WorldWideScience

Sample records for random position machine

  1. Microgravity simulations with human lymphocytes in the free fall machine and in the random positioning machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarzenberg, M.; Pippia, P.; Meloni, M. A.; Cossu, G.; Cogoli-Greuter, M.; Cogoli, A.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present the results obtained in our laboratory with both instruments, the FFM [free fall machine] and the RPM [random positioning machine], to compare them with the data from earlier experiments with human lymphocytes conducted in the FRC [fast rotating clinostat] and in space. Furthermore, the suitability of the FFM and RPM for research in gravitational cell biology is discussed.

  2. Fluid Dynamics Appearing during Simulated Microgravity Using Random Positioning Machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuest, Simon L; Stern, Philip; Casartelli, Ernesto; Egli, Marcel

    2017-01-01

    Random Positioning Machines (RPMs) are widely used as tools to simulate microgravity on ground. They consist of two gimbal mounted frames, which constantly rotate biological samples around two perpendicular axes and thus distribute the Earth's gravity vector in all directions over time. In recent years, the RPM is increasingly becoming appreciated as a laboratory instrument also in non-space-related research. For instance, it can be applied for the formation of scaffold-free spheroid cell clusters. The kinematic rotation of the RPM, however, does not only distribute the gravity vector in such a way that it averages to zero, but it also introduces local forces to the cell culture. These forces can be described by rigid body analysis. Although RPMs are commonly used in laboratories, the fluid motion in the cell culture flasks on the RPM and the possible effects of such on cells have not been examined until today; thus, such aspects have been widely neglected. In this study, we used a numerical approach to describe the fluid dynamic characteristic occurring inside a cell culture flask turning on an operating RPM. The simulations showed that the fluid motion within the cell culture flask never reached a steady state or neared a steady state condition. The fluid velocity depends on the rotational velocity of the RPM and is in the order of a few centimeters per second. The highest shear stresses are found along the flask walls; depending of the rotational velocity, they can reach up to a few 100 mPa. The shear stresses in the "bulk volume," however, are always smaller, and their magnitude is in the order of 10 mPa. In conclusion, RPMs are highly appreciated as reliable tools in microgravity research. They have even started to become useful instruments in new research fields of mechanobiology. Depending on the experiment, the fluid dynamic on the RPM cannot be neglected and needs to be taken into consideration. The results presented in this study elucidate the fluid

  3. Proteome Analysis of Thyroid Cancer Cells After Long-Term Exposure to a Random Positioning Machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietsch, Jessica; Bauer, Johann; Weber, Gerhard; Nissum, Mikkel; Westphal, Kriss; Egli, Marcel; Grosse, Jirka; Schönberger, Johann; Eilles, Christoph; Infanger, Manfred; Grimm, Daniela

    2011-11-01

    Annulling gravity during cell culturing triggers various types of cells to change their protein expression in a time dependent manner. We therefore decided to determine gravity sensitive proteins and their period of sensitivity to the effects of gravity. In this study, thyroid cancer cells of the ML-1 cell line were cultured under normal gravity (1 g) or in a random positioning machine (RPM), which simulated near weightlessness for 7 and 11 days. Cells were then sonicated and proteins released into the supernatant were separated from those that remained attached to the cell fragments. Subsequently, both types of proteins were fractionated by free-flow isoelectric focussing (FF-IEF). The fractions obtained were further separated by sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) to which comparable FF-IEF fractions derived from cells cultured either under 1 g or on the RPM had been applied side by side. The separation resulted in pairs of lanes, on which a number of identical bands were observed. Selected gel pieces were excised and their proteins determined by mass spectrometry. Equal proteins from cells cultured under normal gravity and the RPM, respectively, were detected in comparable gel pieces. However, many of these proteins had received different Mascot scores. Quantifying heat shock cognate 71 kDa protein, glutathione S-transferase P, nucleoside diphosphate kinase A and annexin-2 by Western blotting using whole cell lysates indicated usefulness of Mascot scores for selecting the most efficient antibodies.

  4. Changes in gene expression, protein content and morphology of chondrocytes cultured on a 3D Random Positioning Machine and 2D rotating clinostat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleshcheva, Ganna; Hauslage, Jens; Hemmersbach, Ruth; Infanger, Manfred; Bauer, Johann; Grimm, Daniela; Sahana, Jayashree

    Chondrocytes are the only cell type found in human cartilage consisting of proteoglycans and type II collagen. Several studies on chondrocytes cultured either in Space or on a ground-based facility for simulation of microgravity revealed that these cells are very resistant to adverse effects and stress induced by altered gravity. Tissue engineering of chondrocytes is a new strategy for cartilage regeneration. Using a three-dimensional Random Positioning Machine and a 2D rotating clinostat, devices designed to simulate microgravity on Earth, we investigated the early effects of microgravity exposure on human chondrocytes of six different donors after 30 min, 2 h, 4 h, 16 h, and 24 h and compared the results with the corresponding static controls cultured under normal gravity conditions. As little as 30 min of exposure resulted in increased expression of several genes responsible for cell motility, structure and integrity (beta-actin); control of cell growth, cell proliferation, cell differentiation and apoptosis; and cytoskeletal components such as microtubules (beta-tubulin) and intermediate filaments (vimentin). After 4 hours disruptions in the vimentin network were detected. These changes were less dramatic after 16 hours, when human chondrocytes appeared to reorganize their cytoskeleton. However, the gene expression and protein content of TGF-β1 was enhanced for 24 h. Based on the results achieved, we suggest that chondrocytes exposed to simulated microgravity seem to change their extracellular matrix production behavior while they rearrange their cytoskeletal proteins prior to forming three-dimensional aggregates.

  5. Simulated Microgravity Regulates Gene Transcript Profiles of 2T3 Preosteoblasts: Comparison of the Random Positioning Machine and the Rotating Wall Vessel Bioreactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Mamta J.; Liu, Wenbin; Sykes, Michelle C.; Ward, Nancy E.; Risin, Semyon A.; Risin, Diana; Hanjoong, Jo

    2007-01-01

    Microgravity of spaceflight induces bone loss due in part to decreased bone formation by osteoblasts. We have previously examined the microgravity-induced changes in gene expression profiles in 2T3 preosteoblasts using the Random Positioning Machine (RPM) to simulate microgravity conditions. Here, we hypothesized that exposure of preosteoblasts to an independent microgravity simulator, the Rotating Wall Vessel (RWV), induces similar changes in differentiation and gene transcript profiles, resulting in a more confined list of gravi-sensitive genes that may play a role in bone formation. In comparison to static 1g controls, exposure of 2T3 cells to RWV for 3 days inhibited alkaline phosphatase activity, a marker of differentiation, and downregulated 61 genes and upregulated 45 genes by more than two-fold as shown by microarray analysis. The microarray results were confirmed with real time PCR for downregulated genes osteomodulin, bone morphogenic protein 4 (BMP4), runx2, and parathyroid hormone receptor 1. Western blot analysis validated the expression of three downregulated genes, BMP4, peroxiredoxin IV, and osteoglycin, and one upregulated gene peroxiredoxin I. Comparison of the microarrays from the RPM and the RWV studies identified 14 gravi-sensitive genes that changed in the same direction in both systems. Further comparison of our results to a published database showing gene transcript profiles of mechanically loaded mouse tibiae revealed 16 genes upregulated by the loading that were shown to be downregulated by RWV and RPM. These mechanosensitive genes identified by the comparative studies may provide novel insights into understanding the mechanisms regulating bone formation and potential targets of countermeasure against decreased bone formation both in astronauts and in general patients with musculoskeletal disorders.

  6. Positional reference system for ultraprecision machining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, J.B.; Burleson, R.R.; Pardue, R.M.

    1980-09-12

    A stable positional reference system for use in improving the cutting tool-to-part contour position in numerical controlled-multiaxis metal turning machines is provided. The reference system employs a plurality of interferometers referenced to orthogonally disposed metering bars which are substantially isolated from machine strain induced position errors for monitoring the part and tool positions relative to the metering bars. A microprocessor-based control system is employed in conjunction with the plurality of positions interferometers and part contour description data input to calculate error components for each axis of movement and output them to corresponding axis driven with appropriate scaling and error compensation. Real-time position control, operating in combination with the reference system, makes possible the positioning of the cutting points of a tool along a part locus with a substantially greater degree of accuracy than has been attained previously in the art by referencing and then monitoring only the tool motion relative to a reference position located on the machine base.

  7. Robust Extreme Learning Machine With its Application to Indoor Positioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiaoxuan; Zou, Han; Zhou, Hongming; Xie, Lihua; Huang, Guang-Bin

    2016-01-01

    The increasing demands of location-based services have spurred the rapid development of indoor positioning system and indoor localization system interchangeably (IPSs). However, the performance of IPSs suffers from noisy measurements. In this paper, two kinds of robust extreme learning machines (RELMs), corresponding to the close-to-mean constraint, and the small-residual constraint, have been proposed to address the issue of noisy measurements in IPSs. Based on whether the feature mapping in extreme learning machine is explicit, we respectively provide random-hidden-nodes and kernelized formulations of RELMs by second order cone programming. Furthermore, the computation of the covariance in feature space is discussed. Simulations and real-world indoor localization experiments are extensively carried out and the results demonstrate that the proposed algorithms can not only improve the accuracy and repeatability, but also reduce the deviation and worst case error of IPSs compared with other baseline algorithms.

  8. Fast direct optical position measurement applied to parallel kinematics machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Kristian; Patzelt, Stefan; Goch, Gert

    2004-09-01

    Parallel kinematics machines (PKM) present a promising new formation of machine kinematics. But, their application is limited due to insufficient positioning accuracy, caused by errors of the transformation model and indirect position measurements. The theoretically attainable machining accuracy of machine tools is further decreased by unsolved calibration problems, which are the most important obstacles concerning the introduction of new machine tools with parallel or hybrid kinematics. This paper presents a conceptual improvement based on a direct position measurement in Cartesian coordinates, which overcomes these problems.

  9. Classification of Phishing Email Using Random Forest Machine Learning Technique

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Akinyelu, Andronicus A; Adewumi, Aderemi O

    2014-01-01

    .... This paper investigates and reports the use of random forest machine learning algorithm in classification of phishing attacks, with the major objective of developing an improved phishing email...

  10. Technique for Increasing Accuracy of Positioning System of Machine Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh. Ji

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of research is to improve the accuracy of positioning and processing system using a technique for optimization of pressure diagrams of guides in machine tools. The machining quality is directly related to its accuracy, which characterizes an impact degree of various errors of machines. The accuracy of the positioning system is one of the most significant machining characteristics, which allow accuracy evaluation of processed parts.The literature describes that the working area of the machine layout is rather informative to characterize the effect of the positioning system on the macro-geometry of the part surfaces to be processed. To enhance the static accuracy of the studied machine, in principle, two groups of measures are possible. One of them points toward a decrease of the cutting force component, which overturns the slider moments. Another group of measures is related to the changing sizes of the guide facets, which may lead to their profile change.The study was based on mathematical modeling and optimization of the cutting zone coordinates. And we find the formula to determine the surface pressure of the guides. The selected parameters of optimization are vectors of the cutting force and values of slides and guides. Obtained results show that a technique for optimization of coordinates in the cutting zone was necessary to increase a processing accuracy.The research has established that to define the optimal coordinates of the cutting zone we have to change the sizes of slides, value and coordinates of applied forces, reaching the pressure equalization and improving the accuracy of positioning system of machine tools. In different points of the workspace a vector of forces is applied, pressure diagrams are found, which take into account the changes in the parameters of positioning system, and the pressure diagram equalization to provide the most accuracy of machine tools is achieved.

  11. Code-Expanded Random Access for Machine-Type Communications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiilerich Pratas, Nuno; Thomsen, Henning; Stefanovic, Cedomir

    2012-01-01

    Abstract—The random access methods used for support of machine-type communications (MTC) in current cellular standards are derivatives of traditional framed slotted ALOHA and therefore do not support high user loads efficiently. Motivated by the random access method employed in LTE, we propose...

  12. Classification of Phishing Email Using Random Forest Machine Learning Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andronicus A. Akinyelu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Phishing is one of the major challenges faced by the world of e-commerce today. Thanks to phishing attacks, billions of dollars have been lost by many companies and individuals. In 2012, an online report put the loss due to phishing attack at about $1.5 billion. This global impact of phishing attacks will continue to be on the increase and thus requires more efficient phishing detection techniques to curb the menace. This paper investigates and reports the use of random forest machine learning algorithm in classification of phishing attacks, with the major objective of developing an improved phishing email classifier with better prediction accuracy and fewer numbers of features. From a dataset consisting of 2000 phishing and ham emails, a set of prominent phishing email features (identified from the literature were extracted and used by the machine learning algorithm with a resulting classification accuracy of 99.7% and low false negative (FN and false positive (FP rates.

  13. Randomized Prediction Games for Adversarial Machine Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rota Bulo, Samuel; Biggio, Battista; Pillai, Ignazio; Pelillo, Marcello; Roli, Fabio

    In spam and malware detection, attackers exploit randomization to obfuscate malicious data and increase their chances of evading detection at test time, e.g., malware code is typically obfuscated using random strings or byte sequences to hide known exploits. Interestingly, randomization has also been proposed to improve security of learning algorithms against evasion attacks, as it results in hiding information about the classifier to the attacker. Recent work has proposed game-theoretical formulations to learn secure classifiers, by simulating different evasion attacks and modifying the classification function accordingly. However, both the classification function and the simulated data manipulations have been modeled in a deterministic manner, without accounting for any form of randomization. In this paper, we overcome this limitation by proposing a randomized prediction game, namely, a noncooperative game-theoretic formulation in which the classifier and the attacker make randomized strategy selections according to some probability distribution defined over the respective strategy set. We show that our approach allows one to improve the tradeoff between attack detection and false alarms with respect to the state-of-the-art secure classifiers, even against attacks that are different from those hypothesized during design, on application examples including handwritten digit recognition, spam, and malware detection.In spam and malware detection, attackers exploit randomization to obfuscate malicious data and increase their chances of evading detection at test time, e.g., malware code is typically obfuscated using random strings or byte sequences to hide known exploits. Interestingly, randomization has also been proposed to improve security of learning algorithms against evasion attacks, as it results in hiding information about the classifier to the attacker. Recent work has proposed game-theoretical formulations to learn secure classifiers, by simulating different

  14. Banc d'essai des machines de pression positive continue ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Le syndrome d'apnées du sommeil est une pathologie fréquente qui se manifeste par l'obstruction (de plus de 10 secondes) des voies aériennes supérieures chez l'homme pendant le sommeil. Pour le traiter, le patient dort avec un masque nasal raccordé à une machine auto-pilotée qui délivre une pression positive ...

  15. Instrumented Impact Testing: Influence of Machine Variables and Specimen Position

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucon, E.; McCowan, C. N.; Santoyo, R. A.

    2008-09-15

    An investigation has been conducted on the influence of impact machine variables and specimen positioning on characteristic forces and absorbed energies from instrumented Charpy tests. Brittle and ductile fracture behavior has been investigated by testing NIST reference samples of low, high and super-high energy levels. Test machine variables included tightness of foundation, anvil and striker bolts, and the position of the center of percussion with respect to the center of strike. For specimen positioning, we tested samples which had been moved away or sideways with respect to the anvils. In order to assess the influence of the various factors, we compared mean values in the reference (unaltered) and altered conditions; for machine variables, t-test analyses were also performed in order to evaluate the statistical significance of the observed differences. Our results indicate that the only circumstance which resulted in variations larger than 5 percent for both brittle and ductile specimens is when the sample is not in contact with the anvils. These findings should be taken into account in future revisions of instrumented Charpy test standards.

  16. Extremely Randomized Machine Learning Methods for Compound Activity Prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarnecki, Wojciech M; Podlewska, Sabina; Bojarski, Andrzej J

    2015-11-09

    Speed, a relatively low requirement for computational resources and high effectiveness of the evaluation of the bioactivity of compounds have caused a rapid growth of interest in the application of machine learning methods to virtual screening tasks. However, due to the growth of the amount of data also in cheminformatics and related fields, the aim of research has shifted not only towards the development of algorithms of high predictive power but also towards the simplification of previously existing methods to obtain results more quickly. In the study, we tested two approaches belonging to the group of so-called 'extremely randomized methods'-Extreme Entropy Machine and Extremely Randomized Trees-for their ability to properly identify compounds that have activity towards particular protein targets. These methods were compared with their 'non-extreme' competitors, i.e., Support Vector Machine and Random Forest. The extreme approaches were not only found out to improve the efficiency of the classification of bioactive compounds, but they were also proved to be less computationally complex, requiring fewer steps to perform an optimization procedure.

  17. Extremely Randomized Machine Learning Methods for Compound Activity Prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech M. Czarnecki

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Speed, a relatively low requirement for computational resources and high effectiveness of the evaluation of the bioactivity of compounds have caused a rapid growth of interest in the application of machine learning methods to virtual screening tasks. However, due to the growth of the amount of data also in cheminformatics and related fields, the aim of research has shifted not only towards the development of algorithms of high predictive power but also towards the simplification of previously existing methods to obtain results more quickly. In the study, we tested two approaches belonging to the group of so-called ‘extremely randomized methods’—Extreme Entropy Machine and Extremely Randomized Trees—for their ability to properly identify compounds that have activity towards particular protein targets. These methods were compared with their ‘non-extreme’ competitors, i.e., Support Vector Machine and Random Forest. The extreme approaches were not only found out to improve the efficiency of the classification of bioactive compounds, but they were also proved to be less computationally complex, requiring fewer steps to perform an optimization procedure.

  18. Experimental comparison of support vector machines with random forests for hyperspectral image land cover classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, B. T.; Olugbara, O. O.; Marwala, T.

    2014-06-01

    The performances of regular support vector machines and random forests are experimentally compared for hyperspectral imaging land cover classification. Special characteristics of hyperspectral imaging dataset present diverse processing problems to be resolved under robust mathematical formalisms such as image classification. As a result, pixel purity index algorithm is used to obtain endmember spectral responses from Indiana pine hyperspectral image dataset. The generalized reduced gradient optimization algorithm is thereafter executed on the research data to estimate fractional abundances in the hyperspectral image and thereby obtain the numeric values for land cover classification. The Waikato environment for knowledge analysis (WEKA) data mining framework is selected as a tool to carry out the classification process by using support vector machines and random forests classifiers. Results show that performance of support vector machines is comparable to that of random forests. This study makes a positive contribution to the problem of land cover classification by exploring generalized reduced gradient method, support vector machines, and random forests to improve producer accuracy and overall classification accuracy. The performance comparison of these classifiers is valuable for a decision maker to consider tradeoffs in method accuracy versus method complexity.

  19. Simulation of parallel random access machines by circuits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stockmeyer, L.; Vishkin, U.

    1984-05-01

    A relationship is established between (i) parallel random-access machines that allow many processors to concurrently read from or write into a common memory including simultaneous reading or writing into the same memory location (CRCW PRAM), and (ii) combinational logic circuits that contain AND's, OR's and NOT's, with no bound placed on the fan-in of AND-gates and OR-gates. Parallel time and number of processors for CRCW PRAM's are shown to correspond respectively (and simulaneously) to depth and size for circuits, where the time-depth correspondence is to within a constant factor and the processors-size correspondence is to within a polynomial. By applying a recent result of Furst, Saxe and Sipser, the authors obtain the corollary that parity, integer multiplication, graph transitive closure and integer sorting cannot be computed in constant time by a CRCW PRAM with a polynomial number of processors. This is the first nonconstant lower bound on the parallel time required to solve these problems by a CRCW PRAM with a polynomial number of processors. The authors also state and outline the proof of a similar result, due to W. L. Ruzzo and M. Tompa, that relates time and processor bounds for CRCW PRAM's to alternation and space bounds for alternating Turing machines.

  20. Simulation of production lines involving unreliable machines:the importance of machine position and breakdown statistics

    OpenAIRE

    Ilar, Torbjörn; Powell, John; Kaplan, Alexander

    2007-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the importance of choosing the correct statistical distributions for breakdown frequency and duration when simulating production line productivity. Statistical distributions with a wide range tend to reduce the productivity of the line. Also, it is demonstrated that the productivity of a production line can be improved simply by re-arranging the order of unreliable machines in the line. If the line consists of similar or exchangeable machines, productivity can improved...

  1. Specification of the Beam Position Measurement in the PS Machine

    CERN Document Server

    Bravin, Enrico; Chanel, M; Ludwig, M; Métral, Elias; Métral, G; Potier, J P; Raich, U; Scrivens, R; Steerenberg, R; CERN. Geneva. AB Department

    2003-01-01

    This specification, drawn up by the instrumentation specification board 2, describes the requirements concerning orbit and trajectory measurements in the PS machine. The orbit measurement and the trajectory measurement are both indispensable in order to be able to guarantee the correct beam quality for beams like LHC, the future Grand Sasso beam, the nTOF beam and surely the combined operation of the nTOF beam and the East Area beam.

  2. A tale of two "forests": random forest machine learning AIDS tropical forest carbon mapping.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Mascaro

    Full Text Available Accurate and spatially-explicit maps of tropical forest carbon stocks are needed to implement carbon offset mechanisms such as REDD+ (Reduced Deforestation and Degradation Plus. The Random Forest machine learning algorithm may aid carbon mapping applications using remotely-sensed data. However, Random Forest has never been compared to traditional and potentially more reliable techniques such as regionally stratified sampling and upscaling, and it has rarely been employed with spatial data. Here, we evaluated the performance of Random Forest in upscaling airborne LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging-based carbon estimates compared to the stratification approach over a 16-million hectare focal area of the Western Amazon. We considered two runs of Random Forest, both with and without spatial contextual modeling by including--in the latter case--x, and y position directly in the model. In each case, we set aside 8 million hectares (i.e., half of the focal area for validation; this rigorous test of Random Forest went above and beyond the internal validation normally compiled by the algorithm (i.e., called "out-of-bag", which proved insufficient for this spatial application. In this heterogeneous region of Northern Peru, the model with spatial context was the best preforming run of Random Forest, and explained 59% of LiDAR-based carbon estimates within the validation area, compared to 37% for stratification or 43% by Random Forest without spatial context. With the 60% improvement in explained variation, RMSE against validation LiDAR samples improved from 33 to 26 Mg C ha(-1 when using Random Forest with spatial context. Our results suggest that spatial context should be considered when using Random Forest, and that doing so may result in substantially improved carbon stock modeling for purposes of climate change mitigation.

  3. A tale of two "forests": random forest machine learning AIDS tropical forest carbon mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascaro, Joseph; Asner, Gregory P; Knapp, David E; Kennedy-Bowdoin, Ty; Martin, Roberta E; Anderson, Christopher; Higgins, Mark; Chadwick, K Dana

    2014-01-01

    Accurate and spatially-explicit maps of tropical forest carbon stocks are needed to implement carbon offset mechanisms such as REDD+ (Reduced Deforestation and Degradation Plus). The Random Forest machine learning algorithm may aid carbon mapping applications using remotely-sensed data. However, Random Forest has never been compared to traditional and potentially more reliable techniques such as regionally stratified sampling and upscaling, and it has rarely been employed with spatial data. Here, we evaluated the performance of Random Forest in upscaling airborne LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging)-based carbon estimates compared to the stratification approach over a 16-million hectare focal area of the Western Amazon. We considered two runs of Random Forest, both with and without spatial contextual modeling by including--in the latter case--x, and y position directly in the model. In each case, we set aside 8 million hectares (i.e., half of the focal area) for validation; this rigorous test of Random Forest went above and beyond the internal validation normally compiled by the algorithm (i.e., called "out-of-bag"), which proved insufficient for this spatial application. In this heterogeneous region of Northern Peru, the model with spatial context was the best preforming run of Random Forest, and explained 59% of LiDAR-based carbon estimates within the validation area, compared to 37% for stratification or 43% by Random Forest without spatial context. With the 60% improvement in explained variation, RMSE against validation LiDAR samples improved from 33 to 26 Mg C ha(-1) when using Random Forest with spatial context. Our results suggest that spatial context should be considered when using Random Forest, and that doing so may result in substantially improved carbon stock modeling for purposes of climate change mitigation.

  4. Impact of Machined Workpiece Position in Workspace on Precision of Manufacturing Using an Angular Robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusá, Martina; Bárta, Jozef

    2016-09-01

    Use of an industrial robot in the production process as a spindle carrier is currently an interesting topic. However, if the stiffness of the robot is not sufficient, various imprecisions may occur during machining. The article deals with monitoring and evaluating the impact of cutting conditions and positions of the workpiece in the working area on the machined surfaces oriented in orthogonal planes. The aim of the experiment was to analyse the precision of simple planar surfaces milled using a robot.

  5. Positive post-disaster images: A daydream machine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, Nicola J; de Joux, Neil R; Wingreen, Stephen C; Kemp, Simon; Thomas, Jared; Helton, William S

    2017-08-01

    This study explores the impact of post-earthquake images inserted in a vigilance task, in terms of performance, self-reports of task-focus, and cerebral activity using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). Vigilance tasks present a sequence of stimuli in which only a few are pre-designated critical or target stimuli requiring an overt response from the participant. Seventy-one residents participated (51 women, 20 men) by taking part in a vigilance task with task-irrelevant images inserted in the sequence. There were three conditions consisting positive (emotive inducing), negative (emotive inducing), and control (devoid of meaning) images embedded in the vigilance task to assess possible impacts on vigilance performance. The images were obtained through crowdsourcing and represented parts of the city 3-4 years post-earthquake. Task performance was assessed with signal detection theory metrics of sensitivity A' and bias β''. This enables the separation of an individual's ability to accurately discriminate critical signals from non-critical stimuli (sensitivity) and shifts in their willingness to respond to any stimuli whether critical or not (bias). Individuals viewing the positive images, relating to progress, rebuild, or aesthetic aspects within the city, had a more conservative response bias (they responded less to both rare critical and distractor stimuli) than those in the other conditions. These individuals also reported lower task-focus, as would be expected. However, contrary to expectations, indicators of cerebral activity (fNIRS) did not differ significantly between the experimental groups. These results, when combined, suggest that mind wandering events may be being generated when exposed to positive post-earthquake images. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.

  6. Position error compensation via a variable reluctance sensor applied to a Hybrid Vehicle Electric machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucak, Ihsan Ömür

    2010-01-01

    In the automotive industry, electromagnetic variable reluctance (VR) sensors have been extensively used to measure engine position and speed through a toothed wheel mounted on the crankshaft. In this work, an application that already uses the VR sensing unit for engine and/or transmission has been chosen to infer, this time, the indirect position of the electric machine in a parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) system. A VR sensor has been chosen to correct the position of the electric machine, mainly because it may still become critical in the operation of HEVs to avoid possible vehicle failures during the start-up and on-the-road, especially when the machine is used with an internal combustion engine. The proposed method uses Chi-square test and is adaptive in a sense that it derives the compensation factors during the shaft operation and updates them in a timely fashion.

  7. Position Error Compensation via a Variable Reluctance Sensor Applied to a Hybrid Vehicle Electric Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İhsan Ömür Bucak

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In the automotive industry, electromagnetic variable reluctance (VR sensors have been extensively used to measure engine position and speed through a toothed wheel mounted on the crankshaft. In this work, an application that already uses the VR sensing unit for engine and/or transmission has been chosen to infer, this time, the indirect position of the electric machine in a parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV system. A VR sensor has been chosen to correct the position of the electric machine, mainly because it may still become critical in the operation of HEVs to avoid possible vehicle failures during the start-up and on-the-road, especially when the machine is used with an internal combustion engine. The proposed method uses Chi-square test and is adaptive in a sense that it derives the compensation factors during the shaft operation and updates them in a timely fashion.

  8. A Real-Time Tool Positioning Sensor for Machine-Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Antonio Ramon Jimenez; Rosas, Jorge Guevara; Granja, Fernando Seco; Honorato, Jose Carlos Prieto; Taboada, Jose Juan Esteve; Serrano, Vicente Mico; Jimenez, Teresa Molina

    2009-01-01

    In machining, natural oscillations, and elastic, gravitational or temperature deformations, are still a problem to guarantee the quality of fabricated parts. In this paper we present an optical measurement system designed to track and localize in 3D a reference retro-reflector close to the machine-tool's drill. The complete system and its components are described in detail. Several tests, some static (including impacts and rotations) and others dynamic (by executing linear and circular trajectories), were performed on two different machine tools. It has been integrated, for the first time, a laser tracking system into the position control loop of a machine-tool. Results indicate that oscillations and deformations close to the tool can be estimated with micrometric resolution and a bandwidth from 0 to more than 100 Hz. Therefore this sensor opens the possibility for on-line compensation of oscillations and deformations. PMID:22408472

  9. Sensorless Speed / Position Estimation for Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machine via Extended Kalman Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meherdad Jafarboland

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machines (PMSM are increasingly used because of their advantages over other machines, which include compactness, high efficiency, and well developed drives.. The substitution of the position sensors by advanced algorithms embedded in the controls hardware and software has been investigated for the last couple of decades. This Paper presents the modeling, analysis, design and experimental validation of a robust sensor less control method for PMSM based on Extended Kalman Filter. The position/speed sensor less control scheme along with the power electronic circuitry is modeled. The performance of the proposed control is assessed and verified for different types of dynamic and static torque loads.

  10. Rotor Position Estimation for Switched Reluctance Wind Generator Using Extreme Learning Machine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Chao; Liu, Xiao; Chen, Zhe

    2014-01-01

    Reluctance Wind Generator (SRWG) based on Extreme Learning Machine (ELM) which could build a nonlinear mapping between flux linkage-current and rotor position. The learning data are derived from magnetization curves of the SRWG which are obtained from Finite Element Analysis (FEA) of an SRG with 8/6 stator...

  11. MOUNTABILITY PARTS OF MACHINE WITH ROTATING SURFACE, FITTED WITH POSITIVE CLEARANCE

    OpenAIRE

    Zbigniew BUDNIAK

    2014-01-01

    In this paper demonstrates the conditions of automatic assembly the parts of machines with rotating surfaces, fitted with positive clearance. Determination of the general condition of asseblability allowed for designation of the acceptable relative displacement and torsion axle, combined parts on the mounting position. The designation of depending allowed for assess the technological capacity of the installation equipment. On the basis of this mathematical model was developed a computer progr...

  12. Positive random fields for modeling material stiffness and compliance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasofer, Abraham Michael; Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager; Tarp-Johansen, Niels Jacob

    1998-01-01

    with material properties modeled in terms of the considered random fields.The paper addsthe gamma field, the Fisher field, the beta field, and their reciprocal fields to the catalogue. These fields are all defined on the basis of sums of squares of independent standard Gaussian random variables.All the existing......Positive random fields with known marginal properties and known correlation function are not numerous in the literature. The most prominent example is the log\\-normal field for which the complete distribution is known and for which the reciprocal field is also lognormal. It is of interest...... to supplement the catalogue of positive fields beyond the class of those obtained by simple marginal transformation of a Gaussian field, this class containing the lognormal field.As a minimum for a random field to be included in the catalogue itis required that an algorithm for simulation of realizations can...

  13. Exponential Inequalities for Positively Associated Random Variables and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Shanchao

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We establish some exponential inequalities for positively associated random variables without the boundedness assumption. These inequalities improve the corresponding results obtained by Oliveira (2005. By one of the inequalities, we obtain the convergence rate for the case of geometrically decreasing covariances, which closes to the optimal achievable convergence rate for independent random variables under the Hartman-Wintner law of the iterated logarithm and improves the convergence rate derived by Oliveira (2005 for the above case.

  14. High-speed ultrafast laser machining with tertiary beam positioning (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chuan; Zhang, Haibin

    2017-03-01

    For an industrial laser application, high process throughput and low average cost of ownership are critical to commercial success. Benefiting from high peak power, nonlinear absorption and small-achievable spot size, ultrafast lasers offer advantages of minimal heat affected zone, great taper and sidewall quality, and small via capability that exceeds the limits of their predecessors in via drilling for electronic packaging. In the past decade, ultrafast lasers have both grown in power and reduced in cost. For example, recently, disk and fiber technology have both shown stable operation in the 50W to 200W range, mostly at high repetition rate (beyond 500 kHz) that helps avoid detrimental nonlinear effects. However, to effectively and efficiently scale the throughput with the fast-growing power capability of the ultrafast lasers while keeping the beneficial laser-material interactions is very challenging, mainly because of the bottleneck imposed by the inertia-related acceleration limit and servo gain bandwidth when only stages and galvanometers are being used. On the other side, inertia-free scanning solutions like acoustic optics and electronic optical deflectors have small scan field, and therefore not suitable for large-panel processing. Our recent system developments combine stages, galvanometers, and AODs into a coordinated tertiary architecture for high bandwidth and meanwhile large field beam positioning. Synchronized three-level movements allow extremely fast local speed and continuous motion over the whole stage travel range. We present the via drilling results from such ultrafast system with up to 3MHz pulse to pulse random access, enabling high quality low cost ultrafast machining with emerging high average power laser sources.

  15. Experimental research about positioning correction of CNC machine with X-axis up to 12000 millimeters using laser measurement equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moldovan Ştefan Adrian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present a research regarding adjustment machining accuracy on CNC machines with long axis for increasing positioning accuracy considering as a factor: thermal expansion effect. The research performed was made using laser equipment on industrial CNC machines used for production of aerospace components made of aluminium alloy extruded profile with length up to 12000 mm. Those parts have very tight tolerances and on milling process appear several factors that influence the repeatability of machining processes, the main one being the thermal expansion effect. The research results prove the improvement of positioning precision using the coefficients obtained from experimental measurements.

  16. MOUNTABILITY PARTS OF MACHINE WITH ROTATING SURFACE, FITTED WITH POSITIVE CLEARANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew BUDNIAK

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper demonstrates the conditions of automatic assembly the parts of machines with rotating surfaces, fitted with positive clearance. Determination of the general condition of asseblability allowed for designation of the acceptable relative displacement and torsion axle, combined parts on the mounting position. The designation of depending allowed for assess the technological capacity of the installation equipment. On the basis of this mathematical model was developed a computer program that allows to determine the effect of geometric, strength and dynamic parameters of the assembly process. The examples of results of numerical calculations are shown in the graphs

  17. Research into Financial Position of Listed Companies following Classification via Extreme Learning Machine Based upon DE Optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Fu Yu; Mu Jiong; Duan Xu Liang

    2016-01-01

    By means of the model of extreme learning machine based upon DE optimization, this article particularly centers on the optimization thinking of such a model as well as its application effect in the field of listed company’s financial position classification. It proves that the improved extreme learning machine algorithm based upon DE optimization eclipses the traditional extreme learning machine algorithm following comparison. Meanwhile, this article also intends to introduce certain research...

  18. Promoting the purchase of low-calorie foods from school vending machines: A cluster-randomized controlled study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kocken, P.L.; Eeuwijk, J.; Kesten, N.M.C. van; Dusseldorp, E.; Buijs, G.; Bassa-Dafesh, Z.; Snel, J.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Vending machines account for food sales and revenue in schools. We examined 3 strategies for promoting the sale of lower-calorie food products from vending machines in high schools in the Netherlands. METHODS: A school-based randomized controlled trial was conducted in 13 experimental

  19. Promoting the Purchase of Low-Calorie Foods from School Vending Machines: A Cluster-Randomized Controlled Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocken, Paul L.; Eeuwijk, Jennifer; van Kesteren, Nicole M.C.; Dusseldorp, Elise; Buijs, Goof; Bassa-Dafesh, Zeina; Snel, Jeltje

    2012-01-01

    Background: Vending machines account for food sales and revenue in schools. We examined 3 strategies for promoting the sale of lower-calorie food products from vending machines in high schools in the Netherlands. Methods: A school-based randomized controlled trial was conducted in 13 experimental schools and 15 control schools. Three strategies…

  20. Gamma/hadron segregation for a ground based imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescope using machine learning methods: Random Forest leads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Mradul; Nayak, Jitadeepa; Krishna Koul, Maharaj; Bose, Smarajit; Mitra, Abhas

    2014-11-01

    A detailed case study of γ-hadron segregation for a ground based atmospheric Cherenkov telescope is presented. We have evaluated and compared various supervised machine learning methods such as the Random Forest method, Artificial Neural Network, Linear Discriminant method, Naive Bayes Classifiers, Support Vector Machines as well as the conventional dynamic supercut method by simulating triggering events with the Monte Carlo method and applied the results to a Cherenkov telescope. It is demonstrated that the Random Forest method is the most sensitive machine learning method for γ-hadron segregation.

  1. Intelligent Machine Vision Based Modeling and Positioning System in Sand Casting Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahid Ikramullah Butt

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Advanced vision solutions enable manufacturers in the technology sector to reconcile both competitive and regulatory concerns and address the need for immaculate fault detection and quality assurance. The modern manufacturing has completely shifted from the manual inspections to the machine assisted vision inspection methodology. Furthermore, the research outcomes in industrial automation have revolutionized the whole product development strategy. The purpose of this research paper is to introduce a new scheme of automation in the sand casting process by means of machine vision based technology for mold positioning. Automation has been achieved by developing a novel system in which casting molds of different sizes, having different pouring cup location and radius, position themselves in front of the induction furnace such that the center of pouring cup comes directly beneath the pouring point of furnace. The coordinates of the center of pouring cup are found by using computer vision algorithms. The output is then transferred to a microcontroller which controls the alignment mechanism on which the mold is placed at the optimum location.

  2. Random Access for Machine-Type Communication based on Bloom Filtering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pratas, Nuno; Stefanovic, Cedomir; Madueño, Germán Corrales

    2016-01-01

    We present a random access method inspired on Bloom filters that is suited for Machine-Type Communications (MTC). Each accessing device sends a signature during the contention process. A signature is constructed using the Bloom filtering method and contains information on the device identity...... utilizes the system resources more efficiently and achieves similar or lower latency of connection establishment in case of synchronous arrivals, compared to the variant of the LTE-A access protocol that is optimized for MTC traffic. A dividend of the proposed method is that allows the base station (BS...

  3. Classification of Autism Spectrum Disorder Using Random Support Vector Machine Cluster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia-an Bi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorder (ASD is mainly reflected in the communication and language barriers, difficulties in social communication, and it is a kind of neurological developmental disorder. Most researches have used the machine learning method to classify patients and normal controls, among which support vector machines (SVM are widely employed. But the classification accuracy of SVM is usually low, due to the usage of a single SVM as classifier. Thus, we used multiple SVMs to classify ASD patients and typical controls (TC. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI data of 46 TC and 61 ASD patients were obtained from the Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange (ABIDE database. Only 84 of 107 subjects are utilized in experiments because the translation or rotation of 7 TC and 16 ASD patients has surpassed ±2 mm or ±2°. Then the random SVM cluster was proposed to distinguish TC and ASD. The results show that this method has an excellent classification performance based on all the features. Furthermore, the accuracy based on the optimal feature set could reach to 96.15%. Abnormal brain regions could also be found, such as inferior frontal gyrus (IFG (orbital and opercula part, hippocampus, and precuneus. It is indicated that the method of random SVM cluster may apply to the auxiliary diagnosis of ASD.

  4. Frame-Based Random Access with Interference Cancellation across Frames for Massive Machine Type Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minjoong Rim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the main requirements for next generation mobile or wireless communication systems is to effectively support a large number of machine type communication devices for Internet of things applications. In order to improve the random access capability in frame-based slotted Aloha environments, coded random access techniques have been proposed, in which multiple copies of a packet are transmitted per frame and the copies are cancelled out from the received signal if any single copy is successfully received. They, however, may increase the transmission power by sending multiple copies per frame. Above all, for systems with a small number of slots per frame, they may not be able to improve the performance by readily reaching a congested state. This paper proposes a new frame-based random access scheme, which sends at most one copy of a packet per frame but uses interference cancellation to improve the performance. If a successfully received packet is a retransmitted one, the previously transmitted signals for the packet can be cancelled out from the received signals for trying to decode other received packets. The proposed scheme has different characteristics than coded random access schemes and can be also combined with them to further improve the performance.

  5. A Novel Approach for Multi Class Fault Diagnosis in Induction Machine Based on Statistical Time Features and Random Forest Classifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonje, M. Deepak; Kundu, P.; Chowdhury, A.

    2017-08-01

    Fault diagnosis and detection is the important area in health monitoring of electrical machines. This paper proposes the recently developed machine learning classifier for multi class fault diagnosis in induction machine. The classification is based on random forest (RF) algorithm. Initially, stator currents are acquired from the induction machine under various conditions. After preprocessing the currents, fourteen statistical time features are estimated for each phase of the current. These parameters are considered as inputs to the classifier. The main scope of the paper is to evaluate effectiveness of RF classifier for individual and mixed fault diagnosis in induction machine. The stator, rotor and mixed faults (stator and rotor faults) are classified using the proposed classifier. The obtained performance measures are compared with the multilayer perceptron neural network (MLPNN) classifier. The results show the much better performance measures and more accurate than MLPNN classifier. For demonstration of planned fault diagnosis algorithm, experimentally obtained results are considered to build the classifier more practical.

  6. The signature of positive selection at randomly chosen loci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przeworski, Molly

    2002-03-01

    In Drosophila and humans, there are accumulating examples of loci with a significant excess of high-frequency-derived alleles or high levels of linkage disequilibrium, relative to a neutral model of a random-mating population of constant size. These are features expected after a recent selective sweep. Their prevalence suggests that positive directional selection may be widespread in both species. However, as I show here, these features do not persist long after the sweep ends: The high-frequency alleles drift to fixation and no longer contribute to polymorphism, while linkage disequilibrium is broken down by recombination. As a result, loci chosen without independent evidence of recent selection are not expected to exhibit either of these features, even if they have been affected by numerous sweeps in their genealogical history. How then can we explain the patterns in the data? One possibility is population structure, with unequal sampling from different subpopulations. Alternatively, positive selection may not operate as is commonly modeled. In particular, the rate of fixation of advantageous mutations may have increased in the recent past.

  7. Positive polynomials, convex integral polytopes, and a random walk problem

    CERN Document Server

    Handelman, David E

    1987-01-01

    Emanating from the theory of C*-algebras and actions of tori theoren, the problems discussed here are outgrowths of random walk problems on lattices. An AGL (d,Z)-invariant (which is a partially ordered commutative algebra) is obtained for lattice polytopes (compact convex polytopes in Euclidean space whose vertices lie in Zd), and certain algebraic properties of the algebra are related to geometric properties of the polytope. There are also strong connections with convex analysis, Choquet theory, and reflection groups. This book serves as both an introduction to and a research monograph on the many interconnections between these topics, that arise out of questions of the following type: Let f be a (Laurent) polynomial in several real variables, and let P be a (Laurent) polynomial with only positive coefficients; decide under what circumstances there exists an integer n such that Pnf itself also has only positive coefficients. It is intended to reach and be of interest to a general mathematical audience as we...

  8. OPTIMIZING THE PLACEMENT OF A WORK-PIECE AT A MULTI-POSITION ROTARY TABLE OF TRANSFER MACHINE WITH VERTICAL MULTI-SPINDLE HEAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. N. Guschinski

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of minimizing the weight of transfer machine with a multi-position rotary table by placing of a work-piece at the table for processing of homogeneous batch of work-pieces is considered. To solve this problem the mathematical model and heuristic particle swarm optimization algorithm are proposed. The results of numerical experiments for two real problems of this type are given. The experiments revealed that the particle swarm optimization algorithm is more effective for the solution of the problem compared to the methods of random search and LP-search.

  9. Continuous Positive Airway Pressure in Bronchiolitis: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lal, Sandeep Narayan; Kaur, Jaspreet; Anthwal, Pooja; Bahl, Pinky; Puliyel, Jacob M

    2017-09-26

    To evaluate the efficacy of nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) in decreasing respiratory distress in bronchiolitis. Randomized controlled trial. Tertiary-care hospital in New Delhi, India. 72 infants (age Silverman-Anderson score and a Modified Pediatric Society of New Zealand Severity Score were compared between the 2 groups after 1 hour of treatment. 14 out of 32 in nCPAP group had change in respiratory rate ≥10, while 5 out of 35 had change in respiratory rate ≥10 with standard care (P=0.008). The mean (SD) change in respiratory rate following nCPAP was 8.03 (5.8), while with standard care it was 5.11 (3.98) (P=0.018). Mean (SD) change in Silverman-Anderson score following nCPAP was 0.78 (0.87), while with standard care it was 0.39 (0.73) (P=0.029). Mean (SD) change in Modified Pediatric Society of New Zealand Severity Score following nCPAP was 2.5 (3.01) compared to 1.08 (1.3) (P=0.012) with standard care. nCPAP helped reduce respiratory distress significantly compared to standard care.

  10. A prospective randomized trial on preventative methods for positional head deformity: physiotherapy versus a positioning pillow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilbrand, Jan-Falco; Seidl, Maximilian; Wilbrand, Martina; Streckbein, Philipp; Böttger, Sebastian; Pons-Kuehnemann, Joern; Hahn, Andreas; Howaldt, Hans-Peter

    2013-06-01

    To evaluate the impact of stretching exercises versus available bedding pillows on positional head deformities. Fifty children aged 5 months or younger with positional head deformity were included in this prospective clinical trial (n=20 plagiocephaly, n=10 brachycephaly, n=20 combination). A random distribution was performed for treatment with the bedding pillow alone (n=25) or with stretching exercises (n=25) for 6 weeks. Anthropometric caliper measurements were done before and after that interval. Cranial vault asymmetry index (CVAI) and cranial index (CI) were calculated and analyzed using a descriptive statistical general linear model. ΔCVAI in the stretching group was 2.09% for plagiocephaly and 2.34% for combined head deformities. Using the bedding pillow, ΔCVAI was 3.01% in plagiocephal children and 2.86% for combined head deformity. The ΔCI in the stretching group was 0.94% for isolated brachycephal children and 2.24% for combined head deformity. ΔCI in the pillow group was 3.63% for brachycephaly and 3.23% in children with combined head deformities, respectively. Bedding pillows and stretching exercises both resulted in improvements in positional cranial deformation. For children with combined plagiocephaly and brachycephaly, improvement in cranial asymmetry was slightly greater when using bedding pillows versus stretching. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. A discrete event simulation design for block-based maintenance planning under random machine usage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jonge, Bram

    2015-01-01

    Existing research on block-based preventive maintenance planning generally assumes that machines are either used continuously, or that times until failure do not depend on the actual usage of machines. In practice, however, it is often more realistic to assume that machines are not used continuously

  12. Position Paper: Applying Machine Learning to Software Analysis to Achieve Trusted, Repeatable Scientific Computing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prowell, Stacy J [ORNL; Symons, Christopher T [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    Producing trusted results from high-performance codes is essential for policy and has significant economic impact. We propose combining rigorous analytical methods with machine learning techniques to achieve the goal of repeatable, trustworthy scientific computing.

  13. Fabrication of the Long Bragg Grating by Excimer Laser Micro Machining with High-Precision Positioning XXY Platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Zhong Wu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available With the advancement of technology, the application of fiber Bragg grating is widely used as a Bragg grating sensor. Fiber Bragg grating is fabrication using excimer laser machining with the phase masker. The grating length is decided by the width of laser beam. In this paper, we proposed fabrication of the long Bragg grating by excimer Laser micro machining with a high-precision positioning XXY platform. The high-precision positioning XXY platform plays an important role for long FBG. It needs seriously to combine three short FBGs. Therefore, we can obtain a long FBG with 15mm length. This method can provide a solution to fabricate long FBG by using cheap laser with high-precision positioning XXY platform.

  14. Cost-Sensitive Support Vector Machine Using Randomized Dual Coordinate Descent Method for Big Class-Imbalanced Data Classification

    OpenAIRE

    Mingzhu Tang; Chunhua Yang; Kang Zhang; Qiyue Xie

    2014-01-01

    Cost-sensitive support vector machine is one of the most popular tools to deal with class-imbalanced problem such as fault diagnosis. However, such data appear with a huge number of examples as well as features. Aiming at class-imbalanced problem on big data, a cost-sensitive support vector machine using randomized dual coordinate descent method (CSVM-RDCD) is proposed in this paper. The solution of concerned subproblem at each iteration is derived in closed form and the computational cost is...

  15. Anesthesia machine checkout and room setup: a randomized, single-blind, comparison of two teaching modalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spofford, Christina M; Bayman, Emine O; Szeluga, Debra J; From, Robert P

    2012-01-01

    Novel methods for teaching are needed to enhance the efficiency of academic anesthesia departments as well as provide approaches to learning that are aligned with current trends and advances in technology. A video was produced that taught the key elements of anesthesia machine checkout and room set up. Novice learners were randomly assigned to receive either the new video format or traditional lecture-based format for this topic during their regularly scheduled lecture series. Primary outcome was the difference in written examination score before and after teaching between the two groups. Secondary outcome was the satisfaction score of the trainees in the two groups. Forty-two students assigned to the video group and 36 students assigned to the lecture group completed the study. Students in each group similar interest in anesthesia, pre-test scores, post-test scores, and final exam scores. The median posttest to pretest difference was greater in the video groups (3.5 (3.0-5.0) vs 2.5 (2.0-3.0), for video and lecture groups respectively, p 0.002). Despite improved test scores, students reported higher satisfaction the traditional, lecture-based format (22.0 (18.0-24.0) vs 24.0 (20.0-28.0), for video and lecture groups respectively, p teaching group, however students rated traditional, live lectures higher than newer video-based teaching.

  16. Random feature subspace ensemble based Extreme Learning Machine for liver tumor detection and segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Weimin; Yang, Yongzhong; Lin, Zhiping; Huang, Guang-Bin; Zhou, Jiayin; Duan, Yuping; Xiong, Wei

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a new approach to detect and segment liver tumors. The detection and segmentation of liver tumors can be formulized as novelty detection or two-class classification problem. Each voxel is characterized by a rich feature vector, and a classifier using random feature subspace ensemble is trained to classify the voxels. Since Extreme Learning Machine (ELM) has advantages of very fast learning speed and good generalization ability, it is chosen to be the base classifier in the ensemble. Besides, majority voting is incorporated for fusion of classification results from the ensemble of base classifiers. In order to further increase testing accuracy, ELM autoencoder is implemented as a pre-training step. In automatic liver tumor detection, ELM is trained as a one-class classifier with only healthy liver samples, and the performance is compared with two-class ELM. In liver tumor segmentation, a semi-automatic approach is adopted by selecting samples in 3D space to train the classifier. The proposed method is tested and evaluated on a group of patients' CT data and experiment show promising results.

  17. An integrated production inventory model of deteriorating items subject to random machine breakdown with a stochastic repair time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huynh Trung Luong

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In a continuous manufacturing environment where production and consumption occur simultaneously, one of the biggest challenges is the efficient management of production and inventory system. In order to manage the integrated production inventory system economically it is necessary to identify the optimal production time and the optimal production reorder point that either maximize the profit or minimize the cost. In addition, during production the process has to go through some natural phenomena like random breakdown of machine, deterioration of product over time, uncertainty in repair time that eventually create the possibility of shortage. In this situation, efficient management of inventory & production is crucial. This paper addresses the situation where a perishable (deteriorated product is manufactured and consumed simultaneously, the demand of this product is stable over the time, machine that produce the product also face random failure and the time to repair this machine is also uncertain. In order to describe this scenario more appropriately, the continuously reviewed Economic Production Quantity (EPQ model is considered in this research work. The main goal is to identify the optimal production uptime and the production reorder point that ultimately minimize the expected value of total cost consisting of machine setup, deterioration, inventory holding, shortage and corrective maintenance cost.

  18. Multi-bit quantum random number generation by measuring positions of arrival photons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Qiurong; Zhao, Baosheng; Liao, Qinghong; Zhou, Nanrun

    2014-10-01

    We report upon the realization of a novel multi-bit optical quantum random number generator by continuously measuring the arrival positions of photon emitted from a LED using MCP-based WSA photon counting imaging detector. A spatial encoding method is proposed to extract multi-bits random number from the position coordinates of each detected photon. The randomness of bits sequence relies on the intrinsic randomness of the quantum physical processes of photonic emission and subsequent photoelectric conversion. A prototype has been built and the random bit generation rate could reach 8 Mbit/s, with random bit generation efficiency of 16 bits per detected photon. FPGA implementation of Huffman coding is proposed to reduce the bias of raw extracted random bits. The random numbers passed all tests for physical random number generator.

  19. Comparison of Random Forest and Support Vector Machine classifiers using UAV remote sensing imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piragnolo, Marco; Masiero, Andrea; Pirotti, Francesco

    2017-04-01

    Since recent years surveying with unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) is getting a great amount of attention due to decreasing costs, higher precision and flexibility of usage. UAVs have been applied for geomorphological investigations, forestry, precision agriculture, cultural heritage assessment and for archaeological purposes. It can be used for land use and land cover classification (LULC). In literature, there are two main types of approaches for classification of remote sensing imagery: pixel-based and object-based. On one hand, pixel-based approach mostly uses training areas to define classes and respective spectral signatures. On the other hand, object-based classification considers pixels, scale, spatial information and texture information for creating homogeneous objects. Machine learning methods have been applied successfully for classification, and their use is increasing due to the availability of faster computing capabilities. The methods learn and train the model from previous computation. Two machine learning methods which have given good results in previous investigations are Random Forest (RF) and Support Vector Machine (SVM). The goal of this work is to compare RF and SVM methods for classifying LULC using images collected with a fixed wing UAV. The processing chain regarding classification uses packages in R, an open source scripting language for data analysis, which provides all necessary algorithms. The imagery was acquired and processed in November 2015 with cameras providing information over the red, blue, green and near infrared wavelength reflectivity over a testing area in the campus of Agripolis, in Italy. Images were elaborated and ortho-rectified through Agisoft Photoscan. The ortho-rectified image is the full data set, and the test set is derived from partial sub-setting of the full data set. Different tests have been carried out, using a percentage from 2 % to 20 % of the total. Ten training sets and ten validation sets are obtained from

  20. Cost-effectiveness of online positive psychology: Randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolier, Linda; Majo, Cristina; Smit, Filip; Westerhof, Gerben Johan; Haverman, Merel; Walburg, J.A.; Riper, Heleen; Bohlmeijer, Ernst Thomas

    2014-01-01

    As yet, no evidence is available about the cost-effectiveness of positive psychological interventions. When offered via the Internet, these interventions may be particularly cost-effective, because they are highly scalable and do not rely on scant resources such as therapists’ time. Alongside a

  1. Neonatal blood cultures: effect of delayed entry into the blood culture machine and bacterial concentration on the time to positive growth in a simulated model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardine, Luke Anthony; Sturgess, Barbara Ruth; Inglis, Garry Donald Trevor; Davies, Mark William

    2009-04-01

    To determine if: time from blood culture inoculation to positive growth (total time to positive) and time from blood culture machine entry to positive growth (machine time to positive) is altered by delayed entry into the automated blood culture machine, and if the total time to positive differs by the concentration of organisms inoculated into blood culture bottles. Staphylococcus epidermidis, Escherichia coli and group B beta-haemolytic streptococci were chosen as clinically significant representative organisms. Two concentrations (> or =10 colony-forming units per millilitre and machine entry times (30 min/8.5 h/15.5 h). For all organisms at all concentrations, except the Staphylococcus epidermidis, the machine time to positive was significantly decreased by delayed entry. For all organisms at all concentrations, the mean total time to positive significantly increased with increasing delayed entry into the blood culture machine. Higher concentrations of group B beta-haemolytic streptococci and Escherichia coli grew significantly faster than lower concentrations. Bacterial growth in inoculated bottles, stored at room temperature, continues although at a slower rate than in those blood culture bottles immediately entered into the machine. If a blood culture specimen has been stored at room temperature for greater than 15.5 h, the currently allowed safety margin of 36 h (before declaring a result negative) may be insufficient.

  2. A Physiological and Kinematic Comparison of two Different Lean Back Positions During Stationary Rowing on a Concept II Machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Gordon; Bennett, Jack; Reynolds, William; Syrotuik, Daniel; Gervais, Pierre

    This study compared two different body positions at the finish of a stroke during stationary rowing exercise on physiological and kinematic measurements. Nine male and five female rowers volunteered for the study: mean age (± SD), body height and body mass were 27 ±9 yrs, 180.5 ±12.3 cm and 81.2 ±14.2 kg. The two body positions at the finish were controlled at an upright posture or a novel greater lean back position. All subjects completed 3 different experimental trials on a Concept IID rowing machine at 3 different exercise intensities and comparisons were made between the lean back position at the same stroke rate and the same power output as the upright trial. Power output, heart rate, oxygen uptake, energy expenditure and % efficiency were higher (plean back position at the same stroke rate compared to all other conditions. Range of motion at the hip, ankle, and elbow and the handle velocity and distance moved were greater (plean back position. In conclusion, a greater lean back posture at the finish during stationary rowing produces a higher power output and improved efficiency at the same stroke rate but at an elevated physiological cost compared to a more upright position. Despite the higher energy expenditure, the relative gain in power output and efficiency with no negative kinematic changes suggests that a greater lean back position at the finish will enhance performance during stationary rowing exercise. PMID:24146710

  3. High Classification Rates for Continuous Cow Activity Recognition using Low-cost GPS Positioning Sensors and Standard Machine Learning Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godsk, Torben; Kjærgaard, Mikkel Baun

    2011-01-01

    In precision livestock farming, spotting cows in need of extra attention due to health or welfare issues are essential, since the time a farmer can devote to each animal is decreasing due to growing herd sizes and increasing efficiency demands. Often, the symptoms of health and welfare state...... changes, affects the behavior of the individual animal, e.g., changes in time spend on activities like standing, lying, eating or walking. Low-cost and infrastructure-less GPS positioning sensors attached to the animals’ collars give the opportunity to monitor the movements of cows and recognize cow...... activities. By preprocessing the raw cow position data, we obtain high classification rates using standard machine learning techniques to recognize cow activities. Our objectives were to (i) determine to what degree it is possible to robustly recognize cow activities from GPS positioning data, using low...

  4. Single machine scheduling and due date assignment with past-sequence-dependent setup time and position-dependent processing time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chuan-Li; Hsu, Chou-Jung; Hsu, Hua-Feng

    2014-01-01

    This paper considers single machine scheduling and due date assignment with setup time. The setup time is proportional to the length of the already processed jobs; that is, the setup time is past-sequence-dependent (p-s-d). It is assumed that a job's processing time depends on its position in a sequence. The objective functions include total earliness, the weighted number of tardy jobs, and the cost of due date assignment. We analyze these problems with two different due date assignment methods. We first consider the model with job-dependent position effects. For each case, by converting the problem to a series of assignment problems, we proved that the problems can be solved in O(n(4)) time. For the model with job-independent position effects, we proved that the problems can be solved in O(n(3)) time by providing a dynamic programming algorithm.

  5. Educational, supportive and behavioural interventions to improve usage of continuous positive airway pressure machines in adults with obstructive sleep apnoea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wozniak, Dariusz R; Lasserson, Toby J; Smith, Ian

    2014-01-08

    Although effective in the treatment of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA), continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is not universally accepted by users. Educational, supportive and behavioural interventions may help people with OSA recognise the need for regular and continued use of CPAP. To assess the effectiveness of strategies that are educational, supportive or behavioural in encouraging people who have been prescribed CPAP to use their machines. Searches were conducted on the Cochrane Airways Group Specialised Register of trials. Searches are current to 17 January 2013. We included randomised parallel controlled trials that assessed an intervention designed to inform participants about CPAP or OSA, to support them in using CPAP or to modify their behaviour in increasing their use of CPAP machines. Studies of any duration were considered. Two review authors assessed studies to determine their suitability for inclusion in the review. Data were extracted independently and were entered into Review Manager software for analysis. Thirty studies (2047 participants) were included. We categorised studies by intervention type: supportive interventions during follow-up, educational interventions and behavioural therapy. Across all three intervention classes, most studies incorporated elements of more than one intervention. For the purposes of this systematic review, we categorised them by the prevailing type of intervention, which we expected would have the greatest impact on the study outcome.Baseline Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) scores indicated that most participants experienced daytime sleepiness, and CPAP was indicated on the basis of sleep disturbance indices. A vast majority of recruited participants had not used CPAP previously. Most of the studies were at an unclear risk of bias overall, although because of the nature of the intervention, blinding of both study personnel and participants was not feasible, and this affected a number of key outcomes. Adverse

  6. A Physiological and Kinematic Comparison of two Different Lean Back Positions During Stationary Rowing on a Concept II Machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Gordon; Bennett, Jack; Reynolds, William; Syrotuik, Daniel; Gervais, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    This study compared two different body positions at the finish of a stroke during stationary rowing exercise on physiological and kinematic measurements. Nine male and five female rowers volunteered for the study: mean age (± SD), body height and body mass were 27 ±9 yrs, 180.5 ±12.3 cm and 81.2 ±14.2 kg. The two body positions at the finish were controlled at an upright posture or a novel greater lean back position. All subjects completed 3 different experimental trials on a Concept IID rowing machine at 3 different exercise intensities and comparisons were made between the lean back position at the same stroke rate and the same power output as the upright trial. Power output, heart rate, oxygen uptake, energy expenditure and % efficiency were higher (prowing produces a higher power output and improved efficiency at the same stroke rate but at an elevated physiological cost compared to a more upright position. Despite the higher energy expenditure, the relative gain in power output and efficiency with no negative kinematic changes suggests that a greater lean back position at the finish will enhance performance during stationary rowing exercise.

  7. ProDiGe: Prioritization Of Disease Genes with multitask machine learning from positive and unlabeled examples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mordelet Fantine

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Elucidating the genetic basis of human diseases is a central goal of genetics and molecular biology. While traditional linkage analysis and modern high-throughput techniques often provide long lists of tens or hundreds of disease gene candidates, the identification of disease genes among the candidates remains time-consuming and expensive. Efficient computational methods are therefore needed to prioritize genes within the list of candidates, by exploiting the wealth of information available about the genes in various databases. Results We propose ProDiGe, a novel algorithm for Prioritization of Disease Genes. ProDiGe implements a novel machine learning strategy based on learning from positive and unlabeled examples, which allows to integrate various sources of information about the genes, to share information about known disease genes across diseases, and to perform genome-wide searches for new disease genes. Experiments on real data show that ProDiGe outperforms state-of-the-art methods for the prioritization of genes in human diseases. Conclusions ProDiGe implements a new machine learning paradigm for gene prioritization, which could help the identification of new disease genes. It is freely available at http://cbio.ensmp.fr/prodige.

  8. ProDiGe: Prioritization Of Disease Genes with multitask machine learning from positive and unlabeled examples

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Elucidating the genetic basis of human diseases is a central goal of genetics and molecular biology. While traditional linkage analysis and modern high-throughput techniques often provide long lists of tens or hundreds of disease gene candidates, the identification of disease genes among the candidates remains time-consuming and expensive. Efficient computational methods are therefore needed to prioritize genes within the list of candidates, by exploiting the wealth of information available about the genes in various databases. Results We propose ProDiGe, a novel algorithm for Prioritization of Disease Genes. ProDiGe implements a novel machine learning strategy based on learning from positive and unlabeled examples, which allows to integrate various sources of information about the genes, to share information about known disease genes across diseases, and to perform genome-wide searches for new disease genes. Experiments on real data show that ProDiGe outperforms state-of-the-art methods for the prioritization of genes in human diseases. Conclusions ProDiGe implements a new machine learning paradigm for gene prioritization, which could help the identification of new disease genes. It is freely available at http://cbio.ensmp.fr/prodige. PMID:21977986

  9. Enhanced method of rotor speed and position estimation of permanent magnet synchronous Machine based on stator SRF-PLL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Vijayapriya

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A stator flux oriented synchronous reference frame - phase locked loop (SRF-PLL is proposed for the precise computation of rotor speed and position of permanent magnet synchronous machine (PMSM. A direct method of rotational speed computation based on the stator electromotive force (EMF is initially formulated. Using the speed as a reference to the inverse Park and Clarke transformation blocks, the three-phase positive sequence stator flux is derived. A pre-stage low pass filter (LPF is implemented to cancel out the ripples in the d-q components of the stator flux introduced by the dynamic operating conditions of inverter non-linearities and grid disturbances. The estimated three-phase positive sequence stator flux is used to compute the rotor position by aligning the total stator flux along the direct axis through a PLL block. Provision of the frequency amendment and ripple cancellation outside the PLL block results in a fast-dynamic response with an enhanced frequency adaptable capability. To validate the effectiveness of the proposed method, the sensorless vector control of grid integrated PMSM based wind-driven generator (WG is analytically verified using the PSCAD/EMTDC simulation tool under various dynamic operating conditions such as wind speed variation and grid disturbances.

  10. Towards a naturalistic brain-machine interface: hybrid torque and position control allows generalization to novel dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pratik Y Chhatbar

    Full Text Available Realization of reaching and grasping movements by a paralytic person or an amputee would greatly facilitate her/his activities of daily living. Towards this goal, control of a computer cursor or robotic arm using neural signals has been demonstrated in rodents, non-human primates and humans. This technology is commonly referred to as a Brain-Machine Interface (BMI and is achieved by predictions of kinematic parameters, e.g. position or velocity. However, execution of natural movements, such as swinging baseball bats of different weights at the same speed, requires advanced planning for necessary context-specific forces in addition to kinematic control. Here we show, for the first time, the control of a virtual arm with representative inertial parameters using real-time neural control of torques in non-human primates (M. radiata. We found that neural control of torques leads to ballistic, possibly more naturalistic movements than position control alone, and that adding the influence of position in a hybrid torque-position control changes the feedforward behavior of these BMI movements. In addition, this level of control was achievable utilizing the neural recordings from either contralateral or ipsilateral M1. We also observed changed behavior of hybrid torque-position control under novel external dynamic environments that was comparable to natural movements. Our results demonstrate that inclusion of torque control to drive a neuroprosthetic device gives the user a more direct handle on the movement execution, especially when dealing with novel or changing dynamic environments. We anticipate our results to be a starting point of more sophisticated algorithms for sensorimotor neuroprostheses, eliminating the need of fully automatic kinematic-to-dynamic transformations as currently used by traditional kinematic-based decoders. Thus, we propose that direct control of torques, or other force related variables, should allow for more natural

  11. Enhancing interpretability of automatically extracted machine learning features: application to a RBM-Random Forest system on brain lesion segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Sérgio; Meier, Raphael; McKinley, Richard; Wiest, Roland; Alves, Victor; Silva, Carlos A; Reyes, Mauricio

    2018-02-01

    Machine learning systems are achieving better performances at the cost of becoming increasingly complex. However, because of that, they become less interpretable, which may cause some distrust by the end-user of the system. This is especially important as these systems are pervasively being introduced to critical domains, such as the medical field. Representation Learning techniques are general methods for automatic feature computation. Nevertheless, these techniques are regarded as uninterpretable "black boxes". In this paper, we propose a methodology to enhance the interpretability of automatically extracted machine learning features. The proposed system is composed of a Restricted Boltzmann Machine for unsupervised feature learning, and a Random Forest classifier, which are combined to jointly consider existing correlations between imaging data, features, and target variables. We define two levels of interpretation: global and local. The former is devoted to understanding if the system learned the relevant relations in the data correctly, while the later is focused on predictions performed on a voxel- and patient-level. In addition, we propose a novel feature importance strategy that considers both imaging data and target variables, and we demonstrate the ability of the approach to leverage the interpretability of the obtained representation for the task at hand. We evaluated the proposed methodology in brain tumor segmentation and penumbra estimation in ischemic stroke lesions. We show the ability of the proposed methodology to unveil information regarding relationships between imaging modalities and extracted features and their usefulness for the task at hand. In both clinical scenarios, we demonstrate that the proposed methodology enhances the interpretability of automatically learned features, highlighting specific learning patterns that resemble how an expert extracts relevant data from medical images. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. A Double-Blind Randomized Trial Comparing Implants with Laser-Microtextured and Machined Collar Surfaces: Microbiologic and Clinical Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarnieri, Renzo; Rappelli, Giorgio; Piemontese, Matteo; Procaccini, Maurizio; Quaranta, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the clinical outcome of and determine the differences in periodonto-pathogenic microbiota around two types of implant collar surfaces: laser-microtextured (test) vs machined (control). Seventeen patients (11 periodontally healthy, and 6 periodontally compromised) were selected to receive the two different implants, placed randomly, in two edentulous sites. Six months following the surgical placement of the dental implants, subgingival plaque samples were collected using paper points from the peri-implant sulcus and from the sulcus of an adjacent tooth. The presence of five putative periodontal pathogens, namely, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia, Treponema denticola, and Tannerella forsythensis, was assessed using real-time polymerized chain reaction (RT-PCR). Peri-implant parameters and intraoral radiographs were recorded up to 1 year after abutment connection. In the main population, and in the periodontally compromised subgroup, the total number of periodontal pathogens around test implant sites was lower than control implant sites and adjacent tooth sites, with a statistically significant difference (P < .05). In periodontally healthy patients, the mean probing pocket depth for the test implant was 1.31 ± 0.51 mm, compared with 2.66 ± 0.83 mm for the control implant, while in periodontally compromised patients, it was 1.61 ± 0.58 mm for the test implant, compared with a mean value of 2.84 ± 1.0 mm for the control implant. Implants with a laser-microtextured collar surface are not more vulnerable to pathogenic microflora colonization than implants with a machined collar surface. In both of the subgroups of patients (periodontally healthy and periodontally compromised), implants with a laser-microtextured collar surface have a better clinical outcome at 1 year of loading, compared with implants with a machined collar surface.

  13. Continuous positive airway pressure machines and the work of coordinating technologies at home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Tiago

    2008-06-01

    Research on the use of health technology at home has consistently reported that it is underpinned by users' evaluations of the technology in relation to their illness trajectory, their social network, and the place where it is used. Recent studies have also revealed that the efficacy of health technologies depends upon users' work that is largely invisible to professionals, managers and designers. This paper draws on the most widely used therapy for the management of sleep apnoea, continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), to show how users maintain workable relationships between it and other technological elements of the domestic environment. Qualitative analysis was performed of an archive of messages sent to a web-based support group for sleep disorders between 1994 and 2007. Users describe two related techniques: first, drawing on their embodied knowledge of using domestic technologies to imagine potential, alternative environments for CPAP; and second, using their body as an instrument to assess the ;fit' of each of the attempted arrangements. The interaction between these two techniques entails frequent shifts in users' understandings of their illness and those involved in its management. Strategies of implementation of health technologies at home should acknowledge and incorporate the embodied knowledge processes of users.

  14. Spatial prediction of landslides using a hybrid machine learning approach based on Random Subspace and Classification and Regression Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Binh Thai; Prakash, Indra; Tien Bui, Dieu

    2018-02-01

    A hybrid machine learning approach of Random Subspace (RSS) and Classification And Regression Trees (CART) is proposed to develop a model named RSSCART for spatial prediction of landslides. This model is a combination of the RSS method which is known as an efficient ensemble technique and the CART which is a state of the art classifier. The Luc Yen district of Yen Bai province, a prominent landslide prone area of Viet Nam, was selected for the model development. Performance of the RSSCART model was evaluated through the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve, statistical analysis methods, and the Chi Square test. Results were compared with other benchmark landslide models namely Support Vector Machines (SVM), single CART, Naïve Bayes Trees (NBT), and Logistic Regression (LR). In the development of model, ten important landslide affecting factors related with geomorphology, geology and geo-environment were considered namely slope angles, elevation, slope aspect, curvature, lithology, distance to faults, distance to rivers, distance to roads, and rainfall. Performance of the RSSCART model (AUC = 0.841) is the best compared with other popular landslide models namely SVM (0.835), single CART (0.822), NBT (0.821), and LR (0.723). These results indicate that performance of the RSSCART is a promising method for spatial landslide prediction.

  15. Identifying N6-methyladenosine sites using multi-interval nucleotide pair position specificity and support vector machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Pengwei; Su, Ran; Guo, Fei; Wei, Leyi

    2017-04-01

    N6-methyladenosine (m6A) refers to methylation of the adenosine nucleotide acid at the nitrogen-6 position. It plays an important role in a series of biological processes, such as splicing events, mRNA exporting, nascent mRNA synthesis, nuclear translocation and translation process. Numerous experiments have been done to successfully characterize m6A sites within sequences since high-resolution mapping of m6A sites was established. However, as the explosive growth of genomic sequences, using experimental methods to identify m6A sites are time-consuming and expensive. Thus, it is highly desirable to develop fast and accurate computational identification methods. In this study, we propose a sequence-based predictor called RAM-NPPS for identifying m6A sites within RNA sequences, in which we present a novel feature representation algorithm based on multi-interval nucleotide pair position specificity, and use support vector machine classifier to construct the prediction model. Comparison results show that our proposed method outperforms the state-of-the-art predictors on three benchmark datasets across the three species, indicating the effectiveness and robustness of our method. Moreover, an online webserver implementing the proposed predictor has been established at http://server.malab.cn/RAM-NPPS/. It is anticipated to be a useful prediction tool to assist biologists to reveal the mechanisms of m6A site functions.

  16. Reporting of positive results in randomized controlled trials of mindfulness-based mental health interventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coronado-Montoya, S.; Levis, A.W.; Kwakkenbos, C.M.C.; Steele, R.J.; Turner, E.H.; Thombs, B.D.

    2016-01-01

    Background A large proportion of mindfulness-based therapy trials report statistically significant results, even in the context of very low statistical power. The objective of the present study was to characterize the reporting of "positive" results in randomized controlled trials of

  17. Upregulating Positive Affectivity in the Transdiagnostic Treatment of Emotional Disorders: A Randomized Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Robles, Alberto; García-Palacios, Azucena; Baños, Rosa; Quero, Soledad; Botella, Cristina

    2017-10-01

    Transdiagnostic cognitive-behavioral therapy for emotional disorders (ED) has proven to be effective. However, current transdiagnostic treatment protocols address only the regulation of negative affectivity, and they do not include treatment components to more directly target the regulation of positive affectivity. In this study, we propose to evaluate the preliminary efficacy and acceptability of a transdiagnostic treatment protocol for ED that includes, as an innovative feature, a specific treatment component to directly upregulate positive affectivity based on positive psychology interventions. A total of 24 participants were randomized to either a transdiagnostic treatment protocol ( n = 12) or a transdiagnostic treatment protocol with an additional component designed to regulate positive affectivity ( n = 12). Participants completed measures of anxiety, depression, positive and negative affectivity, and quality of life, as well as treatment acceptability at pre- and posttreatment and at the 3-month follow-up. Both interventions led to improvements in all measures at posttreatment, and these outcomes were maintained at the 3-month follow-up, with large effect sizes for all measures. The effect sizes for positive affect were larger in the condition that included the component to upregulate positive affectivity. Attrition rate was low, and both treatment protocols were well accepted by participants. The results obtained in this study indicate the feasibility of testing the treatment protocol in a larger, randomized, controlled trial, and they suggest the potential of including treatment components for directly upregulating positive affectivity in future research on transdiagnostic treatment protocols for ED.

  18. Information Contents of a Signal at Repeated Positioning Measurements of the Coordinate Measuring Machine (CMM by Laser Interferometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stejskal Tomáš

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The input of this paper lies in displaying possibilities how to determine the condition of a coordinate measuring machine (CMM based on a large number of repeated measurements. The number of repeated measurements exceeds common requirements for determining positioning accuracy. The total offset in the accuracy of spatial positioning consists of partial inaccuracies of individual axes. 6 basic errors may be defined at each axis. In a triaxial set, that translates into 18 errors, to which an offset from the perpendicularity between the axial pairs must be added. Therefore, the combined number of errors in a single position is 21. These errors are systemic and stem from the machine’s geometry. In addition, there are accidental errors to account for as well. Accidental errors can be attributed to vibrations, mass inertness, passive resistance, and in part to fluctuations in temperature. A peculiar set of systemic errors are time-varying errors. The nature of those errors may be reversible, for instance if they result from influence of temperature or elastic deformation. They can be also irreversible, for example as a result of wear and tear or line clogging, due to loosened connection or permanent deformation of a part post collision. A demonstration of thermal equalizing of the machine’s parts may also be observed in case of failure to adhere to a sufficient time interval from the moment the air-conditioning is turned on. Repeated measurements done on a selected axis with linear interferometer can provide complex information on the CMM condition and also on the machine’s interaction with the given technical environment.

  19. Quantum tunneling recombination in a system of randomly distributed trapped electrons and positive ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagonis, Vasilis; Kulp, Christopher; Chaney, Charity-Grace; Tachiya, M

    2017-09-13

    During the past 10 years, quantum tunneling has been established as one of the dominant mechanisms for recombination in random distributions of electrons and positive ions, and in many dosimetric materials. Specifically quantum tunneling has been shown to be closely associated with two important effects in luminescence materials, namely long term afterglow luminescence and anomalous fading. Two of the common assumptions of quantum tunneling models based on random distributions of electrons and positive ions are: (a) An electron tunnels from a donor to the nearest acceptor, and (b) the concentration of electrons is much lower than that of positive ions at all times during the tunneling process. This paper presents theoretical studies for arbitrary relative concentrations of electrons and positive ions in the solid. Two new differential equations are derived which describe the loss of charge in the solid by tunneling, and they are solved analytically. The analytical solution compares well with the results of Monte Carlo simulations carried out in a random distribution of electrons and positive ions. Possible experimental implications of the model are discussed for tunneling phenomena in long term afterglow signals, and also for anomalous fading studies in feldspars and apatite samples.

  20. Data extraction from machine-translated versus original language randomized trial reports: a comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Google Translate offers free Web-based translation, but it is unknown whether its translation accuracy is sufficient to use in systematic reviews to mitigate concerns about language bias. Methods We compared data extraction from non-English language studies with extraction from translations by Google Translate of 10 studies in each of five languages (Chinese, French, German, Japanese and Spanish). Fluent speakers double-extracted original-language articles. Researchers who did not speak the given language double-extracted translated articles along with 10 additional English language trials. Using the original language extractions as a gold standard, we estimated the probability and odds ratio of correctly extracting items from translated articles compared with English, adjusting for reviewer and language. Results Translation required about 30 minutes per article and extraction of translated articles required additional extraction time. The likelihood of correct extractions was greater for study design and intervention domain items than for outcome descriptions and, particularly, study results. Translated Spanish articles yielded the highest percentage of items (93%) that were correctly extracted more than half the time (followed by German and Japanese 89%, French 85%, and Chinese 78%) but Chinese articles yielded the highest percentage of items (41%) that were correctly extracted >98% of the time (followed by Spanish 30%, French 26%, German 22%, and Japanese 19%). In general, extractors’ confidence in translations was not associated with their accuracy. Conclusions Translation by Google Translate generally required few resources. Based on our analysis of translations from five languages, using machine translation has the potential to reduce language bias in systematic reviews; however, pending additional empirical data, reviewers should be cautious about using translated data. There remains a trade-off between completeness of systematic reviews

  1. Data extraction from machine-translated versus original language randomized trial reports: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balk, Ethan M; Chung, Mei; Chen, Minghua L; Chang, Lina Kong Win; Trikalinos, Thomas A

    2013-11-07

    Google Translate offers free Web-based translation, but it is unknown whether its translation accuracy is sufficient to use in systematic reviews to mitigate concerns about language bias. We compared data extraction from non-English language studies with extraction from translations by Google Translate of 10 studies in each of five languages (Chinese, French, German, Japanese and Spanish). Fluent speakers double-extracted original-language articles. Researchers who did not speak the given language double-extracted translated articles along with 10 additional English language trials. Using the original language extractions as a gold standard, we estimated the probability and odds ratio of correctly extracting items from translated articles compared with English, adjusting for reviewer and language. Translation required about 30 minutes per article and extraction of translated articles required additional extraction time. The likelihood of correct extractions was greater for study design and intervention domain items than for outcome descriptions and, particularly, study results. Translated Spanish articles yielded the highest percentage of items (93%) that were correctly extracted more than half the time (followed by German and Japanese 89%, French 85%, and Chinese 78%) but Chinese articles yielded the highest percentage of items (41%) that were correctly extracted >98% of the time (followed by Spanish 30%, French 26%, German 22%, and Japanese 19%). In general, extractors' confidence in translations was not associated with their accuracy. Translation by Google Translate generally required few resources. Based on our analysis of translations from five languages, using machine translation has the potential to reduce language bias in systematic reviews; however, pending additional empirical data, reviewers should be cautious about using translated data. There remains a trade-off between completeness of systematic reviews (including all available studies) and risk of

  2. New machine learning tools for predictive vegetation mapping after climate change: Bagging and Random Forest perform better than Regression Tree Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    L.R. Iverson; A.M. Prasad; A. Liaw

    2004-01-01

    More and better machine learning tools are becoming available for landscape ecologists to aid in understanding species-environment relationships and to map probable species occurrence now and potentially into the future. To thal end, we evaluated three statistical models: Regression Tree Analybib (RTA), Bagging Trees (BT) and Random Forest (RF) for their utility in...

  3. A randomized trial of suprasternal palpation to determine endotracheal tube position in neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Alok; Finer, Neil N; Hilton, Saskia; Rich, Wade

    2004-03-01

    To compare suprasternal palpation, a previously described bedside technique, with standard chest radiography for correct positioning of the endotracheal tube (ETT) in newborn infants. A randomized single-blinded study in an academic medical center. Preterm and term newborn infants requiring intubation were eligible, provided that they had not had their initial chest roentgenogram (CXR). Infants were randomized to ETT palpation and non-adjustment (Controls), or to ETT palpation and adjustment (Treatment), following digital palpation of the ETT tip in the suprasternal notch. ETT position was considered correct when only the tip of the ETT was palpable in the suprasternal notch. ETT position by CXR was blindly assessed by an experienced pediatric radiologist. Fifty-five infants were enrolled in the delivery room or neonatal intensive care unit. Correct tube placements improved from 48% pre-study to 85 and 93% in the Control and Treatment arms, respectively. The majority of incorrect estimations were that the ETT position using palpation was judged to be too low when it was, in fact, in correct position, as noted in 11 infants. ETT palpation had a 70% concordance with the position determined by CXR. No difficulties or complications were associated with the use of suprasternal palpation. Suprasternal palpation is a simple, safe, teachable, method of confirming ETT position in neonates when CXR is unavailable, and may especially helpful during neonatal resuscitation prior to surfactant administration.

  4. The effect of cervical stabilization exercise on active joint position sense: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mi-Young; Kim, Seong-Gil; Lee, Hae-Yong

    2016-01-01

    We attempted to investigate the effect of cervical stabilization exercise for a period of 5 weeks on active joint position sense in healthy young adults. Twenty-four subjects were randomly assigned to either the exercise group or the control group. The exercise group performed cervical stabilization exercise during the 5-week period. Cervical active joint position sense was measured using the head repositioning accuracy test. The result showed a positive interaction between time and group in the left and right rotation, flexion, and extension. Cervical stabilization exercise significantly improved the sense for four position senses in the exercise group (p 0.05). In conclusion, we suggested that cervical stabilization exercise leads to improvement in accuracy of the joint position sense.

  5. Event-Driven Random Back-Propagation: Enabling Neuromorphic Deep Learning Machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emre O. Neftci

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available An ongoing challenge in neuromorphic computing is to devise general and computationally efficient models of inference and learning which are compatible with the spatial and temporal constraints of the brain. One increasingly popular and successful approach is to take inspiration from inference and learning algorithms used in deep neural networks. However, the workhorse of deep learning, the gradient descent Gradient Back Propagation (BP rule, often relies on the immediate availability of network-wide information stored with high-precision memory during learning, and precise operations that are difficult to realize in neuromorphic hardware. Remarkably, recent work showed that exact backpropagated gradients are not essential for learning deep representations. Building on these results, we demonstrate an event-driven random BP (eRBP rule that uses an error-modulated synaptic plasticity for learning deep representations. Using a two-compartment Leaky Integrate & Fire (I&F neuron, the rule requires only one addition and two comparisons for each synaptic weight, making it very suitable for implementation in digital or mixed-signal neuromorphic hardware. Our results show that using eRBP, deep representations are rapidly learned, achieving classification accuracies on permutation invariant datasets comparable to those obtained in artificial neural network simulations on GPUs, while being robust to neural and synaptic state quantizations during learning.

  6. Event-Driven Random Back-Propagation: Enabling Neuromorphic Deep Learning Machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neftci, Emre O; Augustine, Charles; Paul, Somnath; Detorakis, Georgios

    2017-01-01

    An ongoing challenge in neuromorphic computing is to devise general and computationally efficient models of inference and learning which are compatible with the spatial and temporal constraints of the brain. One increasingly popular and successful approach is to take inspiration from inference and learning algorithms used in deep neural networks. However, the workhorse of deep learning, the gradient descent Gradient Back Propagation (BP) rule, often relies on the immediate availability of network-wide information stored with high-precision memory during learning, and precise operations that are difficult to realize in neuromorphic hardware. Remarkably, recent work showed that exact backpropagated gradients are not essential for learning deep representations. Building on these results, we demonstrate an event-driven random BP (eRBP) rule that uses an error-modulated synaptic plasticity for learning deep representations. Using a two-compartment Leaky Integrate & Fire (I&F) neuron, the rule requires only one addition and two comparisons for each synaptic weight, making it very suitable for implementation in digital or mixed-signal neuromorphic hardware. Our results show that using eRBP, deep representations are rapidly learned, achieving classification accuracies on permutation invariant datasets comparable to those obtained in artificial neural network simulations on GPUs, while being robust to neural and synaptic state quantizations during learning.

  7. Event-Driven Random Back-Propagation: Enabling Neuromorphic Deep Learning Machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neftci, Emre O.; Augustine, Charles; Paul, Somnath; Detorakis, Georgios

    2017-01-01

    An ongoing challenge in neuromorphic computing is to devise general and computationally efficient models of inference and learning which are compatible with the spatial and temporal constraints of the brain. One increasingly popular and successful approach is to take inspiration from inference and learning algorithms used in deep neural networks. However, the workhorse of deep learning, the gradient descent Gradient Back Propagation (BP) rule, often relies on the immediate availability of network-wide information stored with high-precision memory during learning, and precise operations that are difficult to realize in neuromorphic hardware. Remarkably, recent work showed that exact backpropagated gradients are not essential for learning deep representations. Building on these results, we demonstrate an event-driven random BP (eRBP) rule that uses an error-modulated synaptic plasticity for learning deep representations. Using a two-compartment Leaky Integrate & Fire (I&F) neuron, the rule requires only one addition and two comparisons for each synaptic weight, making it very suitable for implementation in digital or mixed-signal neuromorphic hardware. Our results show that using eRBP, deep representations are rapidly learned, achieving classification accuracies on permutation invariant datasets comparable to those obtained in artificial neural network simulations on GPUs, while being robust to neural and synaptic state quantizations during learning. PMID:28680387

  8. Machine capability index evaluation of machining center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Won Pyo [Korea Institute of Industrial Technology, Ansan (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    Recently, there has been an increasing need to produce more precise products, with only the smallest deviations from a defined target value. Machine capability is the ability of a machine tool to produce parts within the tolerance interval. Capability indices are a statistical way of describing how well a product is machined compared to defined target values and tolerances. Currently, there is no standardized way to acquire a machine capability value. This paper describes how machine capability indices are evaluated in machining centers. After the machining of specimens, straightness, roundness and positioning accuracy were measured using CMM(coordinate measuring machine). These measured values and defined tolerances were used to evaluate the machine capability index. It will be useful for the industry to have standardized ways to choose and calculate machine capability indices.

  9. Occupational position and its relation to mental distress in a random sample of Danish residents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rugulies, Reiner Ernst; Madsen, Ida E H; Nielsen, Maj Britt D

    2010-01-01

    somatization symptoms (OR = 6.28, 95% CI = 1.39-28.46). CONCLUSIONS: Unskilled manual workers, the unemployed, and, to a lesser extent, the low-grade self-employed showed an increased level of mental distress. Activities to promote mental health in the Danish population should be directed toward these groups.......PURPOSE: To analyze the distribution of depressive, anxiety, and somatization symptoms across different occupational positions in a random sample of Danish residents. METHODS: The study sample consisted of 591 Danish residents (50% women), aged 20-65, drawn from an age- and gender-stratified random...... sample of the Danish population. Participants filled out a survey that included the 92 item version of the Hopkins Symptom Checklist (SCL-92). We categorized occupational position into seven groups: high- and low-grade non-manual workers, skilled and unskilled manual workers, high- and low-grade self...

  10. Sniff to see. Comparing sniffing position versus simple head extension position for glottic exposure - A prospective, randomized cross over study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishant Sahay

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Sniffing position provides better glottis exposure and it is easier to intubate a patient in the sniffing position as compared to simple head extension position. Sniffing position should therefore be used as initial position when attempting intubation.

  11. The Use of Translation Tool in Efl Learning: Do Machine Translation Give Positive Impact in Language Learning?

    OpenAIRE

    Mahardika, Rizka

    2017-01-01

    Translation tools are commonly used for translating a text written in one language (source language) into another language (target language). They are used to help translators in translating big numbers of translation works in effective time. There are three types of translation tools being studied in the article entitled Machine Translation Tools: Tools of the Translator's Trade written by Peter Katsberg published in 2012. They are Fully Automated Machine Translation (or FAMT), Human Aided M...

  12. A hybrid training approach for leaf area index estimation via Cubist and random forests machine-learning

    KAUST Repository

    McCabe, Matthew

    2017-12-06

    With an increasing volume and dimensionality of Earth observation data, enhanced integration of machine-learning methodologies is needed to effectively analyze and utilize these information rich datasets. In machine-learning, a training dataset is required to establish explicit associations between a suite of explanatory ‘predictor’ variables and the target property. The specifics of this learning process can significantly influence model validity and portability, with a higher generalization level expected with an increasing number of observable conditions being reflected in the training dataset. Here we propose a hybrid training approach for leaf area index (LAI) estimation, which harnesses synergistic attributes of scattered in-situ measurements and systematically distributed physically based model inversion results to enhance the information content and spatial representativeness of the training data. To do this, a complimentary training dataset of independent LAI was derived from a regularized model inversion of RapidEye surface reflectances and subsequently used to guide the development of LAI regression models via Cubist and random forests (RF) decision tree methods. The application of the hybrid training approach to a broad set of Landsat 8 vegetation index (VI) predictor variables resulted in significantly improved LAI prediction accuracies and spatial consistencies, relative to results relying on in-situ measurements alone for model training. In comparing the prediction capacity and portability of the two machine-learning algorithms, a pair of relatively simple multi-variate regression models established by Cubist performed best, with an overall relative mean absolute deviation (rMAD) of ∼11%, determined based on a stringent scene-specific cross-validation approach. In comparison, the portability of RF regression models was less effective (i.e., an overall rMAD of ∼15%), which was attributed partly to model saturation at high LAI in association

  13. Design, synthesis and experimental validation of novel potential chemopreventive agents using random forest and support vector machine binary classifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprague, Brienne; Shi, Qian; Kim, Marlene T; Zhang, Liying; Sedykh, Alexander; Ichiishi, Eiichiro; Tokuda, Harukuni; Lee, Kuo-Hsiung; Zhu, Hao

    2014-06-01

    Compared to the current knowledge on cancer chemotherapeutic agents, only limited information is available on the ability of organic compounds, such as drugs and/or natural products, to prevent or delay the onset of cancer. In order to evaluate chemical chemopreventive potentials and design novel chemopreventive agents with low to no toxicity, we developed predictive computational models for chemopreventive agents in this study. First, we curated a database containing over 400 organic compounds with known chemoprevention activities. Based on this database, various random forest and support vector machine binary classifiers were developed. All of the resulting models were validated by cross validation procedures. Then, the validated models were applied to virtually screen a chemical library containing around 23,000 natural products and derivatives. We selected a list of 148 novel chemopreventive compounds based on the consensus prediction of all validated models. We further analyzed the predicted active compounds by their ease of organic synthesis. Finally, 18 compounds were synthesized and experimentally validated for their chemopreventive activity. The experimental validation results paralleled the cross validation results, demonstrating the utility of the developed models. The predictive models developed in this study can be applied to virtually screen other chemical libraries to identify novel lead compounds for the chemoprevention of cancers.

  14. Nonlinear Methodologies for Identifying Seismic Event and Nuclear Explosion Using Random Forest, Support Vector Machine, and Naive Bayes Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longjun Dong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The discrimination of seismic event and nuclear explosion is a complex and nonlinear system. The nonlinear methodologies including Random Forests (RF, Support Vector Machines (SVM, and Naïve Bayes Classifier (NBC were applied to discriminant seismic events. Twenty earthquakes and twenty-seven explosions with nine ratios of the energies contained within predetermined “velocity windows” and calculated distance are used in discriminators. Based on the one out cross-validation, ROC curve, calculated accuracy of training and test samples, and discriminating performances of RF, SVM, and NBC were discussed and compared. The result of RF method clearly shows the best predictive power with a maximum area of 0.975 under the ROC among RF, SVM, and NBC. The discriminant accuracies of RF, SVM, and NBC for test samples are 92.86%, 85.71%, and 92.86%, respectively. It has been demonstrated that the presented RF model can not only identify seismic event automatically with high accuracy, but also can sort the discriminant indicators according to calculated values of weights.

  15. Design, synthesis and experimental validation of novel potential chemopreventive agents using random forest and support vector machine binary classifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprague, Brienne; Shi, Qian; Kim, Marlene T.; Zhang, Liying; Sedykh, Alexander; Ichiishi, Eiichiro; Tokuda, Harukuni; Lee, Kuo-Hsiung; Zhu, Hao

    2014-06-01

    Compared to the current knowledge on cancer chemotherapeutic agents, only limited information is available on the ability of organic compounds, such as drugs and/or natural products, to prevent or delay the onset of cancer. In order to evaluate chemical chemopreventive potentials and design novel chemopreventive agents with low to no toxicity, we developed predictive computational models for chemopreventive agents in this study. First, we curated a database containing over 400 organic compounds with known chemoprevention activities. Based on this database, various random forest and support vector machine binary classifiers were developed. All of the resulting models were validated by cross validation procedures. Then, the validated models were applied to virtually screen a chemical library containing around 23,000 natural products and derivatives. We selected a list of 148 novel chemopreventive compounds based on the consensus prediction of all validated models. We further analyzed the predicted active compounds by their ease of organic synthesis. Finally, 18 compounds were synthesized and experimentally validated for their chemopreventive activity. The experimental validation results paralleled the cross validation results, demonstrating the utility of the developed models. The predictive models developed in this study can be applied to virtually screen other chemical libraries to identify novel lead compounds for the chemoprevention of cancers.

  16. Positive Psychology Interventions for Patients With Heart Disease: A Preliminary Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikrahan, Gholam Reza; Suarez, Laura; Asgari, Karim; Beach, Scott R; Celano, Christopher M; Kalantari, Mehrdad; Abedi, Mohammad Reza; Etesampour, Ali; Abbas, Rezaei; Huffman, Jeff C

    2016-01-01

    Positive psychologic characteristics have been linked to superior cardiac outcomes. Accordingly, in this exploratory study, we assessed positive psychology interventions in patients who had recently undergone a procedure to treat cardiovascular disease. Participants were randomly assigned to receive 1 of 3 different 6-week face-to-face interventions or a wait-list control condition. We assessed intervention feasibility and compared changes in psychologic outcome measures postintervention (7wk) and at follow-up (15wk) between intervention and control participants. Across the interventions, 74% of assigned sessions were completed. When comparing outcomes between interventions and control participants (N = 55 total), there were no between-group differences post-intervention, but at follow-up intervention participants had greater improvements in happiness (β = 14.43, 95% CI: 8.66-20.2, p positive psychology intervention for cardiac patients. Copyright © 2016 The Academy of Psychosomatic Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Predictive Toxicology: Modeling Chemical Induced Toxicological Response Combining Circular Fingerprints with Random Forest and Support Vector Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexios eKoutsoukas

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Modern drug discovery and toxicological research are under pressure, as the cost of developing and testing new chemicals for potential toxicological risk is rising. Extensive evaluation of chemical products for potential adverse effects is a challenging task, due to the large number of chemicals and the possible hazardous effects on human health. Safety regulatory agencies around the world are dealing with two major challenges. First, the growth of chemicals introduced every year in household products and medicines that need to be tested, and second the need to protect public welfare. Hence, alternative and more efficient toxicological risk assessment methods are in high demand. The Toxicology in the 21st Century (Tox21 consortium a collaborative effort was formed to develop and investigate alternative assessment methods. A collection of 10,000 compounds composed of environmental chemicals and approved drugs were screened for interference in biochemical pathways and released for crowdsourcing data analysis. The physicochemical space covered by Tox21 library was explored, measured by Molecular Weight (MW and the octanol/water partition coefficient (cLogP. It was found that on average chemical structures had MW of 272.6 Daltons. In case of cLogP the average value was 2.476. Next relationships between assays were examined based on compounds activity profiles across the assays utilizing the Pearson correlation coefficient r. A cluster was observed between the Androgen and Estrogen Receptors and their ligand bind domains accordingly indicating presence of cross talks among the receptors. The highest correlations observed were between NR.AR and NR.AR_LBD, where it was r=0.66 and between NR.ER and NR.ER_LBD, where it was r=0.5.Our approach to model the Tox21 data consisted of utilizing circular molecular fingerprints combined with Random Forest and Support Vector Machine by modeling each assay independently. In all of the 12 sub-challenges our modeling

  18. Countable Alphabet Random Subhifts of Finite Type with Weakly Positive Transfer Operator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Volker; Urbański, Mariusz

    2015-09-01

    We deal with countable alphabet locally compact random subshifts of finite type (the latter merely meaning that the symbol space is generated by an incidence matrix) under the absence of big images property and under the absence of uniform positivity of the transfer operator. We first establish the existence of random conformal measures along with good bounds for the iterates of the Perron-Frobenius operator. Then, using the technique of positive cones and proving a version of Bowen's type contraction (see Equilibrium states and the ergodic theory of Anosov diffeomorphisms, 1975), we also establish a fairly complete thermodynamical formalism. This means that we prove the existence and uniqueness of fiberwise invariant measures (giving rise to a global invariant measure) equivalent to the fiberwise conformal measures. Furthermore, we establish the existence of a spectral gap for the transfer operators, which in the random context precisely means the exponential rate of convergence of the normalized iterated transfer operator. This latter property in a relatively straightforward way entails the exponential decay of correlations and the Central Limit Theorem.

  19. Impact of implant-abutment connection and positioning of the machined collar/microgap on crestal bone level changes: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Frank; Hegewald, Andrea; Becker, Jürgen

    2014-04-01

    To address the following focused question: What is the impact of implant-abutment configuration and the positioning of the machined collar/microgap on crestal bone level changes? Electronic databases of the PubMed and the Web of Knowledge were searched for animal and human studies reporting on histological/radiological crestal bone level changes (CBL) at nonsubmerged one-/two-piece implants (placed in healed ridges) exhibiting different abutment configurations, positioning of the machined collar/microgap (between 1992 and November 2012: n = 318 titles). Quality assessment of selected full-text articles was performed according to the ARRIVE and CONSORT statement guidelines. A total of 13 publications (risk of bias: high) were eligible for the review. The weighted mean difference (WMD) (95% CI) between machined collars placed either above or below the bone crest amounted to 0.835 mm favoring an epicrestal positioning of the rough/smooth border (P bone crest amounted to -0.479 mm favoring a subcrestal position of the implant neck (P bone level changes at nonsubmerged implants, the impact of the implant-abutment connection lacks documentation. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Toward a Progress Indicator for Machine Learning Model Building and Data Mining Algorithm Execution: A Position Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Gang

    2017-12-01

    For user-friendliness, many software systems offer progress indicators for long-duration tasks. A typical progress indicator continuously estimates the remaining task execution time as well as the portion of the task that has been finished. Building a machine learning model often takes a long time, but no existing machine learning software supplies a non-trivial progress indicator. Similarly, running a data mining algorithm often takes a long time, but no existing data mining software provides a nontrivial progress indicator. In this article, we consider the problem of offering progress indicators for machine learning model building and data mining algorithm execution. We discuss the goals and challenges intrinsic to this problem. Then we describe an initial framework for implementing such progress indicators and two advanced, potential uses of them, with the goal of inspiring future research on this topic.

  1. Lead-position dependent regular oscillations and random fluctuations of conductance in graphene quantum dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Liang; Yang, Rui; Lai, Ying-Cheng; Ferry, David K

    2013-02-27

    Quantum interference causes a wavefunction to have sensitive spatial dependence, and this has a significant effect on quantum transport. For example, in a quantum-dot system, the conductance can depend on the lead positions. We investigate, for graphene quantum dots, the conductance variations with the lead positions. Since for graphene the types of boundaries, e.g., zigzag and armchair, can fundamentally affect the quantum transport characteristics, we focus on rectangular graphene quantum dots, for which the effects of boundaries can be systematically studied. For both zigzag and armchair horizontal boundaries, we find that changing the positions of the leads can induce significant conductance variations. Depending on the Fermi energy, the variations can be either regular oscillations or random conductance fluctuations. We develop a physical theory to elucidate the origin of the conductance oscillation/fluctuation patterns. In particular, quantum interference leads to standing-wave-like-patterns in the quantum dot which, in the absence of leads, are regulated by the energy-band structure of the corresponding vertical graphene ribbon. The observed 'coexistence' of regular oscillations and random fluctuations in the conductance can be exploited for the development of graphene-based nanodevices.

  2. Postpartum positioning and attachment education for increasing breastfeeding: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, A; Stamp, G; Pincombe, J

    2001-12-01

    Although lactation experts suggest that a correct positioning and attachment technique reduces breastfeeding problems and enhances long-term breastfeeding, evidence from randomized trials is lacking. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of postpartum positioning and attachment education on breastfeeding outcomes in first-time mothers. A randomized trial was performed in a public hospital in Adelaide, South Australia, where 160 first-time mothers were randomly allocated to receive either structured one-to-one education (experimental group) or usual postpartum care (control group) within 24 hours of birth. The primary outcome was breastfeeding at 6 weeks and 3 and 6 months postpartum; other outcomes were nipple pain and trauma in hospital and at 6 weeks and 3 and 6 months, and satisfaction with breastfeeding. No significant differences occurred in breastfeeding rates between the groups at each endpoint, although a trend in the direction of lower rates was seen at each endpoint in the experimental group. This group reported less nipple pain on days 2 (p = 0.004) and 3 (p = 0.04), but this was not sustained on follow-up. No differences were observed in nipple trauma in hospital or in self-reported nipple pain and/or trauma at the three endpoints. Experimental group women were less satisfied with breastfeeding at 3 and 6 months postpartum when using a one-item measure; however, a multiple-item measure showed no significant differences at the three endpoints. The intervention did not increase breastfeeding duration at any assessment time or demonstrate any differences between the groups on secondary outcomes. The trend toward lower breastfeeding rates in the experimental group suggests a need for a larger trial to evaluate whether or nor postpartum positioning and attachment education may negatively affect breastfeeding.

  3. Impact of implant–abutment connection and positioning of the machined collar/microgap on crestal bone level changes: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Schwarz, Frank; Hegewald, Andrea; Becker, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To address the following focused question: What is the impact of implant–abutment configuration and the positioning of the machined collar/microgap on crestal bone level changes? Material and methods Electronic databases of the PubMed and the Web of Knowledge were searched for animal and human studies reporting on histological/radiological crestal bone level changes (CBL) at nonsubmerged one-/two-piece implants (placed in healed ridges) exhibiting different abutment configurations,...

  4. Impact of implant–abutment connection, positioning of the machined collar/microgap, and platform switching on crestal bone level changes. Camlog Foundation Consensus Report.

    OpenAIRE

    Schwarz, Frank; Alcoforado, Gil; Nelson, Katja; Schaer, Alex; Taylor, Thomas; Beuer, Florian; Strietzel, Frank Peter

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this consensus meeting was to assess the impact of implant–abutment connection, positioning of the machined collar/microgap, and platform switching on crestal bone level changes. Materials and methods Two comprehensive systematic reviews were prepared in advance of the meeting. Consensus statements, practical recommendations, and implications for future research were based on within group as well as plenary scrutinization and discussions of these systematic reviews. Resu...

  5. Design and development of a novel test method to measure the slipper / swashplate interface fluid film in a positive displacement machine

    OpenAIRE

    Spencer, Natalie A

    2014-01-01

    Although robust models of fluid film behavior between the slipper / swashplate lubricating interface in positive displacement machines have been developed, measuring this same fluid film thickness to a highly accurate degree inside a relatively unaltered axial piston unit has never been accomplished until now. A test method was created to close this gap in available data by measuring fluid film thickness between the slipper and swashplate in a 130cc axial piston pump. Precise knowledge of the...

  6. Local random quantum circuits: Ensemble completely positive maps and swap algebras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zanardi, Paolo [Department of Physics and Astronomy, and Center for Quantum Information Science and Technology, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089-0484, USA and Centre for Quantum Technologies, National University of Singapore, 2 Science Drive 3, Singapore 117542 (Singapore)

    2014-08-15

    We define different classes of local random quantum circuits (L-RQC) and show that (a) statistical properties of L-RQC are encoded into an associated family of completely positive maps and (b) average purity dynamics can be described by the action of these maps on operator algebras of permutations (swap algebras). An exactly solvable one-dimensional case is analyzed to illustrate the power of the swap algebra formalism. More in general, we prove short time area-law bounds on average purity for uncorrelated L-RQC and infinite time results for both the uncorrelated and correlated cases.

  7. Local random quantum circuits: Ensemble completely positive maps and swap algebras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanardi, Paolo

    2014-08-01

    We define different classes of local random quantum circuits (L-RQC) and show that (a) statistical properties of L-RQC are encoded into an associated family of completely positive maps and (b) average purity dynamics can be described by the action of these maps on operator algebras of permutations (swap algebras). An exactly solvable one-dimensional case is analyzed to illustrate the power of the swap algebra formalism. More in general, we prove short time area-law bounds on average purity for uncorrelated L-RQC and infinite time results for both the uncorrelated and correlated cases.

  8. Informed Cytology for Triaging HPV-Positive Women: Substudy Nested in the NTCC Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergeron, Christine; Giorgi-Rossi, Paolo; Cas, Frederic; Schiboni, Maria Luisa; Ghiringhello, Bruno; Dalla Palma, Paolo; Minucci, Daria; Rosso, Stefano; Zorzi, Manuel; Naldoni, Carlo; Segnan, Nereo; Confortini, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Background: Human papillomavirus (HPV)–based screening needs triage. In most randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on HPV testing with cytological triage, cytology interpretation has been blind to HPV status. Methods: Women age 25 to 60 years enrolled in the New Technology in Cervical Cancer (NTCC) RCT comparing HPV testing with cytology were referred to colposcopy if HPV positive and, if no cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) was detected, followed up until HPV negativity. Cytological slides taken at the first colposcopy were retrieved and independently interpreted by an external laboratory, which was only aware of patients’ HPV positivity. Sensitivity, specificity, and positive (PPV) and negative (NPV) predictive values were computed for histologically proven CIN2+ with HPV status–informed cytology for women with a determination of atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS) or more severe. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results: Among HPV-positive women, informed cytology had cross-sectional sensitivity, specificity, PPV and 1-NPV for CIN2+ of 85.6% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 76.6 to 92.1), 65.9% (95% CI = 63.1 to 68.6), 16.2% (95% CI = 13.0 to 19.8), and 1.7 (95% CI = 0.9 to 2.8), respectively. Cytology was also associated with subsequent risk of newly diagnosed CIN2+ and CIN3+. The cross-sectional relative sensitivity for CIN2+ vs blind cytology obtained by referring to colposcopy and following up only HPV positive women who had HPV status–informed cytology greater than or equal to ASCUS was 1.58 (95% CI = 1.22 to 2.01), while the corresponding relative referral to colposcopy was 0.95 (95% CI = 0.86 to 1.04). Conclusions: Cytology informed of HPV positivity is more sensitive than blind cytology and could allow longer intervals before retesting HPV-positive, cytology-negative women. PMID:25568167

  9. Automatic control of tracheal tube cuff pressure in ventilated patients in semirecumbent position: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valencia, Mauricio; Ferrer, Miquel; Farre, Ramon; Navajas, Daniel; Badia, Joan Ramon; Nicolas, Josep Maria; Torres, Antoni

    2007-06-01

    The aspiration of subglottic secretions colonized by bacteria pooled around the tracheal tube cuff due to inadvertent deflation (automatic, validated device for the continuous regulation of tracheal tube cuff pressure in preventing ventilator-associated pneumonia. Prospective randomized controlled trial. Respiratory intensive care unit and general medical intensive care unit. One hundred and forty-two mechanically ventilated patients (age, 64 +/- 17 yrs; Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score, 18 +/- 6) without pneumonia or aspiration at admission. Within 24 hrs of intubation, patients were randomly allocated to undergo continuous regulation of the cuff pressure with the automatic device (n = 73) or routine care of the cuff pressure (control group, n = 69). Patients remained in a semirecumbent position in bed. The primary end point variable was the incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia. Main causes for intubation were decreased consciousness (43, 30%) and exacerbation of chronic respiratory diseases (38, 27%). Cuff pressure control than the automatic group (45.3 vs. 0.7% determinations, p automatic and control groups, respectively. Cuff pressure is better controlled with the automatic device. However, it did not result in additional benefits to the semirecumbent position in preventing ventilator-associated pneumonia.

  10. Continuous Positive Airway Pressure Versus Oxygen Therapy in the Cardiac Surgical Ward: A Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olper, Luigi; Bignami, Elena; Di Prima, Ambra L; Albini, Santina; Nascimbene, Simona; Cabrini, Luca; Landoni, Giovanni; Alfieri, Ottavio

    2017-02-01

    Noninvasive ventilation (NIV) is a common technique to manage patients with acute respiratory failure in the intensive care unit. However, use of NIV in general wards is less well described. The authors' aim was to demonstrate efficacy of NIV, applied in a cardiac surgery ward, in improving oxygenation in patients who developed hypoxemic acute respiratory failure after being discharged from the intensive care unit. Randomized, open-label trial. University hospital. Sixty-four patients with hypoxemia (PaO2/FIO2 ratio between 100 and 250) admitted to the main ward after cardiac surgery. Patients were randomized to receive standard treatment (oxygen, early mobilization, a program of breathing exercises and diuretics) or continuous positive airway pressure in addition to standard treatment. Continuous positive airway pressure was administered 3 times a day for 2 consecutive days. Every cycle lasted 1 to 3 hours. All patients completed their 1-year follow-up. Data were analyzed according to the intention-to-treat principle. The primary endpoint was the number of patients with PaO2/FIO2pressure use was associated with a statistically significant reduction in the number of patients with PaO2/FIO2pressure in the main ward was associated with improved respiratory outcome. This was the first study that was performed in the main ward of post-surgical patients with acute respiratory failure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Random Forest Based Coarse Locating and KPCA Feature Extraction for Indoor Positioning System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Mo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With the fast developing of mobile terminals, positioning techniques based on fingerprinting method draw attention from many researchers even world famous companies. To conquer some shortcomings of the existing fingerprinting systems and further improve the system performance, on the one hand, in the paper, we propose a coarse positioning method based on random forest, which is able to customize several subregions, and classify test point to the region with an outstanding accuracy compared with some typical clustering algorithms. On the other hand, through the mathematical analysis in engineering, the proposed kernel principal component analysis algorithm is applied for radio map processing, which may provide better robustness and adaptability compared with linear feature extraction methods and manifold learning technique. We build both theoretical model and real environment for verifying the feasibility and reliability. The experimental results show that the proposed indoor positioning system could achieve 99% coarse locating accuracy and enhance 15% fine positioning accuracy on average in a strong noisy environment compared with some typical fingerprinting based methods.

  12. A machine learning calibration model using random forests to improve sensor performance for lower-cost air quality monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Naomi; Presto, Albert A.; Kumar, Sriniwasa P. N.; Gu, Jason; Hauryliuk, Aliaksei; Robinson, Ellis S.; Robinson, Allen L.; Subramanian, R.

    2018-01-01

    Low-cost sensing strategies hold the promise of denser air quality monitoring networks, which could significantly improve our understanding of personal air pollution exposure. Additionally, low-cost air quality sensors could be deployed to areas where limited monitoring exists. However, low-cost sensors are frequently sensitive to environmental conditions and pollutant cross-sensitivities, which have historically been poorly addressed by laboratory calibrations, limiting their utility for monitoring. In this study, we investigated different calibration models for the Real-time Affordable Multi-Pollutant (RAMP) sensor package, which measures CO, NO2, O3, and CO2. We explored three methods: (1) laboratory univariate linear regression, (2) empirical multiple linear regression, and (3) machine-learning-based calibration models using random forests (RF). Calibration models were developed for 16-19 RAMP monitors (varied by pollutant) using training and testing windows spanning August 2016 through February 2017 in Pittsburgh, PA, US. The random forest models matched (CO) or significantly outperformed (NO2, CO2, O3) the other calibration models, and their accuracy and precision were robust over time for testing windows of up to 16 weeks. Following calibration, average mean absolute error on the testing data set from the random forest models was 38 ppb for CO (14 % relative error), 10 ppm for CO2 (2 % relative error), 3.5 ppb for NO2 (29 % relative error), and 3.4 ppb for O3 (15 % relative error), and Pearson r versus the reference monitors exceeded 0.8 for most units. Model performance is explored in detail, including a quantification of model variable importance, accuracy across different concentration ranges, and performance in a range of monitoring contexts including the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) and the US EPA Air Sensors Guidebook recommendations of minimum data quality for personal exposure measurement. A key strength of the RF approach is that

  13. Expressive writing and positive writing for participants with mood disorders: an online randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baikie, Karen A; Geerligs, Liesbeth; Wilhelm, Kay

    2012-02-01

    Expressive writing--writing about traumatic, stressful or emotional events--often leads to improvements in physical and psychological health in non-clinical and clinical populations. Recent studies have shown that positive writing may also be beneficial. Research has not yet investigated whether either expressive writing or positive writing offers benefits for people with mood disorders. Participants were recruited online and were randomly allocated to expressive writing, positive writing or control writing. The following questionnaires were completed online: Centre for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D), Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS), Pennebaker Inventory of Limbic Languidness (PILL), overall health questions, Temperament and Personality Questionnaire (TPQ) and COPE Inventory (COPE). Participants then wrote for 20 min on 4 occasions, and then completed follow-up questionnaires. Linear mixed models with custom contrasts were conducted to assess differences between groups and over time. All 3 groups showed significant improvements over time on mental health and some physical health outcomes. There were no significant differences between groups and no significant group by time interactions. These results were not moderated by demographic factors, personality subtypes or coping styles. The expressive writing, positive writing and time management control writing groups all reported significantly fewer mental and physical symptoms for at least 4 months post-writing. When expressive and positive writing groups were combined, the resulting `emotional writing group' showed significantly lower scores on the DASS stress subscale than the control writing group at all time-points. Potential reasons are discussed and areas of further study identified. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Modeling and Compensation of Random Drift of MEMS Gyroscopes Based on Least Squares Support Vector Machine Optimized by Chaotic Particle Swarm Optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Haifeng; Hou, Bo; Lin, Zhihui; Guo, Meifeng

    2017-10-13

    MEMS (Micro Electro Mechanical System) gyroscopes have been widely applied to various fields, but MEMS gyroscope random drift has nonlinear and non-stationary characteristics. It has attracted much attention to model and compensate the random drift because it can improve the precision of inertial devices. This paper has proposed to use wavelet filtering to reduce noise in the original data of MEMS gyroscopes, then reconstruct the random drift data with PSR (phase space reconstruction), and establish the model for the reconstructed data by LSSVM (least squares support vector machine), of which the parameters were optimized using CPSO (chaotic particle swarm optimization). Comparing the effect of modeling the MEMS gyroscope random drift with BP-ANN (back propagation artificial neural network) and the proposed method, the results showed that the latter had a better prediction accuracy. Using the compensation of three groups of MEMS gyroscope random drift data, the standard deviation of three groups of experimental data dropped from 0.00354°/s, 0.00412°/s, and 0.00328°/s to 0.00065°/s, 0.00072°/s and 0.00061°/s, respectively, which demonstrated that the proposed method can reduce the influence of MEMS gyroscope random drift and verified the effectiveness of this method for modeling MEMS gyroscope random drift.

  15. A novel single-order diffraction grating: Random position rectangle grating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuhua, Yang; Qiangqiang, Zhang; Jing, Wang; Quanping, Fan; Yuwei, Liu; Lai, Wei; Leifeng, Cao

    2016-05-01

    Spectral diagnosis of radiation from laser plasma interaction and monochromation of radiation source are hot and important topics recently. Grating is one of the primary optical elements to do this job. Although easy to fabricate, traditional diffraction grating suffers from multi-order diffraction contamination. On the other hand, sinusoidal amplitude grating has the nonharmonic diffraction property, but it is too difficult to fabricate, especially for x-ray application. A novel nonharmonic diffraction grating named random position rectangle grating (RPRG) is proposed in this paper. Theoretical analysis and experiment results show that the RPRG is both higher order diffraction suppressing and not difficult to fabricate. Additionally, it is highly efficient; its first order absolute theoretical diffraction efficiency reaches 4.1%. Our result shows that RPRG is a novel tool for radiation diagnosis and monochromation. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11375160) and the National Science Instruments Major Project of China (Grant No. 2012YQ130125).

  16. Promoting a positive transition to parenthood: a randomized clinical trial of couple relationship education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halford, W Kim; Petch, Jemima; Creedy, Debra K

    2010-03-01

    The transition to parenthood is often associated with a decline in couple relationship adjustment. Couples (n = 71) expecting their first child were randomly assigned to either: (a) Becoming a Parent (BAP), a maternal parenting education program; or (b) Couple CARE for Parents (CCP), a couple relationship and parenting education program. Couples were assessed pre-intervention (last trimester of pregnancy), post-intervention (5 months postpartum), and follow-up (12 months postpartum). Relative to BAP, CCP reduced negative couple communication from pre- to post-intervention, and prevented erosion of relationship adjustment and self-regulation in women but not men from pre-intervention to follow-up. Mean parenting stress reflected positive adjustment to parenthood with no differences between BAP and CCP. CCP shows promise as a brief program that can enhance couple communication and women's adjustment to parenthood.

  17. Positioning of aquatic animals based on time-of-arrival and random walk models using YAPS (Yet Another Positioning Solver)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baktoft, Henrik; Gjelland, Karl Øystein; Økland, Finn

    2017-01-01

    and error control. Feasibility and performance of YAPS was rigorously tested in a simulation study and by applying YAPS to data from an acoustic transmitter towed in a receiver array. Performance was compared to an alternative positioning model and proprietary software. The simulation study and field test......Aquatic positional telemetry offers vast opportunities to study in vivo behaviour of wild animals, but there is room for improvement in the data quality provided by current procedures for estimating positions. Here we present a novel positioning method called YAPS (Yet Another Positioning Solver......), involving Maximum Likelihood analysis of a state-space model applied directly to time of arrival (TOA) data in combination with a movement model. YAPS avoids the sequential positioning-filtering-approach applied in alternative tools by using all available data in a single model, and offers better accuracy...

  18. Effects of Positive Action on the emotional health of urban youth: a cluster-randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Kendra M; DuBois, David L; Bavarian, Niloofar; Acock, Alan; Silverthorn, Naida; Day, Joseph; Ji, Peter; Vuchinich, Samuel; Flay, Brian R

    2013-12-01

    We examined the effects of Positive Action (PA), a school-based social-emotional learning and health promotion program, on the emotional health of predominately low-income and ethnic minority urban youth. The study was a matched-pair, cluster-randomized controlled trial involving 14 Chicago public schools. Outcomes were assessed over a 6-year period of program implementation for a cohort of youth in each school, followed from grades 3 to 8. Youth reported on their emotional health (positive affect, life satisfaction, depression, anxiety) and social-emotional and character development. Growth-curve and structural-equation modeling analyses assessed overall program effects on the emotional health outcomes as well as mediation of these effects via the program's impact on youths' social-emotional and character development. Students in PA schools, compared with those in control schools, had more favorable change over the course of the study in positive affect (standardized mean difference effect size [ES] = .17) and life satisfaction (ES = .13) as well as significantly lower depression (ES = -.14) and anxiety (ES = -.26) at study end point. Program effects for positive affect, depression, and anxiety were mediated by more favorable change over time in social-emotional and character development for students in PA schools. Results suggest that universal, school-based programs can benefit the emotional health of youth in low-income, urban settings. The modest magnitude of effects over an extended period of program implementation, however, reflects the challenges of both mounting interventions and offsetting formidable risks for mental health problems in such environments. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. A Web-Based Adolescent Positive Psychology Program in Schools: Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burckhardt, Rowan; Manicavasagar, Vijaya; Batterham, Philip J; Miller, Leonie M; Talbot, Elizabeth; Lum, Alistair

    2015-07-28

    Adolescent mental health is characterized by relatively high rates of psychiatric disorders and low levels of help-seeking behaviors. Existing mental health programs aimed at addressing these issues in adolescents have repeated inconsistent results. Such programs have generally been based on techniques derived from cognitive behavioral therapy, which may not be ideally suited to early intervention among adolescent samples. Positive psychology, which seeks to improve well-being rather than alleviate psychological symptoms, offers an alternative approach. A previous community study of adolescents found that informal engagement in an online positive psychology program for up to 6 weeks yielded significant improvements in both well-being and depression symptoms. However, this approach had not been trialed among adolescents in a structured format and within a school setting. This study examines the feasibility of an online school-based positive psychology program delivered in a structured format over a 6-week period utilizing a workbook to guide students through website content and interactive exercises. Students from four high schools were randomly allocated by classroom to either the positive psychology condition, "Bite Back", or the control condition. The Bite Back condition consisted of positive psychology exercises and information, while the control condition used a series of non-psychology entertainment websites. Both interventions were delivered online for 6 hours over a period of 4-6 weeks during class time. Symptom measures and measures of well-being/flourishing and life satisfaction were administered at baseline and post intervention. Data were analyzed using multilevel linear modeling. Both conditions demonstrated reductions in depression, stress, and total symptom scores without any significant differences between the two conditions. Both the Bite Back and control conditions also demonstrated significant improvements in life satisfaction scores post

  20. A Web-Based Adolescent Positive Psychology Program in Schools: Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manicavasagar, Vijaya; Batterham, Philip J; Miller, Leonie M; Talbot, Elizabeth; Lum, Alistair

    2015-01-01

    Background Adolescent mental health is characterized by relatively high rates of psychiatric disorders and low levels of help-seeking behaviors. Existing mental health programs aimed at addressing these issues in adolescents have repeated inconsistent results. Such programs have generally been based on techniques derived from cognitive behavioral therapy, which may not be ideally suited to early intervention among adolescent samples. Positive psychology, which seeks to improve well-being rather than alleviate psychological symptoms, offers an alternative approach. A previous community study of adolescents found that informal engagement in an online positive psychology program for up to 6 weeks yielded significant improvements in both well-being and depression symptoms. However, this approach had not been trialed among adolescents in a structured format and within a school setting. Objective This study examines the feasibility of an online school-based positive psychology program delivered in a structured format over a 6-week period utilizing a workbook to guide students through website content and interactive exercises. Methods Students from four high schools were randomly allocated by classroom to either the positive psychology condition, "Bite Back", or the control condition. The Bite Back condition consisted of positive psychology exercises and information, while the control condition used a series of non-psychology entertainment websites. Both interventions were delivered online for 6 hours over a period of 4-6 weeks during class time. Symptom measures and measures of well-being/flourishing and life satisfaction were administered at baseline and post intervention. Results Data were analyzed using multilevel linear modeling. Both conditions demonstrated reductions in depression, stress, and total symptom scores without any significant differences between the two conditions. Both the Bite Back and control conditions also demonstrated significant improvements in

  1. A model for Intelligent Random Access Memory architecture (IRAM) cellular automata algorithms on the Associative String Processing machine (ASTRA)

    CERN Document Server

    Rohrbach, F; Vesztergombi, G

    1997-01-01

    In the near future, the computer performance will be completely determined by how long it takes to access memory. There are bottle-necks in memory latency and memory-to processor interface bandwidth. The IRAM initiative could be the answer by putting Processor-In-Memory (PIM). Starting from the massively parallel processing concept, one reached a similar conclusion. The MPPC (Massively Parallel Processing Collaboration) project and the 8K processor ASTRA machine (Associative String Test bench for Research \\& Applications) developed at CERN \\cite{kuala} can be regarded as a forerunner of the IRAM concept. The computing power of the ASTRA machine, regarded as an IRAM with 64 one-bit processors on a 64$\\times$64 bit-matrix memory chip machine, has been demonstrated by running statistical physics algorithms: one-dimensional stochastic cellular automata, as a simple model for dynamical phase transitions. As a relevant result for physics, the damage spreading of this model has been investigated.

  2. Existence Results for a Michaud Fractional, Nonlocal, and Randomly Position Structured Fragmentation Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emile Franc Doungmo Goufo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Until now, classical models of clusters’ fission remain unable to fully explain strange phenomena like the phenomenon of shattering (Ziff and McGrady, 1987 and the sudden appearance of infinitely many particles in some systems having initial finite number of particles. That is why there is a need to extend classical models to models with fractional derivative order and use new and various techniques to analyze them. In this paper, we prove the existence of strongly continuous solution operators for nonlocal fragmentation models with Michaud time derivative of fractional order (Samko et al., 1993. We focus on the case where the splitting rate is dependent on size and position and where new particles generating from fragmentation are distributed in space randomly according to some probability density. In the analysis, we make use of the substochastic semigroup theory, the subordination principle for differential equations of fractional order (Prüss, 1993, Bazhlekova, 2000, the analogy of Hille-Yosida theorem for fractional model (Prüss, 1993, and useful properties of Mittag-Leffler relaxation function (Berberan-Santos, 2005. We are then able to show that the solution operator to the full model is positive and contractive.

  3. Promoting Afterschool Quality and Positive Youth Development: Cluster Randomized Trial of the Pax Good Behavior Game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Emilie Phillips; Osgood, D Wayne; Oh, Yoonkyung; Caldwell, Linda C

    2018-02-01

    This randomized trial tested a strategy originally developed for school settings, the Pax Good Behavior Game (PAX GBG), in the new context of afterschool programs. We examined this approach in afterschool since 70% of all juvenile crime occurs between the hours of 3-6 pm, making afterschool an important setting for prevention and promotion. Dual-career and working families need monitoring and supervision for their children in quality settings that are safe and appropriately structured. While substantial work has identified important features of afterschool programs, increasing attention is being given to how to foster quality. PAX GBG, with its focus on shared norms, cooperative teams, contingent activity rewards, and liberal praise, could potentially enhance not only appropriate structure and supportive relationships, but also youth self-regulation, co-regulation, and socio-emotional development. This study examined the PAX GBG among 76 afterschool programs, serving 811 youth ages 5-12, who were diverse in race-ethnicity, socio-economic status, and geographic locale. Demographically matched pairs of afterschool programs were randomized to PAX GBG or treatment-as-usual. Independent observers conducted ratings of implementation fidelity and program quality across time; along with surveys of children's problem and prosocial behavior. Interaction effects were found using hierarchical linear models such that experimental programs evidencing higher implementation fidelity demonstrated better program quality than controls, (i.e., less harshness, increased appropriate structure, support, and engagement), as well as reduced child-reported hyperactivity and intent-to-treat effects on prosocial behavior. This study demonstrates that best practices fostered by PAX GBG and implemented with fidelity in afterschool result in higher quality contexts for positive youth development.

  4. Optimum Position of Acoustic Emission Sensors for Ship Hull Structural Health Monitoring Based on Deep Machine Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kappatos, Vassilios; Karvelis, Petros; Georgoulas, George

    2018-01-01

    In this paper a method for the estimation of the optimum sensor positions for acoustic emission localization on ship hull structures is presented. The optimum sensor positions are treated as a classification (localization) problem based on a deep learning paradigm. In order to avoid complex...

  5. Randomized Trial of Machine Perfusion Versus Cold Storage in Recipients of Deceased Donor Kidney Transplants With High Incidence of Delayed Graft Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedesco-Silva, Helio; Mello Offerni, Juliano Chrystian; Ayres Carneiro, Vanessa; Ivani de Paula, Mayara; Neto, Elias David; Brambate Carvalhinho Lemos, Francine; Requião Moura, Lúcio Roberto; Pacheco E Silva Filho, Alvaro; de Morais Cunha, Mirian de Fátima; Francisco da Silva, Erica; Miorin, Luiz Antonio; Demetrio, Daniela Priscila; Luconi, Paulo Sérgio; da Silva Luconi, Waldere Tania; Bobbio, Savina Adriana; Kuschnaroff, Liz Milstein; Noronha, Irene Lourdes; Braga, Sibele Lessa; Barsante, Renata Cristina; Mendes Moreira, João Cezar; Fernandes-Charpiot, Ida Maria Maximina; Abbud-Filho, Mario; Modelli de Andrade, Luis Gustavo; Dalsoglio Garcia, Paula; Tanajura Santamaria Saber, Luciana; Fernandes Laurindo, Alan; Chocair, Pedro Renato; Cuvello Neto, Américo Lourenço; Zanocco, Juliana Aparecida; Duboc de Almeida Soares Filho, Antonio Jose; Ferreira Aguiar, Wilson; Medina Pestana, Jose

    2017-05-01

    This study compared the use of static cold storage versus continuous hypothermic machine perfusion in a cohort of kidney transplant recipients at high risk for delayed graft function (DGF). In this national, multicenter, and controlled trial, 80 pairs of kidneys recovered from brain-dead deceased donors were randomized to cold storage or machine perfusion, transplanted, and followed up for 12 months. The primary endpoint was the incidence of DGF. Secondary endpoints included the duration of DGF, hospital stay, primary nonfunction, estimated glomerular filtration rate, acute rejection, and allograft and patient survivals. Mean cold ischemia time was high but not different between the 2 groups (25.6 ± 6.6 hours vs 25.05 ± 6.3 hours, 0.937). The incidence of DGF was lower in the machine perfusion compared with cold storage group (61% vs. 45%, P = 0.031). Machine perfusion was independently associated with a reduced risk of DGF (odds ratio, 0.49; 95% confidence interval, 0.26-0.95). Mean estimated glomerular filtration rate tended to be higher at day 28 (40.6 ± 19.9 mL/min per 1.73 m 2 vs 49.0 ± 26.9 mL/min per 1.73 m 2 ; P = 0.262) and 1 year (48.3 ± 19.8 mL/min per 1.73 m 2 vs 54.4 ± 28.6 mL/min per 1.73 m 2 ; P = 0.201) in the machine perfusion group. No differences in the incidence of acute rejection, primary nonfunction (0% vs 2.5%), graft loss (7.5% vs 10%), or death (8.8% vs 6.3%) were observed. In this cohort of recipients of deceased donor kidneys with high mean cold ischemia time and high incidence of DGF, the use of continuous machine perfusion was associated with a reduced risk of DGF compared with the traditional cold storage preservation method.

  6. Positive psychotherapy for depression and self-efficacy in undergraduate nursing students: A randomized, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yu-Fang; Zhang, Xia; Plummer, Virginia; Lam, Louisa; Cross, Wendy; Zhang, Jing-Ping

    2017-08-01

    Nursing students across the globe experience depressive symptoms, and many interventions have been used to alleviate their depression. However, few interventions focus on students' personal strengths and advantages. The aim of the present study was to explore the effects of an 8-week group positive psychotherapy (PPT) programme on depression and self-efficacy in full-time undergraduate nursing students. A randomized, controlled trial was conducted for 76 nursing students (34 in the experimental group, 42 in the control group). The Beck Depression Inventory-II and the General Self-Efficacy Scale were used to collect data prior to, immediately after PPT, 3 months', and 6 months' post-PPT. Repeated-measures analysis of variance indicated that the intervention significantly alleviated depression and improved self-efficacy (each P self-efficacy. We recommend that PPT is effective in alleviating depression and improving self-efficacy in undergraduate nursing students. Academic mental health nurses should appreciate the value of PPT and consider incorporating it in psychological support methods in order to facilitate nursing students' mental health. © 2016 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  7. Climbing Has a Positive Impact on Low Back Pain: A Prospective Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schinhan, Martina; Neubauer, Benedikt; Pieber, Karin; Gruber, Michael; Kainberger, Franz; Castellucci, Clara; Olischar, Boris; Maruna, Andrea; Windhager, Reinhard; Sabeti-Aschraf, Manuel

    2016-05-01

    Comparison of climbing versus no treatment to treat chronic low back pain. Prospective randomized controlled trial. Tertiary. A total of 30 patients with chronic low back pain were recruited and randomly assigned to 2 different groups: climbing and control. The inclusion criteria were defined as chronic low back pain, age between 18 and 45 years, body mass index lower than 25, and no climbing experience. Patients in the climbing group were instructed to climb 5 different climbing routes. A climbing activity of 10 sessions in 8 weeks, at least once a week with a minimum duration of 1 hour, was mandatory. The participants were examined before (T0) and after therapy (8 weeks, T8) and after another 6 weeks (T14). The outcome was evaluated using Oswestry Disability Index, Visual Analog Scale (VAS), Likert scale, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Radiologists evaluating MRI were blinded. The study was performed as a single-center study. Evaluating the Oswestry Disability Index, a significant difference in the time course between the 2 groups was detected (P = 0.022). Significant improvements comparing climbing and control group were also found when assessing VAS in a minimal finger-floor-distance position (P = 0.048). Patients in the climbing group showed a reduction in size of disc protrusion. Climbing may be an effective and low-cost therapy option for people with chronic low back pain. Low back pain is a very common disease but still a challenge to treat. Therapy strategies vary from conservative ones, pharmacological treatment with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and weak opioids, to invasive treatment with acupuncture, injections, and operative reconstruction. Some can be costly and not without risks. For instance, many people who use NSAIDs are at risk of common side effects such as gastrointestinal complications (irritation, ulcers, and bleeding) that may lead to hospitalization. Climbing could offer reduction of pain and better performance in

  8. Adaptive myoelectric pattern recognition for arm movement in different positions using advanced online sequential extreme learning machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anam, Khairul; Al-Jumaily, Adel

    2016-08-01

    The performance of the myoelectric pattern recognition system sharply decreases when working in various limb positions. The issue can be solved by cumbersome training procedure that can anticipate all possible future situations. However, this procedure will sacrifice the comfort of the user. In addition, many unpredictable scenarios may be met in the future. This paper proposed a new adaptive myoelectric pattern recognition using advance online sequential extreme learning (AOS-ELM) for classification of the hand movements to five different positions. AOS-ELM is an improvement of OS-ELM that can verify the adaptation validity using entropy. The proposed adaptive MPR was able to classify eight different classes from eleven subjects by accuracy of 95.42 % using data from one position. After learning the data from whole positions, the performance of the proposed system is 86.13 %. This performance was better than the MPR that employed original OS-ELM, but it was worse than the MPR that utilized the batch classifiers. Nevertheless, the adaptation mechanism of AOS-ELM is preferred in the real-time application.

  9. Noninvasive positive pressure ventilation in subjects with stable COPD: a randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhatt SP

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Surya P Bhatt,1 Michael W Peterson,2 Jeffrey S Wilson,1 Lakshmi Durairaj1 1Division of Pulmonary, Critical Care, and Occupational Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Roy J and Lucille A, Carver College of Medicine, University of Iowa Hospital, Iowa City, IA, USA; 2Department of Medicine, UCSF Fresno Medical Education Program, Fresno, CA, USA Background: The use of domiciliary noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV in stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD with chronic hypercapnic respiratory failure has yielded variable effects on survival, quality of life, and dyspnea. We hypothesized that use of NPPV in stable COPD and partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2 <52 mmHg might result in improvement in quality of life and dyspnea. Methods: Thirty patients with stable COPD (forced expiratory volume in the first second <50% predicted and PaCO2 <52 mmHg were prospectively randomized to receive domiciliary NPPV (bilevel positive airway pressure, 15/5 cm H2O or usual therapy for 6 months. Measurements were made at baseline, 6 weeks, 3 months, and 6 months. Primary outcomes were quality of life as assessed by the Chronic Respiratory Disease Questionnaire (CRQ, and dyspnea as measured by the Transitional Dyspnea Index (TDI. Results: Fifteen subjects in the NPPV arm and 12 controls completed all the study visits. At 6 weeks and 3 months, the NPPV arm showed significant improvement in TDI total score. However, this effect persisted only in the TDI-Task at 6 months (P=0.03. NPPV use was associated with a small improvement in the CRQ-Mastery domain (0.6 versus –0.1, P=0.04. The arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2 in the control arm worsened over the period of the study, whereas it remained stable in the NPPV arm (change –7.2 mmHg versus +2.1 mmHg, respectively, P=0.02. Conclusion: NPPV resulted in a small improvement in quality of life indices in stable COPD patients with PaCO2 <52 mmHg. Future larger studies will

  10. One-machine scheduling problems with deteriorating jobs and position-dependent learning effects under group technology considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yong; Sun, Li

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, we introduce a group scheduling model with general deteriorating jobs and learning effects in which deteriorating jobs and learning effects are both considered simultaneously. This means that the actual processing time of a job depends not only on the processing time of the jobs already processed, but also on its scheduled position. In our model, the group setup times are general linear functions of their starting times and the jobs in the same group have general position-dependent learning effects and time-dependent deterioration. The objective of scheduling problems is to minimise the makespan and the sum of completion times, respectively. We show that the problems remain solvable in polynomial time under the proposed model.

  11. An analysis of noise reduction in variable reluctance motors using pulse position randomization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoot, Melissa C.

    1994-05-01

    The design and implementation of a control system to introduce randomization into the control of a variable reluctance motor (VRM) is presented. The goal is to reduce noise generated by radial vibrations of the stator. Motor phase commutation angles are dithered by 1 or 2 mechanical degrees to investigate the effect of randomization on acoustic noise. VRM commutation points are varied using a uniform probability density function and a 4 state Markov chain among other methods. The theory of VRM and inverter operation and a derivation of the major source of acoustic noise are developed. The experimental results show the effects of randomization. Uniform dithering and Markov chain dithering both tend to spread the noise spectrum, reducing peak noise components. No clear evidence is found to determine which is the optimum randomization scheme. The benefit of commutation angle randomization in reducing VRM loudness as perceived by humans is found to be questionable.

  12. Randomized controlled trial comparing nasal intermittent positive pressure ventilation and nasal continuous positive airway pressure in premature infants after tracheal extubation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Franco Rizzo Komatsu

    Full Text Available Summary Objective: To analyze the frequency of extubation failure in premature infants using conventional mechanical ventilation (MV after extubation in groups subjected to nasal intermittent positive pressure ventilation (nIPPV and continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP. Method: Seventy-two premature infants with respiratory failure were studied, with a gestational age (GA ≤ 36 weeks and birth weight (BW > 750 g, who required tracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation. The study was controlled and randomized in order to ensure that the members of the groups used in the research were chosen at random. Randomization was performed at the time of extubation using sealed envelopes. Extubation failure was defined as the need for re-intubation and mechanical ventilation during the first 72 hours after extubation. Results: Among the 36 premature infants randomized to nIPPV, six (16.6% presented extubation failure in comparison to 11 (30.5% of the 36 premature infants randomized to nCPAP. There was no statistical difference between the two study groups regarding BW, GA, classification of the premature infant, and MV time. The main cause of extubation failure was the occurrence of apnea. Gastrointestinal and neurological complications did not occur in the premature infants participating in the study. Conclusion: We found that, despite the extubation failure of the group of premature infants submitted to nIPPV being numerically smaller than in premature infants submitted to nCPAP, there was no statistically significant difference between the two modes of ventilatory support after extubation.

  13. Oral appliance therapy versus nasal continuous positive airway pressure in obstructive sleep apnea: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarab, G.; Lobbezoo, F.; Hamburger, H.L.; Naeije, M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Previous randomized controlled trials have addressed the efficacy of mandibular advancement devices (MADs) in the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Their common control condition, nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP), was frequently found to be superior to MAD

  14. Video-Feedback Intervention to Promote Positive Parenting Adapted to Autism (VIPP-AUTI): A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poslawsky, Irina E; Naber, Fabiënne BA; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; van Daalen, Emma; van Engeland, Herman; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H

    2015-01-01

    In a randomized controlled trial, we evaluated the early intervention program Video-feedback Intervention to promote Positive Parenting adapted to Autism (VIPP-AUTI) with 78 primary caregivers and their child (16-61 months) with Autism Spectrum Disorder. VIPP-AUTI is a brief attachment-based intervention program, focusing on improving parent-child…

  15. [Wuling Capsule for climacteric patients with depression and anxiety state: a randomized, positive parallel controlled trial].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xing-juan; Li, Ji; Zou, Qin-di; Jin, Ling

    2009-11-01

    The incidence of menopausal anxiety and depression is increasing. It can induce and aggravate a variety of somatic symptoms. Despite of the good effects of psychotropic drugs on the disease, patients' compliance is poor. Therefore, it is necessary to find a drug which is practical, effective, and easy for patients to take. To evaluate the efficacy of Wuling Capsule (WC), a Chinese herbal medicine, in treatment of female climacteric syndrome with depression and anxiety state. A total of 96 outpatients of female climacteric syndrome from Department of Gynecology of Integrated Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine, Huashan Hospital, Fudan University, Department of Gynecology of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Longhua Hospital, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, and Department of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital, Fudan University were included. The study was designed as a randomized, positive drug parallel controlled trial. The patients were divided into WC group (64 cases) and control group (32 cases) and were orally administered Wuling Capsule and Gengnianan Tablet, respectively. The efficacy was evaluated with Kupperman menopausal index (KMI), Self-rating Depression Scale (SDS), and Self-rating Anxiety Scale (SAS) before treatment, and after 3-week and 6-week treatment. The total response rate was 89.66% (52/58) in the WC group, which was superior to that in the control group [76.67% (23/30)]. Ridit test showed that there was a significant difference between the two groups (P<0.05). Kupperman score of the two groups decreased markedly after the treatment (P<0.01), but there was no statistical difference between the two groups. The scales of SAS and SDS in both groups were improved obviously after the treatment (P<0.01). Covariance analysis showed that the decrease of SAS score in the WC group was more significant than that in the control group after 3- and 6-week treatment (P<0.05, P<0.01), but the SDS score was

  16. Rationale and design of the Staying Positive with Arthritis (SPA) Study: A randomized controlled trial testing the impact of a positive psychology intervention on racial disparities in pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausmann, Leslie R M; Ibrahim, Said A; Kwoh, C Kent; Youk, Ada; Obrosky, D Scott; Weiner, Debra K; Vina, Ernest; Gallagher, Rollin M; Mauro, Genna T; Parks, Acacia

    2018-01-01

    Knee osteoarthritis is a painful, disabling condition that disproportionately affects African Americans. Existing arthritis treatments yield small to moderate improvements in pain and have not been effective at reducing racial disparities in the management of pain. The biopsychosocial model of pain and evidence from the positive psychology literature suggest that increasing positive psychological skills (e.g., gratitude, kindness) could improve pain and functioning and reduce disparities in osteoarthritis pain management. Activities to cultivate positive psychological skills have been developed and validated; however, they have not been tested in patients with osteoarthritis, their effects on racial differences in health outcomes have not been examined, and evidence of their effects on health outcomes in patients with other chronic illnesses is of limited quality. In this article we describe the rationale and design of Staying Positive with Arthritis (SPA) study, a randomized controlled trial in which 180 African American and 180 White primary care patients with chronic pain from knee osteoarthritis will be randomized to a 6-week program of either positive skill-building activities or neutral control activities. The primary outcomes will be self-reported pain and functioning as measured by the WOMAC Osteoarthritis Index. We will assess these primary outcomes and potential, exploratory psychosocial mediating variables at an in-person baseline visit and by telephone at 1, 3, and 6months following completion of the assigned program. If effective, the SPA program would be a novel, theoretically-informed psychosocial intervention to improve quality and equity of care in the management of chronic pain from osteoarthritis. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Performance characterization of precision micro robot using a machine vision system over the Internet for guaranteed positioning accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Yongjin; Chiou, Richard; Rauniar, Shreepud; Sosa, Horacio

    2005-11-01

    There is a missing link between a virtual development environment (e.g., a CAD/CAM driven offline robotic programming) and production requirements of the actual robotic workcell. Simulated robot path planning and generation of pick-and-place coordinate points will not exactly coincide with the robot performance due to lack of consideration in variations in individual robot repeatability and thermal expansion of robot linkages. This is especially important when robots are controlled and programmed remotely (e.g., through Internet or Ethernet) since remote users have no physical contact with robotic systems. Using the current technology in Internet-based manufacturing that is limited to a web camera for live image transfer has been a significant challenge for the robot task performance. Consequently, the calibration and accuracy quantification of robot critical to precision assembly have to be performed on-site and the verification of robot positioning accuracy cannot be ascertained remotely. In worst case, the remote users have to assume the robot performance envelope provided by the manufacturers, which may causes a potentially serious hazard for system crash and damage to the parts and robot arms. Currently, there is no reliable methodology for remotely calibrating the robot performance. The objective of this research is, therefore, to advance the current state-of-the-art in Internet-based control and monitoring technology, with a specific aim in the accuracy calibration of micro precision robotic system for the development of a novel methodology utilizing Ethernet-based smart image sensors and other advanced precision sensory control network.

  18. Development of a cervical cancer progress prediction tool for human papillomavirus-positive Koreans: A support vector machine-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahng, Jimin; Kim, Eung-Hee; Kim, Hong-Gee; Lee, Wonbae

    2015-08-01

    To develop a Web-based tool to draw attention to patients positive for human papillomavirus (HPV) who have a high risk of progression to cervical cancer, in order to increase compliance with follow-up examinations and facilitate good doctor-patient communication. Records were retrospectively analysed from women who were positive for HPV on initial testing (before any treatment). Information concerning age, Papanicolaou (PAP) smear result and presence of 15 high-risk HPV genotypes was used in a support vector machine (SVM) model, to identify the patient features that maximally contributed to progression to high-risk cervical lesions. Data from 731 subjects were analysed. The maximum number of correct cancer predictions was seen when four features (PAP, HPV16, HPV52 and HPV35) were used, giving an accuracy of 74.41%. A web-based high-risk cervical lesion prediction application tool was developed using the SVM model results. Use of the web-based prediction tool may help to increase patient compliance with physician advice, and may heighten awareness of the significance of regular follow-up HPV examinations for the prevention of cervical cancer, in Korean women predicted to have heightened risk of the disease. © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. Impact of implant-abutment connection, positioning of the machined collar/microgap, and platform switching on crestal bone level changes. Camlog Foundation Consensus Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Frank; Alcoforado, Gil; Nelson, Katja; Schaer, Alex; Taylor, Thomas; Beuer, Florian; Strietzel, Frank Peter

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this consensus meeting was to assess the impact of implant-abutment connection, positioning of the machined collar/microgap, and platform switching on crestal bone level changes. Two comprehensive systematic reviews were prepared in advance of the meeting. Consensus statements, practical recommendations, and implications for future research were based on within group as well as plenary scrutinization and discussions of these systematic reviews. Placing the smooth part of the implant below the alveolar crest may lead to bone loss. Despite a more pronounced bone remodeling, the subcrestal positioning of the microgap may help to retain the bony coverage of the rough surface. Crestal bone remodeling has been observed for either internal and external, or conical and butt-joint connections. There was a trend favoring the platform switching concept to prevent or minimize peri-implant marginal bone loss. Future research should consider an uniform and comparable study design, either excluding or exactly documenting possible confounding factors. © 2013 The Authors. Clinical Oral Implants Research published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Positive psychology interventions: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled studies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bolier, L; Haverman, M; Westerhof, G.J; Riper, H; Smit, H.F.E; Bohlmeijer, E

    2013-01-01

    .... The present article constitutes a meta-analytical study of the effectiveness of positive psychology interventions for the general public and for individuals with specific psychosocial problems...

  1. Occupation Time of a Randomly Accelerated Particle on the Positive Half Axis: Results for the First Five Moments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhardt, Theodore W.

    2017-11-01

    In the random acceleration process a point particle is accelerated by Gaussian white noise with zero mean. Although several fundamental statistical properties of the motion have been analyzed in detail, the statistics of occupation times is still not well understood. We consider the occupation or residence time T_+ on the positive x axis of a particle which is randomly accelerated on the unbounded x axis for a time t. The first two moments of T_+ were recently derived by Ouandji Boutcheng et al. (J Stat Mech 053213:1-10, 2016). With an alternate approach utilizing basis functions which have proved useful in other studies of randomly accelerated motion, results for the first five moments are obtained in this paper.

  2. Occupation Time of a Randomly Accelerated Particle on the Positive Half Axis: Results for the First Five Moments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhardt, Theodore W.

    2017-10-01

    In the random acceleration process a point particle is accelerated by Gaussian white noise with zero mean. Although several fundamental statistical properties of the motion have been analyzed in detail, the statistics of occupation times is still not well understood. We consider the occupation or residence time T_+ on the positive x axis of a particle which is randomly accelerated on the unbounded x axis for a time t. The first two moments of T_+ were recently derived by Ouandji Boutcheng et al. (J Stat Mech 053213:1-10, 2016). With an alternate approach utilizing basis functions which have proved useful in other studies of randomly accelerated motion, results for the first five moments are obtained in this paper.

  3. Positive psychology interventions: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolier, Linda; Haverman, M.; Westerhof, Gerben Johan; Riper, H.; Smit, F.; Bohlmeijer, Ernst Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Background The use of positive psychological interventions may be considered as a complementary strategy in mental health promotion and treatment. The present article constitutes a meta-analytical study of the effectiveness of positive psychology interventions for the general public and for

  4. Positive Psychology Interventions Addressing Pleasure, Engagement, Meaning, Positive Relationships, and Accomplishment Increase Well-Being and Ameliorate Depressive Symptoms: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Online Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gander, Fabian; Proyer, René T.; Ruch, Willibald

    2016-01-01

    Seligman (2002) suggested three paths to well-being, the pursuit of pleasure, the pursuit of meaning, and the pursuit of engagement, later adding two more, positive relationships and accomplishment, in his 2011 version. The contribution of these new components to well-being has yet to be addressed. In an online positive psychology intervention study, we randomly assigned 1624 adults aged 18–78 (M = 46.13; 79.2% women) to seven conditions. Participants wrote down three things they related to either one of the five components of Seligman's Well-Being theory (Conditions 1–5), all of the five components (Condition 6) or early childhood memories (placebo control condition). We assessed happiness (AHI) and depression (CES-D) before and after the intervention, and 1-, 3-, and 6 months afterwards. Additionally, we considered moderation effects of well-being levels at baseline. Results confirmed that all interventions were effective in increasing happiness and most ameliorated depressive symptoms. The interventions worked best for those in the middle-range of the well-being continuum. We conclude that interventions based on pleasure, engagement, meaning, positive relationships, and accomplishment are effective strategies for increasing well-being and ameliorating depressive symptoms and that positive psychology interventions are most effective for those people in the middle range of the well-being continuum. PMID:27242600

  5. Positive Psychology Interventions Addressing Pleasure, Engagement, Meaning, Positive Relationships, and Accomplishment Increase Well-Being and Ameliorate Depressive Symptoms: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Online Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gander, Fabian; Proyer, René T; Ruch, Willibald

    2016-01-01

    Seligman (2002) suggested three paths to well-being, the pursuit of pleasure, the pursuit of meaning, and the pursuit of engagement, later adding two more, positive relationships and accomplishment, in his 2011 version. The contribution of these new components to well-being has yet to be addressed. In an online positive psychology intervention study, we randomly assigned 1624 adults aged 18-78 (M = 46.13; 79.2% women) to seven conditions. Participants wrote down three things they related to either one of the five components of Seligman's Well-Being theory (Conditions 1-5), all of the five components (Condition 6) or early childhood memories (placebo control condition). We assessed happiness (AHI) and depression (CES-D) before and after the intervention, and 1-, 3-, and 6 months afterwards. Additionally, we considered moderation effects of well-being levels at baseline. Results confirmed that all interventions were effective in increasing happiness and most ameliorated depressive symptoms. The interventions worked best for those in the middle-range of the well-being continuum. We conclude that interventions based on pleasure, engagement, meaning, positive relationships, and accomplishment are effective strategies for increasing well-being and ameliorating depressive symptoms and that positive psychology interventions are most effective for those people in the middle range of the well-being continuum.

  6. EPQ model for imperfect production processes with rework and random preventive machine time for deteriorating items and trended demand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah Nita H.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Economic production quantity (EPQ model has been analyzed for trended demand, and units in inventory are subject to constant rate. The system allows rework of imperfect units, and preventive maintenance time is random. A search method is used to study the model. The proposed methodology is validated by a numerical example. The sensitivity analysis is carried out to determine the critical model parameters. It is observed that the rate of change of demand, and the deterioration rate have a significant impact on the decision variables and the total cost of an inventory system. The model is highly sensitive to the production and demand rate.

  7. Randomized trial of prongs or mask for nasal continuous positive airway pressure in preterm infants.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kieran, Emily A

    2012-11-01

    To determine whether nasal continuous positive airway pressure (NCPAP) given with nasal prongs compared with nasal mask reduces the rate of intubation and mechanical ventilation in preterm infants within 72 hours of starting therapy.

  8. Optimal positions and parameters of translational and rotational mass dampers in beams subjected to random excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łatas, Waldemar

    2018-01-01

    The problem of vibrations of the beam with the attached system of translational and rotational dynamic mass dampers subjected to random excitations with peaked power spectral densities, is presented in the hereby paper. The Euler-Bernoulli beam model is applied, while for solving the equation of motion the Galerkin method and the Laplace time transform are used. The obtained transfer functions allow to determine power spectral densities of the beam deflection and other dependent variables. Numerical examples present simple optimization problems of mass dampers parameters for local and global objective functions.

  9. Positive psychology interventions: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolier, Linda; Haverman, Merel; Westerhof, Gerben J; Riper, Heleen; Smit, Filip; Bohlmeijer, Ernst

    2013-02-08

    The use of positive psychological interventions may be considered as a complementary strategy in mental health promotion and treatment. The present article constitutes a meta-analytical study of the effectiveness of positive psychology interventions for the general public and for individuals with specific psychosocial problems. We conducted a systematic literature search using PubMed, PsychInfo, the Cochrane register, and manual searches. Forty articles, describing 39 studies, totaling 6,139 participants, met the criteria for inclusion. The outcome measures used were subjective well-being, psychological well-being and depression. Positive psychology interventions included self-help interventions, group training and individual therapy. The standardized mean difference was 0.34 for subjective well-being, 0.20 for psychological well-being and 0.23 for depression indicating small effects for positive psychology interventions. At follow-up from three to six months, effect sizes are small, but still significant for subjective well-being and psychological well-being, indicating that effects are fairly sustainable. Heterogeneity was rather high, due to the wide diversity of the studies included. Several variables moderated the impact on depression: Interventions were more effective if they were of longer duration, if recruitment was conducted via referral or hospital, if interventions were delivered to people with certain psychosocial problems and on an individual basis, and if the study design was of low quality. Moreover, indications for publication bias were found, and the quality of the studies varied considerably. The results of this meta-analysis show that positive psychology interventions can be effective in the enhancement of subjective well-being and psychological well-being, as well as in helping to reduce depressive symptoms. Additional high-quality peer-reviewed studies in diverse (clinical) populations are needed to strengthen the evidence-base for positive

  10. Enhancing positive parent-child interactions and family functioning in a poverty sample: a randomized control trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negrão, Mariana; Pereira, Mariana; Soares, Isabel; Mesman, Judi

    2014-01-01

    This study tested the attachment-based intervention program Video-feedback Intervention to promote Positive Parenting and Sensitive Discipline (VIPP-SD) in a randomized controlled trial with poor families of toddlers screened for professional's concerns about the child's caregiving environment. The VIPP-SD is an evidence-based intervention, but has not yet been tested in the context of poverty. The sample included 43 families with 1- to 4-year-old children: mean age at the pretest was 29 months and 51% were boys. At the pretest and posttest, mother-child interactions were observed at home, and mothers reported on family functioning. The VIPP-SD proved to be effective in enhancing positive parent-child interactions and positive family relations in a severely deprived context. Results are discussed in terms of implications for support services provided to such poor families in order to reduce intergenerational risk transmission.

  11. Motivational Interviewing (MINT) Improves Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP) Acceptance and Adherence: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Sara; Smith, Simon S.; Oei, Tian P. S.; Douglas, James

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Adherence to continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy for obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is poor. We assessed the effectiveness of a motivational interviewing intervention (motivational interview nurse therapy [MINT]) in addition to best practice standard care to improve acceptance and adherence to CPAP therapy in people with…

  12. Positive Psychology Intervention to Alleviate Child Depression and Increase Life Satisfaction: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Sylvia Y. C. L.; Gu, Minmin; Kit, Katrina Tong Kai

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The study aims to examine the effectiveness of a positive psychology group-based intervention program, incorporating elements of hope and gratitude, in decreasing depression and increasing life satisfaction among primary school students in Hong Kong. Method: A total of 68 children, with the Depression score of Chinese Hospital Anxiety and…

  13. Exploring daily affective changes in university students with a mindful positive reappraisal intervention: A daily diary randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogrebtsova, Ekaterina; Craig, Jacqueline; Chris, Alexandra; O'Shea, Deirdre; González-Morales, M Gloria

    2017-05-17

    Brief and cost-effective interventions focused on emotion regulation techniques can buffer against stress and foster positive functioning. Mindfulness and positive reappraisal are two techniques that can mutually enhance one another to promote well-being. However, research testing the effectiveness of interventions combining mindfulness and reappraisal is lacking. The current pilot examined the effect of a combined mindful-reappraisal intervention on daily affect in a 5-day diary study with 106 university students. Participants were randomized to a mindful-reappraisal intervention (n = 36), a reappraisal-only intervention (n = 34), or an active control activity (n = 36). All participants described a negative event each day but only reappraised the event in the intervention conditions. Using multilevel growth modelling, results indicated that negative affect in both interventions declined over 5 days compared to the control; however, there were no differences in the growth of positive affect. Compared to reappraisal-only, the mindful-reappraisal group reported overall lower daily negative affect and marginally higher daily positive affect over the 5-day intervention. These findings suggest that brief daily practice combining mindfulness and positive reappraisal can be trained as a self-regulatory resource to promote positive affect and buffer negative affect above and beyond reappraisal practice alone. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Check it! A randomized pilot of a positive psychology intervention to improve adherence in adolescents with type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaser, Sarah S; Patel, Niral; Rothman, Russell L; Choi, Leena; Whittemore, Robin

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to pilot-test a positive psychology intervention to improve adherence to diabetes management in adolescents with type 1 diabetes. A total of 39 adolescents (ages, 13-17 years) with type 1 diabetes and their caregivers were randomized to a positive psychology intervention (n = 20) or an attention control (education) intervention (n = 19). The intervention condition used positive psychology exercises (eg, gratitude, self-affirmation), small gifts, and parent affirmations to boost positive affect. Outcomes included frequency of blood glucose monitoring, quality of life, and glycemic control. No main effects for treatment were observed at the 6-month follow-up. However, there was a significant association between adolescents' levels of positive affect and measures of adherence, including self-report and meter downloads of glucose monitoring. The results from the current study support the assertion that positive affect in the context of diabetes education is an important factor to consider in adolescents with type 1 diabetes. © 2014 The Author(s).

  15. A randomized in-place algorith for positioning the k\\'th element in a multiset

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katajainen, Jyrki; Pasanen, Tomi A.

    2002-01-01

    for all j, 1 = j space even if the input contains equal elements and if only pairwise element comparisons are permitted....... To be more precise, the algorithm solves the positioning problem in-place in linear time using at most n + k + o(n) element comparisons, k + o(n) element exchanges, and the probability for succeeding within stated time bounds is at least 1-e-nO(1)....

  16. Continuous non-invasive monitoring improves blood pressure stability in upright position: randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benes, Jan; Simanova, Alena; Tovarnicka, Tereza; Sevcikova, Silvie; Kletecka, Jakub; Zatloukal, Jan; Pradl, Richard; Chytra, Ivan; Kasal, Eduard

    2015-02-01

    Intermittent blood pressure (BP) monitoring is the standard-of-care during low and intermediate risk anaesthesia, yet it could lead to delayed recognition of BP fluctuations. Perioperative hypotension is known to be associated with postoperative complications. Continuous, non-invasive methods for BP monitoring have been developed recently. We have tested a novel non-invasive, continuous monitor (using the volume clamp method) to assist with maintaining BP in safe ranges for patients undergoing surgery in a beach chair position. Forty adult patients undergoing thyroid gland surgery in an upright position were included in this prospective randomised controlled trial. Patients were equally allocated to the group with continuous monitoring of BP using the CNAP® Monitor and to the control group managed using an intermittent oscillometric BP cuff. The absolute and proportional time spent outside the range of ±20% of the target BP along with other hemodynamic and clinical parameters were evaluated. The continuous monitoring decreased the anaesthesia time spent below -20% pressure range [absolute: 12 min (4-20) vs. 27 min (16-34); p=0.001; relative to procedure length: 14% (7-20) vs. 33.5% (17.5-53); p=0.003]. No significant differences were observed in postoperative morbidity or in hospital length of stay. Continuous non-invasive BP monitoring via the CNAP® Monitor allows for better BP management in patients undergoing surgery in a beach chair position. In our randomised trial the time spent in hypotension was significantly shorter using continuous monitoring.

  17. Number of traps and trap depth position on statistical distribution of random telegraph noise in scaled NAND flash memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomita, Toshihiro; Miyaji, Kousuke

    2016-04-01

    The dependence of random telegraph noise (RTN) amplitude distribution on the number of traps and trap depth position is investigated using three-dimensional Monte Carlo device simulation including random dopant fluctuation (RDF) in a 30 nm NAND multi level flash memory. The ΔV th tail distribution becomes broad at fixed double traps, indicating that the number of traps greatly affects the worst RTN characteristics. It is also found that for both fixed single and fixed double traps, the ΔV th distribution in the lowest cell threshold voltage (V th) state shows the broadest distribution among all cell V th states. This is because the drain current flows at the channel surface in the lowest cell V th state, while at a high cell V th, it flows at the deeper position owing to the fringing coupling between the control gate (CG) and the channel. In this work, the ΔV th distribution with the number of traps following the Poisson distribution is also considered to cope with the variations in trap number. As a result, it is found that the number of traps is an important factor for understanding RTN characteristics. In addition, considering trap position in the tunnel oxide thickness direction is also an important factor.

  18. The Effects of Positive or Neutral Communication during Acupuncture for Relaxing Effects: A Sham-Controlled Randomized Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosén, Annelie; Lekander, Mats; Jensen, Karin; Sachs, Lisbeth; Petrovic, Predrag; Ingvar, Martin; Enblom, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. The link between patient-clinician communication and its effect on clinical outcomes is an important clinical issue that is yet to be elucidated. Objective. Investigating if communication type (positive or neutral) about the expected treatment outcome affected (i) participants' expectations and (ii) short-term relaxation effects in response to genuine or sham acupuncture and investigating if expectations were related to outcome. Methods. Healthy volunteers (n = 243, mean age of 42) were randomized to one treatment with genuine or sham acupuncture. Within groups, participants were randomized to positive or neutral communication, regarding expected treatment effects. Visual Analogue Scales (0–100 millimeters) were used to measure treatment expectations and relaxation, directly before and after treatment. Results. Participants in the positive communication group reported higher treatment expectancy, compared to the neutral communication group (md 12 versus 6 mm, p = 0.002). There was no difference in relaxation effects between acupuncture groups or between communication groups. Participants with high baseline expectancy perceived greater improvement in relaxation, compared to participants with low baseline levels (md 27 versus 15 mm, p = 0.022). Conclusion. Our data highlights the importance of expectations for treatment outcome and demonstrates that expectations can be effectively manipulated using a standardized protocol that in future research may be implemented in clinical trials. PMID:26981138

  19. The Effects of Positive or Neutral Communication during Acupuncture for Relaxing Effects: A Sham-Controlled Randomized Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annelie Rosén

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The link between patient-clinician communication and its effect on clinical outcomes is an important clinical issue that is yet to be elucidated. Objective. Investigating if communication type (positive or neutral about the expected treatment outcome affected (i participants’ expectations and (ii short-term relaxation effects in response to genuine or sham acupuncture and investigating if expectations were related to outcome. Methods. Healthy volunteers (n=243, mean age of 42 were randomized to one treatment with genuine or sham acupuncture. Within groups, participants were randomized to positive or neutral communication, regarding expected treatment effects. Visual Analogue Scales (0–100 millimeters were used to measure treatment expectations and relaxation, directly before and after treatment. Results. Participants in the positive communication group reported higher treatment expectancy, compared to the neutral communication group (md 12 versus 6 mm, p=0.002. There was no difference in relaxation effects between acupuncture groups or between communication groups. Participants with high baseline expectancy perceived greater improvement in relaxation, compared to participants with low baseline levels (md 27 versus 15 mm, p=0.022. Conclusion. Our data highlights the importance of expectations for treatment outcome and demonstrates that expectations can be effectively manipulated using a standardized protocol that in future research may be implemented in clinical trials.

  20. Cervical Joint Position Sense in Hypobaric Conditions: A Randomized Double-Blind Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagaianu, Diana; Van Tiggelen, Damien; Duvigneaud, N; Stevens, Veerle; Schroyen, Danny; Vissenaeken, Dirk; D'Hondt, Gino; Pitance, Laurent

    2017-09-01

    Well-adapted motor actions require intact and well-integrated information from all of the sensory systems, specifically the visual, vestibular, and somatosensory systems, including proprioception. Proprioception is involved in the sensorimotor control by providing the central nervous system with an updated body schema of the biomechanical and spatial properties of the body parts. With regard to the cervical spine, proprioceptive information from joint and muscle mechanoreceptors is integrated with vestibular and visual feedback to control head position, head orientation, and whole body posture. Postural control is highly complex and proprioception from joints is an important contributor to the system. Altitude has been used as a paradigm to study the mechanisms of postural control. Determining the mechanisms of postural control that are affected by moderate altitude is important as unpressurized aircrafts routinely operate at altitudes where hypoxia may be a concern. Deficits in motor performance arise when the reliance on proprioceptive feedback is abolished either experimentally or because of a disorder. As pilots require good neck motor control to counteract the weight of their head gear and proprioceptive information plays an important role in this process, the aim of this study was to determine if hypoxia at moderate altitudes would impair proprioception measured by joint position sense of the cervical spine in healthy subjects. Thirty-six healthy subjects (Neck Disability Index sense was evaluated using a three-dimensional motion analyzer. To create the environment, a hypobaric chamber was used to simulate artificial moderate altitude. Head repositioning error was measured by asking the subject to perform a head-to-neutral task after submaximal flexion-extension and right/left rotation movements, and a head-to-target task, in which the subjects had to return to a 30° right and left rotation position. Exposure to artificial acute moderate altitude of 7

  1. Machine Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张严心

    2015-01-01

    As a kind of ancillary translation tool, Machine Translation has been paid increasing attention to and received different kinds of study by a great deal of researchers and scholars for a long time. To know the definition of Machine Translation and to analyse its benefits and problems are significant for translators in order to make good use of Machine Translation, and helpful to develop and consummate Machine Translation Systems in the future.

  2. A Disulfide Bond-forming Machine Is Linked to the Sortase-mediated Pilus Assembly Pathway in the Gram-positive Bacterium Actinomyces oris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reardon-Robinson, Melissa E; Osipiuk, Jerzy; Chang, Chungyu; Wu, Chenggang; Jooya, Neda; Joachimiak, Andrzej; Das, Asis; Ton-That, Hung

    2015-08-28

    Export of cell surface pilins in Gram-positive bacteria likely occurs by the translocation of unfolded precursor polypeptides; however, how the unfolded pilins gain their native conformation is presently unknown. Here, we present physiological studies to demonstrate that the FimA pilin of Actinomyces oris contains two disulfide bonds. Alanine substitution of cysteine residues forming the C-terminal disulfide bridge abrogates pilus assembly, in turn eliminating biofilm formation and polymicrobial interaction. Transposon mutagenesis of A. oris yielded a mutant defective in adherence to Streptococcus oralis, and revealed the essential role of a vitamin K epoxide reductase (VKOR) gene in pilus assembly. Targeted deletion of vkor results in the same defects, which are rescued by ectopic expression of VKOR, but not a mutant containing an alanine substitution in its conserved CXXC motif. Depletion of mdbA, which encodes a membrane-bound thiol-disulfide oxidoreductase, abrogates pilus assembly and alters cell morphology. Remarkably, overexpression of MdbA or a counterpart from Corynebacterium diphtheriae, rescues the Δvkor mutant. By alkylation assays, we demonstrate that VKOR is required for MdbA reoxidation. Furthermore, crystallographic studies reveal that A. oris MdbA harbors a thioredoxin-like fold with the conserved CXXC active site. Consistently, each MdbA enzyme catalyzes proper disulfide bond formation within FimA in vitro that requires the catalytic CXXC motif. Because the majority of signal peptide-containing proteins encoded by A. oris possess multiple Cys residues, we propose that MdbA and VKOR constitute a major folding machine for the secretome of this organism. This oxidative protein folding pathway may be a common feature in Actinobacteria. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  3. Sustainable machining

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book provides an overview on current sustainable machining. Its chapters cover the concept in economic, social and environmental dimensions. It provides the reader with proper ways to handle several pollutants produced during the machining process. The book is useful on both undergraduate and postgraduate levels and it is of interest to all those working with manufacturing and machining technology.

  4. Morphological and mechanical analyses of laminates manufactured from randomly positioned carbon fibre/epoxy resin prepreg scraps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Christiane S. R.; Cândido, Geraldo M.; Alves, Wellington; Marlet, José Maria F.; Rezende, Mirabel C.

    2017-10-01

    This study aims to contribute to sustainability by proposing the reuse of composite prepreg scrap as an added value from discards. The research evaluates the microstructure and mechanical properties of laminates processed by the reuse of uncured carbon fibre/F155-epoxy resin prepreg scraps, waste from the ply cutting area of an aeronautical industry. The composite scraps were used as collected and were randomly positioned to produce laminates to be cured at an autoclave. The mechanical characterization shows a decrease of 39% for the compression property due to the discontinuous fibres in the laminate and an increase of 34% for the interlaminar shear strength, when compared to continuous fibre laminates. This increase is attributed to the higher crosslink density of the epoxy resin, as a result of the cure temperature used in autoclave (60 °C higher than suggested by supplier) and also to the randomly positioned scraps. Microscopic analyses confirm the consolidation of laminates, although show resin rich areas with different sizes and shapes attributed to the overlapping of the scraps with different sizes and shapes. These resin rich areas may contribute to decrease the mechanical properties of laminates. The correlation between mechanical and morphological results shows potential to be used on non-critical structural application, as composite jigs, contributing to sustainability.

  5. The incidence of positive peritoneal cytology in colon cancer: a prospective randomized blinded trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucha, Paul A; Ignacio, Romeo; Rowley, Dennis; Francis, Michael

    2002-11-01

    Many investigators have attempted to explain the suspected increased incidence of port site metastasis in patients undergoing laparoscopic colorectal resections for cancer with animal models in which cancer is simulated by injection of a tumor slurry into the peritoneal cavity. This approach makes the basic assumption that all patients with colorectal malignancies have viable cancer cells freely circulating within the peritoneal cavity. Recent reports in open colorectal resections have conflicting results. Some suggest that the true incidence is negligible and related to advanced-stage cancers whereas others implicate a much higher incidence. We initiated a prospective blinded trial to establish the true incidence of malignant peritoneal cytology in colorectal cancer. One hundred eight consecutive colon resections underwent conventional peritoneal cytologic evaluation. The patients included those with inflammatory conditions of the colon as well as malignant disease. The cytopathologist was blinded as to the indications for surgery as well as the final pathology result. In only one case--stage IV rectal cancer with peritoneal carcinomatosis--was the cytologic specimen positive. Malignant cytology appears to be an infrequent occurrence and is restricted to advanced-stage cancer.

  6. The effectiveness of group positive psychotherapy on depression and happiness in breast cancer patients: A randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowlatabadi, Mohammad Mehdi; Ahmadi, Seyed Mojtaba; Sorbi, Mohammad Hossein; Beiki, Omid; Razavi, Tayebeh Khademeh; Bidaki, Reza

    2016-01-01

    Background Breast cancer is one of the most prevalent cancers in women in the world. It causes fear, despair, and takes a tremendous toll on psychological status. Objective To determine the effectiveness of group positive psychotherapy on the depression and happiness of breast cancer patients. Methods This randomized controlled trial was conducted with 42 breast cancer patients in The Oncology Center at Kermanshah, Iran in 2015. The Data were gathered before intervention and ten weeks afterwards. The data were collected using Beck’s Depression Inventory (BDI-II) and Oxford’s happiness Inventory (OHI). The data were analyzed by SPSS-16, Kolmogorov-Smirnov (K-S), chi-squared, and multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA). Results The results showed a significant reduction in the depression of the group on positive psychotherapy compared with the control group. Also the positive psychotherapy group experienced a significant increase in the patients’ happiness, while there was no significant increase in the control group. Conclusion The results of this research showed the effectiveness of positive psychotherapy on the reduction of mental pressure and the improvement of the mental status of breast cancer patients. This economical therapy can be used to increase patients’ psychological health. Clinical Trial Registration The trial was registered at the Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials (IRST) with the identification number IRCT2013101410063N4. Funding The authors received financial support for the research from Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences. PMID:27123227

  7. Effects of Positive Psychology Interventions on Risk Biomarkers in Coronary Patients: A Randomized, Wait-List Controlled Pilot Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikrahan, Gholam Reza; Laferton, Johannes A C; Asgari, Karim; Kalantari, Mehrdad; Abedi, Mohammad Reza; Etesampour, Ali; Rezaei, Abbas; Suarez, Laura; Huffman, Jeff C

    2016-01-01

    Among cardiac patients, positive psychologic factors are consistently linked with superior clinical outcomes and improvement in key markers of inflammation and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis functioning. Further, positive psychology interventions (PPI) have effectively increased psychologic well-being in a wide variety of populations. However, there has been minimal study of PPIs in cardiac patients, and no prior study has evaluated their effect on key prognostic biomarkers of cardiac outcome. Accordingly, we investigated the effect of 3 distinct PPIs on risk biomarkers in cardiac patients. In an exploratory trial, 69 patients with recent coronary artery bypass graft surgery or percutaneous intervention were randomized to (1) one of three 6-week in-person PPIs (based on the work of Seligman, Lyubomirsky, or Fordyce) or (2) a wait-list control group. Risk biomarkers were assessed at baseline, postintervention (7 weeks), and at 15-week follow-up. Between-group differences in change from baseline biomarker levels were examined via random effects models. Compared with the control group, participants randomized to the Seligman (B = -2.06; p = 0.02) and Fordyce PPI (B = -1.54; p = 0.04) had significantly lower high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels at 7 weeks. Further, the Lyubomirsky PPI (B = -245.86; p = 0.04) was associated with a significantly lower cortisol awakening response at 7 weeks when compared with control participants. There were no other significant between-group differences. Despite being an exploratory pilot study with multiple between-group comparisons, this initial trial offers the first suggestion that PPIs might be effective in reducing risk biomarkers in high-risk cardiac patients. Copyright © 2016 The Academy of Psychosomatic Medicine. All rights reserved.

  8. Perspex machine: VII. The universal perspex machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, James A. D. W.

    2006-01-01

    The perspex machine arose from the unification of projective geometry with the Turing machine. It uses a total arithmetic, called transreal arithmetic, that contains real arithmetic and allows division by zero. Transreal arithmetic is redefined here. The new arithmetic has both a positive and a negative infinity which lie at the extremes of the number line, and a number nullity that lies off the number line. We prove that nullity, 0/0, is a number. Hence a number may have one of four signs: negative, zero, positive, or nullity. It is, therefore, impossible to encode the sign of a number in one bit, as floating-point arithmetic attempts to do, resulting in the difficulty of having both positive and negative zeros and NaNs. Transrational arithmetic is consistent with Cantor arithmetic. In an extension to real arithmetic, the product of zero, an infinity, or nullity with its reciprocal is nullity, not unity. This avoids the usual contradictions that follow from allowing division by zero. Transreal arithmetic has a fixed algebraic structure and does not admit options as IEEE, floating-point arithmetic does. Most significantly, nullity has a simple semantics that is related to zero. Zero means "no value" and nullity means "no information." We argue that nullity is as useful to a manufactured computer as zero is to a human computer. The perspex machine is intended to offer one solution to the mind-body problem by showing how the computable aspects of mind and, perhaps, the whole of mind relates to the geometrical aspects of body and, perhaps, the whole of body. We review some of Turing's writings and show that he held the view that his machine has spatial properties. In particular, that it has the property of being a 7D lattice of compact spaces. Thus, we read Turing as believing that his machine relates computation to geometrical bodies. We simplify the perspex machine by substituting an augmented Euclidean geometry for projective geometry. This leads to a general

  9. Machine-z: Rapid Machine-Learned Redshift Indicator for Swift Gamma-Ray Bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukwatta, T. N.; Wozniak, P. R.; Gehrels, N.

    2016-01-01

    Studies of high-redshift gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) provide important information about the early Universe such as the rates of stellar collapsars and mergers, the metallicity content, constraints on the re-ionization period, and probes of the Hubble expansion. Rapid selection of high-z candidates from GRB samples reported in real time by dedicated space missions such as Swift is the key to identifying the most distant bursts before the optical afterglow becomes too dim to warrant a good spectrum. Here, we introduce 'machine-z', a redshift prediction algorithm and a 'high-z' classifier for Swift GRBs based on machine learning. Our method relies exclusively on canonical data commonly available within the first few hours after the GRB trigger. Using a sample of 284 bursts with measured redshifts, we trained a randomized ensemble of decision trees (random forest) to perform both regression and classification. Cross-validated performance studies show that the correlation coefficient between machine-z predictions and the true redshift is nearly 0.6. At the same time, our high-z classifier can achieve 80 per cent recall of true high-redshift bursts, while incurring a false positive rate of 20 per cent. With 40 per cent false positive rate the classifier can achieve approximately 100 per cent recall. The most reliable selection of high-redshift GRBs is obtained by combining predictions from both the high-z classifier and the machine-z regressor.

  10. Radiation Metabolomics. 3. Biomarker Discovery in the Urine of Gamma-Irradiated Rats Using a Simplified Metabolomics Protocol of Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry Combined with Random Forests Machine Learning Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Lanz, Christian; Patterson, Andrew D.; Slavík, Josef; Krausz, Kristopher W.; Ledermann, Monika; Gonzalez, Frank J.; Idle, Jeffrey R.

    2009-01-01

    Radiation metabolomics employing mass spectral technologies represents a plausible means of high-throughput minimally invasive radiation biodosimetry. A simplified metabolomics protocol is described that employs ubiquitous gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and open source software including random forests machine learning algorithm to uncover latent biomarkers of 3 Gy γ radiation in rats. Urine was collected from six male Wistar rats and six sham-irradiated controls for 7 days, 4 prior to ...

  11. Enhancing legacy in palliative care: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial of Dignity Therapy focused on positive outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montross-Thomas, Lori P; Irwin, Scott A; Meier, Emily A; Gallegos, Jarred V; Golshan, Shahrokh; Roeland, Eric; McNeal, Helen; Munson, Diane; Rodseth, Laura

    2015-09-21

    Dignity Therapy is a brief psychotherapy that can enhance a sense of legacy while addressing the emotional and existential needs of patients receiving hospice or palliative care. In Dignity Therapy, patients create a formalized "legacy" document that records their most cherished memories, their lessons learned in life, as well as their hopes and dreams for loved ones in the future. To date, this treatment has been studied for its impact on mitigating distress within hospice and palliative care populations and has provided mixed results. This study will instead focus on whether Dignity Therapy enhances positive outcomes in this population. In this study, 90 patients with cancer receiving hospice or palliative care will complete a mixed-methods randomized controlled trial of Dignity Therapy (n = 45) versus Supportive Attention (n = 45). The patients will be enrolled in the study for 3 weeks, receiving a total of six study visits. The primary outcomes examine whether the treatment will quantitatively increase levels of positive affect and a sense of life closure. Secondary outcomes focus on gratitude, hope, life satisfaction, meaning in life, resilience, and self-efficacy. Using a fixed, embedded dataset design, this study will additionally use qualitative interviews to explore patients' perceptions regarding the use of positive outcome measures and whether these outcomes are appropriately matched to their experiences in therapy. Dignity Therapy has shown mixed results when evaluating its impact on distress, although no other study to date has solely focused on the potential positive aspects of this treatment. This study is novel in its use of mixed methods assessments to focus on positive outcomes, and will provide valuable information about patients' direct experiences in this area. ISRCTN91389194.

  12. Efficacy of a Multicomponent Positive Psychology Self-Help Intervention: Study Protocol of a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schotanus-Dijkstra, Marijke; Drossaert, Constance Hc; Pieterse, Marcel E; Walburg, Jan A; Bohlmeijer, Ernst T

    2015-08-20

    Positive psychology interventions have been found to enhance well-being and decrease clinical symptomatology. However, it is still unknown how flourishing can also be increased. Although multicomponent interventions seem to be necessary for this purpose, different formats can be used. A cost-effective approach could be a positive psychology-based self-help book with tailored email support to reach large target groups and to prevent dropout. This study will evaluate the efficacy of a comprehensive multicomponent self-help intervention with or without email support on well-being and flourishing, and will seek to determine the working mechanisms underlying the intervention. In this 3-armed, parallel, randomized controlled trial, 396 participants with low or moderate levels of well-being and without clinical symptomatology will be randomly assigned to (1) a self-help book condition with weekly email support, (2) a self-help book condition without email support but with a weekly information email, or (3) a waiting list control condition. Online measurements will be assessed at baseline, at post-test (3 months after baseline), and at 6 and 12 months after baseline. The primary outcomes are well-being and flourishing (ie, high levels of well-being). Secondary outcomes are the well-being components included in the intervention: positive emotion, use of strengths, optimism, self-compassion, resilience, and positive relations. Other measures include depressive and anxiety symptoms, personality traits, direct medical and non-medical costs, life-events, and client satisfaction. This study will add knowledge to the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of a multicomponent positive psychology intervention. We will also explore who can benefit most from this intervention. If the intervention is found to be effective, our results will be especially relevant for public mental health services, governments, and primary care. The Netherlands Trial Register NTR4297; http

  13. Financial Incentives for Linkage to Care and Viral Suppression Among HIV-Positive Patients: A Randomized Clinical Trial (HPTN 065).

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sadr, Wafaa M; Donnell, Deborah; Beauchamp, Geetha; Hall, H Irene; Torian, Lucia V; Zingman, Barry; Lum, Garret; Kharfen, Michael; Elion, Richard; Leider, Jason; Gordin, Fred M; Elharrar, Vanessa; Burns, David; Zerbe, Allison; Gamble, Theresa; Branson, Bernard

    2017-08-01

    Achieving linkage to care and viral suppression in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients improves their well-being and prevents new infections. Current gaps in the HIV care continuum substantially limit such benefits. To evaluate the effectiveness of financial incentives on linkage to care and viral suppression in HIV-positive patients. A large community-based clinical trial that randomized 37 HIV test and 39 HIV care sites in the Bronx, New York, and Washington, DC, to financial incentives or standard of care. Participants at financial incentive test sites who had positive test results for HIV received coupons redeemable for $125 cash-equivalent gift cards upon linkage to care. HIV-positive patients receiving antiretroviral therapy at financial incentive care sites received $70 gift cards quarterly, if virally suppressed. Linkage to care: proportion of HIV-positive persons at the test site who linked to care within 3 months, as indicated by CD4+ and/or viral load test results done at a care site. Viral suppression: proportion of established patients at HIV care sites with suppressed viral load (incentive test sites and 39 359 gift cards were dispensed to 9641 HIV-positive patients eligible for gift cards at 17 financial incentive care sites. Financial incentives did not increase linkage to care (adjusted odds ratio, 1.10; 95% CI, 0.73-1.67; P = .65). However, financial incentives significantly increased viral suppression. The overall proportion of patients with viral suppression was 3.8% higher (95% CI, 0.7%-6.8%; P = .01) at financial incentive sites compared with standard of care sites. Among patients not previously consistently virally suppressed, the proportion virally suppressed was 4.9% higher (95% CI, 1.4%-8.5%; P = .007) at financial incentive sites. In addition, continuity in care was 8.7% higher (95% CI, 4.2%-13.2%; P incentive sites. Financial incentives, as used in this study (HPTN 065), significantly increased viral

  14. [Effect of acupuncture on early cerebral palsy infants with parafunctional sitting position: a multi-centre, randomized, control research].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong-yun; Sun, Qun-ying; Yang, Kun-peng; Chen, Yu-xia; Wang, Qi; Wang, Xi; Liu, Yuan

    2015-02-01

    To study the clinical effect of development theory based acupuncture on early cerebral palsy (CP) infants with parafunctional sitting position. Totally 120 early CP infants were randomly assigned to two groups equally, the treatment group and the control group. All received acupuncture combined with training rehabilitation. Patients in the treatment group adopted acupuncture based on infants development theory, while those in the control group were treated by head acupuncture. Sitting functional points in Gross motor function measure (GMFM) 88 were observed in different groups and infant patients of various types before and after treatment. Root mean square (RMS) signals of sitting correlated muscles (latissimus dorsi, erector spinae, rectus abdominis) were recorded by surface electromyography (sEMG). The effective rate was evaluated by Nimodipine method. Compared with before treatment, sitting functional points were significantly improved in the two groups (Pvs. 77.78%, Pacupuncture could effectively elevate dorsi-extensor muscles force, improve sitting position of 8 months to 1 year old CP infants with parafunctional sitting position.

  15. Experimental Evaluation of Novel Master-Slave Configurations for Position Control under Random Network Delay and Variable Load for Teleoperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Kuzu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes two novel master-slave configurations that provide improvements in both control and communication aspects of teleoperation systems to achieve an overall improved performance in position control. The proposed novel master-slave configurations integrate modular control and communication approaches, consisting of a delay regulator to address problems related to variable network delay common to such systems, and a model tracking control that runs on the slave side for the compensation of uncertainties and model mismatch on the slave side. One of the configurations uses a sliding mode observer and the other one uses a modified Smith predictor scheme on the master side to ensure position transparency between the master and slave, while reference tracking of the slave is ensured by a proportional-differentiator type controller in both configurations. Experiments conducted for the networked position control of a single-link arm under system uncertainties and randomly varying network delays demonstrate significant performance improvements with both configurations over the past literature.

  16. Examining Contextual Influences on Classroom-Based Implementation of Positive Behavior Support Strategies: Findings from a Randomized Controlled Effectiveness Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pas, Elise T; Waasdorp, Tracy E; Bradshaw, Catherine P

    2015-11-01

    Although it is widely recognized that variation in implementation fidelity influences the impact of preventive interventions, little is known about how specific contextual factors may affect the implementation of social and behavioral interventions in classrooms. Theoretical research highlights the importance of multiple contextual influences on implementation, including factors at the classroom and school level (Domitrovich et al., Advances in School Mental Health Promotion, 1, 6-28, 2008). The current study used multi-level modeling to empirically examine the influence of teacher, classroom, and school characteristics on the implementation of classroom-based positive behavior support strategies over the course of 4 years. Data were collected in the context of a 37-school randomized controlled trial examining the effectiveness of school-wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports. Multi-level results identified several school-level contextual factors (e.g., school size, behavioral disruptions) and teacher-level factors (perceptions of school organizational health and grade level taught) associated with variability in the implementation of classroom-based positive behavior supports. Implications for prevention research and practice are discussed.

  17. The complex sleep apnea resolution study: a prospective randomized controlled trial of continuous positive airway pressure versus adaptive servoventilation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgenthaler, Timothy I; Kuzniar, Tomasz J; Wolfe, Lisa F; Willes, Leslee; McLain, William C; Goldberg, Rochelle

    2014-05-01

    Prior studies show that adaptive servoventilation (ASV) is initially more effective than continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) for patients with complex sleep apnea syndrome (CompSAS), but choosing therapies has been controversial because residual central breathing events may resolve over time in many patients receiving chronic CPAP therapy. We conducted a multicenter, randomized, prospective trial comparing clinical and polysomnographic outcomes over prolonged treatment of patients with CompSAS, with CPAP versus ASV. Qualifying participants meeting criteria for CompSAS were randomized to optimized CPAP or ASV treatment. Clinical and polysomnographic data were obtained at baseline and after 90 days of therapy. We randomized 66 participants (33 to each treatment). At baseline, the diagnostic apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) was 37.7 ± 27.8 (central apnea index [CAI] = 3.2 ± 5.8) and best CPAP AHI was 37.0 ± 24.9 (CAI 29.7 ± 25.0). After second-night treatment titration, the AHI was 4.7 ± 8.1 (CAI = 1.1 ± 3.7) on ASV and 14.1 ± 20.7 (CAI = 8.8 ± 16.3) on CPAP (P ≤ 0.0003). At 90 days, the ASV versus CPAP AHI was 4.4 ± 9.6 versus 9.9 ± 11.1 (P = 0.0024) and CAI was 0.7 ± 3.4 versus 4.8 ± 6.4 (P Scale and Sleep Apnea Quality of Life Index were not significantly different between treatment groups. Adaptive servoventilation (ASV) was more reliably effective than CPAP in relieving complex sleep apnea syndrome. While two thirds of participants experienced success with CPAP, approximately 90% experienced success with ASV. Because both methods produced similar symptomatic changes, it is unclear if this polysomnographic effectiveness may translate into other desired outcomes. Clinicaltrials.Gov NCT00915499.

  18. A Randomized Trial of Low-Flow Oxygen versus Nasal Continuous Positive Airway Pressure in Preterm Infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiring, Christian; Steensberg, Jesper; Bjerager, Mia

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) stabilizes the residual volume and may decrease the risk of 'atelectotrauma', potentially promoting lung development in neonates. OBJECTIVES: To assess whether replacing nCPAP by low-flow O2 by nasal cannula affects lung function...... expressed as the arterial/alveolar oxygen tension ratio (a/A pO2 ratio) on postnatal day 28. METHODS: Preterm infants (birth weight 26 + 0 weeks) stable on nCPAP between postnatal days 4 and 7 were randomized to nCPAP or low-flow O2 by nasal cannula (....001. There was no difference between groups in the fraction needing any respiratory support at 36 weeks' corrected age, length of stay, weight at discharge, and relative weight gain. CONCLUSIONS: Replacing nCPAP by low-flow O2 in preterm infants with GA >26 weeks at the end of the first week of life did not seem to affect...

  19. Health outcomes of continuous positive airway pressure versus oral appliance treatment for obstructive sleep apnea: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Craig L; Grunstein, Ronald R; Darendeliler, M Ali; Mihailidou, Anastasia S; Srinivasan, Vasantha K; Yee, Brendon J; Marks, Guy B; Cistulli, Peter A

    2013-04-15

    Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) and mandibular advancement device (MAD) therapy are commonly used to treat obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Differences in efficacy and compliance of these treatments are likely to influence improvements in health outcomes. To compare health effects after 1 month of optimal CPAP and MAD therapy in OSA. In this randomized crossover trial, we compared the effects of 1 month each of CPAP and MAD treatment on cardiovascular and neurobehavioral outcomes. Cardiovascular (24-h blood pressure, arterial stiffness), neurobehavioral (subjective sleepiness, driving simulator performance), and quality of life (Functional Outcomes of Sleep Questionnaire, Short Form-36) were compared between treatments. Our primary outcome was 24-hour mean arterial pressure. A total of 126 patients with moderate-severe OSA (apnea hypopnea index [AHI], 25.6 [SD 12.3]) were randomly assigned to a treatment order and 108 completed the trial with both devices. CPAP was more efficacious than MAD in reducing AHI (CPAP AHI, 4.5 ± 6.6/h; MAD AHI, 11.1 ± 12.1/h; P health outcomes were similar after 1 month of optimal MAD and CPAP treatment in patients with moderate-severe OSA. The results may be explained by greater efficacy of CPAP being offset by inferior compliance relative to MAD, resulting in similar effectiveness. Clinical trial registered with https://www.anzctr.org.au (ACTRN 12607000289415).

  20. Simple machines

    CERN Document Server

    Graybill, George

    2007-01-01

    Just how simple are simple machines? With our ready-to-use resource, they are simple to teach and easy to learn! Chocked full of information and activities, we begin with a look at force, motion and work, and examples of simple machines in daily life are given. With this background, we move on to different kinds of simple machines including: Levers, Inclined Planes, Wedges, Screws, Pulleys, and Wheels and Axles. An exploration of some compound machines follows, such as the can opener. Our resource is a real time-saver as all the reading passages, student activities are provided. Presented in s

  1. A novel unidirectional switched reluctance machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cathey, J. J.; Chickamenahalli, S. A.; Bhuiya, R. R.

    A novel, two-phase, switched reluctance machine concept is presented. Pole side shaping assures that the machine can develop motoring torque from any static position. Pole face shaping is introduced to control the nature of flux linkages as a function of position, allowing reduction in position-dependent torque ripple over conventional switched reluctance machines. Since the machine has 50% of the magnetic circuit active at any point in time, whereas the three-phase switched reluctance machine has 33% of the magnetic circuit instantaneously active, the new design shows increased power density over the common three-phase machine.

  2. A positioning pillow to improve lumbar puncture success rate in paediatric haematology-oncology patients: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marec-Bérard, Perrine; Bissery, Alvine; Kebaïli, Kamila; Schell, Matthias; Aubert, Françoise; Gaillard, Ségolène; Rabilloud, Muriel; Kassaï, Behrouz; Cornu, Catherine

    2009-01-15

    Lumbar punctures (LPs) are common in children with cancer. Although pain management during the lumbar puncture has been well standardized, dealing with stress and anxiety is not well addressed yet. Our objective was to evaluate the potential improvement of the LP success rate using a positioning pillow, to ensure maximum lumbar flexion, and allow paravertebral muscles to relax, in children who are awake, with either conscious sedation or no sedation. Children aged 2-18 years undergoing LP were randomly assigned to a positioning pillow or no intervention. The primary outcome was the rate of success, i.e. achieving the LP (sampling or injection) at the first attempt, without bleeding (RBC pillow tended to increase the success rate of LPs (67% vs. 57%, p = 0.23), and decreased the post-LP syndromes (15% vs. 24%, p = 0.17) but the differences were not statistically significant. In children over 6-year of age (n = 72), the rate of success was significantly higher in the pillow group (58.5% vs. 41.5%, p = 0.031), with a tendency to feel less pain (median VAS 25 vs. 15 mm, p = 0.39) and being more satisfied (84.4% vs. 75.0%, p = 0.34). Overall results do not demonstrate a benefit in using this pillow for lumbar punctures. This study results also suggest a benefit in the sub group of children over 6-year of age; this result needs confirmation.

  3. Randomized Controlled Trial of Clozapine and CBT for First-Episode Psychosis with Enduring Positive Symptoms: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Edwards

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Here we report the results of a pilot study investigating the relative and combined effects of a 12 week course of clozapine and CBT in first-episode psychosis patients with prominent ongoing positive symptoms following their initial treatment. Patients from our early psychosis service who met the inclusion criteria (=48 were randomized to one of four treatment groups: clozapine, clozapine plus CBT, thioridazine, or thioridazine plus CBT. The degree of psychopathology and functionality of all participants was measured at baseline then again at 6, 12 and 24 weeks, and the treatment outcomes for each group determined by statistical analysis. A substantial proportion (52% of those treated with clozapine achieved symptomatic remission, as compared to 35% of those who were treated with thioridazine. Overall, those who received clozapine responded more rapidly to treatment than those receiving the alternative treatments. Interestingly, during the early treatment phase CBT appeared to reduce the intensity of both positive and negative symptoms and thus the time taken to respond to treatment, as well having as a stabilizing effect over time.

  4. Computational work and time on finite machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, J. E.

    1972-01-01

    Measures of the computational work and computational delay required by machines to compute functions are given. Exchange inequalities are developed for random access, tape, and drum machines to show that product inequalities between storage and time, number of drum tracks and time, number of bits in an address and time, etc., must be satisfied to compute finite functions on bounded machines.

  5. Electric machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Refaie, Ayman Mohamed Fawzi [Niskayuna, NY; Reddy, Patel Bhageerath [Madison, WI

    2012-07-17

    An interior permanent magnet electric machine is disclosed. The interior permanent magnet electric machine comprises a rotor comprising a plurality of radially placed magnets each having a proximal end and a distal end, wherein each magnet comprises a plurality of magnetic segments and at least one magnetic segment towards the distal end comprises a high resistivity magnetic material.

  6. The impact analysis of the connecting pipe length and diameter on the operation of a piston hybrid power machine of positive displacement with gas suction capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shcherba, V. E.; Grigoriev, A. V.; Averyanov, G. S.; Surikov, V. I.; Vedruchenko, V. P.; Galdin, N. S.; Trukhanova, D. A.

    2017-08-01

    The article analyzes the impact of the connecting liquid pipe length and diameter on consumables and power characteristics of the piston hybrid power machine with gas suction capacity. The following operating characteristics of the machine were constructed and analyzed: the average height of the liquid column in the jacket space; instantaneous velocity and height of the liquid column in the jacket space; the relative height of the liquid column in the jacket space; volumetric efficiency; indicator isothermal efficiency; flowrate in the pump section; relative pressure losses during suction; relative flowrate. The dependence of the instantaneous pressure in the work space and the suction space of the compressor section on the rotation angle of the crankshaft is determined for different values of the length and diameter of the connecting pipeline.

  7. Permutation Machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Swapnil; LaBoda, Craig; Yanez, Vanessa; Haddock-Angelli, Traci; Densmore, Douglas

    2016-08-19

    We define a new inversion-based machine called a permuton of n genetic elements, which allows the n elements to be rearranged in any of the n·(n - 1)·(n - 2)···2 = n! distinct orderings. We present two design algorithms for architecting such a machine. We define a notion of a feasible design and use the framework to discuss the feasibility of the permuton architectures. We have implemented our design algorithms in a freely usable web-accessible software for exploration of these machines. Permutation machines could be used as memory elements or state machines and explicitly illustrate a rational approach to designing biological systems.

  8. Feasibility and effectiveness of a web-based positive psychology program for youth mental health: randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manicavasagar, Vijaya; Horswood, Deserae; Burckhardt, Rowan; Lum, Alistair; Hadzi-Pavlovic, Dusan; Parker, Gordon

    2014-06-04

    Youth mental health is a significant public health concern due to the high prevalence of mental health problems in this population and the low rate of those affected seeking help. While it is increasingly recognized that prevention is better than cure, most youth prevention programs have utilized interventions based on clinical treatments (eg, cognitive behavioral therapy) with inconsistent results. This study explores the feasibility of the online delivery of a youth positive psychology program, Bite Back, to improve the well-being and mental health outcomes of Australian youth. Further aims were to examine rates of adherence and attrition, and to investigate the program's acceptability. Participants (N=235) aged 12-18 years were randomly assigned to either of two conditions: Bite Back (n=120) or control websites (n=115). The Bite Back website comprised interactive exercises and information across a variety of positive psychology domains; the control condition was assigned to neutral entertainment-based websites that contained no psychology information. Participants in both groups were instructed to use their allocated website for 6 consecutive weeks. Participants were assessed pre- and postintervention on the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-Short form (DASS-21) and the Short Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-Being Scale (SWEMWBS). Of the 235 randomized participants, 154 (65.5%) completed baseline and post measures after 6 weeks. Completers and dropouts were equivalent in demographics, the SWEMWBS, and the depression and anxiety subscales of the DASS-21, but dropouts reported significantly higher levels of stress than completers. There were no differences between the Bite Back and control conditions at baseline on demographic variables, DASS-21, or SWEMWBS scores. Qualitative data indicated that 49 of 61 Bite Back users (79%) reported positive experiences using the website and 55 (89%) agreed they would continue to use it after study completion. Compared to the

  9. A prospective, randomized, controlled study of a suspension positioning system used with elderly bedridden patients with neurogenic fecal incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Mei-Yin; Lin, Shi-Quan; zhou, Ye-Wen; Zhou, Ye-Wen; Liu, Si-Ya; Lin, Ai; Lin, Xi-Rong

    2015-01-01

    Elderly patients with acute neurological impairment are prone to severe disability, fecal incontinence (FI), and resultant complications. A suspension positioning system (SPS), based on the orthopedic suspension traction system commonly used for conservative treatment of pediatric femoral fracture and uncomplicated adult pelvic fracture, was developed to facilitate FI management in patients immobilized secondary to an acute neurological condition. To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of the system, a prospective, randomized, controlled study was conducted between October 2009 and July 2012. Two hundred (200) elderly, bedridden, hospitalized patients with acute, nonchronic neurological impairment were randomly assigned to receive routine FI nursing care (ie, individualized dietary modification, psychological support, health education, and social support for caregivers and family members [control group]) or routine incontinence care plus the SPS (experimental group) during the day. Rates of perianal fecal contamination, skin breakdown, incontinence associated dermatitis, pressure ulcer development, and lower urinary tract infection (LUTI) were significantly lower in the SPS than in the control group (P care were also lower in the SPS group (P <0.05). Patient quality-of-life (QoL) and FI QoL scores were similar at baseline but significantly higher (better) at the 6-month follow-up interview in the SPS than in the control group (P <0.05). In this study, the rate of FI-associated morbidities was lower and 6-month patient QoL scores were higher in the SPS than in the control group. No adverse events were observed, and all patients completed the study. Further clinical studies are needed to examine the long-term effects of SPS use among neurologically impaired FI patients.

  10. Noradrenergic α₁ receptor antagonist treatment attenuates positive subjective effects of cocaine in humans: a randomized trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas F Newton

    Full Text Available Preclinical research implicates dopaminergic and noradrenergic mechanisms in mediating the reinforcing effects of drugs of abuse, including cocaine. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of treatment with the noradrenergic α(1 receptor antagonist doxazosin on the positive subjective effects of cocaine.Thirteen non-treatment seeking, cocaine-dependent volunteers completed this single-site, randomized, placebo-controlled, within-subjects study. In one study phase volunteers received placebo and in the other they received doxazosin, with the order counterbalanced across participants. Study medication was masked by over-encapsulating doxazosin tablets and matched placebo lactose served as the control. Study medication treatment was initiated at 1 mg doxazosin or equivalent number of placebo capsules PO/day and increased every three days by 1 mg. After receiving 4 mg doxazosin or equivalent number of placebo capsules participants received masked doses of 20 and 40 mg cocaine IV in that order with placebo saline randomly interspersed to maintain the blind.Doxazosin treatment was well tolerated and doxazosin alone produced minimal changes in heart rate and blood pressure. During treatment with placebo, cocaine produced dose-dependent increases in subjective effect ratings of "high", "stimulated", "like cocaine", "desire cocaine", "any drug effect", and "likely to use cocaine if had access" (p<.001. Doxazosin treatment significantly attenuated the effects of 20 mg cocaine on ratings of "stimulated", "like cocaine", and "likely to use cocaine if had access" (p<.05. There were trends for doxazosin to reduce ratings of "stimulated", "desire cocaine", and "likely to use cocaine if had access" (p<.10.Medications that block noradrenergic α₁ receptors, such as doxazosin, may be useful as treatments for cocaine dependence, and should be evaluated further.Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01062945.

  11. The Machine within the Machine

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2014-01-01

    Although Virtual Machines are widespread across CERN, you probably won't have heard of them unless you work for an experiment. Virtual machines - known as VMs - allow you to create a separate machine within your own, allowing you to run Linux on your Mac, or Windows on your Linux - whatever combination you need.   Using a CERN Virtual Machine, a Linux analysis software runs on a Macbook. When it comes to LHC data, one of the primary issues collaborations face is the diversity of computing environments among collaborators spread across the world. What if an institute cannot run the analysis software because they use different operating systems? "That's where the CernVM project comes in," says Gerardo Ganis, PH-SFT staff member and leader of the CernVM project. "We were able to respond to experimentalists' concerns by providing a virtual machine package that could be used to run experiment software. This way, no matter what hardware they have ...

  12. Machine translation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagao, M.

    1982-04-01

    Each language has its own structure. In translating one language into another one, language attributes and grammatical interpretation must be defined in an unambiguous form. In order to parse a sentence, it is necessary to recognize its structure. A so-called context-free grammar can help in this respect for machine translation and machine-aided translation. Problems to be solved in studying machine translation are taken up in the paper, which discusses subjects for semantics and for syntactic analysis and translation software. 14 references.

  13. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Continuous Positive Airway Pressure on Glucose Tolerance in Obese Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salord, Neus; Fortuna, Ana Maria; Monasterio, Carmen; Gasa, Mercè; Pérez, Antonio; Bonsignore, Maria R; Vilarrasa, Núria; Montserrat, Josep Maria; Mayos, Mercedes

    2016-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with an increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS), even in patients with morbid obesity. Our goal was to address whether continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment improved glucose metabolism in this population. A prospective randomized controlled trial was performed in severe OSA patients with morbid obesity without diabetes in two university referral hospitals. Patients received conservative (CT) versus CPAP treatment for 12 weeks. MetS components, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and oral glucose tolerance were assessed at baseline and after treatment. A total of 80 patients completed the study (42 CPAP and 38 CT patients). After 12 w of CPAP treatment, weight loss was similar in both groups and physical activity, prevalence of MetS, and HOMA-IR did not change in either group. In the CPAP group impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) reversed in nine patients and IGT developed in none, whereas IGT reversed in five patients and IGT developed in five patients in the CT group (P = 0.039 in the Fisher test). Changes in 2-h plasma glucose after glucose load were greater in the CPAP group than in the CT group (CPAP: -0.5 ± 1.5 versus CT: 0.33 ± 1.9, P = 0.007). The improvement of glucose tolerance in morbidly obese patients with severe obstructive sleep apnea, without changes in homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, supports an improvement in peripheral insulin resistance after continuous positive airway pressure treatment. NCT 01029561. © 2016 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  14. [A positioning pillow to improve lumbar puncture in paediatric haematology-oncology patients: a randomized controlled trial.].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marec-Bérard, P; Bissery, A; Kebaïli, K; Schell, M; Aubert, F; Gaillard, S; Rabilloud, M; Kassaï, B; Cornu, C

    2009-09-01

    ObjectivesLumbar punctures (LPs) are common in children with cancer. Although pain management during the LP has been well standardised, dealing with stress and anxiety is not well addressed yet. Our objective was to evaluate the potential improvement of the LPs success rate using a positioning pillow, to ensure maximum lumbar flexion, and allow paravertebral muscles to relax, in children who are awake, with either conscious sedation or no sedation.Patients and methodsChildren aged 2-18 years undergoing LPs were randomly assigned to a positioning pillow or no intervention. The primary outcome was the rate of success, i.e. achieving the LPs (sampling or injection) at the first attempt, without bleeding (RBC pillow tended to increase the success rate of LPs (67 vs 57%; P = 0.23), and decreased the post-LP syndromes (15 vs 24%; P = 0.17) but the differences were not statistically significant. In children over 6-year of age (N = 72), the rate of success was significantly higher in the pillow group (58.5 vs 41.5%; P = 0.031), with a tendency to feel less pain (for less pain and better satisfaction) [median VAS: 25 vs 15 mm; P = 0.39] and being more satisfied (84.4 vs 75.0%; P = 0.34).ConclusionEven if the results presented here are not as optimistic as we might have wished, we can confirm that there is a benefit in using this pillow for LPs. It is especially promising in children over 6-year of age.

  15. Effects of a modified technique for TVT-O positioning on postoperative pain: single-blind randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tommaselli, Giovanni A; Formisano, Carmen; Di Carlo, Costantino; Fabozzi, Annamaria; Nappi, Carmine

    2012-09-01

    One of the most frequent and distressing complications of the tension-free vaginal tape obturator (TVT-O) procedure for stress urinary incontinence (SUI) is groin pain, which may be related to the surgical technique or to the tape. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of a more limited dissection and a more medial trocar trajectory in TVT-O positioning on postoperative pain. Seventy-two SUI patients were randomized to undergo TVT-O either with the traditional technique (group A) or a modified procedure (reduced paraurethral dissection and a more medial trocar trajectory) (group B). Visual analog scale pain scores 12 h, 24 h, and 1 month after the procedure, number of analgesic vials, objective cure rate, and patient functional and quality of life scores 6 months after the procedure were evaluated. Data were analyzed by the Student's t test for parametric variables, the Mann-Whitney U and Wilcoxon tests for nonparametric variables, and Fisher's exact test for categorical variables. Pain scores were significantly lower in group B compared with group A 24 h after surgery (P = 0.01). Pain scores significantly decreased from 12-24 h postoperatively to 1 month follow-up in both groups (P TVT-O seem to reduce postoperative groin pain at 24 h after the procedure, but not the analgesic requirement.

  16. Microcurrent stimulation at shenmen acupoint facilitates EEG associated with sleepiness and positive mood: a randomized controlled electrophysiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Mei-Chun; Chan, Agnes S; Yip, Joanne

    2015-01-01

    To examine the electrophysiological effects of microcurrent stimulation at the Shenmen acupoint, 40 healthy normal subjects were randomly assigned to a placebo group (sham stimulation) and an experimental group (bilateral electrocutaneous stimulation at the Shenmen). The following two electroencephalographic indicators were used to measure brain activity. (1) Arousal level was measured with reference to log-transformed absolute alpha power and power source and analyzed using low-resolution electromagnetic tomography and (2) frontal alpha asymmetry was used as an indicator of mood. After real stimulation for 10 minutes, absolute alpha power was globally reduced in the experimental group, particularly in the anterior and centrotemporal regions of the brain. This indicates a decline in the brain activity associated with arousal. Moreover, the reduction was more prominent in the left frontal region, as compared to the right frontal region, resulting in significant increase from negative to positive frontal alpha asymmetry scores and reflecting an increase in the brain activity associated with enhanced mood. However, the placebo group exhibited no significant changes in two indicators after sham stimulation. This study provides initial electrophysiological evidence of changes in brain activity associated with reduced arousal (and thus greater sleepiness) and enhanced mood after microcurrent stimulation at the Shenmen acupoint.

  17. Microcurrent Stimulation at Shenmen Acupoint Facilitates EEG Associated with Sleepiness and Positive Mood: A Randomized Controlled Electrophysiological Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-chun Cheung

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To examine the electrophysiological effects of microcurrent stimulation at the Shenmen acupoint, 40 healthy normal subjects were randomly assigned to a placebo group (sham stimulation and an experimental group (bilateral electrocutaneous stimulation at the Shenmen. The following two electroencephalographic indicators were used to measure brain activity. (1 Arousal level was measured with reference to log-transformed absolute alpha power and power source and analyzed using low-resolution electromagnetic tomography and (2 frontal alpha asymmetry was used as an indicator of mood. After real stimulation for 10 minutes, absolute alpha power was globally reduced in the experimental group, particularly in the anterior and centrotemporal regions of the brain. This indicates a decline in the brain activity associated with arousal. Moreover, the reduction was more prominent in the left frontal region, as compared to the right frontal region, resulting in significant increase from negative to positive frontal alpha asymmetry scores and reflecting an increase in the brain activity associated with enhanced mood. However, the placebo group exhibited no significant changes in two indicators after sham stimulation. This study provides initial electrophysiological evidence of changes in brain activity associated with reduced arousal (and thus greater sleepiness and enhanced mood after microcurrent stimulation at the Shenmen acupoint.

  18. The impact of schoolwide positive behavioral interventions and supports on bullying and peer rejection: a randomized controlled effectiveness trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waasdorp, Tracy E; Bradshaw, Catherine P; Leaf, Philip J

    2012-02-01

    To build on prior research documenting the impact of School-wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (SWPBIS) on school climate and discipline problems to examine the extent to which it affects bullying and peer rejection during the transition into early adolescence. Three-level models were fit using hierarchical linear modeling to determine the effect of SWPBIS on children's involvement in bullying. Thirty-seven Maryland public elementary schools. Data involved 12 344 children (52.9% male, 45.1% African American, 46.1% white) followed up longitudinally across 4 school years. A randomized controlled effectiveness trial of SWPBIS. Reports from teachers on bully-related behaviors were assessed through the Teacher Observation of Classroom Adaptation-Checklist. Analyses indicated that children in schools that implemented SWPBIS displayed lower rates of teacher-reported bullying and peer rejection than those in schools without SWPBIS. A significant interaction also emerged between grade level of first exposure to SWPBIS and intervention status, suggesting that the effects of SWPBIS on rejection were strongest among children who were first exposed to SWPBIS at a younger age. The results indicated that SWPBIS has a significant effect on teachers' reports of children's involvement in bullying as victims and perpetrators. The findings were considered in light of other outcomes for students, staff, and the school environment, and they suggest that SWPBIS may help address the increasing national concerns related to school bullying by improving school climate.

  19. Machine Learning

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    Machine learning, which builds on ideas in computer science, statistics, and optimization, focuses on developing algorithms to identify patterns and regularities in data, and using these learned patterns to make predictions on new observations. Boosted by its industrial and commercial applications, the field of machine learning is quickly evolving and expanding. Recent advances have seen great success in the realms of computer vision, natural language processing, and broadly in data science. Many of these techniques have already been applied in particle physics, for instance for particle identification, detector monitoring, and the optimization of computer resources. Modern machine learning approaches, such as deep learning, are only just beginning to be applied to the analysis of High Energy Physics data to approach more and more complex problems. These classes will review the framework behind machine learning and discuss recent developments in the field.

  20. Monel Machining

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Castle Industries, Inc. is a small machine shop manufacturing replacement plumbing repair parts, such as faucet, tub and ballcock seats. Therese Castley, president of Castle decided to introduce Monel because it offered a chance to improve competitiveness and expand the product line. Before expanding, Castley sought NERAC assistance on Monel technology. NERAC (New England Research Application Center) provided an information package which proved very helpful. The NASA database was included in NERAC's search and yielded a wealth of information on machining Monel.

  1. Support vector machine in machine condition monitoring and fault diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widodo, Achmad; Yang, Bo-Suk

    2007-08-01

    Recently, the issue of machine condition monitoring and fault diagnosis as a part of maintenance system became global due to the potential advantages to be gained from reduced maintenance costs, improved productivity and increased machine availability. This paper presents a survey of machine condition monitoring and fault diagnosis using support vector machine (SVM). It attempts to summarize and review the recent research and developments of SVM in machine condition monitoring and diagnosis. Numerous methods have been developed based on intelligent systems such as artificial neural network, fuzzy expert system, condition-based reasoning, random forest, etc. However, the use of SVM for machine condition monitoring and fault diagnosis is still rare. SVM has excellent performance in generalization so it can produce high accuracy in classification for machine condition monitoring and diagnosis. Until 2006, the use of SVM in machine condition monitoring and fault diagnosis is tending to develop towards expertise orientation and problem-oriented domain. Finally, the ability to continually change and obtain a novel idea for machine condition monitoring and fault diagnosis using SVM will be future works.

  2. Effects of balance Vestibular Rehabilitation Therapy in elderly with Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Karyna Myrelly Oliveira Bezerra de Figueiredo; Freitas, Raysa Vanessa de Medeiros; Ferreira, Lidiane Maria de Brito Macedo; Deshpande, Nandini; Guerra, Ricardo Oliveira

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate short-term effects of balance Vestibular Rehabilitation Therapy (VRT) on balance, dizziness symptoms and quality of life of the elderly with chronic Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo (BPPV). In this randomized, single-blind and controlled trial, older adults with chronic BPPV were randomized into two groups, the experimental group (n = 7, age: 69 (65-78) years) and the control group (n = 7, age: 73 (65-76) years). Patients in the experimental group underwent balance VRT (50 min per session, two times a week) and Canalith Repositioning Maneuver (CRM) as required, for 13 weeks. The control group was treated using only CRM as required. Standing and dynamic balance, dizziness symptoms and quality of life were measured at the baseline, and at one, five, nine and thirteen weeks. There were no between-group differences in dizziness, quality of life and standing balance over the 13 weeks. Significant differences were observed in dynamic balance measures between groups (p <  0.05 for most tests) through assessments. In intragroup analysis, both groups showed improvements in all measurements except no improvement was found in majority of the dynamic balance tests in the control group. The patients who received additional balance VRT demonstrated better results in dynamic balance than those who received only CRM. Implications for Rehabilitation The findings that balance VRT in addition to CRM improves dynamic balance in elderly people with BPPV should be useful in guiding rehabilitation professionals' clinical decision making to design interventions for seniors suffering from BPPV; Improvements in tests of dynamic balance suggest that the risk of adverse consequences of BPPV in the elderly such as falls and fractures can be potentially reduced through implementation of CRM in conjunction with balance VRT; Lack of additional improvement in Visual Analogue Scale of dizziness and Dizziness Handicap Index suggests that addition of balance VRT does

  3. Positive impact of child feeding training program for primary care health professionals: a cluster randomized field trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Regina Vitolo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of a child feeding training program for primary care health professionals about breastfeeding and complementary feeding practices. METHODS: Cluster-randomized field trial conducted in the city of Porto Alegre, (RS, Brazil. Twenty primary health care centers (HCC were randomized into intervention (n = 9 and control (n = 11 groups. The health professionals (n = 200 at the intervention group centers received training about healthy feeding practices. Pregnant women were enrolled at the study. Up to six months of child's age, home visits were made to obtain variables related to breastfeeding and introduction of foods. RESULTS: 619 children were evaluated: 318 from the intervention group and 301 from the control group. Exclusive breastfeeding prevalence in the first (72.3 versus 59.4%; RR = 1.21; 95%CI 1.08 - 1.38, second (62.6 versus 48.2%; RR = 1.29; 95%CI 1.10 - 1.53, and third months of life (44.0% versus 34.6%; RR = 1.27; 95%CI 1.04 - 1.56 was higher in the intervention group compared to the control group. The prevalence of children who consumed meat four or five times per week was higher in the intervention group than in the control group (36.8 versus 22.6%; RR = 1.62; 95%CI 1.32 - 2.03. The prevalence of children who had consumed soft drinks (34.9 versus 52.5%; RR = 0.66; 95%CI 0.54 - 0.80, chocolate (24.5 versus 36.7% RR = 0.66 95%CI 0.53 - 0.83, petit suisse (68.9 versus 79.7; 95%CI 0.75 - 0.98 and coffee (10.4 versus 20.1%; RR = 0.51; 95%CI 0.31 - 0.85 in their six first months of life was lower in the intervention group. CONCLUSION: The training of health professionals had a positive impact on infant feeding practices, contributing to the promotion of child health.

  4. Positive impact of child feeding training program for primary care health professionals: a cluster randomized field trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitolo, Márcia Regina; Louzada, Maria Laura da Costa; Rauber, Fernanda

    2014-12-01

    To assess the impact of a child feeding training program for primary care health professionals about breastfeeding and complementary feeding practices. Cluster-randomized field trial conducted in the city of Porto Alegre, (RS), Brazil. Twenty primary health care centers (HCC) were randomized into intervention (n = 9) and control (n = 11) groups. The health professionals (n = 200) at the intervention group centers received training about healthy feeding practices. Pregnant women were enrolled at the study. Up to six months of child's age, home visits were made to obtain variables related to breastfeeding and introduction of foods. 619 children were evaluated: 318 from the intervention group and 301 from the control group. Exclusive breastfeeding prevalence in the first (72.3 versus 59.4%; RR = 1.21; 95%CI 1.08 - 1.38), second (62.6 versus 48.2%; RR = 1.29; 95%CI 1.10 - 1.53), and third months of life (44.0% versus 34.6%; RR = 1.27; 95%CI 1.04 - 1.56) was higher in the intervention group compared to the control group. The prevalence of children who consumed meat four or five times per week was higher in the intervention group than in the control group (36.8 versus 22.6%; RR = 1.62; 95%CI 1.32 - 2.03). The prevalence of children who had consumed soft drinks (34.9 versus 52.5%; RR = 0.66; 95%CI 0.54 - 0.80), chocolate (24.5 versus 36.7% RR = 0.66 95%CI 0.53 - 0.83), petit suisse (68.9 versus 79.7; 95%CI 0.75 - 0.98) and coffee (10.4 versus 20.1%; RR = 0.51; 95%CI 0.31 - 0.85) in their six first months of life was lower in the intervention group. The training of health professionals had a positive impact on infant feeding practices, contributing to the promotion of child health.

  5. Effect of Telemedicine Education and Telemonitoring on Continuous Positive Airway Pressure Adherence. The Tele-OSA Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Dennis; Chang, Jeremiah W; Benjafield, Adam V; Crocker, Maureen E; Kelly, Colleen; Becker, Kendra A; Kim, Joseph B; Woodrum, Rosa R; Liang, Joanne; Derose, Stephen F

    2018-01-01

    Automated telemedicine interventions could potentially improve adherence to continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy. Examining the effects of telemedicine-delivered obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) education and CPAP telemonitoring with automated patient feedback messaging on CPAP adherence. This four-arm, randomized, factorial design clinical trial enrolled 1,455 patients (51.0% women; age, 49.1 ± 12.5 yr [mean ± SD]) referred for suspected OSA. Nine hundred and fifty-six underwent home sleep apnea testing, and 556 were prescribed CPAP. Two telemedicine interventions were implemented: 1) web-based OSA education (Tel-Ed) and 2) CPAP telemonitoring with automated patient feedback (Tel-TM). Patients were randomized to 1) usual care, 2) Tel-Ed added, 3) Tel-TM added, or 4) Tel-Ed and Tel-TM added (Tel-both). The primary endpoint was 90-day CPAP usage. Secondary endpoints included attendance to OSA evaluation, and change in Epworth Sleepiness Scale score. CPAP average daily use at 90 days was 3.8 ± 2.5, 4.0 ± 2.4, 4.4 ± 2.2, and 4.8 ± 2.3 hours in usual care, Tel-Ed, Tel-TM, and Tel-both groups. Usage was significantly higher in the Tel-TM and Tel-both groups versus usual care (P = 0.0002 for both) but not for Tel-Ed (P = 0.10). Medicare adherence rates were 53.5, 61.0, 65.6, and 73.2% in usual care, Tel-Ed, Tel-TM, and Tel-both groups (Tel-both vs. usual care, P = 0.001; Tel-TM vs. usual care, P = 0.003; Tel-Ed vs. usual care, P = 0.07), respectively. Telemedicine education improved clinic attendance compared with no telemedicine education (show rate, 68.5 vs. 62.7%; P = 0.02). The use of CPAP telemonitoring with automated feedback messaging improved 90-day adherence in patients with OSA. Telemedicine-based education did not significantly improve CPAP adherence but did increase clinic attendance for OSA evaluation. Clinical trial registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT02279901).

  6. A positioning pillow to improve lumbar puncture success rate in paediatric haematology-oncology patients: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kassaï Behrouz

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lumbar punctures (LPs are common in children with cancer. Although pain management during the lumbar puncture has been well standardized, dealing with stress and anxiety is not well addressed yet. Our objective was to evaluate the potential improvement of the LP success rate using a positioning pillow, to ensure maximum lumbar flexion, and allow paravertebral muscles to relax, in children who are awake, with either conscious sedation or no sedation. Methods Children aged 2–18 years undergoing LP were randomly assigned to a positioning pillow or no intervention. The primary outcome was the rate of success, i.e. achieving the LP (sampling or injection at the first attempt, without bleeding (RBC 3. The secondary outcomes included: the child's pain, assessed by a self-administered visual analogical scales (VAS for children over 6 years of age; the parents' and caregivers' perception of the child's pain; the satisfaction of the children, the parents, the caregivers and the physician. The child's cooperation and the occurrence of post-LP syndrome were also evaluated. Results 124 children (62 in each group were included. The LP pillow tended to increase the success rate of LPs (67% vs. 57%, p = 0.23, and decreased the post-LP syndromes (15% vs. 24%, p = 0.17 but the differences were not statistically significant. In children over 6-year of age (n = 72, the rate of success was significantly higher in the pillow group (58.5% vs. 41.5%, p = 0.031, with a tendency to feel less pain (median VAS 25 vs. 15 mm, p = 0.39 and being more satisfied (84.4% vs. 75.0%, p = 0.34. Conclusion Overall results do not demonstrate a benefit in using this pillow for lumbar punctures. This study results also suggest a benefit in the sub group of children over 6-year of age; this result needs confirmation. Trial Registration The trial was registered with Clinical Trials.gov (number NCT00775112.

  7. Elastic Tape Improved Shoulder Joint Position Sense in Chronic Hemiparetic Subjects: A Randomized Sham-Controlled Crossover Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Matheus Bragança; Desloovere, Kaat; Russo, Thiago Luiz

    2017-01-01

    Background Elastic tape has been widely used in clinical practice in order to improve upper limb (UL) sensibility. However, there is little evidence that supports this type of intervention in stroke patients. Objective To verify the effect of elastic tape, applied to the paretic shoulder, on joint position sense (JPS) during abduction and flexion in subjects with chronic hemiparesis compared to sham tape (non-elastic tape). Furthermore, to verify if this potential effect is correlated to shoulder subluxation measurements and sensorimotor impairment. Methods A crossover and sham-controlled study was conducted with post-stroke patients who were randomly allocated into two groups: 1) those who received Sham Tape (ST) first and after one month they received Elastic Tape (ET); 2) those who received Elastic Tape (ET) first and after one month they received Sham Tape (ST). The JPS was evaluated using a dynamometer. The absolute error for shoulder abduction and flexion at 30° and 60° was calculated. Sensorimotor impairment was determined by Fugl-Meyer, and shoulder subluxation was measured using a caliper. Results Thirteen hemiparetic subjects (average time since stroke 75.23 months) participated in the study. At baseline (before interventions), the groups were not different for abduction at 30° (p = 0.805; p = 0.951), and 60° (p = 0.509; p = 0.799), or flexion at 30° (p = 0.872; p = 0.897) and 60° (p = 0.853; p = 0.970). For the ET group, differences between pre and post-elastic tape for abduction at 30° (ptape for abduction at 30° (ptape improved shoulder JPS of subjects with chronic hemiparesis regardless of the level of UL sensorimotor impairment. However, this improvement was influenced by the subluxation degree at abduction. PMID:28099472

  8. Nebulization during spontaneous breathing, CPAP, and bi-level positive-pressure ventilation: a randomized analysis of pulmonary radioaerosol deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maccari, Juçara Gasparetto; Teixeira, Cassiano; Savi, Augusto; de Oliveira, Roselaine Pinheiro; Machado, André Sant'ana; Tonietto, Tulio Frederico; Ludwig, Eduardo; Teixeira, Paulo José Zimermann; Knorst, Marli Maria

    2014-04-01

    There have been few reports of factors affecting aerosol delivery during noninvasive ventilation (NIV). Nebulization is a standard practice, and our objective was to determine the effect of spontaneous breathing (SB) and NIV mode on lung technetium-99m ((99m)Tc) deposition in subjects with normal lungs. Thirteen health care volunteers were submitted to a randomized radioaerosol nebulization with (99m)Tc during SB, CPAP (10 cm H2O), and bi-level positive-pressure ventilation (bi-level; inspiratory-expiratory pressures of 15/5 cm H2O). NIV was performed via a ventilator (VPAP II ST-A, ResMed, Sydney, Australia). The radioaerosol deposition was evaluated by pulmonary scintigraphy after 10 min of inhalation. Regions of interest (ROIs) were outlined on the left lung (LL), right lung (RL), and trachea (TRQ). The average number of counts/pixel in each ROI was determined, and the ratio of lung and trachea was calculated. The three techniques showed comparable lung deposition. Analysis of radioaerosol deposition in the lungs showed a mean count at RL of 108.7 ± 40 with CPAP, 111.5 ± 15 with bi-level, and 196.6 ± 167 with SB. At LL, the values were 92.7 ± 15 with CPAP, 98.4 ± 14 with bi-level, and 225.0 ± 293 with SB. There was no difference between the means of radioaerosol deposition in RL, LL, or TRQ, as well as the lung calculated ratio (LCR = [RL + LL]/TRQ), which was similar in comparing ventilatory strategies. Based on our data, there is an equivalent deposition of inhaled substances in individuals with healthy lungs when SB, CPAP, and bi-level are compared.

  9. Probiotic-enriched foods and dietary supplement containing SYNBIO positively affects bowel habits in healthy adults: an assessment using standard statistical analysis and Support Vector Machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvi, Stefania; Verdenelli, M Cristina; Cecchini, Cinzia; Coman, M Magdalena; Bernabei, M Simonetta; Rosati, Jessica; De Leone, Renato; Orpianesi, Carla; Cresci, Alberto

    2014-12-01

    A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group study assessed in healthy adults how daily consumption of the probiotic combination SYNBIO®, administered in probiotic-enriched foods or in a dietary supplement, affected bowel habits. Primary and secondary outcomes gave the overall assessment of bowel well-being, while a Psychological General Well-Being Index compiled by participants estimated the health-related quality of life as well as the gastrointestinal tolerance determined with the Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale. Support Vector Machine models for classification problems were used to validate the total outcomes on bowel well-being. SYNBIO® consumption improved bowel habits of volunteers consuming the probiotic foods or capsules, while the same effects were not registered in the control groups. The recovery of probiotic bacteria from the faeces of a cohort of 100 subjects for each supplemented group showed the persistence of strains in the gastrointestinal tract.

  10. Mortality risk prediction in burn injury: Comparison of logistic regression with machine learning approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stylianou, Neophytos; Akbarov, Artur; Kontopantelis, Evangelos; Buchan, Iain; Dunn, Ken W

    2015-08-01

    Predicting mortality from burn injury has traditionally employed logistic regression models. Alternative machine learning methods have been introduced in some areas of clinical prediction as the necessary software and computational facilities have become accessible. Here we compare logistic regression and machine learning predictions of mortality from burn. An established logistic mortality model was compared to machine learning methods (artificial neural network, support vector machine, random forests and naïve Bayes) using a population-based (England & Wales) case-cohort registry. Predictive evaluation used: area under the receiver operating characteristic curve; sensitivity; specificity; positive predictive value and Youden's index. All methods had comparable discriminatory abilities, similar sensitivities, specificities and positive predictive values. Although some machine learning methods performed marginally better than logistic regression the differences were seldom statistically significant and clinically insubstantial. Random forests were marginally better for high positive predictive value and reasonable sensitivity. Neural networks yielded slightly better prediction overall. Logistic regression gives an optimal mix of performance and interpretability. The established logistic regression model of burn mortality performs well against more complex alternatives. Clinical prediction with a small set of strong, stable, independent predictors is unlikely to gain much from machine learning outside specialist research contexts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  11. Recalling Positive Events at Work Makes Employees Feel Happier, Move More, but Interact Less: A 6-Week Randomized Controlled Intervention at a Japanese Workplace

    OpenAIRE

    Chancellor, J; Layous, K; Lyubomirsky, S

    2015-01-01

    © 2014, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht. Simple self-administered activities, such as practicing gratitude or kindness, have been shown to increase happiness, yet only self-report measures have been used so far. Our study, conducted with a Japanese workplace sample, incorporated a novel technology to gather precise behavioral data reflecting participant movement and social interactions. Employees were randomly assigned to either recount three positive events at work (a positive acti...

  12. New photolithography stepping machine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hale, L.; Klingmann, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Markle, D. [Ultratech Stepper Inc. (United States)

    1995-03-08

    A joint development project to design a new photolithography steeping machine capable of 150 nanometer overlay accuracy was completed by Ultratech Stepper and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The principal result of the project is a next-generation product that will strengthen the US position in step-and-repeat photolithography. The significant challenges addressed and solved in the project are the subject of this report. Design methods and new devices that have broader application to precision machine design are presented in greater detail while project specific information serves primarily as background and motivation.

  13. Machine Protection

    CERN Document Server

    Zerlauth, Markus; Wenninger, Jörg

    2012-01-01

    The present architecture of the machine protection system is being recalled and the performance of the associated systems during the 2011 run will be briefly summarized. An analysis of the causes of beam dumps as well as an assessment of the dependability of the machine protection systems (MPS) itself is being presented. Emphasis will be given to events that risked exposing parts of the machine to damage. Further improvements and mitigations of potential holes in the protection systems will be evaluated along with their impact on the 2012 run. The role of rMPP during the various operational phases (commissioning, intensity ramp up, MDs...) will be discussed along with a proposal for the intensity ramp up for the start of beam operation in 2012.

  14. Machine Learning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chikkagoudar, Satish; Chatterjee, Samrat; Thomas, Dennis G.; Carroll, Thomas E.; Muller, George

    2017-04-21

    The absence of a robust and unified theory of cyber dynamics presents challenges and opportunities for using machine learning based data-driven approaches to further the understanding of the behavior of such complex systems. Analysts can also use machine learning approaches to gain operational insights. In order to be operationally beneficial, cybersecurity machine learning based models need to have the ability to: (1) represent a real-world system, (2) infer system properties, and (3) learn and adapt based on expert knowledge and observations. Probabilistic models and Probabilistic graphical models provide these necessary properties and are further explored in this chapter. Bayesian Networks and Hidden Markov Models are introduced as an example of a widely used data driven classification/modeling strategy.

  15. Reducing Sexual Risk Behaviors and Alcohol Use among HIV-Positive Men Who Have Sex with Men: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasquez, Mary M.; von Sternberg, Kirk; Johnson, David H.; Green, Charles; Carbonari, Joseph P.; Parsons, Jeffrey T.

    2009-01-01

    This randomized clinical trial (N = 253) evaluated the efficacy of a theory-based intervention designed to reduce both alcohol use and incidence of unprotected sexual behaviors among HIV-positive men who have sex with men with alcohol use disorders. An integrated, manualized intervention, using both individual counseling and peer group…

  16. Probability machines: consistent probability estimation using nonparametric learning machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malley, J D; Kruppa, J; Dasgupta, A; Malley, K G; Ziegler, A

    2012-01-01

    Most machine learning approaches only provide a classification for binary responses. However, probabilities are required for risk estimation using individual patient characteristics. It has been shown recently that every statistical learning machine known to be consistent for a nonparametric regression problem is a probability machine that is provably consistent for this estimation problem. The aim of this paper is to show how random forests and nearest neighbors can be used for consistent estimation of individual probabilities. Two random forest algorithms and two nearest neighbor algorithms are described in detail for estimation of individual probabilities. We discuss the consistency of random forests, nearest neighbors and other learning machines in detail. We conduct a simulation study to illustrate the validity of the methods. We exemplify the algorithms by analyzing two well-known data sets on the diagnosis of appendicitis and the diagnosis of diabetes in Pima Indians. Simulations demonstrate the validity of the method. With the real data application, we show the accuracy and practicality of this approach. We provide sample code from R packages in which the probability estimation is already available. This means that all calculations can be performed using existing software. Random forest algorithms as well as nearest neighbor approaches are valid machine learning methods for estimating individual probabilities for binary responses. Freely available implementations are available in R and may be used for applications.

  17. Probability Machines: Consistent Probability Estimation Using Nonparametric Learning Machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malley, J. D.; Kruppa, J.; Dasgupta, A.; Malley, K. G.; Ziegler, A.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background Most machine learning approaches only provide a classification for binary responses. However, probabilities are required for risk estimation using individual patient characteristics. It has been shown recently that every statistical learning machine known to be consistent for a nonparametric regression problem is a probability machine that is provably consistent for this estimation problem. Objectives The aim of this paper is to show how random forests and nearest neighbors can be used for consistent estimation of individual probabilities. Methods Two random forest algorithms and two nearest neighbor algorithms are described in detail for estimation of individual probabilities. We discuss the consistency of random forests, nearest neighbors and other learning machines in detail. We conduct a simulation study to illustrate the validity of the methods. We exemplify the algorithms by analyzing two well-known data sets on the diagnosis of appendicitis and the diagnosis of diabetes in Pima Indians. Results Simulations demonstrate the validity of the method. With the real data application, we show the accuracy and practicality of this approach. We provide sample code from R packages in which the probability estimation is already available. This means that all calculations can be performed using existing software. Conclusions Random forest algorithms as well as nearest neighbor approaches are valid machine learning methods for estimating individual probabilities for binary responses. Freely available implementations are available in R and may be used for applications. PMID:21915433

  18. Optimizing control of basis weight profile in paper machines based on virtual slice-bolt position; Kaso suraisu boruto taio saitekika seigyo ni yoru shoshiki no tsuboryo purofuairu seigyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, T.; Matsuda, M. [Yokogawa Electric Corp., Tokyo (Japan). Paper and Web System Engineering; Yamamoto, S. [Kogakuin University, Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Mechanical System Engieneering; Hashimoto, I. [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1999-11-10

    We have analyzed theoretically the virtual slice-bolt corresponding optimizing control of basis weight profile in paper machines that was previously devised by the authors. It has the following features: (1) Optimizing control of basis weight profile in slice-bolt position generates a saw tooth profile between slice bolts, and does not satisfy quality demand in actual plants. (2) We have devised a virtual slice bolt corresponding profile that is obtained by averaging the basis weight raw profile not only on the position at each slice bolt but also on the intermediate point between the slice bolts. We have applied a virtual slice bolt corresponding optimizing control that minimizes the square sum of the profile errors and succeeded in satisfying the quality demand of actual plants sufficiently. (author)

  19. Code-expanded radio access protocol for machine-to-machine communications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Henning; Kiilerich Pratas, Nuno; Stefanovic, Cedomir

    2013-01-01

    The random access methods used for support of machine-to-machine, also referred to as Machine-Type Communications, in current cellular standards are derivatives of traditional framed slotted ALOHA and therefore do not support high user loads efficiently. We propose an approach that is motivated...... subframes and orthogonal preambles, the amount of available contention resources is drastically increased, enabling the massive support of Machine-Type Communication users that is beyond the reach of current systems....

  20. MACHINE MOTION EQUATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Ion Tiberiu Petrescu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the dynamic, original, machine motion equations. The equation of motion of the machine that generates angular speed of the shaft (which varies with position and rotation speed is deduced by conservation kinetic energy of the machine. An additional variation of angular speed is added by multiplying by the coefficient dynamic D (generated by the forces out of mechanism and or by the forces generated by the elasticity of the system. Kinetic energy conservation shows angular speed variation (from the shaft with inertial masses, while the dynamic coefficient introduces the variation of w with forces acting in the mechanism. Deriving the first equation of motion of the machine one can obtain the second equation of motion dynamic. From the second equation of motion of the machine it determines the angular acceleration of the shaft. It shows the distribution of the forces on the mechanism to the internal combustion heat engines. Dynamic, the velocities can be distributed in the same way as forces. Practically, in the dynamic regimes, the velocities have the same timing as the forces. Calculations should be made for an engine with a single cylinder. Originally exemplification is done for a classic distribution mechanism, and then even the module B distribution mechanism of an Otto engine type.

  1. Machine testning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo

    This document is used in connection with a laboratory exercise of 3 hours duration as a part of the course GEOMETRICAL METROLOGY AND MACHINE TESTING. The exercise includes a series of tests carried out by the student on a conventional and a numerically controled lathe, respectively. This document...

  2. Representational Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersson, Dag; Dahlgren, Anna; Vestberg, Nina Lager

    to the enterprises of the medium. This is the subject of Representational Machines: How photography enlists the workings of institutional technologies in search of establishing new iconic and social spaces. Together, the contributions to this edited volume span historical epochs, social environments, technological...

  3. Effects of stereospecific positioning of fatty acids in triacylglycerol structures in native and randomized fats: a review of their nutritional implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sundram Kalyana

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Most studies on lipid lowering diets have focused on the total content of saturated, polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fatty acids. However, the distribution of these fatty acids on the triacylglycerol (TAG molecule and the molecular TAG species generated by this stereospecificity are characteristic for various native dietary TAGs. Fat randomization or interesterification is a process involving the positional redistribution of fatty acids, which leads to the generation of new TAG molecular species. A comparison between native and randomized TAGs is the subject of this review with regards to the role of stereospecificity of fatty acids in metabolic processing and effects on fasting lipids and postprandial lipemia. The positioning of unsaturated versus saturated fatty acids in the sn-2 position of TAGs indicate differences in early metabolic processing and postprandial clearance, which may explain modulatory effects on atherogenecity and thrombogenecity. Both human and animal studies are discussed with implications for human health.

  4. Data mining methods in the prediction of Dementia: A real-data comparison of the accuracy, sensitivity and specificity of linear discriminant analysis, logistic regression, neural networks, support vector machines, classification trees and random forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maroco, João; Silva, Dina; Rodrigues, Ana; Guerreiro, Manuela; Santana, Isabel; de Mendonça, Alexandre

    2011-08-17

    Dementia and cognitive impairment associated with aging are a major medical and social concern. Neuropsychological testing is a key element in the diagnostic procedures of Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI), but has presently a limited value in the prediction of progression to dementia. We advance the hypothesis that newer statistical classification methods derived from data mining and machine learning methods like Neural Networks, Support Vector Machines and Random Forests can improve accuracy, sensitivity and specificity of predictions obtained from neuropsychological testing. Seven non parametric classifiers derived from data mining methods (Multilayer Perceptrons Neural Networks, Radial Basis Function Neural Networks, Support Vector Machines, CART, CHAID and QUEST Classification Trees and Random Forests) were compared to three traditional classifiers (Linear Discriminant Analysis, Quadratic Discriminant Analysis and Logistic Regression) in terms of overall classification accuracy, specificity, sensitivity, Area under the ROC curve and Press'Q. Model predictors were 10 neuropsychological tests currently used in the diagnosis of dementia. Statistical distributions of classification parameters obtained from a 5-fold cross-validation were compared using the Friedman's nonparametric test. Press' Q test showed that all classifiers performed better than chance alone (p classification accuracy (Median (Me) = 0.76) an area under the ROC (Me = 0.90). However this method showed high specificity (Me = 1.0) but low sensitivity (Me = 0.3). Random Forest ranked second in overall accuracy (Me = 0.73) with high area under the ROC (Me = 0.73) specificity (Me = 0.73) and sensitivity (Me = 0.64). Linear Discriminant Analysis also showed acceptable overall accuracy (Me = 0.66), with acceptable area under the ROC (Me = 0.72) specificity (Me = 0.66) and sensitivity (Me = 0.64). The remaining classifiers showed overall classification accuracy above a median value of 0.63, but for most

  5. Needle Tip Position and Bevel Direction Have No Effect in the Fluoroscopic Epidural Spreading Pattern in Caudal Epidural Injections: A Randomized Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won Kyoung Kwon

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Caudal epidural steroid injections (CESIs are an effective treatment for pain. If the injection spreads in a specific pattern depending on the needle position or bevel direction, it would be possible to inject the agent into a specific and desired area. Objectives. We conducted a prospective randomized trial to determine if the needle position and bevel direction have any effect on the epidural spreading pattern in CESI. Methods. Demographic data of the patient were collected. During CESI, the needle position (middle or lateral and direction (ventral or dorsal were randomly allocated. Following fluoroscope-guided injection of 4 mL contrast media and 10 mL of injectates, the epidural spreading patterns (ventral or dorsal, bilateral or lateral were imaged. Results. In the 210 CESIs performed, the needle tip position and bevel direction did not influence the epidural spreading patterns at L4-5 and L5-S1 disc levels. A history of Lumbar spine surgery was associated with a significantly limited spread to each disc level. A midline needle tip position was more effective than the lateral position in spreading to the distant disc levels. Conclusions. Neither the needle tip position nor the bevel direction affected the epidural drug spreading pattern during CESI.

  6. Using ArcMap, Google Earth, and Global Positioning Systems to select and locate random households in rural Haiti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wampler Peter J

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A remote sensing technique was developed which combines a Geographic Information System (GIS; Google Earth, and Microsoft Excel to identify home locations for a random sample of households in rural Haiti. The method was used to select homes for ethnographic and water quality research in a region of rural Haiti located within 9 km of a local hospital and source of health education in Deschapelles, Haiti. The technique does not require access to governmental records or ground based surveys to collect household location data and can be performed in a rapid, cost-effective manner. Methods The random selection of households and the location of these households during field surveys were accomplished using GIS, Google Earth, Microsoft Excel, and handheld Garmin GPSmap 76CSx GPS units. Homes were identified and mapped in Google Earth, exported to ArcMap 10.0, and a random list of homes was generated using Microsoft Excel which was then loaded onto handheld GPS units for field location. The development and use of a remote sensing method was essential to the selection and location of random households. Results A total of 537 homes initially were mapped and a randomized subset of 96 was identified as potential survey locations. Over 96% of the homes mapped using Google Earth imagery were correctly identified as occupied dwellings. Only 3.6% of the occupants of mapped homes visited declined to be interviewed. 16.4% of the homes visited were not occupied at the time of the visit due to work away from the home or market days. A total of 55 households were located using this method during the 10 days of fieldwork in May and June of 2012. Conclusions The method used to generate and field locate random homes for surveys and water sampling was an effective means of selecting random households in a rural environment lacking geolocation infrastructure. The success rate for locating households using a handheld GPS was excellent and only

  7. Using ArcMap, Google Earth, and Global Positioning Systems to select and locate random households in rural Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wampler, Peter J; Rediske, Richard R; Molla, Azizur R

    2013-01-18

    A remote sensing technique was developed which combines a Geographic Information System (GIS); Google Earth, and Microsoft Excel to identify home locations for a random sample of households in rural Haiti. The method was used to select homes for ethnographic and water quality research in a region of rural Haiti located within 9 km of a local hospital and source of health education in Deschapelles, Haiti. The technique does not require access to governmental records or ground based surveys to collect household location data and can be performed in a rapid, cost-effective manner. The random selection of households and the location of these households during field surveys were accomplished using GIS, Google Earth, Microsoft Excel, and handheld Garmin GPSmap 76CSx GPS units. Homes were identified and mapped in Google Earth, exported to ArcMap 10.0, and a random list of homes was generated using Microsoft Excel which was then loaded onto handheld GPS units for field location. The development and use of a remote sensing method was essential to the selection and location of random households. A total of 537 homes initially were mapped and a randomized subset of 96 was identified as potential survey locations. Over 96% of the homes mapped using Google Earth imagery were correctly identified as occupied dwellings. Only 3.6% of the occupants of mapped homes visited declined to be interviewed. 16.4% of the homes visited were not occupied at the time of the visit due to work away from the home or market days. A total of 55 households were located using this method during the 10 days of fieldwork in May and June of 2012. The method used to generate and field locate random homes for surveys and water sampling was an effective means of selecting random households in a rural environment lacking geolocation infrastructure. The success rate for locating households using a handheld GPS was excellent and only rarely was local knowledge required to identify and locate households. This

  8. A randomized controlled trial for an individualized positive psychosocial intervention for the affective and behavioral symptoms of dementia in nursing home residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Haitsma, Kimberly S; Curyto, Kimberly; Abbott, Katherine M; Towsley, Gail L; Spector, Abby; Kleban, Morton

    2015-01-01

    This randomized controlled study tested the effectiveness of individualized activities, led by certified nursing assistants (CNAs), to increase positive and reduce negative affect and behavior among nursing home residents with dementia. Nursing home residents with mild to advanced dementia (N = 180) were randomly assigned to usual care (UC, n = 93) or 1 of 2 experimental conditions. Residents in the attention control group (AC, N = 43) participated in standardized one-to-one activities with their CNAs. Individualized Positive Psychosocial Intervention (IPPI) participants (n = 44) received a CNA-led activity matched to their interests and ability. Outcomes were residents' positive and negative affect and verbal and nonverbal behavior. The IPPI and AC groups experienced similar benefits-more pleasure, alertness, engagement, positive touch, and positive verbal behavior-compared with UC. The AC group displayed more anger, uncooperativeness, and very negative verbal behavior than UC or IPPI. This study demonstrates the value of individualized activities for nursing home residents with dementia. In a stringent test, residents were happier and less angry during a customized intervention compared with a standardized intervention. Even brief individualized CNA-led activities bring pleasure to nursing home residents and constitute an effective strategy to enhance positive affect and engagement in persons with dementia. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Relative optical navigation around small bodies via Extreme Learning Machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Andrew M.

    To perform close proximity operations under a low-gravity environment, relative and absolute positions are vital information to the maneuver. Hence navigation is inseparably integrated in space travel. Extreme Learning Machine (ELM) is presented as an optical navigation method around small celestial bodies. Optical Navigation uses visual observation instruments such as a camera to acquire useful data and determine spacecraft position. The required input data for operation is merely a single image strip and a nadir image. ELM is a machine learning Single Layer feed-Forward Network (SLFN), a type of neural network (NN). The algorithm is developed on the predicate that input weights and biases can be randomly assigned and does not require back-propagation. The learned model is the output layer weights which are used to calculate a prediction. Together, Extreme Learning Machine Optical Navigation (ELM OpNav) utilizes optical images and ELM algorithm to train the machine to navigate around a target body. In this thesis the asteroid, Vesta, is the designated celestial body. The trained ELMs estimate the position of the spacecraft during operation with a single data set. The results show the approach is promising and potentially suitable for on-board navigation.

  10. Fullerene Machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Globus, Al; Saini, Subhash (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Fullerenes possess remarkable properties and many investigators have examined the mechanical, electronic and other characteristics of carbon SP2 systems in some detail. In addition, C-60 can be functionalized with many classes of molecular fragments and we may expect the caps of carbon nanotubes to have a similar chemistry. Finally, carbon nanotubes have been attached to t he end of scanning probe microscope (Spill) tips. Spills can be manipulated with sub-angstrom accuracy. Together, these investigations suggest that complex molecular machines made of fullerenes may someday be created and manipulated with very high accuracy. We have studied some such systems computationally (primarily functionalized carbon nanotube gears and computer components). If such machines can be combined appropriately, a class of materials may be created that can sense their environment, calculate a response, and act. The implications of such hypothetical materials are substantial.

  11. Electric machines

    CERN Document Server

    Gross, Charles A

    2006-01-01

    BASIC ELECTROMAGNETIC CONCEPTSBasic Magnetic ConceptsMagnetically Linear Systems: Magnetic CircuitsVoltage, Current, and Magnetic Field InteractionsMagnetic Properties of MaterialsNonlinear Magnetic Circuit AnalysisPermanent MagnetsSuperconducting MagnetsThe Fundamental Translational EM MachineThe Fundamental Rotational EM MachineMultiwinding EM SystemsLeakage FluxThe Concept of Ratings in EM SystemsSummaryProblemsTRANSFORMERSThe Ideal n-Winding TransformerTransformer Ratings and Per-Unit ScalingThe Nonideal Three-Winding TransformerThe Nonideal Two-Winding TransformerTransformer Efficiency and Voltage RegulationPractical ConsiderationsThe AutotransformerOperation of Transformers in Three-Phase EnvironmentsSequence Circuit Models for Three-Phase Transformer AnalysisHarmonics in TransformersSummaryProblemsBASIC MECHANICAL CONSIDERATIONSSome General PerspectivesEfficiencyLoad Torque-Speed CharacteristicsMass Polar Moment of InertiaGearingOperating ModesTranslational SystemsA Comprehensive Example: The ElevatorP...

  12. Genesis machines

    CERN Document Server

    Amos, Martyn

    2014-01-01

    Silicon chips are out. Today's scientists are using real, wet, squishy, living biology to build the next generation of computers. Cells, gels and DNA strands are the 'wetware' of the twenty-first century. Much smaller and more intelligent, these organic computers open up revolutionary possibilities. Tracing the history of computing and revealing a brave new world to come, Genesis Machines describes how this new technology will change the way we think not just about computers - but about life itself.

  13. SU-F-J-125: Effects of Couch Position Variability On Dosimetric Accuracy with An MRI-Guided Co-60 Radiation Therapy Machine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chow, P; Thomas, D; Agazaryan, N; Cao, M; Low, D; Yang, Y; Lamb, J [UCLA, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) guidance in radiation therapy brings real-time imaging and adaptive planning into the treatment vault where it can account for interfraction and intrafraction movement of soft tissue. The only commercially-available MRI-guided radiation therapy device is a three-head 60Co and MRI system with an integrated treatment planning system (TPS). An up to 20% attenuation of the beam by the couch is well modeled in the TPS. However, variations in the patient’s day-to-day position introduce discrepancies in the actual couch position relative its location as modeled in the treatment plan. For this reason, our institution avoids plans with beams that pass through or near the couch edges. This study looks at plans without restriction on beam angles and investigates the effects of couch shift by simulating shifts of the couch relative to the patient, in order to determine whether couch edge avoidance restrictions can be lifted. Methods: A total of 27 plans from 23 patients were investigated. Couch shifts of 1 and 2 cm were introduced in combinations of lateral and vertical direction to simulate variations in patient positioning on the couch giving 16 shifted plans per reference plan. The shift values of 1 and 2 cm were based on shifts recorded in 320 treatment fractions. Results: Measured couch attenuation versus TPS modeled agreed within 2.1%. Planning Target Volume (PTV) D95 changed less than 1% for 1 and 2 cm couch shifts in only the x-direction and less than 3% for all directions. Conclusion: The dosimetry of all plans with shifts up to ±2 cm was within reasonable clinical tolerances. Robustness of a plan to couch shifts can be tested in the TPS. Inclusion of beams traversing the couch edges should be considered if an improvement in plan quality or delivery time can be achieved.

  14. Effects of a health education and telephone counseling program on patients with a positive fecal occult blood test result for colorectal cancer screening: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Hui-Chuan; Hung, Hsin-Yuan; Lin, Hsiu-Chen; Chen, Shu-Ching

    2017-10-01

    Our purpose was to evaluate the effects of a health education and telephone counseling program on knowledge and attitudes about colorectal cancer and screening and the psychological impact of positive screening results. A randomized controlled trial was conducted with 2 groups using a pretest and posttest measures design. Patients with positive colorectal cancer screening results were selected and randomly assigned to an experimental (n = 51) or control (n = 51) group. Subjects in the experimental group received a health education and telephone counseling program, while the control group received routine care only. Patients were assessed pretest before intervention (first visit to the outpatient) and posttest at 4 weeks after intervention (4 weeks after first visit to the outpatient). Patients in the experimental group had a significantly better level of knowledge about colorectal cancer and the psychological impact of a positive screening result than did the control group. Analysis of covariance revealed that the health education and telephone counseling program had a significant main effect on colorectal cancer knowledge. A health education and telephone counseling program can improve knowledge about colorectal cancer and about the psychological impact in patients with positive colorectal cancer screening results. The health education and telephone counseling program is an easy, simple, and convenient method of improving knowledge, improving attitudes, and alleviating psychological distress in patients with positive colorectal cancer screening results, and this program can be expanded to other types of cancer screening. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Simulating Turing machines on Maurer machines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergstra, J.A.; Middelburg, C.A.

    2008-01-01

    In a previous paper, we used Maurer machines to model and analyse micro-architectures. In the current paper, we investigate the connections between Turing machines and Maurer machines with the purpose to gain an insight into computability issues relating to Maurer machines. We introduce ways to

  16. Slide system for machine tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglass, S.S.; Green, W.L.

    1980-06-12

    The present invention relates to a machine tool which permits the machining of nonaxisymmetric surfaces on a workpiece while rotating the workpiece about a central axis of rotation. The machine tool comprises a conventional two-slide system (X-Y) with one of these slides being provided with a relatively short travel high-speed auxiliary slide which carries the material-removing tool. The auxiliary slide is synchronized with the spindle speed and the position of the other two slides and provides a high-speed reciprocating motion required for the displacement of the cutting tool for generating a nonaxisymmetric surface at a selected location on the workpiece.

  17. Environmentally Friendly Machining

    CERN Document Server

    Dixit, U S; Davim, J Paulo

    2012-01-01

    Environment-Friendly Machining provides an in-depth overview of environmentally-friendly machining processes, covering numerous different types of machining in order to identify which practice is the most environmentally sustainable. The book discusses three systems at length: machining with minimal cutting fluid, air-cooled machining and dry machining. Also covered is a way to conserve energy during machining processes, along with useful data and detailed descriptions for developing and utilizing the most efficient modern machining tools. Researchers and engineers looking for sustainable machining solutions will find Environment-Friendly Machining to be a useful volume.

  18. Machine Protection

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidt, R

    2014-01-01

    The protection of accelerator equipment is as old as accelerator technology and was for many years related to high-power equipment. Examples are the protection of powering equipment from overheating (magnets, power converters, high-current cables), of superconducting magnets from damage after a quench and of klystrons. The protection of equipment from beam accidents is more recent. It is related to the increasing beam power of high-power proton accelerators such as ISIS, SNS, ESS and the PSI cyclotron, to the emission of synchrotron light by electron–positron accelerators and FELs, and to the increase of energy stored in the beam (in particular for hadron colliders such as LHC). Designing a machine protection system requires an excellent understanding of accelerator physics and operation to anticipate possible failures that could lead to damage. Machine protection includes beam and equipment monitoring, a system to safely stop beam operation (e.g. dumping the beam or stopping the beam at low energy) and an ...

  19. Machine consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksander, Igor

    2005-01-01

    The work from several laboratories on the modeling of consciousness is reviewed. This ranges, on one hand, from purely functional models where behavior is important and leads to an attribution of consciousness to, on the other hand, material work closely derived from the information about the anatomy of the brain. At the functional end of the spectrum, applications are described specifically directed at a job-finding problem, where the person being served should not discern between being served by a conscious human or a machine. This employs an implementation of global workspace theories. At the material end, attempts at modeling attentional brain mechanisms, and basic biochemical processes in children are discussed. There are also general prescriptions for functional schemas that facilitate discussions for the presence of consciousness in computational systems and axiomatic structures that define necessary architectural features without which it would be difficult to represent sensations. Another distinction between these two approaches is whether one attempts to model phenomenology (material end) or not (functional end). The former is sometimes called "synthetic phenomenology." The upshot of this chapter is that studying consciousness through the design of machines is likely to have two major outcomes. The first is to provide a wide-ranging computational language to express the concept of consciousness. The second is to suggest a wide-ranging set of computational methods for building competent machinery that benefits from the flexibility of conscious representations.

  20. Support Spinor Machine

    OpenAIRE

    Kanjamapornkul, Kabin; Pinčák, Richard; Chunithpaisan, Sanphet; Bartoš, Erik

    2017-01-01

    We generalize a support vector machine to a support spinor machine by using the mathematical structure of wedge product over vector machine in order to extend field from vector field to spinor field. The separated hyperplane is extended to Kolmogorov space in time series data which allow us to extend a structure of support vector machine to a support tensor machine and a support tensor machine moduli space. Our performance test on support spinor machine is done over one class classification o...

  1. Promoting a Positive Middle School Transition: A Randomized-Controlled Treatment Study Examining Self-Concept and Self-Esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Vitor Alexandre; Marchante, Marta; Jimerson, Shane R

    2017-03-01

    The middle school transition is a salient developmental experience impacting adolescents around the world. This study employed a randomized-controlled treatment design, with randomization at the school level, to investigate the impact of a school adjustment program for middle school transition and potential gender differences. Participants included 1147 students (M age = 9.62; SD = 0.30, 45.7 % girls), who were assessed at four time points during the transition, regarding five dimensions of self-concept (academic, social, emotional, physical and family) and self-esteem. Parallel growth curves were employed to analyze the evolution of self-concept. Following the transition to middle school, students reported lower levels of self-concept (academic, emotional and physical) and self-esteem, while participation in the intervention led to increases in self-esteem and gains in social self-concept. No gender differences were found. These results provide preliminary evidence supporting such interventions in early middle school transitions.

  2. Up-Down Hand Position Switch May Delay the Fatigue of Non-Dominant Hand Position Rescuers and Improve Chest Compression Quality during Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation: A Randomized Crossover Manikin Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Bing; Wang, Huang-Lei; Xiong, Dan; Sheng, Li-Pin; Yang, Qi-Sheng; Jiang, Shan; Xu, Peng; Chen, Zhi-Qiao; Zhao, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have shown improved external chest compression (ECC) quality and delayed rescuer fatigue when the dominant hand (DH) was in contact with the sternum. However, many rescuers prefer placing the non-dominant hand (NH) in contact with the sternum during ECC. We aimed to investigate the effects of up-down hand position switch on the quality of ECC and the fatigue of rescuers during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). After completion of a review of the standard adult basic life support (BLS) course, every candidate performed 10 cycles of single adult CPR twice on an adult manikin with either a constant hand position (CH) or a switched hand position (SH) in random order at 7-day intervals. The rescuers’ general characteristics, hand positions, physiological signs, fatigue appearance and ECC qualities were recorded. Our results showed no significant differences in chest compression quality for the DH position rescuers between the CH and SH sessions (p>0.05, resp.). And also no significant differences were found for Borg score (p = 0.437) or cycle number (p = 0.127) of fatigue appearance after chest compressions between the two sessions. However, for NH position rescuers, the appearance of fatigue was delayed (p = 0.046), with a lower Borg score in the SH session (12.67 ± 2.03) compared to the CH session (13.33 ± 1.95) (p = 0.011). Moreover, the compression depth was significantly greater in the SH session (39.3 ± 7.2 mm) compared to the CH session (36.3 ± 8.1 mm) (p = 0.015). Our data suggest that the up-down hand position switch during CPR may delay the fatigue of non-dominant hand position rescuers and improve the quality of chest compressions. PMID:26267353

  3. Influence of Head and Neck Position on Oropharyngeal Leak Pressure and Cuff Position with the ProSeal Laryngeal Mask Airway and the I-Gel: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Kumar Mishra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. This study was designed to assess and compare the effect of head and neck position on the oropharyngeal leak pressures and cuff position (employing fibreoptic view of the glottis and ventilation scores between ProSeal LMA and the I-gel. Material and Methods. After induction of anesthesia, the supraglottic device was inserted and ventilation confirmed. The position of the head was randomly changed from neutral to flexion, extension, and lateral rotation (left. The oropharyngeal leak pressures, fibreoptic view of glottis, ventilation scores, and delivered tidal volumes and end tidal CO2 were noted in all positions. Results. In both groups compared with neutral position, oropharyngeal leak pressures were significantly higher with flexion and lower with extension but similar with rotation of head and neck. However the oropharyngeal leak pressure was significantly higher for ProSeal LMA compared with the I-gel in all positions. Peak airway pressures were significantly higher with flexion in both groups (however this did not affect ventilation, lower with extension in ProSeal group, and comparable in I-gel group but did not change significantly with rotation of head and neck in both groups. Conclusion. Effective ventilation can be done with both ProSeal LMA and I-gel with head in all the above positions. ProSeal LMA has a better margin of safety than I-gel due to better sealing pressures except in flexion where the increase in airway pressure is more with the former. Extreme precaution should be taken in flexion position in ProSeal LMA.

  4. A community-engaged randomized controlled trial of an integrative intervention with HIV-positive, methamphetamine-using men who have sex with men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrico, Adam W; Jain, Jennifer; Discepola, Michael V; Olem, David; Andrews, Rick; Woods, William J; Neilands, Torsten B; Shoptaw, Steven; Gómez, Walter; Dilworth, Samantha E; Moskowitz, Judith T

    2016-07-30

    Contingency management (CM) is an evidence-based intervention providing tangible rewards as positive reinforcement for abstinence from stimulants such as methamphetamine. Integrative approaches targeting affect regulation could boost the effectiveness of CM in community-based settings and optimize HIV/AIDS prevention efforts. This randomized controlled trial with HIV-positive, methamphetamine-using men who have sex with men (MSM) is examining the efficacy of a 5-session, individually delivered positive affect regulation intervention - Affect Regulation Treatment to Enhance Methamphetamine Intervention Success (ARTEMIS). ARTEMIS is designed to sensitize individuals to non-drug-related sources of reward as well as assist with managing depression and other symptoms of stimulant withdrawal during CM. HIV-positive, methamphetamine-using MSM who are enrolled in a community-based, 12-week CM program are randomized to receive ARTEMIS or an attention-matched control condition. Follow-up assessments are conducted at 3, 6, 12, and 15 months after enrollment in CM. Four peripheral venous blood samples are collected over the 15-month follow-up with specimen banking for planned biomarker sub-studies. The primary outcome is mean HIV viral load. Secondary outcomes include: sustained HIV viral suppression, T-helper cell count, psychological adjustment, stimulant use, and potentially amplified transmission risk behavior. Implementation of this randomized controlled trial highlights the importance of delineating boundaries between research activities and community-based service provision. It also provides insights into best practices for integrating the distinct agendas of academic and community partners in clinical research. This trial is currently enrolling and data collection is anticipated to be completed in September of 2018. This trial was registered on clinicaltrials.gov ( NCT01926184 ) on August 16, 2013.

  5. A community-engaged randomized controlled trial of an integrative intervention with HIV-positive, methamphetamine-using men who have sex with men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam W. Carrico

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Contingency management (CM is an evidence-based intervention providing tangible rewards as positive reinforcement for abstinence from stimulants such as methamphetamine. Integrative approaches targeting affect regulation could boost the effectiveness of CM in community-based settings and optimize HIV/AIDS prevention efforts. Methods/Design This randomized controlled trial with HIV-positive, methamphetamine-using men who have sex with men (MSM is examining the efficacy of a 5-session, individually delivered positive affect regulation intervention – Affect Regulation Treatment to Enhance Methamphetamine Intervention Success (ARTEMIS. ARTEMIS is designed to sensitize individuals to non-drug-related sources of reward as well as assist with managing depression and other symptoms of stimulant withdrawal during CM. HIV-positive, methamphetamine-using MSM who are enrolled in a community-based, 12-week CM program are randomized to receive ARTEMIS or an attention-matched control condition. Follow-up assessments are conducted at 3, 6, 12, and 15 months after enrollment in CM. Four peripheral venous blood samples are collected over the 15-month follow-up with specimen banking for planned biomarker sub-studies. The primary outcome is mean HIV viral load. Secondary outcomes include: sustained HIV viral suppression, T-helper cell count, psychological adjustment, stimulant use, and potentially amplified transmission risk behavior. Discussion Implementation of this randomized controlled trial highlights the importance of delineating boundaries between research activities and community-based service provision. It also provides insights into best practices for integrating the distinct agendas of academic and community partners in clinical research. This trial is currently enrolling and data collection is anticipated to be completed in September of 2018. Trial registration This trial was registered on clinicaltrials.gov ( NCT01926184 on

  6. Positive imagery cognitive bias modification (CBM) and internet-based cognitive behavioral therapy (iCBT) : a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Williams, Alishia D; O'Moore, Kathleen; Blackwell, Simon E; Smith, Jessica; Holmes, Emily A; Andrews, Gavin

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Accruing evidence suggests that positive imagery-based cognitive bias modification (CBM) could have potential as a standalone targeted intervention for depressive symptoms or as an adjunct to existing treatments. We sought to establish the benefit of this form of CBM when delivered prior

  7. Effect of Continuous Positive Airway Pressure on Airway Reactivity in Asthma. A Randomized, Sham-controlled Clinical Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Holbrook, Janet T.; Sugar, Elizabeth A.; Brown, Robert H., Jr.; Drye, Lea T.; Irvin, Charles G.; Schwartz, Alan R.; Tepper, Robert S.; Wise, Robert A; Yasin, Razan Z.; Busk, Michael F.

    2016-01-01

    Rationale: Studies have demonstrated that application of stress suppresses airway smooth muscle contractility. In animal models of asthma, continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) reduced airway reactivity. Short-term studies of CPAP in patients with asthma showed reductions in airway reactivity.

  8. Challenging medical students with an interim assessment: a positive effect on formal examination score in a randomized controlled study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olde Bekkink, M.; Donders, R.; Muijen, G.N.P. van; Ruiter, D.J.

    2012-01-01

    Until now, positive effects of assessment at a medical curriculum level have not been demonstrated. This study was performed to determine whether an interim assessment, taken during a small group work session of an ongoing biomedical course, results in students' increased performance at the formal

  9. Efficacy of a Multicomponent Positive Psychology Self-Help Intervention: Study Protocol of a Randomized Controlled Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schotanus-Dijkstra, Marijke; Drossaert, Constance H.C.; Pieterse, Marcel E.; Walburg, J.A.; Bohlmeijer, Ernst Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Background: Positive psychology interventions have been found to enhance well-being and decrease clinical symptomatology. However, it is still unknown how flourishing can also be increased. Although multicomponent interventions seem to be necessary for this purpose, different formats can be used. A

  10. "Familias: Preparando La Nueva Generación": A Randomized Control Trial Testing the Effects on Positive Parenting Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsiglia, Flavio F.; Williams, Lela Rankin; Ayers, Stephanie L.; Booth, Jaime M.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: This article reports the effects of a culturally grounded parenting intervention to strengthen positive parenting practices. Method: The intervention was designed and tested with primarily Mexican origin parents in a large urban setting of the southwestern United States using an ecodevelopmental approach. Parents (N = 393) were…

  11. iRPIS-PseNNC: identifying RNA-protein interaction sites by incorporating the position-specific dinucleotide propensity into ensemble random forest approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Long; Chen, Guojin; Jin, Tingdu

    2017-06-01

    As the pile of RNA-Protein complexes sequences mounted, in order to overcome time-consuming problem of the traditional identify RNA-Protein interaction sites (RPIS) method, it is urgent need develop intelligent recognition approach for quickly and reliable recognition of the RNA-Protein interaction sites (RPIS). To settle the question, we developed a new method named iRPIS-PseNNC, in which each sample is a nineteen nucleotides segment that for positive the centre of the segments is RPIS and for negative the segments centre is non-RPIS, and the sample was obtained by sliding window. The RNA sample was formulated by combining the dipeptide position-specific propensity into random forest approach, and by using the random sampling to balance the training dataset. According the voting system, we combine eleven random forest together to construct an ensemble classifier. It is shown that via the rigorous cross validations that the new predictor “iRPIS-PseNNC” achieved very high percentage of accuracy than any other existing algorithms in this field, indicating that the iRPIS-PseNNC predictor will be an effective tool for prediction RNA-Protein interaction sites.

  12. Problem behavior and urban, low-income youth: a randomized controlled trial of positive action in Chicago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Kendra M; Schure, Marc B; Bavarian, Niloofar; DuBois, David L; Day, Joseph; Ji, Peter; Silverthorn, Naida; Acock, Alan; Vuchinich, Samuel; Flay, Brian R

    2013-06-01

    Youth problem behaviors remain a public health issue. Youth in low-income, urban areas are particularly at risk for engaging in aggressive, violent, and disruptive behaviors. To evaluate the effects of a school-based social-emotional learning and health promotion program on problem behaviors and related attitudes among low-income, urban youth. A matched-pair, cluster RCT. Participants were drawn from 14 Chicago Public Schools over a 6-year period of program delivery with outcomes assessed for a cohort of youth followed from Grades 3 to 8. Data were collected from Fall 2004 to Spring 2010, and analyzed in Spring 2012. The Positive Action program includes a scoped and sequenced K-12 classroom curriculum with six components: self-concept, social and emotional positive actions for managing oneself responsibly, and positive actions directed toward physical and mental health, honesty, getting along with others, and continually improving oneself. The program also includes teacher, counselor, family, and community training as well as activities directed toward schoolwide climate development. Youth reported on their normative beliefs in support of aggression and on their bullying, disruptive, and violent behaviors; parents rated youths' bullying behaviors and conduct problems; schoolwide data on disciplinary referrals and suspensions were obtained from school records. Multilevel growth-curve modeling analyses conducted on completion of the trial indicated that Positive Action mitigated increases over time in (1) youth reports of normative beliefs supporting aggressive behaviors and of engaging in disruptive behavior and bullying (girls only) and (2) parent reports of youth bullying behaviors (boys only). At study end-point, students in Positive Action schools also reported a lower rate of violence-related behavior than students in control schools. Schoolwide findings indicated positive program effects on both disciplinary referrals and suspensions. Program effect sizes

  13. Positive Effect of Probiotics on Constipation in Children: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Six Randomized Controlled Trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianan Hu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Context: Constipation in children is a prevalent, burdensome, and psychologically important pediatric issue, the treatment of which remains a global challenge. The use of probiotics has been reported for management of the gastrointestinal microbiota.Objective: This study reviewed the existing literatures of 6 Randomized Control Trials (RCTs to ascertain some baseline understanding and available information for the effects of probiotics on stool frequency and consistency in children with constipation.Data Sources: PubMed, Springer, Elsevier Science, Cochrane Library, Scopus, Ovid (Medline, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Orbis, and Web of Science from the earliest record in each database to 15 September, 2016.Study selection: Eligible studies were randomized controlled trials that compared the effect of probiotics interventions to any control intervention on stool frequency and consistency.Data Extraction: Studies were identified by searching electronic databases. The meta-analysis was performed by Review Manager 5.3 software using a randomized model.Results: Six studies were identified. The use of probiotics significantly increased the stool frequency [mean difference (MD, 0.73; 95% confidence interval (CI, 0.14–1.31; P = 0.02]. Subgroup assessment showed a significantly increased stool frequency in Asian patients (MD, 1.18; 95% CI, 0.33–2.02; P = 0.006, but no significant difference in stool consistency (MD, −0.07; 95% CI, −0.21–0.06; P = 0.27.Limitations: Only six RCTs met the criteria and were included. Each RCT in this study was performed in a different country, and some of the included studies had a small sample size, which might have influenced the reliability and validity of the conclusions.Conclusion: The present study shows that probiotics increase stool frequency and have beneficial effects in Asian children. However, caution is needed when interpreting these outcomes because of the existence of heterogeneity. Evidence from larger samples

  14. Analysis of machining and machine tools

    CERN Document Server

    Liang, Steven Y

    2016-01-01

    This book delivers the fundamental science and mechanics of machining and machine tools by presenting systematic and quantitative knowledge in the form of process mechanics and physics. It gives readers a solid command of machining science and engineering, and familiarizes them with the geometry and functionality requirements of creating parts and components in today’s markets. The authors address traditional machining topics, such as: single and multiple point cutting processes grinding components accuracy and metrology shear stress in cutting cutting temperature and analysis chatter They also address non-traditional machining, such as: electrical discharge machining electrochemical machining laser and electron beam machining A chapter on biomedical machining is also included. This book is appropriate for advanced undergraduate and graduate mechani cal engineering students, manufacturing engineers, and researchers. Each chapter contains examples, exercises and their solutions, and homework problems that re...

  15. Free choice access to multipoint wellness education and related services positively impacts employee wellness: a randomized and controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sforzo, Gary A; Kaye, Miranda P; Calleri, David; Ngai, Nancy

    2012-04-01

    Examine effects of voluntary participation in employer-sponsored, multipoint wellness education programming on employee wellness. A randomized and controlled design was used to organize 96 participants into an education + access group; an access-only group, and control group. Outcome measures were made at start and end of a 12-week intervention period. Education + access improved wellness knowledge, which, in turn, enhanced life satisfaction, employee morale, and energy, and nearly improved stress level. Those who received facility access without educational programming did not reap health benefits. Employees voluntarily used the fitness facility and healthy meal cards only 1.3 and 1.5 times per week, respectively. Participants made limited and likely inadequate use of wellness opportunities. As a result, physical health benefits (eg, blood pressure, fitness parameters) were not seen in the present study. However, multipoint wellness education resulted in psychosocial health benefits in 12 weeks.

  16. A Randomized-Controlled Trial of the Triple P-Positive Parenting Program Seminar Series with Indonesian Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumargi, Agnes; Sofronoff, Kate; Morawska, Alina

    2015-10-01

    There are limited evaluations of an evidence-based parenting program for parents from large developing countries, such as Indonesia. This study aimed to test the efficacy and acceptability of an evidence-based parenting program, the Triple P seminar series, among Indonesian parents. The level of child emotional and behavioral problems was the primary outcome of this study. Participants were 143 parents of children aged 2-12 years in Indonesia that were randomly allocated into the intervention (n = 72) or waitlist control group (n = 71). Participants, investigators, and data collectors were not blinded to the group assignment. A randomized-controlled trial was conducted with 143 parents of children aged 2-12 years in Indonesia. Results showed that parents in the intervention group reported a greater decrease in child behavioral problems (d = 0.45), dysfunctional parenting practices (d = 0.69), parental stress (d = 0.44), and a greater increase in parenting confidence (d = 0.45) in comparison to parents in the waitlist control group at post intervention. The intervention effects were maintained at 6-month follow up for parents in the intervention group. The program was deemed to be culturally appropriate as parents indicated high levels of acceptability and satisfaction with the program content. It is suggested that future studies include families with lower income and employ a more stringent design (e.g., using validated measures, multiple facilitators, and blinding).

  17. Sexual risk reduction for HIV-infected persons: a meta-analytic review of "positive prevention" randomized clinical trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Yin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Prevention intervention trials have been conducted to reduce risk of sexual transmission among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA, but the findings were inconsistent. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate overall efficacy of prevention interventions on unprotected vaginal or anal intercourse (UVAI among PLWHA from randomized clinical trials (RCTs. METHODS: RCTs of prevention interventions among PLWHA published as of February 2012 were identified by systematically searching thirteen electronic databases. The primary outcome was UVAI. The difference of standardized mean difference (SMD of UVAI between study arms, defined as effect size (ES, was calculated for each study and then pooled across studies using standard meta-analysis with a random effects model. RESULTS: Lower likelihood of UVAI was observed in the intervention arms compared with the control arms either with any sexual partners (mean ES: -0.22; 95% confidence interval [CI]: -0.32, -0.11 or with HIV-negative or unknown-status sexual partners (mean ES and 95% CI: -0.13 [-0.22, -0.04]. Short-term efficacy of interventions with ≤ 10 months of follow up was significant in reducing UVAI (1-5 months: -0.27 [-0.45, -0.10]; 6-10 months: -0.18 [-0.30, -0.07], while long-term efficacy of interventions was weaker and might have been due to chance (11-15 months: -0.13 [-0.34, 0.08]; >15 months: -0.05 [-0.43, 0.32]. CONCLUSIONS: Our meta-analyses confirmed the short-term impact of prevention interventions on reducing self-reported UVAI among PLWHA irrespective of the type of sexual partner, but did not support a definite conclusion on long-term effect. It is suggested that booster intervention sessions are needed to maintain a sustainable reduction of unprotected sex among PLWHA in future risk reduction programs.

  18. Gaussian processes for machine learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeger, Matthias

    2004-04-01

    Gaussian processes (GPs) are natural generalisations of multivariate Gaussian random variables to infinite (countably or continuous) index sets. GPs have been applied in a large number of fields to a diverse range of ends, and very many deep theoretical analyses of various properties are available. This paper gives an introduction to Gaussian processes on a fairly elementary level with special emphasis on characteristics relevant in machine learning. It draws explicit connections to branches such as spline smoothing models and support vector machines in which similar ideas have been investigated. Gaussian process models are routinely used to solve hard machine learning problems. They are attractive because of their flexible non-parametric nature and computational simplicity. Treated within a Bayesian framework, very powerful statistical methods can be implemented which offer valid estimates of uncertainties in our predictions and generic model selection procedures cast as nonlinear optimization problems. Their main drawback of heavy computational scaling has recently been alleviated by the introduction of generic sparse approximations.13,78,31 The mathematical literature on GPs is large and often uses deep concepts which are not required to fully understand most machine learning applications. In this tutorial paper, we aim to present characteristics of GPs relevant to machine learning and to show up precise connections to other "kernel machines" popular in the community. Our focus is on a simple presentation, but references to more detailed sources are provided.

  19. Effect of using HIV and infant feeding counselling cards on the quality of counselling provided to HIV positive mothers: a cluster randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babaniyi Olusegun

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Counselling human immunodeficiency virus (HIV positive mothers on safer infant and young child feeding (IYCF options is an important component of programmes to prevent mother to child transmission of HIV, but the quality of counselling is often inadequate. The aim of this study was to determine the effect the World Health Organization HIV and infant feeding cards on the quality of counselling provided to HIV positive mothers by health workers about safer infant feeding options. Method This was a un-blinded cluster-randomized controlled field trial in which 36 primary health facilities in Kafue and Lusaka districts in Zambia were randomized to intervention (IYCF counselling with counselling cards or non- intervention arm (IYCF counselling without counselling cards. Counselling sessions with 10 HIV positive women attending each facility were observed and exit interviews were conducted by research assistants. Results Totals of 180 women in the intervention group and 180 women in the control group were attended to by health care providers and interviewed upon exiting the health facility. The health care providers in the intervention facilities more often discussed the advantages of disclosing their HIV status to a household member (RR = 1.46, 95% CI [1.11, 1.92]; used visual aids in explaining the risk of HIV transmission through breast milk (RR = 4.65, 95% CI [2.28, 9.46]; and discussed the advantages and disadvantages of infant feeding options for HIV positive mothers (all p values Conclusion The addition of counselling cards to the IYCF counselling session for HIV positive mothers were a valuable aid to counselling and significantly improved the quality of the counselling session.

  20. Happy Despite Pain: A Randomized Controlled Trial of an 8-Week Internet-delivered Positive Psychology Intervention for Enhancing Well-being in Patients With Chronic Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Madelon L; Smeets, Elke; Feijge, Marion; van Breukelen, Gerard; Andersson, Gerhard; Buhrman, Monica; Linton, Steven J

    2017-11-01

    There is preliminary evidence for the efficacy of positive psychology interventions for pain management. The current study examined the effects of an internet-based positive psychology self-help program for patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain and compared it with an internet-based cognitive-behavioral program. A randomized controlled trial was carried out with 3 conditions: an internet-delivered positive psychology program, an internet-delivered cognitive-behavioral program and waitlist control. A total of 276 patients were randomized to 1 of the 3 conditions and posttreatment data were obtained from 206 patients. Primary outcomes were happiness, depression, and physical impairments at posttreatment and at 6-month follow-up. Intention-to-treat analyses were carried out using mixed regression analyses. Both treatments led to significant increases in happiness and decreases in depression. Physical impairments did not significantly decrease compared with waitlist. Improvements in happiness and depression were maintained until 6-month follow-up. There were no overall differences in the efficacy of the 2 active interventions but effects seemed to be moderated by education. Patients with a higher level of education profited slightly more from the positive psychology intervention than from the cognitive-behavioral program. The results suggest that an internet-based positive psychology and cognitive-behavioral self-help interventions for the management of chronic pain are clinically useful. Because the self-help exercises as used in the current program do not require therapist involvement, dissemination potential is large. Further studies should examine whether it can best be used as stand-alone or add-on treatment combined with established pain treatment programs.

  1. Diamond turning machine controller implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrard, K.P.; Taylor, L.W.; Knight, B.F.; Fornaro, R.J.

    1988-12-01

    The standard controller for a Pnuemo ASG 2500 Diamond Turning Machine, an Allen Bradley 8200, has been replaced with a custom high-performance design. This controller consists of four major components. Axis position feedback information is provided by a Zygo Axiom 2/20 laser interferometer with 0.1 micro-inch resolution. Hardware interface logic couples the computers digital and analog I/O channels to the diamond turning machine`s analog motor controllers, the laser interferometer, and other machine status and control information. It also provides front panel switches for operator override of the computer controller and implement the emergency stop sequence. The remaining two components, the control computer hardware and software, are discussed in detail below.

  2. A prospective, randomized, controlled trial of autologous haematopoietic stem cell transplantation for aggressive multiple sclerosis: a position paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saccardi, R; Freedman, M S; Sormani, M P; Atkins, H; Farge, D; Griffith, L M; Kraft, G; Mancardi, G L; Nash, R; Pasquini, M; Martin, R; Muraro, P A

    2012-06-01

    Haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) has been tried in the last 15 years as a therapeutic option in patients with poor-prognosis autoimmune disease who do not respond to conventional treatments. Worldwide, more than 600 patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) have been treated with HSCT, most of them having been recruited in small, single-centre, phase 1-2 uncontrolled trials. Clinical and magnetic resonance imaging outcomes from case series reports or Registry-based analyses suggest that a major response is achieved in most patients; quality and duration of response are better in patients transplanted during the relapsing-remitting phase than in those in the secondary progressive stage. An interdisciplinary group of neurologists and haematologists has been formed, following two international meetings supported by the European and American Blood and Marrow Transplantation Societies, for the purpose of discussing a controlled clinical trial, to be designed within the new scenarios of evolving MS treatments. Objectives of the trial, patient selection, transplant technology and outcome assessment were extensively discussed. The outcome of this process is summarized in the present paper, with the goal of establishing the background and advancing the development of a prospective, randomized, controlled multicentre trial to assess the clinical efficacy of HSCT for the treatment of highly active MS.

  3. Robotics: self-replication from random parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Saul; Goldwater, Dan; Jacobson, Joseph M

    2005-09-29

    Autonomously self-replicating machines have long caught the imagination but have yet to acquire the sophistication of biological systems, which assemble structures from disordered building blocks. Here we describe the autonomous self-replication of a reconfigurable string of parts from randomly positioned input components. Such components, if suitably miniaturized and mass-produced, could constitute self-fabricating systems whose assembly is brought about by the parts themselves.

  4. A randomized trial of noninvasive positive end expiratory pressure in patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome and hypoxemic respiratory failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anjos, Carlos Frederico Dantas; Schettino, Guilherme Paula Pinto; Park, Marcelo; Souza, Vladimir Silva; Scalabrini Neto, Augusto

    2012-02-01

    Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a pandemic disease commonly associated with respiratory infections, hypoxemia, and death. Noninvasive PEEP has been shown to improve hypoxemia. In this study, we evaluated the physiologic effects of different levels of noninvasive PEEP in hypoxemic AIDS patients. Thirty AIDS patients with acute hypoxemic respiratory failure received a randomized sequence of noninvasive PEEP (5, 10, or 15 cm H(2)O) for 20 min. PEEP was provided through a facial mask with pressure-support ventilation (PSV) of 5 cm H(2)O and an F(IO(2)) of 1. Patients were allowed to breathe spontaneously for a 20-min washout period in between each PEEP trial. Arterial blood gases and clinical variables were recorded after each PEEP treatment. The results indicate that oxygenation improves linearly with increasing levels of PEEP. However, oxygenation levels were similar regardless of the first PEEP level administered (5, 10, or 15 cm H(2)O), and only the subgroup that received an initial treatment of the lowest level of PEEP (ie, 5 cm H(2)O) showed further improvements in oxygenation when higher PEEP levels were subsequently applied. The P(aCO(2)) also increased in response to PEEP elevation, especially with the highest level of PEEP (ie, 15 cm H(2)O). PSV of 5 cm H(2)O use was associated with significant and consistent improvements in the subjective sensations of dyspnea and respiratory rate reported by patients treated with any level of PEEP (from 0 to 15 cm H(2)O). AIDS patients with hypoxemic respiratory failure improve oxygenation in response to a progressive sequential elevation of PEEP (up to 15 cm H(2)O). However, corresponding elevations in P(aCO(2)) limit the recommended level of PEEP to 10 cm H(2)O. At a level of 5 cm H(2)O, PSV promotes an improvement in the subjective sensation of dyspnea regardless of the PEEP level employed.

  5. Digital palpation of endotracheal tube tip as a method of confirming endotracheal tube position in neonates: an open-label, three-armed randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saboo, Ashwin R; Dutta, Sourabh; Sodhi, Kushaljit Singh

    2013-10-01

    To compare the malposition rates of endotracheal tubes (ETTs) when the insertional length (IL) is determined by a weight-based nomogram versus when IL is determined by palpation of the ETT tip. Open-label, randomized controlled trial (RCT). Level III neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). All newborn babies admitted in NICU requiring intubation. Subjects were randomly allocated to one of three groups, wherein IL was determined by (i) weight-based nomogram alone, (ii) weight-based nomogram combined with suprasternal palpation of ETT tip performed by specially trained neonatology fellows, or (iii) combination of weight-based and suprasternal methods by personnel not specially trained. Rate of malposition of ETT as judged on chest X-ray (CXR). Fifty seven babies were randomized into group 1(n = 15), group 2 (n = 20), and group 3 (n = 22). The proportion of correct ETT placement was highest in group 2, being 66.7%, 83.3%, and 66.7% in groups 1 through 3, respectively (P value = 0.58). No complication was attributable to palpation technique. Suprasternal palpation shows promise as a simple, safe, and teachable method of confirming ETT position in neonates. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Machine musicianship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Robert

    2002-05-01

    The training of musicians begins by teaching basic musical concepts, a collection of knowledge commonly known as musicianship. Computer programs designed to implement musical skills (e.g., to make sense of what they hear, perform music expressively, or compose convincing pieces) can similarly benefit from access to a fundamental level of musicianship. Recent research in music cognition, artificial intelligence, and music theory has produced a repertoire of techniques that can make the behavior of computer programs more musical. Many of these were presented in a recently published book/CD-ROM entitled Machine Musicianship. For use in interactive music systems, we are interested in those which are fast enough to run in real time and that need only make reference to the material as it appears in sequence. This talk will review several applications that are able to identify the tonal center of musical material during performance. Beyond this specific task, the design of real-time algorithmic listening through the concurrent operation of several connected analyzers is examined. The presentation includes discussion of a library of C++ objects that can be combined to perform interactive listening and a demonstration of their capability.

  7. Addiction Machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Godley

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Entry into the crypt William Burroughs shared with his mother opened and shut around a failed re-enactment of William Tell’s shot through the prop placed upon a loved one’s head. The accidental killing of his wife Joan completed the installation of the addictation machine that spun melancholia as manic dissemination. An early encryptment to which was added the audio portion of abuse deposited an undeliverable message in WB. Wil- liam could never tell, although his corpus bears the in- scription of this impossibility as another form of pos- sibility. James Godley is currently a doctoral candidate in Eng- lish at SUNY Buffalo, where he studies psychoanalysis, Continental philosophy, and nineteenth-century litera- ture and poetry (British and American. His work on the concept of mourning and “the dead” in Freudian and Lacanian approaches to psychoanalytic thought and in Gothic literature has also spawned an essay on zombie porn. Since entering the Academy of Fine Arts Karlsruhe in 2007, Valentin Hennig has studied in the classes of Sil- via Bächli, Claudio Moser, and Corinne Wasmuht. In 2010 he spent a semester at the Dresden Academy of Fine Arts. His work has been shown in group exhibi- tions in Freiburg and Karlsruhe.

  8. Technical analysis inspired machine learning for stock market data

    OpenAIRE

    Kihlström, Gustav; Patryk, Przybysz

    2016-01-01

    In this thesis we evaluate four different machine learning algorithms, namely Naive Bayes Classifier, Support Vector Machines, Extreme Learning Machine and Random Forest in the context of stock market investments. The aim is to provide additional information that can be beneficial when creating stock market models to be used in a machine learning setting. All four algorithms are trained on different configurations of data, based on concepts from technical analysis. The configurations contain ...

  9. Passive continuous positive airway pressure ventilation during cardiopulmonary resuscitation: a randomized cross-over manikin simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Bernd E; Muellenbach, Ralf M; Wurmb, Thomas; Struck, Manuel F; Roewer, Norbert; Kranke, Peter

    2017-02-01

    While controlled ventilation is most frequently used during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), the application of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) and passive ventilation of the lung synchronously with chest compressions and decompressions might represent a promising alternative approach. One benefit of CPAP during CPR is the reduction of peak airway pressures and therefore a potential enhancement in haemodynamics. We therefore evaluated the tidal volumes and airway pressures achieved during CPAP-CPR. During CPR with the LUCAS™ 2 compression device, a manikin model was passively ventilated at CPAP levels of 5, 10, 20 and 30 hPa with the Boussignac tracheal tube and the ventilators Evita® V500, Medumat® Transport, Oxylator® EMX, Oxylog® 2000, Oxylog® 3000, Primus® and Servo®-i as well as the Wenoll® diver rescue system. Tidal volumes and airway pressures during CPAP-CPR were recorded and analyzed. Tidal volumes during CPAP-CPR were higher than during compression-only CPR without positive airway pressure. The passively generated tidal volumes increased with increasing CPAP levels and were significantly influenced by the ventilators used. During ventilation at 20 hPa CPAP via a tracheal tube, the mean tidal volumes ranged from 125 ml (Medumat®) to 309 ml (Wenoll®) and the peak airway pressures from 23 hPa (Primus®) to 49 hPa (Oxylog® 3000). Transport ventilators generated lower tidal volumes than intensive care ventilators or closed-circuit systems. Peak airway pressures during CPAP-CPR were lower than those during controlled ventilation CPR reported in literature. High peak airway pressures are known to limit the applicability of ventilation via facemask or via supraglottic airway devices and may adversely affect haemodynamics. Hence, the application of ventilators generating high tidal volumes with low peak airway pressures appears desirable during CPAP-CPR. The limited CPAP-CPR capabilities of transport ventilators in our study might

  10. Humanizing machines: Anthropomorphization of slot machines increases gambling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riva, Paolo; Sacchi, Simona; Brambilla, Marco

    2015-12-01

    Do people gamble more on slot machines if they think that they are playing against humanlike minds rather than mathematical algorithms? Research has shown that people have a strong cognitive tendency to imbue humanlike mental states to nonhuman entities (i.e., anthropomorphism). The present research tested whether anthropomorphizing slot machines would increase gambling. Four studies manipulated slot machine anthropomorphization and found that exposing people to an anthropomorphized description of a slot machine increased gambling behavior and reduced gambling outcomes. Such findings emerged using tasks that focused on gambling behavior (Studies 1 to 3) as well as in experimental paradigms that included gambling outcomes (Studies 2 to 4). We found that gambling outcomes decrease because participants primed with the anthropomorphic slot machine gambled more (Study 4). Furthermore, we found that high-arousal positive emotions (e.g., feeling excited) played a role in the effect of anthropomorphism on gambling behavior (Studies 3 and 4). Our research indicates that the psychological process of gambling-machine anthropomorphism can be advantageous for the gaming industry; however, this may come at great expense for gamblers' (and their families') economic resources and psychological well-being. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Application of Machine Learning Approaches for Classifying Sitting Posture Based on Force and Acceleration Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland Zemp

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Occupational musculoskeletal disorders, particularly chronic low back pain (LBP, are ubiquitous due to prolonged static sitting or nonergonomic sitting positions. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop an instrumented chair with force and acceleration sensors to determine the accuracy of automatically identifying the user’s sitting position by applying five different machine learning methods (Support Vector Machines, Multinomial Regression, Boosting, Neural Networks, and Random Forest. Forty-one subjects were requested to sit four times in seven different prescribed sitting positions (total 1148 samples. Sixteen force sensor values and the backrest angle were used as the explanatory variables (features for the classification. The different classification methods were compared by means of a Leave-One-Out cross-validation approach. The best performance was achieved using the Random Forest classification algorithm, producing a mean classification accuracy of 90.9% for subjects with which the algorithm was not familiar. The classification accuracy varied between 81% and 98% for the seven different sitting positions. The present study showed the possibility of accurately classifying different sitting positions by means of the introduced instrumented office chair combined with machine learning analyses. The use of such novel approaches for the accurate assessment of chair usage could offer insights into the relationships between sitting position, sitting behaviour, and the occurrence of musculoskeletal disorders.

  12. Effect of intravenous ondansetron on reducing the incidence of hypotension and bradycardia events during shoulder arthroscopy in sitting position under interscalene brachial plexus block: A prospective randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivasa Rao Nallam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Sudden, profound hypotension and bradycardia events (HBEs have been reported in more than 20% of patients undergoing shoulder arthroscopy in the sitting position. The present study was designed to know whether intravenous (IV ondansetron (selective 5-hydroxy tryptamine 3-antagonist can help in reducing the HBEs associated with shoulder arthroscopy performed in sitting position under interscalene brachial plexus block (ISBPB. Methods: A total of 100 patients (age 20-50 years undergoing shoulder arthroscopy performed in the sitting position under ISBPB were assigned randomly to one of the two groups: Group C received 10 ml of normal saline and Group T received 4 mg of ondansetron diluted in 10 ml of normal saline` IV. All patients received ISBPB using levobupivacaine 0.5%. Assessment of motor and sensory blockade, pulse rate, systolic blood pressure, respiration, and side effects were noted every 5 min for first 30 min and every 10 min till the end of surgery. HBEs were recorded in both groups. Results: IV injection of ondansetron significantly reduces the incidence of HBEs from 11 (22.44% in Group C to 3 (6.1% in Group T. The duration of analgesia was significantly longer in Group C (8.1 ± 3.3 in comparison with Group T (6.3 ± 4.2 h. Conclusion: We conclude that 4 ml of IV ondansetron can significantly reduce the HBEs during shoulder arthroscopy done in the sitting position under ISBPB.

  13. Comparison of Pressure Changes by Head and Neck Position between High-Volume Low-Pressure and Taper-Shaped Cuffs: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komasawa, Nobuyasu; Mihara, Ryosuke; Imagawa, Kentaro; Hattori, Kazuo; Minami, Toshiaki

    2015-01-01

    The present study compared changes in cuff pressure by head and neck position between high-volume low-pressure (HVLP) and taper-shaped (taper) cuffs in a prospective randomized clinical trial. Methods. Forty patients were intubated using tracheal tubes with either HVLP (n = 20; HVLP group) or taper-shaped (n = 20; Taper group) cuffs. Initial cuff pressure was adjusted to 15, 20, or 25 cmH2O in the neutral position. Cuff pressure was evaluated after changing the head and neck positions to flexion, extension, and rotation. Results. Cuff pressure significantly increased with flexion in both HVLP and Taper groups at all initial cuff pressures. It significantly increased with extension in the HVLP group, but not in the Taper group. Cuff pressure did not significantly differ with rotation in either group and was significantly smaller in the Taper group during flexion and extension than in the HVLP group, regardless of initial cuff pressure. Conclusion. Cuff pressure changes with head and neck flexion and extension were smaller in the Taper group than in the HVLP group. Our results highlight the potential for taper cuffs to prevent excessive cuff pressure increases with positional changes in the head and neck. This trial is registered with UMIN000016119.

  14. Comparison of Pressure Changes by Head and Neck Position between High-Volume Low-Pressure and Taper-Shaped Cuffs: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuyasu Komasawa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study compared changes in cuff pressure by head and neck position between high-volume low-pressure (HVLP and taper-shaped (taper cuffs in a prospective randomized clinical trial. Methods. Forty patients were intubated using tracheal tubes with either HVLP (n=20; HVLP group or taper-shaped (n=20; Taper group cuffs. Initial cuff pressure was adjusted to 15, 20, or 25 cmH2O in the neutral position. Cuff pressure was evaluated after changing the head and neck positions to flexion, extension, and rotation. Results. Cuff pressure significantly increased with flexion in both HVLP and Taper groups at all initial cuff pressures. It significantly increased with extension in the HVLP group, but not in the Taper group. Cuff pressure did not significantly differ with rotation in either group and was significantly smaller in the Taper group during flexion and extension than in the HVLP group, regardless of initial cuff pressure. Conclusion. Cuff pressure changes with head and neck flexion and extension were smaller in the Taper group than in the HVLP group. Our results highlight the potential for taper cuffs to prevent excessive cuff pressure increases with positional changes in the head and neck. This trial is registered with UMIN000016119.

  15. Effect of position of infant during phototherapy in management of hyperbilirubinemia in late preterm and term neonates: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhethanabhotla, S; Thukral, A; Sankar, M J; Agarwal, R; Paul, V K; Deorari, A K

    2013-10-01

    To evaluate the effect of supine position when compared with periodic change of position during phototherapy in late preterm and term neonates (35 to 42 weeks) with hyperbilirubinemia on the duration of phototherapy. We randomly allocated enrolled neonates with hyperbilirubinemia to either no change in position (supine group (SG); n=54) or two-hourly change of position from supine to prone and vice versa (turning group (TG); n=46). All the infants received single surface phototherapy by two dedicated compact fluorescent light units. Total serum bilirubin (TSB) was measured at the start of phototherapy and then every 12 ± 2 h until the end of phototherapy. Phototherapy was stopped when two values were below the cut-off for age and gestational age as per the American Academy of Pediatrics Subcommittee on Hyperbilirubinemia guidelines nomogram for the management of hyperbilirubinemia in infants >35 weeks of gestation. The primary outcome was duration of phototherapy and secondary outcome was rate of fall of bilirubin within the first 24 ± 2 h after the initiation of phototherapy. Baseline characteristics including birth weight (g, 2752 ± 478 vs 2748 ± 416 P=0.96), gestation (week, 37.1 ± 1.2 vs 37.4 ± 1.3, P=0.26) were similar in the two groups. There was no difference in the duration of phototherapy between the SG (mean ± s.d., hour, 25.5 ± 8) and TG (mean ± s.d., hour, 24.8 ± 5), mean difference (95% confidence interval), hour, 0.7 (-2.03, 3.44, P=0.6). Rate of fall of bilirubin was also similar in both supine and turning groups with mean difference of -0.020 (95% confidence interval: -0.061, 0.021, P=0.34). Nursing babies in supine position when compared with periodic position change during phototherapy does not decrease the duration of phototherapy.

  16. An Internet-Based Intervention (Condom-Him) to Increase Condom Use Among HIV-Positive Men Who Have Sex With Men: Protocol for a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Joyal; Côté, José; Godin, Gaston; Blais, Martin; Otis, Joanne; Guéhéneuc, Yann-Gaël; Fadel, Ghayas; Barton, Luisa; Fowler, Shawn

    2013-10-16

    In the recent years, the Internet has been used as a medium to find sexual partners and engage in risky sexual behavior. This has changed the way in which men having have sex with men (MSM) seek sexual partners and has increased the number of high-risk sexual encounters. Therefore, developers of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-prevention interventions have also started using the Internet as a viable medium to promote safe sexual behaviors. However, much of the efforts thus far have been aimed at HIV-negative rather than HIV-positive MSM. HIV-positive individuals continue to engage in risky sexual behaviors and thus constitute an important group in which HIV prevention strategies need to be addressed. Therefore, HIV prevention in HIV-positive MSM is a critical issue. Condom-Him, an Internet-based intervention tailored to increase condom use among HIV-positive MSM, was developed with the aim of improving condom use, self-efficacy, and intentions to use condoms among these individuals. The acceptability and feasibility of this Internet-based intervention will be examined in a pilot study. We will perform a randomized controlled parallel-group superiority trial. HIV-positive MSM who currently engage in unprotected anal sex will be recruited for the study. Participants will be randomly assigned using a one-to-one allocation ratio generated by the computer program. The researchers will be blinded to participant's group assignment. Participants will be assigned either to use the Condom-Him intervention (experimental arm) or to view a list of websites containing HIV/AIDS related information (control arm). Self-administered questionnaires will be provided online before randomization (baseline) and two weeks after intervention (post-test). The study will include a total of 60 participants with 30 in each group. The results from this pilot study will provide further evidence for a larger study to examine the effectiveness of this intervention and will provide a cost

  17. Trastuzumab in the adjuvant treatment of HER2-positive early breast cancer patients: a meta-analysis of published randomized controlled trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjin Yin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Adjuvant trastuzumab therapy has yielded conflicting results for overall survival, concerns about central nervous system (CNS metastasis, and questions about optimal schedule. Therefore, we carried out a meta-analysis to assess the benefits of concurrent or sequential trastuzumab with adjuvant chemotherapy for early breast cancer patients with HER2-positive tumors. METHODS: Computerized and manual searches were performed to identify randomized clinical trials comparing adjuvant chemotherapy with or without trastuzumab in HER2-positive early breast cancer patients. Odds ratios were used to estimate the association between the addition of trastuzumab to adjuvant chemotherapy and various survival outcomes. The fixed-effects or random-effects model was used to combine data. FINDINGS: With six eligible studies identified, this analysis demonstrated that patients with HER2-positive breast cancer derived benefit in disease-free survival, overall survival, locoregional recurrence and distant recurrence (all P<0.001 from the addition of trastuzumab to adjuvant chemotherapy, whereas trastuzumab did worse in CNS recurrence as compared to the control group (P = 0.018. Furthermore, concomitant use of trastuzumab significantly lowered the hazard of death (P<0.001 but bore a higher incidence of CNS recurrence (P = 0.010, while statistical significance failed to be discerned for either overall survival (P = 0.069 or CNS metastasis (P = 0.374 between the sequential and observation arms. CONCLUSION: This analysis verifies the efficacy of trastuzumab in the adjuvant setting. Additionally, our findings indirectly corroborate the superiority of concurrent trastuzumab to sequential use and also illuminate that prolonged survival is the possible reason for the higher incidence of CNS with trastuzumab versus observation.

  18. Laser machining of advanced materials

    CERN Document Server

    Dahotre, Narendra B

    2011-01-01

    Advanced materialsIntroductionApplicationsStructural ceramicsBiomaterials CompositesIntermetallicsMachining of advanced materials IntroductionFabrication techniquesMechanical machiningChemical Machining (CM)Electrical machiningRadiation machining Hybrid machiningLaser machiningIntroductionAbsorption of laser energy and multiple reflectionsThermal effectsLaser machining of structural ceramicsIntrodu

  19. Self-generation and positivity effects following transcranial random noise stimulation in medial prefrontal cortex: A reality monitoring task in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammarella, Nicola; Di Domenico, Alberto; Palumbo, Rocco; Fairfield, Beth

    2017-06-01

    Activation of medial Prefrontal Cortex (mPFC) has been typically found during reality monitoring tasks (i.e., distinguishing between internal self-generated vs external information). No study, however, has yet investigated whether transcranial Random Noise Stimulation (tRNS) over the mPFC leads to a reduction in reality-monitoring misattributions in aging. In particular, stimulating mPFC should increase the number of cognitive operations engaged while encoding and this distinctive information may help older adults to discriminate between internal and external sources better. In addition, given that older adults are more sensitive to positively-charged information compared to younger adults and that mPFC is typically recruited during encoding of positive stimuli with reference to themselves, activation of mPFC should further sustain source retrieval in older adults. In this double-blind, sham-controlled study, we examined whether tRNS over the mPFC of healthy younger and older adults during encoding enhances subsequent reality monitoring for seen versus imagined emotionally-charged words. Our findings show that tRNS enhances reality monitoring for positively-charged imagined words in the older adult group alone, highlighting the role that mPFC plays in their memory for positive information. In line with the control-based account of positivity effects, our results add evidence about the neurocognitive processes involved in reality monitoring when older adults face emotionally-charged events. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of glutamate positive modulators on cognitive deficits in schizophrenia: a systematic review and meta-analysis of double-blind randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, Y; Nakajima, S; Suzuki, T; Keefe, R S E; Plitman, E; Chung, J K; Caravaggio, F; Mimura, M; Graff-Guerrero, A; Uchida, H

    2015-10-01

    Hypofunction of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors has been proposed to have an important role in the cognitive impairments observed in schizophrenia. Although glutamate modulators may be effective in reversing such difficult-to-treat conditions, the results of individual studies thus far have been inconsistent. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to examine whether glutamate positive modulators have beneficial effects on cognitive functions in patients with schizophrenia. A literature search was conducted to identify double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trials in schizophrenia or related disorders, using Embase, Medline, and PsycINFO (last search: February 2015). The effects of glutamate positive modulators on cognitive deficits were evaluated for overall cognitive function and eight cognitive domains by calculating standardized mean differences (SMDs) between active drugs and placebo added to antipsychotics. Seventeen studies (N=1391) were included. Glutamate positive modulators were not superior to placebo in terms of overall cognitive function (SMD=0.08, 95% confidence interval=-0.06 to 0.23) (11 studies, n=858) nor each of eight cognitive domains (SMDs=-0.03 to 0.11) (n=367-940) in this population. Subgroup analyses by diagnosis (schizophrenia only studies), concomitant antipsychotics, or pathway of drugs to enhance the glutamatergic neurotransmission (glycine allosteric site of NMDA receptors or α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptors) suggested no procognitive effect of glutamate positive modulators. Further, no effect was found in individual compounds on cognition. In conclusion, glutamate positive modulators may not be effective in reversing overall cognitive impairments in patients with schizophrenia as adjunctive therapies.

  1. Postoperative leg position following total knee arthroplasty influences blood loss and range of motion: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xin; Tian, Peng; Li, Zhi-jun; Sun, Xiao-lei; Ma, Xin-long

    2016-01-01

    Postoperative leg position has been reported as an efficient and convenient technique to minimize blood loss and improve early recovery following total knee arthroplasty (TKA); however, no single study was large enough to definitively determine optimal leg position. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis pooling the results from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to evaluate the effect of postoperative leg position on blood loss and range of motion (ROM) in TKA. Potential academic articles were identified from the Cochrane Library, Medline (1966-October 2015), PubMed (1966-October 2015), Embase (1980-October 2015), ScienceDirect (1985-October 2015) and other databases. Gray studies were identified from the references of included literature reports. The pooling of data was analyzed by RevMan 5.1. Ten RCTs were included in the meta-analysis. There were significant differences in the total blood loss (mean difference [MD] = -130.66, 95% CI: -198.74 to -62.57, P = 0.0002), hidden blood loss (MD = -73.27, 95% CI: -117.57 to -28.96, P = 0.001), blood transfusion requirement (risk difference [RD] = -0.10, 95% CI: -0.19 to -0.22, P = 0.02), postoperative hemoglobin level (MD = 0.73, 95% CI: 0.42 to 1.04, P extension group. No significant differences were found regarding length of hospital stay, deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and wound infection between the two groups. This meta-analysis indicated that the postoperative flexion position of the leg in TKA was effective and safe, significantly decreasing total blood loss, hidden blood loss and blood transfusion requirement. In addition, the postoperative range of motion is significantly improved by the flexion position of the leg.

  2. Particle swarm optimization and differential evolution for the single machine total weighted tardiness problem

    OpenAIRE

    Taşgetiren, M. Fatih; Liang, Yun-Chia; Şevkli, Mehmet; Gençyılmaz, Güneş

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we present two recent metaheuristics, particle swarm optimization and differential evolution algorithms, to solve the single machine total weighted tardiness problem, which is a typical discrete combinatorial optimization problem. Most of the literature on both algorithms is concerned with continuous optimization problems, while a few deal with discrete combinatorial optimization problems. A heuristic rule, the smallest position value (SPV) rule, borrowed from the random key rep...

  3. Efficacy of a Transdiagnostic internet-based treatment for emotional disorders with a specific component to address positive affect: Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-García, Amanda; González-Robles, Alberto; Fernández-Álvarez, Javier; García-Palacios, Azucena; Baños, Rosa María; Botella, Cristina

    2017-04-20

    Emotional disorders (ED) are among the most prevalent mental disorders. However, less than 50% of people suffering from ED receive the appropriate treatment. This situation has led to the development of new intervention proposals based on the transdiagnostic perspective, which tries to address the underlying processes common to ED. Most of these programs focus primarily on down-regulating negative affectivity, rather than increasing strengths and up-regulating positive affectivity. The data suggest the existence of disturbances in positive affectivity in these disorders, and so new interventions focusing on these problems are greatly needed. It is also essential to provide assistance to all the people in need. Information and Communication Technologies can be very useful. This study aims to evaluate the efficacy of a transdiagnostic Internet-based treatment for ED in a community sample. The protocol includes traditional CBT components, as well as a specific component to address positive affect. We intend to test this protocol, including this specific component or not, versus a waiting list control group. Moreover, we aim to test the differential effect of this specific component, and study the effectiveness (in terms of patients' acceptance) of using a self-applied Internet-based program. This paper presents the study protocol. The study is a randomized controlled trial. 207 participants will be randomly assigned to: a)Transdiagnostic Internet-based protocol (TIBP), b)Transdiagnostic Internet-based protocol + positive affect component (TIBP + PA), or c)a Waiting List control group (WL). Primary outcomes measures will be the BDI-II, the BAI, and the PANAS. Secondary outcomes will include diagnosis-specific measures of the principal disorder. Participants' treatment acceptance will also be measured. Participants will be assessed at pre-, post-treatment, and 3- and 12- month follow-ups. The data will be analyzed based on the Intention-to-treat principle. Per

  4. Effectiveness of a night positioning programme on ankle range of motion in patients after hemiparesis: a prospective randomized controlled pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMeyer, Lauren; Brown, Marcie; Adams, Ashley

    2015-10-05

    To investigate the effect of night positioning on ankle motion in patients after stroke or brain injury. Prospective randomized controlled pilot study with 3 groups: bivalve cast; pressure-relieving ankle-foot orthosis; and control. Adults (n = 46) in inpatient rehabilitation with lower extremity paresis following stroke or brain injury. Intervention group participants wore a custom bivalve cast or pre-fabricated orthosis 8-12 h/night. The primary outcome variable was passive ankle dorsiflexion. Muscle spasticity (Modified Ashworth Scale) and functional mobility (Functional Independence Measure) were also assessed. No significant differences were found between groups for all outcome measures at the pilot sample size (p > 0.05). Control and pressure-relieving ankle-foot orthosis groups showed improvement in ankle dorsiflexion, and the bivalve cast group demonstrated a trend toward decreased spasticity. Positioning interventions were tolerated for approximately 11 h/night. Baseline range of motion was measured and a retrospective power analysis determined that a sample size of 234 is needed for 80% power to establish significance. Future research with a larger sample size is re-commended to determine significance and whether a more specific subset of patients would benefit from night positioning to maximize treatment time during daytime therapy sessions.

  5. A non-randomized, open-label, single-arm, Phase 2 study of emibetuzumab in Asian patients with MET diagnostic positive, advanced gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Daisuke; Chung, Hyun Cheol; Oh, Do-Youn; Park, Se Hoon; Kadowaki, Shigenori; Kim, Yeul Hong; Tsuji, Akihito; Komatsu, Yoshito; Kang, Yoon-Koo; Uenaka, Kazunori; Wijayawardana, Sameera R; Wacheck, Volker; Wang, Xuejing; Yamamura, Ayuko; Doi, Toshihiko

    2017-12-01

    Mesenchymal-epithelial transition factor (MET) is expressed in gastric cancer and associated with poor clinical outcomes. We assessed activity, safety, and pharmacokinetics of emibetuzumab, a bivalent monoclonal anti-MET antibody that blocks ligand-dependent and ligand-independent MET signaling. This non-randomized, single-arm, Phase 2 study enrolled Asian patients with MET diagnostic positive advanced gastric adenocarcinoma. Emibetuzumab (2000 mg, intravenous) was given on days 1 and 15 (28-day cycle). The primary endpoint was 8-week progression-free survival rate. Secondary objectives included safety, pharmacokinetics, overall survival, and change in tumor size. Tumors from 65 patients were immunohistochemically screened to enroll 15 MET diagnostic positive patients (23% positivity; 8 Japanese, 7 Korean; 10 male). Eight-week progression-free survival rate was 0.47 (70% CI, 0.33-0.59). Disease control rate was 40% (target lesion decreases, three patients; no complete/partial responses according to RECIST). Median overall survival was 17.1 weeks (95% CI, 6.3-not achievable). No serious emibetuzumab-related adverse events or new safety signals emerged. Grade ≥ 3 possibly drug-related adverse events were hyperkalemia, hyponatremia, and hyperuricemia (one each). Emibetuzumab's pharmacokinetics profile was similar to that observed previously. MET expression and clinical outcomes were not obviously associated. Emibetuzumab was well tolerated with limited single-agent activity in advanced gastric adenocarcinoma.

  6. Gaussian Processes for Machine Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Seeger, Matthias

    2004-01-01

    Gaussian processes (GPs) are natural generalisations of multivariate Gaussian random variables to infinite (countably or continuous) index sets. GPs have been applied in a large number of fields to a diverse range of ends, and very many deep theoretical analyses of various properties are available. This paper gives an introduction to Gaussian processes on a fairly elementary level with special emphasis on characteristics relevant in machine learning. It draws explicit connections to branches ...

  7. The deleuzian abstract machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werner Petersen, Erik

    2005-01-01

    To most people the concept of abstract machines is connected to the name of Alan Turing and the development of the modern computer. The Turing machine is universal, axiomatic and symbolic (E.g. operating on symbols). Inspired by Foucault, Deleuze and Guattari extended the concept of abstract...... machines to singular, non-axiomatic and diagrammatic machines. That is: Machines which constitute becomings. This presentation gives a survey of the development of the concept of abstract machines in the philosophy of Deleuze and Guatari and the function of these abstract machines in the creation of works...... of art. From Difference and Repetition to Anti-Oedipus, the machines are conceived as binary machines based on the exclusive or inclusive use respectively of the three syntheses: conexa, disjuncta and conjuncta. The machines have a twofold embedment: In the desiring-production and in the social...

  8. Protective intraoperative ventilation with higher versus lower levels of positive end-expiratory pressure in obese patients (PROBESE): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluth, T; Teichmann, R; Kiss, T; Bobek, I; Canet, J; Cinnella, G; De Baerdemaeker, L; Gregoretti, C; Hedenstierna, G; Hemmes, S N; Hiesmayr, M; Hollmann, M W; Jaber, S; Laffey, J G; Licker, M J; Markstaller, K; Matot, I; Müller, G; Mills, G H; Mulier, J P; Putensen, C; Rossaint, R; Schmitt, J; Senturk, M; Serpa Neto, A; Severgnini, P; Sprung, J; Vidal Melo, M F; Wrigge, H; Schultz, M J; Pelosi, P; Gama de Abreu, M

    2017-04-28

    Postoperative pulmonary complications (PPCs) increase the morbidity and mortality of surgery in obese patients. High levels of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) with lung recruitment maneuvers may improve intraoperative respiratory function, but they can also compromise hemodynamics, and the effects on PPCs are uncertain. We hypothesized that intraoperative mechanical ventilation using high PEEP with periodic recruitment maneuvers, as compared with low PEEP without recruitment maneuvers, prevents PPCs in obese patients. The PRotective Ventilation with Higher versus Lower PEEP during General Anesthesia for Surgery in OBESE Patients (PROBESE) study is a multicenter, two-arm, international randomized controlled trial. In total, 2013 obese patients with body mass index ≥35 kg/m2 scheduled for at least 2 h of surgery under general anesthesia and at intermediate to high risk for PPCs will be included. Patients are ventilated intraoperatively with a low tidal volume of 7 ml/kg (predicted body weight) and randomly assigned to PEEP of 12 cmH2O with lung recruitment maneuvers (high PEEP) or PEEP of 4 cmH2O without recruitment maneuvers (low PEEP). The occurrence of PPCs will be recorded as collapsed composite of single adverse pulmonary events and represents the primary endpoint. To our knowledge, the PROBESE trial is the first multicenter, international randomized controlled trial to compare the effects of two different levels of intraoperative PEEP during protective low tidal volume ventilation on PPCs in obese patients. The results of the PROBESE trial will support anesthesiologists in their decision to choose a certain PEEP level during general anesthesia for surgery in obese patients in an attempt to prevent PPCs. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02148692. Registered on 23 May 2014; last updated 7 June 2016.

  9. Reducing and preventing internalizing and externalizing behavior problems in children with type 1 diabetes: a randomized controlled trial of the Triple P-Positive Parenting Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westrupp, E M; Northam, E; Lee, K J; Scratch, S E; Cameron, F

    2015-11-01

    Children with type 1 diabetes are at increased risk of mental health problems, which in turn are associated with poor glycemic control, diabetes-related complications, and long-term psychiatric morbidity. We tested the efficacy of the Triple P-Positive Parenting Program in reducing or preventing mental health problems and improving glycemic control in children with type 1 diabetes in a randomized controlled trial. Participants were recruited from the Diabetes Clinic, Royal Children's Hospital, Melbourne, Australia, and randomized to Triple P or standard diabetes care. The primary outcome was child internalizing and externalizing behavior problems 3 and 12 months postrandomization. Secondary outcomes were glycemic control, parent mental health, parenting skills, and family functioning at 3 and 12 months, and glycemic control at 24 months. A total of 76 participants were randomized (38 to intervention and 38 to control), 60 completed 3-month, and 57 completed 12-month assessments. Benefits of Triple P were evident at 3 months for parent mental health, parenting skills, and family functioning (p parent mental health, parenting skills, and diabetes family conflict (p parenting self-efficacy at 3 months. Improvements in parent mental health and parenting competency associated with Triple P were sustained to 12 months for children with pre-existing mental health problems. This study provides some support for the efficacy of Triple P in improving parent and family outcomes, and reducing child internalizing and externalizing behavior problems primarily in children who have pre-existing mental health problems. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Clinical and Radiographic Evaluation of Marginal Bone Changes around Platform-Switching Implants Placed in Crestal or Subcrestal Positions: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kütan, Esma; Bolukbasi, Nilufer; Yildirim-Ondur, Esra; Ozdemir, Tayfun

    2015-10-01

    It has been reported in many articles that marginal bone resorptions are prevented by platform-switching design. However, what occurs when these implants are placed in the apical position is not completely known. This report describes a randomized controlled clinical trial study that aims to test the hypothesis that less resorption will occur when platform-switching implants are placed 1 mm below bone level. A total of 56 randomly selected implants were inserted bilaterally, either 1 mm below bone level (test group, 28 implants) or at bone level (control group, 28 implants) of the patients' posterior regions. Marginal bone resorptions were examined through periapical radiographies taken with the parallel technique at the time of crown cementation and the third, sixth, 12th, and 36th months after prosthetic loading. The modified plaque index, gingival index, bleeding on probing, and probing depths were used for follow-up periodontal care of the implants. After 3 years, the mean radiographic vertical bone loss in the control group was significantly lower than in the test group (0.56 ± 0.35 mm and 1.21 ± 1.05 mm, respectively) (p  .05). No peri-implantitis or peri-implant mucositis was observed around the test or control implants. More marginal bone resorptions occurred after the third year of loading in implants placed 1 mm below bone level. However, the resorptions did not reach the implants thread. In the control group, the first bone implant contact was placed under the level of the first threads. Therefore, the present randomized clinical trial confirmed the hypothesis that placing platform-switching implants 1 mm below bone level reduced marginal bone loss. It can be noted that to reduce resorption, platform-switching implants should be placed below bone level. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Randomized prospective crossover study of biphasic intermittent positive airway pressure ventilation (BIPAP) versus pressure support ventilation (PSV) in surgical intensive care patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elrazek, E Abd

    2004-10-01

    The aim of this prospective, randomized and crossover study was to assess the role of a relatively new mode of mechanical ventilation, biphasic intermittent positive airway pressure (BIPAP) in comparison to another well established one, pressure-support ventilation (PSV) in surgical intensive care patients. 24 generally stable patients, breathing on their own after short-term (PSV or BIPAP, and indirect calorimetry measurements were performed after 1 hour adaptation period at two time intervals; immediately after the investigated ventilatory mode was started and 1 hour later. Statistics included a two-tailed paired t-test to compare the two sets of different data, p PSV and BIPAP can be used for weaning patients comfortably in surgical intensive care after short-term postoperative ventilation. BIPAP may have the credit of being smoother than PSV where no patient effort is required.

  12. High-Flow Nasal Cannula versus Nasal Continuous Positive Airway Pressure for Primary Respiratory Support in Preterm Infants with Respiratory Distress: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murki, Srinivas; Singh, Jayesh; Khant, Chiragkumar; Kumar Dash, Swarup; Oleti, Tejo Pratap; Joy, Percy; Kabra, Nandkishor S

    2018-01-23

    Nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) is the standard noninvasive respiratory support for newborns with respiratory distress. Evidence for high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) as an alternative mode of respiratory support is inconclusive. The aim of this work was to evaluate whether HFNC is not inferior to nCPAP in reducing the need for higher respiratory support in the first 72 h of life when applied as a noninvasive respiratory support mode for preterm neonates with respiratory distress. Preterm infants (gestation ≥28 weeks and birth weight ≥1,000 g) with respiratory distress were randomized to either HFNC or nCPAP in a non-inferiority trial. Failure of the support mode in the first 72 h after birth was the primary outcome. Infants failing HFNC were rescued either with nCPAP or mechanical ventilation, and those failing nCPAP received mechanical ventilation. During the study period, 139 and 133 infants were randomized to the nCPAP and HFNC groups, respectively. The study was stopped after an interim analysis showed a significant difference (p respiratory distress (SAS score >5). When comparing HFNC to nCPAP as a primary noninvasive respiratory support in preterm infants with respiratory distress, HFNC is inferior to nCPAP in avoiding the need for a higher mode of respiratory support in the first 72 h of life. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. [A multi-center, randomized, double-blind, positive controlled clinical trial of salbutamol sulfate MDI without CFC in the treatment of asthma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of domestically produced Salbutamol Sulfate metered dose inhaler (MDI) without chloro-fluro-carbon (CFC) in the treatment of asthmatic patients. A muticenter, randomized, double-blind, positive controlled clinical trial was conducted in asthmatic patients. The participants were randomized divided into trial group treated with domestically produced Salbutamol Sulfate Aerosol MDI (200 microg single-dose) and control group treated with imported Salbutamol Sulfate Aerosol MDI (200 microg single-dose). The lung function was measured by spirometry and a scoring questionaire before medications and 15, 30, 120 and 240 min post medications. A total of 238 patients were enrolled in the trial. Compared with baselines, the forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) of the participants in both groups increased significantly 15, 30, 120 and 240 min after medications (P 0.05). Similarly, the forced vital capacity (FVC) and asthma symptomatic scores of the participants in both groups improved significantly after administration of medications (P 0.05). In both groups, drugs were well tolerated. The domestically produced Salbutamol Sulfate Aerosol MDI without CFC is effective and safe for treating asthma.

  14. Experimental blunt chest trauma--cardiorespiratory effects of different mechanical ventilation strategies with high positive end-expiratory pressure: a randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiter, Dierk; Carvalho, Nadja C; Katscher, Sebastian; Mende, Ludger; Reske, Alexander P; Spieth, Peter M; Carvalho, Alysson R; Beda, Alessandro; Lachmann, Burkhard; Amato, Marcelo B P; Wrigge, Hermann; Reske, Andreas W

    2016-01-12

    Uncertainty persists regarding the optimal ventilatory strategy in trauma patients developing acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). This work aims to assess the effects of two mechanical ventilation strategies with high positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) in experimental ARDS following blunt chest trauma. Twenty-six juvenile pigs were anesthetized, tracheotomized and mechanically ventilated. A contusion was applied to the right chest using a bolt-shot device. Ninety minutes after contusion, animals were randomized to two different ventilation modes, applied for 24 h: Twelve pigs received conventional pressure-controlled ventilation with moderately low tidal volumes (VT, 8 ml/kg) and empirically chosen high external PEEP (16 cmH2O) and are referred to as the HP-CMV-group. The other group (n = 14) underwent high-frequency inverse-ratio pressure-controlled ventilation (HFPPV) involving respiratory rate of 65 breaths · min(-1), inspiratory-to-expiratory-ratio 2:1, development of intrinsic PEEP and recruitment maneuvers, compatible with the rationale of the Open Lung Concept. Hemodynamics, gas exchange and respiratory mechanics were monitored during 24 h. Computed tomography and histology were analyzed in subgroups. Comparing changes which occurred from randomization (90 min after chest trauma) over the 24-h treatment period, groups differed statistically significantly (all P values for group effect ventilation improved respiratory function and fulfilled relevant ventilation endpoints for trauma patients, i.e. restoration of oxygenation and lung aeration while avoiding hypercapnia and respiratory acidosis.

  15. Randomized controlled trial of a positive affect intervention to reduce stress in people newly diagnosed with HIV; protocol and design for the IRISS study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moskowitz JT

    2014-09-01

    currently few established interventions for people who are newly diagnosed with HIV. We present the design and methods for a randomized trial in which we test the efficacy of one such skills-based intervention that targets positive affect as a novel mechanism of change. The proposed research builds on observational findings of the important unique functions of positive affect. We aim to determine whether a five-session theory- and evidence-based intervention designed to teach skills for increasing the frequency and intensity of daily positive affect does so, and whether this intervention has beneficial effects on subsequent psychological well-being, health behaviors, and physical health up to 15 months after diagnosis with HIV. This is a randomized controlled trial in a sample of adults recruited within 12 weeks of testing positive for HIV. The control group is attention-matched, and follow up assessments will be conducted immediately post intervention (approximately 5 months post diagnosis and at 10 and 15 months post diagnosis. This study is an important next step in research concerning the adaptive functions of positive affect for people coping with HIV or other health-related life stress. Keywords: positive affect, HIV diagnosis, stress, coping, RCT, intervention, physical health

  16. Do false positive alerts in naïve clinical decision support system lead to false adoption by physicians? A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Chung-You; Wang, Shi-Heng; Hsu, Min-Huei; Li, Yu-Chuan Jack

    2016-08-01

    False positive alerts in patient-safety-related clinical decision support systems (CDSS) are defined as alerts which incorrectly prompt when no-risk patients are encountered. It is an unfavorable condition which may potentially mislead physicians. The aim is to investigate physician responses toward false positive (FP) and true positive (TP) alerts in CDSS for the prevention of contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN). A two-arm cluster randomized controlled trial was conducted in university hospitals. Eligible physicians were randomized to receive alert intervention or no intervention (groups 1 and 2, respectively). The alert system was embedded with a deliberately non-specific risk detection tool in order to generate TP and FP alerts. The naïve alert system would alert the physician to cancel the order regardless of the patient being at-risk or not at-risk. CIN risk was stratified as at-risk and no-risk according to a patient's pre-existing renal function. Contrast imaging order-cancellation rate was measured as primary outcome. 3802 contrast-enhanced examination orders from 66 physicians were analyzed. Demographic data and risk distributions of patients were similar and well-balanced between two groups. In the intervention group, a total of 1892 alerts were generated (332 TP alerts and 1560 FP alerts). Order-cancellation rates were 5.1% versus 1.4% in groups 1 and 2 for at-risk patients (relative risk [RR] = 3.69) from TP alerts, and 1.0% versus 1.4% for no-risk patients (RR = 0.71) from FP alerts. Using generalized linear model with generalized estimating equation, the FP alerts had no order-cancellation effect when compared to the control arm (adjusted RR = 0.69; 95%CI, 0.36-1.32). The TP alerts had a larger order-cancellation effect than that of the control arm (adjusted RR = 2.95; 95%CI, 0.94-9.27), which revealed a marginal trend toward significance. However, the effect was not statistically significant (adjusted RR = 1.24; 95%CI, 0

  17. A randomized, double-blind, crossover comparison of novel continuous bed motion versus traditional bed position whole-body PET/CT imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schatka, Imke [Hannover Medical School, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Hannover (Germany); Charite, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Berlin (Germany); Weiberg, Desiree; Reichelt, Stephanie; Owsianski-Hille, Nicole; Derlin, Thorsten; Berding, Georg; Bengel, Frank M. [Hannover Medical School, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Hannover (Germany)

    2016-04-15

    Continuous bed motion has recently been introduced for whole-body PET/CT, and represents a paradigm shift towards individualized and flexible acquisition without the limitations of bed position-based planning. Increased patient comfort due to lack of abrupt table position changes may be another albeit still unproven advantage. For robust clinical implementation, image quality and quantitative accuracy should at least be equal to the prior standard of bed position-based step-and-shoot imaging. The study included 68 consecutive patients referred for whole-body PET/CT for various malignancies. The patients underwent traditional step-and-shoot and novel continuous bed motion acquisition in the same session in a randomized crossover design. The patients and two independent observers were blinded to the sequence of scan techniques. Patient comfort/satisfaction was examined using a standardized questionnaire. SUVs were compared for reference tissue (liver, muscle) and tumour lesions. PET image quality and misalignment with CT images were evaluated on a scale of 1 - 4. Patients preferred continuous bed motion over step-and-shoot (P = 0.0001). It was considered to be more relaxing (38 % vs. 8 %), quieter (34 % vs. 8 %), and more fluid (64 % vs. 8 %). Image quality, SUV and CT misalignment did not differ between the techniques. Continuous bed motion resulted in better end-plane image quality (P < 0.0001). Regardless of the technique, second examinations had significantly higher tumour lesion SUVmax values (P = 0.0002), and a higher CT misalignment score (P = 0.0017). Oncological PET/CT with continuous bed motion enhances patient comfort and is associated with image quality at least comparable to that with traditional bed position-based step-and-shoot acquisition. (orig.)

  18. Sensorless Characteristics of Hybrid PM Machines at Zero and Low Speed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matzen, Torben N.; Rasmussen, Peter Omand

    2009-01-01

    Sensorless methods for zero and low speed operation in drives with hybrid PM machines make use of the machine saliency to determine the rotor position in an indirect fashion. When integrating the position measurement in the electrical power supply to the machine, i.e. make the machine self-sensin...

  19. Neratinib Plus Paclitaxel vs Trastuzumab Plus Paclitaxel in Previously Untreated Metastatic ERBB2-Positive Breast Cancer: The NEfERT-T Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awada, Ahmad; Colomer, Ramon; Inoue, Kenichi; Bondarenko, Igor; Badwe, Rajendra A; Demetriou, Georgia; Lee, Soo-Chin; Mehta, Ajay O; Kim, Sung-Bae; Bachelot, Thomas; Goswami, Chanchal; Deo, Suryanarayan; Bose, Ron; Wong, Alvin; Xu, Feng; Yao, Bin; Bryce, Richard; Carey, Lisa A

    2016-12-01

    Efficacious ERBB2 (formerly HER2 or HER2/neu)-directed treatments, in addition to trastuzumab and lapatinib, are needed. To determine whether neratinib, an irreversible pan-ERBB tyrosine kinase inhibitor, plus paclitaxel improves progression-free survival compared with trastuzumab plus paclitaxel in the first-line treatment of recurrent and/or metastatic ERBB2-positive breast cancer. In the randomized, controlled, open-label NEfERT-T trial conducted from August 2009 to December 2014 at 188 centers in 34 countries in Europe, Asia, Africa, and North America, 479 women with previously untreated recurrent and/or metastatic ERBB2-positive breast cancer were randomized to 1 of 2 treatment arms (neratinib-paclitaxel [n = 242] or trastuzumab-paclitaxel [n = 237]). Women with asymptomatic central nervous system metastases were eligible, and randomization was stratified by prior trastuzumab and lapatinib exposure, hormone-receptor status, and region. Women received neratinib (240 mg/d orally) or trastuzumab (4 mg/kg then 2 mg/kg weekly), each combined with paclitaxel (80 mg/m2 on days 1, 8, and 15 every 28 days). Primary prophylaxis for diarrhea was not mandatory. The primary outcome was progression-free survival. Secondary end points were response rate, clinical benefit rate, duration of response, frequency, and time to symptomatic and/or progressive central nervous system lesions, and safety. The intent-to-treat population comprised 479 women 18 years or older (neratinib-paclitaxel, n = 242; trastuzumab-paclitaxel, n = 237) randomized and stratified in their respective treatment arms by prior trastuzumab and lapatinib exposure, hormone-receptor status, and region. Median progression-free survival was 12.9 months (95% CI, 11.1-14.9) with neratinib-paclitaxel and 12.9 months (95% CI, 11.1-14.8) with trastuzumab-paclitaxel (hazard ratio [HR], 1.02; 95% CI, 0.81-1.27; P =.89). With neratinib-paclitaxel, the incidence of central nervous system recurrences was

  20. Operating System For Numerically Controlled Milling Machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, R. B.

    1992-01-01

    OPMILL program is operating system for Kearney and Trecker milling machine providing fast easy way to program manufacture of machine parts with IBM-compatible personal computer. Gives machinist "equation plotter" feature, which plots equations that define movements and converts equations to milling-machine-controlling program moving cutter along defined path. System includes tool-manager software handling up to 25 tools and automatically adjusts to account for each tool. Developed on IBM PS/2 computer running DOS 3.3 with 1 MB of random-access memory.

  1. Long-term outcome of a randomized controlled universal prevention trial through a positive parenting program: is it worth the effort?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertram Heike

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Approximately 20% of children experience internalizing or externalizing DSM-IV-TR disorders. This prevalence rate cannot be reduced through treatment only. Effective preventive interventions are therefore urgently needed. The aim of the current investigation is to evaluate the two-year efficacy of the group Triple P parenting program administered universally for the prevention of child behavior problems. Methods Based on their respective preschool, N = 280 families were randomly assigned either to the parent training or to the control group. The efficacy was analyzed using multi-source assessments, including questionnaires by mother and father, behavioral observation of mother-child interaction, and teacher evaluations. Results At the 2-year follow-up, both parents in the Triple P intervention reported significant reductions in dysfunctional parenting behavior, and mothers also an increase in positive parenting behavior. In addition, mothers reported significant reductions in internalizing and externalizing child behavior. Single-parent mothers in the Triple P intervention did not report significant changes in parenting or child problem behavior which is primarily due to inexplicable high positive effects in single parent mothers of the control group. Neither mother-child interactions nor teacher ratings yielded significant results. Conclusions The results support the long-term efficacy of the Triple P - group program as a universal prevention intervention for changing parenting behavior in two-parent households, but not necessarily in single-parent mothers.

  2. Long-term outcome of a randomized controlled universal prevention trial through a positive parenting program: is it worth the effort?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahlweg, Kurt; Heinrichs, Nina; Kuschel, Annett; Bertram, Heike; Naumann, Sebastian

    2010-05-16

    Approximately 20% of children experience internalizing or externalizing DSM-IV-TR disorders. This prevalence rate cannot be reduced through treatment only. Effective preventive interventions are therefore urgently needed. The aim of the current investigation is to evaluate the two-year efficacy of the group Triple P parenting program administered universally for the prevention of child behavior problems. Based on their respective preschool, N = 280 families were randomly assigned either to the parent training or to the control group. The efficacy was analyzed using multi-source assessments, including questionnaires by mother and father, behavioral observation of mother-child interaction, and teacher evaluations. At the 2-year follow-up, both parents in the Triple P intervention reported significant reductions in dysfunctional parenting behavior, and mothers also an increase in positive parenting behavior. In addition, mothers reported significant reductions in internalizing and externalizing child behavior. Single-parent mothers in the Triple P intervention did not report significant changes in parenting or child problem behavior which is primarily due to inexplicable high positive effects in single parent mothers of the control group. Neither mother-child interactions nor teacher ratings yielded significant results. The results support the long-term efficacy of the Triple P - group program as a universal prevention intervention for changing parenting behavior in two-parent households, but not necessarily in single-parent mothers.

  3. Randomized crossover study assessing oropharyngeal leak pressure and fiber optic positioning : Laryngeal Mask Airway Supreme™ versus Laryngeal Tube LTS II™ size 2 in non-paralyzed anesthetized children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasteiger, L; Ofner, S; Stögermüller, B; Ziegler, B; Brimacombe, J; Keller, C

    2016-08-01

    As there are currently no data available comparing the practicability of the laryngeal mask airway (LMA) Supreme™ size 2 versus the laryngeal tube LTS II™ size 2 in children, this trial was conducted to quantify the differences between these two airway devices concerning leak pressure and fiber optic-controlled positioning in non-paralyzed, anesthetized pediatric patients. A total of 56 children aged 1-6 years and weighing between 11 and 23 kg were enrolled in the study. Anesthesia was intravenously induced according to local standards using fentanyl and propofol. After induction of anesthesia both airway devices were inserted consecutively in accordance with the randomization protocol. The mean oropharyngeal leak pressure was significantly higher for the LTS II™ (33±8 cmH2O) than for the LMA Supreme™ (21±7 cmH2O, p insertion (55Supreme LMA vs. 43LTSII, p insertion time (25 s Supreme LMA vs. 34 s LTSII, p laryngeal tube LTS II™. We conclude that oropharyngeal leak pressure, fiber optic position, first attempt insertion success rate and bloodstaining differed between the LMA Supreme™ and the LTS II™ in children.

  4. Magnetic resonance imaging zygapophyseal joint space changes (gapping) in low back pain patients following spinal manipulation and side-posture positioning: a randomized controlled mechanisms trial with blinding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Gregory D; Cambron, Jerrilyn; Cantu, Joe A; Dexheimer, Jennifer M; Pocius, Judith D; Gregerson, Douglas; Fergus, Michael; McKinnis, Ray; Grieve, Thomas J

    2013-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify lumbar zygapophyseal (Z) joint space separation (gapping) in low back pain (LBP) subjects after spinal manipulative therapy (SMT) or side-posture positioning (SPP). This was a controlled mechanisms trial with randomization and blinding. Acute LBP subjects (N = 112; four n = 28 magnetic resonance imaging [MRI] protocol groups) had 2 MRI appointments (initial enrollment and after 2 weeks of chiropractic treatment, receiving 2 MRI scans of the L4/L5 and L5/S1 Z joints at each MRI appointment. After the first MRI scan of each appointment, subjects were randomized (initial enrollment appointment) or assigned (after 2 weeks of chiropractic treatment appointment) into SPP (nonmanipulation), SMT (manipulation), or control MRI protocol groups. After SPP or SMT, a second MRI was taken. The central anterior-posterior joint space was measured. Difference between most painful side anterior-posterior measurements taken postintervention and preintervention was the Z joint "gapping difference." Gapping differences were compared (analysis of variance) among protocol groups. Secondary measures of pain (visual analog scale, verbal numeric pain rating scale) and function (Bournemouth questionnaire) were assessed. Gapping differences were significant at the first (adjusted, P = .009; SPP, 0.66 ± 0.48 mm; SMT, 0.23 ± 0.86; control, 0.18 ± 0.71) and second (adjusted, P = .0005; SPP, 0.65 ± 0.92 mm; SMT, 0.89 ± 0.71; control, 0.35 ± 0.32) MRI appointments. Verbal numeric pain rating scale differences were significant at first MRI appointment (P = .04) with SMT showing the greatest improvement. Visual analog scale and Bournemouth questionnaire improved after 2 weeks of care in all groups (both P < .0001). Side-posture positioning showed greatest gapping at baseline. After 2 weeks, SMT resulted in greatest gapping. Side-posture positioning appeared to have additive therapeutic benefit to SMT. Copyright © 2013 National University of Health

  5. The efficiency and safety of trastuzumab and lapatinib added to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in Her2-positive breast cancer patients: a randomized meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen ZL

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Zhe-Ling Chen, Yan-Wei Shen, Shu-Ting Li, Chun-Li Li, Ling-Xiao Zhang, Jiao Yang, Meng Lv, Ya-Yun Lin, Xin Wang, Jin Yang Department of Medical Oncology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an, Shaanxi, People’s Republic of China Background: The addition of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (Her2 therapies to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC during treatment of Her2-positive breast cancer has been proposed as an effective way to improve the prognosis. However, the treatment outcomes of adding trastuzumab, lapatinib, or both to NAC were not unequivocal in randomized clinical trials. Based on these data, a meta-analysis was performed. Objective: The main objective was to evaluate the efficiency and safety of trastuzumab and lapatinib added to NAC for treatment of Her2-positive breast cancer. Methods: ClinicalTrials.gov and PubMed were searched for randomized clinical trials that compared trastuzumab, lapatinib, or both, added to NAC. The main endpoint was a pathologically complete response (pCR rate, in breast only or in breast and lymph nodes. The drug safety and the influence of hormone-receptor status, comparing the clinical response and the rate of breast conservation, were evaluated. Results: A total of eight publications were included in the primary analysis, designed as two or three subgroups. The cumulative cases were 2,349 and the analyses of all the clinical trials showed that the pCR rate was significantly higher in the group receiving trastuzumab than that in the group with lapatinib, either in breast only (P=0.001 or in breast and lymph nodes (P=0.0001. Similar results could be seen in comparisons of the combination versus trastuzumab group. Further studies of subgroups divided into hormone receptor-positive or-negative patients showed that the addition of trastuzumab or dual Her2-targeted therapy significantly improved the pCR rate in patients who were hormone-insensitive. Regarding the toxic

  6. Machine tool structures

    CERN Document Server

    Koenigsberger, F

    1970-01-01

    Machine Tool Structures, Volume 1 deals with fundamental theories and calculation methods for machine tool structures. Experimental investigations into stiffness are discussed, along with the application of the results to the design of machine tool structures. Topics covered range from static and dynamic stiffness to chatter in metal cutting, stability in machine tools, and deformations of machine tool structures. This volume is divided into three sections and opens with a discussion on stiffness specifications and the effect of stiffness on the behavior of the machine under forced vibration c

  7. HTS machine laboratory prototype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    High Temperature Superconducting (HTS) electrical machines have the potential to offer outstanding technical performance with regards to efficiency and power density. However, the industry needs to address a large number of challenges in the attempt to harvest the full potential of HTS machines...... machine. The machine comprises six stationary HTS field windings wound from both YBCO and BiSCOO tape operated at liquid nitrogen temperature and enclosed in a cryostat, and a three phase armature winding spinning at up to 300 rpm. This design has full functionality of HTS synchronous machines. The design...... details and experimental results are shown together with discussions about their implication for scaled up HTS machines....

  8. Compensation strategy for machining optical freeform surfaces by the combined on- and off-machine measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaodong; Zeng, Zhen; Liu, Xianlei; Fang, Fengzhou

    2015-09-21

    Freeform surface is promising to be the next generation optics, however it needs high form accuracy for excellent performance. The closed-loop of fabrication-measurement-compensation is necessary for the improvement of the form accuracy. It is difficult to do an off-machine measurement during the freeform machining because the remounting inaccuracy can result in significant form deviations. On the other side, on-machine measurement may hides the systematic errors of the machine because the measuring device is placed in situ on the machine. This study proposes a new compensation strategy based on the combination of on-machine and off-machine measurement. The freeform surface is measured in off-machine mode with nanometric accuracy, and the on-machine probe achieves accurate relative position between the workpiece and machine after remounting. The compensation cutting path is generated according to the calculated relative position and shape errors to avoid employing extra manual adjustment or highly accurate reference-feature fixture. Experimental results verified the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  9. Safety and effectiveness of alveolar recruitment maneuvers and positive end-expiratory pressure during general anesthesia for cesarean section: a prospective, randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aretha, D; Fligou, F; Kiekkas, P; Messini, C; Panteli, E; Zintzaras, E; Karanikolas, M

    2017-05-01

    During cesarean section, the supine position reduces functional residual capacity and worsens lung compliance. We tested the hypothesis that alveolar recruitment maneuvers and positive end-expiratory pressure improve lung compliance in women undergoing general anesthesia for cesarean section. Ninety women undergoing cesarean section were randomly assigned to one of two groups in a prospective, double-blind trial. In the alveolar recruitment maneuver group, pressure-control ventilation was used and inspiratory time was increased to 50% after delivery; positive end-expiratory pressure was increased to 20cmH 2 O and peak airway inspiratory pressure gradually increased to 45-50cmH 2 O. Volume-control ventilation was then used with low tidal volumes (6mL/kg) and positive end-expiratory pressure was reduced stepwise to 8cmH 2 O. In the control group, alveolar recruitment maneuvers were not used. Data were collected before and 3, 10 and 20min after the alveolar recruitment maneuver, before extubation and postoperatively at 10 and 20min. Dynamic compliance, peak airway inspiratory pressure, PaO 2 and PaO 2 /FiO 2 were significantly different in the alveolar recruitment maneuver group compared to controls at all time points during surgery except at baseline. Oxygen saturation was significantly greater in the alveolar recruitment maneuver group at 10 and 20min and before extubation. Dynamic compliance was 29.7-42.5% higher and peak airway inspiratory pressure 3.6-10.2% lower in the alveolar recruitment maneuver group compared to controls. The PaO 2 , PaO 2 /FiO 2 and oxygen saturation were higher (9.4-12%, 10.3-11.9% and 0.4-1.3%, respectively) in the alveolar recruitment maneuver group. Postoperatively, PaO 2 and oxygen saturation were significantly higher in the alveolar recruitment maneuver group compared to controls (PaO 2 9.2% at 10min and 8.4% at 20min, oxygen saturation 0.8% at 10min and 1.1% at 20min). There were no significant differences in hemodynamic stability or

  10. Instruction Sets for Parallel Random Access Machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-08-01

    tapes, Q’ uses multiple tracks, one per tape of Q, Suppose Q’ is in a right sweep; that is, Q’ is in a state O"Q e R. The case where Q’ is in a left... multiplication block for reasons of MRAM -uniformity. Insert carry-save multiplication blocks in BCn’. Each block has depth 0 (T(n)) and size 0 (n24T(n)). Thus, BC...Science Lab (f 4APk&W*) University of Illinois N/A Office of Naval Research 6c. ADDRESS (City, State , and ZIP Code) 7b. ADDRESS (City, State , and ZIP

  11. Efficiency of a phone coaching program on adherence to continuous positive airway pressure in sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedkaoui, Kamila; Leseux, Ludivine; Pontier, Sandrine; Rossin, Nicole; Leophonte, Paul; Fraysse, Jean-Louis; Didier, Alain

    2015-09-14

    Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP) remains the reference treatment for moderate to severe forms of the Sleep Apnea/Hypopnea Syndrome (SAHS). Compliance to the treatment appears to be a key factor to improving health status of these patients. We conducted a multicenter, prospective, randomized, controlled, parallel group trial of standard support completed or not within 3 months of coaching sessions for newly diagnosed SAHS patients starting CPAP therapy. This study has been recorded by AFSSAPS with the RCB number: 2009-A01127-50 and received favourably by the Human Studies Committee in France. The coaching session consisted of 5 sessions of telephone-based counselling by competent staff. The primary outcome was the proportion of patients using CPAP more than 3 h per night for 4 months; the secondary outcome was mean hours of CPAP usage in the 2 groups. Three hundred and seventy-nine patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria and were randomized. The percentage of patients using CPAP more than 3 h per night for 4 months was 65 % for the standard support group and 75 % for the coached group. This difference reached a statistical significance (χ2 = 3.97). The mean CPAP usage was increased in the coached group versus standard group. A difference of 26 min was observed (4 h34+/-2 h17 and 4 h08+/-2 h25 respectively, p = 0.04). This study shows that SAHS patients who benefit from phone coaching are statistically more compliant to CPAP than a standard support group is. A simple phone coaching procedure based on knowledge of the disease and reinforcement messages about treatment benefits helps to improve CPAP adherence in SAHS patients. NCT02435355.

  12. Menatetrenone versus alfacalcidol in the treatment of Chinese postmenopausal women with osteoporosis: a multicenter, randomized, double-blinded, double-dummy, positive drug-controlled clinical trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yan; Zhang, Zhen-Lin; Zhang, Zhong-Lan; Zhu, Han-Min; Wu, Yi-Yong; Cheng, Qun; Wu, Feng-Li; Xing, Xiao-Ping; Liu, Jian-Li; Yu, Wei; Meng, Xun-Wu

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate whether the efficacy and safety of menatetrenone for the treatment of osteoporosis is noninferior to alfacalcidol in Chinese postmenopausal women. Method This multicenter, randomized, double-blinded, double-dummy, noninferiority, positive drug-controlled clinical trial was conducted in five Chinese sites. Eligible Chinese women with postmenopausal osteoporosis (N=236) were randomized to Group M or Group A and received menatetrenone 45 mg/day or alfacalcidol 0.5 μg/day, respectively, for 1 year. Additionally, all patients received calcium 500 mg/day. Posttreatment bone mineral density (BMD), new fracture onsets, and serum osteocalcin (OC) and undercarboxylated OC (ucOC) levels were compared with the baseline value in patients of both groups. Results A total of 213 patients (90.3%) completed the study. After 1 year of treatment, BMD among patients in Group M significantly increased from baseline by 1.2% and 2.7% at the lumbar spine and trochanter, respectively (P0.05). In Group M, OC and ucOC decreased from baseline by 38.7% and 82.3%, respectively (P<0.001). In Group A, OC and ucOC decreased by 25.8% and 34.8%, respectively (P<0.001). Decreases in serum OC and ucOC were more obvious in Group M than in Group A (P<0.001). The safety profile of menatetrenone was similar to alfacalcidol. Conclusion Menatetrenone is an effective and safe choice in the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis in Chinese women. PMID:24426779

  13. Efficacy of continuous positive airway pressure and incentive spirometry on respiratory functions during the postoperative period following supratentorial craniotomy: A prospective randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sah, Hulya Kahraman; Akcil, Eren Fatma; Tunali, Yusuf; Vehid, Hayriye; Dilmen, Ozlem Korkmaz

    2017-11-01

    Volume controlled ventilation with low PEEP is used in neuro-anesthesia to provide constant PaCO2 levels and prevent raised intracranial pressure. Therefore, neurosurgery patients prone to atelectasis formation, however, we could not find any study that evaluates prevention of postoperative pulmonary complications in neurosurgery. A prospective, randomized controlled study. Intensive care unit in a university hospital in Istanbul. Seventy-nine ASAI-II patients aged between 18 and 70years scheduled for elective supratentorial craniotomy were included in the study. Patients randomized into 3 groups after surgery. The Group IS (n=20) was treated with incentive spirometry 5 times in 1min and 5min per hour, the Group CPAP (n=20) with continuous positive airway pressure 10 cmH2O pressure and 0.4 FiO2 via an oronasal mask 5min per hour, and the Group Control (n=20) 4L·min-1O2 via mask; all during the first 6h postoperatively. Respiratory functions tests and arterial blood gases analysis were performed before the induction of anesthesia (Baseline), 30min, 6h, 24h postoperatively. The IS and CPAP applications have similar effects with respect to FVC values. The postoperative 30min FEV1 values were statistically significantly reduced compared to the Baseline in all groups (ppostoperative 24h compared to the postoperative 30min in the Groups IS and CPAP (ppostoperative 24h FEV1 values were statistically significantly lower in the Group Control compared to the Group IS (p=0.015). Although this study is underpowered to detect differences in FEV1 values, the postoperative 24h FEV1 values were significantly higher in the IS group than the Control group and this difference was not observed between the CPAP and Control groups. It might be evaluate a favorable effect of IS in neurosurgery patients. But larger studies are needed to make a certain conclusion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Strengths-based positive psychology interventions: A randomized placebo-controlled online trial on long-term effects for a signature strengths- vs. a lesser strengths-intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René T. Proyer

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent years have seen an increasing interest in research in positive psychology interventions. There is broad evidence for their effectiveness in increasing well-being and ameliorating depression. Intentional activities that focus on those character strengths, which are most typical for a person (i.e., signature strengths and encourage their usage in a new way have been identified as highly effective. The current study aims at comparing an intervention aimed at using signature strengths with one on using individual low scoring (or lesser strengths in a randomized placebo-controlled trial. A total of 375 adults were randomly assigned to one of the two intervention conditions (i.e., using five signature vs. five lesser strengths in a new way or a placebo control condition (i.e., early memories. We measured happiness and depressive symptoms at five time points (i.e., pre- and post-test, 1-, 3-, and 6-months follow-ups and character strengths at pre-test. The main findings are that (1 there were increases in happiness for up to three months and decreased depressive symptoms in the short term in both intervention conditions; (2 participants found working with strengths equally rewarding (enjoyment and benefit in both conditions; (3 those participants that reported generally higher levels of strengths benefitted more from working on lesser strengths rather than signature strengths and those with comparatively lower levels of strengths tended to benefit more from working on signature strengths; and (4 deviations from an average profile derived from a large sample of German-speakers completing the Values-in-Action Inventory of Strengths (VIA-IS were associated with greater benefit from the interventions in the signature strengths intervention. We conclude that working on character strengths is effective for increasing happiness and discuss how these interventions could be tailored to the individual for promoting their effectiveness.

  15. Effects of continuous positive airway pressure treatment on clinic and ambulatory blood pressures in patients with obstructive sleep apnea and resistant hypertension: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muxfeldt, Elizabeth S; Margallo, Victor; Costa, Leonardo M S; Guimarães, Gleison; Cavalcante, Aline H; Azevedo, João C M; de Souza, Fabio; Cardoso, Claudia R L; Salles, Gil F

    2015-04-01

    The effect of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) on blood pressures (BPs) in patients with resistant hypertension and obstructive sleep apnea is not established. We aimed to evaluate it in a randomized controlled clinical trial, with blinded assessment of outcomes. Four hundred thirty-four resistant hypertensive patients were screened and 117 patients with moderate/severe obstructive sleep apnea, defined by an apnea-hypopnea index ≥15 per hour, were randomized to 6-month CPAP treatment (57 patients) or no therapy (60 patients), while maintaining antihypertensive treatment. Clinic and 24-hour ambulatory BPs were obtained before and after 6-month treatment. Primary outcomes were changes in clinic and ambulatory BPs and in nocturnal BP fall patterns. Intention-to-treat and per-protocol (limited to those with uncontrolled ambulatory BPs) analyses were performed. Patients had mean (SD) 24-hour BP of 129(16)/75(12) mm Hg, and 59% had uncontrolled ambulatory BPs. Mean apnea-hypopnea index was 41 per hour and 58.5% had severe obstructive sleep apnea. On intention-to-treat analysis, there was no significant difference in any BP change, neither in nocturnal BP fall, between CPAP and control groups. The best effect of CPAP was on night-time systolic blood pressure in per-protocol analysis, with greater reduction of 4.7 mm Hg (95% confidence interval, -11.3 to +3.1 mm Hg; P=0.24) and an increase in nocturnal BP fall of 2.2% (95% confidence interval, -1.6% to +5.8%; P=0.25), in comparison with control group. In conclusion, CPAP treatment had no significant effect on clinic and ambulatory BPs in patients with resistant hypertension and moderate/severe obstructive sleep apnea, although a beneficial effect on night-time systolic blood pressure and on nocturnal BP fall might exist in patients with uncontrolled ambulatory BP levels. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  16. A randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, dose-response study of micafungin compared with fluconazole for the treatment of esophageal candidiasis in HIV-positive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Wet, N; Llanos-Cuentas, A; Suleiman, J; Baraldi, E; Krantz, E F; Della Negra, M; Diekmann-Berndt, H

    2004-09-15

    Severely immunocompromised individuals are highly susceptible to Candida infection of the esophagus. This randomized, double-blind study assessed the dose-response relationship of the new echinocandin antifungal, micafungin, compared with that of standard fluconazole treatment. A total of 245 patients (age, > or =18 years) with a prior diagnosis of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome/human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and esophageal candidiasis, confirmed by endoscopy and culture, were randomized to receive micafungin (50, 100, or 150 mg per day) or fluconazole (200 mg per day). Both agents were administered once per day by a 1-h intravenous infusion for 14-21 days. The primary efficacy end point was endoscopic cure rate, defined as endoscopy grade of 0 at the end of therapy. The endoscopic cure rate (grade 0) was dose-dependent with 50, 100, and 150 mg of micafungin per day at 68.8%, 77.4%, and 89.8%, respectively. Symptoms improved or resolved rapidly (3-7 days of treatment in the majority of patients). The endoscopic cure rate for 100 and 150 mg of micafungin per day (83.5%) was comparable to that for 200 mg of fluconazole per day (86.7%; 95% confidence interval for the difference in endoscopic cure rate, -14.0% to 7.7%). The overall safety and tolerability was acceptable, with no important differences between micafungin (all doses) and fluconazole. The dose-response findings demonstrate a greater efficacy with micafungin at 100 and 150 mg per day than at 50 mg per day. This study also indicates that the efficacy of micafungin (at dosages of 100 and 150 mg per day) was comparable to that of fluconazole, suggesting that micafungin represents a valuable new treatment option for esophageal candidiasis in HIV-positive patients.

  17. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Zygapophyseal Joint Space Changes (Gapping) in Low Back Pain Patients following Spinal Manipulation and Side Posture Positioning: A Randomized Controlled Mechanisms Trial with Blinding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Gregory D.; Cambron, Jerrilyn; Cantu, Joe A; Dexheimer, Jennifer M.; Pocius, Judith D; Gregerson, Douglas; Fergus, Michael; McKinnis, Ray; Grieve, Thomas J

    2013-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to quantify lumbar zygapophyseal (Z) joint space separation (gapping) in low back pain (LBP) subjects after spinal manipulative therapy (SMT) or side-posture positioning (SPP). Methods This was a controlled mechanisms trial with randomization and blinding. Acute LBP subjects (N=112, four n=28 MRI protocol groups) had 2 magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) appointments (initial enrollment [M1] and following 2 weeks of chiropractic treatment [M2]; receiving 2 MRI scans of the L4/L5 and L5/S1 Z joints at each MRI appointment. After the first MRI scan of each appointment, subjects were randomized (M1 appointment) or assigned (M2 appointment) into SPP (non-manipulation), SMT (manipulation), or control MRI protocol groups. After SPP or SMT, a second MRI was taken. The central anterior-posterior (A-P) joint space was measured. Difference between most painful side A-P measurements taken post- and pre-intervention was the Z joint “gapping difference.” Gapping differences were compared (ANOVA) among protocol groups. Secondary measures of pain visual analog scale (VAS), verbal numeric pain rating scale (VNPRS), and function Bournemouth questionnaire (BQ) were assessed. Results Gapping differences were significant at the first (adjusted, p=0.01; SPP=0.66 +0.48mm; SMT=0.23 +0.86; control=0.18 +0.71) and second (adjusted, p=0.0005; SPP=0.65 +0.92mm, SMT=0.89 +0.71; control=0.35 +0.32) MRI appointments. VNPRS differences were significant at first MRI appointment (p=0.04) with SMT showing the greatest improvement. VAS and BQ improved after two weeks of care in all groups (both p<0.0001). Conclusions SPP showed greatest gapping at baseline. After two weeks, SMT resulted in greatest gapping. SPP appeared to have additive therapeutic benefit to SMT. PMID:23648055

  18. Early routine versus late selective surfactant in preterm neonates with respiratory distress syndrome on nasal continuous positive airway pressure: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandraju, Hemasree; Murki, Srinivas; Subramanian, Sreeram; Gaddam, Pramod; Deorari, Ashok; Kumar, Praveen

    2013-01-01

    Preterm neonates with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) benefit from early application of nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP). However, it is not clear whether surfactant should be administered early as a routine to all such infants or later in a selective manner. It was the aim of this study to compare the efficacy of early routine versus late selective surfactant treatment in reducing the need for mechanical ventilation (MV) during the first week of life among moderate-sized preterm infants with RDS being supported by nCPAP. Infants born at 28(0/7) to 33(6/7) weeks of gestation with RDS and on nCPAP were randomly assigned within the first 2 h of life to early routine surfactant administration by the InSurE technique (early surfactant group) or to late selective administration of surfactant (late surfactant group). The primary outcome was need for MV in the first 7 days of life. Among 153 infants randomized to early (n = 74) or late surfactant (n = 79) groups, the need for MV was significantly lower in the early surfactant group (16.2 vs. 31.6%; relative risk 0.41, 95% confidence interval 0.19-0.91). The incidence of pneumothorax (1.9 vs. 2.3%) and the need for supplemental O2 at 28 days (2.7 vs. 8.9%) were similar in the two groups. Early routine surfactant administration within 2 h of life as compared to late selective administration significantly reduced the need for MV in the first week of life among preterm infants with RDS on nCPAP. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Strengths-based positive psychology interventions: a randomized placebo-controlled online trial on long-term effects for a signature strengths- vs. a lesser strengths-intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proyer, René T; Gander, Fabian; Wellenzohn, Sara; Ruch, Willibald

    2015-01-01

    Recent years have seen an increasing interest in research in positive psychology interventions. There is broad evidence for their effectiveness in increasing well-being and ameliorating depression. Intentional activities that focus on those character strengths, which are most typical for a person (i.e., signature strengths, SS) and encourage their usage in a new way have been identified as highly effective. The current study aims at comparing an intervention aimed at using SS with one on using individual low scoring (or lesser) strengths in a randomized placebo-controlled trial. A total of 375 adults were randomly assigned to one of the two intervention conditions [i.e., using five signature vs. five lesser strengths (LS) in a new way] or a placebo control condition (i.e., early memories). We measured happiness and depressive symptoms at five time points (i.e., pre- and post-test, 1-, 3-, and 6-months follow-ups) and character strengths at pre-test. The main findings are that (1) there were increases in happiness for up to 3 months and decreases in depressive symptoms in the short term in both intervention conditions; (2) participants found working with strengths equally rewarding (enjoyment and benefit) in both conditions; (3) those participants that reported generally higher levels of strengths benefitted more from working on LS rather than SS and those with comparatively lower levels of strengths tended to benefit more from working on SS; and (4) deviations from an average profile derived from a large sample of German-speakers completing the Values-in-Action Inventory of Strengths were associated with greater benefit from the interventions in the SS-condition. We conclude that working on character strengths is effective for increasing happiness and discuss how these interventions could be tailored to the individual for promoting their effectiveness.

  20. Intrinsic subtypes and benefit from postmastectomy radiotherapy in node-positive premenopausal breast cancer patients who received adjuvant chemotherapy - results from two independent randomized trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurberg, Tinne; Tramm, Trine; Nielsen, Torsten; Alsner, Jan; Nord, Silje; Myhre, Simen; Sørlie, Therese; Leung, Samuel; Fan, Cheng; Perou, Charles; Gelmon, Karen; Overgaard, Jens; Voduc, David; Prat, Aleix; Cheang, Maggie Chon U

    2017-11-25

    The study of the intrinsic molecular subtypes of breast cancer has revealed differences among them in terms of prognosis and response to chemotherapy and endocrine therapy. However, the ability of intrinsic subtypes to predict benefit from adjuvant radiotherapy has only been examined in few studies. Gene expression-based intrinsic subtyping was performed in 228 breast tumors collected from two independent post-mastectomy clinical trials (British Columbia and the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group 82b trials), where pre-menopausal patients with node-positive disease were randomized to adjuvant radiotherapy or not. All patients received adjuvant chemotherapy and a subgroup of patients underwent ovarian ablation. Tumors were classified into intrinsic subtypes: Luminal A, Luminal B, HER2-enriched, Basal-like and Normal-like using the research-based PAM50 classifier. In the British Columbia study, patients treated with radiation had an overall significant lower incidence of locoregional recurrence compared to the controls. For Luminal A tumors the risk of loco-regional recurrence was low and was further lowered by adjuvant radiation. These findings were validated in the DBCG 82b study. The individual data from the two cohorts were merged, the hazard ratio (HR) for loco-regional recurrence associated with giving radiation was 0.34 (0.19 to 0.61) overall and 0.12 (0.03 to 0.52) for Luminal A tumors. In both postmastectomy trials, patients with Luminal A tumors turned out to have a significant lower incidence of loco-regional recurrence when randomized to adjuvant radiotherapy, leaving no indication to omit postmastectomy adjuvant radiation in pre-menopausal high-risk patients with Luminal A tumors. It was not possible to evaluate the effect of radiotherapy among the other subtypes because of limited sample sizes.

  1. Role of Cytotoxic Tumor-Infiltrating Lymphocytes in Predicting Outcomes in Metastatic HER2-Positive Breast Cancer: A Secondary Analysis of a Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuzhen; Chen, Bingshu; Burugu, Samantha; Leung, Samuel; Gao, Dongxia; Virk, Shakeel; Kos, Zuzana; Parulekar, Wendy R; Shepherd, Lois; Gelmon, Karen A; Nielsen, Torsten O

    2017-11-09

    Accumulating evidence indicates that tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) are associated with clinical outcomes and may predict the efficacy of chemotherapy and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2, encoded by the gene ERBB2)-targeted therapy in patients with HER2-positive breast cancer. To investigate the role of TILs, particularly cytotoxic CD8+ T cells, in the prediction of outcomes in patients with HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer randomized to an antibody-based (trastuzumab) vs a small molecule-based (lapatinib) anti-HER2 therapy. The Canadian Cancer Trials Group MA.31 phase 3 clinical trial accrued patients from 21 countries and randomized 652 with HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer to receive trastuzumab or lapatinib, in combination with a taxane, from January 17, 2008, through December 1, 2011. Patients had received no prior chemotherapy or HER2-targeted therapy in the metastatic setting. The median follow-up was 21.5 months (interquartile range, 14.3-31.0). The tumor tissue collected for primary diagnosis was used in this ad hoc substudy. Sections were scored for TILs on hematoxylin-eosin (H&E)-stained sections, and immunohistochemical analysis was performed to assess CD8, FOXP3, CD56, and programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) expression on stromal (sTILs) and intratumoral TILs. Data were analyzed from July 15, 2015, through July 27, 2016. Treatment with trastuzumab or lapatinib in combination with taxane chemotherapy (paclitaxel or docetaxel) for 24 weeks. Prognostic effects of biomarkers were evaluated for progression-free survival by stratified univariate log-rank test with Kaplan-Meier curves and by multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression; predictive effects were examined with a test of interaction between treatment allocation and biomarker classification. Of the 647 treated women (mean [SD] age, 55.0 [10.8] years), 614 had tumor tissue samples scored for H&E sTILs and 427 for CD8 biomarker assessments. Overall H&E s

  2. Effect of a Proposed Trastuzumab Biosimilar Compared With Trastuzumab on Overall Response Rate in Patients With ERBB2 (HER2)-Positive Metastatic Breast Cancer: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rugo, Hope S; Barve, Abhijit; Waller, Cornelius F; Hernandez-Bronchud, Miguel; Herson, Jay; Yuan, Jinyu; Sharma, Rajiv; Baczkowski, Mark; Kothekar, Mudgal; Loganathan, Subramanian; Manikhas, Alexey; Bondarenko, Igor; Mukhametshina, Guzel; Nemsadze, Gia; Parra, Joseph D; Abesamis-Tiambeng, Maria Luisa T; Baramidze, Kakhaber; Akewanlop, Charuwan; Vynnychenko, Ihor; Sriuranpong, Virote; Mamillapalli, Gopichand; Ray, Sirshendu; Yanez Ruiz, Eduardo P; Pennella, Eduardo

    2017-01-03

    Treatment with the anti-ERBB2 humanized monoclonal antibody trastuzumab and chemotherapy significantly improves outcome in patients with ERBB2 (HER2)-positive metastatic breast cancer; a clinically effective biosimilar may help increase access to this therapy. To compare the overall response rate and assess the safety of a proposed trastuzumab biosimilar plus a taxane or trastuzumab plus a taxane in patients without prior treatment for ERBB2-positive metastatic breast cancer. Multicenter, double-blind, randomized, parallel-group, phase 3 equivalence study in patients with metastatic breast cancer. From December 2012 to August 2015, 500 patients were randomized 1:1 to receive a proposed biosimilar or trastuzumab plus a taxane. Chemotherapy was administered for at least 24 weeks followed by antibody alone until unacceptable toxic effects or disease progression occurred. Proposed biosimilar (n = 230) or trastuzumab (n = 228) with a taxane. The primary outcome was week 24 overall response rate (ORR) defined as complete or partial response. Equivalence boundaries were 0.81 to 1.24 with a 90% CI for ORR ratio (proposed biosimilar/trastuzumab) and -15% to 15% with a 95% CI for ORR difference. Secondary outcome measures included time to tumor progression, progression-free and overall survival at week 48, and adverse events. Among 500 women randomized, the intention-to-treat population included 458 women (mean [SD] age, 53.6 [11.11] years) and the safety population included 493 women. The ORR was 69.6% (95% CI, 63.62%-75.51%) for the proposed biosimilar vs 64.0% (95% CI, 57.81%-70.26%) for trastuzumab. The ORR ratio (1.09; 90% CI, 0.974-1.211) and ORR difference (5.53; 95% CI, -3.08 to 14.04) were within the equivalence boundaries. At week 48, there was no statistically significant difference with the proposed biosimilar vs trastuzumab for time to tumor progression (41.3% vs 43.0%; -1.7%; 95% CI, -11.1% to 6.9%), progression-free survival (44.3% vs 44.7%; -0.4%; 95

  3. Reactive Turing machines

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Baeten, Jos; Luttik, Bas; Tilburg, P.J.A

    2013-01-01

    textabstractWe propose reactive Turing machines (RTMs), extending classical Turing machines with a process-theoretical notion of interaction, and use it to define a notion of executable transition system...

  4. Machining with abrasives

    CERN Document Server

    Jackson, Mark J

    2011-01-01

    Abrasive machining is key to obtaining the desired geometry and surface quality in manufacturing. This book discusses the fundamentals and advances in the abrasive machining processes. It provides a complete overview of developing areas in the field.

  5. Applied machining technology

    CERN Document Server

    Tschätsch, Heinz

    2010-01-01

    Machining and cutting technologies are still crucial for many manufacturing processes. This reference presents all important machining processes in a comprehensive and coherent way. It includes many examples of concrete calculations, problems and solutions.

  6. Machine medical ethics

    CERN Document Server

    Pontier, Matthijs

    2015-01-01

    The essays in this book, written by researchers from both humanities and sciences, describe various theoretical and experimental approaches to adding medical ethics to a machine in medical settings. Medical machines are in close proximity with human beings, and getting closer: with patients who are in vulnerable states of health, who have disabilities of various kinds, with the very young or very old, and with medical professionals. In such contexts, machines are undertaking important medical tasks that require emotional sensitivity, knowledge of medical codes, human dignity, and privacy. As machine technology advances, ethical concerns become more urgent: should medical machines be programmed to follow a code of medical ethics? What theory or theories should constrain medical machine conduct? What design features are required? Should machines share responsibility with humans for the ethical consequences of medical actions? How ought clinical relationships involving machines to be modeled? Is a capacity for e...

  7. Brain versus Machine Control.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose M Carmena

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Dr. Octopus, the villain of the movie "Spiderman 2", is a fusion of man and machine. Neuroscientist Jose Carmena examines the facts behind this fictional account of a brain- machine interface

  8. Tube Alinement for Machining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, J.

    1984-01-01

    Tool with stepped shoulders alines tubes for machining in preparation for welding. Alinement with machine tool axis accurate to within 5 mils (0.13mm) and completed much faster than visual setup by machinist.

  9. Randomized clinical trial of thrice-weekly 4-month moxifloxacin or gatifloxacin containing regimens in the treatment of new sputum positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohideen S Jawahar

    Full Text Available Shortening tuberculosis (TB treatment duration is a research priority. This paper presents data from a prematurely terminated randomized clinical trial, of 4-month moxifloxacin or gatifloxacin regimens, in South India.Newly diagnosed, sputum-positive HIV-negative pulmonary TB patients were randomly allocated to receive gatifloxacin or moxifloxacin, along with isoniazid and rifampicin for 4 months with pyrazinamide for first 2 months (G or M or isoniazid and rifampicin for 6 months with ethambutol and pyrazinamide for first 2 months (C. All regimens were administered thrice-weekly. Clinical and bacteriological assessments were done monthly during treatment and for 24 months post-treatment. The Data and Safety Monitoring Board recommended termination of the trial due to high TB recurrence rates in the G and M regimens.Of 416 patients in intent-to-treat analysis, 6 (5% of 124, 2 (2% of 110 and 2 (2% of 137 patients with drug-susceptible TB in the G, M and C arms respectively had unfavorable response at the end of treatment; during the next 24 months, 17 (15% of 115, 11 (11% of 104 and 8 (6% of 132 patients respectively, had TB recurrence. Of 38 drug-resistant patients 1 of 8 and 3 of 26 in the G and C arms respectively had unfavourable response at the end of treatment; and TB recurrence occurred in 2 of 7 and 2 of 23 patients, respectively. The differences in TB recurrence rates between the G and C arms was statistically significant (p = 0.02. Gastro-intestinal symptoms occurred in 23%, 22% and 9% of patients in the G, M and C arms respectively, but most reactions were mild and manageable with symptomatic measures; 1% required regimen modification.4-month thrice-weekly regimens of gatifloxacin or moxifloxacin with isoniazid, rifampicin and pyrazinamide, were inferior to standard 6-month treatment, in patients with newly diagnosed sputum positive pulmonary TB.Clinical Trials Registry of India CTRI/2012/10/003060.

  10. Duration of adjuvant trastuzumab in HER2 positive breast cancer: Overall and disease free survival results from meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyawali, Bishal; Niraula, Saroj

    2017-11-01

    One year of trastuzumab, chosen empirically, improves survival of women with early-stage, HER2-positive breast cancer but also adds substantially to cost, toxicity, and inconvenience. Longer treatment does not improve outcomes, but potentiates toxicities. Medline, Embase, and major conference proceedings were searched systematically in June 2017 to identify Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs) comparing one year versus shorter durations of trastuzumab in adjuvant treatment of breast cancer. Reported Hazard-Ratios (HR) for Overall Survival (OS) and Disease-Free Survival (DFS), and Odds-Ratio for cardiac events, with respective 95% Confidence Intervals (CI) from each study was weighted using generic inverse-variance, and pooled in a meta-analysis. Inter-study heterogeneity and sub-group difference (based on hormone-receptors and node-positivity) were assessed using I 2 , and chi 2 statistics, respectively. Four studies (n=7614) satisfied inclusion criteria. Individual RCTs had diverse pre-specified upper-limits of 95% CI for declaring non-inferiority (range: <1.15 to <1.53). Pooled results demonstrated significant improvements in OS (HR 1.28, p=0.04), and DFS (HR 1.24, p=0.005) with 1year of trastuzumab compared to shorter durations. Absence of multiplicity argument allowed for declaring superiority of 1year of trastuzumab based on our results despite non-inferiority designs of individual trials. No influence on overall effect by duration of trastuzumab in experimental arm (9weeks versus 6months) was noted. No statistical interaction by hormone-receptor status and node-positivity on overall results was noticed [p(sub-group difference) 0.73, and 0.52, respectively]. Odds-Ratio for cardiac events was 2.65 (p<0.001) favoring shorter duration. One year of trastuzumab prolongs overall, and disease-free survivals in women with early-stage HER2 positive breast cancer compared to shorter durations and this should remain as the standard of care. Cardiotoxicity increased

  11. Automatic Inspection During Machining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransom, Clyde L.

    1988-01-01

    In experimental manufacturing process, numerically-controlled machine tool temporarily converts into inspection machine by installing electronic touch probes and specially-developed numerical-control software. Software drives probes in paths to and on newly machined parts and collects data on dimensions of parts.

  12. Finite Virtual State Machines

    OpenAIRE

    Senhadji Navarro, Raouf; García Vargas, Ignacio

    2012-01-01

    This letter proposes a new model of state machine called Finite Virtual State Machine (FVSM). A memory-based architecture and a procedure for generating FVSM implementations from Finite State Machines (FSMs) are presented. FVSM implementations provide advantages in speed over conventional RAM-based FSM implementations. The results of experiments prove the feasibility of this approach.

  13. Reliability analysis in intelligent machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcinroy, John E.; Saridis, George N.

    1990-01-01

    Given an explicit task to be executed, an intelligent machine must be able to find the probability of success, or reliability, of alternative control and sensing strategies. By using concepts for information theory and reliability theory, new techniques for finding the reliability corresponding to alternative subsets of control and sensing strategies are proposed such that a desired set of specifications can be satisfied. The analysis is straightforward, provided that a set of Gaussian random state variables is available. An example problem illustrates the technique, and general reliability results are presented for visual servoing with a computed torque-control algorithm. Moreover, the example illustrates the principle of increasing precision with decreasing intelligence at the execution level of an intelligent machine.

  14. Machine learning a probabilistic perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Murphy, Kevin P

    2012-01-01

    Today's Web-enabled deluge of electronic data calls for automated methods of data analysis. Machine learning provides these, developing methods that can automatically detect patterns in data and then use the uncovered patterns to predict future data. This textbook offers a comprehensive and self-contained introduction to the field of machine learning, based on a unified, probabilistic approach. The coverage combines breadth and depth, offering necessary background material on such topics as probability, optimization, and linear algebra as well as discussion of recent developments in the field, including conditional random fields, L1 regularization, and deep learning. The book is written in an informal, accessible style, complete with pseudo-code for the most important algorithms. All topics are copiously illustrated with color images and worked examples drawn from such application domains as biology, text processing, computer vision, and robotics. Rather than providing a cookbook of different heuristic method...

  15. Assessing water filtration and safe storage in households with young children of HIV-positive mothers: a randomized, controlled trial in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peletz, Rachel; Simunyama, Martin; Sarenje, Kelvin; Baisley, Kathy; Filteau, Suzanne; Kelly, Paul; Clasen, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Unsafe drinking water presents a particular threat to people living with HIV/AIDS (PLHIV) due to the increased risk of opportunistic infections, diarrhea-associated malabsorption of essential nutrients, and increased exposure to untreated water for children of HIV-positive mothers who use replacement feeding to reduce the risk of HIV transmission. This population may particularly benefit from an intervention to improve water quality in the home. We conducted a 12-month randomized, controlled field trial in Zambia among 120 households with children water filter and jerry cans for safe storage. Households were followed up monthly to assess use, drinking water quality (thermotolerant coliforms (TTC), an indicator of fecal contamination) and reported diarrhea (7-day recall) among children filter have been unsuccessful, we also assessed weight-for-age Z-scores (WAZ) as an objective measure of diarrhea impact. Filter use was high, with 96% (596/620) of household visits meeting the criteria for users. The quality of water stored in intervention households was significantly better than in control households (3 vs. 181 TTC/100 mL, respectively, pwater filter combined with safe storage was used correctly and consistently, was highly effective in improving drinking water quality, and was protective against diarrhea. Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01116908.

  16. Positive effects of transcranial direct current stimulation in adult patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder - A pilot randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cachoeira, Carolina Tosetto; Leffa, Douglas Teixeira; Mittelstadt, Suzana Doneda; Mendes, Lorenna Sena Teixeira; Brunoni, Andre R; Pinto, Jairo Vinicius; Blazius, Vtor; Machado, Vitoria; Bau, Claiton Henrique Dotto; Rohde, Luis Augusto; Grevet, Eugenio Horacio; Schestatsky, Pedro

    2017-01-01

    Almost 30% of adult patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) do not respond or tolerate standard pharmacological interventions. Few clinical investigations addressed the efficacy and tolerability of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), a non-invasive neuromodulatory technique, in the disorder. We performed a double-blind, sham-controlled randomized clinical trial in 17 patients with ADHD. The set up for tDCS was the following: 2mA/20min/day for 5 days with the anode over the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and cathode over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. ADHD symptoms were measured by the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS) and impairment with the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS) in four different time points after stimulation. Participants achieved significant lower ASRS inattention and SDS scores after active tDCS in comparison with sham stimulation group. In addition, we detected a trend for a lower ASRS total score in the active tDCS group. Follow up data analysis revealed a positive interaction between time and treatment in both ASRS inattention, SDS and ASRS total scores. Short-term application of tDCS in adult patients with ADHD improved their symptoms, and this improvement persisted after the end of the stimulation. Future studies with larger sample sizes are needed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Precision machine design

    CERN Document Server

    Slocum, Alexander H

    1992-01-01

    This book is a comprehensive engineering exploration of all the aspects of precision machine design - both component and system design considerations for precision machines. It addresses both theoretical analysis and practical implementation providing many real-world design case studies as well as numerous examples of existing components and their characteristics. Fast becoming a classic, this book includes examples of analysis techniques, along with the philosophy of the solution method. It explores the physics of errors in machines and how such knowledge can be used to build an error budget for a machine, how error budgets can be used to design more accurate machines.

  18. Quantum machine learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biamonte, Jacob; Wittek, Peter; Pancotti, Nicola; Rebentrost, Patrick; Wiebe, Nathan; Lloyd, Seth

    2017-09-01

    Fuelled by increasing computer power and algorithmic advances, machine learning techniques have become powerful tools for finding patterns in data. Quantum systems produce atypical patterns that classical systems are thought not to produce efficiently, so it is reasonable to postulate that quantum computers may outperform classical computers on machine learning tasks. The field of quantum machine learning explores how to devise and implement quantum software that could enable machine learning that is faster than that of classical computers. Recent work has produced quantum algorithms that could act as the building blocks of machine learning programs, but the hardware and software challenges are still considerable.

  19. Asynchronized synchronous machines

    CERN Document Server

    Botvinnik, M M

    1964-01-01

    Asynchronized Synchronous Machines focuses on the theoretical research on asynchronized synchronous (AS) machines, which are "hybrids” of synchronous and induction machines that can operate with slip. Topics covered in this book include the initial equations; vector diagram of an AS machine; regulation in cases of deviation from the law of full compensation; parameters of the excitation system; and schematic diagram of an excitation regulator. The possible applications of AS machines and its calculations in certain cases are also discussed. This publication is beneficial for students and indiv

  20. Early ART initiation among HIV-positive pregnant women in central Mozambique: a stepped wedge randomized controlled trial of an optimized Option B+ approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, James F; Micek, Mark; Cowan, Jessica F Greenberg; Napúa, Manuel; Hoek, Roxanne; Gimbel, Sarah; Gloyd, Stephen; Sherr, Kenneth; Pfeiffer, James T; Chapman, Rachel R

    2015-04-30

    Despite effective prevention strategies and increasing investments in global health, maternal to child transmission (MTCT) of HIV remains a significant problem globally, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. In 2012, there were 94,000 HIV-positive pregnant women in Mozambique. Approximately 15% of these women transmitted HIV to their newborn infants, resulting in nearly 14,000 new pediatric HIV infections that year. To address this issue, in 2013, the Mozambican Ministry of Health implemented the World Health Organization-recommended "Option B+" strategy in which all newly diagnosed HIV-positive pregnant women are counseled to initiate combination anti-retroviral therapy (ART) immediately upon diagnosis regardless of CD4 count and to continue treatment for life. Given the limited experience with Option B+ in sub-Saharan Africa, few rigorous pragmatic trials have studied this new treatment strategy. This study utilizes an initial formative research process involving patient and health care provider interviews and focus groups, workforce assessments, value stream mapping, and commodity utilization assessments to understand the strengths and weaknesses in the current Option B+ care cascade. The formative research is intended to guide identification and prioritization of key workflow modifications and the development of an enhanced adherence and retention package. These two components are bundled into a defined intervention implemented and evaluated across six health facilities utilizing a stepped wedge randomized controlled trial study design. The overall objective of this trial is to develop and test a pilot intervention in central Mozambique to implement the new Option B+ guidelines with high fidelity and increase the proportion of HIV-positive pregnant women in target antenatal clinics (ANC) who start ART prior to delivery and are retained in care. This pragmatic study utilizes research strategies that have the potential to meaningfully improve the Option B+ care

  1. CPM Signal for Machine to Machine Communications

    OpenAIRE

    Messai, Malek

    2015-01-01

    The analysis of communication evolution predicts an increase in the number of connected machines. This thesis aims to determine a multi-user communication system adapted to the material limitation of the machines and to the applications constraints. Power and cost efficient digital modulation is required for both economic and environmental reasons; the power consumption on the link should be as low as possible. Constant envelope modulation offers the possibility to use non-linear cost-effecti...

  2. Intranasal oxytocin reduces provoked symptoms in female patients with posttraumatic stress disorder despite exerting sympathomimetic and positive chronotropic effects in a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sack, M; Spieler, D; Wizelman, L; Epple, G; Stich, J; Zaba, M; Schmidt, U

    2017-02-17

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a severe psychiatric disease accompanied by neuroendocrine changes such as adrenergic overdrive and hence an elevated cardiovascular morbidity. Current pharmacotherapeutic options for PTSD are less than suboptimal, necessitating the development of PTSD-specific drugs. Although the neuropeptide oxytocin has been repeatedly suggested to be effective in PTSD treatment, there are, to our knowledge, only three studies that have assessed its efficacy on the intensity of PTSD symptoms in PTSD patients - among them one symptom provocation study in male veterans. To evaluate for the first time how oxytocin influences the intensity of provoked PTSD symptoms and, furthermore, cardiac control in female PTSD patients, we assessed their psychic and cardiac response to trauma-script exposure with and without oxytocin pretreatment in a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled study. We used a within-subject design to study 35 female PTSD patients who received oxytocin and placebo in a 2-week interval. Furthermore, we performed a small pilot study to get an idea of the relation of the stress-modulated endogenous oxytocin levels and heart rate - we correlated oxytocin serum levels with the heart rate of 10 healthy individuals before and after exposure to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST). Intranasal oxytocin treatment was followed by a reduction of provoked total PTSD symptoms, in particular of avoidance, and by an elevation in baseline and maximum heart rate together with a drop in the pre-ejection period, a marker for sympathetic cardiac control. Furthermore, we found a positive correlation between endogenous oxytocin levels and heart rate both before and after TSST challenge in healthy control subjects. This study provides the first evidence that oxytocin treatment reduces the intensity of provoked PTSD symptoms in female PTSD patients. The small size of both samples and the heterogeneity of the patient sample restrict the

  3. Initial treatment of respiratory distress syndrome with nasal intermittent mandatory ventilation versus nasal continuous positive airway pressure: A randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir-Mohammad Armanian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (RDS in premature infants who survived and its complications are a common problem. Due to high morbidity and mechanical ventilation (MV nowadays researchers in interested minimizing MV. To determine, in very low birth weight (BW preterm neonates with RDS, if initial treatment with nasal intermittent mandatory ventilation (early NIMV compared with early nasal continuous positive airway pressure (early NCPAP obtains more favorable outcomes in terms of the duration of treatment, and the need for endotracheal tube ventilation. Methods: In this single-center randomized control trial study, infants (BW ≤ 1500 g and/or gestational age ≤ 34 weeks with respiratory distress were considered eligible. Forty-four infants were randomly assigned to receive early-NIMV and 54 comparable infants to early-NCPAP. Surfactants were given, when FIO 2 requirement was of >30%. Primary outcomes were failure of noninvasive respiratory support, that is, the need for MV in the first 48 h of life and for the duration of noninvasive respiratory support in each group. Results: 98 infants were enrolled (44 in the NIMV and 54 in the NCPAP group. The Preventive power of MV of NIMV usage (95.5% was not lower than the NCPAP (98.1% strength (hazard ratio: 0.21 (95% confidence interval: 0.02-2.66; P: 0.23. The duration of noninvasive respiratory support in the NIMV group was significantly shorter than NCPAP (the median (range was 24 (18.00-48.00 h versus 48.00 (22.00-120.00 h in NIMV versus NCPAP groups; P < 0.001. Similarly, the duration of dependency on oxygen was less, for NIMV (the median (range was 96.00 (41.00-504.00 h versus144.00 (70.00-1130.00 h in NIMV versus NCPAP groups; P: 0.009. Interestingly, time to full enteral feeds and length of hospital stay were more favorable in the NIMV versus the NCPAP group. Conclusions: Initial treatment of RDS with NIMV was safe, and well tolerated. Furthermore, NIMV had excellent

  4. Extreme learning machines 2013 algorithms and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Toh, Kar-Ann; Romay, Manuel; Mao, Kezhi

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, ELM has emerged as a revolutionary technique of computational intelligence, and has attracted considerable attentions. An extreme learning machine (ELM) is a single layer feed-forward neural network alike learning system, whose connections from the input layer to the hidden layer are randomly generated, while the connections from the hidden layer to the output layer are learned through linear learning methods. The outstanding merits of extreme learning machine (ELM) are its fast learning speed, trivial human intervene and high scalability.   This book contains some selected papers from the International Conference on Extreme Learning Machine 2013, which was held in Beijing China, October 15-17, 2013. This conference aims to bring together the researchers and practitioners of extreme learning machine from a variety of fields including artificial intelligence, biomedical engineering and bioinformatics, system modelling and control, and signal and image processing, to promote research and discu...

  5. Can machine-learning improve cardiovascular risk prediction using routine clinical data?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Stephen F; Reps, Jenna; Kai, Joe; Garibaldi, Jonathan M; Qureshi, Nadeem

    2017-01-01

    Current approaches to predict cardiovascular risk fail to identify many people who would benefit from preventive treatment, while others receive unnecessary intervention. Machine-learning offers opportunity to improve accuracy by exploiting complex interactions between risk factors. We assessed whether machine-learning can improve cardiovascular risk prediction. Prospective cohort study using routine clinical data of 378,256 patients from UK family practices, free from cardiovascular disease at outset. Four machine-learning algorithms (random forest, logistic regression, gradient boosting machines, neural networks) were compared to an established algorithm (American College of Cardiology guidelines) to predict first cardiovascular event over 10-years. Predictive accuracy was assessed by area under the 'receiver operating curve' (AUC); and sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV) to predict 7.5% cardiovascular risk (threshold for initiating statins). 24,970 incident cardiovascular events (6.6%) occurred. Compared to the established risk prediction algorithm (AUC 0.728, 95% CI 0.723-0.735), machine-learning algorithms improved prediction: random forest +1.7% (AUC 0.745, 95% CI 0.739-0.750), logistic regression +3.2% (AUC 0.760, 95% CI 0.755-0.766), gradient boosting +3.3% (AUC 0.761, 95% CI 0.755-0.766), neural networks +3.6% (AUC 0.764, 95% CI 0.759-0.769). The highest achieving (neural networks) algorithm predicted 4,998/7,404 cases (sensitivity 67.5%, PPV 18.4%) and 53,458/75,585 non-cases (specificity 70.7%, NPV 95.7%), correctly predicting 355 (+7.6%) more patients who developed cardiovascular disease compared to the established algorithm. Machine-learning significantly improves accuracy of cardiovascular risk prediction, increasing the number of patients identified who could benefit from preventive treatment, while avoiding unnecessary treatment of others.

  6. Microcompartments and Protein Machines in Prokaryotes

    OpenAIRE

    Saier, Milton H.

    2013-01-01

    The prokaryotic cell was once thought of as a “bag of enzymes” with little or no intracellular compartmentalization. In this view, most reactions essential for life occurred as a consequence of random molecular collisions involving substrates, cofactors and cytoplasmic enzymes. Our current conception of a prokaryote is far from this view. We now consider a bacterium or an archaeon as a highly structured, non-random collection of functional membrane-embedded and proteinaceous molecular machine...

  7. Kernel Factory: An Ensemble of Kernel Machines

    OpenAIRE

    M. BALLINGS; D. VAN DEN POEL

    2012-01-01

    We propose an ensemble method for kernel machines. The training data is randomly split into a number of mutually exclusive partitions defined by a row and column parameter. Each partition forms an input space and is transformed by a kernel function into a kernel matrix K. Subsequently, each K is used as training data for a base binary classifier (Random Forest). This results in a number of predictions equal to the number of partitions. A weighted average combines the predictions into one fina...

  8. Fiber tractography using machine learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neher, Peter F; Côté, Marc-Alexandre; Houde, Jean-Christophe; Descoteaux, Maxime; Maier-Hein, Klaus H

    2017-09-01

    We present a fiber tractography approach based on a random forest classification and voting process, guiding each step of the streamline progression by directly processing raw diffusion-weighted signal intensities. For comparison to the state-of-the-art, i.e. tractography pipelines that rely on mathematical modeling, we performed a quantitative and qualitative evaluation with multiple phantom and in vivo experiments, including a comparison to the 96 submissions of the ISMRM tractography challenge 2015. The results demonstrate the vast potential of machine learning for fiber tractography. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Do clinical decision-support reminders for medical providers improve isoniazid preventative therapy prescription rates among HIV-positive adults? Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Eric P; Catalani, Caricia; Diero, Lameck; Carter, E Jane; Gardner, Adrian; Ndwiga, Charity; Keny, Aggrey; Owiti, Philip; Israelski, Dennis; Biondich, Paul

    2015-04-09

    This document describes a research protocol for a study designed to estimate the impact of implementing a reminder system for medical providers on the use of isoniazid preventative therapy (IPT) for adults living with HIV in western Kenya. People living with HIV have a 5% to 10% annual risk of developing active tuberculosis (TB) once infected with TB bacilli, compared to a 5% lifetime risk in HIV-negative people with latent TB infection. Moreover, people living with HIV have a 20-fold higher risk of dying from TB. A growing body of literature suggests that IPT reduces overall TB incidence and is therefore of considerable benefit to patients and the larger community. However, in 2009, of the estimated 33 million people living with HIV, only 1.7 million (5%) were screened for TB, and about 85,000 (0.2%) were offered IPT. This study will examine the use of clinical decision-support reminders to improve rates of initiation of preventative treatment in a TB/HIV co-morbid population living in a TB endemic area. This will be a pragmatic, parallel-group, cluster-randomized superiority trial with a 1:1 allocation to treatment ratio. For the trial, 20 public medical facilities that use clinical summary sheets generated from an electronic medical records system will participate as clusters. All HIV-positive adult patients who complete an initial encounter at a study cluster and at least one return encounter during the study period will be included in the study cohort. The primary endpoint will be IPT prescription at 3 months post the initial encounter. We will conduct both individual-level and cluster-level analyses. Due to the nature of the intervention, the trial will not be blinded. This study will contribute to the growing evidence base for the use of electronic health interventions in low-resource settings to promote high-quality clinical care, health system optimization and positive patient outcomes. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01934309, registered 29

  10. Secondary prevention of cardiogenic arterial thromboembolism in the cat: The double-blind, randomized, positive-controlled feline arterial thromboembolism; clopidogrel vs. aspirin trial (FAT CAT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, Daniel F; Fox, Philip R; Jacob, Kristin; Keene, Bruce; Laste, Nancy J; Rosenthal, Steven; Sederquist, Kimberly; Weng, Hsin-Yi

    2015-12-01

    To determine if clopidogrel administration is associated with a reduced likelihood of recurrent cardiogenic arterial thromboembolism (CATE) in cats compared to aspirin administration. Secondary aims were to determine if clopidogrel administration had an effect on the composite endpoint of recurrent CATE and cardiac death and to identify adverse effects of chronic clopidogrel or aspirin therapy. Seventy-five cats that survived a CATE event. Multicenter, double-blind, randomized, positive-controlled study. Cats were assigned to clopidogrel (18.75 mg/cat PO q 24 h) or aspirin (81 mg/cat PO q 72 h). Kaplan-Meier survival curves were created for each endpoint and the log rank test performed to compare treatment groups with respect to time to event and the likelihood of the event occurring. The mean age of all cats was 8.0 ± 3.5 yr and 57/75 (76%) were male (p history of heart disease recorded prior to the CATE event. Clopidogrel administration was associated with significantly reduced likelihood of recurrent CATE compared to aspirin (p = 0.024) and had a longer median time to recurrence [443 (95% CI 185-990) days vs. 192 (95% CI 62-364) days, respectively]. Clopidogrel was also associated with a significantly reduced likelihood of the composite endpoint of recurrent CATE or cardiac death (p = 0.033) with a longer median time to event [346 (95% CI 146-495) days vs. 128 (95% CI 58-243) days]. Clopidogrel administration significantly reduces the likelihood of recurrent CATE compared with aspirin in cats; both drugs were well tolerated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. A randomized trial of written emotional disclosure interventions in school teachers: controlling for positive expectancies and effects on health and job satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashley, Laura; O'Connor, Daryl B; Jones, Fiona

    2013-01-01

    Writing expressively about distressing experiences has been found to have beneficial health effects. This study examined the effects of written emotional disclosure (WED) interventions on the self-reported health and job satisfaction of school teachers, and compared standard WED instructions with two commonly used more prescriptive variants. The study also controlled and measured the between-condition comparability of participants' post-writing benefit expectations. Teachers (final N = 77) were randomized to a control writing condition or one of three WED conditions that varied the number and/or type of experiences participants wrote about. All teachers wrote for 20 min on three consecutive days at home. Psychological health, physical health, and job satisfaction were assessed at baseline, two weeks, two months, and six months post-intervention. Participants' expectations of benefit following writing were equivalent across conditions. There was no significant effect of any of the three WED interventions, compared to control writing, on psychological or physical health or job satisfaction. There was, however, a significant and sizeable improvement in physical health across writing conditions from baseline to two-month follow-up, and this was maintained at six months. The findings show that control writing can produce comparable expectations of benefit to WED, and are consistent with the possibility that benefit expectancies can effect health improvements following disclosure or control writing. Most previous studies have examined WED with students or patient groups, and the findings also raise an important question about the feasibility of multi-session writing interventions for mid-life working samples. Further studies with occupational groups are warranted, as is further investigation into the role of positive expectancies in WED effects.

  12. Impact of continuous positive airway pressure treatment on left ventricular ejection fraction in patients with obstructive sleep apnea: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Sun

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It has been known for a long time that obstructive sleep apnea (OSA is associated with a decreased left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP is the gold standard treatment for OSA; however, it is unknown whether or not CPAP treatment will improve the LVEF. The aim of the current study was to assess whether or not CPAP treatment improves the LVEF. A meta-analysis was conducted to determine the effect of CPAP treatment on the LVEF among patients with OSA. METHODS: A literature search of PubMed, the Web of Science, and Cochrane Collaboration's database were utilized to identify eligible reports for this trial. Ten randomized controlled trails were examined and the meta-analysis was performed using STATA 11. RESULTS: A significant improvement in the LVEF was observed after CPAP treatment (weighted mean difference(WMD = 3.59, 95% CI = 1.74-5.44; P<0.001. Subgroup analysis revealed that patients with OSA and heart failure had a significant improvement in the LVEF after CPAP treatment (WMD = 5.18, 95% CI = 3.27-7.08; P<0.001; however, the LVEF of patients with OSA only increased 1.11% and there was no statistical significance (WMD = 1.11, 95% CI = -1.13-3.35; P = 0.331. Furthermore, based on univariate meta-regression analysis, only the baseline AHI had a statistically significant correlation with the LVEF. CONCLUSIONS: Our meta-analysis supports the notion that CPAP may improve the LVEF among patients with OSA.

  13. Effects of short-term continuous positive airway pressure on myocardial sympathetic nerve function and energetics in patients with heart failure and obstructive sleep apnea: a randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Allison B; Ziadi, Maria C; Leech, Judith A; Chen, Shin-Yee; Burwash, Ian G; Renaud, Jennifer; deKemp, Robert A; Haddad, Haissam; Mielniczuk, Lisa M; Yoshinaga, Keiichiro; Guo, Ann; Chen, Li; Walter, Olga; Garrard, Linda; DaSilva, Jean N; Floras, John S; Beanlands, Rob S B

    2014-09-09

    Heart failure with reduced ejection fraction and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), 2 states of increased metabolic demand and sympathetic nervous system activation, often coexist. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), which alleviates OSA, can improve ventricular function. It is unknown whether this is due to altered oxidative metabolism or presynaptic sympathetic nerve function. We hypothesized that short-term (6-8 weeks) CPAP in patients with OSA and heart failure with reduced ejection fraction would improve myocardial sympathetic nerve function and energetics. Forty-five patients with OSA and heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (left ventricular ejection fraction 35.8±9.7% [mean±SD]) were evaluated with the use of echocardiography and 11C-acetate and 11C-hydroxyephedrine positron emission tomography before and ≈6 to 8 weeks after randomization to receive short-term CPAP (n=22) or no CPAP (n=23). Work metabolic index, an estimate of myocardial efficiency, was calculated as follows: (stroke volume index×heart rate×systolic blood pressure÷Kmono), where Kmono is the monoexponential function fit to the myocardial 11C-acetate time-activity data, reflecting oxidative metabolism. Presynaptic sympathetic nerve function was measured with the use of the 11C-hydroxyephedrine retention index. CPAP significantly increased hydroxyephedrine retention versus no CPAP (Δretention: +0.012 [0.002, 0.021] versus -0.006 [-0.013, 0.005] min(-1); P=0.003). There was no significant change in work metabolic index between groups. However, in those with more severe OSA (apnea-hypopnea index>20 events per hour), CPAP significantly increased both work metabolic index and systolic blood pressure (Penergetics. In those with more severe OSA, CPAP may improve cardiac efficiency. Further outcome-based investigation of the consequences of CPAP is warranted. http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00756366. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  14. A Randomized Multicenter Study Comparing a Tacrolimus-Based Protocol with and without Steroids in HCV-Positive Liver Allograft Recipients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulf Neumann

    2012-01-01

    This randomized study evaluated HCV recurrence in HCV-positive liver allograft recipients using steroid-free immunosuppression. All patients received tacrolimus (TAC at an initial dose of 0.10–0.15 mg/kg. The steroid-free arm (TAC/daclizumab (TAC/DAC, n=67 received daclizumab induction, and the steroid arm (TAC/steroid (TAC/STR, n=68 received a steroid bolus (≤ 500mg followed by 15–20 mg/day with discontinuation after month 3. Median HCV viral load at month 12, the primary endpoint, was similar at 5.46 (0.95–6.54 IU/mL with TAC/DAC and 5.91 (0.95–6.89 IU/mL with TAC/STR. Small numerical differences in the estimated rate of freedom from HCV recurrence (19.1 versus 13.8% and freedom from biopsy proven rejection (78.4 versus 66.1% were observed between TAC/DAC and TAC/STR. Patient survival estimates were significantly lower with TAC/DAC than with TAC/STR (83.1 versus 95.5%; 95% CI, −0.227 to −0.019%, and graft survival was numerically lower (80.1 versus 91.1%, P=NS. Completion rates (45 versus 82% indicated poorer tolerability with TAC/DAC than with TAC/STR. Steroid-free immunosuppression had no real impact on HCV viral load. HCV recurrence was higher with TAC/STR. Results are inconclusive due to the unexpected lower completion rates in the TAC/DAC arm.

  15. Do manual therapy techniques have a positive effect on quality of life in people with tension-type headache? A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espí-López, Gemma V; Rodríguez-Blanco, Cleofás; Oliva-Pascual-Vaca, Angel; Molina-Martínez, Francisco; Falla, Deborah

    2016-08-01

    Controversy exists regarding the effectiveness of manual therapy for the relief of tension-type headache (TTH). However most studies have addressed the impact of therapy on the frequency and intensity of pain. No studies have evaluated the potentially significant effect on the patient's quality of life. To assess the quality of life of patients suffering from TTH treated for 4 weeks with different manual therapy techniques. Factorial, randomized, single-blinded, controlled clinical trial. Specialized center for the treatment of headache. Seventy-six (62 women) patients aged between 18 and 65 years (age: 39.9±10.9) with either episodic or chronic TTH. Patients were divided into four groups: suboccipital inhibitory pressure; suboccipital spinal manipulation; a combination of the two treatments; control. Quality of life was assessed using the SF-12 questionnaire (considering both the overall score and the different dimensions) at the beginning and end of treatment, and after a one month follow-up. Compared to baseline, the suboccipital inhibition treatment group showed a significant improvement in their overall quality of life at the one month follow-up and also showed specific improvement in the dimensions related to moderate physical activities, and in their emotional role. All the treatment groups, but not the control group, showed improvements in their physical role, bodily pain, and social functioning at the one month follow-up. Post treatment and at the one month follow-up, the combined treatment group showed improved vitality and the two treatment groups that involved manipulation showed improved mental health. All three treatments were effective at changing different dimensions of quality of life, but the combined treatment showed the most change. The results support the effectiveness of treatments applied to the suboccipital region for patients with TTH. Manual therapy techniques applied to the suboccipital region, for as little as four weeks, offered a

  16. A randomized controlled trial of strong minds: A school-based mental health program combining acceptance and commitment therapy and positive psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burckhardt, Rowan; Manicavasagar, Vijaya; Batterham, Philip J; Hadzi-Pavlovic, Dusan

    2016-08-01

    To date, most early intervention programs have been based on emotion regulation strategies that address dysfunctional cognitive appraisals, problem-solving skills, and rumination. Another emotion regulation strategy, 'acceptance' training, has largely been overlooked. To examine the efficacy of this strategy, a school-based mental health program combining positive psychology with acceptance and commitment therapy (Strong Minds) was evaluated in a randomized controlled trial with a sample of 267 Year 10 and 11 high-school students in Sydney, Australia. Mixed models for repeated measures examined whether the program led to reductions in symptoms amongst students who commenced the program with high depression, anxiety, and stress scores, and increased wellbeing scores amongst all students. Results demonstrated that compared to controls, participants in the Strong Minds condition with elevated symptom scores (n=63) reported significant reductions in depression (p=.047), stress (p=.01), and composite depression/anxiety symptoms (p=.02) with medium to strong effect sizes (Cohen's d=0.53, 0.74, and 0.57, respectively). Increased wellbeing (p=.03) in the total sample and decreased anxiety scores (p=.048) for students with elevated symptoms were significant for Year 10 students with medium effect sizes (Cohen's d=0.43 and 0.54, respectively). This study tentatively suggests that including the emotion regulation strategy of acceptance in early intervention programs may be effective in reducing symptoms and improving wellbeing in high school students. Further research to investigate the generalizability of these findings is warranted. Copyright © 2016 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Machine Learning Techniques for Prediction of Early Childhood Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugan, T M; Mukhopadhyay, S; Carroll, A; Downs, S

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to predict childhood obesity after age two, using only data collected prior to the second birthday by a clinical decision support system called CHICA. Analyses of six different machine learning methods: RandomTree, RandomForest, J48, ID3, Naïve Bayes, and Bayes trained on CHICA data show that an accurate, sensitive model can be created. Of the methods analyzed, the ID3 model trained on the CHICA dataset proved the best overall performance with accuracy of 85% and sensitivity of 89%. Additionally, the ID3 model had a positive predictive value of 84% and a negative predictive value of 88%. The structure of the tree also gives insight into the strongest predictors of future obesity in children. Many of the strongest predictors seen in the ID3 modeling of the CHICA dataset have been independently validated in the literature as correlated with obesity, thereby supporting the validity of the model. This study demonstrated that data from a production clinical decision support system can be used to build an accurate machine learning model to predict obesity in children after age two.

  18. ANALYSIS OF PARAMETERS AFFECTING THE QUALITY OF A CUTTING MACHINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iveta Onderová

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The quality of cutting machines is affected by several factors that can be directly or indirectly influenced by manufacturers, technicians and users of machine tools. The most critical qualitative evaluation parameters of machine tools include accuracy and stability. Investigations of accuracy and repeatable positioning accuracy were essential for the research presented in this paper. The aim was to develop and experimentally verify the design of a methodology for cutting centers aimed at achieving the desired working precision. Before working on the topic described here, it was necessary to make several scientific analyses, which are summarized in this paper. We can build on the initial working hypothesis that by improving the technological parameters (e.g. by increasing the working speed of the machine, or by improving the precision of the positioning the quality of the cutting machine will also be improved. For the purposes of our study, several investigated parameters were set affecting positioning accuracy, such as rigidity, positioning speed, etc. First, the stiffness of the portal structure of the cutting machine was analyzed. FEM analysis was used to investigate several alternative structures of the cutting machine, and also an innovative solution for beam mounting. The second step was to integrate two types of drives into the design of the cutting machine. The first drive is a classic rack and pinion drive for cutting machines. To increase (improve the working speed of the machine, linear motors were designed as an alternative drive. The portal of the cutting machine was designed for a working speed of 260mmin−1 and acceleration of 25 m. s−2. The third step was based on the results of the analysis. In collaboration with Microstep, an experimental cutting machine in a portal version was produced using linear synchronous motors driving the portal on both sides, and with direct linear metering of its position. In the fourth step, an

  19. Machining of titanium alloys

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This book presents a collection of examples illustrating the resent research advances in the machining of titanium alloys. These materials have excellent strength and fracture toughness as well as low density and good corrosion resistance; however, machinability is still poor due to their low thermal conductivity and high chemical reactivity with cutting tool materials. This book presents solutions to enhance machinability in titanium-based alloys and serves as a useful reference to professionals and researchers in aerospace, automotive and biomedical fields.

  20. Pattern recognition & machine learning

    CERN Document Server

    Anzai, Y

    1992-01-01

    This is the first text to provide a unified and self-contained introduction to visual pattern recognition and machine learning. It is useful as a general introduction to artifical intelligence and knowledge engineering, and no previous knowledge of pattern recognition or machine learning is necessary. Basic for various pattern recognition and machine learning methods. Translated from Japanese, the book also features chapter exercises, keywords, and summaries.

  1. Machinability of advanced materials

    CERN Document Server

    Davim, J Paulo

    2014-01-01

    Machinability of Advanced Materials addresses the level of difficulty involved in machining a material, or multiple materials, with the appropriate tooling and cutting parameters.  A variety of factors determine a material's machinability, including tool life rate, cutting forces and power consumption, surface integrity, limiting rate of metal removal, and chip shape. These topics, among others, and multiple examples comprise this research resource for engineering students, academics, and practitioners.

  2. Machine listening intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cella, C. E.

    2017-05-01

    This manifesto paper will introduce machine listening intelligence, an integrated research framework for acoustic and musical signals modelling, based on signal processing, deep learning and computational musicology.

  3. Nanocomposites for Machining Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daria Sidorenko

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Machining tools are used in many areas of production. To a considerable extent, the performance characteristics of the tools determine the quality and cost of obtained products. The main materials used for producing machining tools are steel, cemented carbides, ceramics and superhard materials. A promising way to improve the performance characteristics of these materials is to design new nanocomposites based on them. The application of micromechanical modeling during the elaboration of composite materials for machining tools can reduce the financial and time costs for development of new tools, with enhanced performance. This article reviews the main groups of nanocomposites for machining tools and their performance.

  4. Rotating electrical machines

    CERN Document Server

    Le Doeuff, René

    2013-01-01

    In this book a general matrix-based approach to modeling electrical machines is promulgated. The model uses instantaneous quantities for key variables and enables the user to easily take into account associations between rotating machines and static converters (such as in variable speed drives).   General equations of electromechanical energy conversion are established early in the treatment of the topic and then applied to synchronous, induction and DC machines. The primary characteristics of these machines are established for steady state behavior as well as for variable speed scenarios. I

  5. Induction machine handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Boldea, Ion

    2002-01-01

    Often called the workhorse of industry, the advent of power electronics and advances in digital control are transforming the induction motor into the racehorse of industrial motion control. Now, the classic texts on induction machines are nearly three decades old, while more recent books on electric motors lack the necessary depth and detail on induction machines.The Induction Machine Handbook fills industry's long-standing need for a comprehensive treatise embracing the many intricate facets of induction machine analysis and design. Moving gradually from simple to complex and from standard to

  6. Machine learning with R

    CERN Document Server

    Lantz, Brett

    2013-01-01

    Written as a tutorial to explore and understand the power of R for machine learning. This practical guide that covers all of the need to know topics in a very systematic way. For each machine learning approach, each step in the process is detailed, from preparing the data for analysis to evaluating the results. These steps will build the knowledge you need to apply them to your own data science tasks.Intended for those who want to learn how to use R's machine learning capabilities and gain insight from your data. Perhaps you already know a bit about machine learning, but have never used R; or

  7. Nanocomposites for Machining Tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sidorenko, Daria; Loginov, Pavel; Mishnaevsky, Leon

    2017-01-01

    . A promising way to improve the performance characteristics of these materials is to design new nanocomposites based on them. The application of micromechanical modeling during the elaboration of composite materials for machining tools can reduce the financial and time costs for development of new tools......Machining tools are used in many areas of production. To a considerable extent, the performance characteristics of the tools determine the quality and cost of obtained products. The main materials used for producing machining tools are steel, cemented carbides, ceramics and superhard materials......, with enhanced performance. This article reviews the main groups of nanocomposites for machining tools and their performance....

  8. Nanocomposites for Machining Tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidorenko, Daria; Loginov, Pavel; Mishnaevsky, Leon; Levashov, Evgeny

    2017-10-13

    Machining tools are used in many areas of production. To a considerable extent, the performance characteristics of the tools determine the quality and cost of obtained products. The main materials used for producing machining tools are steel, cemented carbides, ceramics and superhard materials. A promising way to improve the performance characteristics of these materials is to design new nanocomposites based on them. The application of micromechanical modeling during the elaboration of composite materials for machining tools can reduce the financial and time costs for development of new tools, with enhanced performance. This article reviews the main groups of nanocomposites for machining tools and their performance.

  9. Electrical machines & drives

    CERN Document Server

    Hammond, P

    1985-01-01

    Containing approximately 200 problems (100 worked), the text covers a wide range of topics concerning electrical machines, placing particular emphasis upon electrical-machine drive applications. The theory is concisely reviewed and focuses on features common to all machine types. The problems are arranged in order of increasing levels of complexity and discussions of the solutions are included where appropriate to illustrate the engineering implications. This second edition includes an important new chapter on mathematical and computer simulation of machine systems and revised discussions o

  10. Tribology in machine design

    CERN Document Server

    Stolarski, Tadeusz

    1999-01-01

    ""Tribology in Machine Design is strongly recommended for machine designers, and engineers and scientists interested in tribology. It should be in the engineering library of companies producing mechanical equipment.""Applied Mechanics ReviewTribology in Machine Design explains the role of tribology in the design of machine elements. It shows how algorithms developed from the basic principles of tribology can be used in a range of practical applications within mechanical devices and systems.The computer offers today's designer the possibility of greater stringen

  11. Nanocomposites for Machining Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loginov, Pavel; Mishnaevsky, Leon; Levashov, Evgeny

    2017-01-01

    Machining tools are used in many areas of production. To a considerable extent, the performance characteristics of the tools determine the quality and cost of obtained products. The main materials used for producing machining tools are steel, cemented carbides, ceramics and superhard materials. A promising way to improve the performance characteristics of these materials is to design new nanocomposites based on them. The application of micromechanical modeling during the elaboration of composite materials for machining tools can reduce the financial and time costs for development of new tools, with enhanced performance. This article reviews the main groups of nanocomposites for machining tools and their performance. PMID:29027926

  12. Menatetrenone versus alfacalcidol in the treatment of Chinese postmenopausal women with osteoporosis: a multicenter, randomized, double-blinded, double-dummy, positive drug-controlled clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Y

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Yan Jiang,1,* Zhen-Lin Zhang,2,* Zhong-Lan Zhang,3 Han-Min Zhu,4 Yi-Yong Wu,5 Qun Cheng,4 Feng-Li Wu,5 Xiao-Ping Xing,1 Jian-Li Liu,3 Wei Yu,6 Xun-Wu Meng11Department of Endocrinology, Key Laboratory of Endocrinology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing, 2Metabolic Bone Disease and Genetic Research Unit, Department of Osteoporosis and Bone Disease, Shanghai Jiao Tong University Affiliated Sixth People's Hospital, Shanghai, 3Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, General Hospital of the People's Liberation Army, Beijing, 4Department of Geriatrics, Shanghai Huadong Hospital, Shanghai, 5Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Beijing Hospital, Ministry of Public Health, Beijing, 6Department of Radiology, Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Beijing, People's Republic of China*These authors contributed equally to this workObjective: To evaluate whether the efficacy and safety of menatetrenone for the treatment of osteoporosis is noninferior to alfacalcidol in Chinese postmenopausal women.Method: This multicenter, randomized, double-blinded, double-dummy, noninferiority, positive drug-controlled clinical trial was conducted in five Chinese sites. Eligible Chinese women with postmenopausal osteoporosis (N=236 were randomized to Group M or Group A and received menatetrenone 45 mg/day or alfacalcidol 0.5 µg/day, respectively, for 1 year. Additionally, all patients received calcium 500 mg/day. Posttreatment bone mineral density (BMD, new fracture onsets, and serum osteocalcin (OC and undercarboxylated OC (ucOC levels were compared with the baseline value in patients of both groups.Results: A total of 213 patients (90.3% completed the study. After 1 year of treatment, BMD among patients in Group M significantly increased from baseline by 1.2% and 2.7% at the lumbar spine and trochanter, respectively (P<0.001; and the percentage increase of BMD in Group A was 2

  13. Diamond machine tool face lapping machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yetter, H.H.

    1985-05-06

    An apparatus for shaping, sharpening and polishing diamond-tipped single-point machine tools. The isolation of a rotating grinding wheel from its driving apparatus using an air bearing and causing the tool to be shaped, polished or sharpened to be moved across the surface of the grinding wheel so that it does not remain at one radius for more than a single rotation of the grinding wheel has been found to readily result in machine tools of a quality which can only be obtained by the most tedious and costly processing procedures, and previously unattainable by simple lapping techniques.

  14. Early intervention influences positively quality of life as reported by prematurely born children at age nine and their parents; a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landsem, Inger Pauline; Handegård, Bjørn Helge; Ulvund, Stein Erik; Kaaresen, Per Ivar; Rønning, John A

    2015-02-22

    The Tromsø Intervention Study on Preterms evaluates an early, sensitizing intervention given to parents of prematurely born children (birth-weight intervention on children's self-reported and parental proxy-reported quality of life (QoL) at children's age of nine. Participants were randomized to either intervention (PI, n = 72) or preterm control (PC, n = 74) in the neonatal care unit, while healthy term-born infants were recruited to a term reference group (TR, n = 75). The intervention was a modified version of the Mother-Infant Transaction Program, and comprised eight one-hour sessions during the last week before discharge and four home visits at 1, 2, 4 and 12 weeks post-discharge. The two control groups received care in accordance with written guidelines drawn up at the hospital. Participants and parents reported QoL independently on the Kinder Lebensqualität Fragebogen (KINDL) questionnaire. Differences between groups were analyzed by SPSS; Linear Mixed Models and parent-child agreement were analyzed and compared by intra-class correlations within each group. On average, children in all groups reported high levels of well-being. The PI children reported better physical well-being than the PC children (p = 0.002). In all other aspects of QoL both the PI and the PC children reported at similar levels as the term reference group. PI parents reported better emotional wellbeing (p = 0.05) and a higher level of contentment in school (p = 0.003) compared with PC parents. Parent-child agreement was significantly weaker in the PI group than in the PC group on dimensions such as emotional well-being and relationships with friends (p parents reported QoL similar to parents of terms on all aspects except the subscale self-esteem, while PC parents generally reported moderately lower QoL than TR parents. This early intervention appears to have generated long-lasting positive effects, improving perceived physical well-being among prematurely

  15. Interpersonal psychotherapy for depression and posttraumatic stress disorder among HIV-positive women in Kisumu, Kenya: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onu, Chinwe; Ongeri, Linnet; Bukusi, Elizabeth; Cohen, Craig R; Neylan, Thomas C; Oyaro, Patrick; Rota, Grace; Otewa, Faith; Delucchi, Kevin L; Meffert, Susan M

    2016-02-03

    Mental disorders are the leading global cause of years lived with disability; the majority of this burden exists in low and middle income countries (LMICs). Over half of mental illness is attributable to depression and anxiety disorders, both of which have known treatments. While the scarcity of mental health care providers is recognized as a major contributor to the magnitude of untreated disorders in LMICs, studies in LMICs find that evidence-based treatments for depression and anxiety disorders, such as brief, structured psychotherapies, are feasible, acceptable and have strong efficacy when delivered by local non-specialist personnel. However, most mental health treatment studies using non-specialist providers in LMICs deploy traditional efficacy designs (T1) without the benefit of integrated mental health treatment models shown to succeed over vertical interventions or methods derived from new implementation science to speed policy change. Here, we describe an effectiveness-implementation hybrid study that evaluates non-specialist delivery of mental health treatment within an HIV clinic for HIV-positive (HIV+) women affected by gender- based violence (GBV) (HIV+ GBV+) in the Nyanza region of Kenya. In this effectiveness-implementation hybrid type I design, 200 HIV+ women with major depressive disorder (MDD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) who are receiving care at a Family AIDS Care Education and Services (FACES)-supported clinic in Kisumu, Kenya will be randomized to: (1) interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) + treatment as usual (TAU) or (2) TAU, both delivered within the HIV clinic. IPT will consist of 12 weekly 60-minute individual IPT sessions, delivered by non-specialists trained to provide IPT. Primary effectiveness outcomes will include MDD and PTSD diagnosis on the Mini International Diagnostic Interview (MINI). Primary implementation outcomes will include treatment cost-benefit, acceptability, appropriateness, feasibility and fidelity of the

  16. Effects of Continuous Positive Airway Pressure on Cognitive Deficits in Middle-aged Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome: A Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue-Ying Pan

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: Cognition partially improved in patients with OSAS after CPAP treatment. The only domain with significant improvement was vigilance. Rigorous randomized controlled trials need to be performed to obtain clear results.

  17. Simple Machine Junk Cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herald, Christine

    2010-01-01

    During the month of May, the author's eighth-grade physical science students study the six simple machines through hands-on activities, reading assignments, videos, and notes. At the end of the month, they can easily identify the six types of simple machine: inclined plane, wheel and axle, pulley, screw, wedge, and lever. To conclude this unit,…

  18. Simple Machines Made Simple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. Andre, Ralph E.

    Simple machines have become a lost point of study in elementary schools as teachers continue to have more material to cover. This manual provides hands-on, cooperative learning activities for grades three through eight concerning the six simple machines: wheel and axle, inclined plane, screw, pulley, wedge, and lever. Most activities can be…

  19. Perpetual Motion Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Tsaousis

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Ever since the first century A.D. there have been relative descriptions of known devices as well as manufactures for the creation of perpetual motion machines. Although physics has led, with two thermodynamic laws, to the opinion that a perpetual motion machine is impossible to be manufactured, inventors of every age and educational level appear to claim that they have invented something «entirely new» or they have improved somebody else’s invention, which «will function henceforth perpetually»! However the fact of the failure in manufacturing a perpetual motion machine till now, it does not mean that countless historical elements for these fictional machines become indifferent. The discussion on every version of a perpetual motion machine on the one hand gives the chance to comprehend the inventor’s of each period level of knowledge and his way of thinking, and on the other hand, to locate the points where this «perpetual motion machine» clashes with the laws of nature and that’s why it is impossible to have been manufactured or have functioned. The presentation of a new «perpetual motion machine» has excited our interest to locate its weak points. According to the designer of it the machine functions with the work produced by the buoyant force

  20. Human Machine Learning Symbiosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Kenneth R.; Hoque, Md Tamjidul; Williams, Kim H.

    2017-01-01

    Human Machine Learning Symbiosis is a cooperative system where both the human learner and the machine learner learn from each other to create an effective and efficient learning environment adapted to the needs of the human learner. Such a system can be used in online learning modules so that the modules adapt to each learner's learning state both…

  1. Semantics via Machine Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culhane, P. T.

    1977-01-01

    Recent experiments in machine translation have given the semantic elements of collocation in Russian more objective criteria. Soviet linguists in search of semantic relationships have attempted to devise a semantic synthesis for construction of a basic language for machine translation. One such effort is summarized. (CHK)

  2. Machine Translation Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajis, Katie

    1993-01-01

    The characteristics and capabilities of existing machine translation systems were examined and procurement recommendations were developed. Four systems, SYSTRAN, GLOBALINK, PC TRANSLATOR, and STYLUS, were determined to meet the NASA requirements for a machine translation system. Initially, four language pairs were selected for implementation. These are Russian-English, French-English, German-English, and Japanese-English.

  3. Approaches to Machine Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langley, Pat; Carbonell, Jaime G.

    1984-01-01

    Reviews approaches to machine learning (development of techniques to automate acquisition of new information, skills, and ways of organizing existing information) in symbolic domains. Four categorical tasks addressed in machine learning literature are examined: learning from examples, learning search heuristics, learning by observation, and…

  4. Reactive Turing machines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.C.M. Baeten (Jos); S.P. Luttik (Bas); P.J.A. van Tilburg

    2013-01-01

    textabstractWe propose reactive Turing machines (RTMs), extending classical Turing machines with a process-theoretical notion of interaction, and use it to define a notion of executable transition system. We show that every computable transition system with a bounded branching degree is simulated

  5. Machine learning with R

    CERN Document Server

    Lantz, Brett

    2015-01-01

    Perhaps you already know a bit about machine learning but have never used R, or perhaps you know a little R but are new to machine learning. In either case, this book will get you up and running quickly. It would be helpful to have a bit of familiarity with basic programming concepts, but no prior experience is required.

  6. Machining heavy plastic sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stalkup, O. M.

    1967-01-01

    Machining technique produces consistently satisfactory plane-parallel optical surfaces for pressure windows, made of plexiglass, required to support a photographic study of liquid rocket combustion processes. The surfaces are machined and polished to the required tolerances and show no degradation from stress relaxation over periods as long as 6 months.

  7. Stirling machine operating experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, B. [Stirling Technology Co., Richland, WA (United States); Dudenhoefer, J.E. [Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    1994-09-01

    Numerous Stirling machines have been built and operated, but the operating experience of these machines is not well known. It is important to examine this operating experience in detail, because it largely substantiates the claim that stirling machines are capable of reliable and lengthy operating lives. The amount of data that exists is impressive, considering that many of the machines that have been built are developmental machines intended to show proof of concept, and are not expected to operate for lengthy periods of time. Some Stirling machines (typically free-piston machines) achieve long life through non-contact bearings, while other Stirling machines (typically kinematic) have achieved long operating lives through regular seal and bearing replacements. In addition to engine and system testing, life testing of critical components is also considered. The record in this paper is not complete, due to the reluctance of some organizations to release operational data and because several organizations were not contacted. The authors intend to repeat this assessment in three years, hoping for even greater participation.

  8. Coordinate measuring machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo

    This document is used in connection with three exercises of 2 hours duration as a part of the course GEOMETRICAL METROLOGY AND MACHINE TESTING. The exercises concern three aspects of coordinate measuring: 1) Measuring and verification of tolerances on coordinate measuring machines, 2) Traceabilit...

  9. Microsoft Azure machine learning

    CERN Document Server

    Mund, Sumit

    2015-01-01

    The book is intended for those who want to learn how to use Azure Machine Learning. Perhaps you already know a bit about Machine Learning, but have never used ML Studio in Azure; or perhaps you are an absolute newbie. In either case, this book will get you up-and-running quickly.

  10. Size reduction machine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fricke, V.

    1999-12-15

    The Size Reduction Machine (SRM) is a mobile platform capable of shearing various shapes and types of metal components at a variety of elevations. This shearing activity can be performed without direct physical movement and placement of the shear head by the operator. The base unit is manually moved and roughly aligned to each cut location. The base contains the electronics: hydraulic pumps, servos, and actuators needed to move the shear-positioning arm. The movable arm allows the shear head to have six axes of movement and to cut to within 4 inches of a wall surface. The unit has a slick electrostatic capture coating to assist in external decontamination. Internal contamination of the unit is controlled by a high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter on the cooling inlet fan. The unit is compact enough to access areas through a 36-inch standard door opening. This paper is an Innovative Technology Summary Report designed to provide potential users with the information they need to quickly determine if a technology would apply to a particular environmental management problem. They also are designed for readers who may recommend that a technology be considered by prospective users.

  11. LHC Report: machine development

    CERN Multimedia

    Rogelio Tomás García for the LHC team

    2015-01-01

    Machine development weeks are carefully planned in the LHC operation schedule to optimise and further study the performance of the machine. The first machine development session of Run 2 ended on Saturday, 25 July. Despite various hiccoughs, it allowed the operators to make great strides towards improving the long-term performance of the LHC.   The main goals of this first machine development (MD) week were to determine the minimum beam-spot size at the interaction points given existing optics and collimation constraints; to test new beam instrumentation; to evaluate the effectiveness of performing part of the beam-squeezing process during the energy ramp; and to explore the limits on the number of protons per bunch arising from the electromagnetic interactions with the accelerator environment and the other beam. Unfortunately, a series of events reduced the machine availability for studies to about 50%. The most critical issue was the recurrent trip of a sextupolar corrector circuit –...

  12. Micro-machining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinksmeier, Ekkard; Preuss, Werner

    2012-08-28

    Manipulating bulk material at the atomic level is considered to be the domain of physics, chemistry and nanotechnology. However, precision engineering, especially micro-machining, has become a powerful tool for controlling the surface properties and sub-surface integrity of the optical, electronic and mechanical functional parts in a regime where continuum mechanics is left behind and the quantum nature of matter comes into play. The surprising subtlety of micro-machining results from the extraordinary precision of tools, machines and controls expanding into the nanometre range-a hundred times more precise than the wavelength of light. In this paper, we will outline the development of precision engineering, highlight modern achievements of ultra-precision machining and discuss the necessity of a deeper physical understanding of micro-machining.

  13. A.M.T. Machine Tools Limited

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2005-01-01

    Hydromat Inc. - Rotary Transfer Machines, Trunnion Machines, Automatic Bar Feeders Maschinenfabrik Heinrich Muller HMP - Rotary Swaging Machines, Wire Straightening and Cutting Machines Turmatic Systems Inc...

  14. 15 CFR 700.31 - Metalworking machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Drilling and tapping machines Electrical discharge, ultrasonic and chemical erosion machines Forging machinery and hammers Gear cutting and finishing machines Grinding machines Hydraulic and pneumatic presses...

  15. Amusement machine playing in childhood and adolescence: a comparative analysis of video games and fruit machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, M D

    1991-03-01

    The introduction of video games has met with mixed reviews. In the US, an ongoing debate focusing on the potential problems of video game playing has been taken up by parents, politicians and social scientists. A number of the concerns that have been raised about the playing of video games in the US are very similar to the concerns raised about the playing of fruit machines (slot machines) in the UK. This paper attempts to put the on-going US and UK amusement machine debates into an empirical perspective and attempts a comparative analysis of video games and fruit machines by examining: incidence of play, sex differences and psychological characteristics of machine players, observational findings in arcade setting, the alleged negative consequences of amusement machine playing (i.e. increased aggression and addiction), and an appraisal of amusement machines' positive aspects. Future directions and an expanded version of Brown's (1989) developmental model of a pathology of man-machine relationships are also discussed.

  16. The basic anaesthesia machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C L Gurudatt

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available After WTG Morton′s first public demonstration in 1846 of use of ether as an anaesthetic agent, for many years anaesthesiologists did not require a machine to deliver anaesthesia to the patients. After the introduction of oxygen and nitrous oxide in the form of compressed gases in cylinders, there was a necessity for mounting these cylinders on a metal frame. This stimulated many people to attempt to construct the anaesthesia machine. HEG Boyle in the year 1917 modified the Gwathmey′s machine and this became popular as Boyle anaesthesia machine. Though a lot of changes have been made for the original Boyle machine still the basic structure remains the same. All the subsequent changes which have been brought are mainly to improve the safety of the patients. Knowing the details of the basic machine will make the trainee to understand the additional improvements. It is also important for every practicing anaesthesiologist to have a thorough knowledge of the basic anaesthesia machine for safe conduct of anaesthesia.

  17. Machine Learning and Radiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shijun; Summers, Ronald M.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we give a short introduction to machine learning and survey its applications in radiology. We focused on six categories of applications in radiology: medical image segmentation, registration, computer aided detection and diagnosis, brain function or activity analysis and neurological disease diagnosis from fMR images, content-based image retrieval systems for CT or MRI images, and text analysis of radiology reports using natural language processing (NLP) and natural language understanding (NLU). This survey shows that machine learning plays a key role in many radiology applications. Machine learning identifies complex patterns automatically and helps radiologists make intelligent decisions on radiology data such as conventional radiographs, CT, MRI, and PET images and radiology reports. In many applications, the performance of machine learning-based automatic detection and diagnosis systems has shown to be comparable to that of a well-trained and experienced radiologist. Technology development in machine learning and radiology will benefit from each other in the long run. Key contributions and common characteristics of machine learning techniques in radiology are discussed. We also discuss the problem of translating machine learning applications to the radiology clinical setting, including advantages and potential barriers. PMID:22465077

  18. A Universal Reactive Machine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Henrik Reif; Mørk, Simon; Sørensen, Morten U.

    1997-01-01

    Turing showed the existence of a model universal for the set of Turing machines in the sense that given an encoding of any Turing machine asinput the universal Turing machine simulates it. We introduce the concept of universality for reactive systems and construct a CCS processuniversal...... in the sense that, given an encoding of any CCS process, it behaves like this process up to weak bisimulation. This construction has arather non-constructive use of silent actions and we argue that this would be the case for any universal CCS process....

  19. Fundamentals of machine design

    CERN Document Server

    Karaszewski, Waldemar

    2011-01-01

    A forum of researchers, educators and engineers involved in various aspects of Machine Design provided the inspiration for this collection of peer-reviewed papers. The resultant dissemination of the latest research results, and the exchange of views concerning the future research directions to be taken in this field will make the work of immense value to all those having an interest in the topics covered. The book reflects the cooperative efforts made in seeking out the best strategies for effecting improvements in the quality and the reliability of machines and machine parts and for extending

  20. Machine Learning for Hackers

    CERN Document Server

    Conway, Drew

    2012-01-01

    If you're an experienced programmer interested in crunching data, this book will get you started with machine learning-a toolkit of algorithms that enables computers to train themselves to automate useful tasks. Authors Drew Conway and John Myles White help you understand machine learning and statistics tools through a series of hands-on case studies, instead of a traditional math-heavy presentation. Each chapter focuses on a specific problem in machine learning, such as classification, prediction, optimization, and recommendation. Using the R programming language, you'll learn how to analyz

  1. Gaussian optical Ising machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, William R.; Renema, Jelmer J.; Wen, Y. Henry; Chrzanowski, Helen M.; Kolthammer, W. Steven; Walmsley, Ian A.

    2017-10-01

    It has recently been shown that optical parametric oscillator (OPO) Ising machines, consisting of coupled optical pulses circulating in a cavity with parametric gain, can be used to probabilistically find low-energy states of Ising spin systems. In this work, we study optical Ising machines that operate under simplified Gaussian dynamics. We show that these dynamics are sufficient for reaching probabilities of success comparable to previous work. Based on this result, we propose modified optical Ising machines with simpler designs that do not use parametric gain yet achieve similar performance, thus suggesting a route to building much larger systems.

  2. Analysis of synchronous machines

    CERN Document Server

    Lipo, TA

    2012-01-01

    Analysis of Synchronous Machines, Second Edition is a thoroughly modern treatment of an old subject. Courses generally teach about synchronous machines by introducing the steady-state per phase equivalent circuit without a clear, thorough presentation of the source of this circuit representation, which is a crucial aspect. Taking a different approach, this book provides a deeper understanding of complex electromechanical drives. Focusing on the terminal rather than on the internal characteristics of machines, the book begins with the general concept of winding functions, describing the placeme

  3. Machine Tool Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    A NASA-developed software package has played a part in technical education of students who major in Mechanical Engineering Technology at William Rainey Harper College. Professor Hack has been using (APT) Automatically Programmed Tool Software since 1969 in his CAD/CAM Computer Aided Design and Manufacturing curriculum. Professor Hack teaches the use of APT programming languages for control of metal cutting machines. Machine tool instructions are geometry definitions written in APT Language to constitute a "part program." The part program is processed by the machine tool. CAD/CAM students go from writing a program to cutting steel in the course of a semester.

  4. Immediate loading of Brånemark system TiUnite and machined-surface implants in the posterior mandible, part II: a randomized open-ended 9-year follow-up clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocci, Antonio; Rocci, Marta; Rocci, Cecilia; Scoccia, Andrea; Gargari, Marco; Martignoni, Massimiliano; Gottlow, Jan; Sennerby, Lars

    2013-01-01

    To present clinical results with 9 years of follow-up of a protocol of immediately loaded implants with two different surfaces. A total of 44 patients received 66 Brånemark System TiUnite and 55 Brånemark machined implants, all immediately loaded. Control examinations were performed on the day of surgery and at 1-, 3-, and 9-year follow-up visits. All implant sites had intact buccal and lingual bone walls. The prefabricated provisional restorations showed an excellent fit. Three TiUnite and 8 machined implants failed within 7 weeks of loading, resulting in a cumulative survival rate of 95.5% and 85.5% respectively after 9 years of load. The survival rate for implants in a partial prosthesis was 98.8% and 92.2% for single restorations in the TiUnite group, and 87.8% and 83.2%, respectively, for partial and single resorations in the control group. The marginal bone resorption in the first year was on average 0.9 mm in the TiUnite group and 1.0 mm in the machined group; at the third year it was 0.4 and 0.5 mm, respectively. On examination at 9 years, there was a general settlement of the bone, with a negligible further loss in height. The unchanged survival rate and the low bone loss after 9 years confirm the feasibility of an immediate loading protocol in the mandible, which included flapless surgery. TiUnite implants obtained a 10% higher success rate compared with machined fixtures .

  5. Media-Augmented Exercise Machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, T.

    2002-01-01

    Cardio-vascular exercise has been used to mitigate the muscle and cardiac atrophy associated with adaptation to micro-gravity environments. Several hours per day may be required. In confined spaces and long duration missions this kind of exercise is inevitably repetitive and rapidly becomes uninteresting. At the same time, there are pressures to accomplish as much as possible given the cost- per-hour for humans occupying orbiting or interplanetary. Media augmentation provides a the means to overlap activities in time by supplementing the exercise with social, recreational, training or collaborative activities and thereby reducing time pressures. In addition, the machine functions as an interface to a wide range of digital environments allowing for spatial variety in an otherwise confined environment. We hypothesize that the adoption of media augmented exercise machines will have a positive effect on psycho-social well-being on long duration missions. By organizing and supplementing exercise machines, data acquisition hardware, computers and displays into an interacting system this proposal increases functionality with limited additional mass. This paper reviews preliminary work on a project to augment exercise equipment in a manner that addresses these issues and at the same time opens possibilities for additional benefits. A testbed augmented exercise machine uses a specialty built cycle trainer as both input to a virtual environment and as an output device from it using spatialized sound, and visual displays, vibration transducers and variable resistance. The resulting interactivity increases a sense of engagement in the exercise, provides a rich experience of the digital environments. Activities in the virtual environment and accompanying physiological and psychological indicators may be correlated to track and evaluate the health of the crew.

  6. Alleviating Parenting Stress in Parents with Intellectual Disabilities: A Randomized Controlled Trial of a Video-Feedback Intervention to Promote Positive Parenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodes, Marja W.; Meppelder, Marieke; Moor, Marleen; Kef, Sabina; Schuengel, Carlo

    2017-01-01

    Background: Adapted parenting support may alleviate the high levels of parenting stress experienced by many parents with intellectual disabilities. Methods: Parents with mild intellectual disabilities or borderline intellectual functioning were randomized to experimental (n = 43) and control (n = 42) conditions. Parents in both groups received…

  7. Universal Sequencing on a Single Machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Leah; Levin, Asaf; Marchetti-Spaccamela, Alberto; Megow, Nicole; Mestre, Julián; Skutella, Martin; Stougie, Leen

    We consider scheduling on an unreliable machine that may experience unexpected changes in processing speed or even full breakdowns. We aim for a universal solution that performs well without adaptation for any possible machine behavior. For the objective of minimizing the total weighted completion time, we design a polynomial time deterministic algorithm that finds a universal scheduling sequence with a solution value within 4 times the value of an optimal clairvoyant algorithm that knows the disruptions in advance. A randomized version of this algorithm attains in expectation a ratio of e. We also show that both results are best possible among all universal solutions. As a direct consequence of our results, we answer affirmatively the question of whether a constant approximation algorithm exists for the offline version of the problem when machine unavailability periods are known in advance.

  8. Swiss ball abdominal crunch with added elastic resistance is an effective alternative to training machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundstrup, Emil; Jakobsen, Markus D; Andersen, Christoffer H; Jay, Kenneth; Andersen, Lars L

    2012-08-01

    Swiss ball training is recommended as a low intensity modality to improve joint position, posture, balance, and neural feedback. However, proper training intensity is difficult to obtain during Swiss ball exercises whereas strengthening exercises on machines usually are performed to induce high level of muscle activation. To compare muscle activation as measured by electromyography (EMG) of global core and thigh muscles during abdominal crunches performed on Swiss ball with elastic resistance or on an isotonic training machine when normalized for training intensity. 42 untrained individuals (18 men and 24 women) aged 28-67 years participated in the study. EMG activity was measured in 13 muscles during 3 repetitions with a 10 RM load during both abdominal crunches on training ball with elastic resistance and in the same movement utilizing a training machine (seated crunch, Technogym, Cesena, Italy). The order of performance of the exercises was randomized, and EMG amplitude was normalized to maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) EMG. When comparing between muscles, normalized EMG was highest in the rectus abdominis (PSwiss ball with elastic resistance showed higher activity of the rectus abdominis than crunches performed on the machine (104±3.8 vs 84±3.8% nEMG respectively, PSwiss ball induced lower activity of the rectus femoris than crunches in training machine (27±3.7 vs 65±3.8% nEMG respectively, PSwiss ball with added elastic resistance induces high rectus abdominis activity accompanied by low hip flexor activity which could be beneficial for individuals with low back pain. In opposition, the lower rectus abdominis activity and higher rectus femoris activity observed in machine warrant caution for individuals with lumbar pain. Importantly, both men and women, younger and elderly, and individuals with and without pain benefitted equally from the exercises.

  9. Mechatronic design of a reconfigurable machining machine

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Xing, B

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available can be applied to the design of RMM [4]. Researchers at the Carnegie Mellon University developed RMMS (Reconfigurable Modular Manipulator System) [5]. They identified the characteristics of reconfigurable machine design as a task based design... and developed a design methodology for reconfigurable manipulators from the kinematics task requirements [6] [7]. I.-M. Chen [8] applied the theory of graphs to the design of reconfigurable manipulators and proposed the concept of Assembly Incident Matrix...

  10. Introduction to AC machine design

    CERN Document Server

    Lipo, Thomas A

    2018-01-01

    AC electrical machine design is a key skill set for developing competitive electric motors and generators for applications in industry, aerospace, and defense. This book presents a thorough treatment of AC machine design, starting from basic electromagnetic principles and continuing through the various design aspects of an induction machine. Introduction to AC Machine Design includes one chapter each on the design of permanent magnet machines, synchronous machines, and thermal design. It also offers a basic treatment of the use of finite elements to compute the magnetic field within a machine without interfering with the initial comprehension of the core subject matter. Based on the author's notes, as well as after years of classroom instruction, Introduction to AC Machine Design: * Brings to light more advanced principles of machine design--not just the basic principles of AC and DC machine behavior * Introduces electrical machine design to neophytes while also being a resource for experienced designers * ...

  11. Adjustment of issue positions based on network strategies in a nelection campaign: A two-mode network autoregression model with cross-nested random effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleinnijenhuis, J.; de Nooy, W.

    2013-01-01

    During election campaigns, political parties deliver statements on salient issues in the news media, which are called issue positions. This article conceptualizes issue positions as a valued and longitudinal two-mode network of parties by issues. The network is valued because parties pronounce pro

  12. Adjustment of issue positions based on network strategies in an election campaign: a two-mode network autoregression model with cross-nested random effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleinnijenhuis, J.; de Nooy, W.

    2013-01-01

    During election campaigns, political parties deliver statements on salient issues in the news media, which are called issue positions. This article conceptualizes issue positions as a valued and longitudinal two-mode network of parties by issues. The network is valued because parties pronounce pro

  13. Two-dimensional vibrational spectroscopy of rotaxane-based molecular machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodis, Pavol; Panman, Matthijs R; Bakker, Bert H; Mateo-Alonso, Aurelio; Prato, Maurizio; Buma, Wybren Jan; Brouwer, Albert M; Kay, Euan R; Leigh, David A; Woutersen, Sander

    2009-09-15

    It has recently become possible to synthesize mechanical devices the size of a single molecule. Although it is tempting to regard such molecular machines as nanoscale versions of their macroscopic analogs, many notions from macroscopic mechanics no longer apply at a molecular level. For instance, the concept of viscous friction is meaningless for a molecular machine because the size of the solvent molecules that cause the friction is comparable to that of the machine itself. Furthermore, in many cases, the interactions between a molecular machine and its surroundings are comparable to the force driving the machine. As a result, a certain amount of intrinsic randomness exists in the motion of molecular machines, and the details of their mechanics are largely unknown. For a detailed understanding of the mechanical behavior of molecular machines, experiments that probe their motion on an ultrafast time scale, such as two-dimensional (2D) vibrational spectroscopy, are essential. This method uses coupling between vibrational modes in a molecule to investigate the molecular conformation. The coupling shows up as off-diagonal peaks in a 2D graph of the vibrational response of the molecule, analogous to the spin coupling observed in multidimensional NMR spectroscopy. Both spin coupling and vibrational coupling are sensitive probes of the molecular conformation, but 2D vibrational spectroscopy shows orders of magnitude better time resolution than NMR. In this Account, we use 2D vibrational spectroscopy to study molecular machines based on rotaxanes. These devices consist of a linear thread and a macrocycle that is noncovalently locked onto the thread. In the rotaxanes we study, the macrocycle and the thread both contain CO and NH groups. By determining the coupling between the stretching modes of these goups from the cross peaks in the 2D spectrum, we directly and quantitatively probe the relative position and orientation of the macrocycle and the thread for both a small

  14. Human-machine cooperation in unmanned aerial vehicle path planning based on cloud model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xixia; Cai, Chao

    2011-11-01

    A human-machine cooperative path planning model based on cloud model is proposed in this paper. The system enables the planner take part in the A* searching process and the cloud model integrates fuzziness with randomness of the qualitative concept. In the process of human-computer cooperation, the position of the leading field is figured out based on cloud model; it effectively guides the A* searching process and avoids the drawback of the algorithm. Experiment results demonstrated the validity and the feasibility of the model. It's much more efficient than either a human or a computer algorithm in the path planning tasks.

  15. Molecular Machines: Nanoscale gadgets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Garibay, Miguel A.

    2008-06-01

    Meeting their biological counterparts halfway, artificial molecular machines embedded in liquid crystals, crystalline solids and mesoporous materials are poised to meet the demands of the next generation of functional materials.

  16. Machine Vision Handbook

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    The automation of visual inspection is becoming more and more important in modern industry as a consistent, reliable means of judging the quality of raw materials and manufactured goods . The Machine Vision Handbook  equips the reader with the practical details required to engineer integrated mechanical-optical-electronic-software systems. Machine vision is first set in the context of basic information on light, natural vision, colour sensing and optics. The physical apparatus required for mechanized image capture – lenses, cameras, scanners and light sources – are discussed followed by detailed treatment of various image-processing methods including an introduction to the QT image processing system. QT is unique to this book, and provides an example of a practical machine vision system along with extensive libraries of useful commands, functions and images which can be implemented by the reader. The main text of the book is completed by studies of a wide variety of applications of machine vision in insp...

  17. Some relations between quantum Turing machines and Turing machines

    OpenAIRE

    Sicard, Andrés; Vélez, Mario

    1999-01-01

    For quantum Turing machines we present three elements: Its components, its time evolution operator and its local transition function. The components are related with the components of deterministic Turing machines, the time evolution operator is related with the evolution of reversible Turing machines and the local transition function is related with the transition function of probabilistic and reversible Turing machines.

  18. Is the benefit of postmastectomy irradiation limited to patients with four or more positive nodes, as recommended in international consensus reports? A subgroup analysis of the DBCG 82 b & c randomized trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Marie; Nielsen, Hanne Melgaard; Overgaard, Jens

    2007-01-01

    to evaluate the loco-regional recurrence rate and survival in relation to number of positive nodes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In the DBCG 82 b&c trials 3083 pre- and postmenopausal high-risk women were randomized to postoperative RT in addition to adjuvant systemic therapy. Since many patients had relatively few...... lymph nodes removed (median 7), the present analysis was limited to 1152 node positive patients with 8 or more nodes removed. RESULTS: The overall 15-year survival rate in the subgroup was 39% and 29% (p=0.015) after RT and no RT, respectively. RT reduced the 15-year loco-regional failure rate from 51......=0.03). CONCLUSION: The survival benefit after postmastectomy RT was substantial and similar in patients with 1-3 and 4+ positive lymph nodes. Furthermore, it was not strictly associated with the risk of loco-regional recurrence, which was most pronounced in patients with 4+ positive nodes...

  19. Mondrian Forests: Efficient Online Random Forests

    OpenAIRE

    Lakshminarayanan, Balaji; Roy, Daniel M.; Teh, Yee Whye

    2014-01-01

    Ensembles of randomized decision trees, usually referred to as random forests, are widely used for classification and regression tasks in machine learning and statistics. Random forests achieve competitive predictive performance and are computationally efficient to train and test, making them excellent candidates for real-world prediction tasks. The most popular random forest variants (such as Breiman's random forest and extremely randomized trees) operate on batches of training data. Online ...

  20. Metalworking and machining fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdemir, Ali; Sykora, Frank; Dorbeck, Mark

    2010-10-12

    Improved boron-based metal working and machining fluids. Boric acid and boron-based additives that, when mixed with certain carrier fluids, such as water, cellulose and/or cellulose derivatives, polyhydric alcohol, polyalkylene glycol, polyvinyl alcohol, starch, dextrin, in solid and/or solvated forms result in improved metalworking and machining of metallic work pieces. Fluids manufactured with boric acid or boron-based additives effectively reduce friction, prevent galling and severe wear problems on cutting and forming tools.

  1. Human-machine interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsythe, J Chris [Sandia Park, NM; Xavier, Patrick G [Albuquerque, NM; Abbott, Robert G [Albuquerque, NM; Brannon, Nathan G [Albuquerque, NM; Bernard, Michael L [Tijeras, NM; Speed, Ann E [Albuquerque, NM

    2009-04-28

    Digital technology utilizing a cognitive model based on human naturalistic decision-making processes, including pattern recognition and episodic memory, can reduce the dependency of human-machine interactions on the abilities of a human user and can enable a machine to more closely emulate human-like responses. Such a cognitive model can enable digital technology to use cognitive capacities fundamental to human-like communication and cooperation to interact with humans.

  2. Identifying Active Travel Behaviors in Challenging Environments Using GPS, Accelerometers, and Machine Learning Algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Katherine; Godbole, Suneeta; Marshall, Simon; Lanckriet, Gert; Staudenmayer, John; Kerr, Jacqueline

    2014-01-01

    Active travel is an important area in physical activity research, but objective measurement of active travel is still difficult. Automated methods to measure travel behaviors will improve research in this area. In this paper, we present a supervised machine learning method for transportation mode prediction from global positioning system (GPS) and accelerometer data. We collected a dataset of about 150 h of GPS and accelerometer data from two research assistants following a protocol of prescribed trips consisting of five activities: bicycling, riding in a vehicle, walking, sitting, and standing. We extracted 49 features from 1-min windows of this data. We compared the performance of several machine learning algorithms and chose a random forest algorithm to classify the transportation mode. We used a moving average output filter to smooth the output predictions over time. The random forest algorithm achieved 89.8% cross-validated accuracy on this dataset. Adding the moving average filter to smooth output predictions increased the cross-validated accuracy to 91.9%. Machine learning methods are a viable approach for automating measurement of active travel, particularly for measuring travel activities that traditional accelerometer data processing methods misclassify, such as bicycling and vehicle travel.

  3. Analysed potential of big data and supervised machine learning techniques in effectively forecasting travel times from fused data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Šemanjski

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Travel time forecasting is an interesting topic for many ITS services. Increased availability of data collection sensors increases the availability of the predictor variables but also highlights the high processing issues related to this big data availability. In this paper we aimed to analyse the potential of big data and supervised machine learning techniques in effectively forecasting travel times. For this purpose we used fused data from three data sources (Global Positioning System vehicles tracks, road network infrastructure data and meteorological data and four machine learning techniques (k-nearest neighbours, support vector machines, boosting trees and random forest. To evaluate the forecasting results we compared them in-between different road classes in the context of absolute values, measured in minutes, and the mean squared percentage error. For the road classes with the high average speed and long road segments, machine learning techniques forecasted travel times with small relative error, while for the road classes with the small average speeds and segment lengths this was a more demanding task. All three data sources were proven itself to have a high impact on the travel time forecast accuracy and the best results (taking into account all road classes were achieved for the k-nearest neighbours and random forest techniques.

  4. Inferring behavioral states of grazing livestock from high-frequency position data alone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homburger, Hermel; Schneider, Manuel K; Hilfiker, Sandra; Lüscher, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Studies of animal behavior are crucial to understanding animal-ecosystem interactions, but require substantial efforts in visual observation or sensor measurement. We investigated how classifying behavioral states of grazing livestock using global positioning data alone depends on the classification approach, the preselection of training data, and the number and type of movement metrics. Positions of grazing cows were collected at intervals of 20 seconds in six upland areas in Switzerland along with visual observations of animal behavior for comparison. A total of 87 linear and cumulative distance metrics and 15 turning angle metrics across multiple time steps were used to classify position data into the behavioral states of walking, grazing, and resting. Five random forest classification models, a linear discriminant analysis, a support vector machine, and a state-space model were evaluated. The most accurate classification of the observed behavioral states in an independent validation dataset was 83%, obtained using random forest with all available movement metrics. However, the state-specific accuracy was highly unequal (walking: 36%, grazing: 95%, resting: 58%). Random undersampling led to a prediction accuracy of 77%, with more balanced state-specific accuracies (walking: 68%, grazing: 82%, resting: 68%). The other evaluated machine-learning approaches had lower classification accuracies. The state-space model, based on distance to the preceding position and turning angle, produced a relatively low accuracy of 64%, slightly lower than a random forest model with the same predictor variables. Given the successful classification of behavioral states, our study promotes the more frequent use of global positioning data alone for animal behavior studies under the condition that data is collected at high frequency and complemented by context-specific behavioral observations. Machine-learning algorithms, notably random forest, were found very useful for classification

  5. Inferring behavioral states of grazing livestock from high-frequency position data alone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermel Homburger

    Full Text Available Studies of animal behavior are crucial to understanding animal-ecosystem interactions, but require substantial efforts in visual observation or sensor measurement. We investigated how classifying behavioral states of grazing livestock using global positioning data alone depends on the classification approach, the preselection of training data, and the number and type of movement metrics. Positions of grazing cows were collected at intervals of 20 seconds in six upland areas in Switzerland along with visual observations of animal behavior for comparison. A total of 87 linear and cumulative distance metrics and 15 turning angle metrics across multiple time steps were used to classify position data into the behavioral states of walking, grazing, and resting. Five random forest classification models, a linear discriminant analysis, a support vector machine, and a state-space model were evaluated. The most accurate classification of the observed behavioral states in an independent validation dataset was 83%, obtained using random forest with all available movement metrics. However, the state-specific accuracy was highly unequal (walking: 36%, grazing: 95%, resting: 58%. Random undersampling led to a prediction accuracy of 77%, with more balanced state-specific accuracies (walking: 68%, grazing: 82%, resting: 68%. The other evaluated machine-learning approaches had lower classification accuracies. The state-space model, based on distance to the preceding position and turning angle, produced a relatively low accuracy of 64%, slightly lower than a random forest model with the same predictor variables. Given the successful classification of behavioral states, our study promotes the more frequent use of global positioning data alone for animal behavior studies under the condition that data is collected at high frequency and complemented by context-specific behavioral observations. Machine-learning algorithms, notably random forest, were found very useful

  6. Long-term outcome of a randomized controlled universal prevention trial through a positive parenting program: is it worth the effort?

    OpenAIRE

    Hahlweg, Kurt; Heinrichs, Nina; Kuschel, Annett; Bertram, Heike; Naumann, Sebastian

    2010-01-01

    Background Approximately 20% of children experience internalizing or externalizing DSM-IV-TR disorders. This prevalence rate cannot be reduced through treatment only. Effective preventive interventions are therefore urgently needed. The aim of the current investigation is to evaluate the two-year efficacy of the group Triple P parenting program administered universally for the prevention of child behavior problems. Methods Based on their respective preschool, N = 280 families were randomly a...

  7. Positive parenting program (triple P) for families of adolescents with type 1 diabetes: a randomized controlled trial of self-directed teen triple P.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, Francesca M; Calam, Rachel; Sanders, Matthew R

    2013-09-01

    Adolescents with type 1 diabetes (T1D) have shown improvements in glycemic control and family relations, via clinic-based family interventions. However, reach and clinician availability may be limited. We evaluated a self-directed intervention for this purpose. Recruitment for a randomized controlled trial (RCT) occurred through national advertising with diabetes charities and conducted with online data collection. Parents of 11-17-year-olds with diabetes were randomized to usual care (n = 37) or intervention (n = 42) using computerized block randomization. The 10-week intervention comprised the Self-directed Teen Triple P workbook (10 × 1 hr modules) plus chronic illness tip sheet. Primary outcomes of diabetes-related family conflict and parenting stress were assessed pre and post-intervention. Intention-to-treat analyses (n = 79) identified significantly improved diabetes-related conflict, but not parental stress, compared with usual care. The preliminary findings suggest that this could be a useful way to expand intervention reach for this population.

  8. Turing Machines for dummies: why representations do matter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Emde Boas, P.

    2012-01-01

    Various methods exists in the litearture for denoting the configuration of a Turing Machine. A key difference is whether the head position is indicated by some integer (mathematical representation) or is specified by writing the machine state next to the scanned tape symbol (intrinsic

  9. Sensorless Suitability Analysis of Hybrid PM Machines for Electric Vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matzen, Torben Nørregaard; Rasmussen, Peter Omand

    2009-01-01

    , control seems necessary to implement. For hybrid permanent magnet (PM) machines torque control in an indirect fashion using dq-current control is frequently done. This approach requires knowledge about the machine shaft position which may be obtained sensorless. In this article a method based on accurate...

  10. EVALUATION OF MACHINE TOOL QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Kuric

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Paper deals with aspects of quality and accuracy of machine tools. As the accuracy of machine tools has key factor for product quality, it is important to know the methods for evaluation of quality and accuracy of machine tools. Several aspects of diagnostics of machine tools are described, such as aspects of reliability.

  11. Gandy-Paun-Rozenberg Machines

    OpenAIRE

    Obtulowicz, Adam

    2010-01-01

    Gandy-Paun-Rozenberg machines are introduced as certain graph rewriting systems. A representation of Gandy-Paun-Rozenberg machines by Gandy machines is given. A construction of a Gandy-Paun-Rozenberg machine solving 3-SAT problem in a polynomial time is shown.

  12. Small Turing universal signal machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jérôme Durand-Lose

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This article aims at providing signal machines as small as possible able to perform any computation (in the classical understanding. After presenting signal machines, it is shown how to get universal ones from Turing machines, cellular-automata and cyclic tag systems. Finally a halting universal signal machine with 13 meta-signals and 21 collision rules is presented.

  13. Modeling Music Emotion Judgments Using Machine Learning Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naresh N. Vempala

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Emotion judgments and five channels of physiological data were obtained from 60 participants listening to 60 music excerpts. Various machine learning (ML methods were used to model the emotion judgments inclusive of neural networks, linear regression, and random forests. Input for models of perceived emotion consisted of audio features extracted from the music recordings. Input for models of felt emotion consisted of physiological features extracted from the physiological recordings. Models were trained and interpreted with consideration of the classic debate in music emotion between cognitivists and emotivists. Our models supported a hybrid position wherein emotion judgments were influenced by a combination of perceived and felt emotions. In comparing the different ML approaches that were used for modeling, we conclude that neural networks were optimal, yielding models that were flexible as well as interpretable. Inspection of a committee machine, encompassing an ensemble of networks, revealed that arousal judgments were predominantly influenced by felt emotion, whereas valence judgments were predominantly influenced by perceived emotion.

  14. Modeling Music Emotion Judgments Using Machine Learning Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vempala, Naresh N.; Russo, Frank A.

    2018-01-01

    Emotion judgments and five channels of physiological data were obtained from 60 participants listening to 60 music excerpts. Various machine learning (ML) methods were used to model the emotion judgments inclusive of neural networks, linear regression, and random forests. Input for models of perceived emotion consisted of audio features extracted from the music recordings. Input for models of felt emotion consisted of physiological features extracted from the physiological recordings. Models were trained and interpreted with consideration of the classic debate in music emotion between cognitivists and emotivists. Our models supported a hybrid position wherein emotion judgments were influenced by a combination of perceived and felt emotions. In comparing the different ML approaches that were used for modeling, we conclude that neural networks were optimal, yielding models that were flexible as well as interpretable. Inspection of a committee machine, encompassing an ensemble of networks, revealed that arousal judgments were predominantly influenced by felt emotion, whereas valence judgments were predominantly influenced by perceived emotion. PMID:29354080

  15. Hydraulic Power Plant Machine Dynamic Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Günther Poll

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A method how to perform an entire structural and hydraulic diagnosis of prototype Francis power machines is presented and discussed in this report. Machine diagnosis of Francis units consists on a proper evaluation of acquired mechanical, thermal and hydraulic data obtained in different operating conditions of several rotary and non rotary machine components. Many different physical quantities of a Francis machine such as pressure, strains, vibration related data, water flow, air flow, position of regulating devices and displacements are measured in a synchronized way so that a relation of cause an effect can be developed for each operating condition and help one to understand all phenomena that are involved with such kind of machine. This amount of data needs to be adequately post processed in order to allow correct interpretation of the machine dynamics and finally these data must be compared with the expected calculated data not only to fine tuning the calculation methods but also to accomplish fully understanding of the influence of the water passages on such machines. The way how the power plant owner has to operate its Francis machines, many times also determined by a central dispatcher, has a high influence on the fatigue life time of the machine components. The diagnostic method presented in this report helps one to understand the importance of adequate operation to allow a low maintenance cost for the entire power plant. The method how to acquire these quantities is discussed in details together with the importance of correct sensor balancing, calibration and adequate correlation with the physical quantities. Typical results of the dynamic machine behavior, with adequate interpretation, obtained in recent measurement campaigns of some important hydraulic turbines were presented. The paper highlights the investigation focus of the hydraulic machine behavior and how to tailor the measurement strategy to accomplish all goals. Finally some

  16. Machining of Metal Matrix Composites

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    Machining of Metal Matrix Composites provides the fundamentals and recent advances in the study of machining of metal matrix composites (MMCs). Each chapter is written by an international expert in this important field of research. Machining of Metal Matrix Composites gives the reader information on machining of MMCs with a special emphasis on aluminium matrix composites. Chapter 1 provides the mechanics and modelling of chip formation for traditional machining processes. Chapter 2 is dedicated to surface integrity when machining MMCs. Chapter 3 describes the machinability aspects of MMCs. Chapter 4 contains information on traditional machining processes and Chapter 5 is dedicated to the grinding of MMCs. Chapter 6 describes the dry cutting of MMCs with SiC particulate reinforcement. Finally, Chapter 7 is dedicated to computational methods and optimization in the machining of MMCs. Machining of Metal Matrix Composites can serve as a useful reference for academics, manufacturing and materials researchers, manu...

  17. Non-conventional electrical machines

    CERN Document Server

    Rezzoug, Abderrezak

    2013-01-01

    The developments of electrical machines are due to the convergence of material progress, improved calculation tools, and new feeding sources. Among the many recent machines, the authors have chosen, in this first book, to relate the progress in slow speed machines, high speed machines, and superconducting machines. The first part of the book is dedicated to materials and an overview of magnetism, mechanic, and heat transfer.

  18. Coded Random Access

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paolini, Enrico; Stefanovic, Cedomir; Liva, Gianluigi

    2015-01-01

    , in which the structure of the access protocol can be mapped to a structure of an erasure-correcting code defined on graph. This opens the possibility to use coding theory and tools for designing efficient random access protocols, offering markedly better performance than ALOHA. Several instances of coded......The rise of machine-to-machine communications has rekindled the interest in random access protocols as a support for a massive number of uncoordinatedly transmitting devices. The legacy ALOHA approach is developed under a collision model, where slots containing collided packets are considered...... as waste. However, if the common receiver (e.g., base station) is capable to store the collision slots and use them in a transmission recovery process based on successive interference cancellation, the design space for access protocols is radically expanded. We present the paradigm of coded random access...

  19. Development of multifunctional reconfigurable desktop machine tool with hybrid kinematics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Živanović Saša T.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a desktop reconfigurable machine tool with hybrid kinematics for four types machine tools, with a description of the applied mechanism and established a modular system for their configuring. The postprocessor for five-axis machining presented in this paper is applied to the kinematic structures with table-tilting with two rotations (B,C. Also are shown solving the position of actuators p1 and p2 when the machine works with hybrid kinematics. Verification of postprocessor is realized on virtual prototype in CAD/CAM environment and experimentally on an available 3-axis machine tool. Experimental results confirmed the configured postprocessor which can be used for programming machine tools.

  20. DESIGN EVALUATIONS OF DOUBLE ROTOR SWITCHED RELUCTANCE MACHINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.V. ARAVIND

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The absence of magnets makes the reluctance machine typical for low cogging operations with the torque depending on the stator rotor interaction area. The air gap between stator pole and rotor pole gives a huge effect on the reluctance variation. The primitive double rotor switched reluctance machine lags to improvise the effect of the ripple value though the torque density is higher compared to conventional machines. An optimised circular hole position and dimensioned in the stator pole of lowers the torque ripple and reduce the acoustic noise as presented in this paper. A comparative evaluation of the conventional double rotor machine with this improved structure is done through numerical design and evaluations for the same sizing. It is found that the motor constant square density. It is found that the double rotor switched reluctance machine is improved by 140% to conventional machine.

  1. Do warning signs on electronic gaming machines influence irrational cognitions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaghan, Sally; Blaszczynski, Alex; Nower, Lia

    2009-08-01

    Electronic gaming machines are popular among problem gamblers; in response, governments have introduced "responsible gaming" legislation incorporating the mandatory display of warning signs on or near electronic gaming machines. These signs are designed to correct irrational and erroneous beliefs through the provision of accurate information on probabilities of winning and the concept of randomness. There is minimal empirical data evaluating the effectiveness of such signs. In this study, 93 undergraduate students were randomly allocated to standard and informative messages displayed on an electronic gaming machine during play in a laboratory setting. Results revealed that a majority of participants incorrectly estimated gambling odds and reported irrational gambling-related cognitions prior to play. In addition, there were no significant between-group differences, and few participants recalled the content of messages or modified their gambling-related cognitions. Signs placed on electronic gaming machines may not modify irrational beliefs or alter gambling behaviour.

  2. Machinability evaluation of machinable ceramics with fuzzy theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Ai-bing; ZHONG Li-jun; TAN Ye-fa

    2005-01-01

    The property parameters and machining output parameters were selected for machinability evaluation of machinable ceramics. Based on fuzzy evaluation theory, two-stage fuzzy evaluation approach was applied to consider these parameters. Two-stage fuzzy comprehensive evaluation model was proposed to evaluate machinability of machinable ceramic materials. Ce-ZrO2/CePO4 composites were fabricated and machined for evaluation of machinable ceramics. Material removal rates and specific normal grinding forces were measured. The parameters concerned with machinability were selected as alternative set. Five grades were chosen for the machinability evaluation of machnable ceramics. Machinability grades of machinable ceramics were determined through fuzzy operation. Ductile marks are observed on Ce-ZrO2/CePO4 machined surface. Five prepared Ce-ZrO2/CePO4 composites are classified as three machinability grades according to the fuzzy comprehensive evaluation results. The machinability grades of Ce-ZrO2/CePO4 composites are concerned with CePO4 content.

  3. Positive effects of resistant starch supplementation on bowel function in healthy adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Deqiang; Bai, Hao; Li, Zhaoping; Yu, Yue; Zhang, Huanhuan; Chen, Liyong

    2017-03-01

    Animal experimental studies have found that resistant starch can significantly improve bowel function, but the outcomes are mixed while conducting human studies. Thus, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials to evaluate the relationship between resistant starch supplementation and large intestinal function. Three electronic databases (PubMed, Embase, Scopus) were searched to identify eligible studies. The standardized mean difference (SMD) or weighted mean difference (WMD) was calculated using a fixed-effects model or a random-effects model. The pooled findings revealed that resistant starch significantly increased fecal wet weight (WMD 35.51 g/d, 95% CI 1.21, 69.82) and butyrate concentration (SMD 0.61, 95% CI 0.32, 0.89). Also, it significantly reduced fecal PH (WMD -0.19, 95% CI -0.35, -0.03), but the increment of defecation frequency were not statistically significant (WMD 0.04stools/g, 95% CI -0.08, 0.16). To conclude, our study found that resistant starch elicited a beneficial effect on the function of large bowel in healthy adults.[Formula: see text].

  4. Bidirectional, Automatic Coal-Mining Machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Earl R., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Proposed coal-mining machine operates in both forward and reverse directions along mine face. New design increases efficiency and productivity, because does not stop cutting as it retreats to starting position after completing pass along face. To further increase efficiency, automatic miner carries its own machinery for crushing coal and feeding it to slurry-transport tube. Dual-drum mining machine cuts coal in two layers, crushes, mixes with water, and feeds it as slurry to haulage tube. At end of pass, foward drum raised so it becomes rear drum, and rear drum lowered, becoming forward drum for return pass.

  5. Methods and apparatus for controlling rotary machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagepalli, Bharat Sampathkumaran [Niskayuna, NY; Jansen, Patrick Lee [Scotia, NY; Barnes, Gary R [Delanson, NY; Fric, Thomas Frank [Greer, SC; Lyons, James Patrick Francis [Niskayuna, NY; Pierce, Kirk Gee [Simpsonville, SC; Holley, William Edwin [Greer, SC; Barbu, Corneliu [Guilderland, NY

    2009-09-01

    A control system for a rotary machine is provided. The rotary machine has at least one rotating member and at least one substantially stationary member positioned such that a clearance gap is defined between a portion of the rotating member and a portion of the substantially stationary member. The control system includes at least one clearance gap dimension measurement apparatus and at least one clearance gap adjustment assembly. The adjustment assembly is coupled in electronic data communication with the measurement apparatus. The control system is configured to process a clearance gap dimension signal and modulate the clearance gap dimension.

  6. Effect of Omega-3 Fatty Acids on Depressive Symptoms in HIV-Positive Individuals: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravi, Saeedeh; Khalili, Hossein; Abbasian, Ladan; Arbabi, Mohammad; Ghaeli, Padideh

    2016-10-01

    The antidepressant effect of omega-3 fatty acids has been described in the non-HIV population. The effect of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation on the mood status of HIV-positive patients has not been evaluated yet. In this study, the effect of omega-3 fatty acids on depressive symptoms was evaluated in HIV-positive individuals. A total of 100 HIV-positive patients with Beck Depression Score ≥16, were assigned to receive either omega-3 fatty acids or placebo twice daily for 8 weeks. Depressive symptoms of each participant were evaluated at baseline (month 0) and at the end of months 1 and 2 of the study. Beck Depression Inventory Second Edition, depression subscale of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and Patient Health Questionnaire were used for assessment of depressive symptoms. Reduction in mean ± SD of all depression scores during the study period was statistically significant within the omega-3 group and when compared with the placebo group (for both comparisons, P omega-3 and the placebo group, respectively, experienced mild gastrointestinal problems, but the incidence of adverse drug reactions related to the interventions was not statistically different between the groups (P = 0.09). Omega-3 fatty acids improved depressive symptoms in HIV-positive individuals without any significant adverse reaction. © The Author(s) 2016.

  7. Sexual function and obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea : A randomized clinical trial evaluating the effects of oral-appliance and continuous positive airway pressure therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekema, Aarnoud; Stel, Anna-Lucia; Stegenga, Boudewijn; van der Hoeven, Johannes H.; Wijkstra, Peter J.; van Driel, Mels F.; de Bont, Lambert G. M.

    Introduction. The obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) is associated with sexual dysfunction. Although successful treatment with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) has been demonstrated to improve sexual function, the effects of oral-appliance therapy are unknown. Aim. The aims

  8. Effect of Positive Airway Pressure on Cardiovascular Outcomes in Coronary Artery Disease Patients with Non-Sleepy Obstructive Sleep Apnea : The RICCADSA Randomized Controlled Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peker, Yüksel; Glantz, Helena; Eulenburg, Christine; Wegscheider, Karl; Herlitz, Johan; Thunström, Erik

    2016-01-01

    RATIONALE: Obstructive sleep apnea is common in patients with coronary artery disease, many of whom do not report daytime sleepiness. First-line treatment for symptomatic obstructive sleep apnea is continuous positive airway pressure, but its value in patients without daytime sleepiness is

  9. Gait rehabilitation machines based on programmable footplates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhardt Rolf

    2007-02-01

    of motor relearning promoting a task-specific repetitive approach. Sophisticated technical developments and positive randomized controlled trials form the basis of a growing acceptance worldwide to the benefits or our patients.

  10. Machines and Metaphors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel Martínez García-Posada

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The edition La ley del reloj. Arquitectura, máquinas y cultura moderna (Cátedra, Madrid, 2016 registers the useful paradox of the analogy between architecture and technique. Its author, the architect Eduardo Prieto, also a philosopher, professor and writer, acknowledges the obvious distance from machines to buildings, so great that it can only be solved using strange comparisons, since architecture does not move nor are the machines habitable, however throughout the book, from the origin of the metaphor of the machine, with clarity in his essay and enlightening erudition, he points out with certainty some concomitances of high interest, drawing throughout history a beautiful cartography of the fruitful encounter between organics and mechanics.

  11. Artificial Molecular Machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balzani; Credi; Raymo; Stoddart

    2000-10-02

    The miniaturization of components used in the construction of working devices is being pursued currently by the large-downward (top-down) fabrication. This approach, however, which obliges solid-state physicists and electronic engineers to manipulate progressively smaller and smaller pieces of matter, has its intrinsic limitations. An alternative approach is a small-upward (bottom-up) one, starting from the smallest compositions of matter that have distinct shapes and unique properties-namely molecules. In the context of this particular challenge, chemists have been extending the concept of a macroscopic machine to the molecular level. A molecular-level machine can be defined as an assembly of a distinct number of molecular components that are designed to perform machinelike movements (output) as a result of an appropriate external stimulation (input). In common with their macroscopic counterparts, a molecular machine is characterized by 1) the kind of energy input supplied to make it work, 2) the nature of the movements of its component parts, 3) the way in which its operation can be monitored and controlled, 4) the ability to make it repeat its operation in a cyclic fashion, 5) the timescale needed to complete a full cycle of movements, and 6) the purpose of its operation. Undoubtedly, the best energy inputs to make molecular machines work are photons or electrons. Indeed, with appropriately chosen photochemically and electrochemically driven reactions, it is possible to design and synthesize molecular machines that do work. Moreover, the dramatic increase in our fundamental understanding of self-assembly and self-organizational processes in chemical synthesis has aided and abetted the construction of artificial molecular machines through the development of new methods of noncovalent synthesis and the emergence of supramolecular assistance to covalent synthesis as a uniquely powerful synthetic tool. The aim of this review is to present a unified view of the field

  12. Chatter and machine tools

    CERN Document Server

    Stone, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Focussing on occurrences of unstable vibrations, or Chatter, in machine tools, this book gives important insights into how to eliminate chatter with associated improvements in product quality, surface finish and tool wear. Covering a wide range of machining processes, including turning, drilling, milling and grinding, the author uses his research expertise and practical knowledge of vibration problems to provide solutions supported by experimental evidence of their effectiveness. In addition, this book contains links to supplementary animation programs that help readers to visualise the ideas detailed in the text. Advancing knowledge in chatter avoidance and suggesting areas for new innovations, Chatter and Machine Tools serves as a handbook for those desiring to achieve significant reductions in noise, longer tool and grinding wheel life and improved product finish.

  13. Dynamics of cyclic machines

    CERN Document Server

    Vulfson, Iosif

    2015-01-01

    This book focuses on modern methods of oscillation analysis in machines, including cyclic action mechanisms (linkages, cams, steppers, etc.). It presents schematization techniques and mathematical descriptions of oscillating systems, taking into account the variability of the parameters and nonlinearities, engineering evaluations of dynamic errors, and oscillation suppression methods. The majority of the book is devoted to the development of new methods of dynamic analysis and synthesis for cyclic machines that form regular oscillatory systems with multiple duplicate modules.  There are also sections examining aspects of general engineering interest (nonlinear dissipative forces, systems with non-stationary constraints, impacts and pseudo-impacts in clearances, etc.)  The examples in the book are based on the widely used results of theoretical and experimental studies as well as engineering calculations carried out in relation to machines used in the textile, light, polygraphic and other industries. Particu...

  14. Machine Learning for Security

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    Applied statistics, aka ‘Machine Learning’, offers a wealth of techniques for answering security questions. It’s a much hyped topic in the big data world, with many companies now providing machine learning as a service. This talk will demystify these techniques, explain the math, and demonstrate their application to security problems. The presentation will include how-to’s on classifying malware, looking into encrypted tunnels, and finding botnets in DNS data. About the speaker Josiah is a security researcher with HP TippingPoint DVLabs Research Group. He has over 15 years of professional software development experience. Josiah used to do AI, with work focused on graph theory, search, and deductive inference on large knowledge bases. As rules only get you so far, he moved from AI to using machine learning techniques identifying failure modes in email traffic. There followed digressions into clustered data storage and later integrated control systems. Current ...

  15. Variable-Speed, Robust Synchronous Reluctance Machine Drive Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Dong

    premium efficiency machine and commercial products are available in the market. The research work in this dissertation aims at developing a simple, compact and robust synchronous reluctance machine drive system that can provide satisfactory performance with optimized system energy efficiency at various...... cooperate with the sensorless control well. Thus, the flux linkage based position sensorless control with adaptive PI controllers and “virtual positive impedance” active damping technique is recommended as the solution of the simple and robust variable-speed syn-chronous reluctance machine drive system.......The synchronous reluctance machine drive is getting more and more interests from the industrial side, since it can provide higher system energy efficiency than traditional inverter-fed induction machine drive systems with similar production cost. It is considered as a good candidate for super...

  16. Advanced Analysis of Nontraditional Machining

    CERN Document Server

    Tsai, Hung-Yin

    2013-01-01

    Nontraditional machining utilizes thermal, chemical, electrical, mechanical and optical sources of energy to form and cut materials. Advanced Analysis of Nontraditional Machining explains in-depth how each of these advanced machining processes work, their machining system components, and process variables and industrial applications, thereby offering advanced knowledge and scientific insight. This book also documents the latest and frequently cited research results of a few key nonconventional machining processes for the most concerned topics in industrial applications, such as laser machining, electrical discharge machining, electropolishing of die and mold, and wafer processing for integrated circuit manufacturing. This book also: Fills the gap of the advanced knowledge of nonconventional machining between industry and research Documents latest and frequently cited research of key nonconventional machining processes for the most sought after topics in industrial applications Demonstrates advanced multidisci...

  17. Acupuncture versus venlafaxine for the management of vasomotor symptoms in patients with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Eleanor M; Rodriguez, Alba I; Kohn, Beth; Ball, Ronald M; Pegg, Jan; Pocock, Jeffrey R; Nunez, Ramon; Peterson, Ed; Jakary, Susan; Levine, Robert A

    2010-02-01

    Vasomotor symptoms are common adverse effects of antiestrogen hormone treatment in conventional breast cancer care. Hormone replacement therapy is contraindicated in patients with breast cancer. Venlafaxine (Effexor), the therapy of choice for these symptoms, has numerous adverse effects. Recent studies suggest acupuncture may be effective in reducing vasomotor symptoms in menopausal women. This randomized controlled trial tested whether acupuncture reduces vasomotor symptoms and produces fewer adverse effects than venlafaxine. Fifty patients were randomly assigned to receive 12 weeks of acupuncture (n = 25) or venlafaxine (n = 25) treatment. Health outcomes were measured for up to 1 year post-treatment. Both groups exhibited significant decreases in hot flashes, depressive symptoms, and other quality-of-life symptoms, including significant improvements in mental health from pre- to post-treatment. These changes were similar in both groups, indicating that acupuncture was as effective as venlafaxine. By 2 weeks post-treatment, the venlafaxine group experienced significant increases in hot flashes, whereas hot flashes in the acupuncture group remained at low levels. The venlafaxine group experienced 18 incidences of adverse effects (eg, nausea, dry mouth, dizziness, anxiety), whereas the acupuncture group experienced no negative adverse effects. Acupuncture had the additional benefit of increased sex drive in some women, and most reported an improvement in their energy, clarity of thought, and sense of well-being. Acupuncture appears to be equivalent to drug therapy in these patients. It is a safe, effective and durable treatment for vasomotor symptoms secondary to long-term antiestrogen hormone use in patients with breast cancer.

  18. Perpetual Motion Machine

    OpenAIRE

    D. Tsaousis

    2008-01-01

    Ever since the first century A.D. there have been relative descriptions of known devices as well as manufactures for the creation of perpetual motion machines. Although physics has led, with two thermodynamic laws, to the opinion that a perpetual motion machine is impossible to be manufactured, inventors of every age and educational level appear to claim that they have invented something «entirely new» or they have improved somebody else’s invention, which «will function henceforth perpetuall...

  19. Energy efficient quantum machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abah, Obinna; Lutz, Eric

    2017-05-01

    We investigate the performance of a quantum thermal machine operating in finite time based on shortcut-to-adiabaticity techniques. We compute efficiency and power for a paradigmatic harmonic quantum Otto engine by taking the energetic cost of the shortcut driving explicitly into account. We demonstrate that shortcut-to-adiabaticity machines outperform conventional ones for fast cycles. We further derive generic upper bounds on both quantities, valid for any heat engine cycle, using the notion of quantum speed limit for driven systems. We establish that these quantum bounds are tighter than those stemming from the second law of thermodynamics.

  20. Paradigms for machine learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlimmer, Jeffrey C.; Langley, Pat

    1991-01-01

    Five paradigms are described for machine learning: connectionist (neural network) methods, genetic algorithms and classifier systems, empirical methods for inducing rules and decision trees, analytic learning methods, and case-based approaches. Some dimensions are considered along with these paradigms vary in their approach to learning, and the basic methods are reviewed that are used within each framework, together with open research issues. It is argued that the similarities among the paradigms are more important than their differences, and that future work should attempt to bridge the existing boundaries. Finally, some recent developments in the field of machine learning are discussed, and their impact on both research and applications is examined.

  1. Man - Machine Communication

    CERN Document Server

    Petersen, Peter; Nielsen, Henning

    1984-01-01

    This report describes a Man-to-Machine Communication module which together with a STAC can take care of all operator inputs from the touch-screen, tracker balls and mechanical buttons. The MMC module can also contain a G64 card which could be a GPIB driver but many other G64 cards could be used. The soft-ware services the input devices and makes the results accessible from the CAMAC bus. NODAL functions for the Man Machine Communication is implemented in the STAC and in the ICC.

  2. The Machine Translation Leaderboard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matt Post

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Much of an instructor's time is spent on the management and grading of homework. We present the Machine Translation Leaderboard, a platform for managing, displaying, and automatically grading homework assignments. It runs on Google App Engine, which provides hosting and user management services. Among its many features are the ability to easily define new assignments, manage submission histories, maintain a development / test set distinction, and display a leaderboard. An entirely new class can be set up in minutes with minimal configuration. It comes pre-packaged with five assignments used in a graduate course on machine translation.

  3. Refrigerating machine oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nozawa, K.

    1981-03-17

    Refrigerating machine oil to be filled in a sealed motorcompressor unit constituting a refrigerating cycle system including an electric refrigerator, an electric cold-storage box, a small-scaled electric refrigerating show-case, a small-scaled electric cold-storage show-case and the like, is arranged to have a specifically enhanced property, in which smaller initial driving power consumption of the sealed motor-compressor and easier supply of the predetermined amount of the refrigerating machine oil to the refrigerating system are both guaranteed even in a rather low environmental temperature condition.

  4. Machine shop basics

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, Rex

    2004-01-01

    Use the right tool the right wayHere, fully updated to include new machines and electronic/digital controls, is the ultimate guide to basic machine shop equipment and how to use it. Whether you're a professional machinist, an apprentice, a trade student, or a handy homeowner, this fully illustrated volume helps you define tools and use them properly and safely. It's packed with review questions for students, and loaded with answers you need on the job.Mark Richard Miller is a Professor and Chairman of the Industrial Technology Department at Texas A&M University in Kingsville, T

  5. Electrical machines & their applications

    CERN Document Server

    Hindmarsh, J

    1984-01-01

    A self-contained, comprehensive and unified treatment of electrical machines, including consideration of their control characteristics in both conventional and semiconductor switched circuits. This new edition has been expanded and updated to include material which reflects current thinking and practice. All references have been updated to conform to the latest national (BS) and international (IEC) recommendations and a new appendix has been added which deals more fully with the theory of permanent-magnets, recognising the growing importance of permanent-magnet machines. The text is so arra

  6. Electrical machines diagnosis

    CERN Document Server

    Trigeassou, Jean-Claude

    2013-01-01

    Monitoring and diagnosis of electrical machine faults is a scientific and economic issue which is motivated by objectives for reliability and serviceability in electrical drives.This book provides a survey of the techniques used to detect the faults occurring in electrical drives: electrical, thermal and mechanical faults of the electrical machine, faults of the static converter and faults of the energy storage unit.Diagnosis of faults occurring in electrical drives is an essential part of a global monitoring system used to improve reliability and serviceability. This diagnosis is perf

  7. Clojure for machine learning

    CERN Document Server

    Wali, Akhil

    2014-01-01

    A book that brings out the strengths of Clojure programming that have to facilitate machine learning. Each topic is described in substantial detail, and examples and libraries in Clojure are also demonstrated.This book is intended for Clojure developers who want to explore the area of machine learning. Basic understanding of the Clojure programming language is required, but thorough acquaintance with the standard Clojure library or any libraries are not required. Familiarity with theoretical concepts and notation of mathematics and statistics would be an added advantage.

  8. Machine Phase Fullerene Nanotechnology: 1996

    Science.gov (United States)

    Globus, Al; Chancellor, Marisa K. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    NASA has used exotic materials for spacecraft and experimental aircraft to good effect for many decades. In spite of many advances, transportation to space still costs about $10,000 per pound. Drexler has proposed a hypothetical nanotechnology based on diamond and investigated the properties of such molecular systems. These studies and others suggest enormous potential for aerospace systems. Unfortunately, methods to realize diamonoid nanotechnology are at best highly speculative. Recent computational efforts at NASA Ames Research Center and computation and experiment elsewhere suggest that a nanotechnology of machine phase functionalized fullerenes may be synthetically relatively accessible and of great aerospace interest. Machine phase materials are (hypothetical) materials consisting entirely or in large part of microscopic machines. In a sense, most living matter fits this definition. To begin investigation of fullerene nanotechnology, we used molecular dynamics to study the properties of carbon nanotube based gears and gear/shaft configurations. Experiments on C60 and quantum calculations suggest that benzyne may react with carbon nanotubes to form gear teeth. Han has computationally demonstrated that molecular gears fashioned from (14,0) single-walled carbon nanotubes and benzyne teeth should operate well at 50-100 gigahertz. Results suggest that rotation can be converted to rotating or linear motion, and linear motion may be converted into rotation. Preliminary results suggest that these mechanical systems can be cooled by a helium atmosphere. Furthermore, Deepak has successfully simulated using helical electric fields generated by a laser to power fullerene gears once a positive and negative charge have been added to form a dipole. Even with mechanical motion, cooling, and power; creating a viable nanotechnology requires support structures, computer control, a system architecture, a variety of components, and some approach to manufacture. Additional

  9. Machine vision and appearance based learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Alexander

    2017-03-01

    Smart algorithms are used in Machine vision to organize or extract high-level information from the available data. The resulted high-level understanding the content of images received from certain visual sensing system and belonged to an appearance space can be only a key first step in solving various specific tasks such as mobile robot navigation in uncertain environments, road detection in autonomous driving systems, etc. Appearance-based learning has become very popular in the field of machine vision. In general, the appearance of a scene is a function of the scene content, the lighting conditions, and the camera position. Mobile robots localization problem in machine learning framework via appearance space analysis is considered. This problem is reduced to certain regression on an appearance manifold problem, and newly regression on manifolds methods are used for its solution.

  10. Machine learning paradigms applications in recommender systems

    CERN Document Server

    Lampropoulos, Aristomenis S

    2015-01-01

    This timely book presents Applications in Recommender Systems which are making recommendations using machine learning algorithms trained via examples of content the user likes or dislikes. Recommender systems built on the assumption of availability of both positive and negative examples do not perform well when negative examples are rare. It is exactly this problem that the authors address in the monograph at hand. Specifically, the books approach is based on one-class classification methodologies that have been appearing in recent machine learning research. The blending of recommender systems and one-class classification provides a new very fertile field for research, innovation and development with potential applications in “big data” as well as “sparse data” problems. The book will be useful to researchers, practitioners and graduate students dealing with problems of extensive and complex data. It is intended for both the expert/researcher in the fields of Pattern Recognition, Machine Learning and ...

  11. Enhancing the Emotional and Social Skills of the Youth to Promote their Wellbeing and Positive Development: A Systematic Review of Universal School-based Randomized Controlled Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sancassiani, Federica; Pintus, Elisa; Holte, Arne; Paulus, Peter; Moro, Maria Francesca; Cossu, Giulia; Angermeyer, Matthias C; Carta, Mauro Giovanni; Lindert, Jutta

    2015-01-01

    The acquisition of social and emotional skills is associated with positive youth development, character education, healthy lifestyle behaviours, reduction in depression and anxiety, conduct disorders, violence, bullying, conflict, and anger. School-based interventions aimed to enhance these skills go beyond a problem-focused approach to embrace a more positive view of health; they could also improve the youth's wellbeing. To describe the main features and to establish the effectiveness of universal school-based RCTs for children and the youth, aimed to promote their psychosocial wellbeing, positive development, healthy lifestyle behaviours and/or academic performance by improving their emotional and social skills. Systematic review by searching for relevant papers in PubMed/Medline with the following key words: "mental health" OR "wellbeing" OR "health promotion" OR "emotional learning" OR "social learning" OR "emotional and social learning" OR "positive youth development" OR "life skills" OR "life skills training" AND "school". Interval was set from January 2000 to April 2014. 1,984 papers were identified through the search. Out of them 22 RCTs were included. While most interventions were characterized by a whole-school approach and SAFE practices, few studies only used standardized measures to assess outcomes, or had collected follow-up data after ≥ 6 months. The results of all these trials were examined and discussed. Universal school-based RCTs to enhance emotional and social skills showed controversial findings, due to some methodological issues mainly. Nevertheless they show promising outcomes that are relatively far-reaching for children and youth wellbeing and therefore are important in the real world.

  12. Randomized clinical trial comparing ceftiofur hydrochloride with a positive control protocol for intramammary treatment of nonsevere clinical mastitis in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortinhas, Cristina Simões; Tomazi, Tiago; Zoni, Mário Sérgio Ferreira; Moro, Elio; Veiga Dos Santos, Marcos

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this study was to compare ceftiofur hydrochloride with a positive control protocol for intramammary treatment of nonsevere clinical mastitis in dairy cows. A total of 264 clinical mastitis cases on 11 commercial dairy farms were treated with intramammary infusions, once a day for 4 d using 1 of 2 treatments: (1) ceftiofur hydrochloride 125mg; or (2) control: tetracycline 200mg + neomycin 250mg + bacitracin 28mg + prednisolone 10mg. Streptococcus agalactiae was the most frequently isolated gram-positive pathogen from clinical mastitis, followed by Staphylococcus aureus. Klebsiella spp. and Escherichia coli were the most isolated gram-negative bacteria from clinical mastitis. No significant differences were observed between treatments regarding the overall clinical cure, bacteriological cure, and new infection. No effect of treatment regimen was observed when the bacterial group (gram-positive vs. gram-negative) was evaluated. The overall clinical cure was 0.79 for ceftiofur-treated cows and 0.74 for control-treated cows, whereas the overall bacteriological cure was 0.79 for ceftiofur-treated cows and 0.76 for control-treated cows. Furthermore, the new intramammary infection was 0.10 for cows treated with ceftiofur and 0.11 for cows treated with control. In conclusion, the use of intramammary ceftiofur hydrochloride for treatment of nonsevere clinical mastitis has similar efficacy as a treatment regimen with a combination of antimicrobial agents (tetracycline + neomycin + bacitracin). Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Support Vector Driven Markov Random Fields towards DTI Segmentation of the Human Skeletal Muscle

    OpenAIRE

    Neji, Radhouène; Fleury, Gilles; Deux, J.-F.; Rahmouni, A.; Bassez, G.; Vignaud, A.; Paragios, Nikolaos

    2008-01-01

    International audience; In this paper we propose a classification-based method towards the segmentation of diffusion tensor images. We use Support Vector Machines to classify diffusion tensors and we extend linear classification to the non linear case. To this end, we discuss and evaluate three different classes of kernels on the space of symmetric definite positive matrices that are well suited for the classification of tensor data. We impose spatial constraints by means of a Markov random f...

  14. Design of rotating electrical machines

    CERN Document Server

    Pyrhonen , Juha; Hrabovcova , Valeria

    2013-01-01

    In one complete volume, this essential reference presents an in-depth overview of the theoretical principles and techniques of electrical machine design. This timely new edition offers up-to-date theory and guidelines for the design of electrical machines, taking into account recent advances in permanent magnet machines as well as synchronous reluctance machines. New coverage includes: Brand new material on the ecological impact of the motors, covering the eco-design principles of rotating electrical machinesAn expanded section on the design of permanent magnet synchronous machines, now repo

  15. Fully automatic CNC machining production system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Jeng-Dao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Customized manufacturing is increasing years by years. The consumption habits change has been cause the shorter of product life cycle. Therefore, many countries view industry 4.0 as a target to achieve more efficient and more flexible automated production. To develop an automatic loading and unloading CNC machining system via vision inspection is the first step in industrial upgrading. CNC controller is adopted as the main controller to command to the robot, conveyor, and other equipment in this study. Moreover, machine vision systems are used to detect position of material on the conveyor and the edge of the machining material. In addition, Open CNC and SCADA software will be utilized to make real-time monitor, remote system of control, alarm email notification, and parameters collection. Furthermore, RFID has been added to employee classification and management. The machine handshaking has been successfully proposed to achieve automatic vision detect, edge tracing measurement, machining and system parameters collection for data analysis to accomplish industrial automation system integration with real-time monitor.

  16. Stereodivergent synthesis with a programmable molecular machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassem, Salma; Lee, Alan T. L.; Leigh, David A.; Marcos, Vanesa; Palmer, Leoni I.; Pisano, Simone

    2017-09-01

    It has been convincingly argued that molecular machines that manipulate individual atoms, or highly reactive clusters of atoms, with Ångström precision are unlikely to be realized. However, biological molecular machines routinely position rather less reactive substrates in order to direct chemical reaction sequences, from sequence-specific synthesis by the ribosome to polyketide synthases, where tethered molecules are passed from active site to active site in multi-enzyme complexes. Artificial molecular machines have been developed for tasks that include sequence-specific oligomer synthesis and the switching of product chirality, a photo-responsive host molecule has been described that is able to mechanically twist a bound molecular guest, and molecular fragments have been selectively transported in either direction between sites on a molecular platform through a ratchet mechanism. Here we detail an artificial molecular machine that moves a substrate between different activating sites to achieve different product outcomes from chemical synthesis. This molecular robot can be programmed to stereoselectively produce, in a sequential one-pot operation, an excess of any one of four possible diastereoisomers from the addition of a thiol and an alkene to an α,β-unsaturated aldehyde in a tandem reaction process. The stereodivergent synthesis includes diastereoisomers that cannot be selectively synthesized through conventional iminium–enamine organocatalysis. We anticipate that future generations of programmable molecular machines may have significant roles in chemical synthesis and molecular manufacturing.

  17. Machine speech and speaking about machines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nye, A. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Whitewater, WI (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Current philosophy of language prides itself on scientific status. It boasts of being no longer contaminated with queer mental entities or idealist essences. It theorizes language as programmable variants of formal semantic systems, reimaginable either as the properly epiphenomenal machine functions of computer science or the properly material neural networks of physiology. Whether or not such models properly capture the physical workings of a living human brain is a question that scientists will have to answer. I, as a philosopher, come at the problem from another direction. Does contemporary philosophical semantics, in its dominant truth-theoretic and related versions, capture actual living human thought as it is experienced, or does it instead reflect, regardless of (perhaps dubious) scientific credentials, pathology of thought, a pathology with a disturbing social history.

  18. Innovative interventions to promote positive dental health behaviors and prevent dental caries in preschool children: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiaoli; Lo, Edward Chin Man; McGrath, Colman; Ho, Samuel Mun Yin

    2013-04-30

    Dental caries (tooth decay) is highly prevalent and is largely attributable to unhealthy self-care behaviors (diet and oral hygiene). The conventional (health) education (CE), focusing on disseminating information and giving normative advice, often fails to achieve sustained behavioral changes. This study incorporates two innovative elements into CE: (i) motivational interviewing (MI), a client-centered counseling for changing behaviors, and (ii) an interactive caries risk assessment (RA) tool, which is devised to facilitate dental counseling and may enhance MI in several ways. Through a randomized, controlled, evaluator-blinded trial, three intervention schemes (CE, CE+MI, and CE+MI+RA) will be compared for their effectiveness in eliciting dentally healthy behaviors and preventing caries in preschool children. This study targets 3-year-old children who are at a critical stage for embedding health habits. Children with unfavorable dental behaviors (insufficient toothbrushing and/or frequent snacking) and their parents will be recruited from 12 participating kindergartens. Parent-child dyads (n=690) will be randomly assigned into three groups. In the first group (CE), oral health information and advice will be delivered to parents through pamphlets. In the second group (CE+MI), in addition to the pamphlets, individual MI counseling with each parent will be performed by one of two trained dental hygienists. In the third group (CE+MI+RA), besides pamphlets and MI, interactive RA will be integrated into MI to motivate parents and facilitate their informed decision making and goal planning. At baseline and after 12 and 24 months, parents will complete a questionnaire and children will undergo a dental examination. The effectiveness of the intervention schemes will be compared over 12 and 24 months. The primary outcome will be caries increment in children and proportion of caries-free children. Secondary outcomes will be changes in parental efficacy for protecting

  19. ADAM: ADaptive Autonomous Machine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oosten, Daan C.; Nijenhuis, Lucas F.J.; Bakkers, André; Vervoort, Wiek

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes a part of the development of an adaptive autonomous machine that is able to move in an unknown world extract knowledge out of the perceived data, has the possibility to reason, and finally has the capability to exchange experiences and knowledge with other agents. The agent is

  20. Machine Aids to Translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkmann, Karl-Heinz

    1981-01-01

    Describes the TEAM Program System of the Siemens Language Services Department, particularly the main features of its terminology data bank. Discusses criteria to which stored terminology must conform and methods of data bank utilization. Concludes by summarizing the consequences that machine-aided translation development has had for the…

  1. Massively collaborative machine learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijn, van J.N.

    2016-01-01

    Many scientists are focussed on building models. We nearly process all information we perceive to a model. There are many techniques that enable computers to build models as well. The field of research that develops such techniques is called Machine Learning. Many research is devoted to develop

  2. War Machines and Ethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Thomas Galasz; Buhl, Kenneth Øhlenschlæger

    2018-01-01

    and save military lives. However, this opens up for discussions about ethical dilemmas about machines that autonomously are able to kill humans: What is an autonomous weapons system? What laws covers the use of fully autonomous weapons systems? Should it apply to International Humanitarian Law?...

  3. Turbulence and Flying Machines

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 4; Issue 11. Turbulence and Flying Machines. Rama Govindarajan. General Article Volume 4 Issue 11 November 1999 pp 54-62. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/004/11/0054-0062 ...

  4. Machine protection background

    OpenAIRE

    Romera Ramirez, I

    2014-01-01

    The LHC Machine Protection System needs to adapt to the Run 2 operational requirements. In addition, important upgrades and consolidations have been implemented on the MPS backbone during the first long shutdown. This paper summarizes the changes affecting Beam Interlock System (BIS), Powering Interlock System (PIC), Fast Magnet Current Change Monitors (FMCM), Quench Protection System (QPS) and Software Interlock System (SIS).

  5. Laser machining of explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Michael D.; Stuart, Brent C.; Banks, Paul S.; Myers, Booth R.; Sefcik, Joseph A.

    2000-01-01

    The invention consists of a method for machining (cutting, drilling, sculpting) of explosives (e.g., TNT, TATB, PETN, RDX, etc.). By using pulses of a duration in the range of 5 femtoseconds to 50 picoseconds, extremely precise and rapid machining can be achieved with essentially no heat or shock affected zone. In this method, material is removed by a nonthermal mechanism. A combination of multiphoton and collisional ionization creates a critical density plasma in a time scale much shorter than electron kinetic energy is transferred to the lattice. The resulting plasma is far from thermal equilibrium. The material is in essence converted from its initial solid-state directly into a fully ionized plasma on a time scale too short for thermal equilibrium to be established with the lattice. As a result, there is negligible heat conduction beyond the region removed resulting in negligible thermal stress or shock to the material beyond a few microns from the laser machined surface. Hydrodynamic expansion of the plasma eliminates the need for any ancillary techniques to remove material and produces extremely high quality machined surfaces. There is no detonation or deflagration of the explosive in the process and the material which is removed is rendered inert.

  6. Electrical Discharge Machining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, C. M.

    The manual is for use by students learning electrical discharge machining (EDM). It consists of eight units divided into several lessons, each designed to meet one of the stated objectives for the unit. The units deal with: introduction to and advantages of EDM, the EDM process, basic components of EDM, reaction between forming tool and workpiece,…

  7. History of wood machining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter Koch

    1967-01-01

    The history of wood machining is closely tied to advanced in metallurgy and power sources. It has been strongly and continuously shaped by prevailing economic forces and the rise and decline of other contemporary industries. This paper sketches a few of the highlights, with emphasis on developments in North America.

  8. Financial heat machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khrennikov, Andrei

    2005-05-01

    We consider dynamics of financial markets as dynamics of expectations and discuss such a dynamics from the point of view of phenomenological thermodynamics. We describe a financial Carnot cycle and the financial analog of a heat machine. We see, that while in physics a perpetuum mobile is absolutely impossible, in economics such mobile may exist under some conditions.

  9. Of machines and men ...

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN; Daniel Boileau

    1990-01-01

    Engineering and construction at LEP. Committed work and physicists motivation to work on this type of machine. With Guido Altarelli Theory Division Physicist, Ugo Amaldi Delphi Experiment Spokesman, Oscar Barbalat Head of Industry and Technology Liaison Office, Jonathan Ellis Head of Theory Division.

  10. Making molecular machines work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Browne, Wesley R.; Feringa, Ben L.

    2006-01-01

    In this review we chart recent advances in what is at once an old and very new field of endeavour the achievement of control of motion at the molecular level including solid-state and surface-mounted rotors, and its natural progression to the development of synthetic molecular machines. Besides a

  11. Hybrid machining processes perspectives on machining and finishing

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, Kapil; Laubscher, R F

    2016-01-01

    This book describes various hybrid machining and finishing processes. It gives a critical review of the past work based on them as well as the current trends and research directions. For each hybrid machining process presented, the authors list the method of material removal, machining system, process variables and applications. This book provides a deep understanding of the need, application and mechanism of hybrid machining processes.

  12. Positive effect of mushrooms substituted for meat on body weight, body composition, and health parameters. A 1-year randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poddar, Kavita H; Ames, Meghan; Hsin-Jen, Chen; Feeney, Mary Jo; Wang, Youfa; Cheskin, Lawrence J

    2013-12-01

    Reducing energy density (ED) of the diet is an important strategy for controlling obesity. This 1-year, randomized clinical trial examined the effect of substituting mushrooms for red meat ('mushroom diet'), compared to a standard diet ('meat diet'), on weight loss and maintenance among 73 obese adults (64 women, 9 men). The subjects completed anthropometric measurements and 7-day food records four times during a standardized weight loss and maintenance regimen. At the end of the 1-year trial, compared to participants on the standard diet, participants on the mushroom diet (n=36) reported lower intakes of energy (mean ± [SE]=-123 ± 113 kcals) and fat (-4.25 ± 6.88 g), lost more pounds and percentage body weight (-7.03 ± 3.34 lbs, 3.6%), achieved lower body mass index (-1.53 ± 0.36), waist circumference (-2.6 ± 3.5 in.) and percent total body fat (-0.85 ± 0.53), and had lower systolic and diastolic pressure (-7.9 and -2.5 mmHg); their lipid profile and inflammatory markers also improved. After initial weight loss, subjects following the mushroom diet maintained that loss well. Those who completed the full 12-month trial still weighed a mean of 7 lbs less than baseline. Thus, encouraging adults to substitute mushrooms for red meat was a useful strategy for enhancing weight loss, weight maintenance, and health parameters. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The position of a written document in preoperative information for pediatric surgery: A randomized controlled trial on parental anxiety, knowledge and satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landier, M; Villemagne, T; Le Touze, A; Braïk, K; Meignan, P; Cook, A R; Morel, B; Lardy, H; Binet, A

    2017-04-21

    Preoperative information is a legal and ethical obligation. Very little studies have evaluated the preoperative information method in pediatrics. Having a child operated on is stressful for the parents. Improving information is a way to lower their anxiety. Our study aims to measure the impact of a leaflet, which supports spoken information on parental anxiety, the comprehension-memorization of the information and their satisfaction. Prospective study including 178 patients of outpatient surgery, randomized in two groups: spoken information versus spoken information supported by a leaflet, which is then handed out to the parents. The messages were identical: physiopathology, risks without treatment, surgical technique and its possible complications, description of the hospitalization day, and postoperative care. Parental evaluation was made with self-questionnaires after the preoperative consultation, then on the day of surgery. At each moment we evaluated the level of anxiety, satisfaction of information quality and the comprehension-memorization of the data. Written information significantly improves the scores of comprehension-memorization, parental satisfaction and significantly decreases the level of anxiety. Significant impact of the written document as communication support in pediatric surgery, validating the method and encouraging it to be generalized to other pediatric surgery acts. Level I. Prognosis study. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Ribociclib with letrozole vs letrozole alone in elderly patients with hormone receptor-positive, HER2-negative breast cancer in the randomized MONALEESA-2 trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonke, Gabe S; Hart, Lowell L; Campone, Mario; Erdkamp, Frans; Janni, Wolfgang; Verma, Sunil; Villanueva, Cristian; Jakobsen, Erik; Alba, Emilio; Wist, Erik; Favret, Anne M; Bachelot, Thomas; Hegg, Roberto; Wheatley-Price, Paul; Souami, Farida; Sutradhar, Santosh; Miller, Michelle; Germa, Caroline; Burris, Howard A

    2017-10-22

    Determine the efficacy and safety of first-line ribociclib plus letrozole in elderly patients with HR+, HER2- advanced breast cancer. 668 postmenopausal women with HR+, HER2- advanced breast cancer and no prior systemic therapy for advanced disease were enrolled in the Phase III MONALEESA-2 trial (NCT01958021); 295 patients were aged ≥ 65 years. Patients were randomized to ribociclib (600 mg/day; 3-weeks-on/1-week-off) plus letrozole (2.5 mg/day) or placebo plus letrozole until disease progression, unacceptable toxicity, death, or treatment discontinuation. The primary endpoint was PFS, which was evaluated in elderly (≥ 65 years) and younger ( 10% more frequent in the ribociclib plus letrozole vs placebo plus letrozole arm in both subgroups; most events were grade 1/2. In elderly patients, grade 1/2 anemia and fatigue were > 10% more frequent in the ribociclib plus letrozole vs placebo plus letrozole arm and discontinuation rates were similar in both arms. Addition of ribociclib to letrozole is a valid therapeutic option for elderly patients with HR+, HER2- advanced breast cancer in the first-line setting.

  15. Self-declared stock ownership and association with positive trial outcome in randomized controlled trials with binary outcomes published in general medical journals: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk Delgado, Alberto; Falk Delgado, Anna

    2017-07-26

    Describe the prevalence and types of conflicts of interest (COI) in published randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in general medical journals with a binary primary outcome and assess the association between conflicts of interest and favorable outcome. Parallel-group RCTs with a binary primary outcome published in three general medical journals during 2013-2015 were identified. COI type, funding source, and outcome were extracted. Binomial logistic regression model was performed to assess association between COI and funding source with outcome. A total of 509 consecutive parallel-group RCTs were included in the study. COI was reported in 74% in mixed funded RCTs and in 99% in for-profit funded RCTs. Stock ownership was reported in none of the non-profit RCTs, in 7% of mixed funded RCTs, and in 50% of for-profit funded RCTs. Mixed-funded RCTs had employees from the funding company in 11% and for-profit RCTs in 76%. Multivariable logistic regression revealed that stock ownership in the funding company among any of the authors was associated with a favorable outcome (odds ratio = 3.53; 95% confidence interval = 1.59-7.86; p company among authors is associated with a favorable outcome.

  16. Efficacy and safety of trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1) in the treatment of HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer (MBC): a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Hongjing; Yu, Kewei; Zhang, Kaile; Liu, Linxia; Li, Yue

    2017-11-24

    Trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1), an antibody-drug conjugate against human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), has been used in the treatment of patients with HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer (MBC). We conducted a meta-analysis to evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of T-DM1 for the treatment of patients with HER2-positive MBC. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs), published in Pubmed, Embase, and Web of Science were systematically reviewed to assess the survival benefits and toxicity profile of HER2-positive patients with MBC who were treated with T-DM1. Outcomes included progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), overall response rate (ORR), and toxicities. Results were expressed as the hazard ratio (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). A total of 5 RCTs involving 3,720 patients met the inclusion criteria and were included in this meta-analysis. T-DM1 significantly prolonged PFS (HR = 0.73, 95% CI: 0.61, 0.86; P HER2 therapies. Based on the current evidence, T-DM1 significantly prolonged PFS and OS with a tolerated toxicity than other anti-HER2 therapies in patients with HER2-positive MBC. These findings confirm the use of T-DM1 for the treatment of patients with HER2-positive MBC. Further well-designed, multi-center RCTs needed to identify these findings.

  17. Recent Advances on Permanent Magnet Machines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    诸自强

    2012-01-01

    This paper overviews advances on permanent magnet(PM) brushless machines over last 30 years,with particular reference to new and novel machine topologies.These include current states and trends for surface-mounted and interior PM machines,electrically and mechanically adjusted variable flux PM machines including memory machine,hybrid PM machines which uniquely integrate PM technology into induction machines,switched and synchronous reluctance machines and wound field machines,Halbach PM machines,dual-rotor PM machines,and magnetically geared PM machines,etc.The paper highlights their features and applications to various market sectors.

  18. Progress in Documentation: Machine Translation and Machine-Aided Translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchins, W. J.

    1978-01-01

    Discusses the prospects for fully automatic machine translation of good quality. Sections include history and background, operational and experimental machine translation systems of recent years, descriptions of interactive systems and machine-assisted translation, and a general survey of present problems and future possibilities. (VT)

  19. The ATLAS Higgs Machine Learning Challenge

    CERN Document Server

    Cowan, Glen; The ATLAS collaboration; Bourdarios, Claire

    2015-01-01

    High Energy Physics has been using Machine Learning techniques (commonly known as Multivariate Analysis) since the 1990s with Artificial Neural Net and more recently with Boosted Decision Trees, Random Forest etc. Meanwhile, Machine Learning has become a full blown field of computer science. With the emergence of Big Data, data scientists are developing new Machine Learning algorithms to extract meaning from large heterogeneous data. HEP has exciting and difficult problems like the extraction of the Higgs boson signal, and at the same time data scientists have advanced algorithms: the goal of the HiggsML project was to bring the two together by a “challenge”: participants from all over the world and any scientific background could compete online to obtain the best Higgs to tau tau signal significance on a set of ATLAS fully simulated Monte Carlo signal and background. Instead of HEP physicists browsing through machine learning papers and trying to infer which new algorithms might be useful for HEP, then c...

  20. New Applications of Learning Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jan

    * Machine learning framework for sound search * Genre classification * Music separation * MIMO channel estimation and symbol detection......* Machine learning framework for sound search * Genre classification * Music separation * MIMO channel estimation and symbol detection...