to be used that day and the first eye to be examined. The magnitude and waveform quality obtained with the two electrode types were similar for all ERG responses. ERG amplitudes and implicit times obtained from dogs using the fiber electrode prototype were comparable to those obtained with the ERG-Jet electrode for rod, maximal rod-cone summed, cone, and 30-Hz flicker responses. The fiber electrode prototype is a low-cost device, available as an alternative instrument for clinical veterinary ERG recording for retinal function assessment.

  10. Electroretinography in dogs using a fiber electrode prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, A.L.; Montiani-Ferreira, F.; Santos, V.R.; Salomão, S.R.; Souza, C.; Berezovsky, A.

    2013-01-01

    We compared two electroretinography (ERG) electrodes in dogs using ERG standards of the International Society for Clinical Electrophysiology of Vision (ISCEV). Ten healthy Yorkshire terrier dogs (mean age, 2.80 ± 1.42 years; 6 females) weighing 5.20 ± 1.56 kg were evaluated using an ERG system for veterinary use. Dark- and light-adapted ERG responses were recorded using an ERG-Jet electrode and a fiber electrode prototype. The examinations were performed during 2 visits, 3 weeks apart. Both electrodes (ERG-Jet or fiber prototype) were used on each animal and the first eye to be recorded (OD × OS) was selected randomly. Three weeks later the examination was repeated on the same animal switching the type of electrode to be used that day and the first eye to be examined. The magnitude and waveform quality obtained with the two electrode types were similar for all ERG responses. ERG amplitudes and implicit times obtained from dogs using the fiber electrode prototype were comparable to those obtained with the ERG-Jet electrode for rod, maximal rod-cone summed, cone, and 30-Hz flicker responses. The fiber electrode prototype is a low-cost device, available as an alternative instrument for clinical veterinary ERG recording for retinal function assessment

  11. Behavioural changes in dogs treated with corticosteroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notari, Lorella; Burman, Oliver; Mills, Daniel

    2015-11-01

    In human medicine, psychiatric side effects among patients on corticosteroid therapy are widely reported, but this appears to have been largely overlooked in the animal literature despite glucocorticoids being widely used in veterinary medicine. Therefore the aim of the current study was to identify possible psycho-behavioural changes in dogs treated with corticosteroids. Two different methodologies were used. Firstly, dog owners were asked to fill a 12 item questionnaire aimed at further validating the initial results of a previous survey relating to changes seen when their dog was receiving corticosteroid treatment. In a second study, a population of dogs undertook behavioural tests aimed at objectively identifying changes when receiving corticosteroid therapy. In the first study, a sample of owners whose dogs were receiving treatment for dermatological, orthopaedic or other conditions evaluated their dogs' behaviour on and off therapy, using a seven point scale. The survey was completed by 44 dog owners with dogs receiving treatment with a range of corticosteroid preparations (mainly prednisolone and methylprednisolone) and 54 dog owners with dogs receiving treatment with other drugs, mainly antibiotics and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Dogs under corticosteroid treatment were reported to be significantly less playful, more nervous/restless, more fearful/less confident, more aggressive in the presence of food, more prone to barking, more prone to startle, more prone to reacting aggressively when disturbed, and more prone to avoiding people or unusual situations. In the second study, eleven “treatment” dogs were tested both before and during corticosteroid treatment with either methyl-prednisolone or prednisolone to assess their sensitivity to a potentially aversive sound stimulus. Eleven control dogs were also tested at the same time intervals in the same environment. Dogs were exposed to a brief dog growl while they explored bowls containing food

  12. Pulmonary mineralization in four dogs with Cushing's syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, C.R.; Ackerman, N.; Monce, K.

    1994-01-01

    The clinical and imaging features of four dogs with Cushing's syndrome and pulmonary mineralization are reviewed. Three dogs presented with a primary complaint of respiratory distress/dyspnea. Three dogs had pituitary dependent Cushing's syndrome, while the remaining one dog had iatrogenic Cushing's syndrome. Each dog had clinical features typical for Cushing's syndrome. Two of the dogs were euthanized due to progressive hypoxemia. In each dog, the serum calcium, phosphorous, blood urea nitrogen and creatinine were normal. A generalized increase in unstructured interstitial pulmonary opacity with diffuse mineralization was noted on thoracic radiographs of all dogs. In one dog, an ill-defined nodular interstitial pattern of mineralization was present. Delayed bone phase scintigraphy using 99m Technetium methylene diphosphonate documented generalized pulmonary uptake in two dogs. 99m Technetium labeled microaggregated albumin lung perfusion scans were normal in these two dogs. 99m Tc-MDP scintigraphy can provide useful information in diagnosing pulmonary mineralization in Cushingoid dogs

  13. Going to the Dogs: The Dog and I, LLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Priscilla

    2008-01-01

    How do you go from being a successful mechanical engineer or the manager of an optical store to giving up the security of those positions and caring for man's best friend? Just ask the mother and daughter team of Diane Holstein and Lisa Ferrerio, co-owners of The Dog and I. Everyone has the dream of doing a job they love, but not everyone can make…

  14. Capnocytophaga canimorsus: an emerging cause of sepsis, meningitis, and post-splenectomy infection after dog bites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, T

    2015-07-01

    Newly named in 1989, Capnocytophaga canimorsus is a bacterial pathogen found in the saliva of healthy dogs and cats, and is transmitted to humans principally by dog bites. This review compiled all laboratory-confirmed cases, animal sources, and virulence attributes to describe its epidemiology, clinical features, and pathogenesis. An estimated 484 patients with a median age of 55 years were reported, two-thirds of which were male. The case-fatality rate was about 26%. Its clinical presentations included severe sepsis and fatal septic shock, gangrene of the digits or extremities, high-grade bacteremia, meningitis, endocarditis, and eye infections. Predispositions were prior splenectomy in 59 patients and alcoholism in 58 patients. Dog bites before illness occurred in 60%; additionally, in 27%, there were scratches, licking, or other contact with dogs or cats. Patients with meningitis showed more advanced ages, higher male preponderance, lower mortality, and longer incubation periods after dog bites than patients with sepsis (p spleens (p dog bites.

  15. The biological effects of high dose total body irradiation in beagle dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Qingliang; Liu Xiaolan; Hao Jing; Xiong Guolin; Dong Bo; Zhao Zhenhu; Xia Zhengbiao; Qiu Liling; Mao Bingzhi

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the biological effects of Beagle dogs irradiated by γ-rays at different doses. Methods: All Beagle dogs were divided into six groups and were subjected respectively to total-body irradiation (TBI) with a single dose of 6.5, 5.5, 5.0, 4.5, 3, 5 and 2.5 Gy γ-rays delivered by 60 Co sources at 7.224 x 10 -2 C/kg per minute. The general condition, blood cell counts and bone marrow cell CFC assays were observed. Results: Vomiting occurred at 0.5 to 2 hours after TBI in all groups. In 6.5 Gy group 3/5 dogs had blood-watery stool and 1/5 in 5.5 Gy group had watery stool. Diarrhea occurred in all other animals. Only one dog in 2.5 Gy group survived, all of others died. in order of decreasing irradiation dosage, the average survival time was 5.0, 8.0, 9.3, 9.5, 10.5 and 14.1 days, respectively. Conclusions: According to the clinical symptoms, leukocyte count and survival time of the dogs, the irradiation dose which will induce very severe hematopoietic radiation syndrome in Beagle dogs is 4.5 to 5.0 Gy

  16. Do dogs live in joint families? Understanding allo-parental care in free-ranging dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Paul, Manabi; Bhadra, Anindita

    2016-01-01

    Cooperative breeding is an excellent example of altruistic cooperation in social groups. Domestic dogs have evolved from cooperatively hunting and breeding ancestors, but have adapted to a facultatively social scavenging lifestyle on streets, and solitary living in human homes. Pets typically breed and reproduce under human supervision, but free-ranging dogs can provide insights into the natural breeding biology of dogs. We conducted a five year long study on parental care of free-ranging dog...

  17. Efficacy of a 2% climbazole shampoo for reducing Malassezia population sizes on the skin of naturally infected dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavana, P; Petit, J-Y; Perrot, S; Guechi, R; Marignac, G; Reynaud, K; Guillot, J

    2015-12-01

    Shampoo therapy is often recommended for the control of Malassezia overgrowth in dogs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vivo activity of a 2% climbazole shampoo against Malassezia pachydermatis yeasts in naturally infected dogs. Eleven research colony Beagles were used. The dogs were distributed randomly into two groups: group A (n=6) and group B (n=5). Group A dogs were washed with a 2% climbazole shampoo, while group B dogs were treated with a physiological shampoo base. The shampoos were applied once weekly for two weeks. The population size of Malassezia yeasts on skin was determined by fungal culture through modified Dixon's medium contact plates pressed on left concave pinna, axillae, groins, perianal area before and after shampoo application. Samples collected were compared by Wilcoxon rank sum test. Samples collected after 2% climbazole shampoo application showed a significant and rapid reduction of Malassezia population sizes. One hour after the first climbazole shampoo application, Malassezia reduction was already statistically significant and 15 days after the second climbazole shampoo, Malassezia population sizes were still significantly decreased. No significant reduction of Malassezia population sizes was observed in group B dogs. The application of a 2% climbazole shampoo significantly reduced Malassezia population sizes on the skin of naturally infected dogs. Application of 2% climbazole shampoo may be useful for the control of Malassezia overgrowth and it may be also proposed as prevention when recurrences are frequent. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Effect of different types of classical music played at a veterinary hospital on dog behavior and owner satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engler, Whitney J; Bain, Melissa

    2017-07-15

    OBJECTIVE To determine the effect of different types of classical music played during a veterinary visit on dog behavior and owner satisfaction. DESIGN Prospective randomized controlled study. ANIMALS 74 dogs examined at a veterinary teaching hospital. PROCEDURES Dogs examined for a wellness visit, presurgical health evaluation, or nonurgent illness were exposed to 1 of 3 treatments (modified classical music, the same music in its original format, and no music [control]) while in the examination room. Owners completed a standardized survey regarding the dog's behavior and their satisfaction with the visit. Clinicians completed a separate standardized survey regarding the dog's behavior. Information regarding monetary charges, procedures performed, diagnoses, and physiologic variables was obtained from the electronic medical record after the appointment. RESULTS Owners rated their dog's anxiety level in the waiting room greater than that in the examination room regardless of treatment. Mean anxiety and aggression scores of dogs during the physical examination as rated by owners were significantly greater than those assigned by clinicians. Visit satisfaction for owners exposed to original classical music was significantly greater than that for owners not exposed to music. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested placing a pet and its owner into an examination room instead of a waiting room immediately after clinic arrival may ameliorate pet anxiety during the veterinary visit. Playing classical music at a low volume can be a simple and cost-effective way to improve owner satisfaction with the veterinary visit. Further research is necessary to determine the effects of music on pet anxiety.

  19. Malassezia versus Candida in Healthy Dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sihelská Z.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The genera Malassezia and Candida include yeasts which are members of the normal mycobiota of the skin and mucosal sites of humans and other warm-blooded animals. These yeasts are associated with a variety of dermatological disorders and also systemic diseases in humans and other animals. This study confirms the occurrence of Malassezia and Candida species in healthy dogs. Samples were collected from different body sites: external ear canal, interdigital area, skin of the axilla and of the neck, and the oral and rectal mucosae. The isolates were identified using phenotypic methods (biochemical-physiological and morphological characteristics. The presence of yeasts were investigated in the specimens from 70 healthy dogs. Malassezia species were isolated in 44 dogs from which 84 Malassezia isolates were obtained. Only one Candida isolate was obtained from the dogs examined. It was found that Candida does not occur in dogs normally and Malassezia was the main colonizing yeast in healthy dogs.

  20. Best of friends? Investigating the dog-human relationship

    OpenAIRE

    Rehn, Therese

    2013-01-01

    Dogs are commonly referred to as man's best friend, but the main focus of this thesis was to investigate how the dog experiences the relationship. The first part of the thesis dealt with methodology currently used to assess the dog-human relationship: the Strange Situation Procedure (SSP) and the Monash Dog Owner Relationship Scale (MDORS). In one experiment, possible associations between the dog's bond to its owner (using the SSP) and the strength of the owner's relationship to the dog (...

  1. Dog Ownership and Physical Activity: A Review of the Evidence.

    OpenAIRE

    Christian, Hayley E; Westgarth, Carri; Bauman, Adrian; Richards, Elizabeth; Rhodes, Ryan E; Evenson, Kelly R; Mayer, Joni A; Thorpe, Roland J, Jr

    2013-01-01

    Background: Dog walking is a strategy for increasing population levels of physical activity (PA). Numerous cross-sectional studies of the relationship between dog ownership and PA have been conducted. The purpose was to review studies comparing PA of dog owners (DO) to non-dog owners (NDO), summarize the prevalence of dog walking, and provide recommendations for research. Methods: A review of published studies (1990-2010) examining DO and NDO PA and the prevalence of dog walking was ...

  2. Effect of dog food containing 460 ppm fluoride on rat reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, T A; Schellenberg, D; Metzler, C M; Oostveen, J; Morey, M J

    1984-01-01

    A one-generation, two-litter rat reproduction study was done in a kennel in Allegan County, Michigan, as part of an investigation of reproductive problems in Shetland sheepdogs (shelties). Since 1970, at least 115 sheltie litters at this kennel have been grossly deformed and/or have died, generally within 3 d of birth. The causative factor(s) appears to be associated with the environment, as the shelties have had successful pregnancies elsewhere. There was some concern that a potential threat to human reproduction also might exist in this area. After it was discovered that fluoride in the dog food had apparently caused mottled teeth and bony exostoses in dogs at this and at least two other kennels, dog-food fluoride content and local well water were investigated as possible causes of the reproductive problems. A two-way factorial statistical design allowed assessment of dietary fluoride content and water source and interaction between the two. UPj:TUC(SD)spf rats, 9 males and 18 females in each group, were assigned to treatment with high-fluoride dog food (460 ppm) and well water; high-fluoride dog food and distilled water; low-fluoride dog food (56 ppm) and well water; and low-fluoride dog food and distilled water. After 60 d in the kennel, the rats were mated. Even after two litters, the only adverse effect was dental fluorosis in the high-fluoride groups. The results indicated that rats cannot be used in the search for the cause(s) of reproductive problems in dogs in this kennel.

  3. The importance of gestural communication: a study of human-dog communication using incongruent information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Aniello, Biagio; Scandurra, Anna; Alterisio, Alessandra; Valsecchi, Paola; Prato-Previde, Emanuela

    2016-11-01

    We assessed how water rescue dogs, which were equally accustomed to respond to gestural and verbal requests, weighted gestural versus verbal information when asked by their owner to perform an action. Dogs were asked to perform four different actions ("sit", "lie down", "stay", "come") providing them with a single source of information (in Phase 1, gestural, and in Phase 2, verbal) or with incongruent information (in Phase 3, gestural and verbal commands referred to two different actions). In Phases 1 and 2, we recorded the frequency of correct responses as 0 or 1, whereas in Phase 3, we computed a 'preference index' (percentage of gestural commands followed over the total commands responded). Results showed that dogs followed gestures significantly better than words when these two types of information were used separately. Females were more likely to respond to gestural than verbal commands and males responded to verbal commands significantly better than females. In the incongruent condition, when gestures and words simultaneously indicated two different actions, the dogs overall preferred to execute the action required by the gesture rather than that required verbally, except when the verbal command "come" was paired with the gestural command "stay" with the owner moving away from the dog. Our data suggest that in dogs accustomed to respond to both gestural and verbal requests, gestures are more salient than words. However, dogs' responses appeared to be dependent also on the contextual situation: dogs' motivation to maintain proximity with an owner who was moving away could have led them to make the more 'convenient' choices between the two incongruent instructions.

  4. Spatial variation in keystone effects: Small mammal diversity associated with black-tailed prairie dog colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cully, J.F.; Collinge, S.K.; Van Nimwegen, R. E.; Ray, C.; Johnson, W.C.; Thiagarajan, Bala; Conlin, D.B.; Holmes, B.E.

    2010-01-01

    Species with extensive geographic ranges may interact with different species assemblages at distant locations, with the result that the nature of the interactions may vary spatially. Black-tailed prairie dogs Cynomys ludovicianus occur from Canada to Mexico in grasslands of the western Great Plains of North America. Black-tailed prairie dogs alter vegetation and dig extensive burrow systems that alter grassland habitats for plants and other animal species. These alterations of habitat justify the descriptor " ecological engineer," and the resulting changes in species composition have earned them status as a keystone species. We examined the impact of black-tailed prairie dogs on small mammal assemblages by trapping at on- and off-colony locations at eight study areas across the species' geographic range. We posed 2 nested hypotheses: 1) prairie dogs function as a keystone species for other rodent species; and 2) the keystone role varies spatially. Assuming that it does, we asked what are the sources of the variation? Black-tailed prairie dogs consistently functioned as a keystone species in that there were strong statistically significant differences in community composition on versus off prairie dog colonies across the species range in prairie grassland. Small mammal species composition varied along both latitudinal and longitudinal gradients, and species richness varied from 4 to 11. Assemblages closer together were more similar; such correlations approximately doubled when including only on- or off-colony grids. Black-tailed prairie dogs had a significant effect on associated rodent assemblages that varied regionally, dependent upon the composition of the local rodent species pool. Over the range of the black-tailed prairie dog, on-colony rodent richness and evenness were less variable, and species composition was more consistent than off-colony assemblages. ?? 2010 The Authors.

  5. "What Are All These Dogs Doing at School?" Using Therapy Dogs to Promote Children's Reading Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalongo, Mary Renck

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses how registered therapy dogs can motivate and support children as they practice reading aloud in the company of the dog and with the support of the dog's handler. It also offers practical advice to educators, librarians, administrators, and community members seeking to implement such a program in their communities.

  6. Plasma aldosterone concentrations and plasma renin activity in healthy dogs and dogs with hyperadrenocorticism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Javadi, S; Mol, JA; Boer, P; Boer, WH; Runberk, A

    2003-01-01

    The mean (se) basal plasma aldosterone concentrations were significantly lower in 31 dogs with pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism (PDH) (75 [9] pmol/litre) than in 12 healthy dogs (118 [14] pmol/litre), whereas in five dogs with hyperadrenocorticism due to an adrenocortical tumour they were

  7. Incidence and impact of dog attacks on guide dogs in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, A; Moxon, R; England, G C W

    2010-06-19

    In a retrospective survey, researchers identified 100 incidents of attacks on guide dogs by other dogs. These were reviewed in order to determine the number, severity and impact on the handler and dog, and the characteristics of the aggressors and victims. During the study period there were more than three attacks reported each month, with 61 per cent of the attacks being upon dogs that were in harness and working with an owner or trainer. The majority of the dogs that were attacked were male (62 per cent), and the breeds that were over-represented (relative to their prevalence in the general guide dog population) were the labrador and the golden retriever x flat-coated retriever crossbreed. Most of the attacks occurred in public places between 09.00 and 15.00 and the majority (61 per cent) of the attacking dogs were off the lead at the time of the attack. Thirty-eight per cent of the attacking dogs were of bull breeds, which were over-represented among attackers compared with the proportion of this breed type in the general dog population. Veterinary attention was sought after 41 per cent of the attacks, and in 19 per cent of instances there was injury to the handler or to a member of the public. The attacks were reported to have affected the working performance and behaviour of the victim dog in 45 per cent of the instances, and two dogs had to be subsequently withdrawn from working as guide dogs.

  8. Transthoracic lung ultrasound in normal dogs and dogs with cardiogenic pulmonary edema: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rademacher, Nathalie; Pariaut, Romain; Pate, Julie; Saelinger, Carley; Kearney, Michael T; Gaschen, Lorrie

    2014-01-01

    Pulmonary edema is the most common complication of left-sided heart failure in dogs and early detection is important for effective clinical management. In people, pulmonary edema is commonly diagnosed based on transthoracic ultrasonography and detection of B line artifacts (vertical, narrow-based, well-defined hyperechoic rays arising from the pleural surface). The purpose of this study was to determine whether B line artifacts could also be useful diagnostic predictors for cardiogenic pulmonary edema in dogs. Thirty-one normal dogs and nine dogs with cardiogenic pulmonary edema were prospectively recruited. For each dog, presence or absence of cardiogenic pulmonary edema was based on physical examination, heartworm testing, thoracic radiographs, and echocardiography. A single observer performed transthoracic ultrasonography in all dogs and recorded video clips and still images for each of four quadrants in each hemithorax. Distribution, sonographic characteristics, and number of B lines per thoracic quadrant were determined and compared between groups. B lines were detected in 31% of normal dogs (mean 0.9 ± 0.3 SD per dog) and 100% of dogs with cardiogenic pulmonary edema (mean 6.2 ± 3.8 SD per dog). Artifacts were more numerous and widely distributed in dogs with congestive heart failure (P dogs. © 2014 American College of Veterinary Radiology.

  9. Development of the "Highly Sensitive Dog" questionnaire to evaluate the personality dimension "Sensory Processing Sensitivity" in dogs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maya Braem

    Full Text Available In humans, the personality dimension 'sensory processing sensitivity (SPS', also referred to as "high sensitivity", involves deeper processing of sensory information, which can be associated with physiological and behavioral overarousal. However, it has not been studied up to now whether this dimension also exists in other species. SPS can influence how people perceive the environment and how this affects them, thus a similar dimension in animals would be highly relevant with respect to animal welfare. We therefore explored whether SPS translates to dogs, one of the primary model species in personality research. A 32-item questionnaire to assess the "highly sensitive dog score" (HSD-s was developed based on the "highly sensitive person" (HSP questionnaire. A large-scale, international online survey was conducted, including the HSD questionnaire, as well as questions on fearfulness, neuroticism, "demographic" (e.g. dog sex, age, weight; age at adoption, etc. and "human" factors (e.g. owner age, sex, profession, communication style, etc., and the HSP questionnaire. Data were analyzed using linear mixed effect models with forward stepwise selection to test prediction of HSD-s by the above-mentioned factors, with country of residence and dog breed treated as random effects. A total of 3647 questionnaires were fully completed. HSD-, fearfulness, neuroticism and HSP-scores showed good internal consistencies, and HSD-s only moderately correlated with fearfulness and neuroticism scores, paralleling previous findings in humans. Intra- (N = 447 and inter-rater (N = 120 reliabilities were good. Demographic and human factors, including HSP score, explained only a small amount of the variance of HSD-s. A PCA analysis identified three subtraits of SPS, comparable to human findings. Overall, the measured personality dimension in dogs showed good internal consistency, partial independence from fearfulness and neuroticism, and good intra- and inter

  10. Oxidative stress and food supplementation with antioxidants in therapy dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sechi, Sara; Fiore, Filippo; Chiavolelli, Francesca; Dimauro, Corrado; Nudda, Anna; Cocco, Raffaella

    2017-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the ability of a long-term antioxidant-supplemented diet to regulate the oxidative stress and general health status of dogs involved in animal-assisted intervention (AAI) programs. Oxidative stress is a consequence of the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Exercise-induced oxidative stress can increase muscle fatigue and fiber damage and eventually leads to impairment of the immune system. A randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover clinical evaluation was conducted with 11 healthy therapy dogs: 6 females and 5 males of different breeds and with a mean age of 2.7 ± 0.8 y (mean ± SEM). The dogs were divided into 2 groups, 1 fed a high quality commercial diet without antioxidants (CD) and the other a high quality commercial diet supplemented with antioxidants (SD) for 18 wk. After the first 18 wk, metabolic parameters, reactive oxygen metabolite-derivatives (d-ROMs), and biological antioxidant potential (BAP) levels were monitored and showed a significant reduction of d-ROMs, triglycerides, and creatinine values in the SD group ( P < 0.05) and a significant increase in amylase values in the CD group ( P < 0.01). At the end of this period, groups were crossed over and fed for another 18 wk. A significant decrease in amylase and glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT) values was observed in the CD and SD group, respectively ( P < 0.05). In conclusion, a controlled, balanced antioxidant diet may be a valid approach to restoring good cell metabolism and neutralizing excess free radicals in therapy dogs.

  11. Evaluation of geriatric changes in dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Pati, Soumyaranjan; Panda, S. K.; Acharya, A. P.; Senapati, S.; Behera, M.; Behera, S. S.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The present study has been envisaged to ascertain the old age for critical management of geriatric dogs considering the parameters of externally visible changes, haemato-biochemical alterations and urine analysis in geriatric dogs approaching senility. Materials and Methods: The study was undertaken in the Department of Veterinary Pathology in collaboration with Teaching Veterinary Clinic complex spanning a period of 1 year. For screening of geriatric dogs, standard geriatric age chart o...

  12. Ceroid-lipofuscinosis in border collie dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, R M; Farrow, B R

    1988-01-01

    Five Border Collie dogs with ceroid-lipofuscinosis developed progressive neurological disease between 18 and 22 months of age. These dogs had behavioural abnormalities, gait and visual deficits and became progressively demented. All dogs examined had common ancestors. Light microscopic examination of tissues demonstrated extensive accumulation of granular, sudan black-staining autofluorescent material in the cytoplasm of neurones, retinal ganglion cells and some visceral cells. At ultrastructural examination inclusions of variable morphology were observed.

  13. Primary hypoparathyroidism in a dog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateus do Amaral Freitas

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The hypoparathyroidism is a rare endocrinopathy reported in dogs, caused by a deficiency in the synthesis of parathyroid hormone (PTH. The lack of PTH causes hypocalcemia and hyperphosphatemia, resulting in a series of neurological and neuromuscular disorders. Unlike most endocrinopathies, hypoparathyroidism is a disease in which the exogenous hormone replacement is not being viable, becoming the treatment a challenge. The present report aims to describe a case of primary hypoparathyroidism in a Schnauzer dog with seizures and neuromuscular disorders, and successful treatment employed, this being the first case, according to the literature, of hypoparathyroidism diagnosed in Brazil. The hypoparathyroidism should be considered as a differential diagnosis in cases of seizure. A complete neurological evaluation and determination of serum ionized calcium and parathyroid hormone are essential for the diagnosis of this disease. Early diagnosis may improve the quality of life of affected animals, since after the initiation of therapy, there is complete remission of clinical signs.

  14. CANINE: a robotic mine dog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stancil, Brian A.; Hyams, Jeffrey; Shelley, Jordan; Babu, Kartik; Badino, Hernán.; Bansal, Aayush; Huber, Daniel; Batavia, Parag

    2013-01-01

    Neya Systems, LLC competed in the CANINE program sponsored by the U.S. Army Tank Automotive Research Development and Engineering Center (TARDEC) which culminated in a competition held at Fort Benning as part of the 2012 Robotics Rodeo. As part of this program, we developed a robot with the capability to learn and recognize the appearance of target objects, conduct an area search amid distractor objects and obstacles, and relocate the target object in the same way that Mine dogs and Sentry dogs are used within military contexts for exploration and threat detection. Neya teamed with the Robotics Institute at Carnegie Mellon University to develop vision-based solutions for probabilistic target learning and recognition. In addition, we used a Mission Planning and Management System (MPMS) to orchestrate complex search and retrieval tasks using a general set of modular autonomous services relating to robot mobility, perception and grasping.

  15. Degenerative lumbosacral stenosis in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meij, Björn P; Bergknut, Niklas

    2010-09-01

    Degenerative lumbosacral stenosis (DLSS) is the most common disorder of the caudal lumbar spine in dogs. This article reviews the management of this disorder and highlights the most important new findings of the last decade. Dogs with DLSS are typically neuro-orthopedic patients and can be presented with varying clinical signs, of which the most consistent is lumbosacral pain. Due to the availability of advanced imaging techniques such as computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging that allow visualization of intervertebral disc degeneration, cauda equina compression, and nerve root entrapment, tailor-made treatments can be adopted for the individual patient. Current therapies include conservative treatment, decompressive surgery, and fixation-fusion of the L7-S1 junction. New insight into the biomechanics and pathobiology of DLSS and developments in minimally invasive surgical techniques will influence treatment options in the near future. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Systemic acanthamoebiasis associated with canine distemper in dogs in the semiarid region of Paraíba, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria T.S. Frade

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Infections by free-living amoebae can cause systemic disease in animals and humans. We describe the epidemiological, clinical and pathological aspects of disseminated acanthamoebiasis associated with canine distemper in three dogs of the semiarid region of Paraíba, Northeastern Brazil. Affected dogs developed progressive neurological and respiratory signs that progressed to death within in two to 20 days. Gross lesions were irregular and with yellow-reddish nodules randomly distributed in the lungs, heart, kidneys, spleen, lymph nodes, adrenals, and intestine. One dog had foci of malacia in the parietal cortex and another one in nucleus of brain basis. Histologically, pyogranulomas with areas of necrosis and hemorrhage in all organs affected were observed, associated with myriads of intralesional amoebic trophozoites. All three cases were concomitant canine distemper, that possibly triggered immunosuppression in the dogs. The diagnosis was performed through microscopic findings of infection by free-living amoebae and confirmed Acanthamoeba sp. by immunohistochemistry

  17. Flea (Ctenocephalides felis) control efficacy of topical indoxacarb on dogs subsequently bathed with a chlorhexidine-ketoconazole shampoo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, R D; Liebenberg, J E; Heaney, K; Guerino, F

    2015-08-01

    An evaluation of the effect of chlorhexidine/ketoconazole shampoo baths on the flea control efficacy of indoxacarb applied topically to dogs. We randomly allocated 18 healthy mixed-breed dogs to 3 groups: shampoo only; indoxacarb treated and medicated shampoo; and indoxacarb treated but not shampooed. Indoxacarb was administered on day 0 and dogs were shampooed on days 9 and 23. Dogs were infested with 100 adult Ctenocephalides felis initially 2 days before treatment and then weekly from days 7 to 28. Fleas were removed and counted 48 h post-infestation. Medicated shampoo use did not significantly reduce indoxacarb efficacy against C. felis. © 2015 MSD Animal Health. Australian Veterinary Journal published by Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd on behalf of Australian Veterinary Association.

  18. Flea (Ctenocephalides felis) control efficacy of topical indoxacarb on dogs subsequently bathed with a chlorhexidine–ketoconazole shampoo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebenberg, JE; Heaney, K; Guerino, F

    2015-01-01

    Objective An evaluation of the effect of chlorhexidine/ketoconazole shampoo baths on the flea control efficacy of indoxacarb applied topically to dogs. Methods and Results We randomly allocated 18 healthy mixed‐breed dogs to 3 groups: shampoo only; indoxacarb treated and medicated shampoo; and indoxacarb treated but not shampooed. Indoxacarb was administered on day 0 and dogs were shampooed on days 9 and 23. Dogs were infested with 100 adult Ctenocephalides felis initially 2 days before treatment and then weekly from days 7 to 28. Fleas were removed and counted 48 h post‐infestation. Conclusion Medicated shampoo use did not significantly reduce indoxacarb efficacy against C. felis. PMID:26220323

  19. Mountain laurel toxicosis in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manhart, Ingrid O; DeClementi, Camille; Guenther, Christine L

    2013-01-01

    To describe a case of mountain laurel (Kalmia latifolia) toxicosis in a dog, including case management and successful outcome. A dog presented for vomiting, hematochezia, bradycardia, weakness, and ataxia, which did not improve with supportive treatment. Mountain laurel ingestion was identified as cause of clinical signs after gastrotomy was performed to remove stomach contents. Supportive treatment was continued and the dog made a full recovery. This report details a case of mountain laurel toxicosis in a dog, including management strategies and outcome, which has not been previously published in the veterinary literature. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2013.

  20. Seroepidemiology of Canine parvovirus infection in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indrawati Sendow

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Canine parvovirus is an acute and fatal viral disease in dogs. A total of 209 local, cross breed and breed dogs sera from Kodya Bogor, Kabupaten Bogor, Sukabumi, and Jakarta, had been tested using Haemagglutination Inhibition Test (HI with pig red blood cells. A total of 64 breed and cross breed dogs from Sukabumi and Kodya Bogor, were used as a sentinel dogs to study the epidemiology of Canine parvovirus (CPV infection and its immunological responses caused by vaccination. The results indicated that 78% (95 breed and cross bred dogs and 59% (51 local dogs had antibody to CPV. Sentinel dogs results indicated that dogs had been vaccinated showed antibody response with the varied titre dependant upon prevaccination titre. Low prevaccinated titre gave better response than protective level titre. From 19 puppies observed, Maternal antibodi were still detected until 5 weeks old puppies. First vaccination given at less than 3 months old, should be boosted after 3 months old puppied. Antibodi titre produced by natural infection will keep untill 2 years. These data concluded that the dog condition and time of vaccination will affect the optimum antibody response.

  1. Dog as an animal model for neurostimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassouna, M; Li, J S; Elhilali, M

    1994-01-01

    The dog provides an important model to study the effect of neural stimulation of different parts of the central and peripheral nervous systems. A multitude of experiments on neurostimulation and neuromodulation to ensure bladder evacuation have been conducted on dogs. The present article reviews the most prominent contributions in the English literature related to neurostimulation using the dog as an experimental model. The various modes of stimulation using dogs as a model and the rationale for their use as well as their shortcomings will be examined. The prominent anatomic features in the neural control of the bladder and the technical aspects involved in neurostimulation of the canine bladder will be reviewed.

  2. Dogs' social referencing towards owners and strangers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merola, Isabella; Prato-Previde, Emanuela; Marshall-Pescini, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Social referencing is a process whereby an individual uses the emotional information provided by an informant about a novel object/stimulus to guide his/her own future behaviour towards it. In this study adult dogs were tested in a social referencing paradigm involving a potentially scary object with either their owner or a stranger acting as the informant and delivering either a positive or negative emotional message. The aim was to evaluate the influence of the informant's identity on the dogs' referential looking behaviour and behavioural regulation when the message was delivered using only vocal and facial emotional expressions. Results show that most dogs looked referentially at the informant, regardless of his/her identity. Furthermore, when the owner acted as the informant dogs that received a positive emotional message changed their behaviour, looking at him/her more often and spending more time approaching the object and close to it; conversely, dogs that were given a negative message took longer to approach the object and to interact with it. Fewer differences in the dog's behaviour emerged when the informant was the stranger, suggesting that the dog-informant relationship may influence the dog's behavioural regulation. Results are discussed in relation to studies on human-dog communication, attachment, mood modification and joint attention.

  3. Dogs' social referencing towards owners and strangers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabella Merola

    Full Text Available Social referencing is a process whereby an individual uses the emotional information provided by an informant about a novel object/stimulus to guide his/her own future behaviour towards it. In this study adult dogs were tested in a social referencing paradigm involving a potentially scary object with either their owner or a stranger acting as the informant and delivering either a positive or negative emotional message. The aim was to evaluate the influence of the informant's identity on the dogs' referential looking behaviour and behavioural regulation when the message was delivered using only vocal and facial emotional expressions. Results show that most dogs looked referentially at the informant, regardless of his/her identity. Furthermore, when the owner acted as the informant dogs that received a positive emotional message changed their behaviour, looking at him/her more often and spending more time approaching the object and close to it; conversely, dogs that were given a negative message took longer to approach the object and to interact with it. Fewer differences in the dog's behaviour emerged when the informant was the stranger, suggesting that the dog-informant relationship may influence the dog's behavioural regulation. Results are discussed in relation to studies on human-dog communication, attachment, mood modification and joint attention.

  4. Sliding hiatal hernia in dogs

    OpenAIRE

    JOLANTA SPUŻAK; KRZYSZTOF KUBIAK; MARCIN JANKOWSKI; MACIEJ GRZEGORY; KAMILA GLIŃSKA-SUCHOCKA; JÓZEF NICPOŃ; VASYL VLIZLO; IGOR MAKSYMOVYCH

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Sliding hiatal hernia is a disorder resulting from a displacement of the abdominal part of the oesophagus and/or a part of the stomach into the thoracic cavity through the oesophageal hiatus of the diaphragm. The disorder may be congenital or acquired. Congenital hernia follows disturbances in the embryonic development. In the literature the predisposition to congenital sliding hiatal hernia is observed in the dogs of shar-pei and chow-chow breeds. Pathogenesis of acquired slidin...

  5. Genotypes of Cryptosporidium spp., Enterocytozoon bieneusi and Giardia duodenalis in dogs and cats in Shanghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hailing; Jin, Yue; Wu, Wenxian; Li, Pei; Wang, Lin; Li, Na; Feng, Yaoyu; Xiao, Lihua

    2016-03-01

    Controversies exist on the potential role of companion animals in the transmission of enteric pathogens in humans. This study was conducted to examine the genotype distribution of Cryptosporidium spp., Enterocytozoon bieneusi, and Giardia duodenalis in companion animals in Shanghai, China, and to assess their zoonotic potential. Fecal specimens from 485 dogs and 160 cats were examined for the occurrence and genotype distribution of the three pathogens by PCR. PCR products were sequenced to determine the species and genotypes. The χ(2) test was used to compare differences in infection rates between living conditions or age groups. Cryptosporidium spp., E. bieneusi and G. duodenalis were found in 39 (8.0 %), 29 (6.0 %) and 127 (26.2 %) of dogs, and 6 (3.8 %), 9 (5.6 %) and 21 (13.1 %) of cats, respectively. Infection rates of the pathogens in dogs from pet shops and a clinic were higher than those in household dogs, and higher in cats from one animal shelter than from pet shops. No significant differences in infection rates were detected among age groups. Cryptosporidium canis and C. felis were the only Cryptosporidium species found in dogs and cats, respectively. Enterocytozoon bieneusi genotype PtEb IX was the dominant genotype in dogs, whereas Type IV and D were the most common ones in cats. Multi-locus sequence typing at the glutamate dehydrogenase, β-giardin, and triosephosphate isomerase loci revealed the presence of G. duodenalis assemblages A (n = 23), B (n = 1), C (n = 26), and D (n = 58) in dogs (only A in household dogs) and assemblages A (n = 2), B (n = 6), C (n = 2), D (n = 1), and F (n = 7) in cats. Co-infection was detected in 24 dogs and 5 cats, especially those living in crowded conditions. Living condition is a major risk factor affecting the occurrence of enteric protists in companion animals in China, and although dogs and cats can be potential sources of human infections, the different distribution of

  6. Influence of multi-source and multi-temporal remotely sensed and ancillary data on the accuracy of random forest classification of wetlands in northern Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, Jennifer M.; Knight, Joseph F.; Gallant, Alisa L.

    2013-01-01

    Wetland mapping at the landscape scale using remotely sensed data requires both affordable data and an efficient accurate classification method. Random forest classification offers several advantages over traditional land cover classification techniques, including a bootstrapping technique to generate robust estimations of outliers in the training data, as well as the capability of measuring classification confidence. Though the random forest classifier can generate complex decision trees with a multitude of input data and still not run a high risk of over fitting, there is a great need to reduce computational and operational costs by including only key input data sets without sacrificing a significant level of accuracy. Our main questions for this study site in Northern Minnesota were: (1) how does classification accuracy and confidence of mapping wetlands compare using different remote sensing platforms and sets of input data; (2) what are the key input variables for accurate differentiation of upland, water, and wetlands, including wetland type; and (3) which datasets and seasonal imagery yield the best accuracy for wetland classification. Our results show the key input variables include terrain (elevation and curvature) and soils descriptors (hydric), along with an assortment of remotely sensed data collected in the spring (satellite visible, near infrared, and thermal bands; satellite normalized vegetation index and Tasseled Cap greenness and wetness; and horizontal-horizontal (HH) and horizontal-vertical (HV) polarization using L-band satellite radar). We undertook this exploratory analysis to inform decisions by natural resource managers charged with monitoring wetland ecosystems and to aid in designing a system for consistent operational mapping of wetlands across landscapes similar to those found in Northern Minnesota.

  7. Quantifying meniscal kinematics in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Brian H; Banks, Scott A; Pozzi, Antonio

    2017-11-06

    The dog has been used extensively as an experimental model to study meniscal treatments such as meniscectomy, meniscal repair, transplantation, and regeneration. However, there is very little information on meniscal kinematics in the dog. This study used MR imaging to quantify in vitro meniscal kinematics in loaded dog knees in four distinct poses: extension, flexion, internal, and external rotation. A new method was used to track the meniscal poses along the convex and posteriorly tilted tibial plateau. Meniscal displacements were large, displacing 13.5 and 13.7 mm posteriorly on average for the lateral and medial menisci during flexion (p = 0.90). The medial anterior horn and lateral posterior horns were the most mobile structures, showing average translations of 15.9 and 15.1 mm, respectively. Canine menisci are highly mobile and exhibit movements that correlate closely with the relative tibiofemoral positions. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Effect of Frequency of Brushing Teeth on Plaque and Calculus Accumulation, and Gingivitis in Dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Colin; Serfilippi, Laurie; Barnvos, Donald

    2015-01-01

    The efficacy of brushing the teeth of beagle dogs in a randomized, controlled, blinded study design using a clearly-defined brushing technique was evaluated for 4 brushing frequencies: brushing daily, brushing every other day, brushing weekly and brushing every other week, compared with no brushing in a control group of dogs. All dogs were fed a standard dry kibble diet during the study. Standard plaque, calculus, and gingivitis indices were used to score the teeth. A 'clean tooth' model was used. No gingival or non-gingival lacerations or other signs of injury to oral tissues were found at the end of the 28 day trial period. Brushing more frequently had greater effectiveness in retarding accumulation of plaque and calculus, and reducing the severity of pre-existing gingivitis. Brushing daily or every other day produced statistically significant improved results compared with brushing weekly or every other week. Based on the results of this study, daily brushing is recommended.

  9. Effectiveness of a vegetable dental chew on periodontal disease parameters in toy breed dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, D E; Kelman, M; Perkins, N

    2011-01-01

    Sixteen toy breed dogs completed a parallel, 70-day two-period, cross-over design clinical study to determine the effect of a vegetable dental chew on gingivitis, halitosis, plaque, and calculus accumulations. The dogs were randomly assigned into two groups. During one study period the dogs were fed a non-dental dry diet only and during the second study period were fed the same dry diet supplemented by the daily addition of a vegetable dental chew. Daily administration of the dental chew was shown to reduce halitosis, as well as, significantly reduce gingivitis, plaque and calculus accumulation and therefore may play a significant role in the improvement of canine oral health over the long-term.

  10. Therapeutic effects of dog visits in nursing homes for the elderly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thodberg, Karen; Sørensen, Lisbeth Uhrskov; Christensen, Janne Winther

    2016-01-01

    .5 years; [79; 90]) from four nursing homes were randomly assigned to receive biweekly visits for 6 weeks from a person accompanied by either a dog, a robot seal (PARO), or a soft toy cat. Sleep patterns were measured using actigraphy technology before, during (the third and sixth week), and after...... by a dog rather than the robot seal or soft toy cat (dog: 610 ± 127 min; seal: 498 ± 146 min; cat: 540 ± 163 min; F2,37 = 4.99; P = 0.01). No effects were found in the sixth week or after the visit period had ended. We found that visit type had no effect on weight (F2,88 = 0.13; P > 0.05), body mass index...

  11. Leishmania infection and blood food sources of phlebotomines in an area of Brazil endemic for visceral and tegumentary leishmaniasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães-e-Silva, Antônia Suely; Silva, Soraia de Oliveira; Ribeiro da Silva, Rosa Cristina; Pinheiro, Valéria Cristina Soares; Rebêlo, José Manuel Macário; Melo, Maria Norma

    2017-01-01

    The aims of the study were to determine the blood feeding preferences of sandflies and to identify species of Leishmania that infected phlebotomines in Caxias, Maranhão, Brazil, an area that is highly endemic for leishmaniasis. Sandflies were captured in light traps located in the peridomiciliary environments of randomly selected houses in urban and rural settings between 1800 and 0600 hours on new moon days between March 2013 and February 2015. DNA extracts from 982 engorged female sandflies were submitted to fragment length polymorphism analysis to identify infecting species of Leishmania, and blood sources were identified for 778 of these specimens. Infection by Leishmania infantum was detected in Lutzomyia longipalpis, Lu. whitmani and Lu. termitophila; L. infantum/L. braziliensis in Lu. longipalpis, Lu. whitmani and Lu. trinidadensis; L. shawi in Lu. longipalpis; L. mexicana in Lu. longipalpis; L. braziliensis in Lu. longipalpis and Lu. whitmani; L. guyanensis in Lu. longipalpis and Lu. termitophila; L. amazonensis in Lu. longipalpis and L. lainsoni or L. naiffi in Lu. longipalpis, while Lu. longipalpis and Lu. trinidadensis were infected with unidentified Leishmania sp. Blood sources were identified in 573 individual phlebotomines and the preferred hosts were, in decreasing order, chicken, dog, rodent and human with lower preferences for pig, horse, opossum and cattle. Lu. longipalpis and Lu. whitmani performed mixed feeding on man, dog and rodent, while Lu. longipalpis was the most opportunistic species, feeding on the blood of all hosts surveyed, but preferably on dog/chicken, dog/rodent and rodent/chicken. Our findings reveal the concomitant circulation of Leishmania species that cause visceral leishmaniasis and tegumentary leishmaniasis in the study area, and explain the occurrence of autochthonous human cases of both clinical forms of leishmaniasis in Caxias, Maranhão. The results support our hypothesis that, in the municipality of Caxias, transmission

  12. Effectiveness of injection of local anesthetic into the retrobulbar space for postoperative analgesia following eye enucleation in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myrna, Kathern E; Bentley, Ellison; Smith, Lesley J

    2010-07-15

    To assess the efficacy of a retrobulbar bupivacaine nerve block for postoperative analgesia following eye enucleation in dogs. Randomized controlled trial. 22 dogs. Client-owned dogs admitted to the hospital for routine eye enucleation were enrolled with owner consent and randomly assigned to a treatment (bupivacaine hydrochloride) or control (saline [0.9% NaCl] solution) group. Baseline subjective pain scores were recorded. Anesthesia consisted of hydromorphone and midazolam preoperatively, thiopental or propofol for induction, and isoflurane in oxygen for maintenance. An inferior-temporal palpebral retrobulbar injection of either saline solution or bupivacaine was administered. Transpalpebral eye enucleation was performed. Pain scores were recorded at 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 24 hours after extubation (time 0) by observers masked to treatment groups. Dogs were given hydromorphone (0.2 mg/kg [0.09 mg/lb], IM or IV) as a rescue analgesic if the subjective pain score totaled >or= 9 (out of a maximum total score of 18) or >or= 3 in any 1 category. 9 of 11 control dogs required a rescue dose of hydromorphone, but only 2 of 11 dogs in the bupivacaine treatment group required rescue analgesia. Mean time to treatment failure (ie, administration of rescue analgesia following extubation) was 0.56 hours (95% confidence interval, 0.029 to 1.095 hours) for the 11 dogs that received hydromorphone. Retrobulbar administration of bupivacaine in dogs in conjunction with traditional premedication prior to eye enucleation was an effective form of adjunctive analgesia and reduced the need for additional postoperative analgesics.

  13. Parasitic Zoonoses in Humans and Their Dogs from a Rural Community of Tropical Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Ortega-Pacheco

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional study was made on 89 inhabitants and their dogs from a rural community of Yucatan, Mexico, to determine the serological prevalence of some zoonotic parasitic agents. Samples were taken to monitor the presence and intensity of infection with gastrointestinal parasites in dogs. In humans, the serological prevalence of T. canis, T. gondii, and T. spiralis was 29.2%, 91.0%, and 6.7%, respectively. No associations were found between positive cases and studied variables. From the total of blood samples taken from dogs, 87 (97.6% were seropositive to T. gondii; only 52 viable fecal samples were collected from dogs of which 46.2% had the presence of gastrointestinal parasites with low to moderate intensity; from those, 12% had the presence of T. canis. This study demonstrates the presence of the studied zoonotic agents in the area particularly T. gondii which suggest a common source of infection in dogs and humans and a high number of oocyts present in the environment. Preventive measures must be designed towards good prophylactic practices in domestic and backyard animals (T. canis and T. spiralis. Contaminated sources with T. gondii (food and water should be further investigated in order to design effective control measures.

  14. Genome-wide SNP and haplotype analyses reveal a rich history underlying dog domestication

    Science.gov (United States)

    vonHoldt, Bridgett M.; Pollinger, John P.; Lohmueller, Kirk E.; Han, Eunjung; Parker, Heidi G.; Quignon, Pascale; Degenhardt, Jeremiah D.; Boyko, Adam R.; Earl, Dent A.; Auton, Adam; Reynolds, Andy; Bryc, Kasia; Brisbin, Abra; Knowles, James C.; Mosher, Dana S.; Spady, Tyrone C.; Elkahloun, Abdel; Geffen, Eli; Pilot, Malgorzata; Jedrzejewski, Wlodzimierz; Greco, Claudia; Randi, Ettore; Bannasch, Danika; Wilton, Alan; Shearman, Jeremy; Musiani, Marco; Cargill, Michelle; Jones, Paul G.; Qian, Zuwei; Huang, Wei; Ding, Zhao-Li; Zhang, Ya-ping; Bustamante, Carlos D.; Ostrander, Elaine A.; Novembre, John; Wayne, Robert K.

    2010-01-01

    Advances in genome technology have facilitated a new understanding of the historical and genetic processes crucial to rapid phenotypic evolution under domestication1,2. To understand the process of dog diversification better, we conducted an extensive genome-wide survey of more than 48,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms in dogs and their wild progenitor, the grey wolf. Here we show that dog breeds share a higher proportion of multi-locus haplotypes unique to grey wolves from the Middle East, indicating that they are a dominant source of genetic diversity for dogs rather than wolves from east Asia, as suggested by mitochondrial DNA sequence data3. Furthermore, we find a surprising correspondence between genetic and phenotypic/functional breed groupings but there are exceptions that suggest phenotypic diversification depended in part on the repeated crossing of individuals with novel phenotypes. Our results show that Middle Eastern wolves were a critical source of genome diversity, although interbreeding with local wolf populations clearly occurred elsewhere in the early history of specific lineages. More recently, the evolution of modern dog breeds seems to have been an iterative process that drew on a limited genetic toolkit to create remarkable phenotypic diversity. PMID:20237475

  15. [Infections which humans in the household transmit to dogs and cats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayr, A

    1989-04-01

    An overview of the most important infections which can be transmitted from humans to pet dogs and cats is presented. Two quite different sources of infection stand diametrically opposite each other: 1. The transmission of active human infections to dogs and cats and 2. the transmission of infectious agents by feeding raw meat, offal, unsterilized milk products, kitchen scraps and contaminated feedstuffs. Humans can be the source of the following infections: 1. Zoonoses with reciprocal modes of transmission, e.g. Campylobacter and E. coli infections, trichophyton and microsporum infections, reo-, parainfluenza-, adeno, rota- and corona infections. 2. Zoonoses in which the main direction of infection is human----animal, e.g. tuberculosis and influenza A. 3. Infections originally pathogenic to humans which meet an impasse in dogs and cats (blind alley hosts), e.g. herpes simplex, varicella-zoster, measles and Corynebacterium diphtheriae. Listeria, salmonella, campylobacteria, toxoplasma, fungi, yeasts and viruses are transmitted via feed. The most dangerous virus infection to be transmitted to cats and dogs via raw pork leftovers is Aujeszky's disease. The dog or cat, which is the last link in the infection chain, suffers an agonizing death. The other infections originating from feed must be assessed quite differently. They are links in infection chains, which spread pathogens and endanger the health of man and animal in turn. A typical example is toxoplasmosis. Man becomes infected via sporulated oocysts from feces. Pet cats mainly become infected via raw pork containing cysts.

  16. Epidemiological Survey of Brucella canis Infection in Different Breeds of Dogs in Fars Province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Amin Behzadi and Asghar Mogheiseh1*

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of Brucella canis antibodies in different breeds, sex and ages of dogs in southern of Iran. A total of 113 whole blood samples were taken from different breeds based on exotic or native sources. The samples were examined with immunochromatography assay for detection of B. canis antibodies. Twelve dogs were serologically positive (10.62%. There was significant differences in ratio of infected dogs between breeds (exotic or native, ages (less, equal or more than 2 years old and the history of vaccination (against rabies, leptospirosis, parvovirus, adenovirus type 2, canine distemper, parainfluenza (P<0.001. However, the results were not significant statistically, among both sex (P=0.058 and the history of clinical signs (P=0.456 in seropositive dogs. Based on this study and the other investigation in companion dogs from southwest of Iran, it seems that the mixed and spray (native breeds are not infected with B. canis, yet. Conversely, the exotic breeds would be the source of bacterium in Iran. Therefore, preventive and control measures are strongly recommended.

  17. Determination of Morphological, Biometric and Biochemical Susceptibilities in Healthy Eurasier Dogs with Suspected Inherited Glaucoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulle, Frédéric; Thomas, Philippe; Isard, Pierre-François; Azoulay, Thierry; Lafarge-Beurlet, Stéphanie; Woods, Mike; Lavillegrand, Sylvie; Ivkovic, Ivana; Neveux, Nathalie; Sahel, José-Alain; Picaud, Serge; Froger, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    In both humans and dogs, the primary risk factor for glaucoma is high intraocular pressure (IOP), which may be caused by iridocorneal angle (ICA) abnormalities. Oxidative stress has also been implicated in retinal ganglion cell damage associated with glaucoma. A suspected inherited form of glaucoma was recently identified in Eurasier dogs (EDs), a breed for which pedigrees are readily available. Because of difficulties in assessing ICA morphology in dogs with advanced glaucoma, we selected a cohort of apparently healthy dogsfor the investigation of ICA morphological status, IOP and plasma concentrations of oxidative stress biomarkers. We aimed to establish correlations between these factors, to identify predictive markers of glaucoma in this dog breed. A cohort of 28 subjects, volunteered for inclusion by their owners, was selected by veterinary surgeons. These dogs were assigned to four groups: young males, young females (1–3 years old), adult males and adult females (4–8 years old). Ocular examination included ophthalmoscopy, tonometry, gonioscopy, biometry and ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM), and the evaluation of oxidative stress biomarkers consisting of measurements of plasma glutathione peroxidase (GP) activity and taurine and metabolic precursor (methionine and cysteine) concentrations in plasma. The prevalence of pectinate ligament abnormalities was significantly higher in adult EDs than in young dogs. Moreover, in adult females, high IOP was significantly correlated with a short axial globe length, and a particularly large distance between Schwalbe's line and the anterior lens capsule. GP activity levels were significantly lower in EDs than in a randomized control group of dogs, and plasma taurine concentrations were higher. Hence, ICA abnormalities were associated with weaker antioxidant defenses in EDs, potentially counteracted by higher plasma taurine concentrations. This study suggests that EDs may constitute an appropriate canine model for the

  18. Determination of morphological, biometric and biochemical susceptibilities in healthy Eurasier dogs with suspected inherited glaucoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Boillot

    Full Text Available In both humans and dogs, the primary risk factor for glaucoma is high intraocular pressure (IOP, which may be caused by iridocorneal angle (ICA abnormalities. Oxidative stress has also been implicated in retinal ganglion cell damage associated with glaucoma. A suspected inherited form of glaucoma was recently identified in Eurasier dogs (EDs, a breed for which pedigrees are readily available. Because of difficulties in assessing ICA morphology in dogs with advanced glaucoma, we selected a cohort of apparently healthy dogsfor the investigation of ICA morphological status, IOP and plasma concentrations of oxidative stress biomarkers. We aimed to establish correlations between these factors, to identify predictive markers of glaucoma in this dog breed. A cohort of 28 subjects, volunteered for inclusion by their owners, was selected by veterinary surgeons. These dogs were assigned to four groups: young males, young females (1-3 years old, adult males and adult females (4-8 years old. Ocular examination included ophthalmoscopy, tonometry, gonioscopy, biometry and ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM, and the evaluation of oxidative stress biomarkers consisting of measurements of plasma glutathione peroxidase (GP activity and taurine and metabolic precursor (methionine and cysteine concentrations in plasma. The prevalence of pectinate ligament abnormalities was significantly higher in adult EDs than in young dogs. Moreover, in adult females, high IOP was significantly correlated with a short axial globe length, and a particularly large distance between Schwalbe's line and the anterior lens capsule. GP activity levels were significantly lower in EDs than in a randomized control group of dogs, and plasma taurine concentrations were higher. Hence, ICA abnormalities were associated with weaker antioxidant defenses in EDs, potentially counteracted by higher plasma taurine concentrations. This study suggests that EDs may constitute an appropriate canine model for

  19. Prevalence and Geographic Distribution of Vector-Borne Pathogens in Apparently Healthy Dogs in Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrljak, Vladimir; Kuleš, Josipa; Mihaljević, Željko; Torti, Marin; Gotić, Jelena; Crnogaj, Martina; Živičnjak, Tatjana; Mayer, Iva; Šmit, Iva; Bhide, Mangesh; Barić Rafaj, Renata

    2017-06-01

    Vector-borne pathogens (VBPs) are a group of globally extended and quickly spreading pathogens that are transmitted by various arthropod vectors. The aim of the present study was to investigate the seroprevalence against Babesia canis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Leishmania infantum, Dirofilaria immitis, and Ehrlichia canis in dogs in Croatia. We investigated 435 randomly selected apparently healthy dogs in 13 different locations of Croatia for antibodies to B. canis by indirect immunofluorescence using a commercial IFA IgG Antibody Kit. All samples were also tested for qualitative detection of D. immitis antigen and for antibodies to A. phagocytophilum, B. burgdorferi sensu lato, L. infantum, and E. canis with two point-of-care assays. Overall, 112 dogs (25.74%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 21.70-30.12) were serologically positive for one or more of the pathogens. B. canis was the most prevalent pathogen (20.00%, 95% CI 16.34-24.07), followed by A. phagocytophilum (6.21%, 95% CI 4.12-8.90), L. infantum, (1.38%, 95% CI 0.51-2.97), and B. burgdorferi sensu lato (0.69%, 95% CI 0.01-2.00). The lowest seroprevalence was for D. immitis and E. canis (0.46%, 95% CI 0.01-1.65). Coinfection was determined in 12 dogs (2.76%, 95% CI 1.43-4.77), of which 10 were positive to two pathogens (7 with B. canis and A. phagocytophilum and 1 B. canis with B. burgdorferi sensu lato or L. infantum or E. canis). One dog was positive to three pathogens and another dog to four pathogens. Seroprevalence for babesia was age, breed, and lifestyle/use dependent. Purebred dogs had almost half the chance of developing disease than crossbred (OR = 0.58, p Croatia. Some of these VBPs are zoonotic and represent a potential risk to public health.

  20. Autoantibodies against Cytochrome P450 Side-Chain Cleavage Enzyme in Dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) Affected with Hypoadrenocorticism (Addison's Disease).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boag, Alisdair M; Christie, Michael R; McLaughlin, Kerry A; Syme, Harriet M; Graham, Peter; Catchpole, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Canine hypoadrenocorticism likely arises from immune-mediated destruction of adrenocortical tissue, leading to glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid deficiency. In humans with autoimmune Addison's disease (AAD) or autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome (APS), circulating autoantibodies have been demonstrated against enzymes associated with adrenal steroid synthesis. The current study investigates autoantibodies against steroid synthesis enzymes in dogs with spontaneous hypoadrenocorticism. Coding regions of canine CYP21A2 (21-hydroxylase; 21-OH), CYP17A1 (17-hydroxylase; 17-OH), CYP11A1 (P450 side-chain cleavage enzyme; P450scc) and HSD3B2 (3β hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase; 3βHSD) were amplified, cloned and expressed as 35S-methionine radiolabelled recombinant protein. In a pilot study, serum samples from 20 dogs with hypoadrenocorticism and four unaffected control dogs were screened by radio-immunoprecipitation assay. There was no evidence of reactivity against 21-OH, 17-OH or 3βHSD, but five dogs with hypoadrenocorticism showed immunoreactivity to P450scc compared with controls. Serum samples were subsequently obtained from 213 dogs diagnosed with hypoadrenocorticism and 110 dogs from a hospital control population. Thirty control dogs were randomly selected to establish a threshold for antibody positivity (mean + 3 × standard deviation). Dogs with hypoadrenocorticism were more likely to be P450scc autoantibody positive than hospital controls (24% vs. 1.2%, respectively; p = 0.0016). Sex was significantly associated with the presence of P450scc autoantibodies in the case population, with 30% of females testing positive compared with 17% of males (p = 0.037). Significant associations with breed (p = 0.015) and DLA-type (DQA1*006:01 allele; p = 0.017) were also found. This cross-sectional study indicates that P450scc autoantibodies are present in a proportion of dogs affected with hypoadrenocorticism.

  1. Autoantibodies against Cytochrome P450 Side-Chain Cleavage Enzyme in Dogs (Canis lupus familiaris Affected with Hypoadrenocorticism (Addison's Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alisdair M Boag

    Full Text Available Canine hypoadrenocorticism likely arises from immune-mediated destruction of adrenocortical tissue, leading to glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid deficiency. In humans with autoimmune Addison's disease (AAD or autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome (APS, circulating autoantibodies have been demonstrated against enzymes associated with adrenal steroid synthesis. The current study investigates autoantibodies against steroid synthesis enzymes in dogs with spontaneous hypoadrenocorticism. Coding regions of canine CYP21A2 (21-hydroxylase; 21-OH, CYP17A1 (17-hydroxylase; 17-OH, CYP11A1 (P450 side-chain cleavage enzyme; P450scc and HSD3B2 (3β hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase; 3βHSD were amplified, cloned and expressed as 35S-methionine radiolabelled recombinant protein. In a pilot study, serum samples from 20 dogs with hypoadrenocorticism and four unaffected control dogs were screened by radio-immunoprecipitation assay. There was no evidence of reactivity against 21-OH, 17-OH or 3βHSD, but five dogs with hypoadrenocorticism showed immunoreactivity to P450scc compared with controls. Serum samples were subsequently obtained from 213 dogs diagnosed with hypoadrenocorticism and 110 dogs from a hospital control population. Thirty control dogs were randomly selected to establish a threshold for antibody positivity (mean + 3 × standard deviation. Dogs with hypoadrenocorticism were more likely to be P450scc autoantibody positive than hospital controls (24% vs. 1.2%, respectively; p = 0.0016. Sex was significantly associated with the presence of P450scc autoantibodies in the case population, with 30% of females testing positive compared with 17% of males (p = 0.037. Significant associations with breed (p = 0.015 and DLA-type (DQA1*006:01 allele; p = 0.017 were also found. This cross-sectional study indicates that P450scc autoantibodies are present in a proportion of dogs affected with hypoadrenocorticism.

  2. Seroprevalence of Leptospirosis in Working Dogs.

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    Lau, S F; Wong, J Y; Khor, K H; Roslan, M A; Abdul Rahman, M S; Bejo, S K; Radzi, R; Bahaman, A R

    2017-12-01

    Working dogs are canine animals that have been trained to assist human beings in carrying out various tasks. They help in guarding property, performing rescues, assisting the visually impaired or physically handicapped, searching for drugs, explosives, and others. Leptospirosis is one of the most widespread zoonotic diseases in the world and a commonly occurring disease of the tropics and subtropics. In Malaysia, all working dogs are normally vaccinated with serovars, Pomona, Icterohaemorrhagiae, Canicola, and Grippotyphosa based on protocols recommended from other countries. The duration of immunity in vaccinated dogs for Leptospira can last up to 13 months; however, there is no full crossprotection between the different serovars. Five representative canine units from different government agencies in Malaysia (n = 96 dogs) were recruited in this study. For detection, the microscopic agglutination test was performed by incubating the serum from dogs with various serovars of leptospires, namely, Icterohaemorrhagiae, Canicola, Pomona, Grippotyphosa, Australis, Bataviae, Javanica, Tarassovi, Hebdomadis, Lai, and Pyrogenes. The plasma obtained was used for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis, for the detection of 16S rRNA, and lipL 32 genes of Leptospira. Out of the 96 dogs sampled, only 3 dogs were positive toward serovars, Australis, Bataviae, and Javanica, based on the cutoff point at 1:80. The seroprevalence of canine leptospirosis in this population was 3.1% (n = 3/96). However, all 96 blood samples of working dogs tested negative for both pathogenic and nonpathogenic Leptospira genes. The results revealed that, by vaccination alone, working dogs were not fully protected against leptospirosis and could pose a risk to dog handlers. A preventative and control protocol for leptospirosis is warranted, and its implementation should be monitored and improved accordingly from time to time, in order to maintain a healthy condition in both working dogs and their

  3. What do dogs know about hidden objects?

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    Miller, Holly C; Rayburn-Reeves, Rebecca; Zentall, Thomas R

    2009-07-01

    Previous research has found that dogs will search accurately for an invisibly displaced object when the task is simplified and contextual ambiguity is eliminated [Doré, F.Y., Fiset, S., Goulet, S., Dumas, M.-C., Gagnon, S., 1996. Search behavior in cats and dogs: interspecific differences in working memory and spatial cognition. Animal Learning & Behavior 24, 142-149; Miller, H., Gipson, C., Vaughan, A., Rayburn-Reeves, R., Zentall, T.R., 2009. Object permanence in dogs: invisible displacement in a rotation task. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review 16 (1), 150-155]. For example, when an object is placed inside an occluder, one of which was attached to each end of a beam that could be rotated 90 degrees , dogs search inside of the appropriate occluder. The current research confirmed this finding and tested the possibility that the dogs were using a perceptual/conditioning mechanism (i.e., their gaze was drawn to the occluder as the object was placed inside and they continued looking at it as it rotated). The test was done by introducing a delay between the displacement of the object and the initiation of the dogs' search. In Experiment 1, during the delay, a barrier was placed between the dog and the apparatus. In Experiment 2, the lights were turned off during the delay. The search accuracy for some dogs was strongly affected by the delay, however, search accuracy for other dogs was not affected. These results suggest that although a perceptual/conditioning mechanism may be involved for some dogs, it cannot account for the performance of others. It is likely that these other dogs showed true object permanence.

  4. Seroprevalence of Coxiella burnetii in Australian dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, A J; Norris, J M; Heller, J; Brown, G; Malik, R; Bosward, K L

    2016-09-01

    The role of dogs in the transmission of Coxiella burnetii to humans is uncertain, and extensive seroprevalence studies of dogs have not been previously conducted in Australia. This study determined C. burnetii exposure in four diverse canine subpopulations by adapting, verifying and comparing an indirect immunofluoresence assay (IFA) and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) used to detect anti-C. burnetii antibodies in humans. Canine serum samples (n = 1223) were tested with IFA from four subpopulations [breeding establishments; household pets; free-roaming dogs in Aboriginal communities; shelter dogs]. The proportions of seropositive dogs were as follows: breeding (7/309, 2.3%), household pets (10/328, 3%), Aboriginal communities (21/321, 6.5%) and shelters (5/265, 1.9%). Dogs from Aboriginal communities were 2.8 times (CI 1.5-5.1; P dogs from other populations. The ELISA was used on 86 of 1223 sera tested with IFA, and a Cohen's Kappa coefficient of 0.60 (CI 0.43-0.78) indicated good agreement between the two assays. This study has established that Australian dogs within all four subpopulations have been exposed to C. burnetii and that a higher seroprevalence was observed amongst free-roaming dogs associated with Aboriginal communities. As C. burnetii recrudesces during pregnancy and birth products contain the highest concentration of organism, individuals assisting at the time of parturition, those handling pups shortly after birth as well as those residing in the vicinity of whelping dogs are potentially at risk of developing Q fever. However, the identification of active antigen shed in excreta from seropositive dogs is required in order to accurately define and quantify the public health risk. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. Recognizing the value of assistance dogs in society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audrestch, Hilary M; Whelan, Chantelle T; Grice, David; Asher, Lucy; England, Gary C W; Freeman, Sarah L

    2015-10-01

    Assistance dogs are specially trained to undertake a variety of tasks to help individuals with disabilities. This review gives an overview of the different types of assistance dogs in the UK, including guide dogs, hearing dogs, mobility assistance dogs, service dogs and dual-purpose dogs. The literature describes many benefits of assistance dogs, including their impact on physical wellbeing and safety of their 'owners,' as well as on psychological wellbeing and social inclusion. The role of assistance dogs in society is widely recognized by the public, but is not currently acknowledged in government social policy. The current evidence on the benefits of assistance dogs is limited by the type and scale of current research. This article highlights the need for independent funding for high quality research to enable social care and policy makers to make evidence-based decisions on the value of assistance dogs to people with disabilities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Toxicity of inhaled 91YCl3 in beagle dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, F.F.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Boecker, B.B.; Jones, R.K.; McClellan, R.O.; Pickrell, J.A.

    1980-01-01

    The metabolism, dosimetry and effects of inhaled 91 YCl 3 in beagle dogs are being studied. Forty-two dogs with 91 Y initial body burdens from 14 to 1300 μCi/kg body weight and 12 control dogs are being maintained for lifetime observation. Four additional dogs with a mean initial body burden of 180 μCi/kg body weight were placed in a sacrifice study. Thirty-six of the exposed dogs and 7 of the control dogs have died. Dogs with the highest activity levels died with bone marrow damage and pancytopenia. Three dogs died with nasal cavity carcinomas and three with pulmonary carcinomas and one with hepatic hemangiosarcoma that all appear related to radiation injury. Control dogs died of miscellaneous neoplastic and chronic diseases. Observations are continuing on 10 surviving exposed dogs and six surviving unexposed dogs

  7. Review of thymic pathology in 30 cats and 36 dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, M J

    1997-09-01

    Data are presented from 30 cats and 36 dogs in which thymic disease was recognised clinically or on postmortem examination. The diagnoses included thymic lymphoma (19 cats, 12 dogs), thymoma (five cats, 18 dogs), thymic branchial cyst formation or cystic change (one cat, four dogs), thymic hyperplasia (two cats), congenital hypoplasia (one cat, one dog), thymic haemorrhage (one cat, one dog) and thymic amyloidosis (one cat). Thymic lymphoma occurred in younger dogs and cats, and was recorded equally among domestic shorthaired and purebred (especially Siamese) cats. Eight cats with thymic lymphoma were tested for feline leukaemia virus and four were positive. Thymoma occurred more frequently in older cats and dogs, and in Labradors and German shepherd dogs. Thymic tumours were associated with paraneoplastic hypercalcaemia (six dogs), megaoesophagus (two dogs) or interface dermatitis with basement membrane immune complex deposition (one cat). Non-neoplastic thymic diseases were associated with myasthenia gravis (one cat), pemphigus foliaceus (one cat) and superficial necrolytic dermatitis (one cat).

  8. Influence of lignocellulose and low or high levels of sugar beet pulp on nutrient digestibility and the fecal microbiota in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kröger, S; Vahjen, W; Zentek, J

    2017-04-01

    Lignocellulose is an alternative fiber source for dogs; however, it has not yet been studied as a feed ingredient for the nutrition of dogs. Eight adult Beagles were involved in the study, which consisted of 3 feeding periods of 8 to 12 wk each. All dogs received 3 different diets, which either had the same concentration of fiber sources (2.7% sugar beet pulp or lignocellulose) or were formulated for a similar concentration of approximately 3% crude fiber: 12% sugar beet pulp (highSBP; 3.1% crude fiber), 2.7% sugar beet pulp (lowSBP; 0.96% crude fiber), or 2.7% lignocellulose (LC; 2.4% crude fiber). Feces samples were collected at the end of each feeding period, and the apparent nutrient digestibility, daily amount, and DM content of feces and fecal cell numbers of relevant bacteria were analyzed. The daily feces amount was lower and the feces DM was higher when dogs were fed the LC diet and the lowSBP diet compared with the highSBP diet ( dogs fed LC and lowSBP had lower concentrations of acetate ( dogs fed highSBP. The concentration of -butyrate was higher in the feces of dogs fed with LC compared with dogs fed high and low sugar beet pulp (SBP; dogs was highest followed by lowSBP- and highSBP-fed dogs ( dog feed has different impacts on the fecal microbiota and the apparent digestibility of nutrients. Therefore, different areas of application should be considered.

  9. Serial plasma glucose changes in dogs suffering from severe dog bite wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoeman, J P; Kitshoff, A M; du Plessis, C J; Thompson, P N

    2011-03-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the changes in plasma glucose concentration in 20 severely injured dogs suffering from dog bite wounds over a period of 72 hours from the initiation of trauma. Historical, signalment, clinical and haematological factors were investigated for their possible effect on plasma glucose concentration. Haematology was repeated every 24 hours and plasma glucose concentrations were measured at 8-hourly intervals post-trauma. On admission, 1 dog was hypoglycaemic,